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Sample records for orange jewelweed impatiens

  1. The mechanics of explosive seed dispersal in orange jewelweed (Impatiens capensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Marika; Feilich, Kara L; Ellerby, David J

    2009-01-01

    Explosive dehiscence ballistically disperses seeds in a number of plant species. During dehiscence, mechanical energy stored in specialized tissues is transferred to the seeds to increase their kinetic and potential energies. The resulting seed dispersal patterns have been investigated in some ballistic dispersers, but the mechanical performance of a launch mechanism of this type has not been measured. The properties of the energy storage tissue and the energy transfer efficiency of the launch mechanism were quantified in Impatiens capensis. In this species the valves forming the seed pod wall store mechanical energy. Their mass specific energy storage capacity (124 J kg(-1)) was comparable with that of elastin and spring steel. The energy storage capacity of the pod tissues was determined by their level of hydration, suggesting a role for turgor pressure in the energy storage mechanism. During dehiscence the valves coiled inwards, collapsing the pod and ejecting the seeds. Dehiscence took 4.2+/-0.4 ms (mean +/-SEM, n=13). The estimated efficiency with which energy was transferred to the seeds was low (0.51+/-0.26%, mean +/-SEM, n=13). The mean seed launch angle (17.4+/-5.2, mean +/-SEM, n=45) fell within the range predicted by a ballistic model to maximize dispersal distance. Low ballistic dispersal efficiency or effectiveness may be characteristic of species that also utilize secondary seed dispersal mechanisms.

  2. The effectiveness of jewelweed, Impatiens capensis, the related cultivar I. balsamina and the component, lawsone in preventing post poison ivy exposure contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams Motz, Vicki; Bowers, Christopher P; Mull Young, Linda; Kinder, David H

    2012-08-30

    Impatiens capensis (jewelweed) is native to the Eastern and Midwestern US and Canada. Many Native American tribes used I. capensis and its close relatives to treat/prevent rash from plant sources particularly Toxicodendron radicans and Urtica dioica. I. balsamina (garden balsam) a native of China was used by the indigenous people of Asia for similar purposes. This study aims to validate ethnopharmacological use of jewelweed in poison ivy (PI) dermatitis prevention and to refute scientific papers denying this efficacy. Additionally, the content of lawsone, the purported effective agent in jewelweed preparations, was measured to see if its concentration correlated with jewelweed preparation efficacy. Poison ivy was brushed onto forearms of volunteers in 6 locations and exposed areas were treated with jewelweed extracts, fresh plant mashes, soaps made of plant extracts, water and Dawn® dish soap. Rash development was scored on a scale of 0-14. Jewelweed mash was effective in reducing poison ivy dermatitis, supporting ethnobotanical use. However, jewelweed extracts were not effective; and soaps made of these extracts were effective but no more so than jewelweed-free soaps. Lawsone content varied with harvest season and did not appear to affect rash development. Jewelweed is an efficacious plant for preventing development of dermatitis following poison ivy contact, but soap is more effective. Lawsone content does not correlate with PI rash prevention. Perhaps saponins, the soapy component of jewelweed are the effective agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Notes on collecting Impatiens (Balsaminaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grey-Wilson, C.

    1980-01-01

    Because of their fleshy nature, thin leaves and membranous sepals and petals, Impatiens tend to make particularly poor herbarium specimens. If dried while still attached to the leafy part of the plant the flowers generally become badly crumpled and brittle. In such a state their more important chara

  4. Voorkomen van uitval bij Impatiens walleriana onder veldcondities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofland-Zijlstra, J.D.; Vries, de R.S.M.; Wensveen, van W.; Fuente van Bentem, de la S.

    2012-01-01

    Referaat Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw heeft met Syngenta Seeds gewerkt aan voorkomen van uitval in Impatiens walleriana (vlijtig liesje). Dit project is gefinancierd door Productschap Tuinbouw. Doel van het onderzoek is om de consumentwaarde van Impatiens te verlengen door het voorkomen van uitval doo

  5. Effect of different doses of slow-disintegrating fertilizer on the quality of impatiens' seedlings (Impatiens walleriana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujošević Ana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the effect of applying different doses of slow disintegrating fertilizer 'Scotts' ( Osmocote Exact of the formulation 15:9:9:MgO + Me to the quality of impatiens seedlings. The impatiens' seedlings were produced in poly-styrene containers ( speedling system and poly-propylene pots ( pot system . During the seedlings' production, the fertilizer was added in different doses (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4g/l . The obtained results have shown that the dose of 4 g/l of fertilizer significantly influences on the qualitative features of the impatiens' seedlings.

  6. Pollination Ecology and Pollination System of Impatiens reptans (Balsaminaceae) Endemic to China

    OpenAIRE

    TIAN, JIANPING; Liu, Keming; HU, GUANGWAN

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims China is one of the centres of geographical distribution of Impatiens L. Studies of the pollination ecology of this genus in China have, until now, been unreported. Impatiens reptans, a species endemic to China, was studied. The aims were to examine the pollination ecology and pollination system of this species, to compare its pollination ecology with other Impatiens species growing in Sumatra and Japan, and to discuss possible reasons for its limited distribution.

  7. Trichoderma L-Lysine-α-Oxidase Producer Strain Culture Fluid Inhibits Impatiens Necrotic Spot Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, I P; Shneider, Yu A; Karimova, E V

    2016-01-01

    A method for PCR diagnosis of impatiens necrotic spot virus is developed. Concentrated culture fluid with active L-lysine-α-oxidase (0.54 U/ml) from Trichoderma harzianum Rifai fungus producer strain F-180 inhibits vitally hazardous impatiens necrotic spot phytovirus.

  8. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium in Impatiens walleriana in relation to its phytoextraction potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hung-Yu

    2015-11-01

    Impatiens (Impatiens walleriana) has been shown to be a potential cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator, but its mechanisms in accumulation and detoxification have not been reported. Rooted cuttings of Impatiens were planted in artificially Cd-contaminated soils for 50 days with total target concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 120 mg/kg. The subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd in the different organs were analyzed after the pot experiment. Compared with the control group, various Cd treatments affected the growth exhibitions of Impatiens, but most of them were not statistically significant. The Cd accumulation of different organs increased with an increase in the soil Cd concentrations for most of the treatments, and it was in the decreasing order of root>stem>leaf. In the roots of Impatiens, Cd was mainly compartmentalized in the soluble fraction (Fs), which has a high migration capacity and will further translocate to the shoot. The Cd was mainly compartmentalized in the cell wall fraction (Fcw) in the shoots as a mechanism of tolerance. Most of the Cd in the various organs of Impatiens was mainly in the forms of pectate and protein-integrated (FNaCl), whereas a minor portion was a water soluble fraction (FW). The experimental results show that the Cd in the Fs, FW, and FNaCl in the roots of Impatiens had a high mobility and will further translocate to the shoot. They could be used to estimate the Cd accumulated in the shoots of Impatiens.

  9. Performance of Apis mellifera, Bombus impatiens, and Peponapis pruinosa (Hymenoptera: Apidae) as pollinators of pumpkin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Derek R; Nault, Brian A

    2011-08-01

    Pollination services of pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo L., provided by the European honey bee, Apis mellifera L., were compared with two native bee species, the common eastern bumble bee, Bombus impatiens (Cresson), and Peponapis pruinosa Say, in New York from 2008 to 2010. Performance of each species was determined by comparing single-visit pollen deposition, percentage of visits that contacted the stigma, flower-handling time, fruit and seed set, and fruit weight per number of visits. Fruit yield from small fields (0.6 ha) supplemented with commercial B. impatiens colonies was compared with yield from those not supplemented. A. mellifera spent nearly 2 and 3 times longer foraging on each pistillate flower compared with B. impatiens and P. pruinosa, respectively. A. mellifera also visited pistillate flowers 10-20 times more frequently than B. impatiens and P. pruinosa, respectively. Yet, B. impatiens deposited 3 times more pollen grains per stigma and contacted stigmas significantly more often than either A. mellifera or P. pruinosa. Fruit set and weight from flowers visited four to eight times by B. impatiens were similar to those from open-pollinated flowers, whereas flowers pollinated by A. mellifera and P. pruinosa produced fewer fruit and smaller fruit compared with those from open-pollinated flowers. Fields supplemented with B. impatiens produced significantly more pumpkins per plant than nonsupplemented fields. B. impatiens was a better pollinator of pumpkin than P. pruinosa and should be considered as a promising alternative to A. mellifera for pollinating this crop.

  10. Fertilizer efficiency and environmental risk of irrigating Impatiens with composting leachate in decentralized solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanbin; Wang, Rusong; Zhang, Yishan

    2010-06-01

    The reduction and reuse of composting leachate is an issue of importance in the field of decentralized solid waste management. In this study, composting leachate from source-separated food waste was treated and subsequently used as liquid fertilizer to irrigate Impatiens (Impatiens balsamina). The leachate was altered by adjusting storage time and dilution, and through addition of microbial inocula. For each test case, the effects of irrigation were monitored by analyzing the Impatiens extension degree, numbers of leaves and flowers, dry weight, and photosynthetic pigment content to assess fertilizer efficiency. The main results obtained revealed that the addition of microbial inocula and lengthening of storage times may lower COD concentrations, adjust pH value and maintain a comparatively high level of nutrient contents. By adding microbial inocula, a COD concentration of 9.6% and BOD(5) concentration of 6.7% were obtained for non-treated leachate with the same storage time. COD concentrations in leachate decreased to 69.4% after 36weeks storage. Moreover, composting leachate promoted growth of Impatiens. The dry weight biomass of Impatiens irrigated using treated diluted leachate was 1.15-2.94 times that obtained for Impatiens irrigated using tap water. Lastly, following the irrigation of Impatiens over a short period, soil did not accumulate VOCs and heavy metals to levels exceeding relative standards. Further research on heavy metal and salinity accumulation in plants should be undertaken to meet the needs of large-scale applications.

  11. Orange Book

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence (Orange Book or OB) is a list of drugs approved under Section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act...

  12. Comparison and examination of Bombus occidentalis and Bombus impatiens (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in tomato greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Robin; Winston, Mark L

    2004-08-01

    Experiments were conducted in commercial tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller (Solanaceae), greenhouses to compare the relative foraging effort of two bumble bee species, Bombus occidentalis Greene and Bombus impatiens Cresson, to examine interspecific competition between B. occidentalis and B. impatiens, and to determine whether bumble bee colonies grew to their full population potential in commercial tomato greenhouses. B. impatiens colonies had more brood and workers and made more foraging trips per hour than B. occidentalis colonies. However, B. impatiens returned to the colony without pollen loads and left their colonies without dropping off their pollen loads more frequently than B. occidentalis greenhouse colonies. Our data also suggest that the presence of B. impatiens had a detrimental effect on B. occidentalis populations. Furthermore, B. occidentalis colonies did not grow to their full population potential in tomato greenhouses, with fewer workers in greenhouse colonies than in colonies placed outside in a natural environment, or in colonies that were physically enclosed and protected from external mortality. Together, this study suggests that B. impatiens is a better pollinator than B. occidentalis. It also shows that unknown factors are limiting the size of B. occidentalis colonies in tomato greenhouses.

  13. Is Impatiens balsamina a qualitative short-day plant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Teske

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Impatiens balsamina which, in literature on the physiology of flowering, is assigned to qualitative short-day plants, flowers under Polish climatic conditions from June until September. It flowers, therefore. during the period of the longest day. The photoperiodic responses of I. balsamina plants raised from seeds obtained from botanical gardens located within the range of 23 -65° N. lat. were studied. The experiment revealed marked differences in the photoperiodic responses within the species. Qualitative short-day plants, quantitative short-day plants and day-neutral plants were found in the studied material. An evident correlation was found between the place of origin of the studied seeds and the photoperiodic sensitivity of the plants raised from them.

  14. Greenhouse production of Impatiens wallerana using a controlled-release fertiliser produces quality finished plants with enhanced garden performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrient management during production can greatly influence post-production quality of plants. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of controlled release fertilizer (CRF) applied at the time of plug planting on the garden performance (post-production) of impatiens (Impatiens wal...

  15. Comparison of the Essential Oil Composition of Selected Impatiens Species and Its Antioxidant Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Katarzyna; Kalemba, Danuta; Komsta, Łukasz; Nowak, Renata

    2016-09-01

    The present paper describes the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from four Impatiens species, Impatiens glandulifera Royle, I. parviflora DC., I. balsamina L. and I. noli-tangere L. The GC and GC-MS methods resulted in identification of 226 volatile compounds comprising from 61.7%-88.2% of the total amount. The essential oils differed significantly in their composition. Fifteen compounds were shared among the essential oils of all investigated Impatiens species. The majority of these constituents was linalool (0.7%-15.1%), hexanal (0.2%-5.3%) and benzaldehyde (0.1%-10.2%). Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the essential oils was investigated using different methods. The chemical composition of the essential oils and its antioxidant evaluation are reported for the first time from the investigated taxon.

  16. Simultaneous quantification of 11 isoquinoline alkaloids in Corydalis impatiens (Pall.) Fisch by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaofeng; Li, Weifeng; Xu, Hongbo; Liu, Xia; Qi, Lin

    2013-07-01

    Isoquinoline alkaloids are the primary active ingredients of Corydalis, but an analytical method for quality assessment of the active ingredients in Corydalis impatiens (Pall). Fisch has not been reported. A new, simple, and multiple-component quantification method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of 11 isoquinoline alkaloids including capnoidine, chelianthifoline, bicuculline, protopine, isoapocavidine, apocavidine, cavidine, tetrahydroepiberberine, ochotensimine, tetrahydrocoptisine, and tetrahydrocorysamine in C. impatiens. Separation of the isoquinoline alkaloids was performed on a RP C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) with potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 2.5, adjusted by phosphoric acid)/acetonitrile (53:47, v/v) containing 0.3% sodium dodecyl sulfonate. The flow rate and detection wavelength were set at 1 mL/min and 295 nm, respectively. Full validation of the assay was carried out including linearity, precision, accuracy, stability, LOD, and limit of quantitation. All calibration curves showed a good linear relationship (r > 0.999) in test range. The results demonstrated that the developed method was reliable, rapid, and specific. Six batches of C. impatiens samples from different sources were determined using the established method. The contents of alkaloids ranged from 11.68 to 351.83 μg/g. This method can be applied for quality evaluation and control of C. impatiens. Eleven isoquinoline alkaloids were first reported on simultaneous determination with HPLC.

  17. ORANGE: RANGE OF BENEFITS

    OpenAIRE

    Parle Milind; Chaturvedi Dev

    2012-01-01

    No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis) is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal proper...

  18. Pollination services provided by bees in pumpkin fields supplemented with either Apis mellifera or Bombus impatiens or not supplemented.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jessica D; Reiners, Stephen; Nault, Brian A

    2013-01-01

    Pollinators provide an important service in many crops. Managed honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are used to supplement pollination services provided by wild bees with the assumption that they will enhance pollination, fruit set and crop yield beyond the levels provided by the wild bees. Recent declines in managed honey bee populations have stimulated interest in finding alternative managed pollinators to service crops. In the eastern U.S., managed hives of the native common eastern bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson) may be an excellent choice. To examine this issue, a comprehensive 2-yr study was conducted to compare fruit yield and bee visits to flowers in pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) fields that were either supplemented with A. mellifera hives, B. impatiens hives or were not supplemented. We compared pumpkin yield, A. mellifera flower visitation frequency and B. impatiens flower visitation frequency between treatments. Results indicated that supplementing pumpkin fields with either A. mellifera or B. impatiens hives did not increase their visitation to pumpkin flowers or fruit yield compared with those that were not supplemented. Next, the relationship between frequency of pumpkin flower visitation by the most prominent bee species (Peponapis pruinosa (Say), B. impatiens and A. mellifera) and fruit yield was determined across all pumpkin fields sampled. Fruit yield increased as the frequency of flower visits by A. mellifera and B. impatiens increased in 2011 and 2012, respectively. These results suggest that supplementation with managed bees may not improve pumpkin production and that A. mellifera and B. impatiens are important pollinators of pumpkin in our system.

  19. Effects of CO2 Enrichment on Growth and Development of Impatiens hawkeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Fan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of CO2 enrichment on growth and development of Impatiens hawkeri, an important greenhouse flower, were investigated for the purpose of providing scientific basis for CO2 enrichment to this species in greenhouse. The plants were grown in CO2-controlled growth chambers with 380 (the control and 760 (CO2 enrichment μmol⋅mol-1, respectively. The changes in morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and leaf ultrastructure of Impatiens were examined. Results showed that CO2 enrichment increased flower number and relative leaf area compared with the control. In addition, CO2 enrichment significantly enhanced photosynthetic rate, contents of soluble sugars and starch, activities of peroxidase (POD, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, but reduced chlorophyll content and malondialdehyde (MDA content. Furthermore, significant changes in chloroplast ultrastructure were observed at CO2 enrichment: an increased number of starch grains with an expanded size, and an increased ratio of stroma thylakoid to grana thylakoid. These results suggest that CO2 enrichment had positive effects on Impatiens, that is, it can improve the visual value, promote growth and development, and enhance antioxidant capacity.

  20. [Effect of Invasive Herb Species on the Structure of Soil Yeast Complexes in Mixed Forests Exemplified by Impatiens parviflora DC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakova, A M; Kachalkin, A V; Chernov, I Yu

    2015-01-01

    Yeast abundance and diversity in a mixed forest sod-podzol soil under Impatiens parviflora DC plants was studied in comparison with unimpaired aboriginal herbaceous plants typical of the Mid-Russian secondary, after-forest meadow. The study was carried out throughout the vegetation period. Standard microbiological plating techniques revealed 36 yeast species. Typical pedobiotic (Cryptococcus podzolicus, Wickerhamomyces anomalus) and eurybiotic yeast species (Rhodotorula mucilaginosa) predominated in both biotopes. The relative abundance of the autochthonous soil yeast species Cryptococcus podzolicus was higher in the soil under aboriginal herbs than under Impatiens parviflora. Sites with aboriginal vegetation were also characterized by high abundance of the pedogamous species Schwanniomyces castelli and Torulaspora delbrueckii. The share of yeastlike Trichosporon fungi with high hydrolytic activity was considerably higher under adventitious plants Impatiens parviflora, as well as in the previously studied soil under Heracleum sosnowskyi.

  1. ORANGE: RANGE OF BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parle Milind

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal properties of orange include anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti- diabetic, cardio- protective, anti-cancer, anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-Tubercular, anti-asthmatic and anti-hypertensive. Phytochemically, whole plant contains limonene, citral, neohesperidin, naringin, rutin, rhamnose, eriocitrin, and vitamin-C. In the present review article, a humble attempt is made to compile all the strange facts available about this tasty fruit.

  2. Macronutrient ratios in pollen shape bumble bee (Bombus impatiens) foraging strategies and floral preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudo, Anthony D; Patch, Harland M; Mortensen, David A; Tooker, John F; Grozinger, Christina M

    2016-07-12

    To fuel their activities and rear their offspring, foraging bees must obtain a sufficient quality and quantity of nutritional resources from a diverse plant community. Pollen is the primary source of proteins and lipids for bees, and the concentrations of these nutrients in pollen can vary widely among host-plant species. Therefore we hypothesized that foraging decisions of bumble bees are driven by both the protein and lipid content of pollen. By successively reducing environmental and floral cues, we analyzed pollen-foraging preferences of Bombus impatiens in (i) host-plant species, (ii) pollen isolated from these host-plant species, and (iii) nutritionally modified single-source pollen diets encompassing a range of protein and lipid concentrations. In our semifield experiments, B impatiens foragers exponentially increased their foraging rates of pollen from plant species with high protein:lipid (P:L) ratios; the most preferred plant species had the highest ratio (∼4.6:1). These preferences were confirmed in cage studies where, in pairwise comparisons in the absence of other floral cues, B impatiens workers still preferred pollen with higher P:L ratios. Finally, when presented with nutritionally modified pollen, workers were most attracted to pollen with P:L ratios of 5:1 and 10:1, but increasing the protein or lipid concentration (while leaving ratios intact) reduced attraction. Thus, macronutritional ratios appear to be a primary factor driving bee pollen-foraging behavior and may explain observed patterns of host-plant visitation across the landscape. The nutritional quality of pollen resources should be taken into consideration when designing conservation habitats supporting bee populations.

  3. The influence of the annual invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera, on the sediment dynamics of inland watercourses in temperate regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvi, Shrutika; Greenwood, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Impatiens glandulifera (Common English Name - Himalayan Balsam) is a non native annual and highly invasive plant that was introduced into parts of Europe from the Himalaya during the nineteenth century as a colourful adornment to parks and gardens. This Plant colonises areas along the river banks, preferably wet, depositional sites, and displaces natural vegetation. The plant is killed by cold weather. The leaves area of riverbank previously occupied by the plant extremely vulnerable to soil erosion until new plant germinates in the following spring. Research work undertaken in the northwest Switzerland and the soutwestern United Kingdom established s link between accelerated soil erosion caused by Impatiens glandulifera and its detrimental impact on native biodiversity of riparian zone of river catchment area. This study focueses on the potential impact of such erosion on sediment quality. A priory reasoning suggests that the preference of Impatiens glandulifera on young depsotional sites near watercourses affects sediment quality. In this study, the results of a soil quality analysis along Impatiens glandulifera-contaminated river banks is presented. Soil physical and chemical properties are compared to non-affected sites to assess the potential impact of preferential erosion on water quality. In addtiion, soil surface profile (SSP) measuring based on by erosion pins, a micro profile bridge and a digital calliper at different selected locations along the riparian zone of river catchment area is used to determine erosion rates and determine sediment transfer from the riparian zone into the rivers.

  4. Fungus gnat (Bradysia impatiens) feeding and mechanical wounding inhibit Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of laboratory tests were conducted to investigate potential effects of fungus gnat (Bradysia impatiens) feeding damage on susceptibility of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum) to infection by the root rot pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum. Effects were compared to those from similar t...

  5. Efficacy of spray applications of entomopathogenic fungi against western flower thrips infesting greenhouse impatiens under variable moisture conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficacy tests of three entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana strain GHA, Metarhizium brunneum strain F52, and Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. strain ESC-1) were conducted against thrips infesting greenhouse crops of single impatiens under variable moisture conditions. Fungal conidia suspended in 0...

  6. A conserved class of queen pheromones? Re-evaluating the evidence in bumblebees (Bombus impatiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsalem, Etya; Orlova, Margarita; Grozinger, Christina M

    2015-10-22

    The regulation of reproductive division of labour is a key component in the evolution of social insects. Chemical signals are important mechanisms to regulate worker reproduction, either as queen-produced pheromones that coercively inhibit worker reproduction or as queen signals that honestly advertise her fecundity. A recent study suggested that a conserved class of hydrocarbons serve as queen pheromones across three independent origins of eusociality. In bumblebees (Bombus terrestris), pentacosane (C25) was suggested to serve as a queen pheromone. Here, we repeat these studies using a different species of bumblebee (Bombus impatiens) with a more controlled experimental design. Instead of dequeened colonies, we used same-aged, three-worker queenless groups comprising either experienced or naive workers (with/without adult exposure to queen pheromone). We quantified three hydrocarbons (C23, C25 and C27) on the cuticular surfaces of females and tested their effects on the two worker types. Our results indicate differences in responses of naive and experienced workers, genetic effects on worker reproduction, and general effects of hydrocarbons and duration of egg laying on ovary resorption rates. However, we found no evidence to support the theory that a conserved class of hydrocarbons serve as queen pheromones or queen signals in Bombus impatiens. © 2015 The Author(s).

  7. PEMBERIAN KOLKHISIN DENGAN LAMA PERENDAMAN BERBEDA PADA INDUKSI POLIPLOIDI TANAMAN PACAR AIR (IMPATIENS BALSAMINA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Sastriyani Wiendra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to induce polyploidy on Impatiens balsamina L. Seedlings of I. balsamina was immersed in 0,01% colchicines solution for 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours. Chromosome of I. balsamina was visualized using squash method stained with aceto-orcein. Morphological observations were conducted on plant height, stem circumference, leaf length and width, number of branches flowering time and size of flower. The result revealed that 0,01% solution of colchicine was able to induce polyploidy on I. balsamina. Obsevation on morphological characteristic showed that colchicine treatment increased plant height, stem circumference, leaf length and number of branches. Colchicine treatment induced earlier flowering time, but flower size was unaffected. Twelve chromosomes (2n = 2x = 12 were observed in the diploid seedlings while 25 chromosomes were observed in the tetraploid (2n = 4x = 24 seedlings.

  8. Cytopathological changes in Schefflera actinophylla Harms. naturally infected with impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rudzińska-Langwald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants of Schefflera actinophylla Harms. with stunted growth, chlorotic and necrotic spots and patterns, leaf epinasty and distortion are infected with impatiens necrotic spot virus classified as a member of genus Tospovirus. Studies with electron microscope revealed that in cells of S. actinophylla leaves there were no virus particle inclusions typical for tospovirus infection, but only single particles were present. The isolate of INSV was defective and the amount of INSV particles was strongly reduced in Schefflera plants. Some inclusions (I type were composed of short branched cisterns of endoplasmic reticulum and a dark substance forming characteristic bands. The II type represented inclusions that were usually ballshaped and composed of a dark substance resembling that of the I type, but not accompanied by endoplasmic reticulum cisterns. The III type of inclusions was composed of dark, osmophilic masses. The inclusions present in the cells differ from those typical for tospovirus infection.

  9. Operation Orange Street Resurfacing 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — Track Operation Orange Cone projects for 2016. “Operation Orange Cone” is an initiative launched in 2015 as part of the Yarber Administration’s push to address the...

  10. Division of foraging labor in the bumble bee, Bombus impatiens : effect of removing pollen specialists and colony adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Hagbery, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Foraging specialization plays an important role in the ability of social Hymenoptera to efficiently allocate labor and adapt to environmental changes. However, relatively little is known about whether bumble bees, important social pollinators, can flexibly allocate their foraging. I removed pollen specialists at different stages in the life of a Bombus impatiens colony and recorded the pollen and nectar foraging of every forager on each foraging trip over the lifetimes of five established col...

  11. Mosquito larvicidal properties of Impatiens balsamina (Balsaminaceae against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the larvicidal potential of the crude benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts of the medicinal plant Impatiens balsamina against Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus. Methods: Twenty five third instar larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol recommended by WHO. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of treatment. Results: Among extracts tested, the highest larvicidal activity was observed in leaf methanol extract of Impatiens balsamina against An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 values 98.04, 119.68, 125.06 and 172.93, 210.14, 220.60 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded that the larvicidal effect of Impatiens balsamina against An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus make this plant product promising as an alternative to synthetic insecticide in mosquito control programs.

  12. Mosquito larvicidal properties of Impatiens balsamina (Balsaminaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marimuthu Govindarajan; Mohan Rajeswary

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the larvicidal potential of the crude benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts of the medicinal plant Impatiens balsamina against Anopheles stephensi(An. stephensi), Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: Twenty five third instar larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol recommended by WHO. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of treatment. Results: Among extracts tested, the highest larvicidal activity was observed in leaf methanol extract of Impatiens balsamina against An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 values 98.04, 119.68, 125.06 and 172.93, 210.14, 220.60 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions:From the results it can be concluded that the larvicidal effect of Impatiens balsamina against An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus make this plant product promising as an alternative to synthetic insecticide in mosquito control programs.

  13. Biochemical characterization of blood orange, sweet orange, lemon, bergamot and bitter orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moufida, Saïdani; Marzouk, Brahim

    2003-04-01

    This paper reports on the composition of aroma compounds and fatty acids and some physico-chemical parameters (juice percentage, acidity and total sugars) in five varieties of citrus: blood orange, sweet orange, lemon, bergamot and bitter orange. Volatile compounds and methyl esters have been analyzed by gas chromatography. Limonene is the most abundant compound of monoterpene hydrocarbons for all of the examined juices. Eighteen fatty acids have been identified in the studied citrus juices, their quantification points out that unsaturated acids predominate over the saturated ones. Mean concentration of fatty acids varies from 311.8 mg/l in blood orange juice to 678 mg/l in bitter orange juice.

  14. Conclusions about niche expansion in introduced Impatiens walleriana populations depend on method of analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Mandle

    Full Text Available Determining the degree to which climate niches are conserved across plant species' native and introduced ranges is valuable to developing successful strategies to limit the introduction and spread of invasive plants, and also has important ecological and evolutionary implications. Here, we test whether climate niches differ between native and introduced populations of Impatiens walleriana, globally one of the most popular horticultural species. We use approaches based on both raw climate data associated with occurrence points and ecological niche models (ENMs developed with Maxent. We include comparisons of climate niche breadth in both geographic and environmental spaces, taking into account differences in available habitats between the distributional areas. We find significant differences in climate envelopes between native and introduced populations when comparing raw climate variables, with introduced populations appearing to expand into wetter and cooler climates. However, analyses controlling for differences in available habitat in each region do not indicate expansion of climate niches. We therefore cannot reject the hypothesis that observed differences in climate envelopes reflect only the limited environments available within the species' native range in East Africa. Our results suggest that models built from only native range occurrence data will not provide an accurate prediction of the potential for invasiveness if applied to areas containing a greater range of environmental combinations, and that tests of niche expansion may overestimate shifts in climate niches if they do not control carefully for environmental differences between distributional areas.

  15. Social interactions and their connection to aggression and ovarian development in orphaned worker bumblebees (Bombus impatiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbald, E D; Plowright, C M S

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the social dynamics of reproductive conflict. Orphaned worker bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) with comparatively high or low levels of social activity were paired to determine whether aggression and reproduction could be traced to earlier social interactions. The workers were paired according to their levels of social activity (a socially active+another socially active worker, socially active+socially inactive, and two socially inactive workers). The presence or absence of brood was also manipulated. The absence of brood increased both aggression and ovarian development, suggesting that aggression and reproduction are associated or that there is a third variable that affects both. Socially active pairs were significantly more aggressive: here, social activity can be taken as an early indicator of aggression. No such effect, however, was obtained on ovarian development as the socially active pairs did not differ on their degree of ovarian development compared to the others. Within the socially active+socially inactive pairs, the socially active worker did not have more developed ovaries and was not more aggressive than her socially inactive partner. Results highlight that environmental conditions (the absence of brood) can predict ovarian development and although social activity can be observed prior to aggression, differences in aggression do not translate into differences in ovarian development under these conditions.

  16. The spread of Impatiens parviflora DC. in Central European oak forests – another stage of invasion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Reczyńska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine the pattern of occurrence of Impatiens parviflora in Central European oak forests over time and its ecological requirements within these types of communities. Research was based on phytosociological data collected in 3776 relevés. A modified TWINSPAN algorithm were used to distinguish the groups of oak forests. The ecological preferences of the I. parviflora and studied communities as well as differences between invaded and non-invaded vegetation plots were analyzed using mean weighted Ellenberg indicator values (EIVs. Finally, both the temporal pattern of I. parviflora participation and changes in its coverage in the studied communities were analyzed. Our study confirmed a high adaptability of this species with respect to temperature, moisture, soil reaction and nutrients and determined its broad ecological optimum in oak forests. However, it also revealed both a greater sensitivity of some communities within Central European oak forests to the invasion of I. parviflora and differences in habitat conditions between invaded and non-invaded vegetation plots. This suggests that the habitat niche of I. parviflora within oak forests is not accidental. The analysis of temporal changes in the frequency of I. parviflora confirmed a 20% increase in relevés over the last 50 years. However, we did not identify any statistically significant rise in the coverage of I. parviflora in oak forests specifically during the studied period.

  17. Photoreceptor processing speed and input resistance changes during light adaptation correlate with spectral class in the bumblebee, Bombus impatiens.

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    Peter Skorupski

    Full Text Available Colour vision depends on comparison of signals from photoreceptors with different spectral sensitivities. However, response properties of photoreceptor cells may differ in ways other than spectral tuning. In insects, for example, broadband photoreceptors, with a major sensitivity peak in the green region of the spectrum (>500 nm, drive fast visual processes, which are largely blind to chromatic signals from more narrowly-tuned photoreceptors with peak sensitivities in the blue and UV regions of the spectrum. In addition, electrophysiological properties of the photoreceptor membrane may result in differences in response dynamics of photoreceptors of similar spectral class between species, and different spectral classes within a species. We used intracellular electrophysiological techniques to investigate response dynamics of the three spectral classes of photoreceptor underlying trichromatic colour vision in the bumblebee, Bombus impatiens, and we compare these with previously published data from a related species, Bombus terrestris. In both species, we found significantly faster responses in green, compared with blue- or UV-sensitive photoreceptors, although all 3 photoreceptor types are slower in B. impatiens than in B. terrestris. Integration times for light-adapted B. impatiens photoreceptors (estimated from impulse response half-width were 11.3 ± 1.6 ms for green photoreceptors compared with 18.6 ± 4.4 ms and 15.6 ± 4.4 for blue and UV, respectively. We also measured photoreceptor input resistance in dark- and light-adapted conditions. All photoreceptors showed a decrease in input resistance during light adaptation, but this decrease was considerably larger (declining to about 22% of the dark value in green photoreceptors, compared to blue and UV (41% and 49%, respectively. Our results suggest that the conductances associated with light adaptation are largest in green photoreceptors, contributing to their greater temporal processing speed

  18. 凤仙花坏死斑病毒及其防治%Impatiens necrotic spot virus and its control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪鑫; 郭京泽

    2004-01-01

    凤仙花坏死斑病毒(Impatiens necrotic spot virus)简称INSV,是危害观赏植物的重要病害之一,它最早从有症状的凤仙花上分离鉴定出来,能侵染许多植物。凤仙花坏死斑病毒能随着带毒植物种苗广泛传播,经研究证明昆虫是这种病毒的重要传毒介体。这

  19. The Impact of the Invasive Alien Plant, Impatiens glandulifera, on Pollen Transfer Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Emer

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are a threat to the maintenance of ecological processes, including pollination. Plant-flower visitor networks are traditionally used as a surrogated for pollination at the community level, despite they do not represent the pollination process, which takes place at the stigma of plants where pollen grains are deposited. Here we investigated whether the invasion of the alien plant Impatiens glandulifera (Balsaminaceae affects pollen transfer at the community level. We asked whether more alien pollen is deposited on the stigmas of plants on invaded sites, whether deposition is affected by stigma type (dry, semidry and wet and whether the invasion of I. glandulifera changes the structure of the resulting pollen transfer networks. We sampled stigmas of plants on 10 sites invaded by I. glandulifera (hereafter, balsam and 10 non-invaded control sites. All 20 networks had interactions with balsam pollen, although significantly more balsam pollen was found on plants with dry stigmas in invaded areas. Balsam pollen deposition was restricted to a small subset of plant species, which is surprising because pollinators are known to carry high loads of balsam pollen. Balsam invasion did not affect the loading of native pollen, nor did it affect pollen transfer network properties; networks were modular and poorly nested, both of which are likely to be related to the specificity of pollen transfer interactions. Our results indicate that pollination networks become more specialized when moving from the flower visitation to the level of pollen transfer networks. Therefore, caution is needed when inferring pollination from patterns of insect visitation or insect pollen loads as the relationship between these and pollen deposition is not straightforward.

  20. Isolation and Identification of an Anti-tumor Component from Leaves of Impatiens balsamina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Gang Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that ethanol or chloroform extracts of the leaves ofImpatiens balsamina (LIB have anti-tumor activity against the human hepatocellularcarcinoma cell line HepG2. The ethanol extracts were separated into five fractionsaccording to polarity. An MTT assay indicated that two of the fractions had anti-tumoractivity and that the petroleum ether fraction (PEF was the most active. But the availablequantities of both the PEF and chloroform fractions (CHF were limited, precluding furtherstudy. The chloroform extract (CHE shared almost all the same spots with the PEF andCHF and was plentiful enough to carry out further separations. Thus, the CHE was furtherseparated into six sub-fractions (CHE1~6 by column chromatography. A MTT assayshowed that only the CHE2 fraction had a strong tumor inhibition ratio (IC50 = 6.47±0.05mg/L, which was superior to that of curcumin (IC50 = 13.95±0.11 mg/L. However, TLCrevealed that CHE2 was not pure and still contained two more components. After furtherseparation and purification, followed by TLC and MTT assay confirmation, the final activecomponent was isolated and identified as 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone by m.p., UV, MSand 13C- and 1H-NMR data. This is the first report demonstrating that2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone has intensive in vitro anti-tumor activity against HepG2cells.

  1. Pre-adaptation or genetic shift after introduction in the invasive species Impatiens glandulifera?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elst, Evelyne M.; Acharya, Kamal P.; Dar, Pervaiz A.; Reshi, Zafar A.; Tufto, Jarle; Nijs, Ivan; Graae, Bente J.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive exotic plants often grow fast, reproduce rapidly and display considerable phenotypic plasticity in their invasive range, which may be essential characteristics for successful invasion. However, it remains unclear whether these characteristics are already present in native populations (pre-adaptation hypothesis) or evolve after introduction (genetic shift hypothesis). To test these hypotheses we compared means and phenotypic plasticity of vegetative and reproductive traits between populations of Impatiens glandulifera collected from either the invasive (Norway) or native range (India). Seeds were sown and the resulting plants were exposed to different experimental environments in a glasshouse. We also tested whether trait means and reaction norms harbored genetic variation, as this may promote fitness in the novel environment. We did not find evidence that invasive populations of I. glandulifera grew more vigorously or produced more seeds than native populations. Phenotypic plasticity did not differ between the native and invasive range, except for the number of nodes which was more plastic in the invasive range. Genetic variation in the slope of reaction norms was absent, suggesting that the lack of change in phenotypic plasticity between native and invasive populations resulted from low genetic variation in phenotypic plasticity initially harbored by this species. Post-introduction evolution of traits thus probably did not boost the invasiveness of I. glandulifera. Instead, the species seems to be pre-adapted for invasion. We suggest that differences in habitat between the native and invasive range, more specifically the higher nutrient availability observed in the new environment, are the main factor driving the invasion of this species. Indeed, plants in the more nutrient-rich invasive range had greater seed mass, likely conferring a competitive advantage, while seed mass also responded strongly to nutrients in the glasshouse. Interactions between

  2. The Impact of the Invasive Alien Plant, Impatiens glandulifera, on Pollen Transfer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emer, Carine; Vaughan, Ian P.; Hiscock, Simon; Memmott, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Biological invasions are a threat to the maintenance of ecological processes, including pollination. Plant-flower visitor networks are traditionally used as a surrogated for pollination at the community level, despite they do not represent the pollination process, which takes place at the stigma of plants where pollen grains are deposited. Here we investigated whether the invasion of the alien plant Impatiens glandulifera (Balsaminaceae) affects pollen transfer at the community level. We asked whether more alien pollen is deposited on the stigmas of plants on invaded sites, whether deposition is affected by stigma type (dry, semidry and wet) and whether the invasion of I. glandulifera changes the structure of the resulting pollen transfer networks. We sampled stigmas of plants on 10 sites invaded by I. glandulifera (hereafter, balsam) and 10 non-invaded control sites. All 20 networks had interactions with balsam pollen, although significantly more balsam pollen was found on plants with dry stigmas in invaded areas. Balsam pollen deposition was restricted to a small subset of plant species, which is surprising because pollinators are known to carry high loads of balsam pollen. Balsam invasion did not affect the loading of native pollen, nor did it affect pollen transfer network properties; networks were modular and poorly nested, both of which are likely to be related to the specificity of pollen transfer interactions. Our results indicate that pollination networks become more specialized when moving from the flower visitation to the level of pollen transfer networks. Therefore, caution is needed when inferring pollination from patterns of insect visitation or insect pollen loads as the relationship between these and pollen deposition is not straightforward. PMID:26633170

  3. Comparison of the efficiency of the bumble bees Bombus impatiens and Bombus ephippiatus (Hymenoptera: Apidae) as pollinators of tomato in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Ruiz, Alfonso; Jones, Robert W

    2012-12-01

    Experiments were conducted in a commercial tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae) greenhouse to compare the relative foraging effort and efficiency of two bumble bee species: Bombus impatiens Cresson, a species from northeastern North America, commercially reared and used for pollination in Mexico; and B. ephippiatus Say, a native species of Mexico and central America. B. ephippiatus was as efficient in pollination of tomatoes as B. impatiens, as indicated by all variables of fruit quality: fruit weight, number of seed per fruit, and maximum fruit diameter. The two species had similar levels of hourly and daily foraging activity. They had the same response to temperature fluctuation. Pollination rates by both species were similar and close to 100% throughout the sample period. However, B. impatiens showed greater foraging activity during the first half of the 27-d sample period, whereas B. ephipiatus had greater relative activity during the last half. This study establish that B. ephippiatus is as efficient as B. impatiens as a pollinator of tomatoes in greenhouses and thus a candidate as a managed pollinator. However, standard reliable methods for mass rearing of B. ephippiatus are not yet available. Such methods are necessary to ensure healthy colonies and optimum pollination for producers and will reduce the pressure for the unregulated collection of queens in the field and the subsequent reduction of populations of this species.

  4. Pollination biology of Impatiens cuspidate Wight and Arn. (Balsaminaceae, a rare and endemic balsam of the Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Sreekala

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The pollination biology of Impatiens cuspidata, a rare and endemic balsam from the Western Ghats, has been studied with special reference to phenology, pollination, pollen-pistil interactions, breeding experiments and stigma receptivity. It flowers at night between 2330 and 0430 hr; flowering days extend up to 160 days in a year. The anther dehisced one day before anthesis, which confirmed the protandrous condition of the flower. Pollen-ovule ratio was calculated as 1729:1. Hawk moths, honeybees, flies and butterflies are the major pollinators of Impatiens cuspidata. Pollen grains are oval, having an average diameter of 28.24μm. Pollen viability by FCR test confirmed that 82% pollen grains are viable on the day of anthesis. Best pollen germination along with 1636μm tube development was achieved in Brewbakers medium. Stigma was more receptive (up to 80% on the first day of flower opening. It chiefly reproduced by means of cross pollination, where the fruit set was only 40%, but artificial cross-pollination through xenogamy enhanced fruit set up to 80%. The plant is an obligate out-crosser and self incompatible, as confirmed by various hand pollination experiments. Seed germination in natural and controlled conditions was only 20%. Its dependence on a specialized habitat, bottlenecks in sexual reproduction, low percentage of seed germination and other abiotic factors could be reasons for its limited distribution and endemism.

  5. Colonies of Bumble Bees (Bombus impatiens Produce Fewer Workers, Less Bee Biomass, and Have Smaller Mother Queens Following Fungicide Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia M. Bernauer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bees provide vital pollination services to the majority of flowering plants in both natural and agricultural systems. Unfortunately, both native and managed bee populations are experiencing declines, threatening the persistence of these plants and crops. Agricultural chemicals are one possible culprit contributing to bee declines. Even fungicides, generally considered safe for bees, have been shown to disrupt honey bee development and impair bumble bee behavior. Little is known, however, how fungicides may affect bumble bee colony growth. We conducted a controlled cage study to determine the effects of fungicide exposure on colonies of a native bumble bee species (Bombus impatiens. Colonies of B. impatiens were exposed to flowers treated with field-relevant levels of the fungicide chlorothalonil over the course of one month. Colony success was assessed by the number and biomass of larvae, pupae, and adult bumble bees. Bumble bee colonies exposed to fungicide produced fewer workers, lower total bee biomass, and had lighter mother queens than control colonies. Our results suggest that fungicides negatively affect the colony success of a native bumble bee species and that the use of fungicides during bloom has the potential to severely impact the success of native bumble bee populations foraging in agroecosystems.

  6. Inhibitory potential of naphthoquinones leached from leaves and exuded from roots of the invasive plant Impatiens glandulifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckli, Regina; Hesse, Katharina; Glauser, Gaetan; Rusterholz, Hans-Peter; Baur, Bruno

    2014-04-01

    Exploring the effects of allelopathic plant chemicals on the growth of native vegetation is essential to understand their ecological roles and importance in exotic plant invasion. Naphthoquinones have been identified as potential growth inhibitors produced by Impatiens glandulifera, an exotic annual plant that recently invaded temperate forests in Europe. However, naphthoquinone release and inhibitory potential have not been examined. We quantified the naphthoquinone content in cotyledons, leaves, stems, and roots from plants of different ages of both the invasive I. glandulifera and native Impatiens noli-tangere as well as in soil extracts and rainwater rinsed from leaves of either plant species by using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). We identified the compound 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (2-MNQ) exclusively in plant organs of I. glandulifera, in resin bags buried into the soil of patches invaded by I. glandulifera, and in rainwater rinsed from its leaves. This indicates that 2-MNQ is released from the roots of I. glandulifera and leached from its leaves by rain. Specific bioassays using aqueous shoot and root extracts revealed a strong inhibitory effect on the germination of two native forest herbs and on the mycelium growth of three ectomycorrhiza fungi. These findings suggest that the release of 2-MNQ may contribute to the invasion success of I. glandulifera and support the novel weapons hypothesis.

  7. Study of the 'Impatiens walleriana' for phytoremediation of chromium, thorium, uranium and zinc soil contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrecilha, Jefferson K.; Mariano, Gabriela P.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da, E-mail: jeffkoy@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the Cr, Th, U and Zn transfer from soil to Impatiens walleriana and verify if this plant species is suitable for soil decontamination. Samples of small, medium and large size of the plant were collected in three different locations, University of Sao Paulo, IPEN and Cotia, as well as soil samples from the surroundings. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to determine the element concentrations. Roots, stems and leaves of the plant samples were analyzed in separate in order to verify the preferential site of concentration of these elements in the plant. For the analyses, samples of the soil and the plants were dried and pulverized into a fine powder, accurately weighed and sealed in polyethylene bags, irradiated together with reference standard materials in the IEA-R1 IPEN reactor and counted in a Ge-hiperpure detector. Cr, Th, and U did not present a significant potential to be accumulated in none of the plant parts. Zinc, on the other hand, showed great capacity to be accumulated in in all parts of Impatiens walleriana and, therefore, this species is a good candidate to be used for phytoremediation purpose, in case of soil contamination with zinc. (author)

  8. Utilization of the invasive plant Impatiens parviflora DC. by the snail Columella edentula Draparnaud in oak-hornbeam forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Piskorz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the extend to which the snail Columella edentula is more strongly associated with the small balsam Impatiens parviflora than with other plants in the herb layer of an oak-hornbeam forest, and to interpret the character of the interaction Impatiens parviflora - Columella edentula. Numbers of C. edentula and rates of colonization were compared on various plant species under natural and laboratory conditions. Seasonal variation in snail abundance on I. parviflora was observed on permanent plots. The leaf injuries caused by C. edentula were localized in respect of the morphological and anatomical structure of leaves. The results show that I. parviflora is one of the plant species of the herb layer that are most abundantly colonized by this snail in oak-hornbeam forest. Snail finds a plant particularly suitable as a place for resting. The most favoured attachment site is on the underside of the leaf, along the midrib, which provides the highest and relatively stable humidity, as well as protection from direct sunlight and predators. I. parviflora is also a food for the snails, but they do not eat these fragments of leaves where calcium carbonate is accumulated.

  9. Evapotranspiration of osteospermum 'Denebola' and New Guinea impatiens 'Timor' grown on ebb-and-flow benches as affected by climate conditions and soil water potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Treder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Daily evapotranspiration (EVPT of two bedding plants osteospermum 'Denebola' and impatiens 'Timor' grown on ebb-and-flow benches was measured by weighing method, together with assessment of indoor climate parameters (solar radiation, temperature, humidity and leaf area index (LAI at different growth phases. The evaporation inside the greenhouse as affected by climatic factors i.e.: solar radiation, temperature, humidity and air velocity was also measured using Piche's evaporometer. Plants were irrigated according to soil water potential (irrigation at -0,5; -3; -10 and -20 kPa. Irrigation at high water potential decreased plant growth and leaf area of both plants. LAI of osteospermum decreased as water deficit increased. In the case of impatiens, the highest LAI at full flowering obtained plants irrigated at -3 kPa. The actual, daily EVPT of plants irrigated at -0,5 kPa increased with plant growth in the case ofosteospermum while that of impatiens remained at similar level. At flowering water stress decreased strongly EVPT of osteospermum and in lesser extent EVPT of impatiens. Osteospermum irrigated at -0,5 kPa had 2,5 higher EVPT than impatiens. For both plants good, positive correlation between EVPT and daily mean temperature, temperature between 7-17 h and evaporation according to Piche's evaporometer readings were obtained. As expected EVPT was negatively correlated with relative humidity, irrespective the growth phase and soil water potential. The correlation between EVPT and solar radiation, was changed during plant growth due to differences in temperature under shading screen, used during sunny days.

  10. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the...

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of Tomato mosaic virus from Hemerocallis sp. and Impatiens hawkeri Análise filogenética de Tomato mosaic virus isolado de Hemerocallis sp. e Impatiens hawkeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Maria Lembo Duarte

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The culture and commercialization of ornamental plants have considerably increased in the last years. To supply the commercial demand, several Hemerocallis and Impatiens varieties have been bred for appreciated qualities such as flowers with a diversity of shapes and colors. With the aim of characterizing the tobamovirus isolated from Hemerocallis sp. (tobamo-H and Impatiens hawkeri (tobamo-I from the USA and São Paulo, respectively, as well as to establish phylogenetic relationships between them and other Tobamovirus species, the viruses were submitted to RNA extraction, RT-PCR amplification, coat-protein gene sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Comparison of tobamovirus homologous sequences yielded values superior to 98.5% of identity with Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV isolates at the nucleotide level. In relation to tobamo-H, 100% of identity with ToMV from tomatoes from Australia and Peru was found. Based on maximum likelihood (ML analysis it was suggested that tobamo-H and tobamo-I share a common ancestor with ToMV, Tobacco mosaic virus, Odontoglossum ringspot virus and Pepper mild mottle virus. The tree topology reconstructed under ML methodology shows a monophyletic group, supported by 100% of bootstrap, consisting of various ToMV isolates from different hosts, including some ornamentals, from different geographical locations. The results indicate that Hemerocallis sp. and I. hawkeri are infected by ToMV. This is the first report of the occurrence of this virus in ornamental species in Brazil.O cultivo e comercialização de plantas ornamentais têm aumentado consideravelmente nos últimos anos. Para suprir a demanda comercial, diversas variedades de Hemerocallis sp. e Impatiens hawkeri têm sido desenvolvidas pelas qualidades apreciáveis como flores com diversidade de formas e cores. Com o objetivo de caracterizar o tobamovirus isolado de Hemerocallis sp. (tobamo-H e Impatiens hawkeri (tobamo-I provenientes dos EUA e São Paulo

  12. An invasive plant alters phenotypic selection on the vegetative growth of a native congener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beans, Carolyn M; Roach, Deborah A

    2015-02-01

    The ecological consequences of plant competition have frequently been tested, but the evolutionary outcomes of these interactions have gone largely unexplored. The study of species invasions can make an important contribution to this field of research by allowing us to watch ecological and evolutionary processes unfold as a novel species is integrated into a plant community. We explored the ecological and evolutionary impact of an invasive jewelweed, Impatiens glandulifera, on a closely related native congener, I. capensis and asked: (1) Does the presence of the invasive jewelweed alter the fitness of native jewelweed populations? (2) Does the invasive jewelweed affect the vegetative growth of the native congener? and (3) Does the invasive jewelweed alter phenotypic selection on the vegetative traits of the native congener? We used a greenhouse competition experiment, an invasive species removal field experiment, and a survey of natural populations. We show that when the invasive jewelweed is present, phenotypic selection favors native jewelweed individuals investing less in rapid upward growth and more in branching and fruiting potential through the production of nodes. This research demonstrates that invasive plants have the potential to greatly alter natural selection on native competitors. Studies investigating altered selection in invaded communities can reveal the potential evolutionary impact of invasive competitors, while deepening our understanding of the more general role of competition in driving plant evolution and permitting species coexistence. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  13. Colonisation trends of the invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera, along river corridors: some preliminary findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Phil; Kuhn, Brigitte; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2016-04-01

    Originating from the Himalayas, the highly invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan Balsam), is now found on three separate continents, with a distribution that includes most temperate European countries, large areas of east and west North America and parts of New Zealand. As a ruderal species, it prefers damp, shady and fertile soils that are frequently disturbed. This means that it commonly occurs along the riparian zone of rivers and streams. Being highly sensitivity to cold weather, however, whole stands suddenly and often simultaneously die-off; leaving riparian areas bare or partially devoid of vegetation. These lifecycle traits have implicated it in promoting soil erosion in affected river systems in temperate regions. Recent work undertaken by members of the Physical Geography & Environmental Change Research Group, University of Basel, has documented erosion rates along a section of contaminated river systems in northwest Switzerland, and southwest UK. Collectively, these data now span a total of seven separate germination and die-off cycles. Results from both river systems over all monitoring campaigns indicate that soil loss from areas contaminated with I. glandulifera is significantly greater than comparable areas supporting perennial vegetation. Crucially, however, extremely high-magnitude erosion was recorded at approximately 30% of contaminated areas (n=41). Reasons for high disturbance levels focus on the possibility that I. glandulifera tends to colonise depositional areas within a flood-zone. As those areas act as foci for the accretion of flood-derived sediment, the ability of this material to resist subsequent mobilisation processes is low due to limited cohesion, poor compaction and undeveloped soil structure. We hypothesis, therefore, that the tendency of I. glanduilfera to grow in depositional sites will be reflected in a number of key physico-chemical traits associated with soils in such areas; namely lower in-situ bulk

  14. Environmental Statement, Oswego Steam Station, Unit Six.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-03-29

    Onoclea sensibilis), jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) and sedges ( Cyperaceae ). Shrubs surrounding the marsh include alder and buttonbush (Cephalanthus...dominated by cattails. Other important species found in the marsh areas were rushes F i(Juncareae) and sedges ( Cyperaceae ), sensitive fern, purple loosestrife...cordata) sedges ( Cyperaceae ) arrowhead (Sagittaria sp. cattail (Typha latifolia) duckweed (Lemna minor purple loosestrife (Lythru salicaria) sensitive

  15. Orange Peels and Fresnel Integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Bartholdi, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    There are two standard ways of peeling an orange: either cut the skin along meridians, or cut it along a spiral. We consider here the second method, and study the shape of the spiral strip, when unfolded on a table. We derive a formula that describes the corresponding flattened-out spiral. Cutting the peel with progressively thinner strip widths, we obtain a sequence of increasingly long spirals. We show that, after rescaling, these spirals tends to a definite shape, known as the Euler spiral. The Euler spiral has applications in many fields of science. In optics, the illumination intensity at a point behind a slit is computed from the distance between two points on the Euler spiral. The Euler spiral also provides optimal curvature for train tracks between a straight run and an upcoming bend. It is striking that it can be also obtained with an orange and a kitchen knife.

  16. Morphological and physiological idiosyncrasies lead to interindividual variation in flight metabolic rate in worker bumblebees (Bombus impatiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalis, Dimitri A; Darveau, Charles-A

    2012-01-01

    Although intraspecific variation in metabolic rate is associated with variation in body size, similarly sized individuals nonetheless vary greatly. At similar masses, hovering bumblebee workers (Bombus impatiens) can differ in metabolic rate up to twofold. We examined how such interindividual variation arises by studying covariation of flight metabolic rate with morphological and other physiological parameters. Body size alone explained roughly half the variation in flight metabolic rate. The remaining variation could be explained as the outcome of variation in wing morphology and possibly an association with variation in flight muscle metabolic enzyme activities. As shown using statistical models, for a given mass, higher metabolic rate was correlated with both higher thoracic temperature and higher wing stroke frequency, in turn resulting from smaller wing surface area. When organismal and cellular metabolism for a given mass were linked, variation in metabolic rate was positively correlated with the activities of trehalase and hexokinase. Altogether, covariation with morphology and other physiological parameters explains up to 75% of the variation in metabolic rate. We also investigated the role of flight experience and show that neither flight restriction nor the number of lifetime flights affected flight energetics or flight muscle phenotype. Additionally, manipulating the level of wing asymmetry increased flight wing stroke frequency, metabolic rate, and thoracic temperature, but it did not alter enzyme activity. We conclude that idiosyncrasies in body morphology largely explained interindividual variation in flight metabolic rate but flight muscle metabolic phenotype shows little variation associated with differences in flight experience.

  17. Intraspecific variation in flight metabolic rate in the bumblebee Bombus impatiens: repeatability and functional determinants in workers and drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darveau, Charles-A; Billardon, Fannie; Bélanger, Kasandra

    2014-02-15

    The evolution of flight energetics requires that phenotypes be variable, repeatable and heritable. We studied intraspecific variation in flight energetics in order to assess the repeatability of flight metabolic rate and wingbeat frequency, as well as the functional basis of phenotypic variation in workers and drones of the bumblebee species Bombus impatiens. We showed that flight metabolic rate and wingbeat frequency were highly repeatable in workers, even when controlling for body mass variation using residual analysis. We did not detect significant repeatability in drones, but a smaller range of variation might have prevented us from finding significant values in our sample. Based on our results and previous findings, we associated the high repeatability of flight phenotypes in workers to the functional links between body mass, thorax mass, wing size, wingbeat frequency and metabolic rate. Moreover, differences between workers and drones were as predicted from these functional associations, where drones had larger wings for their size, lower wingbeat frequency and lower flight metabolic rate. We also investigated thoracic muscle metabolic phenotypes by measuring the activity of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, and we found positive correlations between mass-independent metabolic rate and the activity of all enzymes measured, but in workers only. When comparing workers and drones that differ in flight metabolic rate, only the activity of the enzymes hexokinase and trehalase showed the predicted differences. Overall, our study indicates that there should be correlated evolution among physiological phenotypes at multiple levels of organization and morphological traits associated with flight.

