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Sample records for orange citrus sinensis

  1. Comparative efficacy of sweet orange, Citrus sinensis (l) rind ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet orange, Citrus sinensis((L.) rind powder and oil were evaluated for the control of maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais(Mot.) under ambient laboratory conditions (28 ± 2o C and 75 ± 20% R.H.). Experiments consisted of exposing adult S. zeamais to both the powder and oil for 42 days. Mortality counts were taken from the ...

  2. Uniformity of plants regenerated from orange (Citrus sinensis Osb.) protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S

    1987-05-01

    Using 25 plants (protoclones) regenerated from orange (Citrus sinensis Osb.) protoplasts, several characters, including leaf and flower morphology, leaf oil, isozyme patterns and chromosome number, were examined. No significant variations in each character were recorded among the protoclones. Uniformity observed among protoclones was identical to that of nucellar seedlings.

  3. Radiosensitivity of protoplasts of orange (Citrus sinensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.H.S.; Ando, A.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The Radiation Genetics Section of the Centre for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA), University of Sao Paulo, is utilising both ''in vivo'' and ''in vitro'' methods for mutation induction in Citrus, cv. ''Pera'', aiming at resistance to citrus canker. The experiments carried out so far determined the methodology to isolate protoplasts and their sensitivity to gamma-rays. Regarding the culture of protoplasts from embryogenic callus, the best experimental conditions were: enzymatic digestion for 5 h on a medium containing cellulase (307.6 mg/10 ml), macerozyme (30.3 mg/10 ml), mannitol (328.0 mM) and sucrose (336.2 mM) as osmotic stabilisers. The isolation efficiency of 1.2x10 6 viable protoplasts/g will make it possible to use protoplasts in mutation breeding. To determine radiosensitivity of protoplasts, gamma-irradiation from 60 Co source was conducted 42 h after their isolation. This time interval is recommended because during this period protoplasts will reach the stage prior to or at the first mitotic division. Survivals were determined by metylen-blue dyeing, and the LD 50 was found to be around 37.5 Gy. Any difference compared with other authors might be due to different genotypes used or different methods of calculation of survival. (author)

  4. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza Jorge

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis, as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg, total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg, α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg. The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal to 70.2% (Pera-rio. According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants.

  5. Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP): a comprehensive database for sweet orange genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Chen, Dijun; Lei, Yang; Chang, Ji-Wei; Hao, Bao-Hai; Xing, Feng; Li, Sen; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Chen, Ling-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crop with global production ranking firstly among all the fruit crops in the world. Sweet orange accounts for more than half of the Citrus production both in fresh fruit and processed juice. We have sequenced the draft genome of a double-haploid sweet orange (C. sinensis cv. Valencia), and constructed the Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP) to store and visualize the sequenced genomic and transcriptome data. CAP provides GBrowse-based organization of sweet orange genomic data, which integrates ab initio gene prediction, EST, RNA-seq and RNA-paired end tag (RNA-PET) evidence-based gene annotation. Furthermore, we provide a user-friendly web interface to show the predicted protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and metabolic pathways in sweet orange. CAP provides comprehensive information beneficial to the researchers of sweet orange and other woody plants, which is freely available at http://citrus.hzau.edu.cn/.

  6. Citrus Functional Genomics and Molecular Modeling in Relation to Citrus sinensis (Sweet Orange) Infection with Xylella fastidiosa (Citrus Variegated Chlorosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Upendra N; Tiwari, Sameeksha; Prasanna, Pragya; Awasthi, Manika; Singh, Swati; Pandey, Veda P

    2016-08-01

    Citrus are among the economically most important fruit tree crops in the world. Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), caused by Xylella fastidiosa infection, is a serious disease limiting citrus production at a global scale. With availability of citrus genomic resources, it is now possible to compare citrus expressed sequence tag (EST) data sets and identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within and among different citrus cultivars that can be exploited for citrus resistance to infections, citrus breeding, among others. We report here, for the first time, SNPs in the EST data sets of X. fastidiosa-infected Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) and their functional annotation that revealed the involvement of eight C. sinensis candidate genes in CVC pathogenesis. Among these genes were xyloglucan endotransglycosylase, myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase, and peroxidase were found to be involved in plant cell wall metabolism. These have been further investigated by molecular modeling for their role in CVC infection and defense. Molecular docking analyses of the wild and the mutant (SNP containing) types of the selected three enzymes with their respective substrates revealed a significant decrease in the binding affinity of substrates for the mutant enzymes, thus suggesting a decrease in the catalytic efficiency of these enzymes during infection, thereby facilitating a favorable condition for infection by the pathogen. These findings offer novel agrigenomics insights in developing future molecular targets and strategies for citrus fruit cultivation in ways that are resistant to X. fastidiosa infection, and by extension, with greater harvesting efficiency and economic value.

  7. Response of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) to 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' infection: microscopy and microarray analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Soon; Sagaram, Uma Shankar; Burns, Jacqueline K; Li, Jian-Liang; Wang, Nian

    2009-01-01

    Citrus greening or huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating disease of citrus. HLB is associated with the phloem-limited fastidious prokaryotic alpha-proteobacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter spp.' In this report, we used sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) leaf tissue infected with 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' and compared this with healthy controls. Investigation of the host response was examined with citrus microarray hybridization based on 33,879 expressed sequence tag sequences from several citrus species and hybrids. The microarray analysis indicated that HLB infection significantly affected expression of 624 genes whose encoded proteins were categorized according to function. The categories included genes associated with sugar metabolism, plant defense, phytohormone, and cell wall metabolism, as well as 14 other gene categories. The anatomical analyses indicated that HLB bacterium infection caused phloem disruption, sucrose accumulation, and plugged sieve pores. The up-regulation of three key starch biosynthetic genes including ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthase, granule-bound starch synthase and starch debranching enzyme likely contributed to accumulation of starch in HLB-affected leaves. The HLB-associated phloem blockage resulted from the plugged sieve pores rather than the HLB bacterial aggregates since 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' does not form aggregate in citrus. The up-regulation of pp2 gene is related to callose deposition to plug the sieve pores in HLB-affected plants.

  8. Functional Characterization of a Flavonoid Glycosyltransferase in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaogang; Lin, Cailing; Ma, Xiaodi; Tan, Yan; Wang, Jiuzhao; Zeng, Ming

    2018-01-01

    Fruits of sweet orange ( Citrus sinensis ), a popular commercial Citrus species, contain high concentrations of flavonoids beneficial to human health. These fruits predominantly accumulate O -glycosylated flavonoids, in which the disaccharides [neohesperidose (rhamnosyl-α-1,2-glucose) or rutinose (rhamnosyl-α-1,6-glucose)] are linked to the flavonoid aglycones through the 3- or 7-hydroxyl sites. The biotransformation of the flavonoid aglycones into O -rutinosides or O -neohesperidosides in the Citrus plants usually consists of two glycosylation reactions involving a series of uridine diphosphate-sugar dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs). Although several genes encoding flavonoid UGTs have been functionally characterized in the Citrus plants, full elucidation of the flavonoid glycosylation process remains elusive. Based on the available genomic and transcriptome data, we isolated a UGT with a high expression level in the sweet orange fruits that possibly encodes a flavonoid glucosyltransferase and/or rhamnosyltransferase. Biochemical analyses revealed that a broad range of flavonoid substrates could be glucosylated at their 3- and/or 7-hydrogen sites by the recombinant enzyme, including hesperetin, naringenin, diosmetin, quercetin, and kaempferol. Furthermore, overexpression of the gene could significantly increase the accumulations of quercetin 7- O -rhamnoside, quercetin 7- O -glucoside, and kaempferol 7- O -glucoside, implying that the enzyme has flavonoid 7- O -glucosyltransferase and 7- O -rhamnosyltransferase activities in vivo .

  9. Decoding the Nonvolatile Sensometabolome of Orange Juice ( Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glabasnia, Anneke; Dunkel, Andreas; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas

    2018-03-14

    Activity-guided fractionation in combination with the taste dilution analysis, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, led to the identification of 10 polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs), 6 limonoid glucosides, and 2 limonoid aglycones as the key bitterns of orange juice. Quantitative studies and calculation of dose-over-threshold factors, followed by taste re-engineering, demonstrated for the first time 25 sensometabolites to be sufficient to reconstruct the typical taste profile of orange juices and indicated that not a single compound can be considered a suitable marker for juice bitterness. Intriguingly, the taste percept of orange juice seems to be created by a rather complex interplay of limonin, limonoid glucosides, PMFs, organic acids, and sugars. For the first time, sub-threshold concentrations of PMFs were shown to enhance the perceived bitterness of limonoids. Moreover, the influence of sugars on the perceived bitterness of limonoids and PMFs in orange juice relevant concentration ranges was quantitatively elucidated.

  10. Ergonomic evaluation of subjects involved in orange ( Citrus sinensis )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ergonomic evaluation of subjects involved in orange handling operation in Kano State was conducted. Anthropometric parameters were evaluated, where they were found to vary with age amongst the subjects selected. 20th and 80th percentiles of the dimensions were computed and recommended for usage in design of ...

  11. Performance of 'Valencia' Orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) on 17 rootstocks in a trial severely affected by huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) was grown on 17 rootstocks through seven years of age and the first four harvest seasons in a central Florida field trial severely affected by huanglongbing (HLB) disease. All trees in the trial had huanglongbing symptoms and were shown by Polymerase chain...

  12. Differentiation between Flavors of Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis) and Mandarin (Citrus reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi; Suh, Joon Hyuk; Gmitter, Frederick G; Wang, Yu

    2018-01-10

    Pioneering investigations referring to citrus flavor have been intensively conducted. However, the characteristic flavor difference between sweet orange and mandarin has not been defined. In this study, sensory analysis illustrated the crucial role of aroma in the differentiation between orange flavor and mandarin flavor. To study aroma, Valencia orange and LB8-9 mandarin were used. Their most aroma-active compounds were preliminarily identified by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Quantitation of key volatiles followed by calculation of odor activity values (OAVs) further detected potent components (OAV ≥ 1) impacting the overall aromatic profile of orange/mandarin. Follow-up aroma profile analysis revealed that ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, octanal, decanal, and acetaldehyde were essential for orange-like aroma, whereas linalool, octanal, α-pinene, limonene, and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were considered key components for mandarin-like aroma. Furthermore, an unreleased mandarin hybrid producing fruit with orange-like flavor was used to validate the identification of characteristic volatiles in orange-like aroma.

  13. Expression patterns of flowering genes in leaves of 'Pineapple' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajon, Melanie; Febres, Vicente J; Moore, Gloria A

    2017-08-30

    In citrus the transition from juvenility to mature phase is marked by the capability of a tree to flower and fruit consistently. The long period of juvenility in citrus severely impedes the use of genetic based strategies to improve fruit quality, disease resistance, and responses to abiotic environmental factors. One of the genes whose expression signals flower development in many plant species is FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). In this study, gene expression levels of flowering genes CiFT1, CiFT2 and CiFT3 were determined using reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR in citrus trees over a 1 year period in Florida. Distinct genotypes of citrus trees of different ages were used. In mature trees of pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) and 'Pineapple' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) the expression of all three CiFT genes was coordinated and significantly higher in April, after flowering was over, regardless of whether they were in the greenhouse or in the field. Interestingly, immature 'Pineapple' seedlings showed significantly high levels of CiFT3 expression in April and June, while CiFT1 and CiFT2 were highest in June, and hence their expression induction was not simultaneous as in mature plants. In mature citrus trees the induction of CiFTs expression in leaves occurs at the end of spring and after flowering has taken place suggesting it is not associated with dormancy interruption and further flower bud development but is probably involved with shoot apex differentiation and flower bud determination. CiFTs were also seasonally induced in immature seedlings, indicating that additional factors must be suppressing flowering induction and their expression has other functions.

  14. Transcriptome analysis of a spontaneous mutant in sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] during fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Zhu, Andan; Chai, Lijun; Zhou, Wenjing; Yu, Keqin; Ding, Jian; Xu, Juan; Deng, Xiuxin

    2009-01-01

    Bud mutations often arise in citrus. The selection of mutants is one of the most important breeding channels in citrus. However, the molecular basis of bud mutation has rarely been studied. To identify differentially expressed genes in a spontaneous sweet orange [C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck] bud mutation which causes lycopene accumulation, low citric acid, and high sucrose in fruit, suppression subtractive hybridization and microarray analysis were performed to decipher this bud mutation during fruit development. After sequencing of the differentially expressed clones, a total of 267 non-redundant transcripts were obtained and 182 (68.2%) of them shared homology (E-value or = 2) in the bud mutation during fruit development. Self-organizing tree algorithm analysis results showed that 95.1% of the differentially expressed genes were extensively coordinated with the initiation of lycopene accumulation. Metabolic process, cellular process, establishment of localization, response to stimulus, and biological regulation-related transcripts were among the most regulated genes. These genes were involved in many biological processes such as organic acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, transport, and pyruvate metabolism, etc. Moreover, 13 genes which were differentially regulated at 170 d after flowering shared homology with previously described signal transduction or transcription factors. The information generated in this study provides new clues to aid in the understanding of bud mutation in citrus.

  15. Protective effects of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel and their bioactive compounds on oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zong-Tsi; Chu, Heuy-Ling; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Chu, Chin-Chen; Duh, Pin-Der

    2012-12-15

    Protective effects of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel and their bioactive compounds on oxidative stress were investigated. According to HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS analysis, hesperidin (HD), hesperetin (HT), nobiletin (NT), and tangeretin (TT) were present in water extracts of sweet orange peel (WESP). The cytotoxic effect in 0.2mM t-BHP-induced HepG2 cells was inhibited by WESP and their bioactive compounds. The protective effect of WESP and their bioactive compounds in 0.2mM t-BHP-induced HepG2 cells may be associated with positive regulation of GSH levels and antioxidant enzymes, decrease in ROS formation and TBARS generation, increase in the mitochondria membrane potential and Bcl-2/Bax ratio, as well as decrease in caspase-3 activation. Overall, WESP displayed a significant cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress, which may be most likely because of the phenolics-related bioactive compounds in WESP, leading to maintenance of the normal redox status of cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of resistance to asiatic citrus canker among selections of pera sweet orange (Citrus sinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiatic citrus canker (ACC, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri) is a destructive disease of citrus in Brazil and in several other citrus-producing countries. ACC management is problematic, and bactericides such as copper can be reasonably efficacious but do not completely control...

  17. Evaluation of the anti-proliferative and cytostatic effect of Citrus sinensis (orange) fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinedu, Enegide; Arome, David; Ameh, Solomon F; Ameh, Gift E

    2014-09-01

    This work has been designed to evaluate the anti-proliferative and cytostatic effects of Citrus sinensis (orange) fruit juice on rapidly proliferating cells. The study was carried out on the seeds of Sorghum bicolor for 72 h. The mean radicle length (mm) of the seeds was taken at 48 and 72 h. The result showed that when compared with the control, methotrexate, the standard drug showed a significant (P < 0.001) anti-proliferative effect throughout the experiment. The inhibition of the radicle growth was more after 72 h (87.42%). At a dose of 5% (v/v), the juice showed a slightly significant (P < 0.05) effect affect after 72 h; however, there was no significant effect at 48 h. The juice at doses of 10% and 20% (v/v) showed a highly significant (P < 0.001) anti-proliferative effect throughout the experiment; however, the percentage inhibitions were higher at 72 h. At 72 h, the percentage inhibition for juice at 10% (v/v) was 72.37% and at 20% (v/v) was 91.96%. The concentrations of 40% and 60% (v/v) showed cytostatic effects as no appreciable growth of the radicles of the seeds was observed throughout the experiment. The percentage inhibition for 40% (v/v) was 100% and 99.72% for 48 and 72 h, respectively, while that for the juice concentration of 60% (v/v) was 100% throughout the study. The experiment has shown that C. sinensis fruit juice has a potential for causing both anti-proliferative and cytostatic effects on fast proliferating cells and hence cancerous cells.

  18. Honey bee attractants and pollination in sweet orange, Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, var. Pera-Rio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Malerbo-Souza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment studied the frequency and behavior of insects on sweet orange flowers, Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, their effect on fruit production (quantity and quality, nectar and pollen collection, and the effectiveness of different attractants. Over three consecutive years, the most frequent visitor to the flowers was Apis mellifera (Africanized. Flowers visited less than ten times showed low fructification. Fruit production was 35.30% greater in uncovered flowers. Fruit mean weight was much greater in uncovered (180.2g than in covered flowers (168.5g. Fruits from the covered were more acid (1.411g of citric acid/100ml of juice than the uncovered flowers (1.164g of citric acid/100ml of juice. The number of seeds per bud was higher in the uncovered (1 seed/bud than in the covered treatment (0.8 seed/bud. Bee-HereR, eugenol, geraniol, citral, and lemon grass extract, mainly diluted in water, were effective in attracting honeybees to orchards. However, these compounds were less effective when diluted in sugar syrup. The same products had variable attractiveness to honeybees in different years.

  19. Cryopreservation of nucellar cells of navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osb. var. brasiliensis Tanaka) by vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, A; Kobayashi, S; Oiyama, I

    1990-06-01

    The nucellar cells of navel orange(Citrus sinensis Osb. var. brasiliensis Tanaka) were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification. In this method, cells were sufficiently dehydrated with highly concentrated cryoprotective solution(PVS2) prior to direct plunge in liquid nitrogen. The PVS2 contains(w/v) 30% glycerol, 15% ethylene glycol and 15% DMSO in Murashige-Tucker medium(MT) containing 0.15 M sucrose. Cells were treated with 60% PVS2 at 25°C for 5 min and then chilled PVS2 at 0°C for 3 min. The cell suspension of about 0.1 ml was loaded in a 0.5 ml transparent plastic straw and directly plunged in liquid nitrogen for 30 min. After rapid warming, the cell suspension was expelled in 2 ml of MT medium containing 1.2 M sucrose. The average rate of survival was about 80%. The vitrified cells regenerated plantlets. This method is very simple and the time required for cryopreservation is only about 10 min.

  20. Extraction of essential oil from baby Java orange (Citrus sinensis) solid waste using water and steam distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, I. A.; Prastyo, A. M.; Wijana, S.

    2018-03-01

    Baby java orange (Citrus sinensis) is commonly consumed as juice. Processing of baby java orange leaves organic waste which consist of the mesocarp, exocarp, seed, and wall of the orange. Therefore, it is necessary to process baby java orange waste to be valuable products. The purpose of this study was to provide added value to unutilized baby java orange waste, and to find out the pretreatment of time-delay process that maximize the yield of essential oil produced. Essential oil processing can be done by water and steam distillation. The study used randomized block design with one factor namely distillation time-delay process by air drying consisted of 4 levels i.e. the distillation delay for 2, 4, 6, and 8 days. The best treatment was determined based on the yield. The best essential oil from baby java orange waste was obtained from the treatment of distillation delay-process of 8 days. This pretreatment generated yield value of 0.63% with moisture content of 24.21%. By estimating the price of essential oil showed that this effort not only reduced the bulky organic waste but also provided potential economical value.

  1. Cloning, purification and characterization of a 90kDa heat shock protein from Citrus sinensis (sweet orange).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Yuri A; Ramos, Carlos H I

    2012-01-01

    Protein misfolding is stimulated by stress, such as heat, and heat shock proteins (Hsps) are the first line of defense against these undesirable situations. Plants, which are naturally sessile, are perhaps more exposed to stress factors than some other organisms, and consequently, the role of Hsps is crucial to maintain homeostasis. Hsp90, because of its key role in infection and other stresses, is targeted in therapies that improve plant production by increasing resistance to both biotic and abiotic stress. In addition, Hsp90 is a primary factor in the maintenance of homeostasis in plants. Therefore, we cloned and purified Hsp90 from Citrus sinensis (sweet orange). Recombinant C. sinensis Hsp90 (rCsHsp90) was produced and measured by circular dichroism (CD), intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. rCsHsp90 formed a dimer in solution with a Stokes radius of approximately 62Å. In addition, it was resistant to thermal unfolding, was able to protect citrate synthase from aggregation, and Western blot analysis demonstrated that CsHsp90 was constitutively expressed in C. sinensis cells. Our analysis indicated that CsHsp90 is conformationally similar to that of yeast Hsp90, for which structural information is available. Therefore, we showed that C. sinensis expresses an Hsp90 chaperone that has a conformation and function similar to other Hsp90s. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Morphogenesis and tissue culture of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.): effect of temperature and photosynthetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran-Vila, N.; Gogorcena, Y.; Ortega, V.; Ortiz, J.; Navarro, L.

    1992-01-01

    Both incubation temperature and photosynthetic radiation affected morphogenesis, callus culture and plantlet culture of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) cultured in vitro. Bud culture from nodal stem segments, regeneration of shoots and buds from internode stem segments and induction of primary callus were near optimal at incubation temperatures between 21–30°C. The optimal temperature for root formation was 27°C with temperatures above and below being clearly deleterious. Incubation in the dark or under low photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) was beneficial for callus induction and growth and also favored the production of rooted plantlets from bud cultures. Incubation in the dark improved considerably the regeneration of shoots and buds from internode segments and the recovery of whole plants. No off-types, as determined by protein and isoenzyme analysis, were observed among plantlets recovered from bud cultures or from regeneration of shoots from internode stem segments

  3. Somatic hybridization in Citrus: navel orange (C. sinensis Osb.) and grapefruit (C. paradisi Macf.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgawara, T; Kobayashi, S; Ishii, S; Yoshinaga, K; Oiyama, I

    1989-11-01

    Protoplasts of navel orange, isolated from embryogenic nucellar cell suspension culture, were fused with protoplasts of grapefruit isolated from leaf tissue. The fusion products were cultured in the hormone-free medium containing 0.6 M sucrose. Under the culture conditions, somatic embryogenesis of navel orange protoplasts was suppressed, while cell division of grapefruit mesophyll protoplasts was not induced. Six embryoids were obtained and three lines regenerated to complete plants through embryogenesis. Two of the regenerated lines exhibited intermediate morphological characteristics of the parents in the leaf shape. Chromosome counts showed that these regenerated plants had expected 36 chromosomes (2n=2x=18 for each parent). The rDNA analysis using biotin-labeled rRNA probes confirmed the presence of genomes from both parents in these plants. This somatic hybridization system would be useful for the practical Citrus breeding.

  4. A proteomic analysis of the chromoplasts isolated from sweet orange fruits [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yunliu; Pan, Zhiyong; Ding, Yuduan; Zhu, Andan; Cao, Hongbo; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2011-11-01

    Here, a comprehensive proteomic analysis of the chromoplasts purified from sweet orange using Nycodenz density gradient centrifugation is reported. A GeLC-MS/MS shotgun approach was used to identify the proteins of pooled chromoplast samples. A total of 493 proteins were identified from purified chromoplasts, of which 418 are putative plastid proteins based on in silico sequence homology and functional analyses. Based on the predicted functions of these identified plastid proteins, a large proportion (∼60%) of the chromoplast proteome of sweet orange is constituted by proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid/protein synthesis, and secondary metabolism. Of note, HDS (hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase), PAP (plastid-lipid-associated protein), and psHSPs (plastid small heat shock proteins) involved in the synthesis or storage of carotenoid and stress response are among the most abundant proteins identified. A comparison of chromoplast proteomes between sweet orange and tomato suggested a high level of conservation in a broad range of metabolic pathways. However, the citrus chromoplast was characterized by more extensive carotenoid synthesis, extensive amino acid synthesis without nitrogen assimilation, and evidence for lipid metabolism concerning jasmonic acid synthesis. In conclusion, this study provides an insight into the major metabolic pathways as well as some unique characteristics of the sweet orange chromoplasts at the whole proteome level.

  5. Relation of carbohydrate reserves with the forthcoming crop, flower formation and photosynthetic rate, in the alternate bearing Salustiana sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Monerri Huguet, Mª Consuelo; Fortunato De Almeida, Ambrosio; Molina Romero, Rosa Victoria; González Nebauer, Sergio; García Luís, Mª Desamparados; Guardiola Barcena, José Luís

    2011-01-01

    [EN] The aim of this work was to assess the relation between carbohydrate levels and flower and fruit production, as well as the role of carbohydrates on CO(2) fixation activity, by analysis of leaves, twigs and roots from the alternate bearing 'Salustiana' cultivar of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck). A heavy crop load (on year) did not affect photosynthesis activity when compared to non-fruiting trees (off year). Fruiting trees accumulated most of the fixed carbon in mature fruits...

  6. Collection and chemical composition of phloem sap from Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck (sweet orange).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijaz, Faraj; Killiny, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    Through utilizing the nutrient-rich phloem sap, sap feeding insects such as psyllids, leafhoppers, and aphids can transmit many phloem-restricted pathogens. On the other hand, multiplication of phloem-limited, uncultivated bacteria such as Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) inside the phloem of citrus indicates that the sap contains all the essential nutrients needed for the pathogen growth. The phloem sap composition of many plants has been studied; however, to our knowledge, there is no available data about citrus phloem sap. In this study, we identified and quantified the chemical components of phloem sap from pineapple sweet orange. Two approaches (EDTA enhanced exudation and centrifugation) were used to collect phloem sap. The collected sap was derivatized with methyl chloroformate (MCF), N-methyl-N- [tert-butyl dimethylsilyl]-trifluroacetamide (MTBSTFA), or trimethylsilyl (TMS) and analyzed with GC-MS revealing 20 amino acids and 8 sugars. Proline, the most abundant amino acid, composed more than 60% of the total amino acids. Tryptophan, tyrosine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine, which are considered essential for phloem sap-sucking insects, were also detected. Sucrose, glucose, fructose, and inositol were the most predominant sugars. In addition, seven organic acids including succinic, fumaric, malic, maleic, threonic, citric, and quinic were detected. All compounds detected in the EDTA-enhanced exudate were also detected in the pure phloem sap using centrifugation. The centrifugation technique allowed estimating the concentration of metabolites. This information expands our knowledge about the nutrition requirement for citrus phloem-limited bacterial pathogen and their vectors, and can help define suitable artificial media to culture them.

  7. Transformation of sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] with pthA-nls for acquiring resistance to citrus canker disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Hu, Chunhua; Li, Na; Zhang, Jiayin; Yan, Jiawen; Deng, Ziniu

    2011-01-01

    The COOH terminal of pthA encoding three nuclear localizing signals (NLS) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the plasmid of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, the pathogen of citrus canker disease. Then the sense and antisense strands of the nls were cloned into pBI121 vector. pthA-nls driven by the CaMV35 s promoter was transferred into sweet orange via Agrobacterium -mediated transformation. Successful integration was confirmed by PCR and Southern blotting, and 12 sense-nls (nls (+)) and 9 antisense-nls (nls (-)) transgenic clones were obtained. The expression of nls fragment was analyzed by RT-PCR, Real time q-PCR and Western blotting, in which the specific NLS protein was detected only in nls (+) transgenic clones. In an in vitro assay, when pin-puncture inoculation was performed with 2.5 × 10(7) cfu/ml of bacterial solution, the nls (+) transgenic clones showed no typical lesion development, while typical symptoms were observed in the wild types and the nls (-) transgenic clones. In vivo assay results indicated that the nls (+) transgenic clones showed less disease incidence, in comparison with the wild types and the nls (-) transgenic clones, when pin-puncture inoculation was performed with 10(4)-10(5) cfu/ml. The minimum disease incidence was 23.3% for 'Sucarri' sweet orange and 33.3% for 'Bingtang' sweet orange. When 10(4)-10(7) cfu/ml of pathogen was spray inoculated, the nls (+) transgenic clones did not show any symptom, and even the concentration raised to 10(9) cfu/ml, the disease incidence was 20-80%, while the wild types and the nls (-) transgenic clones had 100% disease development with whatever concentration of inoculum. Two transgenic clones were confirmed to be resistant to citrus canker disease in the repeated inoculation. The results suggested that the transformation of nls sense strands may offer an effective way to acquire resistance to citrus canker disease.

  8. Factors influencing Agrobacterium-mediated embryogenic callus transformation of Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) containing the pTA29-barnase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D D; Shi, W; Deng, X X

    2003-12-01

    Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) calluses were used as explants to develop a new transformation system for citrus mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Factors affecting Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency included mode of pre-cultivation, temperature of cocultivation and presence of acetosyringone (AS). The highest transformation efficiency was obtained with a 4-day pre-cultivation period in liquid medium. Transformation efficiency was higher when cocultivation was performed for 3 days at 19 degrees C than at 23 or 28 degrees C. Almost no resistant callus was obtained if the cocultivation medium lacked AS. The transformation procedure yielded transgenic Valencia plants containing the pTA29-barnase gene, as verified by PCR amplification and confirmed by Southern blotting. Because male sterility is a common factor leading to seedlessness in citrus cultivars with parthenocarpic characteristics, production of seedless citrus genotypes by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is a promising alternative to conventional breeding methods.

  9. Resistance of sweet orange Pera (Citrus sinensis) genotypes to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus canker control is based on protection measures and eradication of plants infected with Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. Although these measures show satisfactory results, the use of resistant genotypes is an important alternative for citrus canker control. The aim of this study was to evaluate...

  10. Bio-Diesel Production from Oil of Orange ( Citrus Sinensis ) Peels as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although, in Nigeria orange peels are considered as a waste, this study is intended to convert the waste into wealth by establishing the production of biodiesel with oil obtained from orange peels; using transeterification process. Oil from sun-dried/ ground orange peels were extractedusing n-hexane. Transesterification ...

  11. Effect of supplementation with fresh orange pulp (Citrus sinensis) on mortality, growth performance, slaughter traits and sensory characteristics in meat guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez, C; Calvo, A

    2018-06-05

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of the partial replacement of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) with fresh orange pulp (Citrus sinensis) in a diet fed to guinea pigs on their mortality, growth performance, slaughter traits and sensory characteristics during the fattening period. A total of 450 guinea pigs were housed in collective pens of ~10 animals. Animals were divided into three groups: Control group (CG), supplied with fresh alfalfa as forage and treatment groups (G15 and G30), in which 15 and 30% of alfalfa was replaced by orange pulp, respectively. No significant differences were found between CG and G15 for traits studied. However, G30 showed the lowest values for growth and carcass traits. No significant differences were found for sensory characteristics. In conclusion, a moderate inclusion of orange pulp could contribute to diminishing dependence of alfalfa on guinea pig meat production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Disinfestation by irradiation of mangoes (Manguifera Indica L.) Kent and oranges (Citrus sinensis O.) Valencia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos Ramirez, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives in this work were to determine the minimum dose for radiation disinfestation of mangoes and oranges infested with Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) and to evaluate the quality of the fruits by organoleptic, chemical and physiological analysis of mangoes irradiated to 0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy and storaged at 12 0 C during 15 days and oranges irradiated to 0.25, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy and storaged at 15 0 C during 21 days. To inhibit the development of larvaes in mangoes the minimum dose was 0.3 kGy and for oranges the dose was 0.45 kGy. The dose for the probit 9 security test were 0.43 kGy for mangoes and 0.63 kGy for oranges. The results of sensorial analysis in mangoes, indicated that there are no significative differences for the two panels: consumers or trained judges. The differences in the physiological and chemical analysis are greater for storage fruits than for the irradiated ones. At the end of the storage period the appearance of the irradiated mangoes was better than for the control. The observed differences in irradiated oranges were the presence of dark zones on the oranges peel which affect their quality. This effect is due to the irradiation in oranges not completely ripen. (author)

  13. Analysis of cytoplasmic genomes in somatic hybrids between navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osb.) and 'Murcott' tangor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S; Ohgawara, T; Fujiwara, K; Oiyama, I

    1991-07-01

    Somatic hybrid plants were produced by protoplast fusion of navel orange and 'Murcott' tangor. Hybridity of the plants was confirmed by the restriction endonuclease analysis of nuclear ribosomal DNA. All of the plants (16 clones) were normal, uniform, and had the amphidiploid chromosome number of 36 (2n=2x=18 for each parent). The cpDNA analysis showed that each of the 16 somatic hybrids contained either one parental chloroplast genome or the other. In all cases, the mitochondrial genomes of the regenerated somatic hybrids were of the navel orange type.

  14. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Analysis of Major Intrinsic Proteins during Abiotic and Biotic Stresses in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cristina de Paula Santos; Pedrosa, Andresa Muniz; Du, Dongliang; Gonçalves, Luana Pereira; Yu, Qibin; Gmitter, Frederick G; Costa, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    The family of aquaporins (AQPs), or major intrinsic proteins (MIPs), includes integral membrane proteins that function as transmembrane channels for water and other small molecules of physiological significance. MIPs are classified into five subfamilies in higher plants, including plasma membrane (PIPs), tonoplast (TIPs), NOD26-like (NIPs), small basic (SIPs) and unclassified X (XIPs) intrinsic proteins. This study reports a genome-wide survey of MIP encoding genes in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.), the most widely cultivated Citrus spp. A total of 34 different genes encoding C. sinensis MIPs (CsMIPs) were identified and assigned into five subfamilies (CsPIPs, CsTIPs, CsNIPs, CsSIPs and CsXIPs) based on sequence analysis and also on their phylogenetic relationships with clearly classified MIPs of Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of key amino acid residues allowed the assessment of the substrate specificity of each CsMIP. Gene structure analysis revealed that the CsMIPs possess an exon-intron organization that is highly conserved within each subfamily. CsMIP loci were precisely mapped on every sweet orange chromosome, indicating a wide distribution of the gene family in the sweet orange genome. Investigation of their expression patterns in different tissues and upon drought and salt stress treatments, as well as with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' infection, revealed a tissue-specific and coordinated regulation of the different CsMIP isoforms, consistent with the organization of the stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements observed in their promoter regions. A special role in regulating the flow of water and nutrients is proposed for CsTIPs and CsXIPs during drought stress, and for most CsMIPs during salt stress and the development of HLB disease. These results provide a valuable reference for further exploration of the CsMIPs functions and applications to the genetic improvement of both abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in citrus.

  15. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Analysis of Major Intrinsic Proteins during Abiotic and Biotic Stresses in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina de Paula Santos Martins

    Full Text Available The family of aquaporins (AQPs, or major intrinsic proteins (MIPs, includes integral membrane proteins that function as transmembrane channels for water and other small molecules of physiological significance. MIPs are classified into five subfamilies in higher plants, including plasma membrane (PIPs, tonoplast (TIPs, NOD26-like (NIPs, small basic (SIPs and unclassified X (XIPs intrinsic proteins. This study reports a genome-wide survey of MIP encoding genes in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb., the most widely cultivated Citrus spp. A total of 34 different genes encoding C. sinensis MIPs (CsMIPs were identified and assigned into five subfamilies (CsPIPs, CsTIPs, CsNIPs, CsSIPs and CsXIPs based on sequence analysis and also on their phylogenetic relationships with clearly classified MIPs of Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of key amino acid residues allowed the assessment of the substrate specificity of each CsMIP. Gene structure analysis revealed that the CsMIPs possess an exon-intron organization that is highly conserved within each subfamily. CsMIP loci were precisely mapped on every sweet orange chromosome, indicating a wide distribution of the gene family in the sweet orange genome. Investigation of their expression patterns in different tissues and upon drought and salt stress treatments, as well as with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' infection, revealed a tissue-specific and coordinated regulation of the different CsMIP isoforms, consistent with the organization of the stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements observed in their promoter regions. A special role in regulating the flow of water and nutrients is proposed for CsTIPs and CsXIPs during drought stress, and for most CsMIPs during salt stress and the development of HLB disease. These results provide a valuable reference for further exploration of the CsMIPs functions and applications to the genetic improvement of both abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in citrus.

