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Sample records for orange citrus sinensis

  1. The draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ling-Ling; Ruan, Xiaoan; Chen, Dijun; Zhu, Andan; Chen, Chunli; Bertrand, Denis; Jiao, Wen-Biao; Hao, Bao-Hai; Lyon, Matthew P; Chen, Jiongjiong; Gao, Song; Xing, Feng; Lan, Hong; Chang, Ji-Wei; Ge, Xianhong; Lei, Yang; Hu, Qun; Miao, Yin; Wang, Lun; Xiao, Shixin; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Zeng, Wenfang; Guo, Fei; Cao, Hongbo; Yang, Xiaoming; Xu, Xi-Wen; Cheng, Yun-Jiang; Xu, Juan; Liu, Ji-Hong; Luo, Oscar Junhong; Tang, Zhonghui; Guo, Wen-Wu; Kuang, Hanhui; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Roose, Mikeal L; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Ruan, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Oranges are an important nutritional source for human health and have immense economic value. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). The assembled sequence covers 87.3% of the estimated orange genome, which is relatively compact, as 20% is composed of repetitive elements. We predicted 29,445 protein-coding genes, half of which are in the heterozygous state. With additional sequencing of two more citrus species and comparative analyses of seven citrus genomes, we present evidence to suggest that sweet orange originated from a backcross hybrid between pummelo and mandarin. Focused analysis on genes involved in vitamin C metabolism showed that GalUR, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme of the galacturonate pathway, is significantly upregulated in orange fruit, and the recent expansion of this gene family may provide a genomic basis. This draft genome represents a valuable resource for understanding and improving many important citrus traits in the future.

  2. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis seeds

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    Neuza Jorge

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis, as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg, total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg, α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg. The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal to 70.2% (Pera-rio. According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants.

  3. Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP): a comprehensive database for sweet orange genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Chen, Dijun; Lei, Yang; Chang, Ji-Wei; Hao, Bao-Hai; Xing, Feng; Li, Sen; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Chen, Ling-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crop with global production ranking firstly among all the fruit crops in the world. Sweet orange accounts for more than half of the Citrus production both in fresh fruit and processed juice. We have sequenced the draft genome of a double-haploid sweet orange (C. sinensis cv. Valencia), and constructed the Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP) to store and visualize the sequenced genomic and transcriptome data. CAP provides GBrowse-based organization of sweet orange genomic data, which integrates ab initio gene prediction, EST, RNA-seq and RNA-paired end tag (RNA-PET) evidence-based gene annotation. Furthermore, we provide a user-friendly web interface to show the predicted protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and metabolic pathways in sweet orange. CAP provides comprehensive information beneficial to the researchers of sweet orange and other woody plants, which is freely available at http://citrus.hzau.edu.cn/.

  4. Genome Wide Characterization of Short Tandem Repeat Markers in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    BISWAS, Manosh Kumar; XU, Qiang; Mayer, Christoph; Deng, Xiuxin

    2014-01-01

    Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is one of the major cultivated and most-consumed citrus species. With the goal of enhancing the genomic resources in citrus, we surveyed, developed and characterized microsatellite markers in the ≈347 Mb sequence assembly of the sweet orange genome. A total of 50,846 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 146.4 SSRs/Mbp. Dinucleotide repeats are the most frequent repeat class and the highest density of SSRs was found in chromosome 4. SSRs are non-randomly dist...

  5. Genome Wide Characterization of Short Tandem Repeat Markers in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Xu, Qiang; Mayer, Christoph; Deng, Xiuxin

    2014-01-01

    Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is one of the major cultivated and most-consumed citrus species. With the goal of enhancing the genomic resources in citrus, we surveyed, developed and characterized microsatellite markers in the ≈347 Mb sequence assembly of the sweet orange genome. A total of 50,846 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 146.4 SSRs/Mbp. Dinucleotide repeats are the most frequent repeat class and the highest density of SSRs was found in chromosome 4. SSRs are non-randomly dist...

  6. Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP: a comprehensive database for sweet orange genome.

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    Jia Wang

    Full Text Available Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crop with global production ranking firstly among all the fruit crops in the world. Sweet orange accounts for more than half of the Citrus production both in fresh fruit and processed juice. We have sequenced the draft genome of a double-haploid sweet orange (C. sinensis cv. Valencia, and constructed the Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP to store and visualize the sequenced genomic and transcriptome data. CAP provides GBrowse-based organization of sweet orange genomic data, which integrates ab initio gene prediction, EST, RNA-seq and RNA-paired end tag (RNA-PET evidence-based gene annotation. Furthermore, we provide a user-friendly web interface to show the predicted protein-protein interactions (PPIs and metabolic pathways in sweet orange. CAP provides comprehensive information beneficial to the researchers of sweet orange and other woody plants, which is freely available at http://citrus.hzau.edu.cn/.

  7. Genome wide characterization of short tandem repeat markers in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis.

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    Manosh Kumar Biswas

    Full Text Available Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis is one of the major cultivated and most-consumed citrus species. With the goal of enhancing the genomic resources in citrus, we surveyed, developed and characterized microsatellite markers in the ≈347 Mb sequence assembly of the sweet orange genome. A total of 50,846 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 146.4 SSRs/Mbp. Dinucleotide repeats are the most frequent repeat class and the highest density of SSRs was found in chromosome 4. SSRs are non-randomly distributed in the genome and most of the SSRs (62.02% are located in the intergenic regions. We found that AT-rich SSRs are more frequent than GC-rich SSRs. A total number of 21,248 SSR primers were successfully developed, which represents 89 SSR markers per Mb of the genome. A subset of 950 developed SSR primer pairs were synthesized and tested by wet lab experiments on a set of 16 citrus accessions. In total we identified 534 (56.21% polymorphic SSR markers that will be useful in citrus improvement. The number of amplified alleles ranges from 2 to 12 with an average of 4 alleles per marker and an average PIC value of 0.75. The newly developed sweet orange primer sequences, their in silico PCR products, exact position in the genome assembly and putative function are made publicly available. We present the largest number of SSR markers ever developed for a citrus species. Almost two thirds of the markers are transferable to 16 citrus relatives and may be used for constructing a high density linkage map. In addition, they are valuable for marker-assisted selection studies, population structure analyses and comparative genomic studies of C. sinensis with other citrus related species. Altogether, these markers provide a significant contribution to the citrus research community.

  8. Genome wide characterization of short tandem repeat markers in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Xu, Qiang; Mayer, Christoph; Deng, Xiuxin

    2014-01-01

    Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is one of the major cultivated and most-consumed citrus species. With the goal of enhancing the genomic resources in citrus, we surveyed, developed and characterized microsatellite markers in the ≈347 Mb sequence assembly of the sweet orange genome. A total of 50,846 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 146.4 SSRs/Mbp. Dinucleotide repeats are the most frequent repeat class and the highest density of SSRs was found in chromosome 4. SSRs are non-randomly distributed in the genome and most of the SSRs (62.02%) are located in the intergenic regions. We found that AT-rich SSRs are more frequent than GC-rich SSRs. A total number of 21,248 SSR primers were successfully developed, which represents 89 SSR markers per Mb of the genome. A subset of 950 developed SSR primer pairs were synthesized and tested by wet lab experiments on a set of 16 citrus accessions. In total we identified 534 (56.21%) polymorphic SSR markers that will be useful in citrus improvement. The number of amplified alleles ranges from 2 to 12 with an average of 4 alleles per marker and an average PIC value of 0.75. The newly developed sweet orange primer sequences, their in silico PCR products, exact position in the genome assembly and putative function are made publicly available. We present the largest number of SSR markers ever developed for a citrus species. Almost two thirds of the markers are transferable to 16 citrus relatives and may be used for constructing a high density linkage map. In addition, they are valuable for marker-assisted selection studies, population structure analyses and comparative genomic studies of C. sinensis with other citrus related species. Altogether, these markers provide a significant contribution to the citrus research community.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Copia-like Retrotransposons from 12 Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neng-Guo TAO; Juan XU; Yun-Jiang CHENG; Liu HONG; Wen-Wu GUO; Hua-Lin YI; Xiu-Xin DENG

    2005-01-01

    As the largest transposable element in the plant genome, retrotransposons are thought to be involved in citrus genetic instability and genome evolution, especially in sweet orange, which is prone to bud mutation. In the present study, the presence of copia-like retrotransposons, their heterogeneity, genomic distribution, and transcriptional activities in Citrus were investigated in 12 sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) cultivars using a PCR assay designed to detect copia-like reverse transcriptase (RT)sequences. Twelve amplification products from each cultivar were cloned and sequenced. The cloned sequences showed great heterogeneity, except "Dream" navel and "Hamlin", both of which shared the same sequence. Frame shifting, termination, deletion, and substitution accounted for the heterogeneity of RT sequences. Southern blot hybridization using the RT1 clone from the "Cara Cara" navel as a probe showed that multiple copies were integrated throughout the sweet orange genomes, which made the retrotransposon possible an effective molecular marker to detect citrus evolution events and to reveal its relationship with bud mutation. No transcriptional activities of the retrotransposon were detected by RT-PCR and Northern analysis in the fruits and leaves of either "Cara Cara" or "Seike" navels.

  10. Clinical evaluation of Moro (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) orange juice supplementation for the weight management.

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    Cardile, Venera; Graziano, Adriana Carol Eleonora; Venditti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, several studies have recently evaluated the beneficial effects of red orange juice (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) and its active components in weight management and obesity. Moro orange is a cultivar of red orange, particularly rich in active compounds such as anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavone glycosides and ascorbic acid, which displays anti-obesity effects in in vitro and in vivo studies. In this clinical study, the effect of a Moro juice extract (Morosil(®), 400 mg/die) supplementation was evaluated in overweight healthy human volunteers for 12 weeks. Results showed that Moro juice extract intake was able to induce a significant reduction in body mass index (BMI) after 4 weeks of treatment (p juice have a synergistic effect on fat accumulation in humans and Moro juice extract can be used in weight management and in the prevention of human obesity.

  11. Characterization of three terpenoid glycosyltransferase genes in 'Valencia' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck).

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    Fan, Jing; Chen, Chunxian; Yu, Qibin; Li, Zheng-Guo; Gmitter, Frederick G

    2010-10-01

    Three putative terpenoid UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) genes, designated CsUGT1, CsUGT2, and CsUGT3, were isolated and characterized in 'Valencia' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck). CsUGT1 consisted of 1493 nucleotides with an open reading frame encoding 492 amino acids, CsUGT2 consisted of 1727 nucleotides encoding 504 amino acids, and CsUGT3 consisted of 1705 nucleotides encoding 468 amino acids. CsUGT3 had a 145 bp intron at 730-874, whereas CsUGT1 and CsUGT2 had none. The three deduced glycosyltransferase proteins had a highly conserved plant secondary product glycosyltransferase motif in the C terminus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CsUGT1 and CsUGT3 were classified into group L of glycosyltransferase family 1, and CsUGT2 was classified into group D. Through Southern blotting analysis, CsUGT1 was found to have two copies in the sweet orange genome, whereas CsUGT2 and CsUGT3 had at least seven and nine copies, respectively. CsUGT1, CsUGT2, and CsUGT3 were constitutively expressed in leaf, flower, and fruit tissues. The results facilitate further investigation of the function of terpenoid glycosyltransferases in citrus and the biosynthesis of terpenoid glycosides in vitro.

  12. Effects of open-top chambers on Valencia' orange trees. [Citrus sinensis

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    Olszyk, D.M. (Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR (United States)); Takemoto, B.K. (California Air Resources Board, Sacramento (United States)); Kats, G.; Dawson, P.J.; Morrison, C.L.; Preston, J.W.; Thompson, C.R. (Univ. of California, Riverside (United States))

    Open-top field chambers are the most widely used technology for evaluating the impacts of air pollutants on vegetation. This study was conducted to evaluate the long-term effects of chambers on Valencia orange trees (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck). The trees were exposed to ambient ozone (O{sub 3}) for 51 months in large (4.3-m diam. by 2.9-m high) nonfiltered open-top chambers (NF) and in ambient air without chambers (AA). Results suggest that the yield increases for NF compared to AA trees could, in part, be accounted for by decreased flux of O{sub 3} into leaves (based on decreased O{sub 3} exposure and leaf conductance). However, other factors, i.e., increased tree growth, altered leaf C allocation, and lack of wind stress occurring only in chambers, likely contributed to higher NF tree yields.

  13. Fertile fruit trees obtained by somatic hybridization: navel orange (Citrus sinensis) and Troyer citrange (C. sinensis x Poncirus trifoliata).

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    Ohgawara, T; Kobayashi, S; Ishii, S; Yoshinaga, K; Oiyama, I

    1991-02-01

    Nucellar cell suspension protoplasts of navel orange (Citrus sinsensis Osb.) were chemically fused with mesophyll protoplasts of Troyer citrange (C. sinensis x Poncirus trifoliata) and cultured in hormone-free Murashige and Tucker medium containing 0.6 M sucrose. Two types of plant were regenerated through embryogenesis. One type showed intermediate mono-and difoliate leaves and the other types was identical to Troyer citrange. The regenerated plants with intermediate morphology were demonstrated by chromosome counts and rDNA analysis to be amphidiploid somatic hybrids. Five clones of these somatic hybrids were grafted in the field. After 4 years, they set flowers having a morphology intermediate between those of the two parents. The pollen grains showed high stainability and sufficient germinability, and were larger than those of Troyer citrange. The fruits of the somatic hybrids were large and spherical with thick rinds. Most of them contained seeds with normal germinability. These results indicate that somatic hybridization is a useful tool for Citrus breeding.

  14. Corn (Zea mays growth in petroleum contaminated soil, remediated with orange (Citrus sinensis peel extract

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    Tomás Darío Marín Veláquez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil pollution has a strong impact when oil activity takes place within a savanna ecosystem. Any oil spill affects agricultural soils. Biostimulation with orange peel extract (Citrus sinensis is an alternative for remediation of soil contaminated with crude oil and in this research the corn plant (Zea mays was used as a biomarker of contamination level of a savanna soil after their treatment. Three samples of savannah soil contaminated with oil light crude were treated with dissolutions 1, 3 and 5% of extract of orange peel in water at a dose of 150 mL per kg of soil treated. The content of oils and fats was measured every 7 days, up to 42 days. Corn seeds were planted in soil samples, their growth was measured every 5 days for a period of 35 consecutive days, comparing their growth with seeds planted in a soil sample without contamination. According to an analysis of rank contrast, the plant growth was statistically the same in all samples up to 20 days; from there, evident differences regarding the pattern were shown.

  15. BIOSORPTION STUDIES OF CADMIUM (II IONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS ONTO ORANGE RIND (CITRUS SINENSIS L. OSBECK

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    Satish A. Bhalerao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The biosorption studies for effective removal of cadmium (II ions from aqueous solutions using orange rind (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, cost effective biosorbent, was carried out in batch system. FTIR analysis of biosorbent confirmed that carboxyl, hydroxyl, carbonyl group which was responsible for biosorption of cadmium (II ions. The SEM represents porous structure with surface area. The effects of operational factors including solution pH, biosorbent dose, initial cadmium (II ions concentration, contact time and temperature were studied. The optimum solution pH for cadmium (II ions biosorption by biosorbent was 7.0 with the optimal removal 80.30 %. The biosorbent dose 5 mg/ml was enough for optimal removal of 65.15 %. The biosorption process was relatively fast and equilibrium was achieved after 90 minutes of contact. The experimental equilibrium biosorption data were analysed by four widely used two-parameters Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Kaganer-Redushkevich (DKR and Temkin isotherm models. Langmuir isotherm model provided a better fit with the experimental data than Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Kaganer-Redushkevich (DKR isotherm models by high correlation coefficient value (R2 = 0.911. The maximum adsorption capacity determined from Langmuir isotherm was found to be 83.33 mg/g of biosorbent. Simple kinetic models such as pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich equation and Weber and Morris intra-particle diffusion rate equation were employed to determine the adsorption mechanism. Results clearly indicates that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R2 = 0.998 was found to be correlate the experimental data strongest than other three kinetic models and this suggests that chemical adsorption process was more dominant. Thermodynamic study revealed that the biosorption process was spontaneous, endothermic and increasing randomness of the solid solution interfaces. Orange rind (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck was successfully used for the

  16. Honey bee attractants and pollination in sweet orange, Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, var. Pera-Rio

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    D. T. Malerbo-Souza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment studied the frequency and behavior of insects on sweet orange flowers, Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, their effect on fruit production (quantity and quality, nectar and pollen collection, and the effectiveness of different attractants. Over three consecutive years, the most frequent visitor to the flowers was Apis mellifera (Africanized. Flowers visited less than ten times showed low fructification. Fruit production was 35.30% greater in uncovered flowers. Fruit mean weight was much greater in uncovered (180.2g than in covered flowers (168.5g. Fruits from the covered were more acid (1.411g of citric acid/100ml of juice than the uncovered flowers (1.164g of citric acid/100ml of juice. The number of seeds per bud was higher in the uncovered (1 seed/bud than in the covered treatment (0.8 seed/bud. Bee-HereR, eugenol, geraniol, citral, and lemon grass extract, mainly diluted in water, were effective in attracting honeybees to orchards. However, these compounds were less effective when diluted in sugar syrup. The same products had variable attractiveness to honeybees in different years.

  17. Genome-wide analysis of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

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    Liu, Chaoyang; Wang, Xia; Xu, Yuantao; Deng, Xiuxin; Xu, Qiang

    2014-10-01

    MYB transcription factor represents one of the largest gene families in plant genomes. Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide, and recently the genome has been sequenced. This provides an opportunity to investigate the organization and evolutionary characteristics of sweet orange MYB genes from whole genome view. In the present study, we identified 100 R2R3-MYB genes in the sweet orange genome. A comprehensive analysis of this gene family was performed, including the phylogeny, gene structure, chromosomal localization and expression pattern analyses. The 100 genes were divided into 29 subfamilies based on the sequence similarity and phylogeny, and the classification was also well supported by the highly conserved exon/intron structures and motif composition. The phylogenomic comparison of MYB gene family among sweet orange and related plant species, Arabidopsis, cacao and papaya suggested the existence of functional divergence during evolution. Expression profiling indicated that sweet orange R2R3-MYB genes exhibited distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns. Our analysis suggested that the sweet orange MYB genes may play important roles in different plant biological processes, some of which may be potentially involved in citrus fruit quality. These results will be useful for future functional analysis of the MYB gene family in sweet orange.

  18. Production of Transgenic Anliucheng Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) with Xa21 Gene for Potential Canker Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ding-li; XIAO Xuan; and GUO Wen-wu

    2014-01-01

    Citrus canker, an epidemic quarantine disease caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, has brought a great damage in citrus production worldwide. Herein, a rice PRR (pattern recognition receptor) gene Xa21 together with GUS reporter gene and hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (HPT) was introduced into Anliucheng sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic callus. The transgenic calluses were screened on MT basal medium containing hygromycin (HYG) and detected by histochemical GUS staining. The transgenic plantlets were recovered through somatic embryogenesis pathway. The regenerated plantlets were accustomed to and maintained in the greenhouse. The transgene integration of recovered plantlets was identiifed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization. It showed that all the transgenic plantlets tested had undergone single copy integration, the expression of Xa21 in eight different transgenic lines detected by qRT-PCR can be divided into three grades, high for T5 and T6, middle for T4 and low for the rest. The tolerance to citrus canker disease of the three recovered transgenic lines T2, T4 and T6 was assessed by in vitro pin-puncture inoculation. The results showed that all the three transgenic lines conferred improved resistance to citrus canker bacterium infection and the T4 transgenic line displayed the highest resistance. The mechanism and feasibility of rice Xa21 in triggering innate immunity in citrus was brielfy discussed.

  19. Fractionation of the secondary metabolites of orange (Citrus sinensis L.) leaves by fast centrifugal partition chromatography

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    There is interest in the detection of changes in secondary metabolites in orange leaves in response to citrus greening disease. Conventional HPLC analysis readily provides detection of major phenolic compounds, but further, more detailed chromatographic analyses show many more compounds, to an exten...

  20. Morfologia de embriões nucelares de laranja 'Valência' (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck Morphology of 'Valencia' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck nucellar embryos

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    Fernanda Januzzi Mendes-da-Glória

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a morfologia de embriões nucelares de laranja 'Valência' (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck a fim de fornecer informações para estudos de embriogênese somática induzida in vitro visando o melhoramento de citros que utilizem essa variedade. Para a realização dessas avaliações, embriões coletados de sementes provenientes de frutos maduros (13 meses após o florescimento foram fixados, desidratados e preparados para a realização dos cortes histológicos seriados. Dos embriões avaliados, apenas um apresentou a morfologia de embrião zigótico. Os demais mostraram cotilédones com angulações e formatos distintos. Foram observados embriões mal formados com a não diferenciação de ápice caulinar e/ou ápice radicular, não desenvolvimento de um dos cotilédones, além de eixo embrionário colapsado. Os dados obtidos poderão auxiliar na interpretação dos tipos morfológicos de embriões somáticos obtidos in vitro e sua capacidade de conversão em plantas.This research work evaluated the morphology of nucellar embryos of 'Valencia' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, in an effort to provide this information as a reference in somatic embryo induction experiments, for in vitro breeding of this cultivar. Embryos were collected from mature fruits (13 months after blooming, and were fixed, dehydrated and prepared for serial histological cuts. Among the embryos, only one presented similar morphology to a zygotic embryo, whereas the others showed different shapes and angles in the cotyledons. Not well formed embryos were also observed, mainly due to the lack of the differentiation of the shoot apex and/or root apex, undevelopment of one of the cotyledons, or sometimes due to the collapsed embryo. The results may contribute to a better understanding of different embryo morphologies of somatic embryos and their capacity to convert in plants.

  1. The State of the Art in Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins and Its Regulation in Pigmented Sweet Oranges [(Citrus sinensis) L. Osbeck].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Piero, Angela Roberta

    2015-04-29

    Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments belonging to the flavonoid compound family involved in nature in several aspects of plant development and defense. By bestowing much of the color and flavor on fruits and vegetables, they are components of the human diet and, thanks to their radical-scavenging properties, are not considered exclusively as food products but also as therapeutic agents. Several cultivars of red (or blood) oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck], such as Tarocco, Moro, and Sanguinello, are characterized by the presence of anthocyanins in both the rind and fruit juice vesicles. The amount and composition of anthocyanins in the pigmented orange cultivar vary greatly depending on variety, maturity, region of cultivation, and many other environmental conditions. Most of the blood orange varieties require a wide day-night thermal range to maximize color formation. Therefore, the production of red oranges characterized by high anthocyanin levels is limited to a few regions and in particular to the Sicilian area around Mount Etna in Italy, where the characteristic climate conditions yield fruits of unique color intensity and quality. In this review, both the basic information and the most recent advances in red orange anthocyanins are reported, with intense attention given to their biosynthesis and regulation.

  2. Transcriptional profiling of canker-resistant transgenic sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) constitutively overexpressing a spermidine synthase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xing-Zheng; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Citrus canker disease caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is one of the most devastating diseases affecting the citrus industry worldwide. In our previous study, the canker-resistant transgenic sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) plants were produced via constitutively overexpressing a spermidine synthase. To unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying Xcc resistance of the transgenic plants, in the present study global transcriptional profiling was compared between untransformed line (WT) and the transgenic line (TG9) by hybridizing with Affymetrix Citrus GeneChip. In total, 666 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, 448 upregulated, and 218 downregulated. The DEGs were classified into 33 categories after Gene ontology (GO) annotation, in which 68 genes are in response to stimulus and involved in immune system process, 12 genes are related to cell wall, and 13 genes belong to transcription factors. These genes and those related to starch and sucrose metabolism, glutathione metabolism, biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids, and plant hormones were hypothesized to play major roles in the canker resistance of TG9. Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the transcript levels of several candidate genes in TG9 were significantly higher than in WT both before and after Xcc inoculation, indicating their potential association with canker disease.

  3. Transcriptional Profiling of Canker-Resistant Transgenic Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck Constitutively Overexpressing a Spermidine Synthase Gene

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    Xing-Zheng Fu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus canker disease caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc is one of the most devastating diseases affecting the citrus industry worldwide. In our previous study, the canker-resistant transgenic sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck plants were produced via constitutively overexpressing a spermidine synthase. To unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying Xcc resistance of the transgenic plants, in the present study global transcriptional profiling was compared between untransformed line (WT and the transgenic line (TG9 by hybridizing with Affymetrix Citrus GeneChip. In total, 666 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified, 448 upregulated, and 218 downregulated. The DEGs were classified into 33 categories after Gene ontology (GO annotation, in which 68 genes are in response to stimulus and involved in immune system process, 12 genes are related to cell wall, and 13 genes belong to transcription factors. These genes and those related to starch and sucrose metabolism, glutathione metabolism, biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids, and plant hormones were hypothesized to play major roles in the canker resistance of TG9. Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the transcript levels of several candidate genes in TG9 were significantly higher than in WT both before and after Xcc inoculation, indicating their potential association with canker disease.

  4. In vitro Plant Regeneration from the Mature Tissue of Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) by Direct Organogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jia-quan; YIN Li-yan; YANG Xiao-hong; SUN Zhong-hai

    2005-01-01

    An efficient in vitro regeneration system by direct organogenesis from mature nodal and internodal stem segments of Newhall navel orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) was developed. Illuminating conditions together with plant growth regulators affected the adventitious bud regeneration frequency and efficiency. The initial 15 d darkness inoculation is beneficial for the adventitious bud regeneration. The highest regeneration frequency (85.2%) and bud formation efficiency (3.7 per responsive internodal stem segment) were obtained in the media supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 BAP and 0.5 mg L-1 NAA. ABA at 0.2 mg L-1 positively affected the bud formation efficiency, which amounted to 8.5 buds per internodal segment in the presence of BAP at 1.0 mg L-1. The adventitious shoots successfully rooted and were transferred to the soil.

  5. Physiological changes and expression characteristics of ZIP family genes under zinc deifciency in navel orange (Citrus sinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Fei; FU Xing-zheng; WANG Nan-qi; XI Jian-long; HUANG Yi; ZHOU Wei; LING Li-li; PENG Liang-zhi

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deifciency is widespread among citrus plants, but information about the mechanisms for Zn deifciency response in these plants is scarce. In the present study, different navel orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) leaves with various yelowing levels were sampled in our experimental orchard, and upon estimation of nutrient contents, Zn deifciencies were diagnosed as mild, moderate, and severe. Further analysis of chlorophyl content, photosynthetic characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and expression levels ofZn/Iron-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) family genes were conducted in the sampled Zn-deifcient leaves. The results showed that chlorophyl contents and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) seemed to decrease with reduced Zn contents. In addition, comparison of severe Zn-deifcient and normal leaves revealed that activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) increased signiifcantly, whereas that of Zn-containing enzymes such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) signiifcantly reduced with decreasing Zn contents. As expected, expression of the ZIP family genes,ZIP1,ZIP3, andZIP4, was induced by Zn deifciencies. These results deepen our understanding of Zn deifciency in citrus plants as wel as provide useful preliminary information for further research.

  6. Construction and Characterization of a cDNA Library from the Pulp of Cara Cara Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A cDNA library was constructed and characterized from the pulp of Cara Cara navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) at different stages of ripening. Tittering results revealed that approximately 5.086x105 independent clones were included in this library. Electrophoresis gel results of 15 randomly selected clones revealed that the size of the insertion fragments ranged from 400 bp to 2 kb, with an average size of 900 bp. Sequencing results of 150 randomly picked clones showed that the recombination rate was 94%. During subsequent sequence analysis, 41 of 139 clones failed to be identified and the amino sequence of 71 clones shared less than 30% identity with related plants in GenBank. Of 27 clones whose amino sequences shared more than 60% identity with other related plants in GenBank, 17 clones showed an 80% identity with the corresponding candidate genes of citrus. The clone recognized as the type Ⅲ metallothionein-like (MT) gene was observed to occur 13 times, indicating that the protein may play an important role in fruit development and ripening.

  7. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the polyamine oxidase gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2015-01-25

    Polyamine oxidases (PAOs) are FAD-dependent enzymes associated with polyamine catabolism. In plants, increasing evidences support that PAO genes play essential roles in abiotic and biotic stresses response. In this study, six putative PAO genes (CsPAO1-CsPAO6) were unraveled in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) using the released citrus genome sequences. A total of 203 putative cis-regulatory elements involved in hormone and stress response were predicted in 1.5-kb promoter regions at the upstream of CsPAOs. The CsPAOs can be divided into four major groups, with similar organizations with their counterparts of Arabidopsis thaliana. Transcripts of CsPAOs were detected in leaf, stem, cotyledon, and root, with the highest levels detected in the roots. The CsPAOs displayed various responses to exogenous treatments with polyamines and ABA and were differentially altered by abiotic stresses, including cold, salt, and mannitol. Overexpression of CsPAO3 in tobacco demonstrated that spermidine and spermine were decreased in the transgenic line, while putrescine was significantly enhanced, implying a potential role of this gene in polyamine back conversion. These data provide valuable knowledge for understanding the roles of the PAO genes in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Collection and chemical composition of phloem sap from Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck (sweet orange).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijaz, Faraj; Killiny, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    Through utilizing the nutrient-rich phloem sap, sap feeding insects such as psyllids, leafhoppers, and aphids can transmit many phloem-restricted pathogens. On the other hand, multiplication of phloem-limited, uncultivated bacteria such as Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) inside the phloem of citrus indicates that the sap contains all the essential nutrients needed for the pathogen growth. The phloem sap composition of many plants has been studied; however, to our knowledge, there is no available data about citrus phloem sap. In this study, we identified and quantified the chemical components of phloem sap from pineapple sweet orange. Two approaches (EDTA enhanced exudation and centrifugation) were used to collect phloem sap. The collected sap was derivatized with methyl chloroformate (MCF), N-methyl-N- [tert-butyl dimethylsilyl]-trifluroacetamide (MTBSTFA), or trimethylsilyl (TMS) and analyzed with GC-MS revealing 20 amino acids and 8 sugars. Proline, the most abundant amino acid, composed more than 60% of the total amino acids. Tryptophan, tyrosine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine, which are considered essential for phloem sap-sucking insects, were also detected. Sucrose, glucose, fructose, and inositol were the most predominant sugars. In addition, seven organic acids including succinic, fumaric, malic, maleic, threonic, citric, and quinic were detected. All compounds detected in the EDTA-enhanced exudate were also detected in the pure phloem sap using centrifugation. The centrifugation technique allowed estimating the concentration of metabolites. This information expands our knowledge about the nutrition requirement for citrus phloem-limited bacterial pathogen and their vectors, and can help define suitable artificial media to culture them.

  9. Molecular Characterization and Genetic Diversity Analysis of Sweet Orange Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck Cultivars in Iraq Using RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Saeed Atiyah AL-Janabi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck is one of the most important commercially cultivated fruit crops of Citrus. Genetic diversity and inter-relationship among 5 cultivars (Indian, Iraqi, Japanese, Syrian, Egyptian of C. sinensis were analyzed based on RAPD markers. Six primers generated reproducible and easily storable RAPD profiles with a number of amplified DNA fragments ranging from 6 to 14 fragment bands. The total number of amplicons detected was 51, including 14 fragments unique bands with average reached 2.8 fragments ̸ primers. While the number of polymorphic ranged from 0 to 8 with an average reached 4.4 fragments ̸ primers with the polymorphic percentage ranged from 0% to 57.1%. While the number of monomorphic ranged from 2 to 5 fragment bands and was total of the monomorphic 15 fragments with an average reached 3 fragments ̸ primers with the monomorphic percentage was 14.2 % to 83.3%. A maximum numbers of amplicons was amplified with primer OPS-238 reached 14 fragments while the minimum number of fragments was amplified with primer OPS-253 reached 6 fragments. The highest number of polymorphic bands reached 8 fragments was obtained with primer OPS-238 with high percentage 57.1%, while the highest number of monomorphic bands reached 5 fragments with high percentage 83.3% was obtained with primer OPS-253. RAPD markers detected genetic distance and similarity, amaximum genetic distance value was observed between Japanese (Jap and Syrian (Syr cultivars reached 0.530 with less similarity value reached 47%, a minimum genetic distance value was observed between sweet Iraqi (Irq and Indian (Ind cultivars reached 0.239 with high similarity value reached 76.1%. The similarity matrices were employed in the cluster analysis to generate a dendrogram using the UPGMA method. The cluster tree analysis showed that the sweet orange cultivars were broadly divided into two main groups A and B with similarity reached 50%. A group including

  10. Genome-wide identification and phylogenetic analysis of the AP2/ERF gene superfamily in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, T M; Polido, P B; Rampim, M C; Kaschuk, G; Souza, S G H

    2014-09-26

    Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) plays an important role in the economy of more than 140 countries, but it is grown in areas with intermittent stressful soil and climatic conditions. The stress tolerance could be addressed by manipulating the ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factors because they orchestrate plant responses to environmental stress. We performed an in silico study on the ERFs in the expressed sequence tag database of C. sinensis to identify potential genes that regulate plant responses to stress. We identified 108 putative genes encoding protein sequences of the AP2/ERF superfamily distributed within 10 groups of amino acid sequences. Ninety-one genes were assembled from the ERF family containing only one AP2/ERF domain, 13 genes were assembled from the AP2 family containing two AP2/ERF domains, and four other genes were assembled from the RAV family containing one AP2/ERF domain and a B3 domain. Some conserved domains of the ERF family genes were disrupted into a few segments by introns. This irregular distribution of genes in the AP2/ERF superfamily in different plant species could be a result of genomic losses or duplication events in a common ancestor. The in silico gene expression revealed that 67% of AP2/ERF genes are expressed in tissues with usual plant development, and 14% were expressed in stressed tissues. Because the AP2/ERF superfamily is expressed in an orchestrated way, it is possible that the manipulation of only one gene may result in changes in the whole plant function, which could result in more tolerant crops.

  11. Evaluation of Orange Peel Citrus Sinensis (L) as a Source of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicity potential of different extracts of C. sinensis was tested against Z. .... introduction to avoid overlapping of generation. Damage assessment ... taken from treated and untreated grains and the number of damaged (grains with characteristic.

  12. EFEITO DO ARMAZENAMENTO DE HASTES DE LARANJA CACAU (Citrus sinensis Osb NO "PEGAMENTO" DE BORBULHAS EFFECT OF THE STORAGE PERIOD OF “CACAU” ORANGE (Citrus sinensis OSB BUDWOODS ON THE QUALITY OF BUDS FOR GRAFTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Terezinha Teixeira Lopes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho foi realizado na Escola de Agronomia e Veterinária da UFGO, com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da conservação de borbulhas de laranja “Cacau” (Citrus sinensis Osb embaladas em sacos plásticos, no pegamento de enxertos. Os tratamentos utilizados foram enxertia com borbulhas de hastes com 0, 5, 10, 15 e 20 dias de conservação. A percentagem de enxertos brotados decresceu linearmente em função do período de conservação. À medida que aumentava a intensidade de descoloração das hastes, diminuía a percentagem de "pegamento" de enxertos. Para nossas condições as borbulhas de laranja "cacau" (Citrus sinensis Osb não devem ser conservadas em sacos plásticos, à temperatura ambiente, por mais de 5 dias, pois a percentagem de enxertos brotados decresceu linearmente com o período de conservação das hastes.

    This work was carried out at the Escola de Agronomia e Veterinária da UFGO. This study was made to test the effect of the storage period of the “cacau” orange budwood on the quality of buds for grafting. Budwoods of the “Cacau” orange (Citrus sinensis  Osb were harvested, packed in polyethylene bags and maintained at environmental temperature. The buds were grafted on rootstocks of Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia, Osb at intervals of 6 days (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 days. It was noted that the loss of bud viability increased simultaneously with progressive change in budwood color from the natural green to an intense brown. The percentages of buds alive after 60 days of grafting were: 100% on the day budwoods were harvested; 70% after 5 days of storage; 36% after 10 days of storage and 00% after 15 days.

  13. Comparative analysis of surface wax in mature fruits between Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) and 'Newhall' navel orange (Citrus sinensis) from the perspective of crystal morphology, chemical composition and key gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinqiu; Hao, Haohao; Liu, Runsheng; Ma, Qiaoli; Xu, Juan; Chen, Feng; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2014-06-15

    Surface wax of mature Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) and 'Newhall' navel orange (Citrus sinensis) was analysed by crystal morphology, chemical composition, and gene expression levels. The epicuticular and total waxes of both citrus cultivars were mostly composed of aldehydes, alkanes, fatty acids and primary alcohols. The epicuticular wax accounted for 80% of the total wax in the Newhall fruits and was higher than that in the Satsuma fruits. Scanning electron microscopy showed that larger and more wax platelets were deposited on the surface of Newhall fruits than on the Satsuma fruits. Moreover, the expression levels of genes involved in the wax formation were consistent with the biochemical and crystal morphological analyses. These diversities of fruit wax between the two cultivars may contribute to the differences of fruit postharvest storage properties, which can provide important information for the production of synthetic wax for citrus fruits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fractionation of secondary metabolites of orange (Citrus sinensis L.) leaves by fast centrifugal partition chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional HPLC provides ready detection of the major phenolic compounds in methanol extracts of orange leaves, yet conventional HPLC also shows the presence of many more compounds, to an extent where extensive peak overlap prevents distinct peak detection and reliable quantitation. A more complet...

  15. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Analysis of Major Intrinsic Proteins during Abiotic and Biotic Stresses in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cristina de Paula Santos; Pedrosa, Andresa Muniz; Du, Dongliang; Gonçalves, Luana Pereira; Yu, Qibin; Gmitter, Frederick G; Costa, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    The family of aquaporins (AQPs), or major intrinsic proteins (MIPs), includes integral membrane proteins that function as transmembrane channels for water and other small molecules of physiological significance. MIPs are classified into five subfamilies in higher plants, including plasma membrane (PIPs), tonoplast (TIPs), NOD26-like (NIPs), small basic (SIPs) and unclassified X (XIPs) intrinsic proteins. This study reports a genome-wide survey of MIP encoding genes in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.), the most widely cultivated Citrus spp. A total of 34 different genes encoding C. sinensis MIPs (CsMIPs) were identified and assigned into five subfamilies (CsPIPs, CsTIPs, CsNIPs, CsSIPs and CsXIPs) based on sequence analysis and also on their phylogenetic relationships with clearly classified MIPs of Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of key amino acid residues allowed the assessment of the substrate specificity of each CsMIP. Gene structure analysis revealed that the CsMIPs possess an exon-intron organization that is highly conserved within each subfamily. CsMIP loci were precisely mapped on every sweet orange chromosome, indicating a wide distribution of the gene family in the sweet orange genome. Investigation of their expression patterns in different tissues and upon drought and salt stress treatments, as well as with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' infection, revealed a tissue-specific and coordinated regulation of the different CsMIP isoforms, consistent with the organization of the stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements observed in their promoter regions. A special role in regulating the flow of water and nutrients is proposed for CsTIPs and CsXIPs during drought stress, and for most CsMIPs during salt stress and the development of HLB disease. These results provide a valuable reference for further exploration of the CsMIPs functions and applications to the genetic improvement of both abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in citrus.

  16. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Analysis of Major Intrinsic Proteins during Abiotic and Biotic Stresses in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina de Paula Santos Martins

    Full Text Available The family of aquaporins (AQPs, or major intrinsic proteins (MIPs, includes integral membrane proteins that function as transmembrane channels for water and other small molecules of physiological significance. MIPs are classified into five subfamilies in higher plants, including plasma membrane (PIPs, tonoplast (TIPs, NOD26-like (NIPs, small basic (SIPs and unclassified X (XIPs intrinsic proteins. This study reports a genome-wide survey of MIP encoding genes in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb., the most widely cultivated Citrus spp. A total of 34 different genes encoding C. sinensis MIPs (CsMIPs were identified and assigned into five subfamilies (CsPIPs, CsTIPs, CsNIPs, CsSIPs and CsXIPs based on sequence analysis and also on their phylogenetic relationships with clearly classified MIPs of Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of key amino acid residues allowed the assessment of the substrate specificity of each CsMIP. Gene structure analysis revealed that the CsMIPs possess an exon-intron organization that is highly conserved within each subfamily. CsMIP loci were precisely mapped on every sweet orange chromosome, indicating a wide distribution of the gene family in the sweet orange genome. Investigation of their expression patterns in different tissues and upon drought and salt stress treatments, as well as with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' infection, revealed a tissue-specific and coordinated regulation of the different CsMIP isoforms, consistent with the organization of the stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements observed in their promoter regions. A special role in regulating the flow of water and nutrients is proposed for CsTIPs and CsXIPs during drought stress, and for most CsMIPs during salt stress and the development of HLB disease. These results provide a valuable reference for further exploration of the CsMIPs functions and applications to the genetic improvement of both abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in citrus.

  17. Effects of Leaf Extracts of Selected Plants on Quality of Stored Citrus sinensis (Sweet Orange Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwagbenga O. ADEOGUN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reduction in the quality of fruits during storage has been a concern to the consumers and the effect can be felt on the economy of developing countries. Leaves of plants such as Canna indica, Megaphrynium macrostachyum and Thaumatococcus daniellii have been documented as food packaging materials in West Africa. Based on this, the quality of stored sweet orange juice was investigated using ethanolic extracts of leaves of C. indica, M. macrostachyum and T. daniellii to enhance the shelf life of the juice. The extracts were used to assess the quality of juice for 30 days using quantitative parameters such as total soluble solid, browning potential, pH, microbial analysis and turbidity at 4 oC and at room temperature (27-31 oC. The qualitative and quantitative phytochemical constituents of the extracts were determined. The extracts’ toxicity was determined using Brine shrimp. The quality assessment evidently revealed that the freshly squeezed orange juice with the extracts possess tolerable activity to enhance the shelf life of orange juice. The leaf extract of M. macrostachyum had the highest preservation rate on the juice after 30 days. The qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloid, tannin, saponins, flavonoids, steroids and terpenoids in the three plants tested. The quantitative phytochemical analysis of the most active extracts in the three plants revealed that M. macrostachum had the highest contents of alkaloids (107.48 mg/g and flavonoids (56.92 mg/g.The study showed that the extracts were non-lethal on Brine shrimp. This study ascertained the potential preservative qualities of the test plants for enhancing the shelf-life of orange juice.

  18. Effect of prestorage curing on storage life, internal and external qualities of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Aborisade,Abiola Titilola; Ajibade,Ayodeji Adeyeye

    2010-01-01

    Orange fruits from two seasons, in April and August 2006 representing late 2005 and early 2006 harvests respectively were cured in hot air at 36-37(0)C to 1%, 3%, 5% and 7% weight loss before storage at 28(0)C and 86% relative humidity (RH). The fruits were observed for incidence of decay, further weight loss, juice content, firmness or softening of the peel, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity, and colour during storage. Curing reduced the incidence of decay. All control fruit...

  19. Comparative effectiveness of chemical biocides and Acalypha wilkesiana leaf extract against postharvest fungal deteriogens of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Babatunde Akinde

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the in-vitro and in-vivo activities of Voriconazole (VOR, 1 µg, Nystatin (NYS, 25 µg, Fluconazole (FLC, 100 µg, red force® (RFC [Copper (I oxide, 60% + Metalaxyl-M 6% WP], ultimax plus® (UPL [Metalaxyl 12% WP + Copper (I oxide 60% WP], and forcelet® (FCE [Carbendazim 50% WP] and Acalypha wilkesiana (Red Acalypha on fungal deteriogens obtained from deteriorated sweet orange fruits. The 22 fungal deteriogens tested had in-vitro susceptibility of 13.0 ± 2.6–28.7 ± 1.2 mm inhibition zone for VOR (n = 14, 9.3 ± 1.2–28.0 ± 3.0 mm for NYS (n = 21, 7.7 ± 1.5–21.7 ± 1.5 mm for FLC (n = 4, 13.3 ± 1.2–31.7 ± 2.1 mm for RFC (n = 5, 15.3 ± 4.2–30.7 ± 1.2 mm for UPL (n = 5, 15.7 ± 1.2–31.7 ± 1.5 mm for FCE (n = 19 and 0.0 ± 0.0 mm for Red Acalypha (n = 22. Fifteen of the fungal deteriogens including the yeast, Candida glabrata were able to initiate deterioration in-vivo with 40–100% severity within the incubation period of 11 days. FCE biocide significantly (p = 0.001 prevented or reduced deterioration in-vivo. There was no deterioration sign in uninoculated control (Control 1 and uninoculated control with FCE (Control 2. Further search for active agents against fungal deteriogens especially from natural sources is required for longer preservation of Citrus sinensis.

  20. Fiber Concentrate from Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Bagase: Characterization and Application as Bakery Product Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurea Bernardino-Nicanor

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orange is a tropical fruit used in the juice industry, yielding important quantities of by products. The objective of this work was to obtain a dietary fiber-rich orange bagasse product (DFROBP, evaluate its chemical composition and its use in the preparation of a bakery product (muffin. Muffins containing two different levels of DFROBP were studied regarding chemical composition, in vitro starch digestibility, predicted glyceamic index and acceptability in a sensory test. DFROBP showed low fat and high dietary fiber contents. The soluble and insoluble dietary fiber fractions were balanced, which is of importance for the health beneficial effects of fiber sources. DFROBP-containing muffins showed the same rapidly digestible starch content as the reference muffin, whilst the slowly digestible starch level increased with the addition of DFROBP. However, the resistant starch content decreased when DFROBP increased in the muffin. The addition of DFROBP to muffin decreased the predicted glyceamic index, but no difference was found between the muffins prepared with the two DFROBP levels. The sensory score did not show difference between control muffin and that added with 10% of DFROBP. The addition of DFROBP to bakery products can be an alternative for people requiring low glyceamic response.

  1. Metabolomic comparative analysis of the phloem sap of curry leaf tree (Bergera koenegii), orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata), and Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) supports their differential responses to Huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killiny, Nabil

    2016-11-01

    Orange jasmine, Murraya paniculata and curry leaf tree, Bergera koenegii are alternative hosts for Diaphorina citri, the vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the pathogen of huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus. D. citri feeds on the phloem sap where CLas grows. It has been shown that orange jasmine was a better host than curry leaf tree to D. citri. In addition, CLas can infect orange jasmine but not curry leaf tree. Here, we compared the phloem sap composition of these 2 plants to the main host, Valencia sweet orange, Citrus sinensis. Phloem sap was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after trimethylsilyl derivatization. Orange jasmine was the highest in proteinogenic, non-proteinogenic amino acids, organic acids, as well as total metabolites. Valencia was the highest in mono- and disaccharides, and sugar alcohols. Curry leaf tree was the lowest in most of the metabolites as well as total metabolites. Interestingly, malic acid was high in Valencia and orange jasmine but was not detected in the curry leaf. On the other hand, tartaric acid which can prevent the formation of malic acid in Krebs cycle was high in curry leaf. The nutrient inadequacy of the phloem sap in curry leaf tree, especially the amino acids could be the reason behind the longer life cycle and the low survival of D. citri and the limitation of CLas growth on this host. Information obtained from this study may help in cultivation of CLas and development of artificial diet for rearing of D. citri.

  2. In vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids, flavonoids, and vitamin C from differently processed oranges and orange juices [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschoff, Julian K; Kaufmann, Sabrina; Kalkan, Onur; Neidhart, Sybille; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2015-01-21

    Carotenoid, flavonoid, and vitamin C concentrations were determined in fresh orange segments and a puree-like homogenate derived thereof, as well as freshly squeezed, flash-pasteurized, and pasteurized juices. Lutein and β-cryptoxanthin were slightly degraded during dejuicing, whereas β-carotene levels were retained. Vitamin C levels remained unaffected, whereas flavonoid levels decreased 8-fold upon juice extraction, most likely due to the removal of flavonoid-rich albedo and juice vesicles. Likewise, the presence of such fibrous matrix compounds during in vitro digestion was assumed to significantly lower the total bioaccessibility (BA) of all carotenoids from fresh fruit segments (12%) as compared to juices (29-30%). Mechanical disruption of orange segments prior to digestion did not alter carotenoid BA, whereas pasteurization of the freshly squeezed juice slightly increased BA by 9-11%. In addition to carotenoid BA, the stabilities of hesperidin, narirutin, and vitamin C including dehydroascorbic acid during in vitro digestion were monitored, and applied analytical methods were briefly validated.

  3. Genome-wide identification, isolation and expression analysis of auxin response factor (ARF) gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Bei; OuYang, Wei-Zhi; Hou, Xiao-Jin; Xie, Liang-Liang; Hu, Chun-Gen; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Auxin response factors (ARFs) are an important family of proteins in auxin-mediated response, with key roles in various physiological and biochemical processes. To date, a genome-wide overview of the ARF gene family in citrus was not available. A systematic analysis of this gene family in citrus was begun by carrying out a genome-wide search for the homologs of ARFs. A total of 19 nonredundant ARF genes (CiARF) were found and validated from the sweet orange. A comprehensive overview of the CiARFs was undertaken, including the gene structures, phylogenetic analysis, chromosome locations, conserved motifs of proteins, and cis-elements in promoters of CiARF. Furthermore, expression profiling using real-time PCR revealed many CiARF genes, albeit with different patterns depending on types of tissues and/or developmental stages. Comprehensive expression analysis of these genes was also performed under two hormone treatments using real-time PCR. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and N-1-napthylphthalamic acid (NPA) treatment experiments revealed differential up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively, of the 19 citrus ARF genes in the callus of sweet orange. Our comprehensive analysis of ARF genes further elucidates the roles of CiARF family members during citrus growth and development process.

  4. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of minimally processed 'Champagne' oranges (Citrus reticulata × Citrus sinensis in different packgings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Silva Agostini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the level of minimal processing and modified atmosphere on the quality of 'Champagne' orange stored under refrigeration. The fruits were subjected to the following processing: a whole fruit without flavedo; b whole fruit without flavedo and albedo; and c segmented into wedges and packed as follows: uncoated packaging (control; polyethylene film; PVC film; gelatin-based edible films (3%; and polyesthyrene translucent plastic container with a lid. The minimally processed oranges were stored at 5 ± 1°C for 8 days and were subjected to physicochemical and microbiological analyses every two days. Greater weight loss occurred in fruits without flavedo and segmented, uncoated, and coated with the edible gelatin film During storage, there was a slight increase in Total Soluble Solids (TSS for the treatments with greater weight loss and reduction in acidity and ascorbic acid, regardless of the packaging type. The microbial counts did not exceed the acceptable limits in the treatments; however, higher counts were observed at the end of storage. The minimally processed fruit packed in lidded polystyrene containers and polyethylene and PVC films kept their overall fresh visual appearance with a few physicochemical and microbiological changes up to the 8th day of storage.

  5. Genome-wide identification of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis histone modification gene families and their expression analysis during the fruit development and fruit-blue mold infection process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jidi eXu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, histone acetylation and methylation have been known to be involved in regulating diverse developmental processes and plant defense. These histone modification events are controlled by a series of histone modification gene families. To date, there is no study regarding genome-wide characterization of histone modification related genes in citrus species. Based on the two recent sequenced sweet orange genome databases, a total of 136 CsHMs (Citrus sinensis histone modification genes, including 47 CsHMTs (histone methyltransferase genes, 23 CsHDMs (histone demethylase genes, 50 CsHATs (histone acetyltransferase genes, and 16 CsHDACs (histone deacetylase genes were identified. These genes were categorized to 11 gene families. A comprehensive analysis of these 11 gene families was performed with chromosome locations, phylogenetic comparison, gene structures and conserved domain compositions of proteins. In order to gain an insight into the potential roles of these genes in citrus fruit development, 42 CsHMs with high mRNA abundance in fruit tissues were selected to further analyze their expression profiles at six stages of fruit development. Interestingly, a numbers of genes were expressed highly in flesh of ripening fruit and some of them showed the increasing expression levels along with the fruit development. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression patterns of all 136 CsHMs response to the infection of blue mold (Penicillium digitatum, which is the most devastating pathogen in citrus postharvest process. The results indicated that 20 of them showed the strong alterations of their expression levels during the fruit-pathogen infection. In conclusion, this study presents a comprehensive analysis of the histone modification gene families in sweet orange and further elucidates their behaviors during the fruit development and the blue mold infection responses.

  6. Genome-wide identification of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) histone modification gene families and their expression analysis during the fruit development and fruit-blue mold infection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jidi; Xu, Haidan; Liu, Yuanlong; Wang, Xia; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, histone acetylation and methylation have been known to be involved in regulating diverse developmental processes and plant defense. These histone modification events are controlled by a series of histone modification gene families. To date, there is no study regarding genome-wide characterization of histone modification related genes in citrus species. Based on the two recent sequenced sweet orange genome databases, a total of 136 CsHMs (Citrus sinensis histone modification genes), including 47 CsHMTs (histone methyltransferase genes), 23 CsHDMs (histone demethylase genes), 50 CsHATs (histone acetyltransferase genes), and 16 CsHDACs (histone deacetylase genes) were identified. These genes were categorized to 11 gene families. A comprehensive analysis of these 11 gene families was performed with chromosome locations, phylogenetic comparison, gene structures, and conserved domain compositions of proteins. In order to gain an insight into the potential roles of these genes in citrus fruit development, 42 CsHMs with high mRNA abundance in fruit tissues were selected to further analyze their expression profiles at six stages of fruit development. Interestingly, a numbers of genes were expressed highly in flesh of ripening fruit and some of them showed the increasing expression levels along with the fruit development. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression patterns of all 136 CsHMs response to the infection of blue mold (Penicillium digitatum), which is the most devastating pathogen in citrus post-harvest process. The results indicated that 20 of them showed the strong alterations of their expression levels during the fruit-pathogen infection. In conclusion, this study presents a comprehensive analysis of the histone modification gene families in sweet orange and further elucidates their behaviors during the fruit development and the blue mold infection responses.

  7. C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids in Sanguinello and Tarocco blood orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) juice: Identification and influence on antioxidant properties and acetylcholinesterase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreca, Davide; Gattuso, Giuseppe; Laganà, Giuseppina; Leuzzi, Ugo; Bellocco, Ersilia

    2016-04-01

    Sanguinello and Tarocco are the blood orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) cultivars most diffused worldwide. Reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled with MS-MS analysis showed that these two varieties have a similar chromatographic pattern, characterised by the presence of C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids. Of the two, Sanguinello was found to be far richer in flavonoids than Tarocco. In the juices, twelve individual components were identified for the first time, namely, four C-glycosyl flavones (lucenin-2, vicenin-2, stellarin-2, lucenin-2 4'-methyl ether and scoparin), three flavonol derivatives (quercetin-3-O-(2-rhamnosyl)-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-hexoside, quercetin 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-glycoside), an O-triglycosyl flavanone (narirutin 4'-O-glucoside) and a flavone O-glycosides (chrysoeriol 7-O-neoesperidoside). Moreover, the influence of the identified C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids on the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase activity of these juices has been evaluated.

  8. Visitantes florais e produção de frutos em cultura de laranja ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck = Floral visitors and fruit production on sweet orange crop ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck

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    Lourdes Maria Gamito

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi realizado em florada de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, variedade Pera-Rio, com os objetivos de estudar os insetos visitantes nas flores d e laranjeira, o seu comportamento nas flores, o tipo de coleta efetuada e o efeito dessas visitas na produção de frutos, em quantidade e qualidade. Os dados de freqüência foram obtidos por contagem nos primeiros 10 minutos de cada horário, das 8h às 18h, em três dias distintos, percorrendo-se as linhas da cultura. O comportamento forrageiro de cada espécie de inseto foi avaliado através de observações visuais, no decorrer do dia, no período experimental. Os insetos observados foram abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula. As abelhas A. mellifera foram os visitantes florais maisfreqüentes e preferiram coletar néctar comparado ao pólen. Os botões florais descobertos produziram mais frutos que os botões florais cobertos. Os frutos decorrentes do tratamento coberto foram menores, mais ácidos e com menor quantidade de vitamina C que os frutos do tratamento descoberto. The present experiment was carried out in flowerage of sweet orange(Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, Pera-rio variety, to study the insects involv ed in pollination, their behaviour in the flower (nectar or pollen collection and the effect of the pollination on fruit production (quantity and quality. More frequent insects were recorded daily (counted during ten minutes, every hour from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., with three replications. The forage behaviour and nectar and/or pollen collect was also observed. The insect visitors onflowers were Africanized honey bee Apis mellifera, followed by stingless bees Trigona spinipes and Tetragonisca angustula. A. mellifera were the most frequent visitors and preferred to collectnectar than pollen. The uncovered flowers -buds produced more fruits than the covered ones. Another observation was that fruits derived from covered

  9. Effect of Post Harvest Putrescine and Methyl Jasmonate Treatment on Chilling Injury and Some of Orange (Citrus sinensis “Valencia” Fruit Characteristics

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    S. Mohammad Reza Khani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Valencia is one of the major orange cultivars which is grown in south of Iran. A great portion of annual fruits is usually cold stored for several months. This experiment was carried out to determine the effects of putrescine and methyl jasmonate on some of orange (Citrus sinensis “Valencia” fruit characteristics. Fruits were treated with 0 (control, 2.5 and 5 millimoles of putrescine and 0 (control, 10 and 20 micromoles of methyl jasmonate and then stored at 5±1°C, 85-90% relative humidity for 4 months. Oranges treated with 5 millimoles of putrescine and10 micromoles of methyl jasmonate indicated significantly reduced chilling injuries and fruit weight loss compared to the control treatment. During storage, ascorbic acid, organic acids, total soluble solids of the treated and control fruits reduced, and pH increased though, putrescine and methyl jasmonate treatments led to decreases in the latter changes, relative to the control. In conclusion, fruits treated with 5 millimoles of putrescine showed the best appearance with the most controlling effect on chilling injury.

  10. Porta-enxertos para laranjeiras-doces (Citrus sinensis (L. Osb., em Rio Branco, Acre Rootstocks for sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil

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    Ana da Silva Ledo

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi de avaliar o comportamento de sete cultivares de laranjeiras- doces: 'Baia 101', 'Baianinha IAC 79', 'Monte Parnaso', 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112', 'Valência 27' e 'Aquiri', sobre diferentes porta-enxertos: limão 'Cravo', tangerinas 'Cleópatra' e 'Sunki' e citrange 'Carrizo', nas condições edafoclimáticas de Rio Branco, Acre. O delineamento experimental foi em parcelas subdivididas, com as cultivares nas parcelas, os porta-enxertos nas subparcelas e os quatro anos de avaliação como repetições. As laranjeiras 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112' e 'Valência 27' apresentaram tendências de maior produção quando enxertadas sobre o limão 'Cravo', e a laranja 'Aquiri' quando enxertada sobre citrange 'Carrizo'. Em relação aos demais porta-enxertos, o limão 'Cravo' mostrou tendências de induzir maior produção/volume de copa e peso médio do fruto, e menor teor de sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total. As laranjas do grupo Baia ('Baia 101', 'Baianinha IAC 79' e 'Monte Parnaso' produziram frutos com baixa percentagem de suco; não são recomendadas para plantio em Rio Branco, AC. Com base nos resultados obtidos, recomendam-se os porta-enxertos citrange 'Carrizo', tangerina 'Cleópatra' e limão 'Cravo' para a laranja 'Aquiri', e o porta-enxerto limão 'Cravo' para as laranjas 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112' e 'Valência 27'.The objective of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of seven sweet orange cultivars: 'Baia 101', 'Baianinha IAC 79', 'Monte Parnaso', 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112', 'Valência 27' and 'Aquiri' grafted on different rootstocks: 'Rangpur' lime, 'Cleópatra' and 'Sunki' mandarins, and 'Carrizo' citrange, in the environmental conditions of Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. The experimental design was a split-plot, with the sweet orange cultivars as the main plots, the rootstocks as the sub-plots, and the four years of evaluation as replications. The 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112' and 'Valência 27' sweet orange cultivars tended

  11. Allelopathic effects of orange (Citrus sinensis L. peel essential oil Efeitos alelopáticos do óleo essencial da casca da laranja (Citrus sinensis L.

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    Jose Pedro Nepomuceno Ribeiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Crop weeds are the main problem in agriculture, causing a worldwide annual loss of about US$95 billion. The principal method for control is the use of synthetic herbicides. The continued use of these products increases crop costs, reduces crop quality, and leaves toxic residues in the environment, which are a threat to human and livestock health. Therefore, there is a demand for environmentally friendly methods of weed control. The use of allelopathic compounds from crop residues is an alternative. Orange is one of the biggest crops in the world, and its cultivation generates large amounts of residues. There is strong evidence of bioactivity in orange peel essential oil. Therefore, the objective in this work was to verify the allelopathic proprieties of this oil. We extracted the oil from the peels of recently discarded oranges using water vapor flow with a Clevenger extractor, and tested it against the growth of Euphorbia heterophylla L. and Ipomoea grandifolia (Dammer O'Donell seedlings when placed in contact with the oil vapor. The results were both quantitative and qualitative in the inhibition of the seedlings.Plantas daninhas são o principal problema da agricultura no mundo, causando anualmente um prejuízo de U$95 bilhões. A principal forma de combate às plantas daninhas são os herbicidas sintéticos. Entretanto, o uso continuado desses produtos encarece a produção, reduz a qualidade dos alimentos, deixa resíduos tóxicos no ambiente e ameaça a saúde humana e animal. Existe assim, uma demanda por técnicas menos agressivas de controle. O uso de compostos alelopáticos de descartes de culturas para esse fim é uma alternativa. A laranja é uma das maiores culturas do mundo, e gera grandes quantidades de resíduos. Existem evidências da bioatividade no óleo essencial da casca da laranja. Nesse trabalho, nosso objetivo foi verificar a existência de propriedades alelopáticas desse óleo. Para isto, extraímos o óleo por arraste

  12. Populational fluctuation of vectors of Xylella fastidiosa, wells in sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] varieties of northwest Paraná State, Brazil

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    Rúbia de Oliveira Molina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the population flutuation of the sharpshooters species subfamily Cicadellinae belonging to the tribes Cicadellini and Proconiini, in sweet orange [Citrus sinensis( L. Osbeck] commercial orchards of the northwest region of Paraná State , Brazil. Samplings were carried out the employing every time 24 yellow sticky cards. Identification of the species showed that the most representative were Dilobopterus costalimai of the Cicadellini tribe and Acrogonia citrina of the Proconiini tribe.A Clorose variegada dos citros (CVC é uma importante doença que ocorre nos citros, cujo agente causal é a bactéria Xylella fastidiosa, Wells. A bactéria depende, obrigatoriamente, de insetos vetores para sua disseminação, que são as cigarrinhas sugadoras do xilema (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, Cicadellinae. No presente estudo objetivou-se avaliar a flutuação populacional de espécies de cigarrinhas nas diferentes variedades de laranja doce [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck], Natal, Pêra, Valência e Folha Murcha, em um pomar comercial localizado na região Noroeste do Paraná, no período de janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2002. Amostragens quinzenais foram realizadas com o uso de armadilhas adesivas amarelas, num total de 24 armadilhas em cada avaliação. Após a identificação das espécies observou-se, que as mais representativas foram Dilobopterus costalimai da tribo Cicadellini e Acrogonia citrina da tribo Proconiini, sendo que a variedade de laranja Pêra apresentou o maior número de espécies vetoras durante os anos avaliados.

  13. Rare earth element transfer from soil to navel orange pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall) and the effects on internal fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jinjin; Ding, Changfeng; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2015-01-01

    The effects of soil rare earth element (REE) on navel orange quality and safety in rare earth ore areas have gained great attention. This study investigated the transfer characteristics of REE from soil to navel orange pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall) and examined the effects of soil REE on internal fruit quality in Xinfeng County, Jiangxi province, China. Path analysis showed that soil REE, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and Fe oxide (Feox) significantly affected pulp REE concentrations. A Freundlich-type prediction model for pulp REE was established: log[REEpulp] = -1.036 + 0.272 log[REEsoil] - 0.056 pH - 0.360 log[CEC] + 0.370 log[Feox] (n = 114, R2 = 0.60). From the prediction model, it was inferred that even when soil REE and Feox were as high as 1038 mg kg-1 and 96.4 g kg-1, respectively, and pH and CEC were as low as 3.75 and 5.08 cmol kg-1, respectively, pulp REE concentrations were much lower than the food limit standard. Additionally, soil REE levels were significantly correlated with selected fruit quality indicators, including titratable acidity (r = 0.52, P soil REE ranging from 38.6 to 546 mg kg-1 had improved in internal fruit quality.

  14. Two Lycopene β-Cyclases Genes from Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) Encode Enzymes With Different Functional Efifciency During the Conversion of Lycopene-to-Provitamin A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-cheng; ZHOU Wen-jing; XU Qiang; TAO Neng-guo; YE Jun-li; GUO Fei; XU Juan; DENG Xiu-xin

    2013-01-01

    Citrus fruits are rich in carotenoids. In the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, lycopene β-cyclase (LCYb, EC:1.14.-.-) is a key regulatory enzyme in the catalysis of lycopene to β-carotene, an important dietary precursor of vitamin A for human nutrition. Two closely related lycopeneβ-cyclase cDNAs, designated CsLCYb1 and CsLCYb2, were isolated from the pulp of orange fruits (Citrus sinensis). The expression level of CsLCYb genes is lower in the lfavedo and juice sacs of a lycopene-accumulating genotype Cara Cara than that in common genotype Washington, and this might be correlated with lycopene accumulation in Cara Cara fruit. The CsLCYb1 efifciently converted lycopene into the bicyclicβ-carotene in an Escherichia coli expression system, but the CsLCYb2 exhibited a lower enzyme activity and converted lycopene into theβ-carotene and the monocyclic γ-carotene. In tomato transformation studies, expression of CsLCYb1 under the control of the caulilfower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S constitutive promoter resulted in a virtually complete conversion of lycopene intoβ-carotene, and the ripe fruits displayed a bright orange colour. However, the CsLCYb2 transgenic tomato plants did not show an altered fruit colour during development and maturation. In fruits of the CsLCYb1 transgenic plants, most of the lycopene was converted intoβ-carotene with provitamin A levels reaching about 700 µg g-1 DW. Unexpectedly, most transgenic tomatoes showed a reduction in total carotenoid accumulation, and this is consistent with the decrease in expression of endogenous carotenogenic genes in transgenic fruits. Collectively, these results suggested that the cloned CsLCYb1 and CsLCYb2 genes encoded two functional lycopene β-cyclases with different catalytic efifciency, and they may have potential for metabolite engineering toward altering pigmentation and enhancing nutritional value of food crops.

  15. Rare earth element transfer from soil to navel orange pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall and the effects on internal fruit quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjin Cheng

    Full Text Available The effects of soil rare earth element (REE on navel orange quality and safety in rare earth ore areas have gained great attention. This study investigated the transfer characteristics of REE from soil to navel orange pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall and examined the effects of soil REE on internal fruit quality in Xinfeng County, Jiangxi province, China. Path analysis showed that soil REE, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC, and Fe oxide (Feox significantly affected pulp REE concentrations. A Freundlich-type prediction model for pulp REE was established: log[REEpulp] = -1.036 + 0.272 log[REEsoil] - 0.056 pH - 0.360 log[CEC] + 0.370 log[Feox] (n = 114, R2 = 0.60. From the prediction model, it was inferred that even when soil REE and Feox were as high as 1038 mg kg-1 and 96.4 g kg-1, respectively, and pH and CEC were as low as 3.75 and 5.08 cmol kg-1, respectively, pulp REE concentrations were much lower than the food limit standard. Additionally, soil REE levels were significantly correlated with selected fruit quality indicators, including titratable acidity (r = 0.52, P < 0.01, total soluble solids (r = 0.48, P < 0.01 and vitamin C (r = 0.56, P < 0.01. Generally, under routine methods of water and fertilization management, the cultivation of navel oranges in rare earth ore areas of south China with soil REE ranging from 38.6 to 546 mg kg-1 had improved in internal fruit quality.

  16. Cloning and Characterization of a Novel cDNA Encoding Late Embryogenesis-Abundant Protein 5 Like (LEA-5) Gene from Cara Cara Navel Orange Fruit(Citrus sinensis Osbeck)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Neng-guo; YE Jun-li; XU Juan; DENG Xiu-xin

    2006-01-01

    LEA5 gene was postulated related with both stress and hormone responses. In an attempt to find genes exclusively expressed during fruit ripening of Cara Cara navel orange, a novel cDNA clone encoding late embryogenesis-abundant protein 5 like gene (CitLEA5-1) was obtained. It was 582 bp in length, containing 97 deduced amino acids. Compared with the stress-induced LEA5 from leaves of Citrus sinensis, CitLEA5-1 had a shorter 3' untranslated region (UTR). Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that CitLEA5-1 was transcriptional regulated during fruit ripening of Cara Cara navel orange.