  18. Comparison of buckwheat, red clover, and purple tansy as potential surrogate plants for use in semi-field pesticide risk assessments with Bombus impatiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela E. Gradish

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bumble bees (Bombus spp. are important wild and managed pollinators. There is increased interest in incorporating data on bumble bees into risk assessments for pesticides, but standardized methods for assessing hazards of pesticides in semi-field and field settings have not yet been established for bumble bees. During semi-field studies, colonies are caged with pesticide-treated flowering surrogate plants, which must be attractive to foragers to ensure colony exposure to the test compound, and must produce an ample nectar and pollen to sustain colonies during testing. However, it is not known which plant(s are suitable for use in semi-field studies with bumble bees. Materials and Methods. We compared B. impatiens foraging activity and colony development on small plots of flowering buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, var. common, red clover (Trifolium pratense, and purple tansy (Phacelia tanacetifolia under semi-field conditions to assess their suitability as surrogate plants for pesticide risk assessment studies with bumble bees. We also compared the growth characteristics and input requirements of each plant type. Results. All three plant types generally established and grew well. Red clover and purple tansy experienced significant weed pressure and/or insect pest damage. In contrast, pest pressure was extremely low in buckwheat. Overall, B. impatiens foraging activity was significantly greater on buckwheat plots than red clover or purple tansy, but plant type had no effect on number of individuals produced per colony or colony weight. Discussion. Because of the consistently high foraging activity and successful colony development observed on buckwheat plots, combined with its favourable growth characteristics and low maintenance requirements, we recommend buckwheat as a surrogate plant for use in semi-field pesticide toxicity assessments with B. impatiens.

  19. Effect of intra- and interspecific competition on the performance of native and invasive species of Impatiens under varying levels of shade and moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skálová, Hana; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Dvořáčková, Śárka; Pyšek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Many alien plants are thought to be invasive because of unique traits and greater phenotypic plasticity relative to resident species. However, many studies of invasive species are unable to quantify the importance of particular traits and phenotypic plasticity in conferring invasive behavior because traits used in comparative studies are often measured in a single environment and by using plants from a single population. To obtain a deeper insight into the role of environmental factors, local differences and competition in plant invasions, we compared species of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) of different origin and invasion status that occur in central Europe: native I. noli-tangere and three alien species (highly invasive I. glandulifera, less invasive I. parviflora and potentially invasive I. capensis). In two experiments we harvested late-stage reproductive plants to estimate performance. The first experiment quantified how populations differed in performance under varying light and moisture levels in the absence of competition. The second experiment quantified performance across these environments in the presence of intra- and inter-specific competition. The highly invasive I. glandulifera was the strongest competitor, was the tallest and produced the greatest biomass. Small size and high plasticity were characteristic for I. parviflora. This species appeared to be the second strongest competitor, especially under low soil moisture. The performance of I. capensis was within the range of the other Impatiens species studied, but sometimes limited by alien competitors. Our results suggest that invasion success within the genus Impatiens depends on the ability to grow large under a range of environmental conditions, including competition. The invasive species also exhibited greater phenotypic plasticity across environmental conditions than the native species. Finally, the decreased performance of the native I. noli-tangere in competition with other species studied

  20. Comparison of buckwheat, red clover, and purple tansy as potential surrogate plants for use in semi-field pesticide risk assessments with Bombus impatiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, G. Christopher; Frewin, Andrew J.; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Bumble bees (Bombus spp.) are important wild and managed pollinators. There is increased interest in incorporating data on bumble bees into risk assessments for pesticides, but standardized methods for assessing hazards of pesticides in semi-field and field settings have not yet been established for bumble bees. During semi-field studies, colonies are caged with pesticide-treated flowering surrogate plants, which must be attractive to foragers to ensure colony exposure to the test compound, and must produce an ample nectar and pollen to sustain colonies during testing. However, it is not known which plant(s) are suitable for use in semi-field studies with bumble bees. Materials and Methods. We compared B. impatiens foraging activity and colony development on small plots of flowering buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, var. common), red clover (Trifolium pratense), and purple tansy (Phacelia tanacetifolia) under semi-field conditions to assess their suitability as surrogate plants for pesticide risk assessment studies with bumble bees. We also compared the growth characteristics and input requirements of each plant type. Results. All three plant types generally established and grew well. Red clover and purple tansy experienced significant weed pressure and/or insect pest damage. In contrast, pest pressure was extremely low in buckwheat. Overall, B. impatiens foraging activity was significantly greater on buckwheat plots than red clover or purple tansy, but plant type had no effect on number of individuals produced per colony or colony weight. Discussion. Because of the consistently high foraging activity and successful colony development observed on buckwheat plots, combined with its favourable growth characteristics and low maintenance requirements, we recommend buckwheat as a surrogate plant for use in semi-field pesticide toxicity assessments with B. impatiens. PMID:27478712

  1. Interactive Network Exploration with Orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Štajdohar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Network analysis is one of the most widely used techniques in many areas of modern science. Most existing tools for that purpose are limited to drawing networks and computing their basic general characteristics. The user is not able to interactively and graphically manipulate the networks, select and explore subgraphs using other statistical and data mining techniques, add and plot various other data within the graph, and so on. In this paper we present a tool that addresses these challenges, an add-on for exploration of networks within the general component-based environment Orange.

  2. An invasive plant alters pollinator-mediated phenotypic selection on a native congener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beans, Carolyn M; Roach, Deborah A

    2015-01-01

    • Recent studies suggest that invasive plants compete reproductively with native plants by reducing the quantity or quality of pollinator visits. Although these studies have revealed ecological consequences of pollinator-mediated competition between invasive and native plants, the evolutionary outcomes of these interactions remain largely unexplored.• We studied the ecological and evolutionary impact of pollinator-mediated competition with an invasive jewelweed, Impatiens glandulifera, on a co-occurring native congener, I. capensis. Using a pollinator choice experiment, a hand pollination experiment, and a selection analysis, we addressed the following questions: (1) Do native pollinators show preference for the invasive or native jewelweed, and do they move between the two species? (2) Does invasive jewelweed pollen inhibit seed production in the native plant? (3) Does the invasive jewelweed alter phenotypic selection on the native plant's floral traits?• The pollinator choice experiment showed that pollinators strongly preferred the invasive jewelweed. The hand pollination experiment demonstrated that invasive pollen inhibited seed production in the native plant. The selection analysis showed that the presence of the invasive jewelweed altered phenotypic selection on corolla height in the native plant.• Invasive plants have the potential to alter phenotypic selection on floral traits in native plant populations. If native plants can evolve in response to this altered selection pressure, the evolution of floral traits may play an important role in permitting long-term coexistence of native and invasive plants. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  3. Ukraine’s Orange Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ali Mortazavi Emami

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Color revolution is one of the new ways of changing a regime at the beginning of the twenty-first century, which has usually been carried out on corrupt, political systems remaining from the Cold War era in Eastern European countries and countries that have become independent from the former Soviet Union and through such revolution a new peaceful form of political power transition emerged. An exploration of the circumstances of Ukraine’s Orange Revolution suggests foreigners’ support and leading. Ukraine’s presidential elections of 2004 and the competition between Viktor Yushchenko and Victor Yanukovich and the presence of international observers in the process of elections and the controversy of electoral fraud and the West’s support of Yushchenko were all directed toward the formation of a color revolution in Ukraine. Poor economic conditions and official corruption, religious, linguistic, class and racial gaps in Ukraine led the way for foreigners to use them in creating electoral situations and prepare the fall of the government. The main purpose question in this article is the Orange Revolution and its causes.

  4. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... to consider include technology; production methods; development efforts; ability to increase... COMMISSION Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil...

  5. Neutron activation analysis of thin orange pottery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbottle, G; Sayre, E V; Abascal, R

    1976-01-01

    The evidence thus far obtained supports the idea of ''Thin Orange'' ware, typical of classic Teotihuacan culture, easily identifiable petrographically or chemically, not necessarily made at Teotihuacan itself but widely traded, and ''thin, orange'' pottery, fabricated in many other places, and perhaps at other times as well.

  6. Trouble Brewing in Orange County. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Orange County will soon face enormous budgetary pressures from the growing deficits in public pensions, both at a state and local level. In this policy brief, the author estimates that Orange County faces a total $41.2 billion liability for retiree benefits that are underfunded--including $9.4 billion for the county pension system and an estimated…

  7. Chronic exposure of imidacloprid and clothianidin reduce queen survival, foraging, and nectar storing in colonies of Bombus impatiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholer, Jamison; Krischik, Vera

    2014-01-01

    In an 11-week greenhouse study, caged queenright colonies of Bombus impatiens Cresson, were fed treatments of 0 (0 ppb actual residue I, imidacloprid; C, clothianidin), 10 (14 I, 9 C), 20 (16 I, 17C), 50 (71 I, 39 C) and 100 (127 I, 76 C) ppb imidacloprid or clothianidin in sugar syrup (50%). These treatments overlapped the residue levels found in pollen and nectar of many crops and landscape plants, which have higher residue levels than seed-treated crops (less than 10 ppb, corn, canola and sunflower). At 6 weeks, queen mortality was significantly higher in 50 ppb and 100 ppb and by 11 weeks in 20 ppb-100 ppb neonicotinyl-treated colonies. The largest impact for both neonicotinyls starting at 20 (16 I, 17 C) ppb was the statistically significant reduction in queen survival (37% I, 56% C) ppb, worker movement, colony consumption, and colony weight compared to 0 ppb treatments. Bees at feeders flew back to the nest box so it appears that only a few workers were collecting syrup in the flight box and returning the syrup to the nest. The majority of the workers sat immobilized for weeks on the floor of the flight box without moving to fed at sugar syrup feeders. Neonicotinyl residues were lower in wax pots in the nest than in the sugar syrup that was provided. At 10 (14) ppb I and 50 (39) ppb C, fewer males were produced by the workers, but queens continued to invest in queen production which was similar among treatments. Feeding on imidacloprid and clothianidin can cause changes in behavior (reduced worker movement, consumption, wax pot production, and nectar storage) that result in detrimental effects on colonies (queen survival and colony weight). Wild bumblebees depending on foraging workers can be negatively impacted by chronic neonicotinyl exposure at 20 ppb.

  8. Chronic exposure of imidacloprid and clothianidin reduce queen survival, foraging, and nectar storing in colonies of Bombus impatiens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamison Scholer

    Full Text Available In an 11-week greenhouse study, caged queenright colonies of Bombus impatiens Cresson, were fed treatments of 0 (0 ppb actual residue I, imidacloprid; C, clothianidin, 10 (14 I, 9 C, 20 (16 I, 17C, 50 (71 I, 39 C and 100 (127 I, 76 C ppb imidacloprid or clothianidin in sugar syrup (50%. These treatments overlapped the residue levels found in pollen and nectar of many crops and landscape plants, which have higher residue levels than seed-treated crops (less than 10 ppb, corn, canola and sunflower. At 6 weeks, queen mortality was significantly higher in 50 ppb and 100 ppb and by 11 weeks in 20 ppb-100 ppb neonicotinyl-treated colonies. The largest impact for both neonicotinyls starting at 20 (16 I, 17 C ppb was the statistically significant reduction in queen survival (37% I, 56% C ppb, worker movement, colony consumption, and colony weight compared to 0 ppb treatments. Bees at feeders flew back to the nest box so it appears that only a few workers were collecting syrup in the flight box and returning the syrup to the nest. The majority of the workers sat immobilized for weeks on the floor of the flight box without moving to fed at sugar syrup feeders. Neonicotinyl residues were lower in wax pots in the nest than in the sugar syrup that was provided. At 10 (14 ppb I and 50 (39 ppb C, fewer males were produced by the workers, but queens continued to invest in queen production which was similar among treatments. Feeding on imidacloprid and clothianidin can cause changes in behavior (reduced worker movement, consumption, wax pot production, and nectar storage that result in detrimental effects on colonies (queen survival and colony weight. Wild bumblebees depending on foraging workers can be negatively impacted by chronic neonicotinyl exposure at 20 ppb.

  9. Occurrence and dynamics of Impatiens parviflora depending on various environmental conditions in the protected areas in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobuľská Lenka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasion as one of the main threats to natural ecosystems has big economic impact on conservation of nature. Studies of the population biology of invasive species may allow more precise focus on specific plant and soil characteristics involved in invasiveness. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between selected biological population characteristics of Impatiens parviflora and a few chosen chemical and physical soil features. Sites were selected because of the poor mapping of invasive plants in the protected natural areas and their interactions with specific soil characteristics. Research on I. parviflora was realised during a vegetation season in three forest nature reserves in Prešov district, Slovakia. Some population biological characteristics of I. parviflora as one of the most invasive plant species in Slovakia and Central Europe were surveyed. The correlation between the numbers of plants was analysed, as well as select population biological characteristics of I. parviflora (plant height, width of the largest leaf and the number of flowers/fruits on some select chemical and physical soil attributes (soil pH, bulk density, porosity and soil moisture were analysed. The results suggest that biological characteristics of I. parviflora in three different microhabitats – a meadow (a habitat without tree vegetation, a habitat close to the stumps and a habitat under dense tree vegetation seemed to influence the selected soil parameters. Our results showed that I. parviflora prefers acidic and non-compacted soil conditions. Sunlight and soil moisture do not show statistically significant differences on any biological characteristic of the population. The results also suggest that the autecology of I. parviflora in Western and Central Europe is not very well known and deserves further study.

  10. The neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid, affects Bombus impatiens (bumblebee) sonication behavior when consumed at doses below the LD50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Callin M; Combes, Stacey A

    2016-08-01

    We investigated changes in sonication (or buzz-pollination) behavior of Bombus impatiens bumblebees, after consumption of the neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid. We measured sonication frequency, sonication length, and flight (wing beat) frequency of marked bees collecting pollen from Solanum lycopsersicum (tomato), and then randomly assigned bees to consume 0, 0.0515, 0.515, or 5.15 ng of imidacloprid. We recorded the number of bees in each treatment group that resumed sonication behavior after consuming imidacloprid, and re-measured sonication and flight behavior for these bees. We did not find evidence that consuming 0.0515 ng imidacloprid affected the sonication length, sonication frequency, or flight frequency for bees that sonicated after consuming imidacloprid; we were unable to test changes in these variables for bees that consumed 0.515 or 5.15 ng because we did not observe enough of these bees sonicating after treatment. We performed Cox proportional hazard regression to determine whether consuming imidacloprid affected the probability of engaging in further sonication behavior on S. lycopersicum and found that bumblebees who consumed 0.515 or 5.15 ng of imidacloprid were significantly less likely to sonicate after treatment than bees who consumed no imidacloprid. At the end of the experiment, we classified bees as dead or alive; our data suggest a trend of increasing mortality with higher doses of imidacloprid. Our results show that even modest doses of imidacloprid can significantly affect the likelihood of bumblebees engaging in sonication, a behavior critical for the pollination of a variety of crops and other plants.

  11. STRATEGI COPING ORANG TUA MENGHADAPI ANAK AUTIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desi Sulistyo Wardani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Autis merupakan grey area dibidang kedokteran, yang artinya masih merupakan suatu hal yang penyebab, mekanisme, dan terapinya belum jelas benar. Permasalahan yang dihadapi oleh orang tua yang mempunyai anak autis ini memerlukan pemecahan sebagai upaya untuk beradaptasi terhadap masalah dari tekanan yang menimpa mereka. Konsep untuk memecahkan masalah ini disebut coping. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui orientasi strategi coping yang digunakan oleh orang tua untuk menghadapi anak penderita autis, bagaimana bentuk perilaku coping yang digunakan, dan apa dampak perilaku coping tersebut bagi orang tua. Subjek penelitian ini adalah orang tua yang mempunyai anak autis yang bersekolah di SD PLUS Harmony. Metode pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah interview, sedangkan teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah analisis induktif deskriptif. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa strategi coping pada orang tua yang mempunyai anak autis berorientasi pada penyelesaian masalah yang dihadapi (Problem Focused Coping, sedangkan bentuk perilaku coping yang muncul yaitu Instrumental Action yang termasuk dalam Problem Focused Coping dan Self-Controlling, Denial, dan Seeking Meaning yang termasuk dalam Emotion Focused Coping. Dampak positif dari perilaku coping yang dilakukan oleh orang tua yaitu Exercised Caution dan Seeking Meaning, sedangkan dampak negatif yang muncul diatasi orang tua dengan Intropersitive, Negotiation, dan Accepting Responbility.

  12. Mini-Orange Spectrometer at CIAE

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yun; Li, Guang-Sheng; Li, Cong-Bo; He, Chuang-Ye; Chen, Qi-Ming; Zhong, Jian; Zhou, Wen-Kui; Deng, Li-Tao; Zhu, Bao-Ji

    2016-01-01

    A Mini-Orange spectrometer used for in-beam measurements of internal conversion electrons, which consists of a Si(Li) detector and different sets of SmO$_5$ permanent magnets for filtering and transporting the conversion electrons to the Si(Li) detector, has been developed at China Institute of Atomic Energy. The working principle and configuration of the Mini-Orange spectrometer are described. The performance of the setup is illustrated by measured singles conversion electron spectra using the Mini-Orange spectrometer.

  13. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135...

  14. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  15. Latitudinal variation of life-history traits of an exotic and a native impatiens species in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Kamal Prasad; De Frenne, Pieter; Brunet, Jörg; Chabrerie, Olivier; Cousins, Sara A. O.; Diekmann, Martin; Hermy, Martin; Kolb, Annette; Lemke, Isgard; Plue, Jan; Verheyen, Kris; Graae, Bente Jessen

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the responses of invasive and native populations to environmental change is crucial for reliable predictions of invasions in the face of global change. While comparisons of responses across invasive species with different life histories have been performed before, comparing functional traits of congeneric native and invasive species may help to reveal driving factors associated with invasion. Here we compared morphological functional trait patterns of an invasive species (Impatiens parviflora) with its congeneric native species (I. noli-tangere) along an approximately 1600 km European latitudinal gradient from France (49°34‧N) to Norway (63°40‧N). Soil nitrogen was recorded during six weeks of the growing season, and light, soil moisture, and nutrient availability were estimated for each sampled population using community weighted means of indicator values for co-occurring species. Temperature data were gathered from nearby weather stations. Both the native and invasive species are taller at higher latitudes and this response is strongest in the invasive species. Seed mass and number of seeds per capsule increase in I. noli-tangere but decrease in I. parviflora towards higher latitudes. Surprisingly, plant height in the invasive I. parviflora decreases with increasing soil nitrogen availability. The latitudinal pattern in seed mass is positively related to temperature in I. noli-tangere and negatively in I. parviflora. Leaf area of both species decreases with increasing Ellenberg indicator values for nitrogen and light but increases with increasing soil moisture. Soil nitrogen concentrations and Ellenberg indicator values for nitrogen have significant positive (I. noli-tangere) and negative (I. parviflora) effects on the number of seeds per capsule. Our results show that the native I. noli-tangere has efficient reproduction at its range edge while the invasive I. parviflora shows a marked decrease in seed size and seed number per capsule. These

  16. Mexican Fan Palm - Orange Co. [ds350

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of Mexican fan palm (Washingtonia robusta) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007...

  17. Arundo Distribution - Orange Co. [ds348

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of Arundo (Arundo donax) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007 and were funded by...

  18. Pampas Grass - Orange Co. [ds351

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007 and...

  19. The Orange Juice Distribution Channel: Some Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... in retailing and also in the FCOJ (Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice) supply. These changes are threatening and also bringing opportunities to companies. This paper has two objectives.

  20. Herbicide Orange Site Characterization Study, Eglin AFB

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    SCFILE cue ESL-TR-86-22 HERBICIDE ORANGE SITE CHARACTERIZATION STUDY EGLIN AFB 10 A.B. CROCKETT, A. PROPP , T. KIMES EG&G IDAHO, INC O I P.O. BOX...Orange Site Characterization Study.4lin AFB 12- PERSONAL AIITHOS(S) Crockett, A.B. , Propp , A., Kinies T. / \\ 4 Final FROM APX 84/TO Sen 86 1 ... I

  1. Pengenalan Gangguan Depresif Pada Orang Usia Lanjut

    OpenAIRE

    Bongsoe, Syamsir

    2008-01-01

    Pada orang usia lanjut, gangguan depresif merupakan suasana alam perasaan yang utama bagi orang usia lanjut dengan penyakit fisik kronik dan kerusakan fungsi kognitif yang disebabkan oleh adanya penderitaan, disabilitas, perhatian keluarga yang kurang serta bertambah buruknya penyakit fisik yang banyak dialaminya. Selain itu proses-proses sehubungan dengan ketuaan dan penyakit fisik yang dialaminya akan mempengaruhi jalur frontostriatal, amygdala serta hypocampus, dan meningkatkan kerentanan ...

  2. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  3. Antimatter, clockwork orange, laser divestment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, John F.

    2005-06-01

    In 1972 Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi sponsored a program to holographically record the images of Venetian sculptural treasures for archival purposes. At Laboratorio San Gregorio, where the initial holography took place, G. Musumeci and K. Hempel suggested an experiment to determine whether the concentrated beam from the ruby holographic laser could ablate black-patina crusts from decaying marble. Initial success of a laser-divestment test on a Palazzo Ducale capital launched a search for funding to enable a full-scale laser-conservation demonstration. Later, at a Caltech reunion one of the author's physics professors (Carl Anderson, the discoverer of mu mesons and the positron), noting the prominence of the Venice Film Festival suggested our approaching the motion picture industry. Many years earlier Anderson's Caltech classmate, Frank Capra, had supported the research that led to the discovery of cosmic-ray-generated antimatter on Pikes Peak. (After Caltech, Capra had become a director at Columbia Studios.) Anderson's chance comment led to an introduction to producer Jack Warner at a festival screening of his "A Clockwork Orange" in Asolo. He and his friends contributed US$5000 toward the laser conservation of a marble relief of "The Last Supper" in the Porta della Carta of Venice. This work was conducted in 1980 under the direction of Arch. G. Calcagno. In 1981 it was found that the granite veneer or the newly completed Warner Center Tower had been stained during transit from the quarry. The Venice laser successfully restored the veneer, thereby returning the Warner Brothers' favor.

  4. Endurance exercise after orange ingestion anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endurance exercise after orange ingestion cause anaphylaxis which is food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA which is a form of exercise-induced anaphylaxis. In this article, an individual develops symptoms such as flushing, itching, urticaria, angioedema, and wheezing after eating a food allergen and proceeds to exercise. Neither the food alone nor exercise alone is sufficient to induce a reaction. This case report describes a 36-year-old asthmatic male athlete who experienced nausea, vomiting, flushing, urticaria, and facial swelling while exercising in a gymnasium after eating oranges. Neither oranges alone nor exercise alone induced the reaction. Total avoidance of suspected food allergens would be ideal. Persons with FDEIA should keep at hand an emergency kit with antihistamines, injectable rapid action corticoids, and adrenaline.

  5. Hepatocellular carcinoma in the Malaysian Orang Asli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumithran, E; Prathap, K

    1976-05-01

    Necropsies were performed on 285 consecutively unclaimed Orang Asli bodies from Gombak Orang Asli Hospital during an eight-year period from May 1967 to April 1975. Of the 25 malignant neoplasms, hepatocellular carcinoma was by far the commonest (36%). The nine patients with this neoplasm had coexistant macronodular cirrhosis. There were 20 cases of cirrhosis; 45% of these had coexistant hepatocellular carcinoma. The 53,000 Orang Aslis living in West Malaysia comprise three tribes, the Negrito, Senoi, and Melayu Asli (Proto Malays). The Sinoi appear to have a high predilection for liver cancer, all our nine cases occurring in this group. These aboriginal people live in the jungles where they practice shifting cultivation and maintain their own dietary and social customs. Detailed studies of their dietary habits may provide a clue to the etiology of liver cancer in these people.

  6. Orange proteomic fingerprinting: From fruit to commercial juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma-García, María Jesús; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Fasoli, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    Combinatorial peptide ligand library technology, coupled to mass spectrometry, has been applied to extensively map the proteome of orange pulp and peel and, via this fingerprinting, to detect its presence in commercial orange juices and drinks. The native and denaturing extraction protocols have captured 1109 orange proteins, as identified by LC-MS/MS. This proteomic map has been searched in an orange concentrate, from a Spanish juice manufacturer, as well as in commercial orange juices and soft drinks. The presence of numerous orange proteins in commercial juices has demonstrated the genuineness of these products, prepared by using orange fruits as original ingredients. However, the low number of identified proteins in sparkling beverages has suggested that they were prepared with scarce amounts of fruit extract, thus imparting lower quality to the final products. These findings not only increase the knowledge of the orange proteome but also present a reliable analytical method to assess quality and genuineness of commercial products.

  7. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of orange juice soluble solids in degrees Brix; for example, a 62° Brix concentrate in 1-gallon cans may be named on the label “canned concentrated orange juice, 62° Brix”. If the food does not...

  8. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange...

  9. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice obtained...

  10. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and label...

  11. The nomenclature of the Orang Utan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, C.P.; Holthuis, L.B.

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the nomenclature of the Orang Utan recently proposed by Röhrer-Ertl are shown to be unnecessary. The generic name Pongo Van Wurmb, 1784, for the genus, P.s. satyrus Linnaeus, 1758, for the Sumatran subspecies, and P.s. borneensis Van Wurmb, 1784, for the Bornean subspecies, as used by Röh

  12. The nomenclature of the Orang Utan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, C.P.; Holthuis, L.B.

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the nomenclature of the Orang Utan recently proposed by Röhrer-Ertl are shown to be unnecessary. The generic name Pongo Van Wurmb, 1784, for the genus, P.s. satyrus Linnaeus, 1758, for the Sumatran subspecies, and P.s. borneensis Van Wurmb, 1784, for the Bornean subspecies, as used by Röh

  13. Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to confirm that newly purchased commercial orange juice contains sufficient ascorbic acid to meet government standards, and to establish the rate of aerial oxidation of this ascorbic acid when the juice is stored in a refrigerator. (MLH)

  14. The nomenclature of the Orang Utan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, C.P.; Holthuis, L.B.

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the nomenclature of the Orang Utan recently proposed by Röhrer-Ertl are shown to be unnecessary. The generic name Pongo Van Wurmb, 1784, for the genus, P.s. satyrus Linnaeus, 1758, for the Sumatran subspecies, and P.s. borneensis Van Wurmb, 1784, for the Bornean subspecies, as used by

  15. 6-Hydroxypelargonidin glycosides in the orange-red flowers of Alstroemeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Saito, Norio; Murata, Naho; Shinoda, Koichi; Shigihara, Atsushi; Honda, Toshio

    2003-04-01

    Two 6-hydroxypelargonidin glycosides were isolated from the orange-red flowers of Alstroemeria cultivars, and determined to be 6-hydroxypelargonidin 3-O-(beta-D-glucopyranoside) and 3-O-[6-O-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside], respectively, by chemical and spectroscopic methods. In addition, five known anthocyanidin glycosides, 6-hydroxycyanidin 3-malonylglucoside, 6-hydroxycyanidin 3-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-malonylglucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside and pelargonidin 3-rutinoside were identified in the flowers.

  16. Photostability of natural orange-red and yellow fungal pigments in liquid food model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapari, Sameer A S; Meyer, Anne S; Thrane, Ulf

    2009-07-22

    The variation in the photostability among the currently authorized natural pigments limits their application span to a certain type of food system, and more robust alternatives are being sought after to overcome this problem. In the present study, the photostability of an orange-red and a yellow fungal pigment extract produced by ascomycetous fungi belonging to the genera Penicillium and Epicoccum , respectively, were studied in a soft drink model medium and in citrate buffer at low and neutral pH. The quantitative and qualitative color change pattern of the fungal pigment extracts indicated an enhanced photostability of fungal pigment extracts compared to the commercially available natural colorants Monascus Red and turmeric used as controls. Yellow components of the orange-red fungal pigment extract were more photostable than the red components. Chemistry of the photodegradation of the orange-red pigment extract was studied by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS), and a light-induced formation of a structural analogue of sequoiamonascin C, a Monascus -like polyketide pigment discovered in the extract of Penicillium aculeatum IBT 14263 on yeast extract sucrose (YES) medium, was confirmed in the soft drink medium at pH 7.

  17. STUDY ON BACTERIOSTASIS OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS FROM IMPATIENS BALSAMINA L.LEAVES ON BACTERIA%凤仙花叶不同提取物对细菌的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红梅; 黎秋华; 岑红焕

    2012-01-01

    IN order to observe the inhibition of different extracts from pink Impatiens bakamina L. leaves on three bacteria, bacteriostatic effects of extracts of 75% ethanol, 75% acetone and the aqueous extracts from pink Impatiens balsamina L. leaves on three bacteria of Escherwhia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis var. Niger were tested by gradient coating, and of colony and antibacterial ratio. Results showed; the antibacterial activity of Impatiens leaves water extract to Escherichiacoli and Staphylococcusau rehs was stronger than Bacillus subtilis var. Niger; and it showed that the higher the concentration of the extraction, the stronger the antimicrobial activity has. Effects of extracts of the aqueous extracts from pink Impatiens balsamina Leaves on three bacteria of Escherichia coli,Slaphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis var. Niger were 99. 92% ,99. 99% and 99. 98% respectively with concentration of 0. 2 g/mL, which is the strongest concentration. The minimal inhibition concentration MIC) of both 75% ethanol and 75% acetone extracts from pink Impatiens balsamina L. leaves on three bacteria was 0.05 g/mL. In conclusion, the antimicrobial activity of different concentration of the same extract from Impatiens balsamina L. leaves on the same bacteria was significantly different , and on three bacteria was almost same, antimicrobial activities of three kinds of Impatiens balsamina L. leaves extracts with different solvents were different; those of the extracts of 75% acetone and 75% ethanol were better than the aqueous extracts.%为研究粉红色凤仙花叶的三种不同提取物对大肠埃希氏杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、枯草杆菌黑色变种三种细菌的抑制作用,用水、75%乙醇和75%丙酮分别提取凤仙花鲜花叶,获得凤仙花叶的粗提物.采用平板稀释涂布法对粗提物对三种细菌的抑菌效果进行检测,记录观察菌落数,计算抑菌率.结果表明:凤仙花叶的水提取物对大肠埃希

  18. Does the invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera promote soil erosion from riparian zones? An investigation on a small watercourse in northwest Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2013-04-01

    Impatiens glandulifera (common English name: Himalayan Balsam) was introduced into Europe in the mid-19th century, whereupon its invasive tendency has facilitated its expansion throughout many mainland European countries. Its rate of expansion can be attributed to certain lifecycle traits that allow it to become rapidly established and crowd-out many native floral species. Its preferred habitat includes damp, nutrient-rich soils that experience frequent natural disturbance, such as along riparian zones. Once present, nearby watercourses then inadvertently act as conduits that facilitate the movement of seeds downstream into un-colonised parts of a catchment. Once established, individual plants form discrete and often mono-cultural stands of dense vegetation that can typically range in area from a few m-2 to > 150 m-2. Impatiens glandulifera is cold-intolerant however, and in temperate countries rapidly dies when exposed to the first frosts of the season. Once die-back occurs, it is hypothesised that a reduction in the protection afforded to the underlying soil by the vegetation canopy will promote the mobilisation of material from areas contaminated with I. glandulifera at a greater rate that areas supporting indigeneous vgetation, due to their increased exposure to erosion processes. An investigation was conducted to test this hypothesis in a contaminated sub-catchment of the Birs River in northwest Switzerland. A measurement technique consisting of erosion pins, an erosion bridge and a digital caliper was employed to quantify changes in the soil profile, as this approach represented the least invasive way of repeatedly measuring through vegetation without undue disturbance. An initial soil surface profile was established at five contaminated sites in late summer 2012 before die-back occurred, as well as at five nearby reference sites where I. glandulifera was absent. All soil surface profiles were re-measured at ca. 25-day intervals and the average net change was

  19. 华凤仙花部特征和传粉系统研究%Floral Traits and Pollination System of Impatiens chinensis (Balsaminaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖乐希; 刘克明

    2009-01-01

    The floral traits and pollination system of Impatiens chinensis were studied. Individual flowers bloom for 2. 3 days and the male phase was 6. 8 times as long as female phase. The nectar quantity and sugar concentration is 0. 56μL and 28. 2% , respectively. Stigma is receptive on the day of anthesis. Pollen viability is highest on the moment of corolla displaying (95% ) , thereafter decreases gradually and maintains a considerable level until the flower drops (55% ) . The results of P/O detection (5 730. 3 ±2941. 1) and bagging treatments suggest that I. chinensis is self-compatible with facultative xenogamy breeding system, its outcross-pollination require pollinators. I. chinensis is mainly visited by honey-bees, butterflies, bumble-bees and several species in ceratina (Apidae). Bombus trifasciatus is the dominant pollinator. The nectar robber Amegilla caldwelli may be the most important biological factor which influences the sexual reproduction of I. chinensis except for the legitimate visitors.%研究了华风仙(Impatiens chinensis L.)的花部特征和传粉系统,结果表明华凤仙单花期为2.3 d,雄性期是雌性期的6.8倍.花蜜量和花蜜可溶性糖含量分别为0.56μL和28.2%.开花当天柱头即具有可授性,花粉活力在花朵刚开放时最高(95%),至花朵凋谢之前仍保持较高的活力(55%).花粉胚珠比(5730.3±2 941.1)和套袋实验的结果表明华凤仙属于自交亲和但以异交为主的繁育系统,传粉过程需要传粉者.蜜蜂、熊蜂、蝶类和几种芦蜂是华凤仙的主要访花者,最有效的传粉者为三条熊蜂.考氏无垫蜂作为盗蜜者,可能是除正常访花者之外,对华凤仙的有性繁殖影响最大的生物因素.

  20. Application of Acid Whey in Orange Drink Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Jaworska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare qualitative changes in orange and orange beverages containing whey during 12 months of storage. The beverages contained 12 % extract, half of which was orange concentrate, the rest was sugar or sugar and whey extract. Acid whey was used in the production of beverages, added at a rate of 50 % of the used water. Orange beverages with whey contained more protein, ash, glucose, lactose and vitamin B2 than the orange beverages, but less sucrose, fructose and vitamin C, and also showed lower antioxidant activity against the DPPH radical. No significant differences between the two types of beverages were found in the polyphenolic content or activity against the ABTS cation radical. The type of beverage had a significant effect on the colour parameter values under the CIELAB system, although no significant differences were found between the beverages in the sensory evaluation of colour desirability. The overall sensory evaluation of orange beverages with whey was 2–10 % lower than of other orange beverages. The intensity of orange, sweet and refreshing taste was greater in orange beverages, while that of sour and whey taste was greater in orange beverages containing whey. There were significant decreases in sucrose, lactose, all indicators of antioxidant activity and sensory quality during storage. Levels of glucose and fructose rose with the storage period, while the intensity of sour, orange and refreshing taste decreased.

  1. Orange County Photovoltaic Project & Educational COmponent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Renee [Orange County Government, FL (United States)

    2016-02-12

    The purpose of this report is to discuss the projects implemented, utilizing Department of Energy grant funds, to support the use and understanding of renewable energy in Orange County, Florida and the Greater Orlando Area. Orange County is located in the State of Florida and is most popularly referred to as Orlando. The greater Orlando area’s current population is 1,225,267 and in 2015 was the first destination to surpass 60 million visitors. Orange County utilized grant funds to add to the growing demand for access to charging stations by installing one level 2 dual NovaCharge CT4021 electric vehicle charging station at the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center. The charging station is considered a “smart” charger connected to a central network operated by a third party. Data collected includes the number of charging sessions, session start and end times, the electricity usage, greenhouse gases saved and other pertinent data used for reporting purposes. Orange County continues to support the use of electric vehicles in Metro Orlando and this project continues to bring awareness to our public regarding using alternative vehicles. Additionally, we offer all visitors to the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center free charges for their electric vehicles 24 hours a day. Since the operation of the charging station there have been 52 unique driver users, a total of 532.2258 kg of greenhouse gas savings and 159.03 gallons of gasoline savings. The installation of the additional electric vehicle charging station is part of a county-wide goal of promoting implementation of renewable energy technologies as well as supporting the use of electric vehicles including the Drive Electric Orlando & Florida programs. http://driveelectricorlando.com/ & ; http://www.driveelectricflorida.org/ . Grant funds were also used for Outreach and Educational efforts. Educational efforts about renewable energy were accomplished through

  2. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ORANGE SEED DRYING KINETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Penteado Rosa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying of orange seeds representing waste products from juice processing was studied in the temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C and drying velocities of 0.6, 1.0 and 1.4 m/s. Experimental drying kinetics of orange seeds were obtained using a convective air forced dryer. Three thin-layer models: Page model, Lewis model, and the Henderson-Pabis model and the diffusive model were used to predict the drying curves. The Henderson-Pabis and the diffusive models show the best fitting performance and statistical evaluations. Moreover, the temperature dependence on the effective diffusivity followed an Arrhenius relationship, and the activation energies ranging from 16.174 to 16.842 kJ/mol

  3. Flora of the Orange Cliffs of Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shultz, L.M.; Neely, E.E.; Tuhy, J.S.

    1987-04-30

    The Orange Cliffs area, an area rich in oil sands deposits and defined here as part of the Colorado Plateau floristic province, harbors approximately 209 species in 123 genera and 49 families. Because of the potential of exploitation of the oil sands deposits in the area, a species checklist was made and a discussion of physical and floristic aspects of the region is given here. The flora is compared statistically to the San Rafael Swell flora, which is also a subset of the Colorado Plateau. They define six vegetation types and three edaphic communities; these are described and mapped. Of eleven endemic plant species in the Orange Cliffs, three are local and rare. Sites for Astragalus nidularius, A. moencoppensis, and Xylorhiza glabriuscula var. linearifolia are discussed and mapped. 24 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  4. Do abundance and proximity of the alien Impatiens glandulifera affect pollination and reproductive success of two sympatric co-flowering native species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Jacquemart

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In invasion ecology, potential impacts of aliens on native flora are still under debate. Our aim was to determine the pollinator mediated effects of both proximity and abundance of an alien species on the reproductive success of natives. We chose the highly invasive Impatiens glandulifera and two native species: Epilobium angustifolium and Aconitum napellus ssp. lusitanicum. These species share characteristics allowing for pollination interactions: similar biotopes, overlapping flowering periods and same main pollinators. The effects of abundance (5, 25 and 100 individuals and proximity (0 and 15 m of the alien on visitation rate, insect behaviour, pollen deposition and reproductive success of both natives were investigated during 2 flowering seasons. We used centred visitation rates as they can be directly interpreted as a positive or negative effect of the invasive.Both abundance and proximity of the alien increased bumblebee visitation rates to both natives. On the other hand, abundance of the exotic species had a slight negative effect on honeybee visits to natives while its proximity had no effect. The behaviour of bumblebees changed as visitors left significantly more often the native plants for I. glandulifera when its abundance increased. As a consequence of this “inconstancy”, bees deposited considerable quantities of alien pollen on native stigmas. Nevertheless, this interspecific pollen transfer did not decrease seed set in natives. Self-compatibility and high attractiveness of both native species probably alleviate the risk of altered pollinator services and reproductive success due to the invader in natural populations.

  5. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Ethanol Extract from the Stem and Leaf of Impatiens balsamina L. (Balsaminaceae at Different Harvest Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ok-Hwan Lee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the total phenolic content, total flavonoid contents, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract from stems (S and leaves (L of Impatiens balsamina L. (Balsaminaceae, which were harvested in Korea on March 10, 2011 (S1 and L1, May 14, 2011 (S2 and L2, and July 5, 2011 (S3 and L3, respectively. Our results revealed that the total phenolic (79.55–103.94 mg CE/g extract and flavonoid (57.43–104.28 mg QE/g extract contents of leaf extract were higher (p < 0.01 than those of stem extract. Leaf extracts (L1, L2, and L3 exhibited stronger (p < 0.01 free radical scavenging activity (66.06, 63.71, and 72.19%, respectively than that of the positive control. In terms of antimicrobial activity, leaf extracts showed higher inhibitory effects against microorganisms than those of stem extracts (S1, S2, and S3. Among the leaf extracts at different harvest times, L3 showed the greatest antimicrobial activity against both Gram negative and Gram positive strains. From these results, the leaf extract from I. balsamina L. might be a valuable bioactive resource, and would seem to be applicable as a natural antioxidant in food preservation.

  6. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethanol extract from the stem and leaf of Impatiens balsamina L. (Balsaminaceae) at different harvest times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suk-Nam; Goo, Young-Min; Yang, Mi-Ra; Ibrahim, Rashid Ismael Hag; Cho, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Il-Suk; Lee, Ok-Hwan

    2013-05-29

    The aim of this study was to investigate the total phenolic content, total flavonoid contents, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract from stems (S) and leaves (L) of Impatiens balsamina L. (Balsaminaceae), which were harvested in Korea on March 10, 2011 (S1 and L1), May 14, 2011 (S2 and L2), and July 5, 2011 (S3 and L3), respectively. Our results revealed that the total phenolic (79.55-103.94 mg CE/g extract) and flavonoid (57.43-104.28 mg QE/g extract) contents of leaf extract were higher (p extract. Leaf extracts (L1, L2, and L3) exhibited stronger (p activity (66.06, 63.71, and 72.19%, respectively) than that of the positive control. In terms of antimicrobial activity, leaf extracts showed higher inhibitory effects against microorganisms than those of stem extracts (S1, S2, and S3). Among the leaf extracts at different harvest times, L3 showed the greatest antimicrobial activity against both Gram negative and Gram positive strains. From these results, the leaf extract from I. balsamina L. might be a valuable bioactive resource, and would seem to be applicable as a natural antioxidant in food preservation.

  7. Call cultures in orang-utans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge A Wich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies suggested great ape cultures, arguing that human cumulative culture presumably evolved from such a foundation. These focused on conspicuous behaviours, and showed rich geographic variation, which could not be attributed to known ecological or genetic differences. Although geographic variation within call types (accents has previously been reported for orang-utans and other primate species, we examine geographic variation in the presence/absence of discrete call types (dialects. Because orang-utans have been shown to have geographic variation that is not completely explicable by genetic or ecological factors we hypothesized that this will be similar in the call domain and predict that discrete call type variation between populations will be found. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined long-term behavioural data from five orang-utan populations and collected fecal samples for genetic analyses. We show that there is geographic variation in the presence of discrete types of calls. In exactly the same behavioural context (nest building and infant retrieval, individuals in different wild populations customarily emit either qualitatively different calls or calls in some but not in others. By comparing patterns in call-type and genetic similarity, we suggest that the observed variation is not likely to be explained by genetic or ecological differences. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results are consistent with the potential presence of 'call cultures' and suggest that wild orang-utans possess the ability to invent arbitrary calls, which spread through social learning. These findings differ substantially from those that have been reported for primates before. First, the results reported here are on dialect and not on accent. Second, this study presents cases of production learning whereas most primate studies on vocal learning were cases of contextual learning. We conclude with speculating on how these findings might

  8. Postharvest response of oranges of ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aharoni, Y.; Lattar, F.S.; Monselise, S.P.

    1969-01-01

    Since the effect of ethylene on the respiration rate of young unripe oranges has not yet been described, experiments were carried out to study the respiratory response of such fruits to ethylene. Oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) of the Washington navel, Shamouti and Valencia varieties, growing on a sandy loam near Rehovot, Israel, were picked in June, July, September, December and January. Immediately after picking, they were weighed, placed in glass jars, and stored at 20/sup 0/. Each experiment comprised 12 jars, 4 for each variety. A constant stream (200 ml/min) of air containing 20 ppm of ethylene was run through the jars. The respiration rate was measured by the amount of CO/sub 2/ evolved by the fruits, and based on a fresh weight unit. The results show that in all 3 varieties, ethylene caused an immediate rise in respiration rate, at all stages of development tested, regardless of whether it was applied from the beginning of the test or after a certain period of storage in air. The pattern of response to ethylene of young unripe oranges (picked in June, July, and September) was therefore similar to that of ripe ones (picked in December and January).

  9. Unusual Orange-Colored Choroidal Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem Krema

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the clinical and paraclinical features of two patients with orangecolored choroidal metastases in whom the primary cancers have not previously been associated with such lesions. Case Report: Orange-colored choroidal lesions were detected on the fundus examination of one patient with metastatic small cell neuroendocrine tumor of the larynx and oropharynx, and in another subject with metastatic alveolar soft part sarcoma of the leg. Although ultrasonographic characteristics of the choroidal masses were comparable to those of choroidal hemangiomas, fluorescein angiography revealed delayed initial fluorescence along with minimal fluorescence in subsequent phases of the angiogram which were in clear distinction from the earlier appearing and progressively intense fluorescence observed with circumscribed choroidal hemangiomas. Conclusion: Small cell neuroendocrine tumors and alveolar soft part sarcomas should be considered among the differential diagnoses for orange-colored choroidal metastases. Identifying these choroidal lesions could facilitate localizing the occult primary tumor. Fluorescein angiography may differentiate a unifocal orange choroidal metastasis from a circumscribed choroidal hemangioma.

  10. 凤仙花属植物种皮微形态特征在系统分类中的应用%Seed Coat Micromorphology Characteristics of Impatiens L.and Its Systematic Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡秀珍; 易任远; 庄远红; 丛义艳; 旷仁平; 刘克明

    2013-01-01

    凤仙花属(Impatiens L.)植物花部形态变异极为复杂,分类十分困难,其种子微形态特征可为种间划分提供有价值的信息.利用扫描电镜对24种凤仙花属植物的种皮微形态特征进行了观察和比较.结果显示,种皮纹饰可归入网状型(含细网状亚型、粗网状亚型、负网状亚型、龙骨状亚型和条纹状亚型5种亚型)和隆起型(含指状隆起亚型、簇状隆起亚型和鳞片状隆起亚型3种亚型)两大类型;其网眼形状、网眼深度、网脊粗细、隆起物形状、衍生物密度等方面呈现出种间多样性,可用于类群的比较和鉴别.探讨了种皮微形态在凤仙花属内的系统分类学意义,推测了种皮纹饰的可能演化路线,认为网状结构为原始性状,其余纹饰结构为衍生性状,结合分子系统发育资料、花粉形态和叶表皮微形态特征可为属内一些种系统位置的确定提供参考依据.%The floral differences among Impatiens L.are so complicated that there are many difficulties in taxonomy of the genus.Seed coat micromorphology characteristics play an important role in providing critical information on systematics.In the present study,the seed coat micromorphology of 24 species of Impatiens from China were observed and compared by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).The results showed that seed coat ornamentation in this research could be ascribed into 2 types as reticulate (including fine reticulate,thick reticulate,areolate,carinate and striate subtype)and protrusive (including digitiform,clustered and squamalate subtype),in which thick reticulate subtype was described for the first time.And the variety appeared among the species such as the shape and depth of lumina,width of muri,shape of protrusions,and density of derivatives and so on,could be used to identify the species in Impatiens.The systematic and phylogenetic implications of seed coat micromorphology in Impatiens were discussed.And the possible

  11. Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haypek E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice. The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the calculation of the activity coefficients.

  12. Managed Bumble Bees (Bombus impatiens) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Caged With Blueberry Bushes at High Density Did Not Increase Fruit Set or Fruit Weight Compared to Open Pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J W; O'Brien, J; Irvin, J H; Kimmel, C B; Daniels, J C; Ellis, J D

    2017-04-01

    Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is an important crop grown throughout Florida. Currently, most blueberry growers use honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to provide pollination services for highbush blueberries even though bumble bees (Bombus spp.) have been shown to be more efficient at pollinating blueberries on a per bee basis. In general, contribution of bumble bees to the pollination of commercial highbush blueberries in Florida is unknown. Herein, we determined if managed bumble bees could contribute to highbush blueberry pollination. There were four treatments in this study: two treatments of caged commercial bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson) colonies (low and high weight hives), a treatment excluding all pollinators, and a final treatment which allowed all pollinators (managed and wild pollinators) in the area have access to the plot. All treatments were located within a highbush blueberry field containing two cultivars of blooming plants, 'Emerald' and 'Millennia', with each cage containing 16 mature blueberry plants. We gathered data on fruit set, berry weight, and number of seeds produced per berry. When pollinators were excluded, fruit set was significantly lower in both cultivars (58%). Berry weight was not significantly different among the treatments, and the number of seeds per berry did not show a clear response. This study emphasizes the importance of bumble bees as an effective pollinator of blueberries and the potential beneficial implications of the addition of bumble bees in commercial blueberry greenhouses or high tunnels. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. PROGRAM PENGHITUNG JUMLAH ORANG LEWAT MENGGUNAKAN WEBCAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudianto Lande

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount of public places's visitor data is very important. Usually we get it manually. AT the moment, video camera has been used for security. Therefor, the people counter software has been made using Normalized Sum-squared difference (NSSD method that take differences the sum of frame fixel and background, squared it then normalized by detection window area. The NSSD values that have been count then thresholded to detect the people occurance in detection window. This project is made using Borland Delphi 5.0 with Tvideo component. Corect people counting percentation of more than 90% was obtained. The succesness of this program depends on the right thresholding values. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Data jumlah pengunjung suatu tempat umum sangat penting. Data jumlah pengunjung biasanya didapat secara manual. Saat ini kamera video telah diterapkan untuk kepentingan keamanan. Karena itu dibuatlah program penghitung jumlah pengunjung dengan metode Normalized Sum-Squared Differences (NSSD yang mengambil selisih jumlah pixel frame dan background dan dikuadratkan, dinormalisasi dengan luasan detection window. Nilai NSSD yang didapat diseleksi dengan proses thresholding untuk mendeteksi keberadaan orang pada detection window. Penelitian ini dibuat dengan menggunakan Borland Delphi 5.0, dengan tambahan komponen TVideo. Program ini secara keseluruhan menunjukkan keberhasilan lebih dari 90%. Keberhasilan dari program ini sangat dipengaruhi oleh penentuan nilai threshold yang tepat. Kata kunci: penghitungan orang, sensor kamera, NSSD, Image processing.

  14. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... any safe and suitable preservatives or combinations thereof. (c) The name of the food is “Orange juice with preservative”. (d) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food shall be...

  15. Comparative and demographic analysis of orang-utan genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locke, Devin P.; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Warren, Wesley C.

    2011-01-01

    Orang-utan’ is derived from a Malay term meaning ‘man of the forest’ and aptly describes the southeast Asian great apes native to Sumatra and Borneo. The orang-utan species, Pongo abelii (Sumatran) and Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean), are the most phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereb...

  16. The mechanism of cloud loss phenomena in orange juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krop, J.J.P.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of many factors for the cloud stability of orange juice was investigated. By the determination of methanol, cloud loss of orange juice could be ascribed directly to the action of pectin esterase. However, clarification only occurs if calcium ions are available to precipitate the low m

  17. Ultrastructural changes in sweet orange with symptoms of huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus greening (Huanglongbing [HLB]) is one of the most destructive citrus diseases worldwide. To better understand the ultrastructural changes of sweet orange seedlings in response to infection, anatomical analyses of HLB-infected sweet orange were carried out by light and electron microscopy. A...

  18. The mechanism of cloud loss phenomena in orange juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krop, J.J.P.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of many factors for the cloud stability of orange juice was investigated. By the determination of methanol, cloud loss of orange juice could be ascribed directly to the action of pectin esterase. However, clarification only occurs if calcium ions are available to precipitate the low

  19. 75 FR 55968 - Special Local Regulations, Sabine River; Orange, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations, Sabine River; Orange, TX... temporary Special Local Regulation in the Port Arthur Captain of the Port Zone on the Sabine River, Orange, Texas. This Special Local Regulation is intended to restrict vessels from portions of the Sabine...

  20. The draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ling-Ling; Ruan, Xiaoan; Chen, Dijun; Zhu, Andan; Chen, Chunli; Bertrand, Denis; Jiao, Wen-Biao; Hao, Bao-Hai; Lyon, Matthew P; Chen, Jiongjiong; Gao, Song; Xing, Feng; Lan, Hong; Chang, Ji-Wei; Ge, Xianhong; Lei, Yang; Hu, Qun; Miao, Yin; Wang, Lun; Xiao, Shixin; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Zeng, Wenfang; Guo, Fei; Cao, Hongbo; Yang, Xiaoming; Xu, Xi-Wen; Cheng, Yun-Jiang; Xu, Juan; Liu, Ji-Hong; Luo, Oscar Junhong; Tang, Zhonghui; Guo, Wen-Wu; Kuang, Hanhui; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Roose, Mikeal L; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Ruan, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Oranges are an important nutritional source for human health and have immense economic value. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). The assembled sequence covers 87.3% of the estimated orange genome, which is relatively compact, as 20% is composed of repetitive elements. We predicted 29,445 protein-coding genes, half of which are in the heterozygous state. With additional sequencing of two more citrus species and comparative analyses of seven citrus genomes, we present evidence to suggest that sweet orange originated from a backcross hybrid between pummelo and mandarin. Focused analysis on genes involved in vitamin C metabolism showed that GalUR, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme of the galacturonate pathway, is significantly upregulated in orange fruit, and the recent expansion of this gene family may provide a genomic basis. This draft genome represents a valuable resource for understanding and improving many important citrus traits in the future.

  1. Advancing the Orang Asli through Malaysia's Clusters of Excellence Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Asri Mohd Noor

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Since gaining independence in 1957, the government of Malaysia has introduced various programmes to improve the quality of life of the Orang Asli (aboriginal people. The Ministry of Education, for example, is committed in providing education for all including the children of Orang Asli. However, whilst the number of Orang Asli children enrolled in primary and secondary schools has increased significantly over the last decade, the dropout rate among them is still high. This has been attributed to factors such as culture, school location, poverty, pedagogy and many more. The discussion in this article is drawn upon findings from fieldwork study at an Orang Asli village in Johor, Malaysia. This article discusses efforts in raising educational attainment of the Orang Asli through the implementation of the Clusters of Excellence Policy. In so doing it highlights the achievement of the policy and issues surrounding its implementation at the site.

  2. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2012 Digital Orthophotos - Orange County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This metadata describes the digital orthoimagery covering Orange County, FL. This orthoimagery was collected under contract to the Orange County Property Appraiser...

  3. Volatile and nonvolatile flavor chemical evaluation of USDA orange-mandarin hybrids for comparison to sweet orange and mandarin fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three citrus hybrids, containing 50-75% sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) genome in their pedigrees and similar to sweet orange in fruit size, color and taste, were tested for their potential to be classified as new “sweet orange” cultivars. 'Hamlin', ‘Midsweet’, and three other early to mid-season swe...

  4. The Orang Suku Laut of Riau, Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chou, Cynthia Gek Hua

    Land reform has been an indisputable part of Indonesian revolution. The consequent execution of development programmes for nation-building have provoked intense hostility over territorial rights. Global market forces in Indonesia have seen increasing flows of transnational investments, technology...... and resources that have resulted in great demand on sea and land spaces. In this momentum of change, several aspects of rural culture including indigenous populations, like the Orang Suku Laut (people of the sea) of Riau have been deemed by the state architects of development programmes to hinder progress...... the social assimilation of indigenous peoples as citizens, religious conversion and cultural identity. Cynthia Chou discusses how Indonesian nation-building development programmes have generated intense struggles over issues pertaining to territorial rights, social assimilation of indigenous peoples...

  5. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea.

  6. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Marcio dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in order to make possible selection of all interveners involved in the chain. The study using the Social Network Analysis (SNA showed that the densest relationships in the network are from exporters to importers and from orange growers to the orange processing industry. No difference was found in the values of the network geodesic distance or the clustering coefficients from 2005 to 2009. The degree of centrality increased steadily throughout the years indicating that the processing industry attempts to minimize the risks by centralizing the actions. A decrease in export of orange juice from 2007 (2.07 10(6 t to 2008 (2.05 10(6 t was found, probably due to the world's financial crisis with recovery in 2009. Since 2004, there has been an increase of nearly 10% per year in the market preference of concentrate juice (OFCJ when compared to the "not from concentrated" juice (NFC. Nowadays the NFC market represents nearly 50% of all Brazilian export which impacted in the logistic distribution and transportation issues.