  16. A proteomic analysis of the chromoplasts isolated from sweet orange fruits [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Yunliu; Pan, Zhiyong; Ding, Yuduan; Zhu, Andan; Cao, Hongbo; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2011-01-01

    Here, a comprehensive proteomic analysis of the chromoplasts purified from sweet orange using Nycodenz density gradient centrifugation is reported. A GeLC-MS/MS shotgun approach was used to identify the proteins of pooled chromoplast samples. A total of 493 proteins were identified from purified chromoplasts, of which 418 are putative plastid proteins based on in silico sequence homology and functional analyses. Based on the predicted functions of these identified plastid proteins, a large pr...

  17. Effects of Leaf Extracts of Selected Plants on Quality of Stored Citrus sinensis (Sweet Orange Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwagbenga O. ADEOGUN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reduction in the quality of fruits during storage has been a concern to the consumers and the effect can be felt on the economy of developing countries. Leaves of plants such as Canna indica, Megaphrynium macrostachyum and Thaumatococcus daniellii have been documented as food packaging materials in West Africa. Based on this, the quality of stored sweet orange juice was investigated using ethanolic extracts of leaves of C. indica, M. macrostachyum and T. daniellii to enhance the shelf life of the juice. The extracts were used to assess the quality of juice for 30 days using quantitative parameters such as total soluble solid, browning potential, pH, microbial analysis and turbidity at 4 oC and at room temperature (27-31 oC. The qualitative and quantitative phytochemical constituents of the extracts were determined. The extracts’ toxicity was determined using Brine shrimp. The quality assessment evidently revealed that the freshly squeezed orange juice with the extracts possess tolerable activity to enhance the shelf life of orange juice. The leaf extract of M. macrostachyum had the highest preservation rate on the juice after 30 days. The qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloid, tannin, saponins, flavonoids, steroids and terpenoids in the three plants tested. The quantitative phytochemical analysis of the most active extracts in the three plants revealed that M. macrostachum had the highest contents of alkaloids (107.48 mg/g and flavonoids (56.92 mg/g.The study showed that the extracts were non-lethal on Brine shrimp. This study ascertained the potential preservative qualities of the test plants for enhancing the shelf-life of orange juice.

  18. Fiber concentrate from orange (Citrus sinensis L.) bagase: characterization and application as bakery product ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Lopez, Maria R; Osorio-Diaz, Perla; Bello-Perez, Luis A; Tovar, Juscelino; Bernardino-Nicanor, Aurea

    2011-01-01

    Orange is a tropical fruit used in the juice industry, yielding important quantities of by products. The objective of this work was to obtain a dietary fiber-rich orange bagasse product (DFROBP), evaluate its chemical composition and its use in the preparation of a bakery product (muffin). Muffins containing two different levels of DFROBP were studied regarding chemical composition, in vitro starch digestibility, predicted glyceamic index and acceptability in a sensory test. DFROBP showed low fat and high dietary fiber contents. The soluble and insoluble dietary fiber fractions were balanced, which is of importance for the health beneficial effects of fiber sources. DFROBP-containing muffins showed the same rapidly digestible starch content as the reference muffin, whilst the slowly digestible starch level increased with the addition of DFROBP. However, the resistant starch content decreased when DFROBP increased in the muffin. The addition of DFROBP to muffin decreased the predicted glyceamic index, but no difference was found between the muffins prepared with the two DFROBP levels. The sensory score did not show difference between control muffin and that added with 10% of DFROBP. The addition of DFROBP to bakery products can be an alternative for people requiring low glyceamic response.

  19. Fiber Concentrate from Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Bagase: Characterization and Application as Bakery Product Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurea Bernardino-Nicanor

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orange is a tropical fruit used in the juice industry, yielding important quantities of by products. The objective of this work was to obtain a dietary fiber-rich orange bagasse product (DFROBP, evaluate its chemical composition and its use in the preparation of a bakery product (muffin. Muffins containing two different levels of DFROBP were studied regarding chemical composition, in vitro starch digestibility, predicted glyceamic index and acceptability in a sensory test. DFROBP showed low fat and high dietary fiber contents. The soluble and insoluble dietary fiber fractions were balanced, which is of importance for the health beneficial effects of fiber sources. DFROBP-containing muffins showed the same rapidly digestible starch content as the reference muffin, whilst the slowly digestible starch level increased with the addition of DFROBP. However, the resistant starch content decreased when DFROBP increased in the muffin. The addition of DFROBP to muffin decreased the predicted glyceamic index, but no difference was found between the muffins prepared with the two DFROBP levels. The sensory score did not show difference between control muffin and that added with 10% of DFROBP. The addition of DFROBP to bakery products can be an alternative for people requiring low glyceamic response.

  20. Quarantine treatment to Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in orange fruits (Citrus sinensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albergaria, Nuno Miguel Mendes Soares de

    2005-01-01

    This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of thermal treatments (vapour heat and hot water) and irradiation on Ceratitis capitata eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars), in 'Valencia' oranges; the relation between temperature and exposition time to vapour heat and hot water on fruit fly immature; the relation among the different doses of radiation on fruit fly immature and evaluate the effect of the treatments (thermal treatments and irradiation) on the chemical composition of the fruits. It was evaluated the heat absorption and loose of heat by the fruit. For thermal treatments it was used temperatures of 44 and 46 deg C for 15,30,60, 90 and 120 minutes and a control. For irradiation were used the doses: 10,20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy. By the results obtained it is possible to conclude that: to the control of eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars) the treatment with vapour heat was less efficient than the hot water treatment; the thermal treatments of C. capitata eggs and larvae (first and second and third instars) can be recommended with vapor heat at 46 deg C at 152.2 minutes or with hot water at 46 deg C at 84.8 minutes, achieving the quarantine request; third instar larvae are more tolerant to the thermal and irradiation treatments; the treatment with irradiation can be recommended for quarantine treatment of ali immature stages evaluated with the dose of 72.88 Gy; the dose of 50 Gy causes sterility to the adults emerged from ali immature stages irradiated; treatments do not cause any change in the chemical proprieties in the orange fruits var. 'Valencia'. (author)

  1. Metabolomic comparative analysis of the phloem sap of curry leaf tree (Bergera koenegii), orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata), and Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) supports their differential responses to Huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killiny, Nabil

    2016-11-01

    Orange jasmine, Murraya paniculata and curry leaf tree, Bergera koenegii are alternative hosts for Diaphorina citri, the vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the pathogen of huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus. D. citri feeds on the phloem sap where CLas grows. It has been shown that orange jasmine was a better host than curry leaf tree to D. citri. In addition, CLas can infect orange jasmine but not curry leaf tree. Here, we compared the phloem sap composition of these 2 plants to the main host, Valencia sweet orange, Citrus sinensis. Phloem sap was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after trimethylsilyl derivatization. Orange jasmine was the highest in proteinogenic, non-proteinogenic amino acids, organic acids, as well as total metabolites. Valencia was the highest in mono- and disaccharides, and sugar alcohols. Curry leaf tree was the lowest in most of the metabolites as well as total metabolites. Interestingly, malic acid was high in Valencia and orange jasmine but was not detected in the curry leaf. On the other hand, tartaric acid which can prevent the formation of malic acid in Krebs cycle was high in curry leaf. The nutrient inadequacy of the phloem sap in curry leaf tree, especially the amino acids could be the reason behind the longer life cycle and the low survival of D. citri and the limitation of CLas growth on this host. Information obtained from this study may help in cultivation of CLas and development of artificial diet for rearing of D. citri.

  2. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of minimally processed 'Champagne' oranges (Citrus reticulata × Citrus sinensis in different packgings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Silva Agostini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the level of minimal processing and modified atmosphere on the quality of 'Champagne' orange stored under refrigeration. The fruits were subjected to the following processing: a whole fruit without flavedo; b whole fruit without flavedo and albedo; and c segmented into wedges and packed as follows: uncoated packaging (control; polyethylene film; PVC film; gelatin-based edible films (3%; and polyesthyrene translucent plastic container with a lid. The minimally processed oranges were stored at 5 ± 1°C for 8 days and were subjected to physicochemical and microbiological analyses every two days. Greater weight loss occurred in fruits without flavedo and segmented, uncoated, and coated with the edible gelatin film During storage, there was a slight increase in Total Soluble Solids (TSS for the treatments with greater weight loss and reduction in acidity and ascorbic acid, regardless of the packaging type. The microbial counts did not exceed the acceptable limits in the treatments; however, higher counts were observed at the end of storage. The minimally processed fruit packed in lidded polystyrene containers and polyethylene and PVC films kept their overall fresh visual appearance with a few physicochemical and microbiological changes up to the 8th day of storage.

  3. A Comparison of the Volatile Components of Cold Pressed Hamlin and Valencia (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck Orange Oils Affected by Huanglongbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany M. Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatiles from huanglongbing (HLB symptomatic and asymptomatic cold pressed orange oils from Florida Hamlin and Valencia fruit were assessed. Qualitative gas-liquid chromatography studies showed the presence of several compounds (β-longifolene, perillene, and 4-decenal which are not commonly identified in Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck oils. Oils derived from huanglongbing symptomatic fruit had lower concentrations of linalool, decanal, citronellol, neral, geranial, carvone, dodecanal, and 2-decenal and higher concentrations of citronellal compared to asymptomatic fruit. A comparison to historic literature of orange oil investigations before HLB was of issue in Florida orange crops showed lower levels of linalool, decanal, neral, and geranial in Hamlin peel oil samples, as well as higher levels of dodecanal. Valencia peel oil samples showed lower concentrations of linalool and increased concentration of citronellol and dodecanal. As a result of huanglongbing (HLB phenomena, the concentrations of several important volatiles found in Hamlin and Valencia peel oil profiles have changed compared to historic values. Differences in volatile concentrations of symptomatic and asymptomatic HLB affected peel oil compounds in orange fruit are identified.

  4. Genome-wide identification of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) histone modification gene families and their expression analysis during the fruit development and fruit-blue mold infection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jidi; Xu, Haidan; Liu, Yuanlong; Wang, Xia; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, histone acetylation and methylation have been known to be involved in regulating diverse developmental processes and plant defense. These histone modification events are controlled by a series of histone modification gene families. To date, there is no study regarding genome-wide characterization of histone modification related genes in citrus species. Based on the two recent sequenced sweet orange genome databases, a total of 136 CsHMs (Citrus sinensis histone modification genes), including 47 CsHMTs (histone methyltransferase genes), 23 CsHDMs (histone demethylase genes), 50 CsHATs (histone acetyltransferase genes), and 16 CsHDACs (histone deacetylase genes) were identified. These genes were categorized to 11 gene families. A comprehensive analysis of these 11 gene families was performed with chromosome locations, phylogenetic comparison, gene structures, and conserved domain compositions of proteins. In order to gain an insight into the potential roles of these genes in citrus fruit development, 42 CsHMs with high mRNA abundance in fruit tissues were selected to further analyze their expression profiles at six stages of fruit development. Interestingly, a numbers of genes were expressed highly in flesh of ripening fruit and some of them showed the increasing expression levels along with the fruit development. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression patterns of all 136 CsHMs response to the infection of blue mold (Penicillium digitatum), which is the most devastating pathogen in citrus post-harvest process. The results indicated that 20 of them showed the strong alterations of their expression levels during the fruit-pathogen infection. In conclusion, this study presents a comprehensive analysis of the histone modification gene families in sweet orange and further elucidates their behaviors during the fruit development and the blue mold infection responses.

  5. Visitantes florais e produção de frutos em cultura de laranja ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck = Floral visitors and fruit production on sweet orange crop ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Maria Gamito

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi realizado em florada de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, variedade Pera-Rio, com os objetivos de estudar os insetos visitantes nas flores d e laranjeira, o seu comportamento nas flores, o tipo de coleta efetuada e o efeito dessas visitas na produção de frutos, em quantidade e qualidade. Os dados de freqüência foram obtidos por contagem nos primeiros 10 minutos de cada horário, das 8h às 18h, em três dias distintos, percorrendo-se as linhas da cultura. O comportamento forrageiro de cada espécie de inseto foi avaliado através de observações visuais, no decorrer do dia, no período experimental. Os insetos observados foram abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula. As abelhas A. mellifera foram os visitantes florais maisfreqüentes e preferiram coletar néctar comparado ao pólen. Os botões florais descobertos produziram mais frutos que os botões florais cobertos. Os frutos decorrentes do tratamento coberto foram menores, mais ácidos e com menor quantidade de vitamina C que os frutos do tratamento descoberto. The present experiment was carried out in flowerage of sweet orange(Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, Pera-rio variety, to study the insects involv ed in pollination, their behaviour in the flower (nectar or pollen collection and the effect of the pollination on fruit production (quantity and quality. More frequent insects were recorded daily (counted during ten minutes, every hour from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., with three replications. The forage behaviour and nectar and/or pollen collect was also observed. The insect visitors onflowers were Africanized honey bee Apis mellifera, followed by stingless bees Trigona spinipes and Tetragonisca angustula. A. mellifera were the most frequent visitors and preferred to collectnectar than pollen. The uncovered flowers -buds produced more fruits than the covered ones. Another observation was that fruits derived from covered

  6. Porta-enxertos para laranjeiras-doces (Citrus sinensis (L. Osb., em Rio Branco, Acre Rootstocks for sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana da Silva Ledo

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi de avaliar o comportamento de sete cultivares de laranjeiras- doces: 'Baia 101', 'Baianinha IAC 79', 'Monte Parnaso', 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112', 'Valência 27' e 'Aquiri', sobre diferentes porta-enxertos: limão 'Cravo', tangerinas 'Cleópatra' e 'Sunki' e citrange 'Carrizo', nas condições edafoclimáticas de Rio Branco, Acre. O delineamento experimental foi em parcelas subdivididas, com as cultivares nas parcelas, os porta-enxertos nas subparcelas e os quatro anos de avaliação como repetições. As laranjeiras 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112' e 'Valência 27' apresentaram tendências de maior produção quando enxertadas sobre o limão 'Cravo', e a laranja 'Aquiri' quando enxertada sobre citrange 'Carrizo'. Em relação aos demais porta-enxertos, o limão 'Cravo' mostrou tendências de induzir maior produção/volume de copa e peso médio do fruto, e menor teor de sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total. As laranjas do grupo Baia ('Baia 101', 'Baianinha IAC 79' e 'Monte Parnaso' produziram frutos com baixa percentagem de suco; não são recomendadas para plantio em Rio Branco, AC. Com base nos resultados obtidos, recomendam-se os porta-enxertos citrange 'Carrizo', tangerina 'Cleópatra' e limão 'Cravo' para a laranja 'Aquiri', e o porta-enxerto limão 'Cravo' para as laranjas 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112' e 'Valência 27'.The objective of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of seven sweet orange cultivars: 'Baia 101', 'Baianinha IAC 79', 'Monte Parnaso', 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112', 'Valência 27' and 'Aquiri' grafted on different rootstocks: 'Rangpur' lime, 'Cleópatra' and 'Sunki' mandarins, and 'Carrizo' citrange, in the environmental conditions of Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. The experimental design was a split-plot, with the sweet orange cultivars as the main plots, the rootstocks as the sub-plots, and the four years of evaluation as replications. The 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112' and 'Valência 27' sweet orange cultivars tended

  7. Cloning and characterization of two 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase genes, differentially regulated during fruit maturation and under stress conditions, from orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, María-Jesús; Alquezar, Berta; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    There is now biochemical and genetic evidence that oxidative cleavage of cis-epoxycarotenoids by 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) is the critical step in the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis in higher plants. The peel of Citrus fruit accumulates large amounts of ABA during maturation. To understand the regulation of ABA biosynthesis in Citrus, two full-length cDNAs (CsNCED1 and CsNCED2) encoding NCEDs were isolated and characterized from the epicarp of orange fruits (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck). Expression of the CsNCED1 gene increased in the epicarp during natural and ethylene-induced fruit maturation, and in water-stressed leaves, in a pattern consistent with the accumulation of ABA. The second gene, CsNCED2, was not detected in dehydrated leaves and, in fruits, exhibited a differential expression to that of CsNCED1. Taken together, these results suggests that CsNCED1 is likely to play a primary role in the biosynthesis of ABA in both leaves and fruits, while CsNCED2 appears to play a subsidiary role restricted to chromoplast-containing tissue. Furthermore, analysis of 9-cis-violaxanthin and 9'-cis-neoxanthin, as the two possible substrates for NCEDs, revealed that the former was the main carotenoid in the outer coloured part of the fruit peel as the fruit ripened or after ethylene treatment, whereas 9'-cis-neoxanthin was not detected or was in trace amounts. By contrast, turgid and dehydrated leaves contained 9'-cis-neoxanthin but 9-cis-violaxanthin was absent. Based on these results, it is suggested that 9-cis-violaxanthin may be the predominant substrate for NCED in the peel of Citrus fruits, whereas 9'-cis-neoxanthin would be the precursor of ABA in photosynthetic tissues.

  8. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limonia epicotyl segments

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida,Weliton Antonio Bastos de; Mourão Filho,Francisco de Assis Alves; Mendes,Beatriz Madalena Januzzi; Pavan,Alexandra; Rodriguez,Adriana Pinheiro Martinelli

    2003-01-01

    Genetic transformation allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. The objective of this research was to establish a protocol for genetic transformation of Valencia and Natal sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) and Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck). Epicotyl segments of germinated in vitro plantlets (three weeks in darkness and two weeks in a 16-h photoperiod) were used...

  9. Populational fluctuation of vectors of Xylella fastidiosa, wells in sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] varieties of northwest Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia de Oliveira Molina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the population flutuation of the sharpshooters species subfamily Cicadellinae belonging to the tribes Cicadellini and Proconiini, in sweet orange [Citrus sinensis( L. Osbeck] commercial orchards of the northwest region of Paraná State , Brazil. Samplings were carried out the employing every time 24 yellow sticky cards. Identification of the species showed that the most representative were Dilobopterus costalimai of the Cicadellini tribe and Acrogonia citrina of the Proconiini tribe.A Clorose variegada dos citros (CVC é uma importante doença que ocorre nos citros, cujo agente causal é a bactéria Xylella fastidiosa, Wells. A bactéria depende, obrigatoriamente, de insetos vetores para sua disseminação, que são as cigarrinhas sugadoras do xilema (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, Cicadellinae. No presente estudo objetivou-se avaliar a flutuação populacional de espécies de cigarrinhas nas diferentes variedades de laranja doce [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck], Natal, Pêra, Valência e Folha Murcha, em um pomar comercial localizado na região Noroeste do Paraná, no período de janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2002. Amostragens quinzenais foram realizadas com o uso de armadilhas adesivas amarelas, num total de 24 armadilhas em cada avaliação. Após a identificação das espécies observou-se, que as mais representativas foram Dilobopterus costalimai da tribo Cicadellini e Acrogonia citrina da tribo Proconiini, sendo que a variedade de laranja Pêra apresentou o maior número de espécies vetoras durante os anos avaliados.

  10. Rare Earth Element Transfer from Soil to Navel Orange Pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall) and the Effects on Internal Fruit Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jinjin; Ding, Changfeng; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2015-01-01

    The effects of soil rare earth element (REE) on navel orange quality and safety in rare earth ore areas have gained great attention. This study investigated the transfer characteristics of REE from soil to navel orange pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall) and examined the effects of soil REE on internal fruit quality in Xinfeng County, Jiangxi province, China. Path analysis showed that soil REE, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and Fe oxide (Feox) significantly affected pulp REE concentrations. A Freundlich-type prediction model for pulp REE was established: log[REEpulp] = -1.036 + 0.272 log[REEsoil] - 0.056 pH - 0.360 log[CEC] + 0.370 log[Feox] (n = 114, R2 = 0.60). From the prediction model, it was inferred that even when soil REE and Feox were as high as 1038 mg kg-1 and 96.4 g kg-1, respectively, and pH and CEC were as low as 3.75 and 5.08 cmol kg-1, respectively, pulp REE concentrations were much lower than the food limit standard. Additionally, soil REE levels were significantly correlated with selected fruit quality indicators, including titratable acidity (r = 0.52, P fruit quality. PMID:25806821

  11. Timing of the inhibitory effect of fruit on return bloom of 'Valencia' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Fuentes, Amparo; Mesejo, Carlos; Reig, Carmina; Agustí, Manuel

    2010-08-30

    In Citrus the inhibitory effect of fruit on flower formation is the main cause of alternate bearing. Although there are some studies reporting the effect on flowering of the time of fruit removal in a well-defined stage of fruit development, few have investigated the effect throughout the entire fruit growth stage from early fruitlet growth to fruit maturity. The objective of this study was to determine the phenological fruit developmental stage at which the fruit begins its inhibitory effect on flowering in sweet orange by manual removal of fruits, and the role of carbohydrates and nitrogen in the process. Fruit exerted its inhibitory effect from the time it was close to reaching its maximum weight, namely 90% of its final size (November) in the present experiments, to bud sprouting (April). The reduction in flowering paralleled the reduction in bud sprouting. This reduction was due to a decrease in the number of generative sprouted buds, whereas mixed-typed shoots were largely independent of the time of fruit removal, and vegetative shoots increased in frequency. The number of leaves and/or flowers per sprouted shoot was not significantly modified by fruit load. In 'Valencia' sweet orange, fruit inhibits flowering from the time it completes its growth. Neither soluble sugar content nor starch accumulation in leaves due to fruit removal was related to flowering intensity, but some kind of imbalance in nitrogen metabolism was observed in trees tending to flower scarcely. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Inducible expression of Bs2 R gene from Capsicum chacoense in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) confers enhanced resistance to citrus canker disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendín, Lorena Noelia; Orce, Ingrid Georgina; Gómez, Rocío Liliana; Enrique, Ramón; Grellet Bournonville, Carlos Froilán; Noguera, Aldo Sergio; Vojnov, Adrián Alberto; Marano, María Rosa; Castagnaro, Atilio Pedro; Filippone, María Paula

    2017-04-01

    Transgenic expression of the pepper Bs2 gene confers resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) pathogenic strains which contain the avrBs2 avirulence gene in susceptible pepper and tomato varieties. The avrBs2 gene is highly conserved among members of the Xanthomonas genus, and the avrBs2 of Xcv shares 96% homology with the avrBs2 of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), the causal agent of citrus canker disease. A previous study showed that the transient expression of pepper Bs2 in lemon leaves reduced canker formation and induced plant defence mechanisms. In this work, the effect of the stable expression of Bs2 gene on citrus canker resistance was evaluated in transgenic plants of Citrus sinensis cv. Pineapple. Interestingly, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of epicotyls was unsuccessful when a constitutive promoter (2× CaMV 35S) was used in the plasmid construction, but seven transgenic lines were obtained with a genetic construction harbouring Bs2 under the control of a pathogen-inducible promoter, from glutathione S-transferase gene from potato. A reduction of disease symptoms of up to 70% was observed in transgenic lines expressing Bs2 with respect to non-transformed control plants. This reduction was directly dependent on the Xcc avrBs2 gene since no effect was observed when a mutant strain of Xcc with a disruption in avrBs2 gene was used for inoculations. Additionally, a canker symptom reduction was correlated with levels of the Bs2 expression in transgenic plants, as assessed by real-time qPCR, and accompanied by the production of reactive oxygen species. These results indicate that the pepper Bs2 resistance gene is also functional in a family other than the Solanaceae, and could be considered for canker control.

  13. Ectopic expression of MdSPDS1 in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck reduces canker susceptibility: involvement of H2O2 production and transcriptional alteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enormous work has shown that polyamines are involved in a variety of physiological processes, but information is scarce on the potential of modifying disease response through genetic transformation of a polyamine biosynthetic gene. Results In the present work, an apple spermidine synthase gene (MdSPDS1 was introduced into sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck 'Anliucheng' via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic calluses. Two transgenic lines (TG4 and TG9 varied in the transgene expression and cellular endogenous polyamine contents. Pinprick inoculation demonstrated that the transgenic lines were less susceptible to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac, the causal agent of citrus canker, than the wild type plants (WT. In addition, our data showed that upon Xac attack TG9 had significantly higher free spermine (Spm and polyamine oxidase (PAO activity when compared with the WT, concurrent with an apparent hypersensitive response and the accumulation of more H2O2. Pretreatment of TG9 leaves with guazatine acetate, an inhibitor of PAO, repressed PAO activity and reduced H2O2 accumulation, leading to more conspicuous disease symptoms than the controls when both were challenged with Xac. Moreover, mRNA levels of most of the defense-related genes involved in synthesis of pathogenesis-related protein and jasmonic acid were upregulated in TG9 than in the WT regardless of Xac infection. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that overexpression of the MdSPDS1 gene prominently lowered the sensitivity of the transgenic plants to canker. This may be, at least partially, correlated with the generation of more H2O2 due to increased production of polyamines and enhanced PAO-mediated catabolism, triggering hypersensitive response or activation of defense-related genes.

  14. Ectopic expression of MdSPDS1 in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) reduces canker susceptibility: involvement of H₂O₂ production and transcriptional alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xing-Zheng; Chen, Chuan-Wu; Wang, Yin; Liu, Ji-Hong; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2011-03-28

    Enormous work has shown that polyamines are involved in a variety of physiological processes, but information is scarce on the potential of modifying disease response through genetic transformation of a polyamine biosynthetic gene. In the present work, an apple spermidine synthase gene (MdSPDS1) was introduced into sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck 'Anliucheng') via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic calluses. Two transgenic lines (TG4 and TG9) varied in the transgene expression and cellular endogenous polyamine contents. Pinprick inoculation demonstrated that the transgenic lines were less susceptible to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac), the causal agent of citrus canker, than the wild type plants (WT). In addition, our data showed that upon Xac attack TG9 had significantly higher free spermine (Spm) and polyamine oxidase (PAO) activity when compared with the WT, concurrent with an apparent hypersensitive response and the accumulation of more H₂O₂. Pretreatment of TG9 leaves with guazatine acetate, an inhibitor of PAO, repressed PAO activity and reduced H₂O₂ accumulation, leading to more conspicuous disease symptoms than the controls when both were challenged with Xac. Moreover, mRNA levels of most of the defense-related genes involved in synthesis of pathogenesis-related protein and jasmonic acid were upregulated in TG9 than in the WT regardless of Xac infection. Our results demonstrated that overexpression of the MdSPDS1 gene prominently lowered the sensitivity of the transgenic plants to canker. This may be, at least partially, correlated with the generation of more H₂O₂ due to increased production of polyamines and enhanced PAO-mediated catabolism, triggering hypersensitive response or activation of defense-related genes.

  15. Effect of Nitric Oxide Application on Reduction of Undesirable Effects of Chilling on Washington Navel orange (Citrus sinensis L. Fruit During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bahareh ghorbani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chilling injury (CI is the primary postharvest problem of orange (Citrus sinensis L. and many other horticultural crops during storage. Washington Navel orange fruits are susceptible to CI during storage below 5°C, and the main CI symptoms are surface pitting, browning, discoloration and decay. Several promising methods have been developed to alleviate CI symptoms of orange fruit. These include postharvest physical treatments with UV-C, modified atmosphere packaging, temperature conditioning, and chemical treatments with plant growth regulators. Oxidative stress from excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS has been associated with appearance of chilling damage in fruits. The oxidation of ROS is due to their reaction with numerous cell components coursing a cascade of oxidative reactions and consequent inactivation of enzymes, lipid peroxidation, protein degradation, and DNA damage. Aerobic organisms have evolved well-developed defense systems to establish a fine-tuned balance between ROS production and removal plants are protected against ROS effects by a complex antioxidant system. This involved both lipid soluble antioxidant (α- tocopherol and carotenoids and water soluble reductants (glutathion and ascorbate and enzymes, such as catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD. Previous studies have shown that there is a positive relationship between the antioxidant enzymes activity and the chilling tolerance in harvested fruits. Nitric oxide (NO is an important signaling molecule involved in many plant physiological processes. It has also been indicated that NO protects plant cells against oxidative stress by reducing ROS accumulation. When exogenously applied, NO has been shown to result in an improved chilling tolerance and reduced incidence of chilling injury in several fruits. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of NO on chilling injury, lipid peroxidation

  16. Lipids in citrus sinensis seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, S.; Liaquat, L.; Khalid, B.; Khan, J.I.

    2003-01-01

    The seed oil of citrus sinensis when subjected to different physicochemical tests showed moisture 13.2%, ash 7.5%, ester value 1.29%, free fatty acid 0.4%. iodine value 65.0% and protein value 6.0%. According to lipid analysis. the oil was classified into hydrocarbons. wax esters, sterol esters, triglycerides. free fatty acids, 1,3 and 1,2 diglycerides, alcohols, sterols, monoglycerides, phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylcholines and lysophosphatidylethanolamines. The fatty acid (C/sub 12.0/ - C/sub 21.0/) composition of all lipid classes was determined with the help of thin layer and gas liquid chromatography. (author)

  17. Influence of different organic fertilizers on quality parameters and the delta(15)N, delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O values of orange fruit (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, Paolo; Camin, Federica; Fabroni, Simona; Perini, Matteo; Torrisi, Biagio; Intrigliolo, Francesco

    2010-03-24

    To investigate the influence of different types of fertilizers on quality parameters, N-containing compounds, and the delta(15)N, delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta (34)S, and delta(18)O values of citrus fruit, a study was performed on the orange fruit cv. 'Valencia late' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), which was harvested in four plots (three organic and one conventional) located on the same farm. The results demonstrated that different types of organic fertilizers containing the same amount of nitrogen did not effect important changes in orange fruit quality parameters. The levels of total N and N-containing compounds such as synephrine in fruit juice were not statistically different among the different treatments. The delta(15)N values of orange fruit grown under fertilizer derived from animal origin as well as from vegetable compost were statistically higher than those grown with mineral fertilizer. Therefore, delta(15)N values can be used as an indicator of citrus fertilization management (organic or conventional), because even when applied organic fertilizers are of different origins, the natural abundance of (15)N in organic citrus fruit remains higher than in conventional ones. These treatments also did not effect differences in the delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O values of fruit.

  18. Determination of volatile, phenolic, organic acid and sugar components in a Turkish cv. Dortyol (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2011-08-15

    Orange flavour is the results of a natural combination of volatile compounds in a well-balanced system including sugars, acids and phenolic compounds. This paper reports the results of the first determination of aroma, organic acids, sugars, and phenolic components in Dortyol yerli orange juices. A total of 58 volatile components, including esters (nine), terpenes (19), terpenols (13), aldehydes (two), ketones (three), alcohols (four) and acids (eight) were identified and quantified in Dortyol yerli orange juice by GC-FID and GC-MS. Organic acids, sugars and phenolic compositions were also determined by HPLC methods. The major organic acid and sugar found were citric acid and sucrose, respectively. With regard to phenolics, 14 compounds were identified and quantified in the orange juice. Terpenes and terpenols were found as the main types of volatile components in Dortyol yerli orange juice. In terms of aroma contribution to orange juice, 12 compounds were prominent based on the odour activity values (OAVs). The highest OAV values were recorded for ethyl butanoate, nootkatone, linalool and DL-limonene. When we compare the obtained results of cv. Dortyol orange juice with the other orange juice varieties, the composition of Dortyol orange juice was similar to Valencia and Navel orange juices. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA Constitutes a Large and Diverse Family of Proteins Involved in Development and Abiotic Stress Responses in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb..

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    Andresa Muniz Pedrosa

    Full Text Available Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA proteins are an ubiquitous group of polypeptides that were first described to accumulate during plant seed dehydration, at the later stages of embryogenesis. Since then they have also been recorded in vegetative plant tissues experiencing water limitation and in anhydrobiotic bacteria and invertebrates and, thereby, correlated with the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. This study provides the first comprehensive study about the LEA gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb., the most important and widely grown fruit crop around the world. A surprisingly high number (72 of genes encoding C. sinensis LEAs (CsLEAs were identified and classified into seven groups (LEA_1, LEA_2, LEA_3 and LEA_4, LEA_5, DEHYDRIN and SMP based on their predicted amino acid sequences and also on their phylogenetic relationships with the complete set of Arabidopsis thaliana LEA proteins (AtLEAs. Approximately 60% of the CsLEAs identified in this study belongs to the unusual LEA_2 group of more hydrophobic LEA proteins, while the other LEA groups contained a relatively small number of members typically hydrophilic. A correlation between gene structure and motif composition was observed within each LEA group. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that the CsLEAs were non-randomly distributed across all nine chromosomes and that 33% of all CsLEAs are segmentally or tandemly duplicated genes. Analysis of the upstream sequences required for transcription revealed the presence of various stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions of CsLEAs, including ABRE, DRE/CRT, MYBS and LTRE. Expression analysis using both RNA-seq data and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR revealed that the CsLEA genes are widely expressed in various tissues, and that many genes containing the ABRE promoter sequence are induced by drought, salt and PEG. These results provide a useful reference for further

  20. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) Constitutes a Large and Diverse Family of Proteins Involved in Development and Abiotic Stress Responses in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Andresa Muniz; Martins, Cristina de Paula Santos; Gonçalves, Luana Pereira; Costa, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins are an ubiquitous group of polypeptides that were first described to accumulate during plant seed dehydration, at the later stages of embryogenesis. Since then they have also been recorded in vegetative plant tissues experiencing water limitation and in anhydrobiotic bacteria and invertebrates and, thereby, correlated with the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. This study provides the first comprehensive study about the LEA gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.), the most important and widely grown fruit crop around the world. A surprisingly high number (72) of genes encoding C. sinensis LEAs (CsLEAs) were identified and classified into seven groups (LEA_1, LEA_2, LEA_3 and LEA_4, LEA_5, DEHYDRIN and SMP) based on their predicted amino acid sequences and also on their phylogenetic relationships with the complete set of Arabidopsis thaliana LEA proteins (AtLEAs). Approximately 60% of the CsLEAs identified in this study belongs to the unusual LEA_2 group of more hydrophobic LEA proteins, while the other LEA groups contained a relatively small number of members typically hydrophilic. A correlation between gene structure and motif composition was observed within each LEA group. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that the CsLEAs were non-randomly distributed across all nine chromosomes and that 33% of all CsLEAs are segmentally or tandemly duplicated genes. Analysis of the upstream sequences required for transcription revealed the presence of various stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions of CsLEAs, including ABRE, DRE/CRT, MYBS and LTRE. Expression analysis using both RNA-seq data and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) revealed that the CsLEA genes are widely expressed in various tissues, and that many genes containing the ABRE promoter sequence are induced by drought, salt and PEG. These results provide a useful reference for further exploration of

  1. Microbial inhibitory and radical scavenging activities of cold-pressed terpeneless Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) oil in different dispersing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalova, Vesela I; Crandall, Philip G; Ricke, Steven C

    2010-04-15

    Due to their low solubility in water, oil-based bioactive compounds require dispersion in a surface-active agent or appropriate solvents to ensure maximum contact with microorganisms. These combinations, however, may change their physical and/or chemical characteristics and consequently alter the desired functionality. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of selected dispersing agents, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and Tween-80, on cold-pressed terpeneless (CPT) Valencia orange oil to function as a free radical scavenger and an antimicrobial food additive. When dissolved in ethanol or DMSO, the orange oil fraction had similar minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19 115 (0.3% and 0.25% v/v respectively), which were significantly lower (P orange oil (up to 3%) in an aqueous solution of 0.1% Tween-80 yielded no inhibitory activities against any of the test bacteria. However, the 1% natural orange oil dispersed in Tween-80 exhibited 56.86% 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical inhibition versus 18.37% and 16.60% when the same level of orange oil was dissolved in DMSO or ethanol, respectively. At the same orange oil concentration, the oil/Tween-80 suspension yielded 57.92% neutralization of hydroxyl radicals. This represents 71.37% of the mannitol antioxidant activity, which was used as a positive control. These findings suggest that Tween-80 is an appropriate dispersing agent only if the antioxidant functionality is desired. If both antimicrobial and antioxidant properties are needed, the CPT Valencia orange oil should be dispersed in either DMSO or ethanol. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Effect of abscission zone formation on orange (Citrus sinensis) fruit/juice quality for trees affected by Huanglongbing (HLB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange trees affected by huanglongbing (HLB) exhibit excessive fruit drop, and fruit loosely attached to the tree may have inferior flavor. Fruit were collected from healthy and HLB-infected (Candidatus liberibacter asiaticus) ‘Hamlin’ and ‘Valencia’ trees. Prior to harvest, the trees were shaken, f...