  17. Integrated systems biology analysis of transcriptomes reveals candidate genes for acidity control in developing fruits of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck

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    Dingquan eHuang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids, such as citrate and malate, are important contributors for the sensory traits of fleshy fruits. Although their biosynthesis has been illustrated, regulatory mechanisms of acid accumulation remain to be dissected. To provide transcriptional architecture and identify candidate genes for citrate accumulation in fruits, we have selected for transcriptome analysis four varieties of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck with varying fruit acidity, Succari (acidless, Bingtang (low acid, and Newhall and Xinhui (normal acid. Fruits of these varieties at 45 days post anthesis (DPA, which corresponds to Stage I (cell division, had similar acidity, but they displayed differential acid accumulation at 142 DPA (Stage II, cell expansion. Transcriptomes of fruits at 45 and 142 DPA were profiled using RNA sequencing and analyzed with three different algorithms (Pearson correlation, gene coexpression network and surrogate variable analysis. Our network analysis shows that the acid-correlated genes belong to three distinct network modules. Several of these candidate fruit acidity genes encode regulatory proteins involved in transport (such as AH10, degradation (such as APD2 and transcription (such as AIL6 and act as hubs in the citrate accumulation gene networks. Taken together, our integrated systems biology analysis has provided new insights into the fruit citrate accumulation gene network and led to the identification of candidate genes likely associated with the fruit acidity control.

  18. Influence of different organic fertilizers on quality parameters and the delta(15)N, delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O values of orange fruit (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, Paolo; Camin, Federica; Fabroni, Simona; Perini, Matteo; Torrisi, Biagio; Intrigliolo, Francesco

    2010-03-24

    To investigate the influence of different types of fertilizers on quality parameters, N-containing compounds, and the delta(15)N, delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta (34)S, and delta(18)O values of citrus fruit, a study was performed on the orange fruit cv. 'Valencia late' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), which was harvested in four plots (three organic and one conventional) located on the same farm. The results demonstrated that different types of organic fertilizers containing the same amount of nitrogen did not effect important changes in orange fruit quality parameters. The levels of total N and N-containing compounds such as synephrine in fruit juice were not statistically different among the different treatments. The delta(15)N values of orange fruit grown under fertilizer derived from animal origin as well as from vegetable compost were statistically higher than those grown with mineral fertilizer. Therefore, delta(15)N values can be used as an indicator of citrus fertilization management (organic or conventional), because even when applied organic fertilizers are of different origins, the natural abundance of (15)N in organic citrus fruit remains higher than in conventional ones. These treatments also did not effect differences in the delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O values of fruit.

  19. Production and characterization of films based on blends of chitosan from blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) waste and pectin from Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ricardo Duran; Pérez, Latife Lúquez; Salcedo, Jesús Mejía; Córdoba, Luis Pérez; Sobral, Paulo José do Amaral

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and characterize films based on blends of chitosan and pectin, produced in laboratory scale, from industrial wastes. The chitosan was obtained by termoalcaline deacetylation of chitin, extracted from blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) waste and characterized according to degree of deacetylation (DD) and viscosimetric molecular weight (Mw); and pectin was extracted by conventional heating, from orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) peel and characterized according to degree of esterification (DE) and molecular weight (Mw). The Ch:P based films were prepared by the casting method in different Ch:P ratios [0: 100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0], and compared to two controls [0:100 and 100:0], of commercial pectin and chitosan. Glycerol was used as a plasticizer at concentrations of 0.2g/g macromolecules. The addition of high concentrations of pectin in the formulations resulted in films with high solubility and an increase in moisture. No significant difference (P>0.05) in the degree of swelling (DS) and water vapor permeability (WVP) of the films was observed. Ch:P blend films were less stiff and therefore more elastic and flexible than films based on only one biopolymer. The control films presented better results in terms of color, being brighter and less opaque than other film formulations. These data suggest that chitosan or pectin obtained from agro-industrial waste is a potential matrix to produce biodegradable films for future food applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA Constitutes a Large and Diverse Family of Proteins Involved in Development and Abiotic Stress Responses in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb..

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    Andresa Muniz Pedrosa

    Full Text Available Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA proteins are an ubiquitous group of polypeptides that were first described to accumulate during plant seed dehydration, at the later stages of embryogenesis. Since then they have also been recorded in vegetative plant tissues experiencing water limitation and in anhydrobiotic bacteria and invertebrates and, thereby, correlated with the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. This study provides the first comprehensive study about the LEA gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb., the most important and widely grown fruit crop around the world. A surprisingly high number (72 of genes encoding C. sinensis LEAs (CsLEAs were identified and classified into seven groups (LEA_1, LEA_2, LEA_3 and LEA_4, LEA_5, DEHYDRIN and SMP based on their predicted amino acid sequences and also on their phylogenetic relationships with the complete set of Arabidopsis thaliana LEA proteins (AtLEAs. Approximately 60% of the CsLEAs identified in this study belongs to the unusual LEA_2 group of more hydrophobic LEA proteins, while the other LEA groups contained a relatively small number of members typically hydrophilic. A correlation between gene structure and motif composition was observed within each LEA group. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that the CsLEAs were non-randomly distributed across all nine chromosomes and that 33% of all CsLEAs are segmentally or tandemly duplicated genes. Analysis of the upstream sequences required for transcription revealed the presence of various stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions of CsLEAs, including ABRE, DRE/CRT, MYBS and LTRE. Expression analysis using both RNA-seq data and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR revealed that the CsLEA genes are widely expressed in various tissues, and that many genes containing the ABRE promoter sequence are induced by drought, salt and PEG. These results provide a useful reference for further

  1. Analysis of full-length sequences of two Citrus yellow mosaic badnavirus isolates infecting Citrus jambhiri (Rough Lemon) and Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck (Sweet Orange) from a nursery in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony Johnson, A M; Borah, B K; Sai Gopal, D V R; Dasgupta, I

    2012-12-01

    Citrus yellow mosaic badna virus (CMBV), a member of the Family Caulimoviridae, Genus Badnavirus is the causative agent of mosaic disease among Citrus species in southern India. Despite its reported prevalence in several citrus species, complete information on clear functional genomics or functional information of full-length genomes from all the CMBV isolates infecting citrus species are not available in publicly accessible databases. CMBV isolates from Rough Lemon and Sweet Orange collected from a nursery were cloned and sequenced. The analysis revealed high sequence homology of the two CMBV isolates with previously reported CMBV sequences implying that they represent new variants. Based on computational analysis of the predicted secondary structures, the possible functions of some CMBV proteins have been analyzed.

  2. Determination of added dye in orange fruit juices of Citrus sinensis cultivar with a simple analytical method

    OpenAIRE

    LUZIANA HOXHA; ONEIDA KYCYK; RENATA KONGOLI; ERANDA MANE

    2014-01-01

    Orange juice is a daily food randomly consumed and could be easily presented like an imitation of original products. Identification of its imitation has a big importance for juice authenticity. In some cases, it’s used the colouring agent Tartrazine (E102) a monoazo dye, permitted as food additive in EU, but hazardous for human health, due to allergic reactions and hyperactivity increasing especially of children in high levels. E102 consists essentially of trisodium 5-hydroxy-1-(4-sulfonatoph...

  3. Determination of added dye in orange fruit juices of Citrus sinensis cultivar with a simple analytical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUZIANA HOXHA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Orange juice is a daily food randomly consumed and could be easily presented like an imitation of original products. Identification of its imitation has a big importance for juice authenticity. In some cases, it’s used the colouring agent Tartrazine (E102 a monoazo dye, permitted as food additive in EU, but hazardous for human health, due to allergic reactions and hyperactivity increasing especially of children in high levels. E102 consists essentially of trisodium 5-hydroxy-1-(4-sulfonatophenyl-4-(4-sulfonato-phenylazo-H-pyrazole-3-carboxylate and subsidiary colouring matters together with sodium chloride and/or sodium sulphate as the principal uncoloured components. The intention of this study was evaluation of a new simple method to determine the presence and the quantity of synthetic colour added in commercial imported fruit juice. By a spectrophotometer UV-VIS was measured absorbance in maximal wavelength, 426 nm, of five commercial orange juices samples, using as reference control sample an orange fresh juice sample. The concentration of tartrazine in some samples were found from 50-170mg/L, while the maximal permitted level of E102 concentration is 100 mg/L (Referred to EU standards, 2011. This study is an advanced step for a quick determination of tatrazine level; otherwise need to profound this argument in the future.

  4. Phytohormone profiling of the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) leaves and roots using GC-MS-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehela, Yasser; Hijaz, Faraj; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser A; El-Zahaby, Hassan M; Killiny, Nabil

    2016-07-20

    Phytohormones mainly affect plant development and trigger varied responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The sensitivity of methods used to profile phytohormones is a vital factor that affects the results. We used an improved GC-MS-based method in the selective ion-monitoring (SIM) mode to study the phytohormone profiling in citrus tissues. One extraction solvent mixture and two derivatization reagents were used, methyl chloroformate (MCF) and N-Methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA). The method showed a low limit of detection and low limit of quantification with high extraction recovery percentage and reproducibility. Overall, we detected 13 phytohormones belonging to six different groups. Auxins, SAs, tJA, and ABA were detected after derivatization with MCF while cytokinins and GAs were detected after derivatization with MSTFA. Cytokinins, SAs, and gibberellins were found in all tissues while auxins and tJA were observed only in the leaves. ABA was found in leaves and roots, but not in root tips. The method we used is efficient, precise, and appropriate to study citrus phytohormonal profiles to understand their crosstalk and responses to environmental and biological stresses.

  5. The effects of nitrogen and potassium nutrition on the growth of nonembryogenic and embryogenic tissue of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evens Terence J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mineral nutrients are one of the most basic components of plant tissue culture media. Nitrogen in the form of NH4+ and NO3- is the dominant mineral nutrient in most plant tissue culture formulations, with effects dependent on both the proportion and the amount of NH4+ and NO3-. The effects of nitrogen nutrition on the growth of nonembryogenic and embryogenic cell lines of sweet orange (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck cv. 'Valencia', tissues routinely used in citrus horticultural and plant improvement research, was explored using an experimental approach free of ion confounding that included a 2-component mixture (NH4+:K+ and a quantitative factor [NO3-] crossed by the mixture, thereby providing ion-specific estimates of proportional and amount effects. Results First, the linear mixture component, though only a comparison of the design space vertices, was highly significant for both tissue types and showed that NH4+ was required by both tissues. Second, the NH4+ * K+ mixture term was highly significant for both tissue types, revealing that NH4+ and K+ exhibit strong synergistic blending and showed that growth was substantially greater at certain blends of these two ions. Third, though the interaction between the NH4+:K+ mixture and NO3- amount on fresh weight accumulation for both tissue types was significant, it was substantially less than the main effect of the NH4+:K+ mixture. Fourth, a region of the design space was identified where fresh weight growth was increased 198% and 67% over the MS medium controls for nonembryogenic and embryogenic tissues. Conclusion By designing a mineral nutrient experiment free of ion confounding, a direct estimation of ion-specific proportional and amount effects on plant tissue growth is possible. When the ions themselves are the independent factors and/or mixture components, the resulting design space can be systematically explored to identify regions where the response(s is substantially improved

  6. Alternation of secondary metabolites and quality attributes in Valencia Orange fruit (Citrus sinensis) as influenced by storage period and edible covers

    OpenAIRE

    Shamloo, M. M.; M SHARIFANI; Daraei Garmakhany, A.; Seifi, E.

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids (FGs) are a large group of polyphenolic compounds with low molecular weight, found in free and glycozidic forms in plants. Citrus fruits can be used as a food supplement containing hesperidin and flavonoids to prevent infections and boost the immune system in human body. The aim of this study was the investigation of the effect of clove oil and storage period on the amount of hesperidin and naringin component in orange peel (cv. Valencia). Four treatments including clove oil (1 %),...

  7. Effect of soy oil, orange (Citrus sinensis) peel oil and their blends on total phospholipid, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant defense system in brain tissues of normo rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erukainure, O.L.; Ajiboye, J.A.; Davis, F.F.; Obabire, K.; Okoro, E.E.; Adenekan, S.O.; Adegbola, M.V.; Awogbemi, B.J.; Odjobo, B.O.; Zaruwa, M.Z.

    2016-07-01

    Soy and orange peel (C. sinensis) oils were fed to albino male rats to determine their effects on malondialdehyde (MDA), total phospholipid (TP) content and oxidative stress biomarkers of brain tissue. Beside mouse chow, four diets were designed to contain 50% of their energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein, and one lipid-free diet which had distilled water substituted for fat. Groups of five rats were each fed one of these diets, while a fifth group was fed pelletized mouse chow. A significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed in the TP of the mouse chow group. The TP was highest (p < 0.05) in those fed the soy and orange peel oil blend as compared to those fed these oils separately. Feeding soy oil led to decreased MDA in brain tissues and influenced the TP content. Significantly lower (p < 0.05) GSH and SOD activities were observed in the groups fed soy oil+orange peel oil, and soy oil diets respectively. Higher significant (p < 0.05) activities were observed in the orange oil fed group. Significantly higher (p < 0.05) catalase activity was observed in the lipid free diet fed group, which was followed by orange peel oil, and soy oil+orange peel oil diets, respectively. A combination of both oils may be useful in the management of certain neurological diseases or illnesses and protect against other oxidative stress complications. (Author)

  8. Genome-wide identification, isolation and expression analysis of auxin response factor(ARF gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    si-bei eli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Auxin response factors (ARFs are an important family of proteins in auxin-mediated response, with key roles in various physiological and biochemical processes. To date, a genome-wide overview of the ARF gene family in citrus was not available. A systematic analysis of this gene family in citrus was begun by carrying out a genome-wide search for the homologues of auxin response genes. A total of 19 non-redundant ARF genes (CiARF were identified and validated from the sweet orange genome. A comprehensive overview of the CiARF gene family was undertaken, including the gene structures, phylogeny, chromosome locations, conserved motifs, and cis-elements in promoter sequences. Furthermore, expression profiling using real-time PCR revealed many CiARF genes, albeit with different patterns depending on types of tissues and/or developmental stages. Comprehensive expression analysis of these genes was also performed under two hormone treatments using real-time PCR. Indole-3-acetic acid and N-1-napthylphthalamic acid treatment experiments revealed differential up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively, of the 19 citrus ARF genes in the callus of sweet orange. Our comprehensive analysis of ARF genes further elucidates the roles of CiARF family members in citrus growth and development.

  9. Unravelling molecular responses to moderate dehydration in harvested fruit of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) using a fruit-specific ABA-deficient mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Paco; Rodrigo, María J.; Alférez, Fernando; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; González-Candelas, Luis; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Lafuente, María T.

    2012-01-01

    Water stress affects many agronomic traits that may be regulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). Within these traits, loss of fruit quality becomes important in many citrus cultivars that develop peel damage in response to dehydration. To study peel dehydration transcriptional responsiveness in harvested citrus fruit and the putative role of ABA in this process, this study performed a comparative large-scale transcriptional analysis of water-stressed fruits of the wild-type Navelate orange (Citrus sinesis L. Osbeck) and its spontaneous ABA-deficient mutant Pinalate, which is more prone to dehydration and to developing peel damage. Major changes in gene expression occurring in the wild-type line were impaired in the mutant fruit. Gene ontology analysis revealed the ability of Navelate fruits to induce the response to water deprivation and di-, tri-valent inorganic cation transport biological processes, as well as repression of the carbohydrate biosynthesis process in the mutant. Exogenous ABA triggered relevant transcriptional changes and repressed the protein ubiquitination process, although it could not fully rescue the physiological behaviour of the mutant. Overall, the results indicated that dehydration responsiveness requires ABA-dependent and -independent signals, and highlight that the ability of citrus fruits to trigger molecular responses against dehydration is an important factor in reducing their susceptibility to developing peel damage. PMID:22315241

  10. First evidence of C- and O-glycosyl flavone in blood orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) juice and their influence on antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreca, Davide; Bellocco, Ersilia; Leuzzi, Ugo; Gattuso, Giuseppe

    2014-04-15

    RP-LC-DAD-ESI-MS-MS separation/identification protocol has been employed for the identification and characterisation of nine C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids in Moro (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) juice grown in Southern Italy. For the first time we reported the presence of five C-glycosyl flavones (lucenin-2, vicenin-2, stellarin-2, lucenin-2 4'-methyl ether and scoparin), a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl glycosyl flavonol (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl glycosyl quercetin) and a flavone O-glycosides (chrysoeriol 7-O-neoesperidoside). Moreover, the influence of the identified C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids on the total antioxidant activity of crude juice has been evaluated on the basis of its ability to scavenge DPPH•, OH• and ABTS•+ radicals and to reduce iron.

  11. Penggunaan Tepung Limbah Jus Jeruk (citrus sinensis dalam Ransum terhadap Kualitas Karkas Ayam Broiler

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    Ucop Haroen

    2017-04-01

    (The use of orange (citrus sinensis juice by products in the ration on carcass quality of broiler chickens ABSTRACT. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of orange (Citrus sinensis juice by products in rations on (carcass quality ; weight of slaughter, carcass weight, carcasspercentages, abdominal fat weight and feed intake of broiler chicks. A total of two hundred unsexed 1 d-old chicks (Arbor Acres CP-707 used. The design used was Completely Randomized Design consisting of 5 treatments and 4 replications of each replication consisting of 10 chickens. Feed treatment consisted of P0 = 0% orange juice waste flour (positive control; P1 = 0% waste juice flour with 0.02% basitratin addition (negative control; P2 = 5% orange juice flour waste; P3 = 10% orange juice flour waste; P4 = 15% orange juice flour waste. The variables observed were carcass quality (cut weight, carcass weight, carcass percentage, carcass cholesterol, abdominal fat and ration consumption..The results showed that the use of orange juice flour in the ration significantly influenced (P <0.05 in reducing the consumption of ration, cut weight, carcass weight, carcass cholesterol and abdominal fat weight, but the use of orange juice waste flour in the ration did not affect the percentage of carcass . As a conclusion is the use of orange juice waste flour (Citrus sinensis can be used to a level of 5% in broiler chicken rations.

  12. A Proteomic Analysis of the Chromoplasts Isolated from Sweet Orange Fruits [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] Revealed Clues to Their Ripening Event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunliu Zeng; Zhiyong Pan; Yuduan Ding; Andan Zhu; Hongbo Cao; Qiang Xu; Xiuxin Deng

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoid biosynthesisis believed to occur in chromoplasts,which are non-photosynthetic plastids often present in flowers and fruits.We report a comprehensive proteomic analysis of the chromoplasts,which were purified from sweet orange by a novel protocol using Nycodenz density gradient centrifugation.Western blot analysis using polyclonal antibodies against marker proteins for different cell compartments suggested the chromoplast extraction were of high purity.Systematic analysis of the chromoplast proteome identified 493 proteins,of which 418 are putative plastid proteins based on in silico sequence homology and functional analyses.Based on the predicted functions of these identified plastid proteins,a large proportion (~60%) of the chromoplast proteome of sweet orange is constituted by proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism,amino acid/protein synthesis,and secondary metabolism.Of note,HDS (hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase),PAP (plastid-lipid-associated protein),and psHSPs (plastid small heat shock proteins) involved in the synthesis or storage of carotenoid and stress response are among the most abundant proteins identified.A comparison of chromoplast proteomes between sweet orange and tomato suggested a high level of conservation in a broad range of metabolic pathways.However,the citrus chromoplast was characterized by more extensive carotenoid synthesis,extensive amino acid synthesis without nitrogen assimilation,and evidence for lipid metabolism concerning jasmonic acid synthesis.In conclusion,this study provides an insight into the major metabolic pathways as well as some unique characteristics of the sweet orange chromoplasts at the whole proteome level.

  13. Mites (Arachnida, Acari on Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck orange trees in the state of Amazonas, Northern Brazil Ácarofauna de Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck no estado do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Teiamar da Encarnação Bobot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of citriculture in Brazil, very little is known about mite populations in citrus crops in the Northern Region. In the municipality of Manaus, 12 sprayed sweet orange orchards were surveyed every two weeks during seven months to record mite species amount, and to describe the abundance and distribution of the most important species. The size and age of the orchards varied from 3,360 to 88,080 m² and seven to 25 years, respectively. In the fourteen sampling period, leaves, twigs and fruits were collected from 12 trees, one per orchard. In total, 3,360 leaves, 672 twigs and 1,344 fruits were sampled from 168 trees. Mites were manually extracted from the fruits, and by the washing method on leaves and twigs. We identified pests with the potential to cause economic loss. Fourteen species of phytophagous and mycophagous mites from Eriophyidae, Tarsonemidae, Tenuipalpidae, and Tetranychidae were recorded. Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes 1939 and Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashm., 1879, the two commonest phytophagous mites in other Brazilian regions were dominant, showing that local orchards are susceptible to their infestation. Eleven predatory mites were recorded, comprising 10% of the mite population, belonging to Phytoseiidae and Ascidae. Phytoseiidae was the richest family, with ten species. The results are discussed in relation to the temporal variation aspects and habitat use of the most important species. Long-term research encompassing chemical applications followed by evaluations of the mite community are necessary for a better management of the orchards, taking into consideration the seasonal phenology of key pests.Apesar da importância da citricultura no Brasil, pouco se conhece sobre as populações de ácaros em plantações de citros no norte do país. No município de Manaus, 12 pomares de laranja doce pulverizados foram avaliados a cada duas semanas, durante sete meses, para o registro de ácaros plantícolas e

  14. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combinations

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    Neelam Mallick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hyperlipidemia, extensively contributes in the progression of coronary heart diseases and atherosclerosis, but may be managed through alterations in the nutritional pattern. Several studies show that diet rich in polyphenols and antioxidants have antiatherogenic effects. Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi are widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, hence current research was planned to determine the hypolipidemic effects of C. sinensis and C. paradisi in rats receiving diet rich in cholesterol. Materials and Methods: All rats were divided into 11 groups each comprising 10 animals: Normal control group and hyperlipidemic control. C. sinensis treated three groups, C. paradisi treated three groups, C. sinensis and C. paradisi combination treated two groups, and group treated atorvastatin. All rats in the respective groups were treated orally with sterile water, juices, and standard drug for 8 weeks and lipid profile was estimated at the end of dosing. Results: Cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL were decreased at all the three doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi but rise in high-density lipoprotein (HDL was only significant at 8 ml/kg, and 0.3 ml/kg, respectively. Animals received the combination doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi also showed a highly significant fall in cholesterol, LDL, and TGs, however HDL level was significantly elevated by SPJ-2 combination. Conclusion: Results suggest that C. sinensis and C. paradisi possess antihyperlipidemic activity due to phytochemicals and other essential nutrients, hence may serve as cardioprotective by preventing thrombosis.

  15. Genome-wide identification of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) metal tolerance proteins and analysis of their expression patterns under zinc, manganese, copper, and cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xing-Zheng; Tong, Ya-Hua; Zhou, Xue; Ling, Li-Li; Chun, Chang-Pin; Cao, Li; Zeng, Ming; Peng, Liang-Zhi

    2017-09-20

    Plant metal tolerance proteins (MTPs) play important roles in heavy metal homeostasis; however, related information in citrus plants is limited. Citrus genome sequencing and assembly have enabled us to perform a systematic analysis of the MTP gene family. We identified 12 MTP genes in sweet orange, which we have named as CitMTP1 and CitMTP3 to CitMTP12 based on their sequence similarity to Arabidopsis thaliana MTPs. The CitMTPs were predicted to encode proteins of 864 to 2556 amino acids in length that included 4 to 6 putative transmembrane domains (TMDs). Furthermore, all the CitMTPs contained a highly conserved signature sequence encompassing the TMD-II and the start of the TMD-III. Phylogenetic analysis further classified the CitMTPs into Fe/Zn-MTP, Mn-MTP, and Zn-MTP subgroups, which coincided with the MTPs of A. thaliana and rice. The closely clustered CitMTPs shared a similar gene structure. Expression analysis indicated that most CitMTP transcripts were upregulated to various extents under heavy metal stress. Among these, CitMTP5 in the roots and CitMTP11 in the leaves during Zn stress, CitMTP8 in the roots and CitMTP8.1 in the leaves during Mn stress, CitMTP12 in the roots and CitMTP1 in the leaves during Cu stress, and CitMTP11 in the roots and CitMTP1 in the leaves during Cd stress showed the highest extent of upregulation. These findings are suggestive of their individual roles in heavy metal detoxification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Visitantes florais e produção de frutos em cultura de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.612 Floral visitors and fruit production on sweet orange crop (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.612

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darclet Terezinha Malerbo Souza

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi realizado em florada de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, variedade Pera-Rio, com os objetivos de estudar os insetos visitantes nas flores d e laranjeira, o seu comportamento nas flores, o tipo de coleta efetuada e o efeito dessas visitas na produção de frutos, em quantidade e qualidade. Os dados de freqüência foram obtidos por contagem nos primeiros 10 minutos de cada horário, das 8h às 18h, em três dias distintos, percorrendo-se as linhas da cultura. O comportamento forrageiro de cada espécie de inseto foi avaliado através de observações visuais, no decorrer do dia, no período experimental. Os insetos observados foram abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula. As abelhas A. mellifera foram os visitantes florais mais freqüentes e preferiram coletar néctar comparado ao pólen. Os botões florais descobertos produziram mais frutos que os botões florais cobertos. Os frutos decorrentes do tratamento coberto foram menores, mais ácidos e com menor quantidade de vitamina C que os frutos do tratamento descoberto.The present experiment was carried out in flowerage of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, Pera-rio variety, to study the insects involv ed in pollination, their behaviour in the flower (nectar or pollen collection and the effect of the pollination on fruit production (quantity and quality. More frequent insects were recorded daily (counted during ten minutes, every hour from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., with three replications. The forage behaviour and nectar and/or pollen collect was also observed. The insect visitors on flowers were Africanized honey bee Apis mellifera, followed by stingless bees Trigona spinipes and Tetragonisca angustula. A. mellifera were the most frequent visitors and preferred to collect nectar than pollen. The uncovered flowers -buds produced more fruits than the covered ones. Another observation was that fruits derived from covered

  17. Caracterización mediante microsatélites de 34 accesiones de naranja Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck del Banco de Germoplasma de Corpoica-Palmira Genetic characterization using microsatellites of 34 accessions of the orange, Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck from the Germplasm bank of Corpoica-Palmira

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    Yacenia Morillo Coronado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron 19 marcadores microsatélites para caracterizar 34 accesiones de naranja Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck del Banco de Germoplasma de la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria (Corpoica-Palmira. Seis marcadores fueron polimórficos, los de mayor heterocigosidad fueron CCSM- 19 (0.4097 y CCSM-3 (0.3254. Se diferenciaron 33 accesiones y al 85% de similitud, con el índice de Nei-Li y el método de agrupamiento UPGMA, se conformaron cuatro grupos. En el primero se situaron dos accesiones blancas (Lerma y Valencia Olinda 2, en el segundo la mayoría de las blancas (Indian River, Valencia Olinda, Wialua, Lima Dulce, Pera del Río, St. Michael, Enterprise, Cafetera No. 1 junto con García Valencia y Navel (Lane Late, Valle Washington, New Hall y dos sanguinas (Rudy Blood, Moro Blood, en el tercero accesiones blancas (Joppa, Salerma, Cuban Queen, Rico, Galicia, Star Calyx, Valencia Cutter, Valencia Frost, Valencia Campbell y Valencia Variegado y una sola accesión sanguina (Morocco Blood. En el cuarto grupo se situaron dos accesiones blancas, (Jaffa y Valencia 1-D-E. Finalmente, la variedad Sanguinella no hizo parte de grupos. Con los marcadores microsatélites no se encontró relación entre los grupos genéticos, formación y las características morfológicas del grupo.To characterize 34 orange accessions Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck from the Germplasm bank Corpoica- Palmira, 19 microsatellite markers were used. Six markers were polymorphic; the highest heterozygosity was obtained by CCSM-19 (0.4097 and CCSM-3 (0.3254. Thirty-three accessions were differentiated; with 85% of similarity, Nei-Li´s index and the UPGMA clustering method were formed fi ve groups. In the first one, two accessions were white (Lerma and Valencia Olinda 2, in the second one most of the white (Indian River, Valencia Olinda, Wialua, Lima Dulce, Pera del Río, St. Michael, Enterprise, Cafetera No. 1, García Valencia and Navel (Lane Late, Valle Washington

  18. Comprehensive Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags from the Pulp of the Red Mutant 'Cara Cara' Navel Orange(Citrus sinensis Osbeck)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Li Ye; An-Dan Zhu; Neng-Guo Tao; Qiang Xu; Juan Xu; Xiu-Xin Deng

    2010-01-01

    Expressed sequence tag(EST)analysis of the pulp of the red-fleshed mutant 'Cara Cara' navel orange provided a starting point for gene discovery and transcriptome survey during citrus fruit maturation. Interpretation of the EST datasets revealed that the mutant pulp transcriptome held a high section of stress responses related genes,such as the type Ⅲ metallothionein-like gene(6.0%),heat shock protein(2.8%),Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase(0.8%),late embryogenesis abundant protein 5(0.8%),etc. 133transcripts were detected to be differentially expressed between the red mutant and its orange-color wild genotype 'Washington' via digital expression analysis. Among them,genes involved in metabolism,defense/stress and signal transduction were statistical overrepresented. Fifteen transcription factors,composed of NAM,ATAF,and CUC transcription factor(NAC); myeloblastosis(MYB); myelocytomatosis(MYC); basic helix-loop-helix(bHLH); basic leucine zipper(bZIP)domain members,were also included. The data reflected the distinct expression profile and the unique regulatory module associated with these two genotypes. Eight differently expressed genes analyzed in digital were validated by quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction. For structural polymorphism,both simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNP)loci were surveyed; dinucleotide presentation revealed a bias toward AG/GA/TC/CT repeats(52.5%),against GC/CG repeats(0%). SNPs analysis found that transitions(73%)outnumbered transversions(27%). Seventeen potential cultivar-specific and 387 heterozygous SNP loci were detected from 'Cara Cara' and 'Washington' EST pool.

  19. Digital gene expression analysis of corky split vein caused by boron deficiency in 'Newhall' Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck for selecting differentially expressed genes related to vascular hypertrophy.

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    Cheng-Quan Yang

    Full Text Available Corky split vein caused by boron (B deficiency in 'Newhall' Navel Orange was studied in the present research. The boron-deficient citrus exhibited a symptom of corky split vein in mature leaves. Morphologic and anatomical surveys at four representative phases of corky split veins showed that the symptom was the result of vascular hypertrophy. Digital gene expression (DGE analysis was performed based on the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform, which was applied to analyze the gene expression profilings of corky split veins at four morphologic phases. Over 5.3 million clean reads per library were successfully mapped to the reference database and more than 22897 mapped genes per library were simultaneously obtained. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs revealed that the expressions of genes associated with cytokinin signal transduction, cell division, vascular development, lignin biosynthesis and photosynthesis in corky split veins were all affected. The expressions of WOL and ARR12 involved in the cytokinin signal transduction pathway were up-regulated at 1(st phase of corky split vein development. Furthermore, the expressions of some cell cycle genes, CYCs and CDKB, and vascular development genes, WOX4 and VND7, were up-regulated at the following 2(nd and 3(rd phases. These findings indicated that the cytokinin signal transduction pathway may play a role in initiating symptom observed in our study.

  20. Effect of prestorage curing on storage life, internal and external qualities of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) Efeito da cura antes do armazenameto no prazo de conservação, qualidades internas e externas da laranja doce (Citrus sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Abiola Titilola Aborisade; Ayodeji Adeyeye Ajibade

    2010-01-01

    Orange fruits from two seasons, in April and August 2006 representing late 2005 and early 2006 harvests respectively were cured in hot air at 36-37(0)C to 1%, 3%, 5% and 7% weight loss before storage at 28(0)C and 86% relative humidity (RH). The fruits were observed for incidence of decay, further weight loss, juice content, firmness or softening of the peel, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity, and colour during storage. Curing reduced the incidence of decay. All control fruit...

  1. Quarantine treatment to Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in orange fruits (Citrus sinensis).; Tratamento quarentenario para Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) em frutos de laranja (Citrus sinensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albergaria, Nuno Miguel Mendes Soares de

    2005-07-01

    This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of thermal treatments (vapour heat and hot water) and irradiation on Ceratitis capitata eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars), in 'Valencia' oranges; the relation between temperature and exposition time to vapour heat and hot water on fruit fly immature; the relation among the different doses of radiation on fruit fly immature and evaluate the effect of the treatments (thermal treatments and irradiation) on the chemical composition of the fruits. It was evaluated the heat absorption and loose of heat by the fruit. For thermal treatments it was used temperatures of 44 and 46 deg C for 15,30,60, 90 and 120 minutes and a control. For irradiation were used the doses: 10,20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy. By the results obtained it is possible to conclude that: to the control of eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars) the treatment with vapour heat was less efficient than the hot water treatment; the thermal treatments of C. capitata eggs and larvae (first and second and third instars) can be recommended with vapor heat at 46 deg C at 152.2 minutes or with hot water at 46 deg C at 84.8 minutes, achieving the quarantine request; third instar larvae are more tolerant to the thermal and irradiation treatments; the treatment with irradiation can be recommended for quarantine treatment of ali immature stages evaluated with the dose of 72.88 Gy; the dose of 50 Gy causes sterility to the adults emerged from ali immature stages irradiated; treatments do not cause any change in the chemical proprieties in the orange fruits var. 'Valencia'. (author)

  2. Anti-inflammatory effects of Citrus sinensis L., Citrus paradisi L. and their combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Mallick, Neelam; Feroz, Zeeshan

    2016-05-01

    Citrus bioflavonoids embrace a wide group of phenolic compounds effecting the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species and the processes relating free radical-mediated injury. Keeping in view of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi, present study was undertaken to explore the effects of C. sinensis (orange juice) and C. paradisi (grapefruit juice) at three different doses alone and their two combinations with the objective to examine the effects of these compounds in an experimental model of rat colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). Hence biochemical parameters e.g. myeloperoxidase, alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein (CRP) and glutathione were assessed. Data entry and analysis was accomplished by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17 and was presented as mean ± S.E.M with 95% confidence interval. Present result shows that these juices, mainly C. paradisi, may be efficacious for the management of inflammatory bowel disease. In acute colitis model, C. paradise encouraged a decrease in the extension of the lesion escorted by a decrease in the occurrence of diarrhea and reinstatement of the glutathione content. Related effects were produced by the administration of C. sinensis, which also prevented the myeloperoxidase and alkaline phosphatase actions in acute intestinal inflammatory process. The effect of the citrus juices on the inflammatory process may be associated to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as revealed in present investigation. The favorable effects exerted were demonstrated both by histological and biochemical changes and were related with a progress in the colonic oxidative status.

  3. Alternation of secondary metabolites and quality attributes in Valencia Orange fruit ( Citrus sinensis ) as influenced by storage period and edible covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, M M; Sharifani, M; Daraei Garmakhany, A; Seifi, E

    2015-04-01

    Flavonoids (FGs) are a large group of polyphenolic compounds with low molecular weight, found in free and glycozidic forms in plants. Citrus fruits can be used as a food supplement containing hesperidin and flavonoids to prevent infections and boost the immune system in human body. The aim of this study was the investigation of the effect of clove oil and storage period on the amount of hesperidin and naringin component in orange peel (cv. Valencia). Four treatments including clove oil (1 %), wax, mixture of wax-clove oil, control and storage period were applied. Treated fruits were stored at 7 °C and 85 % relative humidity for 3 months and naringin, hesperidin, antioxidant activity, total pheenolic compounds, TSS, Vitamin C, fruits weight loss, pH, acidity and carbohydrates content were measured every 3 weeks. The amount of hesperidin and naringin was determined using high performance liquid chromatography at the detection wavelength of 285 nm. Antioxidant activity was measured using the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Total phenolic compounds were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu micro method. Results showed that naringin and hesperidin were decreased during storage. Different treatment only had significant effect on the amount of hesperidin while storage period affected both of narigin and hesperidin. Results of correlation study, indicated strong relation between antioxidant activity and amount of naringin and hesperidin during storage time. However, at the end of storage period, the amount of hesperidin and naringin were diminished independent of different covers. Probably anaerobic condition caused such reduction. Results showed that the amount of TSS, fruit hardness, weight loss, total sugar and fructose content were increased during storage period while total acidity, pH and glucose content showed descending trend during storage periods. In conclusion, hesperidin and naringin of peels can be used as

  4. Effect of soy oil, orange (Citrus sinensis peel oil and their blends on total phospholipid, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant defense system in brain tissues of normo rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erukainure, O. L.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soy and orange peel (C. sinensis oils were fed to albino male rats to determine their effects on malondialdehyde (MDA, total phospholipid (TP content and oxidative stress biomarkers of brain tissue. Beside mouse chow, four diets were designed to contain 50% of their energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein, and one lipid-free diet which had distilled water substituted for fat. Groups of five rats were each fed one of these diets, while a fifth group was fed pelletized mouse chow. A significant difference (p Ratas albinas machos fueron alimentadas con aceites de soja y de cáscara de naranja (C. sinensis para determinar su efecto sobre el malondialdehído (MDA, fosfolípidos (TP y el contenido total de biomarcadores del estrés oxidativo de su tejido cerebral. Además de alimento para ratones, cuatro dietas fueron diseñadas conteniendo el 50% de la energía en forma de carbohidratos, el 35% en forma de grasa, y el 15% como proteína, y una cuarta dieta libre de lípidos donde se había sustituido la grasa por agua destilada. Grupos de cinco ratas fueron alimentadas cada uno con estas dietas, mientras que un quinto grupo fue alimentado con alimento para ratones peletizado. Se observó una diferencia significativa (p < 0,05 en TP del grupo alimentado concomida para ratón. Los TP fue mayor (p < 0,05 en los alimentados con mezcla de aceite de soja y de cáscaras de naranja, en comparación con los alimentados con estos aceites por separado. La alimentación con aceite de soja llevó a una disminución del MDA en los tejidos del cerebro e influyó en el contenido de TP. Se observó un descenso significativo (p < 0,05 de las actividades de GSH y SOD en los grupos alimentados con aceite de soja+aceite de piel de naranja, y con las dietas de aceite de soja. Se observaron actividades significativamente más altas (p < 0,05 en el grupo alimentado con aceite de naranja. Una actividad catalasa significativamente mas alta (p < 0,05 se observ

  5. Nutritional Potential of Citrus Sinensis and Vitis Vinifera Peels

    OpenAIRE

    Uraku, A. J

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional potential of the peels of Citrus sinensis and Vitis vinifera was assessed by determining proximate and mineral composition. Results indicate carbohydeate content of the peels of Citrus sinensis and Vitis vinifera as 61.07% and 71.77% respectively. Other findings are crude fibre, 13.51% and 4.96%, proten, 3.73% and 11.35%, fats, 10.34% and 1.16%, moisture, 9.78% and 6.52% and ash 1.57% and 4.24%, for the Citrus sinensis and Vitis vinifera respectively. Mineral analysis revealed...

  6. Effect of prestorage curing on storage life, internal and external qualities of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Efeito da cura antes do armazenameto no prazo de conservação, qualidades internas e externas da laranja doce (Citrus sinensis

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    Abiola Titilola Aborisade

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Orange fruits from two seasons, in April and August 2006 representing late 2005 and early 2006 harvests respectively were cured in hot air at 36-37(0C to 1%, 3%, 5% and 7% weight loss before storage at 28(0C and 86% relative humidity (RH. The fruits were observed for incidence of decay, further weight loss, juice content, firmness or softening of the peel, total soluble solids (TSS, pH, titratable acidity, and colour during storage. Curing reduced the incidence of decay. All control fruits were rotten by day 21 in August harvest while 22.5% of the control was rotten by day 56 in the April harvest. Storage life was extended beyond 56 days in fruits cured with 1, 3, 5 and 7% in April harvest as there was no decay throughout, while decay incidence in August harvest was 88.9, 61.1, 22.2 and 31.3% in 1, 3, 5 and 7% respectively. Penicillium digitatum, Phytophthora sp., Alternaria citri and Collectotrichum gloeosporioides were among decay causing moulds detected. Control fruits lost more weight during storage than cured fruits did. Fruit rind hardening was more noticed in the control and those cured to 1% weight loss, especially from the April harvest. It was insignificant in other treatments in both trials. Titratable acidity, pH, juice content and TSS were not affected by the treatment. Colour change to yellow was however retarded by curing. Curing to 5% weight loss was best for decay control and quality retention.Frutos de laranjas de duas safras, de Abril e de Agosto de 2006 representando colheitas do final de 2005 e começo de 2006 respectivamente foram curados em ar quente a 36-37(0C até a perda de peso de 1%, 3%, 5% e 7% antes do armazenamento a 28(0C e 86% de umidade relativa (UR. Os frutos foram observados quanto à incidência de apodrecimento, mais tarde perda de peso, conteúdo de suco, firmeza ou amolecimento da casca, sólidos solúveis totais (TSS, pH, acidez titúlavel, e coloração durante o armazenamento. A cura diminuiu a incid

  7. ISOLATION OF A FLAVONOID FROM THE ROOTS OF CITRUS SINENSIS

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    JAVED INTEKHAB

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus sinensis is native to Asia and throughout the Pacific and warm areas of the world. The ethyl acetate extract of the roots of Citrus sinensis yielded a flavonoid. The compound was characterizedas 5, 8-dihydroxy-6, 7, 4′-trimethoxyflavone on the basis of UV, I.R, mass and N.M.R (1H, 13C spectral studies. We believe this is the first report describing the isolation of flavonoid from thisplant.

  8. Design for limit stresses of orange fruits (Citrus sinensis under axial and radial compression as related to transportation and storage design

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    Christopher Chukwutoo Ihueze

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article employed the Hertz contact stress theory and the finite element method to evaluate the maximum contact pressure and the limit stresses of orange fruit under transportation and storage. The elastic properties of orange fruits subjected to axial and axial contact were measured such that elastic limit force, elastic modulus, Poisson’s ratio and bioyield stress were obtained as 18 N, 0.691 MPa, 0.367, 0.009 MPa for axial compression and for radial loading were 15.69 N, 0.645 MPa, 0.123, 0.010 MPa. The Hertz maximum contact pressure was estimated for axial and radial contacts as 0.036 MPa. The estimated limiting yield stress estimated as von Mises stresses for the induced surface stresses of the orange topologies varied from 0.005 MPa–0.03 MPa. Based on the distortion energy theory (DET the yield strength of orange fruit is recommended as 0.03 MPa while based on the maximum shear stress theory (MSST is 0.01 MPa for the design of orange transportation and storage system.

  9. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limonia epicotyl segments

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    Almeida Weliton Antonio Bastos de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic transformation allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. The objective of this research was to establish a protocol for genetic transformation of Valencia and Natal sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck and Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck. Epicotyl segments of germinated in vitro plantlets (three weeks in darkness and two weeks in a 16-h photoperiod were used as explants. These were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA-105 and different experiments were done to evaluate the transformation efficiency: explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium for one, three or five days; explants were incubated with Agrobacterium suspension for 5, 10, 20 or 40 minutes; co-cultivation medium was supplemented with acetosyringone at 0, 100 or 200 mmol L-1; Explants ends had a longitudinal terminal incision (2-3 mm; co-cultivation temperatures of 19, 23 or 27degreesC were imposed. The experimental design was completely randomized in all experiments with five replications, each consisted of a Petri dish (100 x 15 mm with 30 explants and resulted in a total of 150 explants per treatment. Longitudinal terminal incision in the explant ends did not improve shoot regeneration. However, transgenic plants of all three cultivars were confirmed from explants that had been subjected to inoculation time of 20 minutes, co-culture of three days at 23-27degreesC, in the absence of acetosyringone.

  10. Comparative transcripts profiling reveals new insight into molecular processes regulating lycopene accumulation in a sweet orange (Citrus sinensis red-flesh mutant

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    Zhang Jianchen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in lycopene metabolism and regulation is growing rapidly because accumulative studies have suggested an important role for lycopene in human health promotion. However, little is known about the molecular processes regulating lycopene accumulation in fruits other than tomato so far. Results On a spontaneous sweet orange bud mutant with abnormal lycopene accumulation in fruits and its wild type, comparative transcripts profiling was performed using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS. A total of 6,877,027 and 6,275,309 reliable signatures were obtained for the wild type (WT and the mutant (MT, respectively. Interpretation of the MPSS signatures revealed that the total number of transcribed gene in MT is 18,106, larger than that in WT 17,670, suggesting that newly initiated transcription occurs in the MT. Further comparison of the transcripts abundance between MT and WT revealed that 3,738 genes show more than two fold expression difference, and 582 genes are up- or down-regulated at 0.05% significance level by more than three fold difference. Functional assignments of the differentially expressed genes indicated that 26 reliable metabolic pathways are altered in the mutant; the most noticeable ones are carotenoid biosynthesis, photosynthesis, and citrate cycle. These data suggest that enhanced photosynthesis and partial impairment of lycopene downstream flux are critical for the formation of lycopene accumulation trait in the mutant. Conclusion This study provided a global picture of the gene expression changes in a sweet orange red-flesh mutant as compared to the wild type. Interpretation of the differentially expressed genes revealed new insight into the molecular processes regulating lycopene accumulation in the sweet orange red-flesh mutant.

  11. Influence of air flow, temperature and agitation speed in the batch acetification process to obtain orange vinegar (Citrus sinensis var.W. Navel

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    María Ferreyra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the influence of process variables to produce orange vinegar. Orange juice was fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae until reach 14% v/v. The biooxidation was carried out with Acetobacter sp., in submerge culture using a laboratory scale fermentor. In order to avoid the inhibitory effect of ethanol on acetic acid bacteria, the orange wine was diluted to 6% v/v with a mineral solution. It was performed a factorial design 2k to study the influence of variables. It was studied air flow rate/agitation at levels of 0.3-0.6 vvm and 200-400 rpm and the effect of air flow rate/temperature at 0.4-0.6 vvm and 25- 30°C, respectively. Duplicate treatments were carried out and the results were evaluated in terms of productivity and fermentation yield. Statistical design (p-value<0.05 was analyzed using Statgraphics Centurion XV Corporate software. Treatments performed at 200 rpm and different air flow levels, did not show significant differences on acetification rate. At higher agitation speed and air flow rates, the productivity was high. The best yields were obtained at lower air flows levels and higher agitation speed. Temperature did not present statistically differences on studied variables. The best yield was obtained at 400 rpm and 0.3 vvm at 25°C. It can be concluded that agitation speed plays an important role for a better acetification rate however higher air flow rates causes less yields.

  12. Characterization of Aroma Active Compounds in Fruit Juice and Peel Oil of Jinchen Sweet Orange Fruit (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by GC-MS and GC-O

    OpenAIRE

    Si Yi Pan; Xiao Lin Yao; Gang Fan; Yun Zhang; Yan Zhang; Bi Jun Xie; Yu Qiao

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatographyolfactometry (GC-O) were used to determine the aromatic composition and aroma active compounds of fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit. Totals of 49 and 32 compounds were identified in fruit juice and peel oil, respectively. GC-O was performed to study the aromatic profile of Jinchen fruit juice and peel oil. A total of 41 components appeared to contribute to the aroma of fruit juice and peel oil. Twelve comp...

  13. Kinetic and isotherm studies of bisphenol A adsorption onto orange albedo(Citrus sinensis): Sorption mechanisms based on the main albedo components vitamin C, flavones glycosides and carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgaing, Theophile; Doungmo, Giscard; Melataguia Tchieno, Francis Merlin; Gouoko Kouonang, Jimmy Julio; Mbadcam, Ketcha Joseph

    2017-07-03

    Orange albedo and its adsorption capacity towards bisphenol A (BPA) were studied. Adsorption experiments were conducted in batch mode at 25-55°C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterise the biosorbent. The effects of various parameters including adsorption time, equilibrium pH, adsorbent dosage and initial adsorbate concentration were investigated. The optimum contact time and pH for the removal of BPA were 60 min and 2, respectively. It was found that the adsorption isotherms best matched the Freundlich model, the adsorption of BPA being multilayer and that of the albedo surface heterogeneous. From the kinetic studies, it was found that the removal of BPA best matched the pseudo-second order kinetic model. An adsorption mechanism based on the albedo surface molecules is proposed and gives a good account of π-π interactions and hydrogen bonding. Orange albedo, with a maximum BPA loading capacity of 82.36 mg g(-1) (significantly higher than that of most agricultural residues), is a good candidate for BPA adsorption in aqueous media.

  14. ORANGE: RANGE OF BENEFITS

    OpenAIRE

    Parle Milind; Chaturvedi Dev

    2012-01-01

    No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis) is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal proper...

  15. Comparison of the Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oils of Green Branches and Leaves of Egyptian Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck var. malesy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldahshan, Omayma A; Halim, Ahmed F

    2016-06-01

    The essential oils isolated from the leaves and green branches of the Egyptian navel orange trees were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. A total of 33 and 24 compounds were identified from the oils of the leaves and branches accounting for 96.0% and 97.9%, respectively, of the total detected constituents. The major ones were sabinene (36.5; 33.0%), terpinen-4-ol (8.2; 6.2%), δ-3-carene (7.0; 9.4%), limonene (6.8; 18.7%), trans-ocimene (6.7; 6.1%), and β-myrcene (4.5; 4.4%). The antimicrobial activities of both oils were evaluated using the agar-well diffusion method toward three representatives for each of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi. The oil of leaves was more effective as antimicrobial agent than that of the branches. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, and Aspergillus fumigatus were the most sensitive bacteria and fungi by the leaves oil.

  16. Characterization of aroma active compounds in fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by GC-MS and GC-O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yu; Xie, Bi Jun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yun; Fan, Gang; Yao, Xiao Lin; Pan, Si Yi

    2008-06-12

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) were used to determine the aromatic composition and aroma active compounds of fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit. Totals of 49 and 32 compounds were identified in fruit juice and peel oil, respectively. GC-O was performed to study the aromatic profile of Jinchen fruit juice and peel oil. A total of 41 components appeared to contribute to the aroma of fruit juice and peel oil. Twelve components were the odorants perceived in both samples. The aromatic compositions of fruit juice were more complex than that of peel oil. Ethyl butanoate, beta-myrcene, octanal, linalool, alpha-pinene, and decanal were found to be responsible for the aromatic notes in fruit juice and peel oil. Nineteen components have been perceived only in the juice and ten compounds were described as aromatic components of only the peel oil by the panelists. These differences lead to the different overall aroma between fruit juice and peel oil.

  17. Genomic Analysis of Terpene Synthase Family and Functional Characterization of Seven Sesquiterpene Synthases from Citrus sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alquézar, Berta; Rodríguez, Ana; de la Peña, Marcos; Peña, Leandro

    2017-01-01

    Citrus aroma and flavor, chief traits of fruit quality, are derived from their high content in essential oils of most plant tissues, including leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits. Accumulated in secretory cavities, most components of these oils are volatile terpenes. They contribute to defense against herbivores and pathogens, and perhaps also protect tissues against abiotic stress. In spite of their importance, our understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and genetic regulation of citrus terpene volatiles is still limited. The availability of the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) genome sequence allowed us to characterize for the first time the terpene synthase (TPS) family in a citrus type. CsTPS is one of the largest angiosperm TPS families characterized so far, formed by 95 loci from which just 55 encode for putative functional TPSs. All TPS angiosperm families, TPS-a, TPS-b, TPS-c, TPS-e/f, and TPS-g were represented in the sweet orange genome, with 28, 18, 2, 2, and 5 putative full length genes each. Additionally, sweet orange β-farnesene synthase, (Z)-β-cubebene/α-copaene synthase, two β-caryophyllene synthases, and three multiproduct enzymes yielding β-cadinene/α-copaene, β-elemene, and β-cadinene/ledene/allo-aromandendrene as major products were identified, and functionally characterized via in vivo recombinant Escherichia coli assays. PMID:28883829

  18. Genomic Analysis of Terpene Synthase Family and Functional Characterization of Seven Sesquiterpene Synthases from Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Alquézar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Citrus aroma and flavor, chief traits of fruit quality, are derived from their high content in essential oils of most plant tissues, including leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits. Accumulated in secretory cavities, most components of these oils are volatile terpenes. They contribute to defense against herbivores and pathogens, and perhaps also protect tissues against abiotic stress. In spite of their importance, our understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and genetic regulation of citrus terpene volatiles is still limited. The availability of the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck genome sequence allowed us to characterize for the first time the terpene synthase (TPS family in a citrus type. CsTPS is one of the largest angiosperm TPS families characterized so far, formed by 95 loci from which just 55 encode for putative functional TPSs. All TPS angiosperm families, TPS-a, TPS-b, TPS-c, TPS-e/f, and TPS-g were represented in the sweet orange genome, with 28, 18, 2, 2, and 5 putative full length genes each. Additionally, sweet orange β-farnesene synthase, (Z-β-cubebene/α-copaene synthase, two β-caryophyllene synthases, and three multiproduct enzymes yielding β-cadinene/α-copaene, β-elemene, and β-cadinene/ledene/allo-aromandendrene as major products were identified, and functionally characterized via in vivo recombinant Escherichia coli assays.

  19. Targeting excessive free radicals with peels and juices of citrus fruits: grapefruit, lemon, lime and orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Sousa, M João; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study between the antioxidant properties of peel (flavedo and albedo) and juice of some commercially grown citrus fruit (Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrusxaurantiifolia) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) was performed. Different in vitro assays were applied to the volatile and polar fractions of peels and to crude and polar fraction of juices: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation using beta-carotene-linoleate model system in liposomes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay in brain homogenates. Reducing sugars and phenolics were the main antioxidant compounds found in all the extracts. Peels polar fractions revealed the highest contents in phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and reducing sugars, which certainly contribute to the highest antioxidant potential found in these fractions. Peels volatile fractions were clearly separated using discriminant analysis, which is in agreement with their lowest antioxidant potential.

  20. DETERMINACIÓN DE PARÁMETROS FERMENTATIVOS PARA LA FORMULACIÓN Y OBTENCIÓN DE VINO DE NARANJA (Citrus sinensis DETERMINAÇÃO DE PARÃMETROS FERMENTATIVES PARA FORMULAÇÃO E OBTENÇÃO DE VINHO DE LARANJA [Citrus sinensis DETERMINARON OF FERMENTATIVES PARAMETERS TO FORMULATION AND PROCUREMENT OF WINE ORANGE (Citrus sinensis

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    JOSÉ LUIS HOYOS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue obtener una bebida alcohólica a partir de naranja valencia. Fueron dos etapas. En la primera se realizó una caracterización fisicoquímica del fruto. En la segunda, se determinó el efecto del grado de maduración, la adición de nutrientes y anhidro sulfuroso, por un periodo de 21 días de fermentación. La caracterización fisicoquímica mostró dos estados de maduración (cinco y seis aptos para el proceso de fermentación. La segunda etapa, los parámetros de inicio de fermentación fueron: 9g/Kg de ácido cítrico, 20°Brix, 63g de (NH42PO4/Kg de levadura, 160,37g de (NH42S0(4/Kg de levadura y 0.8mg de S0(2molecular/L El análisis estadístico arrojó para 73, un valor de azúcar residual de 60.1 g/dm³, grado alcohólico de 8.25°GL, viabilidad celular del 70%, acidez total de 0.9689%, acidez volátil de 0.090% y pH de 3.6, valores ajustados a la NTC 708, ideales para la fermentación de vinos dulces.O objetivo foiobter urna bebida alcoólica a partir de laranja "Valencia". Foram duas etapas. Naprimeira, realizou-se urna caracterização físico-química do fruto. Na segunda, determinou-se o efeito do grau de maduração, a acrésci-mo de nutrientes e anidros sulfuroso, porum período de 21 dias de fermentação. A caracterizagao físico-química apresentou dois estados de maduração (cinco e seis aptos para o processo de fermentação. Na segunda etapa, os parâmetros de inicio de fermentação foram: 9gKg de ácido cítrico, 20° Brix, 63g de (NH42PO4/Kg de levedura, 160,37g de (NH42S0(4/Kg de levedura e 0.8 mg de S02 molecularL. A análise estatística deupara T3, um valor de açúcar residual de 60.1 gdm3, grau alcoólico de 8.25° GL, viabilidade celular do 70%, acidez total de 0.9689%, acidez volátil de 0.090% e pH de 3.6, valores ajustados à NTC 708, ideáis para a fermentação de vinhos docesThe objective was to obtain an alcoholic beverage from orange valence. There were two stages. In the first, a

  1. 杀菌方式对无核雪柑汁香气成分的影响%Effects of Sterilization Methods on Aromatic Components of Orange Juice from Seedless ‘Xuegan’ Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭莉; 黄明发; 吴厚玖; 王华; 沈海亮; 何朝飞

    2012-01-01

    采用固相微萃取-气相色谱-质谱法分析橙汁香气成分,内标法半定量,研究了巴氏杀菌和微波杀菌对无核雪柑汁香气成分的影响。结果表明:无核雪柑鲜榨汁、巴氏杀菌汁、微波杀菌汁分别检测出56种、57种和53种香气成分,含量分别为1304.70、991.51mg/kg和887.67mg/kg,巴氏杀菌后橙汁香气成分总含量高于微波杀菌汁,但微波杀菌后叶醇、十二碳醛、γ-芹子烯等含量均高于巴氏杀菌处理,且未检出异味物质β-松油醇,2种杀菌处理后烃类、酯类物质总含量均下降,酮类物质上升。%Solid-phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(SPME-GC-MS) and internal standard method for semi-quantification were used to study the effects of pasteurization and microwave sterilization on aromatic components of seedless ‘Xuegan’ sweet orange juice.The results showed 56,57 and 53 aromatic compounds were respectively identified from native sweet orange juice,pasteurized sweet orange juice and microwave sterilized sweet orange juice,with respective contents of 1.30,0.99 mg/g and 0.89 mg/g.Although pasteurized sweet orange juice was richer in total aromatic compounds than microwave sterilized sweet orange,microwave sterilized sweet orange contained more cis-3-hexenol,dodecanal and γ-selinene than pasteurized sweet orange juice but no β-terpineol,responsible for off-odor.Pasteurization and microwave sterilization resulted in a decrease in the total content of esters and hydrocarbons and an increase in ketones.

  2. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of minimally processed 'Champagne' oranges (Citrus reticulata × Citrus sinensis in different packgings Características físico-químicas e microbiológicas de laranjas 'Champagne' (Citrus reticulata x Citrus sinensis minimamente processadas em diferentes embala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Silva Agostini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the level of minimal processing and modified atmosphere on the quality of 'Champagne' orange stored under refrigeration. The fruits were subjected to the following processing: a whole fruit without flavedo; b whole fruit without flavedo and albedo; and c segmented into wedges and packed as follows: uncoated packaging (control; polyethylene film; PVC film; gelatin-based edible films (3%; and polyesthyrene translucent plastic container with a lid. The minimally processed oranges were stored at 5 ± 1°C for 8 days and were subjected to physicochemical and microbiological analyses every two days. Greater weight loss occurred in fruits without flavedo and segmented, uncoated, and coated with the edible gelatin film During storage, there was a slight increase in Total Soluble Solids (TSS for the treatments with greater weight loss and reduction in acidity and ascorbic acid, regardless of the packaging type. The microbial counts did not exceed the acceptable limits in the treatments; however, higher counts were observed at the end of storage. The minimally processed fruit packed in lidded polystyrene containers and polyethylene and PVC films kept their overall fresh visual appearance with a few physicochemical and microbiological changes up to the 8th day of storage.Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar a influência do nível de processamento mínimo e atmosfera modificada na qualidade de laranja 'Champagne' minimamente processada armazenada sob refrigeração. Laranjas submetidas aos seguintes processos: a remoção do albedo; b remoção do albedo e flavedo; c segmentada em gomos, foram acondicionadas em embalagem sem revestimento (controle, com filme de polietileno, com filme de PVC, com revestimento comestível de gelatina a 3% e em pote plástico com tampa de poliestireno. O armazenamento dos frutos foi realizado a 5 ± 1 °C por oito dias, sendo submetidos a análises f

  3. 甜橙挥发油成分及药理研究进展%Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.(Osbeck)) of volatile oil constituents and pharmacological research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莹

    2011-01-01

    甜橙Citrus sinensis L.(Osbeck)为芸香科(Rutaceae)柑橘亚科柑橘属(Citrus)植物,属于乔木.西汉时(公元前117年)已有"黄柑、橙、楱"等关于甜橙的记载.甜橙又名广柑、黄果、橙子、新会橙,广橘、雪柑、印子柑[1],原产于我国南方及亚洲的中南半岛,在15世纪初期从中国传入欧洲,在15世纪末传入美洲.在我国,甜橙主产于四川、广东、台湾、广西、福建、湖南、江西、湖北等省.在全球各种柑橘的年产量中,甜橙所占的比例最大,其年产量约占橘类总产量的2/3[2].而且,甜橙品种在柑橘类中最为丰富,全世界品种达400个以上.

  4. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujitha, Mohanan V; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl(4) by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (111, 200, 220 and 222 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp(3) of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp(3) of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  5. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  6. 两类柑桔杂种砧木对脐橙(Citrus sinensis Osbeck)幼树生长和叶片糖营养含量年变化的影响%Effects of Two Kinds of Rootstocks on the Growth of Navel Orange(Citrus sinensis Osbeck)Young Tree and the Annual Changes in the Contents of Carbohydrates in Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周开兵; 郭文武; 夏仁学; 王贵元; 沈婷

    2004-01-01

    以体细胞杂种红桔+枳和红桔+粗柠檬、有性杂种Troyer枳橙和Swingle枳柚作砧木的耐湿脐橙(Citrus sinensis Osbeck)2年生嫁接苗为试材,通过盆栽试验研究了砧木对苗木生长和叶片糖营养含量年变化动态的影响.结果表明:红桔+枳的生长势和花量明显地强于和大于其它砧木,红桔+粗柠檬的生长和花量表现介于2种有性杂种之间.叶绿素a/b和类胡萝卜素含量在不同砧木间无显著差异,而不同砧木显著或极显著地影响叶绿素含量各指标.砧木影响叶片可溶性糖和淀粉含量年变化动态的基本特征.在休眠期,红桔+枳的可溶性糖和淀粉含量都高于2种有性杂种砧木,而红桔+粗柠檬则反之;在生长期,红桔+粗柠檬的可溶性糖和淀粉含量表现出高于有性杂种砧木的趋势,而红桔+枳则介于2种有性杂种砧木之间.同时还重点讨论了2种体细胞杂种砧木的利用价值.

  7. Comparative effect of Citrus sinensis and carbimazole on serum T 4 , T 3 and TSH levels

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    Okon Uduak Uduak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are previous independent reports on the anti-thyroid property of Citrus sinensis. This isoflavones and phenolic acid-rich natural agent is widely consumed as dietary supplement, thus the need to investigate its comparative effect with a standard anti-thyroid drug on T 4 , T 3 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels. Objective: To compare the effect of Citrus sinensis and carbimazole (CARB on blood levels of thyroid hormones (T 4 and T 3 and TSH. Materials and Methods: Male wistar albino rats weighing 100-150 g were employed in this research. The rats were randomly assigned to four groups of seven rats per group. Group I served as control and were administered distilled water while groups II-IV were administered with 1500 mg/kg of Citrus sinensis (fresh orange juice; FOJ, 0.1 μg/g of levothyroxine (LVT and 0.01 mg/g of CARB, respectively, per oral once daily for 28 days. The animals were sacrificed under chloroform anaesthesia and blood sample collected by cardiac puncture and processed by standard method to obtain serum. TSH, T 4 and T 3 were assayed with the serum using ARIA II automated radioimmunoassay instrument. Results: The results showed that TSH level was significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in LVT treated group compared with the FOJ group. T 4 was significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in the FOJ and CARB groups compared with the control and LVT groups. LVT significantly increased T 4 when compared with FOJ group. T 3 was significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in the CARB group compared with the control. Conclusion: These findings suggest that FOJ alters thyroid hormones metabolism to reduce their serum levels with a compensatory elevations of TSH level in a direction similar to CARB.

  8. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J.; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D.; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A.; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) and α-myrcene (2.79%); and in C. latifolia, d-limonene (51.64%), β-thujene (14.85%), β-pinene (12.79%) and γ-terpinene (12.8%). Antifungal properties were studied by agar diffusion method, where C. sinensis presented low activity and C. latifolia essential oil was effective to inhibit growing of C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii with IC50 of 6.90 and 2.92 μg respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for C. sinensis were in a range of 0.42–3.71 μg and for C. latifolia of 0.22–1.30 μg. Genotoxic evaluation was done by Ames test where none of the oils induced point mutations. Flow cytometry was used to measure toxicity in human oral epithelial cells, C. sinensis was not cytotoxic and C. latifolia was toxic at 21.8 μg. These properties might bestow different odontological applications to each essential oil. PMID:27137128

  9. Effect of Nigerian citrus (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) honey on ethanol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyesom, I

    2004-12-01

    The effect of Nigerian citrus (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) honey on ethanol metabolism was tested using 45 consenting individuals in apparent good health and between the ages of 25 and 35 years. The subjects were moderate social drinkers matched in terms of body weight and build. The results obtained showed that on average, honey significantly (p 0.05) reduced the degree of intoxication by 9%. Honey could be a promising anti-intoxicating agent, but its long-term biochemical evaluation, possibly as a complement in the management of alcohol intoxication, deserves further study.

  10. Respective Effects of Post-harvest Citrus Oil Induction and Vibration Stress Treatment on Oleocellosis in Jincheng Orange Peel(Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Jincheng)%采后橘油诱导及振动胁迫对贮藏期锦橙果皮油胞病的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽丹; 吴日章; 曾凯芳

    2011-01-01

    The respective effects of post-harvest citrus oil induction and vibration stress treatment on oleocellosis in Jincheng orange peel were studied based on collapse index and color index.Oleocellosis in Jincheng orange peel showed a gradual increase as the concentration of citrus oil increased.The most serious oleocellosis in citrus peel could arise from 100% citrus oil treatment.In addition,mechanical vibration stress also could induce oleocellosis in Jincheng orange peel.Mechanical vibration stress at 500 r/min revealed the most obvious effect on oleocellosis formation.Moreover,Jincheng oranges treated with citrus oil or mechanical vibration stress were also used to explore the effect of storage temperature on oleocellosis in their peels.As a result,Jincheng oranges stored at 20 or 5 ℃had the severest change in oleocellosis.However,Jincheng oranges had the slightest change in oleocellosis during 5 ℃ storage.Therefore,these results can provide a theoretical reference for exploring the mechanisms and control strategies of oleocellosis.%以果皮塌陷指数和变色指数为测定指标,研究橘油及振动胁迫处理对锦橙果皮油胞病的影响。结果表明:随橘油体积分数增大果皮油胞病逐渐加重,并以100%橘油处理对锦橙果皮油胞病的诱导效果最明显;锦橙果皮油胞病发病程度随着振动胁迫强度增大而加重,其中500r/min的诱导效果最显著。另外,在橘油和振动胁迫处理后的果实在不同温度下贮藏时,发现20℃贮藏的锦橙果皮油胞病最为严重,0℃冷害温度也能加剧果实油胞病的发生,5℃贮藏的锦橙果皮油胞病最轻微。研究结果为进一步研究柑橘油胞病的发生机理及防控措施提供理论依据。

  11. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck infected with Xylella fastidiosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra A. de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the genetic responses resulting from physiological changes that occur in plants displaying citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC symptoms, we adopted a strategy of comparing two EST libraries from sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck]. One of them was prepared with plants showing typical CVC symptoms caused by Xylella fastidiosa and the other with non-inoculated plants. We obtained 15,944 ESTs by sequencing the two cDNA libraries. Using an in silico hybridization strategy, 37 genes were found to have significant variation at the transcriptional level. Within this subset, 21 were up-regulated and 16 were down-regulated in plants with CVC. The main functional categories of the down-regulated transcripts in plants with CVC were associated with metabolism, protein modification, energy and transport facilitation. The majority of the up-regulated transcripts were associated with metabolism and defense response. Some transcripts associated with adaptation to stress conditions were up-regulated in plants with CVC and could explain why plants remain alive even under severe water and nutritional stress. Others of the up-regulated transcripts are related to defense response suggesting that sweet orange plants activate their defense machinery. The genes associated with stress response might be expressed as part of a secondary response related to physiological alterations caused by the infection.

  12. In vitro organogenesis optimization and plantlet regeneration in Citrus sinensis and C. limonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Weliton Antonio Bastos de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous genes can be introduced in plants by genetic transformation techniques. However, an efficient tissue culture system with high rates of plant recovery is necessary for gene introduction. This work aimed to define organogenesis and plant regeneration protocols for sweet orange varieties Natal, Valencia and Hamlin (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck and Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck which can be used in plant transformation experiments. Seeds of which teguments were removed, were germinated in vitro and maintained in the dark for three weeks, followed by one week at 16-h photoperiod (40 µmol m-2 s-1 and 27 ± 2°C. Organogenesis induction was done by introducing epicotyl segments in MT medium with 25 g L-1 sucrose and different BAP concentrations. After adventitious bud growth, the shoots were transferred to MT medium with either NAA or IBA (1 mg L-1, or absence of auxin, for rooting. The best results were obtained with 1 mg L-1 BAP for bud induction and 1 mg L-1 IBA for rooting for all three sweet orange cultivars. The use of 0.5-2.5 mg L-1 BAP, followed by 1 mg L-1 IBA were the best growth regulator combinations for bud induction and rooting, respectively, for 'Rangpur' lime. The protocols presented in this work are suitable for associations with genetic transformation experiments for these cultivars.