  7. The annual invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan Balsam) as a trigger for high-magnitude soil erosion in temperate river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2015-04-01

    The invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (common English name: Himalayan Balsam), is now found in most temperate European countries, as well as across large parts of North America and on some Australasian islands. As a ruderal species, it favours damp, fertile soils that experience frequent disturbance. Riverbanks and the riparian zone thus represent prime habitat. Its ability to out-compete most perennial vegetation yet tendency to suddenly die during seasonally cold weather has led to claims that it may promote soil erosion, particularly along inland watercourses. Despite the strong implication, this was only recently proven during an investigation conducted over one dieback and regrowth cycle in 2012/13 along a watercourse in northwest Switzerland. Here we reinterpret those initial findings and also present additional data from the same watercourse which now covers three die-off and regrowth cycles, as well as data over two die-off and regrowth cycles from a river system in southwest UK. Results from all monitoring campaigns strongly support the original conclusion that I. glandulifera promotes significant soil erosion along contaminated sections of riverbank and riparian zone. More specifically, however, approximately one third of the total number of contaminated locations monitored (n=41) recorded net ground surface retreat that exceeded, by at least one order of magnitude, equivalent annual erosion rates documented on cultivated hillslopes in temperate regions. Not only does I. glandulifera induce repeat cycles of colonization and die-off, therefore, but collectively, the results generated so far strongly infer that under certain circumstances, this cycle of events can commonly trigger severe or even extreme erosion. Seasonally induced soil loss of this magnitude, particularly along short sections of watercourses, is unsustainable in the long-term and may lead to key fluvial features undergoing profound morphological and structural changes. Such an effect

  8. Bacteriostasis of Different Extracts from Impatiens Balsamina L.Stem on Bacteria%凤仙花茎不同提取物对细菌的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红梅; 张耀辉; 陈小兰

    2012-01-01

    To observe the inhibition of different extracts from pink Impatiens balsamina L. Stem on three bacteria,Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis var. Niger, bacte-riostatic effects of extracts of 75% ethanol,75% acetone nd the aqueous extracts from pink Impatiens balsamina L. Stem on three bacteria were tested by gradient dilution coating,and the number of colony and antibacterial ratio were investigated. The results showed the antibacterial activity of the three different extracts from Impatiens balsamina stem to Bacillus subtilis var. Niger and Staphylococcus aurehs was stronger than Escherichia coli, with the higher concentration of the extraction and the higher antimicrobial activity. Effects of extracts of the aqueous extracts from pink Impatiens balsamina stem on three bacteria of Escherichia coli ,Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis var. Niger were 99. 95%, 99. 99% and 99. 98% , respectively, with concentration of 0. 2 g/mL; those of 75% acetone extracts were 99. 94% ,100% and 99. 99% ,respectively. The minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) of 75% acetone extracts from pink Impatiens balsamina L. Stem on three bacteria were 0. 05 g/mL. In conclusion,the antimicrobial activity of different concentration of the same extract from Impatiens balsamina L. Stem on the same bacteria was significantly different,and showed almost same effects on three bacteria. Antimicrobial activi-ties of three kinds of Impatiens balsamina L. Stem extracts with different solvents were; the 75% acetone extracts >the 75% ethanol extracts >the aqueous extracts.%为研究粉红色凤仙花茎的3种不同提取物对大肠埃希氏杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、枯草杆菌黑色变种3种细菌的抑制作用,用水、75%乙醇和75%丙酮分别提取凤仙花鲜花茎,获得凤仙花茎的粗提物.采用平板稀释涂布法检测粗提物对大肠埃希氏杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、枯草杆菌黑色变种3种细菌的抑菌效果,记录观

  9. Orange County Government Solar Demonstration and Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Renee [Orange County Florida, Orlando, Florida (United States); Cunniff, Lori [Orange County Florida, Orlando, Florida (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Orange County Florida completed the construction of a 20 kilowatt Solar Demonstration and Research Facility in March 2015. The system was constructed at the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center whose electric service address is 6021 South Conway Road, Orlando, Florida 32802. The Solar Demonstration and Research Facility is comprised of 72 polycrystalline photovoltaic modules and 3 inverters which convert direct current from the solar panels to alternating current electricity. Each module produces 270 watts of direct current power, for a total canopy production of just under 20,000 watts. The solar modules were installed with a fixed tilt of 5 degrees and face south, toward the equator to maximize the amount of sunlight captures. Each year, the electricity generated by the solar array will help eliminate 20 metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions as well as provide covered parking for staff and visitors vehicles. The solar array is expected to generate 27,000 kilowatt hours of electricity annually equating to an estimated $266 savings in the monthly electric bill, or $3,180 annually for the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center. In addition to reducing the electric bill for the Extension Center, Orange County’s solar array also takes advantage of a rebate incentive offered by the local utility, Orlando Utility Commission, which provided a meter that measures the amount of power produced by the solar array. The local utility company’s Solar Photovoltaic Production Incentive will pay Orange County $0.05 per kilowatt hour for the power that is produced by the solar array. This incentive is provided in addition to Net Metering benefits, which is an effort to promote the use of clean, renewable energy on the electric grid. The Photovoltaic Solar Demonstration and Research Facility also serves an educational tool to the public; the solar array is tied directly into a data logger that provides real time power

  10. Orange County Government Solar Demonstration and Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Renee [Orange County Florida, Orlando, Florida (United States); Cunniff, Lori [Orange County Florida, Orlando, Florida (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Orange County Florida completed the construction of a 20 kilowatt Solar Demonstration and Research Facility in March 2015. The system was constructed at the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center whose electric service address is 6021 South Conway Road, Orlando, Florida 32802. The Solar Demonstration and Research Facility is comprised of 72 polycrystalline photovoltaic modules and 3 inverters which convert direct current from the solar panels to alternating current electricity. Each module produces 270 watts of direct current power, for a total canopy production of just under 20,000 watts. The solar modules were installed with a fixed tilt of 5 degrees and face south, toward the equator to maximize the amount of sunlight captures. Each year, the electricity generated by the solar array will help eliminate 20 metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions as well as provide covered parking for staff and visitors vehicles. The solar array is expected to generate 27,000 kilowatt hours of electricity annually equating to an estimated $266 savings in the monthly electric bill, or $3,180 annually for the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center. In addition to reducing the electric bill for the Extension Center, Orange County’s solar array also takes advantage of a rebate incentive offered by the local utility, Orlando Utility Commission, which provided a meter that measures the amount of power produced by the solar array. The local utility company’s Solar Photovoltaic Production Incentive will pay Orange County $0.05 per kilowatt hour for the power that is produced by the solar array. This incentive is provided in addition to Net Metering benefits, which is an effort to promote the use of clean, renewable energy on the electric grid. The Photovoltaic Solar Demonstration and Research Facility also serves an educational tool to the public; the solar array is tied directly into a data logger that provides real time power

  11. Instantaneous network RTK in Orange County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Y.

    2003-04-01

    The Orange County Real Time GPS Network (OCRTN) is an upgrade of a sub-network of SCIGN sites in southern California to low latency (1-2 sec), high-rate (1 Hz) data streaming, analysis, and dissemination. The project is a collaborative effort of the California Spatial Reference Center (CSRC) and the Orange County Public Resource and Facilities Division, with partners from the geophysical community, local and state government, and the private sector. Currently, ten sites are streaming 1 Hz raw data (Ashtech binary MBEN format) by means of dedicated, point-to-point radio modems to a network hub that translates the asynchronous serial data to TCP/IP and onto a PC workstation residing on a local area network. Software residing on the PC allows multiple clients to access the raw data simultaneously though TCP/IP. One of the clients is a Geodetics RTD server that receives and archives (1) the raw 1 Hz network data, (2) estimates of instantaneous positions and zenith tropospheric delays for quality control and detection of ground motion, and (3) RINEX data to decimated to 30 seconds. Data recovery is typically 99-100%. The server also produces 1 Hz RTCM data (messages 18, 19, 3 and 22) that are available by means of TCP/IP to RTK clients with wireless Internet modems. Coverage is excellent throughout the county. The server supports standard RTK users and is compatible with existing GPS instrumentation. Typical latency is 1-2 s, with initialization times of several seconds to minutes OCRTN site spacing is 10-15 km. In addition, the server supports “smart clients” who can retrieve data from the closest n sites (typically 3) and obtain an instantaneous network RTK position with 1-2 s latency. This mode currently requires a PDA running the RTD client software, and a wireless card. Since there is no initialization and re-initialization required this approach is well suited to support high-precision (centimeter-level) dynamic applications such as intelligent transportation

  12. Chronic B-Cell Leukemias and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Chronic B-cell Leukemias and Agent Orange Veterans who ... receive VA health care and disability compensation. About chronic B-cell leukemias Leukemia is a cancer of ...

  13. Dystonia not dystopia: effects of the legal high, 'Clockwork Orange'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Helen Elizabeth; Hawksley, Oliver

    2015-12-10

    A 27-year-old man presented to hospital after smoking a legal high named 'Clockwork Orange'. He suffered dystonia, acute kidney injury, rhabdomyolysis, lactic acidosis and a troponin rise. He was treated with procyclidine and intravenous fluids.

  14. Relative abundance of sweetpotato whitefly in orange-fleshed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Relative abundance of sweetpotato whitefly in orange-fleshed sweetpotato cultivars .... 8, 9 and 10. Table 1. Ecological factors and study condition of location (Umudike) in Nigeria (2010 and ..... approaches to Human Nutritional. Deficiencies.

  15. Integrasi Diri Sebagai Konsep Sehat Mental Orang Melayu Riau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nasilah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Kesehatan mental merupakan hal yang sangat kompleks. Banyak faktor yang berperan dalam pembentukan kesehatan mental, seperti faktor sosial budaya dan agama. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui konsep kesehatan mental menurut Orang Melayu Riau. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif fenomenologi. Informan penelitian sebanyak delapan (8 orang yaitu tiga orang tokoh Melayu Riau, dan lima mahasiswa bersuku Melayu Riau. Data diperoleh dengan wawancara dan Focused Group Disscussion (FGD. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kesehatan mental menurut Orang Melayu Riau adalah suatu kondisi yang menunjukkan adanya harmonisasi dan tercapainya kesejahteraan dalam kehidupan secara badaniah dan batiniah. Pencapaian kesehatan mental dilakukan dengan upaya meningkatkan pengendalian diri, kesadaran diri, dan penanaman nilai-nilai agama dalam hidup sehari-hari. Nilai-nilai agama, pendidikan, budaya, lingkungan dan media informasi memberikan bimbingan, memberikan pemecahan masalah, menentramkan batin, sehingga mendorong tercapainya keselarasan antara diri dan Tuhan sebagai bentuk integrasi diri. Kata Kunci : kesehatan mental,melayu riau, integrasi diri

  16. Approved Drug Products with Therapuetic Equivalence Evaluations (Orange Book)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The publication Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations (the List, commonly known as the Orange Book) identifies drug products approved on...

  17. Final critical habitat for Orange-nacre Mucket (Lampsilis perovalis)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Polygon shapefile of critical habitat for the Orange-nacre Mucket (Lampsilis perovalis) based on the description provided in the Federal Register.

  18. Canary Island Date Palm - Orange Co. [ds349

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June,...

  19. The orange roughy Hoplostethus atlanticus is an un- usual fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    stand several cycles of freezing and thawing (Merrett and Haedrich 1997); ... Deep-water habitat may be damaged by trawling operations and may take many years to recover, so ... tool for managing orange roughy fisheries, both old and new.

  20. Approved Drug Products with Therapuetic Equivalence Evaluations (Orange Book)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The publication Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations (the List, commonly known as the Orange Book) identifies drug products approved on...

  1. Orange emission in Pr3+-doped fluoroindate glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Manzani, Danilo; Ribeiro, Sidney J L; Goldner, Philippe; Bretenaker, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    We synthesize and study the properties of praseodymium doped fluoroindate glasses. Glass compositions with praseodymium molar concentrations up to 5% were obtained with good optical quality. Thermal, optical, and luminescence properties are investigated. Judd-Ofelt analysis is used to determine radiative lifetime and emission cross-section of the orange transition originating from the 3P0 level. We find that these glasses are good candidates for the realization of blue diode laser pumped orange lasers for quantum information processing applications.

  2. Studi Komunikasi Antarpribadi Anak Dengan Orang Tua Tiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaterine Setiawan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the communication between the child and the stepparent and use the theory that consists of communication theory, communication function, the purpose of communication, interpersonal communication, effective interpersonal communication, interpersonal communication role and function of interpersonal communication. This study used a qualitative method with descriptive qualitative approach. The data used in this study consisted of primary data and secondary data. The primary data of the interviews with sources consisting of four children and one stepparent. While the secondary data obtained from other sources such as books and online data searches. The technique of collecting data using interviews, observation, literature review and data searches online. From this research it is known that children who learn about and understand the prospective stepparent before she married biological parents do relatively better than those who do not recognize his step prospective parents before marriage. It is also known that the interpersonal communication of children with stepparents dependent based on the character of the child and the stepparent respectively. Penelitian ini membahas tentang komunikasi antara anak dengan orang tua tiri dan menggunakan teori yang terdiri dari teori komunikasi, fungsi komunikasi, tujuan komunikasi, komunikasi antarpribadi, komunikasi antarpribadi yang efektif, peranan komunikasi antarpribadi dan fungsi komunikasi antarpribadi. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif dengan pendekatan deskriptif kualitatif. Data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini terdiri dari data primer dan data sekunder. Data primer berupa hasil wawancara dengan narasumber yang terdiri dari empat orang anak dan satu orang tua tiri. Sedangkan data sekunder berupa data yang diperoleh dari buku dan sumber lain seperti penelusuran data online. Teknik pengumpulan data dengan menggunakan wawancara, observasi, kajian pustaka dan penelusuran

  3. Physicochemical Characteristics of Orange Juice Samples From Seven Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Some physicochemical parameters of orange juice from seven orange varieties (Pineapple orange, Hamlin, Trovita, Jincheng,1232 Tangor, Olinda Valencia, and Delta Valencia) were analyzed, special attention was paid to the level of sugars, organic acids, free amino acids, mineral composition, and color parameters. The results showed that total soluble solids (TSS),TSS/titratable acidity (TA) ratios, sugars, and organic acids were kept within a proper range for juice processing except that Jincheng had lower TSS than the others. Sucrose was the most dominant sugar in the orange cultivars, followed by fructose and glucose, while citric acid was the principal organic acid. Serine and proline were the principal amino acids.Potassium was the most abundant mineral in all of the juice samples, followed by magnesium and calcium. The sodium content of most varieties was under 10 mg kg-1. Though all of the samples had orange colour, Olinda Valencia and Delta Valencia had deeper red colour than the others. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between the samples in most of the characteristics. The results provided important information on the physicochemical characteristics of the varieties and on how to make the best use of orange cultivars for different purposes, which is of significance for both technological research and processing practice.

  4. FAKTOR PENDORONG DAN PENARIK ORANG BALI BERWISATA KE LUAR NEGERI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Ana Pradnya Dewi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Berwisata saat ini sudah menjadi gaya hidup bagi masyarakat, tak terkecuali orang Bali. Beberapa tahun terakhir tercatat banyak orang Bali yang berlibur, bahkan hingga ke luar negeri. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui profil demografis orang Bali dan negara yang dikunjungi, faktor pendorong dan penarik, menganalisis tingkat motivasi dan perbedaan motivasi orang Bali yang pertama kali dan yang sering berwisata ke luar negeri. Teori Motivasi dan Teori Hirarki Kebutuhan Maslow digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Pengumpulan data menggunakan metode wawancara dan kuesioner dengan teknik Quota Sampling. Teknik analisis data dilakukan dengan analisis deskriptif kualitatif dan analisis statistik Diskriminan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa motivasi orang Bali sangat beragam, responden dapat memiliki motivasi lebih dari satu. Faktor pendorong yang paling dominan adalah educational opportunity disamping motif lain seperti relaxation dan play, sedangkan faktor penarik yang dominan adalah cultural factors, diikuti oleh natural environment dan recreation and attraction services. Ditemukan pula adanya perbedaan motivasi di antara orang Bali yang pertama kali dan yang sering melakukan perjalanan wisata ke luar negeri.

  5. Advances at the research on chemical constituents and biological activities of Impatiens balsamina L.%凤仙花的化学成分和生物活性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏卜利; 曾荣; 黄长干; 陈金印

    2012-01-01

    随着化学防腐剂各种问题的凸显以及人们对食品加工的需求越来越向“绿色”和“天然”等理念转变,食品防腐剂的天然化已经成为防腐技术的一大趋势,很多天然植物含有抗茵和抗氧化成分,这为天然防腐剂的筛选提供了丰富的原材料。风仙花是我国民间一直用于治疗风湿病、腰腿疼痛和指甲炎等疾病的一种观赏、入药两相宜的草本植物,含有多种功能性物质,具有显著的抗菌、抗氧化活性,该文对凤仙花化学成分和生物活性研究成果进行综述。%As various problems of chemical preservatives coming in and the demand for food processing being change into the mind of "green" and "nature", natural food antiseptic has became a major trend in anticorrosion technology.Many nature plants have the antibacterial and antioxidant activities ,this provides more abundant of raw materials for natural antiseptic.The entirety of Impatiens balsamina L.has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat rheumatism, isthmus and crural aches, fractures, superficial infections, fingernail inflammation, etc. lt contains numerous functional materials and has significant antibacterial and antioxidant activities. The research progress in chemical constituents and biological activities of Impatiens balsamina L. had been summarized.

  6. Low temperature solution process-based defect-induced orange-red light emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Pranab; Baek, Sung-Doo; Hoon Lee, Sang; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Jeong Lee, Su; Il Lee, Tae; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2015-01-01

    We report low-temperature solution-processed p-CuO nanorods (NRs)/n-ZnO NRs heterojunction light emitting diode (LED), exploiting the native point defects of ZnO NRs. ZnO NRs were synthesized at 90 °C by using hydrothermal method while CuO NRs were synthesized at 100 °C by using microwave reaction system. The electrical properties of newly synthesized CuO NRs revealed a promising p-type nature with a hole concentration of 9.64 × 1018 cm−3. The current-voltage characteristic of the heterojunction showed a significantly high rectification ratio of 105 at 4 V with a stable current flow. A broad orange-red emission was obtained from the forward biased LED with a major peak at 610 nm which was attributed to the electron transition from interstitial zinc to interstitial oxygen point defects in ZnO. A minor shoulder peak was also observed at 710 nm, corresponding to red emission which was ascribed to the transition from conduction band of ZnO to oxygen vacancies in ZnO lattice. This study demonstrates a significant progress toward oxide materials based, defect-induced light emitting device with low-cost, low-temperature methods. PMID:26648420

  7. Characterization of Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Compositions of Somatic Hybrid Plants Between Sweet Orange and Sour Orange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUJi-Hong; XUXiao-Yong; DENGXiu-Xin

    2004-01-01

    Abstract In the present research, flow cytometry (FCM), simple sequence repeat (SSR) and cleavedamplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) were employed to analyze somatic hybrid plants derived from electrofusion between embryogenic protoplasts of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Shamouti) and leaf-derived protoplasts of sour orange (C. aurantium L). FCM showed that all of the somatic hybrid plants had two-fold fluorescence intensity values of the diploid control, indicating that they were tetraploids. SSR and CAPS were used to characterize the compositions of nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes of the somatic hybnd plants. As for SSR four primer pairs were tried and two showed polymorphisms between the fusion parents. With both pnmer pairs the somatic hybrid plants encompassed DNA bands from both parents, indicating that they were heterokaryonic hybrids. Amplification with some universal primers, followed by digestion with restriction endonucleases, could distinguish the fusion parents from each other. As far as mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA compositions were concerned the somatic hybrid plants shared the same banding patterns as the embryogenic parents for all of the polymorphic primer/enzyme combinations. The results herein demonstrated that the somatic hybrid plants inherited their nuclear genome from both fusion parents, whereas the cytoplasmic genomes were possibly only contributed by the embryogenic parent. Merits of the analytical methods and nuclear and cytoplasmic inheritance of citrus tetraploid somatic hybrids, together with their application, are discussed herein.

  8. Kehidupan Wayang Orang Sriwedari dalam Perspektif Determinasi Penari Rol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hersapandi Hersapandi

    2013-11-01

    Sriwedari Wayang Orang Performance. The term “rol” dancer or star dancer refers to the main dancer who becomes the star in wayang orang. It has an excellent qualifi cation in performing his/her role, an excellent mastery of knowledge and skills, and capability of developing the characters of the role that s/he performs. His/her superior competitive skills certainly become an icon for absorbing the audiens’ attention. Since the icon role lies on the audience, a star dancer needs to have such skills to motivate the life of the wayang orang group. As an agent, his/her acting skills have refl ected a totality of the actor’s artistry in his/her private life, i.e. to keep professional dancer’s quality stronger as a whole.The agent has as individudal and inttelectual integrity as a professional actor. The actor often seems to protect his charisma. S/he always tries to perform as many times as possible, so s/he does not need other new dancers to replace him/her. The reason is that the new dancers are considered as competitors who may replace his/her position and certainly his/her economic potentials as well. The spirit of wayang orang performance is the star dancer’s artistic quality expressing the symbols and artistic values needed by the audience. Key words: wayang orang, art management, star dancer.

  9. A Study of Regional Brand Positioning Strategy for Linhai Orange Based on Soft Laddering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying; TAO; Yueli; ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,Means-End Chain Theory is used for the positioning strategy study on regional brand of Linhai Orange,and based on soft laddering method,33 Linhai Orange consumers are interviewed. By understanding the individual needs of Linhai Orange consumers,this paper establishes the " Attributes-Consequences-Value" matrix and hierarchical value map. This study aims to explore the regional brand positioning strategy of Linhai Orange,in order to promote the regional brand building and extension of Linhai Orange and enhance the sustained regional brand development of Linhai Orange.

  10. PRof ILE of ORANGE CONSUMPTION AND CONSUMER ATTITUDES TO MINIMALLY PROCESSED ‘PERA’ ORANGE IN MUNICIPALITIES of THE STATE of SÃO PAULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília de Arruda PALHARINI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the prof ile of orange consumption and consumer attitude to minimally processed orange. Seven hundred and seventeen questionnaires were applied in commercial establishments in three municipalities in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Main results of this research are: orange is a highly appreciated fruit, being consumed in natura and also as its natural juice, moreover orange is purchased weekly at hypermarkets, the purchase intent for minimally processed orange was low and the likely consumers’ willingness of paying for that product would be near 200% over the ‘in natura’ fruit. Considering the high consume of ‘in natura’ orange and the increasing need for convenience and practicality, it is possible to affirm that there is a potential for commercializing minimally processed orange.

  11. Clinical results with acridine orange using a novel confocal laparoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanbakuchi, Anthony A.; Rouse, Andrew R.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2009-02-01

    We previously reported on the development of a multi-spectral confocal laparoscope for clinical imaging. In this paper we present current results using the system to image ovaries with a new laparoscope design using the contrast agent acridine orange. This new laparoscope integrates computer controlled systems for focus, depth scans, and localized contrast agent delivery. Precise axial position control is accomplished with tiny stepper motors integrated inside the laparoscope handle. Ergonomic handle controls allow for data acquisition, deliver of contrast agents, and adjustment of imaging depth during procedures by the surgeon. We have approval to use acridine orange in our clinical trials to image ovaries in vivo during oophorectomies. We present in vivo results using both acridine orange and fluorescein as the topically administered contrast agent.

  12. Semangat Islam Dalam Kebudayaan Orang Bugis-Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Hamid

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Pembahasan masalah semangat dan etos sosial tidak terlepas dari jangkauan sistem budaya masyarakat. Sistem budaya adalah abstrak, tak dapat dilihat dan diraba, ia identik pada komunitas, berada di kepala dan sukma tiap orang dalam komunitas tersebut, terdiri atas konsep-konsep, gagasan ide-ide dan kepercayaan yang diterima setiap orang dari hasil perkembangan kebudayaannya. Sadar atau tidak sadar, manusia terpengaruh dan menerima berbagai warisan, ajaran, kepercayaan dan ideologi tertentu dan hasil kerja komunitasnya melalui internalisasi sejak ia lahir dari dalam rumah tangga serta pengeruh dari lingkungan hidupnya tempat manusia tersebut bertumbuh. Kalau tradisi budaya masyarakat telah diserapi oleh setiap orang, maka perilakunya hampir menjadi otomatis, tanpa disadari perilakunya itu sudah diterima secara sosial.

  13. Effect of diet orange soda on urinary lithogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumorok, Nicola T; Asplin, John R; Eisner, Brian H; Stoller, Marshall L; Goldfarb, David S

    2012-06-01

    Studies have shown that certain beverages decrease urinary lithogenicity by increasing urine citrate excretion. Diet Sunkist Orange soda had the highest concentration of citrate and total alkali content among 12 diet sodas previously assayed. We studied the effect of Diet Sunkist Orange soda consumption on urinary chemistry. Nine healthy men and women ages 26-54 years completed the study. During the control period, subjects drank 36 oz of water for 3 days in addition to their own, self-selected diet and recorded a food diary. During the study period, the subjects drank three 12-oz cans of Diet Sunkist Orange soda a day instead of water, and replicated their diets from the control period. In each period, the subjects performed 24-h urine collections on days 2 and 3. Urine chemical analysis was performed, including urinary citrate levels and pH. Diet Sunkist Orange soda increased urinary citrate excretion by 60 mg/day, which was not statistically significant (95% CI -75 to 195, P value 0.34). There was no significant change in pH from the control period to the study period (pH: 6.29-6.21; 95% CI: -0.09 to 0.25, P = 0.30). Urine volumes and creatinine excretions were not significantly different between the control and study periods. Despite the relatively high citrate and total alkali content of Diet Sunkist Orange soda, the volume consumed in this study (36 oz per day) did not provide sufficient potential base to significantly alter urine composition in healthy subjects with normocitraturia. The effect of Diet Sunkist Orange soda on urinary chemistry in patients with hypocitraturia and nephrolithiasis is not likely to have a clinically significant effect to prevent calcium or uric acid stones.

  14. 78 FR 729 - Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... concerning a previous Removal Action at the Ellman Battery Superfund Site located in Orlando, Orange...

  15. Hybrid white organic light-emitting devices based on phosphorescent iridium-benzotriazole orange-red and fluorescent blue emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Zhen-Yuan, E-mail: xiazhenyuan@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Su, Jian-Hua [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Chang, Chi-Sheng; Chen, Chin H. [Display Institute, Microelectronics and Information Systems Research Center, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 300 (China)

    2013-03-15

    We demonstrate that high color purity or efficiency hybrid white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) can be generated by integrating a phosphorescent orange-red emitter, bis[4-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-N,N-diphenyl-aniline-N{sup 1},C{sup 3}] iridium acetylacetonate, Ir(TBT){sub 2}(acac) with fluorescent blue emitters in two different emissive layers. The device based on deep blue fluorescent material diphenyl-[4-(2-[1,1 Prime ;4 Prime ,1 Double-Prime ]terphenyl-4-yl-vinyl)-phenyl]-amine BpSAB and Ir(TBT){sub 2}(acac) shows pure white color with the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.33,0.30). When using sky-blue fluorescent dopant N,N Prime -(4,4 Prime -(1E,1 Prime E)-2,2 Prime -(1,4-phenylene)bis(ethene-2,1-diyl) bis(4,1-phenylene))bis(2-ethyl-6-methyl-N-phenylaniline) (BUBD-1) and orange-red phosphor with a color-tuning phosphorescent material fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium (Ir(ppy){sub 3} ), it exhibits peak luminance yield and power efficiency of 17.4 cd/A and 10.7 lm/W, respectively with yellow-white color and CIE color rendering index (CRI) value of 73. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An iridium-based orange-red phosphor Ir(TBT){sub 2}(acac) was applied in hybrid white OLEDs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Duel- and tri-emitter WOLEDs were achieved with either high color purity or efficiency performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak luminance yield of tri-emitter WOLEDs was 17.4 cd/A with yellow-white color and color rendering index (CRI) value of 73.

  16. Orange peel flour effect on physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of cooked sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Hernandez Garcia; Norma Güemes Vera

    2010-01-01

    Orange peel flours as a source of fiber, protein, and flavonoids as antioxidants was added to meat batters in order to improve nutritional quality and physicochemical, textural and sensory properties. Orange peel flour in meat batters improved yield and reduced expressible moisture. Hardness in orange peel flour samples was higher, but less resilient and cohesive. Warner-Bratzler shear force was not different between control (no orange peel flour) and samples with this functional ingredient. ...

  17. 77 FR 75550 - Special Local Regulations; 2013 Orange Bowl Paddle Championship, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; 2013 Orange Bowl Paddle... in Miami, FL during the 2013 Orange Bowl Paddle Championship. The event will take place on January 13... Paddle Championship. C. Discussion of the Final Rule On January 13, 2013, the Orange Bowl Committee...

  18. 78 FR 50023 - Importation of Fresh Oranges and Tangerines From Egypt Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... fly (Bactrocera zonata) and Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) in oranges and tangerines... effective against B. zonata in oranges and tangerines. In addition to B. zonata, Ceratitis capitata (Medfly... for C. capitata and B. zonata; and The oranges and tangerines must be accompanied by a phytosanitary...

  19. 77 FR 30504 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ....\\2\\ \\2\\ See Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 23659 (Apr... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty... orange juice (OJ) from Brazil for a period of review (POR) of March 1, 2011, through February 29,...

  20. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... are any safe and suitable preservatives or combinations thereof. (c) The name of the food is... the percent by weight of the preservative used. If the food is packed in container sizes that are...

  1. Two Lesser Dystopias: "We" and "A Clockwork Orange."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnsley, John H.

    1984-01-01

    Both the Russian novel "We" and the Anthony Burgess novel "A Clockwork Orange" offer frightening glimpses of a future society. But the contrast between these visions is striking. "We" is concerned with the misuse of technology, Burgess's book with the misuse of psychology. Both warn about the misuse of state power.…

  2. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelter, Paul B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the Orange Juice Clock demonstration in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker. Discusses the chemistry basics, extensions for more advanced students, questions for student/teacher workshop participants, and…

  3. 75 FR 41119 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX... establish a temporary Special Local Regulation in the Port Arthur Captain of the Port Zone on the Sabine... Sabine River during the Thunder on the Sabine boat races. This Special Local Regulation is necessary...

  4. 76 FR 30890 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX... establish a temporary Special Local Regulation in the Port Arthur Captain of the Port Zone on the Sabine... vessels from portions of the Sabine River during the annual S.P.O.R.T boat races. This Special...

  5. POSITRON ELECTRON PAIR SPECTROMETRY WITH SELECTIVE MINI-ORANGE DEVICES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANKLINKEN, J; BALANDA, A; HOOGDUIN, JM; KAPER, H; MEIRING, WJ; BOKEMEYER, H; DEBOER, FWN; KRAFT, D; STIEBING, KE

    1992-01-01

    Pair spectrometers have been developed with mini-orange filters and adapted Si(Li) detectors. They have been employed in searches for resonant Bhabha scattering and viable axions. They are of implicit value for studies of pair creation with the high resolution of solid state detectors, with the high

  6. Phospholipids of marine origin: the orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Koning, AJ

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Fillets of deep-skinned orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus) were found to contain 5.46% total lipids consisting of as much as 93% non-digestible wax esters. The fillets therefore act as a mild laxative, which probably contributes...

  7. Fertilization and pesticides affect mandarin orange nutrient composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of the application of foliar fertilization and pesticide on nutritional quality of mandarin orange juices were evaluated using 1H NMR metabolomics. Significant differences between the use of fertilizer and pesticides during fruit formation were observed, and included changes in sugar, am...

  8. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelter, Paul B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the Orange Juice Clock demonstration in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker. Discusses the chemistry basics, extensions for more advanced students, questions for student/teacher workshop participants, and…

  9. Nutrition Program Boosts Dental Health of Orange County Migrant Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Anne; And Others

    1995-01-01

    In Orange County, California, 76 migrant preschool children and 45 parents participated in a 7-week pilot program concerned with preventing dental disease by encouraging good dental habits and healthy food choices. Parent questionnaires revealed that the most remarkable program-related change was a decrease in consumption of sugary foods for over…

  10. Interaction of erythromycin and clarithromycin with orange juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arini Setiawati

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Concomitant administration of orange juice with fexofenadine has been found to decrease the bioavailability of fenofenadine to less than 30% via inhibition of organic-anion transporting polypeptide (OATP, a drug uptake transporter expressed in organs such as liver, kidney and intestine. Erythromycin and clarithromycin are substrates and inhibitors of CYP3A4, a drug metabolizing enzyme in the liver and enterocytes, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp, a drug efflux transporter expressed in the same organs as OATP. Since an extensive overlap exists between substrates and inhibitors of CYP3A4, P-gp and OATP transporters, we want to study the effect of coadministration of our local orange (Siam orange juice on the bioavailability of the above antibacterials. We conducted two 2-way cross-over randomized studies, one study for each antibacterial (500 mg, crossed between administration with orange juice (200 ml and with water, in 12-13 healthy subjects per study. The serum concentrations of the antibacterials were assayed by microbiological method. The mean (range ratio of AUC0-t with orange juice/with water were as follows : erythromycin : total (n=13 81.7 (9.7-193.8%, unchanged (n=4 96.4 (80.5-107.9%, decreased (n=6 31.9 (9.7-49.0%, increased (n=3 161.8 (134.6-193.8%; clarithromycin : total (n=12 91.4 (20.6-158.3%, unchanged (n=5 103.1 (80.9-123.0%, decreased (n=4 34.8 (20.6-64.3%, increased (n=3 147.2 (132.9-158.3%. It was concluded that coadministration of Siam orange juice with erythromycin or clarithromycin produced unpredictable effects on the bioavailability of these antibacterials in individual subjects, with marked decreases in almost half of the subjects, although in totals the effects were not statistically significant. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 78-86Keywords: interaction, erythromycin, clarithromycin, orange juice.

  11. Alcoholic fermentation induces melatonin synthesis in orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pachón, M S; Medina, S; Herrero-Martín, G; Cerrillo, I; Berná, G; Escudero-López, B; Ferreres, F; Martín, F; García-Parrilla, M C; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a molecule implicated in multiple biological functions. Its level decreases with age, and the intake of foods rich in melatonin has been considered an exogenous source of this important agent. Orange is a natural source of melatonin. Melatonin synthesis occurs during alcoholic fermentation of grapes, malt and pomegranate. The amino acid tryptophan is the precursor of all 5-methoxytryptamines. Indeed, melatonin appears in a shorter time in wines when tryptophan is added before fermentation. The aim of the study was to measure melatonin content during alcoholic fermentation of orange juice and to evaluate the role of the precursor tryptophan. Identification and quantification of melatonin during the alcoholic fermentation of orange juice was carried out by UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS. Melatonin significantly increased throughout fermentation from day 0 (3.15 ng/mL) until day 15 (21.80 ng/mL) reaching larger amounts with respect to other foods. Melatonin isomer was also analysed, but its content remained stable ranging from 11.59 to 14.18 ng/mL. The enhancement of melatonin occurred mainly in the soluble fraction. Tryptophan levels significantly dropped from 13.80 mg/L (day 0) up to 3.19 mg/L (day 15) during fermentation. Melatonin was inversely and significantly correlated with tryptophan (r = 0.907). Therefore, the enhancement in melatonin could be due to both the occurrence of tryptophan and the new synthesis by yeast. In summary, the enhancement of melatonin in novel fermented orange beverage would improve the health benefits of orange juice by increasing this bioactive compound.

  12. Reliability of acridine orange fluorescence microscopy in oral cytodiagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilima Prakash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context and Aims: The oral cavity is the most predominant location in the head and neck region for primary malignant epithelial tumors. Oral cancer is estimated to be the sixth most common malignancy. Early recognition is imperative for successful treatment and good prognosis. Exfoliative cytology is a simple and reasonably effective technique for rapid initial evaluation of a suspicious oral lesion. The present study was conducted to determine the reliability of acridine orange fluorescence microscopy for cytodiagnosis as a more rapid and easier method for the final evaluation of the cytological specimen. Materials and Methods: Smears were collected from 20 individuals with oral lesions suspicious of malignancy, oral lesions not suggestive of malignancy and normal buccal mucosa. One smear was stained with Papanicolaou stain and another one with acridine orange stain. The differences in the study group and control group were compared by means of the χ2 (Chi-square test. The results were considered statistically significant whenever P was <0.05. Results: The acridine orange fluorescence stain reliably demonstrated malignant cells based on the differential fluorescence - a cytochemical criterion. The efficacy of the stain was higher than the conventional Papanicolaou stain in screening of oral lesions suspicious of malignancy. However, the acridine orange fluorescence stain did not differentiate effectively between malignant cells and rapidly proliferating cells, as the technique is based on the nucleic acid content. Conclusion: The fluorescent acridine orange method can be used reliably for the screening of carcinomas and it is especially helpful in the follow-up detection of recurrent carcinoma in previously treated cases.

  13. Rapid biodegradation and decolorization of Direct Orange 39 (Orange TGLL) by an isolated bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Jyoti P; Phugare, Swapnil S; Dhanve, Rhishikesh S; Jadhav, Shekhar B

    2010-06-01

    A newly isolated novel bacterium from sediments contaminated with dyestuff was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BCH by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The bacterium was extraordinarily active and operative over a wide rage of temperature (10-60 degrees C) and salinity (5-6%), for decolorization of Direct Orange 39 (Orange TGLL) at optimum pH 7. This strain was capable of decolorizing Direct Orange 39; 50 mg l(-1) within 45 +/- 5 min, with 93.06% decolorization, while maximally it could decolorize 1.5 g l(-1) of dye within 48 h with 60% decolorization. Analytical studies as, UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, HPLC were employed to confirm the biodegradation of dye and formation of new metabolites. Induction in the activities of lignin peroxidases, DCIP reductase as well as tyrosinase was observed, indicating the significant role of these enzymes in biodegradation of Direct Orange 39. Toxicity studies with Phaseolus mungo and Triticum aestivum revealed the non-toxic nature of degraded metabolites.

  14. Computational study on the color change of 3‧-hydroxyechinenone in the orange carotenoid protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yukie

    2016-05-01

    The orange carotenoid protein, which contains 3‧-hydroxyechinenone (hECN), changes color from orange to red when irradiated with blue-green light. In this study, the origins of the color change have been investigated. The conformation of hECN in the red form is more planar than that in the orange form; consequently, the absorption band is red-shifted on conversion from the orange form to the red form. Another source of the red shift is that the electrostatic field generated by the protein in the red form stabilizes the excited state better than that generated by the protein in the orange form.

  15. [Commercial orange juice beverages detection by fluorescence spectroscopy combined with PCA-ED and PLSR methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang-jun; Zhu, Chun; Chen, Guo-qing; Zhang, Yong; Kong, Fan-biao; Li, Run; Zhu, Zhuo-wei; Wang, Xu; Gao, Shu-mei

    2014-08-01

    In order to classify the orange juiice beverages effectively, the fluorescence character differences of two kinds of orange juice beverages including 100% orange juice and orange drink were analyzed and compared, principal component analysis combined with Euclidean distance was adopted to classify two kinds of orange juice beverages, and ideal classification results were obtained. Meanwhile, the orange juice content estimation model was established by using fluorescence spectroscopy combined with partial least squares regression method, and the correlation coefficient R, root mean square error of calibration RMSEC and root mean square error of prediction RMSEP were 0.997, 0.87% and 2.05%, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the calibration model offers comparatively accurate content estimation, which reflect the actual orange juice content in the commercial orange juice beverages. The exploration to classify orange juice beverages was carried out from two aspects of qualitative and quantitative analysis by employing fluorescence spectroscopy combined with chemometrics method, which can provide a new idea for the classification and adulteration detection of commercial orange juice beverages, and also can give certain reference basis for the quality control of orange juice raw material.

  16. Degradation of methyl orange through synergistic effect of zirconia nanotubes and ultrasonic wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianling; Wang, Xixin; Zhang, Libin; Hou, Xiaorui; Li, Ying; Tang, Chengchun

    2011-04-15

    Zirconia nanotubes with a length of 25 μm, inner diameter of 80 nm, and wall thickness of 35 nm were prepared by anodization method in mixture of formamide and glycerol (volume ratio = 1:1) containing 1 wt% NH(4)F and 1 wt% H(2)O. Experiments showed that zirconia nanotubes and ultrasonic wave had synergistic degradation effect for methyl orange and the efficiency of ultrasonic wave increased by more than 7 times. The decolorization percentage was influenced by pH value of the solution. Methyl orange was easy to be degraded in acidic solution. The decolorization percentage of methyl orange reached 97.6% when degraded for 8h in 20mg/L methyl orange solution with optimal pH value 2. The reason of synergistic degradation effect for methyl orange might be that adsorption of methyl orange onto zirconia nanotubes resulted in the easy degradation of the methyl orange through ultrasonic wave.

  17. Red-fleshed sweet orange juice improves the risk factors for metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Jacqueline Q; Dourado, Grace K Z S; Cesar, Thais B

    2015-01-01

    Orange juice consumption can promote lower levels of oxidative stress and inflammation due to the antioxidant activity of citrus flavonoids and carotenoids. In addition, red-fleshed sweet orange juice (red orange juice) also contains lycopene. This study investigated the effects of red orange juice consumption on risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Volunteers consumed red orange juice daily for 8 weeks, with clinical and biochemical assessments performed at baseline and on the final day. There was no change in the abdominal obesity, but low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein decreased, while there was an increase of the antioxidant activity in serum after red orange juice consumption. Insulin resistance and systolic blood pressure were reduced in normal-weight volunteers, while diastolic blood pressure decreased in overweight volunteers after intervention. Red orange juice showed anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and lipid-lowering properties that may prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.

  18. ORANG BUANGAN (BANNELINGEN PADA PERKEBUNAN PALA DI KEPULAUAN BANDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Barjiyah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Placement of the exiles who run the nutmeg plantations on the Banda Islands is another way to run the economic system. Empowerment of the exiles as labor becomes a distinct advantage for the government or plantation owners. Economically exiles cannot be sold, but they can be used as production workers in the plantation or for those who have skills they can be employed to build and create a variety of facilities on the estate. Disposal of this person basically is never lost from time to time. In modern reign, the removal of human rights is often done just that with the term and a more subtle treatment of exiled. In the old order and the new order, areas such as Maluku Seram, Banda, Buru Island, Masohi, Namlea still just be a dumping ground for people who are considered guilty, and they are now more famous by the term political prisoners or prisoners. In the subsequent exiles are then settled and have contributed to the progress of his new country such as introducing rice cultivation and irrigation, but this needs further research. Keywords: an exile, plantation of pala, Banda   Penempatan orang buangan yang menjalankan perkebunan pala di Kepulauan Banda adalah cara lain untuk menjalankan sistem ekonomi. Pemberdayaan orang buangan sebagai tenaga kerja menjadi keuntungan tersendiri bagi pemerintah atau pemilik perkebunan. Secara ekonomis, orang buangan tidak dapat dijual, tetapi mereka dapat digunakan sebagai pekerja produksi di perkebunan atau bagi mereka yang memiliki keterampilan mereka bisa digunakan untuk membangun dan menciptakan berbagai fasilitas di perumahan. Pembuangan dari orang ini pada dasarnya tidak pernah hilang dari waktu ke waktu. Dalam pemerintahan modern, pemindahan hak asasi manusia sering melakukan hal itu dengan istilah dan pengobatan yang lebih halus diasingkan. Dalam orde lama dan orde baru, beberapa kawasan seperti Maluku Seram, Banda, Pulau Buru, Masohi, Namlea masih saja menjadi tempat pembuangan bagi

  19. Citrus pulp pellets as an additive for orange bagasse silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Grizotto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the fermentation profile of orange bagasse ensiled with three levels of dry matter (DM using citrus pulp pellets as a moisture-absorbing additive. Thirty experimental silos (3 treatments, 5 storage times, 2 replicates were prepared using 25-liter plastic buckets containing orange bagasse and three levels of pelleted citrus pulp (0, 6% and 20% as additive. A completely randomized design with repeated measures over time was used. The periods of anaerobic storage were 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days. Natural orange bagasse contained 13.9% DM, which increased to 19.1% and 25.5% with the inclusion of 6% and 20% citrus pulp pellets, respectively. The apparent density was inversely correlated with DM content and a higher level of compaction (982 kg/m3 was observed in the mass ensiled with the lowest DM level (13.9%. Additionally, lower compaction (910 kg/m3 was found in the mass ensiled with the additive. The chemical composition of the mass ensiled with or without citrus pulp pellets did not differ significantly in terms of protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, lignin or in vitro DM digestibility (P≥0.05, as expected. Thus, it was possible to analyze only the effect of the inclusion of citrus pulp pellets on the increase in DM content. The inclusion of 20% of the additive reduced (P<0.01 losses due to effluent (98% less and gas production (81% less compared to the control treatment at the end of the anaerobic storage period. In this treatment, a higher (P≤0.05 log number of lactic acid bacteria (4.61 log CFU/g was also observed compared to the other treatments, indicating that the increase in DM favored the growth of these bacteria. In addition, the low yeast count (about 1 log CFU/g sample and the pH below 4.0, which were probably due to the production of lactic and acetic acids, show that the orange bagasse is rich in fermentable soluble carbohydrates and is indicated for ensiling. In conclusion, orange bagasse can be

  20. The Doppler paradigm and the APEX-EPOS-ORANGE quandary

    CERN Document Server

    Griffin, J J

    1996-01-01

    The experimental detection of the sharp lines of the \\ee Puzzle is viewed as a struggle against Doppler broadening. Gedanken experiments which are realistic in zeroth order of detail are analyzed to show that the ORANGE and EPOS/I geometries select narrower slices of a Doppler broadened line than spherically inclusive (APEX and EPOS/II --like) apparati. Roughly speaking, the latter require event-by-event Doppler reconstruction simply to regain an even footing with the former. This suggests that APEX' or EPOS/II's coincident pair distributions must be statistically superior to those of EPOS/I or ORANGE in order to support a comparable inference about sharp structure. Under present circumstances, independent alternative data is invaluable. Therefore, a corroboration of Sakai's 330.1 keV (< 3 keV wide) electron line in few MeV e^+ or e^- bombardments of U and Th targets could prove crucial.

  1. Exposure to pesticides residues from consumption of Italian blood oranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallico, B; D'Urso, M G; Chiappara, E

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports the results of a 5-year study to evaluate pesticide levels, derived from orchard activities, on Italy's most common orange cultivar (Citrus sinensis, L. Osbeck, cv. Tarocco). Using a Bayesian approach, the study allowed both the qualitative (number) and quantitative distributions (amount) of pesticides to be determined with its own probability value. Multi-residue analyses of 460 samples highlighted the presence of ethyl and methyl chlorpyrifos, dicofol, etofenprox, fenazaquin, fenitrothion, imazalil, malathion and metalaxil-m. A total of 30.5% of samples contained just one pesticide, 2.16% two pesticides and 0.65% of samples had three pesticides present simultaneously. The most common residue was ethyl chlorpyrifos followed by methyl chlorpyrifos. Estimated daily intake (EDI) values for ethyl and methyl chlorpyrifos, as well as the distance from the safety level (non-observed adverse effect level, NOAEL), were calculated. The risk was differentiated (1) to take account of the period of actual citrus consumption (180 days) and (2) to discriminate the risk derived from eating oranges containing a certain level of chlorpyrifos from unspecified pesticides. The most likely EDI values for ethyl chlorpyrifos derived from Italian blood orange consumption are 0.01 and 0.006 mg/day calculated for 180 and 365 days, respectively. Considering the probability of the occurrence of ethyl chlorpyrifos, these EDI values are reduced to 2.6 x 10(-3) and 1.3 x 10(-3) mg/day, respectively. For methyl chlorpyrifos, the most likely EDI values are 0.09 and 0.04 mg/day, respectively; considering the probability of its occurrence, the EDI values decrease to 6.7 x 10(-3) and 3.4 x 10(-3) mg/day, respectively. The results confirmed that levels of pesticides in Italian Tarocco oranges derived from a known controlled chain of production are safe.

  2. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Bergamot orange in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Karaca, Mehmet; İLHAN, Fatma; Altan, Hasan; Him, Aydın; TÜTÜNCÜ, Mehmet; Özbek, Hanefi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Essential oil extract of Bergamot orange (BO) was investigated for its hepatoprotective effect on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Six different groups were established. Silibinin was used as the reference agent. BO significantly reduced the serum ALT level when compared to CCl4 group while it did not affect the serum AST level. The histopathological findings did not show any significant difference between the BO and CCl4 groups. The results suggest that BO has a...

  3. The curious case of the orange coloured tonsils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravesloot, M J L; Bril, H; Braamskamp, M J; Wiegman, A; Wong Chung, R P

    2014-12-01

    Tangier disease is an extremely rare and severe form of high density lipoprotein deficiency. Even though there is no specific therapy for patients with Tangier disease, it is important to recognize the clinical presentation as patients are at an increased risk of developing atherosclerosis and subsequent CVD. The case discussed in this report, illustrates the importance of recognizing that orange discoloured tonsils are an indication that the patient could be suffering from Tangier's disease.

  4. Skin color variation in Orang Asli tribes of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khai C Ang

    Full Text Available Pigmentation is a readily scorable and quantitative human phenotype, making it an excellent model for studying multifactorial traits and diseases. Convergent human evolution from the ancestral state, darker skin, towards lighter skin colors involved divergent genetic mechanisms in people of European vs. East Asian ancestry. It is striking that the European mechanisms result in a 10-20-fold increase in skin cancer susceptibility while the East Asian mechanisms do not. Towards the mapping of genes that contribute to East Asian pigmentation there is need for one or more populations that are admixed for ancestral and East Asian ancestry, but with minimal European contribution. This requirement is fulfilled by the Senoi, one of three indigenous tribes of Peninsular Malaysia collectively known as the Orang Asli. The Senoi are thought to be an admixture of the Negrito, an ancestral dark-skinned population representing the second of three Orang Asli tribes, and regional Mongoloid populations of Indo-China such as the Proto-Malay, the third Orang Asli tribe. We have calculated skin reflectance-based melanin indices in 492 Orang Asli, which ranged from 28 (lightest to 75 (darkest; both extremes were represented in the Senoi. Population averages were 56 for Negrito, 42 for Proto-Malay, and 46 for Senoi. The derived allele frequencies for SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 in the Senoi were 0.04 and 0.02, respectively, consistent with greater South Asian than European admixture. Females and individuals with the A111T mutation had significantly lighter skin (p = 0.001 and 0.0039, respectively. Individuals with these derived alleles were found across the spectrum of skin color, indicating an overriding effect of strong skin lightening alleles of East Asian origin. These results suggest that the Senoi are suitable for mapping East Asian skin color genes.

  5. EFFECT OF NUTRITION ON CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ORANGE FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek FOUDA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the chemical characterization of orange fruits using applications of nutrition minerals and growth substance during at private farm in wadi el-netron , ELbehari governorate, Egypt during in December2011. The results showed during maturity time increasing the total soluble solid (TSS, pH, percentage of liquid, (TSS/acidityand carotenoids while chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and acidity were decreased.With one application of nutrition minerals and with growth substance were the lowest value of chlorophyll, a (chl,a and chlorophyll, b (chl,b as follow 0.42 and 0.45 (mg/100g while with control management were the highest value to total soluble solid (Tss and carotenoids (car. as follow 10.07(Brix,% and 15.77 (mg/100g. The pattern of changes was clearly observed from the absorption spectra of the green and orange When orange is fully ripe, chlorophyll would be greatly reduced or may disappear completely and carotenoids becomes the dominant pigment in the fruit surface.

  6. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza Jorge

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis, as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg, total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg, α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg. The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal to 70.2% (Pera-rio. According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants.

  7. Does Egyptian orange exports really have a market power in Saudi Arabia market?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser S. A. Mazrou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Egypt is one of the important orange exporters and Saudi Arabia also is an important import orange market. The Saudi orange market is a main market for Egypt which has a market share that exceeds half of Saudi orange market by 55.72%. This article aims to discover the degree of market power for Egyptian orange exports and other competitors in the Saudi market and if it is considered a measure of the relative mark- up by applying Residual Demand Elasticity approach. The results show that Egyptian orange exports has just a statistically signified market power by SUR and 3-SLS and has a negative sign, which may gain monopolistic profits by the relative mark-up over its marginal cost by about 63.7% without losing any of its market share. The source of Egyptian orange exports market power is due to: 1- product differentiation where Egypt exports navel orange most its export season compared with sweet orange which exported from other competitors. 2- Saudi Arabia Market demand characteristics which reflect on the consumers preference for Egyptian oranges.

  8. Treatment of methyl orange dye wastewater by cooperative electrochemical oxidation in anodic-cathodic compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, L; Wang, H; Bian, Z Y

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of methyl orange wastewater was studied using Ti/IrO(2)/RuO(2) anode and a self-made Pd/C O(2)-fed cathode in the divided cell with a terylene diaphragm. The result indicated that the appropriate rate of feeding air improved the methyl orange removal efficiency. The discoloration efficiency of methyl orange in the divided cell increased with increasing current density. The initial pH value had some effect on the discoloration of methyl orange, which became not obvious when the pH ranged from 2 to 10. However, the average removal efficiency of methyl orange wastewater in terms of total organic carbon (TOC) can reach 89.3%. The methyl orange structure had changed in the electrolytic process, and the characteristic absorption peak of methyl orange was about 470 nm. With the extension of electrolysis time, the concentration of methyl orange gradually reduced; wastewater discoloration rate increased gradually. The degradation of methyl orange was assumed to be cooperative oxidation by direct or indirect electrochemical oxidation at the anode and H(2)O(2), ·OH, O(2)(-)· produced by oxygen reduction at the cathode in the divided cell. Therefore, the cooperative electrochemical oxidation of methyl orange wastewater in the anodic-cathodic compartment had better degradation effects.

  9. Very bright orange fluorescent plants: endoplasmic reticulum targeting of orange fluorescent proteins as visual reporters in transgenic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann David GJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of fluorescent protein (FP genes as real-time visual markers, both transiently and stably, has revolutionized plant biotechnology. A palette of colors of FPs is now available for use, but the diversity has generally been underutilized in plant biotechnology. Because of the green and far-red autofluorescent properties of many plant tissues and the FPs themselves, red and orange FPs (RFPs, and OFPs, respectfully appear to be the colors with maximum utility in plant biotechnology. Within the color palette OFPs have emerged as the brightest FP markers in the visible spectra. This study compares several native, near-native and modified OFPs for their “brightness” and fluorescence, therefore, their usability as marker genes in transgenic plant tissues. Results The OFPs DsRed2, tdTomato, mOrange and pporRFP were all expressed under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter in agroinfiltration-mediated transient assays in Nicotiana benthamiana. Each of these, as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER-targeted versions, were stably expressed in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana. Congruent results were observed between transient and stable assays. Our results demonstrated that there are several adequate OFP genes available for plant transformation, including the new pporRFP, an unaltered tetramer from the hard coral Porites porites. When the tandem dimer tdTomato and the monomeric mOrange were targeted to the ER, dramatic, ca. 3-fold, increase in plant fluorescence was observed. Conclusions From our empirical data, and a search of the literature, it appears that tdTomato-ER and mOrange-ER are the two highest fluorescing FPs available as reporters for transgenic plants. The pporRFP is a brightly fluorescing tetramer, but all tetramer FPs are far less bright than the ER-targeted monomers we report here.

  10. The effect of wood ant Formica rufa nests on distribution and growth of Impatients parviflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holec, Michal; Holcová, Diana; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The effect of wood ants Formica rufa on distribution of introduces invasive jewelweed Impatiens parviflora was studied in oak forest in North west of the Czech Republic. Jewelweed occured only rarely in the forest floor, the average density was 3.2 plant m-2 here while on and around the ant nest mounds the jewelweed density reached 85.4 plant m-2. Jevelweed growing on the nest mounds were also significantly taller, bigger, with more flowers and produced more seeds that plants in surrounding forest floor. Better growth of jevelweed in ant nests apparently corresponds with significantly higher content of nitrates and available phosporus in the nest compare to forest floor. Seed collection experiment show that ants do not selectively collect jevelweed seeds but may collect them randomly in about the same rates as other organic material. This non targeted collection however may be sufficient to make sure that some seeds get close or in to the nest where population can grow vigorously due to suitable soil conditions.

  11. Orange peel flour effect on physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of cooked sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Hernandez Garcia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Orange peel flours as a source of fiber, protein, and flavonoids as antioxidants was added to meat batters in order to improve nutritional quality and physicochemical, textural and sensory properties. Orange peel flour in meat batters improved yield and reduced expressible moisture. Hardness in orange peel flour samples was higher, but less resilient and cohesive. Warner-Bratzler shear force was not different between control (no orange peel flour and samples with this functional ingredient. A no trained panel determinate that there was no difference between control and orange peel flour added sausages at a 5% (w/w level. In this view, orange peel flour can be employed to improve yield and texture of cooked meat products.

  12. Electrolytic treatment of methyl orange in aqueous solution using three-dimensional electrode reactor coupling ultrasonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Pingting; Wang, Ling; Xue, Jianjun; Cao, Zhibin

    2010-04-01

    The treatment of wastewater containing methyl orange was investigated experimentally using a three-dimensional electrode reactor coupling ultrasonics and the effect of ultrasonics on the degradation was studied. The effects of cell voltage, original concentration of methyl orange, pH value and the concentration of electrolyte on the removal efficiency were considered. The experimental results indicated that the removal rate of methyl orange exceeded 99% and the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD(Cr)) approached 84% under the optimum conditions. Using ultraviolet-visible spectrum analysis, a general degradation pathway for methyl orange was proposed based on the analysis of intermediate compounds. According to the ultraviolet-visible spectral changes during degradation of methyl orange, it can be presumed that the removal of COD(Cr) lags behind the removal of methyl orange because the structure of the benzene ring was more difficult to destroy compared with the azo double bonds.

  13. Phototoxic and contact toxic reactions of the exocarp of sweet oranges: a common cause of cheilitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volden, G; Krokan, H; Kavli, G; Midelfart, K

    1983-05-01

    Irritant skin reactions were produced within 1 h after application of the exocarp of sweet oranges or alcoholic extracts therefrom. Such reactions faded within 48 h. The exocarp, or extracts thereof, induced phototoxic reactions which were strongest at 72 h after exposure. The phototoxic reactions were only induced in natural blondes and only with some oranges. The in vivo phototoxic reactions were confirmed in vitro, causing a slight but clear photo-inhibition of Candida albicans. Only some oranges inhibited growth.

  14. Interactions of hypericin with a model mutagen - Acridine orange analyzed by light absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Monika; Szabelski, Mariusz; Kasparek, Adam; Wieczorek, Zbigniew

    2017-02-01

    The present study was designed to estimate the ability of hypericin to interact with a model mutagen - acridine orange. The hetero-association of hypericin and acridine orange was investigated with absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy methods in aqueous solution of DMSO. The data indicate that hypericin forms complexes with acridine orange and that the association constants are relatively high and depend on DMSO concentration. The absorption spectra of the hypericin - acridine orange complexes were examined as well. Owing to its ability to interact with flat aromatic compounds, hypericin may potentially be used as an interceptor molecule.

  15. Orange fiber as a novel fat replacer in lemon ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainara de Moraes Crizel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Orange fiber was used as a novel fat replacer in light lemon ice cream. Nine ice cream formulations were compared: standard control ice cream (IC; ice cream with fiber (F1 from the peel, bagasse, and orange seed (ICA and ICB; ice cream with fiber (F2 from the orange peel alone (ICC and ICD; ice cream with fiber (F3 from the peel, bagasse, and orange seed pretreated with hydro-distillation (ICE and ICF; and ice cream with fiber (F4 from the orange peel pretreated with hydro-distillation (ICG and ICH.The orange fiber reduced the ice cream fat content (50 % and the overrun ratio and increased the fiber content and the hardness, gumminess, and springiness values, but it did not affect the adhesiveness and odor of the samples. The samples with 1.0 % of orange fiber showed low melting rate values than those of the control ice cream. The overall acceptance of the ice cream with 1.0 % of pre-treated orange peel fiber did not differ from that of the control ice cream (80 %. The orange fiber proved a promising food ingredient since it can be used to decrease the fat content and increase bioactive compounds content, such as fiber and carotenoids.