  3. Effect of Nigerian citrus ( Citrus sinensis Osbeck) honey on ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Nigerian citrus (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) honey on ethanol metabolism was tested using 45 consenting individuals in apparent good health and between the ages of 25 and 35 years. The subjects were moderate social drinkers matched in terms of body weight and build. The results obtained showed that on ...

  4. Determination of added dye in orange fruit juices of Citrus sinensis cultivar with a simple analytical method

    OpenAIRE

    LUZIANA HOXHA; ONEIDA KYCYK; RENATA KONGOLI; ERANDA MANE

    2014-01-01

    Orange juice is a daily food randomly consumed and could be easily presented like an imitation of original products. Identification of its imitation has a big importance for juice authenticity. In some cases, it’s used the colouring agent Tartrazine (E102) a monoazo dye, permitted as food additive in EU, but hazardous for human health, due to allergic reactions and hyperactivity increasing especially of children in high levels. E102 consists essentially of trisodium 5-hydroxy-1-(4-sulfonatoph...

  5. Population parameters and damage of Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Acari: Tarsonemidae in Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaura Viviana Rodriguez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Polyphagotarsonemus latus is one a major pest of Valencia orange in Colombia. To study its biology, it was established an experiment on young leaves of the Valencia orange at 25 ± 5°C, 70 ± 5% RH, and 12:12 L:D photoperiod. To characterize the nature of damage caused by this mite on leaves and young fruits, a trial in screenhouse conditions using young leaf and small fruits (0.1 - 0.3 cm in diameter and fruits between 1.0–3.0 cm in diameter, which were infested with 5, 15 and 30 adult females of P. latus, was established. The total duration of life cycle was 3.2 days; the female had an oviposition period of 7.4 days and longevity 9.6 days. Life table parameters were as follows: net reproductive rate (Ro = 93.3, intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm = 1.2, finite multiplication rate (λ = 3.7, doubling time (TD = 0.6 days and generation time (T = 3.4. The first signs of damage and shoot drop in newly developed shoots occurred between 7.0 and 11.8 days after infestation. Small fruit infested with 5-30 mites showed damage 2.4 days after infestation. Shoot drop started 7.0 days after infestation. In the case of fruits between 1.0 and 3.0 cm in diameter, the damage and the collapse of the structure was between 3.0 and 13.5 days, respectively. These results explain how a mite with a very short life cycle and huge biotic potential causes such severe damage in shoots and newly formed fruits of Valencia orange.

  6. Assessing a traceability technique in fresh oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) with an HS-SPME-GC-MS method. Towards a volatile characterisation of organic oranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Francisco Julián; Moreno-Rojas, José Manuel; Ruiz-Moreno, María José

    2017-04-15

    A targeted approach using HS-SPME-GC-MS was performed to compare flavour compounds of 'Navelina' and 'Salustiana' orange cultivars from organic and conventional management systems. Both varieties of conventional oranges showed higher content of ester compounds. On the other hand, higher content of some compounds related with the geranyl-diphosphate pathway (neryl and geranyl acetates) and some terpenoids were found in the organic samples. Furthermore, the partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) achieved an effective classification for oranges based on the farming system using their volatile profiles (90 and 100% correct classification). To our knowledge, it is the first time that a comparative study dealing with farming systems and orange aroma profile has been performed. These new insights, taking into account local databases, cultivars and advanced analytical tools, highlight the potential of volatile composition for organic orange discrimination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolomic comparative analysis of the phloem sap of curry leaf tree (Bergera koenegii), orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata), and Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) supports their differential responses to Huanglongbing

    OpenAIRE

    Killiny, Nabil

    2016-01-01

    Orange jasmine, Murraya paniculata and curry leaf tree, Bergera koenegii are alternative hosts for Diaphorina citri, the vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the pathogen of huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus. D. citri feeds on the phloem sap where CLas grows. It has been shown that orange jasmine was a better host than curry leaf tree to D. citri. In addition, CLas can infect orange jasmine but not curry leaf tree. Here, we compared the phloem sap composition of these 2 plants to t...

  8. Effect of Abscission Zone Formation on Orange ( Citrus sinensis) Fruit/Juice Quality for Trees Affected by Huanglongbing (HLB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Elizabeth; Plotto, Anne; Bai, Jinhe; Manthey, John; Zhao, Wei; Raithore, Smita; Irey, Mike

    2018-03-21

    Orange trees affected by huanglongbing (HLB) exhibit excessive fruit drop, and fruit loosely attached to the tree may have inferior flavor. Fruit were collected from healthy and HLB-infected ( Candidatus liberibacter asiaticus) 'Hamlin' and 'Valencia' trees. Prior to harvest, the trees were shaken, fruit that dropped collected, tree-retained fruit harvested, and all fruit juiced. For chemical analyses, sugars and acids were generally lowest in HLB dropped (HLB-D) fruit juice compared to nonshaken healthy (H), healthy retained (H-R), and healthy dropped fruit (H-D) in early season (December) but not for the late season (January) 'Hamlin' or 'Valencia' except for sugar/acid ratio. The bitter limonoids, many flavonoids, and terpenoid volatiles were generally higher in HLB juice, especially HLB-D juice, compared to the other samples. The lower sugars, higher bitter limonoids, flavonoids, and terpenoid volatiles in HLB-D fruit, loosely attached to the tree, contributed to off-flavor, as was confirmed by sensory analyses.

  9. Effect of soy oil, orange (Citrus sinensis) peel oil and their blends on total phospholipid, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant defense system in brain tissues of normo rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erukainure, O.L.; Ajiboye, J.A.; Davis, F.F.; Obabire, K.; Okoro, E.E.; Adenekan, S.O.; Adegbola, M.V.; Awogbemi, B.J.; Odjobo, B.O.; Zaruwa, M.Z.

    2016-07-01

    Soy and orange peel (C. sinensis) oils were fed to albino male rats to determine their effects on malondialdehyde (MDA), total phospholipid (TP) content and oxidative stress biomarkers of brain tissue. Beside mouse chow, four diets were designed to contain 50% of their energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein, and one lipid-free diet which had distilled water substituted for fat. Groups of five rats were each fed one of these diets, while a fifth group was fed pelletized mouse chow. A significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed in the TP of the mouse chow group. The TP was highest (p < 0.05) in those fed the soy and orange peel oil blend as compared to those fed these oils separately. Feeding soy oil led to decreased MDA in brain tissues and influenced the TP content. Significantly lower (p < 0.05) GSH and SOD activities were observed in the groups fed soy oil+orange peel oil, and soy oil diets respectively. Higher significant (p < 0.05) activities were observed in the orange oil fed group. Significantly higher (p < 0.05) catalase activity was observed in the lipid free diet fed group, which was followed by orange peel oil, and soy oil+orange peel oil diets, respectively. A combination of both oils may be useful in the management of certain neurological diseases or illnesses and protect against other oxidative stress complications. (Author)

  10. Chemical and sensory characterization of orange (Citrus sinensis) pulp,a by-product of orange juice processing using gas-chromatography-olfactometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile composition of commercial orange pulp (from Brazil and Florida, U.S.A.) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-Olfactometry (GC-O). In both samples 72 volatiles were detected, of which 58 were identified. Odor-active compounds with high frequency of detection (...

  11. Involvements of PCD and changes in gene expression profile during self-pruning of spring shoots in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Zhi; Zhao, Kun; Ai, Xiao-Yan; Hu, Chun-Gen

    2014-10-13

    Citrus shoot tips abscise at an anatomically distinct abscission zone (AZ) that separates the top part of the shoots into basal and apical portions (citrus self-pruning). Cell separation occurs only at the AZ, which suggests its cells have distinctive molecular regulation. Although several studies have looked into the morphological aspects of self-pruning process, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, the hallmarks of programmed cell death (PCD) were identified by TUNEL experiments, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and histochemical staining for reactive oxygen species (ROS) during self-pruning of the spring shoots in sweet orange. Our results indicated that PCD occurred systematically and progressively and may play an important role in the control of self-pruning of citrus. Microarray analysis was used to examine transcriptome changes at three stages of self-pruning, and 1,378 differentially expressed genes were identified. Some genes were related to PCD, while others were associated with cell wall biosynthesis or metabolism. These results strongly suggest that abscission layers activate both catabolic and anabolic wall modification pathways during the self-pruning process. In addition, a strong correlation was observed between self-pruning and the expression of hormone-related genes. Self-pruning plays an important role in citrus floral bud initiation. Therefore, several key flowering homologs of Arabidopsis and tomato shoot apical meristem (SAM) activity genes were investigated in sweet orange by real-time PCR and in situ hybridization, and the results indicated that these genes were preferentially expressed in SAM as well as axillary meristem. Based on these findings, a model for sweet orange spring shoot self-pruning is proposed, which will enable us to better understand the mechanism of self-pruning and abscission.

  12. Unravelling molecular responses to moderate dehydration in harvested fruit of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) using a fruit-specific ABA-deficient mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Paco; Rodrigo, María J; Alférez, Fernando; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; González-Candelas, Luis; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Lafuente, María T

    2012-04-01

    Water stress affects many agronomic traits that may be regulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). Within these traits, loss of fruit quality becomes important in many citrus cultivars that develop peel damage in response to dehydration. To study peel dehydration transcriptional responsiveness in harvested citrus fruit and the putative role of ABA in this process, this study performed a comparative large-scale transcriptional analysis of water-stressed fruits of the wild-type Navelate orange (Citrus sinesis L. Osbeck) and its spontaneous ABA-deficient mutant Pinalate, which is more prone to dehydration and to developing peel damage. Major changes in gene expression occurring in the wild-type line were impaired in the mutant fruit. Gene ontology analysis revealed the ability of Navelate fruits to induce the response to water deprivation and di-, tri-valent inorganic cation transport biological processes, as well as repression of the carbohydrate biosynthesis process in the mutant. Exogenous ABA triggered relevant transcriptional changes and repressed the protein ubiquitination process, although it could not fully rescue the physiological behaviour of the mutant. Overall, the results indicated that dehydration responsiveness requires ABA-dependent and -independent signals, and highlight that the ability of citrus fruits to trigger molecular responses against dehydration is an important factor in reducing their susceptibility to developing peel damage.

  13. Penggunaan Tepung Limbah Jus Jeruk (citrus sinensis dalam Ransum terhadap Kualitas Karkas Ayam Broiler

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    Ucop Haroen

    2017-04-01

    (The use of orange (citrus sinensis juice by products in the ration on carcass quality of broiler chickens ABSTRACT. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of orange (Citrus sinensis juice by products in rations on (carcass quality ; weight of slaughter, carcass weight, carcasspercentages, abdominal fat weight and feed intake of broiler chicks. A total of two hundred unsexed 1 d-old chicks (Arbor Acres CP-707 used. The design used was Completely Randomized Design consisting of 5 treatments and 4 replications of each replication consisting of 10 chickens. Feed treatment consisted of P0 = 0% orange juice waste flour (positive control; P1 = 0% waste juice flour with 0.02% basitratin addition (negative control; P2 = 5% orange juice flour waste; P3 = 10% orange juice flour waste; P4 = 15% orange juice flour waste. The variables observed were carcass quality (cut weight, carcass weight, carcass percentage, carcass cholesterol, abdominal fat and ration consumption..The results showed that the use of orange juice flour in the ration significantly influenced (P <0.05 in reducing the consumption of ration, cut weight, carcass weight, carcass cholesterol and abdominal fat weight, but the use of orange juice waste flour in the ration did not affect the percentage of carcass . As a conclusion is the use of orange juice waste flour (Citrus sinensis can be used to a level of 5% in broiler chicken rations.

  14. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis

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    Juan Manuel J. Favela-Hernández

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that are beneficial for human health that could be used to develop new drugs.

  15. Structural characterization of the thermally-tolerant pectin methylesterase purified from Citrus sinensis fruit and its gene sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the longstanding importance for the thermally-tolerant pectin methylesterase (TT-PME) activity in citrus juice processing and product quality, unequivocal identification of the protein and its corresponding gene has remained elusive. We purified TT-PME from sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.)...

  16. Protective effects of orange (Citrus sinensis L.) peel aqueous extract and hesperidin on oxidative stress and peptic ulcer induced by alcohol in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, Slimen; Rtibi, Kais; Grami, Dhekra; Sebai, Hichem; Marzouki, Lamjed

    2017-08-14

    Massive alcohol drinking can lead to gastric ulcer. In the present study we investigated the gastroprotective effect of Citrus sinensis peel aqueous extract (CSPE) and Hesperidin (H) in ethanol (EtOH) induced oxidative stress and peptic ulcer in rats. Seventy adult male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of 10 each: control, EtOH (4 g/kg b.w.), EtOH + various doses of CSPE (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, b.w.), EtOH + Hesperidin (50 mg/kg, p.o.) and EtOH + Omeprazole (OM, 20 mg/kg, p.o.). Animals were perorally (p.o.) pre-treated with CSPE during 15 days and intoxicated with a single oral administration of EtOH (4 g/kg b.w.) during 2 h. Gastric ulcer was induced in rats with a single dose of ethanol (EtOH). Ulcer index, gene expression of gastric cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), malondialdhyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide H 2 O 2 and Thiol groups (-SH) content in stomach and antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and gluthation peroxidise (GPx) were measured. Furthermore, histopathological examinations were performed. The results showed that ethanol induced gastric damage, improving oxidative stress markers level such as MDA (121 ± 4.45 nmol/mg proteins) and H 2 O 2 (24.62 ± 1.04 μmol/mg proteins), increased pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α level), as well as the expression of COX-2 in the ethanol group. However, a significant depletion of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were observed, such as, GPx (72%), SOD (57.5%), CAT (41.6%) and -SH (50%). The lesions were associated with severe histopathological damage. The both Citrus sinensis peel aqueous extract (CSPE) and hesperidin significantly protect against all gastric damages caused by ethanol administration in rats. We propose that CSPE and hesperidin exhibit protective effects in EtOH-induced peptic ulcer in rat. This protection might be related in to part its antioxidant properties as well as its opposite effects on some studied

  17. Mites (Arachnida, Acari on Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck orange trees in the state of Amazonas, Northern Brazil Ácarofauna de Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck no estado do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Teiamar da Encarnação Bobot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of citriculture in Brazil, very little is known about mite populations in citrus crops in the Northern Region. In the municipality of Manaus, 12 sprayed sweet orange orchards were surveyed every two weeks during seven months to record mite species amount, and to describe the abundance and distribution of the most important species. The size and age of the orchards varied from 3,360 to 88,080 m² and seven to 25 years, respectively. In the fourteen sampling period, leaves, twigs and fruits were collected from 12 trees, one per orchard. In total, 3,360 leaves, 672 twigs and 1,344 fruits were sampled from 168 trees. Mites were manually extracted from the fruits, and by the washing method on leaves and twigs. We identified pests with the potential to cause economic loss. Fourteen species of phytophagous and mycophagous mites from Eriophyidae, Tarsonemidae, Tenuipalpidae, and Tetranychidae were recorded. Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes 1939 and Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashm., 1879, the two commonest phytophagous mites in other Brazilian regions were dominant, showing that local orchards are susceptible to their infestation. Eleven predatory mites were recorded, comprising 10% of the mite population, belonging to Phytoseiidae and Ascidae. Phytoseiidae was the richest family, with ten species. The results are discussed in relation to the temporal variation aspects and habitat use of the most important species. Long-term research encompassing chemical applications followed by evaluations of the mite community are necessary for a better management of the orchards, taking into consideration the seasonal phenology of key pests.Apesar da importância da citricultura no Brasil, pouco se conhece sobre as populações de ácaros em plantações de citros no norte do país. No município de Manaus, 12 pomares de laranja doce pulverizados foram avaliados a cada duas semanas, durante sete meses, para o registro de ácaros plantícolas e

  18. Genome-wide identification of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) metal tolerance proteins and analysis of their expression patterns under zinc, manganese, copper, and cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xing-Zheng; Tong, Ya-Hua; Zhou, Xue; Ling, Li-Li; Chun, Chang-Pin; Cao, Li; Zeng, Ming; Peng, Liang-Zhi

    2017-09-20

    Plant metal tolerance proteins (MTPs) play important roles in heavy metal homeostasis; however, related information in citrus plants is limited. Citrus genome sequencing and assembly have enabled us to perform a systematic analysis of the MTP gene family. We identified 12 MTP genes in sweet orange, which we have named as CitMTP1 and CitMTP3 to CitMTP12 based on their sequence similarity to Arabidopsis thaliana MTPs. The CitMTPs were predicted to encode proteins of 864 to 2556 amino acids in length that included 4 to 6 putative transmembrane domains (TMDs). Furthermore, all the CitMTPs contained a highly conserved signature sequence encompassing the TMD-II and the start of the TMD-III. Phylogenetic analysis further classified the CitMTPs into Fe/Zn-MTP, Mn-MTP, and Zn-MTP subgroups, which coincided with the MTPs of A. thaliana and rice. The closely clustered CitMTPs shared a similar gene structure. Expression analysis indicated that most CitMTP transcripts were upregulated to various extents under heavy metal stress. Among these, CitMTP5 in the roots and CitMTP11 in the leaves during Zn stress, CitMTP8 in the roots and CitMTP8.1 in the leaves during Mn stress, CitMTP12 in the roots and CitMTP1 in the leaves during Cu stress, and CitMTP11 in the roots and CitMTP1 in the leaves during Cd stress showed the highest extent of upregulation. These findings are suggestive of their individual roles in heavy metal detoxification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Visitantes florais e produção de frutos em cultura de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.612 Floral visitors and fruit production on sweet orange crop (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.612

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    Darclet Terezinha Malerbo Souza

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi realizado em florada de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, variedade Pera-Rio, com os objetivos de estudar os insetos visitantes nas flores d e laranjeira, o seu comportamento nas flores, o tipo de coleta efetuada e o efeito dessas visitas na produção de frutos, em quantidade e qualidade. Os dados de freqüência foram obtidos por contagem nos primeiros 10 minutos de cada horário, das 8h às 18h, em três dias distintos, percorrendo-se as linhas da cultura. O comportamento forrageiro de cada espécie de inseto foi avaliado através de observações visuais, no decorrer do dia, no período experimental. Os insetos observados foram abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula. As abelhas A. mellifera foram os visitantes florais mais freqüentes e preferiram coletar néctar comparado ao pólen. Os botões florais descobertos produziram mais frutos que os botões florais cobertos. Os frutos decorrentes do tratamento coberto foram menores, mais ácidos e com menor quantidade de vitamina C que os frutos do tratamento descoberto.The present experiment was carried out in flowerage of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, Pera-rio variety, to study the insects involv ed in pollination, their behaviour in the flower (nectar or pollen collection and the effect of the pollination on fruit production (quantity and quality. More frequent insects were recorded daily (counted during ten minutes, every hour from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., with three replications. The forage behaviour and nectar and/or pollen collect was also observed. The insect visitors on flowers were Africanized honey bee Apis mellifera, followed by stingless bees Trigona spinipes and Tetragonisca angustula. A. mellifera were the most frequent visitors and preferred to collect nectar than pollen. The uncovered flowers -buds produced more fruits than the covered ones. Another observation was that fruits derived from covered

  20. Caracterización mediante microsatélites de 34 accesiones de naranja Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck del Banco de Germoplasma de Corpoica-Palmira Genetic characterization using microsatellites of 34 accessions of the orange, Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck from the Germplasm bank of Corpoica-Palmira

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    Yacenia Morillo Coronado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron 19 marcadores microsatélites para caracterizar 34 accesiones de naranja Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck del Banco de Germoplasma de la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria (Corpoica-Palmira. Seis marcadores fueron polimórficos, los de mayor heterocigosidad fueron CCSM- 19 (0.4097 y CCSM-3 (0.3254. Se diferenciaron 33 accesiones y al 85% de similitud, con el índice de Nei-Li y el método de agrupamiento UPGMA, se conformaron cuatro grupos. En el primero se situaron dos accesiones blancas (Lerma y Valencia Olinda 2, en el segundo la mayoría de las blancas (Indian River, Valencia Olinda, Wialua, Lima Dulce, Pera del Río, St. Michael, Enterprise, Cafetera No. 1 junto con García Valencia y Navel (Lane Late, Valle Washington, New Hall y dos sanguinas (Rudy Blood, Moro Blood, en el tercero accesiones blancas (Joppa, Salerma, Cuban Queen, Rico, Galicia, Star Calyx, Valencia Cutter, Valencia Frost, Valencia Campbell y Valencia Variegado y una sola accesión sanguina (Morocco Blood. En el cuarto grupo se situaron dos accesiones blancas, (Jaffa y Valencia 1-D-E. Finalmente, la variedad Sanguinella no hizo parte de grupos. Con los marcadores microsatélites no se encontró relación entre los grupos genéticos, formación y las características morfológicas del grupo.To characterize 34 orange accessions Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck from the Germplasm bank Corpoica- Palmira, 19 microsatellite markers were used. Six markers were polymorphic; the highest heterozygosity was obtained by CCSM-19 (0.4097 and CCSM-3 (0.3254. Thirty-three accessions were differentiated; with 85% of similarity, Nei-Li´s index and the UPGMA clustering method were formed fi ve groups. In the first one, two accessions were white (Lerma and Valencia Olinda 2, in the second one most of the white (Indian River, Valencia Olinda, Wialua, Lima Dulce, Pera del Río, St. Michael, Enterprise, Cafetera No. 1, García Valencia and Navel (Lane Late, Valle Washington

  1. Digital gene expression analysis of corky split vein caused by boron deficiency in 'Newhall' Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck for selecting differentially expressed genes related to vascular hypertrophy.

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    Cheng-Quan Yang

    Full Text Available Corky split vein caused by boron (B deficiency in 'Newhall' Navel Orange was studied in the present research. The boron-deficient citrus exhibited a symptom of corky split vein in mature leaves. Morphologic and anatomical surveys at four representative phases of corky split veins showed that the symptom was the result of vascular hypertrophy. Digital gene expression (DGE analysis was performed based on the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform, which was applied to analyze the gene expression profilings of corky split veins at four morphologic phases. Over 5.3 million clean reads per library were successfully mapped to the reference database and more than 22897 mapped genes per library were simultaneously obtained. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs revealed that the expressions of genes associated with cytokinin signal transduction, cell division, vascular development, lignin biosynthesis and photosynthesis in corky split veins were all affected. The expressions of WOL and ARR12 involved in the cytokinin signal transduction pathway were up-regulated at 1(st phase of corky split vein development. Furthermore, the expressions of some cell cycle genes, CYCs and CDKB, and vascular development genes, WOX4 and VND7, were up-regulated at the following 2(nd and 3(rd phases. These findings indicated that the cytokinin signal transduction pathway may play a role in initiating symptom observed in our study.

  2. Ingestão de seiva do xilema de laranjeiras 'Pêra' e 'Valência' (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck sadias e infectadas por Xylella fastidiosa, pelas cigarrinhas vetoras Oncometopia facialis e Dilobopterus costalimai (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae Xylem sap ingestion form healthy "Pera" and "Valencia" sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck and infected ones by Xylella fastidiosa, Oncometopia facialis and Dilobopterus costalimai (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae

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    Luiz Henrique Montesino

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da infecção pela bactéria Xylella fastidiosa, agente causal da Clorose Variegada dos Citros (CVC, sobre a taxa de ingestão de seiva do xilema de plantas cítricas por duas espécies de cigarrinhas vetoras (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae. Foram utilizados pés-francos de laranjeira-doce (Citrus sinensis das variedades 'Pêra' e 'Valência', infectadas por X. fastidiosa da linhagem 9a5c, por meio de inoculação mecânica. Os insetos utilizados nos experimentos foram coletados em campo, sendo um representante da Tribo Cicadellini (Dilobopterus costalimai e um da Proconiini (Oncometopia facialis. A taxa de ingestão de seiva do xilema por O. facialis foi quantificada nos ramos das plantas e a de D. costalimai nas folhas e ramos, por meio da avaliação do volume do líquido (honeydew excretado por unidade de tempo. O consumo pela cigarrinha O. facialis nas plantas doentes foi menor do que nas plantas sadias. Na variedade 'Pêra' doente, o consumo foi baixo, não permitindo a quantificação da seiva eliminada. Na 'Pêra' sadia e na 'Valência' doente e sadia, O. facialis apresentou valores expressivos de excreção, com maior alimentação no período diurno. Nas plantas sadias das duas variedades, o consumo pela cigarrinha D. costalimai foi maior do que nas plantas com CVC. Comparando-se as variedades, o consumo foi superior na variedade 'Valência', e, em relação às partes da planta, folha e ramo, a taxa de ingestão foi maior no ramo das duas variedades, apresentando consumo maior no período diurno.It was studied the effect of Xylella fastidiosa infection, causal agent of Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC, on the xylem sap ingestion rate of citrus plants by two sharpshooters species (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae. Seedlings of sweet orange Pera and Valencia (Citrus sinensis were used and infected by X. fastidiosa, strain 9a5c, obtained by mechanical inoculation. The insects used in the experiments were collected in the field, one

  3. Effect of soy oil, orange (Citrus sinensis peel oil and their blends on total phospholipid, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant defense system in brain tissues of normo rats

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    Erukainure, O. L.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soy and orange peel (C. sinensis oils were fed to albino male rats to determine their effects on malondialdehyde (MDA, total phospholipid (TP content and oxidative stress biomarkers of brain tissue. Beside mouse chow, four diets were designed to contain 50% of their energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein, and one lipid-free diet which had distilled water substituted for fat. Groups of five rats were each fed one of these diets, while a fifth group was fed pelletized mouse chow. A significant difference (p Ratas albinas machos fueron alimentadas con aceites de soja y de cáscara de naranja (C. sinensis para determinar su efecto sobre el malondialdehído (MDA, fosfolípidos (TP y el contenido total de biomarcadores del estrés oxidativo de su tejido cerebral. Además de alimento para ratones, cuatro dietas fueron diseñadas conteniendo el 50% de la energía en forma de carbohidratos, el 35% en forma de grasa, y el 15% como proteína, y una cuarta dieta libre de lípidos donde se había sustituido la grasa por agua destilada. Grupos de cinco ratas fueron alimentadas cada uno con estas dietas, mientras que un quinto grupo fue alimentado con alimento para ratones peletizado. Se observó una diferencia significativa (p < 0,05 en TP del grupo alimentado concomida para ratón. Los TP fue mayor (p < 0,05 en los alimentados con mezcla de aceite de soja y de cáscaras de naranja, en comparación con los alimentados con estos aceites por separado. La alimentación con aceite de soja llevó a una disminución del MDA en los tejidos del cerebro e influyó en el contenido de TP. Se observó un descenso significativo (p < 0,05 de las actividades de GSH y SOD en los grupos alimentados con aceite de soja+aceite de piel de naranja, y con las dietas de aceite de soja. Se observaron actividades significativamente más altas (p < 0,05 en el grupo alimentado con aceite de naranja. Una actividad catalasa significativamente mas alta (p < 0,05 se observ

  4. Reaction of detached leaves of different varieties of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) to inoculation with Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (ex Hasse) Gabriel et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) (caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp citri, Xcc) is a major disease of citrus in wet tropical and subtropical production regions. Screening for resistance is important to breeding programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate a detached leaf method to compare nine d...

  5. Unravelling molecular responses to moderate dehydration in harvested fruit of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) using a fruit-specific ABA-deficient mutant

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Paco; Rodrigo, María J.; Alférez, Fernando; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; González-Candelas, Luis; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Lafuente, María T.

    2012-01-01

    Water stress affects many agronomic traits that may be regulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). Within these traits, loss of fruit quality becomes important in many citrus cultivars that develop peel damage in response to dehydration. To study peel dehydration transcriptional responsiveness in harvested citrus fruit and the putative role of ABA in this process, this study performed a comparative large-scale transcriptional analysis of water-stressed fruits of the wild-type Navelate ...

  6. Efeito de herbicidas residuais, aplicados por vários anos consecutivos, na distribuição do sistema radicular da laranjeira Natal (Citrus sinensis.(L. osbeck Effects of residual herbicides, applyed for several years son the root system distribution of 'Natal' orange (Citrus sinensis L. osbeck

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    R Victória Filho

    1985-12-01

    detectaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas nas quantidades de radicelas entre as parcelas dos vários tratamentos com herbicidas, excluindo-se desta forma, qualquer efeito negativo de tais produtos químicos sobre o sistema radicular das laranjeiras.This experiment was carried out at the orchard of Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - Campus de Jaboticabal - UNESP, with the objective to verify the influence of the continuous use of several residual herbicides on radicals distribution of 'Natal' orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck grafted on 'Cravo' lemon (Citrus Limonia Osbeck ; they were planted on january, 1970, in a soil classified as Orthox with 1,6% of organic matter. The test had a randomized blocks experimental design in a 11 3x2x2 factorial design with three eplications. Treatments with their respe ctive doses (kg a.i/ha were: fluometuron at 4. 2; simazine at 4.8; atrazine at 4.8; bromacil at 3.2; bromacil (40% + diuron (40% at 4.8; bromacil(53.3%+ diuron (26.7% at 4.8; terb acil at 3.2; oxadiazon at 1.5; dichlobe - nil at 3.0 and 6.0, and a control with cleaning. The study of radi cels was done by the "anger method" by taking soil samples containing radicels at the distances of 80, 160 and 240 cm from the trunk at layer s of 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm of depth and in two disti nct diret ions (between lines and between plants. Results showed that radicels are superficially located, being 70% of them in the layer of 0-15 cm of soil depth and the total amount of them in the layer of 030 cm of depth. About 75% of the radicels are located till a distance of 160 cm from the trunk. In the upper soil layer (0 - 15-ccm, the amount of radicels markedly decreases as increases the distance from the trunk. In the layer of 15-30 cm, there occurred an horizontal and more uniform distribution of radicels when compared with the 0-15 cm layer. No diffe rences were found for the radicels amount among the different treat ments showing that these herbicides have no

  7. Design for limit stresses of orange fruits (Citrus sinensis under axial and radial compression as related to transportation and storage design

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    Christopher Chukwutoo Ihueze

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article employed the Hertz contact stress theory and the finite element method to evaluate the maximum contact pressure and the limit stresses of orange fruit under transportation and storage. The elastic properties of orange fruits subjected to axial and axial contact were measured such that elastic limit force, elastic modulus, Poisson’s ratio and bioyield stress were obtained as 18 N, 0.691 MPa, 0.367, 0.009 MPa for axial compression and for radial loading were 15.69 N, 0.645 MPa, 0.123, 0.010 MPa. The Hertz maximum contact pressure was estimated for axial and radial contacts as 0.036 MPa. The estimated limiting yield stress estimated as von Mises stresses for the induced surface stresses of the orange topologies varied from 0.005 MPa–0.03 MPa. Based on the distortion energy theory (DET the yield strength of orange fruit is recommended as 0.03 MPa while based on the maximum shear stress theory (MSST is 0.01 MPa for the design of orange transportation and storage system.

  8. Physicochemical and functional properties of micronized jincheng orange by-products (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) dietary fiber and its application as a fat replacer in yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Tian; Huang, Xingjian; Pan, Siyi; Wang, Lufeng

    2014-08-01

    Orange by-products from juice extraction are generally discarded or used in animal feed due to their low market value. However, orange by-products show potential as dietary fiber (DF) and fat replacers in products such as yogurt. This study assessed the benefits of using orange by-products in DF-enriched materials such as DF powders (OP) and micronized DF with ball-milling (MDF). The study also investigated the effects of adding different levels of OP and MDF on the quality of low-fat yogurt. Results show that MDF showed better physicochemical and functional properties than OP, and that 2% MDF as a fat replacer in yogurt retained most of the textural and sensory properties of full-fat yogurt. Therefore, this study showed that MDF is a promising alternative as a fat replacer in low-fat yogurt, without sacrificing good taste and other qualities of full-fat yogurt.

  9. Influence of air flow, temperature and agitation speed in the batch acetification process to obtain orange vinegar (Citrus sinensis var.W. Navel

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    María Ferreyra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the influence of process variables to produce orange vinegar. Orange juice was fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae until reach 14% v/v. The biooxidation was carried out with Acetobacter sp., in submerge culture using a laboratory scale fermentor. In order to avoid the inhibitory effect of ethanol on acetic acid bacteria, the orange wine was diluted to 6% v/v with a mineral solution. It was performed a factorial design 2k to study the influence of variables. It was studied air flow rate/agitation at levels of 0.3-0.6 vvm and 200-400 rpm and the effect of air flow rate/temperature at 0.4-0.6 vvm and 25- 30°C, respectively. Duplicate treatments were carried out and the results were evaluated in terms of productivity and fermentation yield. Statistical design (p-value<0.05 was analyzed using Statgraphics Centurion XV Corporate software. Treatments performed at 200 rpm and different air flow levels, did not show significant differences on acetification rate. At higher agitation speed and air flow rates, the productivity was high. The best yields were obtained at lower air flows levels and higher agitation speed. Temperature did not present statistically differences on studied variables. The best yield was obtained at 400 rpm and 0.3 vvm at 25°C. It can be concluded that agitation speed plays an important role for a better acetification rate however higher air flow rates causes less yields.

  10. Kinetic and isotherm studies of bisphenol A adsorption onto orange albedo(Citrus sinensis): Sorption mechanisms based on the main albedo components vitamin C, flavones glycosides and carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgaing, Theophile; Doungmo, Giscard; Melataguia Tchieno, Francis Merlin; Gouoko Kouonang, Jimmy Julio; Mbadcam, Ketcha Joseph

    2017-07-03

    Orange albedo and its adsorption capacity towards bisphenol A (BPA) were studied. Adsorption experiments were conducted in batch mode at 25-55°C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterise the biosorbent. The effects of various parameters including adsorption time, equilibrium pH, adsorbent dosage and initial adsorbate concentration were investigated. The optimum contact time and pH for the removal of BPA were 60 min and 2, respectively. It was found that the adsorption isotherms best matched the Freundlich model, the adsorption of BPA being multilayer and that of the albedo surface heterogeneous. From the kinetic studies, it was found that the removal of BPA best matched the pseudo-second order kinetic model. An adsorption mechanism based on the albedo surface molecules is proposed and gives a good account of π-π interactions and hydrogen bonding. Orange albedo, with a maximum BPA loading capacity of 82.36 mg g -1 (significantly higher than that of most agricultural residues), is a good candidate for BPA adsorption in aqueous media.

  11. ORANGE: RANGE OF BENEFITS

    OpenAIRE

    Parle Milind; Chaturvedi Dev

    2012-01-01

    No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis) is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal proper...