  13. Evaluation of limonoid production in suspension cell culture of Citrus sinensis

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    Elisângela Fumagali Gerolino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe use of cell and plant tissue culture techniques to produce economically important active metabolites has been growing. Among these substances are total limonoid aglycones, which are produced by "pera" orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, Rutaceae and have received considerable attention because of their anticancer actions. The main objective of the present study was to analyze and compare the levels of limonoid aglycones in seeds, callus cultures (originating from seeds, callus cultures (originating from hypocotyls, cell suspensions from hypocotyls cells, and cell suspensions from cotyledons. The cell cultures or C. sinensis were obtained by inoculating two strains of callus in MS medium supplemented with 2.0 µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 7.0 µM benzyl aminopurine, and 3% (w/v sucrose in the dark. The highest concentrations of limonoid aglycone that were obtained were observed in cotyledon cell lines (240 mg/100 g dry weight that were produced on day 21 of culture and hypocotyl cell lines on day 7 (210 mg/100 g dry weight. Explants of different origins under the same culture conditions had different limonoid aglycone content. The present results may suggest strategies for enhancing the productivity of biologically important limonoid aglycones and investigating the complex pathways of these secondary metabolites in plant tissue cultures.

  14. Citrus pulp pellets as an additive for orange bagasse silage

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    R. K. Grizotto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the fermentation profile of orange bagasse ensiled with three levels of dry matter (DM using citrus pulp pellets as a moisture-absorbing additive. Thirty experimental silos (3 treatments, 5 storage times, 2 replicates were prepared using 25-liter plastic buckets containing orange bagasse and three levels of pelleted citrus pulp (0, 6% and 20% as additive. A completely randomized design with repeated measures over time was used. The periods of anaerobic storage were 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days. Natural orange bagasse contained 13.9% DM, which increased to 19.1% and 25.5% with the inclusion of 6% and 20% citrus pulp pellets, respectively. The apparent density was inversely correlated with DM content and a higher level of compaction (982 kg/m3 was observed in the mass ensiled with the lowest DM level (13.9%. Additionally, lower compaction (910 kg/m3 was found in the mass ensiled with the additive. The chemical composition of the mass ensiled with or without citrus pulp pellets did not differ significantly in terms of protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, lignin or in vitro DM digestibility (P≥0.05, as expected. Thus, it was possible to analyze only the effect of the inclusion of citrus pulp pellets on the increase in DM content. The inclusion of 20% of the additive reduced (P<0.01 losses due to effluent (98% less and gas production (81% less compared to the control treatment at the end of the anaerobic storage period. In this treatment, a higher (P≤0.05 log number of lactic acid bacteria (4.61 log CFU/g was also observed compared to the other treatments, indicating that the increase in DM favored the growth of these bacteria. In addition, the low yeast count (about 1 log CFU/g sample and the pH below 4.0, which were probably due to the production of lactic and acetic acids, show that the orange bagasse is rich in fermentable soluble carbohydrates and is indicated for ensiling. In conclusion, orange bagasse can be

  15. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco R; Estornell, Leandro H; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Ramón, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, François; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes--a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-orange genomes--and show that cultivated types derive from two progenitor species. Although cultivated pummelos represent selections from one progenitor species, Citrus maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species Citrus reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, thus implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A Chinese wild 'mandarin' diverges substantially from C. reticulata, thus suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and facilitates sequence-directed genetic improvement.

  16. Efecto de cinco porta-injertos sobre la floración, fructificación y maduración de la naranja "frost valencia" Citrus sinensis (L. Obs. en condiciones del CNI-Palmira, Valle del Cauca Effect of five rootstocks in flowering, fructification and maturity in orange "frost Valencia" Citrus sinensis (L. obs. in Palmira, the Cauca Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holguín E. Carmen Lucía

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En el trabajo, realizado en el Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se consideraron 20 árboles cítricos injertados sobre Citrumelo 4475, Citrus amblycarpa, Citrange yuma, Trifoliado por Ruby Or y Mandarina Cleopatra. Se evaluaron los parámetros desarrollo floral, época e intensidad de la floración, porcentaje de cuajamiento, desarrollo del fruto, proceso de maduración y número y peso de frutos cosechados. La floración de la naranja ocurrió 15-30 días después de una lluvia; la máxima producción de frutos se presentó entre cinco y seis meses después de la máxima precipitación. Los porta-injertos mostraron diferenciase significativas en período de maduración y producción de frutos; no obstante, su potencial productivo fue relativamente similar (17-20%.

    The work was made at Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario, Palmira in the Cauca Valley. It was considered under observation twenty citric trees over five rootstocks: Citrumelo 4475, Citrus amblycarpa, Citrange yuma, Trifoliado por Ruby Or and Mandarina Cleopatra. Flower development, intensity of flower and fruit production, thicken percentage, fruit's development, fruits falled percentage, maduration process and number and weight at harvested fruits was evaluated. Flowering is induced between 15-30 days after any rain. The maximum fruit production was between five and six months after maximum precipitation. The rootstocks are different in maturity epoch, fruit's production; however there were not great differences in potential production (17-20%.

  17. Estudio de la floración, fructificación y producción de dos variedades de naranja, citrus sinensis L. Oesbeck, y dos de mandarina, Citrus reticulata blanco, en condiciones climáticas de Palmira, Valle del Cauca Analysis of flowering, fruitfulness, and production in two varieties of orange Citrus sinensis L. Oesbeck, and two varieties of tangerine Citrus reticulata blanco, in Palmira, the Cauca Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escobar T. William

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En el trabajo realizado en el Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se emplearon 12 árboles cítricos de nueve años, injertados sobre mandarina Cleopatra y pertenecientes a dos variedades de naranja: (Nativa del Chocó y Pera del Río y dos de mandarina (Dancy y Wamurco. Se evaluó el desarrollo floral, tomando dos árboles por variedad, la época e intensidad de la floración y fructificación, el porcentaje de cuajamiento, el desarrollo del fruto y el porcentaje de frutos caídos. Se realizó además un estudio de maduración y calidad del fruto. Los períodos de máxima floración ocurrieron a intervalos de 15 - 30 días después de lluvias intensas. El porcentaje de cuajamiento presenta diferencias entre variedades y entre árboles de una misma variedad, lo mismo que el desarrollo y caída de frutos. El punto de madurez fisiológica medido por la relación de sólidos solubles/acidez, muestra la precocidad de la naranja sobre la mandarina. El potencial productivo, dado por la relación entre la fructificación y la cosecha, presenta diferencias acentuadas entre variedades y fluctua entre 9.2 y 44.6%.

    This work was made at the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario, Palmira in the Cauca Valley. Twelve citric trees nine years old were used grafted with Cleopatra tangerine belonging to two oranges varieties: Nativa del  Chocó and Pera del Río and two tangerine varieties: Dancy and Wamurco. Flowering development was evaluated taking two trees per variety, epoch and intensity of flowering and fruitation, thicken percentage, fruit's development, fruits falled percentage. In addition, maduration and quality studies was made. Definite periods of highest flowering occurs in intervals of 15 to 30 days after intensity rainy day epoch. The thicken percentage of flowers and fruits, fruit's falled and fruit's development show differences among varieties and among trees of a single variety. The physiological maturity point

  18. Ulcer protective potential of standardized hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid isolated from Citrus sinensis

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    Papiya Bigoniya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals play an important role in stomach ulcer formation. The present investigation validates the anti ulcer activity of hesperidin, isolated from Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, Rutaceae, through the assessment of its antioxidant potential over stomach mucosal tissue by histological examination. Hesperidin was isolated from the dried peel of C. sinensis, and authenticated by TLC, IR and HPLC. The anti-ulcerogenic potential of this fruit was assessed using indomethacin and hypothermic restrain stress-induced ulceration models on rats at 150, 300 and 450 mg/kg dose orally. The parameters measured were gastric pH, volume, free and total acidity, ulcer index, and mucin, glutathione, super oxide dismutase, catalase and protein content. Hesperidin at 300 and 450 mg/kg dose showed significant (p < 0.01-0.001 increase in pH, decrease in acidity and ulcer index against indomethacin and hypothermic restrain stress, along with histological evidence of cytoprotection. Glutathione, super oxide dismutase, catalase and mucin levels increased significantly at 450 mg/kg (p <0.05-0.001 after indomethacin ulceration, whereas hypothermic restrain stress only increased glutathione and mucin levels. Hesperidin prevents oxidative cell injury by significant rise of super oxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase levels in gastric mucosa. Hesperidin allowed the regeneration of ulcerated tissue, and prevented hemorrhagic injury of gastric mucosa. The potential anti-ulcer effect of hesperidin may be due to antioxidant, mucoprotective and cytoprotective activities.

  19. Use of gamma radiations as a quarternary process to control the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on orange fruits (Citrus sinensis), variety 'pera' and observations on its effects on fruits quality; Utilizacao da radiacao gama como um processo quarentenario para o 'bicho furao' Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) em laranja pera (Citrus sinensis), e o estudo dos seus efeitos sobre a qualidade dos frutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Jose Tadeu de

    1997-07-01

    The objective of the present research was to determine if gamma radiations could be used as a quarentenary process against the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927), infesting oranges of the variety 'Pera', beyond observations on some fruit quality parameters. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranges from the control to 500 Gy. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranged from the control to 500 Gy. It was observed that over 200 Gy avoid emergency of viable adults of the orange fruit borer. Only one single female, and even these with wing malformations, emerged at the dose of 300 Gy. Dose up to 500 Gy did not interfere on fruits weight loss nor on the period of conservation of the oranges. Acidity, Brix value and skin resistance against perforation also did not showed any changes due to radiations. The irradiation of green fruit induced into a smaller loss of weight than when the fruits were irradiated in the mature stage. (author)

  20. Fertirrigação com diferentes doses de NPK e seus efeitos sobre a produção e qualidade de frutos de laranja (Citrus sinensis O. 'Valência' Fertigation with different doses of NPK and its effect on fruit yield and quality of valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZA HELENA DUENHAS

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado na Fazenda Três Irmãos, no município de Pratânia, Estado de São Paulo, com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da fertirrigação com diferentes doses de NPK aplicadas por meio de um sistema de irrigação por microaspersão na cultura da laranja em comparação com a adubação convencional irrigada e não irrigada. A avaliação dos efeitos da irrigação e da fertirrigação na cultura foi feita com base na produção e qualidade dos frutos colhidos, na análise de solo da camada de 0-20 cm e na análise de folhas. Os tratamentos não influenciaram significativamente a produtividade de acordo com a análise estatística realizada, embora se tenha observado uma tendência de maior produtividade nos tratamentos de fertirrigação para uma mesma dose. A análise de qualidade dos frutos não mostrou diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos. Os teores de alguns dos elementos obtidos na análise de solo apresentaram diferenças significativas proporcionadas pela irrigação e/ou modo de aplicação dos fertilizantes à cultura. A análise de folhas diferiu quanto aos teores de Ca, Mg e K.The experiment was carried out in Fazenda Três Irmãos, in the municipal district of Pratânia, State of São Paulo, with the objective of studying the effect of fertigation with different rates of applied NPK through a microsprinkler irrigation system for an orange crop in comparison with conventional fertilization with and without irrigation. The evaluation of the irrigation and fertigation effects on the crop was done considering the production and quality of the fruits, the 0-20 cm layer soil analysis and the leaves analyzes. The treatments did not influence the productivity significantly, although a tendency of larger productivity was observed for the fertigation treatments. The quality of the fruits was also not affected. The results of soil analysis indicated differences for some of the elements due to the irrigation

  1. Efficient Isolation of RNA from Fruit Peel and Pulp of Ripening Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck)%一种适合于成熟脐橙果皮和果肉的RNA提取方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永忠; 刘庆; 陶能国; 邓秀新

    2006-01-01

    An efficient RNA isolation method was established in the present paper. RNA extracted from peel and pulp collected at different ripening time was successfully used for reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) without DNase treatment, complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP), and RNA blotting. The A260/A230ratios were higher than 2. 0, and the A260/A280 ratios ranged from 1.65 to 1.92. In addition, the protocol is safe, convenient and proved to be widely applicable, since it was successfully employed for RNA extraction from citrus leaves, immature fruit, Poncirus seedling and citrus callus as well.%研究了一种适合脐橙果实成熟过程中有效的RNA提取方法.结果表明利用该方法从不同成熟时期果实的果皮和果肉中提取的RNA可以有效用于RT-PC,cDNA-AFLP和RNA杂交.其A260/A230的比值超过2.0,A260/A280的比值在1.65-1.92的范围之间.另外该方法也证明可以广泛用于柑橘叶片,未成熟的幼果,枳壳幼苗和柑橘愈伤组织的RNA提取,是一种安全、方便和适用性较广的RNA提取方法.

  2. Functional and Structural Characterization of a (+)-Limonene Synthase from Citrus sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morehouse, Benjamin R; Kumar, Ramasamy P; Matos, Jason O; Olsen, Sarah Naomi; Entova, Sonya; Oprian, Daniel D

    2017-03-28

    Terpenes make up the largest and most diverse class of natural compounds and have important commercial and medical applications. Limonene is a cyclic monoterpene (C10) present in nature as two enantiomers, (+) and (-), which are produced by different enzymes. The mechanism of production of the (-)-enantiomer has been studied in great detail, but to understand how enantiomeric selectivity is achieved in this class of enzymes, it is important to develop a thorough biochemical description of enzymes that generate (+)-limonene, as well. Here we report the first cloning and biochemical characterization of a (+)-limonene synthase from navel orange (Citrus sinensis). The enzyme obeys classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics and produces exclusively the (+)-enantiomer. We have determined the crystal structure of the apoprotein in an "open" conformation at 2.3 Å resolution. Comparison with the structure of (-)-limonene synthase (Mentha spicata), which is representative of a fully closed conformation (Protein Data Bank entry 2ONG ), reveals that the short H-α1 helix moves nearly 5 Å inward upon substrate binding, and a conserved Tyr flips to point its hydroxyl group into the active site.

  3. Difference of a citrus late-ripening mutant (Citrus sinensis) from its parental line in sugar and acid metabolism at the fruit ripening stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YongZhong; LIU Qing; XIONG JingJing; DENG XiuXin

    2007-01-01

    'Fengjiewancheng' (FW) (Citrus sinensis), a bud sport of 'Fengjie 72-1' navel orange (FJ), ripens one month later than its parental line. Differences in sugar and acid content and the transcript level of sucrose- and citric-metabolic enzymes for the two cultivars were investigated during fruit ripening. Resuits showed that both sugar and acid metabolisms of the mutant were affected by the mutation. In the pulp of FW, sugar content was significantly lower than that in FJ before 227 DAF (days after flowering)and higher at 263 DAF; the mutant's gene expression of one isoform of citrus sucrose synthase (CitSS1)was delayed, and its gene expression of citrus acid invertase (CitAI) was stronger than that in its parental cultivars at 207 and 263 DAF. In the peel, only the sucrose content in FW was significantly lower than those in FJ at the early periods of fruit ripening (165 and 187 DAF); however the transcripts of the sucrose-cleaving enzymes in the mutant were higher than those in FJ at different ripening points. As regards acid accumulation in the two cultivars, it was observed that in the pulp of the mutant, the malic acid content was significantly lower than that in its parental cultivars from 187 to 263 DAF, and in the peel, remarkably higher during the whole fruit ripening period. The citric acid content in both the pulp and the peel of FW was higher than that in those of FJ during the early ripening period and lower during the late ripening period, which were correspondingly associated in part with the higher transcript level of citrus mitochondrial citrate synthase (CitCS) and with lower or undetectable transcript level of citrus cytosolic aconitase (CitAC). Hence, it could be concluded that the mutation in FW affected sugar and acid metabolism, which might be related with other late-ripening phenotypes.

  4. Difference of a citrus late-ripening mutant (Citrus sinensis) from its parental line in sugar and acid metabolism at the fruit ripening stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    ‘Fengjiewancheng’(FW) (Citrus sinensis), a bud sport of‘Fengjie 72-1’navel orange (FJ), ripens one month later than its parental line. Differences in sugar and acid content and the transcript level of su-crose- and citric-metabolic enzymes for the two cultivars were investigated during fruit ripening. Re-sults showed that both sugar and acid metabolisms of the mutant were affected by the mutation. In the pulp of FW, sugar content was significantly lower than that in FJ before 227 DAF (days after flowering) and higher at 263 DAF; the mutant’s gene expression of one isoform of citrus sucrose synthase (CitSS1) was delayed, and its gene expression of citrus acid invertase (CitAI) was stronger than that in its pa-rental cultivars at 207 and 263 DAF. In the peel, only the sucrose content in FW was significantly lower than those in FJ at the early periods of fruit ripening (165 and 187 DAF); however the transcripts of the sucrose-cleaving enzymes in the mutant were higher than those in FJ at different ripening points. As regards acid accumulation in the two cultivars, it was observed that in the pulp of the mutant, the malic acid content was significantly lower than that in its parental cultivars from 187 to 263 DAF, and in the peel, remarkably higher during the whole fruit ripening period. The citric acid content in both the pulp and the peel of FW was higher than that in those of FJ during the early ripening period and lower during the late ripening period, which were correspondingly associated in part with the higher transcript level of citrus mitochondrial citrate synthase (CitCS) and with lower or undetectable transcript level of citrus cytosolic aconitase (CitAC). Hence, it could be concluded that the mutation in FW affected sugar and acid metabolism, which might be related with other late-ripening phenotypes.

  5. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes—a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-o...

  6. First record of Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, W P; da Silva, R A; Araújo, S C A; Oliveira, E L A; da Silva, W R

    2011-01-01

    Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) is recorded for the first time in citrus (Rutaceae) in Brazil. Specimens were obtained from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) sampled in the municipalities of Belém and Capitão Poço, and from mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata) from Tomé-Açu, state of Pará, Brazil.

  7. INFLUENCE OF CITRUS LEPROSIS ON THE MINERAL COMPOSITION OF Citrus sinensis LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. de L. Nogueira

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Citrus leprosis is the main viral disease affecting citrus in Brazil. Viral diseases can affect the mineral composition of citrus leaves, inducing mineral deficiencies. The aim of this work was to verify the influence of citrus leprosis on the mineral composition of citrus leaves, cultivar Pera. Orange seedlings were grown in pots containing sterile soil, and kept under greenhouse conditions. When plants had 15 to 20 leaves, they were infested with the mite Brevipalpus phoenicis, the leprosis vector, collected from infected citrus plants. Other plants were not infested, and were used as the control. Ninety days after infestation, all the infested plants presented leprosis lesions. The six upper leaves of each plant were collected and the determination of macro and micro-elements was performed. Leaves from the infected plants showed lower levels of N and higher levels of Ca, S and Fe, as compared to the control (= 0.05. Both treatments presented similar levels of P, K, Mg, Cu,Mn, Zn and B.A leprose dos citros é uma das principais doenças de citros no Brasil. As doenças causadas por vírus podem afetar a composição mineral de folhas de citros, induzindo deficiências minerais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a influência da leprose dos citros na composição mineral de folhas de citros, cultivar Pera. Seedlings de laranja foram crescidos em vasos contendo solo estéril e mantidos em casa de vegetação. Plantas com 15 a 20 folhas foram infestadas com ácaro da espécie Brevipalpus phoenicis, vetor da leprose dos citros, provenientes de plantas de citros com sintomas da doença. Outras plantas não foram infestadas, e serviram como controle. Após noventa dias, todas as plantas infestadas apresentavam lesões de leprose. Seis folhas da parte superior de cada planta foram coletadas para determinação dos teores de macro e micronutrientes. As folhas das plantas infectadas apresentaram níveis mais baixos de N e mais elevados de Ca, S

  8. Effect of feeding dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel and lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) leaves on growth performance, carcass traits, serum metabolites and antioxidant status in broiler during the finisher phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzawqari, M H; Al-Baddany, A A; Al-Baadani, H H; Alhidary, I A; Khan, Rifat Ullah; Aqil, G M; Abdurab, A

    2016-09-01

    The current experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding dried sweet orange peel (SOP) and lemon grass leaves (LGL) as feed additives on broiler growth performance, serum metabolites, and antioxidant status. A total of 192-day-old (Ross 308) broiler chickens were distributed randomly into 4 dietary treatments with 4 replicates per each treatment. The dietary treatments included a control diet without any feed additive (T1), a diet containing 0.8 % SOP (T2), a diet containing 0.8 % LGL (T3), and a diet containing combination of 0.4 % SOP + 0.4 % LGL (T4) was fed during the growth period from 22 to 42 days. Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass traits, serum components, and antioxidant status were measured. At the end of the experimental period, the results indicated that supplementation of SOP and LGL alone or in combination did not significantly (P > 0.05) affect BWG, FI, FCR, and carcass characteristics in broiler chickens. Serum total protein was increased significantly (P < 0.05) in T3 and T4 compared to the other treatments. Also, serum globulin increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the treated groups. Serum glucose, low density lipoprotein, triglyceride, and very low density lipoprotein decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the treatment groups, while cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein decreased in T2 compared to the other groups. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher total antioxidant status was observed in T2 compared to the other treatments. In conclusion, these results indicate that SOP, LGL, and their combination may positively modify some serum components and the antioxidant status without any beneficial effect on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens.

  9. Insecticidal evaluation of essential oils of Citrus sinensis L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) against housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Malik, Anushree; Satya, Santosh

    2012-05-01

    The housefly, Musca domestica L., is one of the most common insects, associated with vectoring of various etiological agents. In order to search for effective control agent, the essential oil of sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] was evaluated for its insecticidal activity against the larvae and pupae of housefly using contact toxicity and fumigation bioassays. In the contact toxicity assay, lethal concentration, LC(50) of C. sinensis essential oil against housefly larvae, varied between 3.93 and 0.71 μl/cm(2) for different observation days, while lethal time, LT(50), varied between 5.8 to 2.3 days. Mortality of larvae were significant with different concentrations (F = 2.79, df = 4, P housefly larvae, LC(50) of 71.2 and 52.6 μl/l was obtained in 24 and 48 h, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy of oil treated larvae revealed extreme dehydration and surface distortion while control larvae were free from any of the above symptoms and presented smooth surface, conforming effect of essential oil on housefly larvae. Percentage inhibition rate of oil against housefly pupae was 27.3-72.7% for contact toxicity and 46.4-100% for fumigation assay. Compositional analysis of C. sinensis essential oil using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed D: -limonene (73.24%), α-pinene (5.86%) and myrcene (4.45%) as major components whereas its vapour profile (solid-phase micro extraction-GC/MS) was dominated by D: -limonene at 92.57%. Significant activity of C. sinensis essential oil against larvae and pupae of housefly, pave the way for its use as eco-friendly housefly control measure.

  10. Volatile and nonvolatile flavor chemical evaluation of USDA orange-mandarin hybrids for comparison to sweet orange and mandarin fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three citrus hybrids, containing 50-75% sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) genome in their pedigrees and similar to sweet orange in fruit size, color and taste, were tested for their potential to be classified as new “sweet orange” cultivars. 'Hamlin', ‘Midsweet’, and three other early to mid-season swe...

  11. Caipira sweet orange + Rangpur lime: a somatic hybrid with potential for use as rootstock in the Brazilian citrus industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Januzzi Mendes-da-Glória

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Protoplast culture following polyethylene glycol-induced fusion resulted in the regeneration of somatic hybrid plants between Caipira sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck and Rangpur lime (C. limonia L. Osbeck. The plants were confirmed as somatic hybrids by leaf morphology, chromosome number and RAPD profile. All regenerated plants were tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36, with intermediate leaf morphology and complementary RAPD banding profile of both parents. This combination may be useful as a rootstock for the citrus industry in Southeastern Brazil since this somatic hybrid could combine the drought tolerance and vigor of Rangpur lime with the blight tolerance of Caipira sweet orange.Híbridos somáticos de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck e limão Cravo (C. limonia L. Osbeck foram regenerados após a fusão (polietileno glicol e cultura de protoplastos. Os híbridos somáticos foram confirmados pela análise da morfologia das folhas, determinação do número de cromossomos e marcadores moleculares (RAPD. Todas as plantas analisadas revelaram-se tetraplóides (2n = 4x = 36, possuíam folhas de morfologia intermediária e uma combinação do padrão de bandas de RAPD de ambos os parentais. Esta combinação pode se tornar útil como porta-enxerto para a Região Sudeste da indústria citrícola brasileira. Este híbrido somático potencialmente combinará as características de tolerância à seca e o vigor do limão Cravo com a tolerância ao declínio da laranja Caipira.

  12. ORANGE: RANGE OF BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parle Milind

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal properties of orange include anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti- diabetic, cardio- protective, anti-cancer, anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-Tubercular, anti-asthmatic and anti-hypertensive. Phytochemically, whole plant contains limonene, citral, neohesperidin, naringin, rutin, rhamnose, eriocitrin, and vitamin-C. In the present review article, a humble attempt is made to compile all the strange facts available about this tasty fruit.

  13. Phenology of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) and associated parasitoids on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, in Punjab Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shouket Zaman; Arif, Muhammad Jalal; Hoddle, Christina D; Hoddle, Mark S

    2014-10-01

    The population phenology of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, was monitored weekly for 110 wk on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, at two different research sites in Faisalabad, Punjab Pakistan. Citrus flush growth patterns were monitored and natural enemy surveys were conducted weekly. Flush patterns were similar for kinnow and sweet orange. However, flush on sweet orange was consistently more heavily infested with Asian citrus psyllid than kinnow flush; densities of Asian citrus psyllid eggs, nymphs, and adults were higher on sweet orange when compared with kinnow. When measured in terms of mean cumulative insect or Asian citrus psyllid days, eggs, nymphs, and adults were significantly higher on sweet orange than kinnow. Two parasitoids were recorded attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs, Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam and Agarwal). The dominant parasitoid species attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs on kinnow and sweet orange was T. radiata, with parasitism averaging 26%. D. aligarhensis parasitism averaged 17%. Generalist predators such as coccinellids and chrysopids were collected infrequently and were likely not important natural enemies at these study sites. Immature spiders, in particular, salticids and yellow sac spiders, were common and may be important predators of all Asian citrus psyllid life stages. Low year round Asian citrus psyllid densities on kinnow and possibly high summer temperatures, may, in part, contribute to the success of this cultivar in Punjab where Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the putative causative agent of huanglongbing, a debilitating citrus disease, is widespread and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid.

  14. The genome sequence of an isolate of Indian citrus ringspot virus infecting the sweet orange in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Prabha; Baranwal, V K

    2012-11-01

    Whole-genome sequencing of an isolate of Mandarivirus infecting the sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L) Blanco] in the western part of India (Pune) was done. The single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome of Indian citrus ringspot virus (ICRSV) Pune has 7,560 nucleotides (nt), excluding a poly(A) tail, comprised of 27.98% (2,115 nt) A, 32.12% (2,428 nt) C, 19.68% (1,488 nt) G, and 20.22% (1,529 nt) T residues. The genome, organized into six open reading frames (ORFs), shares 97.7% sequence identity with the complete genome of the ICRSV K1 isolate (AF406744.1) infecting the kinnow (Citrus reticulate Blanco, a hybrid between King and Willow mandarins) in north India. The ICRSV Pune genome formed a complex secondary structure with a large number of unpaired cytosine-rich regions, and recombination analysis highlighted potential recombination in the ICRSV genome.

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: valencia orange [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _sinensis_S.png Citrus_sinensis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus+sinensis&t=L ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus+sinensis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/...icon.cgi?i=Citrus+sinensis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus+sinensis&t=NS ...

  16. Composition of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv «Maltaise demi-sanguine» juice. A comparison between organic and conventional farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letaief, Hend; Zemni, Hassen; Mliki, Ahmed; Chebil, Samir

    2016-03-01

    Juices from conventionally and organically grown Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Maltaise demi-sanguine blood orange were investigated for quality parameters and antioxidant capacity. This blood orange variety is particularly rich in linoleic, linolenic acids, vitamin C and phenolic compounds. The quantitative determination of these compounds in cv. Maltaise demi-sanguine juice produced under conventional and organic agricultural practices revealed significant differences. The organically grown fruits contained more hesperidin and total fatty acids amounts as well as a higher sugar content and a lower acidity. Conventionally-grown fruit was found to have an increase in antioxidant capacity. In addition to having higher antioxidant activity conventionally-grown fruit had an observed increase in the concentration of phenolic acids and most flavonoids. The results of this study indicated that organically-grown Maltaise demi-sanguine juice contained an increased concentration of hesperidin which has been observed to possess biological activities associated with a healthy life.

  17. GUS Gene Expression Driven by A Citrus Promoter in Transgenic Tobacco and 'Valencia' Sweet Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work was the transformation of tobacco and ‘Valencia’ sweet orange with the GUS gene driven by the citrus phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene promoter (CsPP). Transformation was accomplished by co-cultivation of tobacco and ‘Valencia’ sweet orange explants with Agrobacteriu...

  18. Photodynamic inactivation of conidia of the fungus Colletotrichum abscissum on Citrus sinensis plants with methylene blue under solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Júlia C; Brancini, Guilherme T P; Rodrigues, Gabriela B; Silva-Junior, Geraldo José; Bachmann, Luciano; Wainwright, Mark; Braga, Gilberto Ú L

    2017-09-14

    Antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (APDT) is a promising light based approach to control diseases caused by plant-pathogenic fungi. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of APDT with the phenothiazinium photosensitizer methylene blue (MB) under solar radiation on the germination and viability of conidia of the pathogenic fungus Colletotricum abscissum (former Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato). Experiments were performed both on petals and leaves of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) in different seasons and weather conditions. Conidial suspensions were deposited on the leaves and petals surface, treated with the PS (25 or 50μM) and exposed to solar radiation for only 30min. The effects of APDT on conidia were evaluated by counting the colony forming units recovered from leaves and petals and by direct evaluating conidial germination on the surface of these plant organs after the treatment. To better understand the mechanistic of conidial photodynamic inactivation, the effect of APDT on the permeability of the conidial plasma membrane was assessed using the fluorescent probe propidium iodide (PI) together with flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. APDT with MB and solar exposure killed C. abscissum conidia and prevented their germination on both leaves and petals of citrus. Reduction of conidial viability was up to three orders of magnitude and a complete photodynamic inactivation was achieved in some of the treatments. APDT damaged the conidial plasma membrane and increased its permeability to PI. No damage to sweet orange flowers or leaves was observed after APDT. The demonstration of the efficacy of APDT on the plant host represents a further step towards the use of the method for control phytopathogens in the field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An in silico analysis of the key genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano R. Lucheta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus species are known by their high content of phenolic compounds, including a wide range of flavonoids. In plants, these compounds are involved in protection against biotic and abiotic stresses, cell structure, UV protection, attraction of pollinators and seed dispersal. In humans, flavonoid consumption has been related to increasing overall health and fighting some important diseases. The goals of this study were to identify expressed sequence tags (EST in Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck corresponding to genes involved in general phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and the key genes involved in the main flavonoids pathways (flavanones, flavones, flavonols, leucoanthocyanidins, anthocyanins and isoflavonoids. A thorough analysis of all related putative genes from the Citrus EST (CitEST database revealed several interesting aspects associated to these pathways and brought novel information with promising usefulness for both basic and biotechnological applications.

  20. In vitro antimicrobial status of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. fruit peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Dhiman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The present investigation evaluated the antimicrobial potential of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. (Rutaceae fruit peel. There is a basis for the traditional use of this plant for local health remedies. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of C. sinensis fruit peel was tested against three bacterial and two fungal strains. Turbidimetric or tube dilution method and paper disc diffusion method were followed. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Results: The C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.78 μg/ ml and minimum bactericidal concentration of 6.25 μg/ml, and appreciable antifungal activity with minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5 μg/ml. The phytochemistry of C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract revealed the presence of carbohydrates (reducing sugars, hexose sugars, non-reducing polysaccharides, gums, and mucilages, flavonoid glycosides, coumarin glycosides, volatile oils, organic acids, fats and fixed oils. Conclusion: Most of the organic chemical constituents reported are aromatic phenolic compounds, which are known for their wide spectra of antimicrobial activity. Therefore, the bacteriostatic and fungistatic action of the tested extract may be attributed to the presence of polyphenolic compounds. In short, C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract is a potential source of natural antimicrobials.

  1. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G. Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco R.; Estornell, Leandro H.; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V.; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Ramón, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, François; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G.; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The domestication of citrus, is poorly understood. Cultivated types are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species, whose identities and contributions remain controversial. By comparative analysis of a collection of citrus genomes, including a high quality haploid reference, we show that cultivated types were derived from two progenitor species. Though cultivated pummelos represent selections from a single progenitor species, C. maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species, C. reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A wild “mandarin” from China exhibited substantial divergence from C. reticulata, suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and enables sequence-directed genetic improvement. PMID:24908277

  2. First record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Ecuador infesting urban citrus and orange jasmine trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, J F; Chica, E J

    2014-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), were collected in the Guayaquil, Samborondón, and Durán cantons in coastal Ecuador. Psyllids were found in high numbers in citrus (Citrus spp., Sapindales: Rutaceae) and orange jasmine (Murraya exotica [L.] Jack, Sapindales: Rutaceae) trees within the Guayaquil-Samborondon-Duran conurbation; however, none was found during scoutings in the main citrus producing areas in coastal Ecuador. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of D. citri in Ecuador and the Pacific coastal plain of South America.

  3. Metabolomic Response to Huanglongbing: Role of Carboxylic Compounds in Citrus sinensis Response to 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' and Its Vector, Diaphorina citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killiny, Nabil; Nehela, Yasser

    2017-08-01

    Huanglongbing, a destructive disease of citrus, is caused by the fastidious bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' and transmitted by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. The impact of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection or D. citri infestation on Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) leaf metabolites was investigated using gas chromatography mass spectrometry, followed by gene expression analysis for 37 genes involved in jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), and proline-glutamine pathways. The total amino acid abundance increased after 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection, while the total fatty acids increased dramatically after infestation with D. citri, compared with control plants. Seven amino acids (glycine, l-isoleucine, l-phenylalanine, l-proline, l-serine, l-threonine, and l-tryptophan) and five organic acids (benzoic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid, SA, and succinic acid) increased in 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected plants. On the other hand, the abundance of trans-JA and its precursor α-linolenic increased in D. citri-infested plants. Surprisingly, the double attack of both D. citri infestation and 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection moderated the metabolic changes in all chemical classes studied. In addition, the gene expression analysis supported these results. Based on these findings, we suggest that, although amino acids such as phenylalanine are involved in citrus defense against 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection through the activation of an SA-mediated pathway, fatty acids, especially α-linolenic acid, are involved in defense against D. citri infestation via the induction of a JA-mediated pathway.

  4. Trailers transporting oranges to processing plants move Asian citrus psyllids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (citrus greening) is one of the most serious of citrus diseases. Movement of the disease occurs as a result of natural vector-borne infection and by movement of plant material. We demonstrate here that Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (vector of citrus greening pathogens) can be transported i...

  5. BIOLOGY OF POLLINATION OF Citrus sinensis VARIETY ‘PERA RIO’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GENEROSA SOUSA RIBEIRO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aspects related to the floral biology of Citrus sinensis ‘Pera Rio’ variety were studied in the present work aiming to obtain information about the pollination ecology in the local agriculture. Studies of flowering, anthesis, pollen / ovule ratio, stigmatic receptivity, pollen viability, nectar characterization and floral visitors were carried out. From the data studied, the following information was obtained: C. sinensis variety ‘Pera Rio’ flourishes in two annual periods (dry and rainy, the anthesis occurs from 9:00 AM with duration of 24 hours, during which period stigma receptivity, pollen viability and nectar secretion are highly significant, demonstrating that the species also possesses characteristics of allogenic plants. Apis mellifera was a floral visitor, with a greater number of individuals with a Relative Frequency (RF of 51.1%. Melipona scutellaris obtained second place in visits with RR = 23.6%; Followed by Trigona spinipes with FR = 17.7%. The two seasons (dry and rainy presented high similarity (Morisita index = 0.64. C. sinensis has floral biology favorable to cross pollination and bees A. mellifera and M. scutellaris are potential pollinators of this fruit in the conditions in the region of the Recôncavo Baiano. The reproductive system of C. sinensis is mixed, being favorable to entomophilic pollination.

  6. Effect of Cold Storage and On-tree Storage on Fruit Carotenoid Composition and Content of ' Redflesh navel orange' (Citrus sinensis Osbeck)%冷藏和留树保鲜对红肉脐橙果实类胡萝卜素种类和含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璠; 伊华林; 郭琳琳

    2007-01-01

    红肉脐橙(Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv.‘Redflesh navel orange’)丰产优质,是唯一果肉粉红且着色均匀的甜橙品种,源自华盛顿脐橙的芽变,20世纪90年代初由美国引进,于2001年被湖北省农作物品种审定委员会认定为新品种。已有研究证明:红肉脐橙果肉中的主要色素为番茄红素和β-胡萝b素。但通过对红肉脐橙果实进行冷藏及留树保鲜处理,发现其果实品质及果皮、果肉颜色与明亮度变化有些不同。

  7. 通过机械加工获得的甜橙油(ISO3140:2005)%The International Standard of Crude or Rectified Oil of sweet orange(Citrus sinensis(L.)Osbeck),obtained by mechanical treatment(ISO 3140:2005)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐易

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 目的 本标准规定了甜橙油[Citrus sinensis(L.)Osbeck]的某些特性,以便对其 质量进行评估. 2 规范性引用文件 下列规范性文件所包含的条款,通过在本标准中的引用而成为本标准的条款.凡是注日期的引用文件,其随后所有的修改单(不包括勘误的内容)或修订版均不适用于本标准,然而鼓励根据本标准达成协议的各方研究是否可使用这些标准的最新版本.凡是不注日期的引用文件,其最新版本适用于本标准.

  8. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using citrus sinensis peel extract and its antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviya, S.; Santhanalakshmi, J.; Viswanathan, B.; Muthumary, J.; Srinivasan, K.

    2011-08-01

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was achieved by a novel, simple green chemistry procedure using citrus sinensis peel extract as a reducing and a capping agent. The effect of temperature on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles was carried out at room temperature (25 °C) and 60 °C. The successful formation of silver nanoparticles has been confirmed by UV-vis, FTIR, XRD, EDAX, FESEM and TEM analysis and their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative), and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) has been studied. The results suggest that the synthesized AgNPs act as an effective antibacterial agent.

  9. Microscopia de fluorescência e varredura em protoplastos de Citrus sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    de Mello, Paulo Cesar; Sartoretto, Laudete Maria; Soares Chaves, Ana Lúcia

    2011-01-01

    A tecnologia de isolamento de protoplastos é uma importante ferramenta para estudos da bioquímica e fisiologia da membrana plasmática e regeneração da parede celular. Protoplastos de laranja “Caipira” (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) foram enzimaticamente isolados a partir de células em suspensão e posteriormente cultivados em meio líquido. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a viabilidade de protoplastos de laranja “Caipira” recém isolados por meio do corante Diacetato de Fluoresceína (FDA), ...

  10. Potencial antifúngico de Citrus sinensis y Citrus nobilis sobre el crecimiento de Rhizopus stolonifer y Colletotrichum gloeosporioides en papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor Jajaira Narváez Baque

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se evalúo el efecto antifúngico de los aceites esenciales de hojas y pericarpio de Citrus sinensis (Naranja y Citrus nobilis (Mandarina sobre el crecimiento de los hongos Rhizopus stolonifer y Colletotrichum gloeosporioides aislados de papaya Maradol. Se aplicó un análisis estadístico con un arreglo factorial de bloques A(2xB(2xC(3 con 2 repeticiones considerando como Factor A: Aceites esenciales (Citrus sinensis y Citrus nobilis, Factor B: Origen de los aceites esenciales (hojas y pericarpio, Factor C: Concentraciones (1%, 2% y 4%; se evaluó durante siete días el crecimiento radial de los hongos y posteriormente se realizó el conteo de esporas en la cámara de Neubauer. Para el análisis de datos se empleó el paquete estadístico StatGraphics; para la separación de medias de los niveles de los tratamientos se realizó la prueba de significación Tukey (p<0.05. Los mejores resultados, tanto para la inhibición de crecimiento radial, como de esporas fueron el aceite esencial de Citrus sinensis (a0, obtenido de las hojas (b0 y con 4% de concentración de aceite en la solución empleada (c2 en los dos microorganismos aplicados: Rhizopus stolonifer y Colletorichum gloeosporioides.

  11. Survey of current crop management practices in a mixed-ricefield landscape, Mekong Delta, Vietnam - potential of habitat manipulation for improved control of citrus leafminer and citrus red mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mele, van P.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2002-01-01

    In the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (CLM) and the citrus red mite Panonychus citri are major pests in both sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and Tieu mandarin (C. reticulata). Survey data indicate that these pest problems might be aggravated after farmers have comp

  12. Behavioral assay on Asian citrus psyllid attraction to orange jasmine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is an important pest because it transmits a bacterium putatively responsible for huanglongbing, a devastating citrus disease. Research on ACP chemical ecology is of interest with respect to identifying attractants and repellents for managing the psyllid. We report on a...

  13. Short communication: in vitro assessment of antioxidant, antibacterial and phytochemical analysis of peel of Citrus sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Basharat; Dar, Kamran Khurshid; Ali, Shaukat; Awan, Uzma Azeem; Nayyer, Abdul Qayyum; Ghous, Tahseen; Andleeb, Saiqa

    2015-01-01

    Antibacterial effect of Citrus sinensis peel extracts was evaluated against several pathogenic bacteria associated with human and fish infections viz., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Serratia marcesnces, Shigella flexneri, Enterobacter amnigenus, Salmonella Typhimurium and Serratia odorifera. Methanol, ethanol, chloroform and diethyl ether solvents were used for extraction. In vitro antibacterial activity was analyzed by agar well and agar disc diffusion methods. It was found that ethanol extract showed highly significant inhibition of E. coli and K. pneumonia (12.6±0.94 mm and 11.6±1.2 mm) whereas methanol extract of C. sinensis also showed high zone of inhibition of S. odorifera (10.0±2.16 mm). The potential activity of active extracts was assessed and also compared with standard antibiotics through activity index formulation. The order of antioxidant activity through ABTS·+ and DPPH free radical scavenging activity was ethanol>methanol>chloroform>diethyl ether. Phytochemical screening of all solvents had determined the presence of terpenoids, alkaloids, steroids, glycosides and flavonoids. It was also found that Chloroform/Methanol (5:5) and Butanol/Ethanol/Water (4:1:2.2) solvent systems showed significant separation of active phytochemical constituents. These findings reveal the potential use of C. sinensis peel to treat infectious diseases, which are being caused by microorganisms.

  14. Biodiesel from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seed oil, a potential non-food feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil extracted from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seeds was investigated as a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel. The biodiesel fuel was prepared by sodium methoxide-catalyzed transesterification of the oil with methanol. Fuel properties that were determined include cetane numb...

  15. Evaluación del efecto de diferentes cepas de levadura (montrachet, k1-v1116, ec-1118, 71b-1122 y ivc-gre ®) y clarificantes sobre los atributos sensoriales del vino de naranja criolla (citrus sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Olivero, Rafael E; Aguas M, Yelitza; Cury R., Katia

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of effect of various strains of yeast (Montrachet, K1-V1116, EC-1118, 71B-1122 y IVC-GRE ®) and clearer on the sensory attributes orange wine (Citrus sinensis) RESUMEN En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto de diferentes cepas de levadura (Montrachet, K1-V1116, EC-1118, 71B-1122 y IVC-GRE ®) sobre los atributos sensoriales del vino de naranja. Estos atributos fueron medidos utilizando la escala modificada de UC Davis. En una prueba de ordenamiento para determinar el mejor tratamiento ...

  16. Evaluation of the effects of Citrus sinensis seed oil on blood glucose, lipid profile and liver enzymes in rats injected with alloxan monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C Chilaka

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: However, further studies need to be carried out to show its mechanism of action and to isolate the active ingredient in the Citrus sinensis seed oil that is responsible for these actions.

  17. Microwave-assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Origanum majorana and Citrus sinensis leaf and their antibacterial activity: a green chemistry approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Darshan; Rawat, Deepti; Isha

    2016-01-01

    .... Here, we report a simple and green method for the biosynthesis of SNPs using aqueous leaf extract of Origanum majorana and Citrus sinensis as a novel bio source of cost-effective, non-hazardous...

  18. Citrus sinensis leaf petiole and blade colonization by Xylella fastidiosa: details of xylem vessel occlusion Colonização de pecíolo e folha de Citrus sinensis por Xylella fastidiosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alves

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC, caused by Xylella fastidiosa, is an important disease of citrus in Brazil. X. fastidiosa is restricted to xylem vessels of plants and knowledge regarding xylem colonization is still limited. Our goal was to verify how this bacterium colonizes and spreads within xylem vessels of sweet orange Citrus sinensis cv. Pêra. Petioles and pieces of leaf blades from naturally infected plant exhibiting characteristic symptoms were prepared for light microscopy (LM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and immunogold labeling (IGL. Petioles from healthy plants were used as control. IGL results, using an antibody against wall hemicelluloses, revealed that the pit membrane of vessels was altered. Bacterial cells were observed in the pit between adjacent vessels. Results support the contention that X. fastidiosa produces cellulases to reach adjacent vessels. SEM revealed that colonization of sweet orange started with X. fastidiosa cells attaching to the xylem wall, followed by an increase in the number of bacterial cells, the production of fibrous material, and finally vessel occlusion by biofilm composed of copious amounts of amorphous material, strands and cells. Phenolic materials, hyperplasia and hypertrophy were noticed in leaves with gummy material. Xylem vessels frequently contained an unknown needle-like, crystallized matter blocking the vessel.A clorose variegada dos citrus (CVC, causada por uma bactéria restrita ao xilema (Xylella fastidiosa, é uma importante doença de citros no Brasil, entretanto, pouco se sabe sobre a colonização dos vasos do xilema pela bactéria. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar como X. fastidiosa invade os vasos adjacentes do xilema e algumas das alterações expressas por plantas de laranja Pêra. Foram coletadas 15 amostras de pecíolos e áreas das folhas de plantas com sintomas característicos da doença, as quais foram preparadas para

  19. Genome-Wide Comparative Analysis Reveals Similar Types of NBS Genes in Hybrid Citrus sinensis Genome and Original Citrus clementine Genome and Provides New Insights into Non-TIR NBS Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Yunsheng Wang; Lijuan Zhou; Dazhi Li; Liangying Dai; Amy Lawton-Rauh; Pradip K. Srimani; Yongping Duan; Feng Luo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we identified and compared nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain-containing genes from three Citrus genomes (C. clementina, C. sinensis from USA and C. sinensis from China). Phylogenetic analysis of all Citrus NBS genes across these three genomes revealed that there are three approximately evenly numbered groups: one group contains the Toll-Interleukin receptor (TIR) domain and two different Non-TIR groups in which most of proteins contain the Coiled Coil (CC) domain. Motif anal...

  20. Effect of dried Citrus sinensis peel on gastrointestinal microbiota and immune system traits of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ebrahimi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred broiler chickens (Ross-308 were used in a completely randomised study to evaluate the effects of supplementing the feed with different levels of dried Citrus sinensis peel (DCSP on the gasrointestinal microbial population and immune system traits. Feed was supplemented with different DCSP amounts: 0.25% w/w (DCSP-0.25, 0.5% w/w (DCSP-0.50, 0.75% w/w (DCSP-0.75, and 1% w/w (DCSP-1. Control diet (DCSP-0, with no feed additition was used as reference. The study involved five treatments in a time frame of six weeks (four replicates per treatment and each replicate had 10 chickens. Data analysis was performed using SAS software and mean comparison was performed using the Duncan test. The results allowed to observe that the mean of Escherichia coli in caecum on day 42 was significantly different (P>0.05 but did not affect other gastrointestinal microbial population traits (P>0.05. The mean of total sheep red blood cells and immunoglobulin G and M (IgG and IgM on day 28 (P>0.05 were also determined. Total sheep red blood cells on day 42 were significantly different (P<0.05. The IgG and IgM mean titers on days 28 and 42 was of no significant difference (P>0.05. Supplementing the feed with Citrus sinensis had no significant effect on Newcastle disease on day 42 (P>0.05. The mean value for hemagglutination inhibition on day 42 was significantly different (P<0.05. It can be then concluded that DCSP feed supplemention ameliorated the gastrointestinal microbiota and immune system traits.

  1. Citrus Sinensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    metropolis (Central market, Kasuwar daji and Old market respectively), and transported immediately to mycology laboratory ... environmental condition, only a small proportion of the kind of microorganism(s) present will be able to grow rapidly ...

  2. (Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Revuelta Llano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Los desechos de naranja pueden ser un importante subproducto en las plantas procesadoras para obtener el jugo y los aceites esenciales. Varios parámetros bromatológicos, tanto del material fresco como del fermentado, fueron investigados para caracterizar el potencial nutricional y fermentativo de los desechos de naranja con vistas a la producción de ensilajes. El ensilaje directo sin el uso de aditivos es un método alternativo, pero se presenta un alto contenido de alcohol en relación con los carbohidratos solubles del material inicial. El deterioro aeróbico ocurrió sin el crecimiento, visible a simple vista, de mohos sobre la superficie del ensilado durante el ensayo de laboratorio. El ensilaje mixto de desecho de naranja–leucaena presentó un alto contenido de alcohol. Por otra parte, el tratamiento que emplea urea al 0,5 % y el de la proporción desecho de naranja–pescado (2:1 mostraron adecuadas propiedades químicas y podrían ser recomendados a los productores.

  3. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus is present in orange jasmine and Asian citrus psyllid reared from jasmine at low titers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange jasmine, Murraya paniculata, is a common horticultural plant in Florida, and an alternate host of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. Orange jasmine has also been reported to harbor the bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agent of huanglongbing disease. We ...

  4. Occurrence, molecular characterisation, and pathogenicity of Neoscytalidium dimidiatum on Citrus in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polizzi, G.; Aiello, D.; Castello, I.; Vitale, A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.; Gentile, A.; La Malfa, S.

    2011-01-01

    During 2008 and 2009, a new disease was noticed in eastern Sicily (Italy) in two re-grafted citrus orchards (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) on sour orange rootstock. Symptoms consisted of blight of vigorously growing shoots and a sooty canker on shoots and rootstock trunks. A Scytalidium-like fungus w

  5. Occurrence, molecular characterisation, and pathogenicity of Neoscytalidium dimidiatum on citrus in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polizzi, G.; Aiello, D.; Castello, I.; Vitale, A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    During 2008 and 2009, a new disease was noticed in eastern Sicily (Italy) in two re-grafted citrus orchards (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) on sour orange rootstock. Symptoms consisted of blight of vigorously growing shoots and a sooty canker on shoots and rootstock trunks. A Scytalidium-like fungus w

  6. Spasmolytic and Antibacterial Activity of Two Citrus sinensis Osbeck Varieties Cultivated in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Recillas, Amanda; Arroyo-Herrera, Ana Ly; Araujo-León, Jesús Alfredo; Hernández Núñez, Emanuel

    2017-01-01

    Antibacterial activity on ATCC strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Salmonella enteritidis, and Salmonella choleraesuis and spasmolytic effect on contraction on rat ileum trips were determinate. Eight organic extracts (hexanic and methanolic) of albedo (mesocarp) and flavedo (pericarp) of two varieties (Valencian and National) of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck of Yucatán, México, were studied. Additionally, chromatographic fingerprints were obtained and correlated with their pharmacological effects. MAN, MAV, and HFN extract caused inhibition against S. choleraesuis (MIC: 1000 µg/mL) and S. enteritidis (MIC: 1000 µg/mL). Regarding the spasmolytic effect, the Valencian extracts variety was more efficient on spontaneous contraction, HAV (Emax = 51.98 ± 1.98%), MAV (Emax = 35.98 ± 1.42%), HFV (Emax = 68.91 ± 4.14%), and MFV (Emax = 51.28 ± 2.59%), versus National variety, HAN (Emax = 43.80 ± 6.32%), MAN (Emax = 14.62 ± 1.69%), HFN (Emax = 64.87 ± 3.04%), and MFN (Emax = 31.01 ± 3.92%). Chromatographic fingerprints of HFV and HFN were found to have some similar signals that belong to monoterpenes, whereas for HAN and HAV similar signals were found belonging to fatty acids and triterpenoids. Methanolic extracts showed signals of (1) furfural, (2) furfural acetone (3) furfuraldehyde and (4) β–sitosterol compounds. Flavedo portion of C. sinensis possessed spasmolytic effect on rat ileum strips and antibacterial activity against Salmonella strains. This species is source for obtaining bioactive compounds with therapeutic potential in the treatment of infectious diarrhea. PMID:28356916

  7. Genome-wide comparative analysis reveals similar types of NBS genes in hybrid Citrus sinensis genome and original Citrus clementine genome and provides new insights into non-TIR NBS genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsheng Wang

    Full Text Available In this study, we identified and compared nucleotide-binding site (NBS domain-containing genes from three Citrus genomes (C. clementina, C. sinensis from USA and C. sinensis from China. Phylogenetic analysis of all Citrus NBS genes across these three genomes revealed that there are three approximately evenly numbered groups: one group contains the Toll-Interleukin receptor (TIR domain and two different Non-TIR groups in which most of proteins contain the Coiled Coil (CC domain. Motif analysis confirmed that the two groups of CC-containing NBS genes are from different evolutionary origins. We partitioned NBS genes into clades using NBS domain sequence distances and found most clades include NBS genes from all three Citrus genomes. This suggests that three Citrus genomes have similar numbers and types of NBS genes. We also mapped the re-sequenced reads of three pomelo and three mandarin genomes onto the C. sinensis genome. We found that most NBS genes of the hybrid C. sinensis genome have corresponding homologous genes in both pomelo and mandarin genomes. The homologous NBS genes in pomelo and mandarin suggest that the parental species of C. sinensis may contain similar types of NBS genes. This explains why the hybrid C. sinensis and original C. clementina have similar types of NBS genes in this study. Furthermore, we found that sequence variation amongst Citrus NBS genes were shaped by multiple independent and shared accelerated mutation accumulation events among different groups of NBS genes and in different Citrus genomes. Our comparative analyses yield valuable insight into the structure, organization and evolution of NBS genes in Citrus genomes. Furthermore, our comprehensive analysis showed that the non-TIR NBS genes can be divided into two groups that come from different evolutionary origins. This provides new insights into non-TIR genes, which have not received much attention.

  8. Genome-wide comparative analysis reveals similar types of NBS genes in hybrid Citrus sinensis genome and original Citrus clementine genome and provides new insights into non-TIR NBS genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunsheng; Zhou, Lijuan; Li, Dazhi; Dai, Liangying; Lawton-Rauh, Amy; Srimani, Pradip K; Duan, Yongping; Luo, Feng

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we identified and compared nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain-containing genes from three Citrus genomes (C. clementina, C. sinensis from USA and C. sinensis from China). Phylogenetic analysis of all Citrus NBS genes across these three genomes revealed that there are three approximately evenly numbered groups: one group contains the Toll-Interleukin receptor (TIR) domain and two different Non-TIR groups in which most of proteins contain the Coiled Coil (CC) domain. Motif analysis confirmed that the two groups of CC-containing NBS genes are from different evolutionary origins. We partitioned NBS genes into clades using NBS domain sequence distances and found most clades include NBS genes from all three Citrus genomes. This suggests that three Citrus genomes have similar numbers and types of NBS genes. We also mapped the re-sequenced reads of three pomelo and three mandarin genomes onto the C. sinensis genome. We found that most NBS genes of the hybrid C. sinensis genome have corresponding homologous genes in both pomelo and mandarin genomes. The homologous NBS genes in pomelo and mandarin suggest that the parental species of C. sinensis may contain similar types of NBS genes. This explains why the hybrid C. sinensis and original C. clementina have similar types of NBS genes in this study. Furthermore, we found that sequence variation amongst Citrus NBS genes were shaped by multiple independent and shared accelerated mutation accumulation events among different groups of NBS genes and in different Citrus genomes. Our comparative analyses yield valuable insight into the structure, organization and evolution of NBS genes in Citrus genomes. Furthermore, our comprehensive analysis showed that the non-TIR NBS genes can be divided into two groups that come from different evolutionary origins. This provides new insights into non-TIR genes, which have not received much attention.

  9. GC-FID/MS Profiling of Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Peels from Citrus aurantium, C. sinensis cv. Washington navel, C. sinensis cv. Tarocco and C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno from Dubrovnik Area (Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerković, Igor; Drulžić, Jasmina; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Gugić, Mirko; Jokić, Stela; Roje, Marin

    2015-07-01

    The peels of Citrus aurantium L. and Citrus sinensis Osbeck cultivars from the Dubrovnik region (south Croatia) were extracted by supercritical CO2 at 40 degrees C and 10 MPa at 1.76 kg/h to obtain enriched extracts in comparison with simple pressing of the peels. The extracts were analyzed in detail by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). Relevant similarities among the peel oil compositions of C. aurantium and C. sinensis cultivars were found with limonene predominance (up to 54.3%). The principal oxygenated monoterpenes were linalool (3.0%-5.9%), α-terpineol (0.7%-2.4%), linalyl acetate (0.0%-5.0%), geranyl acetate (0.0%-0.4%), (Z)-citral (0.0%-1.8%) and (E)-citral (0.0%-1.9%). Several sesquiterpenes were found with minor percentages. Coumarin derivatives were identified in all the samples among the relevant compounds. Isogeijerin dominated in the peels of C. sinensis cv. Tarocco (15.3%) and C. aurantium (11.2%). Scoparone ranged from 0.1% to 0.5% in all the samples. Bergapten (up to 1.4%), osthole (up to 1.1%) and 7-methoxy-8-(2-formylpropyl)coumarin (up to 1.1%) were found mostly in C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno. It was possible to indicate a few other differences among the extracts such as higher percentage of linalool, linalyl and geranyl acetates, as well as the abundance of sabinene and isogeijerin in C. aurantium or the occurrence of β-sinensal in C. sinensis cultivars.

  10. Comparison of antifungal activities of Vietnamese citrus essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hung, Pham; Chi, Pham Thi Lan; Phi, Nguyen Thi Lan

    2013-03-01

    Citrus essential oils (EOs) are volatile compounds from citrus peels and widely used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and aromatherapy. In this study, inhibition of citrus EOs extracted from Vietnamese orange (Citrus sinensis), mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), pomelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) on the growth of plant pathogenic fungi, Mucor hiemalis, Penicillium expansum and Fusarium proliferatum was investigated. The EOs of the citrus peels were obtained by cold-pressing method and the antifungal activity of EOs was evaluated using the agar dilution method. The results show that the EOs had significant antifungal activity. Lime EO was the best inhibitor of M. hiemalis and F. proliferatum while pomelo EO was the most effective against P. expansum. These results indicate that citrus EOs can be used as antifungal natural products in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

  11. Safety, Efficacy, and Mechanistic Studies Regarding Citrus aurantium (Bitter Orange) Extract and p-Synephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohs, Sidney J

    2017-07-28

    Citrus aurantium L. (bitter orange) extracts that contain p-synephrine as the primary protoalkaloid are widely used for weight loss/weight management, sports performance, appetite control, energy, and mental focus and cognition. Questions have been raised about the safety of p-synephrine because it has some structural similarity to ephedrine. This review focuses on current human, animal, in vitro, and mechanistic studies that address the safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of action of bitter orange extracts and p-synephrine. Numerous studies have been conducted with respect to p-synephrine and bitter orange extract because ephedra and ephedrine were banned from use in dietary supplements in 2004. Approximately 30 human studies indicate that p-synephrine and bitter orange extracts do not result in cardiovascular effects and do not act as stimulants at commonly used doses. Mechanistic studies suggest that p-synephrine exerts its effects through multiple actions, which are discussed. Because p-synephrine exhibits greater adrenergic receptor binding in rodents than humans, data from animals cannot be directly extrapolated to humans. This review, as well as several other assessments published in recent years, has concluded that bitter orange extract and p-synephrine are safe for use in dietary supplements and foods at the commonly used doses. Copyright © 2017 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2017 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Uso contínuo de herbicidas em citrus (Citrus sinensis (L Osbeck, I - efeitos no controle de plantas daninhas Continous use of herbicides in citros (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck. I - effects on weed control

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    Ricardo Victoria Filho

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa foi conduzida no município de Conchal - SP, Brasil, em um Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo com 1,75% de matéria orgânica, com o objetivo de verificar o efeito do uso continuo dos principais herbicidas, no controle de plantas daninhas em um pomar de laranja 'Pera' (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, enxertada sobre limão cravo (Citrus limonia Osbeck. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com 12 parâmetros e 4 repetições. Os tratamentos utiliza dos com as respectiva s dose s do i.a. em kg/ha foram: terbacil a 3,2; simazine a 4,0; ametryne + secbumetone a 4,5; dichlobenil a 5,0; diuron a 3,2; bromacil a 3,2; bromacil + diuron a 3,2; paraqua t a 0,6; glyphosate a 1,61 e MSMA a 1,77, além de uma testemunha que recebia uma capina anualmente e outra que era capinada sempre que a cobertura pelas plantas daninhas atingia 25% da área da parcela. O pomar foi plantado em maio/75 e a 14 aplicação foi realizada em outubro de 1977. As parcelas continham 4 plantas em uma área de 3,0 x 18,0 m (54 m2. A última foi realizada em 1986. O efeito dos tratamentos no controle das plantas daninhas foi avaliado pela contagem por espécie botânica, assim como por avaliações visuais. Todos os herbicidas utilizados apresentaram controle de aceitável a excelente, dependendo da composição específica das plantas daninhas, e aqueles cue apresentaram os melhores índices de controle das plantas daninhas, assim como efeitos residuais mais prolongados, foram bromacil + diuron, diuron, bromacil, ametryne + secbumetone e terbacil. herbicidas aplicados em pósemergência os melhores índices de controle foram obtidos com glyphosate e paraquat.The research reported in this paper was conducted at the Conchal county in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, in a Red Yellow Latosol with 1.75% of organic matter, with the objective of studyin g the effect of continuous use of selected herbicides on the weed control on a 'Pena' Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck

  13. Ethylene-enhanced catabolism of ( sup 14 C)indole-3-acetic acid to indole-3-carboxylic acid in citrus leaf tissues. [Citrus sinensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagee, O.; Riov, J.; Goren, J. (Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel))

    1990-01-01

    Exogenous ({sup 14}C)indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is conjugated in citrus (Citrus sinensis) leaf tissues to one major substance which has been identified as indole-3-acetylaspartic acid (IAAsp). Ethylene pretreatment enhanced the catabolism of ({sup 14}C)IAA to indole-3-carboxylic acid (ICA), which accumulated as glucose esters (ICGlu). Increased formation of ICGlu by ethylene was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in IAAsp formation. IAAsp and ICGlu were identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Formation of ICGlu was dependent on the concentration of ethylene and the duration of the ethylene pretreatment. It is suggested that the catabolism of IAA to ICA may be one of the mechanisms by which ethylene endogenous IAA levels.

  14. Bionomics of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) associated with orange jasmine hedges in southest central Florida, with special reference to biological control by Tamarixia radiata

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is an important pest in Florida because it vectors bacteria responsible for citrus huanglongbing disease. In addition to infesting citrus, orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata) is one of ACP’s favorite host plants and is widely grown as an orn...

  15. Bionomics of Asian citrus psyllid associated with orange jasmine hedges in Florida, with special reference to biological control by Tamarixia radiata

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is an important invasive citrus pest because it vectors a bacterium responsible for a devastating disease of citrus known as huanglongbing. Orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata) is a favored alternate ACP host plant and is widely grown as an ornamental plant in urban ar...

  16. Comparative morpho-anatomical studies of the lesions caused by citrus leprosis virus on sweet orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, João P R; Kitajima, Elliot W; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz

    2010-06-01

    The leprosis disease shows a viral etiology and the citrus leprosis virus is considered its etiologic agent. The disease may show two types of cytopatologic symptom caused by two virus: nuclear (CiLV-N) and cytoplasmic (CiLV-C) types. The aim of this study was to compare the morpho-anatomical differences in the lesions caused by leprosis virus-cytoplasmic and nuclear types in Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck 'Pêra'. Leaf and fruit lesions were collected in Piracicaba/São Paulo (cytoplasmic type) and Monte Alegre do Sul/São Paulo and Amparo/São Paulo (nuclear type). The lesions were photographed and then fixed in Karnovsky solution, dehydrated in a graded ethylic series, embedded in hydroxy-ethyl methacrylate resin (Leica Historesin), sectioned (5 microm thick), stained and mounted in synthetic resin. The digital images were acquired in a microscope with digital video camera. Leaf and fruit lesions caused by the two viruses were morphologically distinct. Only the lesion caused by CiLV-N virus presented three well-defined regions. In both lesions there was the accumulation of lipidic substances in necrotic areas that were surrounded by cells with amorphous or droplets protein. Only leaf and fruit lesions caused by CiLV-N virus exhibited traumatic gum ducts in the vascular bundles.

  17. MicroRNA regulatory mechanisms on Citrus sinensis leaves to magnesium-deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-Lan eMa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg-deficiency, which affects crop productivity and quality, widespreadly exists in many agricultural crops, including citrus. However, very limited data are available on Mg-deficiency-responsive microRNAs (miRNAs in higher plants. Using Illumina sequencing, we isolated 75 (73 known and 2 novel up- and 71 (64 known and 7 novel down-regulated miRNAs from Mg-deficient Citrus sinensis leaves. In addition to the remarkable metabolic flexibility as indicated by the great alteration of miRNA expression, the adaptive responses of leaf miRNAs to Mg-deficiency might also involve the following several aspects: (a up-regulating stress-related genes by down-regulating miR164, miR7812, miR5742, miR3946 and miR5158; (b enhancing cell transport due to decreased expression of miR3946 and miR5158 and increased expression of miR395, miR1077, miR1160 and miR8019; (c activating lipid metabolism-related genes by repressing miR158, miR5256 and miR3946; (d inducing cell wall-related gene expansin 8A by repressing miR779; and (e down-regulating the expression of genes involved in the maintenance of S, K and Cu by up-regulating miR395 and miR6426. To conclude, we isolated some new known miRNAs (i.e., miR7812, miR8019, miR6218, miR1533, miR6426, miR5256, miR5742, miR5561, miR5158 and miR5818 responsive to nutrient deficiencies and found some candidate miRNAs that might contribute to Mg-deficiency tolerance. Therefore, our results not only provide novel information about the responses of plant to Mg-deficiency, but also are useful for obtaining the key miRNAs for plant Mg-deficiency tolerance.

  18. Microwave-assisted extraction and determination of citrus red 2 dye in oranges and orange juice by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chao; Liu, Bin; Zhu, Zhenou; Huang, Fuzhen; Chen, Xiangzhun; Shen, Yan

    2012-12-01

    A fast, simple, low cost, and high-throughput method has been developed for the determination of citrus red 2 dye in orange and orange juice samples. The procedure is based on microwave-assisted extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The method was optimized, and the analyte was efficiently extracted from the samples in 30 min using hexane/acetone (v/v, 3 : 1). The method was validated and showed good linearity and selectivity. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were 5 μg/kg (sample size of 2 g) for both orange and orange juice samples. The average recoveries, measured at 3 concentration levels (5, 10, and 20 μg/kg), were in the range 77.5% to 87.6% for the compound tested with relative standard deviations below 7.3%. The proposed method is rapid, accurate, and could be utilized for the routine analysis of citrus red 2 dye in orange and orange juice samples.

  19. Inotropic effect of Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck leaf extracts on the guinea pig atrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira E.D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to determine the contractile effect of crude and acetone leaf extracts of Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. on mammalian myocardium. Crude leaf extracts have been used in folk medicine to treat neurological disorders. Some flavonoids isolated from this plant presented a positive inotropic effect on myocardium. This motivated us to test the extracts on the atria of guinea pigs of both sexes (300-500 g and surprisingly we observed inotropic depression instead of an increase in force. The maximum effect of the crude extract was 79.4 ± 8.1% of the control force amplitude (N = 5 hearts, 10 trials, 27 ± 0.1ºC, stimulus: 2 Hz, 400 V, 0.5 ms. The EC50 for crude, ethanol, acetic, aqueous, and acetone extracts was 300, 300, 600, 1000, and 140 µg/ml, respectively, with a Hill constant of 1.8, 2.0, 2.5, 2.0, and 1.4, respectively. Blockade of cholinergic, beta-adrenergic, or opioid membrane receptors with 1.5 µM atropine sulfate, 1 µM propranolol, and 10 µM naloxone, respectively, did not change the effect of the crude extract. The acetone extract abolished the Bowditch positive staircase phenomenon (N = 5 hearts, 10 trials, 27 ± 0.1ºC, suggesting a possible reduction of the calcium inward current, and also promoted the so-called Woodworth phenomenon. The effect was concentration-dependent and indicated the existence of another inhibitory contractile mechanism such as the simultaneous activation of some of the membrane potassium channels reducing the myocardial action potential duration and further decreasing the cellular calcium entry.