  16. Development of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on leaves and fruit of orange trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jianhua; Glover, Michelle; Munro, Scott; Beattie, G Andrew C

    2006-08-01

    Development of Epipyas postvittna (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), on leaves and fruit of 'Valencia', 'Washington navel', and 'Navelina' orange trees was studied under constant and fluctuating temperatures. E. postvittna was able to complete its life cycle feeding exclusively on leaves or fruit of orange trees. However, larval survival rate was very low (types of orange tissues, young orange leaves and fruit afforded larvae higher survival rates than mature orange leaves and fruit. Fruit (young or mature) produced heavier pupae than leaves (young or mature). Larvae developed more slowly on mature orange fruit than on other orange materials and more slowly on orange leaves than on leaves of most noncitrus hosts. Degree-day accumulations based on the fastest developmental rates obtained in this study suggested that E. postvittna is capable of completing 4.4-4.7 generations per year in orange orchards in the Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. Implications of the results in the management of the insect in citrus are discussed.

  17. The pathogenesis of the fundus peau d'orange and salmon spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrè, G

    1987-01-01

    The fundus of the eye of a patient with pseudoxanthoma elasticum showed angioid streaks, fundus peau d'orange and salmon spots, these latter unusually located in the macula. The fluorescein angiography revealed, in the arterial phase, a reticular hyperfluorescence in the areas of fundus peau d'orange and salmon spots. In the venous phase the fluorescence of the fundus peau d'orange was even, while the salmon spots showed staining and hyperfluorescent borders. These findings support the hypothesis that the fundus peau d'orange is due to degeneration of Bruch's membrane and the salmon spots are deiscences of this membrane.

  18. ANUITAS LAST SURVIVOR UNTUK KASUS TIGA ORANG TERTANGGUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Sari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pada asuransi multiple life, terdapat dua istilah berdasarkan status kematian dari kumpulan tertanggung yaitu joint life dan last survivor. Perbedaan status multiple life ini pada asuransi adalah waktu pemberian uang pertanggungannya. Suatu status dikatakan joint life jika pemberian uang pertanggungan dilakukan pada saat orang pertama meninggal dan status dikatakan life survivor jika pemberian uang pertanggungan dilakukan pada saat semuanya telah meninggal. Untuk mendapatkan uang pertanggungan, tertanggung haruslah membayarkan sejumlah premi. Jika ingin mengkonversikan premi tunggal menjadi premi berkala diperlukan anuitas. Untuk kasus asuransi last survivor kita akan menggunakan anuitas last survivor. Hasil akhir dari proses penelitian penulis akan menghasilkan rumusan matematika nilai sekarang anuitas awal dan anuitas akhir  untuk kasus dua orang dan tiga orang pada status last survivor.In multiple life insurance, there are two terms based on the status of the death of the insured is a collection of joint life and last survivor. The difference is in the status of multiple life insurance is the timing of cash coverage. A status is said to be a joint life insurance money if provision was made during the first die and life survivor status if the provision of insurance money made at the time are all dead. To get the sum insured, the insured must pay a premium. If you want to convert into a single premium be regular premium, annuity required. For the last survivor insurance cases we will use the last survivor annuity. The end result of the research process will generate mathematical formulas of present value due annuity and immediate annuity for the case of two and three people in the last survivor status.

  19. Orange oil effect in the control of fennel aphid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Cavalcanti de Albuquerque

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the properties where fennel is grown, in the states of Bahia, Sergipe, Pernambuco and Paraiba, at the Northeast of Brazil, a high rate of usage of pesticides in the crop, aiming to control the aphid Hyadaphis foeniculi. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of orange oil Prev-Am (sodium tetraborohydrate decahydrate, in the control of H. foeniculi aphid of the fennel crop. The trial was conducted in a fennel field located in Lagoa Seca Experimental Station, belonging to the EMEPA-PB. Forty-eight hours after the product has been sprayed, one flower of the umbel was collected and removed her aphids, which were placed in a "petri" plate from 9cm in diameter. As a following step, the insects were counted as part of two groups, considering the number of insects dead and alive, being tabulated for later analysis. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, using the experimental design of randomized blocks composed of six treatments (doses of 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7% of orange oil (Prev-am and pure water as check, with five repetitions. The data were submitted to the regression analysis. The orange oil (Prev-am controls effectively H. foeniculi at the concentration of 0.3%, increasing the control up to concentrations of 0.6 and 0.7%. The product does not kill ladybugs (Cycloneda sanguinea and can be used in programs for integrated pest management.Keywords: Foeniculum vulgare, aphid, vegetable oil, ladybug, umbel.

  20. Orange oil effect in the control of fennel aphid

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanildo Cavalcanti de Albuquerque; Luciano de Medeiros Pereira Brito; Carlos Henrique de Brito; Edson Batista Lopes; Jacinto de Luna Batista

    2009-01-01

    In the properties where fennel is grown, in the states of Bahia, Sergipe, Pernambuco and Paraiba, at the Northeast of Brazil, a high rate of usage of pesticides in the crop, aiming to control the aphid Hyadaphis foeniculi. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of orange oil Prev-Am (sodium tetraborohydrate decahydrate), in the control of H. foeniculi aphid of the fennel crop. The trial was conducted in a fennel field located in Lagoa Seca Experimental Station, belonging to the ...

  1. Obtaining lipases from byproducts of orange juice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okino-Delgado, Clarissa Hamaio; Fleuri, Luciana Francisco

    2014-11-15

    The presence of lipases was observed in three byproducts of orange juice processing: peel, core and frit. The enzymes were characterised biochemically over a wide pH range from neutral (6-7) to alkaline (8-9). The optimal temperature for the activity of these byproducts showed wide range at 20°C to 70°C, indicating fairly high thermostability. The activities were monitored on p-NP-butyrate, p-NP-laurate and p-NP-palmitate. For the first time, lipase activity was detected in these residues, reaching 68.5 lipase U/g for the crude extract from fractions called frit.

  2. Preparation of carbon monoliths from orange peel for NOx retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Giraldo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of monoliths are prepared from orange peels and chemically activated with H3PO4, KOH, ZnCl2, and water vapor without a binder. The monoliths were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms at 77 K, Boehm titrations and XPS. Thereafter, monoliths were tested for their ability to establish NOx retention. The results show that the retention capacities of NOx were a function of the textural properties and chemistries. The carbons synthesized with ZnCl2 and KOH retained similar amounts of NOx.

  3. Amylases from orange leaves. Characterization and relation to starch breakdown.

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Grau, Amparo; Guardiola Bárcena, José Luis

    1988-01-01

    Starch content in adult orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) leaves was highest at the end of the winter rest period and decreased during flowering and fruit set. Young inflorescence leaves accumulated starch until the June drop period to decrease to a low value at the end of it. Both, α- and ß-amylase activities were found in the leaves and the enzymes separated through Sephadex G100 filtration. By electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels with 0.25 % amylopectine, α-amylase was resolved in 5 ba...

  4. Extraction of orange peel's essential oil by solvent-free microwave extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadariyah, Lailatul; Amelia, Prilia Dwi; Admiralia, Cininta; Bhuana, Donny S.; Mahfud, Mahfud

    2017-05-01

    Sweet orange peel (Citrus sinensis) is part of orange plant that contains essential oils. Generally, taking essential oil from orange peel is still using hydrodistillation and steam-hydrodistillation method which still needs solvent and takes a long time to produce high quality essential oil. Therefore, the objectives of this experiment are to study the process of orange peel's essential oil extraction using Solvent Free Microwave Extraction (SFME) and to study the operating condition that effect an optimum yield and quality of the essential oil. In this experiment, extraction process with SFME method goes for 60 minutes at atmospheric pressure. Variables for SFME are: variation of orange peel condition (fresh and dry), ratio orange peel mass to distiller volume (0,1; 0,2; 0,3; 0,4 g/mL), orange peel size (±0,5; ±2; ±3,5 cm width), and microwave power (100, 264, 400 Watt). Moisture content of fresh peel is 71,4% and for dry peel is 17,37% which is obtained by sun drying. The result of this experiment will be analyzed with GC-MS, SEM, density, and miscibility in ethanol 90%. The optimum result obtained from this experiment based on the number of the yield under condition of fresh orange peel is at peel mass/distiller volume 0,1 g/mL, orange peel size ±3,5 cm width, and microwave power 400 Watt, results 1,6738% yield. The result of GC-MS for fresh orange peel shows that the dominant compound is Limonene 54,140% and for dry orange peel is Limonene 59,705%. The density obtained is around 0,8282-0,8530 g/mL and miscibility in ethanol 90% is 1:5.

  5. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelter, Paul B.; Carr, James D.; Johnson, Tanya; Mauricio Castro-Acuña, Carlos

    1996-12-01

    The Orange Juice Clock, in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker, has been a popular classroom, conference, and workshop demonstration for nearly 10 years. It is widely enjoyed because it shows visually how chemistry - or more precisely, electrochemistry - is responsible for the very common phenomenon of a clock ticking. The chemistry of the process can also be understood on a variety of levels, from middle school (simple electron flow in a circuit, Ohm's law) and high school (reduction/oxidation and standard cell potentials) to first-year college (cell potential at nonideal conditions) and graduate school courses (overpotential and charge transfer across interfaces.) The discussion that follows considers the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the demonstration. The History The demonstration was devised by one of us (PK) in 1986, after reading an activity in Hubert Alyea's 1947 compendium of chemical demonstrations from this Journal (1). In that activity, Alyea hooked a magnesium strip to the negative battery terminal of an electric bell and hooked a copper strip to the positive terminal. He placed the loose ends of the strips into a 1M 2SO4 solution and the bell rang. After trying the demonstration, it seemed to make sense to modify the electrolyte to orange juice because it is safe, readily available, and would be a mixture in which the magnesium would oxidize more slowly than in sulfuric acid. Further, a clock was substituted for the bell because a clock is easier on the ears than a bell. A video of the orange-juice clock setup is given as Figure 1. Figure 1.The orange juice clock set up. Video of orange juice clock was filmed and editted by Jerry Jacobson at the University of Wisconsin - Madison. The apparatus was presented in 1987 as part of a teacher workshop led by Irwin Talesnick, then of Queen's University in Canada. Talesnick, whose distinguished career has been

  6. Mycorrhiza alters the profile of root hairs in trifoliate orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang-Sheng; Liu, Chun-Yan; Zhang, De-Jian; Zou, Ying-Ning; He, Xin-Hua; Wu, Qing-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Root hairs and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) coexist in root systems for nutrient and water absorption, but the relation between AM and root hairs is poorly known. A pot study was performed to evaluate the effects of four different AM fungi (AMF), namely, Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Diversispora versiformis, Funneliformis mosseae, and Rhizophagus intraradices on root hair development in trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) seedlings grown in sand. Mycorrhizal seedlings showed significantly higher root hair density than non-mycorrhizal seedlings, irrespective of AMF species. AMF inoculation generally significantly decreased root hair length in the first- and second-order lateral roots but increased it in the third- and fourth-order lateral roots. AMF colonization induced diverse responses in root hair diameter of different order lateral roots. Considerably greater concentrations of phosphorus (P), nitric oxide (NO), glucose, sucrose, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were found in roots of AM seedlings than in non-AM seedlings. Levels of P, NO, carbohydrates, IAA, and MeJA in roots were correlated with AM formation and root hair development. These results suggest that AMF could alter the profile of root hairs in trifoliate orange through modulation of physiological activities. F. mosseae, which had the greatest positive effects, could represent an efficient AM fungus for increasing fruit yields or decreasing fertilizer inputs in citrus production.

  7. Genetic Signature of Anthropogenic Population Collapse in Orang-utans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Great ape populations are undergoing a dramatic decline, which is predicted to result in their extinction in the wild from entire regions in the near future. Recent findings have particularly focused on African apes, and have implicated multiple factors contributing to this decline, such as deforestation, hunting, and disease. Less well-publicised, but equally dramatic, has been the decline in orang-utans, whose distribution is limited to parts of Sumatra and Borneo. Using the largest-ever genetic sample from wild orang-utan populations, we show strong evidence for a recent demographic collapse in North Eastern Borneo and demonstrate that this signature is independent of the mutation and demographic models used. This is the first demonstration that genetic data can detect and quantify the effect of recent, human-induced deforestation and habitat fragmentation on an endangered species. Because current demographic collapses are usually confounded by ancient events, this suggests a much more dramatic decline than demographic data alone and emphasises the need for major conservation efforts.

  8. Genetic signature of anthropogenic population collapse in orang-utans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Goossens

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Great ape populations are undergoing a dramatic decline, which is predicted to result in their extinction in the wild from entire regions in the near future. Recent findings have particularly focused on African apes, and have implicated multiple factors contributing to this decline, such as deforestation, hunting, and disease. Less well-publicised, but equally dramatic, has been the decline in orang-utans, whose distribution is limited to parts of Sumatra and Borneo. Using the largest-ever genetic sample from wild orang-utan populations, we show strong evidence for a recent demographic collapse in North Eastern Borneo and demonstrate that this signature is independent of the mutation and demographic models used. This is the first demonstration that genetic data can detect and quantify the effect of recent, human-induced deforestation and habitat fragmentation on an endangered species. Because current demographic collapses are usually confounded by ancient events, this suggests a much more dramatic decline than demographic data alone and emphasises the need for major conservation efforts.

  9. Fermented orange juice: source of higher carotenoid and flavanone contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero-López, Blanca; Cerrillo, Isabel; Herrero-Martín, Griselda; Hornero-Méndez, Damaso; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Medina, Sonia; Ferreres, Federico; Berná, Genoveva; Martín, Francisco; Fernández-Pachón, Maria-Soledad

    2013-09-18

    The intake of bioactive compounds and moderate alcohol decreases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. These effects could be joined in a beverage created by a controlled alcoholic fermentation of orange juice. The influence of controlled alcoholic fermentation on the bioactive compound profile of orange juice has not been previously evaluated, and this is the purpose of the present study. Total and individual flavanones and carotenoids significantly increased throughout the fermentation. The reason for this was an enhanced extraction of these compounds from the pulp. Besides, the potential bioavailability of flavanones increased due to a higher content of hesperetin-7-O-glucoside (2-fold higher at the end of the fermentation process). Ascorbic acid did not undergo a significant change, and only total phenolics decreased. Antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. TEAC and FRAP values remained constant throughout the process. However, ORAC and DPPH values significantly increased. Correlation analysis concluded that the increase in ORAC and DPPH values could be due to enhancement of flavanones.

  10. Phosphorus Recovery Using Zirconium-Loaded Saponified Orange Juice Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Mitsunori; Biswas, Biplob K.; Ohura, Seichirou; Inoue, Katsutoshi; Ishikawa, Susumu; Kawakita, Hidetaka; Ohto, Keisuke

    Zirconium was immobilized to orange juice residue, to investigate the feasibility of using zirconium-loaded saponified orange juice residue (Zr-SOJR) for phosphorus recovery from secondary effluent and the extraction solution from incinerated sewage sludge ash by using H2SO4 and HCl. These had phosphorus concentrations of 68.2 mg/dm3 and 5.9 mg/dm3, respectively. The phosphorus removal rate secondary effluent increased with an increasing solid/liquid ratio in batch experiments. The adsorption capacity of Zr-SOJR was also compared with those obtained using a synthetic phosphorus solution and using zirconium-loaded ferrite. The prepared absorbent was effective for phosphorus removal and exhibited a reasonably high sorption capacity, twice that of zirconium ferrite. Secondary effluent was treated by packed column, and this reached break-through after 300 bed volumes. The results from phosphorous extraction from the ash indicate that can be treated with acid to efficiently recover phosphorous and thus can be absorbed by Zr-SOJR.

  11. Colour and carotenoid changes of pasteurised orange juice during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Scheling; Vervoort, Liesbeth; Tomic, Jovana; Santiago, Jihan Santanina; Lemmens, Lien; Panozzo, Agnese; Grauwet, Tara; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2015-03-15

    The correlation of carotenoid changes with colour degradation of pasteurised single strength orange juice was investigated at 20, 28, 35 and 42°C for a total of 32 weeks of storage. Changes in colour were assessed using the CIELAB system and were kinetically described by a zero-order model. L(∗), a(∗), b(∗), ΔE(∗), Cab(∗) and hab were significantly changed during storage (pcolour parameters were 64-73 kJ mol(-1). Several carotenoids showed important changes and appeared to have different susceptibilities to storage. A decrease of β-cryptoxanthin was observed at higher temperatures, whereas antheraxanthin started to decrease at lower temperatures. Depending on the time and temperature, changes in carotenoids could be due to isomerisation reactions, which may lead to a perceptible colour change. Although the contribution of carotenoids was recognised to some extent, other reactions seem of major importance for colour degradation of orange juice during storage.

  12. Photoactivity and pH sensitivity of methyl orange functionalized poly(propyleneamine) dendrimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksen, A.; Zuidema, E.; Williams, R.M.; De Cola, L.; Kauffmann, C.; Vögtle, F.; Roque, A.; Pina, F.

    2002-01-01

    For the first time a pH indicator that responds to two different external stimuli, i.e. pH and light, namely methyl orange, has been implemented in a dendrimer. Six generations (G0-G5) of methyl orange-functionalized poly(propyleneamine) dendrimers ("MO dendrimers") have been synthesized and

  13. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced...

  14. Application of ultraviolet-C light on oranges for the inactivation of postharvest wound pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germicidal effects of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light on the postharvest wound pathogens of citrus fruits namely Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum were investigated. P. digitatum and P. italicum spores were inoculated (4.00 – 4.50 log cfu/ orange) onto Washington navel oranges (Citrus sinens...

  15. 77 FR 23659 - Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... duty order on OJ from Brazil. \\1\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 5563 (Feb. 1, 2011) (Initiation Notice). \\2\\ See Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 22343 (Apr. 13, 2012) (ITC... Orange Juice From Brazil, 52 FR 16426 (May 5, 1987). \\4\\ The Department preliminarily found that...

  16. The vitamin C content of orange juice packed in an oxygen scavenger material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerdin, K.; Rooney, M.L.; Vermuë, J.

    2003-01-01

    A storage study of orange juice packed in oxygen scavenging (OS) film and oxygen barrier film was conducted to determine the extent of ascorbic acid loss due to oxygen as a function of time and temperature. The initial concentration of ascorbic acid in the orange juice was 374 mg/l and this was foun

  17. RANCANG BANGUN PROTOTIPE PENGHITUNG JUMLAH ORANG DALAM RUANGAN TERPADU BERBASIS MIKROKONTROLER ATMEGA328P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raka Agung

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Meningkatnya permintaan energi dunia akhir-akhir ini dan makin mahalnya harga minyak dunia menyebabkan makin tingginya harga energi listrik (TDL dari PLN. Hal ini secara langsung menyebabkan biaya operasional sebuah gedung atau ruangan semakin meningkat karena pemakaian KWH energi yang harus dibayar setiap bulan. Untuk mengurangi permasalahan  ini akan dibuat prototipe  penghitung jumlah orang dalam ruangan terpadu berbasis Mikrokontroler ATMega328P. Sistem ini adalah menghitung jumlah orang yang masuk dan keluar pada sebuah ruangan menggunakan sensor infrared dengan mikrokontroler ATMega 328P sebagai pengendalinya. Peralatan ini akan memadukan kehadiran atau jumlah orang dalam ruangan dengan hidup matinya lampu penerangan dan pengkondisi udara ruangan (AC  sehingga ruangan tetap layak digunakan dan pemakaian energinya  bisa dikurangi. Jumlah orang yang ada dalam ruangan didapat dengan mengurangi jumlah orang yang masuk dengan jumlah orang  yang ke luar dari ruangan tersebut. Jumlah orang yang ada dalam ruangan dan waktu saat itu  ditampilkan pada layar LCD.  Sistem ini juga dilengkapi rangkaian pengendali  hidup matinya lampu penerangan di depan ruangan (di luar ruangan dengan menggunakan RTC DS 1307. Dengan pengendalian ini lampu penerangan  dapat menyala otomatis pada sore hari dan mati  saat pagi hari pada waktu yang sudah diset sebelumnya. Prototipe sistem yang dibuat sudah mampu menghitung  jumlah orang yang berada dalam suatu ruangan dan mengatur hidup mati lampu penerangan dan pengkondisi udara ruangan tersebut.

  18. The vitamin C content of orange juice packed in an oxygen scavenger material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerdin, K.; Rooney, M.L.; Vermuë, J.

    2003-01-01

    A storage study of orange juice packed in oxygen scavenging (OS) film and oxygen barrier film was conducted to determine the extent of ascorbic acid loss due to oxygen as a function of time and temperature. The initial concentration of ascorbic acid in the orange juice was 374 mg/l and this was

  19. 78 FR 23208 - Importation of Fresh Oranges and Tangerines From Egypt Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... fly (Ceratitis capitata); however, imports of oranges from Egypt were suspended in July 2002 due to... with 7 CFR part 305 for C. capitata and B. zonata; and The oranges and tangerines must be accompanied... has undergone treatment for C. capitata and B. zonata in accordance with 7 CFR part 305, with an...

  20. MnO2/CeO2 for catalytic ultrasonic degradation of methyl orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, He; Zhang, Guangming; Zhang, Quanling

    2014-05-01

    Catalytic ultrasonic degradation of aqueous methyl orange was studied in this paper. Heterogeneous catalyst MnO2/CeO2 was prepared by impregnation of manganese oxide on cerium oxide. Morphology and specific surface area of MnO2/CeO2 catalyst were characterized and its composition was determined. Results showed big differences between fresh and used catalyst. The removal efficiency of methyl orange by MnO2/CeO2 catalytic ultrasonic process was investigated. Results showed that ultrasonic process could remove 3.5% of methyl orange while catalytic ultrasonic process could remove 85% of methyl orange in 10 min. The effects of free radical scavengers were studied to determine the role of hydroxyl free radical in catalytic ultrasonic process. Results showed that methyl orange degradation efficiency declined after adding free radical scavengers, illustrating that hydroxyl free radical played an important role in degrading methyl orange. Theoretic analysis showed that the resonance size of cavitation bubbles was comparable with the size of catalyst particles. Thus, catalyst particles might act as cavitation nucleus and enhance ultrasonic cavitation effects. Measurement of H2O2 concentration in catalytic ultrasonic process confirmed this hypothesis. Effects of pre-adsorption on catalytic ultrasonic process were examined. Pre-adsorption significantly improved methyl orange removal. The potential explanation was that methyl orange molecules adsorbed on catalysts could enter cavitation bubbles and undergo stronger cavitation.

  1. Photoactivity and pH sensitivity of methyl orange functionalized poly(propyleneamine) dendrimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksen, A.; Zuidema, E.; Williams, R.M.; De Cola, L.; Kauffmann, C.; Vögtle, F.; Roque, A.; Pina, F.

    2002-01-01

    For the first time a pH indicator that responds to two different external stimuli, i.e. pH and light, namely methyl orange, has been implemented in a dendrimer. Six generations (G0-G5) of methyl orange-functionalized poly(propyleneamine) dendrimers ("MO dendrimers") have been synthesized and charact

  2. Study of flavour compounds from orange juices by HS-SPME and GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Covaciu, F.; Feher, I.; Magdas, A.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

    2013-11-01

    The flavour of the orange juices, which gives the taste and odour of the product, is an important criterion about the products quality for consumers. A fresh single strength and two commercial orange juices (obtained from concentrate) flavour profile were studied using a selective and sensitive gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical system, after a solvent free, single step preconcentration and extraction technique, the headspace solid phase microextraction (HP-SPME). In the studied orange juices 55 flavour compounds were detected and classified as belonging to the esters, alcohols, ketones, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes chemical families. The fresh single strength orange juice was characterized by high amount of esters, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Limonene and valencene were the most abundant flavours in this fresh natural orange juice. Alcohols and ketones were found in higher concentration in the commercial orange juices made from concentrate, than in the single strength products. Nevertheless, in commercial juices the most abundant flavour was limonene and α-terpineol. The results highlight clear differences between fresh singles strength orange juice and juice from concentrate. The orange juices reconstructed from concentrate, made in Romania, present low quantity of flavour compounds, suggesting the absence or a low rearomatization process, but extraneous components were not detected.

  3. APLIKASI BERBAKTI: PERANCANGAN ARSITEKTUR PERANGKAT LUNAK PENGHUBUNG ANAK DENGAN ORANG TUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Agus Santoso

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Kebutuhan perawatan kondisi orang tua sangat perlu dilakukan seiring dengan berjalannya waktu. Hambatan mulai terjadi jika antara orang tua dan anak terpisah dalam kondisi yang cukup jauh sehingga anak sebagai pihak perawat orang tua tidak dapat maksimal dalam memberikan pemantauan dan perawatan secara intens, terlebih lagi perkembangan teknologi membuat orang tua pun kesulitan dalam menggunakan teknologi terkini. Untuk mengakomodasi dan memberikan solusi atas permasalahan tersebut maka perlu pengembangan perangkat lunak yang memudahkan anak dalam memantau dan merawat orang tua secara intens. Perangkat lunak yang dikembangkan terdiri dari dua buah perangkat lunak yang saling terhubung yaitu caregiver app yang digunakan oleh anak dan elder app yang digunakan oleh orang tua. Oleh karena dalam hal ini orang tua juga menggunakan perangkat lunak aplikasi tersebut, maka elder app dikembangkan secara khusus supaya mudh digunakan oleh orang tua. Tidak hanya pada elder app, desain sistem pada perangkat lunak ini dimodelkan secara khusus dan menjadi pembahasan dalam paper ini. Kata Kunci: caregiving, orangtua, anak, perkuat jalinan hubungan

  4. GUS Gene Expression Driven by A Citrus Promoter in Transgenic Tobacco and 'Valencia' Sweet Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work was the transformation of tobacco and ‘Valencia’ sweet orange with the GUS gene driven by the citrus phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene promoter (CsPP). Transformation was accomplished by co-cultivation of tobacco and ‘Valencia’ sweet orange explants with Agrobacteriu...

  5. Film dosimeters based on methylene blue and methyl orange in polyvinyl alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, W.H.; Miller, A.

    1994-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films containing methylene blue and methyl orange are useful as gamma and electron radiation dosimeters. Absorbed doses should not exceed 40 kGy for methylene blue and 500 kGy for methyl orange. Because PVA is water-soluble, the films may be made without toxic solvents. Th...

  6. Exploring Antagonistic Candidate Fungi for Controling Pathogenic Fungi (Colletotricum gloeosporioides) Causing Anthracnose Disease in Kintamani Siam Orange Plants (Citrus Nobillis Lour Var. Hass)

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Nyoman Darsini; I Made Sudana; I Dewa Ngurah Suprapta; Dewa Nyoman Nyana

    2017-01-01

    Orange plantation center in Bali are located in Bangli Regency, Kintamani District. Kintamani orange plantations cultivated three types of oranges: tangerine, selayer, and mandarin oranges. The famous orange in Bali today is Kintamani orange,  tangerine type.  The typical flavor and aroma of Kintamani tangerine make it is favored by consumers from various regions. Based on the information from Bangli District Agriculture Office and the results of field surveys in the last two years (in 2013 a...

  7. Microwave-assisted extraction and determination of citrus red 2 dye in oranges and orange juice by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chao; Liu, Bin; Zhu, Zhenou; Huang, Fuzhen; Chen, Xiangzhun; Shen, Yan

    2012-12-01

    A fast, simple, low cost, and high-throughput method has been developed for the determination of citrus red 2 dye in orange and orange juice samples. The procedure is based on microwave-assisted extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The method was optimized, and the analyte was efficiently extracted from the samples in 30 min using hexane/acetone (v/v, 3 : 1). The method was validated and showed good linearity and selectivity. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were 5 μg/kg (sample size of 2 g) for both orange and orange juice samples. The average recoveries, measured at 3 concentration levels (5, 10, and 20 μg/kg), were in the range 77.5% to 87.6% for the compound tested with relative standard deviations below 7.3%. The proposed method is rapid, accurate, and could be utilized for the routine analysis of citrus red 2 dye in orange and orange juice samples.

  8. In vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids, flavonoids, and vitamin C from differently processed oranges and orange juices [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschoff, Julian K; Kaufmann, Sabrina; Kalkan, Onur; Neidhart, Sybille; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2015-01-21

    Carotenoid, flavonoid, and vitamin C concentrations were determined in fresh orange segments and a puree-like homogenate derived thereof, as well as freshly squeezed, flash-pasteurized, and pasteurized juices. Lutein and β-cryptoxanthin were slightly degraded during dejuicing, whereas β-carotene levels were retained. Vitamin C levels remained unaffected, whereas flavonoid levels decreased 8-fold upon juice extraction, most likely due to the removal of flavonoid-rich albedo and juice vesicles. Likewise, the presence of such fibrous matrix compounds during in vitro digestion was assumed to significantly lower the total bioaccessibility (BA) of all carotenoids from fresh fruit segments (12%) as compared to juices (29-30%). Mechanical disruption of orange segments prior to digestion did not alter carotenoid BA, whereas pasteurization of the freshly squeezed juice slightly increased BA by 9-11%. In addition to carotenoid BA, the stabilities of hesperidin, narirutin, and vitamin C including dehydroascorbic acid during in vitro digestion were monitored, and applied analytical methods were briefly validated.

  9. Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP): a comprehensive database for sweet orange genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Chen, Dijun; Lei, Yang; Chang, Ji-Wei; Hao, Bao-Hai; Xing, Feng; Li, Sen; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Chen, Ling-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crop with global production ranking firstly among all the fruit crops in the world. Sweet orange accounts for more than half of the Citrus production both in fresh fruit and processed juice. We have sequenced the draft genome of a double-haploid sweet orange (C. sinensis cv. Valencia), and constructed the Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP) to store and visualize the sequenced genomic and transcriptome data. CAP provides GBrowse-based organization of sweet orange genomic data, which integrates ab initio gene prediction, EST, RNA-seq and RNA-paired end tag (RNA-PET) evidence-based gene annotation. Furthermore, we provide a user-friendly web interface to show the predicted protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and metabolic pathways in sweet orange. CAP provides comprehensive information beneficial to the researchers of sweet orange and other woody plants, which is freely available at http://citrus.hzau.edu.cn/.

  10. Effect of anionic surfactants on the process of Fenton degradation of methyl orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C W; Wang, D

    2009-01-01

    Fenton process has been shown to be very successful to remove dyes from water. However, the influence of other constituents in dyeing industry wastewater, such as Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) surfactants, has not been investigated. In this study, the effect of SDS surfactant on the kinetics of Methyl Orange degradation undergoing Fenton process was investigated. Results show that Methyl Orange degradation rate decreased as SDS concentration increased, which was attributed to the consumption of hydroxyl radicals (OH) by surfactants and the formation of Methyl Orange-SDS complex. No evidence was found that the Methyl Orange degradation pathway was affected by the presence of SDS. The kinetics modelling indicates the reaction was the first-order reaction to Methyl Orange.

  11. Outbreak of Salmonella serotype Anatum infection associated with unpasteurized orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, G; Terzagian, R; Hammond, R

    2001-12-01

    In March 1999, a patient was infected with Salmonella serotype Anatum after having consumed unpasteurized orange juice from a manufacturer in Florida. We conducted a cohort study among customers of the manufacturer, performed pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) on isolates, and inspected the manufacturing plant. Surveillance data identified three additional patients infected with Salmonella Anatum showing indistinguishable or closely related PFGE patterns. Three of the four patients had consumed orange juice from the same manufacturer. In the cohort study, 6 of 68 persons (9%) who consumed orange juice and/or orange ice cream from the manufacturer were ill, compared with 1 of 47 (2%) who did not. A positive antigen test for Salmonella species and coliform growth in juice samples taken from the production line suggested contamination during the manufacturing process. Commercially produced orange juice should be pasteurized or otherwise processed to achieve equivalent reduction of pathogens.

  12. A role for the deep orange and carnation eye color genes in lysosomal delivery in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevrioukov, E A; He, J P; Moghrabi, N; Sunio, A; Krämer, H

    1999-10-01

    Deep orange and carnation are two of the classic eye color genes in Drosophila. Here, we demonstrate that Deep orange is part of a protein complex that localizes to endosomal compartments. A second component of this complex is Carnation, a homolog of Sec1p-like regulators of membrane fusion. Because complete loss of deep orange function is lethal, the role of this complex in intracellular trafficking was analyzed in deep orange mutant clones. Retinal cells devoid of deep orange function completely lacked pigmentation and exhibited exaggerated multivesicular structures. Furthermore, a defect in endocytic trafficking was visualized in developing photoreceptor cells. These results provide direct evidence that eye color mutations of the granule group also disrupt vesicular trafficking to lysosomes.

  13. 76 FR 43344 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... COMMISSION Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Certain Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... revocation of the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil would be likely to lead...

  14. 76 FR 30197 - Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct a Full Five-Year Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... COMMISSION Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orderon Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade... whether revocation of the antidumping duty orderon orange juice from Brazil would be likely to lead...

  15. Orange Is The New Black: um mosaico de identidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tancy, Costa Mavignier

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Percebe-se um aumento de protagonistas femininas nas produções audiovisuais. Somado a esse fato novas histórias baseadas em personagens complexos surgem nas séries produzidas pelo Netflix, pensadas para diferentes públicos. Esse artigo pretende descobrir de que forma as personagens femininas na série Orange is the new black subvertem as identidades. Desse modo, deseja-se perceber de que modo a sexualidade atravessa as diferentes identidades étnicas e sociais, focando nas personagens Piper, Boo, Sophia, Taystee e Poussay. Utiliza-se como metodologia a análise das três temporadas da série à luz dos conceitos da subversão das identidades de Judith Butler, da mídia como retrato da sociedade de Douglas Kellner, identidades na pós-modernidade de Stuart Hall e personagem esférico de Edward Morgan Foster.

  16. A Study of Interaction of Methyl Orange with Some Polycations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nandini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between an anionic dye methyl orange and three poly cations namely, poly (N-methy-4-vinylpyridinium iodide (PM4VPI, poly (vinylbenzyltriphenyl phosphonium chloride (PVBTPPC and poly (N-methy-4-vinylpyridinium iodide (PM2VPI has been investigated by spectrophotometric method. The polymers were observed to induce metachromasy in the dye as evidenced from the considerable blue shift in the absorption maxima of the dye. The interaction constant and thermodynamic parameters of interaction have been determined by absorbance measurements at the metachromatic band. The effect of additives such as ionic salts, alcohols, urea and polyelectrolytes on the reversal of metachromasy has been studied and used to determine the stability of the metachromatic complex and to understand the nature of binding.

  17. Sonochemical Decolorization of Methyl Orange in Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Tie-ling; Chu K.H.; CHEN Guo-qiang

    2006-01-01

    The sonochemical decolorization of Methylene Orange was studied using a 24 kHz Ultrasound device with a 1.4 cm diameter horn. pH, power density, the effects of pH and power density on decolorization were discussed. The combined effect of radiate time, the initial concentration of dyes and the addition of Fe2+ on the decolorization was studied using response surface methodology. The results showed that the factorial central composite design was successfully employed for experimental design and predication of the results. AtpH = 2.8, T=30℃, power denstity= 300 W/L and Fe2+ of 2 mg/L, the decolorization percentage of 5 mg/L dye solution reached 96% after 60 min ultrasound treatment.The rate of decolorization of the dye was greatly improved in the presence of Fe2+. The sonolysis of the dye followed first-order kinetics.

  18. Encapsulation of orange terpenes investigating a plasticisation extrusion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackenberg, Markus W; Krauss, Ralph; Schuchmann, Heike P; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Extrusion is widely used for flavour encapsulation. However, there is a lack of process understanding. This study is aimed at improving the understanding of a counter rotating twin screw extrusion process. Orange terpenes as model flavour, maltodextrin and sucrose as matrix materials, and a water feed rate between 4.0% and 5.7% were applied. Product temperatures < 80 °C and specific mechanical energy inputs <260 Wh/kg resulted. Amorphous and partly crystalline samples were obtained. The loss of crystalline sucrose was linked to a dissolution process of the sugar in the available water amount. Melting of the excipients did not arise, resulting in a plasticisation extrusion process. Maximally 67% of the flavour was retained (corresponding to a 4.1% product flavour load). The flavour loss correlated with insufficient mixing during the process and flavour evaporation after extrusion. Based on these results, recommendations for an improved encapsulation process are given.

  19. Wild and Valuable? Tourist Values for Orang-utan Conservation in Sarawak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin K Zander

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluffy, orange and endearing, orang-utans have won the hearts of people all over the world. However, all sub-species are endangered in the wild with the Bornean orang-utan population having declined by more than 50% over the past 60 years. Fewer than 2,000 wild orang-utans remain in Sarawak with nearly all truly wild ones confined to a remote site on the Indonesian border. Yet each year thousands of tourists and local Sarawak people see orang-utans semi-wild in a reserve or captive in a rehabilitation centre. We investigated the attitudes of such tourists towards the conservation of the remaining wild populations by means of questionnaires, including a choice experiment. Sixty percent of the respondents were, in principle, willing to pay to ensure survival of a wild orang-utan population. International tourists tended to regard wild survival as being more important than having a high probability of seeing orang-utans personally-indeed they preferred wild orang-utans to be hard to find. Malaysian tourists were more inclined to favour investment in the small number of captive or semi-wild animals. Using conservative judgements of the difference between stated and real willingness-to-pay, we estimated that about USD 6.6 million per year could be made available to wild orang-utan conservation from voluntary contributions by visitors to the semi-wild animals. We also estimated that the 40% of visitors to these facilities who come to Sarawak primarily because of the apes, bring between USD 13 and USD 23 million into the local economy each year through their expenditure on local businesses, about 0.6% of the income earned by Sarawak from timber products. Our results suggest that far fewer would come if there were no wild orang-utans in Sarawak. Thus the value of wild orang-utans in Sarawak can be delivered through the captive facilities but the economic benefits from orang-utans require both captive and wild orang-utans.

  20. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Simone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids, whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP. Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m2·h·bar, coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m2·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively.

  1. Optimization of the Enzymatic Saccharification Process of Milled Orange Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Velasco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Orange juice production generates a very high quantity of residues (Orange Peel Waste or OPW-50–60% of total weight that can be used for cattle feed as well as feedstock for the extraction or production of essential oils, pectin and nutraceutics and several monosaccharides by saccharification, inversion and enzyme-aided extraction. As in all solid wastes, simple pretreatments can enhance these processes. In this study, hydrothermal pretreatments and knife milling have been analyzed with enzyme saccharification at different dry solid contents as the selection test: simple knife milling seemed more appropriate, as no added pretreatment resulted in better final glucose yields. A Taguchi optimization study on dry solid to liquid content and the composition of the enzymatic cocktail was undertaken. The amounts of enzymatic preparations were set to reduce their impact on the economy of the process; however, as expected, the highest amounts resulted in the best yields to glucose and other monomers. Interestingly, the highest content in solid to liquid (11.5% on dry basis rendered the best yields. Additionally, in search for process economy with high yields, operational conditions were set: medium amounts of hemicellulases, polygalacturonases and β-glucosidases. Finally, a fractal kinetic modelling of results for all products from the saccharification process indicated very high activities resulting in the liberation of glucose, fructose and xylose, and very low activities to arabinose and galactose. High activity on pectin was also observed, but, for all monomers liberated initially at a fast rate, high hindrances appeared during the saccharification process.

  2. [Study on experiment of absorption spectroscopy detection of pesticide residues of carbendazim in orange juice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ren-Dong; Chen, Meng-Lan; Zhao, Zhi-Min; Zhu, Xing-Yue; Wang, Le-Xin; Liu, Quan-Jin

    2014-03-01

    Absorption spectra were studied for the carbendazim, in the mixed solution of orange juice and carbendazim using spectrophotometer. The most intensive characteristic peak (285 nm) was found in the spectrum of carbendazim standard solution. Compared with the carbendazim drug solution, the peak position of absorption spectrum has the blue shift (285-280 nm) when carbendazim (0.28 mg x mL(-1))was added in the orange juice. So that we can conclude that interaction happened between the orange juice and carbendazim. Through the method of least squares fitting, the prediction models between the absorbance of orange juice and carbendazim content was obtained with a good linear relationship. The linear function model was: I = 2.41 + 9.26x, the correlation coefficient was 0.996, and the recovery was: 81%-102%. According to the regression model, we can obtain the amount of carbendazim pesticide residues in orange juice. It was verified that the method of using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra was feasible to detect the carbendazim residues in orange juice. The result proved that it is possible to detect pesticide residues of carbendazim in orange juice, and it can meet the needs of rapid analysis. This study provides a new way for the detection of pesticide residues.

  3. Carotenoid bioaccessibility in pulp and fresh juice from carotenoid-rich sweet oranges and mandarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, María Jesús; Cilla, Antonio; Barberá, Reyes; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    Citrus fruits are a good source of carotenoids for the human diet; however, comparative studies of carotenoids in different citrus food matrices are scarce. In this work the concentration and bioaccessibility of carotenoids in sweet oranges and mandarins with marked differences in carotenoid composition were evaluated in pulp and compared to those in fresh juice. The pulp and juice of the red-fleshed Cara Cara sweet orange variety was highly rich in carotenes (mainly lycopene and phytoene) compared to standard Navel orange, while β-cryptoxanthin and phytoene predominated in mandarins. Total carotenoid content in the pulp of the ordinary Navel orange and in the red-fleshed Cara Cara orange, as well as in the Clementine mandarin were higher than in the corresponding juices, although individual carotenoids were differentially affected by juice preparation. Bioaccessibility of the bioactive carotenoids (the ones described to be absorbed by humans) was greater in both pulp and juice of the carotenoid-rich Cara Cara orange compared to the Navel orange while increasing levels of β-cryptoxanthin were detected in the bioaccessible fractions of pulp and juice of mandarins postharvest stored at 12 °C compared to freshly-harvested fruits. Overall, results indicated that higher soluble bioactive carotenoids from citrus fruits and, consequently, potential nutritional and health benefits are obtained by the consumption of pulp with respect to fresh juice.

  4. A Novel Orange-Red Emitting ZnB4O7:Eu3+ Phosphor with Urchin-Like Nanostructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hom Nath Luitel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel phosphor, ZnB4O7:Eu3+, with urchin-like structure consisting of radially arranged high density nanorods was successfully synthesized by hydrothermal process at 150°C for 24 h. The nanorods were measured from 200 to 400 nm in diameter and several µm in length. The urchins were few µm to 40 µm in diameter. The ZnB4O7:Eu3+ phosphors were efficiently excited by ultraviolet (UV ~ 254 nm to visible light of ~ 220 to 450 nm and exhibited intense orange-red emission consisting of main peaks at 590, 615, and 695 nm due to the charge transfer in the host and f→f transitions (5D0 to 7F1,2,4 of the Eu3+ ions. Effect of the Eu3+ ions concentration on the photoluminescence (PL emission intensity was investigated and it was found that 5 at% Eu3+ is the optimum concentration. Meanwhile, the concentration quenching mechanism was discussed. The key parameters, such as temperature dependent PL and CIE values of ZnB4O7:Eu3+ phosphors, were studied. The ZnB4O7:Eu3+ phosphor exhibited good thermal stability and better absorption cross section compared to the commercial Y2O2S:Eu3+ phosphor. All these characteristics indicate that the phosphor will be a potential candidate for the UV based white LEDs.

  5. Tracking the degradation of fresh orange juice and discrimination of orange varieties: an example of NMR in coordination with chemometrics analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Clayton R; Carneiro, Renato L; Ferreira, Antonio G

    2014-12-01

    Brazil is currently the largest exporter of concentrated orange juice and, unlike the other exporter countries, the domestic consumption is mainly based on the fresh orange juice. The quality control by evaluating the major chemical constituents under the influence of the most important factors, such as temperature and storage time of the product, is very important in this context. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of temperature and time on the degradation of fresh orange juice for 24h, by using (1)H NMR technique and chemometric tools for data mining. The storage conditions at 24h led to the production of the formic, fumaric and acetic acids; and an increase of succinic and lactic acids and ethanol, which were observed at low concentration at the initial time. Furthermore, analysis by PCA has successfully distinguished the juice of different species/varieties as well as the metabolites responsible for their separation.

  6. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco R; Estornell, Leandro H; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Ramón, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, François; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes--a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-orange genomes--and show that cultivated types derive from two progenitor species. Although cultivated pummelos represent selections from one progenitor species, Citrus maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species Citrus reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, thus implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A Chinese wild 'mandarin' diverges substantially from C. reticulata, thus suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and facilitates sequence-directed genetic improvement.

  7. Decolorization of Orange Ⅱ using an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor with and without co-substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soon-An Ong; Eiichi Toorisaka; Makoto Hirata; Tadashi Hano

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the decolorization of Orange Ⅱ with and without the addition of co-substrates and nutrients under an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR).The increase in COD concentrations from 900 to 1750 to 3730 mg/L in the system treating 100 mg/L of Orange H-containing wastewater enhanced color removal from 27% to 81% to 89%,respectively.In the absence of co-substrates and nutrients,more than 95% of decolorization was achieved by the acclimatized anaerobic microbes in the bioreactor treating 600 mg/L of Orange Ⅱ.The decrease in mixed liquor suspended solids concentration by endogenous lysis of biomass preserved a high reducing environment in the ASBR,which was important for the reduction of the Orange Ⅱ azo bond that caused decolorization.The maximum decolorization rate in the ASBR was approximately 0.17 g/hr in the absence of co-substrates and nutrients.

  8. 77 FR 73961 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Redistricting and Reapportionment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... production area. District One includes the counties of Hillsborough, Pinellas, Pasco, Hernando, Citrus..., Clay, Columbia, Duval, Flagler, Gilchrist, Hernando, Hillsborough, Lake, Levy, Marion, Nassau, Orange..., Clay, Columbia, Duval, Flagler, Gilchrist, Hernando, Hillsborough, Lake, Levy, Marion, Nassau,...

  9. Environmental fate of TCDD and Agent Orange and bioavailability to troops in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karch, N.J.; Watkins, D.K.; Ginevan, M.E. [Exponent, Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Young, A.L. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States)

    2004-09-15

    This paper reviews the environmental fate of Agent Orange and the contaminant, 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and discusses how this affects the bioavailability of TCDD for ground troops in Vietnam.

  10. Comparison of carotenoid accumulation and biosynthetic gene expression between Valencia and Rohde Red Valencia sweet oranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoid accumulation and biosynthetic gene expression levels during fruit maturation were compared between ordinary Valencia (VAL) and its more deeply colored mutant Rohde Red Valencia orange (RRV). The two cultivars exhibited different carotenoid profiles and regulatory mechanisms in flavedo and...

  11. Optimization of ohmic heating applications for pectin methylesterase inactivation in orange juice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Demirdöven, Aslıhan; Baysal, Taner

    Ohmic heating (OH) which is among to electro-thermal methods and helps to inactivate microorganisms and enzymes was used in this study as thermal treatment on orange juice production for pectin methylesterase (PME) inactivation...

  12. Double-burden of malnutrition among the indigenous peoples (Orang Asli) of Peninsular Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, C Y; Zalilah, M S; Chua, E Y; Norhasmah, S; Chin, Y S; Siti Nur'Asyura, A

    2015-01-01

    ...) of Peninsular Malaysia. This study aimed to identify the presence of DBM at the community and household levels in Orang Asli population and its associated demographic and socio-economic factors...

  13. EFFECT OF USING NUTRITION MINERALS AND GROWTH SUBSTANCE ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ORANGE FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek FOUDA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried to investigate the characterization of orange fruits under using applications of nutrition minerals and one application of growth substance on physical properties of orange fruits at private farm in wadi el-netron, ELbehari governorate, Egypt during winter 2011to predict maturity stage of orange fruits . The physical properties including aspect ratio(AR, Area of flat surface(Af, Area of transverse surface (At, Arithmetic diameter (Da, Density (ρ, Geometric diameter (Dg, surface area (Sa, sphericity, Volume (V and weight and the results revealed that, the high increasing percentage of orange fruits were considered as follows 9.24, 17.08, 22.65, 9.70, 27.16, 9.70, 20.45, 6.38, 24.07 and 28.84 %

  14. HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and risk behaviours among Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita, S; Zahir, W M; Sa'iah, A; Rahimah, M A; Sha'ari, B N

    2007-08-01

    Orang Asli, the indigenous people of Peninsular Malaysia comprises only 0.5% of total Malaysia population but contribute to 0.06% of total notified HIV cases in the country. Their current knowledge, attitude and practice related to HIV was not known. A cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice among Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia was carried out involving 2706 Orang Asli from 33 remote and 47 fringe villages. Generally, the level of knowledge was fair (30%-50%) with mean scores of 55.7% (SD 31.7) while attitudes were negative. There was gender bias towards misconception on HIV transmission and sources of information. HIV seroprevalence of 0.3% was detected while risk behaviors were low. This study provides baseline information for HIV/AIDS preventive programs to the Orang Asli communities.

  15. 2010 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic from Color Aerial Imagery of BEAUMONT, ORANGE, PORT AUTHUR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative of BEAUMONT, ORANGE,...

  16. The vegetation of the north-western Orange Free State, South Africa. 1. Physical environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Kooij

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The physiography, geology, soil, land types and climate of the north-western Orange Free State are described. The description provides a contextual framework for the subsequent vegetation classification.

  17. Characterization of paprika (Capsicum annuum) extract in orange juices by liquid chromatography of carotenoid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouly, P P; Gaydou, E M; Corsetti, J

    1999-03-01

    The carotenoid pigment profiles of authentic pure orange juices from Spain and Florida and an industrial paprika (Capsicum annuum) extract used for food coloring were obtained using reversed-phase liquid chromatography with a C18 packed column and an acetone/methanol/water eluent system. The procedure involving the carotenoid extraction is described. Both retention times and spectral properties using photodiode array detection for characterization of the major carotenoids at 430 and 519 nm are given. The influence of external addition of tangerine juice and/or paprika extract on orange juice color is described using the U.S. Department of Agriculture scale and adulterated orange juice. The procedure for quantitation of externally added paprika extract to orange juice is investigated, and the limit of quantitation, coefficient of variation, and recoveries are determined.

  18. Ascorbic Acid Determination in Natural Orange Juice: As a Teaching Tool of Coulometry and Polarography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, Mauro; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to determine ascorbic acid concentrations in natural orange juice. The experiment is used with undergraduate pharmacy students to allow understanding of the principles of operation of the coulometer and polarograph. (DDR)

  19. Power and selection of contract terms: The case from the Brazilian orange juice sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuiuki Costa Ito

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We propose a model to explain how contract terms are selected in the presence of a form of economic power: contract power. The orange juice sector is used to illustrate an analysis that demonstrates the effects of contract power on the economic organization of the sector. We define contract power as the ability to exploit contractual gaps or failures of contractual provisions, which are strategically left incomplete. Empirical evidence from content analysis of antitrust documents supports the logic of contract power in the orange juice sector in three forms: avoiding changes to payment methods from weight to solid contents (quality; using information asymmetries to manipulate indexes that calculate the formula of orange prices; and deliberately harvesting oranges late in order to dehydrate the fruit, which consequently reduces weight and price. The paper contributes to understanding the selection of contract terms and the debate about how antitrust offices can deal with this issue.

  20. Meat-eating by a wild Bornean orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Benjamin J W; Dench, Rosalie J; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen C; Bustani, Unyil; Chivers, David J

    2015-10-01

    We present the first evidence for consumption of meat by a wild Bornean orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus). Meat-eating has been reported in Sumatran orang-utans, specifically the hunting and consumption of slow lorises (Nycticebus coucang), but loris-hunting behaviour has not been observed in the Bornean species and meat of any species is essentially absent from their diet, with only two anecdotal reports of vertebrate meat consumption prior to this current finding in over 40 years of study. In August 2012 an unhabituated adult flanged male orang-utan was observed eating an adult horse-tailed squirrel (Sundasciurus hippurus) carcass in the Sabangau peat-swamp forest, Central Kalimantan. We suspect this to be a case of scavenging, never reported previously in a Bornean orang-utan.

  1. Origin of orange color in nominally undoped HVPE GaN crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, F.; Beyer, F. C.; Gärtner, G.; Röder, C.; Son, N. T.; Janzén, E.; Veselá, D.; Lorinčík, J.; Hofmann, P.; Krupinski, M.; Mikolajick, T.; Habel, F.; Leibiger, G.; Heitmann, J.

    2017-08-01

    In this article we investigated unintentionally doped (UID) GaN grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) with respect to point defects and impurity concentration. The samples were orange tinted to different extent. Optical analysis was performed by micro-photoluminescence and absorption spectroscopy. Absorption measurements revealed an absorption peak at 1.5 eV related to an internal transition in Mn3+ impurities and a second band with low energy onset at 1.9 eV, both increasing with the extent of orange color. Electron paramagnetic resonance investigations showed the presence of Mn2+ and Fe3+ in the colored crystals. The overall impurity concentration was verified by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Orange tint is associated with an increase of transition metal contamination, especially Mn. Based on these observations we suggest that the orange coloring in the investigated UID HVPE GaN samples is caused by the presence of Mn impurities.

  2. HUBUNGAN RASIO LINGKAR PERUT PANGGUL DENGAN RESIKO PENYAKIT KARDIOVASKULER PADA ORANG DEWASA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astuti Lamid

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian hubungan antara rasio lingkar perut dan panggul (RLPP dengan resiko penyakit kardiovaskuler pada orang dewasa usia di atas 30 tahun telah dilaksanakan di kecamatan Bogor Barat, Kodya Bogor. Dari 1145 orang dewasa usia di atas 30 tahun yang telah diukur, diambil secara random 54 orang sebagai sampel yang mempunyai RLPP tinggi (>0.85 dan 54 orang pembanding dengan RLPP rendah (<0.05. Data yang dikumpulkan pada sampel dan pembanding meliputi antropometri, faktor resiko penyakit kardiovaskuler (lipida darah, gula darah dan tekanan darah, konsumsi makanan dan sosial ekonomi. Hasil uji khi kuadrat dan uji t antara kelompok RLPP tinggi dan RLPP rendah ditemukan hanya empat variabel yaitu hipertensi, trigliserida, body mass index dan persen lemak tubuh yang berbeda secara nyata (p<0.05. Walaupun uji t pada kadar kolesterol darah tidak berbeda secara nyata antara dua kelompok namun tampak ada kecenderungan meningkat pada kelompok RLPP tinggi.

  3. 2009 St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) Lidar: Portions of Orange and Seminole Counties, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area covers 318 square miles in the eastern half of Seminole County plus portions of north central and northeast Orange County in the state of Florida....

  4. Investigating the effect of antioxidant extract from orange peel on lipids oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak G. AKPAN*

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research involved investigation of the extraction yield and antioxidant property of orange peel on lipid oxidation. Orange peel was oven dried, grinded to powder and extraction procedure carried out using methanol as solvent in a soxhlet extractor. The effects of time and temperature on the extraction process were considered and results obtained showed an optimum extraction temperature and time of 50ºC and 120 minutes respectively. X-ray fluorescence analysis of the orange peel extract showed that potassium and calcium are the major elements by percentag mposition of 55.5 and 32.65 respectively. In studying the effects of oran eel extract on the melon oil sample, peroxide, free fatty acid and pH analysis were carried out for a period of 60 day. The result obtained confirmed the of ability orange peel extract as antioxidant agent.

  5. Genetic control of orange hilum corona of carioca beans (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Pires Tomaz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to elucidate the genetic control of orange corona color in carioca common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris. We made four crosses between carioca group cultivars that differed in respect to the presence or absence of an orange hilum corona color. The F2, F3, F1BC11, F1BC21, F2BC11 and F2BC21 phenotypic segregations were evaluated with a chi-square test which fitted with the hypothesis that one gene with a dominant allele is responsible for the orange corona color. All generations resulting from the four different crosses showed segregation patterns which agreed with the expected proportions. Our results show that the dominant G allele controls orange corona color in the carioca bean group.

  6. Achieving a balance between small singlet-triplet energy splitting and high fluorescence radiative rate in a quinoxaline-based orange-red thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ling; Wu, Zhongbin; Xie, Guohua; Zhong, Cheng; Zhu, Zece; Cong, Hengjiang; Ma, Dongge; Yang, Chuluo

    2016-09-21

    A new orange-red thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitter is designed and synthesized by incorporating a fluorine-substituted quinoxaline as an electron-acceptor and a phenoxazine as an electron-donor. The rational molecular design enables small singlet-triplet energy splitting (ΔEST) and high fluorescence radiative rate (k) for long-wavelength TADF emitters. The organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) employing the new TADF emitter achieve maximum external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of 13.9% and 9.0% for the vacuum- and solution-processed OLEDs, respectively.

  7. Photoluminescence properties of a novel orange-red emitting Ba2CaZn2Si6O17:Sm3+ phosphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G Annadurai; S Masilla Moses Kennedy; V Sivakumar

    2016-01-01

    Novel orange-red emitting Ba2Ca1–xZn2Si6O17:xSm3+(0.02≤x≤0.08) phosphors were synthesized using conventional solid-state reaction method under air atmosphere.The phase formation of the samples was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence properties were also investigated. The narrow excitation and emission spectra indicated the typical 4f-4f transitions of Sm3+. The dominant excitation line was around 405 nm attributed to6H5/2→4F7/2 and the emission spectrum consisted of four emission peaks at 562, 600, 647, and 708 nm corresponding to the various transi-tions4G5/2 to6HJ (J=5/2, 7/2, 9/2 and 11/2) of the Sm3+ ions in the same order. The strongest emission band located at 600 nm was at-tributed to4G5/2→6H7/2 transition of Sm3+, producing bright orange-red color emission. The optimal dopant concentration of Sm3+ ion in Ba2CaZn2Si6O17:xSm3+ phosphor was around 4 mol.% and the critical transfer distance (Rc) of Sm3+ was calculated to be 2.65 nm. Decay time varied with the Sm3+concentrations in Ba2CaZn2Si6O17 phosphors. In addition, the Commission International del’Eclairagethe (CIE) chromaticity coordinates of Ba2Ca0.96Zn2Si6O17:0.04Sm3+ phosphor was located in the orange-red region (0.547, 0.450) and the correlated color temperature (CCT) was 2543 K. The present results indicated that Sm3+ activated Ba2CaZn2Si6O17 phosphors may be used as an orange-red emitting phosphor for near-ultraviolet (n-UV) based white light emitting diodes (WLEDs) applications.