  12. Comparison of the Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oils of Green Branches and Leaves of Egyptian Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck var. malesy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldahshan, Omayma A; Halim, Ahmed F

    2016-06-01

    The essential oils isolated from the leaves and green branches of the Egyptian navel orange trees were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. A total of 33 and 24 compounds were identified from the oils of the leaves and branches accounting for 96.0% and 97.9%, respectively, of the total detected constituents. The major ones were sabinene (36.5; 33.0%), terpinen-4-ol (8.2; 6.2%), δ-3-carene (7.0; 9.4%), limonene (6.8; 18.7%), trans-ocimene (6.7; 6.1%), and β-myrcene (4.5; 4.4%). The antimicrobial activities of both oils were evaluated using the agar-well diffusion method toward three representatives for each of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi. The oil of leaves was more effective as antimicrobial agent than that of the branches. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, and Aspergillus fumigatus were the most sensitive bacteria and fungi by the leaves oil. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  13. Genomic Analysis of Terpene Synthase Family and Functional Characterization of Seven Sesquiterpene Synthases from Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Alquézar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Citrus aroma and flavor, chief traits of fruit quality, are derived from their high content in essential oils of most plant tissues, including leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits. Accumulated in secretory cavities, most components of these oils are volatile terpenes. They contribute to defense against herbivores and pathogens, and perhaps also protect tissues against abiotic stress. In spite of their importance, our understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and genetic regulation of citrus terpene volatiles is still limited. The availability of the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck genome sequence allowed us to characterize for the first time the terpene synthase (TPS family in a citrus type. CsTPS is one of the largest angiosperm TPS families characterized so far, formed by 95 loci from which just 55 encode for putative functional TPSs. All TPS angiosperm families, TPS-a, TPS-b, TPS-c, TPS-e/f, and TPS-g were represented in the sweet orange genome, with 28, 18, 2, 2, and 5 putative full length genes each. Additionally, sweet orange β-farnesene synthase, (Z-β-cubebene/α-copaene synthase, two β-caryophyllene synthases, and three multiproduct enzymes yielding β-cadinene/α-copaene, β-elemene, and β-cadinene/ledene/allo-aromandendrene as major products were identified, and functionally characterized via in vivo recombinant Escherichia coli assays.

  14. Alternative oxidase (AOX) constitutes a small family of proteins in Citrus clementina and Citrus sinensis L. Osb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo Castro, Jacqueline; Gomes Ferreira, Monique Drielle; Santana Silva, Raner José; Andrade, Bruno Silva; Micheli, Fabienne

    2017-01-01

    The alternative oxidase (AOX) protein is present in plants, fungi, protozoa and some invertebrates. It is involved in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, providing an alternative route for the transport of electrons, leading to the reduction of oxygen to form water. The present study aimed to characterize the family of AOX genes in mandarin (Citrus clementina) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) at nucleotide and protein levels, including promoter analysis, phylogenetic analysis and C. sinensis gene expression. This study also aimed to do the homology modeling of one AOX isoform (CcAOXd). Moreover, the molecular docking of the CcAOXd protein with the ubiquinone (UQ) was performed. Four AOX genes were identified in each citrus species. These genes have an open reading frame (ORF) ranging from 852 bp to 1150 bp and a number of exons ranging from 4 to 9. The 1500 bp-upstream region of each AOX gene contained regulatory cis-elements related to internal and external response factors. CsAOX genes showed a differential expression in citrus tissues. All AOX proteins were predicted to be located in mitochondria. They contained the conserved motifs LET, NERMHL, LEEEA and RADE-H as well as several putative post-translational modification sites. The CcAOXd protein was modeled by homology to the AOX of Trypanosona brucei (45% of identity). The 3-D structure of CcAOXd showed the presence of two hydrophobic helices that could be involved in the anchoring of the protein in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The active site of the protein is located in a hydrophobic environment deep inside the AOX structure and contains a diiron center. The molecular docking of CcAOXd with UQ showed that the binding site is a recessed pocket formed by the helices and submerged in the membrane. These data are important for future functional studies of citrus AOX genes and/or proteins, as well as for biotechnological approaches leading to AOX inhibition using UQ homologs.

  15. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of minimally processed 'Champagne' oranges (Citrus reticulata × Citrus sinensis in different packgings Características físico-químicas e microbiológicas de laranjas 'Champagne' (Citrus reticulata x Citrus sinensis minimamente processadas em diferentes embala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Silva Agostini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the level of minimal processing and modified atmosphere on the quality of 'Champagne' orange stored under refrigeration. The fruits were subjected to the following processing: a whole fruit without flavedo; b whole fruit without flavedo and albedo; and c segmented into wedges and packed as follows: uncoated packaging (control; polyethylene film; PVC film; gelatin-based edible films (3%; and polyesthyrene translucent plastic container with a lid. The minimally processed oranges were stored at 5 ± 1°C for 8 days and were subjected to physicochemical and microbiological analyses every two days. Greater weight loss occurred in fruits without flavedo and segmented, uncoated, and coated with the edible gelatin film During storage, there was a slight increase in Total Soluble Solids (TSS for the treatments with greater weight loss and reduction in acidity and ascorbic acid, regardless of the packaging type. The microbial counts did not exceed the acceptable limits in the treatments; however, higher counts were observed at the end of storage. The minimally processed fruit packed in lidded polystyrene containers and polyethylene and PVC films kept their overall fresh visual appearance with a few physicochemical and microbiological changes up to the 8th day of storage.Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar a influência do nível de processamento mínimo e atmosfera modificada na qualidade de laranja 'Champagne' minimamente processada armazenada sob refrigeração. Laranjas submetidas aos seguintes processos: a remoção do albedo; b remoção do albedo e flavedo; c segmentada em gomos, foram acondicionadas em embalagem sem revestimento (controle, com filme de polietileno, com filme de PVC, com revestimento comestível de gelatina a 3% e em pote plástico com tampa de poliestireno. O armazenamento dos frutos foi realizado a 5 ± 1 °C por oito dias, sendo submetidos a análises f

  16. Variety and Harvesting Season Effects on Antioxidant Activity and Vitamins Content of Citrus sinensis Macfad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cardeñosa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Five sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck varieties cultivated in Huelva (Spain and picked at two seasons during two consecutive years, were characterized for their antioxidant activity (free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition and vitamin content (vitamin E and vitamin C. The effects induced by sweet orange variety and stage of maturity were comprehensively compared by applying 2-way ANOVA and linear discriminant analysis. The results indicated higher differences in antioxidant activity and vitamin contents in response to the effect of the harvesting season, when compared to the effect of sweet orange variety. Nevertheless, the results observed in 2012 showed less marked differences among the assayed sweet orange varieties. Either way, it might be concluded that oranges sampled in January show the highest antioxidant activity and vitamin contents. Furthermore, concerning the properties evaluated in this work, all sweet orange varieties represent good alternatives, except for Rhode Summer, which would not be the preferable choice as a target to enhance sweet orange overall characteristics.

  17. Use of gamma radiations as a quarternary process to control the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on orange fruits (Citrus sinensis), variety 'pera' and observations on its effects on fruits quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Jose Tadeu de

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to determine if gamma radiations could be used as a quarentenary process against the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927), infesting oranges of the variety 'Pera', beyond observations on some fruit quality parameters. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranges from the control to 500 Gy. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranged from the control to 500 Gy. It was observed that over 200 Gy avoid emergency of viable adults of the orange fruit borer. Only one single female, and even these with wing malformations, emerged at the dose of 300 Gy. Dose up to 500 Gy did not interfere on fruits weight loss nor on the period of conservation of the oranges. Acidity, Brix value and skin resistance against perforation also did not showed any changes due to radiations. The irradiation of green fruit induced into a smaller loss of weight than when the fruits were irradiated in the mature stage. (author)

  18. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-05-03

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) and α-myrcene (2.79%); and in C. latifolia, d-limonene (51.64%), β-thujene (14.85%), β-pinene (12.79%) and γ-terpinene (12.8%). Antifungal properties were studied by agar diffusion method, where C. sinensis presented low activity and C. latifolia essential oil was effective to inhibit growing of C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii with IC50 of 6.90 and 2.92 μg respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for C. sinensis were in a range of 0.42-3.71 μg and for C. latifolia of 0.22-1.30 μg. Genotoxic evaluation was done by Ames test where none of the oils induced point mutations. Flow cytometry was used to measure toxicity in human oral epithelial cells, C. sinensis was not cytotoxic and C. latifolia was toxic at 21.8 μg. These properties might bestow different odontological applications to each essential oil.

  19. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  20. Production of interstocked 'Pera' sweet orange nursey trees on 'Volkamer' lemon and 'Swingle' citrumelo rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Girardi,Eduardo Augusto; Mourão Filho,Francisco de Assis Alves

    2006-01-01

    Incompatibility among certain citrus scion and rootstock cultivars can be avoided through interstocking. 'Pera' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) nursery tree production was evaluated on 'Swingle' citrumelo (Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf x Citrus paradisi Macf) and 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Pasquale) incompatible rootstocks, using 'Valencia' and 'Hamlin' sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka), and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citr...

  1. 1H HRMAS NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics for evaluation of metabolic changes in citrus sinensis Caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Lorena M.A.; Alves Filho, Elenilson G.; Choze, Rafael; Liao, Luciano M.; Alcantara, Glaucia B.

    2012-01-01

    Xanthomonas axonopodis (Xac) bacterium causes one of the most feared and untreatable diseases in citriculture: citrus canker. To understand the response mechanisms of orange trees when attacked by Xac, leaves and fruits of Citrus sinensis were directly evaluated by HRMAS NMR (high resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy. This technique allows the analysis of samples without laborious pre-treatments and also allows access to important information about chemical composition of samples. The orange tree leaves and fruit peels investigated in this study demonstrated the biochemical changes caused by Xac. Aided by chemometric analysis, the HRMAS NMR results show relevant changes in amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids and terpenoids content. (author)

  2. In vitro organogenesis optimization and plantlet regeneration in Citrus sinensis and C. limonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Weliton Antonio Bastos de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous genes can be introduced in plants by genetic transformation techniques. However, an efficient tissue culture system with high rates of plant recovery is necessary for gene introduction. This work aimed to define organogenesis and plant regeneration protocols for sweet orange varieties Natal, Valencia and Hamlin (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck and Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck which can be used in plant transformation experiments. Seeds of which teguments were removed, were germinated in vitro and maintained in the dark for three weeks, followed by one week at 16-h photoperiod (40 µmol m-2 s-1 and 27 ± 2°C. Organogenesis induction was done by introducing epicotyl segments in MT medium with 25 g L-1 sucrose and different BAP concentrations. After adventitious bud growth, the shoots were transferred to MT medium with either NAA or IBA (1 mg L-1, or absence of auxin, for rooting. The best results were obtained with 1 mg L-1 BAP for bud induction and 1 mg L-1 IBA for rooting for all three sweet orange cultivars. The use of 0.5-2.5 mg L-1 BAP, followed by 1 mg L-1 IBA were the best growth regulator combinations for bud induction and rooting, respectively, for 'Rangpur' lime. The protocols presented in this work are suitable for associations with genetic transformation experiments for these cultivars.

  3. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck infected with Xylella fastidiosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra A. de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the genetic responses resulting from physiological changes that occur in plants displaying citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC symptoms, we adopted a strategy of comparing two EST libraries from sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck]. One of them was prepared with plants showing typical CVC symptoms caused by Xylella fastidiosa and the other with non-inoculated plants. We obtained 15,944 ESTs by sequencing the two cDNA libraries. Using an in silico hybridization strategy, 37 genes were found to have significant variation at the transcriptional level. Within this subset, 21 were up-regulated and 16 were down-regulated in plants with CVC. The main functional categories of the down-regulated transcripts in plants with CVC were associated with metabolism, protein modification, energy and transport facilitation. The majority of the up-regulated transcripts were associated with metabolism and defense response. Some transcripts associated with adaptation to stress conditions were up-regulated in plants with CVC and could explain why plants remain alive even under severe water and nutritional stress. Others of the up-regulated transcripts are related to defense response suggesting that sweet orange plants activate their defense machinery. The genes associated with stress response might be expressed as part of a secondary response related to physiological alterations caused by the infection.

  4. Metal Analysis in Citrus Sinensis Fruit Peel and Psidium Guajava Leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Anju; Nanda, Arun; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2011-01-01

    The determination of metal traces is very important because they are involved in biological cycles and indicate high toxicity. The objective of the present study is to measure the levels of heavy metals and mineral ions in medicinally important plant species, Citrus sinensis and Psidium guajava. This study investigates the accumulation of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Aluminum (Al), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Selenium (Se) and inorganic minerals like Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) in C. sinensis (sweet orange) fruit peel and P. guajava (guava) leaf, to measure the levels of heavy metal contamination. Dried powdered samples of the plants were digested using wet digestion method and elemental determination was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and analysed by student's ‘t’ test. Values are considered significant at P guajava leaves were within the acceptable limits for human consumption. The order of concentration of elements in both the samples showed the following trend: Mg > Ca > Al > Zn > Cu > Cd > Hg = As = Se. The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was significantly low and below detection limit. The content of toxic metals in tested plant samples was found to be low when compared with the limits prescribed by various authorities (World Health Organization, WHO; International Centre for Materials Research, ICMR; American Public Health Association, APHA). The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was not detectable and met the appropriate safety standards. In conclusion, the tested plant parts taken in the present study were found to be safe. PMID:21976824

  5. Efeitos de mbta [cloridrato de n,n-dietil-2-(4-metilbenziloxi etilamina] na produtividade e na qualidade dos frutos da laranjeira 'pêra' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck Effects of mbta [n,n-diethyl-2-(4-metylbenzyloxy ethylamine hydrochloride] on yield and fruit quality of 'pêra' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chryz Melinski Serciloto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do biorregulador MBTA [cloridrato de N,N-dietil-2-(4-metilbenziloxi etilamina] aplicado em diferentes épocas e concentrações na produtividade e qualidade dos frutos da laranjeira 'Pêra'. Em duas safras consecutivas, o MBTA foi aplicado em três diferentes concentrações (8; 16 e 32 mg L-1 e em duas diferentes fases fenológicas (25% e 100% de flores abertas, em árvores cítricas adultas, utilizando um volume de 7 litros de solução por planta, acompanhado do adjuvante Silwett L-77 0,05%. Foram amostrados 20 frutos por planta, em quatro diferentes épocas estudadas, para determinar o teor de sólidos solúveis (SS; acidez titulável (AT; quantidade de sólidos solúveis por caixa de 40,8 kg; pH; rendimento de suco; "ratio" (relação SS/AT, e a massa média dos frutos. Os efeitos do MBTA variaram de acordo com a concentração aplicada e com a fase fenológica de aplicação. O MBTA, na concentração de 8 mg L-1, aplicado com 25% das flores abertas, incrementou o teor de sólidos solúveis, a acidez, a quantidade de sólidos solúveis por caixa de 40,8 kg e a produtividade. Esse mesmo tratamento também reduziu a massa média dos frutos e não alterou o rendimento de suco e o "ratio" do suco dos frutos. O incremento médio foi de 0,49 a 0,65% na concentração de sólidos solúveis, de 0,11 a 0,13 kg na quantidade de sólidos solúveis por caixa de 40,8 kg e de 20,4 kg/planta na produtividade.The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of MBTA [N,N-diethyl-2-(4-metylbenzyloxy ethylamine hydrochloride] bioregulator applied on different times and concentrations on the yield and fruit quality of 'Pera' sweet orange. In two consecutive harvest seasons, the MBTA was sprayed in three different concentrations (8; 16 and 32 mg L-1 and in two different phenological phases (25% and 100% open flowers in citrus mature trees, using 7 L of spray per tree added with Silwett L-77 adjuvant at 0

  6. 78 FR 8435 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus Hybrids and Fortunella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ...] australis, causal agent of sweet orange scab); and a pathogen (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, causal agent... oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), lemons (C. limon (L.) Burm. f.), four species of mandarins (C... of the reading room). The PRA, titled ``Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit, including Sweet Orange...

  7. Citrus pulp pellets as an additive for orange bagasse silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Grizotto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the fermentation profile of orange bagasse ensiled with three levels of dry matter (DM using citrus pulp pellets as a moisture-absorbing additive. Thirty experimental silos (3 treatments, 5 storage times, 2 replicates were prepared using 25-liter plastic buckets containing orange bagasse and three levels of pelleted citrus pulp (0, 6% and 20% as additive. A completely randomized design with repeated measures over time was used. The periods of anaerobic storage were 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days. Natural orange bagasse contained 13.9% DM, which increased to 19.1% and 25.5% with the inclusion of 6% and 20% citrus pulp pellets, respectively. The apparent density was inversely correlated with DM content and a higher level of compaction (982 kg/m3 was observed in the mass ensiled with the lowest DM level (13.9%. Additionally, lower compaction (910 kg/m3 was found in the mass ensiled with the additive. The chemical composition of the mass ensiled with or without citrus pulp pellets did not differ significantly in terms of protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, lignin or in vitro DM digestibility (P≥0.05, as expected. Thus, it was possible to analyze only the effect of the inclusion of citrus pulp pellets on the increase in DM content. The inclusion of 20% of the additive reduced (P<0.01 losses due to effluent (98% less and gas production (81% less compared to the control treatment at the end of the anaerobic storage period. In this treatment, a higher (P≤0.05 log number of lactic acid bacteria (4.61 log CFU/g was also observed compared to the other treatments, indicating that the increase in DM favored the growth of these bacteria. In addition, the low yeast count (about 1 log CFU/g sample and the pH below 4.0, which were probably due to the production of lactic and acetic acids, show that the orange bagasse is rich in fermentable soluble carbohydrates and is indicated for ensiling. In conclusion, orange bagasse can be

  8. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limonia epicotyl segments Transformação genética em Citrus sinensis e Citrus limonia mediada por Agrobacterium tumefaciens a partir de segmentos de epicótilo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weliton Antonio Bastos de Almeida

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic transformation allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. The objective of this research was to establish a protocol for genetic transformation of Valencia and Natal sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck and Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck. Epicotyl segments of germinated in vitro plantlets (three weeks in darkness and two weeks in a 16-h photoperiod were used as explants. These were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA-105 and different experiments were done to evaluate the transformation efficiency: explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium for one, three or five days; explants were incubated with Agrobacterium suspension for 5, 10, 20 or 40 minutes; co-cultivation medium was supplemented with acetosyringone at 0, 100 or 200 µmol L-1; Explants ends had a longitudinal terminal incision (2-3 mm; co-cultivation temperatures of 19, 23 or 27°C were imposed. The experimental design was completely randomized in all experiments with five replications, each consisted of a Petri dish (100 x 15 mm with 30 explants and resulted in a total of 150 explants per treatment. Longitudinal terminal incision in the explant ends did not improve shoot regeneration. However, transgenic plants of all three cultivars were confirmed from explants that had been subjected to inoculation time of 20 minutes, co-culture of three days at 23-27°C, in the absence of acetosyringone.A transformação genética permite produzir cultivares com características específicas e pode, dessa forma ser associada a programas de melhoramento de citros. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer protocolos de transformação genética para as laranjas doce 'Valência' e 'Natal' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, bem como para o limão 'Cravo'(Citrus limonia L. Osbeck. Segmentos de epicótilo de plântulas germinadas in vitro (três semanas no

  9. Effect of Pasteurization on Flavonoids and Carotenoids in Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. 'Cara Cara' and 'Bahia' Juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasili, Elisa; Chaves, Daniela F Seixas; Xavier, Ana Augusta O; Mercadante, Adriana Z; Hassimotto, Neuza M A; Lajolo, Franco M

    2017-02-22

    Orange juice is considered an excellent dietary source of several bioactive compounds with beneficial properties for human health. Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. 'Cara Cara' is a bud mutation originated from 'Washington' navel orange, also known as 'Bahia' navel orange. The ascorbic acid, flavonoid, and carotenoid contents in pasteurized and nonpasteurized Bahia and Cara Cara juices using two LC-MS/MS platforms were investigated. Higher ascorbic acid content was observed in Bahia compared to Cara Cara in both pasteurized and nonpasteurized juices. Total flavanones content as well as hesperidin levels were higher in Cara Cara with respect to Bahia pasteurized juice. Cara Cara was also characterized by a significantly higher and diversified carotenoid content compared to Bahia juice with a mixture of (Z)-isomers of lycopene, all-E-β-carotene, phytoene, and phytofluene isomers accounting for the highest carotenoid proportion. The exceptionally high carotenoid content of Cara Cara may be particularly interesting for nutritional or functional studies of uncommon carotenes in a citrus food matrix.

  10. In vitro mutant obtainment by irradiation of nucellar tissue of citrus (Citrus Sinensis Osb.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasqual, M.; Ando, A.; Tulmann Neto, A.; Menten, J.O.M.

    1984-01-01

    Nucellus of cultivar Valencia (Citrus Sinensis, Osb.) extracted from fruits 12 weeks after fertilization, were gamma irradiated (0.1, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 12.0 kR) before inoculation in culture media (pH 5.7) which comprised of macro and micronutrients of medium MS to which were added (in mg/l): mesoinusitol, 100; pyroxidin HCl, 1; nicotinic acid, 1; thiamine HCl, 0.2; malt extract, 500; sacarose, 50,000; agar-agar, 8,000. They were then Kept under 16 h light and 8h dark at a temperature of 27 0 C. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. Extraction process optimization of polyphenols from Indian Citrus sinensis - as novel antiglycative agents in the management of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakthi Deve, Asaithambi; Sathish Kumar, Thiyagarajan; Kumaresan, Kuppamuthu; Rapheal, Vinohar Stephen

    2014-01-07

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by increased blood glucose level. It has become an epidemic disease in the 21st century where, India leads the world with largest number of diabetic subjects. Non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) is severe form of diabetes, occurs between reducing sugar and proteins which results in the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that leads to the other complicated secondary disorders. In this context, Mangifera indica (Mango), Syzygium cumini (Jambul), Vitis vinifera (Grapes), Citrus sinensis (Orange), Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit), Manilkara zapota (Sapodilla) seeds were evaluated for their antiglyation activity. Attempts were made to isolate the polyphenols in the seeds that have recorded the maximum activity. Different extraction methods (shake flask, centrifugation and pressurized hot water) using various extractants (organic solvents, hot water and pressurized hot water) were adopted to investigate the in vitro antiglycation activity. Central composite (CCD) design based Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was espoused to optimize the extraction process of polyphenols from the fruit seeds that have recorded poor antiglycation activity. The PTLC analysis was performed to isolate the polyphenols (Flavonoids and phenolic acids) and LC-PDA-MS analysis was done for structure prediction. Pressurized hot water extraction of Artocarpus heterophyllus (87.52%) and Citrus sinensis seeds (74.79%) was found to possess high and low antiglycation activity, respectively. The RSM mediated optimization process adopted for the Citrus sinensis seeds have revealed that 1:15 solvent ratio (hexane to heptane), 6 minutes and 1:20 solid to liquid ratio as the optimal conditions for the extraction of polyphenols with a maximum antiglycation activity (89.79%). The LC-PDA-MS analysis of preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC) eluates of Artocarpus heterophyllus seed has showed the presence of compounds

  12. Extraction process optimization of polyphenols from Indian Citrus sinensis – as novel antiglycative agents in the management of diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by increased blood glucose level. It has become an epidemic disease in the 21st century where, India leads the world with largest number of diabetic subjects. Non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) is severe form of diabetes, occurs between reducing sugar and proteins which results in the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that leads to the other complicated secondary disorders. In this context, Mangifera indica (Mango), Syzygium cumini (Jambul), Vitis vinifera (Grapes), Citrus sinensis (Orange), Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit), Manilkara zapota (Sapodilla) seeds were evaluated for their antiglyation activity. Attempts were made to isolate the polyphenols in the seeds that have recorded the maximum activity. Methods Different extraction methods (shake flask, centrifugation and pressurized hot water) using various extractants (organic solvents, hot water and pressurized hot water) were adopted to investigate the in vitro antiglycation activity. Central composite (CCD) design based Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was espoused to optimize the extraction process of polyphenols from the fruit seeds that have recorded poor antiglycation activity. The PTLC analysis was performed to isolate the polyphenols (Flavonoids and phenolic acids) and LC-PDA-MS analysis was done for structure prediction. Results Pressurized hot water extraction of Artocarpus heterophyllus (87.52%) and Citrus sinensis seeds (74.79%) was found to possess high and low antiglycation activity, respectively. The RSM mediated optimization process adopted for the Citrus sinensis seeds have revealed that 1:15 solvent ratio (hexane to heptane), 6 minutes and 1:20 solid to liquid ratio as the optimal conditions for the extraction of polyphenols with a maximum antiglycation activity (89.79%). The LC-PDA-MS analysis of preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC) eluates of Artocarpus heterophyllus seed has

  13. Use of gamma radiations as a quarternary process to control the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on orange fruits (Citrus sinensis), variety 'pera' and observations on its effects on fruits quality; Utilizacao da radiacao gama como um processo quarentenario para o 'bicho furao' Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) em laranja pera (Citrus sinensis), e o estudo dos seus efeitos sobre a qualidade dos frutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Jose Tadeu de

    1997-07-01

    The objective of the present research was to determine if gamma radiations could be used as a quarentenary process against the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927), infesting oranges of the variety 'Pera', beyond observations on some fruit quality parameters. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranges from the control to 500 Gy. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranged from the control to 500 Gy. It was observed that over 200 Gy avoid emergency of viable adults of the orange fruit borer. Only one single female, and even these with wing malformations, emerged at the dose of 300 Gy. Dose up to 500 Gy did not interfere on fruits weight loss nor on the period of conservation of the oranges. Acidity, Brix value and skin resistance against perforation also did not showed any changes due to radiations. The irradiation of green fruit induced into a smaller loss of weight than when the fruits were irradiated in the mature stage. (author)

  14. Aspects of Salt Tolerance in a NaCl-Selected Stable Cell Line of Citrus sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Hayyim, G; Kochba, J

    1983-07-01

    A NaCl-tolerant cell line which was selected from ovular callus of ;Shamouti' orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) proved to be a true cell line variant. This conclusion is based on the following observations. (a) Cells which have been removed from the selection pressure for at least four passages retain the same NaCl tolerance as do cells which are kept constantly on 0.2 molar NaCl. (b) Na(+) and Cl(-) uptake are considerably lower in salt-tolerant cells (R-10) than in salt-sensitive cells (L-5) at a given external NaCl concentration. (c) Growth of salt-tolerant cells is markedly suppressed upon replacement of NaCl by KCl, whereas the growth of salt-sensitive cells is only slightly affected. Accumulation of K(+) and Cl(-) accompanies the inhibition of growth. Experiments carried out with sodium and potassium sulfate suggest that the toxic effect is due to the accumulated Cl(-). (d) Removal of Ca(2+) from the growth medium severely inhibits the growth of salt-tolerant cells in the presence of NaCl, while it has a minor effect on growth of salt-sensitive cells in the presence of NaCl. (e) Electron micrographs show that the salt-tolerant cells have very big vacuoles when exposed to salt, while the size of the vacuoles of the salt-sensitive cells does not change.

  15. Functional and Structural Characterization of a (+)-Limonene Synthase from Citrus sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morehouse, Benjamin R; Kumar, Ramasamy P; Matos, Jason O; Olsen, Sarah Naomi; Entova, Sonya; Oprian, Daniel D

    2017-03-28

    Terpenes make up the largest and most diverse class of natural compounds and have important commercial and medical applications. Limonene is a cyclic monoterpene (C 10 ) present in nature as two enantiomers, (+) and (-), which are produced by different enzymes. The mechanism of production of the (-)-enantiomer has been studied in great detail, but to understand how enantiomeric selectivity is achieved in this class of enzymes, it is important to develop a thorough biochemical description of enzymes that generate (+)-limonene, as well. Here we report the first cloning and biochemical characterization of a (+)-limonene synthase from navel orange (Citrus sinensis). The enzyme obeys classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics and produces exclusively the (+)-enantiomer. We have determined the crystal structure of the apoprotein in an "open" conformation at 2.3 Å resolution. Comparison with the structure of (-)-limonene synthase (Mentha spicata), which is representative of a fully closed conformation (Protein Data Bank entry 2ONG ), reveals that the short H-α1 helix moves nearly 5 Å inward upon substrate binding, and a conserved Tyr flips to point its hydroxyl group into the active site.

  16. First record of Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, W P; da Silva, R A; Araújo, S C A; Oliveira, E L A; da Silva, W R

    2011-01-01

    Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) is recorded for the first time in citrus (Rutaceae) in Brazil. Specimens were obtained from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) sampled in the municipalities of Belém and Capitão Poço, and from mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata) from Tomé-Açu, state of Pará, Brazil.

  17. First record of Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, WP; Silva, RA da; Araújo, SCA; Oliveira, ELA; Silva, WR da

    2011-01-01

    Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) is recorded for the first time in citrus (Rutaceae) in Brazil. Specimens were obtained from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) sampled in the municipalities of Belém and Capitão Poço, and from mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata) from Tomé-Açu, state of Pará, Brazil.

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-44 - Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-44 Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis), and...

  19. Exogenous applications of plant growth regulators influence the reproductive growth of citrus sinensis osbeck cv. blood red

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.S.; Malik, A.U.; Ahmad, S.; Ahmad, I.

    2014-01-01

    To study the influence of exogenous applications of plant growth regulators on the reproductive behaviour of low bearing sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) trees, three separate experiments were conducted on twelve years old 'Blood Red' Sweet orange trees budded on Rough Lemon (Citrus jambheri L.) root stock. In the first experiment, trees were sprayed with 20 mg L-1 2, 4-D and GA3 alone or in combination at mid bloom (MB) stage, whilst in the second and third experiments 20 mg L-1 2, 4-D and GA3 alone or in combination were sprayed at MB + 6 weeks after MB, and at MB + 22 and 28 weeks after MB stages, respectively. A single tree was selected as an experimental unit and each treatment was replicated four times. Data regarding the flowering intensity, flower drop, fruit set, fruit drop and fruit harvest percentages (%) were collected and analyzed statistically. In all experiments exogenous application of 20 mg L-1 2, 4-D and GA3 alone or in combination to Blood Red sweet orange trees reduced the flower drop % and increased the fruit set % as compared to untreated trees. Application 2, 4-D and GA3 alone or in combination at MB did not affect the fruit drop % and fruit harvest % in contrast to untreated trees. The trees sprayed with 20 mg L-1 GA3 alone or in combination with 2, 4-D at MB + 22 and 28 weeks after MB exhibited highest reduction in the fruit drop % compared to control trees. In conclusions application GA3 (20 mg L-1) alone or in combination of 2, 4-D (20 mg L-1) at MB + 22 and 28 weeks after MB can be used effectively to increase the fruit set and reduce the fruit drop in Blood Red sweet oranges. (author)

  20. Huanglongbing increases Diplodia Stem End Rot in Citrus sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), one of the most devastating diseases of citrus is caused by the a-Proteobacteria Candidatus Liberibacter. Diplodia natalensis Pole-Evans is a fungal pathogen which has been known to cause a postharvest stem-end rot of citrus, the pathogen infects citrus fruit under the calyx, an...

  1. β-Cryptoxanthin and Zeaxanthin Pigments Accumulation to Induce Orange Color on Citrus Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati Sumiasih, Inanpi; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Efendi, Darda; Agusta, Andria; Yuliani, Sri

    2018-01-01

    Degreening, a transformation process of green color on citrus peel to be orange color on tropical low-land citrus fruits often fails. Orange color of the citrus peel comes from the mixture carotenoid pigments, such as zeaxanthine and mainly β-cryptoxanthin and β-citraurin. The accumulation of β-citraurin occurs when the fruits are exposed to low temperature, and otherwise, it will fail to occur. Precooling treatment on lowland tropical citrus fruits is expected to stimulate the accumulation of β-citraurin. The results showed the most favorable color obtained from precooling and 24-hour ethylene exposure duration. This treatment could decrease total chlorophyll and β-carotene content as well as proven to increase 3 times the accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin in accelerating the appearance of bright orange color on citrus peel. Degreening gave no significant effect to internal quality of Citrus reticulata.

  2. Caipira sweet orange + Rangpur lime: a somatic hybrid with potential for use as rootstock in the Brazilian citrus industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Januzzi Mendes-da-Glória

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Protoplast culture following polyethylene glycol-induced fusion resulted in the regeneration of somatic hybrid plants between Caipira sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck and Rangpur lime (C. limonia L. Osbeck. The plants were confirmed as somatic hybrids by leaf morphology, chromosome number and RAPD profile. All regenerated plants were tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36, with intermediate leaf morphology and complementary RAPD banding profile of both parents. This combination may be useful as a rootstock for the citrus industry in Southeastern Brazil since this somatic hybrid could combine the drought tolerance and vigor of Rangpur lime with the blight tolerance of Caipira sweet orange.Híbridos somáticos de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck e limão Cravo (C. limonia L. Osbeck foram regenerados após a fusão (polietileno glicol e cultura de protoplastos. Os híbridos somáticos foram confirmados pela análise da morfologia das folhas, determinação do número de cromossomos e marcadores moleculares (RAPD. Todas as plantas analisadas revelaram-se tetraplóides (2n = 4x = 36, possuíam folhas de morfologia intermediária e uma combinação do padrão de bandas de RAPD de ambos os parentais. Esta combinação pode se tornar útil como porta-enxerto para a Região Sudeste da indústria citrícola brasileira. Este híbrido somático potencialmente combinará as características de tolerância à seca e o vigor do limão Cravo com a tolerância ao declínio da laranja Caipira.

  3. Effects of Gibberellic Acid and Putrescine Treatments on Marketable and Some Quality Attributes Certains of Citrus Fruit (Citrus sinensis Cv. Hamlen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Azh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Citrus fruit quality preserve the post harvest cause marketability increased. In this research, the effect of putrescin and gibberellic acid concentrations on storage life of sweet orange fruit (Hamlen cultivar was studied to in factorial design (3*3*6=54based on randomized complete block with six replications. Putrescin at three concentrations( 0, 1 and 2 mM and three level of gibberellic acid (0, 50 and 100 mg/L were sprayed on the tree at the physiological maturation stage and two weeks pre harvest. Fruit firmness, marketability, vitamin C, total acidity, total soluble solids (TSS and ratio of total soluble solids (TSS to total acidity were evaluated. The results showed that putrescin spraying at 1 mM significantly prevented fruit softening and preserved fruit firmness. Also putrescin treatment (1 mM preserved ideal marketability and was superior than other treatments. Gibberellic acid significantly preserved total acidity and total soluble solids. The interaction of gibberellic acid and putrescine also preserved significantly vitamin C. Therefore, the application of putrescine at 1 mM and gibberellic at 100 mg/L was recommended for preserve marketability, appearance and quality of citrus sinensis cv. Hamlen.

  4. Phenology of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) and associated parasitoids on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, in Punjab Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shouket Zaman; Arif, Muhammad Jalal; Hoddle, Christina D; Hoddle, Mark S

    2014-10-01

    The population phenology of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, was monitored weekly for 110 wk on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, at two different research sites in Faisalabad, Punjab Pakistan. Citrus flush growth patterns were monitored and natural enemy surveys were conducted weekly. Flush patterns were similar for kinnow and sweet orange. However, flush on sweet orange was consistently more heavily infested with Asian citrus psyllid than kinnow flush; densities of Asian citrus psyllid eggs, nymphs, and adults were higher on sweet orange when compared with kinnow. When measured in terms of mean cumulative insect or Asian citrus psyllid days, eggs, nymphs, and adults were significantly higher on sweet orange than kinnow. Two parasitoids were recorded attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs, Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam and Agarwal). The dominant parasitoid species attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs on kinnow and sweet orange was T. radiata, with parasitism averaging 26%. D. aligarhensis parasitism averaged 17%. Generalist predators such as coccinellids and chrysopids were collected infrequently and were likely not important natural enemies at these study sites. Immature spiders, in particular, salticids and yellow sac spiders, were common and may be important predators of all Asian citrus psyllid life stages. Low year round Asian citrus psyllid densities on kinnow and possibly high summer temperatures, may, in part, contribute to the success of this cultivar in Punjab where Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the putative causative agent of huanglongbing, a debilitating citrus disease, is widespread and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid.