  20. Somatic hybridization between Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck and C. grandis (L. Osbeck Hibridação somática entre Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck e C. grandis (L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Cristina Calixto

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to produce citrus somatic hybrids between sweet oranges and pummelos. After chemical fusion of sweet orange embryogenic protoplasts with pummelo mesophyll-derived protoplasts, plants were regenerated by somatic embryogenesis and acclimatized in a greenhouse. The hybrids of 'Hamlin' sweet orange + 'Indian Red' pummelo and 'Hamlin' sweet orange + 'Singapura' pummelo were confirmed by leaf morphology, chromosome counting and molecular analysis. These hybrids have potential to be used directly as rootstocks aiming blight, citrus tristeza virus, and Phytophthora-induced disease tolerance, as well as for rootstocks improvement programs.O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir híbridos somáticos entre laranjas doces e toranjas. Após fusão de protoplastos embriogênicos de laranja doce com protoplastos derivados de mesófilo foliar de toranjas, plantas foram regeneradas por embriogênese somática e aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação. Os híbridos laranja 'Hamlin' + toranja 'Indian Red' e laranja 'Hamlin' + toranja 'Singapura' foram confirmados pela morfologia foliar, contagem do número de cromossomos e análise molecular. Esses híbridos apresentam potencial para serem testados como porta-enxertos tolerantes a declínio, tristeza e doenças causadas por Phytophthora, bem como em programas de melhoramento de porta-enxertos.

  1. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) Causing Proteomic and Enzymatic Changes in Sweet Orange Variety “Westin”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dória, Milena Santos; de Sousa, Aurizângela Oliveira; Barbosa, Cristiane de Jesus; Costa, Márcio Gilberto Cardoso; Gesteira, Abelmon da Silva; Souza, Regina Martins; Freitas, Ana Camila Oliveira; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2015-01-01

    Citrus Tristeza disease, caused by CTV (Citrus tristeza virus), committs citrus plantations around the world and specifically attacks phloem tissues of the plant. The virus exists as a mixture of more or less severe variants, which may or may not cause symptoms of Tristeza. The objective of this study was to analyze the changes caused by CTV in the proteome of stems of sweet orange, as well as in the activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes. The CTV-infected sweet orange displayed mild symptoms, which were characterized by the presence of sparse stem pitting throughout their stems. The presence of virus was confirmed by RT-PCR. Proteomic analysis by 2DE-PAGE-MS / MS revealed the identity of 40 proteins differentially expressed between CTV- infected and -non-infected samples. Of these, 33 were up-regulated and 7 were down-regulated in CTV-infected samples. Among the proteins identified stands out a specific from the virus, the coat protein. Other proteins identified are involved with oxidative stress and for this their enzymatic activity was measured. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was higher in CTV-infected samples, as catalase (CAT) showed higher activity in uninfected samples. The activity of guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) did not vary significantly between samples. However, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) was more active in the infected samples. The relative expression of the genes encoding CAT, SOD, APX and GPX was analyzed by quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR). The CTV-infected samples showed greater accumulation of transcripts, except for the CAT gene. This gene showed higher expression in the uninfected samples. Taken together, it can be concluded that the CTV affects the protein profile and activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in plants infected by this virus. PMID:26207751

  2. ENZYMATIC KINETIC STUDY HYDROLASE FROM CITRUS

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    Israel Hernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the degrading activity of enzymes derived from orange peels (Citrus x sinensis, grapefruit (Citrus paradise and pineapple (Ananas comosus on the organic matter in wastewater is evaluated. This activity is measured indirectly by quantifying the biochemical oxygen demand (COD before and after degradation process based on a period of time using the HACH DR / 2010, and then the kinetic study was performed by the differential method and integral with the experimental data, obtaining a reaction order of 1 to pectinase (orange, and order 2 for bromelain (pineapple.

  3. Production of interstocked 'Pera' sweet orange nursey trees on 'Volkamer' lemon and 'Swingle' citrumelo rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girardi Eduardo Augusto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Incompatibility among certain citrus scion and rootstock cultivars can be avoided through interstocking. 'Pera' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck nursery tree production was evaluated on 'Swingle' citrumelo (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf x Citrus paradisi Macf and 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Pasquale incompatible rootstocks, using 'Valencia' and 'Hamlin' sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka, and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tanaka as interstocks. Citrus nursery trees interstocked with 'Pera' sweet orange on both rootstocks were used as control. 'Swingle' citrumelo led to the highest interstock bud take percentage, the greatest interstock height and rootstock diameter, as well as the highest scion and root system dry weight. Percentage of 'Pera' sweet orange dormant bud eye was greater for plants budded on 'Sunki' mandarin than those budded on 'Valencia' sweet orange. No symptoms of incompatibility were observed among any combinations of rootstocks, interstocks and scion. Production cycle can take up to 17 months with higher plant discard.

  4. Potential of Moringa oleifera root and Citrus sinensis fruit rind extracts in the treatment of ulcerative colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholap, Prashant A; Nirmal, Sunil A; Pattan, Shashikant R; Pal, Subodh C; Mandal, Subhash C

    2012-10-01

    The plant Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae), commonly known as the drumstick tree, is an indigenous species in India. This species has been of interest to researchers because traditionally its roots are reported in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Traditionally it is reported that Citrus sinensis Linn (Rutaceae) fruit rind when combined with M. oleifera will increase the efficacy of the plant in the treatment of UC. The present work was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of M. oleifera root alone and in combination with C. sinensis fruit rind in the treatment of UC. Ethanol and aqueous extracts of M. oleifera roots (100 and 200 mg/kg, body weight) were screened alone and in equal combination with ethanol extract of C. sinensis fruit rind, i.e., 50 mg/kg each of C. sinensis and M. oleifera for their activity on acetic acid-induced UC in mice. Treatment with combination of extracts of M. oleifera root and C. sinensis fruit rind (50 mg/kg, each) showed less ulceration and hyperemia than individual extract (200 mg/kg) in histopathological observation. Acetic acid increased myeloperoxidase (MPO) level in blood and colon tissue to 342 U/mL and 384 U/mg, respectively. Combination of ethanol extract of M. oleifera root with C. sinensis fruit rind extract significantly (p<0.05) decreased MPO in blood and tissue to 278 U/mL and 291 U/mg, respectively. MPO in blood and tissue in control group was 85 ± 1.2 U/mL and 96 ± 1.3 U/mg, respectively. Similarly this combination significantly reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) level in blood and tissue to 7.11 nmol/mL and 8.19 nmol/mg, from 11.20 nmol/mL and 13.20 nmol/mg, respectively. MDA in blood and tissue in control group was 2.76 ± 1.2 nmol/mL and 3.76 ± 1.2 nmol/mg, respectively. Results show that a combination of M. oleifera root extracts with C. sinensis fruit rind extract is effective in the treatment of UC and results are comparable with the standard drug prednisolone.

  5. Larvicidal and irritant activities of hexane leaf extracts of Citrus sinensis against dengue vector Aedes aegypti L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Radhika Warikoo; Ankita Ray; Jasdeep Kaur Sandhu; Roopa Samal; Naim Wahab; Sarita Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To assess the larvicidal and irritant activities of the hexane extracts of leaves of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) against the early fourth instars and female adults of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). Methods: The larvicidal potential of the prepared leaf extract was evaluated against early fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti using WHO protocol. The mortality counts were made after 24 h and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. The efficacy of extract as mosquito irritant was assessed by contact irritancy assays. Extract-impregnated paper was placed on a glass plate over which a perspex funnel with a hole on the top was kept inverted. Single female adult, 3-day old unfed/blood-fed, was released inside the funnel. After 3 min of acclimatization time, the time taken for the first take-off and total number of flights undertaken during 15 min were scored. Results: The citrus leaf extracts from hexane possessed moderate larvicidal efficiency against dengue vector. The bioassays resulted in an LC50 and LC90 value of 446.84 and 1 370.96 ppm, respectively after 24 h of exposure. However, the extracts were proved to be remarkable irritant against adults Ae. aegypti, more pronounced effects being observed on blood-fed females than unfed females. The extract-impregnated paper was thus proved to be 7-11 times more irritable as compared with the control paper. Conclusions:The hexane extracts from C. sinensis leaves are proved to be reasonably larvicidal but remarkably irritant against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of extract as adulticide, oviposition deterrent and ovicidal agent. The isolation of active ingredient from the extract could help in formulating strategies for mosquito control.

  6. Entomophagous insects associated to Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in citrus orchards with different weed management systems in Papantla, Veracruz, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega-Arenas, L. D.; López-López, R.; Lomelí-Flores, J. R.; Cedillo-Portugal, E.; Gómez-Tovar, L.; Salazar-Cruz, J.; Villegas-Monter, A.

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide, is threatening the survival of the citrus industry in Mexico. Diaphorina citri is the primary vector of HLB; thus, control of the vector it’s vital for disease management. This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of different management systems on the population psyllid density and entomophagous insects associated in orange orchards (Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia) in Papantla, Veracruz, Mexico. Five orch...

  7. Deep sequencing discovery of novel and conserved microRNAs in trifoliate orange (Citrus trifoliata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Huaping

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs play a critical role in post-transcriptional gene regulation and have been shown to control many genes involved in various biological and metabolic processes. There have been extensive studies to discover miRNAs and analyze their functions in model plant species, such as Arabidopsis and rice. Deep sequencing technologies have facilitated identification of species-specific or lowly expressed as well as conserved or highly expressed miRNAs in plants. Results In this research, we used Solexa sequencing to discover new microRNAs in trifoliate orange (Citrus trifoliata which is an important rootstock of citrus. A total of 13,106,753 reads representing 4,876,395 distinct sequences were obtained from a short RNA library generated from small RNA extracted from C. trifoliata flower and fruit tissues. Based on sequence similarity and hairpin structure prediction, we found that 156,639 reads representing 63 sequences from 42 highly conserved miRNA families, have perfect matches to known miRNAs. We also identified 10 novel miRNA candidates whose precursors were all potentially generated from citrus ESTs. In addition, five miRNA* sequences were also sequenced. These sequences had not been earlier described in other plant species and accumulation of the 10 novel miRNAs were confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis. Potential target genes were predicted for most conserved and novel miRNAs. Moreover, four target genes including one encoding IRX12 copper ion binding/oxidoreductase and three genes encoding NB-LRR disease resistance protein have been experimentally verified by detection of the miRNA-mediated mRNA cleavage in C. trifoliata. Conclusion Deep sequencing of short RNAs from C. trifoliata flowers and fruits identified 10 new potential miRNAs and 42 highly conserved miRNA families, indicating that specific miRNAs exist in C. trifoliata. These results show that regulatory miRNAs exist in agronomically important trifoliate orange

  8. The WRKY Transcription Factor Family in Citrus: Valuable and Useful Candidate Genes for Citrus Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, M; Hanana, M; Kharrat, N; Merchaoui, H; Marzoug, R Ben; Lauvergeat, V; Rebaï, A; Mzid, R

    2016-10-01

    WRKY transcription factors belong to a large family of plant transcriptional regulators whose members have been reported to be involved in a wide range of biological roles including plant development, adaptation to environmental constraints and response to several diseases. However, little or poor information is available about WRKY's in Citrus. The recent release of completely assembled genomes sequences of Citrus sinensis and Citrus clementina and the availability of ESTs sequences from other citrus species allowed us to perform a genome survey for Citrus WRKY proteins. In the present study, we identified 100 WRKY members from C. sinensis (51), C. clementina (48) and Citrus unshiu (1), and analyzed their chromosomal distribution, gene structure, gene duplication, syntenic relation and phylogenetic analysis. A phylogenetic tree of 100 Citrus WRKY sequences with their orthologs from Arabidopsis has distinguished seven groups. The CsWRKY genes were distributed across all ten sweet orange chromosomes. A comprehensive approach and an integrative analysis of Citrus WRKY gene expression revealed variable profiles of expression within tissues and stress conditions indicating functional diversification. Thus, candidate Citrus WRKY genes have been proposed as potentially involved in fruit acidification, essential oil biosynthesis and abiotic/biotic stress tolerance. Our results provided essential prerequisites for further WRKY genes cloning and functional analysis with an aim of citrus crop improvement.

  9. The effect of inhalation of Citrus sinensis flowers and Mentha spicata leave essential oils on lung function and exercise performance: a quasi-experimental uncontrolled before-and-after study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nidal Amin Jaradat; Hamzeh Al Zabadi; Belal Rahhal; Azmi Mahmoud Ali Hussein; Jamal Shaker Mahmoudsel Mansour; Ahmad Ibrahim Khasati; Abdelkhaleq Issa

    2016-01-01

    .... This study aimed to assess the effects of Citrus sinensis flower and Mentha spicata leaves essential oils inhalation in two different groups of athlete male students on their exercise performance and lung function...

  10. Comparative morpho-anatomical studies of the lesions caused by citrus leprosis virus on sweet orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P.R. Marques

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The leprosis disease shows a viral etiology and the citrus leprosis virus is considered its etiologic agent. The disease may show two types of cytopatologic symptom caused by two virus: nuclear (CiLV-N and cytoplasmic (CiLV-C types. The aim of this study was to compare the morpho-anatomical differences in the lesions caused by leprosis virus-cytoplasmic and nuclear types in Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck 'Pêra'. Leaf and fruit lesions were collected in Piracicaba/São Paulo (cytoplasmic type and Monte Alegre do Sul/São Paulo and Amparo/São Paulo (nuclear type. The lesions were photographed and then fixed in Karnovsky solution, dehydrated in a graded ethylic series, embedded in hydroxy-ethyl methacrylate resin (Leica Historesin, sectioned (5 μm thick, stained and mounted in synthetic resin. The digital images were acquired in a microscope with digital video camera. Leaf and fruit lesions caused by the two viruses were morphologically distinct. Only the lesion caused by CiLV-N virus presented three well-defined regions. In both lesions there was the accumulation of lipidic substances in necrotic areas that were surrounded by cells with amorphous or droplets protein. Only leaf and fruit lesions caused by CiLV-N virus exhibited traumatic gum ducts in the vascular bundles.A doença leprose dos citros tem etiologia viral sendo o citrus leprosis virus seu agente etiológico. Demonstrou-se que há dois vírus distintos que causam sintomas de leprose em ci-tros: citoplasmático (CiLV-C e o nuclear (CiLV-N. O objetivo desse estudo foi comparar as diferenças morfo-anatômicas nas lesões causadas por CiLV-C e por CiLV-N em laranjeira doce (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck 'Pêra'. As lesões foliares e dos frutos foram coletadas em Piracicaba/SP (tipo citoplas-mático e em Monte Alegre do Sul/SP e Amparo/SP (tipo nuclear. As lesões foram fotografadas e em seguida fixadas em solução Karnovsky, desidratadas em série etílica, incluídas em historesina e

  11. Chemical characterization of orange juice from trees infected with citrus greening (Huanglongbing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagulo, Lilibeth; Danyluk, Michelle D; Spann, Timothy M; Valim, M Filomena; Goodrich-Schneider, Renée; Sims, Charles; Rouseff, Russell

    2010-03-01

    The effects due to Candidatus Liberibacter infection, commonly called citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB), on volatile and nonvolatile components of orange juices, OJ, were examined using GC-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HLB symptomatic, asymptomatic, and control "Hamlin" and "Valencia" oranges were harvested from December to May during the 2007 to 2008 harvest season. Brix/acid levels in control and asymptomatic juices were similar but symptomatic juices were as much as 62% lower than control juices. No bitter flavanone neohesperidosides were detected and polymethoxyflavone concentrations were well below bitter taste thresholds. Limonin concentrations were significantly higher (91% to 425%) in symptomatic juice compared to control but still below juice bitterness taste thresholds. Juice terpenes, such as gamma-terpinene and alpha-terpinolene, were as much as 1320% and 62% higher in symptomatic juice than control. Average ethyl butanoate concentrations were 45% lower and average linalool was 356% higher in symptomatic Valencia OJ compared to control. Symptomatic Valencia OJ had on average only 40% the total esters, 48% the total aldehydes, and 33% as much total sesquiterpenes as control juice. Total volatiles between control and symptomatic juices were similar due to elevated levels of alcohols and terpenes in symptomatic juice. There were no consistent differences between asymptomatic and control juices. The chemical composition of juice from HLB/greening symptomatic fruit appears to mimic that of juice from less mature fruit. The reported off-flavor associated with symptomatic juices probably stem from lower concentrations of sugars, higher concentrations of acid as all known citrus bitter compounds were either below taste thresholds or absent.

  12. Comportamiento de crecimiento y rendimiento de naranjo Valencia (Citrus sinensis L. injertado en varios portainjertos en suelos calcisol vértico y pétrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Pérez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 16 portainjertos para naranjo Valencia (Citrus sinensis L. en suelos Calcisol vértico y pétrico de textura migajón arcilloso y migajón arenosos, respectivamente. El objetivo fue comparar el potencial de sitio y los portainjertos en el crecimiento y rendimiento de naranja a 10 años de plantada. Los tratamientos (portainjertos incluyeron limones, citranges, mandarinos, lima ácida y trifoliados; como testigo, se utilizó Naranjo agrio (Citrus aurantium L.. En los suelos utili-zados, resultaron sobresalientes, con respecto a naranjo agrio: Volkameriana (Citrus volkameriana, Pasq., Carrizo (Poncirus trifoliata [L.] Raf. x Citrus sinensis L., Macrofila (Citrus macrophylla Wester, Amblicarpa (Citrus amblycarpa Ochse y Sunki x Trifoliado (Sunki x Poncirus trifoliata. La altura, el diámetro de tronco y de copa, así como el volumen de copa fue 14%, 17%, 3% y 18.7% mayor en el suelo Calcisol vértico que en el Calcisol pétrico. El rendimiento en 2001 y el acumulado (de 5 años fue 35% y 23% superior, respectivamente, en el suelo de textura migajón arcilloso que en el suelo de textura migajón arenoso.

  13. Dynamic Changes of Sugar Concentrations in Pulp of‘Cara cara’ Navel Orange (Citrus. sinensis L. Osbeck) after Application by Exogenous ABA and GA3%外源脱落酸和赤霉素对红肉脐橙果肉糖含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贵元; 夏仁学; 曾祥国; 吴强盛

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic concentrations of glucose, fructose, sucrose and total sugar were determined through exogenous ABA and GA3 treatments during young period of fruit and before fruit coloring in pulp of ‘Cara cara’ navel orange. The results are as fol ows: 10 mg/L ABA increased glucose, fructose and total sugar concen-tration significantly or very significantly, ABA treatment of 50 mg/L increased sucrose concentration very significantly, but ABA treatment of 100 mg/L decreased glucose concentration very significantly. GA3 treatment of lower and middle concentrations(10, 50 and 250 mg/L) increased sucrose concentration very significantly, GA3 treatment of 10 mg/L had no remarkable effect on glucose and fructose concentration but in-creased total sugar concentration very significantly, GA3 treatment of 50, 250 and 500 mg/L decreased glucose, fructose and total sugar concentration very significant-ly. Therefore, ABA treatment of lower concentration could increase one or several kinds of sugar concentration, but GA3 treatment of higher concentration (250 and 500 mg/L) restrained sugar concentration in pulp of ‘Cara cara’ navel orange seri-ously.%在红肉脐橙幼果期和着色前分2次喷施不同浓度的外源 ABA和 GA3,研究其对红肉脐橙果肉糖含量的影响。结果表明:10 mg/L ABA处理显著或极显著提高了果实成熟时的葡萄糖、果糖和总糖含量,50 mg/L ABA处理极显著提高了果实蔗糖含量,而100 mg/L ABA处理极显著降低了果实葡萄糖含量;中低浓度的 GA3(10、50和250 mg/L)极显著提高了果实蔗糖含量,10 mg/L GA3处理对果实葡萄糖和果糖含量无明显影响,但极显著提高了果实总糖含量,50、250和500 mg/L GA3处理极显著降低了果实葡萄糖、果糖和总糖含量。表明着色前较低浓度的外源 ABA处理(10和50 mg/L)可提高果实中一种或几种糖的含量,而较高浓度的 GA3处理(250和500 mg/L)则严重阻碍了果肉中糖的积累。

  14. Electronic tongue response to chemicals in orange juice that change concentration in relation to harvest maturity and citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an earlier study, the electronic tongue system (etongue) was used to differentiate between orange juice made from healthy fruit and from fruit affected by the citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease. This study investigated the reaction of an etongue system to the main chemicals in orange ...

  15. Exploring optimal fertigation strategies for orange production, using soil-crop modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Wei; Heinen, Marius; Assinck, Falentijn B.T.; Oenema, Oene

    2016-01-01

    Water and nitrogen (N) are two key limiting factors in orange (Citrus sinensis) production. The amount and the timing of water and N application are critical, but optimal strategies have not yet been well established. This study presents an analysis of 47 fertigation strategies examined by a coup

  16. Tetraploidy enhances boron-excess tolerance in Carrizo Citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eRuiz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tetraploidy modifies root anatomy which may lead to differentiated capacity to uptake and transport mineral elements. This work provides insights into physiological and molecular characters involved in boron (B toxicity responses in diploid (2x and tetraploid (4x plants of Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf., a widely used citrus rootstock. With B excess, 2x plants accumulated more B in leaves than 4x plants, which accounted for their higher B uptake and root-to-shoot transport rates. Ploidy did not modify the expression of membrane transporters NIP5 and BOR1 in roots. The cellular allocation of B excess differed between ploidy levels in the soluble fraction, which was lower in 4x leaves, while cell wall-linked B was similar in 2x and 4x genotypes. This correlates with the increased damage and stunted growth recorded in the 2x plants. The 4x roots were found to have fewer root tips, shorter specific root length, longer diameter, thicker exodermis and earlier tissue maturation in root tips, where the Casparian strip was detected at a shorter distance from the root apex than in the 2x roots. The results presented herein suggest that the root anatomical characters of the 4x plants play a key role in their lower B uptake capacity and root-to-shoot transport.

  17. Proteomic analysis of Citrus sinensis roots and leaves in response to long-term magnesium-deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao-Yang; Qi, Yi-Ping; Lee, Jinwook; Yang, Lin-Tong; Guo, Peng; Jiang, Huan-Xin; Chen, Li-Song

    2015-03-31

    Magnesium (Mg)-deficiency is frequently observed in Citrus plantations and is responsible for the loss of productivity and poor fruit quality. Knowledge on the effects of Mg-deficiency on upstream targets is scarce. Seedlings of 'Xuegan' [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] were irrigated with Mg-deficient (0 mM MgSO4) or Mg-sufficient (1 mM MgSO4) nutrient solution for 16 weeks. Thereafter, we first investigated the proteomic responses of C. sinensis roots and leaves to Mg-deficiency using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) in order to (a) enrich our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of plants to deal with Mg-deficiency and (b) understand the molecular mechanisms by which Mg-deficiency lead to a decrease in photosynthesis. Fifty-nine upregulated and 31 downregulated protein spots were isolated in Mg-deficient leaves, while only 19 upregulated and 12 downregulated protein spots in Mg-deficient roots. Many Mg-deficiency-responsive proteins were involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, followed by protein metabolism, stress responses, nucleic acid metabolism, cell wall and cytoskeleton metabolism, lipid metabolism and cell transport. The larger changes in leaf proteome versus root one in response to Mg-deficiency was further supported by our observation that total soluble protein concentration was decreased by Mg-deficiency in leaves, but unaffected in roots. Mg-deficiency had decreased levels of proteins [i.e. ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), rubisco activase, oxygen evolving enhancer protein 1, photosynthetic electron transfer-like protein, ferredoxin-NADP reductase (FNR), aldolase] involved in photosynthesis, thus decreasing leaf photosynthesis. To cope with Mg-deficiency, C. sinensis leaves and roots might respond adaptively to Mg-deficiency through: improving leaf respiration and lowering root respiration, but increasing (decreasing) the levels of proteins related to ATP synthase in roots (leaves); enhancing the levels of proteins

  18. Leaf-disc grafting for the transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in citrus (Citrus sinensis; Rutaceae) seedlings1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabay Zambon, Flavia; Plant, Karen; Etxeberria, Ed

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: The search for resistance/tolerance to the devastating citrus huanglongbing disease (syn. HLB or citrus greening) is generating an increasing number of new plants of diverse genetic makeup. As the increasing number of new plants require more space, resources, and time, the need for faster and more efficient HLB screening tests becomes crucial. Methods and Results: The leaf-disc grafting system described here consists in replacing a disc of leaf tissue with a similar disc from an infected plant. This can be performed in young seedlings not yet big enough to endure other types of grafting. Graft success and infection rates average approximately 80%. Conclusions: We describe the successful adaptation of leaf-disc grafting as a powerful screening tool for HLB. The system requires minimal plant material and can be performed in seedlings at a very young age with increased efficiency in terms of time, space, and resources. PMID:28090406

  19. Asymmetric somatic hybridization between UV-irradiated Citrus unshiu and C. sinensis: regeneration and characterization of hybrid shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Yong; Hu, Zhi-Yong; Li, Jun-Feng; Liu, Ji-Hong; Deng, Xiu-Xin

    2007-08-01

    In the present paper, attempts were made to explore the possibility of employing ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in citrus asymmetric fusion for transfer of limited amount of favorable traits from a desirable cultivar to a target one. Exposure of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) embryogenic protoplasts to UV at an intensity of 300 muW cm(-2) led to reduced viability, especially under long irradiation duration. The protoplasts could not grow during culture when they were irradiated for over 30 s. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay revealed extensive DNA fragmentation in the UV-irradiated protoplasts compared with those without UV treatment. Electrofusion between UV-irradiated protoplasts of Satsuma mandarin (donor) with those of Jincheng (C. sinensis Osbeck, recipient), a local cultivar of superior quality, gave rise to regeneration of several lines of shoots, which failed to root despite enormous endeavors. Ploidy analysis via flow cytometry and chromosome counting showed that four selected shoots were either diploid, triploid or tetraploid. Random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) confirmed the shoots, irrespective of their ploidy level, as putative somatic hybrids. Cleaved amplified polymorphism sequences (CAPS) demonstrated that the shoots predominantly got their cytoplasmic components, in terms of chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrion DNA, from Jincheng, along with possible recombination of cpDNA in some shoot lines. The current data indicated that UV-based asymmetric fusion could also be employed in citrus somatic hybridization with the intention of creating novel germplasms, which may provide an alternative approach for cultivar improvement.

  20. Tetraploidy Enhances Boron-Excess Tolerance in Carrizo Citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Marta; Quiñones, Ana; Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Aleza, Pablo; Morillon, Raphaël; Navarro, Luis; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus

    2016-01-01

    Tetraploidy modifies root anatomy which may lead to differentiated capacity to uptake and transport mineral elements. This work provides insights into physiological and molecular characters involved in boron (B) toxicity responses in diploid (2x) and tetraploid (4x) plants of Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.), a widely used citrus rootstock. With B excess, 2x plants accumulated more B in leaves than 4x plants, which accounted for their higher B uptake and root-to-shoot transport rates. Ploidy did not modify the expression of membrane transporters NIP5 and BOR1 in roots. The cellular allocation of B excess differed between ploidy levels in the soluble fraction, which was lower in 4x leaves, while cell wall-linked B was similar in 2x and 4x genotypes. This correlates with the increased damage and stunted growth recorded in the 2x plants. The 4x roots were found to have fewer root tips, shorter specific root length, longer diameter, thicker exodermis and earlier tissue maturation in root tips, where the Casparian strip was detected at a shorter distance from the root apex than in the 2x roots. The results presented herein suggest that the root anatomical characters of the 4x plants play a key role in their lower B uptake capacity and root-to-shoot transport. Highlights Tetraploidy enhances B excess tolerance in citrange Carrizo Expression of NIP5 and BOR1 transporters and cell wall-bounded B are similar between ploidies B tolerance is attributed to root anatomical modifications induced by genome duplication The rootstock 4x citrange carrizo may prevent citrus trees from B excess. PMID:27252717

  1. Produção de frutos e incidência de cancro cítrico em laranjeiras "Monte Parnaso" enxertadas sobre sete porta-enxertos Fruit production and incidence of citrus canker lesions on "Monte Parnaso" navel orange budded on seven rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Reis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Porta-enxertos de citros podem exercer influência sobre a produção de frutos e suscetibilidade das plantas ao cancro cítrico. Este trabalho objetivou selecionar porta-enxertos que induzam elevado índice de produtividade e menor suscetibilidade das copas de laranjeiras-de-umbigo "Monte Parnaso"(Citrus sinensis à bactéria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, causadora do cancro cítrico (CC. O experimento foi desenvolvido em um pomar experimental com 10 anos de idade, plantado em espaçamento de 2,5 x 6,0m, no município de Butiá, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições, usando duas plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos constaram dos seguintes porta-enxertos: limoeiros "Cravo" (C. limonia e "Volkameriano" (C. volkameriana., trifoliata "Flying Dragon" (Poncirus trifoliata., laranjeira "Caipira" (C. sinensis, citrangeiro "Troyer" (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata, tangerineira "Sunki" (C. sunki. e citrumeleiro "Swingle" (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: incidência de CC em folhas e frutos em toda a planta e em ramos previamente selecionados, em diversas épocas. Verificou-se que as plantas enxertadas sobre citrumeleiro "Swingle" apresentaram o maior índice de produtividade e, à semelhança do "Flying Dragon", a menor incidência de CC, tanto nas folhas como nos frutos. Além disso, verificou-se também que as plantas enxertadas sobre os limoeiros "Cravo" e "Volkameriana", apesar de produzirem as mais elevadas cargas de frutos, foram as mais suscetíveis ao CC.Citrus rootstocks can exert some influences on fruit production and susceptibility of the plants to citrus canker (CC. This research was performed aiming to select rootstocks which induce higher productivity index and lower susceptibility of 'Monte Parnaso' navel orange (Citrus sinensis trees to the bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. The research was carried out in an

  2. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck var 'Ridge Pineapple': organization and phylogenetic relationships to other angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Robert K

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The production of Citrus, the largest fruit crop of international economic value, has recently been imperiled due to the introduction of the bacterial disease Citrus canker. No significant improvements have been made to combat this disease by plant breeding and nuclear transgenic approaches. Chloroplast genetic engineering has a number of advantages over nuclear transformation; it not only increases transgene expression but also facilitates transgene containment, which is one of the major impediments for development of transgenic trees. We have sequenced the Citrus chloroplast genome to facilitate genetic improvement of this crop and to assess phylogenetic relationships among major lineages of angiosperms. Results The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Citrus sinensis is 160,129 bp in length, and contains 133 genes (89 protein-coding, 4 rRNAs and 30 distinct tRNAs. Genome organization is very similar to the inferred ancestral angiosperm chloroplast genome. However, in Citrus the infA gene is absent. The inverted repeat region has expanded to duplicate rps19 and the first 84 amino acids of rpl22. The rpl22 gene in the IRb region has a nonsense mutation resulting in 9 stop codons. This was confirmed by PCR amplification and sequencing using primers that flank the IR/LSC boundaries. Repeat analysis identified 29 direct and inverted repeats 30 bp or longer with a sequence identity ≥ 90%. Comparison of protein-coding sequences with expressed sequence tags revealed six putative RNA edits, five of which resulted in non-synonymous modifications in petL, psbH, ycf2 and ndhA. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony (MP and maximum likelihood (ML methods of a dataset composed of 61 protein-coding genes for 30 taxa provide strong support for the monophyly of several major clades of angiosperms, including monocots, eudicots, rosids and asterids. The MP and ML trees are incongruent in three areas: the position of Amborella and

  3. Characterization of bioactive compounds in Tunisian bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) peel and juice and determination of their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabri Karoui, Iness; Marzouk, Brahim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus aurantium peel and juice aroma compounds were investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), whereas phenolic compounds analysis was performed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Limonene was the major volatile compound of bitter orange peel (90.25%) and juice (91.61%). HPLC analysis of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts indicated that phenolic acids constitute their main phenolic class representing 73.80% and 71.25%, respectively, followed by flavonoids (23.02% and 23.13%, resp.). p-Coumaric and ferulic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds representing 24.68% and 23.79%, respectively, in the peel, while the juice contained 18.02% and 19.04%, respectively. The antioxidant activities of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts have been evaluated using four in vitro assays, and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants (BHT, BHA, and ascorbic acid). Our findings demonstrated that Citrus aurantium peel and juice possess antioxidant activities which were less effective than those of antioxidant standards. Both extracts may be suggested as a new potential source of natural antioxidant.

  4. Genetic variation and recombination of RdRp and HSP 70h genes of Citrus tristeza virus isolates from orange trees showing symptoms of citrus sudden death disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappas Georgios J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Citrus sudden death (CSD, a disease that rapidly kills orange trees, is an emerging threat to the Brazilian citrus industry. Although the causal agent of CSD has not been definitively determined, based on the disease's distribution and symptomatology it is suspected that the agent may be a new strain of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV. CTV genetic variation was therefore assessed in two Brazilian orange trees displaying CSD symptoms and a third with more conventional CTV symptoms. Results A total of 286 RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase (RdRp and 284 heat shock protein 70 homolog (HSP70h gene fragments were determined for CTV variants infecting the three trees. It was discovered that, despite differences in symptomatology, the trees were all apparently coinfected with similar populations of divergent CTV variants. While mixed CTV infections are common, the genetic distance between the most divergent population members observed (24.1% for RdRp and 11.0% for HSP70h was far greater than that in previously described mixed infections. Recombinants of five distinct RdRp lineages and three distinct HSP70h lineages were easily detectable but respectively accounted for only 5.9 and 11.9% of the RdRp and HSP70h gene fragments analysed and there was no evidence of an association between particular recombinant mosaics and CSD. Also, comparisons of CTV population structures indicated that the two most similar CTV populations were those of one of the trees with CSD and the tree without CSD. Conclusion We suggest that if CTV is the causal agent of CSD, it is most likely a subtle feature of population structures within mixed infections and not merely the presence (or absence of a single CTV variant within these populations that triggers the disease.

  5. Development and reproduction of Panonychus citri (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) on different species and varieties of citrus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Bordini, Gabriela Pavan; Franco, Aline Aparecida; de Morais, Matheus Rovere; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-12-01

    The species and varieties of citrus plants that are currently grown can favor the population growth of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) and alter the pest management programs in citrus groves. In this study we evaluated, in the laboratory, the development and reproduction of P. citri and estimated its life table parameters when reared on four varieties of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Valencia, Pera, Natal, and Hamlin), one variety of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Ponkan) and one variety of Citrus limon (L.) Burm. (Sicilian). The incubation period and egg viability were not affected by the host plant. However, the development and survival of the immature stage were significantly lower on Hamlin orange than on Valencia, Pera and Natal oranges, Ponkan mandarin and Sicilian lemon. The fecundity and oviposition period of females were lower on Hamlin orange than on the other hosts. Mites reared on Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon had a higher net reproductive rate (R 0 ), intrinsic growth rate (r) and finite rate of increase (λ), and a shorter interval between generations (T) than on Pera, Natal and Hamlin oranges and Ponkan mandarin. On the other hand, mites reared on Hamlin orange had the lowest R 0 , r and λ and the highest T among the hosts. Based on the results obtained we recommend that for Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon, the mite monitoring programs should be more intense to detect the initial infestation of pest, avoiding the damage in plants and the increase in production costs.

  6. Water flows in species of citrus (citrus sinensis L. Osbeck - Orange pear) - Campinas - São Paulo - Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Aristoteles de Jesus Teixeira Filho

    2005-01-01

    Resumo: As variáveis ecofisiológicas exercem grande influência, não somente no comportamento vegetativo das plantas cultivadas, mas, sobretudo no seu desempenho em relação às características produtivas. Os estudos sobre trocas gasosas têm-se ampliado desde a década de oitenta, dada a sua importância em cultivos tropicais, tal qual, em variedades de citros. Tem-se investigado que os estômatos são o principal ponto de controle do fluxo de água, sendo o déficit de pressão hídrica do ar apontada ...

  7. CsPAO4 of Citrus sinensis functions in polyamine terminal catabolism and inhibits plant growth under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2016-08-18

    Polyamine oxidase (PAO) is a key enzyme catalyzing polyamine catabolism leading to H2O2 production. We previously demonstrated that Citrus sinensis contains six putative PAO genes, but their functions are not well understood. In this work, we reported functional elucidation of CsPAO4 in polyamine catabolism and salt stress response. CsPAO4 was localized to the apoplast and used both spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) as substrates for terminal catabolism. Transgenic plants overexpressing CsPAO4 displayed prominent increase in PAO activity, concurrent with marked decrease of Spm and Spd and elevation of H2O2. Seeds of transgenic lines displayed better germination when compared with wild type (WT) under salt stress. However, both vegetative growth and root elongation of the transgenic lines were prominently inhibited under salt stress, accompanied by higher level of H2O2 and more conspicuous programmed cell death (PCD). Exogenous supply of catalase (CAT), a H2O2 scavenger, partially recovered the vegetative growth and root elongation. In addition, spermine inhibited root growth of transgenic plants. Taken together, these data demonstrated that CsPAO4 accounts for production of H2O2 causing oxidative damages under salt stress and that down-regulation of a PAO gene involved in polyamine terminal catabolism may be an alternative approach for improving salt stress tolerance.

  8. Comparison of microwave, ultrasound and accelerated-assisted solvent extraction for recovery of polyphenols from Citrus sinensis peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Balunkeswar; Dahmoune, Farid; Moussi, Kamal; Remini, Hocine; Dairi, Sofiane; Aoun, Omar; Khodir, Madani

    2015-11-15

    Peel of Citrus sinensis contains significant amounts of bioactive polyphenols that could be used as ingredients for a number of value-added products with health benefits. Extraction of polyphenols from the peels was performed using a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique. The effects of aqueous acetone concentration, microwave power, extraction time and solvent-to-solid ratio on the total phenolic content (TPC), total antioxidant activity (TAA) (using DPPH and ORAC-values) and individual phenolic acids (IPA) were investigated using a response surface method. The TPC, TAA and IPA of peel extracts using MAE was compared with conventional, ultrasound-assisted and accelerated solvent extraction. The maximum predicted TPC under the optimal MAE conditions (51% acetone concentration in water (v/v), 500 W microwave power, 122 s extraction time and 25 mL g(-1) solvent to solid ratio), was 12.20 mg GAE g(-1) DW. The TPC and TAA in MAE extracts were higher than the other three extracts.

  9. β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes containing Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck essential oil: An alternative to control Aedes aegypti larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvão, J.G., E-mail: julianaggalvao@gmail.com [Pharmacy Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Silva, V.F.; Ferreira, S.G. [Pharmacy Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); França, F.R.M. [Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Santos, D.A.; Freitas, L.S.; Alves, P.B. [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Araújo, A.A.S.; Cavalcanti, S.C.H.; Nunes, R.S. [Pharmacy Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil)

    2015-05-20

    Highlights: • Thermal analysis was useful to determine the formation of inclusion complexes by paste and co-precipitation methods. • HS/GC-FID quantitative analysis revealed that the best method of obtaining a CSEO/β-CD complex was the PWE, with the largest inclusion content [78.5%]. • The inclusion complex revealed LC{sub 50} of 23.01 ppm, close to CSEO LC{sub 50} 21.5 ppm. - Abstract: The development of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) complexes is an interesting way for increasing the aqueous solubility of essential oils. The aim of this study was to prepare inclusion complexes of Citrus sinensis essential oil (CSEO) with β-CD using paste complexation (with and without co-solvent) and co-precipitation methods. Additionally, the physicochemical properties of the inclusion complexes using thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were evaluated. Furthermore, CSEO content (%) and solubility of complexes were measured. The biological activity against the Aedes aegypti Linn. larvae was further evaluated. For comparison purposes, a physical mixture between β-CD and CSEO was prepared and evaluated. Thermal analysis clearly indicated the formation of complexes by paste and co-precipitation methods. The headspace/gas chromatography quantitative analysis showed inclusions contents higher than 50%. On the other hand, the product revealed LC{sub 50} of 23.01 ppm, close to CSEO LC{sub 50} 21.5 ppm.

  10. Preliminary in vitro antisickilng properties of crude juice extracts of Persia Americana, Citrus sinensis, Carica papaya and Ciklavit®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iweala, E E J; Uhegbu, F O; Ogu, G N

    2009-12-30

    The antisickling properties of crude juice extracts of the edible portions of three commonly consumed tropical fruits namely Persia americana, Citrus sinensis, and Carica papaya were investigated in vitro alongside a new drug preparation called Ciklavit® that has antisickling activity. Four different solvent extracts of the crude juice of each fruit including aqueous, acidic, alkaline and alcoholic extracts were prepared and their antisickling effects on sickle cell trait (HbAS) and sickle cell disease (HbSS) blood samples checked alongside Ciklavit®. Blood samples were stabilized using normal saline and the antisickling effects were checked by counting the number of sickle cells remaining after incubation of the blood samples with the crude fruit extracts and Ciklavit® for twenty-four hours. The results showed that Ciklavit® produced a sustained reduction in the number of sickle cells in both HbAS and HbSS blood samples. Also the alkaline and alcoholic extracts of P. americana and C. papaya produced significant reduction in the number of sickle cells.

  11. Época da indução e evocação floral em Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck cv. Pêra Rio The flower induction and evocation period in Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck cv. Pêra Rio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Alvarenga Mesquita Pereira

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A produção do estímulo floral (indução e emissão das primeiras sépalas, na gema floralmente determinada (evocação floral em Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck cv. Pêra Rio pôde ser acompanhada pelas variações anatômicas nos meristemas apicais e axilares. Com objetivo de determinar a época na qual ocorre a indução e evocação floral, cortes longitudinais de gemas apicais e axilares, corados com pironina Y-methylgreen foram efetuados em períodos regulares de maio a agosto. Através das mudanças no formato da gema, principalmente diâmetro, que aumentou com a indução, foi possível determinar a época do ano na qual gemas vegetativas são induzidas a florescerem. Foram detectadas variações nos diâmetros das gemas no período de início da morfogênese floral (meados até o final de julho. A medição do diâmetro das gemas mostra-se um procedimento eficiente para acompanhar os fenômenos decorrentes da indução, evocação e morfogênese florais. Gemas vegetativas apresentam diâmetro médio de 100µm, com túnica composta por três camadas, de formato cônico, recobrindo o corpo, ao passo que a reprodutiva é mais achatada, após a iniciação do primeiro primórdio de sépala, exibindo diâmetro médio de 200µm. Coloração com pironina Y-methylgreen proporciona a captação do fenômeno da evocação floral, pela detecção de regiões mais concentradas em RNA, nas zonas periféricas das gemas; alteração bioquímica esta que precede a emissão das sépalas.The research aims to determine the time in which the inflorescence induction and evocation occurs. The production of inflorescence stimulus (induction and emission of first sepals in a bud determined as a flower bud (floral evocation in Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck cv. Pêra Rio could be observed through the anatomic variations of the apical and lateral meristems. Longitudinal sections, stained with pironina Y-methylgreen were done in regular periods from May to August. The

  12. Evaluación del efecto de diferentes cepas de levadura (Montrachet, K1-V1116, EC-1118, 71B-1122 y IVC-GRE ® y clarificantes sobre los atributos sensoriales del vino de naranja criolla (Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael E Olivero

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of effect of various strains of yeast (Montrachet, K1-V1116, EC-1118, 71B-1122 y IVC-GRE ® and clearer on the sensory attributes orange wine (Citrus sinensis RESUMEN En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto de diferentes cepas de levadura (Montrachet, K1-V1116, EC-1118, 71B-1122 y IVC-GRE ® sobre los atributos sensoriales del vino de naranja. Estos atributos fueron medidos utilizando la escala modificada de UC Davis. En una prueba de ordenamiento para determinar el mejor tratamiento de clarificación se determinó que la gelatina por sí sola no causa efecto sobre el atributo apariencia general, la combinación de la gelatina y la microfiltración tienen un efecto positivo sobre la apariencia del vino de naranja. Los cinco vinos tratados con diferentes levaduras presentaron diferencias significativas sobre la puntuación total, acidez total, sabor y calidad en general. En términos del efecto de las levaduras, la evaluación sensorial realizada a los vinos mostró que el de naranja con la levadura K1-V1116 fue el que sobresalió en términos de puntuación en los promedios de casi todos los atributos analizados por el panel sensorial.  Palabras clave: vino de naranja criolla, levaduras, clarificantes, atributos sensoriales.  ABSTRACT In this Wort was evaluated the effect of different types of strains of yeast (Montrachet, K1-V1116, EC-1118, 71B-1122 y IVC-GRE over the sensorial attributes of orange wines were also studied. These attributes were measured in a modified scale of UC Davis. By using an order test in order to know the best cleared treatment, it was determined that gelatin by itself does not cause any effect over the general quality attribute, but the combination of gelatin and microfiltration, cause a positive effect over the orange wine appearance. The five wines treated with different yeasts presented significant differences on individual scores, total acidy, flavor and general quality of the UC Davis scale. The

  13. Economic injury levels for Asian citrus psyllid control in process oranges from mature trees with high incidence of huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzo, Cesar; Stansly, Philip A

    2017-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the key pest of citrus wherever it occurs due to its role as vector of huanglongbing (HLB) also known as citrus greening disease. Insecticidal vector control is considered to be the primary strategy for HLB management and is typically intense owing to the severity of this disease. While this approach slows spread and also decreases severity of HLB once the disease is established, economic viability of increasingly frequent sprays is uncertain. Lacking until now were studies evaluating the optimum frequency of insecticide applications to mature trees during the growing season under conditions of high HLB incidence. We related different degrees of insecticide control with ACP abundance and ultimately, with HLB-associated yield losses in two four-year replicated experiments conducted in commercial groves of mature orange trees under high HLB incidence. Decisions on insecticide applications directed at ACP were made by project managers and confined to designated plots according to experimental design. All operational costs as well as production benefits were taken into account for economic analysis. The relationship between management costs, ACP abundance and HLB-associated economic losses based on current prices for process oranges was used to determine the optimum frequency and timing for insecticide applications during the growing season. Trees under the most intensive insecticidal control harbored fewest ACP resulting in greatest yields. The relationship between vector densities and yield loss was significant but differed between the two test orchards, possibly due to varying initial HLB infection levels, ACP populations or cultivar response. Based on these relationships, treatment thresholds during the growing season were obtained as a function of application costs, juice market prices and ACP densities. A conservative threshold for mature trees with high incidence of HLB would help maintain economic

  14. Effects of boron deficiency on major metabolites, key enzymes and gas exchange in leaves and roots of Citrus sinensis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi-Bin; Yang, Lin-Tong; Li, Yan; Xu, Jing; Liao, Tian-Tai; Chen, Yan-Bin; Chen, Li-Song

    2014-06-01

    Boron (B) deficiency is a widespread problem in many crops, including Citrus. The effects of B-deficiency on gas exchange, carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, total soluble proteins and phenolics, and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in 'Xuegan' [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] leaves and roots were investigated. Boron-deficient leaves displayed excessive accumulation of nonstructural carbohydrates and much lower CO2 assimilation, demonstrating feedback inhibition of photosynthesis. Dark respiration, concentrations of most organic acids [i.e., malate, citrate, oxaloacetate (OAA), pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate] and activities of enzymes [i.e., phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), NAD-malate dehydrogenase, NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME), NADP-ME, pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase (PEPP), citrate synthase (CS), aconitase (ACO), NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-IDH) and hexokinase] involved in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B-deficient leaves than in controls. Also, total free amino acid (TFAA) concentration and related enzyme [i.e., NADH-dependent glutamate 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (NADH-GOGAT) and glutamate OAA transaminase (GOT)] activities were enhanced in B-deficient leaves. By contrast, respiration, concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates and three organic acids (malate, citrate and pyruvate), and activities of most enzymes [i.e., PEPC, NADP-ME, PK, PEPP, CS, ACO, NAD-isocitrate dehydrogenase, NADP-IDH and hexokinase] involved in glycolysis, the TCA cycle and the anapleurotic reaction, as well as concentration of TFAA and activities of related enzymes (i.e., nitrate reductase, NADH-GOGAT, glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamine synthetase) were lower in B-deficient roots than in controls. Interestingly, leaf and root concentration of total phenolics increased, whereas that of total soluble protein decreased

  15. Metabolic responses to iron deficiency in roots of Carrizo citrange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck. x Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Iglesias, Domingo J; Talón, Manuel; Abadía, Javier; López-Millán, Ana-Flor; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Legaz, Francisco

    2013-03-01

    The effects of iron (Fe) deficiency on the low-molecular-weight organic acid (LMWOA) metabolism have been investigated in Carrizo citrange (CC) [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] roots. Major LMWOAs found in roots, xylem sap and root exudates were citrate and malate and their concentrations increased with Fe deficiency. The activities of several enzymes involved in the LMWOA metabolism were also assessed in roots. In the cytosolic fraction, the activities of malate dehydrogenase (cMDH) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) enzymes were 132 and 100% higher in Fe-deficient conditions, whereas the activity of pyruvate kinase was 31% lower and the activity of malic enzyme (ME) did not change. In the mitochondrial fraction, the activities of fumarase, MDH and citrate synthase enzymes were 158, 117 and 53% higher, respectively, in Fe-deficient extracts when compared with Fe-sufficient controls, whereas no significant differences between treatments were found for aconitase (ACO) activity. The expression of their corresponding genes in roots of Fe-deficient plants was higher than that measured in Fe-sufficient controls, except for ACO and ME. Also, dicarboxylate-tricarboxylate carrier (DTC) expression was significantly increased in Fe-deficient roots. In conclusion, Fe deficiency in CC seedlings causes a reprogramming of the carbon metabolism that involves an increase of anaplerotic fixation of carbon via PEPC and MDH activities in the cytosol and a shift of the Krebs cycle in the mitochondria towards a non-cyclic mode, as previously described in herbaceous species. In this scheme, DTC could play an important role shuttling both malate and reducing equivalents between the cytosol and the mitochondria. As a result of this metabolic switch malate and citrate concentrations in roots, xylem sap and root exudates increase.

  16. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf, Ripe and Unripe Peel of Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium Essential Oils

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    Fatemeh Azhdarzadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium leaf, ripe and unripe peel essential oils, cultivated in southwest of Iran, were investigated. Materials and Methods: The analysis of chemical composition of hydro-distilled essential oils was carried out by GC-MS. The disc diffusion and broth micro-dilution were used to assay the antimicrobial effect of achieved essential oils. Results: According to the GC-MS analysis, 34, 39 and 21 components were determined in the leaf, ripe and unripe peel, respectively. The results revealed that the main components of all essential oils were linalool and limonene. The oxygenated monoterpene and hydrocarbonated monoterpene were the main chemical groups of leaf and peel essential oils, respectively. Although all of the examined essential oils had antimicrobial potential, the leaf and unripe peel essential oils with MIC of 4.67 mg/ml were the most effective against the bacteria and yeast species, respectively, and the ripe peel essential oil was the weakest one. The growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was controlled in the treated orange juices. The antifungal activity of essential oils was increased by rising up in their concentration and decreased by passing time. Unripe and ripe essential oils showed the strongest and weakest anti yeast potential, respectively. Conclusions: The essential oils of leaves and ripe and unripe peels of bitter orange could be used as natural preservatives in food industry.

  17. Influencia de 46 porta-injertos para cítricos en la precocidad o retardo de maduración de la naranja "Frost valencia" (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck

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    Caselles N. Álvaro A.

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Of 46 graft carrier influence in citrics on ripe precocity or retardation from "Frost Valencia" Citrus sinensis (L Osbeck was studied looking for to guaranter a fruit constant supply toward market. Graft carrier influence was tested in orange blosson, fruiting ripeness season. Stock influence to induce early intermediate or later blossoms was observed, related with period and intensity so them same ocurr. Stock influence on solubles solids content, juici volume, ripeness index, ripe fruit, mantenence on tree also was found . Early of later yields are feasible to obtain using trifoliado x Ruby Or (1437 and "Garcia Valencia" stock markedly, or which highly significant ripeness gains were found with "Frost Valencia" Orange respectively.Se estudió la influencia de los portainjertos para cítricos buscando la obtención de producciones tempranas o tardías para garantizar un suministro continuo de fruta fresca al mercado. Se analizó por espacio de dos años la influencia de los porta-injertos en el período de floración, fructificación y maduración de la naranja. Se observó influencia del patrón para inducir floraciones precoces, intermedias o tardías haciendo referencia al período de intensidad con que ocurren las mismas. También se encontró influencia del patrón en contenido de sólidos solubles, volumen de jugo, acidez, índice de marez y mantenimiento de la fruta madura en el árbol. Es posible obtener producciones tempranas o tardías con la utilización de los patrones trifoliados x Ruby Or (1437 Y García Valencia, sobre las cuales se encontró adelantos altamente significativos de maduración de la naranja "Frost Valencia" respectivamente.

  18. Phytoene Synthase Gene Cloning from Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv.Cara Cara and Its Prokaryotic Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-cheng; TAO Neng-guo; TONG Zhu; DENG Xiu-xin

    2008-01-01

    Using the mRNA from the fruit of Cara Cara as the template,the cDNA of phytoene synthase(PSY)gene was amplified by reverse transcription polymerse chain reaction(RT-PCR).Sequence analysis indicated that the eDNA was of 1 520 bp,which had an open reading frame of 1 308 bp and encoded a protein of 436 amino acids.The homology analysis showed that PSY of Cara Cara shared high similarities of nucleotides and deduced amino acids with those in other plants up to more than 75 and 70%,respectively.A putative signal transit peptide for plastid targeting was found in the N-terminal region of PSY.The mature forms of PSY included a transmembrane(TM) domain.The recombinant plasmid pET-CitPSY was constructed by subeloning the full coding sequence of PSY eDNA into pET-28(+).After transformation of E.coil BL21 and induced by 1 mmol L-1 isopropyl-a-D-thiogalacropyranoside(IPTG),the fusion protein(6×His-PSY)with 52 kD was produced at a high level by prokaryotic expression system.The results of Western blot demonstrated that the fusion protein(6xHis-PSY)could be recognized by anti-6×His monoclonal antibody.The study could establish a basis for molecular improvement of Citrus fruit colors.

  19. Selection processes in a citrus hybrid population using RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Roberto Pedroso de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the processes of selection in a citrus hybrid population using segregation analysis of RAPD markers. The segregation of 123 RAPD markers between 'Cravo' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco and 'Pêra' sweet orange (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck was analysed in a F1 progeny of 94 hybrids. Genetic composition, diversity, heterozygosity, differences in chromosomal structure and the presence of deleterious recessive genes are discussed based on the segregation ratios obtained. A high percentage of markers had a skeweness of the 1:1 expected segregation ratio in the F1 population. Many markers showed a 3:1 segregation ratio in both varieties and 1:3 in 'Pêra' sweet orange, probably due to directional selection processes. The distribution analysis of the frequencies of the segregant markers in a hybrid population is a simple method which allows a better understanding of the genetics of citrus group.

  20. Regional Division of Production and Development Strategy of Citrus in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu YANG; Wen DENG; Jianquan LI; Weihong WANG; Guolin HUANG; Ping ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to research regional division of citrus production and development strategies in Hunan Province. [Method] According to Rural Statisti- cal Yearbook in Hunan Province during 2002-2011, Citrus in Hunan province were divided into three production regions, namely, superior region, sub-superior and non- superior region. On the base of the divisions, the ecological regionalization and brand strategy, Optimization of regional distribution and developing strategy were proposed, with consideration of avoiding frozen zones, in this paper. [Result] Fresh and processing bases of mandarin orange (C.unshiu Marc), and specialty industries of seedless ponkan(C.reticulata Blanco), Bingtang orange (C.sinensis Osbeck Bing- tangcheng), Dayongjuhuaxinyou (Cgrandis (L.) Osbeck Dayongjuhuaxinyou) and An- jiangxiangyou (C.grandis (L.) Osbeck Anjiangxiangyou) should be constructed, where fresh fruit is dominant, supplemented by canned fruit and juice. Industry belt of sat- suma orange, fresh or processing food, is mainly built, for proportion of early and earlier ripe satsuma orange is over 50% of total yield in Xiangzhong citrus zone; in- dustry belt of excellent fresh navel orange and processing sweet orange should be highlighted in Xiangnan. [Conclusion] The research provides references for decision- making for governments, especially on optimization of citrus production regions and development of citrus industry.

  1. Analysis of the Inheritance and Expression of Antibacterial Peptide Gene Shiva A in Transgenic Citrus(Citrus sinensis) during Its Asexual Propagation%抗菌肽Shiva A基因在转基因柑橘无性繁殖后代中的遗传与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许兰珍; 何永睿; 彭爱红; 雷天刚; 刘小丰; 邹修平; 姚利晓; 陈善春

    2013-01-01

    In order to further clarify the genetic stability and the target traits of the foreign gene in the progeny of transgenic citrus,the asexual reproduction plants of transgenic Newhall navel orange(Citrus sinensis Osbeck)containing bivalent antibacterial peptide gene(Shiva A-cecropin B) were studied.In this study,the genetic stability of Shiva A gene in To,T1,T2 and T3 progenies of transgenic citrus varieties were analyzed by PCR,Southern hybridization,Real-time quantitative PCR and greenhouse disease index statistic to Xathomonas axonopodis pv.Citri(Hasse) Dye.The results showed that the antimicrobial peptides Shiva A gene was existed and expressed in To,T1,T2 and T3 plants.This meant target gene could be stably inherited from one generation to another through asexual propagating.There was difference of Shiva A gene copy number between transgenic To and its asexual propagation.Southern bloting analysis showed that To generation had two hybridizations,but its progenies had only one hybridization consistent with To generation.It could be speculated that the T0 generation plant was a transgenic multicellular mixed cytochimera.In addition,Realtime quantitative PCR results showed that,even if Shiva A gene in the To generation genome was double copy numbers,but its expression level was lower than a single copy of the T1,T2 and T3 generation.Therefore,in this study,exogenous gene expression and transgene copy number was a negative correlation.The results of this study provide some basic date and the material for extending the stable phenotype of transgenic citrus strains in carrying out the safety evaluation of transgenic plants.%为进一步明确外源基因在转基因柑橘无性繁殖后代中的遗传稳定性及目标性状表现,本研究以转双价抗菌肽基因(ShivaA-cecropinB)纽荷尔脐橙(Citrus Sinensis Osbeck)无性繁殖后代植株为材料,通过PCR扩增,Southern杂交和实时定量PCR检测,以及温室抗病性评价分析等,对抗菌肽ShivaA基

  2. Concentração de suco de laranja (Citrus sinensis por osmose inversa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA Fernando Teixeira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A concentração de suco de laranja por osmose inversa combinada com ultrafiltração foi estudada em escala semi-piloto, visando avaliar a utilização dessa tecnologia para substituição parcial da evaporação. Foram utilizados no processamento 100 litros de suco de laranja, com teor de polpa de 1,5%, cedidos pela CTM Citrus. Na primeira etapa, todo o suco passou pela etapa de ultrafiltração, para separação da polpa, enzimas pectinolíticas e microrganismos, que foram retidos. Foi utilizada uma membrana da Romicom (HF-43 de polissulfona em um sistema de configuração tubular, com peso molecular de corte de 50.000 daltons, à pressão de 1,2 bar. Obteve-se um fator de concentração de 27,6. O retentado da ultrafiltração foi pasteurizado à temperatura de 90°C, em trocador de calor de superfície raspada desenvolvido para este projeto. O processo de osmose inversa foi conduzido no equipamento Lab-unit M-20 da DDS, utilizando membranas da DDS (HR 95 PP de filme composto em um sistema de configuração quadro e placas. Foram realizados três tratamentos com pressões de 20, 40 e 60 bar e para cada experimento, foram feitas três repetições. O retentado pasteurizado da ultrafiltração foi adicionado ao retentado da osmose inversa e caracterizado química, física e sensorialmente. Na osmose inversa foram obtidos fatores de concentração de 2,7, 3,5 e 3,6 e teores de sólidos solúveis de 18, 23 e 30 °Brix, para os tratamentos de 20, 40 e 60 bar, respectivamente. Os respectivos permeados apresentaram teores de sólidos solúveis de 3,3, 1,3 e 0,3°Brix e acidez de 262,50, 91,50 e 34,25 mg de ácido cítrico/100 ml. Os sucos obtidos pelos três tratamentos apresentaram valores de "defect score" e "color score" superiores aos do suco original, enquanto que para o "flavor score", os sucos obtidos às pressões de 40 e 60 bar, apresentaram valores próximos ao ideal. Os valores de "ratio", pH e formol foram semelhantes entre os

  3. Evaluation of the effects of Citrus sinensis seed oil on blood glucose, lipid profile and liver enzymes in rats injected with alloxan monohydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chilaka K.C; Ifediba E.C; Ogamba J.O

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of Citrus sinensis seed oil on blood glucose, lipid profile and some liver enzymes activities in alloxan induced diabetic rats.Methods:About 120 mg/kg body weight alloxan monohydrate was injected intraperitoneally into 18 adult male albino rats weighing 180-200 g, which has been acclimatized in our laboratory for two weeks. Approximately 72 h after the alloxan injection, the rat became hyperglycaemic with blood glucose above 200 mg/dL. The diabetic rats were randomly assigned into three diabetic and one control groups of six rats each: normal control, diabetic treated with 1000 mg/kg body weight of emulsified seed oil; diabetic control, diabetic treated with 150 mg/kg body weight of metformin hydrochloride. Both controls received weight-checked solution of 4.8% v/v Tween-80 in distilled water. All injections in all groups were done intraperitoneally once daily for 28 d. The blood glucose estimation was done every week, with one touch glucometer as well as the weight checked with animal weighing balance. Lipid profiles and some liver enzymes activities (AST, ALT and ALP) were analysed using test kits and spectrophotometer. Data obtained were analyzed using One way ANOVA and post hoc test done using graph pad prism-version 6. Results: The results of this study indicated that Citrus sinensis seed oil was able to reduce blood glucose significantly (P<0.001) in the early weeks of the study when compared with both the diabetic control group and the metformin-treated group. The seed oil significantly lowered serum triglyceride, the serum LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol; the activities of all the liver enzymes assayed (P<0.05) but significantly increased the HDL-cholesterol in the diabetic oil-treated rats as compared to diabetic control (P<0.05). Conclusions: However, further studies need to be carried out to show its mechanism of action and to isolate the active ingredient in the Citrus sinensis seed oil that is

  4. Genome-wide classification and evolutionary and expression analyses of citrus MYB transcription factor families in sweet orange.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jin Hou

    Full Text Available MYB family genes are widely distributed in plants and comprise one of the largest transcription factors involved in various developmental processes and defense responses of plants. To date, few MYB genes and little expression profiling have been reported for citrus. Here, we describe and classify 177 members of the sweet orange MYB gene (CsMYB family in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis orthologs. According to these analyses, these CsMYBs were categorized into four groups (4R-MYB, 3R-MYB, 2R-MYB and 1R-MYB. Gene structure analysis revealed that 1R-MYB genes possess relatively more introns as compared with 2R-MYB genes. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that these CsMYBs are distributed across nine chromosomes. Sweet orange includes a relatively small number of MYB genes compared with the 198 members in Arabidopsis, presumably due to a paralog reduction related to repetitive sequence insertion into promoter and non-coding transcribed region of the genes. Comparative studies of CsMYBs and Arabidopsis showed that CsMYBs had fewer gene duplication events. Expression analysis revealed that the MYB gene family has a wide expression profile in sweet orange development and plays important roles in development and stress responses. In addition, 337 new putative microsatellites with flanking sequences sufficient for primer design were also identified from the 177 CsMYBs. These results provide a useful reference for the selection of candidate MYB genes for cloning and further functional analysis forcitrus.

  5. Use of an infrared thermometer for assessment of plant water stress in neck orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayan Sdoodee

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In general, water stress causes stomatal closure in citrus, and this leads to higher leaf temperature. Recently, it has been reported that infrared thermometry technique can be used for detecting stomatal closure indirectly to assess plant water stress. Therefore, it was proposed to apply to neck orange. An experiment was arranged as a completely randomized design. There were 3 treatments of watering levels: 1 wellwatering (W1, 2 3-day interval watering (W2, and 3 6-day interval watering (W3 with 6 replicates. Eighteen 2-year-old trees of neck orange were used, and each tree was grown in a container (0.4 m3 filled with mixed media of soil, compost and sand (1:1:1. During 18 days of the experimental period, it was found that leaf water potential and stomatal conductance of the plants in W2 and W3 treatments decreased with the progress of water stress. There was high correlation (r2 = 0.71** between leaf water potential and stomatal conductance as a linear regression (Y = 0.0044X-1.8635. Canopy temperature (Tc and air temperature (Ta of each tree were measured by an infrared thermometer, and Tc-Ta was assessed. At the end of the experimental period, it was found that Tc-Ta was significantly highest in the W3 treatment (3.5ºC followed by the of W2 treatment (2ºC, while it was lowest in the W1 treatment (1ºC. The relationship between Tc-Ta and stomatal conductance was high as polynomial (Y = 0.0002X2 0.0572X+3.9878, r2 = 0.70**. This indicated that stomatal closure or decreasing stomatal conductance caused increasing of Tc-Ta in the leaves. Hence, it suggests that infrared thermometer is a convenient device for the assessment of plant water stress in neck orange.

  6. Genome-wide classification and evolutionary and expression analyses of citrus MYB transcription factor families in sweet orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiao-Jin; Li, Si-Bei; Liu, Sheng-Rui; Hu, Chun-Gen; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    MYB family genes are widely distributed in plants and comprise one of the largest transcription factors involved in various developmental processes and defense responses of plants. To date, few MYB genes and little expression profiling have been reported for citrus. Here, we describe and classify 177 members of the sweet orange MYB gene (CsMYB) family in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis orthologs. According to these analyses, these CsMYBs were categorized into four groups (4R-MYB, 3R-MYB, 2R-MYB and 1R-MYB). Gene structure analysis revealed that 1R-MYB genes possess relatively more introns as compared with 2R-MYB genes. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that these CsMYBs are distributed across nine chromosomes. Sweet orange includes a relatively small number of MYB genes compared with the 198 members in Arabidopsis, presumably due to a paralog reduction related to repetitive sequence insertion into promoter and non-coding transcribed region of the genes. Comparative studies of CsMYBs and Arabidopsis showed that CsMYBs had fewer gene duplication events. Expression analysis revealed that the MYB gene family has a wide expression profile in sweet orange development and plays important roles in development and stress responses. In addition, 337 new putative microsatellites with flanking sequences sufficient for primer design were also identified from the 177 CsMYBs. These results provide a useful reference for the selection of candidate MYB genes for cloning and further functional analysis forcitrus.

  7. Dicty_cDB: AFN801 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eld-collected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis...s from field-collected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA clone MVF-82

  8. Dicty_cDB: AFO779 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eld-collected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis...s from field-collected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA clone MVF-82

  9. Dicty_cDB: AFO346 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cted Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA clo...eld-collected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA clone MVF-82_F01 5',

  10. Dicty_cDB: AFN648 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available llected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA ... field-collected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA clone MVF-82_F01 5

  11. In vitro pancreatic lipase, cholesterol esterase and cholesterol micellization inhibitory activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanigasekera Daya Ratnasooriya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To access the pancreatic lipase, cholesterol esterase and cholesterol micellization inhibitory activities of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea made from uppermost tender leaves and unopened buds of Camellia sinensis L. Methods: Black tea brew (BTB was made according to International Organization for Standardization 3103 specifications and concentrations of BTB tested were 37.5, 75.0, 150.0, 300.0 and 600.0 µg/mL for antilipase and anti-cholesterol esterase assays and 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 µg/mL for cholesterol micellization inhibitory assay. Results: The results showed that BTB of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea has marked and dose-dependent (r 2 = 0.95 cholesterol micellization inhibitory activity in vitro comparable to epigallocatechin gallate, the reference drug used. In contrast, BTB had only mild but dose-dependent (r 2 = 0.94 inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase and weak inhibitory effect (up to 13.17% on pancreatic cholesterol esterase. Conclusions: It is concluded that consumption of BTB of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade tea as a beverage may be a useful strategy in the management of hyperlipidaemia.

  12. In vitro pancreatic lipase, cholesterol esterase and cholesterol micellization inhibitory activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanigasekera Daya Ratnasooriya

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To access the pancreatic lipase, cholesterol esterase and cholesterol micellization inhibitory activities of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea made from uppermost tender leaves and unopened buds ofCamellia sinensis L. Methods: Black tea brew (BTB) was made according to International Organization for Standardization 3103 specifications and concentrations ofBTB tested were 37.5, 75.0, 150.0, 300.0 and 600.0µg/mL for antilipase and anti-cholesterol esterase assays and 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00µg/mL for cholesterol micellization inhibitory assay. Results:The results showed thatBTB of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea has marked and dose-dependent (r2 = 0.95) cholesterol micellization inhibitory activityin vitro comparable to epigallocatechin gallate, the reference drug used. In contrast, BTB had only mild but dose-dependent (r2= 0.94) inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase and weak inhibitory effect (up to 13.17%) on pancreatic cholesterol esterase. Conclusions: It is concluded that consumption ofBTB of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade tea as a beverage may be a useful strategy in the management of hyperlipidaemia.