  8. Influence of crystal structure of nanosized ZrO2 on photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    OpenAIRE

    Basahel, Sulaiman N; Ali, Tarek T; Mokhtar, Mohamed; Narasimharao, Katabathini

    2015-01-01

    Nanosized ZrO2 powders with near pure monoclinic, tetragonal, and cubic structures synthesized by various methods were used as catalysts for photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange. The structural and textural properties of the samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, TEM, UV-vis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and N2 adsorption measurements. The performance of synthesized ZrO2 nanoparticles in the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange under UV light ...

  9. One-step green synthesis of bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles used to degrade Orange II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Fang; Yang, Die; Chen, Zuliang, E-mail: zuliang.chen@newcastle.edu.au; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2016-02-13

    Highlights: • Green synthesis of bimetallic Fe/Pd NPs was firstly reported using the one-step method. • 98.0% of Orange II was removed by Fe/Pd NPs, but only 16.0% by Fe NPs. • Fe/Pd NPs with a diameter ranging from 10 to 100 nm were observed. • Removing Orange II using Fe/Pd NPs involved both adsorption and catalytic degradation. - Abstract: To reduce cost and enhance reactivity, bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles (NPs) were firstly synthesized using grape leaf aqueous extract to remove Orange II. Green synthesized bimetallic Fe/Pd NPs (98.0%) demonstrated a far higher ability to remove Orange II in 12 h compared to Fe NPs (16.0%). Meanwhile, all precursors, e.g., grape leaf extract, Fe{sup 2+} and Pd{sup 2+}, had no obvious effect on removing Orange II since less than 2.0% was removed. Kinetics study revealed that the removal rate fitted well to the pseudo-first-order reduction and pseudo-second-order adsorption model, meaning that removing Orange II via Fe/Pd NPs involved both adsorption and catalytic reduction. The remarkable stability of Fe/Pd NPs showed the potential application for removing azo dyes. Furthermore, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the changes in Fe/Pd NPs before and after reaction with Orange II. High Performance Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrum (HPLC–MS) identified the degraded products in the removal of Orange II, and finally a removal mechanism was proposed. This one-step strategy using grape leaf aqueous extract to synthesize Fe/Pd NPs is simple, cost-effective and environmentally benign, making possible the large-scale production of Fe/Pd NPs for field remediation.

  10. Promoting consumption of fruit in elementary school cafeterias. The effects of slicing apples and oranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Mark; Branscum, Adam; Nakayima, Peace Julie

    2009-10-01

    We examined how slicing apples and oranges affected elementary students' selection and consumption of fruit. Slicing increased the percentage of children selecting and consuming oranges, while a similar effect was not found for apples. The impact of slicing fruit was greatest among younger students. These findings suggest that school cafeterias can increase accessibility and consumption of foods through simple, inexpensive food preparation techniques, with the impact of such measures varying by foods and student characteristics.

  11. Citric acid production from orange peel wastes by solid-state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Torrado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA by solid-state fermentation (SSF of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599 in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculum concentration was varied in the range 0.5·10³ to 0.7·10(8 spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume, and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·10(6 spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel, corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications.

  12. Photoconvertible Behavior of LSSmOrange Applicable for Single Emission Band Optical Highlighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keersmaecker, Herlinde; Fron, Eduard; Rocha, Susana; Kogure, Takako; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Hofkens, Johan; Mizuno, Hideaki

    2016-09-01

    Photoswitchable fluorescent proteins are capable of changing their spectral properties upon light irradiation, thus allowing one to follow a chosen subpopulation of molecules in a biological system. Recently, we revealed a photoinduced absorption band shift of LSSmOrange, which was originally engineered to have a large energy gap between excitation and emission bands. Here, we evaluated the performance of LSSmOrange as a fluorescent tracer in living cells. The absorption maximum of LSSmOrange in HeLa cells shifted from 437 nm to 553 nm upon illumination with a 405-, 445-, 458-, or 488-nm laser on a laser-scanning microscope, whereas the emission band remained same (∼570 nm). LSSmOrange behaves as a freely diffusing protein in living cells, enabling the use of the protein as a fluorescence tag for studies of protein dynamics. By targeting LSSmOrange in mitochondria, we observed an exchange of soluble molecules between the matrices upon mitochondrial fusion. Since converted and unconverted LSSmOrange proteins have similar emission spectra, this tracer offers unique possibilities for multicolor imaging. The fluorescence emission from LSSmOrange was spectrally distinguishable from that of eYFP and mRFP, and could be separated completely by applying linear unmixing. Furthermore, by using a femtosecond laser at 850 nm, we showed that a two-photon process could evoke a light-induced red shift of the absorption band of LSSmOrange, providing a strict confinement of the conversion volume in a three-dimensional space.

  13. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY ESSENTIALS OILS PONTIANAK ORANGE PEELS AGAINST Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Rafika; Mustari, F. Nour Aulia; Wahdaningsih, Sri

    2015-01-01

    The infectious diseases can be caused by the pathogenic bacteria among Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. One of the plants that can be used as antibacterial is essential oils from Pontianak orange peels (Citrus nobilis Lour. var. microcarpa). This research aims to determine the antibacterial activity essential oils Pontianak orange peels againts the pathogenic bacteria by disc diffusion method. This research carried out by using the experimental Completely Randomized Design (CRD) Fa...

  14. Intestinal parasitic infections amongst Orang Asli (indigenous) in Malaysia: has socioeconomic development alleviated the problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Y A L; Romano, N; Colin, N; Chow, S C; Smith, H V

    2009-08-01

    Orang Asli are the indigenous minority peoples of peninsular Malaysia. Despite proactive socioeconomic development initiated by the Malaysian Government in upgrading the quality of life of the Orang Asli communities since 1978, they still remained poor with a current poverty rate of 76.9%. Poverty exacerbates the health problems faced by these communities which include malnourishment, high incidences of infectious diseases (eg. tuberculosis, leprosy, malaria) and the perpetual problem with intestinal parasitic infections. Studies reported that the mean infection rate of intestinal parasitic infections in Orang Asli communities has reduced from 91.1% in 1978, to 64.1% in the subsequent years. Although the results was encouraging, it has to be interpreted with caution because nearly 80% of studies carried out after 1978 still reported high prevalence (i.e. >50%) of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH) among Orang Asli communities. Prior to 1978, hookworm infection is the most predominant STH but today, trichuriasis is the most common STH infections. The risk factors for intestinal parasitic infections remained unchanged and studies conducted in recent years suggested that severe STH infections contributed to malnutrition, iron deficiency anaemia and low serum retinol in Orang Asli communities. In addition, STH may also contribute to poor cognitive functions and learning ability. Improvements in socioeconomic status in Malaysia have shown positive impact on the reduction of intestinal parasitic infections in other communities however, this positive impact is less significant in the Orang Asli communities. In view of this, a national parasitic infections baseline data on morbidity and mortality in the 18 subgroups of Orang Asli, will assist in identifying intervention programmes required by these communities. It is hope that the adoption of strategies highlighted in the World Health Organisation- Healthy Village Initiatives (WHO-HVI) into Orang Asli communities will

  15. The Vulnerability of Community Capitals as a Threat to Orang Kuala Community Development in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Amir Zal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Community development emphasizes the utilization of community resources, also known as community capitals. However, it is often difficult for the community to access these resources; this difficulty retards development. Such is the predicament faced by the Orang Kuala, for whom coastal changes have resulted in greater difficulty in accessing their community resources. Nor is that the only threat that they face. For affirmation of these threats, this article lists two objectives, that is, to identify the accessibility of marine resources and to explain the types of threats faced by the Orang Kuala. To achieve these objectives, a study was conducted involving 51 household heads and 5 Orang Kuala informants, all of whom are residents of Sungai Layau village in Johor, Malaysia. This study uses a mixed-method approach, the concurrent embedded design, and also interview-based questionnaires and in-depth interviews simultaneously. For the first objective, the results show that the Orang Kuala can still attain community resources in the form of marine products. However, the Orang Kuala faced three types of threats: trends, shocks, and seasonal changes. The most significant threat to the Orang Kuala is the trend, that is, cost of living and social problems. These threats can reduce their chances of acquiring benefits from these community resources. This condition is called “vulnerability of community capitals.” The objective of this article is to put forth proposals on how to increase the capacity of community resources for the Orang Kuala so that their community can attain sustainable development. This proposal is based on the reality that the threats facing the Orang Kuala are at a critical level and that they are ready to accept changes.

  16. Decolorization of Mordant Orange-1 by Marinobacter algicola MO-17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Shertate

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The textile industries use different types of dyes in their processing units which are liberated in natural marine water bodies. This release of dyes in turn affect the marine flora and fauna very adversely. Approach: The release of textile dyes into the environment is a matter of concern due to the toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and xenobiotic nature. Hence, considerable attention has been given in determining the ability of marine microorganism in decolorization and degradation of textile dyes. Results: The present study deals with the decolorization of Mordant Orange-1 was carried out using the acclimatized Marinobacter algicola MO-17 isolated from natural marine environment. The acclimatized strain was capable of decolorizing 800 μg mL-1 of the dye at high salt concentration (12% in 24 h. The percent decolorization of the dye was moderated by spectroscopy at 385 nm (λmax. Conclusion/Recommendations: The spectrophotometric analysis showed 78.78% decolorization in Nutrient Broth and 76.78% decolorization in Half Strength Nutrient Broth. The percent Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD reduction of the dye by the strain was 90%. From the study performed, we conclude that, this acclimatized strain can prove better option for bioremediation of textile dyes in wastes containing high salts and in marine environment.

  17. Acridine orange inhibits pulmonary metastasis of mouse osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satonaka, Haruhiko; Kusuzaki, Katsuyuki; Akeda, Koji; Tsujii, Masaya; Iino, Takahiro; Uemura, Takeshi; Matsubara, Takao; Nakamura, Tomoki; Asanuma, Kunihiro; Matsumine, Akihiko; Sudo, Akihiro

    2011-12-01

    Although the survival of patients with osteosarcoma has improved following development of chemotherapy and surgery, the presence of pulmonary metastases indicate a poor prognosis. We developed photodynamic and radiodynamic therapies with acridine orange (AO-PDT and AO-RDT) for minimally invasive surgery to treat musculoskeletal sarcomas and reported a good clinical outcome of local control and limb function. We investigated the effect of AO-PDT using flash-wave light (FWL) on pulmonary metastasis of mouse osteosarcoma. In in vitro and in vivo studies, AO alone and AO-PDT significantly inhibited cell invasion and the growth of pulmonary metastases from primary mouse osteosarcoma. AO may have a specific metastasis-inhibitory effect, different from the effect of AO-PDT. The fluorovisualization effect on pulmonary metastases following intravenous AO administration showed that pulmonary metastases localized on the lung surface were recognized as brilliant green lesions. In conclusion, AO-PDT using FWL inhibited cell invasion and pulmonary metastases in mouse osteosarcoma; therefore, this treatment modality might be applicable for treating pulmonary metastasis from malignant musculoskeletal tumors in humans.

  18. Huanglongbing modifies quality components and flavonoid content of 'Valencia' oranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massenti, Roberto; Lo Bianco, Riccardo; Sandhu, Amandeep K; Gu, Liwei; Sims, Charles

    2016-01-15

    In order to evaluate the effect of citrus greening disease, or Huanglongbing (HLB), on quality components and flavonoid contents of 'Valencia' oranges, fruit from non-infected trees (control), from infected trees but symptom-less (asymptomatic) and from infected trees and showing clear HLB symptoms (symptomatic) were harvested in March and in May, 2013. Fruit peel, pulp and juice were separated, the main quality components were determined, and hesperidin, nobiletin, tangeretin, narirutin and didymin were quantified using liquid chromatography. Peel colour, total soluble solids and citric acid were similar in control and asymptomatic fruits. Symptomatic fruits were smaller, yielded less juice, had higher acidity and lower sugar and peel colour than control fruits. In the peel, hesperidin, nobiletin, tangeretin, narirutin and didymin were higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic and control fruits. Peel flavonoids decreased with fruit maturation. Also, in pulp and juice, flavonoid content was higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic and control fruits. These results show that asymptomatic fruits are similar to control fruits more than to symptomatic fruits, suggesting that secondary metabolism and physical properties of fruits are only affected at a later and more advanced stage of HLB infection. Despite the significant loss of quality, fruit with clear HLB symptoms accumulate high quantities of flavonoids in peel and pulp. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HEAT-TREATED ORANGE JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Garnacho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concerns when it comes to produce foodstuff is to guarantee the consumer’s safety, preserving at the same time the original nutritive and organoleptic characteristics of the product. With the purpose of extending foodstuffs shelf life, a lot of products are thermally treated before they become commercialized. However, these thermal procedures are carried out in heating exchangers, which calls for a great deal of energy to produce the heat. Nowadays, new technologies like microwaves are being researched in order to be actual alternatives to the conventional treatments. However, the industrial application of microwave energy is still limited by the uncertainty of the energy dissipation and by the lack of information on reactions except for the thermal effects. Furthermore, the social opinion about the utilization of microwaves as a thermal treatment for foodstuff is not very favorable (Wayne and Newel, 2000; Wild, n/a. It is thought by a lot of people that the use of microwaves deteriorates the final quality of food and it consequently damages consumers’ health. This paper shows a research based on the application of microwaves to thermally treat orange juice, with the purpose of investigating the viability of the technology of microwaves on foodstuff.

  20. Adsorption of Methyl Orange on Magnetically Separable Mesoporous Titania Nanocomposite☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Libo Gao; Qiang Zhang; Junyang Li; Ruiting Feng; Hongyan Xu; Chenyang Xue

    2014-01-01

    The adsorption of mesoporous Fe3O4–SiO2–TiO2 (MFST), which can be separated easily from solution by a mag-net, for the removal of methyl orange (MO) was investigated. The nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurement shows successful synthesis of MFST with an average pore size of 3.8 nm and a large specific surface area of 55 m2·g−1. About 95%adsorption percentage of MO is achieved with an initial concentration of 10 mg·L−1 in the dark and the MFST exhibits superior adsorption ability under acid conditions. The adsorption data fit wel with the pseudo-second order model for adsorption. After 4 cycles, the adsorption rate for MO remains 74%in the dark and the MFST can be recovered in a magnetic field with a recovery of about 80%(by mass). It demon-strates that the samples have significant value on applications of wastewater treatment.

  1. Adsorption of methyl orange onto protonated cross-linked chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihua Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of methyl orange (MO from aqueous solutions on protonated cross-linked chitosan was studied in a batch system. The results showed that the adsorption of MO onto protonated cross-linked chitosan was affected significantly by initial MO concentration, adsorbent dosage, adsorption temperature, and contact time. The pH value of solution had a minor impact on the adsorption of MO in a pH range of 1.0–9.1. The equilibrium isotherms at different temperatures (293, 303, and 313 K and pH values (4.5, 6.7, and 9.1 were investigated. Langmuir model was able to describe these Equilibrium data fitted perfectly. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacities obtained from the Langmuir model were 89.29, 130.9, and 180.2 mg/g at 293, 303, and 313 K, respectively. Adsorption kinetics at different concentrations (100, 200 and 300 mg/L and pH values (4.5, 6.7 and 9.1 were also studied. The kinetics was correlated well with the pseudo second-order model.

  2. Moro orange juice prevents fatty liver in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Federico Salamone; Marco Giorgio; Fabio Galvano; Giovanni Li Volti; Lucilla Titta; Lidia Puzzo; Ignazio Barbagallo; Francesco La Delia; Shira Zelber-Sagi; Michele Malaguarnera; Pier Giuseppe Pelicci

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To establish if the juice of Moro,an anthocyaninrich orange,may improve liver damage in mice with diet-induced obesity.METHODS:Eight-week-old mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and were administrated water or Moro juice for 12 wk.Liver morphology,gene expression of lipid transcription factors,and metabolic enzymes were assessed.RESULTS:Mice fed HFD displayed increased body weight,insulin resistance and dyslipidemia.Moro juice administration limited body weight gain,enhanced insulin sensitivity,and decreased serum triglycerides and total cholesterol.Mice fed HFD showed liver steatosis associated with ballooning.Dietary Moro juice markedly improved liver steatosis by inducing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-a and its target gene acylCoA-oxidase,a key enzyme of lipid oxidation.Consistently,Moro juice consumption suppressed the expression of liver X receptor-o and its target gene fatty acid synthase,and restored liver glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 activity.CONCLUSION:Moro juice counteracts liver steatogenesis in mice with diet-induced obesity and thus may represent a promising dietary option for the prevention of fatty liver.

  3. Optimization of microwave assisted extraction of pectin from orange peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Maran, J; Sivakumar, V; Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sridhar, R

    2013-09-12

    In this study, microwave-assisted extraction was applied for pectin extraction from the dried orange peel and Box-Behnken response surface design was used to study and optimize the effects of processing variables (microwave power, irradiation time, pH and solid-liquid ratio) on the yield of pectin. The amount of pectin extracted increased with increasing microwave power, while it reduces as the time, pH and solid-liquid ratio increased. From the results, second order polynomial model was developed and it adequately explained the data variation and significantly represented the actual relationship between independent variables and the response. An optimization study using Derringer's desired function methodology was performed and optimal conditions based on both individual and combinations of all independent variables (microwave power of 422W, irradiation time of 169 s, pH of 1.4 and solid-liquid ratio of 1:16.9 g/ml) were determined with maximum pectin yield of 19.24%, which was confirmed through validation experiments.

  4. SURFACE ENERGY BALANCE OVER ORANGE ORCHARD USING SURFACE RENEWAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Barbagallo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Reliable estimation of surface sensible and latent heat flux is the most important process to appraise energy and mass exchange among atmosphere and biosphere. In this study the surface energy fluxes were measured over an irrigated orange orchard during 2005-2008 monitoring periods using a Surface Renewal- Energy Balance approach. The experimental area is located in a representative orchard growing area of eastern Sicily (Italy. The performance of Surface Renewal (SR analysis for estimating sensible heat flux (H was analysed and evaluated in terms of correlation with H fluxes from the eddy covariance (EC method. Study revealed that the mean available energy (RN- G and latent heat flux (LE were of about 300 W m-2 and 237 W m-2, respectively, during dry periods and unstable-case atmospheric conditions. The estimated crop coefficient Kc values for the orchard crop averaged close to 0.80, which is considerably higher than previous FAO studies that found the value to be 0.65 for citrus with 70% of ground cover. The intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (LI PAR by the crop was measured and relationships between LAI and crop coefficient (Kc were established.

  5. Aerobic biodegradation pathway for Remazol Orange by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarayu, K; Sandhya, S

    2010-02-01

    Removal of azo dyes from effluent generated by textile industries is rather difficult. Azo dyes represent a major class of synthetic colorants that are mutagenic and carcinogenic. Pseudomonas aeruginosa grew well in the presence of Remazol Orange (RO) and was able to decolorize and degrade it. In the present study, the decolorization and degradation efficiency using single culture P. aeruginosa with RO and textile wastewaters is studied. The elucidation of decolorization pathway for P. aeruginosa is of special interest. The degradation pathway and the metabolic products formed during the degradation were also predicted with the help of high performance liquid chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis. The data show the cleavage of the azo dye RO to form both methyl metanilic acid and 4-aminobenzoic acid after decolorization and finally to oxidation forms benzoic acid, alkenes, aldehydes, and alkynes. The organism was able to decolorize the dye RO and wastewater effectively to the maximum of 82.4% and 62%, respectively.

  6. Effect of acid orange 7 on nitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yongjie (ManTech Environmental Tech., Inc., Dayton, OH (United States)); Bishop, P.L. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering)

    The effect of Acid Orange 7 (AO7), an azo dye commonly used in textile, pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries, on the nitrification process is studied using completely stirred tank reactors (CSTR) and batch treatment systems. Azo dyes are of concern because many of the dyes or their metabolic intermediates are carcinogenic. AO7 biodegradation is found to be essentially complete when solids retention times (SRT) are maintained above 7.5 days, but systems with lower SRTs are unstable. It is shown that AO7 inhibits all stages of the nitrification process. Nitrite oxidizers are found to be more sensitive to AO7 than ammonium oxidizers. The results of kinetic studies indicate that the inhibition of ammonium oxidation is typified by noncompetitive inhibition; the presence of AO7 decreases the maximum substrate utilization rate and very slightly increases K[sub s], the half-saturation constant. AO7 is found to be less toxic to nitrification than some metal and phenolic compounds, but more toxic than some common organic compounds such as formalin, methanol, or acetone.

  7. Ebola virus derived G-quadruplexes: Thiazole orange interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafčíková, Petra; Demkovičová, Erika; Víglaský, Viktor

    2016-12-13

    The Ebola and Marburg viruses are some of the deadliest viruses in the world. In this study a series of G-rich DNA sequences derived from these types of viruses which possess the potential to form G-quadruplex structures are analyzed. A set of DNA oligonucleotides derived from original viral isolates was used as a representative modeling sequence with which to demonstrate the influence of thiazole orange on circular dichroism (CD) spectral profiles. The results show the unique profile of the induced CD (ICD) signal in the visible region caused by interactions between the ligand and G-quadruplexes. This ligand was found to stabilize the G-quadruplex structure and can also induce topological changes and facilitate G-quadruplex multimerization. Thus, the ICD signatures can be used to determine whether specific unknown sequences can form G-quadruplex motifs. The viral sequences were analyzed using standard spectral and electrophoretic methods. In addition, the ability to target G-quadruplexes located in filoviruses offers researchers attractive therapeutic targets which would be of particular use in the development of novel antiviral therapies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "G-quadruplex" Guest Editor: Dr. Concetta Giancola and Dr. Daniela Montesarchio.

  8. Orientation toward humans predicts cognitive performance in orang-utans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damerius, Laura A.; Forss, Sofia I. F.; Kosonen, Zaida K.; Willems, Erik P.; Burkart, Judith M.; Call, Josep; Galdikas, Birute M. F.; Liebal, Katja; Haun, Daniel B. M.; van Schaik, Carel P.

    2017-01-01

    Non-human animals sometimes show marked intraspecific variation in their cognitive abilities that may reflect variation in external inputs and experience during the developmental period. We examined variation in exploration and cognitive performance on a problem-solving task in a large sample of captive orang-utans (Pongo abelii & P. pygmaeus, N = 103) that had experienced different rearing and housing conditions during ontogeny, including human exposure. In addition to measuring exploration and cognitive performance, we also conducted a set of assays of the subjects’ psychological orientation, including reactions towards an unfamiliar human, summarized in the human orientation index (HOI), and towards novel food and objects. Using generalized linear mixed models we found that the HOI, rather than rearing background, best predicted both exploration and problem-solving success. Our results suggest a cascade of processes: human orientation was accompanied by a change in motivation towards problem-solving, expressed in reduced neophobia and increased exploration variety, which led to greater experience, and thus eventually to higher performance in the task. We propose that different experiences with humans caused individuals to vary in curiosity and understanding of the physical problem-solving task. We discuss the implications of these findings for comparative studies of cognitive ability. PMID:28067260

  9. PERAN ORANG TUA DALAM PENDIDIKAN ANAK USIA DINI (Studi Kasus Pada Keluarga Muslim Pelaksana Homeschooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurrota A’yun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Anak usia dini (0-6 tahun adalah masa yang pentinguntuk penanaman nilai moral dan ketrampilan hidup.  Keluarga mempunyai peranan penting untuk menanamkan karakter positif  terebut. Orang tua dapat menerapkan metode homeschooling untuk anak, orangtua sendiri yang memberikan pendidikan kepada anak. Pendidikan homeschooling lebih fleksibel dilakukan dan tidak terikat waktu seperti di sekolah formal. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mendeskripsikan peran orang tua dalam implementasi homeschooling pada anak usia dini, serta mengetahui hasil belajar yang diperoleh anak melalui program homeschooling. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif study kasus. Informan penelitian satu keluarga, dengan informan utama orang tua, dan informan pendukung anak, paman, dan guru. Data diperoleh dengan wawancara dan observasi partisipan pada keluarga. Data kemudian diolah dengan menggunakan analisis tema. Hasil yang dapat diperoleh dari penelitian ini adalah orang tua mengkondisikan lingkungan keluarga sebaik mungkin untuk menunjang pendidikan anak, hal ini dibuktikan dengan diputarkan ayat-ayat Al-qur’an setiap malam, orang tua selalu meluangkan waktu untuk anak, dan komunikasi yang baik dalam keluarga. Selanjutnya adanya komitmen dan peran aktif orang tua dalam pelaksanaan homeschooling anak usia dini juga memiliki dampak positif untuk kemampuan akademik maupun non akademik anak.

  10. One-step green synthesis of bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles used to degrade Orange II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fang; Yang, Die; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2016-02-13

    To reduce cost and enhance reactivity, bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles (NPs) were firstly synthesized using grape leaf aqueous extract to remove Orange II. Green synthesized bimetallic Fe/Pd NPs (98.0%) demonstrated a far higher ability to remove Orange II in 12h compared to Fe NPs (16.0%). Meanwhile, all precursors, e.g., grape leaf extract, Fe(2+) and Pd(2+), had no obvious effect on removing Orange II since less than 2.0% was removed. Kinetics study revealed that the removal rate fitted well to the pseudo-first-order reduction and pseudo-second-order adsorption model, meaning that removing Orange II via Fe/Pd NPs involved both adsorption and catalytic reduction. The remarkable stability of Fe/Pd NPs showed the potential application for removing azo dyes. Furthermore, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the changes in Fe/Pd NPs before and after reaction with Orange II. High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrum (HPLC-MS) identified the degraded products in the removal of Orange II, and finally a removal mechanism was proposed. This one-step strategy using grape leaf aqueous extract to synthesize Fe/Pd NPs is simple, cost-effective and environmentally benign, making possible the large-scale production of Fe/Pd NPs for field remediation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing the Effects of Climate Variability on Orange Yield in Florida to Reduce Production Forecast Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha Larrauri, P.

    2015-12-01

    Orange production in Florida has experienced a decline over the past decade. Hurricanes in 2004 and 2005 greatly affected production, almost to the same degree as strong freezes that occurred in the 1980's. The spread of the citrus greening disease after the hurricanes has also contributed to a reduction in orange production in Florida. The occurrence of hurricanes and diseases cannot easily be predicted but the additional effects of climate on orange yield can be studied and incorporated into existing production forecasts that are based on physical surveys, such as the October Citrus forecast issued every year by the USDA. Specific climate variables ocurring before and after the October forecast is issued can have impacts on flowering, orange drop rates, growth, and maturation, and can contribute to the forecast error. Here we present a methodology to incorporate local climate variables to predict the USDA's orange production forecast error, and we study the local effects of climate on yield in different counties in Florida. This information can aid farmers to gain an insight on what is to be expected during the orange production cycle, and can help supply chain managers to better plan their strategy.

  12. Satiation and satiety sensations produced by eating oatmeal vs. oranges. a comparison of different scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalus, Melinda; Vickers, Zata

    2016-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to use the 5-Factor Satiety Questionnaire (Karalus, 2011) to compare the changes in satiation and satiety produced by eating oranges with the changes produced by eating oatmeal. A secondary objective was to compare the data from the 5-Factor Satiety Questionnaire with that from more traditionally used scales. Thirty participants evaluated hunger and fullness feelings before breakfast and at 0, 60, and 120 min after consuming breakfasts of equal volumes of oranges and oatmeal. We covertly recorded food intake from an ad libitum snack offered 2 h after breakfast. Oranges were less effective than oatmeal for decreasing mental hunger immediately after eating. Mental hunger increased more and mental fullness decreased more during the 2-h period after eating oranges than after eating oatmeal. Neither physical hunger changes nor physical fullness changes differed between the two foods. Participants ate more food at an ad libitum snack 2 h after eating the oranges compared with after eating the oatmeal. We were better able to distinguish the feelings produced by the oatmeal from the feelings produced by the oranges with the factor scales than with the traditional scales of hunger and fullness.

  13. Inactivation of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores in apple and orange juice concentrates by gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Yeon; Park, Sang-Hyun; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of reconstituted apple and orange juice on reduction of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores by gamma irradiation. Spores of A. acidoterrestris were inoculated into three concentrations of apple (18, 36, and 72 °Brix) and orange (11, 33, and 66 °Brix) juice and subjected to five radiation doses (1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 kGy). No significant reductions (P > 0.05) in spores were observed after the 1-kGy treatment for all apple and orange concentrations. Spores in 18, 36, and 72 °Brix apple juice concentrates subjected to 10 kGy were reduced to 4.34, 3.9, and 3.84 log CFU/ml, respectively. Similar results were observed for orange juice. When 10 kGy was applied to 11 °Brix orange juice, populations of spores were reduced by 5 log CFU/ml. The reduction of spores in 33 and 66 °Brix orange juice concentrates exposed to 10-kGy gamma irradiation was 4.54 and 3.85 log CFU/ml, respectively. Juice concentration did not affect (P > 0.05) the number of surviving A. acidoterrestris spores from the same kGy treatment. Gamma irradiation treatment did not change the pH or water activity of the juice (P > 0.05).

  14. A quantitative model for using acridine orange as a transmembrane pH gradient probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, S; Barenholz, Y

    1998-05-15

    Monitoring the acidification of the internal space of membrane vesicles by proton pumps can be achieved easily with optical probes. Transmembrane pH gradients cause a blue-shift in the absorbance spectrum and the quenching of the fluorescence of the cationic dye acridine orange. It has been postulated that these changes are caused by accumulation and aggregation of the dye inside the vesicles. We tested this hypothesis using liposomes with transmembrane concentration gradients of ammonium sulfate as model system. Fluorescence intensity of acridine orange solutions incubated with liposomes was affected by magnitude of the gradient, volume trapped by vesicles, and temperature. These experimental data were compared to a theoretical model describing the accumulation of acridine orange monomers in the vesicles according to the inside-to-outside ratio of proton concentrations, and the intravesicular formation of sandwich-like piles of acridine orange cations. This theoretical model predicted quantitatively the relationship between the transmembrane pH gradients and spectral changes of acridine orange. Therefore, adequate characterization of aggregation of dye in the lumen of biological vesicles provides the theoretical basis for using acridine orange as an optical probe to quantify transmembrane pH gradients.

  15. Detection of mandarin in orange juice by single-nucleotide polymorphism qPCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldeguer, Miriam; López-Andreo, María; Gabaldón, José A; Puyet, Antonio

    2014-02-15

    A dual-probe real time PCR (qPCR) DNA-based analysis was devised for the identification of mandarin in orange juice. A single nucleotide polymorphism at the trnL-trnF intergenic region of the chloroplast chromosome was confirmed in nine orange (Citrus sinensis) and thirteen commercial varieties of mandarin, including Citrus reticulata and Citrus unshiu species and a mandarin × tangelo hybrid. Two short minor-groove binding fluorescent probes targeting the polymorphic sequence were used in the dual-probe qPCR, which allowed the detection of both species in single-tube reactions. The similarity of PCR efficiencies allowed a simple estimation of the ratio mandarin/orange in the juice samples, which correlated to the measured difference of threshold cycle values for both probes. The limit of detection of the assay was 5% of mandarin in orange juice, both when the juice was freshly prepared (not from concentrate) or reconstituted from concentrate, which would allow the detection of fraudulently added mandarin juice. The possible use of the dual-probe system for quantitative measurements was also tested on fruit juice mixtures. qPCR data obtained from samples containing equal amounts of mandarin and orange juice revealed that the mandarin target copy number was approximately 2.6-fold higher than in orange juice. The use of a matrix-adapted control as calibrator to compensate the resulting C(T) bias allowed accurate quantitative measurements to be obtained.

  16. Evaluation of Pectin derived from Orange peel as a Pharmaceutical Excipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ravindrakullai reddy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is extraction of pectin from waste of orange fruit peel and further characterization for useful alternative pharmaceutical excipient. The pectin was subjected to phytochemical and physicochemical characterization of its safety and suitability to use as binding and suspending agent. FT-IR spectroscopy, DSC studies were performed for drug, orange peel pectin powder, prepared tablet and suspension formulations. Aceclofenac tablets were prepared by wet granulation method containing mannitol as diluent; using 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 %w/w of orange peel pectin powder and 7.5 %w/w of PVP (reference as binding agents in the tablet formulation. Aceclofenac suspensions were prepared with orange peel pectin powder at 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 %w/v as suspending agent and 1.5 %w/v of sodium CMC as reference suspending agent. Pharmaceutical properties of granules and tablets such as carr’s index, Haunser’s ratio and angle of repose and post compression parameters like friability, hardness, and disintegration time studies were determine and found satisfactory. The evaluation test of suspension like sedimentation volume, redispersibility, pH, degree of flocculation were found satisfactory. In vitro release studies shows that release rate of drug is decreased with increase in the orange peel pectin powder percentage in the formulation. Orange peel pectin powder showed good binding and suspending properties at 10 %w/w and 2 %w/v, respectively.

  17. VIABILIDADE DO PÓLEN EM VARIEDADES DE LARANJA DOCE POLLEN VIABILITY IN SWEET ORANGE VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Tobias Domingues

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma vez que a polinização é um dos pontos decisivos para o crescimento e desenvolvimento do fruto, contribuindo com os gametas masculinos para a fecundação e determinando, na maioria das vezes, a fixação dos frutos em citros, torna-se necessário conhecer o grau de esterilidade masculina nas diferentes variedades de laranja doce para sua possível utilização em programas de melhoramento. A esterilidade é limitante para programas que envolvam a hibridação sexual, por outro lado possui sua importância econômica em citros induzindo menor número de sementes por fruto em certas variedades. Com a finalidade de caracterizar 44 variedades de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis [L.] osbeck quanto à viabilidade do pólen, foram coletadas anteras das variedades enxertadas sobre tangerineira Cleópatra. As variedades estudadas pertencem aos principais grupos de laranja doce: com acidez (como a laranja 'Pêra', de baixa acidez (como a laranja 'Lima', com umbigo (como a laranja 'Bahia' e sangüíneas (como a laranja 'Rubi Blood'. O percentual de pólen viável foi avaliado por meio da coloração com carmim acético a 25% e contagem sob microscópio ótico. Foram observados valores que variaram desde 12,0% para a 'Pêra Sem Sementes' até 88,8% para a variedade 'Hamlin Reserva'. Os clones de laranja 'Hamlin' mostraram maior percentual de pólen viável. Não foi observada presença de pólen para as variedades produtoras de laranjas de umbigo, originadas da variedade Bahia. As variedades 'Pêra', 'Valência' e 'Natal', as quais são as principais cultivares da citricultura paulista e nacional, apresentaram baixos percentuais de pólen viável.Pollination is one of the most critical points in fruit growth and development, contributing with male gametes for fertilization and determine, greatly, fruit setting in citrus. It is necessary to evaluate male sterility in sweet orange varieties for their possible use in breeding programs. The sterility limits

  18. Insulin sensitivity and lipid profile of eutrophic individuals after acute intake of fresh orange juice in comparison to the commercial-pasteurized orange juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus flavonoids from orange juice (OJ) have shown hypolipidemic, hypotension, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the extraction and commercial pasteurization of OJ can influence its nutritional composition in comparison to the fresh squeezed OJ. We evaluated the insulin sensitivity, and th...

  19. Kepribadian Tipe A dan Risiko Hipertensi pada Orang Dewasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Chitrayana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hipertensi merupakan salah satu penyakit yang paling banyak terjadi di Jakarta. Ciri kepribadian tipe A, yaitu tampak selalu sibuk, terburu-buru, tidak sabar atau mudah marah, tampak pada beberapa pasien hipertensi. Penelitian potong lintang ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara kepribadian tipe A dengan hipertensi. Sebanyak 64 responden, yang usia > 30 tahun dan tidak sedang dalam pengobatan dengan antihipertensi, dipilih secara konsekutif di antara pengunjung Puskesmas Kelurahan Joglo-II antara 30 April – 5 Mei 2012. Tekanan darah diukur sesuai dengan protokol standar. Informasi tentang kepribadian dan faktor-faktor risiko yang lain dikumpulkan dengan wawancara menggunakan kuesioner. Analisis statistik menggunakan prosedur generalized linear model. Ditetapkan batas kemaknaan 0,05. Dari 64 responden, 36 orang (56,3% mempunyai kepribadian tipe A dan 22 orang (34,4% menderita hipertensi. Hipertensi didapatkan pada 13 dari 36 responden (36,1% dengan kepribadian tipe A dan 9 dari 28 responden (32,1% tanpa kepribadian tersebut. Pada usia dan jenis kelamin yang disetarakan, risiko hipertensi lebih besar secara bermakna 1,3 kali pada responden dengan kepribadian tipe A dibandingkan dengan mereka dengan kepribadian tipe non-A (PR = 1,3; nilai p = 0,003. Penambahan faktor-faktor risiko hipertensi yang lain melemahkan asosiasi, tetapi tidak mengubah kemaknaan statistik (PR = 1,2; nilai p = 0,04. Identifikasi tipe kepribadian disarankan sebagai bagian dari pencegahan hipertensi. Hypertension is one of the major diseases in Jakarta. The typical characteristics of type A personality include being busy, in hurry, impatient and irritable, were shown in some hypertensive patients. This cross-sectional study examined the relationhip between type A personality and hypertension. Sixty-four respondents (age > 30 years and were not on antihypertensive medication, were consecutively selected among patients attending Joglo-II Primary Health Center, between

  20. Polyploidization induced by acridine orange in mouse osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuzaki, K; Takeshita, H; Murata, H; Gebhardt, M C; Springfield, D S; Mankin, H J; Ashihara, T; Hirasawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    This study was undertaken to clarify the in vitro effect of acridine orange (AO) on the cell kinetics of mouse osteosarcoma cells, as well as the mechanism of cell growth inhibition induced by AO. A mouse osteosarcoma cell line (MOS), established from a radiation-induced mouse osteosarcoma, was cultured under exposure to 0.05, 0.5, 5, and 50 micrograms/ml of AO, either continuously or for 10 minutes. The cell kinetic analysis was performed using the following parameters: tumor cell growth by trypan blue exclusion test, mitotic activity, DNA synthetic activity by BrdU labeling and DNA ploidy by cytofluorometry. The results showed that continuous exposure to 5 and 50 micrograms/ml of AO or 10 minute exposure to 50 micrograms/ml of AO quickly killed the tumor cells within 12 hours, whereas continuous exposure to 0.5 microgram/ml of AO or 10 minute exposure to 5 micrograms/ml of AO gradually inhibited tumor cell growth. Under the latter conditions, mitotic activity was rapidly and completely inhibited within 48 hours but DNA synthetic activity was not completely inhibited even after 96 hours. DNA ploidy analysis demonstrated that most of the tumor cells arrested at the S-G2 phase after 12 hours, followed by G2 phase arrest after 24 hours and progressive DNA synthesis to a higher DNA ploidy class after 48 to 96 hours. We therefore concluded that a high concentration of AO has a strong cytocidal effect due to cytotoxicity whilst a moderate concentration of AO induces progressive and synchronous polyploidization by mitotic inhibition without DNA damage in MOS cells. We presume that this in vitro effect on MOS cells may be caused by protein synthetic inhibition after transfer RNA inactivation caused by AO binding.

  1. Sequence stratigraphy of the Orange basin, western offshore South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muntingh, A. (SOEKOR Ltd., Parow (South Africa))

    1991-03-01

    A seismic/sequence-stratigraphic framework for the siliciclastic fluvial to deepwater Cretaceous strata of the Orange basin has been constructed. Sequence-stratigraphic concepts developed by Exxon were used to interpret 10,000 km of seismic data and logs from 31 exploration boreholes within an area of 90,000 km{sup 2}. The sequence stratigraphy of the western margin exhibits 34 cyclical depositional sequences interpreted to document the response of the passive margin to cyclical changes in relative sea-level from Mid-Aptian to Late Maastrichtian times. All but one of the sequence boundaries are type 1 unconformities displaying intense erosion on the shelf and interpreted to develop during periods of rapid fall in relative sea-level. Basin-wide sequence boundaries (type 1 and 2 unconformities) were correlated with the third-order cycles of Exxon's global cycle chart utilizing SOEKOR's paleontological dating of a limited number of marine condensed sections. Higher-order cycles are recognized and best developed along the flanks of the structural arches where lower subsidence rates permitted impact of higher frequency cycles. Component depositional systems tracts inferred to have resulted from changes in relative sea level were interpreted and paleogeographic maps were constructed outlining incised valley systems on the shelf, shelf edge canyons, prograding wedges, basin floor fan, and slope fan systems. Distal marine shales and marine condensed sections provide both seal and hydrocarbon source. The chronostratigraphic and depositional framework being used to predict prospective play areas for hydrocarbon exploration on the western offshore of South Africa is also applicable to the Namibian offshore.

  2. Degradation of acid orange 7 in an aerobic biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Michael F; Kinkle, Brian K; Bishop, Paul L

    2002-01-01

    A stable microbial biofilm community capable of completely mineralizing the azo dye acid orange 7 (AO7) was established in a laboratory scale rotating drum bioreactor (RDBR) using waste liquor from a sewage treatment plant. A broad range of environmental conditions including pH (5.8-8.2), nitrification (0.0-4.0 mM nitrite), and aeration (0.2-6.2 mg O2 l(-1)) were evaluated for their effects on the biodegradation of AO7. Furthermore the biofilm maintained its biodegradative ability for over a year while the effects of these environmental conditions were evaluated. Reduction of the azo bond followed by degradation of the resulting aromatic amine appears to be the mechanism by which this dye is biodegraded. Complete loss of color, sulfanilic acid, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) indicate that AO7 is mineralized. To our knowledge this is the first reported occurrence of a sulfonated phenylazonaphthol dye being completely mineralized under aerobic conditions. Two bacterial strains (ICX and SAD4i) originally isolated from the RDBR were able to mineralize, in co-culture, up to 90% of added AO7. During mineralization of AO7, strain ICX reduces the azo bond under aerobic conditions and consumes the resulting cleavage product 1-amino-2-naphthol. Strain SAD4i consumes the other cleavage product, sulfanilic acid. The ability of the RDBR biofilm to aerobically mineralize an azo dye without exogenous carbon and nitrogen sources suggests that this approach could be used to remediate industrial wastewater contaminated with spent dye.

  3. Hypercarotenodermia in Zambia: which children turned orange during mango season?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanumihardjo, S A; Gannon, B M; Kaliwile, C; Chileshe, J

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin A (VA) deficiency is a public health problem in many countries. The World Health Organization recommends high-dose VA supplements to children aged 6-59 months based on unequivocal evidence that supplements decreased mortality risk. VA supplements were meant as a temporary intervention until more sustainable approaches could be implemented. Fortification of processed foods with preformed VA is a means to improve VA status. The most recent addition of retinyl palmitate to cooking oil in countries that may also fortify margarine and milk will undoubtedly have a positive impact on VA status. However, quantitative measures have not been used to assess the underlying VA status of the groups who have adopted widespread fortification. The addition of preformed VA to otherwise adequate diets in VA may cause excessive total body stores. Monitoring population status will require accurate VA assessment to ensure that hypervitaminosis does not prevail. This perspective describes a cohort of rural Zambian children who have adequate diets in VA, mostly as provitamin A carotenoids; who were given high-dose VA supplements till the age of 5 years; who have access to VA-fortified sugar; and whose mothers had access to VA-fortified sugar throughout pregnancy and lactation. Many of these children turned orange during mango season, and this phenomenon occurred at estimated liver reserve concentrations >1 μmol retinol equivalents/g liver. It will be necessary to continue to monitor VA status, including all sectors of the population that have access to successful interventions, to optimize health with the intent to lower retinol content of fortified foods or better target VA supplementation to areas of most need.

  4. Phosphoproteomic analysis of chromoplasts from sweet orange during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yunliu; Pan, Zhiyong; Wang, Lun; Ding, Yuduan; Xu, Qiang; Xiao, Shunyuan; Deng, Xiuxin

    2014-02-01

    Like other types of plastids, chromoplasts have essential biosynthetic and metabolic activities which may be regulated via post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, of their resident proteins. We here report a proteome-wide mapping of in vivo phosphorylation sites in chromoplast-enriched samples prepared from sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] at different ripening stages by titanium dioxide-based affinity chromatography for phosphoprotein enrichment with LC-MS/MS. A total of 109 plastid-localized phosphoprotein candidates were identified that correspond to 179 unique phosphorylation sites in 135 phosphopeptides. On the basis of Motif-X analysis, two distinct types of phosphorylation sites, one as proline-directed phosphorylation motif and the other as casein kinase II motif, can be generalized from these identified phosphopeptides. While most identified phosphoproteins show high homology to those already identified in plastids, approximately 22% of them are novel based on BLAST search using the public databases PhosPhAt and P(3) DB. A close comparative analysis showed that approximately 50% of the phosphoproteins identified in citrus chromoplasts find obvious counterparts in the chloroplast phosphoproteome, suggesting a rather high-level of conservation in basic metabolic activities in these two types of plastids. Not surprisingly, the phosphoproteome of citrus chromoplasts is also characterized by the lack of phosphoproteins involved in photosynthesis and by the presence of more phosphoproteins implicated in stress/redox responses. This study presents the first comprehensive phosphoproteomic analysis of chromoplasts and may help to understand how phosphorylation regulates differentiation of citrus chromoplasts during fruit ripening.

  5. Response of CEDIA amphetamines assay after a single dose of bitter orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, DiemThuy T; Bui, Linda T; Ambrose, Peter J

    2006-04-01

    Bitter orange has recently been substituted as an ingredient in many "ephedra-free" dietary supplements used for weight loss. The primary active ingredient in bitter orange is synephrine. Previous reports have documented false-positive results from ephedrine with urine amphetamine assays. Because of the similarity in chemical structure of ephedrine and synephrine, it is hypothesized that ingestion of a bitter orange supplement may have the potential to cause false-positive results with urine amphetamine assays. The purpose of this study was to determine the response of the CEDIA Amphetamines Assay after ingestion of bitter orange. Six healthy adult male volunteers were administered a single oral dose of Nature's Way Bitter Orange, a 900-mg dietary supplement extract standardized to 6% synephrine. Urine specimens were collected at baseline and 3 and 6 hours post-administration. Additional urine specimens were collected from 1 subject at 9, 12, and 15 hours after administration. All specimens were analyzed by the CEDIA Amphetamines Assay. Urine specific gravity and pH also were measured. All urine specimens demonstrated a negative response to the CEDIA Amphetamines Assay. Urine specific gravity ranged from 1.007 to 1.028, and pH ranged from 5.0 to 7.0; thus, reducing the possibility that the negative results were caused by diluted specimens or reduced excretion of synephrine into alkaline urine. This information will be of value when health care providers or those who interpret drug screens are asked to provide consultation regarding the interference of bitter orange supplements with the CEDIA Amphetamines Assay. A single-dose of Nature's Way Bitter Orange was not found to cause a false-positive response to the CEDIA Amphetamines Assay in 6 healthy adult male volunteers.

  6. Acidification of apple and orange hosts by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, L; Viñas, I; Torres, R; Usall, J; Buron-Moles, G; Teixidó, N

    2014-05-16

    New information about virulence mechanisms of Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum could be an important avenue to control fungal diseases. In this study, the ability of P. digitatum and P. expansum to enhance their virulence by locally modulating the pH of oranges and apples was evaluated. For each host, pH changes with a compatible pathogen and a non-host pathogen were recorded, and the levels of different organic acids were evaluated to establish possible relationships with host pH modifications. Moreover, fruits were harvested at three maturity stages to determine whether fruit maturity could affect the pathogens' virulence. The pH of oranges and apples decreased when the compatible pathogens (P. digitatum and P. expansum, respectively) decayed the fruit. The main organic acid detected in P. digitatum-decayed oranges was galacturonic acid produced as a consequence of host maceration in the rot development process. However, the obtained results showed that this acid was not responsible for the pH decrease in decayed orange tissue. The mixture of malic and citric acids could at least contribute to the acidification of P. digitatum-decayed oranges. The pH decrease in P. expansum decayed apples is related to the accumulation of gluconic and fumaric acids. The pH of oranges and apples was not affected when the non-host pathogen was not able to macerate the tissues. However, different organic acid contents were detected in comparison to healthy tissues. The main organic acids detected in P. expansum-oranges were oxalic and gluconic and in P. digitatum-apples were citric, gluconic and galacturonic. Further research is needed to identify the pathogenicity factors of both fungi because the contribution of organic acids has profound implications.

  7. Orange and reddish-orange light emitting phosphors: Sm{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} doped zinc phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meza-Rocha, A.N., E-mail: ameza@fis.cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, P.O. Box 55-534, 09340 México D.F., México (Mexico); Speghini, A. [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie, Universita di Verona and INSTM, UdR Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37314 Verona (Italy); IFAC CNR, Nello Carrara Institute of Applied Physics, MDF Lab, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Bettinelli, M. [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie, Universita di Verona and INSTM, UdR Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37314 Verona (Italy); Caldiño, U. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, P.O. Box 55-534, 09340 México D.F., México (Mexico)

    2015-11-15

    A spectroscopy study of Sm{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} doped zinc phosphate glasses is performed through photoluminescence spectra and decay time profile measurements. Under Sm{sup 3+} excitation at 344 nm, the Sm{sup 3+} singly doped glass shows an orange global emission with x=0.579 and y=0.414 CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, whereas the Sm{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} co-doped sample exhibits orange overall emissions (x=0.581 and y=0.398, and x=0.595 and y=0.387) and reddish-orange overall emission (x=0.634 and y=0.355) upon excitations at 344, 360 and 393 nm, respectively. Such luminescence from the co-doped sample is originated by the simultaneous emission of Sm{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}. Under Sm{sup 3+} excitation at 344 and 360 nm, the Eu{sup 3+} emission is sensitized and enhanced by Sm{sup 3+} through a non-radiative energy transfer process. The non-radiative nature was inferred from the shortening of the Sm{sup 3+} lifetime observed in the Sm{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} co-doped sample. An analysis of the Sm{sup 3+} emission decay time profiles using the Inokuti–Hirayama model suggests that an electric quadrupole–quadrupole interaction into Sm–Eu clusters might dominate the energy transfer process, with an efficiency of 0.17. - Highlights: • Zinc phosphate glasses are optically activated with Sm{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} (ZPOSmEu). • Non-radiative energy transfer Sm{sup 3+}→Eu{sup 3+} takes place in ZPOSmEu. • ZPOSmEu overall emission can be modulated with the excitation wavelength. • ZPOSmEu might be useful as orange/reddish-orange phosphor for UV-white LEDs.

  8. Improvement of Biogas Production from Orange Peel Waste by Leaching of Limonene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikandari, Rachma; Nguyen, Huong; Millati, Ria; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2015-01-01

    Limonene is present in orange peel wastes and is known as an antimicrobial agent, which impedes biogas production when digesting the peels. In this work, pretreatment of the peels to remove limonene under mild condition was proposed by leaching of limonene using hexane as solvent. The pretreatments were carried out with homogenized or chopped orange peel at 20–40°C with orange peel waste and hexane ratio (w/v) ranging from 1 : 2 to 1 : 12 for 10 to 300 min. The pretreated peels were then digested in batch reactors for 33 days. The highest biogas production was achieved by treating chopped orange peel waste and hexane ratio of 12 : 1 at 20°C for 10 min corresponding to more than threefold increase of biogas production from 0.061 to 0.217 m3 methane/kg VS. The solvent recovery was 90% using vacuum filtration and needs further separation using evaporation. The hexane residue in the peel had a negative impact on biogas production as shown by 28.6% reduction of methane and lower methane production of pretreated orange peel waste in semicontinuous digestion system compared to that of untreated peel. PMID:25866787

  9. Effects of microwave roasting on the yield and composition of cold pressed orange seed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aydeniz Güneşer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to valorize orange (Citrus sinensis seeds, which are generated as waste. This study presents data about raw orange seed, the meal gained after cold pressing, and characterization data of the cold pressed seed oils. Furthermore, the effects of microwave roasting of the seds compared to regular roasting (control were determined. The oil yield of orange seed cold pressing was around 52.93–62.99%. After cold pressing, 13.57–17.97% oil remained in the meal together with 20.68–25.61% protein. Hence, pressed meals could be valorized for different purposes. Except for turbidity, the color b* value, free acidity, the p-anisidine value and antioxidant capacity, there was no significant difference between the two oil samples for the measured physicochemical properties. Six different fatty acids were quantified and the major fatty acids were linoleic, palmitic and oleic acids. The fatty acid composition of the orange seed oil can be accepted as nutritionally balanced. Among the fifteen sterols quantified, ß-sitosterol was dominant (around 77–78%. Likewise, the α-tocopherol content of the samples was not significantly different. The thermal onset and peak temperatures, and enthalpies for crystallization and melting were also reported. This study showed that good quality orange seed oils can be produced by cold pressing, and the oils could be used in food and non-food applications.

  10. Improvement of biogas production from orange peel waste by leaching of limonene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikandari, Rachma; Nguyen, Huong; Millati, Ria; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2015-01-01

    Limonene is present in orange peel wastes and is known as an antimicrobial agent, which impedes biogas production when digesting the peels. In this work, pretreatment of the peels to remove limonene under mild condition was proposed by leaching of limonene using hexane as solvent. The pretreatments were carried out with homogenized or chopped orange peel at 20-40°C with orange peel waste and hexane ratio (w/v) ranging from 1 : 2 to 1 : 12 for 10 to 300 min. The pretreated peels were then digested in batch reactors for 33 days. The highest biogas production was achieved by treating chopped orange peel waste and hexane ratio of 12 : 1 at 20°C for 10 min corresponding to more than threefold increase of biogas production from 0.061 to 0.217 m(3) methane/kg VS. The solvent recovery was 90% using vacuum filtration and needs further separation using evaporation. The hexane residue in the peel had a negative impact on biogas production as shown by 28.6% reduction of methane and lower methane production of pretreated orange peel waste in semicontinuous digestion system compared to that of untreated peel.

  11. Red Orange: Experimental Models and Epidemiological Evidence of Its Benefits on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Grosso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increasing public interest in plant antioxidants, thanks to the potential anticarcinogenic and cardioprotective actions mediated by their biochemical properties. The red (or blood orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck is a pigmented sweet orange variety typical of eastern Sicily (southern Italy, California, and Spain. In this paper, we discuss the main health-related properties of the red orange that include anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protection activities. Moreover, the effects on health of its main constituents (namely, flavonoids, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids, and anthocyanins are described. The red orange juice demonstrates an important antioxidant activity by modulating many antioxidant enzyme systems that efficiently counteract the oxidative damage which may play an important role in the etiology of numerous diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. The beneficial effects of this fruit may be mediated by the synergic effects of its compounds. Thus, the supply of natural antioxidant compounds through a balanced diet rich in red oranges might provide protection against oxidative damage under differing conditions and could be more effective than, the supplementation of an individual antioxidant.

  12. Red orange: experimental models and epidemiological evidence of its benefits on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio; Marventano, Stefano; Nolfo, Francesca; Calabrese, Giorgio; Buscemi, Silvio; Drago, Filippo; Veronesi, Umberto; Scuderi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing public interest in plant antioxidants, thanks to the potential anticarcinogenic and cardioprotective actions mediated by their biochemical properties. The red (or blood) orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) is a pigmented sweet orange variety typical of eastern Sicily (southern Italy), California, and Spain. In this paper, we discuss the main health-related properties of the red orange that include anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protection activities. Moreover, the effects on health of its main constituents (namely, flavonoids, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids, and anthocyanins) are described. The red orange juice demonstrates an important antioxidant activity by modulating many antioxidant enzyme systems that efficiently counteract the oxidative damage which may play an important role in the etiology of numerous diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. The beneficial effects of this fruit may be mediated by the synergic effects of its compounds. Thus, the supply of natural antioxidant compounds through a balanced diet rich in red oranges might provide protection against oxidative damage under differing conditions and could be more effective than, the supplementation of an individual antioxidant.

  13. Improvement of Biogas Production from Orange Peel Waste by Leaching of Limonene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachma Wikandari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Limonene is present in orange peel wastes and is known as an antimicrobial agent, which impedes biogas production when digesting the peels. In this work, pretreatment of the peels to remove limonene under mild condition was proposed by leaching of limonene using hexane as solvent. The pretreatments were carried out with homogenized or chopped orange peel at 20–40°C with orange peel waste and hexane ratio (w/v ranging from 1 : 2 to 1 : 12 for 10 to 300 min. The pretreated peels were then digested in batch reactors for 33 days. The highest biogas production was achieved by treating chopped orange peel waste and hexane ratio of 12 : 1 at 20°C for 10 min corresponding to more than threefold increase of biogas production from 0.061 to 0.217 m3 methane/kg VS. The solvent recovery was 90% using vacuum filtration and needs further separation using evaporation. The hexane residue in the peel had a negative impact on biogas production as shown by 28.6% reduction of methane and lower methane production of pretreated orange peel waste in semicontinuous digestion system compared to that of untreated peel.