  5. THE USE OF ORANGE (CITRUS SINENSIS) PEEL AS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K. Ould Yerou

    2017-09-01

    Sep 1, 2017 ... health effects of the synthetic preservatives used in food. Hence n ... contains a sweet pulp and several to numerous seeds within. The fruit .... characteristic of the variety, free from decay, defects and other blemishes. In recent ...

  6. A Climatic Classification for Citrus Winter Survival in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Bo Huang

    1991-05-01

    The citrus tree is susceptible to frost damage. Winter injury to citrus from freezing weather is the major meteorological problem in the northern pail of citrus growing regions in China. Based on meteorological data collected at 120 stations in southern China and on the extent of citrus freezing injury, five climatic regions for citrus winter survival in China were developed. They were: 1) no citrus tree injury. 2) light injury to mandarins (citrus reticulate) or moderate injury to oranges (citrus sinensis), 3) moderate injury to mandarins or heavy injury to oranges, 4) heavy injury to mandarins, and 5) impossible citrus tree growth. This citrus climatic classification was an attempt to provide guidelines for regulation of citrus production, to effectively utilize land and climatic resources, to chose suitable citrus varieties, and to develop methods to prevent injury by freezing.

  7. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND TOXICITY OF CITRUS ESSENTIAL OILS ON Dysmicoccus brevipes (HEMIPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    MARTINS, GISELE DOS SANTOS OLIVEIRA; ZAGO, HUGO BOLSONI; COSTA, ADILSON VIDAL; ARAUJO JUNIOR, LUIS MOREIRA DE; CARVALHO, JOSÉ ROMÁRIO DE

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The insect Dysmicoccus brevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) has been reported as an important pest for several crops, especially coffee. The citrus essential oils can be obtained as by-products of the citrus-processing industry and have been tested as an alternative to control different insect groups. Therefore, the objective of this work was to determine the chemical composition and evaluate the toxicity of commercial sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) ...

  8. Determination of limonin and nomilin contents in different citrus cultivars using high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilal, H.; Hassan, S.; Sahar, S.; Akram, W.; Sahar, S.

    2013-01-01

    High perlorrnance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was done to quantify the amount of limonoids (nomilin and nomilin) in seven selected citrus cultivars. According to the HPLC analysis red blood orange (Citrus sinensis var red blood orange) had maximum amount of limonin (479.77 ug/rnl.), while rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri) had no limonin content. in case of nomonin, rough lemon (Citrus jambhir) had maximum amount of nomilin (54.23 micro g/ML)) while succari (citrus sinensis var succari) had very low amount of nomilin (0.37 micro g/Ml). (author)

  9. Photodynamic inactivation of conidia of the fungus Colletotrichum abscissum on Citrus sinensis plants with methylene blue under solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Júlia C; Brancini, Guilherme T P; Rodrigues, Gabriela B; Silva-Junior, Geraldo José; Bachmann, Luciano; Wainwright, Mark; Braga, Gilberto Ú L

    2017-11-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (APDT) is a promising light based approach to control diseases caused by plant-pathogenic fungi. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of APDT with the phenothiazinium photosensitizer methylene blue (MB) under solar radiation on the germination and viability of conidia of the pathogenic fungus Colletotricum abscissum (former Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato). Experiments were performed both on petals and leaves of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) in different seasons and weather conditions. Conidial suspensions were deposited on the leaves and petals surface, treated with the PS (25 or 50μM) and exposed to solar radiation for only 30min. The effects of APDT on conidia were evaluated by counting the colony forming units recovered from leaves and petals and by direct evaluating conidial germination on the surface of these plant organs after the treatment. To better understand the mechanistic of conidial photodynamic inactivation, the effect of APDT on the permeability of the conidial plasma membrane was assessed using the fluorescent probe propidium iodide (PI) together with flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. APDT with MB and solar exposure killed C. abscissum conidia and prevented their germination on both leaves and petals of citrus. Reduction of conidial viability was up to three orders of magnitude and a complete photodynamic inactivation was achieved in some of the treatments. APDT damaged the conidial plasma membrane and increased its permeability to PI. No damage to sweet orange flowers or leaves was observed after APDT. The demonstration of the efficacy of APDT on the plant host represents a further step towards the use of the method for control phytopathogens in the field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An in silico analysis of the key genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano R. Lucheta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus species are known by their high content of phenolic compounds, including a wide range of flavonoids. In plants, these compounds are involved in protection against biotic and abiotic stresses, cell structure, UV protection, attraction of pollinators and seed dispersal. In humans, flavonoid consumption has been related to increasing overall health and fighting some important diseases. The goals of this study were to identify expressed sequence tags (EST in Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck corresponding to genes involved in general phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and the key genes involved in the main flavonoids pathways (flavanones, flavones, flavonols, leucoanthocyanidins, anthocyanins and isoflavonoids. A thorough analysis of all related putative genes from the Citrus EST (CitEST database revealed several interesting aspects associated to these pathways and brought novel information with promising usefulness for both basic and biotechnological applications.

  11. First report of Hibiscus infecting Cilevirus in Citrus sinensis in Meta and Casanare, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    In February 2015, two sweet orange samples with severe citrus leprosis (CiL) symptoms were collected from Meta and Casanare states in Colombia and assayed for Cilevirus, Dichorhavirus and Higrevirus associated with CiL disease. PCR primers specific for CiLV-C2, but not primers specific for CiLV-C, C...

  12. First Record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Ecuador Infesting Urban Citrus and Orange Jasmine Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, J.F.; Chica, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Adults and nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), were collected in the Guayaquil, Samborondón, and Durán cantons in coastal Ecuador. Psyllids were found in high numbers in citrus ( Citrus spp., Sapindales: Rutaceae) and orange jasmine ( Murraya exotica [L.] Jack, Sapindales: Rutaceae) trees within the Guayaquil-Samborondon-Duran conurbation; however, none was found during scoutings in the main citrus producing areas in coastal Ecuador. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of D. citri in Ecuador and the Pacific coastal plain of South America. PMID:25527601

  13. Genome-wide comparative analysis reveals similar types of NBS genes in hybrid Citrus sinensis genome and original Citrus clementine genome and provides new insights into non-TIR NBS genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we identified and compared nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain-containing genes from three Citrus genomes (C. clementina, C. sinensis from USA and C. sinensis from China). Phylogenetic analysis of all Citrus NBS genes across these three genomes revealed that there are three approxima...

  14. Green Synthesis and Biological Activities of Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Citrus reticulata, Citrus aurantium, Citrus sinensis and Citrus grandis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, N. U.; Shahid, M.; Ahsan, F.; Khan, I.; Shah, M. R.; Khan, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared at boiling temperature (90-95 degree C) by treating gold ions with Citrus fruit extracts. The effect of mixing ratios of the reactants and concentration of gold hydrochloride was studied. In the standardization process, 10/sup -3/ M solution of HAuCl/sub 4/.3H/sub 2/O was reacted with fruit extracts for half an hour at 90-95 degree C in different ratios. GNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Their stability was evaluated against varying pH solutions and volumes of sodium chloride along with metals and antibiotics sensing ability. The gold nanoparticles were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities against various pathogenic strains. The UV-Vis spectra of gold nanoparticles gave surface plasmon resonance at about 540 nm while the AFM images revealed the particle size within the range of 70-100 nm. GNPs showed remarkable stability in varying pH solutions and salt volumes as well as high detection ability towards cobalt, copper, ceftriaxone and penicillin. Moreover, the GNPs possessed moderate antibacterial and good antifungal activity. These results concluded that the Citrus fruit extracts can be utilized for large scale synthesis of cost-effective nanoparticles which may have compatibility for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. (author)

  15. Efficient micropropagation of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-08-24

    Aug 24, 2016 ... 2Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Botany, D.S.B. Campus, Kumaun University, ... 2007 data, India is the largest producer of lemons .... Values represent mean±SE, values within each column followed by the same letters are not significantly ..... ICALTD Asian Citrus rehabilitation conference.

  16. Metabolomic Response to Huanglongbing: Role of Carboxylic Compounds in Citrus sinensis Response to 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' and Its Vector, Diaphorina citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killiny, Nabil; Nehela, Yasser

    2017-08-01

    Huanglongbing, a destructive disease of citrus, is caused by the fastidious bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' and transmitted by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. The impact of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection or D. citri infestation on Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) leaf metabolites was investigated using gas chromatography mass spectrometry, followed by gene expression analysis for 37 genes involved in jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), and proline-glutamine pathways. The total amino acid abundance increased after 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection, while the total fatty acids increased dramatically after infestation with D. citri, compared with control plants. Seven amino acids (glycine, l-isoleucine, l-phenylalanine, l-proline, l-serine, l-threonine, and l-tryptophan) and five organic acids (benzoic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid, SA, and succinic acid) increased in 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected plants. On the other hand, the abundance of trans-JA and its precursor α-linolenic increased in D. citri-infested plants. Surprisingly, the double attack of both D. citri infestation and 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection moderated the metabolic changes in all chemical classes studied. In addition, the gene expression analysis supported these results. Based on these findings, we suggest that, although amino acids such as phenylalanine are involved in citrus defense against 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection through the activation of an SA-mediated pathway, fatty acids, especially α-linolenic acid, are involved in defense against D. citri infestation via the induction of a JA-mediated pathway.

  17. BIOLOGY OF POLLINATION OF Citrus sinensis VARIETY ‘PERA RIO’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GENEROSA SOUSA RIBEIRO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aspects related to the floral biology of Citrus sinensis ‘Pera Rio’ variety were studied in the present work aiming to obtain information about the pollination ecology in the local agriculture. Studies of flowering, anthesis, pollen / ovule ratio, stigmatic receptivity, pollen viability, nectar characterization and floral visitors were carried out. From the data studied, the following information was obtained: C. sinensis variety ‘Pera Rio’ flourishes in two annual periods (dry and rainy, the anthesis occurs from 9:00 AM with duration of 24 hours, during which period stigma receptivity, pollen viability and nectar secretion are highly significant, demonstrating that the species also possesses characteristics of allogenic plants. Apis mellifera was a floral visitor, with a greater number of individuals with a Relative Frequency (RF of 51.1%. Melipona scutellaris obtained second place in visits with RR = 23.6%; Followed by Trigona spinipes with FR = 17.7%. The two seasons (dry and rainy presented high similarity (Morisita index = 0.64. C. sinensis has floral biology favorable to cross pollination and bees A. mellifera and M. scutellaris are potential pollinators of this fruit in the conditions in the region of the Recôncavo Baiano. The reproductive system of C. sinensis is mixed, being favorable to entomophilic pollination.

  18. Aspects of Salt Tolerance in a NaCl-Selected Stable Cell Line of Citrus sinensis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Hayyim, Gozal; Kochba, Joshua

    1983-01-01

    A NaCl-tolerant cell line which was selected from ovular callus of `Shamouti' orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) proved to be a true cell line variant. This conclusion is based on the following observations. (a) Cells which have been removed from the selection pressure for at least four passages retain the same NaCl tolerance as do cells which are kept constantly on 0.2 molar NaCl. (b) Na+ and Cl− uptake are considerably lower in salt-tolerant cells (R-10) than in salt-sensitive cells (L-5) at a given external NaCl concentration. (c) Growth of salt-tolerant cells is markedly suppressed upon replacement of NaCl by KCl, whereas the growth of salt-sensitive cells is only slightly affected. Accumulation of K+ and Cl− accompanies the inhibition of growth. Experiments carried out with sodium and potassium sulfate suggest that the toxic effect is due to the accumulated Cl−. (d) Removal of Ca2+ from the growth medium severely inhibits the growth of salt-tolerant cells in the presence of NaCl, while it has a minor effect on growth of salt-sensitive cells in the presence of NaCl. (e) Electron micrographs show that the salt-tolerant cells have very big vacuoles when exposed to salt, while the size of the vacuoles of the salt-sensitive cells does not change. Images Fig. 3 PMID:16663067

  19. Survey of current crop management practices in a mixed-ricefield landscape, Mekong Delta, Vietnam - potential of habitat manipulation for improved control of citrus leafminer and citrus red mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mele, van P.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2002-01-01

    In the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (CLM) and the citrus red mite Panonychus citri are major pests in both sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and Tieu mandarin (C. reticulata). Survey data indicate that these pest problems might be aggravated after farmers have

  20. Behavioral assay on Asian citrus psyllid attraction to orange jasmine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is an important pest because it transmits a bacterium putatively responsible for huanglongbing, a devastating citrus disease. Research on ACP chemical ecology is of interest with respect to identifying attractants and repellents for managing the psyllid. We report on a...

  1. Citrus leprosis transmission by Brevipalpus yothersi mites through non citrus hosts

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    Guillermo León M.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Citrus leprosis virus (C i LV was detected in Colombia at the eastern plains in 2004; it is a threat the disease spreads to other regions of the country. The main vector is Brevipalpus yothersi Baker (formerly identified as Brevipalpus phoenicis. This research determined the viability of B. yothersi to transmit C i LV to citrus plants, after been hosted in non-citrus plants. To virus acquisition, mites spent three days on symptomatic orange (Citrus x sinensis leaves positives to C i LV-C2; then mites were placed on six non-citrus plants (Dieffenbachia sp., Hibiscus rosa-sinensis,Codiaeum variegatum, Swinglea glutinosa, Sida acutaand Stachytarpheta cayennensis. A randomized design with 6 treatments and 4 replicates was carried out. After scheduled time in non-citrus plants, mites were three days relocated on C. x sinensis healthy plants. Leaves of receptor plants, were evaluated to the occurrence or absence of symptoms and collected for RT-PCR tests. B. yothersi mites were able to transmit the C i LV virus over 85 % of Valencia orange plants (Citrus x sinensis L., after feeding from 2-20 days on non-citrus host plants. The first leprosis symptoms on C. x sinensis leaves was confirmed from 14 to 51 days after transmission. The present research work further established that C i LV-C2 is a persistently transmitted virus. The implement quarantine diagnostic measures to prevent spread of CiLV to disease-free zones is suggested.

  2. Comparative analysis of juice volatiles in selected mandarins, mandarin relatives and other citrus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuan; Bai, Jinhe; Chen, Chunxian; Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Gmitter, Frederick G

    2018-02-01

    Citrus fruit flavor is an important attribute prioritized in variety improvement. The present study compared juice volatiles compositions from 13 selected citrus genotypes, including six mandarins (Citrus reticulata), three sour oranges (Citrus aurantium), one blood orange (Citrus sinensis), one lime (Citrus limonia), one Clementine (Citrus clementina) and one satsuma (Citrus unshiu). Large differences were observed with respect to volatile compositions among the citrus genotypes. 'Goutou' sour orange contained the greatest number of volatile compounds and the largest volatile production level. 'Ponkan' mandarin had the smallest number of volatiles and 'Owari' satsuma yielded the lowest volatile production level. 'Goutou' sour orange and 'Moro' blood orange were clearly distinguished from other citrus genotypes based on the analysis of volatile compositions, even though they were assigned into one single group with two other sour oranges by the molecular marker profiles. The clustering analysis based on the aroma volatile compositions was able to differentiate mandarin varieties and natural sub-groups, and was also supported by the molecular marker study. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of citrus juice aroma volatiles can be used as a tool to distinguish citrus genotypes and assist in the assessment of future citrus breeding programs. The aroma volatile profiles of the different citrus genotypes and inter-relationships detected among volatile compounds and among citrus genotypes will provide fundamental information on the development of marker-assisted selection in citrus breeding. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Cytotoxicity and anti-Leishmania amazonensis activity of Citrus sinensis leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Andreza R; Amaral, Ana Claudia F; Azevedo, Mariana M B; Corte-Real, Suzana; Lopes, Rosana C; Alviano, Celuta S; Pinheiro, Anderson S; Vermelho, Alane B; Rodrigues, Igor A

    2017-12-01

    Leishmania amazonensis is the main agent of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, a disease characterized by lesional polymorphism and the commitment of skin surface. Previous reports demonstrated that the Citrus genus possess antimicrobial activity. This study evaluated the anti-L. amazonensis activity of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae) extracts. Citrus sinensis dried leaves were subjected to maceration with hexane (CH), ethyl acetate (CEA), dichloromethane/ethanol (CD/Et - 1:1) or ethanol/water (CEt/W - 7:3). Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes were treated with C. sinensis extracts (1-525 μg/mL) for 120 h at 27 °C. Ultrastructure alterations of treated parasites were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. Cytotoxicity of the extracts was assessed on RAW 264.7 and J774.G8 macrophages after 48-h treatment at 37 °C using the tetrazolium assay. In addition, Leishmania-infected macrophages were treated with CH and CD/Et (10-80 μg/mL). CH, CD/Et and CEA displayed antileishmanial activity with 50% inhibitory activity (IC 50 ) of 25.91 ± 4.87, 54.23 ± 3.78 and 62.74 ± 5.04 μg/mL, respectively. Parasites treated with CD/Et (131.2 μg/mL) presented severe alterations including mitochondrial swelling, lipid body formation and intense cytoplasmic vacuolization. CH and CD/Et demonstrated cytotoxic effects similar to that of amphotericin B in the anti-amastigote assays (SI of 2.16, 1.98 and 1.35, respectively). Triterpene amyrins were the main substances in CH and CD/Et extracts. In addition, 80 μg/mL of CD/Et reduced the number of intracellular amastigotes and the percentage of infected macrophages in 63% and 36%, respectively. The results presented here highlight C. sinensis as a promising source of antileishmanial agents.

  4. Effects of oxamyl on the citrus nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and on infection of sweet orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, R C; Small, R H

    1976-04-01

    Foliar sprays of 4 microg/ml oxamyl on sweet orange trees in a greenhouse slightly depressed the number of Tylenchulus semipenetrans larvae obtained from roots and soil, but similar treatments were not effective in two orchards. Soil drench treatments decreased the number of citrus nematode larvae obtained from roots or soil of citrus plants grown itt a greenhouse and in orchards. Exposure to 5-10 microg/ml of oxamyl in water was lethal to only a few second-stage larvae treated 10 days, and many second-stage larvae in 2.0 microg/ml oxamyl recovered motility when transferred to fresh water. Aqueous solutions of 50 and 100 microg/ml of oxamyl were toxic to citrus nematode larvae. Additional observations indicate that oxamyl interfered with hatch of citrus nematode larvae and was nematistatic and/or protected sweet orange roots from infection. Oxamyl degraded at different rates in two soils. The number of citrus nematode larvae that infected and developed on sweet orange roots was increased by an undetermined product of the degradation of oxamyl in soil, water, and possibly within plants. This product apparently was translocated in roots.

  5. Resistance evaluation of Pera (Citrus sinensis) genotypes to citrus canker in greenhouse conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus canker, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri results in serious yield losses and phytoregulation penalties. The use of resistant genotypes is recognized as an important tool to facilitate control of the pathogen. Studies have show that artificial inoculation results in typic...

  6. Evaluation of the effects of Citrus sinensis seed oil on blood glucose, lipid profile and liver enzymes in rats injected with alloxan monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C Chilaka

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: However, further studies need to be carried out to show its mechanism of action and to isolate the active ingredient in the Citrus sinensis seed oil that is responsible for these actions.

  7. Transcriptome analysis of sweet orange trees infected with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' and two strains of Citrus Tristeza Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shimin; Shao, Jonathan; Zhou, Changyong; Hartung, John S

    2016-05-11

    Huanglongbing (HLB) and tristeza, are diseases of citrus caused by a member of the α-proteobacteria, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CaLas), and Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) respectively. HLB is a devastating disease, but CTV strains vary from very severe to very mild. Both CaLas and CTV are phloem-restricted. The CaLas-B232 strain and CTV-B6 cause a wide range of severe and similar symptoms. The mild strain CTV-B2 doesn't induce significant symptoms or damage to plants. Transcriptome profiles obtained through RNA-seq revealed 611, 404 and 285 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) after infection with CaLas-B232, CTV-B6 and CTV-B2. These DETs were components of a wide range of pathways involved in circadian rhythm, cell wall modification and cell organization, as well as transcription factors, transport, hormone response and secondary metabolism, signaling and stress response. The number of transcripts that responded to both CTV-B6 and CaLas-B232 was much larger than the number of transcripts that responded to both strains of CTV or to both CTV-B2 and CaLas-B232. A total of 38 genes were assayed by RT-qPCR and the correlation coefficients between Gfold and RT-qPCR were 0.82, 0.69, 0.81 for sweet orange plants infected with CTV-B2, CTV-B6 and CaLas-B232, respectively. The number and composition of DETs reflected the complexity of symptoms caused by the pathogens in established infections, although the leaf tissues sampled were asymptomatic. There were greater similarities between the sweet orange in response to CTV-B6 and CaLas-B232 than between the two CTV strains, reflecting the similar physiological changes caused by both CTV-B6 and CaLas-B232. The circadian rhythm system of plants was perturbed by all three pathogens, especially by CTV-B6, and the ion balance was also disrupted by all three pathogens, especially by CaLas-B232. Defense responses related to cell wall modification, transcriptional regulation, hormones, secondary metabolites, kinases and

  8. Effect of dried Citrus sinensis peel on gastrointestinal microbiota and immune system traits of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ebrahimi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred broiler chickens (Ross-308 were used in a completely randomised study to evaluate the effects of supplementing the feed with different levels of dried Citrus sinensis peel (DCSP on the gasrointestinal microbial population and immune system traits. Feed was supplemented with different DCSP amounts: 0.25% w/w (DCSP-0.25, 0.5% w/w (DCSP-0.50, 0.75% w/w (DCSP-0.75, and 1% w/w (DCSP-1. Control diet (DCSP-0, with no feed additition was used as reference. The study involved five treatments in a time frame of six weeks (four replicates per treatment and each replicate had 10 chickens. Data analysis was performed using SAS software and mean comparison was performed using the Duncan test. The results allowed to observe that the mean of Escherichia coli in caecum on day 42 was significantly different (P>0.05 but did not affect other gastrointestinal microbial population traits (P>0.05. The mean of total sheep red blood cells and immunoglobulin G and M (IgG and IgM on day 28 (P>0.05 were also determined. Total sheep red blood cells on day 42 were significantly different (P<0.05. The IgG and IgM mean titers on days 28 and 42 was of no significant difference (P>0.05. Supplementing the feed with Citrus sinensis had no significant effect on Newcastle disease on day 42 (P>0.05. The mean value for hemagglutination inhibition on day 42 was significantly different (P<0.05. It can be then concluded that DCSP feed supplemention ameliorated the gastrointestinal microbiota and immune system traits.

  9. Pesticide residues in orange fruit from citrus orchards in Nuevo Leon State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Jacobo, Angela; Alcantar-Rosales, Victor Manuel; Alonso-Segura, Diana; Heras-Ramírez, Maria; Elizarragaz-De La Rosa, Dalau; Lugo-Melchor, Ofelia; Gaspar-Ramirez, Octavio

    2017-09-01

    Some international organisations established maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food to protect human health. Mexico lacks regulations in this matter, affecting national and international trade from agroindustry. The aim of this study was to diagnose pesticide residues in oranges from Nuevo Leon, México, in citrus orchards. In May 2014, 100 orange fruit samples were taken randomly from orchards and subjected to analysis for 93 pesticides at residual level by GC/QQQ-MS and LCQ-TOF-MS. Results showed the presence of 15 pesticide residues in the samples. The comparison of the residual levels of pesticides found in orange samples among the MRLs allowed by USA, EU and Japanese regulations demonstrated that all samples were below MRLs issued by USA and Japan. Some orange samples were above MRLs issued by the EU. This provides a basis to establish strategies in order to satisfy International Standards to protect human health and encourage Food Safety in Mexico.

  10. Trifoliate hybrids as rootstocks for Pêra sweet orange tree

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgino Pompeu Junior; Silvia Blumer

    2014-01-01

    The Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia) has been used as the main rootstock for Pêra sweet orange (C. sinensis) trees. However, its susceptibility to citrus blight and citrus sudden death has led to the use of disease-tolerant rootstocks, such as Cleopatra mandarin reshni), Sunki mandarin (C. sunki) and Swingle citrumelo (C. paradisi x Poncirus trifoliata), which are more susceptible to drought than the Rangpur lime. These mandarin varieties are also less resistant to root rot caused by Phytophthor...

  11. Absence of furanocoumarins in Advantra Z® (Citrus aurantium, bitter orange) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohs, Sidney J; Miller, Howard; Romano, Felice

    2014-09-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) juice is known for its ability to alter drug metabolism through inhibition of the cytochrome P450-3A4 (CYP3A4) system, and result in drug-food interactions that may be life threatening. The primary active ingredients in grapefruit responsible for these effects are the furanocoumarins bergapten, bergamottin, and 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB). Bergamottin and DHB appear to be the most important in terms of adverse drug interactions. Furanocoumarins are present in the juices and fruits of other Citrus species including C. aurantium (bitter oranges). Bergapten is the predominant furanocoumarin in bitter orange. Bitter orange extracts are widely used in products associated with weight loss, sports performance, and energy production. Questions have been raised about the potential of bitter orange extracts to cause drug interactions. This study examined the furanocoumarin content of four standardized bitter orange extracts (Advantra Z®) by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The results indicated that the total furanocoumarin content of each of the four extracts was less than 20 μg/g, amounts insufficient to exert significant effects on the metabolism of susceptible drugs in human subjects at the doses commonly used for these extracts.

  12. [Changes in polyamine levels in Citrus sinensis Osb. cv. Valencia callus during somatic embryogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Ying; Xiao, Lang-Tao; Lu, Xu-Dong; Hu, Jia-Jin; Wu, Shun; He, Chang-Zheng; Deng, Xiu-Xin

    2005-06-01

    Somatic embryogenetic capability and changes in polyamine level and their relationship were analyzed using the long-term (8 years) subcultured calli of Citrus sinensis Osb. cv. Valencia as materials. The results showed that endogenous polyamine contents in embryogenic calli were higher than those in non-embryogenic calli, and the embryogenetic capability was positively correlated to the levels of endogenous polyamines. When the calli were transferred to a differentiation medium, the putrescine content rapidly increased and reached a peak, then fell gradually. Applying exogenous putrescine raised the embryogenesis frequency and endogenous putrescine level. It indicated that increase in putrescine content at early stage of differentiation promoted embryogenesis. With the development of somatic embryo, spermidine content reached its the highest level at globular embryo stage, spermine content rose and reached a peak at a later stage of globular embryo development. Furthermore, changes of the putrescine, spermidine and spermine contents during somatic embryogenesis were similar in Valencia calli which had different ploidy levels, but their contents decreased following the increasing of ploidy level. Changes in arginine decarboxylase activity were positively correlated to the polyamine levels, which suggest that the later is a key factor in regulating the polyamine levels during somatic embryogenesis in citrus plants.

  13. Biolistic transformation of Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Acanda, Yosvanis; Jia, Hongge; Wang, Nian; Zale, Janice

    2016-09-01

    The development of transgenic citrus plants by the biolistic method. A protocol for the biolistic transformation of epicotyl explants and transgenic shoot regeneration of immature citrange rootstock, cv. Carrizo (Citrus sinensis Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) and plant regeneration is described. Immature epicotyl explants were bombarded with a vector containing the nptII selectable marker and the gfp reporter. The number of independent, stably transformed tissues/total number of explants, recorded by monitoring GFP fluorescence 4 weeks after bombardment was substantial at 18.4 %, and some fluorescing tissues regenerated into shoots. Fluorescing GFP, putative transgenic shoots were micro-grafted onto immature Carrizo rootstocks in vitro, confirmed by PCR amplification of nptII and gfp coding regions, followed by secondary grafting onto older rootstocks grown in soil. Southern blot analysis indicated that all the fluorescing shoots were transgenic. Multiple and single copies of nptII integrations were confirmed in five regenerated transgenic lines. There is potential to develop a higher throughput biolistics transformation system by optimizing the tissue culture medium to improve shoot regeneration and narrowing the window for plant sampling. This system will be appropriate for transformation with minimal cassettes.

  14. Health benefits of orange juice and citrus flavonoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main flavonoids found in orange juice are hesperidin and naringenin, which can affect several metabolic routes that improve blood serum antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory performance, while decreasing insulin resistance protecting against diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In addition, or...

  15. Nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of metabolite disorder in orange trees caused by citrus sudden death disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestes, Rosilene A; Colnago, Luiz A; Forato, Lucimara A; Carrilho, Emanuel; Bassanezi, Renato B; Wulff, Nelson A

    2009-01-01

    Citrus sudden death (CSD) is a new disease of sweet orange and mandarin trees grafted on Rangpur lime and Citrus volkameriana rootstocks. It was first seen in Brazil in 1999, and has since been detected in more than four million trees. The CSD causal agent is unknown and the current hypothesis involves a virus similar to Citrus tristeza virus or a new virus named Citrus sudden death-associated virus. CSD symptoms include generalized foliar discoloration, defoliation and root death, and, in most cases, it can cause tree death. One of the unique characteristics of CSD disease is the presence of a yellow stain in the rootstock bark near the bud union. This region also undergoes profound anatomical changes. In this study, we analyse the metabolic disorder caused by CSD in the bark of sweet orange grafted on Rangpur lime by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and imaging. The imaging results show the presence of a large amount of non-functional phloem in the rootstock bark of affected plants. The spectroscopic analysis shows a high content of triacylglyceride and sucrose, which may be related to phloem blockage close to the bud union. We also propose that, without knowing the causal CSD agent, the determination of oil content in rootstock bark by low-resolution NMR can be used as a complementary method for CSD diagnosis, screening about 300 samples per hour.

  16. Flavonoid Composition of Tarocco (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) Clone "Lempso" and Fast Antioxidant Activity Screening by DPPH-UHPLC-PDA-IT-TOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommella, Eduardo; Pagano, Francesco; Pepe, Giacomo; Ostacolo, Carmine; Manfra, Michele; Chieppa, Marcello; Di Sanzo, Rosa; Carabetta, Sonia; Campiglia, Pietro; Russo, Mariateresa

    2017-11-01

    Clonal selection and hybridisation are valid strategies to obtain fruits with enhanced sensorial and nutraceutical properties. Within Citrus sinensis varieties, Tarocco clone "Lempso" is a typical product of the Calabria region (Italy) characterised by its red pulp. This is the first report concerning its accurate profiling. To characterise in detail the flavonoid composition of Lempso clone and to compare its antioxidant potential with other Citrus varieties by a fast screening method. Extracts were subjected to solid phase extraction and the qualitative/quantitative profile was elucidated through ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to photodiode array (PDA) and ion trap time-of-flight (IT-TOF) mass spectrometry detection, and compared to both Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and blood orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Sanguinello varieties. The antioxidant activity was assessed by pre-column 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) reaction coupled to UHPLC-PDA. Lempso is characterised by flavonoids (17) and anthocyanins (8). Flavanones content (Hesperidin: 57.19 ± 0.49, Vicenin-2: 4.59 ± 0.03, Narirutin: 5.78 ± 0.13 mg/100 mL) was considerably higher than Cleopatra and Sanguinello varieties. The developed DPPH-UHPLC-PDA method provides information regarding the single contributions to antioxidant activity, highlighting how Ferulic acid, Quercetin and Cyanidin derivatives possess considerable radical scavenging activity (> 50%). The total antioxidant activity was also evaluated and compared with positive controls, showing higher scavenging activity than Cleopatra and Sanguinello (IC 50 : 333.76 ± 10.81 μg/mL vs. 452.62 ± 10.81 and 568.39 ± 26.98 μg/mL, respectively). These data evidence the nutraceutical potential of Lempso variety, which could be an ingredient for functional beverages. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Citrus Sinensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    metropolis (Central market, Kasuwar daji and Old market respectively), and ... by the United State of America (USA), China and. Mexico. Spain, USA and South Africa are the largest exporting countries followed by Turkey and Morocco.

  18. Modeling the incidence of citrus canker in leaves of the sweet orange variety ‘Pera’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle da Silva Pompeu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus canker, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, is one of the most important diseases of citrus. The use of resistant genotypes plays an important role in the management and control of the disease and is the most environmentally sustainable approach to disease control. Citrus canker incidence was recorded in an experiment on nine genotypes of the sweet orange variety ‘Pera’ grafted on four rootstocks. The experiment was started in 2010 and the incidence of citrus canker on the leaves was recorded on a quarterly basis. The incidence data from the experiment were analyzed using a zero-inflated Beta regression model (RBIZ, which is the appropriate method to describe data with large numbers of zeros. Based on the residual analysis, the data fit the model well. The discrete component of the explanatory variable, rootstock, was not significant as a factor affecting the onset of disease, in contrast with the continuous component, genotype, which was significant in explaining the incidence of citrus canker.

  19. Genome-wide comparative analysis reveals similar types of NBS genes in hybrid Citrus sinensis genome and original Citrus clementine genome and provides new insights into non-TIR NBS genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsheng Wang

    Full Text Available In this study, we identified and compared nucleotide-binding site (NBS domain-containing genes from three Citrus genomes (C. clementina, C. sinensis from USA and C. sinensis from China. Phylogenetic analysis of all Citrus NBS genes across these three genomes revealed that there are three approximately evenly numbered groups: one group contains the Toll-Interleukin receptor (TIR domain and two different Non-TIR groups in which most of proteins contain the Coiled Coil (CC domain. Motif analysis confirmed that the two groups of CC-containing NBS genes are from different evolutionary origins. We partitioned NBS genes into clades using NBS domain sequence distances and found most clades include NBS genes from all three Citrus genomes. This suggests that three Citrus genomes have similar numbers and types of NBS genes. We also mapped the re-sequenced reads of three pomelo and three mandarin genomes onto the C. sinensis genome. We found that most NBS genes of the hybrid C. sinensis genome have corresponding homologous genes in both pomelo and mandarin genomes. The homologous NBS genes in pomelo and mandarin suggest that the parental species of C. sinensis may contain similar types of NBS genes. This explains why the hybrid C. sinensis and original C. clementina have similar types of NBS genes in this study. Furthermore, we found that sequence variation amongst Citrus NBS genes were shaped by multiple independent and shared accelerated mutation accumulation events among different groups of NBS genes and in different Citrus genomes. Our comparative analyses yield valuable insight into the structure, organization and evolution of NBS genes in Citrus genomes. Furthermore, our comprehensive analysis showed that the non-TIR NBS genes can be divided into two groups that come from different evolutionary origins. This provides new insights into non-TIR genes, which have not received much attention.