  13. Embryogenic calli induction from nucellar tissue of Citrus cultivars Indução de calos embriogênicos a partir de nucelos de variedades de Citrus

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    Fernanda Januzzi Mendes-da-Glória

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucellar tissues of seven Citrus varieties were introduced onto three growth media to produce embryogenic callus. The media tested were: EME [MT, modified, with the addition of malt extract (500 mg.L-1]; 1/2-EME [half concentration of MT macronutrients + half concentration of BH3 macronutrients + 500 mg.L-1 malt extract + 1.55 g.L-1 of glutamine]; and EBA [EME + 0.44 muM 6-benzyladenine + 0.04 muM 2,4 D]. Soft friable calli were obtained from 'Cravo' and 'Ponkan' mandarins (Citrus reticulata, Blanco, 'Murcott' tangor (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Serra d'água' and 'Valencia' sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis, L. Osbeck 120 days after callus induction. 'Natal' and 'Pera' sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis, L. Osbeck produced hard non-friable calli in this period. EME and 1/2-EME media had the best results for 'Cravo' mandarin, 'Ponkan' mandarin and 'Serra d'água' sweet orange, whereas EBA was the best media composition to induce soft friable calli on 'Murcott' tangor and 'Valencia' sweet orange. Friable callus cultures of 'Cravo' and 'Ponkan' mandarins, and 'Murcott' tangor yielded high quality protoplasts after isolation. Abbreviations: a.c. - activated charcoal; BA - 6-benzyladenine; IAA - indole-acetic acid; 2,4-D - 2,4-diclorophenoxyacetic acid; MT - Murashige & Tucker basal medium.Nucelos de sete variedades de Citrus foram introduzidos em três meios de cultura para produção de calos embriogênicos. Os meios de cultura testados foram: EME [MT, modificado pela adição de extrato de malte (500 mg.L-1]; 1/2-EME [1/2 concentração de macronutrientes no meio MT + 1/2 concentração de macronutrientes no meio BH3 + 500 mg.L-1 extrato de malte + 1,55 g.L-1 de glutamina]; e EBA [EME + 0,44 miM 6-benziladenina + 0,04 miM 2,4 D]. Calos friáveis foram obtidos nas variedades tangerinas 'Cravo' e 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata, Blanco, tangor 'Murcote' (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, laranja 'Valencia

  14. Thermal and pasting properties of cassava starch-dehydrated orange pulp blends

    OpenAIRE

    Magali Leonel; Luciana Bronzi de Souza; Martha Maria Mischan

    2011-01-01

    Instant mixtures are easy to prepare and frequently present functional appeals. A quality parameter for instant mixtures is their rheological behavior. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of extrusion parameters on the pasting properties of cassava (Manihot esculenta L.) starch and dehydrated orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) pulp mixtures. The variable parameters were moisture of mixtures (12.5 to 19%), barrel temperature (40 to 90ºC) and screw rotation (170 to 266 rpm). The extrud...

  15. Construction of citrus gene coexpression networks from microarray data using random matrix theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Dongliang; Rawat, Nidhi; Deng, Zhanao; Gmitter, Fred G

    2015-01-01

    After the sequencing of citrus genomes, gene function annotation is becoming a new challenge. Gene coexpression analysis can be employed for function annotation using publicly available microarray data sets. In this study, 230 sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) microarrays were used to construct seven coexpression networks, including one condition-independent and six condition-dependent (Citrus canker, Huanglongbing, leaves, flavedo, albedo, and flesh) networks. In total, these networks contain 37 633 edges among 6256 nodes (genes), which accounts for 52.11% measurable genes of the citrus microarray. Then, these networks were partitioned into functional modules using the Markov Cluster Algorithm. Significantly enriched Gene Ontology biological process terms and KEGG pathway terms were detected for 343 and 60 modules, respectively. Finally, independent verification of these networks was performed using another expression data of 371 genes. This study provides new targets for further functional analyses in citrus.

  16. IDENTIFICATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED GENES ASSOCIATED WITH CITRUS BLIGHT (Citrus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato de Abreu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the largest citrus producer in the world, being responsible for more than 20% of its production, which is, however still low due to phytosanitary issues such as citrus blight. Citrus blight is an anomaly whose causes still have not yet been determined, therefore there are no efficient control measures to minimize the production losses with the use of resistant varieties being considered the most appropriate method. However, little is known about the genes involved in the defense response of the plants to this anomaly. Considering that many physiological alterations associated with plant stress responses are controlled at a transcriptional level, in this study we sought the identification and characterization of the gene expression products differentially expressed in the response to the citrus blight. Through the suppressive subtractive hybridization technique, expressed cDNA libraries were built using mRNAs isolated from "Cravo" lemon tree roots (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck under "Pera" orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck of healthy and sick plants. 129 clones were obtained by subtraction and their sequences were compared in databases. 34 of them linked to proteins associated to stress processes, while the others were similar to sequences of unknown functions or did not present similarity with sequences deposited in the databases. 3 genes were selected and their expressions were studied by RT - qPCR in real-time. Plants with citrus blight presented an increase of the expression level in two of those genes, suggesting that these can be directly involved with this anomaly.

  17. Study on essence oils from citrus grandis peel and orange peel extracted by microwave method%微波辐射法提取柚皮、橙皮的挥发油

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈纯馨; 陈忻; 袁毅桦; 梁少华

    2003-01-01

    The essence oil of citrus grandis peel and orange peel was extracted by the microwave method in this article.The results show that the best condition of extracting is when 100 g peel is extracted at 360 W with n-hexane for 50 s,the obtained rate of pomelo oil is 1.73% and orange oil is 0.65%.

  18. Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumaya Bourgou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium, lemon (Citrus limon, orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis, and mandarin (Citrus reticulate and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95% and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72% were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63–69.71%, β-pinene (0.63–31.49%, γ-terpinene (0.04–9.96%, and p-cymene (0.23–9.84% were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81–69.00%, 1,8-cineole (0.01–26.43%, and γ-terpinene (2.53–14.06%. However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52–86.43% during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus.

  19. SCoT标记技术鉴定湖南甜橙变异类型%Identification of Genetic Variation in Citrus sinensis from Hunan Based on Start Codon Targeted Polymorphism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋巧巧; 龙桂友; 李武文; 邓子牛

    2011-01-01

    [目的]根据SCoT多态性对湖南甜橙变异类型进行鉴定和分析。[方法]首先对SCoT反应体系进行优化,并筛选合适的引物,然后对24份试材进行SCoT标记,获得的目的片段克隆测序,通过测序结果探讨其遗传变异。[结果]甜橙SCoT标记的20μl优化反应体系为:DNA模板80ng,Mg2+1.6mmol/L,dNTPs0.3mmol/L,引物0.2μmol/L,TaqDNA聚合酶用量1.6U,扩增产物在100~2000bp,扩增条带明亮清晰,反应体系具有良好的稳定性和可重复性。24份试材的测序片段的大小为1090-1091bp,一致性达到99.84%,存在单碱基缺失与替换;利用单碱基变异可以区分其中的12个甜橙变异株系和‘安江香柚’。[结论]本研究将为甜橙的育种工作提供科学的理论依据。%[Objective] The aim was to identify genetic variation in Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) germplasm from Hunan Province according to the Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) Polymorphism. [Method] The reaction system for SCoT amplification from sweet orange was first optimized, and then the SCoT fragments were amplified from 24 sweet orange cultivars collected in Hunan Province and sequenced for genetic variation analysis. [Result] The optimum reaction system for SCoT markers amplification was 2.0 μl containing 80 ng of template DNA, 0.3 mmol/L dNTPs, 0.2 μmol/L primer, 1.6 mmol/L Mg2+, 1.6 U of Taq DNA polymerase and 10×PCR buffer. By using this reaction system, the PCR products from the sweet orange cultivars produced clear and reproducible bands at 100-2 000 bp through electrophoresis. The SCoT fragments of the 24 sweet orange cultivars were 1 090-1 091 bp, with the homology of 99.84% and nucleotide deletion and substitution. After being sequenced, the SCoT polymorphisms could distinguish 12 sweet orange cultivars. In addition, the BLAST result showed that part of the SCoT fragments coding region shared high homology with ribosomal protein S3 N superfamily. [Conclusion] This study will provide a

  20. Larvicidal activity of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck essential oils and their antagonistic effects with temephos in resistant populations of Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Adriana Faraco de Oliveira; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu; de Deus, Juliana Telles; Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda; Nunes, Rogéria de Souza; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Macoris, Maria de Lourdes da Graça

    2016-01-01

    Environmentally friendly botanical larvicides are commonly considered as an alternative to synthetic larvicides against Aedes aegypti Linn. In addition, mosquito resistance to currently used larvicides has motivated research to find new compounds acting via different mechanisms of action, with the goal of controlling the spread of mosquitos. Essential oils have been widely studied for this purpose. This work aims to evaluate the larvicidal potential of Syzygium aromaticum and Citrus sinensis essential oils, either alone or in combination with temephos, on Ae. aegypti populations having different levels of organophosphate resistance. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of the essential oils alone and in combination with temephos and the influence of essential oils on vector oviposition were evaluated. The results revealed that essential oils exhibited similar larvicidal activity in resistant populations and susceptible populations. However, S. aromaticum and C. sinensis essential oils in combination with temephos did not decrease resistance profiles. The presence of the evaluated essential oils in oviposition sites significantly decreased the number of eggs compared to sites with tap water. Therefore, the evaluated essential oils are suitable for use in mosquito resistance management, whereas their combinations with temephos are not recommended. Additionally, repellency should be considered during formulation development to avoid mosquito deterrence. PMID:27384083

  1. Larvicidal activity of Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr and Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck essential oils and their antagonistic effects with temephos in resistant populations of Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Faraco de Oliveira Araujo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly botanical larvicides are commonly considered as an alternative to synthetic larvicides against Aedes aegypti Linn. In addition, mosquito resistance to currently used larvicides has motivated research to find new compounds acting via different mechanisms of action, with the goal of controlling the spread of mosquitos. Essential oils have been widely studied for this purpose. This work aims to evaluate the larvicidal potential of Syzygium aromaticum and Citrus sinensis essential oils, either alone or in combination with temephos, on Ae. aegypti populations having different levels of organophosphate resistance. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50 of the essential oils alone and in combination with temephos and the influence of essential oils on vector oviposition were evaluated. The results revealed that essential oils exhibited similar larvicidal activity in resistant populations and susceptible populations. However, S. aromaticum and C. sinensis essential oils in combination with temephos did not decrease resistance profiles. The presence of the evaluated essential oils in oviposition sites significantly decreased the number of eggs compared to sites with tap water. Therefore, the evaluated essential oils are suitable for use in mosquito resistance management, whereas their combinations with temephos are not recommended. Additionally, repellency should be considered during formulation development to avoid mosquito deterrence.

  2. Genome wide selection in Citrus breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gois, I B; Borém, A; Cristofani-Yaly, M; de Resende, M D V; Azevedo, C F; Bastianel, M; Novelli, V M; Machado, M A

    2016-10-17

    Genome wide selection (GWS) is essential for the genetic improvement of perennial species such as Citrus because of its ability to increase gain per unit time and to enable the efficient selection of characteristics with low heritability. This study assessed GWS efficiency in a population of Citrus and compared it with selection based on phenotypic data. A total of 180 individual trees from a cross between Pera sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and Murcott tangor (Citrus sinensis Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco) were evaluated for 10 characteristics related to fruit quality. The hybrids were genotyped using 5287 DArT_seq(TM) (diversity arrays technology) molecular markers and their effects on phenotypes were predicted using the random regression - best linear unbiased predictor (rr-BLUP) method. The predictive ability, prediction bias, and accuracy of GWS were estimated to verify its effectiveness for phenotype prediction. The proportion of genetic variance explained by the markers was also computed. The heritability of the traits, as determined by markers, was 16-28%. The predictive ability of these markers ranged from 0.53 to 0.64, and the regression coefficients between predicted and observed phenotypes were close to unity. Over 35% of the genetic variance was accounted for by the markers. Accuracy estimates with GWS were lower than those obtained by phenotypic analysis; however, GWS was superior in terms of genetic gain per unit time. Thus, GWS may be useful for Citrus breeding as it can predict phenotypes early and accurately, and reduce the length of the selection cycle. This study demonstrates the feasibility of genomic selection in Citrus.

  3. EFEITOS DE STIMULATE E DE MICRO-CITROS NO DESENVOLVIMENTO VEGETATIVO E NA PRODUTIVIDADE DA LARANJEIRA `PÊRA' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro P.R.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito de aplicações do estimulante vegetal Stimulate e do fertilizante foliar Micro-Citrus no número de ramos, comprimento dos ramos, número e caracterização de frutos na colheita da laranjeira `Pêra' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck sobre limoeiro `Cravo'. O experimento foi realizado em condições de campo, num Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro Álico, em Holambra (S.P., sendo que em 13/02, 22/04 e 17/06/96 foram efetuadas pulverizações com Stimulate (1 L.ha-1, 2L. ha-1 e 4L. ha-1, Stimulate 2L. ha-1 + Micro-Citros e Micro-Citros, além do controle. Realizaram-se seis tratamentos distribuídos em dez árvores inteiramente casualizadas em um pomar uniforme com seis anos de idade. Foram demarcadas quatro ramificações em diagonal, nas quais efetuaram-se determinações biométricas em 22/04 e 23/09/96. Observou-se que Stimulate (1 L. ha-1 aumentou o número de ramos 69 dias após a primeira aplicação, além de incrementar o peso médio dos frutos por árvore, em relação ao controle, na colheita.

  4. Effects of atmosphere CO[sub 2] enrichment on regrowth of sour orange trees (Citrus aurantium; rutaceae) after coppicing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idso, S.B.; Kimball, B.A. (Water Conservation Lab., Phoenix, AZ (United States))

    1994-07-01

    Sixteen sour orange tree (Citrus aurantium L.) seedlings were grown out-of-doors at Phoenix, Arizona, in eight clear-plastic-wall open-top enclosures maintained at four different atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentrations for a period of 2 years. Over the last year of this period, the trees were coppiced five times. The amount of dry matter harvested at each of these cuttings was a linear function of the atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentration to which the trees were exposed. For a 75% increase in atmospheric CO[sub 2] from 400 to 700 microliter per liter ([mu]L liter[sup [minus]1]), total aboveground biomass rose, in the mean, by a factor of 3.19; while for a 400 to 800 [mu]L liter[sup [minus]1] doubling of the air's CO[sub 2] content, it rose by a factor of 3.92. The relative summer (mean air temperature of 32.8 C) response to CO[sub 2] was about 20% greater than the relative winter (mean air temperature of 16.4 C) response. 27 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Effect of Liberibacter infection (huanglongbing or "greening" disease) of citrus on orange juice flavor quality by sensory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth; McCollum, Greg; Manthey, John; Narciso, Jan; Irey, Mike

    2010-05-01

    Some anecdotal reports suggest that infection of citrus trees with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), the suspected causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB) disease, imparts off flavor to orange juice. It is of interest to the industry to know how Las infection affects juice quality with respect to cultivar, maturity, or processing method. Hamlin, Midsweet, and Valencia oranges were harvested over 2 y from trees that tested negative (Las-) or positive (Las+) for Las from different groves and included normal looking (nonsymptomatic) and symptomatic fruit (small, green, and lopsided) from Las+ trees. In the 1st year, fruit were manually juiced, while in the 2nd year, a commercial process was used. Juice from Las+ trees was compared to juice from Las- trees in difference-from-control tests, and by descriptive analysis. Results showed large variability due to tree, harvest date, and cultivar. Juice from Hamlin Las+ trees tended to be more bitter and sour than its Las- counterpart. In contrast, hand processed Valencia juice from Las+ trees was perceived to have some off-flavor and bitterness compared to control, but the following year, commercially processed Valencia juice from Las+ trees was perceived to be only slightly more sour than juice from Las- trees for the April harvest, and to be sweeter for the June harvest. When juice from individual replicates was pooled to be more representative of a commercial situation, there was no difference between Las+ and Las- juice in Valencia. Trained panel differences were noted for juice from Hamlin Las+ fruit, especially for symptomatic fruit. Assumptions that juice made from oranges harvested from Huanglongbing (from infection with Liberibacter sp.) affected trees is off-flavored appeared to be generally more true for Hamlin juice than for Midsweet or Valencia, especially for Hamlin juice made from symptomatic fruit. For Midsweet and Valencia, flavor differences between juice made from fruit harvested from diseased or

  6. Retrotransposons Control Fruit-Specific, Cold-Dependent Accumulation of Anthocyanins in Blood Oranges[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butelli, Eugenio; Licciardello, Concetta; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Jianjun; Mackay, Steve; Bailey, Paul; Reforgiato-Recupero, Giuseppe; Martin, Cathie

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, Sicilian blood oranges (Citrus sinensis) have been associated with cardiovascular health, and consumption has been shown to prevent obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet. Despite increasing consumer interest in these health-promoting attributes, production of blood oranges remains unreliable due largely to a dependency on cold for full color formation. We show that Sicilian blood orange arose by insertion of a Copia-like retrotransposon adjacent to a gene encoding Ruby, a MYB transcriptional activator of anthocyanin production. The retrotransposon controls Ruby expression, and cold dependency reflects the induction of the retroelement by stress. A blood orange of Chinese origin results from an independent insertion of a similar retrotransposon, and color formation in its fruit is also cold dependent. Our results suggest that transposition and recombination of retroelements are likely important sources of variation in Citrus. PMID:22427337

  7. Compositional Shift in Fatty Acid Profiles of Lipids Obtained from Oleaginous Yeasts upon the Addition of Essential Oil from Citrus sinensis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uprety, Bijaya K; Rakshit, Sudip K

    2017-05-05

    Tailoring lipids from oleaginous yeasts to contain specific types of fatty acid is of considerable interest to food, fuel, and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, the essential oil obtained from Citrus sinesus L. has been used to alter the fatty acid composition of two common oleaginous yeasts, Rhodosporidium toruloides and Cryptococcus curvatus. With increasing levels of essential oil in the medium, the metabolic flux of the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway shifted towards saturated fatty acid production. Essential oil reduced the activities of elongase and ∆9 desaturase. This made the lipid obtained from both these yeasts rich in saturated fatty acids. At certain specific concentrations of the essential oil in the medium, the lipid obtained from R. toruloides and C. curvatus cultures was similar to mahuwa butter and palm oil, respectively. Limonene is the major constituents of orange essential oil. Its effect on one of the oleaginous yeasts, R. toruloides, was also studied separately. Effects similar to orange essential oil were obtained with limonene. Thus, we can conclude that limonene in orange essential oil brings about compositional change of microbial lipid produced in this organism.

  8. Larvicidal and irritant activities of hexane leaf extracts of Citrus sinensis against dengue vector Aedes aegypti L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Warikoo

    2012-02-01

    Conclusions: The hexane extracts from C. sinensis leaves are proved to be reasonably larvicidal but remarkably irritant against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of extract as adulticide, oviposition deterrent and ovicidal agent. The isolation of active ingredient from the extract could help in formulating strategies for mosquito control.

  9. GC-MS analysis of headspace and liquid extracts for metabolomic differentiation of citrus Huanglongbing and zinc deficiency in leaves of 'Valencia' sweet orange from commercial groves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan Manuel; García-Torres, Rosalía; Etxeberria, Edgardo; Reyes-De-Corcuera, José Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is considered the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. Symptoms-based detection of HLB is difficult due to similarities with zinc deficiency. To find metabolic differences between leaves from HLB-infected, zinc-deficient, and healthy 'Valencia' orange trees by using GC-MS based metabolomics. Analysis based on GC-MS methods for untargeted metabolite analysis of citrus leaves was developed and optimized. Sample extracts from healthy, zinc deficient, or HLB-infected sweet orange leaves were submitted to headspace solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and derivatization treatments prior to GC-MS analysis. Principal components analysis achieved correct classification of all the derivatized liquid extracts. Analysis of variance revealed 6 possible biomarkers for HLB, of which 5 were identified as proline, β-elemene, (-)trans- caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Significant (P < 0.05) differences in oxo-butanedioic acid, arabitol, and neo-inositol were exclusively detected in samples from plants with zinc deficiency. Levels of isocaryophyllen, α-selinene, β-selinene, and fructose were significantly (P < 0.05) different in healthy leaves only. Results suggest the potential of using identified HLB biomarkers for rapid differentiation of HLB from zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Two previously unknown Phytophthora species associated with brown rot of Pomelo (Citrus grandis) fruits in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schena, Leonardo; Jung, Thomas; Evoli, Maria; Pane, Antonella; Van Hoa, Nguyen; Van Tri, Mai; Wright, Sandra; Ramstedt, Mauritz; Olsson, Christer; Faedda, Roberto; Magnano di San Lio, Gaetano

    2017-01-01

    Two distinct Phytophthora taxa were found to be associated with brown rot of pomelo (Citrus grandis), a new disease of this ancestral Citrus species, in the Vinh Long province, Mekong River Delta area, southern Vietnam. On the basis of morphological characters and using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) as barcode genes, one of the two taxa was provisionally named as Phytophthora sp. prodigiosa, being closely related to but distinct from P. insolita, a species in Phytophthora Clade 9, while the other one, was closely related to but distinct from the Clade 2 species P. meadii and was informally designated as Phytophthora sp. mekongensis. Isolates of P. sp. prodigiosa and P. sp. mekongensis were also obtained from necrotic fibrous roots of Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana) rootstocks grafted with ‘King’ mandarin (Citrus nobilis) and from trees of pomelo, respectively, in other provinces of the Mekong River Delta, indicating a widespread occurrence of both Phytophthora species in this citrus-growing area. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled via pathogenicity tests on fruits of various Citrus species, including pomelo, grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi), sweet orange (Citrus x sinensis) and bergamot (Citrus x bergamia) as well as on the rootstock of 2-year-old trees of pomelo and sweet orange on ‘Carrizo’ citrange (C. sinensis ‘Washington Navel’ x Poncirus trifoliata). This is the first report of a Phytophthora species from Clade 2 other than P. citricola and P. citrophthora as causal agent of fruit brown rot of Citrus worldwide and the first report of P. insolita complex in Vietnam. Results indicate that likely Vietnam is still an unexplored reservoir of Phytophthora diversity. PMID:28208159

  11. Citrus leprosis virus N: A New Dichorhavirus Causing Citrus Leprosis Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-González, Pedro Luis; Chabi-Jesus, Camila; Guerra-Peraza, Orlene; Tassi, Aline Daniele; Kitajima, Elliot Watanabe; Harakava, Ricardo; Salaroli, Renato Barbosa; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana

    2017-08-01

    Citrus leprosis (CL) is a viral disease endemic to the Western Hemisphere that produces local necrotic and chlorotic lesions on leaves, branches, and fruit and causes serious yield reduction in citrus orchards. Samples of sweet orange (Citrus × sinensis) trees showing CL symptoms were collected during a survey in noncommercial citrus areas in the southeast region of Brazil in 2013 to 2016. Transmission electron microscopy analyses of foliar lesions confirmed the presence of rod-like viral particles commonly associated with CL in the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected cells. However, every attempt to identify these particles by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction tests failed, even though all described primers for the detection of known CL-causing cileviruses and dichorhaviruses were used. Next-generation sequencing of total RNA extracts from three symptomatic samples revealed the genome of distinct, although highly related (>92% nucleotide sequence identity), viruses whose genetic organization is similar to that of dichorhaviruses. The genome sequence of these viruses showed citrus trees and those used for the transmission of one of the characterized isolates to Arabidopsis plants were anatomically recognized as Brevipalpus phoenicis sensu stricto. Molecular and biological features indicate that the identified viruses belong to a new species of CL-associated dichorhavirus, which we propose to call Citrus leprosis N dichorhavirus. Our results, while emphasizing the increasing diversity of viruses causing CL disease, lead to a reevaluation of the nomenclature of those viruses assigned to the genus Dichorhavirus. In this regard, a comprehensive discussion is presented.

  12. Assessment of the genetic diversity of the Tunisian citrus rootstock germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoussi, Hager; Duval, Marie-France; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Belfalah, Zina; Froelicher, Yann; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Navarro, Luis; Harrabi, Moncef; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2012-03-19

    Citrus represents a substantial income for farmers in the Mediterranean Basin. However, the Mediterranean citrus industry faces increasing biotic and abiotic constraints. Therefore the breeding and selection of new rootstocks are now of the utmost importance. In Tunisia, in addition to sour orange, the most widespread traditional rootstock of the Mediterranean area, other citrus rootstocks and well adapted to local environmental conditions, are traditionally used and should be important genetic resources for breeding. To characterize the diversity of Tunisian citrus rootstocks, two hundred and one local accessions belonging to four facultative apomictic species (C. aurantium, sour orange; C. sinensis, orange; C. limon, lemon; and C. aurantifolia, lime) were collected and genotyped using 20 nuclear SSR markers and four indel mitochondrial markers. Multi-locus genotypes (MLGs) were compared to references from French and Spanish collections. The differentiation of the four varietal groups was well-marked. The groups displayed a relatively high allelic diversity, primarily due to very high heterozygosity. Sixteen distinct MLGs were identified. Ten of these were noted in sour oranges. However, the majority of the analysed sour orange accessions corresponded with only two MLGs, differentiated by a single allele, likely due to a mutation. The most frequent MLG is shared with the reference sour oranges. No polymorphism was found within the sweet orange group. Two MLGs, differentiated by a single locus, were noted in lemon. The predominant MLG was shared with the reference lemons. Limes were represented by three genotypes. Two corresponded to the 'Mexican lime' and 'limonette de Marrakech' references. The MLG of 'Chiiri' lime was unique. The Tunisian citrus rootstock genetic diversity is predominantly due to high heterozygosity and differentiation between the four varietal groups. The phenotypic diversity within the varietal groups has resulted from multiple introductions

  13. Long-term boron-deficiency-responsive genes revealed by cDNA-AFLP differ between Citrus sinensis roots and leaves

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    Yi-Bin eLu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Seedlings of Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck were supplied with boron (B-deficient (without H3BO3 or -sufficient (10 µM H3BO3 nutrient solution for 15 weeks. We identified 54 (38 and 38 (45 up (down-regulated cDNA-AFLP bands (transcript-derived fragments, TDFs from B-deficient leaves and roots, respectively. These TDFs were mainly involved in protein and amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism, cell transport, signal transduction, and stress response and defense. The majority of the differentially expressed TDFs were isolated only from B-deficient roots or leaves, only seven TDFs with the same GenBank ID were isolated from the both. In addition, ATP biosynthesis-related TDFs were induced in B-deficient roots, but unaffected in B-deficient leaves. Most of the differentially expressed TDFs associated with signal transduction and stress defense were down-regulated in roots, but up-regulated in leaves. TDFs related to protein ubiquitination and proteolysis were induced in B-deficient leaves except for one TDF, while only two down-regulated TDFs associated with ubiquitination were detected in B-deficient roots. Thus, many differences existed in long-term B-deficiency-responsive genes between roots and leaves. In conclusion, our findings provided a global picture of the differential responses occurring in B-deficient roots and leaves and revealed new insight into the different adaptive mechanisms of C. sinensis roots and leaves to B-deficiency at the transcriptional level.

  14. The effect of inhalation of Citrus sinensis flowers and Mentha spicata leave essential oils on lung function and exercise performance: a quasi-experimental uncontrolled before-and-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Nidal Amin; Al Zabadi, Hamzeh; Rahhal, Belal; Hussein, Azmi Mahmoud Ali; Mahmoud, Jamal Shaker; Mansour, Basel; Khasati, Ahmad Ibrahim; Issa, Abdelkhaleq

    Recently, there has been an increased interest in the effects of essential oils on athletic performances and other physiological effects. This study aimed to assess the effects of Citrus sinensis flower and Mentha spicata leaves essential oils inhalation in two different groups of athlete male students on their exercise performance and lung function. Twenty physical education students volunteered to participate in the study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: Mentha spicata and Citrus sinensis (ten participants each). One group was nebulized by Citrus sinensis flower oil and the other by Mentha spicata leaves oil in a concentration of (0.02 ml/kg of body mass) which was mixed with 2 ml of normal saline for 5 min before a 1500 m running tests. Lung function tests were measured using a spirometer for each student pre and post nebulization giving the same running distance pre and post oils inhalation. A lung function tests showed an improvement on the lung status for the students after inhaling of the oils. Interestingly, there was a significant increase in Forced Expiratory Volume in the first second and Forced Vital Capacity after inhalation for the both oils. Moreover significant reductions in the means of the running time were observed among these two groups. The normal spirometry results were 50 %, while after inhalation with M. spicata oil the ratio were 60 %. Our findings support the effectiveness of M. spicata and C. sinensis essential oils on the exercise performance and respiratory function parameters. However, our conclusion and generalisability of our results should be interpreted with caution due to small sample size and lack of control groups, randomization or masking. We recommend further investigations to explain the mechanism of actions for these two essential oils on exercise performance and respiratory parameters. ISRCTN10133422, Registered: May 3, 2016.

  15. Host status of grapefruit and Valencia oranges for Anastrepha serpentina and Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena M Tarshis

    2011-04-01

    Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is sporadically captured in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Although its preferred hosts are in the Sapotaceae family, several varieties of Citrus, including grapefruit and oranges are listed as alternate hosts. Although Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), is known to be a major pest of Citrus, doubt exists as to the status of Citrus as a breeding host for A. serpentina. To evaluate the host status of commercial Citrus for A. serpentina we compared oviposition and development with that of A. ludens under laboratory conditions with 'Rio Red' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi MacFayden) and 'Valencia' oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] in different stages of maturity. Both fly species oviposited in early season fruit in which the eggs and larvae died in the fruit albedo. Survival of either species to the adult stage occurred in later season grapefruit. In oranges, no A. serpentina larvae survived compared with 150 A. ludens surviving to adults. Survival on both Citrus species was much lower for A. serpentina, only approximately 5% of eggs eclosed into larvae in grapefruit compared with approximatley 50% for A. ludens. In oranges approximately 16% of A. serpentina eggs eclosed compared with approximately 76% for A. ludens. In grapefruit, only one fourth as many A. serpentina larvae survived to the adult stage compared with A. ludens. Additional experiments were performed in a greenhouse on small, caged trees of la coma (Sideroxylon celastrinum H.B.K.), a Texas species of Sapotaceae. The A. serpentina females readily oviposited into these berries and normal adults emerged. The present low incidence of the adults, coupled with the high mortality during development of the larvae, suggests that Texas citrus is unlikely to support a breeding population of A. serpentina.

  16. Use of the heat dissipation method for sap flow measurement in citrus nursery trees1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Augusto Girardi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sap flow could be used as physiological parameter to assist irrigation of screen house citrus nursery trees by continuous water consumption estimation. Herein we report a first set of results indicating the potential use of the heat dissipation method for sap flow measurement in containerized citrus nursery trees. 'Valencia' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] budded on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck was evaluated for 30 days during summer. Heat dissipation probes and thermocouple sensors were constructed with low-cost and easily available materials in order to improve accessibility of the method. Sap flow showed high correlation to air temperature inside the screen house. However, errors due to natural thermal gradient and plant tissue injuries affected measurement precision. Transpiration estimated by sap flow measurement was four times higher than gravimetric measurement. Improved micro-probes, adequate method calibration, and non-toxic insulating materials should be further investigated.

  17. Efeito dos fungicidas Fosetil-Al e Metalaxil na colonização de mudas de Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck enxertadas em C. limon (L. Burmf Effect of the fungicides Fosetyl-Al and Metalaxyl on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of seedlings of Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck grafted onto C. limon (L. Burmf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antônio Graciolli

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O efeito dos fungicidas Fosetil-Al e Metalaxil, recomendados para prevenção e controle da gomose, sobre o desenvolvimento de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA em Citrus sinensis Osbeck enxertado em C. limon Burmf foi investigado. Três experimentos foram realizados em 1990 e 1992, em Casa Branca e Ilha Solteira, estado de São Paulo, Brasil, respectivamente. Coletas de raízes foram feitas após a aplicação dos fungicidas, em intervalos mensais e semanais em Casa Branca, e a cada três dias em Ilha Solteira, para avaliar-se a percentagem de colonização radical por FMA. De modo geral, Fosetil-Al não apresentou efeito deletério no desenvolvimento dos micobiontes. Ao contrário, Metalaxil reduziu a colonização radical; e quando ambos os fungicidas foram aplicados juntos, a colonização radical foi diminuída, particularmente nos experimentos mais curtosWe investigated the effect of the fungicides Fosetyl-Al and Metalaxyl, recommended for prevention and control of gummosis, on the development of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF in Citrus sinensis Osbeck grafted onto C. limon (L.Burmf. Three experiments were performed in 1990 and 1992, in Casa Branca and Ilha Solteira, State of São Paulo, Brazil, respectively. Root samples were collected after fungicide application at long (monthly and short (weekly periods at Casa Branca and every three days at Ilha Solteira, in order to evaluate the percentage of root colonization by AMF. Fosetyl-Al generally did not show a deleterious effect on the development of mycobionts. In contrast, Metalaxyl reduced root colonization by AMF, and when both fungicides were applied together, mycorrhizal colonization was decreased, particularly in the shorter time experiments

  18. Isolation, classification and transcription profiles of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiu-lan; Shen, Shu-ling; Yin, Xue-ren; Xu, Qian; Sun, Chong-de; Grierson, Donald; Ferguson, Ian; Chen, Kun-song

    2014-07-01

    The AP2/ERF gene family encodes plant-specific transcription factors. In model plants, AP2/ERF genes have been shown to be expressed in response to developmental and environmental stimuli, and many function downstream of the ethylene, biotic, and abiotic stress signaling pathways. In citrus, ethylene is effective in regulation citrus fruit quality, such as degreening and aroma. However, information about the citrus AP2/ERF family is limited, and would enhance our understanding of fruit responses to environmental stress, fruit development and quality. CitAP2/ERF genes were isolated using the citrus genome database, and their expression patterns analyzed by real-time PCR using various orange organs and samples from a fruit developmental series. 126 sequences with homologies to AP2/ERF proteins were identified from the citrus genome, and, on the basis of their structure and sequence, assigned to the ERF family (102), AP2 family (18), RAV family (4) and Soloist (2). MEME motif analysis predicted the defining AP2/ERF domain and EAR repressor domains. Analysis of transcript accumulation in Citrus sinensis cv. 'Newhall' indicated that CitAP2/ERF genes show organ-specific and temporal expression, and provided a framework for understanding the transcriptional regulatory roles of AP2/ERF gene family members in citrus. Hierarchical cluster analysis and t tests identified regulators that potentially function during orange fruit growth and development.

  19. Detection of mandarin in orange juice by single-nucleotide polymorphism qPCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldeguer, Miriam; López-Andreo, María; Gabaldón, José A; Puyet, Antonio

    2014-02-15

    A dual-probe real time PCR (qPCR) DNA-based analysis was devised for the identification of mandarin in orange juice. A single nucleotide polymorphism at the trnL-trnF intergenic region of the chloroplast chromosome was confirmed in nine orange (Citrus sinensis) and thirteen commercial varieties of mandarin, including Citrus reticulata and Citrus unshiu species and a mandarin × tangelo hybrid. Two short minor-groove binding fluorescent probes targeting the polymorphic sequence were used in the dual-probe qPCR, which allowed the detection of both species in single-tube reactions. The similarity of PCR efficiencies allowed a simple estimation of the ratio mandarin/orange in the juice samples, which correlated to the measured difference of threshold cycle values for both probes. The limit of detection of the assay was 5% of mandarin in orange juice, both when the juice was freshly prepared (not from concentrate) or reconstituted from concentrate, which would allow the detection of fraudulently added mandarin juice. The possible use of the dual-probe system for quantitative measurements was also tested on fruit juice mixtures. qPCR data obtained from samples containing equal amounts of mandarin and orange juice revealed that the mandarin target copy number was approximately 2.6-fold higher than in orange juice. The use of a matrix-adapted control as calibrator to compensate the resulting C(T) bias allowed accurate quantitative measurements to be obtained.

  20. High incidence of preharvest colonization of huanglongbing-symptomatic citrus sinensis fruit by Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Diplodia natalensis) and exacerbation of postharvest fruit decay by that fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Bai, Jinhe; McCollum, Greg; Baldwin, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), presumably caused by the bacterium "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus," is a devastating citrus disease associated with excessive preharvest fruit drop. Lasiodiplodia theobromae (diplodia) is the causal organism of citrus stem end rot (SER). The pathogen infects citrus fruit under the calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) and is associated with cell wall hydrolytic enzymes similar to plant enzymes involved in abscission. By means of DNA sequencing, diplodia was found in "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus"-positive juice from HLB-symptomatic fruit (S) but not in "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus"-negative juice. Therefore, the incidence of diplodia in fruit tissues, the impact on HLB-related postharvest decay, and the implications for HLB-related preharvest fruit drop were investigated in Hamlin and Valencia oranges. Quantitative PCR results (qPCR) revealed a significantly (P < 0.001) greater incidence of diplodia in the AZ-C of HLB-symptomatic (S; "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" threshold cycle [CT] of <30) than in the AZ-C of in asymptomatic (AS; "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" CT of ≥30) fruit. In agreement with the qPCR results, 2 weeks after exposure to ethylene, the incidences of SER in S fruit were 66.7% (Hamlin) and 58.7% (Valencia), whereas for AS fruit the decay rates were 6.7% (Hamlin) and 5.3% (Valencia). Diplodia colonization of S fruit AZ-C was observed by scanning electron microscopy and confirmed by PCR test and morphology of conidia in isolates from the AZ-C after surface sterilization. Diplodia CT values were negatively correlated with ethylene production (R = -0.838 for Hamlin; R = -0.858 for Valencia) in S fruit, and positively correlated with fruit detachment force (R = 0.855 for Hamlin; R = 0.850 for Valencia), suggesting that diplodia colonization in AZ-C may exacerbate HLB-associated preharvest fruit drop. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Dicty_cDB: VFG126 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mature Ovaries from field-collected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA...00-394 Immature Ovaries from field-collected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sine

  2. LRR-RLK family from two Citrus species: genome-wide identification and evolutionary aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Diogo M; Scholte, Larissa L S; Silva, Nicholas V; Oliveira, Guilherme C; Zipfel, Cyril; Takita, Marco A; De Souza, Alessandra A

    2016-08-12

    Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) represent the largest subfamily of plant RLKs. The functions of most LRR-RLKs have remained undiscovered, and a few that have been experimentally characterized have been shown to have important roles in growth and development as well as in defense responses. Although RLK subfamilies have been previously studied in many plants, no comprehensive study has been performed on this gene family in Citrus species, which have high economic importance and are frequent targets for emerging pathogens. In this study, we performed in silico analysis to identify and classify LRR-RLK homologues in the predicted proteomes of Citrus clementina (clementine) and Citrus sinensis (sweet orange). In addition, we used large-scale phylogenetic approaches to elucidate the evolutionary relationships of the LRR-RLKs and further narrowed the analysis to the LRR-XII group, which contains several previously described cell surface immune receptors. We built integrative protein signature databases for Citrus clementina and Citrus sinensis using all predicted protein sequences obtained from whole genomes. A total of 300 and 297 proteins were identified as LRR-RLKs in C. clementina and C. sinensis, respectively. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were estimated using Arabidopsis LRR-RLK as a template and they allowed us to classify Citrus LRR-RLKs into 16 groups. The LRR-XII group showed a remarkable expansion, containing approximately 150 paralogs encoded in each Citrus genome. Phylogenetic analysis also demonstrated the existence of two distinct LRR-XII clades, each one constituted mainly by RD and non-RD kinases. We identified 68 orthologous pairs from the C. clementina and C. sinensis LRR-XII genes. In addition, among the paralogs, we identified a subset of 78 and 62 clustered genes probably derived from tandem duplication events in the genomes of C. clementina and C. sinensis, respectively. This work provided the first comprehensive

  3. Amylases from orange leaves. Characterization and relation to starch breakdown.

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Grau, Amparo; Guardiola Bárcena, José Luis

    1988-01-01

    Starch content in adult orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) leaves was highest at the end of the winter rest period and decreased during flowering and fruit set. Young inflorescence leaves accumulated starch until the June drop period to decrease to a low value at the end of it. Both, α- and ß-amylase activities were found in the leaves and the enzymes separated through Sephadex G100 filtration. By electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels with 0.25 % amylopectine, α-amylase was resolved in 5 ba...

  4. Reação de híbridos somáticos de citros à infecção por Phytophthora nicotianae Reaction of citrus somatic hybrids to the infection by Phytophthora nicotianae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Menezes Bassan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou a resistência à infecção de tronco e de raízes por Phytophthora nicotianae em híbridos somáticos de citros com potencial para serem utilizados como porta-enxertos. Os híbridos somáticos avaliados foram laranja 'Hamlin' (Citrus sinensis + toranja 'Indian Red' (Citrus grandis (plantas 1 e 2 e laranja 'Hamlin' (C. sinensis + toranja 'Singapura' (C. grandis. Plantas de limão 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia, laranja 'Caipira' (C. sinensis, laranja-azeda (C. aurantium e Poncirus trifoliata 'Davis A' (Poncirus trifoliata foram utilizadas como plantas-controle devido à reação conhecida à infecção pelo patógeno. Avaliações realizadas entre 30 e 60 dias após as inoculações com o patógeno incluíram o comprimento das lesões no tronco e a massa seca do sistema radicular nas plantas avaliadas. O híbrido somático laranja 'Hamlin' + toranja 'Indian Red' (planta 1 mostrou-se tolerante a P. nicotianae, indicando potencial para continuidade nas suas avaliações como porta-enxerto para citros.This study aimed to evaluate the resistance to trunk and root infection by Phytophthora nicotianae in citrus somatic hybrids with potential to be utilized as rootstocks. The somatic hybrids evaluated were 'Hamlin' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis + 'Indian Red' pummelo (Citrus grandis (plants 1 and 2, and 'Hamlin' sweet orange (C. sinensis + 'Singapura' pummelo (C. grandis. Plants of 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia, 'Caipira' sweet orange (C. sinensis, sour orange (C. aurantium, and Poncirus trifoliata 'Davis A' (Poncirus trifoliata were used as control due to their known reaction to the pathogen. Evaluations performed between 30 and 60 days after pathogen inoculation included the length of trunk lesions, and root dry mass of the root system of evaluated plants. The somatic hybrid 'Hamlin' sweet orange + 'Indian Red' pummelo (plant 1 was tolerant to P. nicotianae, indicating potential to be further evaluated as a rootstock.

  5. INFLUENCIA DE UNA COBERTURA DE Neonotonia wightii EN LOS CAMBIOS FLORÍSTICOS DE UNA PLANTACIÓN DE NARANJA VALENCIA LATE (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Gutiérrez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad de disminuir el consumo de agrotóxicos para el control de malezas en el cultivo de los cítricos, condiciona la búsqueda de alternativas viables en la esfera agroecológica, razones por las que en la Cooperativa de Producción Agropecuaria ¿José Martí¿ en Ceballos, provincia de Ciego de Avila, se evaluaron los efectos que una cobertura viva de la leguminosa Neonotonia wightii produjo en la composición florística de las ¿calles¿ de una plantación de naranja Valencia Late (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, usando como unidad experimental ¿la calle¿ de 400 m2, diez de las cuales contaban con cobertura mejorada por N.wightii y otras diez con pasto natural, que fueron utilizadas para la evaluación correspondiente a los indicadores de producción de los naranjos en el transcurso de dos años de establecimiento de la cobertura, obteniéndose la reducción del 68.4 % de las especies de la clase Magnoliatae inicialmente encontradas, así como del 94 % de las poáceas evaluadas en las áreas, además de la elevación de los rendimientos del cultivo principal.

  6. Caracterización mediante microsatélites de 34 accesiones de naranja Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck del Banco de Germoplasma de Corpoica-Palmira

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    Morillo Coronado Yacenia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron 19 marcadores microsatélites para caracterizar 34 accesiones de naranja Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck del Banco de Germoplasma de la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria (Corpoica-Palmira. Seis marcadores fueron polimórficos, los de mayor heterocigosidad fueron CCSM- 19 (0.4097 y CCSM-3 (0.3254. Se diferenciaron 33 accesiones y al 85% de similitud, con el índice de Nei-Li y el método de agrupamiento UPGMA, se conformaron cuatro grupos. En el primero se situaron dos accesiones blancas (Lerma y Valencia Olinda 2, en el segundo la mayoría de las blancas (Indian River, Valencia Olinda, Wialua, Lima Dulce, Pera del Río, St. Michael, Enterprise, Cafetera No. 1 junto con García Valencia y Navel (Lane Late, Valle Washington, New Hall y dos sanguinas (Rudy Blood, Moro Blood, en el tercero accesiones blancas (Joppa, Salerma, Cuban Queen, Rico, Galicia, Star Calyx, Valencia Cutter, Valencia Frost, Valencia Campbell y Valencia Variegado y una sola accesión sanguina (Morocco Blood. En el cuarto grupo se situaron dos accesiones blancas, (Jaffa y Valencia 1-D-E. Finalmente, la variedad Sanguinella no hizo parte de grupos. Con los marcadores microsatélites no se encontró relación entre los grupos genéticos, formación y las características morfológicas del grupo.

  7. Caracterización mediante microsatélites de 34 accesiones de naranja Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck del Banco de Germoplasma de Corpoica-Palmira

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    Yacenia Morillo Coronado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron 19 marcadores microsatélites para caracterizar 34 accesiones de naranja Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck del Banco de Germoplasma de la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria (Corpoica-Palmira. Seis marcadores fueron polimórficos, los de mayor heterocigosidad fueron CCSM- 19 (0.4097 y CCSM-3 (0.3254. Se diferenciaron 33 accesiones y al 85% de similitud, con el índice de Nei-Li y el método de agrupamiento UPGMA, se conformaron cuatro grupos. En el primero se situaron dos accesiones blancas (Lerma y Valencia Olinda 2, en el segundo la mayoría de las blancas (Indian River, Valencia Olinda, Wialua, Lima Dulce, Pera del Río, St. Michael, Enterprise, Cafetera No. 1 junto con García Valencia y Navel (Lane Late, Valle Washington, New Hall y dos sanguinas (Rudy Blood, Moro Blood, en el tercero accesiones blancas (Joppa, Salerma, Cuban Queen, Rico, Galicia, Star Calyx, Valencia Cutter, Valencia Frost, Valencia Campbell y Valencia Variegado y una sola accesión sanguina (Morocco Blood. En el cuarto grupo se situaron dos accesiones blancas, (Jaffa y Valencia 1-D-E. Finalmente, la variedad Sanguinella no hizo parte de grupos. Con los marcadores microsatélites no se encontró relación entre los grupos genéticos, formación y las características morfológicas del grupo.

  8. Análise de Variância Multivariada - Manova na Seleção de Produtores de Laranja Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Eduardo de Moura Nicacio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Essa pesquisa objetivou selecionar produtores de laranja Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, grupo varietal Pera, do estado de São Paulo, através do emprego da estatística multivariada da análise de variância (Manova. Os variáveis critérios foram: epicarpo + mesocarpo + endocarpo + sementes, suco e peso total. Os testes estatísticos aplicados foram os usuais atualmente empregados nessa análise. Essa seleção, pelo método da Manova, permite conhecer os produtores ou produtor que possuem maior qualidade em seus produtos. Um dos determinantes da sustentabilidade empresarial é: preço justo e qualidade de produto vendido. O resultado foi muito satisfatório, uma vez que a seleção permite à pequena agroindústria obter uma maior remuneração pelo aproveitamento econômico total dos componentes da laranja, diversificando, assim, sua receita com a venda de óleos essenciais, suco da fruta, ração para gado bovino. Quanto ao pequeno produtor, permite a este buscar uma melhoria genética, além de um manejo mais científico de seu sistema de produção.

  9. Produção de mudas cítricas em diferentes porta-enxertos e substratos comerciais Citrus nursery production with different rootstocks and commercial substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Luís Fochesato

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se o desenvolvimento de duas variedades-copa enxertadas sobre diversos porta-enxertos e produzidas em substratos comerciais sob ambiente protegido. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação na Estação Experimental Agronômica da UFRGS, em Eldorado do Sul, RS, no período de fevereiro a novembro/2004. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 2x3x3, sendo testados: 2 variedades-copa (laranjeira "Valência" - C. sinensis [L.] Osbeck e tangerineira "Montenegrina" - C. sinensis Tenore, 3 porta-enxertos (Trifoliata - C. sinensis [L.] Raf.; citrangeiro "C13" - Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck x P. trifoliata [L.] Raf.; e limoeiro "Cravo" - C. limonia Osbeck e 3 substratos comerciais (Comercial 1, 2 e 3, e As mudas foram produzidas em citropotes de quatro litros, com sistema de irrigação por gotejamento. A análise revelou que o substrato Comercial 2 possibilitou maior desenvolvimento vegetativo às variedades-copa. O porta-enxerto citrangeiro "C13" pode ser uma alternativa aos porta-enxertos tradicionais usados no Brasil.The vegetative development of citrus nursery varieties grafted on three rootstocks at greenhouse conditions under different commercial substrates was evaluated. The experiment, randomized blocks, in a 2x3x3 factorial, was conducted at the research station of the Uiversidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil, from February to November 2004. The treatments were two citrus varieties ('Valencia' Orange - Citrus sinensis [L.] Osb. and 'Montenegrina' mandarin - Citrus deliciosa Ten., citrus rootstoocks (Trifoliate orange - C. sinensis (L. Raf., citrange 'C13' - P. trifoliata x Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. and 'Rangpur' lemon - C. limonia Osb. and substrates (Commercial 1, 2, and 3. Plants were grown in containers (4 L with drip irrigation system. The Commercial 2 substrate showed the best performance in inducing plant growth. The citrange 'C13' may be an alternative to

  10. A water-soluble high molecular weight substance isolated from Hyuganatsu orange (Citrus tamurana, suspected to be a polysaccharide, inhibits rat osteoclast cell formation

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    Hiroko Hata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is detrimental to aged women’s health care. We previously reported that Hyuganatsu orange (Citrus Tamurana contains active substances that inhibit osteoclast activities. Prior to conducting a human study, we sought to identify the biological active substance in the Hyuganatsu orange which suppresses osteoclast formation. Methods: We isolated five fractions from a Hyuganatsu orange extract according to molecular weight. Each fraction was tested to determine its suppressive effect on the formation of osteoclasts in rats. We also used high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, infra-red (IR, and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy to evaluate its chemical structure. Data was recorded as mean ± standard error of the mean. The Mann-Whitney test was used, and a p-value of <.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The highest and lowest molecular weight fractions showed significant suppression activity on rat osteoclast formation (p < .05. The lowest molecular weight fraction was identified as hesperidin using thin layer chromatography. Additionally, IR absorption revealed that the highest molecular weight fraction was not a flavonoid. With regard to chemical structure, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy suggested that the highest molecular weight fraction had signals compatible with a polysaccharide such as galacturonic acid. Conclusions: Hyuganatsu orange contains a biological active substance other than hesperidin that may be a polysaccharide and may suppress osteoclast formation.

  11. Electronic Tongue Response to Chemicals in Orange Juice that Change Concentration in Relation to Harvest Maturity and Citrus Greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raithore, Smita; Bai, Jinhe; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John; Irey, Mike; Baldwin, Elizabeth

    2015-12-02

    In an earlier study, an electronic tongue system (e-tongue) has been used to differentiate between orange juice made from healthy fruit and from fruit affected by the citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease. This study investigated the reaction of an e-tongue system to the main chemicals in orange juice that impact flavor and health benefits and are also impacted by HLB. Orange juice was spiked with sucrose (0.2-5.0 g/100 mL), citric acid (0.1%-3.0% g/100 mL) and potassium chloride (0.1-3.0 g/100 mL) as well as the secondary metabolites nomilin (1-30 µg/mL), limonin (1-30 µg/mL), limonin glucoside (30-200 µg/mL), hesperidin (30-400 µg/mL) and hesperetin (30-400 µg/mL). Performance of Alpha MOS sensor sets #1 (pharmaceutical) and #5 (food) were compared for the same samples, with sensor set #1 generally giving better separation than sensor set #5 for sucrose, sensor set #5 giving better separation for nomilin and limonin, both sets being efficient at separating citric acid, potassium chloride, hesperitin and limonin glucoside, and neither set discriminating hesperidin efficiently. Orange juice made from fruit over the harvest season and from fruit harvested from healthy or HLB-affected trees were separated by harvest maturity, disease state and disease severity.

  12. Electronic Tongue Response to Chemicals in Orange Juice that Change Concentration in Relation to Harvest Maturity and Citrus Greening or Huanglongbing (HLB Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Raithore

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In an earlier study, an electronic tongue system (e-tongue has been used to differentiate between orange juice made from healthy fruit and from fruit affected by the citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB disease. This study investigated the reaction of an e-tongue system to the main chemicals in orange juice that impact flavor and health benefits and are also impacted by HLB. Orange juice was spiked with sucrose (0.2–5.0 g/100 mL, citric acid (0.1%–3.0% g/100 mL and potassium chloride (0.1–3.0 g/100 mL as well as the secondary metabolites nomilin (1–30 µg/mL, limonin (1–30 µg/mL, limonin glucoside (30–200 µg/mL, hesperidin (30–400 µg/mL and hesperetin (30–400 µg/mL. Performance of Alpha MOS sensor sets #1 (pharmaceutical and #5 (food were compared for the same samples, with sensor set #1 generally giving better separation than sensor set #5 for sucrose, sensor set #5 giving better separation for nomilin and limonin, both sets being efficient at separating citric acid, potassium chloride, hesperitin and limonin glucoside, and neither set discriminating hesperidin efficiently. Orange juice made from fruit over the harvest season and from fruit harvested from healthy or HLB-affected trees were separated by harvest maturity, disease state and disease severity.

  13. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for tebuconazole in citrus (except oranges, lettuce and other salad plants, parsley and chives

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    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Spain received an application from Makhteshim Agan Espana, S.A. to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance tebuconazole in citrus fruit (except oranges. Spain also received an application from Bayer CropScience to modify the existing MRL for tebuconazole for lettuce and other salad plants including Brassicaceae. Germany received an application from the plant protection service LSA (Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft, Forsten und Gartenbau Sachsen-Anhalt to modify the MRLs for tebuconazole on parsley and chives. Spain and Germany drafted the evaluation reports in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which were submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. For reasons of efficiency EFSA combined the three applications in one reasoned opinion. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals for the crops under consideration. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control residues of tebuconazole on the commodities for which a MRL is proposed at the validated LOQ of 0.02 mg/kg. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed uses of tebuconazole on citrus fruit (except oranges, lettuce and other salad plants including Brassicaceae, chives and parsley will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore are unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  14. Transient gene expression of b-glucuronidase in citrus thin epicotyl transversal sections using particle bombardment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bespalhok Filho João C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to optimize the conditions for transient gene expression through particle bombardment on Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis x Poncirus trifoliata thin epicotyl sections. The best conditions for transient GUS expression were: M-25 tungsten particles, 1550 psi helium pressure, 9 cm distance between specimen and DNA/particle holder and culture of explants in a high osmolarity medium (0.2 M mannitol + 0.2 M sorbitol 4 h prior and 20 h after bombardment. Under these conditions, an average of 102 blue spots per bombardment (20 explants/plate were achieved. This protocol is currently being used for transformation of Carrizo citrange and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis.

  15. Cloning of the Seed Storage Protein Gene in Citrus Sinensis cv.Jincheng%柑桔种子贮藏蛋白基因部分序列的克隆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍静; 林忠平; 胡鸢蕾; 高峰

    2003-01-01

    应用染色体步移技术从柑桔优良品种锦橙(Citrus sinensis cv.Jincheng)的总DNA中获得一条长度为2 054 bp的片段. 序列分析结果表明, 该片段含有柑桔种子贮藏蛋白基因(citrin)的5'端部分序列, 并且它与同一物种的伏令夏橙(C.sinensis cv.Valencia)的citrin是高度同源的. 从而证明, 已克隆并获得了锦橙种子贮藏蛋白基因的部分序列.

  16. The Correlation of Cracking Fruits Types and Peel Structure between ' Washington' and ' Bonanza' Navel Oranges%朋娜和华盛顿脐橙果皮结构与裂果类型的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟; 陈杰忠; 万继锋; 黄永敬; 姚青

    2011-01-01

    不同脐橙品种在果实成熟期都容易出现裂果现象,已成为商业种植中非常严重的问题.本研究于2007年和2008年调查了朋娜脐橙(Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv.Skaggs Bonanza)和华盛顿脐橙(Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv.Washington)的裂果类型和果实显微、超显微结构的差异.朋娜脐橙外果皮细胞排列的整齐紧密度较差,其细胞起伏、细胞间隙大,细胞形状偏圆形,表皮细胞层数较少,其果皮白皮层细胞间结合的紧密度、均匀度和网状连接程度好;华盛顿脐橙中果皮细胞壁纤维素微纤丝排列较细密,其微纤丝、胞间层不及朋娜脐橙细胞壁的清晰可见.二者都是高裂果率品种,华盛顿脐橙的裂果类型偏向于皱皮裂,朋娜脐橙则偏向果实外裂.%Fruit cracking is a serious pre-harvest physiological disorder commonly found in many navel orange orchards and results in lots of loss in commercial cultivation. The two navel orange species, Washington (Citrus sinensis Osbeck Washington)and Bonanza (Citrus sinensis Osbeck Skaggs Bonanza)navel orange from Anyuan and Xunwu County of Jiangxi Province and Zhongshan City of Guangdong Province, were used in this study. Obvious differences existed in flavedo, albedo and cell wall ultrastructure of healthy peel among different navel orange cultivars in which there were different cracking fruit types. Washington and Bonanza navel orange are high cracking fruit cultivars. In the contrary, most cracking fruits of Washington navel orange begins from albedo. Both of them had intact-structural flavedo, albedo, middle lamella (ML)and primary wall(PW). The flavedo of Bonanza navel orange was smaller, thinner and waved greatness, had bigger interspaces between cells than Washington navel orange, while the albedo of Bonanza navel orange was more regular than that of Washington navel orange. The albedo of Washington navel orange had bigger interspaces between cells, poorer spongy layer network and middle

  17. Diversity of endophytic bacterial populations and their interaction with Xylella fastidiosa in citrus plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo, W.L.; Marcon, J.; jr. Maccheroni, W.; Elsas, van J.D.; Vuurde, van J.W.L.; Azevedo, de J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all Citrus sinensis cultivars. The endophytic bacterial communities of healthy, resistant, and CVC-affected citrus plants were studied by using cultivation as well as

  18. Efeito do tratamento agudo do óleo essencial de Citrus sinensis (L Osbeck na aquisição da memória espacial de ratos avaliada no labirinto aquático de Morris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Gonçalves Sá

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A Doença de Alzheimer está relacionada a prejuízos na aquisição e retenção da memória, processos que podem ser estudados no laboratório por meio de modelos animais, entre eles o labirinto aquático de Morris, que avalia a memória espacial em ratos. Estudos sobre as propriedades biológicas do gênero Citrus destacam atividades importantes como antioxidantes e anticolinesterásica. O objetivo desse trabalho é avaliar os efeitos do tratamento agudo com o óleo essencial de folhas (OEF de Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck no processo de aquisição da memória espacial em ratos Wistar, utilizando o paradigma do labirinto aquático de Morris. O óleo essencial de Citrus sinensis possui em sua composição principalmente compostos da classe dos monoterpenos, como o limoneno (20,14%, citronelol (30,42% e o geranial (31,42%. Os animais foram tratados previamente com doses do óleo essencial (OE de C. sinensis (L. Osbeck de 50, 100 e 200 mg/ kg e realizados testes de campo aberto e do labirinto aquático de Morris. A aquisição da memória espacial é avaliada pelo tempo que o animal leva para localizar a plataforma depois de ter sido treinado. Nos resultados do campo aberto foi demonstrado que os animais não apresentam estímulo motor quando tratados com o óleo essencial de Citrus sinensis e os resultados do labirinto aquático foram significativamente menores na latência para encontrarem a plataforma submersa do que o grupo controle negativo [p<0,01] indicando uma capacidade de memória maior nos animais tratados, mas que devem ser reforçados por outros testes de memória preconizado na literatura.

  19. Magnesium-deficiency-induced alterations of gas exchange, major metabolites and key enzymes differ among roots, and lower and upper leaves of Citrus sinensis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Ping; Qi, Yi-Ping; Zhang, Jiang; Yang, Lin-Tong; Wang, Dan-Hong; Ye, Xin; Lai, Ning-Wei; Tan, Ling-Ling; Lin, Dan; Chen, Li-Song

    2017-06-14

    Magnesium (Mg)-deficiency is a widespread problem adversely affecting the quality and yield of crops, including citrus. 'Xuegan' [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] seedlings were irrigated every other day with nutrient solution at an Mg concentration of 0 mM (Mg-deficiency) or 1 mM (Mg-sufficiency) for 16 weeks. Thereafter, biomass, leaf mass per area, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), pigments in the upper and lower leaves, Mg, gas exchange, organic acids, nonstructural carbohydrates, total soluble proteins, amino acids, phenolics and anthocyanins, and key enzymes related to organic acid, amino acid and phenolic metabolisms in the roots, and upper and lower leaves were assayed in order to test the hypothesis that Mg-deficiency-induced alterations of gas exchange, major metabolites and key enzymes may differ among the roots, and upper and lower leaves. Magnesium-deficiency affected the most measured parameters more in the lower than in the upper leaves except for the nonstructural carbohydrates, but the variation trends were similar between the two. Despite increased accumulation of nonstructural carbohydrates, the lower CO2 assimilation in the Mg-deficient leaves was not caused by the feedback inhibition mechanism via sugar accumulation. Both dark respiration and organic acid metabolism were elevated in the Mg-deficient lower leaves to 'consume' the excess carbohydrates, and inhibited in the Mg-deficient roots with less accumulation of nonstructural carbohydrates to keep the balance of net carbon. More total phenolics and fewer anthocyanins were accumulated in the Mg-deficient lower leaves, whereas the accumulation of both total phenolics and anthocyanins was reduced in the Mg-deficient roots. Interestingly, amino acid biosynthesis was repressed in the Mg-deficient roots and lower leaves, thus lowering the level of total free amino acids in these roots and leaves. To conclude, great differences existed in the Mg-deficiency-induced alterations

  20. Extraction and camparison of amount of pectin, degree of estrification and galacturonic acidcontent in some citrus fruit peels

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    M.A. Ebrahimzadeh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Pectin is widely used in food, cosmetic and drug industries. Because of high production and consumption of citrus fruits in Mazandaran, fruit peel is available in large quantities. The objective of the current investigation was to determine the amount of pectin, degree of estrification, a key factor in rheological properties of pectin, and galacturonic acid content as a criterion for pectin purity.Materials and Methods: Thirteen species of commonly used citrus fruits, orange cultivates (Citrus sinensis; Washington navel, Sanguinello, Valencia, Acidless, Moro, Shahsavari, Italian orange, Clementine, Unshiu, Grapefruit (C. paradisi, Bitter (sour orange (C. aurantium, Lemon (C. limon and Tangelo were collected at the ripening stage. All the trees were cultivated in the experimental fields, Fajr citrus experimental institute. Amount of pectin was determined by acidic extraction from dry albedos of fruits. Degree of estrification and galacturonic acid content were determined by USP standard titrimetric procedure.Results: The highest amount of pectin was found in Italian orange (27%, Shahsavari orange (25% and Sanguinello (20 % on the basis of dry weight. The highest degree of estrification (11.5% , 10.9% and 9.6% was found in Lemon, Washington navel and Bitter (sour orange respectively. The highest galacturonic acid contents were found in Washington navel, Lemon and Italian orange (89.3, 85.4 and 77.7 respectively.Conclusion: Six fruits were suitable for utilization in drug industries including: Washington navel, Acidless, Shahsavari, Italian orange, Bitter (sour orange (C. aurantium, Lemon (C. limon. Washington navel and Lemon had the most suitable pectin for pharmaceutical purposes

  1. Treatment post harvest of Citrus sinensis infested with Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albergaria, Nuno M.M. Soares de; Bortoli, Sergio A. de, E-mail: nmendes@terra.com.b, E-mail: bortoli@fcav.unesp.b [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Depto. de Fitossanidade; Doria, Hayda O.S., E-mail: hosd75@terra.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Biologia; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: varthur@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente

    2009-07-01

    This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of irradiation on fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) eggs and larvae (first, second, third instars), in 'Valencia' oranges; and evaluate the effect of the irradiation on the chemical composition of the fruits. Fruits were artificially infested with the immature stages of the fruit fly and treated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy Cobalt-60 doses. By the results obtained it is possible to conclude that: third instar larvae are more tolerant to irradiation treatments; the dose of 50 Gy causes sterility to the adults emerged from all immature stages irradiated. (author)

  2. Genome-Wide Identification of the Transcription Factors Involved in Citrus Fruit Ripening from the Transcriptomes of a Late-Ripening Sweet Orange Mutant and Its Wild Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juxun; Fu, Lili; Yi, Hualin

    2016-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a genetically programmed process. Transcription factors (TFs) play key roles in plant development and ripening by temporarily and spatially regulating the transcription of their target genes. In this study, a total of 159 TFs were identified from a spontaneous late-ripening mutant 'Fengwan' (C. sinensis L. Osbeck) sweet orange (MT) and its wild-type counterpart ('Fengjie 72-1', WT) along the ripening period via the Transcription Factor Prediction of PlantTFDB 3.0. Fifty-two differentially expressed TFs were identified between MT and WT; 92 and 120 differentially expressed TFs were identified in WT and MT, respectively. The Venn diagram analysis showed that 16 differentially expressed TFs were identified between MT and WT and during the ripening of WT and MT. These TFs were primarily assigned to the families of C2H2, Dof, bHLH, ERF, MYB, NAC and LBD. Particularly, the number of TFs of the ERF family was the greatest between MT and WT. According to the results of the WGCNA analysis, a weighted correlation network analysis tool, several important TFs correlated to abscisic acid (ABA), citric acid, fructose, glucose and sucrose were identified, such as RD26, NTT, GATA7 and MYB21/62/77. Hierarchical cluster analysis and the expression analysis conducted at five fruit ripening stages further validated the pivotal TFs that potentially function during orange fruit development and ripening.

  3. Variabilidade biológica de isolados do Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV oriundos de cultivares de laranjeira Biological variability of Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV isolates from sweet orange cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadier de Oliveira Cunha Junior

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A leprose, causada pelo Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV, é uma das principais doenças presentes em pomares cítricos fluminenses. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o quadro sintomatológico desenvolvido por isolados de CiLV obtidos de cultivares comerciais de laranjeira (Lima, Pêra e Seleta, inoculados mecanicamente em Chenopodium amaranticolor, em três diluições. Após cinco a sete dias da inoculação foram observadas lesões necróticas, com pequeno halo clorótico quando observadas contra a luz. O maior número de lesões, nas três diluições, foi obtido do isolado de 'Seleta', seguido por 'Pêra' e 'Lima'. A melhor diluição utilizada para a observação das lesões foi de 1:10. Os resultados demonstram uma possível variabilidade biológica entre os isolados virais e/ou uma menor ou maior replicação viral, dependendo da cultivar, indicando um possível mecanismo de resistência da planta ao vírus.Citrus leprosis, caused by Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV is one of the major diseases in citrus orchards in the State of Rio de Janeiro. The objective of this study was to compare the development of symptoms on Chenopodium amaranticolor inoculated with CiLV isolates from 'Lima', 'Pera' and 'Seleta' sweet oranges using three different dilutions. Five to seven-days after inoculation, necrotic lesions exhibiting a small chlorotic halo when exposed to the light, were observed. The highest number of lesions developed using the three dilutions was obtained from 'Seleta', an intermediate value from 'Pêra' and the lowest number from 'Lima'. The best dilution for lesions development was 1:10. The results demonstrate a possible biological variability among the virus isolates and/or a lower or higher viral replication, dependent on the cultivar. This indicates a putative mechanism of Citrus resistance to the virus.

  4. In vitro anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanigasekera Daya Ratnasooriya

    2014-01-01

    To access the anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe (OP) grade black tea with a view to develop an anti-aging skin formulation. Methods: Five concentrations (0.125, 0.250, 0.500, 1.000 and 2.000 mg/mL) of black tea brew (BTB) were made using a freeze dried sample of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP grade black tea which was prepared according to international organization for standardization specification. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was used as the reference agent (concentrations tested: 0.012, 0.025, 0.050, 0.100 and 0.200 mg/mL). Anti-hyaluronidase activity of BTB and EGCG in vitro were ascertained spectrometrically using hyaluronic acid (from rooster comb) and bovine testicular hyaluronidase. Results: The results revealed that BTB had moderate [IC50=(1.09±0.12) mg/mL] and dose dependent (r2=0.94) anti-hyaluronidase activity. EGCG also exhibited dose dependent (r2=0.93, P<0.05) anti-hyaluronidase activity which was superior [IC50=(0.09±0.00) mg/mL] to BTB. Conclusions: Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP grade black tea has promising anti-hyaluronidase activity in vitro and has the potential to be used as an anti-aging cosmaceutical. In addition, it may prove useful as a beverage in the management of allergy, some joint diseases and envenomation.