  14. THE PRODUCTION OF ORANGE PRESS LIQUOR SPIRIT: TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. FERREIRA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The orange juice industry produces, at the end of the residue extraction, a by-product called orange press liquor. Considering its high content of soluble solids and the large volume of the liquor produced in Brazilian orange juice plants, an earlier study was conducted on the technical viability of using orange press liquor as raw material for a new distilled beverage, with promising results. With a view to increasing efficiency and possibly attracting investments in the growing international market for new and exotic beverages, the aim of the present study was to optimize the orange press liquor spirit process and to evaluate the economic aspects of its production. The results showed that this process can yield a good quality beverage, comparable to the sugar cane spirit cachaça and other similar products, as well as having economic advantages and potential for immediate further growth, without extra investment costs.

  15. Molecular cloning, characterization and functional analysis of QRFP in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Hu; Chen, Huapu; Liu, Yun; Yang, Lidong; Yang, Yuqing; Zhang, Haifa

    2014-10-01

    The peptide QRFP plays an important role in the regulation of vertebrate feeding behavior. In this study, we cloned the full length cDNA of a QRFP precursor in a teleost fish, the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Sequence analysis has shown that the functional regions of QRFP in other vertebrates (QRFP-25 and QRFP-7) are conserved in orange-spotted grouper. RT-PCR demonstrated that the pre-processed mRNA of QRFP is widely expressed in orange-spotted grouper. Three days of food deprivation did not change the hypothalamic pre-processed QRFP expression. However, QRFP expression significantly increased when the fish were reefed after three days of fasting. Intraperitoneal injection of QRFP-25 peptide to orange-spotted grouper suppressed expression of orexin, but elevated expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the hypothalamus. We also investigated the effects of QRFP-25 on the expression of reproductive genes. The peptide suppressed the expression of seabream-type gonadotropin-releasing hormones (sbGnRH), luteinizing hormone beta subunit (LHβ) and follicle-stimulating hormone beta subunit (FSHβ) in vivo, as well as inhibited the expression of LHβ and FSHβ in pituitary cells in primary culture. Our results indicate that QRFP may play an inhibitory role in the regulation of feeding behavior and reproduction in orange-spotted grouper.

  16. Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP: a comprehensive database for sweet orange genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Wang

    Full Text Available Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crop with global production ranking firstly among all the fruit crops in the world. Sweet orange accounts for more than half of the Citrus production both in fresh fruit and processed juice. We have sequenced the draft genome of a double-haploid sweet orange (C. sinensis cv. Valencia, and constructed the Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP to store and visualize the sequenced genomic and transcriptome data. CAP provides GBrowse-based organization of sweet orange genomic data, which integrates ab initio gene prediction, EST, RNA-seq and RNA-paired end tag (RNA-PET evidence-based gene annotation. Furthermore, we provide a user-friendly web interface to show the predicted protein-protein interactions (PPIs and metabolic pathways in sweet orange. CAP provides comprehensive information beneficial to the researchers of sweet orange and other woody plants, which is freely available at http://citrus.hzau.edu.cn/.

  17. Effects of orange by-product fiber incorporation on the functional and technological properties of pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainara de Moraes Crizel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe incorporation of fiber into products consumed every day by the general population is important and viable. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the impact of incorporating orange juice industry dietary fiber byproducts in fettuccini of fresh pasta. Three different fiber concentrations were added to fresh pastas (25 g/kg, 50 g/kg and 75 g/kg. The results showed a significant increase in solid loss content when the incorporation of orange fiber was greater than 50 g/kg. This difference did not occur regarding weight increase values and color parameters. The pasta with 75 g/kg orange fiber can be considered a “high fiber” product, with the total dietary fiber content of the pasta increasing by 99% compared to control pasta. The carotenoid and phenolic contents of pasta increased significantly with the incorporation of fiber at 75 g/kg, but only the pasta formulation with 25 g/kg of orange fiber did not differ from control pasta in relation to all of the sensory attributes and presented an acceptance greater than 75%. The addition of orange fiber byproducts to pastas is an interesting alternative because fiber has a high nutritional value and an abundance of antioxidants.

  18. The Empowerment of Orang Asli Women in the Tourism Industry in Lenggong, Perak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Fatan Hamamah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Women, particularly those of the Orang Asli community, without a doubt play an important role in the family. These duties and roles include organising household affairs, giving birth and raising children, tending to the house, preparing meals for the family and sorting out their children’s school affairs. However, their roles are not limited to duties or daily routines that are done only at home. In fact, women (especially Orang Asli women, are capable of far more activities that can empower them, especially in the Lenggong’s tourism industry. This paper explores Orang Asli women empowerment through tourism industry with anthropological perspective. The empowerment of Orang Asli women can be seen from the aspect of skills that they already have which can be turned into tourism products, as well as to increase their source of income in supplementing their family expenses. Among the skills that can be highlighted are making handicrafts, being tourist guides, promoting traditional cuisine and dances as well as finding and brewing wild plant roots for medicinal purposes. The women of the Orang Asli who originally only served as housewives, can now change their family’s way of life by doing all sorts of activities which can generate new sources of income, by venturing into activities that can be used as attractions and new tourism product markets, especially in Lenggong, Perak.

  19. Olfactory response of Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava and sweet orange volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Santiz, Edvin; Rojas, Julio C; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Hernández, Emilio; Malo, Edi A

    2016-10-01

    The behavioral responses of virgin and mated female Anastrepha striata Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava (Psidium guajava L.) or sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) were evaluated separately using multilure traps in two-choice tests in field cages. The results showed that flies were more attracted to guava and sweet orange volatiles than to control (unbaited trap). The physiological state (virgin or mated) of females did not affect their attraction to the fruit volatiles. Combined analysis of gas chromatography coupled with electroantennography (GC-EAD) of volatile extracts of both fruits showed that 1 and 6 compounds from orange and guava, respectively elicited repeatable antennal responses from mated females. The EAD active compounds in guava volatile extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as ethyl butyrate, (Z)-3-hexenol, hexanol, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, and ethyl octanoate. Linalool was identified as the only antennal active compound in sweet orange extracts. In field cage tests, there were no significant differences between the number of mated flies captured by the traps baited with guava extracts and the number caught by traps baited with the 6-component blend that was formulated according to the relative proportions in the guava extracts. Similar results occurred when synthetic linalool was evaluated against orange extracts. From a practical point of view, the compounds identified in this study could be used for monitoring A. striata populations. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. Degradation of methyl orange using short-wavelength UV irradiation with oxygen microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaki, Tsutomu; Wada, Tsubasa; Fujimoto, Kanji; Kai, Shinji; Ohe, Kaoru; Oshima, Tatsuya; Baba, Yoshinari; Kukizaki, Masato

    2009-03-15

    A novel wastewater treatment technique using 8 W low-pressure mercury lamps in the presence of uniform-sized microbubbles (diameter = 5.79 microm) was investigated for the decomposition of methyl orange as a model compound in aqueous solution. Photodegradation experiments were conducted with a BLB black light blue lamp (365 nm), a UV-C germicidal lamp (254 nm) and an ozone lamp (185 nm+254 nm) both with and without oxygen microbubbles. The results show that the oxygen microbubbles accelerated the decolorization rate of methyl orange under 185+254 nm irradiation. In contrast, the microbubbles under 365 and 254 nm irradiation were unaffected on the decolorization of methyl orange. It was found that the pseudo-zero order decolorization reaction constant in microbubble system is 2.1 times higher than that in conventional large bubble system. Total organic carbon (TOC) reduction rate of methyl orange was greatly enhanced by oxygen microbubble under 185+254 nm irradiation, however, TOC reduction rate by nitrogen microbubble was much slower than that with 185+254 nm irradiation only. Possible reaction mechanisms for the decolorization and mineralization of methyl orange both with oxygen and nitrogen mirobubbles were proposed in this study.

  1. Chitosan and fungicides on postharvest control of Guignardia citricarpa and on quality of 'Pêra Rio' oranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Canale Rappussi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Citrus fruits are affected by the black spot disease caused by the fungus Guignardia citricarpa. Chitosan can be used as covering for fruits and may delay the ripening process and inhibit the growth of some fungi. Thus, the control of citrus black spot using chitosan and the fungicides thiabendazole and imazalil was assessed in addition to the physicochemical quality of 'Pêra Rio' oranges. The oranges were immersed into chitosan, thiabendazole or imazalil, and in chitosan mixed with both fungicides. The fruits were then stored at 25 °C, 80% RH, for 7 days and, after this storage period, subjected to physicochemical analyses. Chitosan in association with the fungicides reduced black spot in 'Pêra Rio' oranges and delayed the change in the orange skin colour from green to yellow during the postharvest storage. Total soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, ascorbic acid content and ratio were not influenced by the treatments. Thus, chitosan applied with the fungicides thiabendazole and imazalil showed potential to control the development of black spot lesions on 'Pêra Rio' oranges during the postharvest period.

  2. Effect of drying conditions on the physical properties of impregnated orange peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Manjarres-Pinzon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Orange peel represents approximately 30-40 g/100g of the fresh fruit weight and could be used to develop value-added products. Hence, this study aims to evaluate the effects of drying conditions on the physical properties of orange peel impregnated with sucrose solution. The response surface method (RSM was used to optimize two parameters: drying temperature (35-55 ºC and air flow rate (2-3 m/s. The measured responses used to determine the effect of dying process conditions were: moisture content. drying time. total soluble solids. color and hardness. The dried orange peels from the optimal process were subjected to a sensory test by 60 consumers. The optimum conditions for the drying of orange peels were determined to obtain minimum hardness, moisture content and drying time for a w values below 0.6. The optimum conditions were found to be a dying temperature of 52.3 ºC and air flow rate of 2.0 m/s. At this point, drying time, hardness and moisture content were found to be 20 h, 78.4 N and 7.6%, respectively. The sensory results showed that consumers aged over 30 years old accepted well the dried orange peel.

  3. A novel orange phosphor of Eu 2+-activated calcium chlorosilicate for white light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Weijia; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Qiuhong; Su, Qiang

    2006-11-01

    Novel orange phosphor of Eu 2+-activated calcium chlorosilicate was synthesized at 1273 K by conventional solid-state reactions under reductive atmosphere and investigated by means of photoluminescence excitation, diffuse reflectance and emission spectroscopies. These results show that this phosphor can be efficiently excited by the incident light of 300-450 nm, well matched with the emission band of 395 nm-emitting InGaN chip, and emits an intense orange light peaking at 585 nm. By combining this phosphor with a 395 nm-emitting InGaN chip, an intense orange light-emitting diode (LED) was fabricated. Under 20 mA forward-bias current, its CIE chromaticity coordinates are (0.486, 0.446). The dependence of as-fabricated orange LED on forward-bias current indicates that it shows excellent chromaticity stability and luminance saturation. These results show that this Eu 2+-activated calcium chlorosilicate is a promising orange-emitting phosphor for near-ultraviolet (UV) InGaN-based white LED.

  4. Strategies to decolorize high concentrations of methyl orange using growing cells of Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantiwa, Nidtaya; Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Kuntiya, Ampin

    2013-01-01

    Batch, fed-batch, and continuous fermentation was used in the processing of methyl orange decolorization using growing cells of Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500. This report presents the optimal conditions for methyl orange decolorization by the strain TISTR 1500 in modified MRS via a central composite design (CCD) experiment. In particular, the highest decolorization efficiencies were obtained with 13.41 g/L of meat extract, and with 10.89 g/L of yeast extract at pH 6.88 at 35 °C. Under the optimal conditions, the rate of decolorization increased to 322% of that obtained for un-optimized MRS medium. The high concentration of methyl orange (5 g/L) was completely degraded within 9 h in batch fermentation. The total methyl orange load with 8.075 g/L was also decolorized in fed-batch fermentation within 13 h, and the biomass of the strain dramatically decreased after an incubation time of 8 h due to a shortage of sucrose. In the continuous system with a dye-loading rate of 600 mg/L/h and a total of loaded azo dye of 7.2 g/L, high efficiency of methyl orange removal was significantly high, at 98%.

  5. Decolorization and detoxification of sulfonated azo dye methyl orange by Kocuria rosea MTCC 1532.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshetti, G K; Telke, A A; Kalyani, D C; Govindwar, S P

    2010-04-15

    Kocuria rosea (MTCC 1532) showed 100% decolorization of methyl orange (50 mg l(-1)) under static condition. The optimum pH and temperature for dye decolorization was 6.8 and 30 degrees C, respectively. The K. rosea (MTCC 1532) showed maximum decolorization of methyl orange when growth medium containing yeast extract as compared to other substrates. The culture exhibited significant ability to decolorize repeated additions of dye, with reduction in time up to 12 h at eighth dye aliquot addition. Significant induction of reductases (NADH-DCIP reductase and azoreductase) suggests its involvement in decolorization of methyl orange. The metabolites formed after decolorization of methyl orange, such as 4-amino sulfonic acid and N,N'-dimethyl p-phenyldiamine were characterized using FTIR and MS. Phytotoxicity and microbial toxicity study showed the methyl orange was toxic and metabolites obtained after its decolorization was nontoxic for experimental plants (Triticum aestivum and Phaseolus mungo) and bacteria (K. rosea, Pseudomonas aurugenosa and Azatobacter vinelandii).

  6. Effect of fermentation and subsequent pasteurization processes on amino acids composition of orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrillo, I; Fernández-Pachón, M S; Collado-González, J; Escudero-López, B; Berná, G; Herrero-Martín, G; Martín, F; Ferreres, F; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2015-06-01

    The fermentation of fruit produces significant changes in their nutritional composition. An orange beverage has been obtained from the controlled alcoholic fermentation and thermal pasteurization of orange juice. A study was performed to determine the influence of both processes on its amino acid profile. UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS was used for the first time for analysis of orange juice samples. Out of 29 amino acids and derivatives identified, eight (ethanolamine, ornithine, phosphoethanolamine, α-amino-n-butyric acid, hydroxyproline, methylhistidine, citrulline, and cystathionine) have not previously been detected in orange juice. The amino acid profile of the orange juice was not modified by its processing, but total amino acid content of the juice (8194 mg/L) was significantly increased at 9 days of fermentation (13,324 mg/L). Although the pasteurization process produced partial amino acid degradation, the total amino acid content was higher in the final product (9265 mg/L) than in the original juice, enhancing its nutritional value.

  7. Viscous-flow properties and viscosity-average molecular mass of orange peel pectin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周尽花; 吴宇雄; 沈志强

    2008-01-01

    The viscous-flow properties of pectin from the residue of orange peel after extraction of essential oil and flavonoid were studied and the viscosity-average molecular mass(Mv,ave) of this kind of pectin was determined.Experimental results show that Arrhenius viscous-flow equation can be applied to describing the effect of temperature on viscosity of this kind of orange peel pectin solutions with the average viscous-flow activation energy being 17.91 kJ/mol(depending on the concentration).Neither power equation,η =K1 cA1,nor exponential equation,η=K2exp(A2c) can describe the effect of concentration on viscosity of this kind of orange peel pectin solutions well.However,it seems that exponential equation model is more suitable to describe their relation due to its higher linear correlation coefficient.Schulz-Blaschke equation can be used to calculate the intrinsic viscosity of this kind of orange peel pectin.The Mv,ave of the orange peel pectin is 1.65×105 g/mol.

  8. Production of interstocked 'Pera' sweet orange nursey trees on 'Volkamer' lemon and 'Swingle' citrumelo rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girardi Eduardo Augusto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Incompatibility among certain citrus scion and rootstock cultivars can be avoided through interstocking. 'Pera' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck nursery tree production was evaluated on 'Swingle' citrumelo (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf x Citrus paradisi Macf and 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Pasquale incompatible rootstocks, using 'Valencia' and 'Hamlin' sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka, and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tanaka as interstocks. Citrus nursery trees interstocked with 'Pera' sweet orange on both rootstocks were used as control. 'Swingle' citrumelo led to the highest interstock bud take percentage, the greatest interstock height and rootstock diameter, as well as the highest scion and root system dry weight. Percentage of 'Pera' sweet orange dormant bud eye was greater for plants budded on 'Sunki' mandarin than those budded on 'Valencia' sweet orange. No symptoms of incompatibility were observed among any combinations of rootstocks, interstocks and scion. Production cycle can take up to 17 months with higher plant discard.

  9. Safety, Efficacy, and Mechanistic Studies Regarding Citrus aurantium (Bitter Orange) Extract and p-Synephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohs, Sidney J

    2017-07-28

    Citrus aurantium L. (bitter orange) extracts that contain p-synephrine as the primary protoalkaloid are widely used for weight loss/weight management, sports performance, appetite control, energy, and mental focus and cognition. Questions have been raised about the safety of p-synephrine because it has some structural similarity to ephedrine. This review focuses on current human, animal, in vitro, and mechanistic studies that address the safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of action of bitter orange extracts and p-synephrine. Numerous studies have been conducted with respect to p-synephrine and bitter orange extract because ephedra and ephedrine were banned from use in dietary supplements in 2004. Approximately 30 human studies indicate that p-synephrine and bitter orange extracts do not result in cardiovascular effects and do not act as stimulants at commonly used doses. Mechanistic studies suggest that p-synephrine exerts its effects through multiple actions, which are discussed. Because p-synephrine exhibits greater adrenergic receptor binding in rodents than humans, data from animals cannot be directly extrapolated to humans. This review, as well as several other assessments published in recent years, has concluded that bitter orange extract and p-synephrine are safe for use in dietary supplements and foods at the commonly used doses. Copyright © 2017 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2017 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Orange Recognition on Tree Using Image Processing Method Based on Lighting Density Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R Ahmadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the last few years, a new tendency has been created towards robotic harvesting of oranges and some of citrus fruits. The first step in robotic harvesting is accurate recognition and positioning of fruits. Detection through image processing by color cameras and computer is currently the most common method. Obviously, a harvesting robot faces with natural conditions and, therefore, detection must be done in various light conditions and environments. In this study, it was attempted to provide a suitable algorithm for recognizing the orange fruits on tree. In order to evaluate the proposed algorithm, 500 images were taken in different conditions of canopy, lighting and the distance to the tree. The algorithm included sub-routines for optimization, segmentation, size filtering, separation of fruits based on lighting density method and coordinates determination. In this study, MLP neural network (with 3 hidden layers was used for segmentation that was found to be successful with an accuracy of 88.2% in correct detection. As there exist a high percentage of the clustered oranges in images, any algorithm aiming to detect oranges on the trees successfully should offer a solution to separate these oranges first. A new method based on the light and shade density method was applied and evaluated in this research. Finally, the accuracies for differentiation and recognition were obtained to be 89.5% and 88.2%, respectively.

  11. Determination of Orange II in food samples after cloud point extraction using mixed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourreza, N; Zareian, M

    2009-06-15

    In this paper, a cloud point extraction method for the determination of trace amounts of Orange II by spectrophotometry is described. The method is based on the extraction of Orange II from aqueous solution using mixed micelles of non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-100 and cationic surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) in acidic media. The extracted surfactant rich phase is diluted with water and its absorbance is measured at 484 nm by a spectrophotometer. The effects of surfactant, acid and salt concentration, incubation time and temperature were investigated. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 2.1-420 ng mL(-1) of Orange II in the initial solution with r=0.9991 (n=12). Detection limit based on three times the standard deviation of the blank (3S(b)) was 0.67 ng mL(-1) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for 35 and 105 ng mL(-1) of Orange II was 1.20% and 1.49% (n=10), respectively. The method was applied to the determination of Orange II in different food samples.

  12. Liquid chromatographic determination of naringin and neohesperidin as a detector of grapefruit juice in orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouseff, R L

    1988-01-01

    Naringin/neohesperidin ratios can be used to differentiate orange juice which may contain added grapefruit juice from orange juice which may include juices from other naringin-containing cultivars. The naringin/neohesperidin ratios in juice vary from 14 to 83 in grapefruit (C. grandis) and from 1.3 to 2.5 in sour orange (C. aurantium) cultivars; the ratio is always less than 1 for the K-Early tangelo. Concentrations of both naringin and neohesperidin can be determined in orange juice by using a single liquid chromatographic isocratic reverse-phase system with a C-18 column. The detection limit for both compounds is 1 ppm with a linear working range to 500 ppm. Concentration relative standard deviations range from 0.47 to 1.06% for naringin and from 0.4 to 1.27% for neohesperidin. Naringin and neohesperidin recoveries ranged from 93 to 102% at concentrations of 5 and 50 ppm. Naringin values from blind duplicate samples of orange/grapefruit juice blends could be duplicated to +/- 3%.

  13. Kinetic of orange pigment production from Monascus ruber on submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendruscolo, Francielo; Schmidell, Willibaldo; de Oliveira, Débora; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2017-01-01

    Pigments produced by species of Monascus have been used to coloring rice, meat, sauces, wines and beers in East Asian countries. Monascus can produce orange (precursor), yellow and red pigments. Orange pigments have low solubility in culture media and when react with amino groups they become red and largely soluble. The orange pigments are an alternative to industrial pigment production because the low solubility facilitates the downstream operations. The aim of this work was to study the kinetic on the production of orange pigments by Monascus ruber CCT 3802. The shaking frequency of 300 rpm was favorable to production, whereas higher shaking frequencies showed negative effect. Pigment production was partially associated with cell growth, the critical dissolved oxygen concentration was between 0.894 and 1.388 mgO2 L(-1) at 30 °C, and limiting conditions of dissolved oxygen decreased the production of orange pigments. The maintenance coefficient (mo) and the conversion factor of oxygen in biomass (Yo) were 18.603 mgO2 g x(-1)  h(-1) and 3.133 gx gO 2(-1) and the consideration of these parameters in the oxygen balance to estimate the biomass concentration provided good fits to the experimental data.

  14. Dietary diversity is associated with nutritional status of Orang Asli children in Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ey Chua, E Y; Zalilah, M S; Ys Chin, Y S; Norhasmah, S

    2012-04-01

    It is known that dietary diversity improves diet quality and nutritional status of young children. This study aimed to determine the relationship between dietary diversity and nutritional status of Orang Asli children in Krau Wildlife Reserve. A total of 216 children from three Orang Asli sub-tribes (Jah Hut, Temuan and Che Wong) aged 1 to 6 years from 162 households in 16 villages participated in this cross-sectional study. Children and mothers were measured for body weight and height. Mothers were interviewed for household socio-demographic information and diet diversity of children in the last 7 days. Diet diversity score (DDS) was calculated based on 15 food groups. There was a high prevalence of underweight (50.9%) and stunting (61.6%) in Orang Asli children. For mothers, 11.1%, 27.8% and 7.4% were underweight, overweight and obese, respectively. Mean DDS of children was 6.38 [95% CI-6.10, 6.65] of the possible 15. Higher DDS of children was significantly related to older age (p nutrition problem among Orang Asli children living within the forest reserve. Efforts to promote dietary diversity should emphasise traditional and nutritious foods that could improve health and nutritional status of the Orang Asli children.

  15. Rapid Diagnosis of Bacteremia in Adults Using Acridine Orange Stained Buffy Coat Smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Miller

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of acridine orange stained buffy coat smears was assessed as a rapid screening test for bacteremia in adults. A total of 356 consecutive blood cultures were submitted with simultaneous anticoagulated blood samples, from which a buffy coat smear was prepared and stained with acridine orange (100 mg/L; pH 3.0. Forty-one of 356 blood samples (12% yielded organisms in the blood culture system. Compared to blood culture, the overall sensitivity of acridine orange stained buffy coat smears was 16%, specificity 88%, and positive predictive value 13%. There was no statistically significant difference in performance of the test among patients who had fever greater than 39°C and/or shock. The low sensitivity and specificity of the test makes it unsuitable as a means of rapid screening for adults with suspected bacteremia.

  16. INTERKALASI XILENOL ORANGE PADA ZEOLIT ALAM LAMPUNG SEBAGAI ELEKTRODA ZEOLIT TERMODIFIKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitriyah Fitriyah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zeolit terbagi menjadi zeolit alam dan zeolit sintesis, kapasitas adsorpsi zeolit alam umumnya lebih rendah daripada zeolit sintesis, sehingga untuk meningkatkan kapasitas adsorpsinya, karakter permukaan zeolit alam perlu diubah dengan melakukan proses modifikasi permukaan melalui berbagai metode, salah satunya dengan metode interkalasi. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu menginterkalasi zat warna xilenol orange ke dalam zeolit alam Lampung dan mengaplikasikannya sebagai elektroda zeolit termodifikasi. Melalui proses interkalasi diharapkan dapat meningkatkan kegunaan dan nilai tambah dari zeolit. Data hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa xilenol orange (XO dapat diinterkalasikan ke dalam zeolit, hal ini dapat dilihat dari pita spektrum FTIR yang memiliki serapan pada bilangan gelombang 1383 cm-1, yaitu menunjukkan serapan dari S=O simetris dan asimetris pada gugus –SO3H,hal ini diduga karena XO memiliki gugus SO3 sehingga menyebabkan adanya serangan pada proton zeolit. Berdasarkan penelitian dapat disarikan bahwa xilanol orange dapat terinterkalasi pada zeolit alam Lampung dan dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai elektroda pendeteksi logam.

  17. PENGARUH KINERJA MENGAJAR GURU, KETERLIBATAN ORANG TUA, AKTUALISASI DIRI DAN MOTIVASI BERPRESTASI TERHADAP PRESTASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Junianto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh kinerja mengajar guru, keterlibatan orang tua, aktualisasi diri dan motivasi berprestasi terhadap prestasi siswa kelas XII pada mata pelajaran teori Teknik Kendaraan Ringan di SMK Negeri Se-Kabupaten Gunungkidul. Penelitian ini merupakan jenis penelitian kuantitatif dengan rancangan ex post facto.  Populasi penelitian ini sebanyak 535 siswa dengan sampel sebanyak 237 siswa, yang ditentukan secara proportional random sampling. Teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan dua cara yaitu angket dan tes prestasi. Data penelitian yang terkumpul dianalisis menggunakan analisis regresi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh kinerja mengajar guru, keterlibatan orang tua, aktualisasi diri dan motivasi berprestasi masing-masing sebesar 0,145; 0,128; 0,108; dan 0,098. Kata kunci: kinerja mengajar guru, keterlibatan orang tua, aktualisasi diri, motivasi berprestasi, prestasi belajar

  18. Analysis of Orange Peel Defect in St14 Steel Sheet by Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengquan CAO; Jinxu ZHANG; Jiansheng WU; Jiaguang CHEN

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the orange peel defect in the surface range of the st14 steel sheet has been investigated using the electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) technique. It has been found that the orange peel defect in the st14steel sheet was resulted from the local coarse grains which were produced during hot-rolling due to the critical deformation in dual-phase zone. During deep drawing, the coarse grains with {100}<001> microtexture can slip on the {112}<111> slip system to form bulging and yields orange peel defects, while the coarse grains with {112}<110>orientation do not form the defect as the Schmid factor of {112}<111> slip system in it equals zero.

  19. Degradation of orange dyes and carbamazepine by soybean peroxidase immobilized on silica monoliths and titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calza, Paola; Zacchigna, Dario; Laurenti, Enzo

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the removal of three common dyes (orange I, orange II, and methylorange) and of the anticonvulsant drug carbamazepine from aqueous solutions by means of enzymatic and photocatalytic treatment was studied. Soybean peroxidase (SBP) was used as biocatalyst, both free in solution and immobilized on silica monoliths, and titanium dioxide as photocatalyst. The combination of the two catalysts led to a faster (about two to four times) removal of all the orange dyes compared to the single systems. All the dyes were completely removed within 2 h, also in the presence of immobilized SBP. As for carbamazepine, photocatalytic treatment prevails on the enzymatic degradation, but the synergistic effect of two catalysts led to a more efficient degradation; carbamazepine's complete disappearance was achieved within 60 min with combined system, while up to 2 h is required with TiO2 only.

  20. Studies on orange oil methyl ester in diesel engine with hemispherical and toroidal combustion chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthickeyan Viswanathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation has been made to compare the emission characteristics of 20% orange oil methyl ester and 80% diesel in volumetric basis with Neat diesel in hemispherical combustion chamber and toroidal combustion chamber. Non-edible orange oil is selected and utilized to prepare alternative fuel to be utilized in Diesel engine. The traditional method of transestrification is employed for preparation orange oil methyl ester. The chemical properties of prepared methyl ester were determined using fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy method. Further its fuel properties were found based on American Society for Testing and Materials standards and compared with Neat diesel fuel properties. A compression ignition engine with electrical dynamometer test rig with gas analyzer has been used. It is observed that 1% of NOx and 4% of HC emission reduced in toroidal combustion chamber engine. However, smoke emission is found to be lower in hemispherical combustion chamber engine.

  1. Clinical evaluation of Moro (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) orange juice supplementation for the weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardile, Venera; Graziano, Adriana Carol Eleonora; Venditti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, several studies have recently evaluated the beneficial effects of red orange juice (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) and its active components in weight management and obesity. Moro orange is a cultivar of red orange, particularly rich in active compounds such as anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavone glycosides and ascorbic acid, which displays anti-obesity effects in in vitro and in vivo studies. In this clinical study, the effect of a Moro juice extract (Morosil(®), 400 mg/die) supplementation was evaluated in overweight healthy human volunteers for 12 weeks. Results showed that Moro juice extract intake was able to induce a significant reduction in body mass index (BMI) after 4 weeks of treatment (p juice have a synergistic effect on fat accumulation in humans and Moro juice extract can be used in weight management and in the prevention of human obesity.

  2. Heterozygosity and orange coloration are associated in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdegen, M; Dudka, K; Radwan, J

    2014-01-01

    The good-genes-as-heterozygosity hypothesis predicts that more elaborate male sexual ornaments are associated with higher levels of heterozygosity. Recent theoretical work suggests that such associations are likely to arise in finite, structured populations. We investigated the correlation between multilocus heterozygosity (MLH), which was estimated using 13 microsatellite loci, and male coloration in a wild population of guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a model species in sexual selection research. We found that MLH was a significant predictor of the relative area of orange spots, a trait that is subject to strong female preference in this species. Neither the relative area of black spots nor the number of black or orange spots was significantly correlated with MLH. We found no statistical support for local effects (i.e. strong effects of heterozygosity at specific markers), which suggests that relative orange spots area reflects genome-wide heterozygosity.

  3. Localized pemphigus foliaceus exclusively involving the follicular infundibulum: a novel peau d'orange appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohata, Chika; Akamatsu, Kana; Imai, Naho; Sumimura, Yukiko

    2011-01-01

    Localized pemphigus foliaceus (PF) clinically presents as red plaques with scale and crust due to acantholysis of the epidermis. The follicular infundibulum shows acantholysis, but usually with epidermal acantholysis or at least erosion. Localized PF exclusively involving the follicular infundibulum, which shows a peau d'orange appearance, has never been reported. We describe a patient with a red plaque and peau d'orange appearance on the cheek for 20 years. Dyskeratotic acantholysis in the follicular infundibulum was overlooked when the first biopsy specimen was obtained, and a disseminated lesion developed soon after, which led to the diagnosis. Although a peau d'orange appearance is a rare clinical manifestation of PF, PF should be considered as the differential diagnosis on the basis of this appearance, especially when the lesion persists on the face for long periods.

  4. A modified ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange assay for lipoxygenase activity in rice grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timabud, Tarinee; Sanitchon, Jirawat; Pongdontri, Paweena

    2013-12-01

    Ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange assay reagent was reformulated by using spectral analysis of ferric-xylenol orange complex to detect low concentrations of lipoxygenase rice grain products. Reducing the levels of ferrous sulphate and xylenol orange in the FOX reagent enabled the detection of low concentrations of hydroperoxy fatty acid derived from lipoxygenase activity in the range of 0.1-1.5 μM. Protein, substrate and time courses of the modified FOX assay were studied to determine lipoxygenase activity in rice grain. The assay was also applicable as a high throughput technique for comparisons of lipoxygenase activity from various rice varieties. This has important implications for rapid screening for low-lipoxygenase containing rice cultivars in rice breeding program and grain quality during storage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Physical properties of inulin and inulin-orange juice: physical characterization and technological application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra-Leos, M Z; Leyva-Porras, C; Martínez-Guerra, E; Pérez-García, S A; Aguilar-Martínez, J A; Álvarez-Salas, C

    2014-05-25

    In this work two systems based on a carbohydrate polymer were studied: inulin as model system and inulin-orange juice as complex system. Both system were stored at different water activity conditions and subsequently characterized. Water adsorption isotherms type II were fitted by the GAB model and the water monolayer content was determined for each system. From thermal analyzes it was found that at low water activities (aw) systems were fully amorphous. As aw increased, crystallinity was developed. This behavior was corroborated by X-ray diffraction. In the inulin-orange juice system, crystallization appears at lower water activity caused by the intensification of the chemical interaction of the low molecular weight species contained in orange juice. Glass transition temperature (Tg), determined by modulated differential scanning calorimeter, decreased with aw. As water is adsorbed, the physical appearance of samples changed which could be observed by optical microscopy and effectively related with the microstructure found by scanning electron microscopy.

  6. Characterization of novel polyomaviruses from Bornean and Sumatran orang-utans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewoud, Marlous J; Fagrouch, Zahra; van Gessel, Sabine; Niphuis, Henk; Bulavaite, Aiste; Warren, Kristin S; Heeney, Jonathan L; Verschoor, Ernst J

    2010-03-01

    Serological screening of sera from orang-utans demonstrated a high percentage of sera that cross-reacted with antigens of the polyomavirus (PyV) simian virus 40. Analysis of archival DNA samples from 71 Bornean and eight Sumatran orang-utans with a broad-spectrum PCR assay resulted in the detection of PyV infections in 11 animals from both species. Sequence analysis of the amplicons revealed considerable differences between the PyVs from Bornean and Sumatran orang-utans. The genome from two PyVs, one from each species, was therefore amplified and sequenced. Both viral genomes revealed a characteristic PyV architecture, but lacked an obvious agnogene. Neighbour-joining analysis positioned the viruses in a large cluster together with viruses from bats, bovines, rodents and several primate PyVs from chimpanzees, African green monkeys, squirrel monkeys and the human Merkel cell PyV.

  7. El tirano de Holanda: Guillermo de Orange en el discurso español del Siglo de Oro sobre las Guerras de Flandes = The tyrant of Holland: Willem of Orange in the Spanish Golden Age discourse on the Dutch revolt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez Pérez, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Since the outbreak of the Dutch Revolt, William of Orange fulfilled a specific role in Spanish discourse, comparable to that of the Duke of Alba in the Low Countries. These historical figures were considered as tyrants in these opposing ‘national’ discourses. In Spain, the figure of William of Orang

  8. A critical review of the epidemiology of Agent Orange/TCDD and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ellen T; Boffetta, Paolo; Adami, Hans-Olov; Cole, Philip; Mandel, Jack S

    2014-10-01

    To inform risk assessment and regulatory decision-making, the relationship between 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and prostate cancer requires clarification. This article systematically and critically reviews the epidemiologic evidence on the association between exposure to TCDD or Agent Orange, a TCDD-contaminated herbicide used during the Vietnam War, and prostate cancer risk. Articles evaluated include 11 studies of three cohorts, four case-control or cross-sectional studies, and three case-only studies of military veterans with information on estimated Agent Orange or TCDD exposure; 13 studies of seven cohorts, one case-control study, and eight proportionate morbidity or mortality studies of Vietnam veterans without information on Agent Orange exposure; 11 cohort studies of workers with occupational exposure to TCDD; and two studies of one community cohort with environmental exposure to TCDD. The most informative studies, including those of Vietnam veterans involved in Agent Orange spraying or other handling, herbicide manufacturing or spraying workers with occupational TCDD exposure, and community members exposed to TCDD through an industrial accident, consistently reported no significant increase in prostate cancer incidence or mortality. Only some potentially confounded studies of Vietnam veterans compared with the general population, studies with unreliable estimates of Agent Orange exposure, and analyses of selected subgroups of Vietnam veterans reported positive associations. Overall, epidemiologic research offers no consistent or convincing evidence of a causal relationship between exposure to Agent Orange or TCDD and prostate cancer. More accurate exposure assessment is needed in large epidemiologic studies to rule out a causal association more conclusively.

  9. Rapid degradation of azo dye methyl orange using hollow cobalt nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Yingying; Mathew, Iswarya; Cui, Qingzhou; Clay, Molly; Gao, Fan; Zhang, Xiaoqi Jackie; Gu, Zhiyong

    2016-02-01

    A rapid and efficient method for methyl orange degradation using hollow cobalt (Co) nanoparticles is reported. Hollow Co nanoparticles were fabricated by a galvanic replacement reaction using aluminum (Al) nanoparticles as the template material. The methyl orange degradation characteristics were investigated by measuring the time dependent UV-Vis absorption of the dye solution, which showed a very fast degradation rate under acidic conditions. At an initial methyl orange concentration of 100 mg/L (pH = 2.5) and Co nanoparticle dosage of 0.5 g/L, the azo dye degradation efficiency reached up to 99% within 4 min, and the degradation constant rate was up to 2.444 min(-1), which is the highest value among other studies. A comparison of the decolorization rates at similar conditions with several other azo dyes, including Congo red, Amaranth, and Orange G, showed that the dye with a simpler structure and lower molecular mass decolorized considerably faster than the ones having a more complicated structure (higher molecular mass). The methyl orange degradation was also conducted using hollow nickel (Ni) nanoparticles and commercially available solid spherical Co and Ni nanoparticles. The results showed that Co-based nanoparticles outperformed Ni-based nanoparticles, with the hollow Co nanoparticles exhibiting the fastest degradation rate. Using the hollow Co nanoparticles is a very promising approach for the remediation of methyl orange dye containing wastewater due to the fast degradation rate and high degradation efficiency. In addition, these hollow Co nanoparticles are easily recycled because of their magnetic property.

  10. Photodegradation of orange I in the heterogeneous iron oxide-oxalate complex system under UVA irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Jing [Faculty of Agriculture, Guangxi University, Nanning 630005 (China); Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environment and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Liu Chengshuai [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environment and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li Fangbai [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environment and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China)]. E-mail: cefbli@soil.gd.cn; Li Xiaomin [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environment and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhou Shungui [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environment and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Liu Tongxu [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environment and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Gu Minghua [Faculty of Agriculture, Guangxi University, Nanning 630005 (China); Wu Qitang [College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2006-09-21

    To understand the photodegradation of azo dyes in natural aquatic environment, a novel photo-Fenton-like system, the heterogeneous iron oxide-oxalate complex system was set up with the existence of iron oxides and oxalate. Five iron oxides, including {gamma}-FeOOH, IO-250, IO-320, IO-420 and IO-520, were prepared and their adsorption capacity was investigated in the dark. The results showed that the saturated adsorption amount ({gamma}{sub max}) was ranked the order of IO-250>IO-320>{gamma}-FeOOH>IO-420>IO-520 and the adsorption equilibrium constant (K{sub a}) followed the order of IO-250>IO-520>{gamma}-FeOOH>IO-420>IO-320. The effect of initial pH value, the initial concentrations of oxalate and orange I on the photodegradation of orange I were also investigated in different iron oxide-oxalate systems. The results showed that the photodegradation of orange I under UVA irradiation could be enhanced greatly in the presence of oxalate. And the optimal oxalate concentrations (C{sub ox}{sup 0}) for {gamma}-FeOOH, IO-250, IO-320, IO-420 and IO-520 were 1.8, 1.6, 3.5, 3.0 and 0.8mM, respectively. The photodegradation of orange I in the presence of optimal C{sub ox}{sup 0} was ranked as the order of {gamma}-FeOOH>IO-250>IO-320>IO-420>IO-520. The optimal range of initial pH was at about 3-4. The first-order kinetic constant for the degradation of orange I decreased with the increase in the initial concentration of orange I. Furthermore, the variation of pH, the concentrations of Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} during the photoreaction were also strongly dependent on the C{sub ox}{sup 0} and iron oxides.

  11. Photodegradation of orange I in the heterogeneous iron oxide-oxalate complex system under UVA irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jing; Liu, Chengshuai; Li, Fangbai; Li, Xiaomin; Zhou, Shungui; Liu, Tongxu; Gu, Minghua; Wu, Qitang

    2006-09-21

    To understand the photodegradation of azo dyes in natural aquatic environment, a novel photo-Fenton-like system, the heterogeneous iron oxide-oxalate complex system was set up with the existence of iron oxides and oxalate. Five iron oxides, including gamma-FeOOH, IO-250, IO-320, IO-420 and IO-520, were prepared and their adsorption capacity was investigated in the dark. The results showed that the saturated adsorption amount (gamma(max)) was ranked the order of IO-250 > IO-320 > gamma-FeOOH > IO-420 > IO-520 and the adsorption equilibrium constant (Ka) followed the order of IO-250 > IO-520 > gamma-FeOOH > IO-420 > IO-320. The effect of initial pH value, the initial concentrations of oxalate and orange I on the photodegradation of orange I were also investigated in different iron oxide-oxalate systems. The results showed that the photodegradation of orange I under UVA irradiation could be enhanced greatly in the presence of oxalate. And the optimal oxalate concentrations (C(ox)0) for gamma-FeOOH, IO-250, IO-320, IO-420 and IO-520 were 1.8, 1.6, 3.5, 3.0 and 0.8 mM, respectively. The photodegradation of orange I in the presence of optimal C(ox)0 was ranked as the order of gamma-FeOOH > IO-250 > IO-320 > IO-420 > IO-520. The optimal range of initial pH was at about 3-4. The first-order kinetic constant for the degradation of orange I decreased with the increase in the initial concentration of orange I. Furthermore, the variation of pH, the concentrations of Fe3+ and Fe2+ during the photoreaction were also strongly dependent on the C(ox)0 and iron oxides.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of flavanone glycosides after ingestion of single doses of fresh-squeezed orange juice versus commercially processed orange juice in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Jacqueline Q; Cesar, Thais B; Manthey, John A; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Bai, Jinhe; Raithore, Smita

    2014-12-31

    Orange juice is a rich source of flavonoids considered beneficial to cardiovascular health in humans. The objective of this study was to analyze the pharmacokinetics of the main flavanone glycosides, hesperidin and narirutin, in humans after the consumption of two styles of orange juice, fresh-squeezed (FOJ) and commercially processed (POJ), differing in their amounts of soluble and insoluble forms of these compounds. Healthy human subjects consumed 11.5 mL/kg body weight of FOJ, and after an interval of 30 days, consumed the same quantity of POJ. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the Tmax of the pharmacokinetic curves for the metabolites of hesperidin and narirutin following the consumption of the two styles of juices, and corrected for differences in doses in the POJ and FOJ, there were also no significant differences in the AUC and Cmax values and percent absorption of these compounds.

  13. Genome Wide Characterization of Short Tandem Repeat Markers in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    BISWAS, Manosh Kumar; XU, Qiang; Mayer, Christoph; Deng, Xiuxin

    2014-01-01

    Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is one of the major cultivated and most-consumed citrus species. With the goal of enhancing the genomic resources in citrus, we surveyed, developed and characterized microsatellite markers in the ≈347 Mb sequence assembly of the sweet orange genome. A total of 50,846 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 146.4 SSRs/Mbp. Dinucleotide repeats are the most frequent repeat class and the highest density of SSRs was found in chromosome 4. SSRs are non-randomly dist...

  14. Production of ethanol from enzymatically hydrolyzed orange peel by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohmann, K; Baldwin, E A; Buslig, B S

    1994-01-01

    We extended our previous investigations of enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides in orange peel by commercial cellulase and pectinase enzymes to higher, more practical concentrations of orange peel solids. High yields of saccharification could be maintained even at substrate concentrations as high as 22-23%, but the rates of solubilization and saccharification decreased 2-3-fold. We also tested the fermentability of these hydrolysates by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which revealed the presence of inhibitory compounds. These compounds could be removed by the filtration of hydrolyzed peel. Successful fermentations of filtered hydrolysates were achieved after pH adjustment with calcium carbonate.

  15. Lakon sebagai Media Transformasi Penyampaian Pesan Sosial dalam Pertunjukan Wayang Orang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Wicaksono

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan menjelaskan transformasi isu aktual dalam manyarakattentang ide dan gagasan dalam pe-nyanggit-an lakon. Penelitian dilakukan dengancara pembacaan pertunjukan lakon “Sêsaji Raja Suya” sajian Paguyuban WayangOrang Panca Budaya menggunakan teori bangunan lakon wayang. Sanggit lakonyang ditemukan dikaitkan dengan konteks masyarakat saat ini untuk menunjukkantransformasi isu aktual di masyarakat. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwasanggit lakon yang disajikan berbeda dengan sanggit lakon pada umumnya. Dalamsanggit tersebut terdapat pesan sosial tentang wacana pemilu. Sanggit beserta bentukpertunjukannya merupakan sebuah bentuk kreatif seniman dalam menangkap gejalagejaladan perubahan sosiokultural agar pertunjukannya diterima oleh masyarakat.Dalam menyikapi selera seni masyarakat sekarang, pertunjukan ini menunjukkanadanya pencarian format pertunjukan yang sesuai, namun tidak meninggalkankonsep tradisi di dalamnya. Hadirnya Paguyuban Wayang Orang Panca Budayayang tergolong baru menunjukkan geliat perkembangan wayang orang dalam upayamenghidupkan kembali kesenian tersebut. Study of Lakon as the Transformation Media of Conveying Social Message inthe Current Wayang Orang Show. The purpose of this research is to explain how thecurrent popular issues within society become the insight and idea in creating a lakon, andgiving information about the current development in wayang orang shows. The researchis carried out by the method of reading the show of lakon “Sêsaji Raja Suya” brought byPaguyuban Wayang Orang Panca Budaya, using the structural theory of lakon wayang.After the sanggit lakon acquired, it is then being related to the context of the currentsociety to show the transformation of today’s social issues in the society. The research resultshows that the sanggit lakon presented is different from the sanggit lakon generally. Thesanggit and the form of the show itself are the creative-form of the artist to capture

  16. STUDY OF METHYL ORANGE PHOTODEGRADATION USING TiO2-MONTMORILLONITE COMPOSITE

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Composite TiO2-montmorillonite (Ti-MMT) has been synthesized with the aim to improve the ability of TiO2 photocatalysts degrade methyl orange. Synthesis of composite made by mixing TiO2 and montmorillonite in ethanol solution, then heated using the furnace at a temperature of 450 °C for 5 hours. TiO2-MMT composites were characterized by FT-IR, XRD and SAA. Test photodegradation activity of TiO2-MMT composites made to dye Methyl Orange 8 mg / L with UV light irradiation time variation and mass...

  17. Orange Business Services助力跨国企业管理ICT基础架构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Orange Business Services日前宣布,将不断增强其Customized Infrastructure Care解决方案,以便在多厂商、多技术的ICT环境中提供全面的基础架构监控、管理和支持功能。Orange Business Services的Customized Infrastructure Care2.0使企业在一个采用Service Now技术的平台上通过单一基于云的面板,

  18. Detection of orange juice frauds using front-face fluorescence spectroscopy and Independent Components Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammari, Faten; Redjdal, Lamia; Rutledge, Douglas N

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to find simple objective analytical methods to assess the adulteration of orange juice by grapefruit juice. The adulterations by addition of grapefruit juice were studied by 3D-front-face fluorescence spectroscopy followed by Independent Components Analysis (ICA) and by classical methods such as free radical scavenging activity and total flavonoid content. The results of this study clearly indicate that frauds by adding grapefruit juice to orange juice can be detected at percentages as low as 1%.

  19. Early detection of positive blood cultures by the acridine orange staining technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Tierney, B M; Henry, N K; Washington, J A

    1983-01-01

    Staining 2,205 macroscopically negative blood cultures with acridine orange after 6 to 17 h of inoculation and incubation was as sensitive as an early subculture in detecting positive blood cultures. Of the 179 positive blood cultures, 30 (16.8%) were detected by acridine orange alone, 19 (10.6%) were detected by early subculture alone, 84 (46.9%) were detected by both techniques, and 46 (25.7%) were not detected by either method. The latter group includes cultures that became positive after ...

  20. Genome Wide Characterization of Short Tandem Repeat Markers in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Xu, Qiang; Mayer, Christoph; Deng, Xiuxin

    2014-01-01

    Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is one of the major cultivated and most-consumed citrus species. With the goal of enhancing the genomic resources in citrus, we surveyed, developed and characterized microsatellite markers in the ≈347 Mb sequence assembly of the sweet orange genome. A total of 50,846 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 146.4 SSRs/Mbp. Dinucleotide repeats are the most frequent repeat class and the highest density of SSRs was found in chromosome 4. SSRs are non-randomly dist...

  1. Orange and IR to violet up-conversion processes in Nd:ZBLAN glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimczak, M.; Malinowski, M.; Piramidowicz, R.

    2009-10-01

    In this work we investigate, compare and discuss UV and violet emission behaviour under pulsed, multi-photon orange and infra-red excitation in Nd 3+ doped ZBLAN samples of different concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 5 mol.%. Supported by the obtained spectroscopic results, orange and IR excitation schemes were proposed and verified by time dependent rate equation model, which has been employed to confirm the nature of observed processes. Proposed model returns fitting results which qualitatively reflect the experimentally obtained fluorescence decays.

  2. Carotene and novel apocarotenoid concentrations in orange-fleshed Cucumis melo melons: determinations of beta-carotene bioaccessability and bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskmelons, both cantaloupe (Cucumis melo Reticulatus Group) and orange-fleshed honey dew (C. melo Inodorus Group), a cross between orange-fleshed cantaloupe and green-fleshed honey dew, are excellent sources of ß-carotene. Although ß-carotene from melon is an important dietary antioxidant and precu...

  3. Orange juice improved lipid profile and blood lactate of overweight middle-aged women subjected to aerobic training

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the influence of regular consumption of orange juice associated with aerobic exercise on the lipid profile of middle aged women, previously sedentary. Twenty-six women, 30 to 55 years old, volunteered to consume orange juice daily for 3 months and participate in an aerobic train...

  4. 76 FR 65496 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Extension of Time Limits for... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR...

  5. Neutron activation analysis and numerical taxonomy of thin orange ceramics from the manufacturing site of Rio Carnero, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rattray, E. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Investigaciones Antropologicas); Harbottle, G. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

    1991-04-01

    Examples of different types of Thin Orange ceramics found at the recently-discovered manufacturing sites in the state of Puebla have been analyzed by neutron activation. A full multivariate numerical analysis indicates that this material is chemically identical with the well-known Thin Orange of Teotihuacan.'' 33 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus is present in orange jasmine and Asian citrus psyllid reared from jasmine at low titers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange jasmine, Murraya paniculata, is a common horticultural plant in Florida, and an alternate host of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. Orange jasmine has also been reported to harbor the bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agent of huanglongbing disease. We ...

  7. Trifoliata hybrids rootstocks for 'Lane Late' navel orange in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Carrizo citrange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.] and Cleopatra mandarin (C. reshni Hort. ex Tan. are the most important rootstocks used in Spain, but they are problematic and it is necessary to search for new rootstocks with better all-round performance. The performance of 'Lane Late' navel orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb] on ten rootstocks was determined in the South of the province of Alicante (Spain. They are Carrizo citrange, Cleopatra mandarin and eight new hybrids obtained at the Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias in Valencia (Spain: 020324 [Troyer citrange (C. sinensis × P. trifoliata × Cleopatra mandarin], Forner-Alcaide 418 (F&A 418 [Troyer citrange × common mandarin (C. deliciosa Ten.], Forner-Alcaide 13 (F&A 13, 030118, 030127 and 030131 (Cleopatra mandarin × P. trifoliata and 030212 and 030230 (Cleopatra mandarin × Troyer citrange. Soil is clay loam, with pH 8.5 and electric conductivity in the saturation extract at 25ºC of 5.79 mS cm-1. Yield was weighed during the first nine harvests, fruit quality was determined in the last three. Pre-harvest fruit-drop was controlled for the 4th until 9th harvests. The trees of 'Lane Late' navel budded on Cleopatra mandarin were the tallest (2.5 m and F&A 418 (1.6 m the shortest of all rootstocks tested. Trees on 030131 hybrid and Carrizo citrange rootstocks had the highest mean yield (81.2 and 80.3 kg per tree per year respectively, while trees on F&A 418 produced the lowest mean yield (22.3 kg per tree per year. Trees on 030131, 020324 and 030212 had the highest yield efficiency as total cumulative yield per cubic meter of canopy volume (62.1, 58.7 and 55.9 kg m-3 respectively whereas trees on 030127, F&A 418 and Cleopatra mandarin had lower yield efficiencies (45.0, 44.4 and 38.6 kg m-3, respectively. Pre-harvest fruit-drop was lower in trees grafted on Cleopatra mandarin (24.62 % and on 030212 (26.61 %, and was also low on F&A 418 (27

  8. Perbandingan Kadar IL-5 dan Jumlah Eosinofil Antara Anak dan Orang Dewasa yang Terinfeksi Ascaris Lumbricoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmadi ,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Ascaris lumbricoides pada umumnya menginfeksi anak, tetapi juga dapat terjadi pada orang dewasa. Respon imun hospes terhadap infeksi cacing dimulai dengan teraktifasinya Th2 dengan peningkatan yang signifikan dari IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10 dan IL-13. IL-5 yang terbentuk merangsang perkembangan dan aktivasi eosinofil. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui perbandingan kadar IL-5 dan jumlah eosinofil antara anak dan orang dewasa yang terinfeksi oleh Ascaris lumbricoides. Telah dilakukan penelitian secara cross sectional terhadap 16 orang anak dan 16 orang dewasa yang terinfeksi Ascaris lumbricoides. Spesimen darah dan serum anak dan orang dewasa diperiksa IL-5 metode ELISA dan jumlah eosinofil metode mikroskopis. Data dianalisis dengan uji t independent dengan hasil statistik bermakna bila p<0,05. Didapatkan rerata kadar IL-5 anak 5,90±3,61 pg/ml dan 4,10±1,98 pg/ml rerata kadar IL-5 pada orang dewasa dengan nilai p=0,092 (p>0,05, sedangkan rerata jumlah eosinofil anak 14,56±7,77% dan 8,81±4,65% rerata jumlah eosinofil orang dewasa dengan nilai p=0,018 (p<0,05. Kadar IL-5 tidak berbeda signifikan antara anak dan orang dewasa, sebaliknya jumlah eosinofil terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan antara anak dan orang dewasa. Kesimpulan hasil penelitian ini ialah jumlah eosinofil anak lebih tinggi dari pada jumlah eosinofil orang dewasa yang terinfeksi Ascaris lumbricoides. Kata kunci: IL-5, jumlah eosinofil, anak, orang dewasa, infeksi Ascaris lumbricoides Abstract The infection of Ascaris lumbricides common infect children, but it also can be occurred to adult. The immune’s host respond to the worm infection begin from the activation of Th2 by the significant increasing from IL-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13. IL-5 which formed stimulate the development and eosinofil’s activation. The objective of this study was to know the comparison IL-5 degree with the total of eosinofil between the child and adult who is infected by Ascaris lumbricides. The

  9. Spectrophotometric thermodynamic study of orientational isomers formed by inclusion of methyl orange into β-cyclodextrin nanocavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kompany Zare, Mohsen; Mokhtari, Zeinab; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    of methyl orange. This study was performed in basic and acidic media to yield the microconstants and thermodynamic parameters for inclusion complex formation equilibria in each media. The recorded data set at a constant temperature is rank deficient, because there is a linear dependency between...... was also performed, to calculate the microconstants and thermodynamic parameters related to ionization. The interaction of the basic form of methyl orange with β-cyclodextrin in basic medium led to two orientational isomers. In acidic medium methyl orange has two tautomeric forms, called ammonium......Spectrophotometry has been used to investigate the interaction of methyl orange (MO), an azo dye as a guest, with β-cyclodextrin (CD) as the host. Inclusion of methyl orange into β-cyclodextrin nanocavity leads to two orientational isomers, so-called inclumers, because of the asymmetric structure...

  10. Preparation and characterization of ammonium-functionalized silica nanoparticle as a new adsorbent to remove methyl orange from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinshui; Ma, Shi; Zang, Lingjie

    2013-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine (PEI) was successfully modified to silica nanoparticle (QPEI/SiO2) as a new adsorbent to remove methyl orange from aqueous solution. The isotherm and kinetics of dye adsorption were studied, which showed that Langmuir isotherm fit the experimental results well. The maximum adsorption capacity of QPEI/SiO2 for methyl orange is 105.4 mg/g. The equilibrium time for methyl orange adsorption onto QPEI/SiO2 was as short as 10 min, indicating that the adsorbent has a strong affinity for methyl orange. The adsorption capacities of the methyl orange are slightly influenced by the pH in the range of 3.2-9.6. The QPEI/SiO2 adsorbent can be used in the wide pH range, which is different from other adsorbent. This may attribute to the quaternary ammonium carrying positive charges in acidic and basic solution.

  11. Measuring Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juice Using a Pencil Lead Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, David; Friend, Jeffrey; Kariuki, James

    2010-01-01

    A pencil lead successfully served as an electrode for the determination of ascorbic acid in commercial orange juice. Cyclic voltammetry was used as an electrochemical probe to measure the current produced from the oxidation of ascorbic acid with a variety of electrodes. The data demonstrate that the less expensive pencil lead electrode gives…

  12. Cost analysis of commercial pasteurization of orange juice by pulsed electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cost of pulsed electric field (PEF) pasteurization of orange juice was estimated. The cost analysis was based on processing conditions that met the US FDA (5 log reduction) requirement for fruit juice pasteurization and that achieved a 2 month microbial shelf-life. PEF-treated samples processed ...