  20. Uso contínuo de herbicidas em citrus (Citrus sinensis (L Osbeck, I - efeitos no controle de plantas daninhas Continous use of herbicides in citros (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck. I - effects on weed control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Victoria Filho

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa foi conduzida no município de Conchal - SP, Brasil, em um Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo com 1,75% de matéria orgânica, com o objetivo de verificar o efeito do uso continuo dos principais herbicidas, no controle de plantas daninhas em um pomar de laranja 'Pera' (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, enxertada sobre limão cravo (Citrus limonia Osbeck. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com 12 parâmetros e 4 repetições. Os tratamentos utiliza dos com as respectiva s dose s do i.a. em kg/ha foram: terbacil a 3,2; simazine a 4,0; ametryne + secbumetone a 4,5; dichlobenil a 5,0; diuron a 3,2; bromacil a 3,2; bromacil + diuron a 3,2; paraqua t a 0,6; glyphosate a 1,61 e MSMA a 1,77, além de uma testemunha que recebia uma capina anualmente e outra que era capinada sempre que a cobertura pelas plantas daninhas atingia 25% da área da parcela. O pomar foi plantado em maio/75 e a 14 aplicação foi realizada em outubro de 1977. As parcelas continham 4 plantas em uma área de 3,0 x 18,0 m (54 m2. A última foi realizada em 1986. O efeito dos tratamentos no controle das plantas daninhas foi avaliado pela contagem por espécie botânica, assim como por avaliações visuais. Todos os herbicidas utilizados apresentaram controle de aceitável a excelente, dependendo da composição específica das plantas daninhas, e aqueles cue apresentaram os melhores índices de controle das plantas daninhas, assim como efeitos residuais mais prolongados, foram bromacil + diuron, diuron, bromacil, ametryne + secbumetone e terbacil. herbicidas aplicados em pósemergência os melhores índices de controle foram obtidos com glyphosate e paraquat.The research reported in this paper was conducted at the Conchal county in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, in a Red Yellow Latosol with 1.75% of organic matter, with the objective of studyin g the effect of continuous use of selected herbicides on the weed control on a 'Pena' Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck

  1. MicroRNA regulatory mechanisms on Citrus sinensis leaves to magnesium-deficiency

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    Cui-Lan eMa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg-deficiency, which affects crop productivity and quality, widespreadly exists in many agricultural crops, including citrus. However, very limited data are available on Mg-deficiency-responsive microRNAs (miRNAs in higher plants. Using Illumina sequencing, we isolated 75 (73 known and 2 novel up- and 71 (64 known and 7 novel down-regulated miRNAs from Mg-deficient Citrus sinensis leaves. In addition to the remarkable metabolic flexibility as indicated by the great alteration of miRNA expression, the adaptive responses of leaf miRNAs to Mg-deficiency might also involve the following several aspects: (a up-regulating stress-related genes by down-regulating miR164, miR7812, miR5742, miR3946 and miR5158; (b enhancing cell transport due to decreased expression of miR3946 and miR5158 and increased expression of miR395, miR1077, miR1160 and miR8019; (c activating lipid metabolism-related genes by repressing miR158, miR5256 and miR3946; (d inducing cell wall-related gene expansin 8A by repressing miR779; and (e down-regulating the expression of genes involved in the maintenance of S, K and Cu by up-regulating miR395 and miR6426. To conclude, we isolated some new known miRNAs (i.e., miR7812, miR8019, miR6218, miR1533, miR6426, miR5256, miR5742, miR5561, miR5158 and miR5818 responsive to nutrient deficiencies and found some candidate miRNAs that might contribute to Mg-deficiency tolerance. Therefore, our results not only provide novel information about the responses of plant to Mg-deficiency, but also are useful for obtaining the key miRNAs for plant Mg-deficiency tolerance.

  2. The Citrus ABA signalosome: identification and transcriptional regulation during sweet orange fruit ripening and leaf dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Paco; Lafuente, María T; Rodrigo, María J

    2012-08-01

    The abscisic acid (ABA) signalling core in plants include the cytosolic ABA receptors (PYR/PYL/RCARs), the clade-A type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2CAs), and the subclass III SNF1-related protein kinases 2 (SnRK2s). The aim of this work was to identify these ABA perception system components in sweet orange and to determine the influence of endogenous ABA on their transcriptional regulation during fruit development and ripening, taking advantage of the comparative analysis between a wild-type and a fruit-specific ABA-deficient mutant. Transcriptional changes in the ABA signalosome during leaf dehydration were also studied. Six PYR/PYL/RCAR, five PP2CA, and two subclass III SnRK2 genes, homologous to those of Arabidopsis, were identified in the Citrus genome. The high degree of homology and conserved motifs for protein folding and for functional activity suggested that these Citrus proteins are bona fide core elements of ABA perception in orange. Opposite expression patterns of CsPYL4 and CsPYL5 and ABA accumulation were found during ripening, although there were few differences between varieties. In contrast, changes in expression of CsPP2CA genes during ripening paralleled those of ABA content and agreeed with the relevant differences between wild-type and mutant fruit transcript accumulation. CsSnRK2 gene expression continuously decreased with ripening and no remarkable differences were found between cultivars. Overall, dehydration had a minor effect on CsPYR/PYL/RCAR and CsSnRK2 expression in vegetative tissue, whereas CsABI1, CsAHG1, and CsAHG3 were highly induced by water stress. The global results suggest that responsiveness to ABA changes during citrus fruit ripening, and leaf dehydration was higher in the CsPP2CA gene negative regulators than in the other ABA signalosome components.

  3. Desiccation and freezing tolerance of embryonic axes from Citrus sinensis [L.] osb. pretreated with sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Izulmé R I; Stushnoff, Cecil

    2003-01-01

    Embryonic axes of Citrus sinensis L. were successfully cryopreserved. While fully hydrated unfrozen axes germinated 100%, survival decreased as axes water content dropped, and total loss of viability was observed when the water content dropped to 0.04 and 0.10 mg H2O/mg dry mass, for axes without and with sucrose preculture, respectively. Fully hydrated axes did not survive exposure to liquid nitrogen. Highest seedling recovery (93-100%) for untreated axes was observed at 0.26 to 0.15 mg H2O/mg dry mass. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed the presence of broad melting peaks in fully hydrated embryonic axes. The size of the melting peak diminished as water was removed by desiccation. Minimum melting of water was observed at the point axes survived cryopreservation. Occurrence of a glass transition upon warming was not a condition for axes to survive liquid nitrogen exposure. In untreated axes, glucose, increased with desiccation to 0.2 mg H2O/mg dry mass, and decreased as the axes were desiccated to lower water contents. Fructose and sucrose levels did not increase when untreated samples were desiccated for the same periods of time. Raffinose and stachyose levels decreased as untreated and precultured embryonic axes were desiccated. In sucrose precultured axes, sucrose and fructose levels increased when they were dehydrated, reaching maximum levels at 0.2 mg H2O/mg dry mass. Tissue glucose did not change significantly with desiccation. Raffinose and stachyose levels dropped as precultured embryonic axes were dried.

  4. Inotropic effect of Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck leaf extracts on the guinea pig atrium

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    Oliveira E.D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to determine the contractile effect of crude and acetone leaf extracts of Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. on mammalian myocardium. Crude leaf extracts have been used in folk medicine to treat neurological disorders. Some flavonoids isolated from this plant presented a positive inotropic effect on myocardium. This motivated us to test the extracts on the atria of guinea pigs of both sexes (300-500 g and surprisingly we observed inotropic depression instead of an increase in force. The maximum effect of the crude extract was 79.4 ± 8.1% of the control force amplitude (N = 5 hearts, 10 trials, 27 ± 0.1ºC, stimulus: 2 Hz, 400 V, 0.5 ms. The EC50 for crude, ethanol, acetic, aqueous, and acetone extracts was 300, 300, 600, 1000, and 140 µg/ml, respectively, with a Hill constant of 1.8, 2.0, 2.5, 2.0, and 1.4, respectively. Blockade of cholinergic, beta-adrenergic, or opioid membrane receptors with 1.5 µM atropine sulfate, 1 µM propranolol, and 10 µM naloxone, respectively, did not change the effect of the crude extract. The acetone extract abolished the Bowditch positive staircase phenomenon (N = 5 hearts, 10 trials, 27 ± 0.1ºC, suggesting a possible reduction of the calcium inward current, and also promoted the so-called Woodworth phenomenon. The effect was concentration-dependent and indicated the existence of another inhibitory contractile mechanism such as the simultaneous activation of some of the membrane potassium channels reducing the myocardial action potential duration and further decreasing the cellular calcium entry.

  5. ENZYMATIC KINETIC STUDY HYDROLASE FROM CITRUS

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    Israel Hernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the degrading activity of enzymes derived from orange peels (Citrus x sinensis, grapefruit (Citrus paradise and pineapple (Ananas comosus on the organic matter in wastewater is evaluated. This activity is measured indirectly by quantifying the biochemical oxygen demand (COD before and after degradation process based on a period of time using the HACH DR / 2010, and then the kinetic study was performed by the differential method and integral with the experimental data, obtaining a reaction order of 1 to pectinase (orange, and order 2 for bromelain (pineapple.

  6. Isolation of Xylella fastidiosa from Citrus sinensis (L) Osb. And Vitis vinifera and study of genetic diversity in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar Alvarez, Estela Yamileth

    2007-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes diseases in different crops. Symptoms similar to those caused by citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) were observed in sweet orange trees which served as shade and fences in coffee plantations in Costa Rica, in 2002. A total of 35 citrus trees and 24 vines from eight different districts and 3 respectively were evaluated by 'double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay' (DASELISA), resulting in 21 citrus and 19 positive vid. From four citrus trees and six of vines, were obtained six isolates and seven isolates respectively in solid medium, whose morphological and biochemical characteristics coincided with those reported in the literature as characteristic of X. fastidiosa. The identity of the isolates is confirmed by the chain polymerase reaction (PCR) using primers 272-1/272-2int and RST31/RST33. Three isolates from Grecia (Alajuela Province) amplified a band of 500pb using specific primers 272-2int/CVC-1 for strains of X. fastidiosa that cause CVC. The genetic variability of isolates from each other in comparison with isolates of coffee in Costa Rica, U.S. grapes and citrus in Brazil have been studied using techniques of random amplification polymorphism DNA (RAPD) and length polymorphisms of restriction fragments (RFLPs) of the products obtained with primers int/272-2int JB-1/JB-2 and 272-1. The results showed a clear separation between citrus isolates of Costa Rica; and, an association of three of them with the strains of citrus in Brasil. Also, an association between strains of coffee of Costa Rica with grape vines in the U.S. An association of molecular analysis confirmed the data variance. (author) [es

  7. Production of interstocked 'Pera' sweet orange nursey trees on 'Volkamer' lemon and 'Swingle' citrumelo rootstocks

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    Girardi Eduardo Augusto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Incompatibility among certain citrus scion and rootstock cultivars can be avoided through interstocking. 'Pera' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck nursery tree production was evaluated on 'Swingle' citrumelo (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf x Citrus paradisi Macf and 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Pasquale incompatible rootstocks, using 'Valencia' and 'Hamlin' sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka, and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tanaka as interstocks. Citrus nursery trees interstocked with 'Pera' sweet orange on both rootstocks were used as control. 'Swingle' citrumelo led to the highest interstock bud take percentage, the greatest interstock height and rootstock diameter, as well as the highest scion and root system dry weight. Percentage of 'Pera' sweet orange dormant bud eye was greater for plants budded on 'Sunki' mandarin than those budded on 'Valencia' sweet orange. No symptoms of incompatibility were observed among any combinations of rootstocks, interstocks and scion. Production cycle can take up to 17 months with higher plant discard.

  8. Spatial Distribution and Sampling Plans With Fixed Level of Precision for Citrus Aphids (Hom., Aphididae) on Two Orange Species.

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    Kafeshani, Farzaneh Alizadeh; Rajabpour, Ali; Aghajanzadeh, Sirous; Gholamian, Esmaeil; Farkhari, Mohammad

    2018-04-02

    Aphis spiraecola Patch, Aphis gossypii Glover, and Toxoptera aurantii Boyer de Fonscolombe are three important aphid pests of citrus orchards. In this study, spatial distributions of the aphids on two orange species, Satsuma mandarin and Thomson navel, were evaluated using Taylor's power law and Iwao's patchiness. In addition, a fixed-precision sequential sampling plant was developed for each species on the host plant by Green's model at precision levels of 0.25 and 0.1. The results revealed that spatial distribution parameters and therefore the sampling plan were significantly different according to aphid and host plant species. Taylor's power law provides a better fit for the data than Iwao's patchiness regression. Except T. aurantii on Thomson navel orange, spatial distribution patterns of the aphids were aggregative on both citrus. T. aurantii had regular dispersion pattern on Thomson navel orange. Optimum sample size of the aphids varied from 30-2061 and 1-1622 shoots on Satsuma mandarin and Thomson navel orange based on aphid species and desired precision level. Calculated stop lines of the aphid species on Satsuma mandarin and Thomson navel orange ranged from 0.48 to 19 and 0.19 to 80.4 aphids per 24 shoots according to aphid species and desired precision level. The performance of the sampling plan was validated by resampling analysis using resampling for validation of sampling plans (RVSP) software. This sampling program is useful for IPM program of the aphids in citrus orchards.

  9. Deep sequencing discovery of novel and conserved microRNAs in trifoliate orange (Citrus trifoliata

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    Yu Huaping

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs play a critical role in post-transcriptional gene regulation and have been shown to control many genes involved in various biological and metabolic processes. There have been extensive studies to discover miRNAs and analyze their functions in model plant species, such as Arabidopsis and rice. Deep sequencing technologies have facilitated identification of species-specific or lowly expressed as well as conserved or highly expressed miRNAs in plants. Results In this research, we used Solexa sequencing to discover new microRNAs in trifoliate orange (Citrus trifoliata which is an important rootstock of citrus. A total of 13,106,753 reads representing 4,876,395 distinct sequences were obtained from a short RNA library generated from small RNA extracted from C. trifoliata flower and fruit tissues. Based on sequence similarity and hairpin structure prediction, we found that 156,639 reads representing 63 sequences from 42 highly conserved miRNA families, have perfect matches to known miRNAs. We also identified 10 novel miRNA candidates whose precursors were all potentially generated from citrus ESTs. In addition, five miRNA* sequences were also sequenced. These sequences had not been earlier described in other plant species and accumulation of the 10 novel miRNAs were confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis. Potential target genes were predicted for most conserved and novel miRNAs. Moreover, four target genes including one encoding IRX12 copper ion binding/oxidoreductase and three genes encoding NB-LRR disease resistance protein have been experimentally verified by detection of the miRNA-mediated mRNA cleavage in C. trifoliata. Conclusion Deep sequencing of short RNAs from C. trifoliata flowers and fruits identified 10 new potential miRNAs and 42 highly conserved miRNA families, indicating that specific miRNAs exist in C. trifoliata. These results show that regulatory miRNAs exist in agronomically important trifoliate orange

  10. The WRKY Transcription Factor Family in Citrus: Valuable and Useful Candidate Genes for Citrus Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, M; Hanana, M; Kharrat, N; Merchaoui, H; Marzoug, R Ben; Lauvergeat, V; Rebaï, A; Mzid, R

    2016-10-01

    WRKY transcription factors belong to a large family of plant transcriptional regulators whose members have been reported to be involved in a wide range of biological roles including plant development, adaptation to environmental constraints and response to several diseases. However, little or poor information is available about WRKY's in Citrus. The recent release of completely assembled genomes sequences of Citrus sinensis and Citrus clementina and the availability of ESTs sequences from other citrus species allowed us to perform a genome survey for Citrus WRKY proteins. In the present study, we identified 100 WRKY members from C. sinensis (51), C. clementina (48) and Citrus unshiu (1), and analyzed their chromosomal distribution, gene structure, gene duplication, syntenic relation and phylogenetic analysis. A phylogenetic tree of 100 Citrus WRKY sequences with their orthologs from Arabidopsis has distinguished seven groups. The CsWRKY genes were distributed across all ten sweet orange chromosomes. A comprehensive approach and an integrative analysis of Citrus WRKY gene expression revealed variable profiles of expression within tissues and stress conditions indicating functional diversification. Thus, candidate Citrus WRKY genes have been proposed as potentially involved in fruit acidification, essential oil biosynthesis and abiotic/biotic stress tolerance. Our results provided essential prerequisites for further WRKY genes cloning and functional analysis with an aim of citrus crop improvement.

  11. Comparative morpho-anatomical studies of the lesions caused by citrus leprosis virus on sweet orange

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    João P.R. Marques

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The leprosis disease shows a viral etiology and the citrus leprosis virus is considered its etiologic agent. The disease may show two types of cytopatologic symptom caused by two virus: nuclear (CiLV-N and cytoplasmic (CiLV-C types. The aim of this study was to compare the morpho-anatomical differences in the lesions caused by leprosis virus-cytoplasmic and nuclear types in Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck 'Pêra'. Leaf and fruit lesions were collected in Piracicaba/São Paulo (cytoplasmic type and Monte Alegre do Sul/São Paulo and Amparo/São Paulo (nuclear type. The lesions were photographed and then fixed in Karnovsky solution, dehydrated in a graded ethylic series, embedded in hydroxy-ethyl methacrylate resin (Leica Historesin, sectioned (5 μm thick, stained and mounted in synthetic resin. The digital images were acquired in a microscope with digital video camera. Leaf and fruit lesions caused by the two viruses were morphologically distinct. Only the lesion caused by CiLV-N virus presented three well-defined regions. In both lesions there was the accumulation of lipidic substances in necrotic areas that were surrounded by cells with amorphous or droplets protein. Only leaf and fruit lesions caused by CiLV-N virus exhibited traumatic gum ducts in the vascular bundles.A doença leprose dos citros tem etiologia viral sendo o citrus leprosis virus seu agente etiológico. Demonstrou-se que há dois vírus distintos que causam sintomas de leprose em ci-tros: citoplasmático (CiLV-C e o nuclear (CiLV-N. O objetivo desse estudo foi comparar as diferenças morfo-anatômicas nas lesões causadas por CiLV-C e por CiLV-N em laranjeira doce (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck 'Pêra'. As lesões foliares e dos frutos foram coletadas em Piracicaba/SP (tipo citoplas-mático e em Monte Alegre do Sul/SP e Amparo/SP (tipo nuclear. As lesões foram fotografadas e em seguida fixadas em solução Karnovsky, desidratadas em série etílica, incluídas em historesina e

  12. Effect of genotype and environment on citrus juice carotenoid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Dubois, Cecile; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2009-10-14

    A selection of orange and mandarin varieties belonging to the same Citrus accession and cultivated in Mediterranean (Corsica), subtropical (New Caledonia), and tropical areas (principally Tahiti) were studied to assess the effect of genotype and environmental conditions on citrus juice carotenoid content. Juices from three sweet orange cultivars, that is, Pera, Sanguinelli, and Valencia ( Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), and two mandarin species ( Citrus deliciosa Ten and Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan), were analyzed by HPLC using a C(30) column. Annual carotenoid content variations in Corsican fruits were evaluated. They were found to be very limited compared to variations due to varietal influences. The statistical analysis (PCA, dissimilarity tree) results based on the different carotenoid compounds showed that citrus juice from Corsica had a higher carotenoid content than citrus juices from tropical origins. The tropical citrus juices were clearly differentiated from citrus juices from Corsica, and close correlations were obtained between beta-cryptoxanthin and phytoene (r = 0.931) and beta-carotene and phytoene (r = 0.918). More broadly, Mediterranean conditions amplified interspecific differentiation, especially by increasing the beta-cryptoxanthin and cis-violaxanthin content in oranges and beta-carotene and phytoene-phytofluene content in mandarins. Thus, at a quantitative level, environmental conditions also had a major role in determining the levels of carotenoids of nutritional interest, such as the main provitamin A carotenoids in citrus juice (beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene).

  13. Tetraploid Carrizo citrange rootstock (Citrus sinensis Osb.×Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) enhances natural chilling stress tolerance of common clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oustric, Julie; Morillon, Raphaël; Luro, François; Herbette, Stéphane; Lourkisti, Radia; Giannettini, Jean; Berti, Liliane; Santini, Jérémie

    2017-07-01

    Low temperatures can disturb the development, growth and geographic distribution of plants, particularly cold-sensitive plants in the Mediterranean area, where temperatures can reach seasonally low levels. In citrus crops, scion/rootstock combinations are used to improve fruit production and quality, and increase tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. In the last decade, several studies have shown that tetraploid citrus seedlings or rootstocks are more tolerant to abiotic stress than their respective diploid. The objective of this study was to test whether the use of tetraploid rootstocks can improve the chilling tolerance of the scion. We compared physiological and biochemical responses to low seasonal temperatures of common Clementine (Citrus sinensis Osb.×Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) grafted on diploid and tetraploid Carrizo citrange rootstocks, named C/2xCC and C/4xCC, respectively. During the coldest months, C/4xCC showed a smaller decrease in net photosynthesis (Pn), stomatal conductance (G s ), chlorophyll fluorescence (F v /F m ), and starch levels, and lower levels of malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage than C/2xCC. Specific activities of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) were higher in C/4xCC during the cold period, whereas chlorophyll, proline, ascorbate and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity did not vary significantly between C/4xCC and C/2xCC throughout the study period. Taken together, these results demonstrate that tetraploid Carrizo citrange rootstock improves the chilling tolerance of common clementine (scion) thanks to a part of the antioxidant system. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  14. Differences between elemental composition of orange juices and leaves from organic and conventional production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turra, C.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Bacchi, M.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.; Franca, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive sampling of organic and conventional oranges was carried out in Bebedouro, an important citrus producing region of Brazil. The soils, leaves and fruits of the variety Valencia (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) budded on Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck) were analyzed. The chemical characterization was accomplished by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Indications for a difference between organic and conventional orange juices and leaves were obtained by applying univariate and multivariate statistical analysis. There were differences between samples for Br, Co, Cs, La and Rb from both systems. (author)

  15. Citrus and Prunuscopia-like retrotransposons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asíns, M J; Monforte, A J; Mestre, P F; Carbonell, E A

    1999-08-01

    Many of the world's most important citrus cultivars ("Washington Navel", satsumas, clementines) have arisen through somatic mutation. This phenomenon occurs fairly often in the various species and varieties of the genus.The presence of copia-like retrotransposons has been investigated in fruit trees, especially citrus, by using a PCR assay designed to detect copia-like reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences. Amplification products from a genotype of each the following species Citrus sinensis, Citrus grandis, Citrus clementina, Prunus armeniaca and Prunus amygdalus, were cloned and some of them sequenced. Southern-blot hybridization using RT clones as probes showed that multiple copies are integrated throughout the citrus genome, while only 1-3 copies are detected in the P. armeniaca genome, which is in accordance with the Citrus and Prunus genome sizes. Sequence analysis of RT clones allowed a search for homologous sequences within three gene banks. The most similar ones correspond to RT domains of copia-like retrotransposons from unrelated plant species. Cluster analysis of these sequences has shown a great heterogeneity among RT domains cloned from the same genotype. This finding supports the hypothesis that horizontal transmission of retrotransposons has occurred in the past. The species presenting a RT sequence most similar to citrus RT clones is Gnetum montanum, a gymnosperm whose distribution area coincides with two of the main centers of origin of Citrus spp. A new C-methylated restriction DNA fragment containing a RT sequence is present in navel sweet oranges, but not in Valencia oranges from which the former originated suggesting, that retrotransposon activity might be, at least in part, involved in the genetic variability among sweet orange cultivars. Given that retrotransposons are quite abundant throughout the citrus genome, their activity should be investigated thoroughly before commercializing any transgenic citrus plant where the transgene(s) is part

  16. Electronic tongue response to chemicals in orange juice that change concentration in relation to harvest maturity and citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an earlier study, the electronic tongue system (etongue) was used to differentiate between orange juice made from healthy fruit and from fruit affected by the citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease. This study investigated the reaction of an etongue system to the main chemicals in orange ...

  17. Tetraploidy enhances boron-excess tolerance in Carrizo Citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eRuiz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tetraploidy modifies root anatomy which may lead to differentiated capacity to uptake and transport mineral elements. This work provides insights into physiological and molecular characters involved in boron (B toxicity responses in diploid (2x and tetraploid (4x plants of Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf., a widely used citrus rootstock. With B excess, 2x plants accumulated more B in leaves than 4x plants, which accounted for their higher B uptake and root-to-shoot transport rates. Ploidy did not modify the expression of membrane transporters NIP5 and BOR1 in roots. The cellular allocation of B excess differed between ploidy levels in the soluble fraction, which was lower in 4x leaves, while cell wall-linked B was similar in 2x and 4x genotypes. This correlates with the increased damage and stunted growth recorded in the 2x plants. The 4x roots were found to have fewer root tips, shorter specific root length, longer diameter, thicker exodermis and earlier tissue maturation in root tips, where the Casparian strip was detected at a shorter distance from the root apex than in the 2x roots. The results presented herein suggest that the root anatomical characters of the 4x plants play a key role in their lower B uptake capacity and root-to-shoot transport.

  18. Tetraploidy Enhances Boron-Excess Tolerance in Carrizo Citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Marta; Quiñones, Ana; Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Aleza, Pablo; Morillon, Raphaël; Navarro, Luis; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus

    2016-01-01

    Tetraploidy modifies root anatomy which may lead to differentiated capacity to uptake and transport mineral elements. This work provides insights into physiological and molecular characters involved in boron (B) toxicity responses in diploid (2x) and tetraploid (4x) plants of Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.), a widely used citrus rootstock. With B excess, 2x plants accumulated more B in leaves than 4x plants, which accounted for their higher B uptake and root-to-shoot transport rates. Ploidy did not modify the expression of membrane transporters NIP5 and BOR1 in roots. The cellular allocation of B excess differed between ploidy levels in the soluble fraction, which was lower in 4x leaves, while cell wall-linked B was similar in 2x and 4x genotypes. This correlates with the increased damage and stunted growth recorded in the 2x plants. The 4x roots were found to have fewer root tips, shorter specific root length, longer diameter, thicker exodermis and earlier tissue maturation in root tips, where the Casparian strip was detected at a shorter distance from the root apex than in the 2x roots. The results presented herein suggest that the root anatomical characters of the 4x plants play a key role in their lower B uptake capacity and root-to-shoot transport. Tetraploidy enhances B excess tolerance in citrange CarrizoExpression of NIP5 and BOR1 transporters and cell wall-bounded B are similar between ploidiesB tolerance is attributed to root anatomical modifications induced by genome duplicationThe rootstock 4x citrange carrizo may prevent citrus trees from B excess.

  19. Identification and Characterization of Citrus tristeza virus Isolates Breaking Resistance in Trifoliate Orange in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomi, Raymond K; Selvaraj, Vijayanandraj; Maheshwari, Yogita; Saponari, Maria; Giampetruzzi, Annalisa; Chiumenti, Michela; Hajeri, Subhas

    2017-07-01

    Most Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates in California are biologically mild and symptomless in commercial cultivars on CTV tolerant rootstocks. However, to better define California CTV isolates showing divergent serological and genetic profiles, selected isolates were subjected to deep sequencing of small RNAs. Full-length sequences were assembled, annotated and trifoliate orange resistance-breaking (RB) isolates of CTV were identified. Phylogenetic relationships based on their full genomes placed three isolates in the RB clade: CA-RB-115, CA-RB-AT25, and CA-RB-AT35. The latter two isolates were obtained by aphid transmission from Murcott and Dekopon trees, respectively, containing CTV mixtures. The California RB isolates were further distinguished into two subclades. Group I included CA-RB-115 and CA-RB-AT25 with 99% nucleotide sequence identity with RB type strain NZRB-G90; and group II included CA-RB-AT35 with 99 and 96% sequence identity with Taiwan Pumelo/SP/T1 and HA18-9, respectively. The RB phenotype was confirmed by detecting CTV replication in graft-inoculated Poncirus trifoliata and transmission from P. trifoliata to sweet orange. The California RB isolates induced mild symptoms compared with severe isolates in greenhouse indexing tests. Further examination of 570 CTV accessions, acquired from approximately 1960 and maintained in planta at the Central California Tristeza Eradication Agency, revealed 16 RB positive isolates based on partial p65 sequences. Six isolates collected from 1992 to 2011 from Tulare and Kern counties were CA-RB-115-like; and 10 isolates collected from 1968 to 2010 from Riverside, Fresno, and Kern counties were CA-RB-AT35-like. The presence of the RB genotype is relevant because P. trifoliata and its hybrids are the most popular rootstocks in California.

  20. Effects of heat treatment on antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of orange by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the changes in functional components, antioxidative activities, antibacterial activities, anti-inflammatory activities of orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by-products (OBP) by heat treatment at 50 and 100 degrees C (hereafter, 50D and 100D extracts, respectively). Optimal...

  1. Exploring optimal fertigation strategies for orange production, using soil-crop modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Wei; Heinen, Marius; Assinck, Falentijn B.T.; Oenema, Oene

    2016-01-01

    Water and nitrogen (N) are two key limiting factors in orange (Citrus sinensis) production. The amount and the timing of water and N application are critical, but optimal strategies have not yet been well established. This study presents an analysis of 47 fertigation strategies examined by a

  2. Introduction of a citrus blight-associated gene into Carrizo citrange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbc. x Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayim, M; Ceccardi, T L; Berretta, M J G; Barthe, G A; Derrick, K S

    2004-11-01

    The protein p12 accumulates in leaves of trees with citrus blight (CB), a serious decline of unknown cause. The function of p12 is not known, but sequence analysis indicates it may be related to expansins. In studies to determine the function of p12, sense and antisense constructs were used to make transgenic Carrizo citrange using an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system. Homogeneous beta-glucuronidase+ (GUS+) sense and antisense transgenic shoots were regenerated using kanamycin as a selective agent. Twenty-five sense and 45 antisense transgenic shoots were in vivo grafted onto Carrizo citrange for further analyses. In addition, 20 sense and 18 antisense shoots were rooted. The homogeneous GUS+ plants contained either the p12 sense or antisense gene (without the intron associated with the gene in untransformed citrus) as shown by PCR and Southern blotting. Northern blots showed the expected RNA in the sense and antisense plants. A protein of identical size and immunoreactivity was observed in seven of nine sense plants but not in nine antisense or non-transgenic plants. At the current stage of growth, there are no visual phenotypic differences between the transgenic and non-transgenic plants. Selected plants will be budded with sweet orange for field evaluation for resistance or susceptibility to CB and general rootstock performance.

  3. Produção de frutos e incidência de cancro cítrico em laranjeiras "Monte Parnaso" enxertadas sobre sete porta-enxertos Fruit production and incidence of citrus canker lesions on "Monte Parnaso" navel orange budded on seven rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Reis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Porta-enxertos de citros podem exercer influência sobre a produção de frutos e suscetibilidade das plantas ao cancro cítrico. Este trabalho objetivou selecionar porta-enxertos que induzam elevado índice de produtividade e menor suscetibilidade das copas de laranjeiras-de-umbigo "Monte Parnaso"(Citrus sinensis à bactéria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, causadora do cancro cítrico (CC. O experimento foi desenvolvido em um pomar experimental com 10 anos de idade, plantado em espaçamento de 2,5 x 6,0m, no município de Butiá, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições, usando duas plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos constaram dos seguintes porta-enxertos: limoeiros "Cravo" (C. limonia e "Volkameriano" (C. volkameriana., trifoliata "Flying Dragon" (Poncirus trifoliata., laranjeira "Caipira" (C. sinensis, citrangeiro "Troyer" (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata, tangerineira "Sunki" (C. sunki. e citrumeleiro "Swingle" (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: incidência de CC em folhas e frutos em toda a planta e em ramos previamente selecionados, em diversas épocas. Verificou-se que as plantas enxertadas sobre citrumeleiro "Swingle" apresentaram o maior índice de produtividade e, à semelhança do "Flying Dragon", a menor incidência de CC, tanto nas folhas como nos frutos. Além disso, verificou-se também que as plantas enxertadas sobre os limoeiros "Cravo" e "Volkameriana", apesar de produzirem as mais elevadas cargas de frutos, foram as mais suscetíveis ao CC.Citrus rootstocks can exert some influences on fruit production and susceptibility of the plants to citrus canker (CC. This research was performed aiming to select rootstocks which induce higher productivity index and lower susceptibility of 'Monte Parnaso' navel orange (Citrus sinensis trees to the bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. The research was carried out in an

  4. Effect of Edible Coatings from Aloe vera gel on Citrus sinensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extension of the shelf life of orange fruits continues to be a challenge in Nigeria. The search for safe, healthy and environmental friendly treatments has led to increased interest in research into edible and biodegradable films and coatings. In this work, the use of Aloe vera gel as a coating to extend the shelf-life of orange ...

  5. Misturas de herbicidas para o controle de plantas daninhas anuais na cultura de citrus (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck Herbicides mixtures for the control of annual weeds in citrus crop (Citrus sinensis (L, Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.B. Galli

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se avaliar a eficiência das misturas de glyphosate com diuron ou simazine para o controle de plantas daninhas anuais na cultura de citrus, foram conduzidos dois experimentos durante o ano agrícola 83/84, sendo um em Jaguariúna e outro em Catanduva, ambos no estado de São Paulo. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que, embora todos os tratamentos tenham sido altamente eficientes, o controle de Digitaria horizontalis, Brachiaria plantaginea e portulaca oleracea aos 10 DAT foi um pouco inferior quando se aplicou as misturas de tanque (glyphosate + diuron ou simazine, em relação à aplicação seqüencial desses mesmos produtos. A adição do sulfato de amônio nas misturas de tanque minimizou esse problema, o qual não foi observado na avaliação realizada aos 30 DAT. Ainda com relação às misturas, o controle das gramíneas foi superior quando se utilizou diuron em relação à simazine. As misturas de herbicidas residuais com glyphosate proporcionaram melhor controle aos 60 DAT quando comparados às aplicações de glyphosate isoladamente.With the aim of evaluating the efficiency of glyphosate mixtures with diuron and simazine, in the control of annual weeds in citrus, two experiments were conducted in Catanduva and Jaguariúna, SP, during the 83/84 season. The results showed high efficiency of all treatments, but the control of Digitaria horizontalis, Brachiaria plantaginea and Portulaca oleracea at 10 DAT, has been slightly inferior when tank mistures were applied, in contrast with the sequencial application of these products. The addition of ammonium sulphate to the tank mixtures minimized the problem which was not observed at 30 DAT. Concerning mixtures, grass control was better with diuron than simazine. The use of glyphosate in mixtures with residuals offered better control at 60 DAT when compared to Glyphosate alone.

  6. Genetic variation and recombination of RdRp and HSP 70h genes of Citrus tristeza virus isolates from orange trees showing symptoms of citrus sudden death disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappas Georgios J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Citrus sudden death (CSD, a disease that rapidly kills orange trees, is an emerging threat to the Brazilian citrus industry. Although the causal agent of CSD has not been definitively determined, based on the disease's distribution and symptomatology it is suspected that the agent may be a new strain of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV. CTV genetic variation was therefore assessed in two Brazilian orange trees displaying CSD symptoms and a third with more conventional CTV symptoms. Results A total of 286 RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase (RdRp and 284 heat shock protein 70 homolog (HSP70h gene fragments were determined for CTV variants infecting the three trees. It was discovered that, despite differences in symptomatology, the trees were all apparently coinfected with similar populations of divergent CTV variants. While mixed CTV infections are common, the genetic distance between the most divergent population members observed (24.1% for RdRp and 11.0% for HSP70h was far greater than that in previously described mixed infections. Recombinants of five distinct RdRp lineages and three distinct HSP70h lineages were easily detectable but respectively accounted for only 5.9 and 11.9% of the RdRp and HSP70h gene fragments analysed and there was no evidence of an association between particular recombinant mosaics and CSD. Also, comparisons of CTV population structures indicated that the two most similar CTV populations were those of one of the trees with CSD and the tree without CSD. Conclusion We suggest that if CTV is the causal agent of CSD, it is most likely a subtle feature of population structures within mixed infections and not merely the presence (or absence of a single CTV variant within these populations that triggers the disease.