  5. Temporal responses of peak citrus flowering to climate change in Iran: 1960-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchett, Jennifer; Grab, Stefan; Thompson, Dave; Roshan, GholamReza

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies investigating floral and faunal phenological responses to climate change have highlighted the extent to which these relationships are species and location specific. This study investigates temporal responses of citrus peak flowering to climate change in the cities of Kerman, Shiraz and Gorgan, Iran. Phenological data comprise peak flowering dates of five citrus types: orange (Citrus x sinensis), tangerine (Citrus x tangerine), sweet lemon (Citrus limetta), sour lemon (Citrus x limon) and sour orange (Citrus x aurantium). These were collected daily from government heritage gardens located within each of the three cities, and archived by a private Iranian company, for the period 1960-2010. For the same period, daily Tmax, Tmin, rainfall and sunshine hour data were acquired from the Iranian Meteorological Organization. Time trend analyses were undertaken for both the phenological and meteorological data, followed by linear regression to determine the nature and extent of any relationships between these variables. We find that the mean peak flowering dates, and their long-term trends over the 51-year period, are very similar amongst the five citrus types within each city, but demonstrate significant differences between cities. Flowering date advances of 0.12-0.17d/yr are recorded for Kerman, and more rapid advances of 0.56-0.65d/yr for Shiraz. Notable progressive delays in flowering dates occur in Gorgan (0.05-0.1d/yr). The peak flowering dates of citrus in the former two cities demonstrate strong relationships with mean annual Tmin, ranging from r = 0.46-0.61 (p = 0002; p markets.

  6. 纽荷尔脐橙对建阳橘柚上柑橘衰退病毒分离株构成的影响%Influence of Newhall Navel Orange on Composition of Citrus tristeza virus Isolates Collected from Jianyang Tangelo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易龙; 卢占军; 赖晓桦; 马冠华

    2012-01-01

    In order to find the potential influence of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates in Jianyang Tangelo on Gannan navel orange, the CTV isolates were characterized at the molecular level. Jianyang Tangelo (Citrus paradisi x C. Reticulata) is a new citrus hybrid cultivar with excellent quality. CTV isolate JY-5 was inoculated in Newhall navel orange (C. Sinensis) and the Hinf I restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) of its coat protein (cp) gene was comparatively analyzed. The results of RFLP analysis revealed that the single group of the CTV isolate in Jianyang Tangelo changed into mixed groups when it inoculated in Newhall navel orange. DNA bands of cp/SSCP of CTV isolates increased when the CTV isolate was graft inoculated from Jianyang Tangelo to Newhall navel orange. The results of Hinf I RFLP and SSCP showed that the replication of some composition of CTV isolate was inhibited in Jianyang Tangelo but enhanced in Newhall navel orange. By analyzing and comparing the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of cp,p23 and k17 of isolate JY-5 in Jianyang Tangelo and isolate JY-5R from inoculated Newhall navel orange, the identity of genomic regions were 92.5%, 90.3% and 82.3%, respectively, and of their amion acid sequences were 95.9%, 90,9% and 77.9%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate JY-5 in Jianyang Tangelo and JY-5R in inoculated Newhall classified into different clusters in phylogenetic trees of cp, p23 and k17. Sequence comparisons and phyiogenetic analysis indicated that no high homology and closer relationships between the isolates JY-5 and JY-5R, the isolate JY-5R was inhibited in Jianyang Tangelo but enhanced in Newhall navel orange. The results suggest that if the CTV isolate from Jianyang Tangelo infects Gannan's Newhall navel orange and spreads in Ganzhou, maybe cause some damage to Gannan's navel oranges. Therefore, it is necessary to take a survey on the CTV occurrence

  7. Comparative analysis of differentially expressed sequence tags of sweet orange and mandarin infected with Xylella fastidiosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra A. de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Citrus ESTs Sequencing Project (CitEST conducted at Centro APTA Citros Sylvio Moreira/IAC has identified and catalogued ESTs representing a set of citrus genes expressed under relevant stress responses, including diseases such as citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC, caused by Xylella fastidiosa. All sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. varieties are susceptible to X. fastidiosa. On the other hand, mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco are considered tolerant or resistant to the disease, although the bacterium can be sporadically detected within the trees, but no disease symptoms or economic losses are observed. To study their genetic responses to the presence of X. fastidiosa, we have compared EST libraries of leaf tissue of sweet orange Pêra IAC (highly susceptible cultivar to X. fastidiosa and mandarin ‘Ponkan’ (tolerant artificially infected with the bacterium. Using an in silico differential display, 172 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed in such conditions. Sweet orange presented an increase in expression of photosynthesis related genes that could reveal a strategy to counterbalance a possible lower photosynthetic activity resulting from early effects of the bacterial colonization in affected plants. On the other hand, mandarin showed an active multi-component defense response against the bacterium similar to the non-host resistance pattern.

  8. Comparison of the Inhibition of Monoamine Oxidase and Butyrylcholinesterase Activities by Infusions from Green Tea and Some Citrus Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayokunle O. Ademosun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to investigate the effect of infusions from green tea (Camellia sinensis and some citrus peels [shaddock (Citrus maxima, grapefruit (Citrus paradisi, and orange (Citrus sinensis] on key enzymes relevant to the management of neurodegenerative conditions [monoamine oxidase (MAO and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE]. The total phenol contents and antioxidant activities as typified by their 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radicals scavenging abilities, ferric reducing antioxidant properties, and Fe2+ chelating abilities were also investigated. Green tea had the highest total phenol (43.3 mg/g and total flavonoid (16.4 mg/g contents, when compared to orange [total phenol (19.6 mg/g, total flavonoid (6.5 mg/g], shaddock [total phenol (16.3 mg/g, total flavonoid (5.2 mg/g], and grapefruit [total phenol (17.7 mg/g, total flavonoid (5.9 mg/g]. Orange (EC50 = 1.78 mg/mL had the highest MAO inhibitory ability, while green tea had the least MAO inhibitory ability (EC50 = 2.56 mg/mL. Similarly, green tea had the least BChE inhibitory ability (EC50 = 5.43 mg/mL when compared to the citrus peels’ infusions. However, green tea infusions had the strongest highest ABTS radical scavenging ability, reducing power, and Fe2+ chelating ability. The inhibition of MAO and BChE activities by the green tea and citrus peels infusions could make them good dietary means for the prevention/management of neurodegenerative conditions.

  9. Study of the thermal degradation of citrus seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Montoya, V. [Centro de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-55, Puebla 72570, Pue (Mexico); Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Montes-Moran, M.A. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Elizalde-Gonzalez, M.P. [Centro de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-55, Puebla 72570, Pue (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    The citrus seeds are one of the principal residues in the juice industry and their utilization can decrease significantly the problems of their final disposal. In this work the thermal degradation of three Mexican citrus seeds: orange (Citrus sinensis), lemon (Citrus Limon) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) was studied in nitrogen atmosphere. The two components (embryo and husk) of the seeds were characterized separately. The results showed that the thermal effects are very similar between the three embryos and the three husks. The embryos show higher degradability, superior content of nitrogen and higher heating value than the husks. The thermal degradation of the components of the three seeds is completed at 600 C and it is considered to be a global process derived from the decomposition of their principal components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin). The results suggest that mixing the three entire seeds will not lead to a severe deviation from their individual thermal behavior and that the industry could apply them for carbonization purposes. (author)

  10. Expressão gênica diferencial de laranja Pêra Rio (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) e Lima Ácida 'Galego' (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) em resposta à infecção por Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri

    OpenAIRE

    Cavallini, Juliana da Silva [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    The citrus agribusiness is very important to the Brazilian economy, but the increase of diseases in the last decade has caused great economic losses to the sector. The citrus canker, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xac), is a serious disease that attacks all citrus species economically important worldwide and there is not an effective method for its control. In this study, RNASeq was used to analyze the transcriptional profiles of two contrasting citrus genotypes regar...

  11. Antimicrobial Nanoemulsion Formulation with Improved Penetration of Foliar Spray through Citrus Leaf Cuticles to Control Citrus Huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuanyu; Powell, Charles A; Duan, Yongping; Shatters, Robert; Zhang, Muqing

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most serious disease affecting the citrus industry worldwide to date. The causal agent, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), resides in citrus phloem, which makes it difficult to effectively treat with chemical compounds. In this study, a transcuticular nanoemulsion formulation was developed to enhance the permeation of an effective antimicrobial compound (ampicillin; Amp) against HLB disease through the citrus cuticle into the phloem via a foliar spray. The results demonstrated that efficiency of cuticle isolation using an enzymatic method (pectinase and cellulase) was dependent on the citrus cultivar and Las-infection, and it was more difficult to isolate cuticles from valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) and HLB-symptomatic leaves. Of eight adjuvants tested, Brij 35 provided the greatest increase in permeability of the HLB-affected cuticle with a 3.33-fold enhancement of cuticular permeability over water control. An in vitro assay using Bacillus subtilis showed that nanoemulsion formulations containing Amp (droplets size = 5.26 ± 0.04 nm and 94 ± 1.48 nm) coupled with Brij 35 resulted in greater inhibitory zone diameters (5.75 mm and 6.66 mm) compared to those of Brij 35 (4.34 mm) and Amp solution (2.83 mm) alone. Furthermore, the nanoemulsion formulations eliminated Las bacteria in HLB-affected citrus in planta more efficiently than controls. Our study shows that a water in oil (W/O) nanoemulsion formulation may provide a useful model for the effective delivery of chemical compounds into citrus phloem via a foliar spray for controlling citrus HLB.

  12. Floración, crecimiento y maduración de la naranja valle Washington, citrus sinensis Osbek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Héctor R.

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available En cítricos de ocho años, se determinó la caída de flores y frutos en tres épocas de floración y se evaluó el crecimiento utilizando el modelo logístico y modelos de línea recta. Se cuantificó el porcentaje de jugo, pulpa y cáscara en tres estados de madurez. Se encontraron tres etapas de caída de estructuras: rápida en los primeros 25 -30 días (flores, lenta 30 -200 días y estabilización; el porcentaje de formación de frutos fue del 9%. El modelo logístico no describió bien el crecimiento del fruto; con modelos de línea recta, se explicaron cuatro fases: muy lenta (0-30 días con 0.21 cm3/día intermedia (30 -105 días con 121 cm3/día, rápido crecimiento (105-195 días con 2.36 cm3/día y tendencia a estabilización (>195días con 1.1 cm3/día. Los frutos fueron aptos para el consumo desde los 180 -200 días pero pueden permanecer en el árbol hasta los 295 - 350 días. El contenido de jugo de la fruta madura fue del 35.5%.The fall of flowers and fruit was studied in 8 years old citrus at three times of flowering, growth following the logistic model and straigh line model was also studied. Percentaje of juice, pulp, and skin in three maturity stages were quantified. Three stages of structures fall were found: quick during the first 25 -30 days (flowers, slow 30-200 days and stabilization. Fruit formation percentaje was 9%. The logistic model did not describe well fruit growth; with straight line models four phases were explained: Slow (0-30 days with 0.21 cm3/day, intermediate (30-105 days with 1.21 cm3/day, quick growth (105-195 days with 2.36 cm3/day and tendency to stabilization (195 days with 1.1 cm3/day. Fruits good for consumption after 180 - 200 but main remain on the tree up to 295 - 350 days. Juice content of the rippen fruit reached 35.5 %.

  13. Gene expression in Citrus sinensis fruit tissues harvested from huanglongbing-infected trees: comparison with girdled fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hui-Ling; Burns, Jacqueline K

    2012-05-01

    Distribution of viable Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) in sweet orange fruit and leaves ('Hamlin' and 'Valencia') and transcriptomic changes associated with huanglongbing (HLB) infection in fruit tissues are reported. Viable CaLas was present in most fruit tissues tested in HLB trees, with the highest titre detected in vascular tissue near the calyx abscission zone. Transcriptomic changes associated with HLB infection were analysed in flavedo (FF), vascular tissue (VT), and juice vesicles (JV) from symptomatic (SY), asymptomatic (AS), and healthy (H) fruit. In SY 'Hamlin', HLB altered the expression of more genes in FF and VT than in JV, whereas in SY 'Valencia', the number of genes whose expression was changed by HLB was similar in these tissues. The expression of more genes was altered in SY 'Valencia' JV than in SY 'Hamlin' JV. More genes were also affected in AS 'Valencia' FF and VT than in AS 'Valencia' JV. Most genes whose expression was changed by HLB were classified as transporters or involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Physiological characteristics of HLB-infected and girdled fruit were compared to differentiate between HLB-specific and carbohydrate metabolism-related symptoms. SY and girdled fruit were smaller than H and ungirdled fruit, respectively, with poor juice quality. However, girdling did not cause misshapen fruit or differential peel coloration. Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that many selected genes changed their expression significantly in SY flavedo but not in girdled flavedo. Mechanisms regulating development of HLB symptoms may lie in the host disease response rather than being a direct consequence of carbohydrate starvation.

  14. PHLOEM PROMOTERS IN TRANSGENIC SWEET ORANGE ARE DIFFERENTIALLY TRIGGERED BY Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUZIA YURIKO MIYATA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of promoters preferentially expressed in specific plant tissues is a desirable strategy to search for resistance for pathogens that colonize these tissues. The bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las, associated with huanglongbing disease (HLB of citrus, colonizes phloem vessels. Some promoters, besides conferring tissue-specific expression, can also respond to the presence of the pathogen. The objective of the present study was to verify if the presence of Las could modulate the activation of the phloem-specific promoters AtPP2 (Arabidopsis thaliana phloem protein 2, AtSUC2 (A. thaliana sucrose transporter 2 and CsPP2 ( pCitrus phloemrotein 2, known to be expressed in Citrus sinensis phloem. ‘Hamlin’ sweet orange plants (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck transformed with the uidA (GUS reporter gene under the control of AtPP2, AtSUC2 and CsPP2 promoters were infected to evaluate the interdependence between transgene expression and the concentration of Las. Plants were inoculated with Las by Diaphorina citri and eighteen months later, bacterial concentration and uidA expression were determined by qPCR and RT-qPCR, respectively. Reporter gene expression driven by AtSUC2 promoter was strongly and positively correlated with Las concentration. Therefore, this promoter combines desirable features of both tissue-specificity and pathogen-inducibility for the production of transgenic plants tolerant to Las.

  15. RAPD-based genetic analysis of offsprings from the sexual cross using allotetraploid citrus somatic hybrid as pollen parent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI HuaLin; DENG XiuXin

    2007-01-01

    Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, ChinaThirty-one polymorphic decamer primers were selected to genotype 92 progenies from the cross between Yiben No,4, a monoembryonic diploid F1 hybrid of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv Huanongbendizao tangerine and C. ichangensis Swingle, and [Hamlin sweet orange + Rough lemon], an allotetraploid somatic hybrid of Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Hamlin and C. jambhiri Lush cv. Rough Lemon. x2(Chi-square) analysis of RAPD markers in the progenies indicated they were randomly transmitted from the four donor parents, without significant difference between the diploids and triploids. However,these progenies were clustered into three major groups using dendrogram constructed by UPGMA,skewed to three parents in certain degrees, 15 (13 triploids and 2 diploids) to Hamlin, 16 (9 and 7) to Yiben No. 4, and 61 (57 and 4) to [Hamlin sweet orange + Rough Lemon] from which genomic contribution was predominant in progenies, respectively.

  16. RAPD-based genetic analysis of offsprings from the sexual cross using allotetraploid citrus somatic hybrid as pollen parent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Thirty-one polymorphic decamer primers were selected to genotype 92 progenies from the cross be- tween Yiben No.4, a monoembryonic diploid F1 hybrid of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv Huanongbendizao tangerine and C. ichangensis Swingle, and [Hamlin sweet orange + Rough lemon], an allotetraploid somatic hybrid of Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Hamlin and C. jambhiri Lush cv. Rough Lemon. χ2 (Chi-square) analysis of RAPD markers in the progenies indicated they were randomly transmitted from the four donor parents, without significant difference between the diploids and triploids. However, these progenies were clustered into three major groups using dendrogram constructed by UPGMA, skewed to three parents in certain degrees, 15 (13 triploids and 2 diploids) to Hamlin, 16 (9 and 7) to Yiben No. 4, and 61 (57 and 4) to [Hamlin sweet orange + Rough Lemon] from which genomic contribu- tion was predominant in progenies, respectively.

  17. Biochemical characterization of blood orange, sweet orange, lemon, bergamot and bitter orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moufida, Saïdani; Marzouk, Brahim

    2003-04-01

    This paper reports on the composition of aroma compounds and fatty acids and some physico-chemical parameters (juice percentage, acidity and total sugars) in five varieties of citrus: blood orange, sweet orange, lemon, bergamot and bitter orange. Volatile compounds and methyl esters have been analyzed by gas chromatography. Limonene is the most abundant compound of monoterpene hydrocarbons for all of the examined juices. Eighteen fatty acids have been identified in the studied citrus juices, their quantification points out that unsaturated acids predominate over the saturated ones. Mean concentration of fatty acids varies from 311.8 mg/l in blood orange juice to 678 mg/l in bitter orange juice.

  18. The influence of chicken eggshell powder as a buffer on biohydrogen production from rotten orange (Citrus nobilis var. microcarpa) with immobilized mixed culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damayanti, Astrilia; Sarto, Syamsiah, Siti; Sediawan, Wahyudi B.

    2017-06-01

    This research observed the influence of chicken eggshell on hydrogen production from anaerobic fermentation of rotten orange (Citrus nobilis var. microcarpa) using batch method at 36 °C and pH 7. Fermentation material were varied in several types, the first type was meat and peel of oranges with VS of 59.152 g.L-1 in A, B, C, and D compositions. The second type was orange meat added with peel (OMP) with VS of 36.852 g.L-1. The immobilized ingredients used in the experiment consisted of 2 % (w/v) alginate and active carbon with the ratio of 1:1. 3.2 g chicken eggshell powder was added to the first type of material (substrates A, B, C, and D). Results showed that pH during fermentation process using chicken eggshell as a buffer was constant at 5.5; however, without the use of chicken eggshell, the pH decreased to 3.8 and increased slightly before it stayed stable at 4.0. The total amount of gas produced in sample using the chicken eggshell was 46,35 mL.mg VS-1 and in sample produced without the eggshell, it was 3,4 mL.mg VS-1. The production of hydrogen in substrate that used chicken eggshell was 1,276 mL.gVS-1 in average on the first day. Meanwhile, for the substrate with no addition of chicken eggshell, the average production of hydrogen was 0,163 mL.gVS-1. The reduction of volatile solid (VS) in sample that used chicken eggshell was 24 %, while in sample produced without addition of chicken eggshell, the reduction was 12 %. The liquid compounds (VFA) produced in the fermentation using chicken eggshell were acetic acid and butyric acid. Meanwhile, without addition of chicken eggshell, the products were acetic acid, butyric acid, and propionic acid. This study shows that addition of chicken eggshell as a buffer effectively contributed to hydrogen production during fermentation of rotten oranges.

  19. Characterization of Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Compositions of Somatic Hybrid Plants Between Sweet Orange and Sour Orange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUJi-Hong; XUXiao-Yong; DENGXiu-Xin

    2004-01-01

    Abstract In the present research, flow cytometry (FCM), simple sequence repeat (SSR) and cleavedamplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) were employed to analyze somatic hybrid plants derived from electrofusion between embryogenic protoplasts of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Shamouti) and leaf-derived protoplasts of sour orange (C. aurantium L). FCM showed that all of the somatic hybrid plants had two-fold fluorescence intensity values of the diploid control, indicating that they were tetraploids. SSR and CAPS were used to characterize the compositions of nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes of the somatic hybnd plants. As for SSR four primer pairs were tried and two showed polymorphisms between the fusion parents. With both pnmer pairs the somatic hybrid plants encompassed DNA bands from both parents, indicating that they were heterokaryonic hybrids. Amplification with some universal primers, followed by digestion with restriction endonucleases, could distinguish the fusion parents from each other. As far as mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA compositions were concerned the somatic hybrid plants shared the same banding patterns as the embryogenic parents for all of the polymorphic primer/enzyme combinations. The results herein demonstrated that the somatic hybrid plants inherited their nuclear genome from both fusion parents, whereas the cytoplasmic genomes were possibly only contributed by the embryogenic parent. Merits of the analytical methods and nuclear and cytoplasmic inheritance of citrus tetraploid somatic hybrids, together with their application, are discussed herein.

  20. New excised-leaf assay method to test inoculativity of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus associated with citrus huanglongbing disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Walter, Abigail J; Hall, David G

    2013-02-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the primary vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) associated with huanglongbing, or citrus greening, the most devastating citrus (Citrus spp.) disease worldwide. Here, we developed a new "excised-leaf assay" that can speed up Las-inoculativity tests on Asian citrus psyllid from the current 3-12 mo (when using whole citrus seedlings for inoculation) to only 2-3 wk. Young adults of Asian citrus psyllid that had been reared on Las-infected plants were caged on excised healthy sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] leaves for a 1-2-wk inoculation access periods (IAP), and then both psyllids and leaves were tested later by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). When single adults were tested per leaf, percentages of Las-positive leaves averaged 2-6% by using HLBaspr primers and 10-20% by using the more sensitive LJ900 primers. Higher proportions of Las-positive leaves were obtained with 1) higher densities of inoculating psyllids (5-10 adults per leaf), 2) longer IAPs, and 3) incubation of leaves for 1 wk postinoculation before PCR. Logistic regression analysis indicated a positive correlation between Las titer in Asian citrus psyllid adults tested singly and the probability of detecting Las in the inoculated leaves, correlations that can be very useful in epidemiological studies. Comparison between excised leaves and whole seedlings, inoculated consecutively for 1 wk each by one or a group of psyllids, indicated no significant difference between Las detection in excised leaves or whole plants. This new excised-leaf assay method saves considerable time, materials, and greenhouse space, and it may enhance vector relation and epidemiological studies on Las and potentially other Liberibacter spp. associated with huanglongbing disease.

  1. 咪鲜胺壳寡糖复合涂膜对脐橙果实采后品质的影响%Effect of Oligochitosan and Prochloraz Complex Coating on the Postharvest Quality of Citrus Sinensis Osbeck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂青玉

    2012-01-01

    以脐橙为试材,果实采后以1%的壳寡糖为涂膜剂,分别与质量分数为0.01%,0.05%,0.10%浓度的咪鲜胺(有效成份450 g/L水乳剂)组合,浸泡处理后置于18~25℃,75%~85%RH环境中贮藏,比较与不涂膜处理及仅用1%的壳寡糖处理对脐橙贮藏品质、采后生理的影响.结果表明:不同浓度的咪鲜胺壳寡糖复合涂膜均能降低果实的失重率、腐烂率;延缓果实可溶性固形物、可滴定酸、还原性抗坏血酸含量的下降;抑制呼吸强度、丙二醛含量、相对电导率的上升;有效保持贮藏脐橙果实的感官品质、风味品质、营养品质,延长果实的贮藏期.其中,0.05%咪鲜胺与1%壳寡糖复合涂膜处理果实的各项品质、生理指标优于其它处理组,为有效延长脐橙果实贮藏时间的最经济、安全组合浓度.%Postharvest Citrus sinensis Osbeck has been stored after being soaked in 18 - 25 ℃ , 75% -85% RH environment,by the treatment of 1. 0% of Oligochitosan Combined with 0. 01 %, 0. 05% and 0. 1 % of Prochloraz (active ingredient 450 g/L of water emulsion) respectively. The effects of 1 % Oligochitosan treatment and uncoating treatment on the postharvest physiology and storage quality of Citrus sinensis Osbeck have been compared. The result illustrates that all kinds of Oligochitosan and Prochloraz Complex coating could reduce rate of weight loss and decay, delay the decline of soluble solids, titratable acidity and the content of ascorbic acid in fruits, inhibit the increase of the respiration rate, MDA content and relative electrical conductivity, maintain effectively the sensory, flavor, nutritional quality of Citrus sinensis Osbeck stored, and extend the storage period of Citrus sinensis Osbeck. Furthermore, the most economical and secure combination is 0.05% of Prochloraz (active ingredient 450 g/L of water emulsion) and 1% of Oligochitosan, which can make all kinds of the quality, physiological indexes

  2. Postharvest response of oranges of ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aharoni, Y.; Lattar, F.S.; Monselise, S.P.

    1969-01-01

    Since the effect of ethylene on the respiration rate of young unripe oranges has not yet been described, experiments were carried out to study the respiratory response of such fruits to ethylene. Oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) of the Washington navel, Shamouti and Valencia varieties, growing on a sandy loam near Rehovot, Israel, were picked in June, July, September, December and January. Immediately after picking, they were weighed, placed in glass jars, and stored at 20/sup 0/. Each experiment comprised 12 jars, 4 for each variety. A constant stream (200 ml/min) of air containing 20 ppm of ethylene was run through the jars. The respiration rate was measured by the amount of CO/sub 2/ evolved by the fruits, and based on a fresh weight unit. The results show that in all 3 varieties, ethylene caused an immediate rise in respiration rate, at all stages of development tested, regardless of whether it was applied from the beginning of the test or after a certain period of storage in air. The pattern of response to ethylene of young unripe oranges (picked in June, July, and September) was therefore similar to that of ripe ones (picked in December and January).

  3. Transgenic citrus expressing synthesized cecropin B genes in the phloem exhibits decreased susceptibility to Huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiuping; Jiang, Xueyou; Xu, Lanzhen; Lei, Tiangang; Peng, Aihong; He, Yongrui; Yao, Lixiao; Chen, Shanchun

    2017-03-01

    Expression of synthesized cecropin B genes in the citrus phloem, where Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus resides, significantly decreased host susceptibility to Huanglongbing. Huanglongbing (HLB), associated with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus bacteria, is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. All of the commercial sweet orange cultivars lack resistance to this disease. The cationic lytic peptide cecropin B, isolated from the Chinese tasar moth (Antheraea pernyi), has been shown to effectively eliminate bacteria. In this study, we demonstrated that transgenic citrus (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) expressing the cecropin B gene specifically in the phloem had a decreased susceptibility to HLB. Three plant codon-optimized synthetic cecropin B genes, which were designed to secrete the cecropin B peptide into three specific sites, the extracellular space, the cytoplasm, and the endoplasmic reticulum, were constructed. Under the control of the selected phloem-specific promoter GRP1.8, these constructs were transferred into the citrus genome. All of the cecropin B genes were efficiently expressed in the phloem of transgenic plants. Over more than a year of evaluation, the transgenic lines exhibited reduced disease severity. Bacterial populations in transgenic lines were significantly lower than in the controls. Two lines, in which bacterial populations were significantly lower than in others, showed no visible symptoms. Thus, we demonstrated the potential application of the phloem-specific expression of an antimicrobial peptide gene to protect citrus plants from HLB.

  4. Isolation and Screening of Pectinolytic Fungi from Orange (Citrus nobilis Tan.) and Banana (Musa acuminata L.) Fruit Peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amilia, K. R.; Sari, S. L. A.; Setyaningsih, R.

    2017-04-01

    Pectinase is the one of most important enzyme which is used in food industry such as fruit and vegetable juice extraction, oil extraction and fermentation of coffee, cocoa and tea. Pectinase can be produced by microorganism such as bacteria and fungi. Fungi are known as potent producer of pectinase. This research was conducted to isolate and screen of the pectinolytic fungi from rotten orange and banana fruit peels. This research succeeded to isolate 10 fungal isolates from rotten orange peels and 5 fungal isolates from rotten banana peels. These isolates were screened in pectinolytic activities based on clear zone formation on pectic medium which is stained by cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. The screening result showed that fungal isolates which showed pectinolytic activity were O2, O3, O4, O7, O8, O10, B3, and B5. Based on morphological characters, pectinolytic fungi were identified as Fusarium O4 and O10, Penicillium O2, Aspergillus O3, O7, B3 and B5 and Trichoderma O8. The highest pectinolytic activity was showed by Penicillium O2 which was isolated from orange peel.

  5. Comparative transcriptional and anatomical analyses of tolerant rough lemon and susceptible sweet orange in response to 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jing; Chen, Chunxian; Yu, Qibin; Khalaf, Abeer; Achor, Diann S; Brlansky, Ron H; Moore, Gloria A; Li, Zheng-Guo; Gmitter, Frederick G

    2012-11-01

    Although there are no known sources of genetic resistance, some Citrus spp. are reportedly tolerant to huanglongbing (HLB), presumably caused by 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. Time-course transcriptional analysis of tolerant rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri) and susceptible sweet orange (C. sinensis) in response to 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection showed more genes differentially expressed in HLB-affected rough lemon than sweet orange at early stages but substantially fewer at late time points, possibly a critical factor underlying differences in sensitivity to 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. Pathway analysis revealed that stress responses were distinctively modulated in rough lemon and sweet orange. Although microscopic changes (e.g., callose deposition in sieve elements and phloem cell collapse) were found in both infected species, remarkably, phloem transport activity in midribs of source leaves in rough lemon was much less affected by HLB than in sweet orange. The difference in phloem cell transport activities is also implicated in the differential sensitivity to HLB between the two species. The results potentially lead to identification of key genes and the genetic mechanism in rough lemon to restrain disease development and maintain (or recover) phloem transport activity. These potential candidate genes may be used for improving citrus tolerance (or even resistance) to HLB by genetic engineering.

  6. Construction and characterization of two Citrus BAC libraries and identification of clones containing the phytoene synthase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, M N R; Yu, An; Guo, Wenwu; Deng, Xiuxin

    2009-05-01

    Two deep-coverage Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) libraries of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck 'Cara Cara' navel orange and Citrus reticulata (L.) Blanco 'Egan No. 1' Ponkan mandarin, which belong to the two most important species of the Citrus genus, have been constructed and characterized to facilitate gene cloning and to analyze variety-specific genome composition. The C. sinensis BAC library consists of 36 000 clones with negligible false-positive clones and an estimated average insert size of 126 kb covering ~4.5 x 109 bp and thus providing an 11.8-fold coverage of haploid genome equivalents, whereas the C. reticulata library consists of 21 000 clones also with negligible false-positive clones and an estimated average of 120 kb covering ~2.5 x 109 bp representing a 6.6-fold coverage of haploid genome equivalents. Both libraries were evaluated for contamination with high-copy vector, empty pIndigoBAC536 vector, and organellar DNA sequences. Screening has been performed by Southern hybridization of BAC filters, which results in genomics research in the two important species C. sinensis and C. reticulata. Resources, high-density filters, individual clones, and whole libraries are available for public distribution and are accessible at the National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University.

  7. Measurements on hydrocyanic acid absorbed by citrus tissues during fumigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, E.T.; Sinclair, W.B.; Lindgren, D.L.

    1942-05-01

    Methods for the accurate determination of hydrocyanic acid (HCN) and studies of factors affecting the recovery of HCN from fumigated citrus tissues have been previously reported. This study is concerned with the results of the application of the principles derived from the earlier studies to further laboratory experiments, performed in conjunction with the fumigation studies of citrus trees under orchard conditions. The effect of certain factors, such as oil sprays, the locality in which the trees were grown, and the temperature, age, and moisture content of citrus tissues at time of fumigation, have been studied in relation to the absorption and retention of HCN under both laboratory and field conditions. The comparative amounts of absorption and lengths of time of retention of HCN have also been studied in relation to maturity of leaves and fruits and in relation to their injurious or noninjurious effects. The results of laboratory experiments cannot always be applied directly to the solution of orchard fumigation problems, but they may serve as a basis for the formulation of field experiments. The trees, leaves, and fruits used in the experiments described in this study were of the Valencia-orange variety (Citrus sinensis Osbeck). 13 references, 9 figures, 11 tables.

  8. Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H

    2013-04-01

    Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly.

  9. Field evaluation of Mediterranean fruit fly mass trapping with Tripack as alternative to malathion bait-spraying in citrus orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mediouni Ben Jemaa, J.; Bachrouch, O.; Allimi, E.; Dhouibi, M. H.

    2010-07-01

    The mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted attractant lure Tri-pack as an alternative to malathion bait-spraying (control treatment) was tested in two citrus orchards in the North of Tunisia against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata during 2006 and 2007. Results of mass trapping trials in 2006 and 2007 indicated that adult males Medfly captures showed reductions respect to control of 37.62% and 40.2% respectively in mandarin orange variety (Citrus reticulata) orchard compared to 36.48% and 47.29% in Washington navel orange variety (Citrus sinensis) field. Fruit damage assessment showed significant differences between the mass trapping with Tripack and malathion bait-spraying techniques in the reduction of the percentage of fruit punctures. The percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field in 2006 and in 2007 in the mandarin orange orchard. Nevertheless, in the Washington navel orange orchard, the percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field only in 2006. Thus, results obtained from this study showed that the mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted lure Tri-pack could be involved as an appropriate strategy for the control of the Medfly and is as effective as malathion bait spraying treatment without leaving pesticide residues on fruit. (Author) 40 refs.

  10. Extraction of orange peel's essential oil by solvent-free microwave extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadariyah, Lailatul; Amelia, Prilia Dwi; Admiralia, Cininta; Bhuana, Donny S.; Mahfud, Mahfud

    2017-05-01

    Sweet orange peel (Citrus sinensis) is part of orange plant that contains essential oils. Generally, taking essential oil from orange peel is still using hydrodistillation and steam-hydrodistillation method which still needs solvent and takes a long time to produce high quality essential oil. Therefore, the objectives of this experiment are to study the process of orange peel's essential oil extraction using Solvent Free Microwave Extraction (SFME) and to study the operating condition that effect an optimum yield and quality of the essential oil. In this experiment, extraction process with SFME method goes for 60 minutes at atmospheric pressure. Variables for SFME are: variation of orange peel condition (fresh and dry), ratio orange peel mass to distiller volume (0,1; 0,2; 0,3; 0,4 g/mL), orange peel size (±0,5; ±2; ±3,5 cm width), and microwave power (100, 264, 400 Watt). Moisture content of fresh peel is 71,4% and for dry peel is 17,37% which is obtained by sun drying. The result of this experiment will be analyzed with GC-MS, SEM, density, and miscibility in ethanol 90%. The optimum result obtained from this experiment based on the number of the yield under condition of fresh orange peel is at peel mass/distiller volume 0,1 g/mL, orange peel size ±3,5 cm width, and microwave power 400 Watt, results 1,6738% yield. The result of GC-MS for fresh orange peel shows that the dominant compound is Limonene 54,140% and for dry orange peel is Limonene 59,705%. The density obtained is around 0,8282-0,8530 g/mL and miscibility in ethanol 90% is 1:5.

  11. Assessment of the genetic diversity of the Tunisian citrus rootstock germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snoussi Hager

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Citrus represents a substantial income for farmers in the Mediterranean Basin. However, the Mediterranean citrus industry faces increasing biotic and abiotic constraints. Therefore the breeding and selection of new rootstocks are now of the utmost importance. In Tunisia, in addition to sour orange, the most widespread traditional rootstock of the Mediterranean area, other citrus rootstocks and well adapted to local environmental conditions, are traditionally used and should be important genetic resources for breeding. To characterize the diversity of Tunisian citrus rootstocks, two hundred and one local accessions belonging to four facultative apomictic species (C. aurantium, sour orange; C. sinensis, orange; C. limon, lemon; and C. aurantifolia, lime were collected and genotyped using 20 nuclear SSR markers and four indel mitochondrial markers. Multi-locus genotypes (MLGs were compared to references from French and Spanish collections. Results The differentiation of the four varietal groups was well-marked. The groups displayed a relatively high allelic diversity, primarily due to very high heterozygosity. Sixteen distinct MLGs were identified. Ten of these were noted in sour oranges. However, the majority of the analysed sour orange accessions corresponded with only two MLGs, differentiated by a single allele, likely due to a mutation. The most frequent MLG is shared with the reference sour oranges. No polymorphism was found within the sweet orange group. Two MLGs, differentiated by a single locus, were noted in lemon. The predominant MLG was shared with the reference lemons. Limes were represented by three genotypes. Two corresponded to the 'Mexican lime' and 'limonette de Marrakech' references. The MLG of 'Chiiri' lime was unique. Conclusions The Tunisian citrus rootstock genetic diversity is predominantly due to high heterozygosity and differentiation between the four varietal groups. The phenotypic diversity within the

  12. Exploring Antagonistic Candidate Fungi for Controling Pathogenic Fungi (Colletotricum gloeosporioides) Causing Anthracnose Disease in Kintamani Siam Orange Plants (Citrus Nobillis Lour Var. Hass)

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Nyoman Darsini; I Made Sudana; I Dewa Ngurah Suprapta; Dewa Nyoman Nyana

    2017-01-01

    Orange plantation center in Bali are located in Bangli Regency, Kintamani District. Kintamani orange plantations cultivated three types of oranges: tangerine, selayer, and mandarin oranges. The famous orange in Bali today is Kintamani orange,  tangerine type.  The typical flavor and aroma of Kintamani tangerine make it is favored by consumers from various regions. Based on the information from Bangli District Agriculture Office and the results of field surveys in the last two years (in 2013 a...

  13. VIABILIDADE DO PÓLEN EM VARIEDADES DE LARANJA DOCE POLLEN VIABILITY IN SWEET ORANGE VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Tobias Domingues

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma vez que a polinização é um dos pontos decisivos para o crescimento e desenvolvimento do fruto, contribuindo com os gametas masculinos para a fecundação e determinando, na maioria das vezes, a fixação dos frutos em citros, torna-se necessário conhecer o grau de esterilidade masculina nas diferentes variedades de laranja doce para sua possível utilização em programas de melhoramento. A esterilidade é limitante para programas que envolvam a hibridação sexual, por outro lado possui sua importância econômica em citros induzindo menor número de sementes por fruto em certas variedades. Com a finalidade de caracterizar 44 variedades de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis [L.] osbeck quanto à viabilidade do pólen, foram coletadas anteras das variedades enxertadas sobre tangerineira Cleópatra. As variedades estudadas pertencem aos principais grupos de laranja doce: com acidez (como a laranja 'Pêra', de baixa acidez (como a laranja 'Lima', com umbigo (como a laranja 'Bahia' e sangüíneas (como a laranja 'Rubi Blood'. O percentual de pólen viável foi avaliado por meio da coloração com carmim acético a 25% e contagem sob microscópio ótico. Foram observados valores que variaram desde 12,0% para a 'Pêra Sem Sementes' até 88,8% para a variedade 'Hamlin Reserva'. Os clones de laranja 'Hamlin' mostraram maior percentual de pólen viável. Não foi observada presença de pólen para as variedades produtoras de laranjas de umbigo, originadas da variedade Bahia. As variedades 'Pêra', 'Valência' e 'Natal', as quais são as principais cultivares da citricultura paulista e nacional, apresentaram baixos percentuais de pólen viável.Pollination is one of the most critical points in fruit growth and development, contributing with male gametes for fertilization and determine, greatly, fruit setting in citrus. It is necessary to evaluate male sterility in sweet orange varieties for their possible use in breeding programs. The sterility limits

  14. Mini Review: Innovation technology cultivaion of Citrus Tangerines Borneo Prima in East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFRILIA TRI WIDYAWATI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Widyawati AT, Nurbani. 2017. Mini Review: Innovation technology cultivaion of Citrus Tangerines Borneo Prima in East Kalimantan. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 3: 127-131. The demand for high-value commodities such as oranges continues to increase every year. One of the qualities of orange that can not be met by domestic manufacturers is the color of a citrus peel. Most consumers like citrus orange, like mandarin oranges and other citrus imports. Efforts to reduce the national citrus imports is to improve the productivity and quality of citrus orange in Indonesia. Citrus Tangerines Borneo Prima is one of the featured horticultural commodities in East Kalimantan, which has the advantage of being low lying tangerine with orange rind. It Is indispensable citrus cultivation technique is good and right, so that the citrus plant can develop optimally so that later can produce citrus fruit both in quality and quantity.

  15. Identification of transcription factors potentially involved in the juvenile to adult phase transition in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Mari-Cruz; Forment, Javier; Gadea, José; Carrasco, Jose Luis; Juarez, José; Navarro, Luís; Ancillo, Gema

    2013-11-01

    The juvenile to adult transition (JAT) in higher plants is required for them to reach reproductive competence. However, it is a poorly understood process in woody plants, where only a few genes have been definitely identified as being involved in this transition. This work aims at increasing our understanding of the mechanisms regulating the JAT in citrus. Juvenile and adult plants from Pineapple sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and Rough lemon (C. jambhiri) were used to screen for differentially expressed transcription factors (TFs) using a 1·15K microarray developed on the basis of the CitrusTF database. Murcott tangor (C. reticulata × C. sinensis) and Duncan grapefruit (C. paradisi) were incorporated into the quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR validation in order to select those genes whose phase-specific regulation was common to the four species. A browsable web database has been created with information about the structural and functional annotation related to 1152 unigenes of putative citrus TFs (CTFs). This database constitutes a valuable resource for research on transcriptional regulation and comparative genomics. Moreover, a microarray has been developed and used that contains these putative CTFs, in order to identify eight genes that showed differential expression in juvenile and adult meristems of four different species of citrus. Those genes have been characterized, and their expression pattern in vegetative and reproductive tissues has been analysed. Four of them are MADS-box genes, a family of TFs involved in developmental processes, whereas another one resembles MADS-box genes but lacks the MADS box itself. The other three showed high partial sequence similarity restricted to specific Arabidopsis protein domains but negligible outside those domains. The work presented here indicates that the JAT in citrus could be controlled by mechanisms that are in part common to those of Arabidopsis, but also somehow different, since specific factors

  16. Diversity of endophytic bacterial populations and their interaction with Xylella fastidiosa in citrus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Welington L; Marcon, Joelma; Maccheroni, Walter; Van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Van Vuurde, Jim W L; Azevedo, João Lúcio

    2002-10-01

    Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all Citrus sinensis cultivars. The endophytic bacterial communities of healthy, resistant, and CVC-affected citrus plants were studied by using cultivation as well as cultivation-independent techniques. The endophytic communities were assessed in surface-disinfected citrus branches by plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Dominant isolates were characterized by fatty-acid methyl ester analysis as Bacillus pumilus, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Enterobacter cloacae, Methylobacterium spp. (including Methylobacterium extorquens, M. fujisawaense, M. mesophilicum, M. radiotolerans, and M. zatmanii), Nocardia sp., Pantoea agglomerans, and Xanthomonas campestris. We observed a relationship between CVC symptoms and the frequency of isolation of species of Methylobacterium, the genus that we most frequently isolated from symptomatic plants. In contrast, we isolated C. flaccumfaciens significantly more frequently from asymptomatic plants than from those with symptoms of CVC while P. agglomerans was frequently isolated from tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and sweet-orange (C. sinensis) plants, irrespective of whether the plants were symptomatic or asymptomatic or showed symptoms of CVC. DGGE analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total plant DNA resulted in several bands that matched those from the bacterial isolates, indicating that DGGE profiles can be used to detect some endophytic bacteria of citrus plants. However, some bands had no match with any isolate, suggesting the occurrence of other, nonculturable or as yet uncultured, endophytic bacteria. A specific band with a high G+C ratio was observed only in asymptomatic plants. The higher frequency of C. flaccumfaciens in asymptomatic plants suggests a role for this organism in the resistance of plants to CVC.

  17. Study of the enthalpy-entropy mechanism from water sorption of orange seeds (C. sinensis cv. Brazilian for the use of agro-industrial residues as a possible source of vegetable oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Penteado Rosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Orange seeds are a promising agroindustry-waste which can be implemented in the extraction and production of vegetable oil. The relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for the processing and storage of this waste item. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of water sorption enthalpy-entropy of orange seeds (C. sinensis cv. Brazilians according to the moisture content. Therefore, desorption isotherms were determined at five different temperature (30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC under a wide range of moisture content (0.005-0.057 kg kg-1 d.b. and water activity (0.02-0.756. Theoretical and empirical models were used for modeling the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to compute the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs free energy using the Oswin model when the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium was considered.

  18. An RNA-Seq-based reference transcriptome for Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terol, Javier; Tadeo, Francisco; Ventimilla, Daniel; Talon, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Previous RNA-Seq studies in citrus have been focused on physiological processes relevant to fruit quality and productivity of the major species, especially sweet orange. Less attention has been paid to vegetative or reproductive tissues, while most Citrus species have never been analysed. In this work, we characterized the transcriptome of vegetative and reproductive tissues from 12 Citrus species from all main phylogenetic groups. Our aims were to acquire a complete view of the citrus transcriptome landscape, to improve previous functional annotations and to obtain genetic markers associated with genes of agronomic interest. 28 samples were used for RNA-Seq analysis, obtained from 12 Citrus species: C. medica, C. aurantifolia, C. limon, C. bergamia, C. clementina, C. deliciosa, C. reshni, C. maxima, C. paradisi, C. aurantium, C. sinensis and Poncirus trifoliata. Four different organs were analysed: root, phloem, leaf and flower. A total of 3421 million Illumina reads were produced and mapped against the reference C. clementina genome sequence. Transcript discovery pipeline revealed 3326 new genes, the number of genes with alternative splicing was increased to 19,739, and a total of 73,797 transcripts were identified. Differential expression studies between the four tissues showed that gene expression is overall related to the physiological function of the specific organs above any other variable. Variants discovery analysis revealed the presence of indels and SNPs in genes associated with fruit quality and productivity. Pivotal pathways in citrus such as those of flavonoids, flavonols, ethylene and auxin were also analysed in detail. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste

    OpenAIRE

    K. Ashok Kumar; Narayani, M.; A. Subanthini; Jayakumar, M.

    2011-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water) prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon) were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel e...

  20. 湖南柑橘大实蝇对不同柑橘品种的危害特点研究初报%The Damage Characteristics of Tetradacus citri Chen on Different Citrus Varieties in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林文力; 杨水芝; 潘美山; 陈海玲; 黄泽培; 龙建国; 肖伏莲

    2011-01-01

    采用定点观察和普查的方式对湖南省吉首市、麻阳县柑橘大实蝇的危害特点进行了研究.结果表明:柑橘大实蝇对不同柑橘品种的危害时间由早到晚依次为:脐橙>温洲蜜柑>冰糖橙≥大红甜橙=广柑>椪柑;其危害最严重的品种是脐橙,虫果率达63%,其次是早熟温洲蜜柑和冰糖橙,达22%,再次是椪柑,达6%;同时还发现,柑橘不同品种果皮表面存在产卵假痕迹现象.这些结果可为柑橘大实蝇的防治提供理论参考依据.%The damage characteristics of Tetradacus citri Chen in Mayang County, Jishou City, Hunan Province were investigated by fixed-point observation method and general survey method. The results indicated that the harm time of Tetradacus citri Chen on different varieties of citrus ordered as navel orange>satsuma mandarin>Citrus sinensis ^Citrus sineasis Osbeck cv. Dahong= Citrussinensis (L.) Osbeck >Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan; the damage level of Tetradacus citri Chen on different varieties of citrus ordered as navel orange>early mature satsuma mandarin and Citrus sinensis >dtrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan, and the insect infestation ratio of navel orange, early mature satsuma mandarin, Citrus sinensis and Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan was 63%, 22%, 22% and 6%, respectively. Meanwhile, the research also showed that there are fake oviposition traces of Tetradacus citri Chen on the Peels of different varieties of citrus. These results above can provide the theory basis for the control of Tetradacus citri Chen.

  1. Isoenzymatic polymorphism in Citrus spp. and Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novelli Valdenice Moreira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoenzymatic polymorphism analysis was used to determine genetic variability among species and hybrids of Citrus spp. and one accession of Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. Ten enzymatic systems aspartate aminotransferase (AAT, acid phosphatase (ACP, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH, phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI, phosphoglucomutase (PGM, diaphorase (DIA, shikimate dehydrogenase (SKD and peroxidase (PRX were analyzed. Twenty loci and 48 alleles were identified. Sweet orange cultivars (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck showed the highest polymorphism with the largest number of heterozygous loci, although the alleles of those loci were the same in all cultivars, with the exception of Westin and Lima graúda. Mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco exhibited diverse patterns, whereas Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. showed high variability with all Citrus species and hybrids. Exclusive phenotypes were observed in some enzymatic systems, and similar patterns were found among interspecific hybrids and their putative parents.

  2. Avaliação genética de seleções e híbridos de limões cravo, volkameriano e rugoso como porta-enxertos para laranjeiras Valência na presença da morte súbita dos citros Genetic evaluation of selections and hybrids of rangpur lime, volkamer and rough lemons rootstocks for Valência orange trees in the presence of the citrus sudden death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgino Pompeu Junior

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo realizar a avaliação genética da produção de frutos, eficiência produtiva e altura de laranjeiras Valência (Citrus sinensis enxertadas em seleções e híbridos dos limões Cravo (C. limonia, Volkameriano (C. volkameriana e Rugoso (C. jambhiri, em área endêmica para morte súbita dos citros (MSC. Foram avaliados 36 genótipos desses porta-enxertos, representados por cinco plantas cada, avaliados em cinco safras, do terceiro ao sétimo ano após o plantio. Sete dos genótipos avaliados apresentaram plantas com sintomas de MSC até o sétimo ano: Rangpur Otaheite orange 12901 (859, Rangpur Red Lime D.33.30 (866, Limão-Cravo EEL (871, Rangpur Borneo red (874, Citrus kokhai (1649, Limão-Rugoso 58329 (1655 e Limão- Cravo x Swingle B (1695. Para os genótipos que não manifestaram sintomas da doença, foram estimados parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos e realizada a predição de valores genéticos dos indivíduos, visando à seleção e ao melhoramento genético para as características citadas, empregando-se o método REML/BLUP (máxima verossimilhança restrita/melhor predição linear não viciada. A análise de produção de frutos de cinco safras mostrou acurácia seletiva de 84,59%, tornando-se desnecessária a avaliação de maior número de safras. A seleção dos sete melhores genótipos proporcionou ganhos genéticos de 11,5% na produção de frutos, enquanto a do melhor genótipo conferiu ganho genético de 16,3%. As maiores médias genéticas preditas (>70,0 kg.pl-1 para produção de frutos foram obtidas pelos genótipos Limão-Cravo- Ipanema (1522, Santa- Bárbara-Red- Lime (884, Limão- Cravo- Limeira (863, Limão- Cravo- Taquaritinga (869, Limão- Rugoso- do -Cabo (1643, Rangpur- Rose Lime (868 e Limão- Cravo- da- Califórnia (1467. Já a acurácia seletiva da eficiência produtiva, para quatro colheitas, foi 77,4%. Para este caráter, as maiores médias genéticas (>8,0 kg.m-3 foram dos

  3. Parental Dominant Inheritance of Fruit Carotenoids, Sugars and Organic Acids in a Citrus Interspecific Allotetraploid Somatic Hybrid Between Bonnaza Navel Orange and Rough Lemon%脐橙与粗柠檬体细胞杂种果实类胡萝卜素、糖酸遗传的亲本偏向性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑蓓蓓; 谢宗周; 郭文武

    2013-01-01

    Carotenoid compounds in the fruit pulp of somatic hybrid [‘Bonnaza’ naval orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) + rough lemon (C.jambhiri Lush)] and both parental species were quantitatively evaluated by HPLC,sugars and organic acids content were investigated by GC,and Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect expression levels of key genes involved in the carotenoid,sugars and organic acids biosynthetic pathways.Results revealed that strong dominance of rough lemon was found for citric acid,malic acid and carotenoid compound in somatic hybrid fruit,while sucrose content showed mid-parent value.Gene expression was higher in navel orange than in rough lemon for four of seven genes analyzed involved in carotenoid biosynthetic pathway.Rough lemon dominance was observed for expression of CitCrt,CitLcy-e and CitZep.These results indicated that rough lemon played a dominant role in inheritance of fruit quality characteristics and gene expression in the somatic hybrid.%采用高效液相色谱测定柑橘种间体细胞杂种[‘朋娜’脐橙(Citrus sinensis Osbeck)+粗柠檬(C.jambhiri Lush)]和其两个融合亲本果实的类胡萝卜素含量,气相色谱测定可溶性糖及有机酸含量,并检测代谢过程中关键基因的表达,比较分析体细胞杂种果实品质遗传及基因表达特点.结果表明,体细胞杂种类胡萝卜素成分及含量均偏向粗柠檬亲本,柠檬酸、苹果酸积累量也偏向粗柠檬;而蔗糖含量处在中亲值;实时定量PCR技术检测类胡萝卜素代谢途径中的7个基因,其中4个基因在‘朋娜’脐橙中的表达量高于粗柠檬,环化途径中番茄红素£环化酶基因(CitLcy-e)、玉米黄质环氧酶基因(CitZep)在体细胞杂种中表达量偏向粗柠檬亲本,显著低于‘朋娜’脐橙.可见粗柠檬遗传物质的表达在体细胞杂种中占主导地位.

  4. Effects of Citrus aurantium (Bitter Orange Fruit Extracts and p-Synephrine on Metabolic Fluxes in the Rat Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Marina Peralta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The fruit extracts of Citrus aurantium (bitter orange are traditionally used as weight-loss products and as appetite supressants. An important fruit component is p-synephrine, which is structurally similar to the adrenergic agents. Weight-loss and adrenergic actions are always related to metabolic changes and this work was designed to investigate a possible action of the C. aurantium extract on liver metabolism. The isolated perfused rat liver was used to measure catabolic and anabolic pathways, including oxygen uptake and perfusion pressure. The C. aurantium extract and p-synephrine increased glycogenolysis, glycolysis, oxygen uptake and perfusion pressure. These changes were partly sensitive to a- and b-adrenergic antagonists. p-Synephrine (200 mM produced an increase in glucose output that was only 15% smaller than the increment caused by the extract containing 196 mM p-synephrine. At low concentrations the C. aurantium extract tended to increase gluconeogenesis, but at high concentrations it was inhibitory, opposite to what happened with p-synephrine. The action of the C. aurantium extract on liver metabolism is similar to the well known actions of adrenergic agents and can be partly attributed to its content in p-synephrine. Many of these actions are catabolic and compatible with the weight-loss effects usually attributed to C. aurantium.

  5. Effects of 15N application frequency on nitrogen uptake efficiency in citrus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, Ana; Bañuls, Josefina; Millo, Eduardo Primo; Legaz, Francisco

    2003-12-01

    Two irrigation systems were used to compare nitrogen uptake efficiency in citrus trees and to evaluate the NO3- runoff in "Navelina" orange trees [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] on Carrizo citrange rootstock (Citrus sinensis x Poncirus trifoliata Raf.). These were fertilized with 125 g N as labelled K15NO3 and grown outdoors in containers filled with a sand-loamy soil. Two groups of 3 trees received this N dose either in five equally split applications by a flooding irrigation system or in 66 applications by drip. Trees were harvested at the end of the vegetative cycle (December) and the isotopic ratios of 15N/14N were measured in the soil-plant system. The N uptake efficiency of the whole tree was higher with drip irrigation (75%) than with flooding system (64%). In the 0-90 cm soil profile, the N immobilized in the organic fraction was similar for both irrigation methods (around 13 %), whereas the N retained as NO3- was 1% of the N applied under drip and 10% under flooding. In the last case, most of NO3- remained under root system and it could be lost to leaching either by heavy rainfalls or excessive water applications. These results showed that a drip irrigation system was more efficient for improving water use and N uptake from fertilizer, in addition to potentially reduced leaching losses.

  6. The role of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase and phytoene synthase gene family in citrus carotenoid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Gang; Wang, Chunyan; Song, Song; Fu, Xiumin; Azam, Muhammad; Grierson, Don; Xu, Changjie

    2013-10-01

    Three 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthases (DXS) and three phytoene synthases (PSY) were identified in citrus, from Affymetrix GeneChip Citrus Genome Array, GenBank and public orange genome databases. Tissue-specific expression analysis of these genes was carried out on fruit peel and flesh, flower and leaf of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) in order to determine their roles in carotenoid accumulation in different tissues. Expression of CitDXS1 and CitPSY1 was highest in all test tissues, while that of CitDXS2 and CitPSY2 was lower, and that of CitDXS3 and CitPSY3 undetectable. The transcript profiles of CitDXS1 and CitPSY1 paralleled carotenoid accumulation in flesh of Satsuma mandarin and orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) during fruit development, and CitPSY1 expression was also associated with carotenoid accumulation in peel, while the CitDXS1 transcript level was only weakly correlated with carotenoid accumulation in peel. Similar results were obtained following correlation analysis between expression of CitDXS1 and CitPSY1 and carotenoid accumulation in peel and flesh of 16 citrus cultivars. These findings identify CitPSY1 and CitDXS1 as the main gene members controlling carotenoid biosynthesis in citrus fruit. Furthermore, chromoplasts were extracted from flesh tissue of these citrus, and chromoplasts of different shape (spindle or globular), different size, and color depth were observed in different cultivars, indicating chromoplast abundance, number per gram tissue, size and color depth were closely correlated with carotenoid content in most cultivars. The relationship between carotenoid biosynthesis and chromoplast development was discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Exposure to pesticides residues from consumption of Italian blood oranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallico, B; D'Urso, M G; Chiappara, E

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports the results of a 5-year study to evaluate pesticide levels, derived from orchard activities, on Italy's most common orange cultivar (Citrus sinensis, L. Osbeck, cv. Tarocco). Using a Bayesian approach, the study allowed both the qualitative (number) and quantitative distributions (amount) of pesticides to be determined with its own probability value. Multi-residue analyses of 460 samples highlighted the presence of ethyl and methyl chlorpyrifos, dicofol, etofenprox, fenazaquin, fenitrothion, imazalil, malathion and metalaxil-m. A total of 30.5% of samples contained just one pesticide, 2.16% two pesticides and 0.65% of samples had three pesticides present simultaneously. The most common residue was ethyl chlorpyrifos followed by methyl chlorpyrifos. Estimated daily intake (EDI) values for ethyl and methyl chlorpyrifos, as well as the distance from the safety level (non-observed adverse effect level, NOAEL), were calculated. The risk was differentiated (1) to take account of the period of actual citrus consumption (180 days) and (2) to discriminate the risk derived from eating oranges containing a certain level of chlorpyrifos from unspecified pesticides. The most likely EDI values for ethyl chlorpyrifos derived from Italian blood orange consumption are 0.01 and 0.006 mg/day calculated for 180 and 365 days, respectively. Considering the probability of the occurrence of ethyl chlorpyrifos, these EDI values are reduced to 2.6 x 10(-3) and 1.3 x 10(-3) mg/day, respectively. For methyl chlorpyrifos, the most likely EDI values are 0.09 and 0.04 mg/day, respectively; considering the probability of its occurrence, the EDI values decrease to 6.7 x 10(-3) and 3.4 x 10(-3) mg/day, respectively. The results confirmed that levels of pesticides in Italian Tarocco oranges derived from a known controlled chain of production are safe.

  8. Sunn hemp, a major source-plant of the phytoplasma associated with huanglongbing symptoms of sweet orange in São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Wulff, N. A.; Teixeira, D. C.; MARTINS, E. C.; Toloy, R. S.; Bianco, L. F.; Colletti, D. A.B.; Kitajima,E. W.; Bové, J M

    2015-01-01

    In São Paulo State (SPS), sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) trees with huanglongbing (HLB) symptoms are infected with Candidatus (Ca.) Liberibacter (L.) asiaticus (Las) or Ca. L. americanus (Lam). However, in 2007, 3 years after HLB was first reported in SPS, some trees with characteristic HLB symptoms were found free of liberibacters, but infected with a phytoplasma of 16Sr group IX. This phytoplasma was further characterized by PCR amplification of ribosomal protein genes rpsC-rplV-rpsS and am...

  9. Dicty_cDB: VFF615 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4000-223 Immature Ovaries from field-collected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus si...SDA-FP_125000-394 Immature Ovaries from field-collected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck)

  10. Dicty_cDB: VFF695 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 124000-223 Immature Ovaries from field-collected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus ... USDA-FP_125000-394 Immature Ovaries from field-collected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck

  11. γ辐照杀螨对伏令夏橙果实生理效应的初步研究%Preliminary Study on the Physiological Effects of γ -irradiation on Valencia Late Orange for Disinfestation of Citrus Rust Mites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈巧玲; 叶蕙; 胡美英; 罗雪梅

    2001-01-01

    @@ 伏令夏橙(Citrus sinensis Osb)是我国重要的反季节鲜果之一,但采后螨害严重.笔者选择0.3~0.6 kGy剂量辐照杀螨,并对杀螨后伏令夏橙果实营养成分和贮存期间生理效应的变化做了初步的研究.

  12. Laser diagnostic technology for early detection of pathogen infestation in orange fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giubileo, Gianfranco, E-mail: gianfranco.giubileo@frascati.enea.i [ENEA Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 (Italy); Lai, Antonella; Piccinelli, Delinda [ENEA Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 (Italy); Puiu, Adriana [Tor Vergata University of Rome, Faculty of Engineering, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2010-11-11

    Due to an increased expectation of food products that respect high quality and safety standards, there is a need for the growth of accurate, fast, objective and non-destructive technologies for quality determination of food and agricultural products. For this purpose, a diagnostic system based on laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) was developed at ENEA Frascati Molecular Spectroscopy Laboratory (Italy). In the design of the photoacoustic detector, particular emphasis was placed in attaining a high sensitivity in detecting ethylene (ET) down to sub-parts per billion level (minimum detectable concentration 0.2 ppb). This was required due to the necessity to monitor and follow up ET production at a single fruit scale. ET is normally synthesised in very low amounts by healthy citrus fruits; however stress conditions such as pathogen attack may induce a substantial increase in the synthesised ET. In the present paper, the comparison between the ET emitted by healthy oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) cv Navel and by Phytophthora citrophthora infested Navel orange fruits are reported. The obtained results show a well evident increase in ET emission from the infested fruit with respect to the healthy one, even 24 h after the inoculation with the pathogen; at that time the tissue necrosis was not yet visible, and the fruit was also not yet damaged. The possibility to perform a real time non-destructive detection of ET traces makes the LPAS a powerful tool for monitoring the healthy state of the citrus fruits.

  13. Comportamento da laranjera 'Folha Murcha' em sete porta-enxertos no noroeste do Paraná Performance of 'Folha Murcha' orange on seven rootstocks in northwest of Parana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Maria Colauto Stenzel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou por um período de 14 anos, em Paranavaí-PR, o comportamento de plantas de laranjeira 'Folha Murcha' enxertadas nos porta-enxertos: limoeiros 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia, 'Rugoso da África' (Citrus jambhiri e 'Volkameriano' (Citrus volkameriana, citrangeiro 'C-13' (Citrus sinensis x Poncirus trifoliata, trifoliata (Poncirus trifoliata, tangerineiras 'Sunki' (Citrus sunki e 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos (porta-enxertos e quatro repetições, com três plantas por parcela. Os volumes das copas de plantas em tangerineira 'Cleópatra' e limoeiro 'Rugoso da África' foram significativamente maiores. Plantas em limoeiro 'Cravo' apresentaram a menor diferença entre os diâmetros dos troncos do porta-enxerto e da copa. A produção acumulada foi superior nas plantas em limoeiro 'Rugoso da África' e tangerineira 'Cleópatra' e menor em plantas sobre o trifoliata. A alternância da produção não foi acentuada nas plantas sobre os porta-enxertos avaliados. O teor de sólidos solúveis totais foi significativamente superior nos frutos obtidos de plantas enxertadas em trifoliata e menor em limoeiro 'Rugoso da África'. A qualidade do suco apresentou-se dentro dos padrões aceitáveis para variedades-copa de laranjeiras. A tangerineira 'Cleópatra' e o limoeiro 'Rugoso da África' são porta-enxertos promissores para a laranjeira 'Folha Murcha' nas condições avaliadas.This work evaluated for 14 years, in Paranavaí, PR, Brazil, the performance of 'Folha Murcha' orange trees budded on the following rootstocks: 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia, 'African' rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri, 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana, 'C-13' citrange (Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata, trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata, 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni. The experimental design was in blocks, with seven treatments

  14. Carbon cost of the fungal symbiont relative to net leaf P accumulation in a split-root VA mycorrhizal symbiosis. [Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf. x Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck; Glomus intraradices Schenk and Smith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douds, D.D. Jr.; Johnson, C.R.; Koch, K.E. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (USA))

    1988-02-01

    Translocation of {sup 14}C-photosynthates to mycorrhizal (++), half mycorrhizal (0+), and nonmycorrhizal (00) split-root systems was compared to P accumulation in leaves of the host plant. Carrizo citrange seedlings (Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. {times} Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) were inoculated with the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices Schenck and Smith. Plants were exposed to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} for 10 minutes and ambient air for 2 hours. Three to 4% of recently labeled photosynthate was allocated to metabolism of the mycorrhiza in each inoculated root half independent of shoot P concentration, growth response, and whether one or both root halves were colonized. Nonmycorrhizal roots respired more of the label translocated to them than did mycorrhizal roots. Label recovered in the potting medium due to exudation or transport into extraradical hyphae was 5 to 6 times greater for (++) versus (00) plants. In low nutrient media, roots of (0+) and (++) plants transported more P to leaves per root weight than roots of (00) plants. However, when C translocated to roots utilized for respiration, exudation, etc., as well as growth is considered, (00) plant roots were at least as efficient at P uptake (benefit) per C utilized (cost) as (0+) and (++) plants. Root systems of (++) plants did not supply more P to leaves than (0+) plants in higher nutrient media, yet they still allocated twice the {sup 14}C-photosynthate to the mycorrhiza as did (0+) root systems.

  15. Effects of microwave roasting on the yield and composition of cold pressed orange seed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aydeniz Güneşer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to valorize orange (Citrus sinensis seeds, which are generated as waste. This study presents data about raw orange seed, the meal gained after cold pressing, and characterization data of the cold pressed seed oils. Furthermore, the effects of microwave roasting of the seds compared to regular roasting (control were determined. The oil yield of orange seed cold pressing was around 52.93–62.99%. After cold pressing, 13.57–17.97% oil remained in the meal together with 20.68–25.61% protein. Hence, pressed meals could be valorized for different purposes. Except for turbidity, the color b* value, free acidity, the p-anisidine value and antioxidant capacity, there was no significant difference between the two oil samples for the measured physicochemical properties. Six different fatty acids were quantified and the major fatty acids were linoleic, palmitic and oleic acids. The fatty acid composition of the orange seed oil can be accepted as nutritionally balanced. Among the fifteen sterols quantified, ß-sitosterol was dominant (around 77–78%. Likewise, the α-tocopherol content of the samples was not significantly different. The thermal onset and peak temperatures, and enthalpies for crystallization and melting were also reported. This study showed that good quality orange seed oils can be produced by cold pressing, and the oils could be used in food and non-food applications.

  16. Red Orange: Experimental Models and Epidemiological Evidence of Its Benefits on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Grosso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increasing public interest in plant antioxidants, thanks to the potential anticarcinogenic and cardioprotective actions mediated by their biochemical properties. The red (or blood orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck is a pigmented sweet orange variety typical of eastern Sicily (southern Italy, California, and Spain. In this paper, we discuss the main health-related properties of the red orange that include anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protection activities. Moreover, the effects on health of its main constituents (namely, flavonoids, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids, and anthocyanins are described. The red orange juice demonstrates an important antioxidant activity by modulating many antioxidant enzyme systems that efficiently counteract the oxidative damage which may play an important role in the etiology of numerous diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. The beneficial effects of this fruit may be mediated by the synergic effects of its compounds. Thus, the supply of natural antioxidant compounds through a balanced diet rich in red oranges might provide protection against oxidative damage under differing conditions and could be more effective than, the supplementation of an individual antioxidant.

  17. Red orange: experimental models and epidemiological evidence of its benefits on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio; Marventano, Stefano; Nolfo, Francesca; Calabrese, Giorgio; Buscemi, Silvio; Drago, Filippo; Veronesi, Umberto; Scuderi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing public interest in plant antioxidants, thanks to the potential anticarcinogenic and cardioprotective actions mediated by their biochemical properties. The red (or blood) orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) is a pigmented sweet orange variety typical of eastern Sicily (southern Italy), California, and Spain. In this paper, we discuss the main health-related properties of the red orange that include anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protection activities. Moreover, the effects on health of its main constituents (namely, flavonoids, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids, and anthocyanins) are described. The red orange juice demonstrates an important antioxidant activity by modulating many antioxidant enzyme systems that efficiently counteract the oxidative damage which may play an important role in the etiology of numerous diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. The beneficial effects of this fruit may be mediated by the synergic effects of its compounds. Thus, the supply of natural antioxidant compounds through a balanced diet rich in red oranges might provide protection against oxidative damage under differing conditions and could be more effective than, the supplementation of an individual antioxidant.

  18. Olfactory response of Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava and sweet orange volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Santiz, Edvin; Rojas, Julio C; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Hernández, Emilio; Malo, Edi A

    2016-10-01

    The behavioral responses of virgin and mated female Anastrepha striata Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava (Psidium guajava L.) or sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) were evaluated separately using multilure traps in two-choice tests in field cages. The results showed that flies were more attracted to guava and sweet orange volatiles than to control (unbaited trap). The physiological state (virgin or mated) of females did not affect their attraction to the fruit volatiles. Combined analysis of gas chromatography coupled with electroantennography (GC-EAD) of volatile extracts of both fruits showed that 1 and 6 compounds from orange and guava, respectively elicited repeatable antennal responses from mated females. The EAD active compounds in guava volatile extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as ethyl butyrate, (Z)-3-hexenol, hexanol, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, and ethyl octanoate. Linalool was identified as the only antennal active compound in sweet orange extracts. In field cage tests, there were no significant differences between the number of mated flies captured by the traps baited with guava extracts and the number caught by traps baited with the 6-component blend that was formulated according to the relative proportions in the guava extracts. Similar results occurred when synthetic linalool was evaluated against orange extracts. From a practical point of view, the compounds identified in this study could be used for monitoring A. striata populations. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. The diversity of citrus endophytic bacteria and their interactions with Xylella fastidiosa and host plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Lúcio Azevedo

    Full Text Available Abstract The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC and has been associated with important losses in commercial orchards of all sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.] cultivars. The development of this disease depends on the environmental conditions, including the endophytic microbial community associated with the host plant. Previous studies have shown that X. fastidiosa interacts with the endophytic community in xylem vessels as well as in the insect vector, resulting in a lower bacterial population and reduced CVC symptoms. The citrus endophytic bacterium Methylobacterium mesophilicum can trigger X. fastidiosa response in vitro, which results in reduced growth and induction of genes associated with energy production, stress, transport, and motility, indicating that X. fastidiosa has an adaptive response to M. mesophilicum. Although this response may result in reduced CVC symptoms, the colonization rate of the endophytic bacteria should be considered in studies that intend to use this endophyte to suppress CVC disease. Symbiotic control is a new strategy that uses symbiotic endophytes as biological control agents to antagonize or displace pathogens. Candidate endophytes for symbiotic control of CVC must occupy the xylem of host plants and attach to the precibarium of sharpshooter insects to access the pathogen. In the present review, we focus on interactions between endophytic bacteria from sweet orange plants and X. fastidiosa, especially those that may be candidates for control of CVC.