  13. Using a Web Application to Conduct and Investigate Syntheses of Methyl Orange Remotely

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rens, Lisette; van Dijk, Hans; Mulder, Jan; Nieuwland, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    Thirty-six pre-university chemistry students and two chemistry teachers used flow chemistry as a technology for the synthesis of methyl orange. FutureChemistry and VU University Amsterdam cooperatively created FlowStart Remote, a device that enabled the students to remotely conduct this synthesis and in real time monitor and control the device via…

  14. Exploring optimal fertigation strategies for orange production, using soil-crop modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Wei; Heinen, Marius; Assinck, Falentijn B.T.; Oenema, Oene

    2016-01-01

    Water and nitrogen (N) are two key limiting factors in orange (Citrus sinensis) production. The amount and the timing of water and N application are critical, but optimal strategies have not yet been well established. This study presents an analysis of 47 fertigation strategies examined by a coup

  15. Wnt4 in protogynous hermaphroditic orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides): identification and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huapu; Li, Shuisheng; Xiao, Ling; Zhang, Yong; Li, Guangli; Liu, Xiaochun; Lin, Haoran

    2015-05-01

    Wnt4 (Wingless-type MMTV integration site family member 4) has been demonstrated to play critical roles in ovarian development in mammals, but its function in fish reproduction is still unclear. In the present study, two full-length wnt4 cDNA sequences (named wnt4a and wnt4b) were cloned from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Amino acid alignment analysis showed that both orange-spotted grouper Wnt4s proteins had the typical characteristics of the Wnt family. RT-PCR revealed that both wnt4a and wnt4b were highly expressed in the ovaries of the orange-spotted grouper. Temporal expression profiles of both wnt4 genes during embryonic and ovarian development were examined. The expressions of wnt4a and wnt4b genes were first detected at the embryonic morula stage, but the gens showed different expression patterns. During ovarian development, high expression of wnt4a was observed in the ovarian lumen formation and gonium proliferation stage, while wnt4b exhibited strong expression in the early developmental stage of oocytes. Taken together, the present study indicates that the two wnt4 genes are involved in the regulation of ovarian development in the orange-spotted grouper.

  16. Targeted genome editing of sweet orange using Cas9/sgRNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongge Jia

    Full Text Available Genetic modification, including plant breeding, has been widely used to improve crop yield and quality, as well as to increase disease resistance. Targeted genome engineering is expected to contribute significantly to future varietal improvement, and genome editing technologies using zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/Cas9/single guide RNA (sgRNA have already been successfully used to genetically modify plants. However, to date, there has been no reported use of any of the current genome editing approaches in sweet orange, an important fruit crop. In this study, we first developed a novel tool, Xcc-facilitated agroinfiltration, for enhancing transient protein expression in sweet orange leaves. We then successfully employed Xcc-facilitated agroinfiltration to deliver Cas9, along with a synthetic sgRNA targeting the CsPDS gene, into sweet orange. DNA sequencing confirmed that the CsPDS gene was mutated at the target site in treated sweet orange leaves. The mutation rate using the Cas9/sgRNA system was approximately 3.2 to 3.9%. Off-target mutagenesis was not detected for CsPDS-related DNA sequences in our study. This is the first report of targeted genome modification in citrus using the Cas9/sgRNA system-a system that holds significant promise for the study of citrus gene function and for targeted genetic modification.

  17. HUBUNGAN ANTARA POLA ASUH ORANG TUA DAN KETAATAN BERIBADAH DENGAN PERILAKU SOPAN SANTUN PESERTA DIDIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Risthantri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: (1 mengetahui hubungan antara pola asuh orang tua dengan perilaku sopan santun peserta didik; (2 mengetahui hubungan antara ketaatan beribadah dengan perilaku sopan santun peserta didik; ( 3 mengetahui hubungan antara pola asuh orang tua dan ketaatan beribadah secara bersama-sama dengan perilaku sopan santun peserta didik di SMP Negeri se Kecamatan Ngaglik Kabupaten Sleman. Penelitian ini merupakan jenis penelitian kuantitatif dengan desain korelasional. Penelitian dilaksanakan di SMP Negeri 1, SMP Negeri 2, SMP Negeri 3, dan SMP Negeri 4 Kecamatan Ngaglik Kabupaten Sleman. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Oktober 2014 sampai Juni 2015. Populasi sebanyak 1.767 siswa. Sampel diambil secara simple random sampling. Data dikumpulkan melalui angket. Uji validitas menggunakan validitas konstrak dengan model Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA. Analisis data meliputi analisis deskriptif, pengujian persyaratan analisis, dan pengujian hipotesis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: (1 ada hubungan yang positif dan signifikan antara pola asuh orang tua dengan perilaku sopan santun peserta didik; (2 ada hubungan yang positif dan signifikan antara ketaatan beribadah dengan perilaku sopan santun peserta didik; (3 ada hubungan yang positif dan signifikan antara pola asuh orang tua dan ketaatan beribadah secara bersama-sama dengan perilaku sopan santun peserta didik.

  18. Olivine or Impact Melt: Nature of the "Orange" Material on Vesta from Dawn

    CERN Document Server

    Corre, Lucille Le; Schmedemann, Nico; Becker, Kris J; O'Brien, David P; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Peplowski, Patrick N; Prettyman, Thomas H; Li, Jian-Yang; Cloutis, Edward A; Denevi, Brett W; Kneissl, Thomas; Palmer, Eric; Gaskell, Robert W; Nathues, Andreas; Gaffey, Michael J; Mittlefehldt, David W; Garry, William B; Sierks, Holger; Russell, Christopher T; Raymond, Carol A

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Dawn mission observed a great variety of colored terrains on asteroid (4) Vesta during its survey with the Framing Camera (FC). Here we present a detailed study of the orange material on Vesta, which was first observed in color ratio images obtained by the FC and presents a red spectral slope. The orange material deposits can be classified into three types, a) diffuse ejecta deposited by recent medium-size impact craters (such as Oppia), b) lobate patches with well-defined edges, and c) ejecta rays from fresh-looking impact craters. The location of the orange diffuse ejecta from Oppia corresponds to the olivine spot nicknamed "Leslie feature" first identified by Gaffey (1997) from ground-based spectral observations. The distribution of the orange material in the FC mosaic is concentrated on the equatorial region and almost exclusively outside the Rheasilvia basin. Our in-depth analysis of the composition of this material uses complementary observations from FC, the visible and infrared spectrometer (VI...

  19. Emotion-Aware Assistive System for Humanistic Care Based on the Orange Computing Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhing-Fa Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental care has become crucial with the rapid growth of economy and technology. However, recent movements, such as green technologies, place more emphasis on environmental issues than on mental care. Therefore, this study presents an emerging technology called orange computing for mental care applications. Orange computing refers to health, happiness, and physiopsychological care computing, which focuses on designing algorithms and systems for enhancing body and mind balance. The representative color of orange computing originates from a harmonic fusion of passion, love, happiness, and warmth. A case study on a human-machine interactive and assistive system for emotion care was conducted in this study to demonstrate the concept of orange computing. The system can detect emotional states of users by analyzing their facial expressions, emotional speech, and laughter in a ubiquitous environment. In addition, the system can provide corresponding feedback to users according to the results. Experimental results show that the system can achieve an accurate audiovisual recognition rate of 81.8% on average, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of the system. Compared with traditional questionnaire-based approaches, the proposed system can offer real-time analysis of emotional status more efficiently.

  20. First Report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane Caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Ivory Coast and Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange rust of sugarcane caused by Puccinia kuehnii was detected in Florida in 2007. It was hypothesized that the pathogen originated from Africa because brown rust of sugarcane (syn. common rust) was introduced to the Western Hemisphere from Africa. Requests for rust infected sugarcane samples were...

  1. Hemoglobinopathies and thalassemia screening among Senoi Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Danny Koh Xuan; Ismail, Endom; Sabudin, Raja Zahratul Azma Raja; Hussin, Noor Hamidah; Othman, Ainoon

    2015-09-01

    Orang Asli are the minority indigenous people in Peninsular Malaysia and can be divided into 3 main groups (Negrito, Senoi and Proto Malay) with different six sub-ethnics under each group. Within the Senoi group, the six sub-ethnics are sub-ethnic Mah Meri, Semoq Beri, Che Wong, Jah Hut, Semai and Temiar. This study was aimed to investigate the current prevalence of α- and β-thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies and their mutation types among all six sub-ethnics of Senoi Orang Asli. Blood samples from 685 Senoi participants were collected and sent immediately for routine full blood count analysis and hemoglobin sub-typing. Of 378 subjects screened, 7 subjects were found to be Hemoglobin E (HbE) beta thalassemia carriers, 13 beta thalassaemic, 35 Hemoglobin Constant Spring (HbCS) carriers, 6 compound HbE and HbCS carriers, 32 with HbE disease and 163 HbE heterozygote carriers. The findings of high HbE among Temiars and Jah Huts and high HbCS exclusively in Jah Huts in this study suggest distinct differences across sub-ethnics under Senoi group. Understanding of prevalence and wide spectrum of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies among Senoi and Orang Asli is essential for national thalassaemia awareness and prevention program, especially in Orang Asli communities.

  2. Measuring Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juice Using a Pencil Lead Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, David; Friend, Jeffrey; Kariuki, James

    2010-01-01

    A pencil lead successfully served as an electrode for the determination of ascorbic acid in commercial orange juice. Cyclic voltammetry was used as an electrochemical probe to measure the current produced from the oxidation of ascorbic acid with a variety of electrodes. The data demonstrate that the less expensive pencil lead electrode gives…

  3. Concerted intercalation and minor groove recognition of DNA by a homodimeric thiazole orange dye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunkenborg, Jakob; Gadjev, N I; Deligeorgiev, T

    2000-01-01

    The thiazole orange dye TOTO binds to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) by a sequence selective bis-intercalation. Each chromophore is sandwiched between two base pairs in a (5'-CpT-3'):(5'-ApG-3') site, and the linker spans two base pairs in the minor groove. We have used one- and two-dimensional NMR...

  4. From Farmers to Entrepreneurs—Strengthening Malta Orange Value Chains Through Institutional Development in Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyutiman Choudhary

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Malta orange (Citrus sinensis is an important cash crop in the mountain state of Uttarakhand, India. Smallholder farmers growing it face multiple challenges due to unorganized and inaccessible markets; they are forced to sell to intermediaries at very low prices. In response, the government of Uttarakhand introduced a minimum support price for Malta oranges; however, this failed to address farmers' problems due to poor implementation. This paper presents the results of an action research project with farmers in the Chamoli district of Uttarakhand to develop farmers' resilience by upgrading their position in the Malta orange value chain, targeting production, processing, and marketing through community-based enterprise development. Information was collected before and after the intervention by various means, including stakeholder meetings, focus group discussions, and interviews with farmers and value chain facilitators. Activities supported by the research have contributed to increased productivity and farmer incomes. Farmers became better organized, and their bargaining power improved considerably. The enterprise-based upgrading process brought about an inclusive and pro-poor Malta orange value chain system with improved terms of engagement for smallholder farmers. The research results show that policy change, improved provision of technical and financial services, establishment of common facility centers, and strengthening of farmers' institutions are imperative to enable smallholder farmers to engage in value chains and thus increase their resilience.

  5. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt looks at 'orange' soil brought back by Apollo 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. 'Jack' Schmitt (facing camera), Apollo 17 lunar module pilot, was one of the first to look at the sample of 'orange' soil brought back from the Taurus-Littrow landing site by the Apollo 17 crewmen.

  6. 76 FR 16634 - Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge, Orange County, CA; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge, Orange County, CA; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan/Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and our policies. In addition to...

  7. POLA ASUH ORANG TUA, KONSEP DIRI, MOTIVASI DIRI, IKLIM SEKOLAH, DAN KESADARAN EMOSI SISWA SMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Heydemans

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Patterns of Parenting, Self-concept, Self-motivation, School Climate, and Emotional Awareness of Students at State Junior High Schools. The study tries to investigate the correlation between patterns of foster parents, self concept, self motivation, school climate and emotional awareness of the students at State Junior High School in Malang. Using multiple regression analysis, it is concluded  that patterns of foster parents, self motivation, school climate have effective significant contribution to emotional awareness both individually and in groups. Meanwhile, self concept has no significant effect. As a whole the effective contribution of the patterns of foster parents, self concept, self motivation, school climate to emotional awareness is 0.57 or 57%, it means that the remaining 43% of emotional awareness cannot be explained. Abstrak: Pola Asuh Orang Tua, Konsep Diri, Motivasi Diri, Iklim Sekolah, dan Kesadaran Emosi Siswa SMP. Penelitian ini mencoba untuk menjelaskan hubungan antara pola asuh orang tua, konsep diri, motivasi diri, iklim sekolah dan kesadaran emosi siswa SMP Negeri di kota Malang. Dengan menggunakan analisis multiple regresi disimpulkan bahwa pola asuh orang tua, motivasi diri, dan iklim sekolah memberi kontribusi yang signifikan terhadap kesadaran emosi, baik secara individu dan kelompok. Sementara itu konsep diri mempunyai pengaruh, tetapi tidak signifikan. Secara keseluruhan kontribusi efektif dari pola asuh orang tua, konsep diri, motivasi diri, iklim sekolah terhadap kesdaran emosi adalah 0.57 (57%. Hal itu berarti bahwa ada 43% faktor lain yang mempengaruhi kesadaran emosi, tetapi tidak bisa dijelaskan.

  8. Pectinesterases from the orange fruit : their purefaction, general characteristics and juice cloud destabilizing properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, C.

    1979-01-01

    Twelve forms of pectinesterase were detected in citrus fruits. Two forms, representing over 90% of the total pectinesterase activity in Navel oranges, were purified. These pectinesterases, named Pectinesterase I and II have isoelectric points of 10.05 and>11.0, respectively. Both pectinesterases hav

  9. Poly(lactic acid) and Osage Orange Wood Fiber Composites for Agricultural Mulch Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osage orange wood(OO)was combined with poly(lactic acid)(PLA)to form a polymer composite intended for use as an agricultural mulch film. The PLA-OO mechanical properties were comparable to existing mulch film products and had the advantage of being completely biodegradable through a single growing ...

  10. STUDI PENURUNAN ZAT WARNA ACID ORANGE 7 DENGAN PROSES OKSIDASI MENGGUNAKAN FERRAT (FeO42-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Windy Dwiasi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Colour removal from textile wastewater has been a matter of considerable interest during the last two decades, not only because of the potential toxicity of certain dyes but often due to their visibility in receiving waters and to their low biodegradability. Due to the limited success of some physical and chemical techniques for the treatment of dye effluents it is necessary to develop destructive systems leading to complete mineralization or, at least, to less harmful or easy-to-treat compounds. Oxidation processes using ferrate (FeO42- have been found to be very effective in the degradation of dye pollutants and for the treatment of waste waters from the textile industry. Acid Orange 7 (AO7 commonly used as a textile dye and could be degraded by ferrate oxidation processes. In the oxidation degradation of dye by ferrate process, effect of some parameters such as time, pH, and molar ratio of dye was examined at experimental condition. AO7 removal by this process was calculated to be equal to 12 minute at experimental condition. Ferrate can oxidize acid orange 7 effectively at optimum pH of 9.8, with the molar ratio of ferrate : acid orange 7 at 4:1. The percentages of acid orange 7 degradation reached to 98.9%.

  11. Library Resources in the Mid-Hudson Valley: Columbia, Dutchess, Greene, Orange, Putnam, Rockland, Sullivan, Ulster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichmann, Felix; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to "survey the library resources in the eight Mid-Hudson Counties of Columbia, Dutchess, Greene, Orange, Putnam, Rockland, Sullivan, and Ulster in order to develop a plan of service in which assets would be shared, resources developed, and services extended." Survey data were collected by six questionnaires;…

  12. Reaction of sweet orange cultivars expressing the attacin A gene to 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Teles Arantes Felipe

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the reaction of four sweet orange cultivars expressing the attacin A gene to 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las infection, a bacterium associated to huanglongbing (HLB disease. Transgenic sweet orange plants of Hamlin, Natal, Pêra, and Valência cultivars, as well as nontransgenic controls received inocula by grafting budwood sections of HLB-infected branches. Disease progression was evaluated through observations of leaf symptoms and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis, eight months after inoculation. A completely randomized design was used, with four experiments (one for each cultivar performed simultaneously. Bacteria title was estimated by quantitative PCR (qPCR. HLB symptoms and Las titers were present in nontransgenic and transgenic plants expressing the attacin A gene of the four sweet orange cultivars, eight months after bacteria inoculation. Five transgenic lines (transformation events of 'Pêra' sweet orange expressing the attacin A gene have significantly lower Las titers in comparison with nontransgenic plants of this cultivar.

  13. Investigation on Key Molecules of Huanglongbing (HLB)-Induced Orange Juice Off-flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefl, Johannes; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Hartmann, Anja; Obst, Katja; Paetz, Susanne; Krammer, Gerhard; Trautzsch, Stephan

    2017-03-27

    Orange fruits from huanglongbing (HLB)-infected trees do not fully mature and show a severe off-flavor described as bitter-harsh, metallic, and less juicy and fruity. The investigation of juice from HLB-infected (HLBOJ) and healthy control oranges (COJ) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed higher concentrations of fruity esters, such as ethyl butyrate and ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, and soapy-waxy alkanals, such as octanal and decanal, in the COJ, whereas the HLBOJ showed higher concentrations of green aldehydes such as hexanal and degradation compounds of limonene and linalool such as α-terpineol. Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on terpeneless peel oil led to the identification of long-chained aldehydes such as (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-8-tetradecenal, trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (Z)-4-decenal, and octanal with the highest flavor dilution factors among 25 odor-active volatiles in the peel oil of healthy oranges. Taste-guided fractionation and identification of the HLBOJ secondary metabolites followed by sensory validation revealed that flavanoids such as hesperidin may modulate the flavor to evoke the unacceptable harsh/metallic taste impression. Quantitation of the bitter components showed good correlation between the limonoid and flavanoid concentrations with the off-flavor and quality of the oranges obtained throughout the season.

  14. 7 CFR 352.30 - Untreated oranges, tangerines, and grapefruit from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Mexico. 352.30 Section 352.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL... § 352.30 Untreated oranges, tangerines, and grapefruit from Mexico. The following provisions shall apply..., and grapefruit from Mexico in transit to foreign countries via United States ports on the...

  15. Effect of an Orange Oil Emulsion on Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Naturally Infected Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance in ovine gastrointestinal strongylids, especially Haemonchus contortus, have led many investigators worldwide to examine potential anthelmintic effects of naturally occurring plant products. In previous work, we have shown that 1200 mg/kg of an orange oi...

  16. A single amino acid substitution in an ORANGE protein promotes carotenoid overaccumulation in arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are crucial for plant growth and human health. The finding of ORANGE (OR) protein as a pivotal regulator of carotenogenesis offers a unique opportunity to comprehensively understand the regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid accumulation and develop crops with enhanced nutritional quality. ...

  17. Pectinesterases from the orange fruit : their purification, general characteristics and juice cloud destabilizing properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, C.

    1979-01-01

    Twelve forms of pectinesterase were detected in citrus fruits. Two forms, representing over 90% of the total pectinesterase activity in Navel oranges, were purified. These pectinesterases, named Pectinesterase I and II have isoelectric points of 10.05 and>11.0, respectively. Both pectinesterases

  18. Recovery and concentration of phenolic compounds in blood orange juice by membrane operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Destani, F.; Cassano, A.; Fazio, A.; Vincken, J.P.; Gebriele, B.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-flow ultrafiltration (UF) and osmotic distillation (OD) were implemented on laboratory scale to obtain formulations of interest for food and/or pharmaceutical industry starting from the blood orange juice produced in the Calabria region. The freshly squeezed juice, after a depectinization

  19. Effect of temperature and some added compounds on the stability of blood orange marmalade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardello, Fabio; Muratore, Giuseppe

    2011-09-01

    Jams and marmalades are often wrongly believed to be stable products, as the degradation of pigments such as anthocyanins, browning reactions, and the formation of sugar degradation products may occur during storage. The paper aims at studying some of the degradation reactions occurring in blood orange marmalade stored at 20 °C and 35 °C. The addition of natural (tea extract) and naturally occurring (ascorbic acid, cysteine, gallic acid) compounds to marmalade was addressed at investigating the possible effect on retarding such phenomena. Results highlight the dependence of anthocyans and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF) levels on the storage temperature. Marmalades added with cysteine, unlike the samples added with phenol compounds, showed higher anthocyans and lower HMF levels just after processing, together with a reduced anthocyan loss kinetics and a slowdown of HMF formation during storage at both temperatures. Transformation of blood oranges into marmalade represents an alternative to fresh market in periods when the high availability of the citrus causes the collapse of prices. Blood orange marmalade is characterized by a high nutritional value, however, it is not widely distributed yet. Its storability is limited by color and organoleptic changes that influence consumers' acceptance. The optimization of blood orange marmalade preparation could help producers improve storability and widen distribution. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Antioxidant activities of orange peel extract in ghee (butter oil) stored at different storage temperatures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Asha, A; Manjunatha, M; Rekha, R M; Surendranath, B; Heartwin, P; Rao, J; Magdaline, E; Sinha, Chitranayak

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant activities of butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA) and orange peel powder extract in ghee stored at different storage temperatures (T1:6 ± 2 °C; T2: 32 ± 2 °C; T3:60 ± 2 °C...

  1. Synthesis and adsorption characteristics of an heterogenized manganese nanoadsorbent towards methyl orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshadi, M; Mehravar, M; Amiri, M J; Faraji, A R

    2015-02-15

    Heterogeneous Mn nanoparticles (5-30 nm diameter) is found to be a nanomaterial for the rapid removal of large quantities of toxic dye (methyl orange) from aqueous solution, with wide ranging potential applications. The synthesized materials were characterized with different methods such as FT-IR spectroscopy, CHN elemental analysis, BET, SEM, TEM, ICP-OES and EPR. The contact time to obtain equilibrium for maximum adsorption of methyl orange was 20 min. EPR of Mn ions evidenced that most of the covalently bond active sites of the nano-adsorbent are in the form of Mn(III) ions at the surface. The heterogeneous Mn(III)-Cl ions were found to be effective adsorbent for the removal of methyl orange from solution. The adsorption of methyl orange ions has been studied in terms of pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics, and the Freundlich, Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models have also been applied to the equilibrium adsorption data. The adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature and followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  2. Using a Web Application to Conduct and Investigate Syntheses of Methyl Orange Remotely

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rens, Lisette; van Dijk, Hans; Mulder, Jan; Nieuwland, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    Thirty-six pre-university chemistry students and two chemistry teachers used flow chemistry as a technology for the synthesis of methyl orange. FutureChemistry and VU University Amsterdam cooperatively created FlowStart Remote, a device that enabled the students to remotely conduct this synthesis and in real time monitor and control the device via…

  3. Keys to the Common Genera of Marine Plants Taken Aboard the Orange County Floating Marine Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, H. R.

    Provided is a dichotomous key to the common genera of marine algae and angiosperms which are taken aboard the Orange County Floating Marine Laboratory. It is designed primarily for use by junior and senior high school students. Drawings of representative members of the various genera are included. This work was prepared under an ESEA Title III…

  4. Drinking orange juice increases total antioxidant status and decreases lipid peroxidation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroudi, Shahrzad; Potter, Andrew S; Stamatikos, Alexis; Patil, Bhimanagouda S; Deyhim, Farzad

    2014-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the world and is the primary cause of mortality among Americans. One of the many reasons for the pathogenesis of CVD is attributed to eating diets high in saturated fat and refined carbohydrates and low in fruits and vegetables. Epidemiological evidence has supported a strong association between eating diets rich in fruits and vegetables and cardiovascular health. An experiment was conducted utilizing 24 adults with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia to evaluate the impact of drinking 20 fl oz of freshly squeezed orange juice daily for 90 days on blood pressure, lipid panels, plasma antioxidant capacity, metabolic hormones, lipid peroxidation, and inflammatory markers. Except for addition of drinking orange juice, subjects did not modify their eating habits. The findings suggested that drinking orange juice does not affect (P>.1) blood pressure, lipid panels, metabolic hormones, body fat percentage, or inflammatory markers. However, total plasma antioxidant capacity was significantly increased (Porange juice consumption. Drinking orange juice may protect the cardiovascular system by increasing total plasma antioxidant status and by lowering lipid peroxidation independent of other cardiovascular risk markers evaluated in this study.

  5. Retention of ascorbic acid in fortified orange juice powers during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Siddappa

    1960-10-01

    Full Text Available Both Coorg and Sathgudi orange juice powders are good carriers for added ascorbic acid during prolonged storage at ordinary temperatures. There is not much difference between nitrogen and air packs as regards retention of ascorbic acid during storage. Nitrogen pack, however, helps to keep the power in a better free-flowing condition.

  6. Targeted genome editing of sweet orange using Cas9/sgRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hongge; Wang, Nian

    2014-01-01

    Genetic modification, including plant breeding, has been widely used to improve crop yield and quality, as well as to increase disease resistance. Targeted genome engineering is expected to contribute significantly to future varietal improvement, and genome editing technologies using zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9/single guide RNA (sgRNA) have already been successfully used to genetically modify plants. However, to date, there has been no reported use of any of the current genome editing approaches in sweet orange, an important fruit crop. In this study, we first developed a novel tool, Xcc-facilitated agroinfiltration, for enhancing transient protein expression in sweet orange leaves. We then successfully employed Xcc-facilitated agroinfiltration to deliver Cas9, along with a synthetic sgRNA targeting the CsPDS gene, into sweet orange. DNA sequencing confirmed that the CsPDS gene was mutated at the target site in treated sweet orange leaves. The mutation rate using the Cas9/sgRNA system was approximately 3.2 to 3.9%. Off-target mutagenesis was not detected for CsPDS-related DNA sequences in our study. This is the first report of targeted genome modification in citrus using the Cas9/sgRNA system-a system that holds significant promise for the study of citrus gene function and for targeted genetic modification.

  7. A fieldstudy on Sumatran Orang Utans (Pougo pygmaeus abelii Lesson 1827) : ecology, behaviour and conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijksen, H.D.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a three year research project on the ecology, behaviour and conservation of the Sumatran orang utan are discussed. The 150 hectares Ketambe study area lie within the boundaries of the Gunung Leuser. reserve in Aceh Tenggara, and consists of mixed rainforest typical of hilly regions.Th

  8. 77 FR 47519 - Annual Marine Events in the Eighth Coast Guard District, Sabine River; Orange, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 Annual Marine Events in the Eighth Coast Guard District, Sabine River; Orange, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The...

  9. 78 FR 55214 - Annual Marine Events in the Eighth Coast Guard District, Sabine River; Orange, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 Annual Marine Events in the Eighth Coast Guard District, Sabine River; Orange, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The...

  10. Ultraviolet and mass spectrometric analysis of vitamin D in retail fortified orange juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samples of vitamin D fortified orange juice obtained from retail food stores were analyzed for vitamin D3 content using a method developed by combining the best features of two AOAC officially approved methods. The ether/petroleum ether extraction from AOAC 992.26 was combined with the high perform...

  11. Biodiesel from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seed oil, a potential non-food feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil extracted from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seeds was investigated as a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel. The biodiesel fuel was prepared by sodium methoxide-catalyzed transesterification of the oil with methanol. Fuel properties that were determined include cetane numb...

  12. Elevation, rootstock, and soil depth affect the nutritional quality of mandarin oranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of elevation, rootstock, and soil depth on the nutritional quality of mandarin oranges from 11 groves in California were investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy by quantifying 29 compounds and applying multivariate statistical data analysis. A comparison of the juic...

  13. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes—a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-o...

  14. Fractionation of secondary metabolites of orange (Citrus sinensis L.) leaves by fast centrifugal partition chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional HPLC provides ready detection of the major phenolic compounds in methanol extracts of orange leaves, yet conventional HPLC also shows the presence of many more compounds, to an extent where extensive peak overlap prevents distinct peak detection and reliable quantitation. A more complet...

  15. Fractionation of the secondary metabolites of orange (Citrus sinensis L.) leaves by fast centrifugal partition chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is interest in the detection of changes in secondary metabolites in orange leaves in response to citrus greening disease. Conventional HPLC analysis readily provides detection of major phenolic compounds, but further, more detailed chromatographic analyses show many more compounds, to an exten...

  16. Efficient all solid-state continuous-wave yellow-orange light source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janousek, Jiri; Johansson, Sandra; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter;

    2005-01-01

    We present highly efficient sum-frequency generation between two CW IR lasers using periodically poled KTP. The system is based on the 1064 and 1342 nm laser-lines of two Nd:YVO4 lasers. This is an all solid-state light source in the yellow-orange spectral range. The system is optimized in terms...

  17. Osage orange (Maclura pomifera L) seed oil poly(alpha-hydroxydibutylamine) triglycerides: Synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milled Osage orange seeds (Maclura pomifera (Raf.) Schneid) were Soxhlet extracted with hexane, and portions of the extract were treated with activated carbon before solvent removal. The crude oil was winterized and degummed by centrifugation at low temperature. Decantation of the centrifuge gave an...

  18. A K-12 Articulation Model for the Orange Unified School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Louie S.

    This Maxi II practicum documents the development of a model articulation process and the implementation of that process in the Orange (California) Unified School District. The model was intended to improve the continuity of student progression through the grades from elementary to junior high to senior high school. Primary concerns of the…

  19. Recovery and concentration of phenolic compounds in blood orange juice by membrane operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Destani, F.; Cassano, A.; Fazio, A.; Vincken, J.P.; Gebriele, B.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-flow ultrafiltration (UF) and osmotic distillation (OD) were implemented on laboratory scale to obtain formulations of interest for food and/or pharmaceutical industry starting from the blood orange juice produced in the Calabria region. The freshly squeezed juice, after a depectinization step

  20. [Application of AAS to detecting the influence of railway on the soil of navel orange garden].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Chen, Li-Ping; Ai, Ying-Wei; Pei, Juan; L I, Wei; Zhou, Nan-Hua; Guo, Cong

    2010-06-01

    Railway transportation has boosted the economy of railway road area, meanwhile it brings some undesirable impacts on the environment of the railway road area. The quality of the fruits is directly related with the elements of the soil, so understanding the element contents of soil in navel oranges garden in the vicinity of railway is meaningful to the security of agriculture products and ecological conditions in the areas surrounding the railways. As a favorite fruit, navel orange is widely planted around the railway in the south China, especially in Sichuan, Chongqing, Hubei, Jiangxi and Guizhou. The present paper studied the contents of Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, Zn etc in the soil planting navel orange in the vicinity of Chengdu-Dazhou railway by AAS. The railway was built in 1997 and the research area was sited in Jintang county, Sichuan. The results showed that the contents of Pb and Mn in soil planting navel orange were significantly higher than those in the control soil, but the contents of Cd, Cu and Zn showed no significant difference.

  1. Inactivation of Listeria innocua in milk and orange juice by ultrahigh-pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briñez, Wilfido José; Roig-Sagués, Artur X; Hernández Herrero, M Manuela; Guamis López, Buenaventura

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the bactericidal efficacy of ultrahigh-pressure homogenization (UHPH) against Listeria innocua ATCC 33090 inoculated into milk and orange juice. We also intended to study the effect of inlet temperature on the lethality and production of sublethal injuries in this microorganism and its ability to survive, repair, and grow in refrigerated storage after UHPH treatment. Samples of ultrahigh-temperature whole milk and ultrahigh-temperature orange juice inoculated at a concentration of approximately 7.0 log (CFU per milliliter) were immediately pressurized at 300 MPa on the primary homogenizing valve and at 30 MPa on the secondary valve, with inlet temperatures of 6.0 +/- 1.0 degrees C and 20 +/- 1.0 degrees C. L. innocua viable counts and injured cells were measured 2 h after UHPH treatment and after 3, 6, and 9 days of storage at 4 degrees C for milk and after 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21 days of storage at 4 degrees C for orange juice. Both the inlet temperature and the food matrix influenced significantly (P milk at the 20 degrees C inlet temperature. The UHPH treatment caused few or no sublethal injuries in L. innocua. During storage at 4 degrees C after treatments, counts increased by approximately 2 logarithmic units from day 0 to 9 in whole milk, whereas in orange juice counts diminished by approximately 2.5 logarithmic units from day 0 to 18.

  2. Development and characterization of a new encapsulating agent from orange juice by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaderides, Kyriakos; Goula, Athanasia M

    2017-10-01

    The replacement of maltodextrins as carriers for the spray drying of sticky and sugar based bioactives is an important development for the food industry. In this work, orange juice industry by-product was used to obtain a high dietary fiber powder to be used as carrier material. This powder was characterized with respect to its physical and chemical properties related to the process of encapsulation by spray drying. Adsorption isotherms of orange waste powder were determined at 30, 45, and 60°C. The data were fitted to several models including two-parameter (BET, Halsey, Smith, and Oswin), three-parameter (GAB), and four-parameter (Peleg) relationships. The GAB model best fitted the experimental data. The isosteric heat of sorption was determined from the equilibrium sorption data using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Isosteric heats of sorption were found to decrease exponentially with increasing moisture content. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory was applied to the sorption isotherms and indicated an enthalpy controlled sorption process. Glass transition temperatures (Tg) of orange waste powder conditioned at various water activities were determined and a strong plasticizing effect of water on Tg was found. These data were satisfactory correlated by the Gordon and Taylor model. The critical water activity and moisture content for the orange waste powder were 0.82 and 0.18g water/g solids, respectively, at a storage temperature of 25°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A field study on Sumatran orang utans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii Lesson 1827) : ecology, behaviour and conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijksen, H.D.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a three year research project on the ecology, behaviour and conservation of the Sumatran orang utan are discussed. The 150 hectares Ketambe study area lie within the boundaries of the Gunung Leuser. reserve in Aceh Tenggara, and consists of mixed rainforest typical of hilly

  4. Infection capacities in the orange-pathogen relationship: compatible (Penicillium digitatum) and incompatible (Penicillium expansum) interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, L; Viñas, I; Torres, R; Usall, J; Jauset, A M; Teixidó, N

    2012-02-01

    Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum are the most devastating pathogens of citrus and pome fruits, respectively. Whereas P. digitatum is a very specific pathogen that only infects Citrus fruits, P. expansum has a broader host range but has not been reported to be infectious in Citrus. To determine the responses of fruits and the infection capacities of both moulds, two varieties of oranges at different maturity stages, different inoculum concentrations and two different storage temperatures were studied. In compatible interactions, no significant differences in rot dynamics among harvests were found with a 10(7) conidia mL(-1) inoculum concentration at both temperatures tested (20 °C and 4 °C). However, at other inoculum concentrations, significant differences in rot dynamics were found, especially in immature fruits. Incompatible interactions showed that P. expansum could infect oranges at commercial maturity in both tested varieties. Decay incidence and severity were higher at 4 °C than at 20 °C. In addition to infection capacity studies, histochemical tests were performed to detect wound-healing compounds for both pathogens. A positive reaction for lignin was detected for both pathogens in immature oranges over a short period (48 h). In all cases, no reactions were found in control samples. Our results indicate that pathogen concentration, host maturity and storage temperature can play important roles in the defence mechanisms of fruit. Furthermore, to our knowledge, this is the first work that demonstrates that P. expansum can infect oranges under favourable conditions.

  5. Properties of chitosan microencapsulated orange oil prepared by spray-drying and its stability to detergents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragrance encapsulated in small particles of less than 20 µm diameter is preferred for use in textiles. In this study, aromatic orange oil was emulsified in a continuous phase of chitosan and spray-dried to produce microcapsules. The most effective combination of emulsifiers, ratio of chitosan to oi...

  6. Achieving Room Temperature Orange Lasing Using InGaP/InAlGaP Diode Laser

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jabr, A. A.

    2015-09-28

    We demonstrated the first orange laser diode at room temperature with a decent total output power of ∼46mW and lasing wavelength of 608nm, using a novel strain-induced quantum well intermixing in InGaP/InAlGaP red laser structure.

  7. Adsorption characteristics of Orange II and Chrysophenine on sludge adsorbent and activated carbon fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiu-Mei, Chiang; Ting-Chien, Chen; San-De, Pan; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2009-01-30

    Sludge adsorbent (SA) and commercial activated carbon fibers (ACFC and ACFT) were applied to Orange II and Chrysophenine (CH) adsorption (BET surface area: ACFC>ACFT>SA). ACFT was primarily in the micropore range, while SA was approximately 500 A (macropore) and 80 A (mesopore). The ACFC pore volume was high in both the mesopore and micropore regions. Measurement of the oxygen surface functional groups of the adsorbents using Boehm's titration method showed a similar distribution on the carbon fibers (mainly in the carbonyl group), while SA was mainly in the carboxyl, lactone and phenolic groups. The SA, ACFC and ACFT adsorption capacities of Orange II (30-80 mg/l) ranged from 83 to 270, 209-438, and 25-185 mg/g at temperatures ranging from 10 to 60 degrees C, respectively. CH concentration ranged from 30 to 80 mg/l, corresponding to SA and ACFC adsorption capacities of 39-191 and 48-374 mg/g over the defined temperature range, from 10 to 60 degrees C. CH adsorption on ACFT was low. The adsorption capacity of Orange II on ACFT was lower than on SA at 10 degrees C, but at higher temperatures the Orange II molecules were transported into the ACFT, producing an adsorption capacity similar to that of SA. Mass transfer increased with temperature, overcoming the adsorption energy barrier. Overall, SA and ACFC were more effective than ACFT.

  8. First Report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange rust, Puccinia kuehnii (W. Krüger) E.J. Butler, is an important disease of sugarcane (complex hybrid of Saccharum L. species) that causes yield losses, and impacts breeding programs. Initially confined to the Asia-Oceania region (5), P. kuehnii was reported in Florida in June 2007 (2) and lat...

  9. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... shall show the completed “Importer's Exempt Commodity Form” to the U.S. Customs Service Regional... Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables... institutions or distribution by relief agencies; (2) Avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, oranges, prune...

  10. The interception and retention of 238Pu deposition by orange trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, J E; Adriano, D C; Ciravolo, T G; Doswell, A C; Yehling, D M

    1987-06-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) transform the heat produced during the alpha decay of 238Pu into electrical energy for use by deep-space probes, such as the Voyager spacecraft, which have returned images and other data from Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. Future missions involving RTGs may be launched aboard the space shuttle, and there is a remote possibility that an explosion of liquid-hydrogen and liquid-oxygen fuel could rupture the RTGs and disperse 238Pu into the atmosphere over central Florida. Research was performed to determine the potential transport to man of atmospherically dispersed Pu via contaminated orange fruits. The results indicate that the major contamination of oranges would result from the interception and retention of 238Pu deposition by fruits. The resulting surface contamination could enter human food chains through transfer to internal tissues during peeling or in the reconstituted juices and flavorings made from orange skins. The interception of 238Pu deposition by fruits is especially important because the results indicate no measurable loss of Pu from fruit surfaces through time or with washing. Approximately 1% of the 238Pu deposited onto an orange grove would be harvested in the year following deposition.

  11. Salmonella and Shigella in freshly squeezed orange juice, fresh oranges, and wiping cloths collected from public markets and street booths in Guadalajara, Mexico: incidence and comparison of analytical routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, A; Villarruel-López, A; Navarro-Hidalgo, V; Martínez-González, N E; Torres-Vitela, M R

    2006-11-01

    A survey of the presence of Salmonella and Shigella in freshly squeezed orange juice and related samples was conducted in Guadalajara, Mexico. One hundred samples of freshly squeezed orange juice were collected from 49 street booths and 51 small food service establishments. In addition, 75 fresh orange samples, each consisting of five orange units, and 75 wiping cloths were collected from the same establishments from which juice had been collected. Salmonella was isolated from 14, 20, and 23% of samples of orange juice, orange surfaces, and wiping cloths collected from street vendors, while Shigella was isolated from 6, 17, and 5% of these samples. In general, the frequency of isolation of these pathogens in samples from juice serving establishments at public markets was significantly lower than that found among street vendors (P or = 5.0 log CFU/ml and Escherichia coli counts of > 3.0 log CFU/ml, respectively. These high counts may indicate poor sanitation and potential exposure to fecal contamination either in the raw materials or during the orange-crushing and juice-serving process. These data may be useful for a further risk assessment of Salmonella or Shigella in unpasteurized, freshly squeezed juice.

  12. Theoretical characterization of a class of orange dopants for white-light-emitting single polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Bo, E-mail: hubo97@yahoo.cn [Faculty of Chemistry, Jilin Normal University, Siping 136000 (China); Key Laboratory of Preparation and Applications of Environmental Friendly Materials (Jilin Normal University), Ministry of Education (China); Yao, Chan; Wang, Qingwei [Faculty of Chemistry, Jilin Normal University, Siping 136000 (China); Key Laboratory of Preparation and Applications of Environmental Friendly Materials (Jilin Normal University), Ministry of Education (China); Zhang, Hao [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Yu, Jiankang [Institute of Applied Physics and Technology, The Foundation Department of Liaoning Technical University, Huludao 123000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)

    2012-08-15

    New single-polymer white electroluminescent systems containing two individual emission species - polyfluorene as a blue host and 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole(BTD) derivative as an orange dopant - have been designed and investigated on the basis of the quantum chemical calculations. Calculations show that the change of chemical composition along the backbone in BTD-based derivative yields modifications to the electronic and optical properties. Furthermore, by introducing electron-donating groups [-CH{sub 3}, -OCH{sub 3}, and -NH{sub 2}] on terminal N,N-disubstituted amino groups, desirable orange emission can be obtained and may be further combined with polyfluorene to form white light. Also, we estimate the reorganization energies upon cation or anion formation as one of the important parameters of mobility with the charge hopping model to determine whether the molecular structural changes may improve the hole/electron transport. The electrostatic surface potentials are finally taken into account to evaluate stability. -- Graphical abstract: New single-polymer white electroluminescent systems containing two individual emission species - polyfluorene as a blue host and 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole(BTD) derivative as an orange dopant - have been designed and investigated on the basis of the quantum chemical calculations. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The change of chemical composition along the backbone yields modifications to the electronic and optical properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Introducing [-CH{sub 3}, -OCH{sub 3}, and -NH{sub 2}] on terminal N,N-disubstituted amino groups, desirable orange emission can be obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Desirable orange emission may be further combined with polyfluorene to form white light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Designed BTD-based derivatives can function as good hole or ambipolar transport materials in the OLEDs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer According to the calculated electrostatic surface potentials

  13. Discoloration and mineralization of Orange II using different heterogeneous catalysts containing Fe: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiyun; Hu, Xijun; Yue, Po Lock

    2004-11-01

    Four heterogeneous catalysts containing Fe including a bentonite-clay-based Fe nanocomposite (Fe-B), hematite (alpha-Fe2O3), amorphous FeOOH, and calcined FeOOH (denoted as FeOOH-M) were employed for the photo-Fenton discoloration and mineralization of 0.2 mM Orange II in the presence of 10 mM H2O2 and 8 W UVC at two different initial solution pH values (3.0 and 6.6). It was found that, at an initial solution pH of 3.0, their photocatalytic activities follow the order Fe-B > FeOOH, FeOOH-M > alpha-Fe2O3. When the Fe-B nanocomposite, FeOOH, and FeOOH-M were used as heterogeneous catalysts, both heterogeneous and homogeneous photo-Fenton reactions were responsible for the discoloration and mineralization of 0.2 mM Orange II because homogeneous photo-Fenton reaction occurred due to the presence of Fe ions leached from the catalysts. At an initial solution pH of 6.6, their photocatalytic activities still follow the order Fe-B > FeOOH, FeOOH-M > alpha-Fe2O3. However, only heterogeneous photo-Fenton reaction accounted for the discoloration and mineralization of 0.2 mM Orange II because Fe leaching from the catalysts was significantly depressed. In the case of alpha-Fe2O3 as a catalyst, whether at an initial solution pH of 3.0 or 6.6, only heterogeneous photo-Fenton reaction happened for the discoloration and mineralization of 0.2 mM Orange II because Fe leaching from the catalyst is negligible. The apparent discoloration kinetics of Orange II with the four catalysts at two different initial solution pH values was also investigated.

  14. Morphological and mineral analysis of dental enamel after erosive challenge in gastric juice and orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Sheila Regina Maia; De Faria, Dalva Lúcia Araújo; De Oliveira, Elisabeth; Sobral, Maria Angela Pita

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated and compared in vitro the morphology and mineral composition of dental enamel after erosive challenge in gastric juice and orange juice. Human enamel specimens were submitted to erosive challenge using gastric juice (from endoscopy exam) (n = 10), and orange juice (commercially-available) (n = 10), as follows: 5 min in 3 mL of demineralization solution, rinse with distilled water, and store in artificial saliva for 3 h. This cycle was repeated four times a day for 14 days. Calcium (Ca) loss after acid exposure was determined by atomic emission spectroscopy. The presence of carbonate (CO) and phosphate (PO) in the specimens was evaluated before and after the erosive challenge by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Data were tested using t-tests (P enamel was observed in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mean loss of Ca was: 12.74 ± 3.33 mg/L Ca (gastric juice) and 7.07 ± 1.44 mg/L Ca (orange juice). The analysis by atomic emission spectroscopy showed statistically significant difference between erosive potential of juices (P = 0.0003). FT-Raman spectroscopy found no statistically significant difference in the ratio CO/PO after the erosive challenge. The CO/PO ratios values before and after the challenge were: 0.16/0.17 (gastric juice) (P = 0.37) and 0.18/0.14 (orange juice) (P = 0.16). Qualitative analysis by SEM showed intense alterations of enamel surface. The gastric juice caused more changes in morphology and mineral composition of dental enamel than orange juice. The atomic emission spectroscopy showed to be more suitable to analyze small mineral loss after erosive challenge than FT-Raman. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Preparation of acridine orange-doped silica nanoparticles for pH measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jinshui, E-mail: jsliu@sina.com; Zang, Lingjie; Wang, Yiru; Liu, Guoning

    2014-03-15

    Acridine orange was first encapsulated into silica shell via a facile reverse microemusion method to built core–shell fluorescent nanoparticles. The nanoparticles are all in spherical shape and have a narrow size distribution, and its application as a optical pH sensor has been demonstrated. This novel sensor is based on the pH-dependent fluorescence intensities of acridine orange in different pH value. The fluorescence intensity of acridine orange-doped silica nanoparticles was decreased by increasing pH value. Under optimum conditions, the changes of fluorescence intensity were proportional to the pH value in the range of 8.00–10.90. In addition, the sensor can be easily separated by centrifugation and adds no pollution to the environment compared to the free dyes. Furthermore, the effects of ionic strength and co-existing substances were proved to have little influence on the determination of pH. The sensor has been successfully applied to determine the pH of two artificial samples. Hence, the core–shell fluorescent nanoparticles show potential for practical application. -- Highlights: • Acridine orange was encapsulated into silica shell via a facile reverse microemusion method to built core–shell fluorescent nanoparticles. • The fluorescence intensity of acridine orange-doped silica nanoparticles was decreased by increasing pH value. • Its can be used as an optical pH sensor. • The sensor can be easily separated by centrifugation and adds no pollution to the environment compared to the free dyes. • The sensor has been successfully applied to determine the pH of artificial samples.

  16. Effective population size dynamics and the demographic collapse of Bornean orang-utans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeta Sharma

    Full Text Available Bornean orang-utans experienced a major demographic decline and local extirpations during the Pleistocene and Holocene due to climate change, the arrival of modern humans, of farmers and recent commercially-driven habitat loss and fragmentation. The recent loss of habitat and its dramatic fragmentation has affected the patterns of genetic variability and differentiation among the remaining populations and increased the extinction risk of the most isolated ones. However, the contribution of recent demographic events to such genetic patterns is still not fully clear. Indeed, it can be difficult to separate the effects of recent anthropogenic fragmentation from the genetic signature of prehistoric demographic events. Here, we investigated the genetic structure and population size dynamics of orang-utans from different sites. Altogether 126 individuals were analyzed and a full-likelihood Bayesian approach was applied. All sites exhibited clear signals of population decline. Population structure is known to generate spurious bottleneck signals and we found that it does indeed contribute to the signals observed. However, population structure alone does not easily explain the observed patterns. The dating of the population decline varied across sites but was always within the 200-2000 years period. This suggests that in some sites at least, orang-utan populations were affected by demographic events that started before the recent anthropogenic effects that occurred in Borneo. These results do not mean that the recent forest exploitation did not leave its genetic mark on orang-utans but suggests that the genetic pool of orang-utans is also impacted by more ancient events. While we cannot identify the main cause for this decline, our results suggests that the decline may be related to the arrival of the first farmers or climatic events, and that more theoretical work is needed to understand how multiple demographic events impact the genome of species and

  17. Genome-wide analysis of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoyang; Wang, Xia; Xu, Yuantao; Deng, Xiuxin; Xu, Qiang

    2014-10-01

    MYB transcription factor represents one of the largest gene families in plant genomes. Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide, and recently the genome has been sequenced. This provides an opportunity to investigate the organization and evolutionary characteristics of sweet orange MYB genes from whole genome view. In the present study, we identified 100 R2R3-MYB genes in the sweet orange genome. A comprehensive analysis of this gene family was performed, including the phylogeny, gene structure, chromosomal localization and expression pattern analyses. The 100 genes were divided into 29 subfamilies based on the sequence similarity and phylogeny, and the classification was also well supported by the highly conserved exon/intron structures and motif composition. The phylogenomic comparison of MYB gene family among sweet orange and related plant species, Arabidopsis, cacao and papaya suggested the existence of functional divergence during evolution. Expression profiling indicated that sweet orange R2R3-MYB genes exhibited distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns. Our analysis suggested that the sweet orange MYB genes may play important roles in different plant biological processes, some of which may be potentially involved in citrus fruit quality. These results will be useful for future functional analysis of the MYB gene family in sweet orange.

  18. Provitamin A potential of landrace orange maize variety (Zea mays L.) grown in different geographical locations of central Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Taeyoung; Ndolo, Victoria U; Katundu, Mangani; Nyirenda, Blessings; Bezner-Kerr, Rachel; Arntfield, Susan; Beta, Trust

    2016-04-01

    The provitamin A potential of landrace orange maize from different locations (A, B, C and D) of central Malawi has been evaluated. Physicochemical compositions, color, total carotenoid content (TCC), carotenoid profiles, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity as antioxidant capacities of maize were determined. Color values of orange maize had correlations with β-cryptoxanthin (r>0.36). TCC of white and orange maize averaged 2.12 and 59.5 mg/kg, respectively. Lutein was the most abundant carotenoid (47.8%) in orange maize, followed by zeaxanthin (24.2%), β-carotene (16.4%) and β-cryptoxanthin (11.6%). Location D showed the highest levels of lutein, zeaxanthin and antioxidant capacity. Provitamin A content of orange maize met the target level (15 μg/g) of biofortification. Retinol activity equivalent (RAE) from β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene in orange maize averaged 81.73 μg/100g. In conclusion, orange maize has the potential to be a natural source of provitamin A.

  19. A Web Based Sweet Orange Crop Expert System using Rule Based System and Artificial Bee Colony Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof.M.S.Prasad Babu,

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Citrus fruits have a prominent place among popular and exclusively grown tropical and sub-tropical fruits. Their nature ,multifold nutritional and medicinal values have made them so important. Sweet Orange Crop expert advisory system is aimed at a collaborative venture with eminent Agriculture Scientist and Experts in the area of Sweet Orange Plantation with an excellent team of computer Engineers, Programmers and designers. This Expert System contains two main parts one is Sweet Orange Information System and the other is Sweet Orange Crop Expert System where information system, the user can get all the static information about different species, Diseases, Symptoms, chemical controls, Preventions, Pests, Virus of Sweet Orange fruits and plants. In Advisory System , the user is having an interaction with the expert system online; the user has to answer the questions asked by the Expert System. Depends on the response by the user the expert system decides the disease and displays its control measureof disease. This Sweet Orange Crop Information Expert System deals with different varieties of Sweet Crop, Identification of various diseases generally occurs to Sweet Orange crop based on the symptoms.

  20. STUDI KOMPARASI HARAPAN ORANG TUA SISWA SDSN DAN SD EKS RSBI DI DAERAH ISTIMEWA YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aan Sofyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan harapan orang tua siswa yang menyekolahkan anaknya di SDSN dan SD Eks RSBI. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif dengan jenis penelitian komparasi. Populasi penelitian adalah orang tua siswa kelas I SDSN dan SD eks RSBI di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY. Sampel 322 orang tua siswa SDSN dan 226 orang tua siswa SD eks RSBI ditentukan dengan cluster random sampling technique. Instrumen penelitian yang digunakan berupa kuesioner harapan orang tua siswa. Instrumen penelitian dikembangkan berdasarkan enam kategori fungsi sekolah yaitu: (1 fungsi mengembangkan kecerdasan pikiran dan memberikan pengetahuan, (2 fungsi spesialisasi, (3 fungsi efisiensi, (4 fungsi sosialisasi, (5 fungsi konservasi, dan (6 fungsi transisi. Pengumpulan data menggunakan skala. Data dianalisis menggunakan statistik non-parametric, dengan menggunakan uji Mann-Whitney. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian yang diperoleh dapat disimpulkan bahwa tidak terdapat perbedaan antara harapan orang tua siswa SDSN dan SD eks RSBI di DIY. Hasil analisis uji Mann-Whitney menunjukkan nilai signifikansi 0,666 yang berarti bahwa hipotesis Ho diterima. Artinya, harapan orang tua siswa SDSN dan SD eks RSBI mengenai fungsi sekolah di DIY adalah sama. Secara keseluruhan baik orang tua siswa SDSN maupun orang tua siswa SD eks RSBI mengharapkan sekolah yang mereka pilih untuk anaknya bisa melaksanakan fungsinya dengan baik.   __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EXPECTATION OF THE PARENTS OF STUDENTS OF SDSN AND EX-RSBI SD IN YOGYAKARTA SPECIAL TERRITORY ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the differences in the expectations of parents who send their children to SDSN and SD Ex RSBI. This study uses the quantitative approach to the type of compa-rative research. The study population was parents of the students of

  1. Carotene and novel apocarotenoid concentrations in orange-fleshed Cucumis melo melons: determinations of β-carotene bioaccessibility and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleshman, Matthew K; Lester, Gene E; Riedl, Ken M; Kopec, Rachel E; Narayanasamy, Sureshbabu; Curley, Robert W; Schwartz, Steven J; Harrison, Earl H

    2011-05-11

    Muskmelons, both cantaloupe (Cucumis melo Reticulatus Group) and orange-fleshed honeydew (C. melo Inodorus Group), a cross between orange-fleshed cantaloupe and green-fleshed honeydew, are excellent sources of β-carotene. Although β-carotene from melon is an important dietary antioxidant and precursor of vitamin A, its bioaccessibility/bioavailability is unknown. We compared β-carotene concentrations from previously frozen orange-fleshed honeydew and cantaloupe melons grown under the same glasshouse conditions, and from freshly harvested field-grown, orange-fleshed honeydew melon to determine β-carotene bioaccessibility/bioavailability, concentrations of novel β-apocarotenals, and chromoplast structure of orange-fleshed honeydew melon. β-Carotene and β-apocarotenal concentrations were determined by HPLC and/or HPLC-MS, β-carotene bioaccessibility/bioavailability was determined by in vitro digestion and Caco-2 cell uptake, and chromoplast structure was determined by electron microscopy. The average β-carotene concentrations (μg/g dry weight) for the orange-fleshed honeydew and cantaloupe were 242.8 and 176.3 respectively. The average dry weights per gram of wet weight of orange-fleshed honeydew and cantaloupe were 0.094 g and 0.071 g, respectively. The bioaccessibility of field-grown orange-fleshed honeydew melons was determined to be 3.2 ± 0.3%, bioavailability in Caco-2 cells was about 11%, and chromoplast structure from orange-fleshed honeydew melons was globular (as opposed to crystalline) in nature. We detected β-apo-8'-, β-apo-10', β-apo-12'-, and β-apo-14'-carotenals and β-apo-13-carotenone in orange-fleshed melons (at a level of 1-2% of total β-carotene). Orange-fleshed honeydew melon fruit had higher amounts of β-carotene than cantaloupe. The bioaccessibility/bioavailability of β-carotene from orange-fleshed melons was comparable to that from carrot (Daucus carota).

  2. Analysis of surface orange peel of aluminum-alloy automobile sheet by using of EBSD and X-ray diffraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Mingtu; Sun Zhifu; Wang Zhiwe; Lu Hongzhou; Zhou Mingbo

    2012-01-01

    The formation cause of orange peel of aluminum-alloy automotive sheet after tensile deformation was analysed by using X-ray diffraction and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD). The test results showed that formation cause of surface orange peel after tensile deformation related to product texture and nonuniform deformation during the tensile process. The grain size has significant effect on deformation uniform and texture formation. Coarse grains were easy to produce nonuniform deformation and texture, which would produce surface orange peel after tensile deformation.

  3. Absorption, conjugation and excretion of the flavanones, naringenin and hesperetin from alpha-rhamnosidase-treated orange juice in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredsdorff, Lea; Nielsen, I.L.F.; Rasmussen, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    We have determined the absorption, conjugation and excretion of naringenin-7-O-rutinosicle (narirutin) compared to the corresponding glucoside in an orange juice matrix in human subjects. Healthy volunteers (eight men and eight women), in a double blind, randomised, crossover study, consumed orange......-rhamnosidase-treated orange juice was increased about 4-fold (P...... juice with (1) natural content of naringenin-7-O-rutinoside; (2) alpha-rhamnosidase-treated to yield naringenin-7-O-glucoside. Blood was sampled at twelve time points and three fractions of urine were collected over 24 h. The area under the plasma-time curve of naringenin from (2) alpha...