  7. Zero-inflated beta regression model for leaf citrus canker incidence in orange genotypes grafted onto different rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oilson Alberto Gonzatto Junior

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Data with excess zeros are frequently found in practice, and the recommended analysis is to use models that adequately address the counting of zero observations. In this study, the Zero Inflated Beta Regression Model (BeZI was used on experimental data to describe the mean incidence of leaf citrus canker in orange groves under the influence of genotype and rootstocks of origin. Based on the model, it was possible to quantify the odds that a null observation to mean incidence comes from a particular plant according to genotype and rootstock, and estimate its expected value according to this combination. Laranja Caipira rootstock proved to be the most resistant to leaf citrus canker as well as Limão Cravo proved to be the most fragile. The Ipiguá IAC, Arapongas, EEL and Olímpia genotypes have statistically equivalent chances.

  8. Insecticidal activity of some citrus oils against culex quinquefasciatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, H. M. A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study deals with the larvicidal potency of peel oils of grapefruit (Citrus paradise), sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia) on 4''th instar larvae of the mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. Orange oil was the most effective followed by grapefruit oil and then lime oil. The toxicity of the oils applied to the 4''th instar larval stage was extended to pupal and adult stages. All oils produced deleterious effects on fecundity of survivors of sublethal doses. By the aid of chemical analysis of oils, the active compound was found to be limonene, a monoterpene compound. The percentages limonene were 97.15%, 92.46% and 32.29% for orange, grapefruit and lime respectively.(Author)

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation treatment at phytosanitary dose levels on the quality of ‘Lane Late’ navel oranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the dose tolerance of ‘Lane Late’ navel oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) to irradiation for phytosanitary purposes, identify the sensory attributes that may be affected by the treatment, and determine which changes, if any, influence consumer liking....

  10. β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes containing Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck essential oil: An alternative to control Aedes aegypti larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvão, J.G., E-mail: julianaggalvao@gmail.com [Pharmacy Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Silva, V.F.; Ferreira, S.G. [Pharmacy Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); França, F.R.M. [Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Santos, D.A.; Freitas, L.S.; Alves, P.B. [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Araújo, A.A.S.; Cavalcanti, S.C.H.; Nunes, R.S. [Pharmacy Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil)

    2015-05-20

    Highlights: • Thermal analysis was useful to determine the formation of inclusion complexes by paste and co-precipitation methods. • HS/GC-FID quantitative analysis revealed that the best method of obtaining a CSEO/β-CD complex was the PWE, with the largest inclusion content [78.5%]. • The inclusion complex revealed LC{sub 50} of 23.01 ppm, close to CSEO LC{sub 50} 21.5 ppm. - Abstract: The development of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) complexes is an interesting way for increasing the aqueous solubility of essential oils. The aim of this study was to prepare inclusion complexes of Citrus sinensis essential oil (CSEO) with β-CD using paste complexation (with and without co-solvent) and co-precipitation methods. Additionally, the physicochemical properties of the inclusion complexes using thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were evaluated. Furthermore, CSEO content (%) and solubility of complexes were measured. The biological activity against the Aedes aegypti Linn. larvae was further evaluated. For comparison purposes, a physical mixture between β-CD and CSEO was prepared and evaluated. Thermal analysis clearly indicated the formation of complexes by paste and co-precipitation methods. The headspace/gas chromatography quantitative analysis showed inclusions contents higher than 50%. On the other hand, the product revealed LC{sub 50} of 23.01 ppm, close to CSEO LC{sub 50} 21.5 ppm.

  11. β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes containing Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck essential oil: An alternative to control Aedes aegypti larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvão, J.G.; Silva, V.F.; Ferreira, S.G.; França, F.R.M.; Santos, D.A.; Freitas, L.S.; Alves, P.B.; Araújo, A.A.S.; Cavalcanti, S.C.H.; Nunes, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal analysis was useful to determine the formation of inclusion complexes by paste and co-precipitation methods. • HS/GC-FID quantitative analysis revealed that the best method of obtaining a CSEO/β-CD complex was the PWE, with the largest inclusion content [78.5%]. • The inclusion complex revealed LC 50 of 23.01 ppm, close to CSEO LC 50 21.5 ppm. - Abstract: The development of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) complexes is an interesting way for increasing the aqueous solubility of essential oils. The aim of this study was to prepare inclusion complexes of Citrus sinensis essential oil (CSEO) with β-CD using paste complexation (with and without co-solvent) and co-precipitation methods. Additionally, the physicochemical properties of the inclusion complexes using thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were evaluated. Furthermore, CSEO content (%) and solubility of complexes were measured. The biological activity against the Aedes aegypti Linn. larvae was further evaluated. For comparison purposes, a physical mixture between β-CD and CSEO was prepared and evaluated. Thermal analysis clearly indicated the formation of complexes by paste and co-precipitation methods. The headspace/gas chromatography quantitative analysis showed inclusions contents higher than 50%. On the other hand, the product revealed LC 50 of 23.01 ppm, close to CSEO LC 50 21.5 ppm

  12. A triply cloned strain of xylella fastidiosa multiplies and induces symptoms of citrus variegated chlorosis in sweet orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li; Zreik; Fernandes; Miranda; Teixeira; Ayres; Garnier; Bov

    1999-08-01

    Xylella fastidiosa isolate 8.1.b obtained from a sweet orange tree affected by citrus variegated chlorosis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, and shown in 1993 to be the causal agent of the disease, was cloned by repeated culture in liquid and on solid PW medium, yielding triply cloned strain 9a5c. The eighth and the 16th passages of strain 9a5c were mechanically inoculated into sweet orange plants. Presence of X. fastidiosa in sweet orange leaves of shoots having grown after inoculation (first-flush shoots) was detected by DAS-ELISA and PCR. Thirty-eight days after inoculation, 70% of the 20 inoculated plants tested positive, and all plants gave strong positive reactions 90 days after inoculation. Symptoms first appeared after 3 months and were conspicuous after 5 months. X. fastidiosa was reisolated from sweet orange leaves, 44 days after inoculation. These results indicate that X. fastidiosa strain 9a5c, derived from pathogenic isolate 8.1.b by triply cloning, is also pathogenic. Strain 9a5c is now used for the X. fastidiosa genome sequencing project undertaken on a large scale in Brazil.http://link. springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00284/bibs/39n2p106.html

  13. Época da indução e evocação floral em Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck cv. Pêra Rio The flower induction and evocation period in Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck cv. Pêra Rio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Alvarenga Mesquita Pereira

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A produção do estímulo floral (indução e emissão das primeiras sépalas, na gema floralmente determinada (evocação floral em Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck cv. Pêra Rio pôde ser acompanhada pelas variações anatômicas nos meristemas apicais e axilares. Com objetivo de determinar a época na qual ocorre a indução e evocação floral, cortes longitudinais de gemas apicais e axilares, corados com pironina Y-methylgreen foram efetuados em períodos regulares de maio a agosto. Através das mudanças no formato da gema, principalmente diâmetro, que aumentou com a indução, foi possível determinar a época do ano na qual gemas vegetativas são induzidas a florescerem. Foram detectadas variações nos diâmetros das gemas no período de início da morfogênese floral (meados até o final de julho. A medição do diâmetro das gemas mostra-se um procedimento eficiente para acompanhar os fenômenos decorrentes da indução, evocação e morfogênese florais. Gemas vegetativas apresentam diâmetro médio de 100µm, com túnica composta por três camadas, de formato cônico, recobrindo o corpo, ao passo que a reprodutiva é mais achatada, após a iniciação do primeiro primórdio de sépala, exibindo diâmetro médio de 200µm. Coloração com pironina Y-methylgreen proporciona a captação do fenômeno da evocação floral, pela detecção de regiões mais concentradas em RNA, nas zonas periféricas das gemas; alteração bioquímica esta que precede a emissão das sépalas.The research aims to determine the time in which the inflorescence induction and evocation occurs. The production of inflorescence stimulus (induction and emission of first sepals in a bud determined as a flower bud (floral evocation in Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck cv. Pêra Rio could be observed through the anatomic variations of the apical and lateral meristems. Longitudinal sections, stained with pironina Y-methylgreen were done in regular periods from May to August. The

  14. Economic injury levels for Asian citrus psyllid control in process oranges from mature trees with high incidence of huanglongbing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Monzo

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the key pest of citrus wherever it occurs due to its role as vector of huanglongbing (HLB also known as citrus greening disease. Insecticidal vector control is considered to be the primary strategy for HLB management and is typically intense owing to the severity of this disease. While this approach slows spread and also decreases severity of HLB once the disease is established, economic viability of increasingly frequent sprays is uncertain. Lacking until now were studies evaluating the optimum frequency of insecticide applications to mature trees during the growing season under conditions of high HLB incidence. We related different degrees of insecticide control with ACP abundance and ultimately, with HLB-associated yield losses in two four-year replicated experiments conducted in commercial groves of mature orange trees under high HLB incidence. Decisions on insecticide applications directed at ACP were made by project managers and confined to designated plots according to experimental design. All operational costs as well as production benefits were taken into account for economic analysis. The relationship between management costs, ACP abundance and HLB-associated economic losses based on current prices for process oranges was used to determine the optimum frequency and timing for insecticide applications during the growing season. Trees under the most intensive insecticidal control harbored fewest ACP resulting in greatest yields. The relationship between vector densities and yield loss was significant but differed between the two test orchards, possibly due to varying initial HLB infection levels, ACP populations or cultivar response. Based on these relationships, treatment thresholds during the growing season were obtained as a function of application costs, juice market prices and ACP densities. A conservative threshold for mature trees with high incidence of HLB would help

  15. Evidence for host plant preference by Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Raul T; Childers, Carl C

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we present field and laboratory evidence on the preference of Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks) for grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) leaves compared with sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) leaves. This preference was confirmed in four orchards whether leaf samples were taken from either border trees of contiguous grapefruit or sweet orange or interior row trees with both citrus species in adjacent rows. Iphiseiodes quadripilis was most abundant in grapefruit trees in spite of the greater abundance of the Texas citrus mite, Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) in sweet orange trees. Similar preference responses were observed in laboratory tests using a Y-tube olfactometer whether I. quadripilis were collected from sweet orange or grapefruit. Iphiseiodes quadripilis collected from grapefruit trees showed significant preference for grapefruit over sweet orange leaves in contact choice tests using an arena of alternating leaf strips (12 mm long x 2 mm wide) of sweet orange and grapefruit. However, I. quadripilis collected from sweet orange trees did not show preference for either grapefruit or sweet orange leaves. Based on these results, grapefruit leaves foster some unknown factor or factors that retain I. quadripilis in greater numbers compared with sweet orange leaves.

  16. Pink Mold Rot on Unishiu Orange (Citrus unshiu Mac. Caused by Trichothecium roseum (Pers. Link ex Gray in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyeuk Kwon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, a pink mold rot was observed on unishiu orange (Citrus unshiu Mac. fruits at the Wholesale Market for Agricultural Products, Jinju, Korea. The symptom on unishiu orange was a water-soaked lesion on the surface of fruit, which later on enlarged to form softened brown rot lesions. The diseased fruits were covered with pink-colored mold, consisting of conidia and conidiophores of the pathogen. Optimum temperature for mycelial growth was 25oC. Conidia were hyaline, smooth, 2-celled, and thick-walled conidia with truncate bases, ellipsoidal to pyriform, characteristically held together zig-zag chains and 12−26 × 8−12 μm in size. Conidiophore was erect, colorless, unbranched, and 4−5 μm wide. On the basis of mycological characteristics, pathogenicity test, and molecular analysis with complete ITS rDNA region, the causal fungus was identified as Trichothecium roseum (Pers. Link ex Gray. This is the first report of pink mold rot caused by T. roseum on unishiu orange in Korea.

  17. Co-infection of Sweet Orange with Severe and Mild Strains of Citrus tristeza virus Is Overwhelmingly Dominated by the Severe Strain on Both the Transcriptional and Biological Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimin Fu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Citrus tristeza is one of the most destructive citrus diseases and is caused by the phloem-restricted Closterovirus, Citrus tristeza virus. Mild strain CTV-B2 does not cause obvious symptoms on indicators whereas severe strain CTV-B6 causes symptoms, including stem pitting, cupping, yellowing, and stiffening of leaves, and vein corking. Our laboratory has previously characterized changes in transcription in sweet orange separately infected with CTV-B2 and CTV-B6. In the present study, transcriptome analysis of Citrus sinensis in response to double infection by CTV-B2 and CTV-B6 was carried out. Four hundred and eleven transcripts were up-regulated and 356 transcripts were down-regulated prior to the onset of symptoms. Repressed genes were overwhelmingly associated with photosynthesis, and carbon and nucleic acid metabolism. Expression of genes related to the glycolytic, oxidative pentose phosphate (OPP, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA pathways, tetrapyrrole synthesis, redox homeostasis, nucleotide metabolism, protein synthesis and post translational protein modification and folding, and cell organization were all reduced. Ribosomal composition was also greatly altered in response to infection by CTV-B2/CTV-B6. Genes that were induced were related to cell wall structure, secondary and hormone metabolism, responses to biotic stress, regulation of transcription, signaling, and secondary metabolism. Transport systems dedicated to metal ions were especially disturbed and ZIPs (Zinc Transporter Precursors showed different expression patterns in response to co-infection by CTV-B2/CTV-B6 and single infection by CTV-B2. Host plants experienced root decline that may have contributed to Zn, Fe, and other nutrient deficiencies. Though defense responses, such as, strengthening of the cell wall, alteration of hormone metabolism, secondary metabolites, and signaling pathways, were activated, these defense responses did not suppress the spread of the pathogens

  18. Influencia de 46 porta-injertos para cítricos en la precocidad o retardo de maduración de la naranja "Frost valencia" (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caselles N. Álvaro A.

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Of 46 graft carrier influence in citrics on ripe precocity or retardation from "Frost Valencia" Citrus sinensis (L Osbeck was studied looking for to guaranter a fruit constant supply toward market. Graft carrier influence was tested in orange blosson, fruiting ripeness season. Stock influence to induce early intermediate or later blossoms was observed, related with period and intensity so them same ocurr. Stock influence on solubles solids content, juici volume, ripeness index, ripe fruit, mantenence on tree also was found . Early of later yields are feasible to obtain using trifoliado x Ruby Or (1437 and "Garcia Valencia" stock markedly, or which highly significant ripeness gains were found with "Frost Valencia" Orange respectively.Se estudió la influencia de los portainjertos para cítricos buscando la obtención de producciones tempranas o tardías para garantizar un suministro continuo de fruta fresca al mercado. Se analizó por espacio de dos años la influencia de los porta-injertos en el período de floración, fructificación y maduración de la naranja. Se observó influencia del patrón para inducir floraciones precoces, intermedias o tardías haciendo referencia al período de intensidad con que ocurren las mismas. También se encontró influencia del patrón en contenido de sólidos solubles, volumen de jugo, acidez, índice de marez y mantenimiento de la fruta madura en el árbol. Es posible obtener producciones tempranas o tardías con la utilización de los patrones trifoliados x Ruby Or (1437 Y García Valencia, sobre las cuales se encontró adelantos altamente significativos de maduración de la naranja "Frost Valencia" respectivamente.

  19. Selection processes in a citrus hybrid population using RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Roberto Pedroso de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the processes of selection in a citrus hybrid population using segregation analysis of RAPD markers. The segregation of 123 RAPD markers between 'Cravo' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco and 'Pêra' sweet orange (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck was analysed in a F1 progeny of 94 hybrids. Genetic composition, diversity, heterozygosity, differences in chromosomal structure and the presence of deleterious recessive genes are discussed based on the segregation ratios obtained. A high percentage of markers had a skeweness of the 1:1 expected segregation ratio in the F1 population. Many markers showed a 3:1 segregation ratio in both varieties and 1:3 in 'Pêra' sweet orange, probably due to directional selection processes. The distribution analysis of the frequencies of the segregant markers in a hybrid population is a simple method which allows a better understanding of the genetics of citrus group.

  20. Genetic transformation of sweet orange with the coat protein gene of Citrus psorosis virus and evaluation of resistance against the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanek, María Cecilia; Reyes, Carina Andrea; Cervera, Magdalena; Peña, Eduardo José; Velázquez, Karelia; Costa, Norma; Plata, Maria Inés; Grau, Oscar; Peña, Leandro; García, María Laura

    2008-01-01

    Citrus psorosis is a serious viral disease affecting citrus trees in many countries. Its causal agent is Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), the type member of genus Ophiovirus. CPsV infects most important citrus varieties, including oranges, mandarins and grapefruits, as well as hybrids and citrus relatives used as rootstocks. Certification programs have not been sufficient to control the disease and no sources of natural resistance have been found. Pathogen-derived resistance (PDR) can provide an efficient alternative to control viral diseases in their hosts. For this purpose, we have produced 21 independent lines of sweet orange expressing the coat protein gene of CPsV and five of them were challenged with the homologous CPV 4 isolate. Two different viral loads were evaluated to challenge the transgenic plants, but so far, no resistance or tolerance has been found in any line after 1 year of observations. In contrast, after inoculation all lines showed characteristic symptoms of psorosis in the greenhouse. The transgenic lines expressed low and variable amounts of the cp gene and no correlation was found between copy number and transgene expression. One line contained three copies of the cp gene, expressed low amounts of the mRNA and no coat protein. The ORF was cytosine methylated suggesting a PTGS mechanism, although the transformant failed to protect against the viral load used. Possible causes for the failed protection against the CPsV are discussed.

  1. Genome-Wide Classification and Evolutionary and Expression Analyses of Citrus MYB Transcription Factor Families in Sweet Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiao-Jin; Li, Si-Bei; Liu, Sheng-Rui; Hu, Chun-Gen; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    MYB family genes are widely distributed in plants and comprise one of the largest transcription factors involved in various developmental processes and defense responses of plants. To date, few MYB genes and little expression profiling have been reported for citrus. Here, we describe and classify 177 members of the sweet orange MYB gene (CsMYB) family in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis orthologs. According to these analyses, these CsMYBs were categorized into four groups (4R-MYB, 3R-MYB, 2R-MYB and 1R-MYB). Gene structure analysis revealed that 1R-MYB genes possess relatively more introns as compared with 2R-MYB genes. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that these CsMYBs are distributed across nine chromosomes. Sweet orange includes a relatively small number of MYB genes compared with the 198 members in Arabidopsis, presumably due to a paralog reduction related to repetitive sequence insertion into promoter and non-coding transcribed region of the genes. Comparative studies of CsMYBs and Arabidopsis showed that CsMYBs had fewer gene duplication events. Expression analysis revealed that the MYB gene family has a wide expression profile in sweet orange development and plays important roles in development and stress responses. In addition, 337 new putative microsatellites with flanking sequences sufficient for primer design were also identified from the 177 CsMYBs. These results provide a useful reference for the selection of candidate MYB genes for cloning and further functional analysis forcitrus. PMID:25375352

  2. Concentração de suco de laranja (Citrus sinensis por osmose inversa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA Fernando Teixeira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A concentração de suco de laranja por osmose inversa combinada com ultrafiltração foi estudada em escala semi-piloto, visando avaliar a utilização dessa tecnologia para substituição parcial da evaporação. Foram utilizados no processamento 100 litros de suco de laranja, com teor de polpa de 1,5%, cedidos pela CTM Citrus. Na primeira etapa, todo o suco passou pela etapa de ultrafiltração, para separação da polpa, enzimas pectinolíticas e microrganismos, que foram retidos. Foi utilizada uma membrana da Romicom (HF-43 de polissulfona em um sistema de configuração tubular, com peso molecular de corte de 50.000 daltons, à pressão de 1,2 bar. Obteve-se um fator de concentração de 27,6. O retentado da ultrafiltração foi pasteurizado à temperatura de 90°C, em trocador de calor de superfície raspada desenvolvido para este projeto. O processo de osmose inversa foi conduzido no equipamento Lab-unit M-20 da DDS, utilizando membranas da DDS (HR 95 PP de filme composto em um sistema de configuração quadro e placas. Foram realizados três tratamentos com pressões de 20, 40 e 60 bar e para cada experimento, foram feitas três repetições. O retentado pasteurizado da ultrafiltração foi adicionado ao retentado da osmose inversa e caracterizado química, física e sensorialmente. Na osmose inversa foram obtidos fatores de concentração de 2,7, 3,5 e 3,6 e teores de sólidos solúveis de 18, 23 e 30 °Brix, para os tratamentos de 20, 40 e 60 bar, respectivamente. Os respectivos permeados apresentaram teores de sólidos solúveis de 3,3, 1,3 e 0,3°Brix e acidez de 262,50, 91,50 e 34,25 mg de ácido cítrico/100 ml. Os sucos obtidos pelos três tratamentos apresentaram valores de "defect score" e "color score" superiores aos do suco original, enquanto que para o "flavor score", os sucos obtidos às pressões de 40 e 60 bar, apresentaram valores próximos ao ideal. Os valores de "ratio", pH e formol foram semelhantes entre os

  3. Quantification and localization of hesperidin and rutin in Citrus sinensis grafted on C. limonia after Xylella fastidiosa infection by HPLC-UV and MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Márcio Santos; da Silva, Danielle Fernandes; Forim, Moacir Rossi; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Fernandes, João Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Silva, Denise Brentan; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; de Carvalho, Sérgio Alves; de Souza, Alessandra Alves; Machado, Marcos Antônio

    2015-07-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method was developed for quantifying hesperidin and rutin levels in leaves and stems of Citrus limonia, with a good linearity over a range of 1.0-80.0 and 1.0-50.0 μg mL(-1) respectively, with r(2)>0.999 for all curves. The limits of detection (LOD) for both flavonoids were 0.6 and 0.5 μg mL(-1), respectively, with quantification (LOQ) being 2.0 and 1.0 μg mL(-1), respectively. The quantification method was applied to Citrus sinensis grafted onto C. limonia with and without CVC (citrus variegated chlorosis) symptoms after Xylella fastidiosa infection. The total content of rutin was low and practically constant in all analyses in comparison with hesperidin, which showed a significant increase in its amount in symptomatic leaves. Scanning electron microscopy studies on leaves with CVC symptoms showed vessel occlusion by biofilm, and a crystallized material was noted. Considering the difficulty in isolating these crystals for analysis, tissue sections were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) to confirm the presence of hesperidin at the site of infection. The images constructed from MS/MS data with a specific diagnostic fragment ion (m/z 483) also showed higher ion intensities for it in infected plants than in healthy ones, mainly in the vessel regions. These data suggest that hesperidin plays a role in the plant-pathogen interaction, probably as a phytoanticipin. This method was also applied to C. sinensis and C. limonia seedlings, and comparison with the graft results showed that the rootstock had an increased hesperidin content ∼3.6 fold greater in the graft stem than in the stem of C. sinensis seedlings. Increase in hesperidin content by rootstock can be related to induced internal defense mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. IDENTIFICATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED GENES ASSOCIATED WITH CITRUS BLIGHT (Citrus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato de Abreu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the largest citrus producer in the world, being responsible for more than 20% of its production, which is, however still low due to phytosanitary issues such as citrus blight. Citrus blight is an anomaly whose causes still have not yet been determined, therefore there are no efficient control measures to minimize the production losses with the use of resistant varieties being considered the most appropriate method. However, little is known about the genes involved in the defense response of the plants to this anomaly. Considering that many physiological alterations associated with plant stress responses are controlled at a transcriptional level, in this study we sought the identification and characterization of the gene expression products differentially expressed in the response to the citrus blight. Through the suppressive subtractive hybridization technique, expressed cDNA libraries were built using mRNAs isolated from "Cravo" lemon tree roots (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck under "Pera" orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck of healthy and sick plants. 129 clones were obtained by subtraction and their sequences were compared in databases. 34 of them linked to proteins associated to stress processes, while the others were similar to sequences of unknown functions or did not present similarity with sequences deposited in the databases. 3 genes were selected and their expressions were studied by RT - qPCR in real-time. Plants with citrus blight presented an increase of the expression level in two of those genes, suggesting that these can be directly involved with this anomaly.

  5. Progress in selection for sodium chloride, 2,4-D dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and streptomycin tolerance in Citrus sinensis ovular callus lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochba, J.; Spiegel-Roy, P.

    1982-01-01

    Citrus sinensis (cultivar Shamouti) nucellar embryogenic callus lines with greatly increased tolerance to salinity (NaCl), 2,4-D and streptomycin were selected. Selected lines were found stable after removal of selection pressure. Gamma irradiation at 8-16 kR was also employed and found to speed up selections. Embryos from NaCl and 2,4-D tolerant lines also showed increased tolerance. Embryogenesis in selected lines, suppressed during selection procedures, was regained by growing cultures in the presence of galactose or lactose as the sole carbon source. A schedule was worked out furthering development of embryos into plantlets. Conditions for adventive shoot formation from embryonic shoot segments were established, thus allowing cloning of embryos. A procedure was worked out for suspension culture and agar plating of cell groups. (author)

  6. Genome wide selection in Citrus breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gois, I B; Borém, A; Cristofani-Yaly, M; de Resende, M D V; Azevedo, C F; Bastianel, M; Novelli, V M; Machado, M A

    2016-10-17

    Genome wide selection (GWS) is essential for the genetic improvement of perennial species such as Citrus because of its ability to increase gain per unit time and to enable the efficient selection of characteristics with low heritability. This study assessed GWS efficiency in a population of Citrus and compared it with selection based on phenotypic data. A total of 180 individual trees from a cross between Pera sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and Murcott tangor (Citrus sinensis Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco) were evaluated for 10 characteristics related to fruit quality. The hybrids were genotyped using 5287 DArT_seq TM (diversity arrays technology) molecular markers and their effects on phenotypes were predicted using the random regression - best linear unbiased predictor (rr-BLUP) method. The predictive ability, prediction bias, and accuracy of GWS were estimated to verify its effectiveness for phenotype prediction. The proportion of genetic variance explained by the markers was also computed. The heritability of the traits, as determined by markers, was 16-28%. The predictive ability of these markers ranged from 0.53 to 0.64, and the regression coefficients between predicted and observed phenotypes were close to unity. Over 35% of the genetic variance was accounted for by the markers. Accuracy estimates with GWS were lower than those obtained by phenotypic analysis; however, GWS was superior in terms of genetic gain per unit time. Thus, GWS may be useful for Citrus breeding as it can predict phenotypes early and accurately, and reduce the length of the selection cycle. This study demonstrates the feasibility of genomic selection in Citrus.

  7. Transcriptome analysis of citrus sinensis in response to dual infection by Citrius tristeza virus and ’Candidatus liberibacter asiaticus'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) and Tristeza are destructive and globally distributed citrus diseases, and are responsible for the tremendous economic losses to the citrus industries worldwide. HLB is caused by a gram-negative and phloem-limited member of the a-Proteobacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus...

  8. Relationships between nutrient composition of flowers and fruit quality in orange trees grown in calcareous soil

    OpenAIRE

    Pestana, M.; Beja, P.; Correia, P. J.; Varennes, Amarilis de; Faria, E. A.

    2005-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted in a commercial orange orchard (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb. cv. ‘Valencia late’ grafted on Citrange Troyer) established on a calcareous soil in the south of Portugal, to investigate if flower analysis could be used to predict fruit quality. In April 1996, during full bloom, flowers were collected from 20 trees. In March 1997 the fruits were harvested and their quality evaluated. This procedure was repeated every year during three years. Principal Compon...

  9. Chemical characterization of Citrus sinensis grafted on C. limonia and the effect of some isolated compounds on the growth of Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Alan Bezerra; Abdelnur, Patrícia Verardi; Garcia, Cleverson Fernando; Belini, Adriana; Severino, Vanessa G Pasqualotto; da Silva, M Fátima das G F; Fernandes, João B; Vieira, Paulo C; de Carvalho, Sérgio A; de Souza, Alessandra A; Machado, Marcos A

    2008-09-10

    Citrus sinensis grafted on C. limonia produces a considerable number of compounds that are not common in both plants developed from germination of seeds. The chemical profile of scion and rootstock differ notably for absence in the form of flavonoids and coumarins containing C5 prenyl groups attached to the carbon atoms of aromatic and heterocyclic systems or to oxygen. Only linear pyranocoumarins xanthyletin and xanthoxyletin were found in scion. This observation indicates that the prenylated compounds once biosynthesized in the roots could have been translocated to other organs. Xylella fastidiosa colonizes the xylem of plants causing diseases on several economically important crops such as citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC). A number of flavonoids, coumarins, alkaloids, dihydrocinnamic acid derivative, anacardic acid, triterpenes, and limonoids were tested for in vitro activity on the growth of Xylella fastidiosa. Azadirachtin A was the most active. Hesperidin, which occurs in great amounts in cells of the mesophyll of the affected leaves with CVC, showed a moderate activity suggesting that it can act as a good barrier for small-size colonies from X. fastidiosa.

  10. Determination of the terpene flux from orange species and Norway spruce by relaxed eddy accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C.S.; Hummelshøj, P.; Jensen, N.O.

    2000-01-01

    Terpene fluxes from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest and an orange orchard (Citrus clementii and Citrus sinensis) were measured by relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) during summer 1997. alpha-pinene and beta-pinene were the most abundant terpenes emitted from Norway spruce and constituted approx...... rate by using two precision pumps operated at approximately 60 mi min(-1). The terpenes collected on the adsorbent tubes were significantly decomposed by ozone during sampling unless ozone scrubbers were applied. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  11. Two previously unknown Phytophthora species associated with brown rot of Pomelo (Citrus grandis fruits in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Puglisi

    Full Text Available Two distinct Phytophthora taxa were found to be associated with brown rot of pomelo (Citrus grandis, a new disease of this ancestral Citrus species, in the Vinh Long province, Mekong River Delta area, southern Vietnam. On the basis of morphological characters and using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI as barcode genes, one of the two taxa was provisionally named as Phytophthora sp. prodigiosa, being closely related to but distinct from P. insolita, a species in Phytophthora Clade 9, while the other one, was closely related to but distinct from the Clade 2 species P. meadii and was informally designated as Phytophthora sp. mekongensis. Isolates of P. sp. prodigiosa and P. sp. mekongensis were also obtained from necrotic fibrous roots of Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana rootstocks grafted with 'King' mandarin (Citrus nobilis and from trees of pomelo, respectively, in other provinces of the Mekong River Delta, indicating a widespread occurrence of both Phytophthora species in this citrus-growing area. Koch's postulates were fulfilled via pathogenicity tests on fruits of various Citrus species, including pomelo, grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi, sweet orange (Citrus x sinensis and bergamot (Citrus x bergamia as well as on the rootstock of 2-year-old trees of pomelo and sweet orange on 'Carrizo' citrange (C. sinensis 'Washington Navel' x Poncirus trifoliata. This is the first report of a Phytophthora species from Clade 2 other than P. citricola and P. citrophthora as causal agent of fruit brown rot of Citrus worldwide and the first report of P. insolita complex in Vietnam. Results indicate that likely Vietnam is still an unexplored reservoir of Phytophthora diversity.

  12. Two previously unknown Phytophthora species associated with brown rot of Pomelo (Citrus grandis) fruits in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Ivana; De Patrizio, Alessandro; Schena, Leonardo; Jung, Thomas; Evoli, Maria; Pane, Antonella; Van Hoa, Nguyen; Van Tri, Mai; Wright, Sandra; Ramstedt, Mauritz; Olsson, Christer; Faedda, Roberto; Magnano di San Lio, Gaetano; Cacciola, Santa Olga

    2017-01-01

    Two distinct Phytophthora taxa were found to be associated with brown rot of pomelo (Citrus grandis), a new disease of this ancestral Citrus species, in the Vinh Long province, Mekong River Delta area, southern Vietnam. On the basis of morphological characters and using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) as barcode genes, one of the two taxa was provisionally named as Phytophthora sp. prodigiosa, being closely related to but distinct from P. insolita, a species in Phytophthora Clade 9, while the other one, was closely related to but distinct from the Clade 2 species P. meadii and was informally designated as Phytophthora sp. mekongensis. Isolates of P. sp. prodigiosa and P. sp. mekongensis were also obtained from necrotic fibrous roots of Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana) rootstocks grafted with 'King' mandarin (Citrus nobilis) and from trees of pomelo, respectively, in other provinces of the Mekong River Delta, indicating a widespread occurrence of both Phytophthora species in this citrus-growing area. Koch's postulates were fulfilled via pathogenicity tests on fruits of various Citrus species, including pomelo, grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi), sweet orange (Citrus x sinensis) and bergamot (Citrus x bergamia) as well as on the rootstock of 2-year-old trees of pomelo and sweet orange on 'Carrizo' citrange (C. sinensis 'Washington Navel' x Poncirus trifoliata). This is the first report of a Phytophthora species from Clade 2 other than P. citricola and P. citrophthora as causal agent of fruit brown rot of Citrus worldwide and the first report of P. insolita complex in Vietnam. Results indicate that likely Vietnam is still an unexplored reservoir of Phytophthora diversity.

  13. GC-MS analysis of headspace and liquid extracts for metabolomic differentiation of citrus Huanglongbing and zinc deficiency in leaves of 'Valencia' sweet orange from commercial groves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan Manuel; García-Torres, Rosalía; Etxeberria, Edgardo; Reyes-De-Corcuera, José Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is considered the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. Symptoms-based detection of HLB is difficult due to similarities with zinc deficiency. To find metabolic differences between leaves from HLB-infected, zinc-deficient, and healthy 'Valencia' orange trees by using GC-MS based metabolomics. Analysis based on GC-MS methods for untargeted metabolite analysis of citrus leaves was developed and optimized. Sample extracts from healthy, zinc deficient, or HLB-infected sweet orange leaves were submitted to headspace solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and derivatization treatments prior to GC-MS analysis. Principal components analysis achieved correct classification of all the derivatized liquid extracts. Analysis of variance revealed 6 possible biomarkers for HLB, of which 5 were identified as proline, β-elemene, (-)trans- caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Significant (P < 0.05) differences in oxo-butanedioic acid, arabitol, and neo-inositol were exclusively detected in samples from plants with zinc deficiency. Levels of isocaryophyllen, α-selinene, β-selinene, and fructose were significantly (P < 0.05) different in healthy leaves only. Results suggest the potential of using identified HLB biomarkers for rapid differentiation of HLB from zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Resistance of Citrus and Related Genera to Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgoni, P C; Vendramim, J D; Lourencão, A L; Machado, M A

    2014-10-01

    The present study was developed to evaluate the resistance of the following genotypes of Citrus and related genera to this pest: 'Pera,' 'Natal', and 'Washington Navel' oranges (Citrus sinensis), 'Marsh Seedless' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), hardy orange 'Rubidoux' (Poncirus trifoliata), kumquat (Fortunella margarita Swingle), citrumelo 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata), and citrange 'Troyer' (P. trifoliata x C. sinensis). The experiments were performed in greenhouses with plants grafted onto 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia) and placed individually in voile cages. The preference for oviposition in a no-choice test, and the effect of genotype were evaluated. The egg-adult cycle was monitored to determine the effect of genotype on the biology of the insect. Poncirus 'Rubidoux' was the least preferred genotype for oviposition; reduced number of eggs was also found to occur on citrange 'Troyer', and 'Marsh Seedless' was the genotype with the most eggs. No significant variation in the duration of the embryonic period was observed; however, a difference in the viability of eggs was found, with the lowest egg viabilities on 'Swingle.' Kumquat and 'Marsh Seedless' genotypes were correlated with increased durations of the nymphal phase, however, there was no difference in the survival of this phase. Fecundity of females on 'Troyer', 'Swingle', and kumquat was reduced. Considering all of the evaluated parameters, it was concluded that cultivars of sweet orange are the most susceptible genotypes to Diaphorina citri. Regarding oviposition, P. trifoliata 'Rubidoux' showed resistance of the antixenosis type.