  20. Survey for Citrus diseases in French Guiana

    OpenAIRE

    Thermoz, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The presence on the continent of major threats for Citrus orchards has required a survey to assess the situation of Citrus pathogens in the French territory of Guiana. Agriculture in French Guiana is located on the coast (about 300 Kms from west to east and 50 Km wide). There are 1200 Ha of Citrus orchards (Ministry of Agriculture). Citrus are grown either for export (Tahiti lime) or for local consumption : sweet oranges, tangerines and hybrids. Trees are grafted on Carrizo citrange, Rough le...

  1. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ashok kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel extract of Citrus limon. The peel extract of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon can be considered to be as equally potent as the antibiotics, such as metacillin and penicillin. MICs were tested at concentrations ranging from 50-6.25 mg/ml as wells as their MBCs. The phytochemical analysis of the citrus peel extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, tannins and alkaloids

  2. Small RNA profiling reveals phosphorus deficiency as a contributing factor in symptom expression for citrus huanglongbing disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongwei; Sun, Ruobai; Albrecht, Ute; Padmanabhan, Chellappan; Wang, Airong; Coffey, Michael D; Girke, Thomas; Wang, Zonghua; Close, Timothy J; Roose, Mikeal; Yokomi, Raymond K; Folimonova, Svetlana; Vidalakis, Georgios; Rouse, Robert; Bowman, Kim D; Jin, Hailing

    2013-03-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating citrus disease that is associated with bacteria of the genus 'Candidatus Liberibacter' (Ca. L.). Powerful diagnostic tools and management strategies are desired to control HLB. Host small RNAs (sRNA) play a vital role in regulating host responses to pathogen infection and are used as early diagnostic markers for many human diseases, including cancers. To determine whether citrus sRNAs regulate host responses to HLB, sRNAs were profiled from Citrus sinensis 10 and 14 weeks post grafting with Ca. L. asiaticus (Las)-positive or healthy tissue. Ten new microRNAs (miRNAs), 76 conserved miRNAs, and many small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were discovered. Several miRNAs and siRNAs were highly induced by Las infection, and can be potentially developed into early diagnosis markers of HLB. miR399, which is induced by phosphorus starvation in other plant species, was induced specifically by infection of Las but not Spiroplasma citri that causes citrus stubborn-a disease with symptoms similar to HLB. We found a 35% reduction of phosphorus in Las-positive citrus trees compared to healthy trees. Applying phosphorus oxyanion solutions to HLB-positive sweet orange trees reduced HLB symptom severity and significantly improved fruit production during a 3-year field trial in south-west Florida. Our molecular, physiological, and field data suggest that phosphorus deficiency is linked to HLB disease symptomology.

  3. The effect of nutritional spray programs applied to mitigate symptoms of Huanglongbing on fruit drop caused by HLB and citrus canker on ‘Hamlin’ orange trees

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, P. D.; Rouse, R. E.; Teems, S. S.; Sytsma, R. E.; Shobert, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) was detected in Florida in 2005 and has reached 100% incidence in certain citrus plantings in southwest Florida. The putative causal agent of HLB in Florida is the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLa).  Citrus canker caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is endemic in Florida.  In 2011 and 2012, fruit drop on young ‘Hamlin’ trees with symptoms of HLB and/or citrus canker was particularly severe, with more than 90% fruit drop recorded. Nutritio...

  4. Citric acid production from orange peel wastes by solid-state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Torrado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA by solid-state fermentation (SSF of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599 in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculum concentration was varied in the range 0.5·10³ to 0.7·10(8 spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume, and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·10(6 spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel, corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications.

  5. Effects of fluoride air pollution on citrus orchards in the Kanbara district, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Y.

    1967-01-01

    Since the construction of the largest Japanese aluminum plant in 1942 in Kanbara, the effects of fluorides have been evident in the surrounding agricultural and silk industries. Kanbara is a principal citrus growing area, and for several years, the orange crop has been severely affected. During the rainy spring and summer, air pollution from fluoride increases, causing leaf and fruit drop as well as poor tree growth. Trees yield poorly, and the quality of the fruit which is produced is inferior. Spraying with OED or lime-sulfur solutions had no effect on these damages; the use of wind-breaking hedges to shut out the fluoride-laden air was slightly beneficial. The resistance of 251 wild and cultivated plants around the factory was investigated. Plants of the Equisetaeae, Orchidaceae, Iridaceae, Liliaceae, Araceae, Rosaceae, and Rutaceae families are sensitive to the effects of fluorides. Plants belonging to the Composita, Apiaceae, Lamiaceae and Teaceae families are not. Of the citrus plants, sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbec) is sensitive to fluorides, as are Matsudaidai, Iyo and Satsuma orange trees. According to a leaf analysis performed in September 1966, affected and non-affected leaves of Satsuma orange trees from 30 orchards up to 20 km distant from the factory, contained 135-378 p.p.m. fluoride in the affected area, while leaves from non-affected areas contained 9-82 p.p.m. Recommended indicator plants for fluoride air pollution are Equisetum arvense L., Sasa species, Reymoutria japonica Hout, Colocasia antiquorum Schott, Prunus mume Sieb, Irida species, and Gladiolus gandavensis Hout.

  6. Dicty_cDB: VFF572 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available encia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA clone MVF-70_B02 5', mRNA sequence. 68...ected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA clone MVF-82_F01 5', mRNA seq

  7. Dicty_cDB: AFO696 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ed Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA clone...d-collected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA clone MVF-82_F01 5', mR

  8. Dicty_cDB: VFF531 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ncia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA clone MVF-70...cted Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA clone MVF-82_F01 5', mRNA sequ

  9. Dicty_cDB: VFG408 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ies from field-collected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA clone MVF-...ture Ovaries from field-collected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA c

  10. Dicty_cDB: AFO215 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -collected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA clone MVF-70_B02 5', mRN...rom field-collected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA clone MVF-82_F0

  11. Dicty_cDB: VFG225 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available collected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA clone MVF-70_B02 5', mRNA...om field-collected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA clone MVF-82_F01

  12. Dicty_cDB: VFF545 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA clone MVF-70_B0...d Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA clone MVF-82_F01 5', mRNA sequenc

  13. Dicty_cDB: AFO619 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA clone MVF-70_B...ed Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA clone MVF-82_F01 5', mRNA sequen

  14. Phosphoproteomic analysis of chromoplasts from sweet orange during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yunliu; Pan, Zhiyong; Wang, Lun; Ding, Yuduan; Xu, Qiang; Xiao, Shunyuan; Deng, Xiuxin

    2014-02-01

    Like other types of plastids, chromoplasts have essential biosynthetic and metabolic activities which may be regulated via post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, of their resident proteins. We here report a proteome-wide mapping of in vivo phosphorylation sites in chromoplast-enriched samples prepared from sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] at different ripening stages by titanium dioxide-based affinity chromatography for phosphoprotein enrichment with LC-MS/MS. A total of 109 plastid-localized phosphoprotein candidates were identified that correspond to 179 unique phosphorylation sites in 135 phosphopeptides. On the basis of Motif-X analysis, two distinct types of phosphorylation sites, one as proline-directed phosphorylation motif and the other as casein kinase II motif, can be generalized from these identified phosphopeptides. While most identified phosphoproteins show high homology to those already identified in plastids, approximately 22% of them are novel based on BLAST search using the public databases PhosPhAt and P(3) DB. A close comparative analysis showed that approximately 50% of the phosphoproteins identified in citrus chromoplasts find obvious counterparts in the chloroplast phosphoproteome, suggesting a rather high-level of conservation in basic metabolic activities in these two types of plastids. Not surprisingly, the phosphoproteome of citrus chromoplasts is also characterized by the lack of phosphoproteins involved in photosynthesis and by the presence of more phosphoproteins implicated in stress/redox responses. This study presents the first comprehensive phosphoproteomic analysis of chromoplasts and may help to understand how phosphorylation regulates differentiation of citrus chromoplasts during fruit ripening.

  15. 脐橙黄酮体外的抗氧化作用%Study on in vitro Antioxidation of Navel Orange Flavonoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘霞; 李伟; 范小娜

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro reactive oxygen species scavenging activity of navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) flavonoids was studied by determining the autoxidation rate of pyrogallol after different concentration of navel oranges flavonoids was added. Vitamin C and 50% alcohol was used as compare. The results revealed no significant difference (P>0.05) between the antioxidation of 1 mg/mL vitamin C and 3.01 mg/mL navel oranges flavonoids; however, the antioxidation of navel oranges flavonoids was very significantly different (P<0.01) from that of 50% ethanol and CK, indicating that navel oranges flavonoids had strong in vitro ability in scavenging reactive oxygen species.%加入不同浓度的脐橙(Citrus sinensis Osbeck)黄酮,研究脐橙黄酮体外清除活性氧自由基邻苯三酚的作用,并与维生素C、体积分数为50%的乙醇的作用进行比较.结果表明,脐橙黄酮浓度为3.01 mg/mL时对邻苯三酚的清除率与1 mg/mL维生素C相比无显著差异(P>0.05),与体积分数为50%的乙醇及去离子水相比差异极显著(P<0.01).脐橙黄酮具有较强地清除体外活性氧自由基的作用.

  16. Organogênese in vitro a partir de diferentes regiões do epicótilo de Citrus sp Citrus sp. organogenesis in vitro from different epicotyl's regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Henrique Schinor

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O estabelecimento de protocolos para regeneração de plantas in vitro é essencial para o uso de técnicas de transformação genética no melhoramento de citros. Visando à obtenção de um protocolo eficiente de regeneração in vitro para laranja-azeda (Citrus aurantium, laranjas 'Natal' e 'Pêra' (C. sinensis, limão 'Volkameriano' (C. volkameriana e citrange 'Carrizo' (Poncirus trifoliata x C. sinensis, avaliou-se a resposta morfogênica de diferentes regiões do epicótilo (basal, mediana e apical em relação a distância do nó cotiledonar, na presença (1,0 mg/L-1 ou ausência de 6-BAP, em meio de cultura MT. Após 60 dias, avaliaram-se a porcentagem de explantes responsivos e o número de gemas adventícias por explante. A resposta morfogênica em função da região do epicótilo e da presença ou ausência da citocinina (6-BAP foi influenciada pelo genótipo. A presença de 6-BAP no meio de cultura promoveu aumento na porcentagem de explantes responsivos para citrange 'Carrizo'. A suplementação do meio de cultura com a citocinina 6-BAP proporcionou aumento no número de brotos por explante para citrange 'Carrizo', laranja 'Natal' e limão 'Volkameriano'.The establishment of an in vitro plant regeneration protocol is essential for the use of genetic transformation techniques in Citrus breeding programs. Aiming to obtain an efficient protocol of in vitro regeneration for sour orange (Citrus aurantium, sweet oranges 'Natal' and 'Pêra' (C. sinensis, 'Volkamer' lemon (C. volkameriana and 'Carrizo' citrange (Poncirus trifoliata x C. sinensis, the morphogenetic response was evaluated for different epicotyl's regions (basal, medium and apical regarding the distance from the cotyledonary node, in presence (1,0 mg/L-1 or absence of 6-BAP in MT medium. After 60 days, the percentage of responsive explants and number of shoots per explants were evaluated. The morphogenetic response related to the epicotyl's region and the presence or absence

  17. Effects of. gamma. -irradiation on growth and embryogenesis of citrus callus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nito, Nobumasa; Ling, Jing-Tian; Iwamasa, Masao; Katayama, Yukiyoshi (Saga Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture)

    1989-09-01

    The embryogenic callus of 'Valencia', orange, 'Yoshida' navel orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), Calamondin (C. madurensis Lour.), Yuzu (C. junos Sieb. ex Tan.) and 'Ishizuka Wase' satsuma (C. unshiu Marc.) were exposed to 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 kiloroentgen (kR) of gamma irradiation at the dosage of 1 kR/h in Institute of Radiation Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery, Japan. The irradiation caused a retardation of callus growth. Callus growth was reduced to 50% or less of that in non-irradiated callus, at a dosage of 5 kR in Yuzu, 20 kR in 'Valencia' orange and 'Ishizuka Wase' satsuma, and 50 kR in 'Yoshida' navel orange and Calamondin. The irradiation stimulated embryoid formation from the callus. Optimum irradiation dosages to produce the maximum number of embryoids were 50 kR in 'Valencia' orange, 20 kR in Yuzu, 10 kR in Calamondin and 'Ishizuka Wase' satsuma. 'Yoshida' navel orange produced the maximum number of embryoids at the lowest irradiation of 5 kR. The ratios of embryoid number produced at the optimum irradiation to that at non-irradiation were, 16.4, 8.4, 7.8, 6.4 and 2.7 in Yuzu, 'Ishizuka Wase' satsuma, 'Valencia' orange, 'Yoshida' navel orange and Calamondin, respectively. (author).

  18. Efecto del déficit hídrico en el crecimiento y desarrollo de frutos de naranja Valencia (Citrus sinensis Osbeck en el piedemonte del Meta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lucía Garzón Correa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia el área sembrada con cítricos es marginal, si se compara con el área potencial de cultivo, debido a factores como déficit de agua, nutrición y eficiencia de la formación de frutos. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto del déficit hídrico mediante la aplicación controlada de láminas de riego en el cultivo de naranja Valencia (Citrus sinensis Osbeck en el piedemonte del Meta (departamento del Meta, Colombia. Los tratamientos (T de riego fueron: T1 = 100% de la evapotranspiración del cultivo (ETc; T2 = 50% ETc; T3 = testigo = 0% ETc. El riego se aplicó desde el inicio de la floración en febrero hasta la formación del fruto en abril de 2011. El diseño experimental fue bloques completamente al azar con tres repeticiones por tratamiento. Las variables evaluadas fueron: humedad del suelo (q g, estado hídrico de la planta (Ytallo, fenología, brotación, floración, formación, crecimiento y calidad del fruto. Los árboles en el T1 presentaron un mayor número y tamaño de fruto, pero no se encontraron diferencias (P > 0.05 en producción y calidad respecto al testigo; la q g y el Ytallo fueron diferentes (P < 0.05 entre tratamientos y el testigo mostró los menores valores, 13.82% y -2.5 MPa, lo cual indica un estrés moderado.

  19. Induction of Embryoids,Embryogenic Callus and Plantlet Regeneration from Bingtangcheng(Citrus sinensis)%冰糖橙胚状体、胚性愈伤组织的诱导及植株再生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡小东; 廖伟

    2010-01-01

    以冰糖橙(Citrus sinensis)成熟果实中未发育胚珠为外植体,以MT为基本培养基,通过添加不同种类植物生长调节剂(ZT、GA3、BA、IAA以及2,4-D)、麦芽浸出物(ME)或AgNO3,诱导胚状体、胚性愈伤组织,并进行了植株再生研究.结果表明:不同培养基不仅影响胚状体的诱导率,而且影响诱导胚状体的类型;MT培养基有利于诱导出球型胚状体,MT+1.0 mg/L GA3 + 500 mg/L ME培养基有利于诱导子叶形胚状体;不同类型的胚状体在不同培养基中胚性愈伤组织发生的频率不同,球形胚状体和MT+0.5 mg/L IAA+0.1 mg/L ZT培养基最有利于胚性愈伤组织的诱导,球形胚状体接种于此培养基上胚性愈伤组织的发生率高达40%.这些胚状体经过生芽和生根培养,再生了大量完整植株.

  20. Influencia de la turbidez en el efecto antimicrobiano de la luz ultravioleta y de los pulsos luminosos de luz blanca en néctar de naranja (citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meregildo Silva Ramirez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo por objetivo determinar la influencia del nivel de turbidez en el efecto antimicrobiano de la luz ultravioleta y luz blanca en néctar de naranja (Citrus sinensis L.. Dicha investigación fue realizada en una cámara de tratamiento de luz UVC con paredes de espejo y una lámpara de luz ultravioleta de 15 watts. El néctar, sometido a un proceso de pasteurización (90 °C, 10 minutos, se inoculó con levadura liofilizada (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cepa MIT L51, hasta concentraciones de 1.0; 0.1 y 0.01 % (p/p y se determinó la turbidez de las diluciones, reportando valores de turbidez de 10564, 1304 y 813 UTN respectivamente. Las muestras fueron expuestas a tres diferentes dosis, 0.57; 1.14 y 1.71 J/cm2, tomando una muestra testigo denominada “0” minutos, para efectos de análisis inicial de microorganismos. Posteriormente a la aplicación del tratamiento se realizó el recuento en placas, en medio agar Sabouraud. Obtenidos los datos en la lectura de las colonias resultantes se determinó la tasa de supervivencia en cada tratamiento y el valor de la constante de reducción decimal “D” en J/cm2. Dichos datos mostraron que la turbidez, debido a los sólidos disueltos, influencia adversamente la actividad antimicrobiana de la luz UVC. Se concluye que la actividad antimicrobiana expresada en términos de la constante de reducción decimal “D”, bajo las condiciones de tratamiento en el néctar de naranja, depende directamente de la turbidez e indirectamente del la energía total transmitida.

  1. EFECTO DE LA ÉPOCA DE RECOLECCIÓN DE LA NARANJA (Citrus sinensis L. VARIEDAD VALENCIA 'LATE' SOBRE EL PROCESAMIENTO INDUSTRIAL DE CÍTRICOS EN LAS TRES GRANDES REGIONES EDAFOCLIMÁTICAS DE CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenia Pérez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se realizó con la especie Citrus sinensis (L Osbeck variedad Valencia 'Late' procedente de 10 empresas citrícolas del país, ubicadas en tres regiones edafoclimáticas, que suministran la fruta a la producción de jugo concentrado congelado de naranja (JCCN, en las plantas industriales de Pinar del Río, Ceballos y Contramaestre durante el período 2000-2002. Se evaluó el comportamiento del rendimiento potencial (RP de la fruta utilizada como materia prima para el procesamiento industrial, obteniendo los menores valores dados por las empresas de la región oriental asociada a laplanta industrial de Contramaestre, que se traduce en destinar menos volúmenes de fruta para producir 1 t de JCCN. Se mantuvo la tendencia de esta planta industrial de obtener la mejor eficiencia del sistema en términos de RP comparadas con las dos restantes en estudio. Estos resultados mostraron que en la región oriental se alcanzaron los mayores valores de SST del sistema, ya que el 91.6 % de la fruta alcanza valores medio desde 11.3 hasta 15.57 0Bx, mientras el 100 % de la fruta alcanza un contenido de jugo por encima de 51.6 %. Las variables de calidad de la fruta asociadas al rendimiento industrial de sólidos solubles totales (SST y contenido de jugo (CJ mostraron un incremento sostenido en febrero-marzo, causando un efecto importante en la fecha de recolección de la naranja Valencia 'Late' durante los tres años evaluados.

  2. Ultrastructural changes in sweet orange with symptoms of huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus greening (Huanglongbing [HLB]) is one of the most destructive citrus diseases worldwide. To better understand the ultrastructural changes of sweet orange seedlings in response to infection, anatomical analyses of HLB-infected sweet orange were carried out by light and electron microscopy. A...

  3. Numerical heat transfer model for frost protection of citrus fruits by water from a spraying system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Roy J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simplified model is developed to simulate the conditions associated with the protection of fruits from frost damage using water from a spraying system. The model simulates the movement of the solidifying water front on a single fruit, and based on that determines the spray frequency needed for a water film to continuously surround the ice-coated fruit to prevent the fruit temperature from dropping below 0ºC. Simulations are presented for the frost protection of sweet oranges (citrus sinensis. The effect of environmental conditions such as air temperature, air velocity, surface radiation and water film evaporation on the development of the ice layer encasing is considered. Simulations show the effect the encasing ice sheet thickness has on the fruit temperature if water from a spraying system is turned off permanently. Experimental tests are also conducted to determine the change in the thermal properties of citrus sinensis for operating temperatures that range from above freezing to sub-freezing. The results of the experimental tests and the numerical simulations shall lead to a better understanding of fruit protection from frost damage by the application of water from a spraying system.

  4. A set of primers for analyzing chloroplast DNA diversity in Citrus and related genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yunjiang; de Vicente, M Carmen; Meng, Haijun; Guo, Wenwu; Tao, Nengguo; Deng, Xiuxin

    2005-06-01

    Chloroplast simple sequence repeat (cpSSR) markers in Citrus were developed and used to analyze chloroplast diversity of Citrus and closely related genera. Fourteen cpSSR primer pairs from the chloroplast genomes of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and Arabidopsis were found useful for analyzing the Citrus chloroplast genome (cpDNA) and recoded with the prefix SPCC (SSR Primers for Citrus Chloroplast). Eleven of the 14 primer pairs revealed some degree of polymorphism among 34 genotypes of Citrus, Fortunella, Poncirus and some of their hybrids, with polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranging from 0.057 to 0.732, and 18 haplotypes were identified. The cpSSR data were analyzed with NTSYS-pc software, and the genetic relationships suggested by the unweighted pair group method based on arithmetic means (UPGMA) dendrogram were congruent with previous taxonomic investigations: the results showed that all samples fell into seven major clusters, i.e., Citrus medica L., Poncirus, Fortunella, C. ichangensis Blanco, C. reticulata Swingle, C. aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle and C. grandis (L.) Osbeck. The results of previous studies combined with our cpSSR analyses revealed that: (1) Calamondin (C. madurensis Swingle) is the result of hybridization between kumquat (Fortunella) and mandarin (C. reticulata), where kumquat acted as the female parent; (2) Ichang papeda (C. ichangensis) has a unique taxonomic status; and (3) although Bendiguangju mandarin (C. reticulata) and Satsuma mandarin (C. reticulata) are similar in fruit shape and leaf morphology, they have different maternal parents. Bendiguangju mandarin has the same cytoplasm as sweet orange (C. sinensis), whereas Satsuma mandarin has the cytoplasm of C. reticulata. Seventeen PCR products from SPCC1 and 21 from SPCC11 were cloned and sequenced. The results revealed that mononucleotide repeats as well as insertions and deletions of small segments of DNA were associated with SPCC1 polymorphism, whereas polymorphism

  5. GUS gene expression driven by a citrus promoter in transgenic tobacco and 'Valencia' sweet orange Expressão do gene GUS controlado por promotor de citros em plantas transgênicas de tabaco e laranja 'Valência'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alves de Azevedo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was the transformation of tobacco and 'Valencia' sweet orange with the GUS gene driven by the citrus phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL gene promoter (CsPP. Transformation was accomplished by co-cultivation of tobacco and 'Valência' sweet orange explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing the binary vector CsPP-GUS/2201. After plant transformation and regeneration, histochemical analyses using GUS staining revealed that CsPP promoter preferentially, but not exclusively, conferred gene expression in xylem tissues of tobacco. Weaker GUS staining was also detected throughout the petiole region in tobacco and citrus CsPP transgenic plants.O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a transformação de plantas de tabaco e laranja 'Valência' com o gene GUS controlado pelo promotor do gene da fenilalanina amônia-liase (PAL de citros (CsPP. Foi realizada transformação genética por meio do co-cultivo de explantes de tabaco e laranja 'Valência' com Agrobacterium tumefaciens que continha o vetor binário CsPP-GUS/2201. Após a transformação e a regeneração, a detecção da atividade de GUS por ensaios histoquímicos revelou que o promotor CsPP, preferencialmente, mas não exclusivamente, confere expressão gênica em tecidos do xilema de tabaco. Expressão mais baixa de GUS também foi detectada na região de tecido de pecíolo, em plantas transgênicas (CsPP de tabaco e laranja 'Valência'.

  6. From Farmers to Entrepreneurs—Strengthening Malta Orange Value Chains Through Institutional Development in Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyutiman Choudhary

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Malta orange (Citrus sinensis is an important cash crop in the mountain state of Uttarakhand, India. Smallholder farmers growing it face multiple challenges due to unorganized and inaccessible markets; they are forced to sell to intermediaries at very low prices. In response, the government of Uttarakhand introduced a minimum support price for Malta oranges; however, this failed to address farmers' problems due to poor implementation. This paper presents the results of an action research project with farmers in the Chamoli district of Uttarakhand to develop farmers' resilience by upgrading their position in the Malta orange value chain, targeting production, processing, and marketing through community-based enterprise development. Information was collected before and after the intervention by various means, including stakeholder meetings, focus group discussions, and interviews with farmers and value chain facilitators. Activities supported by the research have contributed to increased productivity and farmer incomes. Farmers became better organized, and their bargaining power improved considerably. The enterprise-based upgrading process brought about an inclusive and pro-poor Malta orange value chain system with improved terms of engagement for smallholder farmers. The research results show that policy change, improved provision of technical and financial services, establishment of common facility centers, and strengthening of farmers' institutions are imperative to enable smallholder farmers to engage in value chains and thus increase their resilience.

  7. Diversity of endophytic bacterial populations and their interaction with Xylella fastidiosa in citrus plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo, W.L.; Marcon, J.; Maccheroni, jr. W.; Elsas, van J.D.; Vuurde, van J.W.L.; Azevedo, de J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all Citrus sinensis cultivars. The endophytic bacterial communities of healthy, resistant, and CVC-affected citrus plants were studied by using cultivation as well as cultivation-independen

  8. Different transcriptional response to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri between kumquat and sweet orange with contrasting canker tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Zheng Fu

    Full Text Available Citrus canker disease caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc is one of the most devastating biotic stresses affecting the citrus industry. Meiwa kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia is canker-resistant, while Newhall navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck is canker-sensitive. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the differences in responses to Xcc, transcriptomic profiles of these two genotypes following Xcc attack were compared by using the Affymetrix citrus genome GeneChip. A total of 794 and 1324 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified as canker-responsive genes in Meiwa and Newhall, respectively. Of these, 230 genes were expressed in common between both genotypes, while 564 and 1094 genes were only significantly expressed in either Meiwa or Newhall. Gene ontology (GO annotation and Singular Enrichment Analysis (SEA of the DEGs showed that genes related to the cell wall and polysaccharide metabolism were induced for basic defense in both Meiwa and Newhall, such as chitinase, glucanase and thaumatin-like protein. Moreover, apart from inducing basic defense, Meiwa showed specially upregulated expression of several genes involved in the response to biotic stimulus, defense response, and cation binding as comparing with Newhall. And in Newhall, abundant photosynthesis-related genes were significantly down-regulated, which may be in order to ensure the basic defense. This study revealed different molecular responses to canker disease in Meiwa and Newhall, affording insight into the response to canker and providing valuable information for the identification of potential genes for engineering canker tolerance in the future.

  9. Changes in Soil Organic Carbon Fractions in Response to Cover Crops in an Orange Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Éder Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The cultivation of cover crops intercropped with fruit trees is an alternative to maintain mulch cover between plant rows and increase soil organic carbon (C stocks. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in soil total organic C content and labile organic matter fractions in response to cover crop cultivation in an orange orchard. The experiment was performed in the state of Bahia, in a citrus orchard with cultivar ‘Pera’ orange (Citrus sinensis at a spacing of 6 × 4 m. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used. The following species were used as cover crops: Brachiaria (Brachiaria decumbes – BRAQ, pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum – MIL, jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis – JB, blend (50 % each of jack bean + millet (JB/MIL, and spontaneous vegetation (SPV. The cover crops were broadcast-seeded between the rows of orange trees and mechanically mowed after flowering. Soil sampling at depths of 0.00-0.10, 0.10-0.20, and 0.20-0.40 m was performed in small soil trenches. The total soil organic C (SOC content, light fraction (LF, and the particulate organic C (POC, and oxidizable organic C fractions were estimated. Total soil organic C content was not significantly changed by the cover crops, indicating low sensitivity in reacting to recent changes in soil organic matter due to management practices. Grasses enabled a greater accumulation of SOC stocks in 0.00-0.40 m compared to all other treatments. Jack bean cultivation increased LF and the most labile oxidizable organic C fraction (F1 in the soil surface and the deepest layer tested. Cover crop cultivation increased labile C in the 0.00-0.10 m layer, which can enhance soil microbial activity and nutrient absorption by the citrus trees. The fractions LF and F1 may be suitable indicators for monitoring changes in soil organic matter content due to changes in soil management practices.

  10. Composição mineral de frutos cítricos na colheita Mineral nutrient removal by the harvest of citrus fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondino C. Bataglia

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram amostrados à época de colheita, na Estação Experimental de Limeira, do Instituto Agronômico, frutos cítricos de nove cultivares comerciais pertencentes a diferentes espécies: Citrus sinensis - "baianinha", "hamlin", "pêra", "natal" e "valência"; Citrus reticulata -"cravo"; Citrus paradisi - "marsh-seedless"; Citrus aurantifolia - "taiti"; híbrido Citrus sinensis X Citrus reticnlata -"murcote". Os frutos foram fracionados em casca, polpa mais suco, e sementes. No material seco e moído, procederam-se às determinações dos treze elementos essenciais às plantas e mais sódio, alumínio e cobalto. As quantidades de nutrientes extraídas por tonelada de fruto fresco foram calculadas com base nas proporções e teores de umidade das partes dos frutos. Os nove cultivares estudados extraíram as seguintes quantidades médias de elementos em gramas por tonelada de fruto fresco: N-1.906; P-173; K-1.513; Ca-526; Mg-127; S-137; B-2,2; Cl-24,7; Cu-1,2; Fé-6,6; Mn-2,8; Mo-0,008; Zn-0,9; Co-0,003; Na-43,5; Al-7,6. Os dados obtidos são semelhantes aos encontrados na literatura de outros países para os citros em geral. Há, no entanto, quase sempre, uma inversão na relação nitrogênio-potássio. Os cultivares com maior capacidade de extração de macro e micronutrientes foram as laranjas natal e valência, e o de menor capacidade, o limoeiro taiti. As sementes em geral contiveram os maiores teores de nutrientes, porém a sua ocorrência nos frutos é em pequena proporção, atingindo o máximo de 3% na tangerina-cravo.Fruit samples of nine cultivars of citrus were collected at the Limeira Experiment Station, State of São Paulo. The fruits belong to several species: Citrus sinensis -"Baianinha", "Hamlin", "Pêra", "Natal", and "Valencia" sweet oranges; Citrus reticulata - "Cravo"-tangerine; Citrus paradisi -"Marsh-seedless" grapefruit; Citrus aurantifolia - Tahiti lime; hybrid Citrus sinensis X Citrus reticulata -"Murcott" tangor. The

  11. In vitro anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe grade black tea(Camellia sinensis L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanigasekera; Daya; Ratnasooriya; Walimuni; Prabhashini; Kaushalya; Mendis; Abeysekera; Chatura; Tissa; Dayendra; Ratnasooriya

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To access the anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe(OP) grade black tea with a view to develop an anti-aging skin formulation.Methods:Five concentrations(0.125,0.250,0.500,1.000 and 2.000 mg/mL) of black tea brew(BTB) were made using a freeze dried sample of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP grade black tea which was prepared according to international organization for standardization specification.Epigallocatechin gallate(EGCG) was used as the reference agent(concentrations tested:0.012,0.025,0.050,0.100 and 0.200 mg/mL).Anti-hyaluronidase activity of BTB and EGCG in vitro were ascertained spectrometrically using hyaluronic acid(from rooster comb)and bovine testicular hyaluronidase.Results:The results revealed that BTB had moderate[IC50=(1.09±0.12) mg/mL]and dose dependent(r2=0.94) anti-hyaluronidase activity.EGCG also exhibited dose dependent(r2=0.93,P<0.05) anti-hyaluronidase activity which was superior[IC50=(0.09±0.00) mg/mL]to BTB.Conclusions:Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP gradc black tca has promising antihyaluronidase activity in vitro and has the potential to be used as an anti-aging cosmaceutical.In addition,it may prove useful as a beverage in the management of allergy,some joint diseases and cnvenomation.

  12. Changes in anthocyanin production during domestication of citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandarin (C. reticulata), citron (C. medica) and pummelo (C. maxima) are imortant fruit species of the genus Citrus and parents of the interspecific hybrids that constitute the most familiar commercial varities of citrus: sweet orange, sour orange, clementine, lemon lme and grapefruit. Citron and it...

  13. Determination of the terpene flux from orange species and Norway spruce by relaxed eddy accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C.S.; Hummelshøj, P.; Jensen, N.O.;

    2000-01-01

    Terpene fluxes from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest and an orange orchard (Citrus clementii and Citrus sinensis) were measured by relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) during summer 1997. alpha-pinene and beta-pinene were the most abundant terpenes emitted from Norway spruce and constituted...... approximately 70% of the flux. A much lower flux was observed for myrcene, limonene and gamma-terpinene and both alpha-terpinene and camphor were only occasionally detected. The average terpene flux was 107.6 ng m(-2) s(-1) which corresponds to 0.73 mu g g(dw)(-1) h(-1) (30 degrees C) when calculated relatively...... the weight of the dry biomass. The five terpenes which were detected in all samples at the orange orchard were limonene, sabinene, alpha-pinene, trans-ocimene and beta-pinene with an average Aux of 126.3 ng m(-2) s(-1). Cis-ocimene, linalool and myrcene were occasionally detected but no systematic upward...

  14. NPK fertilization effects on concentration of nutrients in Valencia orange leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, C. (Empresa Catarinense de Pesquisa Agropecuaria S/A (Brazil)); Mielniczuk, J.; Bohnen, H. (Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre (Brazil). Faculdade de Agronomia)

    1983-01-01

    The effects of NPK fertilization on the nutrient concentration in the leaves was evaluated in a field experiment of Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) growing in a sandy acid soil, with 4N, 3P and 4K fertilizer levels. N and Cu contents in the leaves were high, while P and Zn levels were low, in all treatments. Increasing the levels of N, P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and K/sub 2/O fertilization resulted in an increase of the N, P and K concentration in the leaves, respectively. Crescent levels of N fertilization raised Mn and decreased Ca concentration in the leaves. P and K contents in the leaves correlated positively. With a great availability and absorption of K, reduction on the foliar contents of Mg and Ca ocurred.

  15. Exploring Antagonistic Candidate Fungi for Controling Pathogenic Fungi (Colletotricum gloeosporioides Causing Anthracnose Disease in Kintamani Siam Orange Plants (Citrus Nobillis Lour Var. Hass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Nyoman Darsini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Orange plantation center in Bali are located in Bangli Regency, Kintamani District. Kintamani orange plantations cultivated three types of oranges: tangerine, selayer, and mandarin oranges. The famous orange in Bali today is Kintamani orange,  tangerine type.  The typical flavor and aroma of Kintamani tangerine make it is favored by consumers from various regions. Based on the information from Bangli District Agriculture Office and the results of field surveys in the last two years (in 2013 and 2014, cultivation of orange in Kintamani has been infected with anthracnose disease. The disease is characterized by symptoms whereby brown twigs spread to the leaves and fruit, and the fruits which are about to be harvested rot simultaneously and eventually fall due to decay. This condition causes farmers to suffer significant losses. The cause of anthracnose on Kintamani orange is Colletotrichum gloeosporioides .  The Control of these diseases has been carried out by farmers with various synthetic fungicides but the disease is still widespread.   It is feared that the uncontrolled use of synthetic pesticides can harm the environment, cause resistance to C. gloeosporioides fungi, and kill non-target beneficial micro-organism. It is necessary to conduct research that aims to control anthracnose biologically to maintain the ecological balance and environmental safety. Based on the results of this research by exploring the fungi on healthy plants around orange trees infected with anthracnose diseases, nine isolates of antagonist candidate fungus were obtained based on colony color of fungal hyphae (IS1, IS2, IS3, IS4, IS5. IS6, IS7, IS8, IS9.   Based on the test results of the in vitro dual culture, two candidates of antagonistic fungal isolates were selected,  the isolates IS4 and IS7. It was because on day 7 after the second dual culture, these two isolates had the highest percentage of inhibition,  89.22% and 85.11 % respectively. Based on the

  16. Dicty_cDB: VFF218 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 124000-223 Immature Ovaries from field-collected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck... USDA-FP_125000-394 Immature Ovaries from field-collected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck

  17. Effects of Spraying KH_2PO_4 on Cell-wall Metalbolism of Pericarp and Pitting Fruit Rate in Navel Orange%磷酸二氢钾对脐橙陷痕果发生及果皮细胞壁代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟; 罗伟金; 陈杰忠; 姚青; 万继锋; 黄战威

    2011-01-01

    Based on the different incidence of pitting fruit,two navel orange cultivars ‘Cara cara’ navel orange(Citrus sinensis Osbeck‘Cara Cara’)and ‘Newhall’ navel orange(Citrus sinensis Osbeck ‘Newhall’)were used to research on cell wall composition,related enzymes in cell wall metabolism of peel and pitting fruit rate with the KH2PO4 foliar application during ripening.The results showed that the difference existed in the peel thickness,hardness and homogeneity between‘Cara Cara’and‘Newhall’ navel orange with the KH2PO4 spraying,the pitting fruit rate o‘fCara Cara’navel orange was significantly decreased.There was a few effects on cell-wall metalbolism and pericarp character in‘Newhall’than‘Cara Cara’navel orange,and there have no significant difference in pitting fruit rate of‘Newhall’between KH2PO4 foliar application and control.The decreasing of polygalacturonase(PG),cellulose(CX),xylanase(Xyn),and peroxidase(POD)activities maybe low the decomposition of protopectin,hemicellulose and cellulose,increase peel hardness and thickness,low pitting fruit incidence.%研究‘卡拉卡拉’(Citrus sinensis Osbeck‘Cara Cara’)和‘纽荷尔’(Citrus sinensis Osbeck‘Newhall’)脐橙果实膨大期叶面喷施钾肥(0.2%KH2PO4)后,成熟期陷痕果发生率、果皮细胞壁物质成分、细胞壁代谢相关酶活性的变化规律及其关系。结果表明,KH2PO4处理对卡拉卡拉脐橙和纽荷尔脐橙的果皮厚度、硬度及其均匀度有不同程度的影响,卡拉卡拉脐橙的陷痕果发生率显著降低。纽荷尔脐橙的细胞壁代谢以及果皮力学性能受KH2PO4的影响较小,陷痕果率无显著变

  18. 甜橙精油的挥发性成分分析及抗氧化和抑菌活性研究%Analysis of essential oil of Citrus sinensis and its antioxidative and antimicrobial effectiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鑫; 张宝月; 黄蓉; 赵春霞; 王改香; 张磊; 鲍其泠

    2013-01-01

    The components of essential oil of Citrus sinensis were analyzed by GC-MS,and twenty-four components in the oil were identified,which accounted for 92. 24% of the total contents. Its main content was limonene, which accounted for about 78. 24% of the total contents. The other main contents were β-pinene(3.22%) , ( +)-limonene 1,2-epoxide(1. 89%),β-phellandrene(1.45%),linalool(1.28%), α-pinene( 1.05% ) Respectively. The antioxidant property of the oil was evaluated by exploing DPPH an-tioxidant assay. The oil sample had free radical scavenging activity. DPPH free radical scavenging ability and essential oil concentration were positively correlated (y = 55. 11x + 12.48,R2 = 0.994,the oil concentration in the 20%~100% ). In addition,the essential oil antibacterial results showed that the essential oil against S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans had certain antimicrobial activity.%使用GC-MS联用技术对甜橙精油进行分析,从中鉴定了24种化学成分,占总含量的92.24%.主要成分为柠檬烯,达到了78.24%;其次为β-蒎烯、(+)-柠檬烯-1,2-环氧化物、β-水芹烯、芳樟醇、α-蒎烯,含量依次为3.22%,1.89%,1.45%,1.28%,1.05%.甜橙精油的DPPH抗氧化研究表明,甜橙精油具有体外清除DPPH自由基的能力,且DPPH自由基的清除能力与精油浓度呈正相关,在精油浓度20% ~ 100%范围内,y=55.11x+12.48,R2=0.994.抗菌实验结果显示,甜橙精油对金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌和白色念珠菌等具有一定的抗菌能力.

  19. Dicty_cDB: VFG291 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA clone MVF-70_B02 5', mRNA sequence. 6...e (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Citrus sinensis cDNA clone MVF-82_F01 5', mRNA sequence. 68 3e-12 2 BE208912...FP_123000-849 Immature Ovaries from field-collected Valencia Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck

  20. Effect of ploidy increase on transgene expression: example from Citrus diploid cybrid and allotetraploid somatic hybrid expressing the EGFP gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shi-Xiao; Cai, Xiao-Dong; Tan, Bin; Li, Ding-Li; Guo, Wen-Wu

    2011-07-01

    Polyploidization is an important speciation mechanism for all eukaryotes, and it has profound impacts on biodiversity dynamics and ecosystem functioning. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been used as an effective marker to visually screen somatic hybrids at an early stage in protoplast fusion. We have previously reported that the intensity of GFP fluorescence of regenerated embryoids was also an early indicator of ploidy level. However, little is known concerning the effects of ploidy increase on the GFP expression in citrus somatic hybrids at the plant level. Herein, allotetraploid and diploid cybrid plants with enhanced GFP (EGFP) expression were regenerated from the fusion of embryogenic callus protoplasts from 'Murcott' tangor (Citrus reticulata Blanco × Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) and mesophyll protoplasts from transgenic 'Valencia' orange (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck) expressing the EGFP gene, via electrofusion. Subsequent simple sequence repeat (SSR), chloroplast simple sequence repeat and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence analysis revealed that the two regenerated tetraploid plants were true allotetraploid somatic hybrids possessing nuclear genomic DNA of both parents and cytoplasmic DNA from the callus parent, while the five regenerated diploid plants were cybrids containing nuclear DNA of the leaf parent and with complex segregation of cytoplasmic DNA. Furthermore, EGFP expression was compared in cells and protoplasts from mature leaves of these diploid cybrids and allotetraploid somatic hybrids. Results showed that the intensity of GFP fluorescence per cell or protoplast in diploid was generally brighter than in allotetraploid. Moreover, same hybridization signal was detected on allotetraploid and diploid plants by Southern blot analysis. By real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, GFP expression level of the diploid cybrid was revealed significantly higher than that of the allotetraploid somatic hybrid. These results suggest that ploidy

  1. Complete chloroplast genome sequence of Omani lime (Citrus aurantiifolia and comparative analysis within the rosids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Jiun Su

    Full Text Available The genus Citrus contains many economically important fruits that are grown worldwide for their high nutritional and medicinal value. Due to frequent hybridizations among species and cultivars, the exact number of natural species and the taxonomic relationships within this genus are unclear. To compare the differences between the Citrus chloroplast genomes and to develop useful genetic markers, we used a reference-assisted approach to assemble the complete chloroplast genome of Omani lime (C. aurantiifolia. The complete C. aurantiifolia chloroplast genome is 159,893 bp in length; the organization and gene content are similar to most of the rosids lineages characterized to date. Through comparison with the sweet orange (C. sinensis chloroplast genome, we identified three intergenic regions and 94 simple sequence repeats (SSRs that are potentially informative markers with resolution for interspecific relationships. These markers can be utilized to better understand the origin of cultivated Citrus. A comparison among 72 species belonging to 10 families of representative rosids lineages also provides new insights into their chloroplast genome evolution.

  2. Complete chloroplast genome sequence of Omani lime (Citrus aurantiifolia) and comparative analysis within the rosids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Huei-Jiun; Hogenhout, Saskia A; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2014-01-01

    The genus Citrus contains many economically important fruits that are grown worldwide for their high nutritional and medicinal value. Due to frequent hybridizations among species and cultivars, the exact number of natural species and the taxonomic relationships within this genus are unclear. To compare the differences between the Citrus chloroplast genomes and to develop useful genetic markers, we used a reference-assisted approach to assemble the complete chloroplast genome of Omani lime (C. aurantiifolia). The complete C. aurantiifolia chloroplast genome is 159,893 bp in length; the organization and gene content are similar to most of the rosids lineages characterized to date. Through comparison with the sweet orange (C. sinensis) chloroplast genome, we identified three intergenic regions and 94 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) that are potentially informative markers with resolution for interspecific relationships. These markers can be utilized to better understand the origin of cultivated Citrus. A comparison among 72 species belonging to 10 families of representative rosids lineages also provides new insights into their chloroplast genome evolution.

  3. Stability of Citrus tristeza virus protective isolates in field conditions Estabilidade de isolados protetores contra Citrus tristeza virus em condições de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Tenório Costa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to monitor the maintenance of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV protective isolates stability in selected clones of 'Pêra' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis, preimmunized or naturally infected by the virus, after successive clonal propagations. The work was carried out in field conditions in the north of Paraná State, Brazil. Coat protein gene (CPG analysis of 33 isolates collected from 16 clones of 'Pêra' sweet orange was performed using single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP. Initially, the isolates were characterized by symptoms of stem pitting observed in clones. Then viral genome was extracted and used as template for the amplification of CPG by reverse transcription polimerase chain reaction (RTPCR. RTPCR products electrophoretic profiles were analyzed using the Jaccard coefficient and the UPGMA method. The majority of the clones had weak to moderate stem pitting symptoms and its CTV isolates showed alterations in the SSCP profiles. However, the stability of the protective complex has been maintained, except for isolates from two analised clones. Low genetic variability was observed within the isolates during the studied years.O objetivo deste trabalho foi monitorar a manutenção da estabilidade de isolados protetores contra Citrus tristeza virus (CTV em clones selecionados de laranja 'Pêra' (Citrus sinensis pré-imunizados ou infectados naturalmente pelo vírus, após sucessivas propagações clonais. O trabalho foi realizado em condições de campo, no norte do Estado do Paraná. A análise do gene da capa protéica (GPC de 33 isolados, coletados de 16 clones de laranjeira 'Pêra', foi realizada com o uso da técnica polimorfismo conformacional da fita simples (SSCP. Inicialmente, os isolados foram caracterizados por meio de sintomas de caneluras observados nos clones. Em seguida, o genoma viral foi extraído e utilizado como molde para a amplificação do GCP com uso da transcrição reversa da rea

  4. Citrus asymmetric somatic hybrids produced via fusion of gamma-irradiated and iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bona, Claudine Maria de [Instituto Agronomico do Parana (IAPAR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: debona@iapar.br; Gould, Jean Howe [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Ecosystem Science and Management], e-mail: gould@tamu.edu; Miller Junior, J. Creighton [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Horticultural Sciences], e-mail: jcmillerjr@tamu.edu; Stelly, David [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences], e-mail: stelly@tamu.edu; Louzada, Eliezer Silva [Texas A and M University, Kingsville, TX (United States). Citrus Center], e-mail: e-louzada@tamu.edu

    2009-05-15

    The objective of this study was to produce citrus somatic asymmetric hybrids by fusing gamma.irradiated protoplasts with iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts. Protoplasts were isolated from embryogenic suspension cells of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad.) cultivars Ruby Red and Flame, sweet oranges (C. sinensis Osbeck) 'Itaborai', 'Natal', Valencia', and 'Succari', from 'Satsuma' (C. unshiu Marcow.) and 'Changsha' mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco) and 'Murcott' tangor (C. reticulata x C. sinensis). Donor protoplasts were exposed to gamma rays and receptor protoplasts were treated with 3 mmol L{sup -1} iodoacetamide (IOA), and then they were fused for asymmetric hybridization. Asymmetric embryos were germinated, and the resulting shoots were either grafted onto sour orange, rough lemon or 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x Poncirus trifoliata) x 'Sunki' mandarin rootstock seedlings, or rooted after dipping their bases in indol.butyric acid (IBA) solution. The products were later acclimatized to greenhouse conditions. Ploidy was analyzed by flow cytometry, and hybridity was confirmed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis of plantlet DNA samples. The best treatment was the donor-recipient fusion combination of 80 Gy.irradiated 'Ruby Red' protoplasts with 20 min IOA.treated 'Succari' protoplasts. Tetraploid and aneuploid plants were produced. Rooting recalcitrance was solved by dipping shoots' stems in 3,000 mg L{sup -1} IBA solution for 10 min. (author)

  5. Diversity of Endophytic Bacterial Populations and Their Interaction with Xylella fastidiosa in Citrus Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, W.L.; Marcon, J; Maccheroni, jr., W.; Elsas, van, J.D.; Vuurde, van, M.; Azevedo

    2002-01-01

    Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all Citrus sinensis cultivars. The endophytic bacterial communities of healthy, resistant, and CVC-affected citrus plants were studied by using cultivation as well as cultivation-independent techniques. The endophytic communities were assessed in surface-disinfected citrus branches by plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Dominant isolates were characterized by ...

  6. 'Valencia' sweet orange tree flowering evaluation under field conditions Avaliação do florescimento de laranjeiras valência em condição de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since citrus flowering is a key process in citriculture and its evaluation is often difficult due to the canopy structure and field sampling, the aim of this research was to give some directions regarding the evaluation of flowering in field-grown sweet orange plants. This study was conducted in a citrus orchard of sweet orange plants cv. 'Valencia' [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] grafted on 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka or 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck rootstocks, with North-South orientation. Generative structures [buds, flowers and fruitlets (diameter O florescimento dos citros é um processo chave na citricultura e sua avaliação é dificultada devido à estrutura da copa e amostragem em campo. O objetivo desse artigo foi fornecer algumas indicações de como avaliar o florescimento de laranjeiras em condição de campo. Esse estudo foi conduzido em um pomar de laranjeiras 'Valência' [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] enxertadas em tangerineira 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka ou limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck, com orientação Norte-Sul. As estruturas reprodutivas [botões florais, flores e frutos (diâmetro < 3 cm] foram quantificadas semanalmente entre agosto e novembro de 2005, utilizando guias de 1 m² posicionadas no terço médio da copa das plantas, amostrando aproximadamente um volume de 1 m³. As guias foram divididas em duas partes para que duas pessoas pudessem realizar as avaliações, e posicionadas nas orientações sudeste, sudoeste, nordeste e noroeste, em sete plantas. Alguns aspectos do florescimento dos citros foram avaliados: (i quantas plantas são necessárias para uma amostragem representativa do florescimento; (ii em qual orientação deve ser feita a medida e (iii qual volume da copa das plantas que deve ser amostrado. Ao se considerar os aspectos práticos da produção dos citros, um método rápido, simples e representativo é necessário para avaliar o florescimento

  7. Desenvolvimento vegetativo e custo de produção de porta-enxertos de citros em recipientes para fins de subenxertia Vegetative development and production cost of citrus rootstocks in containers for inarching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Augusto Girardi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento vegetativo e estimar o custo de produção de 11 porta-enxertos de citros para fins de subenxertia, em diferentes recipientes. Avaliaram-se limão 'Cravo' clone Limeira (Citrus limonia Osbeck; citrumelo 'Swingle' (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macf.; tangerina 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tanaka; tangerina 'Sunki' (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; limão 'Volkameriano' clone Catânia 2 (Citrus volkameriana Pasquale; laranja 'Caipira' clone DAC (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck; limão 'Rugoso da África' clone Mazoe (Citrus jambhiri Lush.; Poncirus trifoliata 'Davis A'; tangerina 'Sun Shu Sha Kat' (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; tangerina 'Sunki' clone 2506 ou Fruto Grande (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka e Poncirus trifoliata 'Barnes'. Foram utilizados tubetes de 290 mL, sacolas de 1,7 L, e porta-enxertos transplantados de tubetes de 75 mL para sacolas de polietileno de 1,7 e 4,5 L. Porta-enxertos produzidos diretamente em sacolas de 1,7 L atingem ponto ideal de subenxertia em menor tempo, de 100 a 150 dias após a semeadura, e permitem a obtenção de plantas maiores e com sistema radicular adequado, porém com custo de produção superior ao sistema de produção em tubetes de 290 mL.The vegetative development and the estimation of the production cost of eleven citrus rootstocks for inarching were evaluated in different containers. 'Rangpur' lime cultivar Limeira (Citrus limonia Osbeck; 'Swingle' citrumelo (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macf.; 'Cleópatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tanaka; 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; 'Volkamer' lemon cultivar Catânia 2 (Citrus volkameriana Pasquale; 'Caipira' sweet orange cultivar DAC (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck; 'Rugoso da África' rough lemon cultivar Mazoe (Citrus jambhiri Lush.; Poncirus trifoliata cultivar Davis A; 'Sun Shu Sha Kat' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; 'Sunki' mandarin

  8. INFLUÊNCIA DO ANELAMENTO E ESTIOLAMENTO DE RAMOS NA PROPAGAÇÃO DA LARANJEIRA VALÊNCIA (Citrus sinensis Osbeck ATRAVÉS DE ESTACAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. CASTRO

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando estudar a influência do condicionamento de ramos, através do anelamento e estiolamento parcial, sobre o enraizamento de estacas de laranjeira cv. Valência, conduziu-se o experimento no período de fevereiro a dezembro de 1993. Para o anelamento foi utilizado arame fino de cobre com o qual provocou-se um estrangulamento na base do ramo. No estiolamento, utilizou-se fita preta de polietileno, que foi enrolada na base das brotações. De cada ramo condicionado, obteve-se apenas uma estaca com 15 cm de comprimento, diâmetro médio de 0,5 cm e um par de folhas apicais, cortadas pela metade. O plantio das estacas foi realizado em 12.04.93, em substrato de areia lavada e peneirada. Adotou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3x3, resultante das combinações entre os períodos de zero, 30 e 60 dias dos fatores anelamento e estiolamento. Verificou-se que não ocorreu enraizamento nas estacas que permaneceram três meses no substrato e variou de 0 até 26,04% para aquelas que permaneceram oito meses. O período de estiolamento influenciou significativamente o percentual de estacas enraizadas.With the aim of studying the effect of branch conditioning through girdling and banding on Valência orange cuttings a rooting trial was carried out from February to December of 1993. The girdling was performed with a thin cooper wire tightly tied at the branch base reaching the log, and the banding with black poliethylene tape, covering the branch at the base of the sprouts. Each conditioned branch gave one cutting of 15 cm length, 0.5 cm diameter and a pair of half cut apical leaves. Cuttings were planted on Dec.04, 93, in washed and sieved sand substrate. The experimental design was completely randomized, with a factorial 3 x 3 from 0, 30 and 60 day periods, girdling and banding. There was no rooting in cuttings that remained three months in the substrate and there was up to 26.04% rooting for those ones that lasted for

  9. Response of `Nagpur' mandarin, `Mosambi' sweet orange and `Kagzi' acid lime to gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladaniya, M. S.; Singh, Shyam; Wadhawan, A. K.

    2003-07-01

    The effects of irradiation dose and refrigerated storage conditions on 'Nagpur' mandarin ( Citrus reticulata Blanco), 'Mosambi' sweet orange ( Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and 'Kagzi' acid lime ( Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) were investigated. Mature fruits of these three species were treated with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 kGy radiation. 'Nagpur' mandarin and 'Mosambi' sweet oranges were stored at 6-7°C and 90-95% r.h. for 75 and 90 days, respectively, while 'Kagzi' acid limes were stored at 8±1°C and 90-95% r.h. for 90 days. Physico-chemical parameters, sensory attributes and respiration rate were measured besides losses and disorders. In 'Nagpur' mandarin, radiation dose upto 1.5 kGy did not cause any rind disorder. Radiation treatments did not reduce the extent of decay. Penicillium rot was delayed in fruit treated with 1.5 kGy, while it appeared early in 0 kGy. Irradiation doses were ineffective to control rots due to Botryodiplodia theobromae and Alternaria citri. Doses upto 1.5 kGy did not cause any significant effect on fruit firmness and juice content; however, total soluble solids increased, while titratable acidity and vitamin 'C' content decreased. Texture and flavour scores as recorded after a week, were not affected by irradiation except in 1.5 kGy. In 'Mosambi' sweet orange, radiation treatments caused peel disorder in the form of brown sunken areas after 90 days and reduced fruit firmness, acidity and vitamin C content. The TSS content was higher in treated fruit. Flavour and texture were not affected by the doses of irradiation used. In treated acid limes (mature yellow), weight loss and decay were higher than untreated fruit (0 kGy) although difference was non-significant. Juice, TSS, titratable acidity and vitamin C contents were significantly less in treated fruit than in 0 kGy. Texture and flavour scores were also less in treated fruit than in 0 kGy. The stem-end rind breakdown was higher in untreated fruit than treated ones although difference was

  10. Producción y desarrollo de nueve variedades de naranja Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck en la zona plana del Valle del Cauca

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    Salazar C. Raúl

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available En árboles de naranja de cinco años injertados sobre mandarina Cleopatra, se evaluaron nueve variedades sembradas en un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar. El crecimiento de los frutos presentó las tres fases típicas, con duración variable dependiendo de la variedad: lento, crecimiento acelerado y estabilización. Los máximos crecimientos se obtuvieron en las variedades Old Vini, Valencia y Valle Washington. En todas las variedades los sólidos solubles disminuyeron y el porcentaje de acidez aumentó hasta ciertos límites con la edad del fruto. Considerando como momento óptimo para iniciar la cosecha una relación de sólidos solubles: acidez de 9.5:1, la más temprana fue la Valle Washington (7.5 meses, intermedias Old Vini y Australia Navel y la más tardía García Valencia. Todas las variedades presentaron contenidos de jugo mayores del 50 % Y color atractivo de la pulpa. El color más atractivo de la corteza se obtuvo en Parson Brown (97.5 % amarillo, las otras variedades fluctuaron entre 48 y 79%. Todas las variedades tuvieron menos de seis semillas por fruto. Se presentaron dos épocas de cosecha y las variedades con mayor producción: Hamlin, García Valencia y Pineapple tuvieron la mayor variación mensual. La mejor alternativa sembrando 90% de variedades para industria y 10 % para mesa se obtuvo con las variedades Pineapple, Hamlin, Parson Brown, Valle Washington y Old Vini.Five years old orange trees, were grafted on Cleopatra scions of nine cultivars planted in a completely randomized block design were evaluated. Fruit growths presented three typical phases of variable lenght, depending on the cultivar: slow , rapid and stable growth rates. Largest growth were observed in the old Vini, Valencia and Valle Washington cultivars. In all cases total soluble solid contents and acidity increased, up to certain point, with fruit age. Considering that the optimum time to iniciate cropping is when the relationship

  11. Red Sicilian orange and purple eggplant fruits as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Marco, Gaetano Di [CNR, Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici (Sede di Messina) Salita Sperone, C. da Papardo, I-98158 Faro Superiore Messina (Italy)

    2008-11-15

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled by using red Sicilian orange juice (Citrus Sinensis) and the purple extract of eggplant peels (Solanum melongena, L.) as natural sensitizers of TiO{sub 2} films. Conversion of solar light into electricity was successfully accomplished with both fruit-based solar cells. The best solar energy conversion efficiency ({eta}=0.66%) was obtained by red orange juice dye that, under AM 1.5 illumination, achieved up to J{sub sc}=3.84 mA/cm{sup 2}, V{sub oc}=0.340 V and fill factor=0.50. In the case of the extract of eggplant peels, the values determined were up to J{sub sc}=3.40 mA/cm{sup 2}, V{sub oc}=0.350 V and fill factor=0.40. Cyanidine-3-glucoside (cyanine) and delphinidin 3-[4-(p-coumaroyl)-L-rhamnosyl(1-6)-glucopyranoside]-5-glucopyranoside (nasunin) are the main pigments of cocktail dyes for red orange and eggplant, respectively. Actually, their application is far below the industrial requirements. Nevertheless, their study is an interesting multidisciplinary exercise useful for dissemination of knowledge and to educate people on renewable energy sources. Here, we report and discuss the role of the structure, the absorption spectra and the sensitization activity of the mentioned compounds. (author)

  12. Effects of foliar application with compost tea and filtrate biogas slurry liquid on yield and fruit quality of washington navel orange (Citrus sinenesis Osbeck) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Alaa El-din K; Belal, Elsayed B; El-Abd, Abd El-Naiem A

    2012-07-01

    Sixteen-year-old navel orange trees at a private orchard located in Kafer El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, were used in this study. Compost tea (CT) and filtrate biogas slurry liquid (FLB) were applied at two different concentrations (50% and 100%); control trees were sprayed with water Trees treated with CT at 100% were the highest in yield, fruit weight, and vitamin C, whereas the highest percentage of fruit set, fruit number and soluble solid content (SSC), lowest fruit drop, and highest reducing and total sugars were in trees treated with 100% FLB. Concentrations at 50% for both foliar application (CT and FLB) improved yield and fruit characteristics than control treatment. Generally, using a foliar application of compost tea and filtrate biogas slurry liquid at (100%) treatments as food nutrients could be recommended to improve the yield and fruit quality of navel orange fruits under the current study conditions.

  13. Field Efficacy of Germicides Against Citrus Canker in Navel Orange%几种药剂防治脐橙溃疡病田间药效试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛巧英

    2016-01-01

    通过选择5种药剂,在屏南县康里村大塆脐橙园开展了脐橙溃疡病防治试验。试验结果表明:5种药剂对脐橙春梢、夏梢、秋梢和果实的溃疡病均有防效,依据防效提出春梢、夏梢以20%噻菌铜(龙克菌)、47%春雷∙王铜等铜制剂防治为主,秋梢及果实膨大期至果实成熟前以靓果安等生物制剂为主,铜制剂为辅的防治方针,以期为屏南脐橙溃疡病的防治提供参考。%Experiments of five kinds of drugs against navel orange canker were carried out in Dawan Navel Orange Field, Kangli Village, Pingnan County. The results showed that those five drugs all showed control effects on navel orange canker on the spring shoots, summer shoots, autumn shoots and fruits. According to the control effects, guiding principles were put forward as follows: Cupper fungicides like 20 percent of thiodiazole­copper and 47 percent of kasugamycin∙copper oxychloride, could be preferred for the spring shoots and summer shoots;biological agents like Liangguoan could be preferred for autumn shoots and from the period of fruit expanding to its maturation;copper fungicides as the first prevention, biological agents the second. These provide reference to the control of navel orange canker in Pingnan County.

  14. 刈割、AM真菌和施磷对根箱栽培中柑橘和柱花草生长的影响%Effects of mowing, AM fungal inoculation and phosphorus application on growth of Citrus sinensis and Stylosanthes gracilis in a rhizobox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚青; 朱红惠; 胡志群; 陈杰忠

    2004-01-01

    利用根箱栽培模拟果园生草栽培,以柑橘Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck.cv.Luogangcheng和柱花草Stylosanthes gracilis H.B.K.cv.Graham来研究生草刈割、AM真菌和施磷在减轻养分竞争上的作用.结果表明,3种措施在不同程度上减轻了柱花草对柑橘生长的抑制效应,增加了柑橘的株高、叶片数和干质量;柱花草刈割的作用最明显,导致柱花草的根冠比急剧降低,表明刈割可能是通过抑制根系生长来减轻养分竞争.

  15. Activation of systemic acquired resistance in citrus to control huanglongbing disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Zanoni Bagio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB is considered the most destructive citrus disease and occurs in the major citrus producing areas around the world. In Brazil, HLB is associated with the bacteria ‘Candidatus’ Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas and ‘Candidatus’ Liberibacter americanus (CLam. CLas is the most aggressive and widespread species of the HLB bacteria. Currently, there is no curative control measure for this disease, and the eradication of diseased trees and control of the insect vector are the basic management measures for HLB. The search for other measures with higher efficiency and lower economic and environmental impacts for control of HLB has become a research priority. The use of chemicals that activate plant resistance mechanisms is a novel method for disease control. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the use of systemic acquired resistance (SAR inducers for control of HLB. Nursery trees of Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck grafted on Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck were inoculated with CLas by bud grafting technique using diseased material from HLB citrus trees, seven days after the first treatment with the SAR inducers, under greenhouse conditions. The SAR inducers imidacloprid (IMI, thiamethoxan (TMX, or acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM, as well as the combination of ASM with IMI or TMX, were applied as soil drench. The nursery trees were evaluated according to the presence of HLB symptoms and the bacterium in leaf tissue. The presence of CLas was determined by using the PCR technique, at 120, 180, 240, and 300 days after the HLB bacterium inoculation. The first symptoms of HLB were observed on mature leaves of the check citrus trees 60 days before these symptoms were observed on trees treated with the SAR inducers. Two years after inoculation, 67% fewer citrus trees with HLB symptoms were observed for the ASM + TMX treated trees as compared to the check ones. Citrus trees treated with IMI, TMX, or ASM also

  16. Yield, Esterification Degree and Molecular Weight Evaluation of Pectins Isolated from Orange and Grapefruit Peels under Different Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayah, Mohamed Yassine; Chabir, Rachida; Benyahia, Hamid; Rodi Kandri, Youssef; Ouazzani Chahdi, Fouad; Touzani, Hanan; Errachidi, Faouzi

    2016-01-01

    Orange (Citrus sinensis) and grapefruit (Citrus paradise) peels were used as a source of pectin, which was extracted under different conditions. The peels are used under two states: fresh and residual (after essential oil extraction). Organic acid (citric acid) and mineral acid (sulfuric acid) were used in the pectin extraction. The aim of this study is the evaluation the effect of extraction conditions on pectin yield, degree of esterification “DE” and on molecular weight “Mw”. Results showed that the pectin yield was higher using the residual peels. Moreover, both peels allow the obtainment of a high methoxyl pectin with DE >50%. The molecular weight was calculated using Mark-Houwink-Sakurada equation which describes its relationship with intrinsic viscosity. This later was determined using four equations; Huggins equation, kramer, Schulz-Blaschke and Martin equation. The molecular weight varied from 1.538 x1005 to 2.47x1005 g/mol for grapefruit pectin and from 1.639 x1005 to 2.471 x1005 g/mol for orange pectin. PMID:27644093

  17. First report of Phyllosticta citricarpa and description of two new species, P. paracapitalensis and P. paracitricarpa, from citrus in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, V; Groenewald, J Z; Li, H; Glienke, C; Carstens, E; Hattingh, V; Fourie, P H; Crous, P W

    2017-06-01

    The genus Phyllosticta occurs worldwide, and contains numerous plant pathogenic, endophytic and saprobic species. Phyllosticta citricarpa is the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot disease (CBS), affecting fruits and leaves of several citrus hosts (Rutaceae), and can also be isolated from asymptomatic citrus tissues. Citrus Black Spot occurs in citrus-growing regions with warm summer rainfall climates, but is absent in countries of the European Union (EU). Phyllosticta capitalensis is morphologically similar to P. citricarpa, but is a non-pathogenic endophyte, commonly isolated from citrus leaves and fruits and a wide range of other hosts, and is known to occur in Europe. To determine which Phyllosticta spp. occur within citrus growing regions of EU countries, several surveys were conducted (2015-2017) in the major citrus production areas of Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain to collect both living plant material and leaf litter in commercial nurseries, orchards, gardens, backyards and plant collections. A total of 64 Phyllosticta isolates were obtained from citrus in Europe, of which 52 were included in a multi-locus (ITS, actA, tef1, gapdh, LSU and rpb2 genes) DNA dataset. Two isolates from Florida (USA), three isolates from China, and several reference strains from Australia, South Africa and South America were included in the overall 99 isolate dataset. Based on the data obtained, two known species were identified, namely P. capitalensis (from asymptomatic living leaves of Citrus spp.) in Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain, and P. citricarpa (from leaf litter of C. sinensis and C. limon) in Italy, Malta and Portugal. Moreover, two new species were described, namely P. paracapitalensis (from asymptomatic living leaves of Citrus spp.) in Italy and Spain, and P. paracitricarpa (from leaf litter of C. limon) in Greece. On a genotypic level, isolates of P. citricarpa populations from Italy and Malta (MAT1-2-1) represented a single clone, and those

  18. Efficacy of three citrus oil formulations against solenopsis invicta buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), the red imported fire ant1,2

    Science.gov (United States)

    James T. Vogt; Thormas G. Shelton; Michael E. Merchant; Scott A. Russell; Marla J. Tanley; Arthur G. Appel

    2002-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in Alabama, Oklahoma, and Texas to assess efficacy of raw citrus peel extract (orange oil) and a commercial citrus oil formulation for control of Solenopsis invicta Buren, the red imported fire ant. A recipe containing orange oil (equal parts orange oil, cattlemen's molasses, and compost tea at 47 mL L1 water),...