  4. Addition of Orange Pomace to Orange Juice Attenuates the Increases in Peak Glucose and Insulin Concentrations after Sequential Meal Ingestion in Men with Elevated Cardiometabolic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Honglin; Rendeiro, Catarina; Kristek, Angelika; Sargent, Laura J; Saunders, Caroline; Harkness, Laura; Rowland, Ian; Jackson, Kim G; Spencer, Jeremy Pe; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2016-06-01

    Prospective cohort studies show that higher dietary fiber intake is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk, yet the impact on postprandial glucose and insulin responses is unclear. This study aims to evaluate the effects of orange beverages with differing fiber concentrations on postprandial glycemic responses (secondary outcome measure) after a sequential breakfast and lunch challenge in men with increased cardiometabolic risk. Thirty-six men (aged 30-65 y; body mass index 25-30 kg/m(2): fasting triacylglycerol or total cholesterol concentrations: 0.8-2.2 or 6.0-8.0 mmol/L, respectively) were provided with a high-fat mixed breakfast and were randomly assigned to consume 240 mL Tropicana (PepsiCo, Inc.) pure premium orange juice without pulp (OJ), OJ with 5.5 g added orange pomace fiber (OPF), juice made from lightly blended whole orange, or an isocaloric sugar-matched control (Control) on 4 occasions separated by 2 wk. A medium-fat mixed lunch was provided at 330 min. Blood samples were collected before breakfast and on 11 subsequent occasions for 420 min (3 time points postlunch) to determine postprandial glucose, insulin, lipid, and inflammatory biomarker responses. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used for data analysis. OPF significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the maximal change in glucose concentrations (1.9 ± 0.21 mmol/L) reached after breakfast compared with other treatments (2.3-2.4 mmol/L) and after lunch (3.0 ± 0.05 mmol/L) compared with OJ (3.6 ± 0.05 mmol/L). The maximal change in insulin concentration (313 ± 25 pmol/L) was also lower compared with Control (387 ± 30 pmol/L) and OJ (418 ± 39 pmol/L) after breakfast. OPF significantly delayed the time to reach the peak glucose concentration compared with Control and OJ, and of insulin compared with Control after breakfast. OPF consumed with breakfast may lower postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses to typical meal ingestion in men with increased cardiometabolic risk. This trial is

  5. HPLC-DAD Phenolic Characterization and Antioxidant Activities of Ripe and Unripe Sweet Orange Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoba, Olufunmilayo Sade; Obafaye, Rebeccah Olajumoke; Salawu, Sule Ola; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds of unripe and ripe sweet orange peels were determined using a high-performance liquid chromatography separation method with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The in vitro antioxidant properties and the EC50 (concentration required to obtain a 50% antioxidant effect) values were also determined. The predominant phenolic compounds were quercitrin, rutin, and quercetin with values of 18.77 ± 0.01 mg/mL, 18.65 ± 0.03 mg/mL, and 10.39 ± 0.01 mg/mL respectively in unripe orange peel and 22.61 ± 0.01 mg/mL, 17.93 ± 0.03 mg/mL, and 14.03 ± 0.02 mg/mL respectively in ripe orange peel. The antioxidant properties revealed 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) scavenging ability of both unripe and ripe orange peels respectively as 14.68 ± 0.01 and 16.89 ± 0.02 mmol TEAC/g, the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Properties (FRAP) as 70.69 ± 0.01 and 91.38 ± 0.01 mg gallic acid equivalents/100g, total phenol content as 5.27 ± 0.03 and 9.40 ± 0.01 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and total flavonoid content as 3.30 ± 0.30 and 4.20 ± 0.02 mg quercetin equivalent/g. The antioxidant assays showed enhanced potency of extract from ripe orange peel with EC50 values of 2.71 ± 0.03 mg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 0.67 ± 0.03 mg/mL for hydroxyl radicals (OH*), 0.57 ± 0.02 mg/mL for Fe2+ chelation, and 0.63 ± 0.06 mg/mL for malondialdehyde (MDA), and was more potent than unripe orange peel. PMID:26783839

  6. Desain prototipe aplikasi sistem monitoring browser ponsel anak untuk menerapkan internet sehat dengan kontrol orang tua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Hidayat

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPenggunaan internet dikalangan anak-anak saat ini sudah menjadi trend, bahkan banyak orang tua sudah memberikan ponsel android kepada anak-anak dalam melakukan komunikasi sehari-hari. Hal tersebut sangat berdampak kepada anak dalam pemanfaatan teknologi internet yang kurang sehat seperti mendapatkan data dan informasi melalui browsing internet tanpa pemantauan orang tua sehingga anak dengan mudah mendapatkan kata-kata atau informasi yang tidak layak dikonsumsi oleh anak tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendesain aplikasi sistem monitoring browser ponsel anak untuk menerapkan internet sehat dengan kontrol orang tua menggunakan metode prototipe. Hasil penelitian tersebut berupa rancangan aplikasi monitoring broser anak yang dapat digunakan untuk memantau aktivitas browsing internet pada ponsel anak secara online pada platform android dengan otomatis mengirim pesan notifikasi kepada orang tua dan orang tua dapat memberikan respon atau balasan secara langsung ketika anak sedang mencoba melakukan aktivitas browsing internet yang tidak sehat. Kata kunci: Kontrol orang tua, penelusuran aman, sistem monitoring, aktivitas penelusuran harian  Abstract The use of the internet among children currently have become a trend, even many parents already gives android phones to children in doing everyday communication. It is so impacting to the child in the utilization of internet technologies that are less healthy as get data and information through browsing the internet without monitoring parents so children easily get words or information that is not feasible is consumed by the child. This research aims to design a monitoring system of the mobile browser app to implement a healthy internet parental control method using prototype. The results of such research in the form of a draft application monitoring these children which can be used to monitor the activities of internet browsing on mobile child online on the android platform with automatic

  7. Metabolomic comparative analysis of the phloem sap of curry leaf tree (Bergera koenegii), orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata), and Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) supports their differential responses to Huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killiny, Nabil

    2016-11-01

    Orange jasmine, Murraya paniculata and curry leaf tree, Bergera koenegii are alternative hosts for Diaphorina citri, the vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the pathogen of huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus. D. citri feeds on the phloem sap where CLas grows. It has been shown that orange jasmine was a better host than curry leaf tree to D. citri. In addition, CLas can infect orange jasmine but not curry leaf tree. Here, we compared the phloem sap composition of these 2 plants to the main host, Valencia sweet orange, Citrus sinensis. Phloem sap was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after trimethylsilyl derivatization. Orange jasmine was the highest in proteinogenic, non-proteinogenic amino acids, organic acids, as well as total metabolites. Valencia was the highest in mono- and disaccharides, and sugar alcohols. Curry leaf tree was the lowest in most of the metabolites as well as total metabolites. Interestingly, malic acid was high in Valencia and orange jasmine but was not detected in the curry leaf. On the other hand, tartaric acid which can prevent the formation of malic acid in Krebs cycle was high in curry leaf. The nutrient inadequacy of the phloem sap in curry leaf tree, especially the amino acids could be the reason behind the longer life cycle and the low survival of D. citri and the limitation of CLas growth on this host. Information obtained from this study may help in cultivation of CLas and development of artificial diet for rearing of D. citri.

  8. Orange-red emitting Eu2+-activated (Sr0.883Ba0.1Lu0.0.17)3(Si0.95Al0.05)O5 phosphor:structure, photoluminescence, and application in white LEDs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凤阳; 吕雁鹏; 周广洲; 朴贤卿; 孙卓

    2015-01-01

    Orange-red emitting (Sr0.883–xBa0.1Lu0.0.17Eux)3(Si0.95Al0.05)O5 phosphors were synthesized by conventional solid-state reac-tion. The effect of NH4F flux on structural and luminescent properties of phosphors was investigated. Results suggested that the opti-mal content of NH4F flux was 3 wt.%and the optimal doping concentration of Eu2+was x=0.023 mol. The phosphors showed intense absorption in near-ultraviolet to blue region and exhibited orange-red emissions. The thermal stability of synthesized (Sr0.86Ba0.1Lu0.017Eu0.023)3(Si0.95Al0.05)O5 phosphor were examined and compared with commercial YAG:Ce3+ yellow phosphors. Combining an InGaN blue 460 nm chip and a white-emitting (Sr0.86Ba0.1Lu0.017Eu0.023)3(Si0.95Al0.05)O5 phosphor produced a white-light LED, demonstrating CIE chromaticity coordinates of (0.314, 0.329) and a color temperature of 5595 K. All results showed that this phosphor is a promising candidate as orange-red emitting phosphor for white light emitting diode (w-LED) application.

  9. Retrotransposons Control Fruit-Specific, Cold-Dependent Accumulation of Anthocyanins in Blood Oranges[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butelli, Eugenio; Licciardello, Concetta; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Jianjun; Mackay, Steve; Bailey, Paul; Reforgiato-Recupero, Giuseppe; Martin, Cathie

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, Sicilian blood oranges (Citrus sinensis) have been associated with cardiovascular health, and consumption has been shown to prevent obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet. Despite increasing consumer interest in these health-promoting attributes, production of blood oranges remains unreliable due largely to a dependency on cold for full color formation. We show that Sicilian blood orange arose by insertion of a Copia-like retrotransposon adjacent to a gene encoding Ruby, a MYB transcriptional activator of anthocyanin production. The retrotransposon controls Ruby expression, and cold dependency reflects the induction of the retroelement by stress. A blood orange of Chinese origin results from an independent insertion of a similar retrotransposon, and color formation in its fruit is also cold dependent. Our results suggest that transposition and recombination of retroelements are likely important sources of variation in Citrus. PMID:22427337

  10. Ultrasonic Degradation of Methyl Orange in Presence of Y2O3 Doping Anatase TiO2 Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun; Guo Baodong; Pan Zhijun; Liu Zhenrong; Wen Fuyu; Zhang Zhaohong

    2004-01-01

    Various affecting factors and degradation mechanism were studied on ultrasonic degradation of methyl orange adopting Y2O3 doping anatase TiO2 catalyst prepared in laboratory.In the experiment, the UV-VIS spectrophotometer was used to follow and inspect the degradation process of methyl orange.The results indicate that the ultrasonic degradation ratios of methyl orange in the presence of anatase TiO2 catalyst are much better than those without catalyst.Moreover, the catalytic performance of Y2O3 doping anatase TiO2 catalyst is obviously higher than that of anatase TiO2 catalyst without doping.The optimal conditions were adopted in this work and the degradation and COD elimination ratio of methyl orange got to98% and 99.0% in 90 min, respectively.

  11. 2010 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic from Color Aerial Imagery of BEAUMONT, ORANGE, PORT AUTHUR (NODC Accession 0074380)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative of BEAUMONT, ORANGE,...

  12. Enantioseparation of the fungicide imazalil in orange juice by chiral HPLC. Study on degradation rates and extractive/enrichment techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, L; Aguilar, A; Díaz, A N; Sánchez, F G

    2015-07-01

    Imazalil ([1-(β-allyloxy-2,4-dichlorophenethyl)imidazole]) is a systemic chiral fungicide used in postharvest protection of citruses against fungi development for during storage and transportation. The chemical structure of imazalil shows an asymmetric carbon in the C7 position. These enantiomers may have different toxicity. A method for both chiral enantiomers extraction and determination in orange juice is developed in order to provide their concentration and to study the degradation rates in orange juice. Spiked imazalil was extracted from orange juice by dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction and solid phase extraction. Recovery assays of imazalil enantiomers from spiked orange juice samples showed that solid phase extraction is a better choice in order to obtain higher recovery values. Obtained chromatographic data show that within 24h the (-)-imazalil enantiomer decreases from 0.548 to 0.471 (expressed as enantiomer fraction).

  13. Influence of orange cultivar and mandarin postharvest storage on polyphenols, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity during gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ancos, Begoña; Cilla, Antonio; Barberá, Reyes; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Cano, M Pilar

    2017-06-15

    Polyphenols, ascorbic acid content and antioxidant activity of two sweet oranges (Navel-N and Cara Cara-CC) and mandarin (Clementine-M) as well as their bioaccessibilities were evaluated in pulps and compared to those in fresh juice. Thus, pulps of oranges and mandarins displayed higher hesperidin (HES), narirutin (NAR), total flavonoids (TF), total phenols (TP) and antioxidant activity (AAC) than their corresponding juices. Also, CC products presented higher bioactive compounds content than N ones. Bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds and AAC were higher in pulps of both oranges and mandarin than in their corresponding juices. Oranges (N and CC) pulps and juices presented higher bioaccessibilities than mandarin ones. The postharvest storage of mandarin at 12°C during 5weeks not only produced a significant increase of the bioactive compounds but also an increase of their bioaccessibility. The bioaccessibility of Citrus bioactive compounds is necessary for calculating more accurately their daily intake amount.

  14. Orang-like manual adaptations in the fossil hominoid Hispanopithecus laietanus: first steps towards great ape suspensory behaviours

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S Almécija; D.M Alba; S Moyà-Solà; M Köhler

    2007-01-01

    ...). These similarities are interpreted as adaptations to below-branch suspensory behaviours, including arm-swinging and clambering/postural feeding on slender arboreal supports, due to an orang-like...

  15. Multi-wavelength excitable europium-doped borosilicate glasses for orange-red emission: composition-induced structure and valence variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Kun; TIAN Hua; SONG Jun; MAO Zhiyong; WANG Dajian

    2012-01-01

    Europium-doped borosilicate glasses were prepared by melt-quenching procedure in the air.The mixed valence of Eu2+ and Eu3+was identified by photoluminescence spectrum and electron paramagnetic resonanoe (EPR).The existence of mixed valence was observed owing to the unequivalent substitution and de-polymerization network of the as-prepared borosilicate glasses.The variation of the glass composition in B2O3/BaO ratios changed the stability of the Eu3+ ions distinctly.In particular,as-prepared borosilicate glasses exhibited a tri-wavelength light excitable spectra centered at 397,466 and 534 nm to give the broadened orange-red emission at around 592 and 617 nm,due to supersensitive transitions of Eu3+ ions.This simultaneous tri-wavelength excitation happened to correspond with the emitting wavelength from near ultraviolet,blue AllnGaN chips and that from YAG:Ce3+.The total quantum yield (QY) of the Eu-doped glasses under 466nm excitation was evaluated to be 10%,potentially providing a versatile combination with the europium-doped borosilicate glasses for red component addition to improve the quality of white light.

  16. An on-line spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of thiourea in tap water, orange juice, and orange peel samples using multi-channel flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab Chamjangali, M; Goudarzi, N; Ghochani Moghadam, A; Amin, A H

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a flow injection analysis (FIA) method was introduced for the determination of trace amounts of thiourea in tap water. This method is based upon the inhibition effect of thiourea on the reaction between meta-cresol purple (MCP) and potassium bromate catalyzed by bromide ions in a sulfuric acid medium. In the presence of thiourea, an induction period appears in the reaction system, and as a result, the absorbance of MCP increases at 525 nm in the FIA manifold. The chemical and FIA variables are studied and optimized using the univariate and Simplex optimization methods. Under the optimum conditions, thiourea can be determined in the range of 0.100-13.0 μg mL(-1). The limit of detection (3σ) for thiourea was found to be 0.0310 μg mL(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for six replicate determinations of 0.500, 5.00, and 12.0 μg mL(-1) of thiourea were 4.0%, 1.8%, and 1.2%, respectively. The proposed method was also applied for the determination of thiourea in orange juice and orange peel samples with recoveries in the range of 98.0-101%. The analytical speed of the method was calculated to be about 120 sample per hour.

  17. Agent Orange Footprint Still Visible in Rural Areas of Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Banout

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of polychlorinated dioxins/furans (PCDD/PCDF in selected environmental samples (soils, sediments, fish, and farm animals were analyzed from the area of Phong My commune (Thua Thien-Hue province, Vietnam. This area was affected by Agent Orange spraying during the Vietnam war (1968–1971. Whereas PCDD/PCDF content in soil and sediment samples is relatively low and ranges between 0.05 and 5.1 pg WHO-TEQ/g for soils and between 0.7 and 6.4 pg WHO-TEQ/g for sediments, the PCDD/PCDF content in poultry muscle and liver in most cases exceeded the maximum permissible limit of dioxin content per unit fat mass. In some cases of soil and sediments samples, 2,3,7,8-TCDD represented more than 90% of the total PCDD/PCDF, which indicates Agent Orange as the main source.

  18. Science versus policy in establishing equitable Agent Orange disability compensation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark A

    2011-07-01

    This article makes the case that current Agent Orange compensation policy for Vietnam War veterans is based neither wholly upon scientific findings about Agent Orange health effects nor on pure public health policy considerations. Rather, it is the logical culmination of decades of experience among policy makers and public health scientists trying to establish clear-cut, equitable, and scientifically defensible compensation policy in the face of limited relevant science and poor or nonexistent exposure data-all within the broader context of Veterans Affairs disability compensation policies, and a deep-seated commitment to support the men and women who served their country during the Vietnam War. Finally, attempts to update current policy will benefit from an understanding of this background.

  19. Exploring the Possibilities of Biological Fabrication of Gold Nanostructures Using Orange Peel Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Castro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of nanotechnology requires a constant innovation and improvement in many materials. The exploration of natural resources is a promising eco-friendly alternative for physical and chemical methods. In the present work, colloidal gold nanostructures were prepared using orange peel extract as a stabilizing and reducing agent. The initial pH value of the solution and the concentration of the gold precursor had an effect on the formation and morphology of nanoparticles. The method developed is environmentally friendly and allows control of nanoparticles. By controlling the pH and, especially, the gold concentration, we are able to synthesize crystalline gold nanowires using orange peel extract in the absence of a surfactant or polymer to direct nanoparticle growth, and without external seeding. UV-VIS spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD were used to characterize the nanoparticles obtained by biosynthesis.

  20. Ozonation of azo dyes (Orange II and Acid Red 27) in saline media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Alessandra C. [Chemical Engineering Program, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Av. Horacio Macedo, 2030, P.O. Box, 68502, CEP 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pic, Jean Stephane [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees, INSA-GPE-LIPE, Toulouse (France); Sant' Anna, Geraldo L., E-mail: lippel@peq.coppe.ufrj.br [Chemical Engineering Program, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Av. Horacio Macedo, 2030, P.O. Box, 68502, CEP 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dezotti, Marcia [Chemical Engineering Program, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Av. Horacio Macedo, 2030, P.O. Box, 68502, CEP 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-09-30

    Ozonation of two azo dyes was investigated in a monitored bench scale bubble column reactor (8.5-L), varying liquid media salt content (0, 1, 40 and 100 g L{sup -1}, NaCl). In experiments with Orange II pH was varied (5, 7.5 and 9) but ozonation of Acid Red 27 was performed at pH 7.5. Ozone self-decomposition rate-constant increased with salt concentration. Color removal was very effective and fast achieved under all experimental conditions. For the two azo dyes tested, more than 98% of color intensity was removed in 30-min ozonation assays. However, only partial mineralization of azo dyes (45%-Orange II; 20%-Acid Red 27) was attained in such experiments. The degree of mineralization (TOC removal) was negatively affected by salt concentration. Biodegradation assays conducted by respirometry revealed the inhibitory effect of dye degradation products formed during ozonation.

  1. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange over Metalloporphyrins Supported on TiO2 Degussa P25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Jiao Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic activity of meso-tetraphenylporphyrins with different metal centers (Fe, Co, Mn and Cu adsorbed on TiO2 (Degussa P25 surface has been investigated by carrying out the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO under visible and ultraviolet light irradiation. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, diffuse reflectance UV (DRS-UV-vis and infrared spectra. Copper porphyrin-sensitized TiO2 photocatalyst (CuP-TiO2 showed excellent activity for the photodegradation of MO whether under visible or ultraviolet light irradiation. Natural Bond Orbital (NBO charges analysis showed that methyl orange ion is adsorbed easier by CuP-TiO2 catalyst due to the increase of induced interactions.

  2. ARTICLES: Orientation in Nematic Liquid Crystals Doped with Orange Dyes and Effect of Carbon Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicilar, Ahmet; Akkurt, Fatih; Kaya, Nihan

    2010-06-01

    Some properties of nematic liquid crystal E7 doped with two disperse orange dyes used together and effect of addition of carbon nanoparticles (single walled carbon nanotube or fullerene C60) on them were studied. Two dyes (disperse orange 11 and 13) having high solubility and order parameter were used as co-dopants. A notable increase in order parameter was obtained comparing to that of liquid crystal doped with single dye. When carbon nanoparticles were used as dopant, a decrease in order parameter was observed at low temperatures while it increased at high temperatures. When applied voltage changed, the order parameter abruptly increased in its threshold value and saturated in higher voltages as expected. An appreciable change in textures was not observed with addition of dopants. This addition gave rise to an increase in nematic-isotropic phase transition temperatures compared with that of pure liquid crystal.

  3. Chemical stability of astaxanthin nanodispersions in orange juice and skimmed milk as model food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anarjan, Navideh; Tan, Chin Ping

    2013-08-15

    Solubilising astaxanthin in nanodispersion systems is a promising approach to incorporate astaxanthin into water-based food formulations. In this research, the chemical stabilities of astaxanthin nanodispersions diluted in orange juice and skimmed milk as model food systems and in deionised water as a control were evaluated. The nanodispersions displayed significantly (pastaxanthin degradation during storage. In vitro cellular uptake of astaxanthin from diluted astaxanthin nanodispersions in selected food systems was also evaluated. The cellular uptake of astaxanthin nanodispersions in skimmed milk was significantly higher (pastaxanthin nanodispersions in orange juice and deionised water. High in vitro cellular uptake of astaxanthin from the prepared astaxanthin nanodispersions can be achieved via incorporation into protein-based foods such as milk.

  4. Retention of Ascorbic Acid and Solid Concentration via Centrifugal Freeze Concentration of Orange Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Orellana-Palma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Freeze concentration of liquid foods produces high-quality concentrates while retaining the heat-labile compounds found in fresh samples. Centrifugal freeze concentration is a cryoconcentration method assisted by an external force, centrifugation, to enhance the separation of concentrate from the ice. When applying centrifugal freeze concentration to orange juice, after the third cryoconcentration cycle, the ascorbic acid content in the concentrate showed retention close to 70% of the initial value. After the third cycle, the solutes in the concentrate increased 4 times the initial value of the fresh sample with 70% efficiency. The color evaluation showed that the final concentrated fraction was darker than the fresh juice. The centrifugal freeze concentration in orange juice was effective for obtaining a high-quality concentrate with a higher concentration of solids and ascorbic acid retention.

  5. Influence of temperature and particle size on the fixed bed pyrolysis of orange peel residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, L. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad de Pinar del Rio, Cuba. Calle Marti 270, final, Pinar del Rio (Cuba); Marquez-Montesinos, F. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Pinar del Rio, Cuba. Calle Marti 270, final, Pinar del Rio (Cuba); Gonzalo, A.; Sanchez, J.L.; Arauzo, J. [Thermochemical Processes Group (GPT), Aragon Institute for Engineering Research (I3A), University of Zaragoza, Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    Orange peel is a residue from the production of juice. Its energetic valorisation could be interesting in areas where a different use, such as animal feed, is not possible. In order to investigate the viability of energy recovery, the pyrolysis of orange peel residues was studied in a fixed bed reactor, as an initial assessment of this process. The influence of pyrolysis temperature (300-600 C) and particle size (d{sub p}<300{mu}m and d{sub p}>800{mu}m) on product distribution, gas composition and char heating value has been investigated using a factorial design of experiments. Gas, char and water are the main products obtained; tar is only about 6 wt.% of the initial residue. Temperature was found to be the parameter which exerts a more important influence on the results than particle size. (author)

  6. In vitro demineralization of enamel by orange juice, apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, S R; Senekal, P J; Laubscher, J A

    1990-12-01

    Enamel demineralization was studied over periods related to normal use of an orange juice, an apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola. Rectangular blocks of intact human enamel (3 mm x 3 mm) were cut from teeth, coated with nail varnish except for the enamel surface and exposed to the drinks for 2, 4, 5, 6 or 40 minutes. The amount of calcium released from the enamel into solution was determined with the use of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed the following degree of enamel demineralization: Pepsi Cola = orange juice greater than apple juice greater than Diet Pepsi Cola. The results suggest that diet colas are less demineralizing than other acid drinks, and complementary plaque studies indicate that they are also less cariogenic. The study emphasized the importance of acid-type, buffer capacity, pH and the presence of other components on the degree of enamel demineralization.

  7. Degradation of Methyl Orange in Water by Contact Glow Discharge Electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Jianying; CAI Weimin

    2007-01-01

    The degradation of methyl orange in a neutral phosphate buffer solution was investigated by means of contact glow discharge electrolysis (CGDE).The methyl oranges were degraded and eventually decomposed into inorganic carbon when CGDE was conducted under the applied DC voltage of 480 V and current of ca.80 mA.As the intermediate products,some phenolic compounds were detected as well as carboxylic acids.Experimental results showed that the oxidation process followed the first-order reaction law.Based on the analysis of the ultraviolet (UV) spectra of the solution and the intermediate products from High Pressure Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrum (HPLC-MS),the reaction pathway was proposed.The attack of hydroxyl radicals was considered to be a key step to start the whole oxidation process.

  8. Removal of methyl orange from aqueous solutions through adsorption by calcium aluminate hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Tianqi; Qian, Guangren; Wu, Daishe; Frost, Ray L

    2014-07-15

    Methyl orange (MO) is a kind of anionic dye and widely used in industry. In this study, tricalcium aluminate hydrates (Ca-Al-LDHs) are used as an adsorbent to remove methyl orange (MO) from aqueous solutions. The resulting products were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (MIR), thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The XRD results indicated that the MO molecules were successfully intercalated into the tricalcium aluminate hydrates, with the basal spacing of Ca-Al-LDH expanding to 2.48 nm. The MIR spectrum for CaAl-MO-LDH shows obvious bands assigned to the N=N, N=H stretching vibrations and S=O, SO3(-) group respectively, which are considered as marks to assess MO(-) ion intercalation into the interlayers of LDH. The overall morphology of CaAl-MO-LDH displayed a "honey-comb" like structure, with the adjacent layers expanded.

  9. Manipulator adaptive control by neural networks in an orange picking robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalieri, S; Plebe, A

    1996-12-01

    The paper focuses on the use of neural networks for process identification in an orange-picking robot adaptive control system. The results that will be shown in the paper refer to a study carried out under the European Community ESPRIT project "CONNY", dealing with the application of neural networks to robotics. The aim of the research is to verify the possibility of integrating a neural identification module in a traditional system to control the movement of the manipulators of the robot. The paper illustrates integration of neural identification in the existing orange-picking robot control system, highlighting the improvement of performance obtainable. Although the proposal refers to a specific robot, it can be applied to any system with the same dynamic features.

  10. High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium data for CO2-orange peel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Stuart

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a growing interest in fractionating orange peel oil by the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2. However, progress in this area has been hindered by the lack of more comprehensive work concerning the phase equilibrium behavior of the SCCO2-orange peel oil system. In this context, the aim of this work is to provide new phase equilibrium data for this system over a wide range of temperatures and pressures, permitting the construction of coexistence PT-xy curves as well as the P-T diagram. The experiments were performed in a high-pressure variable-volume view cell in the temperature range of 50-70ºC from 70 to 135 atm and in the CO2 mass fraction composition range of 0.35-0.98. Based on the experimental phase equilibrium results, appropriate operating conditions can be set for high-pressure fractionation purposes.

  11. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G. Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco R.; Estornell, Leandro H.; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V.; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Ramón, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, François; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G.; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The domestication of citrus, is poorly understood. Cultivated types are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species, whose identities and contributions remain controversial. By comparative analysis of a collection of citrus genomes, including a high quality haploid reference, we show that cultivated types were derived from two progenitor species. Though cultivated pummelos represent selections from a single progenitor species, C. maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species, C. reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A wild “mandarin” from China exhibited substantial divergence from C. reticulata, suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and enables sequence-directed genetic improvement. PMID:24908277

  12. Morphology and composition of condensates on Apollo 17 orange and black glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, David S.; Wentworth, Sue J.

    1992-01-01

    Lunar soil sample 74220 and core samples 74001/2 consist mainly of orange glass droplets, droplet fragments, and their crystallized equivalents. These samples are now generally accepted to be pyroclastic ejecta from early lunar volcanic eruptions. It has been known since early examination of these samples that they contain surface coatings and material rich in volatile condensible phases, including S, Zn, F, Cl, and many volatile metals. The volatiles associated with these orange and black glasses (and the Apollo 15 green glasses) may provide important clues in understanding the differentiation and volcanic history of the Moon. In addition, condensible volatiles can be mobilized and concentrated by volcanic processes. We have reviewed many of our existing photomicrographs and energy dispersive analysis (EDXA) of grain surfaces and have reexamined some of our older SEM mounts using an improved EDXA system capable of light-element detection and analysis (oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon). The results from these investigations are presented.

  13. Perbandingan Inklinasi dan Ukuran Rahang antara Orang Jawa Buta dan Normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Christnawati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Latar Belakang. Penglihatan merupakan salah satu faktor yang diperlukan untuk mengontrol postur kepala. Postur kepala berhubungan dengan kompleks kraniofasial. Maksila dan mandibula merupakan bagian dari kompleks kraniofasial. Pada orang buta terjadi penyimpangan pertumbuhan dan perkembangan daerah orbita karena tidak adanya rangsang. Tujuan Penelitian adalah untuk mempelajari perbandingan inklinasi dan ukuran rahang berdasarkan jenis kelamin antara orang Jawa buta dan normal. Metode Penelitian. Penelitian ini dilakukan terhadap 53 subjek, terdiri dari 25 orang buta ( 12 orang laki-laki dan 13 orang perempuan dan 28 orang normal (14 orang laki-laki dan 14 orang perempuan. Setiap subjek penelitian dilakukan pengambilan sefalogram lateral pada posisi alamiah kepala, kemudian dilakukan penapakan pada kertas kalkir di atas iluminator. Pengukuran sembilan parameter inklinasi dan ukuran maksila dan mandibula dilakukan pada hasil penapakan. Data dianalisis dengan uji Anava dua jalur. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan yang tidak bermakna (p<0,05. Panjang mandibula dan panjang basis mandibula laki-laki normal lebih besar daripada perempuan normal dan kelompok buta, serta perempuan normal lebih besar daripada perempuan buta (p<0,05. Kesimpulan Ukuran maksila laki-laki buta lebih besar daripada perempuan normal. Panjang mandibula dan panjang basis mandibula laki-laki normal lebih besar daripada perempuan normal lebih besar daripada perempuan normal, laki-laki buta, dan perempuan buta, serta perempuan normal lebih besar daripada perempuan buta.   Background Vision is one of the factors involved in the control of head posture. The posture of the head is related to craniofacial complex. Maxilla and mandible are part of craniofacial complex. In the blind there are deviations of growth and development of the orbital region in the absence of stimuli. The purpose of this study was to compare the inclinations and sizes of maxilla and mandible

  14. Photocatalytic decomposition of methyl orange over nanosized perovskite-type oxides under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Man Woo; Jung, Won Young; Lim, Kwon Taek; Lee, Man Sig; Hong, Seong-Soo

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we have investigated the photocatalytic activity for the decomposition of methyl orange on the LaCoO3 perovskite-type oxides prepared using sol-gel method at different conditions. From the results of UV-Vis DRS, all the catalysts have the similar absorption spectrum up to visible region. The LaCoO3 catalyst prepared at 1.5 mol of malic acid and calcined at 350 degrees C shows the highest activity. The amount of photo absorption in the visible region is correlated with the photocatalytic activity. In addition, the chemisorbed oxygen plays an important role on the photocatalytic decomposition of methyl orange and the higher are the contents of chemisorbed oxygen, the better shows the performance of photocatalyst.

  15. Influence of temperature and addition of fiber in the flow behavior of orange juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Siche

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the influence of the addition of orange fiber in the flow behavior of orange juice was evaluated, using for this the Herschel-Bulkley model parameters. It was observed that the flow behavior of the juices changed due to the addition of fiber, from Newtonian to Pseudoplastic when its fiber content was 5% and the temperature changed from 30 °C to 20 °C, and from Pseudoplastic to Herschel-Bulkley when its fiber content was 12.5% and the temperature changed from 10 °C to 0 °C. The increase in fiber content resulted in a progressive increase of consistency and a decrease of the flow behavior index.

  16. Wet Oxidation Pretreatment of Tobacco Stalks and Orange Waste for Bioethanol Production. Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Carlos; Fernandez, Teresa; Garcia, Ariel

    2009-01-01

    Wet oxidation (WO) was used as a pretreatment method prior to enzymatic hydrolysis of tobacco stalks and orange waste. The pretreatment, performed at 195 degrees C and an oxygen pressure of 1.2 MPa, for 15 min, in the presence of Na2CO3, increased the cellulose content of the materials and gave...... cellulose recoveries of approximately 90%. The pretreatment enhanced the susceptibility of cellulose to enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest enzymatic convertibility, that of 64.9%, was achieved for pretreated tobacco stalks. The ethanolic fermentation of the WO filtrates, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae......, was inhibited compared to the fermentation of a reference glucose solution. Inhibition was more intense for the filtrate of tobacco stalks than for that of orange waste. The inhibition degree of the volumetric productivity of ethanol was higher (79.1-86.8%) than that of the ethanol yield (7.1-9.5%)....

  17. Orange-flavored soft drink with the addition of isolated whey protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Souza Prado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Current assay developed an orange-flavored soda pop with the addition of isolated whey protein, bottled in a 2L-polyethylene terephthalate container and stored at room temperature for 90 days. Physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial analyses were conducted periodically on the product. The physicochemical analysis showed pH 3.53, 11.5ºBrix and 224 mg of citric acid per 100 mL of the drink and the following proximal composition: protein 0.501%, humidity 88.9%, ash 0.084% and carbohydrates 10.5%. Microbiological analyses detected no microorganisms during the storage period of the drink. Sensorial analysis results had good acceptability. Results showed that the product is stable when stored at room temperature for 90 days. This beverage contains higher nutritional rates and the same calorie rates when compared to sodas and some oranges juices found on the consumer market.

  18. Orange Business Services推出用于Microsoft Office 365的Office Together

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    近日,Orange BusinessS ervices推出新产品Office Together,该产品使Microsoft Office365成为了基于云计算生产力解决方案的完全托管式业务套件的一部分,其内容包括从整合服务到实时服务管理的端到端支持。

  19. Distinct functions of neuromedin u and neuromedin s in orange-spotted grouper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuisheng; Xiao, Ling; Liu, Qiongyu; Zheng, Binbin; Chen, Huapu; Liu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2015-10-01

    Neuromedin U (NMU) and neuromedin S (NMS) play inhibitory roles in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis in mammals. However, their functions are not clearly established in teleost fish. In the present study, nmu and nms homologs were identified in several fish species. Subsequently, their cDNA sequences were cloned from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Sequence analysis showed that the orange-spotted grouper Nmu proprotein contains a 21-amino acid mature Nmu peptide (Nmu-21). The Nms proprotein lost the typical mature Nms peptide, but it retains a putative 34-amino acid peptide (Nmsrp). In situ hybridization revealed that nmu- and nms-expressing cells are mainly localized in the hypothalamic regions associated with appetite regulation. Food deprivation decreased the hypothalamic nmu mRNA levels but induced an increase of nms mRNA levels. Periprandial expression analysis showed that hypothalamic expression of nmu increased significantly at 3 h post-feeding, while nms expression was elevated at the normal feeding time. I.p. injection of synthetic Nmu-21 peptide suppressed the hypothalamic neuropeptide y (npy) expression, while Nmsrp administration significantly increased the expression of npy and orexin in orange-spotted grouper. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of LH beta subunit (lhβ) and gh in the pituitary were significantly down-regulated after Nmu-21 peptide administration, while Nmsrp was able to significantly stimulate the expression of FSH beta subunit (fshβ), prolactin (prl), and somatolaction (sl). Our results indicate that nmu and nms possess distinct neuroendocrine functions and pituitary functions in the orange spotted grouper.

  20. Orange pectin mediated growth and stability of aqueous gold and silver nanocolloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigoghossian, Karina; Santos, Molíria V. dos; Barud, Hernane S.; Silva, Robson R. da [Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University – UNESP, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Lucas A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade de Franca, Franca, SP (Brazil); Caiut, José M.A. [Departamento de Química, FFCLRP, USP, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Assunção, Rosana M.N. de [Faculdade de Ciências Integradas do Pontal, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38302-000 Ituiutaba, MG (Brazil); Spanhel, Lubomir [CEITEC-Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University Brno (Czech Republic); Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Rennes 1, Campus Beaulieu, 35 042 Rennes (France); Poulain, Marcel [Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Rennes 1, Campus Beaulieu, 35 042 Rennes (France); Messaddeq, Younes [Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University – UNESP, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Ribeiro, Sidney J.L., E-mail: sidney@iq.unesp.br [Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University – UNESP, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2015-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pectin from orange was used as stabilizer of Ag, Au and Ag–Au nanoparticles. • Sodium citrate, oxalic acid or pectin were used as reducing agents. • Colloids spanning all visible region were obtained depending on Ag/Au-ratio and pH. • Pectin is a highly efficient stabilizer of nanocolloidal solutions for years. - Abstract: The role of orange based pectin in the nucleation and growth of silver and gold nanoparticles is addressed. Pectin is a complex polysaccharide found in fruits such as oranges, lemons, passion fruits or apples. It displays smooth and hairy chain regions containing hydroxyl-, ester-, carboxylate- and eventually amine groups that can act as surface ligands interacting under various pH conditions more or less efficiently with growing nanometals. Here, a high methoxy pectin (>50% esterified) was used as a stabilizer/reducing agent in the preparation of gold, silver and silver–gold nanoparticles. Commercial pectin (CP) and pectin extracted from orange bagasse (OP) were used. Optionally, trisodium citrate or oxalic acid we used to reduce AgNO{sub 3} and HAuCl{sub 4} in aqueous environment. Characterization methods included UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results show that under different pH conditions, pectin and reducing agents allow producing various nanostructures shapes (triangles, spheres, rods, octahedrons and decahedrons) often with high polydispersity and sizes ranging between 5 nm and 30 nm. In addition, depending on Ag/Au-ratio and pH, the surface plasmon bands can be continuously shifted between 410 nm and 600 nm. Finally, pectin seems to be a highly efficient stabilizer of the colloidal systems that show a remarkable stability and unchanged optical spectral response even after five years.

  1. Host status of grapefruit and Valencia oranges for Anastrepha serpentina and Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena M Tarshis

    2011-04-01

    Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is sporadically captured in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Although its preferred hosts are in the Sapotaceae family, several varieties of Citrus, including grapefruit and oranges are listed as alternate hosts. Although Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), is known to be a major pest of Citrus, doubt exists as to the status of Citrus as a breeding host for A. serpentina. To evaluate the host status of commercial Citrus for A. serpentina we compared oviposition and development with that of A. ludens under laboratory conditions with 'Rio Red' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi MacFayden) and 'Valencia' oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] in different stages of maturity. Both fly species oviposited in early season fruit in which the eggs and larvae died in the fruit albedo. Survival of either species to the adult stage occurred in later season grapefruit. In oranges, no A. serpentina larvae survived compared with 150 A. ludens surviving to adults. Survival on both Citrus species was much lower for A. serpentina, only approximately 5% of eggs eclosed into larvae in grapefruit compared with approximatley 50% for A. ludens. In oranges approximately 16% of A. serpentina eggs eclosed compared with approximately 76% for A. ludens. In grapefruit, only one fourth as many A. serpentina larvae survived to the adult stage compared with A. ludens. Additional experiments were performed in a greenhouse on small, caged trees of la coma (Sideroxylon celastrinum H.B.K.), a Texas species of Sapotaceae. The A. serpentina females readily oviposited into these berries and normal adults emerged. The present low incidence of the adults, coupled with the high mortality during development of the larvae, suggests that Texas citrus is unlikely to support a breeding population of A. serpentina.

  2. Solvent effects on photodegradation of CI Reactive Orange 16 by simulated solar light

    OpenAIRE

    Mijin Dušan Ž.; Zlatić Dragana Z.; Ušćumlić Gordana S.; Jovančić Petar M.

    2008-01-01

    Organic solvents may appear in wastewaters and other industrial waste streams containing dyes, therefore, their photodegradation catalyzed by TiO2 should be investigated. Solvent effect on photodegradation of CI Reactive Orange 16 has been studied using simulated solar light and P-25 TiO2. Methyl, ethyl and isopropyl alcohol as well as acetone were used as solvents. Photodegradation reaction was faster in methyl than in ethyl alcohol while in water was the slowest. RO16 photodegradation effic...

  3. Evaluation of water movement and nitrate dynamics in a lysimeter planted with an orange tree

    OpenAIRE

    Phogat, V; Skewes, MA; Cox, JW; Alam, J; Grigson, G; J. Šimůnek

    2013-01-01

    Adoption of high input irrigation management systems for South Australian horticultural crops seeks to provide greater control over timing of irrigation and fertilizer applications. The HYDRUS 2D/3D model was used to simulate water movement in the soil under an orange tree planted in a field lysimeter supplied with 68.6mm of irrigation water over 29 days. Simulated volumetric water contents statistically matched those measured using a capacitance soil water probe. Statistical measures (MAE, R...

  4. Effects of Leaf Extracts of Selected Plants on Quality of Stored Citrus sinensis (Sweet Orange Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwagbenga O. ADEOGUN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reduction in the quality of fruits during storage has been a concern to the consumers and the effect can be felt on the economy of developing countries. Leaves of plants such as Canna indica, Megaphrynium macrostachyum and Thaumatococcus daniellii have been documented as food packaging materials in West Africa. Based on this, the quality of stored sweet orange juice was investigated using ethanolic extracts of leaves of C. indica, M. macrostachyum and T. daniellii to enhance the shelf life of the juice. The extracts were used to assess the quality of juice for 30 days using quantitative parameters such as total soluble solid, browning potential, pH, microbial analysis and turbidity at 4 oC and at room temperature (27-31 oC. The qualitative and quantitative phytochemical constituents of the extracts were determined. The extracts’ toxicity was determined using Brine shrimp. The quality assessment evidently revealed that the freshly squeezed orange juice with the extracts possess tolerable activity to enhance the shelf life of orange juice. The leaf extract of M. macrostachyum had the highest preservation rate on the juice after 30 days. The qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloid, tannin, saponins, flavonoids, steroids and terpenoids in the three plants tested. The quantitative phytochemical analysis of the most active extracts in the three plants revealed that M. macrostachum had the highest contents of alkaloids (107.48 mg/g and flavonoids (56.92 mg/g.The study showed that the extracts were non-lethal on Brine shrimp. This study ascertained the potential preservative qualities of the test plants for enhancing the shelf-life of orange juice.

  5. Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum and hydrolytic enzymes on fermentation and ruminal degradability of orange pulp silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMID PAYA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to examine the effect of inoculants, enzymes and mixtures of them on the fermentation, degradability and nutrient value of orange pulp silage. Orange pulp was treated with water (control, inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum, enzymes (multiple enzyme or inoculants + enzymes prior to ensiling (denoted C, I, E and I+E. For ensiled orange pulp, 84 kg of orange pulp were mixed with 16 kg of wheat straw as an absorbent. Three mini-silos were prepared for each treatment and ensiled for 90 days. Data of each silo within each silage treatment was averaged and used as an experimental unit in a completely random design. Silage pH, total fatty acid and ammonia nitrogen were determined. Silage pH and lactic acid concentration were lowest and highest respectively for I and I+E (p<0.01, while the lowest (p <0.01 NH3N concentration (49.8 g/kg total N was observed in I compared to the control. The lowest acetic and butyric acid concentrations were observed in I and I+E compared with the control (p <0.01. The highest metabolizable energy (ME, net energy lactation (NEl, digestible organic matter in dry matter (DOMD, short chain fatty acid (SCFA and microbial protein (MP values were observed for I+E (p <0.01. The in vitro degradability of dry matter (IVDMD was highest (P<0.01 in I+E, while the highest (P<0.01 effective degradability of DM (EDDM was observed for E and I+E treatments. These results indicated that the bacterial inoculants and combination of enzyme and bacterial inoculants clearly improved silage fermentation characteristic. In addition, the ME, DOM, MP and IVDMD of I+E were significantly improved.

  6. Microwave-assisted Fenton-like decolorization of methyl orange solution using chromium compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zuo-hua; TAO Chang-yuan; DU Jun; SUN Da-gui; LI Bai-zhan

    2008-01-01

    Azo dyes discharged in the environment are persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which are very difficult to remove. We developed a microwave-assisted Fenton-like process to degrade methyl orange (MO), an azo dye, with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) catalyzed by chromium compounds coexisting with MO in the solution. Comparison between the Cr(III)-H2O2 and Cr(VI)-H2O2 systems shows that Cr(VI) has a stronger and more stable catalytical activity than Cr(III), and Cr(III) is more susceptible to a change in the acidity or alkalinity of the reaction system. With a Cr(VI) concentration of 10 mmol L-1 or a Cr(III) concentration of 12 mmol L-1 in the solution under the microwave irradiation of a power larger than 300 W for 3 min, 10 mmol L-1 H2O2 can degrade more than 95% of 1 000 mg L-1 methyl orange; when the microwave power is increased to 700 W, the same amount of H2O2 can degrade all methyl orange in the solution with the same amount of Cr(VI) catalyst. Ultraviolet-visible spectrography indicates the cleavage of the azo bond in methyl orange after treatment, suggesting the potential of this Fenton-like process to degrade azo dye POPs. Reusing waste chromium compounds coexisting with dyestuff in wastewater to catalyze the degradation of azo dyes could be a cost-effective technique for azo dyes and chromate manufacturers and/or users to treat their wastewater and prevent POPs from endangering the environment. This is of particular importance to controlling the water quality of the Three Gorges Reservoir.

  7. Nonlinear phenomena of acridine orange in inorganic glasses at nanosecond scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaponenko, S. V.; Gribkovskii, V. P.; Zimin, L. G.; Lebed, V. Yu.; Malinovskii, I. E.; Graham, S.; Klingshirn, C.; Eyal, M.; Brusilovsky, D.; Reisfeld, R.

    1993-04-01

    Nonlinear optical behavior of acridine orange dye has been studied in lead-tin-flouride glass. We found that this material possess nonlinear saturable absorption and power-dependent lifetimes, both on nanosecond time scale. This short response is explained by an efficient S-T transfer induced by the heavy atoms of the glass. The glass has a good potential as a nonlinear material on a nanosecond time scale.

  8. Process of Soy Milk Adding Orange Juice%橘子豆奶的调制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敬娟; 黄艾祥

    2011-01-01

    To optimize formula of orange fruit juice soy milk and parameters of sterilization process. Results showed that the addition content of orange juice is the main factor affecting the flavor and the effect of compound stabilizer is better than that of single stabilizer. The best orange fruit juice soy milk formula is as follows: 35% raw materials of soybean (soybean: water = 1:12), 10% orange juice, 7% sugar, 0.1% citric acid, 0.05% malic acid, 0.05% monoglyceride, 0.04% xanthan gum, and 0.2% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC).The best sterilization process for soy milk is 80℃ for 25min.%以橘子、大豆为原料,经科学加工制成橘子酸化豆奶饮料.以感官评价指标,通过正交试验筛选最佳风味配方,并进行稳定性及最佳杀菌工艺的研究.结果显示,橘汁的添加量是影响风味的主要因素,复配稳定剂较单一稳定剂的效果好.橘子豆奶饮料的最佳配方为:原料大豆35%(大豆:水=1:12),橘子10%、白糖7%、柠檬酸0.1%、苹果酸0.05%、单甘酯0.05%、黄原胶0.04%、羧甲基纤维素(CMC)0.2%.最佳杀菌工艺为杀菌温度80℃、杀菌时间25min.

  9. Thermal and pasting properties of cassava starch-dehydrated orange pulp blends

    OpenAIRE

    Magali Leonel; Luciana Bronzi de Souza; Martha Maria Mischan

    2011-01-01

    Instant mixtures are easy to prepare and frequently present functional appeals. A quality parameter for instant mixtures is their rheological behavior. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of extrusion parameters on the pasting properties of cassava (Manihot esculenta L.) starch and dehydrated orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) pulp mixtures. The variable parameters were moisture of mixtures (12.5 to 19%), barrel temperature (40 to 90ºC) and screw rotation (170 to 266 rpm). The extrud...

  10. Third generation snacks manufactured from orange by-products: physicochemical and nutritional characterization

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A mixture of orange vesicle flour, commercial nixtamalized corn flour and potato starch was extruded using a Brabender Laboratory single screw extruder (2:1 L/D). The resulting pellets were expanded by microwaves. Expansion index, bulk density, penetration force, carotenoid content, and dietary fiber were measured for this third-generation snack and optimum production conditions were estimated. Response surface methodology was applied using a central composite rotatable experimental design to...

  11. Molecular detection and species identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi isolated from immunocompetent Orang Asli in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashikin, Azah; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Moktar, Norhayati; Anuar, Tengku Shahrul

    2017-04-01

    Most studies of opportunistic infections focus on immunocompromised patients. However, there is a lack of information on microsporidiosis in healthy people (immunocompetent) worldwide. This study aimed to detect and identify microsporidia species in immunocompetent Orang Asli living in Pahang, Malaysia. Orang Asli is a collective term for a group of indigenous people that usually reside in the interior regions of Peninsular Malaysia. They comprise about 0.7% of the total population in Malaysia and 76% of them lived below the poverty line i.e., poor housing conditions with the lack of access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation, contaminated environment, high illiteracy rate and unhygienic practices by these people. Stool samples were collected from 209 Orang Asli and analyzed for detecting the presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis by polymerase chain reaction assay targeting small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. E. bieneusi was detected in 8 individuals (3.83%). This infection was commonly found in males than females (5.2% vs. 2.7%). All infected Orang Asli were adults, with a mean age of 44years. Diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms were reported in one case (12.5%) among individuals infected with this species. These findings clearly show that exposure to E. bieneusi may actually be common than reported. The accurate detection and identification of microsporidian species by molecular technique will improve therapy, clinical manifestations and prognosis of this infection, as no antiparasitic therapy has been approved for E. bieneusi. It is hoped that these findings will allow the formulation of better health management and disease prevention advisories, and improvement in the standards of health in similar communities.

  12. Sweet orange trees grafted on selected rootstocks fertilized with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

    OpenAIRE

    Quaggio José Antônio; Mattos Junior Dirceu; Cantarella Heitor; Stuchi Eduardo Sanches; Sempionato Otávio Ricardo

    2004-01-01

    The majority of citrus trees in Brazil are grafted on 'Rangpur lime' (Citrus limonia Osb.) rootstock. Despite its good horticultural performance, search for disease tolerant rootstock varieties to improve yield and longevity of citrus groves has increased. The objective of this work was to evaluate yield efficiency of sweet oranges on different rootstocks fertilized with N, P, and potassium. Tree growth was affected by rootstock varieties; trees on 'Swingle' citrumelo [Poncirus trifoliata (L....

  13. Photodegradation of methyl orange by BiOI-sensitized TiO_2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    BiOI-sensitized titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysts were prepared by a deposition method at room temperature and characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area measurements. The photocatalytic activities of the catalysts were evaluated for the degradation of methyl orange (MO) solution under UV and visible light irradiation. The effects of catalyst amount, initial pH value, initial concentration of MO, as well as KI amount were investigated. ...

  14. deep-orange and carnation define distinct stages in late endosomal biogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram, V.; Krishnan, K. S.; Mayor, Satyajit

    2003-01-01

    Endosomal degradation is severely impaired in primary hemocytes from larvae of eye color mutants of Drosophila. Using high resolution imaging and immunofluorescence microscopy in these cells, products of eye color genes, deep-orange (dor) and carnation (car), are localized to large multivesicular Rab7-positive late endosomes containing Golgi-derived enzymes. These structures mature into small sized Dor-negative, Car-positive structures, which subsequently fuse to form tubular lysosomes. Defec...

  15. Genome Sequences of Mycobacteriophages AlanGrant, Baee, Corofin, OrangeOswald, and Vincenzo, New Members of Cluster B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonara, Maria E.; Cioffi, Hanna M.; Cruz, Tyler; Dang, Brian Q.; Doyle, Alexander N.; Fan, Olivia H.; Gallagher, Molly; Gentile, Gabrielle M.; German, Brian A.; Farrell, Margaret E.; Gerwig, Madeline; Hunter, Kelsey L.; Lefever, Virginia E.; Marfisi, Nicole A.; McDonnell, Jill E.; Monga, Jappmann K.; Quiroz, Kevin G.; Pong, Alexandra C.; Rimple, Patrick A.; Situ, Michelle; Sohnen, Peri C.; Stockinger, Annmarie N.; Thompson, Paige K.; Torchio, Nicole M.; Toner, Chelsea L.; Ulbrich, Megan C.; Vohra, Neelam I.; Zakir, Aala; Adkins, Nancy L.; Brown, Bryony R.; Churilla, Bryce M.; Kramer, Zachary J.; Lapin, Jonathan S.; Montgomery, Matthew T.; Prout, Ashley K.; Grubb, Sarah R.; Warner, Marcie H.; Bowman, Charles A.; Russell, Daniel A.; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2015-01-01

    AlanGrant, Baee, Corofin, OrangeOswald, and Vincenzo are newly isolated phages of Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 discovered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. All five phages share nucleotide similarity with cluster B mycobacteriophages but span considerable diversity with Corofin and OrangeOswald in subcluster B3, AlanGrant and Vincenzo in subcluster B4, and Baee in subcluster B5. PMID:26089409

  16. Genome Sequences of Mycobacteriophages AlanGrant, Baee, Corofin, OrangeOswald, and Vincenzo, New Members of Cluster B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Welkin H; Carbonara, Maria E; Cioffi, Hanna M; Cruz, Tyler; Dang, Brian Q; Doyle, Alexander N; Fan, Olivia H; Gallagher, Molly; Gentile, Gabrielle M; German, Brian A; Farrell, Margaret E; Gerwig, Madeline; Hunter, Kelsey L; Lefever, Virginia E; Marfisi, Nicole A; McDonnell, Jill E; Monga, Jappmann K; Quiroz, Kevin G; Pong, Alexandra C; Rimple, Patrick A; Situ, Michelle; Sohnen, Peri C; Stockinger, Annmarie N; Thompson, Paige K; Torchio, Nicole M; Toner, Chelsea L; Ulbrich, Megan C; Vohra, Neelam I; Zakir, Aala; Adkins, Nancy L; Brown, Bryony R; Churilla, Bryce M; Kramer, Zachary J; Lapin, Jonathan S; Montgomery, Matthew T; Prout, Ashley K; Grubb, Sarah R; Warner, Marcie H; Bowman, Charles A; Russell, Daniel A; Hatfull, Graham F

    2015-06-18

    AlanGrant, Baee, Corofin, OrangeOswald, and Vincenzo are newly isolated phages of Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2)155 discovered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. All five phages share nucleotide similarity with cluster B mycobacteriophages but span considerable diversity with Corofin and OrangeOswald in subcluster B3, AlanGrant and Vincenzo in subcluster B4, and Baee in subcluster B5. Copyright © 2015 Pope et al.

  17. Acridine orange staining as a replacement for subculturing of false-positive blood cultures with the BACTEC NR 660.

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    Despite the customization of growth index thresholds within individual laboratories, use of the BACTEC NR 660 automated blood culture system results in a number of false-positive cultures. The results of Gram staining, acridine orange staining, and subculturing to agar media were evaluated on 210 false-positive blood cultures over a 6-month period. Inclusion of acridine orange staining in the routine workup of false-positive blood cultures can eliminate the need for subculturing.

  18. Characterization of Coconut cadang-cadang viroid variants from oil palm affected by orange spotting disease in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y H; Cheong, L C; Meon, S; Lau, W H; Kong, L L; Joseph, H; Vadamalai, G

    2013-06-01

    A 246-nt variant of Coconut cadang-cadang viroid (CCCVd) has been identified and described from oil palms with orange spotting symptoms in Malaysia. Compared with the 246-nt form of CCCVd from coconut, the oil palm variant substituted C(31)→U in the pathogenicity domain and G(70)→C in the central conserved domain. This is the first sequence reported for a 246-nt variant of CCCVd in oil palms expressing orange spotting symptoms.

  19. Effect of alcoholic fermentation on the carotenoid composition and provitamin A content of orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrillo, Isabel; Escudero-López, Blanca; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Martín, Francisco; Fernández-Pachón, María-Soledad

    2014-01-29

    Orange juice is considered a rich source of carotenoids, which are thought to have diverse biological functions. In recent years, a fermentation process has been carried out in fruits resulting in products that provide higher concentrations of bioactive compounds than their original substrates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a controlled alcoholic fermentation process (15 days) on the carotenoid composition of orange juice. Twenty-two carotenoids were identified in samples. The carotenoid profile was not modified as result of the fermentation. Total carotenoid content and provitamin A value significantly increased from day 0 (5.37 mg/L and 75.32 RAEs/L, respectively) until day 15 (6.65 mg/L and 90.57 RAEs/L, respectively), probably due to a better extractability of the carotenoids from the food matrix as a result of processing. Therefore, the novel beverage produced could provide a rich source of carotenoids and exert healthy effects similar to those of orange juice.

  20. Ethnomedical survey of plants used by the Orang Asli in Kampung Bawong, Perak, West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Anbu Jeba Sunilson John; Kalusalingam, Anandarajagopal; Chellappan, Dinesh Kumar; Gopinath, Rejitha; Radhamani, Suraj; Husain, Hj Azman; Muruganandham, Vignesh; Promwichit, Proom

    2010-02-07

    A qualitative ethnomedical survey was carried out among a local Orang Asli tribe to gather information on the use of medicinal plants in the region of Kampung Bawong, Perak of West Malaysia in order to evaluate the potential medicinal uses of local plants used in curing different diseases and illnesses. Sixteen informants ranging in age from 35 to 65 years were interviewed. A total of 62 species of plants used by Orang Asli are described in this study based on field surveys and direct face to face communication. These plants belonged to 36 families and are used to treat a wide range of discomforts and diseases. The results of this study showed that majority of the Orang Asli, of Kampung Bawong are still dependent on local plants as their primary source of medication. As the first ethnomedical study in this area, publishing this work is expected to open up more studies to identify and assess the pharmacological and toxicological action of the plants from this region. Preservation and recording of ethnobotanical and ethnomedical uses of traditional medicinal plants is an indispensable obligation for sustaining the medicinal and cultural resource of mankind. Extensive research on such traditional plants is of prime importance to scientifically validate their ethnomedical claims.