  19. Identification of putative TAL effector targets of the citrus canker pathogens shows functional convergence underlying disease development and defense response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Andre L A; Carazzolle, Marcelo F; Abe, Valeria Y; de Oliveira, Maria L P; Domingues, Mariane N; Silva, Jaqueline C; Cernadas, Raul A; Benedetti, Celso E

    2014-02-25

    Transcriptional activator-like (TAL) effectors, formerly known as the AvrBs3/PthA protein family, are DNA-binding effectors broadly found in Xanthomonas spp. that transactivate host genes upon injection via the bacterial type three-secretion system. Biologically relevant targets of TAL effectors, i.e. host genes whose induction is vital to establish a compatible interaction, have been reported for xanthomonads that colonize rice and pepper; however, citrus genes modulated by the TAL effectors PthA"s" and PthC"s" of the citrus canker bacteria Xanthomonas citri (Xc) and Xanthomonas aurantifolii pathotype C (XaC), respectively, are poorly characterized. Of particular interest, XaC causes canker disease in its host lemon (Citrus aurantifolia), but triggers a defense response in sweet orange. Based on, 1) the TAL effector-DNA binding code, 2) gene expression data of Xc and XaC-infiltrated sweet orange leaves, and 3) citrus hypocotyls transformed with PthA2, PthA4 or PthC1, we have identified a collection of Citrus sinensis genes potentially targeted by Xc and XaC TAL effectors. Our results suggest that similar with other strains of Xanthomonas TAL effectors, PthA2 and PthA4, and PthC1 to some extent, functionally converge. In particular, towards induction of genes involved in the auxin and gibberellin synthesis and response, cell division, and defense response. We also present evidence indicating that the TAL effectors act as transcriptional repressors and that the best scoring predicted DNA targets of PthA"s" and PthC"s" in citrus promoters predominantly overlap with or localize near to TATA boxes of core promoters, supporting the idea that TAL effectors interact with the host basal transcriptional machinery to recruit the RNA pol II and start transcription. The identification of PthA"s" and PthC"s" targets, such as the LOB (lateral organ boundary) and CCNBS genes that we report here, is key for the understanding of the canker symptoms development during host

  20. Preliminary Studies on Species and Distribution of Citrus Viroids in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-feng; ZHOU Chang-yong; TANG Ke-zhi; LAN Jian-qiang; ZHOU Yan; LI Zhon-gan

    2008-01-01

    Citrus viroids are the small but economically important RNA pathogens.For investigating their occurrence and distribution in China,65 viroid samples collected from 8 major citrus cultivated regions were evaluated using one-step or multiplex one-step RT-PCR and biological indexing for specifically detection of Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd),Citrus bent leaf viroid (CBLVd),Hop stunt viroid (HSVd),Citrus viroid-ⅢI (CVd-Ⅲ) and Citrus viroid-Ⅳ (CVd-Ⅳ).The results showed that there were at least 4 kinds of citrus viroids (CEVd,CBLVd,HSVd,and CVd-Ⅲ) on citrus trees in China.Most of the infected citrus plants harbored more than one viroid species,and two plants were infected with up to 4 citrus viroids.Sweet orange was more frequently infected by viroids than other citrus varieties.It is the preliminary report on the species and distribution of citrus viroids in China.

  1. Essential Oil Variation from Twenty Two Genotypes of Citrus in Brazil-Chemometric Approach and Repellency Against Diaphorina citri Kuwayama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Moacir Dos Santos; Ribeiro, Leandro do Prado; Borgoni, Paulo Cesar; Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes da; Forim, Moacir Rossi; Fernandes, João Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Vendramin, José Djair; Machado, Marcos Antônio

    2016-06-22

    The chemical composition of volatile oils from 22 genotypes of Citrus and related genera was poorly differentiated, but chemometric techniques have clarified the relationships between the 22 genotypes, and allowed us to understand their resistance to D. citri. The most convincing similarities include the synthesis of (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-caryophyllene for all 11 genotypes of group A. Genotypes of group B are not uniformly characterized by essential oil compounds. When stimulated with odor sources of 22 genotypes in a Y-tube olfactometer D. citri preferentially entered the arm containing the volatile oils of Murraya paniculata, confirming orange jasmine as its best host. C. reticulata × C. sinensis was the least preferred genotype, and is characterized by the presence of phytol, (Z)-β-ocimene, and β-elemene, which were not found in the most preferred genotype. We speculate that these three compounds may act as a repellent, making these oils less attractive to D. citri.

  2. Lipolytic effect of a polyphenolic citrus dry extract of red orange, grapefruit, orange (SINETROL) in human body fat adipocytes. Mechanism of action by inhibition of cAMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Constantin; Gerbi, Alain; Tenca, Guillaume; Juchaux, Franck; Bernard, François-Xavier

    2008-10-01

    The present study investigated the lipolytic (break of fat stored) effect of a citrus-based polyphenolic dietary supplement (SINETROL) at human adipocytes (ex vivo), body fat (clinical) and biochemical levels (inhibition of phosphodiesterase). Free fatty acids (FFA) release was used as indicator of human adipocyte lipolysis and SINETROL activity has been compared with known lipolytic products (isoproterenol, theopylline and caffeine). SINETROL stimulated significantly the lipolytic activity in a range of 6 fold greater than the control. Moreover, SINETROL has 2.1 greater activity than guarana 12% caffeine while its content in caffeine is 3 times lower. Clinically, two groups of 10 volunteers with BMI relevant of overweight were compared during 4 and 12 weeks with 1.4 g/day SINETROL and placebo supplementation. In the SINETROL Group the body fat (%) decreased with a significant difference of 5.53% and 15.6% after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively, while the body weight (kg) decreased with a significant difference of 2.2 and 5.2 kg after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively. These observed effects are linked to SINETROL polyphenolic composition and its resulting synergistic activity. SINETROL is a potent inhibitor of cAMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE) (97%) compared to other purified compounds (cyanidin-3 glycoside, narangin, caffeine). These results suggest that SINETROL has a strong lipolytic effect mediated by cAMP-PDE inhibition. SINETROL may serve to prevent obesity by decreasing BMI.

  3. QTL mapping for fruit quality in Citrus using DArTseq markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtolo, Maiara; Cristofani-Yaly, Mariângela; Gazaffi, Rodrigo; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Figueira, Antonio; Machado, Marcos Antonio

    2017-04-12

    Citrus breeding programs have many limitations associated with the species biology and physiology, requiring the incorporation of new biotechnological tools to provide new breeding possibilities. Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers, combined with next-generation sequencing, have wide applicability in the construction of high-resolution genetic maps and in quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. This study aimed to construct an integrated genetic map using full-sib progeny derived from Murcott tangor and Pera sweet orange and DArTseq™ molecular markers and to perform QTL mapping of twelve fruit quality traits. A controlled Murcott x Pera crossing was conducted at the Citrus Germplasm Repository at the Sylvio Moreira Citrus Centre of the Agronomic Institute (IAC) located in Cordeirópolis, SP, in 1997. In 2012, 278 F1 individuals out of a family of 312 confirmed hybrid individuals were analyzed for fruit traits and genotyped using the DArTseq markers. Using OneMap software to obtain the integrated genetic map, we considered only the DArT loci that showed no segregation deviation. The likelihood ratio and the genomic information from the available Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck genome were used to determine the linkage groups (LGs). The resulting integrated map contained 661 markers in 13 LGs, with a genomic coverage of 2,774 cM and a mean density of 0.23 markers/cM. The groups were assigned to the nine Citrus haploid chromosomes; however, some of the chromosomes were represented by two LGs due the lack of information for a single integration, as in cases where markers segregated in a 3:1 fashion. A total of 19 QTLs were identified through composite interval mapping (CIM) of the 12 analyzed fruit characteristics: fruit diameter (cm), height (cm), height/diameter ratio, weight (g), rind thickness (cm), segments per fruit, total soluble solids (TSS, %), total titratable acidity (TTA, %), juice content (%), number of seeds, TSS/TTA ratio and number of fruits per

  4. Protective effect of red orange extract supplementation against UV-induced skin damages: photoaging and solar lentigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglia, Carmelo; Offerta, Alessia; Saija, Antonella; Trombetta, Domenico; Venera, Cardile

    2014-06-01

    Exposure of the skin to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiations causes important oxidative damages that result in clinical and hystopathological changes, contributing to premature skin aging. Hyperpigmented lesions, also known as age spots, are one of the most visible alterations in skin photoaging. Skin is naturally equipped with antioxidant systems against UV-induced ROS generation; however, these antioxidant defenses are not completely efficient during exposure to sunlight. Oral antioxidants are able to counteract the harmful effects of UV radiation and to strengthen the physiological skin antioxidant defenses. The present study was performed to evaluate the in vivo skin photo-protecting and anti-aging effects of a red orange (Citrus sinensis varieties Moro, Tarocco and Sanguinello) extract supplementation. Previous studies showed that red orange extracts possess strong in vitro free radical scavenging/antioxidant activity and photo-protective effects on human skin. The photo-protective effects of red orange extract intake against UV-induced skin erythema and melanin production in solar lentigo was evaluated on healthy volunteers by an objective instrumental method (reflectance spectrophotometry). Data obtained from in vivo studies showed that supplementation of red orange extract (100 mg/daily) for 15 days brought a significant reduction in the UV-induced skin erythema degree. Moreover, skin age spots pigmentation (melanin content) decreased from 27% to 7% when subjects were exposed to solar lamp during red orange extract supplementation. Red orange extract intake can strengthen physiological antioxidant skin defenses, protecting skin from the damaging processes involved in photo-aging and leading to an improvement in skin appearance and pigmentation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Small RNA Profiling Reveals Phosphorus Deficiency as a Contributing Factor in Symptom Expression for Citrus Huanglongbing Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwei Zhao; Ruobai Sun; Ute Albrecht; Chellappan Padmanabhan; Airong Wang; Michael D.Coffey; Thomas Girke

    2013-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating citrus disease that is associated with bacteria of the genus "Candidatus Liberibacter' (Ca.L.).Powerful diagnostic tools and management strategies are desired to control HLB.Host small RNAs (sRNA) play a vital role in regulating host responses to pathogen infection and are used as early diagnostic markers for many human diseases,including cancers.To determine whether citrus sRNAs regulate host responses to HLB,sRNAs were profiled from Citrus sinensis 10 and 14 weeks post grafting with Ca.L.asiaticus (Las)-positive or healthy tissue.Ten new microRNAs (miRNAs),76 conserved miRNAs,and many small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were discovered.Several miRNAs and siRNAs were highly induced by Las infection,and can be potentially developed into early diagnosis markers of HLB.miR399,which is induced by phosphorus starvation in other plant species,was induced specifically by infection of Las but not Spiroplasma citri that causes citrus stubborn--a disease with symptoms similar to HLB.We found a 35% reduction of phosphorus in Las-positive citrus trees compared to healthy trees.Applying phosphorus oxyanion solutions to HLB-positive sweet orange trees reduced HLB symptom severity and significantly improved fruit production during a 3-year field trial in south-west Florida.Our molecular,physiological,and field data suggest that phosphorus deficiency is linked to HLB disease symptomology.

  6. Effect of hesperidin and neohesperidin from bittersweet orange (Citrus aurantium var. bigaradia) peel on indomethacin-induced peptic ulcers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Dalia I; Mahmoud, Mona F; Wink, Michael; El-Shazly, Assem M

    2014-05-01

    Hesperidin and neohesperidin are the major flavanones isolated from bittersweet orange. It was recently reported that they have potent anti-inflammatory effects in various inflammatory models. In the present study, the effects of hesperidin and neohesperidin on indomethacin-induced ulcers in rats and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Gastric ulcers were induced in rats with a single dose of indomethacin. The effects of pretreatment with hesperidin and neohesperidin were assessed in comparison with omeprazole as reference standard. Ulcer index, gene expression of gastric cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), lipid peroxidation product, malondialdhyde (MDA), and reduced glutathione (GSH) content in stomach were measured. Furthermore, gross and histopathological examination was performed. Our results indicated that both hesperidin and neohesperidin significantly aggravated gastric damage caused by indomethacin administration as evidenced by increased ulcer index and histopathological changes of stomach.

  7. Application of ultraviolet-C light on oranges for the inactivation of postharvest wound pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germicidal effects of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light on the postharvest wound pathogens of citrus fruits namely Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum were investigated. P. digitatum and P. italicum spores were inoculated (4.00 – 4.50 log cfu/ orange) onto Washington navel oranges (Citrus sinens...

  8. Characterization of a Proposed Dichorhavirus Associated with the Citrus Leprosis Disease and Analysis of the Host Response

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Cruz-Jaramillo; Roberto Ruiz-Medrano; Lourdes Rojas-Morales; José Abel López-Buenfil; Oscar Morales-Galván; Claudio Chavarín-Palacio; José Abrahán Ramírez-Pool; Beatriz Xoconostle-Cázares

    2014-01-01

    The causal agents of Citrus leprosis are viruses; however, extant diagnostic methods to identify them have failed to detect known viruses in orange, mandarin, lime and bitter orange trees with severe leprosis symptoms in Mexico, an important citrus producer. Using high throughput sequencing, a virus associated with citrus leprosis was identified, belonging to the proposed Dichorhavirus genus. The virus was termed Citrus Necrotic Spot Virus (CNSV) and contains two negative-strand RNA component...

  9. Analysis of cuticular wax constituents and genes that contribute to the formation of 'glossy Newhall', a spontaneous bud mutant from the wild-type 'Newhall' navel orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dechun; Yang, Li; Zheng, Qiong; Wang, Yuechen; Wang, Minli; Zhuang, Xia; Wu, Qi; Liu, Chuanfu; Liu, Shanbei; Liu, Yong

    2015-08-01

    Navel orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) fruit surfaces contain substantial quantities of cuticular waxes, which have important eco-physiological roles, such as water retention and pathogen defense. The wax constituents of ripe navel orange have been studied in various reports, while the wax changes occurring during fruit development and the molecular mechanism underlying their biosynthesis/export have not been investigated. Recently, we reported a spontaneous bud mutant from the wild-type (WT) 'Newhall' Navel orange. This mutant displayed unusual glossy fruit peels and was named 'glossy Newhall' (MT). In this study, we compared the developmental profiles of the epicuticular and intracuticular waxes on the WT and MT fruit surfaces. The formation of epicuticular wax crystals on the navel orange surface was shown to be dependent on the accumulation of high amounts of aliphatic wax components with trace amounts of terpenoids. In sharp contrast, the underlying intracuticular wax layers have relatively low concentrations of aliphatic wax components but high concentrations of cyclic wax compounds, especially terpenoids at the late fruit developmental stages. Our work also showed that many genes that are involved in wax biosynthesis and export pathways were down-regulated in MT fruit peels, leading to a decrease in aliphatic wax component amounts and the loss of epicuticular wax crystals, ultimately causing the glossy phenotype of MT fruits.

  10. Correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content with physicochemical parameters of blended extracts of Camellia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene Dornelles Mello

    2014-03-01

    This paper evaluated the total antioxidant activity (TAA and the correlation with parameters such as total phenols (FT, total acidity, pH, redox potential (ORP and conductivity (EC, of commercial teas of Camellia sinensis, single or blended with other plants. The extracts tested were: Camellia sinensis fermented and unfermented, Camellia sinensis with Citrus limonium, Camellia sinensis with Mentha piperita, Camellia sinensis with Prunus persica, Camellia sinensis with Citrus sinensis. All extracts showed high percentages of TAA and were not significantly different by Tukey’s test. The correlation matrices indicated that except for the extract of Camellia sinensis with Prunus persica, all the other extracts had statistically significant correlations. Strong correlations were found between TAA and FT, and between pH and FT. The extract of Camellia sinensis with Mentha piperita presented the highest correlation between TAA and FT. The same compounds that influence the pH and ORP may also influence the EC, for almost all teas. For the fermented and unfermented extracts of Camellia sinensis all parameters had been strongly correlated (r > 0.7.

  11. First report of Xiphinema rivesi Dalmasso, 1969 on citrus in northern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a nematode survey in 2012-2013 in EL-Nobarria, EL-Behera governorate, northern Egypt, specimens of dagger nematode (Xiphinema sp.) were collected from soil around the rhizosphere of citrus trees (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) exhibiting poor growth and low yield. The morphology of females esta...

  12. Involvement of an ethylene response factor in chlorophyll degradation during citrus fruit degreening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorophyll degradation naturally occurs during plant senescence. However, in fruit such as citrus, it is a positive characteristic, as degreening is an important colour development contributing to fruit quality. In the present work, Citrus sinensis Osbeck, cv. Newhall fruit was used as a model for ...

  13. Effects of atmospheric CO{sub 2} enrichment and foliar methanol application on net photosynthesis of sour orange tree (Citrus Aurantium; Rutaceae) leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idso, S.B.; Garcia, R.L.; Kimball, B.A. [Water Conservation Lab., Phoenix, AR (United States); Idso, K.E.; Hoober, J.K. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AR (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Foliar spray applications of 40% aqueous methanol were made to sunlit leaves of sour orange trees that had been grown continuously in clear-plastic-wall open-top enclosures maintained out-of-doors at Phoenix, Arizona, for over 5.5 years in ambient air of approximately 400 {mu}mol mol{sup -1} CO{sub 2} and in air enriched with CO{sub 2} to a concentration of approximately 700 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}. No unambiguous effects of the methanol applications were detected in photosynthesis measurements made on foliage in either of the two CO{sub 2} treatments. THe 75% increase in CO{sub 2}, however, raised the upper-limiting leaf temperature for positive net photosynthesis by approximately 7 C, which resulted in a 75% enhancement in net photosynthesis at a leaf temperature of 31 C, a 100% enhancement at a leaf temperature of 35 C, and a 200% enhancement at 42 C. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Effect of liberibacter infection (huanglongbing disease) of citrus on orange fruit physiology and fruit/fruit juice quality: chemical and physical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Elizabeth; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John; McCollum, Greg; Bai, Jinhe; Irey, Mike; Cameron, Randall; Luzio, Gary

    2010-01-27

    More than 90% of oranges in Florida are processed, and since Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been rumored to affect fruit flavor, chemical and physical analyses were conducted on fruit and juice from healthy (Las -) and diseased (Las +) trees on three juice processing varieties over two seasons, and in some cases several harvests. Fruit, both asymptomatic and symptomatic for the disease, were used, and fresh squeezed and processed/pasteurized juices were evaluated. Fruit and juice characteristics measured included color, size, solids, acids, sugars, aroma volatiles, ascorbic acid, secondary metabolites, pectin, pectin-demethylating enzymes, and juice cloud. Results showed that asymptomatic fruit from symptomatic trees were similar to healthy fruit for many of the quality factors measured, but that juice from asymptomatic and especially symptomatic fruits were often higher in the bitter compounds limonin and nomilin. However, values were generally below reported taste threshold levels, and only symptomatic fruit seemed likely to cause flavor problems. There was variation due to harvest date, which was often greater than that due to disease. It is likely that the detrimental flavor attributes of symptomatic fruit (which often drop off the tree) will be largely diluted in commercial juice blends that include juice from fruit of several varieties, locations, and seasons.

  15. Isolation, screening, characterization, and selection of superior rhizobacterial strains as bioinoculants for seedling emergence and growth promotion of Mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thokchom, Elizabeth; Kalita, Mohan Chandra; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra

    2014-02-01

    Mandarin orange (MO) is an important fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions of the world. A total of 217 morphologically distinct rhizobacteria from MO orchards in 3 states of northeastern India were isolated and analyzed for 4 plant-growth-promoting (PGP) attributes: nitrogen fixation, production of indole acetic acid like substances, solubilization of phosphate, and ability to antagonize pathogenic fungi. Isolates were ranked based on in-vitro-assayed PGP attributes, and 10 superior isolates were selected to test their effect on seedling emergence and seedling growth in a completely randomized pot experiment. These 10 isolates increased seedling emergence over a noninoculated control within 45 days after sowing. Five isolates, namely RCE1, RCE2, RCE3, RCE5, and RCE7, significantly increased shoot length, shoot dry biomass, and root dry biomass of 120-day-old seedlings over the noninoculated control. The beneficial effects of 4 selected strains, namely Enterobacter hormaechei RCE-1, Enterobacter asburiae RCE-2, Enterobacter ludwigii RCE-5, and Klebsiella pneumoniae RCE-7, on growth of the seedlings were visible up to 1 year after their transfer to 8 kg capacity pots. These strains were superior both in terms of in-vitro-assayed PGP attributes and of their beneficial effect in low phosphorus soil and, thus, may be promising bioinoculants for promoting early emergence and growth of MO seedlings.

  16. Resistance to Citrus Canker in Key/Mexican Lime Induced by β-Aminobutyric Acid and Green Tea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    B. Beheshti; G. R. Sharifi-Sirchi; M. Mansouri; A. Hosseinipour; N. L. Schlaich

    2011-01-01

    .... To improve control of this disease, lime (Citrus aurantifolia) plants inoculated with Xcc were treated with β-Aminobutyric Acid (BABA), ascorbic acid (vitamin C), thiamin (vitamin B1), green tea (Camellia sinensis...

  17. Effect of season on the quality of forages selected by sheep in citrus plantations in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard K. Adjorlolo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at assessing the effects of season on chemical composition of forages selected by sheep grazing in a citrus plantation. Forage species growing in a sweet orange (Citrus sinensis plantation were identified and sampled monthly for 2 years. Samples were bulked on monthly basis for chemical analysis. The average dry matter content of the forages increased from the rainy to the dry season but effects of season on the chemical components were inconsistent. Some species, such as Asystasia gangetica, had a higher crude protein concentration in the dry season, whereas for others, such as Panicum repens, the reverse occurred. However, average concentrations of crude protein, detergent fiber and components of fiber for all species for the rainy season were not significantly different from the dry season values. It was concluded that there were differences among forage species in their responses to changing seasons, such that grazing ruminants may select a diet to enable them to meet their nutritional requirements, provided forage biomass is adequate.Keywords: Crop-livestock integration, tree plantations, chemical composition, seasonal effects, forage quality.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(2271-277

  18. Pathogenic Interactions Between Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri and Cultivars of Pummelo (Citrus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotani, H; Ozaki, K; Tsuyumu, S

    2000-12-01

    ABSTRACT The aggressiveness of strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri on seven Citrus species, including Citrus sinensis (navel orange), C. paradisi (grapefruit), C. unshiu (Satsuma mandarin), C. junos (Yuzu), C. aurantifolia ('Mexican' lime), C. tachibana (Tachibana), and C. grandis (pummelo: 'Otachibana', 'Banpeiyu', and 'Anseikan'), were assessed by comparing lesion expansion and growth in planta, using a prick inoculation method. The existence of two groups distinct in aggressiveness was demonstrated on the pummelo cultivars, whereas the remaining species tested were uniformly susceptible. The two groups of strains were distinct in lesion expansion and growth in planta; however, both caused canker lesions on the 'Otachibana' pummelo. The sensitivity of the bacterial strains to phages Cp1 and Cp2 was associated with differences in aggressiveness. Namely, all the strains sensitive to Cp2 but resistant to Cp1 were aggressive to 'Otachibana', whereas all the strains sensitive to Cp1 but resistant to Cp2 were weakly aggressive. When a repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction amplification was carried out by enterobacterial repetitive intergeneric consensus (ERIC) sequences (ERIC1R and ERIC2) as the primers, these two groups were also distinguishable by the presence or absence of a 1.8-kb DNA fragment among otherwise identical fragments. The 1.8-kb fragment was amplified only from the strains aggressive to C. grandis.

  19. Levantamento de moscas-das-frutas e seus parasitoides em citros, no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais Survey of fruit-flies and their parasitoids in citrus in Viçosa, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lucas Magalhães Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas são responsáveis por grandes perdas em fruteiras comerciais no Brasil, por isso é fundamental conhecer as espécies predominantes na região. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar a ocorrência de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae e seus parasitoides em laranjas doces (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, tangerina Poncã (Citrus reticulata Blanco e mexerica Rio (Citrus deliciosa Ten, no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Os frutos foram coletados em abril de 2008. No laboratório eles foram acondicionados em caixas plásticas contendo areia umedecida e em ambiente controlado para obtenção dos pupários, que foram contados, acondicionados em frascos de vidro com areia fina e mantidos em estufa até a emergência dos adultos. Somente uma espécie de mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 e uma de parasitoide (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti foram identificadas. Dentre as variedades, a laranja doce Baianinha apresentou o maior índice de infestação, e os menores foram atribuídos à mexerica Rio e à tangerina Poncã.Fruit flies are responsible for large losses in commercial orchards in Brazil, thus, it is important to know the predominant species in the region. The objective of this study was to study the occurrence of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidae and of their parasitoids in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Poncã' mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco and 'Rio' tangerine (Citrus deliciosa Ten, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The fruits were collected in April 2008. In the laboratory, the fruits were stored in plastic boxes containing moist sand in a controlled environment, to obtain pupae. Then, the pupae were counted, placed in glass bottles with fine sand and kept in an oven until adult emergence. Only one species of fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 and one species of parasitoid (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti were identified. Among the varieties, the sweet

  20. Soil microbial biomass under different management and tillage systems of permanent intercropped cover species in an orange orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To mitigate soil erosion and enhance soil fertility in orange plantations, the permanent protection of the inter-rows by cover species has been suggested. The objective of this study was to evaluate alterations in the microbial biomass, due to different soil tillage systems and intercropped cover species between rows of orange trees. The soil of the experimental area previously used as pasture (Brachiaria humidicola was an Ultisol (Typic Paleudult originating from Caiuá sandstone in the northwestern part of the State of Paraná, Brazil. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated: conventional tillage (CT in the entire area and strip tillage (ST (strip width 2 m, in combination with different ground cover management systems. The citrus cultivar 'Pera' orange (Citrus sinensis grafted onto 'Rangpur' lime rootstock was used. Soil samples were collected after five years of treatment from a depth of 0-15 cm, under the tree canopy and in the inter-row, in the following treatments: (1 CT and an annual cover crop with the leguminous species Calopogonium mucunoides; (2 CT and a perennial cover crop with the leguminous peanut Arachis pintoi; (3 CT and an evergreen cover crop with Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum; (4 CT and a cover crop with spontaneous Brachiaria humidicola grass vegetation; and (5 ST and maintenance of the remaining grass (pasture of Brachiaria humidicola. Soil tillage and the different cover species influenced the microbial biomass, both under the tree canopy and in the inter-row. The cultivation of brachiaria increased C and N in the microbial biomass, while bahiagrass increased P in the microbial biomass. The soil microbial biomass was enriched in N and P by the presence of ground cover species and according to the soil P content. The grass species increased C, N and P in the soil microbial biomass from the inter-row more than leguminous species.

  1. Reduction of non-enzymatic browning of orange juice and semi-concentrates by removal of reaction substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satish K; Juyal, Shashibala; Rao, V K; Yadav, V K; Dixit, A K

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted to standardize the technology for the removal of amino acids (one of the browning reaction substrates) from sweet orange cv. Malta Common juice to reduce colour and quality deterioration in single strength juice and during subsequent concentration. Juice of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) cv. Malta Common fruits was extracted by screw type juice extractor, preserved in 500 ppm SO2 and clarified by using "Pectinase CCM" enzyme (0.2% for 2 h at 50 ± 2 °C). For removal of amino acids juice was passed under gravity through a glass column packed with an acidic cation exchange resin (CER), Dowex-50 W and quantity to be treated in one lot was standardized. The CER treated and untreated juices were concentrated to 15 and 30°Brix in a rotary vacuum evaporator. Results indicate that 121 ml of orange juice when passed through a glass column (5 cm internal diameter) packed with cation exchange resin (Dowex-50 W) upto a height of 8 cm, could remove about 98.4% of the amino acids with minimum losses in other juice constituents. With cation exchange resin treatment, the non-enzymatic browning and colour deterioration of orange juice semi-concentrates was reduced to about 3 folds in comparison to untreated counterparts. The retention of vitamin C and sugars was also better in semi-concentrates prepared from cation exchange resin treated juice. Thus, cation exchange resin treatment of orange juice prior to concentration and storage is highly beneficial in reduction of non-enzymatic browning, colour deterioration and retention of nutritional, sensory quality of product during preparation and storage.

  2. Diversidade de abelhas visitantes das flores de Citrus em pomares de laranjeira e tangerineira Diversity of flowers visiting bees of Citrus in salinas, state of minas gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tigre do Nascimento

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A presença de abelhas em culturas de valor comercial, no período de florescimento, é importante não apenas para garantir a polinização cruzada, quando indispensável, mas também para incrementar a produção de frutos e sementes. Nessa perspectiva, o presente trabalho teve a finalidade de identificar as abelhas visitantes das flores em pomar de laranjeira (Citrus sinensis e tangerineira (Citrus reticulata em Salinas - MG. O trabalho foi conduzido na fazenda experimental Santa Isabel, da Escola Agrotécnica Federal de Salinas - MG, em pomares de laranjeira com as variedades, pera, baía e baianinha, e de tangerineira, variedade poncã. As coletas das abelhas visitantes das culturas da laranjeira e tangerineira foram feitas nas floradas principais, entre os meses de agosto e outubro. Foram coletadas as abelhas que visitaram as flores nos horários entre 06 h e 18 h, totalizando 52 horas na laranjeira e 50 horas na tangerineira. No pomar de laranjeira, foram coletados 5.045 espécimes com riqueza de 12 espécies, e na tangerineira, 1.428 espécimes com 20 espécies. As espécies de abelhas de maior predominância e dominância em todos os horários amostrados foram Apis mellifera e Trigona spinipes na cultura da laranjeira e A. mellifera, T. spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula na cultura da tangerineira.The presence of bees on cultures with commercial value during flowering is important to ensure the cross-pollination, when necessary, but also to increase the production of fruits and seeds. This work aimed to identify flowers' visiting bees on orange and tangerine orchards in Salinas - MG. The work was leaded on Santa Isabel experimental farm of the Federal Agro-technical School of Salinas - MG, on orange orchards (Citrus sinensis with pear, bahia and baianinha varieties in the spacing of 5,0 x 6,0, and on tangerine orchards (C. reticulate using poncã variety in the spacing of 5,0 x 5,0. The sampling of visiting bees from orange and tangerine

  3. Weedy hosts and prevalence of potential leafhopper vectors (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) of a phytoplasma (16SrIX group) associated with Huanglongbing symptoms in citrus groves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, R N; Teixeira, D C; Yamamoto, P T; Lopes, J R S

    2012-04-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a severe citrus (Citrus spp.) disease associated with the bacteria genus Candidatus Liberibacter, detected in Brazil in 2004. Another bacterium was found in association with HLB symptoms and characterized as a phytoplasma belonging to the 16SrIX group. The objectives of this study were to identify potential leafhopper vectors of the HLB-associated phytoplasma and their host plants. Leafhoppers were sampled every other week for 12 mo with sticky yellow cards placed at two heights (0.3 and 1.5 m) in the citrus tree canopy and by using a sweep net in the ground vegetation of two sweet orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, groves infected by the HLB-phytoplasma in São Paulo state. Faunistic analyses indicated one Agalliinae (Agallia albidula Uhler) and three Deltocephalinae [Balclutha hebe (Kirkaldy), Planicephalus flavicosta (Stål), and Scaphytopius (Convelinus) marginelineatus (Stål)] species, as the most abundant and frequent leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Visual observations indicated an association of leafhopper species with some weeds and the influence of weed species composition on leafhopper abundance in low-lying vegetation. S. marginelineatus and P. flavicosta were more frequent on Sida rhombifolia L. and Althernantera tenella Colla, respectively, whereas A. albidula was observed more often on Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq. and B. hebe only occurred on grasses. DNA samples of field-collected S. marginelineatus were positive by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing tests for the presence of the HLB-phytoplasma group, indicating it as a potential vector. The association of leafhoppers with their hosts may be used in deciding which management strategies to adopt against weeds and diseases in citrus orchards.

  4. Diversidade genética entre híbridos de laranja-doce e tangor 'Murcott' avaliada por fAFLP e RAPD Genetic diversity among hybrids of sweet orange and 'Murcott' tangor evaluated by fAFLP and RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinês Bastianel

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade genética em uma população de 148 híbridos de tangor 'Murcott' (Citrus reticulata Blanco x C. sinensis L. Osbeck e laranja 'Pêra' (C. sinensis L. Osbeck obtidos por polinização controlada, pelo uso de marcadores fAFLP e RAPD. Marcadores polimórficos (416 marcadores fAFLP e 33 RAPD foram utilizados para avaliar a similaridade genética entre os híbridos, calculada com o coeficiente Jaccard pelo método UPGMA. A consistência de cada agrupamento foi determinada pelo programa BOOD. Houve alta similaridade genética entre os parentais. A laranja 'Pêra' apresentou maior número (132 de loci em heterozigose em relação ao tangor 'Murcott' (105, corroborando a teoria de origem híbrida para a laranja-doce. Observaram-se dois grupos distintos de plantas, e um deles abrangeu 80% dos híbridos com maior similaridade com a laranja 'Pêra'. A análise bootstrap não revelou consistência estatística entre esses grupos. Marcadores fAFLP são mais eficientes na avaliação do polimorfismo, sendo indicados para seleção de indivíduos híbridos mais próximos a um dos parentais.The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic diversity in a population of 148 hybrids of 'Murcott' tangor (Citrus reticulata Blanco x C. sinensis L. Osbeck and 'Pêra' sweet orange (C. sinensis L. Osbeck, obtained by controlled polination, using fAFLP and RAPD markers. Polymorphic markers (416 fAFLP and 33 RAPD markers were used to evaluate genetic similarity among the hybrids, calculated by the coefficient of Jaccard, using the UPGMA method. The consistency of each group was determined by software BOOD. There was high genetic similarity within the parents. 'Pêra' sweet orange had a higher number of loci in heterozygosis (132 compared to 'Murcott' tangor (105, supporting the theory of hybrid origin for sweet oranges. Two distinct groups of plants were observed: one group had 80% of the hybrids that displayed

  5. Identification and transcript profiles of citrus growth-regulating factor genes involved in the regulation of leaf and fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Guo, Ling-Xia; Jin, Long-Fei; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Liu, Tao; Fan, Yu-Hua; Peng, Shu-Ang

    2016-10-01

    Growth-regulating factor (GRF) is an important protein in GA-mediated response, with key roles in plant growth and development. However, it is not known whether or how the GRF proteins in citrus to regulate organ size. In this study, nine citrus GRF genes (CsGRF1-9) were validated from the 'Anliu' sweet orange (AL, Citrus sinensis cv. Anliu) by PCR amplification. They all contain two conserved motifs (QLQ and WRC) and have 3-4 exons. The transcript levels of genes were detected by qRT-PCR. Transcript analysis showed that (1) CsGRF 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, and 9 expressed predominantly in young leaf, CsGRF 3 and 4 expressed predominantly in fruit immature juice sacs and CsGRF 8 expressed predominantly in root; (2) all citrus GRF genes had significantly higher expression in young leaves than mature leaf; (3) in juice sacs, the transcript levels of CsGRF1, 4, 5, 6, and 8 increased significantly while the transcript levels of CsGRF2, 3, 7, and 9 had no significant change from 80 DAF to 100 DAF. Besides, GA3 treatment did not affect the transcript levels of CsGRF5 and CsGRF6 but significantly increased the transcript levels of the other seven CsGRF genes in young leaves. These results suggested that all CsGRF genes involve in the leaf development, CsGRF1, 4, 5, 6, and 8 act developmentally whilst CsGRF2, 3, 7, and 9 play fundamental roles in fruit cell enlargement, which may be through GA pathway or GA-independent pathway.

  6. Influência da variedade e do porta-enxêrto, na composição mineral das fôlhas de citros Influence of scion and rootstock varieties on the inorganic composition of citrus leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Romano Gallo

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são relatados os efeitos determinados; por diferentes combinações copa-cavalo, na composição mineral das fôlhas de citros. O material para o presente estudo foi retirado de dois ensaios de cavalos para laranja pêra e laranja baianinha (Citrus sinensis Osbeck instalados na Estação Experimental de Limeira, do Instituto Agronômico. Amostras de fôlhas foram colhidas em diferentes estágios de crescimento e correspondentes o dois ciclos vegetativos, e a composição estudada separadamente para árvores de mesma idade. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que além dos efeitos na composição das folhas devidos à variedade e ao porta-enxêrto, outros fatôres como longevidade e moléstias de vírus devem ser considerados pora o julgamento dos efeitos da adubação pela análise foliar.The influence of five different combinations scion-rootstock for two scion varieties on the percentage of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium in citrus leaves is reported. Leaves from fruiting shoots of two spring flushes were taken from Baianinha and Pêra oranges trees (Citrus sinensis Osbeck on two experimental orchards located in the Experiment Station of Limeira, State of Sao Paulo. The rootstocks On which they are budded and used for this study were: Pêra orange, and sweet orange (C. sinensis Osb., Rangour lime (C. reticulata Blanco X C- aurantifolia Swing (?, rough lemon (C. limon Burm. f. X (?, and Cleopatra mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco. In the spring of 1957 when the leaf sampling was started the trees on sweet orange, Rangpur lime and rough lemon rootstocks were 21 years old and those an Pêra and mandarin rootstocks 7 years old, but only plants of the same age were compared. Fertilization was uniform in all plots and the soil apparently very uniform. Confidence limits for the mean results of inorganic composition of leaves 3 to 6 months old of two flushes are presented. Seasonal changes in nutrient

  7. STUDIES ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CITRUS FRUIT JUICES AGAINST SELECTED ENTERIC PATHOGENS

    OpenAIRE

    Bansode.D.S.; Chavan.M.D.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find out the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of citrus fruit juices viz. Lemon (Citrus limon) and Orange (Citrus ourantium) against medically important selected enteric pathogens. As microorganisms are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of Citrus fruit juices against selected enteric pathogens. Biological active compounds present in the medicinal important fruit ...

  8. Extracts of Immature Orange (Aurantii fructus immaturus) and Citrus Unshiu Peel (Citri unshiu pericarpium) Induce P-Glycoprotein and Cytochrome P450 3A4 Expression via Upregulation of Pregnane X Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Naoto; Murakami, Aki; Urushizaki, Shiori; Matsuda, Misa; Kawazoe, Kazuyoshi; Ishizawa, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) are expressed in the intestine and are associated with drug absorption and metabolism. Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is the key molecule that regulates the expression of P-gp and CYP3A4. Given that PXR activity is regulated by a variety of compounds, it is possible that unknown PXR activators exist among known medicines. Kampo is a Japanese traditional medicine composed of various natural compounds. In particular, immature orange [Aurantii fructus immaturus (IO)] and citrus unshiu peel [Citri unshiu pericarpium (CP)] are common ingredients of kampo. A previous study reported that kampo containing IO or CP decreased the blood concentration of concomitant drugs via upregulation of CYP3A4 although the mechanism was unclear. Some flavonoids are indicated to alter P-gp and CYP3A4 activity via changes in PXR activity. Because IO and CP include various flavonoids, we speculated that the activity of P-gp and CYP3A4 in the intestine may be altered via changes in PXR activity when IO or CP is administered. We tested this hypothesis by using LS180 intestinal epithelial cells. The ethanol extract of IO contained narirutin and naringin, and that of CP contained narirutin and hesperidin. Ethanol extracts of IO and CP induced P-gp, CYP3A4, and PXR expression. The increase of P-gp and CYP3A4 expression by the IO and CP ethanol extracts was inhibited by ketoconazole, an inhibitor of PXR activation. The ethanol extract of IO and CP decreased the intracellular concentration of digoxin, a P-gp substrate, and this decrease was inhibited by cyclosporine A, a P-gp inhibitor. In contrast, CP, but not IO, stimulated the metabolism of testosterone, a CYP3A4 substrate, and this was inhibited by a CYP3A4 inhibitor. These findings indicate that the ethanol extract of IO and CP increased P-gp and CYP3A4 expression via induction of PXR protein. Moreover, this induction decreased the intracellular substrate concentration.

  9. Extracts of Immature Orange (Aurantii fructus immaturus) and Citrus Unshiu Peel (Citri unshiu pericarpium) Induce P-Glycoprotein and Cytochrome P450 3A4 Expression via Upregulation of Pregnane X Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Naoto; Murakami, Aki; Urushizaki, Shiori; Matsuda, Misa; Kawazoe, Kazuyoshi; Ishizawa, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) are expressed in the intestine and are associated with drug absorption and metabolism. Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is the key molecule that regulates the expression of P-gp and CYP3A4. Given that PXR activity is regulated by a variety of compounds, it is possible that unknown PXR activators exist among known medicines. Kampo is a Japanese traditional medicine composed of various natural compounds. In particular, immature orange [Aurantii fructus immaturus (IO)] and citrus unshiu peel [Citri unshiu pericarpium (CP)] are common ingredients of kampo. A previous study reported that kampo containing IO or CP decreased the blood concentration of concomitant drugs via upregulation of CYP3A4 although the mechanism was unclear. Some flavonoids are indicated to alter P-gp and CYP3A4 activity via changes in PXR activity. Because IO and CP include various flavonoids, we speculated that the activity of P-gp and CYP3A4 in the intestine may be altered via changes in PXR activity when IO or CP is administered. We tested this hypothesis by using LS180 intestinal epithelial cells. The ethanol extract of IO contained narirutin and naringin, and that of CP contained narirutin and hesperidin. Ethanol extracts of IO and CP induced P-gp, CYP3A4, and PXR expression. The increase of P-gp and CYP3A4 expression by the IO and CP ethanol extracts was inhibited by ketoconazole, an inhibitor of PXR activation. The ethanol extract of IO and CP decreased the intracellular concentration of digoxin, a P-gp substrate, and this decrease was inhibited by cyclosporine A, a P-gp inhibitor. In contrast, CP, but not IO, stimulated the metabolism of testosterone, a CYP3A4 substrate, and this was inhibited by a CYP3A4 inhibitor. These findings indicate that the ethanol extract of IO and CP increased P-gp and CYP3A4 expression via induction of PXR protein. Moreover, this induction decreased the intracellular substrate concentration. PMID:28270768

  10. Development of SSR markers from Citrus clementina (Rutaceae) BAC end sequences and interspecific transferability in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollitrault, Frédérique; Terol, Javier; Pina, Jose Antonio; Navarro, Luis; Talon, Manuel; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2010-11-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) end sequences of Citrus clementina and their transferability and polymorphism tested in the genus Citrus for future anchorage of physical and genetic maps and comparative interspecific genetic mapping. • Using PAGE and DNA silver staining, 79 primer pairs were selected for their transferability and polymorphism among 526 microsatellites mined in BES. A preliminary diversity study in Citrus was conducted with 18 of them, in C. reticulata, C. maxima, C. medica, C. sinensis, C. aurantium, C. paradisi, C. lemon, C. aurantifolia, and some papedas (wild citrus), using a capillary electrophoresis fragment analyzer. Intra- and interspecific polymorphism was observed, and heterozygous markers were identified for the different genotypes to be used for genetic mapping. • These results indicate the utility of the developed primers for comparative mapping studies and the integration of physical and genetic maps.

  11. Response of 'Nagpur' mandarin, 'Mosambi' sweet orange and 'Kagzi' acid lime to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladaniya, M.S. E-mail: mslngp@nagpur.dot.net.in; Singh, Shyam; Wadhawan, A.K

    2003-07-01

    The effects of irradiation dose and refrigerated storage conditions on 'Nagpur' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), 'Mosambi' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and 'Kagzi' acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) were investigated. Mature fruits of these three species were treated with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 kGy radiation. 'Nagpur' mandarin and 'Mosambi' sweet oranges were stored at 6-7 deg. C and 90-95% r.h. for 75 and 90 days, respectively, while 'Kagzi' acid limes were stored at 8{+-}1 deg. C and 90-95% r.h. for 90 days. Physico-chemical parameters, sensory attributes and respiration rate were measured besides losses and disorders. In 'Nagpur' mandarin, radiation dose upto 1.5 kGy did not cause any rind disorder. Radiation treatments did not reduce the extent of decay. Penicillium rot was delayed in fruit treated with 1.5 kGy, while it appeared early in 0 kGy. Irradiation doses were ineffective to control rots due to Botryodiplodia theobromae and Alternaria citri. Doses upto 1.5 kGy did not cause any significant effect on fruit firmness and juice content; however, total soluble solids increased, while titratable acidity and vitamin 'C' content decreased. Texture and flavour scores as recorded after a week, were not affected by irradiation except in 1.5 kGy. In 'Mosambi' sweet orange, radiation treatments caused peel disorder in the form of brown sunken areas after 90 days and reduced fruit firmness, acidity and vitamin C content. The TSS content was higher in treated fruit. Flavour and texture were not affected by the doses of irradiation used. In treated acid limes (mature yellow), weight loss and decay were higher than untreated fruit (0 kGy) although difference was non-significant. Juice, TSS, titratable acidity and vitamin C contents were significantly less in treated fruit than in 0 kGy. Texture and flavour scores were also less in treated fruit than in 0 kGy. The

  12. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea.

  13. Construction of Plant Expression Vectors with PMI Gene as Selection Marker and Their Utilization in Transformation of Citrus sinensis%PMI基因作为选择标记的植物表达载体构建及其在雪柑转基因中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾黎辉; 徐海峰; 王会全; 吴少华; 朱艺萱

    2008-01-01

    以大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)6-磷酸甘露糖异构酶(6-phosphomannose isomerase,PMI)基因替换植物表达载体pCAMBIA1301中的hpt基因以及pBI121中的gus基因,构建了以PMI基因为选择标记基因的植物表达载体pCAMBIA1301PMI和pBIPMI,并导人根癌农杆菌(Agrobacterium tumefaciens)EHA105中.研究了两种表达载体对雪柑(Citrus sinensis L.Osbeck)上胚轴的转化,在培养基附加25 g/L甘露糖和5 g/L蔗糖为碳源的选择压力下,pCAMBIA1301PMI的转化率为27.7%,pBIPMI转化率为12.7%,对再生植株用氯酚红和PCR检测证实了PMI基因的导入,建立了以PMI/甘露糖为选择系统的雪柑转基因体系.

  14. Lycopene β-cyclase Gene Cloning from Citrus sinensis Osbeck ' Cara Cara' and Its Functional Expression in E. Coli%红肉脐橙番茄红素β-环化酶基因的克隆及其在大肠杆菌中的功能表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建成; 陶能国; 周文静; 徐娟; 潘志勇; 邓秀新

    2008-01-01

    以'红肉脐橙'(Citrus sinensis Osbeck'Cara Cara')果实中分离的mRNA为模板,经RT-PCR扩增到约1.6 kb的番茄红素β-环化酶(lycopene β-cyclase,Leyb)cDNA片段.序列分析表明,该cDNA长1 654 bp,包含两个转录本Lcyb1和Lcyb2,最大开放读码框均为1 512 bp,可编码504个氨基酸.通过PCR方法获得红肉脐橙Lcyb1和Lcyb2 cDNA编码区全长,构建了Lcyb1和Lcyb2的原核表达载体pET-CitL-cyb1和pET-CitLcyb2,并通过颜色互补试验证实表达的融合蛋白6×His-Lcyb1和6×His-Lcyb2均可将番茄红素转化为β-胡萝卜素.

  15. Different adaptation strategies of two citrus scion/rootstock combinations in response to drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho Filho, Mauricio Antônio; Morillon, Raphaël; Bonatto, Diego; da Silva Gesteira, Abelmon

    2017-01-01

    Scion/rootstock interaction is important for plant development and for breeding programs. In this context, polyploid rootstocks presented several advantages, mainly in relation to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we analyzed the response to drought of two different scion/rootstock combinations presenting different polyploidy: the diploid (2x) and autotetraploid (4x) Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia, Osbeck) rootstocks grafted with 2x Valencia Delta sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) scions, named V/2xRL and V/4xRL, respectively. Based on previous gene expression data, we developed an interactomic approach to identify proteins involved in V/2xRL and V/4xRL response to drought. A main interactomic network containing 3,830 nodes and 97,652 edges was built from V/2xRL and V/4xRL data. Exclusive proteins of the V/2xRL and V/4xRL networks (2,056 and 1,001, respectively), as well as common to both networks (773) were identified. Functional clusters were obtained and two models of drought stress response for the V/2xRL and V/4xRL genotypes were designed. Even if the V/2xRL plant implement some tolerance mechanisms, the global plant response to drought was rapid and quickly exhaustive resulting in a general tendency to dehydration avoidance, which presented some advantage in short and strong drought stress conditions, but which, in long terms, does not allow the plant survival. At the contrary, the V/4xRL plants presented a response which strong impacts on development but that present some advantages in case of prolonged drought. Finally, some specific proteins, which presented high centrality on interactomic analysis were identified as good candidates for subsequent functional analysis of citrus genes related to drought response, as well as be good markers of one or another physiological mechanism implemented by the plants. PMID:28545114

  16. Caracterização química e atividade antifúngica dos óleos essenciais de cinco espécies do gênero Citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Marcos de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Os óleos essenciais do gênero Citrus estão entre os mais consumidos e comercializados no mundo, sendo o Brasil um dos principais produtores. No presente estudo, caracterizaram-se e quantificaram-se quimicamente os óleos essenciais das cascas de frutas de cinco espécies do gênero Citrus; laranja (Citrus sinensis), tangerina ponkan (Citrus reticulata), limão-rosa (Citrus limonia), limão-taiti (Citrus aurantifolia) e cidra (Citrus medica), bem como avaliou-se a atividade antifúngica deles sobre ...

  17. Efeitos do 2,4-D, em laranjeira baianinha Effects of 2,4-D on the baianinha orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ody Rodriguez

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de conhecer a reação da laranjeira Baianinha à aplicação de 2,4-D, principalmente com relação à queda de frutas, executamos um experimento de pulverização de plantas com solução deste hormônio sintético, na Estação Experimental de Limeira, zona de maior densidade citrícola do Estado de São Paulo. Tôdas as concentrações do ácido, usadas no experimento, causaram modificações nos caracteres normais da laranjeira (Citrus sinensis Osb. As fôlhas, flôres e frutas sofreram modificações mais ou menos acentuadas, de acordo com a concentração do produto, os resultados permitindo contra-indicar pulverizações com 2,4-D nas condições apresentadas; mostram também, que as modificações atribuídas ao hormônio só se produziram durante a safra em que se fizeram os tratamentos. São apresentados dados das produções, do aumento de pêso das frutas e de queda das mesmas e das fôlhas, bem como ilustrações das principais modificações ocorridas nas frutas. A aplicação do 2,4-D causou decréscimo linear do número de frutas, proporcional as dosagens do hormônio. Como conseqüência houve aumento do seu pêso médio. Êste fato pode ser de utilidade para outras variedades cítricas, quando houver interesse no aumento de tamanho das frutas.The reaction of the Baianinha orange (Citrus sinensis Osb., a Brazilian hud sport of the Washington Navel, to applications of 2,4-D was studied at the Limeira Agr. Exp. Sta., São Paulo. All concentrations of this hormonial herbicide used in the tests induced some modifications of the normal characteristics of the plants when compared with the controls. The leaves, flowers, and fruits were the plant parts most affected by the treatments. Some of the morphological changes induced on the fruits tend to confirm the view that the Baia orange originated as a mutation from the Seleta variety. Data obtained on the yield, weight per fruit, and fruit drop indicate that application

  18. 印度查谟地区甜橙上柑桔潜叶蛾为害动态及其与重要气候因子的关系%Infestation dynamics of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton ( Lepidoptera: Phyllocnistidae) on Mosambi (Citrus sinensis) and its relation with important weather factors in Jammu, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Monika CHHETRY; Janak Singh TARA; Ruchie GUPTA

    2011-01-01

    本研究旨在揭示印度查谟柑桔潜叶蛾Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton为害甜橙Citrus sinensis的季节性变化.以及降雨量、相对湿度和温度等重要的气候因子对其种群的影响.本文对不同季节印度查谟的一个甜橙园里的柑桔潜叶蛾丰度进行了调查,从2005年3月到2008年2月每两周调查一次.柑桔潜叶蛾在一年内有3个为害高峰,分别是4月中旬、7月中旬和9月中旬,这与甜橙新营养梢的生长期相吻合.相关分析表明,上午和下午的相对湿度和平均相对湿度与柑桔潜叶蛾的数量呈负相关;然而,平均降雨量、最高气温、最低气温和平均气温与柑桔潜叶蛾的数量呈正相关.降雨量和温度与柑桔潜叶蛾为害程度呈显著正相关.总之,柑桔潜叶蛾的数量不能简单地通过观察某一特殊地区的相对湿度来预测,而降雨量和温度在影响虫害方面均起着重要的作用.%The objective of this work is to study the seasonal variation of percentage infestation, and effect of important weather factors viz. rainfall, relative humidity and temperature on the population of Citrus leaf miner, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton in J&K State of India. Seasonal abundance of Citrus leaf miner was investigated fortnightly in an orchard of Mosambi (Citrus sinensis) from March 2005 to Feb 2008, located in Jammu. There were three infestation peaks in a year that coincided with the availability of new vegetative flush viz. mid April, mid July and mid September. Correlation analysis indicated that morning,afternoon and average relative humidity were negatively correlated, whereas, average rainfall, and maximum, minimum and average temperature were positively correlated with the population of citrus leaf miner. Rainfall and temperature had significant positive correlation with the population infestation. In general, population of P. citrella can not be predicted simply by observing the relative humidity of a particular area

  19. Repartição de nutrientes nas flores, folhas e ramos da laranjeira cultivar Natal Repartition of nutrients in citrus flowers, leaves and branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurípedes Malavolta

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available As plantas cítricas produzem elevado número de flores, porém pequena porcentagem chega a fruto maduro. A fixação é influenciada por diversos fatores, com destaque para os nutricionais orgânicos e minerais. O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar a repartição de macro e micronutrientes nas flores, folhas e ramos de laranjeira e a contribuição nutricional das flores para os demais órgãos. Plantas de Citrus sinensis L., cultivar Natal sobre porta-enxerto de limoeiro cravo de 10 anos de idade, provenientes de pomar comercial, foram amostradas por ocasião do fluxo primaveril e separadas em flores, folhas e ramos. As flores representam dreno tanto para compostos orgânicos quanto para macro e micronutrientes. Sua massa seca na antese se iguala às das folhas e é maior que a dos ramos. A maior proporção de Ca, Mg e de Ni das três partes encontram-se nas flores de onde, possivelmente, passam em parte para o fruto em desenvolvimento. Sugere-se que aplicações foliares de cálcio, magnésio e níquel, em condições de deficiência, poderiam aumentar a produção através do seu efeito no florescimento.Citrus plants produce a number of flowers, but just a few of them however, become mature fruits. Many factors, as well as organic and inorganic nutrients, influence prebloom and flowers setting. The objective of this work was to evaluate the repartition of macro and micronutrients in citrus flowers, leaves and branches. Branches of "Natal" sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. grafted on Rangpur lime rootstock were collected and separated in flowers, leaves and wood during anthesis. Orange flowers represent a drain for organic compounds and macro and micronutrients as well. Their dry matter on anthesis is equal to that of leaves and higher than that of the branches. The highest proportion of Ca, Mg and Ni of the three parts is found in the flowers where possibly migrate in part, into the developing fruits. It is thought that leaf sprays of

  20. Production of Somatic Hybrid Plants Between Sour Orange and Sweet Orange via Electrofusion for Creation of CTV-resistant%电融合获得用于选择抗CTV砧木的酸橙与甜橙体细胞杂种植株

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘继红; 邓秀新

    2001-01-01

    Leaf-derived protoplasts of sour orange( Citrns aurantium L. ) were electrically fused with embry ogenic protoplasts of sweet orange ( C. sinensis Osbeck cv. Shamouti ) based on fusion parameters as previ ously reported. Forty plants have been obtained from fusion products. Chromosome counting showed that the plants were tetraploids with 36 chromosomes. The plants have thick petiole-winged leaves, indicative of the characteristics of polyploid. Two 10-bp random primers were utilized to identify the hybridity of the plants. Bands specific to fusion parents were detected in the amplification band patterns of the regenerated hybrid plants for the primers. Chromosome counting and RAPD analysis demonstrated that interspecific al lotetraploid somatic hybrid plants have been success fully recovered between sour orange and sweet orange.The regeneration of the somatic hybrid plants between sour orange and sweet orange provides good experimental materials for selecting novel rootstock possessing superior traits of sour orange coupled with CTV resistance.%在已知参数条件下,通过电场诱导酸橙(Citrus aurantium L.)叶肉原生质体和沙漠蒂甜橙(C.sinensis Osbeck cv.Shamouti)的胚性愈伤组织原生质体融合,融合产物经培养再生出40棵植株.染色体检查表明所得到的植株具有36条染色体,为四倍体植株.再生植株具有翼叶,叶片厚,表现出多倍体的特征.采用2个10-碱基随机引物鉴别再生植株的杂种特性.在2个引物的扩增带型中,再生植株的随机扩增带图里出现了融合亲本的特征带.对再生植株染色体计数和RAPD分析的结果表明它们是酸橙和甜橙种间异源四倍体体细胞杂种植株.这些体细胞杂种植株的获得为选择具有酸橙优良性状、同时抗CTV的新型砧木提供了好的试材.

  1. Design and evaluation of in vivo formulations based on orange (Citrus sinensis and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L, essential oils and acetic acid Diseño y evaluación in vivo de formulaciones para acné basadas en aceites esenciales de naranja (Citrus sinensis, albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L y ácido acético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Herazo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Currently, the antimicrobial resistance of bacterial strains involved in the development of acne is a reality, it is necessary to find alternatives to antibiotic treatment.
    Objectives. Designing gel formulations based on essential oils and acetic acid and evaluate its effectiveness in volunteers patients affected by acne.
    Materials and methods. Masked simple experimental study of three gel formulations on four groups of seven patients. Treatments antibacterial (essential oils, keratolytic and mixed (acetic acid, were applied daily for eight weeks. Weekly checks were conducted to evaluate the improvement in patients.
    Results. All groups reported improvement of acne condition, which ranged between 43% and 75% clearance of lesions, with little discomfort or side effects after application of treatments, which disappeared within minutes.
    Conclusions. The formulations prepared were found to be chemically and physically stable during application of treatments, which was demonstrated by gas chromatography, where no evidence no change neither the composition profiles of essential oils nor in acetic acid. The results were ranked good to excellent, particularly for acetic acid, which achieved improvements of over 75%, a result of their joint activity antiseptic and keratolytic. Side effects (burning and redness disappeared within a few minutes of completing the application, therefore, did not prevent adherence to treatment.
    Introducción. Actualmente la resistencia a los antimicrobianos de las cepas bacterianas involucradas en el desarrollo del acné es una realidad, se hace necesario buscar alternativas terapéuticas para su tratamiento.
    Objetivos. Diseñar formulaciones tipo gel con base en aceites esenciales y ácido acético y evaluar su efectividad en pacientes voluntarios afectados por acné.
    Materiales y métodos. Estudio experimental simple enmascarado de tres formulaciones tipo gel sobre cuatro grupos de siete pacientes. Los tratamientos antibacteriano (aceites esenciales, queratolítico y mixto (ácido acético, se aplicaron diariamente por espacio de ocho semanas. Se realizaron controles semanales para evaluar la evolución de los pacientes.
    Resultados. Todos los grupos reportaron mejoría (desaparición de las lesiones de la condición del acné, las cuales oscilaron entre el 43% y el 75%, con leves efectos secundarios transitorios relacionados a la aplicación de los tratamientos utilizados
    Conclusiones. Las formulaciones estudiadas mostraron ser estables química y físicamente durante la aplicación de los tratamientos, lo cual se demostró mediante análisis de cromatografía de gases, en donde no se evidenció ningún cambio en los perfiles de composición de los aceites esenciales ni en el del ácido acético. Los resultados se catalogaron entre buenos y excelentes, en particular el del ácido acético, que logró mejorías superiores al 75%, dada su actividad mixta antiséptica y queratolítica. Los efectos secundarios (ardor y enrojecimiento desaparecieron a los pocos minutos de realizada la aplicación, y no impidieron la adherencia a los tratamientos.

  2. Rheology and composition of processed citrus fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    While fibrous byproducts are abundant in supply, using them in food products in such a way to not degrade taste or texture can be challenging. Citrus fibers have been shown to have high water holding and viscous properties. However, to better incorporate dried orange pulp into foods, their propert...

  3. Leaf photosynthetic and water-relations responses for 'Valencia' orange trees exposed to oxidant air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszyk, D.M.; Takemoto, B.K.; Poe, M.

    1991-01-01

    Leaf responses were measured to test a hypothesis that reduced photosynthetic capacity and/or altered water relations were associated with reductions in yield for 'Valencia' orange trees (Citrus sinensis (L.), Osbeck) exposed to ambient oxidant air pollution. Exposures were continuous for 4 years to three levels of oxidants (in charcoal-filtered, half-filtered, and non-filtered air). Oxidants had no effect on net leaf photosynthetic rates or on photosynthetic pigment concentrations. A single set of measurements indicated that oxidants increased leaf starch concentrations (24%) prior to flowering, suggesting a change in photosynthate allocation. Leaves exposed to oxidants had small, but consistent, changes in water relations over the summer growing season, compared to trees growing in filtered air. Other changes included decreased stomatal conductance (12%) and transpiration (9%) rates, and increased water pressure potentials (5%). While all responses were subtle, their cumulative impact over 4 years indicated that 'Valencia' orange trees were subject to increased ambient oxidant stress.

  4. Citrus pulp for cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthington, John D; Kunkle, William E; Martin, Amy M

    2002-07-01

    Citrus pulp is classified as an energy concentrate by-product feed. Citrus by-products fed to beef cattle include citrus molasses, citrus meal, wet citrus pulp, dried citrus pulp, and pelleted citrus pulp; however, in current production systems, pulp (wet, dry, and pelleted) is the only by-product commonly used. Citrus pulp production in the United States is limited to specific subtropical regions, of which south central Florida remains the largest with additional production in California and Texas.

  5. Soil Micronutrients and Citrus Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANGTAO

    1993-01-01

    By using nutritional diagnosis of citrus leaves and determining soil micronutrients,the relationship between soil micronutrients and citrus growth in southern China has been studied.Studies showed that there was a significant positive correlation between available micronutrients (such as Zn,Mo,Cu)in the soil and the corresponding nutrients in citrus leaves.Thus,one can roughly learn of the sufficiency or deficiency of certain nutrients in soils by analyzing citrus leaves.Rational spray of Zn B or Mo fertilizer not only improved citrus yields but also increased the total sugar of Satsuma mandarin and of Xinhui orange by 2.9 and 17.2% respectively compared with the control.Spraying Mo fertilizer increased the vitamin C content of Satsuma mandarin juice by 4.7%-8.4%,maturated fruits 7-10 days earlier and gave the peel a brighter color.The ultramicroscopic characteristics of Zn-deficient citrus leaves were investigated under an electron microscope.Results showed that the Zn-deficient leaf cell was characterized mainly by poor cytoplasm,endoplasmic reticula and ribosomes and by big starch grains in the chloroplast.As a result of spraying Zn fertilizer the structure of the cell returned to normal,the cytoplasm became rich and the amount of chloroplast increased.There also appeared a great deal of multiform endoplasmic reticula,thus promoting the photosynthesis of Zn-deficient plants.This provides a cytologico-theoretical basis for fertilization of high-yielding citrus trees.

  6. COMPARATIVE MORPHOMETRIC AND ANATOMICAL ASPECTS OF THREE CITRUS L. SPECIES (RUTACEAE FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica BERCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present the morphometric and anatomical features of three species of Citrus L. fruits: Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus× sinensis Osbeck and Citrus maragarita Lour. Morphometrically were determined the length, width, area and volume for 10 fruits of each species. Anatomically, were analyzed the exocarp and mesocarp tissues, including the secretory cavities and endocarp components, respectively the number of carpels (segments and the length of the juice vesicles. The studied species fruits disclose both similarities and differences concerning their morphometric and anatomical features.

  7. Molecular and functional characterization of a novel chromoplast-specific lycopene β-cyclase from Citrus and its relation to lycopene accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alquézar, Berta; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Rodrigo, María J.

    2009-01-01

    Carotenoids are the main pigments responsible of the colouration of Citrus fruits. The β-cyclization of lycopene, catalysed by the lycopene β-cyclases (β-LCY), seems to be a key regulatory step of the carotenoid pathway. In the present study, two β-LCYs from orange fruits (Citrus sinensis), named Csβ-LCY1 and Csβ-LCY2 have been isolated and the activity of the encoded proteins was demonstrated by functional analysis. Csβ-LCY1 was expressed at low levels and remained relatively constant during fruit ripening while Csβ-LCY2 showed a chromoplast-specific expression and a marked induction in both peel and pulp of orange fruits in parallel with the accumulation of β,β-xanthophylls. The potential involvement of Csβ-LCY2 in the accumulation of lycopene, characteristic of some Citrus species such as red grapefruits, was investigated. Expression of Csβ-LCY2 and another seven carotenoid biosynthetic genes were studied in the peel and pulp of the high lycopene-accumulating grapefruit, Star Ruby, and compared with those of ordinary Navel orange. In Star Ruby, the accumulation of lycopene during fruit maturation was associated with a substantial reduction in the expression of both β-LCY2 and β-CHX genes with respect to Navel orange. Moreover, two different alleles of β-LCY2: β-LCY2a and β-LCY2b were isolated from both genotypes, and functional assays demonstrated that the lycopene β-cyclase activity of the allele b was almost null. Interestingly, Star Ruby grapefruit predominantly expressed the unfunctional β-LCY2b allele during fruit ripening whereas Navel oranges preferably expressed the functional allele. It is suggested that the presence of diverse alleles of the β-LCY2 gene, encoding enzymes with altered activity, with different transcript accumulation may be an additional regulatory mechanism of carotenoid synthesis involved in the accumulation of lycopene in red grapefruits. PMID:19325166

  8. 脐橙离区β-甘露聚糖酶基因片段克隆和序列分析%Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Endo-β-mannanase Gene Fragment from Abscission Zone of Navel Orange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任艳芳; 刘厚宇; 何俊瑜

    2011-01-01

    β-甘露聚糖酶是一种参与细胞壁半纤维素组分甘露聚糖降解的关键酶.为探究该酶与器官脱落的关系,以纽荷尔脐橙(Citrus sinensis Osbeck)果柄离区为材料,采用同源PCR克隆策略,扩增脐橙β-甘露聚糖酶基因片段.结果表明:该序列长度274 bp,编码了一段由91个氨基酸残基组成的β-甘露聚糖酶保守区片段.同源比对表明,该序列与GenBank上其他已有的植物β-甘露聚糖酶氨基酸序列的同源性在53%~5%,推断克隆得到的片段是脐橙β-甘露聚糖酶的cDNA片段.%Endo-β-mannanase is an important enzyme involved in the mobilization of mannan, which is the component of hemicellulose. In order to investigate the relationship between endo-β-mannanase and organ abscission, the PCR based homologous cloning strategy was used to identify endo-β-mannanase (CiMan) genes from the fruit stalks abscission zone of navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck). The results showed that a 274 bp cDNA encoding 91 amino acids was successfully cloned and characterized. Multiple alignment analysis of amino acid sequences of the putative CiMan cDNA fragment was 53%-65% homologous with other sequences from Genbank. It was supposed that the cDNA fragment was the endo-β-mannanase of navel orange.

  9. Qualidade industrial e maturação de frutos de laranjeira "valência" sobre seis porta-enxertos Industrial quality and maturation of fruits of 'valência' sweet orange trees on six rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Antonio Martins Auler

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de seis porta-enxertos sobre a maturação e as características físico-químicas de frutos de laranjeira 'Valência', instalou-se um experimento em janeiro de 1994, no município de Nova Esperança-PR. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, três plantas úteis por parcela e seis tratamentos, constituídos pelos porta-enxertos: limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia, tangerineiras 'Cleópatra' (C. reshni e 'Sunki' (C. sunki, citrangeiro 'Troyer' (Poncirus trifoliata x C. sinensis, tangeleiro 'orlando' (C. tangerina x C. paradisi e laranjeira 'Caipira'(C. sinensis. Avaliou-se a qualidade dos frutos em sete safras e a curva de maturação foi estimada para os anos de 1999 e 2000. Todos os porta-enxertos proporcionaram qualidade aceitável aos frutos da laranjeira 'Valência', com destaque para o citrangeiro 'Troyer' que superou o limoeiro 'Cravo' em rendimento industrial. Em um ano considerado com padrão climático normal, a evolução do índice tecnológico ajustou-se a uma equação de regressão quadrática, proporcionando melhor rendimento industrial quando os frutos foram colhidos no início de novembro, independentemente do porta-enxerto utilizado.In order to evaluate the influence of six rootstocks on the maturation and the physical characteristics and chemical composition of 'Valência' fruits, a research was conducted in a field established in 1994, in Nova Esperança city, state of Paraná, Brazil. A complete randomized block design was used, with four replications, three evaluated trees per plot and six treatments, constituted by the rootstocks: 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia, 'Cleopatra' (C. reshni and 'Sunki' (C. sunki mandarins, 'Troyer' citrange (Poncirus trifoliata x C. sinensis, 'orlando' tangelo (C. tangerina x C. paradisi and 'Caipira' sweet orange (C. sinensis. Fruit quality was evaluated along seven harvesting seasons and the maturation curve was

  10. Orange Book

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence (Orange Book or OB) is a list of drugs approved under Section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act...

  11. Fluxo de seiva e fotossíntese em laranjeira 'Natal' com clorose variegada dos citros Sap flow and photosynthesis of 'Natal' sweet orange plants with citrus variegated chlorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caruso Machado

    2006-06-01