  15. Compositional Shift in Fatty Acid Profiles of Lipids Obtained from Oleaginous Yeasts upon the Addition of Essential Oil from Citrus sinensis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uprety, Bijaya K; Rakshit, Sudip K

    2017-12-01

    Tailoring lipids from oleaginous yeasts to contain specific types of fatty acid is of considerable interest to food, fuel, and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, the essential oil obtained from Citrus sinesus L. has been used to alter the fatty acid composition of two common oleaginous yeasts, Rhodosporidium toruloides and Cryptococcus curvatus. With increasing levels of essential oil in the medium, the metabolic flux of the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway shifted towards saturated fatty acid production. Essential oil reduced the activities of elongase and ∆9 desaturase. This made the lipid obtained from both these yeasts rich in saturated fatty acids. At certain specific concentrations of the essential oil in the medium, the lipid obtained from R. toruloides and C. curvatus cultures was similar to mahuwa butter and palm oil, respectively. Limonene is the major constituents of orange essential oil. Its effect on one of the oleaginous yeasts, R. toruloides, was also studied separately. Effects similar to orange essential oil were obtained with limonene. Thus, we can conclude that limonene in orange essential oil brings about compositional change of microbial lipid produced in this organism.

  16. Long-term boron-deficiency-responsive genes revealed by cDNA-AFLP differ between Citrus sinensis roots and leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi-Bin; Qi, Yi-Ping; Yang, Lin-Tong; Lee, Jinwook; Guo, Peng; Ye, Xin; Jia, Meng-Yang; Li, Mei-Li; Chen, Li-Song

    2015-01-01

    Seedlings of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck were supplied with boron (B)-deficient (without H3BO3) or -sufficient (10 μM H3BO3) nutrient solution for 15 weeks. We identified 54 (38) and 38 (45) up (down)-regulated cDNA-AFLP bands (transcript-derived fragments, TDFs) from B-deficient leaves and roots, respectively. These TDFs were mainly involved in protein and amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism, cell transport, signal transduction, and stress response and defense. The majority of the differentially expressed TDFs were isolated only from B-deficient roots or leaves, only seven TDFs with the same GenBank ID were isolated from the both. In addition, ATP biosynthesis-related TDFs were induced in B-deficient roots, but unaffected in B-deficient leaves. Most of the differentially expressed TDFs associated with signal transduction and stress defense were down-regulated in roots, but up-regulated in leaves. TDFs related to protein ubiquitination and proteolysis were induced in B-deficient leaves except for one TDF, while only two down-regulated TDFs associated with ubiquitination were detected in B-deficient roots. Thus, many differences existed in long-term B-deficiency-responsive genes between roots and leaves. In conclusion, our findings provided a global picture of the differential responses occurring in B-deficient roots and leaves and revealed new insight into the different adaptive mechanisms of C. sinensis roots and leaves to B-deficiency at the transcriptional level. PMID:26284101

  17. Use of the heat dissipation method for sap flow measurement in citrus nursery trees1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Augusto Girardi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sap flow could be used as physiological parameter to assist irrigation of screen house citrus nursery trees by continuous water consumption estimation. Herein we report a first set of results indicating the potential use of the heat dissipation method for sap flow measurement in containerized citrus nursery trees. 'Valencia' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] budded on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck was evaluated for 30 days during summer. Heat dissipation probes and thermocouple sensors were constructed with low-cost and easily available materials in order to improve accessibility of the method. Sap flow showed high correlation to air temperature inside the screen house. However, errors due to natural thermal gradient and plant tissue injuries affected measurement precision. Transpiration estimated by sap flow measurement was four times higher than gravimetric measurement. Improved micro-probes, adequate method calibration, and non-toxic insulating materials should be further investigated.

  18. LRR-RLK family from two Citrus species: genome-wide identification and evolutionary aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Diogo M; Scholte, Larissa L S; Silva, Nicholas V; Oliveira, Guilherme C; Zipfel, Cyril; Takita, Marco A; De Souza, Alessandra A

    2016-08-12

    Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) represent the largest subfamily of plant RLKs. The functions of most LRR-RLKs have remained undiscovered, and a few that have been experimentally characterized have been shown to have important roles in growth and development as well as in defense responses. Although RLK subfamilies have been previously studied in many plants, no comprehensive study has been performed on this gene family in Citrus species, which have high economic importance and are frequent targets for emerging pathogens. In this study, we performed in silico analysis to identify and classify LRR-RLK homologues in the predicted proteomes of Citrus clementina (clementine) and Citrus sinensis (sweet orange). In addition, we used large-scale phylogenetic approaches to elucidate the evolutionary relationships of the LRR-RLKs and further narrowed the analysis to the LRR-XII group, which contains several previously described cell surface immune receptors. We built integrative protein signature databases for Citrus clementina and Citrus sinensis using all predicted protein sequences obtained from whole genomes. A total of 300 and 297 proteins were identified as LRR-RLKs in C. clementina and C. sinensis, respectively. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were estimated using Arabidopsis LRR-RLK as a template and they allowed us to classify Citrus LRR-RLKs into 16 groups. The LRR-XII group showed a remarkable expansion, containing approximately 150 paralogs encoded in each Citrus genome. Phylogenetic analysis also demonstrated the existence of two distinct LRR-XII clades, each one constituted mainly by RD and non-RD kinases. We identified 68 orthologous pairs from the C. clementina and C. sinensis LRR-XII genes. In addition, among the paralogs, we identified a subset of 78 and 62 clustered genes probably derived from tandem duplication events in the genomes of C. clementina and C. sinensis, respectively. This work provided the first comprehensive

  19. Host status of grapefruit and Valencia oranges for Anastrepha serpentina and Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena M Tarshis

    2011-04-01

    Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is sporadically captured in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Although its preferred hosts are in the Sapotaceae family, several varieties of Citrus, including grapefruit and oranges are listed as alternate hosts. Although Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), is known to be a major pest of Citrus, doubt exists as to the status of Citrus as a breeding host for A. serpentina. To evaluate the host status of commercial Citrus for A. serpentina we compared oviposition and development with that of A. ludens under laboratory conditions with 'Rio Red' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi MacFayden) and 'Valencia' oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] in different stages of maturity. Both fly species oviposited in early season fruit in which the eggs and larvae died in the fruit albedo. Survival of either species to the adult stage occurred in later season grapefruit. In oranges, no A. serpentina larvae survived compared with 150 A. ludens surviving to adults. Survival on both Citrus species was much lower for A. serpentina, only approximately 5% of eggs eclosed into larvae in grapefruit compared with approximatley 50% for A. ludens. In oranges approximately 16% of A. serpentina eggs eclosed compared with approximately 76% for A. ludens. In grapefruit, only one fourth as many A. serpentina larvae survived to the adult stage compared with A. ludens. Additional experiments were performed in a greenhouse on small, caged trees of la coma (Sideroxylon celastrinum H.B.K.), a Texas species of Sapotaceae. The A. serpentina females readily oviposited into these berries and normal adults emerged. The present low incidence of the adults, coupled with the high mortality during development of the larvae, suggests that Texas citrus is unlikely to support a breeding population of A. serpentina.

  20. Produção de mudas cítricas em diferentes porta-enxertos e substratos comerciais Citrus nursery production with different rootstocks and commercial substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Luís Fochesato

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se o desenvolvimento de duas variedades-copa enxertadas sobre diversos porta-enxertos e produzidas em substratos comerciais sob ambiente protegido. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação na Estação Experimental Agronômica da UFRGS, em Eldorado do Sul, RS, no período de fevereiro a novembro/2004. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 2x3x3, sendo testados: 2 variedades-copa (laranjeira "Valência" - C. sinensis [L.] Osbeck e tangerineira "Montenegrina" - C. sinensis Tenore, 3 porta-enxertos (Trifoliata - C. sinensis [L.] Raf.; citrangeiro "C13" - Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck x P. trifoliata [L.] Raf.; e limoeiro "Cravo" - C. limonia Osbeck e 3 substratos comerciais (Comercial 1, 2 e 3, e As mudas foram produzidas em citropotes de quatro litros, com sistema de irrigação por gotejamento. A análise revelou que o substrato Comercial 2 possibilitou maior desenvolvimento vegetativo às variedades-copa. O porta-enxerto citrangeiro "C13" pode ser uma alternativa aos porta-enxertos tradicionais usados no Brasil.The vegetative development of citrus nursery varieties grafted on three rootstocks at greenhouse conditions under different commercial substrates was evaluated. The experiment, randomized blocks, in a 2x3x3 factorial, was conducted at the research station of the Uiversidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil, from February to November 2004. The treatments were two citrus varieties ('Valencia' Orange - Citrus sinensis [L.] Osb. and 'Montenegrina' mandarin - Citrus deliciosa Ten., citrus rootstoocks (Trifoliate orange - C. sinensis (L. Raf., citrange 'C13' - P. trifoliata x Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. and 'Rangpur' lemon - C. limonia Osb. and substrates (Commercial 1, 2, and 3. Plants were grown in containers (4 L with drip irrigation system. The Commercial 2 substrate showed the best performance in inducing plant growth. The citrange 'C13' may be an alternative to

  1. Caracterización mediante microsatélites de 34 accesiones de naranja Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck del Banco de Germoplasma de Corpoica-Palmira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacenia Morillo Coronado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron 19 marcadores microsatélites para caracterizar 34 accesiones de naranja Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck del Banco de Germoplasma de la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria (Corpoica-Palmira. Seis marcadores fueron polimórficos, los de mayor heterocigosidad fueron CCSM- 19 (0.4097 y CCSM-3 (0.3254. Se diferenciaron 33 accesiones y al 85% de similitud, con el índice de Nei-Li y el método de agrupamiento UPGMA, se conformaron cuatro grupos. En el primero se situaron dos accesiones blancas (Lerma y Valencia Olinda 2, en el segundo la mayoría de las blancas (Indian River, Valencia Olinda, Wialua, Lima Dulce, Pera del Río, St. Michael, Enterprise, Cafetera No. 1 junto con García Valencia y Navel (Lane Late, Valle Washington, New Hall y dos sanguinas (Rudy Blood, Moro Blood, en el tercero accesiones blancas (Joppa, Salerma, Cuban Queen, Rico, Galicia, Star Calyx, Valencia Cutter, Valencia Frost, Valencia Campbell y Valencia Variegado y una sola accesión sanguina (Morocco Blood. En el cuarto grupo se situaron dos accesiones blancas, (Jaffa y Valencia 1-D-E. Finalmente, la variedad Sanguinella no hizo parte de grupos. Con los marcadores microsatélites no se encontró relación entre los grupos genéticos, formación y las características morfológicas del grupo.

  2. Caracterización mediante microsatélites de 34 accesiones de naranja Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck del Banco de Germoplasma de Corpoica-Palmira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morillo Coronado Yacenia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron 19 marcadores microsatélites para caracterizar 34 accesiones de naranja Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck del Banco de Germoplasma de la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria (Corpoica-Palmira. Seis marcadores fueron polimórficos, los de mayor heterocigosidad fueron CCSM- 19 (0.4097 y CCSM-3 (0.3254. Se diferenciaron 33 accesiones y al 85% de similitud, con el índice de Nei-Li y el método de agrupamiento UPGMA, se conformaron cuatro grupos. En el primero se situaron dos accesiones blancas (Lerma y Valencia Olinda 2, en el segundo la mayoría de las blancas (Indian River, Valencia Olinda, Wialua, Lima Dulce, Pera del Río, St. Michael, Enterprise, Cafetera No. 1 junto con García Valencia y Navel (Lane Late, Valle Washington, New Hall y dos sanguinas (Rudy Blood, Moro Blood, en el tercero accesiones blancas (Joppa, Salerma, Cuban Queen, Rico, Galicia, Star Calyx, Valencia Cutter, Valencia Frost, Valencia Campbell y Valencia Variegado y una sola accesión sanguina (Morocco Blood. En el cuarto grupo se situaron dos accesiones blancas, (Jaffa y Valencia 1-D-E. Finalmente, la variedad Sanguinella no hizo parte de grupos. Con los marcadores microsatélites no se encontró relación entre los grupos genéticos, formación y las características morfológicas del grupo.

  3. [Effectiveness of antimicrobial formulations for acne based on orange (Citrus sinensis) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L) essential oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiz, Germán; Osorio, María R; Camacho, Francisco; Atencia, Maira; Herazo, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Currently, the antimicrobial resistance has developed in bacterial strains involved in the development of acne. Therefore, alternatives to antibiotic treatment have become necessary. Gel formulations were designed based on essential oils and acetic acid, and their effectiveness was evaluated in patients affected by acne. Masked simple experimental study of three gel formulations on 28 volunteer patients, separated in four groups of seven patients. Treatments were applied daily for eight weeks and consisted of (1) antibacterial (essential oils), (2) keratolytic medication (3) essential oils mixed with acetic acetic, and (4) kerolytic medication with acetic acid. Weekly checks were conducted to evaluate patient improvement. All groups reported an improvement of the acne condition, which ranged between 43% and 75% clearance of lesions. Evidence of treatment disappeared within minutes, showing little discomfort or side effects after application. The essential oil formulations were chemically and physically stable during application of treatments. This was demonstrated by gas chromatography, where no evidence no change neither the composition profiles of essential oils nor in acetic acid. The results were ranked good to excellent, particularly for the acetic acid mixture, which achieved improvements of 75%. This appeared to be a result of their joint antiseptic and keratolytic activity. Side effects (burning and redness) disappeared within a few minutes of completing the application, therefore, did not interfere with adherence to treatment.

  4. Effects of gamma irradiation on nucellar callus production of the Valencia sweet orange (Citrus Sinensis Osb.) in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasqual, M.; Ando, A.

    1990-01-01

    Nucelli extracted from developing fruits with twelve weeks after pollination were cultured in vitro, on MS medium supplemented (in mg/l) by: thiamine H Cl 0.2; piroxidine H Cl 1.0; nicotinic acid 1.0; meso inositol 100; malt extract; sucrose 50.000; and agar 8.000 with ph = 5.7. The irradiation at 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0; 4.0; 8.0; and 12.0 kR doses was applied on, only medium, only nucellus, and medium and nucellus together. Irradiation of only nucellus and both nucellus and medium, at the same time, showed similar effects. Low doses of irradiation (until 2 kR) decrease the number of differential embryoids. The irradiation of culture medium, mainly at high doses, increases callus proliferation. (author)

  5. Native bees in blooming orange (Citrus sinensis) and lemon (C. limon) orchards in Yucatán, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    GRAJALES-CONESA, Julieta; MELÉNDEZ-RAMÍREZ, Virginia; CRUZ-LÓPEZ, Leopoldo; SÁNCHEZ, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Este estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la riqueza y la abundancia de abejas (Hymenoptera, Apoidea) en huertas de naranja y limón en floración en Yucatán, México. Se colectaron ocho especies de abejas; el 98% de los especímenes correspondió a Apis mellifera, y el 2% restante a abejas nativas. Estos hallazgos se discuten con base en la ecología de las abejas nativas y en estudios previos en la misma área de estudio.

  6. Transcriptome analysis of sweet orange trees infected with ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ and two strains of citrus tristeza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) and tristeza, are diseases of citrus caused by a member of the a-proteobacteria, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CaLas), and Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) respectively. HLB is a devastating disease, but CTV strains vary from very severe to very mild. Both CaLas and CTV are p...

  7. Citrus leprosis virus N: A New Dichorhavirus Causing Citrus Leprosis Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-González, Pedro Luis; Chabi-Jesus, Camila; Guerra-Peraza, Orlene; Tassi, Aline Daniele; Kitajima, Elliot Watanabe; Harakava, Ricardo; Salaroli, Renato Barbosa; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana

    2017-08-01

    Citrus leprosis (CL) is a viral disease endemic to the Western Hemisphere that produces local necrotic and chlorotic lesions on leaves, branches, and fruit and causes serious yield reduction in citrus orchards. Samples of sweet orange (Citrus × sinensis) trees showing CL symptoms were collected during a survey in noncommercial citrus areas in the southeast region of Brazil in 2013 to 2016. Transmission electron microscopy analyses of foliar lesions confirmed the presence of rod-like viral particles commonly associated with CL in the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected cells. However, every attempt to identify these particles by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction tests failed, even though all described primers for the detection of known CL-causing cileviruses and dichorhaviruses were used. Next-generation sequencing of total RNA extracts from three symptomatic samples revealed the genome of distinct, although highly related (>92% nucleotide sequence identity), viruses whose genetic organization is similar to that of dichorhaviruses. The genome sequence of these viruses showed trees and those used for the transmission of one of the characterized isolates to Arabidopsis plants were anatomically recognized as Brevipalpus phoenicis sensu stricto. Molecular and biological features indicate that the identified viruses belong to a new species of CL-associated dichorhavirus, which we propose to call Citrus leprosis N dichorhavirus. Our results, while emphasizing the increasing diversity of viruses causing CL disease, lead to a reevaluation of the nomenclature of those viruses assigned to the genus Dichorhavirus. In this regard, a comprehensive discussion is presented.

  8. Medicinal values of fruit peels from Citrus sinensis, Punica granatum, and Musa paradisiaca with respect to alterations in tissue lipid peroxidation and serum concentration of glucose, insulin, and thyroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Hamendra Singh; Kar, Anand

    2008-06-01

    Peel extracts from Citrus sinensis, Punica granatum, and Musa paradisiaca were investigated for their effects on tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) and on the concentration of thyroid hormones, insulin, and glucose in male rats. In vitro inhibition of H(2)O(2)-induced LPO in red blood cells of rats by 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, and 2.0 microg/mL C. sinensis, P. granatum, and M. paradisiaca peel extracts was observed in a dose-specific manner. Maximum inhibition was observed at 0.50 microg/mL C. sinensis, 2.0 microg/mL P. granatum, and 1.0 microg/mL M. paradisiaca. In the in vivo investigation, out of four different concentrations of each peel extract, 25, 200, and 100 mg/kg C. sinensis, P. granatum, and M. paradisiaca, respectively, were found to maximally inhibit hepatic LPO. The most effective doses were further evaluated for effects on serum triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxine (T(4)), insulin, and glucose concentrations. C. sinensis exhibited antithyroidal, hypoglycemic, and insulin stimulatory activities, in addition to inhibition of LPO, as it significantly decreased the serum T(4) (P paradisiaca strongly inhibited the serum level of thyroid hormones (P < .01 for both T(3) and T(4)) but increased the level of glucose (P < .05). These findings reveal the hitherto unknown potential of the tested peel extracts in the regulation of thyroid function and glucose metabolism. Besides antiperoxidative activity, C. sinensis extract has antithyroidal, hypoglycemic, and insulin stimulatory properties, which suggest its potential to ameliorate both hyperthyroidism and diabetes mellitus.

  9. Metabolism of s-triazine herbicides in tea and citrus plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakhniashvili, Kh.A.; Durmishidze, S.V.; Gigauri, M.Sh.

    1989-01-01

    The authors studied processes involved in assimilation, transport, and conversion of 14 C-atrazine and 14 C-simazine in plants of tea (Thea sinensis L.), lemon (Citrus limon Burm.), and orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck). The main products of metabolism of the investigated herbicides in different organs of the indicated plants are isolated and identified. It is established that conjugates of hydroxytriazined with peptides and proteins accumulate in the plant cell. A new pathway of atrazine metabolism is clarified in the work, the indicated pathway involving two-component conjugates with peptides and glucose. The authors discuss the role played by oxidative conversions in detoxication of atrazine and simazine in the investigated plants, and identify the end products of oxidation

  10. Diversity of endophytic bacterial populations and their interaction with Xylella fastidiosa in citrus plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo, W.L.; Marcon, J.; jr. Maccheroni, W.; Elsas, van J.D.; Vuurde, van J.W.L.; Azevedo, de J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all Citrus sinensis cultivars. The endophytic bacterial communities of healthy, resistant, and CVC-affected citrus plants were studied by using cultivation as well as

  11. Multielement determination in orange juice by ICP-MS associated with data mining for the classification of organic samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Turra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to discriminate organic from conventional orange juice based on chemical elements and data mining applications. A comprehensive sampling of organic and conventional oranges was carried out in Borborema, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The fruits of the variety Valencia (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck budded on Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck were analyzed. Eleven chemical elements were determined in 57 orange samples grown in organic and conventional systems. In order to classify these samples, data mining techniques (Support Vector Machine (SVM and Multilayer Perceptron (MLP were combined with feature selection (F-score and chi-squared. SVM with chi-squared had a better performance compared with the other techniques because it reached 93.00% accuracy using only seven chemical components (Cu, Cs, Zn, Al, Mn, Rb and Sr, and correctly classified 96.73% of the samples grown in an organic system.

  12. Uso contínuo de herbicidas em citrus (Citrus sinensis L. osbeck : II. Efeitos no desenvolvimento, produção e qualidade dos frutos Continuos use of herbicides in citros (Citrus sinensis (L. osbeck: II - ffects ondevelopment, yield and fruit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Victoria Filho

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa foi conduzida no município de Conchal - SP, Brasil, em um Latossol Vermelho Amarelo com 1,75% de matéria orgânica com o objetivo de veri fic ar o efeito do uso cont inuo dos principais herbicidas no desenvolvimento, produção e qualidade dos frutos em um pomar de laranja 'Pera' Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, en xertada sobr e limão cravo (Citrus lionia Osbeck. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com 12 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Os tratamentos utilizados com as respectivas doses do i. a. em kg/h a foram: terbacil a 3,2; simazine a 4,0; ametryne + secbumetone 4,5; dichlobenil a5,0 ; diuron a3,2 ; bromacila 3,2; bromacil + diuron a 3,2; paraquat a 0,6; glyphosate a 1,61 e MSMA a 1,77 alem de uma testemunha que recebia uma capina anualmente, e outra que era capinada sempre que a cobertura pelas plantas daninhas atingia 25% da área da parcela. O pomar foi plantado em meio/ 75 e a 1a aplicação dos herbicidas foi realizada em outubro de 1977. As parcelas continham 4 plantas em uma area de 3,0 x 18,0 m (54 m2. A última aplic ação foi realizada em 1992. O efeito no desenvolvimento foi feito pela medida do diâmetro do caule a 10 m acima do ponto de enxertia, pelo diâmetro da copa na altura mediana e pela altura das plantas. Todas essas medidas eram realizadas 2 vezes por ano. Para avaliação da produção, eram colhidos os frutos de quatro plantas por parcela. A qualidade dos frutos foi avaliada através das medidas do diâmetro longitudinal e transversal, albedo, peso e número de sementes, peso médio dos frutos, % de suco, % de sólidos solúveis e % de acidez. Pelos dados obtidos , verifica - se que não houve influência dos herbicidas no desenvolvimento das plantas de citros, e na produção. As influencias na qualidade dos frutos foram mínimas, e dependeram do ano de amostragem.The research reported in this paper was conducted at the Conchal county in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, in a Red

  13. Treatment post harvest of Citrus sinensis infested with Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albergaria, Nuno M.M. Soares de; Bortoli, Sergio A. de; Doria, Hayda O.S.; Arthur, Valter

    2009-01-01

    This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of irradiation on fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) eggs and larvae (first, second, third instars), in 'Valencia' oranges; and evaluate the effect of the irradiation on the chemical composition of the fruits. Fruits were artificially infested with the immature stages of the fruit fly and treated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy Cobalt-60 doses. By the results obtained it is possible to conclude that: third instar larvae are more tolerant to irradiation treatments; the dose of 50 Gy causes sterility to the adults emerged from all immature stages irradiated. (author)

  14. Weeping dragon, a unique ornamenal citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Weeping Dragon’ is a new ornamental citrus cultivar developed by intercrossing of two unusual and unique citrus types, Poncirus trifoliata cultivated variety (cv.) Flying Dragon, and Citrus sinensis cv. ‘Cipo’. This new hybrid cultivar combines strongly contorted and weeping growth traits in a smal...

  15. Stability of Citrus tristeza virus protective isolate 'Pêra IAC' according to SSCP analysis of old and new lines of three sweet orange varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldecy Matos da Silva Leonel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Clonal cleaning, followed by pre-immunization with protective complexes of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV, allowed the commercial cultivation of Pêra sweet orange, a variety that has great importance for Brazilian citriculture but is sensitive to the virus. The use of mild protective isolates in other citrus varieties, even those more tolerant to CTV, can also be of interest to prevent the spread of severe isolates. The aim of this study was to characterize, by means of SSCP (Single Strand Conformational Polymorphism analysis of the coat protein gene, CTV isolates present in plants of the sweet orange cultivars Pêra, Hamlin and Valencia propagated from four budwood sources: 1 old lines, 2 nucellar lines, 3 shoot-tip-grafted lines, and 4 shoot-tip-grafted lines pre-immunized with the mild CTV protective isolate 'PIAC'. We also evaluated the correlation of the obtained SSCP patterns to stem pitting intensity, tree vigor and fruit yield. SSCP results showed low genetic diversity among the isolates present in different trees of the same variety and same budwood source and, in some cases, in different budwood sources and varieties. Considering tristeza symptoms, lower intensity was noted for plants of new, shoot-tip-grafted and pre-immunized shoot-tip-grafted lines, compared to old lines of the three varieties. The observed SSCP patterns and symptomatology suggested that more severe CTV complexes infect the plants of old lines of all three varieties. The protective complex stability was observed in the SSCP patterns of CTV isolates of some shoot-tip-grafted and pre-immunized clones. It was concluded that the changes detected in other electrophoretic profiles of this treatment did not cause loss of the protective capacity of CTV isolate 'PIAC' inoculated in the pre-immunization.

  16. Assessment of the effectiveness of orange (Citrus reticulata) peel in the recovery of nickel from electroplating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Rim A

    2014-12-01

    Wastewater discharged from electroplating industry contains different concentrations of heavy metals, which when released into the environment pose a health hazard to human beings. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of orange peel as an adsorbent in the recovery of Nickel (Ni) from electroplating wastewater. The effectiveness of orange peel as an adsorbent was assessed by determining the optimum conditions of adsorption (adsorbent dose, pH, and contact time), calculating the recovery percentage, and characterizing the orange peel sludge resulting from adsorption/desorption process as being hazardous or not. Under optimum conditions for adsorption, orange peel was found to be an effective adsorbent of Ni from electroplating wastewater. It achieved 59.28% removal of the metal from a solution containing 528 mg/l, at a dose of 60 g/l, at pH 7, and for 1-h contact time. The nickel uptake capacity of orange peel was calculated to be 5.2 mg/g. Using HCl for desorption of adsorbed Ni, a recovery of 44.46% of Ni discharged in the wastewater could be reached. Orange peel resulting from the adsorption/desorption process was characterized as being nonhazardous. Orange peel was found to be effective in the recovery of nearly half of the amount of Ni discharged in electroplating wastewater. Further studies are required to determine (a) the impact of the recovered NiCl2 solution on the quality of the plated product, (b) the effect of activation of orange peel on the adsorption process, and (c) the number of cycles during which orange peel can be reused as an effective adsorbent.

  17. Ectopic accumulation of linalool confers resistance to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri in transgenic sweet orange plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Takehiko; Endo, Tomoko; Rodríguez, Ana; Fujii, Hiroshi; Goto, Shingo; Matsuura, Takakazu; Hojo, Yuko; Ikeda, Yoko; Mori, Izumi C; Fujikawa, Takashi; Peña, Leandro; Omura, Mitsuo

    2017-05-01

    In order to clarify whether high linalool content in citrus leaves alone induces strong field resistance to citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), and to assess whether this trait can be transferred to a citrus type highly sensitive to the bacterium, transgenic 'Hamlin' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) plants over-expressing a linalool synthase gene (CuSTS3-1) were generated. Transgenic lines (LIL) with the highest linalool content showed strong resistance to citrus canker when spray inoculated with the bacterium. In LIL plants inoculated by wounding (multiple-needle inoculation), the linalool level was correlated with the repression of the bacterial titer and up-regulation of defense-related genes. The exogenous application of salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate or linalool triggered responses similar to those constitutively induced in LIL plants. The linalool content in Ponkan mandarin leaves was significantly higher than that of leaves from six other representative citrus genotypes with different susceptibilities to Xcc. We propose that linalool-mediated resistance might be unique to citrus tissues accumulating large amounts of volatile organic compounds in oil cells. Linalool might act not only as a direct antibacterial agent, but also as a signal molecule involved in triggering a non-host resistance response against Xcc. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Adventive plants from ovules and nucelli in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochba, J; Spiegel-Roy, P; Safran, H

    1972-09-01

    1- to 8-week-old ovules and nucelli from three Citrus cultivars-Shamouti and Valencia (Citrus sinensis) oranges and Marsh Seedless (C. paradisi) grapefruit-were cultured in vitro. No embryo differentiation was observed in the explants prior to culture. The Shamouti ovules had degenerated and were apparently unfertilized. Embryoids formed on Murashige and Tucker nutrient medium supplemented with 500 mg/l malt extract. Whole plants developed on the same basal medium supplemented with kinetin and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), coconut milk or gibberellic acid (GA3). A higher kinetin/IAA ratio or the addition of coconut milk favoured stem elongation more than root formation while a lower kinetin/IAA ratio favoured root formation and inhibited stem elongation. The addition of GA3 to the basal medium stimulated rooting and stem elongation. These results can be of aid in mutation research, allowing irradiation at stages prior to embryonic development.

  19. Study of the thermal degradation of citrus seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Montoya, V. [Centro de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-55, Puebla 72570, Pue (Mexico); Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Montes-Moran, M.A. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Elizalde-Gonzalez, M.P. [Centro de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-55, Puebla 72570, Pue (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    The citrus seeds are one of the principal residues in the juice industry and their utilization can decrease significantly the problems of their final disposal. In this work the thermal degradation of three Mexican citrus seeds: orange (Citrus sinensis), lemon (Citrus Limon) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) was studied in nitrogen atmosphere. The two components (embryo and husk) of the seeds were characterized separately. The results showed that the thermal effects are very similar between the three embryos and the three husks. The embryos show higher degradability, superior content of nitrogen and higher heating value than the husks. The thermal degradation of the components of the three seeds is completed at 600 C and it is considered to be a global process derived from the decomposition of their principal components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin). The results suggest that mixing the three entire seeds will not lead to a severe deviation from their individual thermal behavior and that the industry could apply them for carbonization purposes. (author)

  20. High incidence of preharvest colonization of huanglongbing-symptomatic Citrus sinensis fruit by Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Diplodia natalensis) and exacerbation of postharvest fruit decay by that fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), presumably caused by bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), is a devastating citrus disease associated with excessive pre-harvest fruit drop. Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Diplodia) is the causal organism of citrus stem end rot (SER). The pathogen infects citrus fruit ...

  1. Transcriptional analysis of sweet orange trees co-infected with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' and mild or severe strains of Citrus tristeza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shimin; Shao, Jonathan; Paul, Cristina; Zhou, Changyong; Hartung, John S

    2017-10-31

    Citrus worldwide is threatened by huanglongbing (HLB) and tristeza diseases caused by 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CaLas) and Citrus tristeza virus (CTV). Although the pathogens are members of the α-proteobacteria and Closteroviridae, respectively, both are restricted to phloem cells in infected citrus and are transmitted by insect vectors. The response of sweet orange to single infection by either of these two pathogens has been characterized previously by global gene expression analysis. But because of the ubiquity of these pathogens where the diseases occur, co-infection by both pathogens is very common and could lead to increased disease severity based on synergism. We therefore co-inoculated sweet orange trees with CaLas and either a mild or a severe strain of CTV, and measured changes of gene expression in host plants. In plants infected with CaLas-B232, the overall alteration in gene expression was much greater in plants co-inoculated with the severe strain of CTV, B6, than when co-infected with the mild strain of CTV, B2. Plants co-infected with CaLas-B232 and either strain of CTV died but trees co-infected with CTV-B2 survived much longer than those co-infected with CTV-B6. Many important pathways were perturbed by both CTV-B2/CaLas-B232 and/or CTV-B6/CaLas-B232, but always more severely by CTV-B6/CaLas-B232. Genes related to cell wall modification and metal transport responded differently to infection by the pathogens in combination than by the same pathogens singly. The expressions of genes encoding phloem proteins and sucrose loading proteins were also differentially altered in response to CTV-B2 or CTV-B6 in combination with CaLas-B232, leading to different phloem environments in plants co-infected by CaLas and mild or severe CTV. Many host genes were expressed differently in response to dual infection as compared to single infections with the same pathogens. Interactions of the pathogens within the host may lead to a better or worse result

  2. Inheritance and heritability of resistance to citrus leprosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastianel, Marinês; de Oliveira, Antonio Carlos; Cristofani, Mariângela; Filho, Oliveiro Guerreiro; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Rodrigues, Vandeclei; Astúa-Monge, Gustavo; Machado, Marcos Antônio

    2006-10-01

    ABSTRACT The genetic inheritance of resistance to leprosis, the most important viral disease of citrus in Brazil, was characterized through the phenotypic assessment of 143 hybrids resulting from crosses between tangor 'Murcott' (Citrus sinensis x C. reticulata) and sweet orange 'Pêra' (C. sinensis), considered to be resistant and susceptible to the disease, respectively. All plants were grafted onto Rangpur lime (C. limonia) and inoculated with Citrus leprosis virus, cytoplasmic type through the infestation with viruliferous mites, Brevipalpus phoenicis. The experiments were arranged in a completely randomized block design with 10 replicates. Incidence and severity of the disease in leaves and stems as well as plant growth parameters (plant height and stem diameter) were recorded for 3 years after the infestation with the viruliferous mites. The average values of all variables were analyzed using principal component analysis, discriminant factorial analysis, estimation of the clonal repeatability coefficients, and frequency of the distributions of the average values for each measured variable. The principal component analysis resulted in the identification of at least two groups with resistance and susceptibility to leprosis, respectively. About 99% of all hybrids were correctly classified according to the discriminant factorial analysis. The broad-sense heritability coefficients for characteristics associated with incidence and severity of leprosis ranged from 0.88 to 0.96. The data suggest that the inheritance of resistance to leprosis may be controlled by only a few genes.

  3. Comparative analysis of differentially expressed sequence tags of sweet orange and mandarin infected with Xylella fastidiosa

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    Alessandra A. de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Citrus ESTs Sequencing Project (CitEST conducted at Centro APTA Citros Sylvio Moreira/IAC has identified and catalogued ESTs representing a set of citrus genes expressed under relevant stress responses, including diseases such as citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC, caused by Xylella fastidiosa. All sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. varieties are susceptible to X. fastidiosa. On the other hand, mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco are considered tolerant or resistant to the disease, although the bacterium can be sporadically detected within the trees, but no disease symptoms or economic losses are observed. To study their genetic responses to the presence of X. fastidiosa, we have compared EST libraries of leaf tissue of sweet orange Pêra IAC (highly susceptible cultivar to X. fastidiosa and mandarin ‘Ponkan’ (tolerant artificially infected with the bacterium. Using an in silico differential display, 172 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed in such conditions. Sweet orange presented an increase in expression of photosynthesis related genes that could reveal a strategy to counterbalance a possible lower photosynthetic activity resulting from early effects of the bacterial colonization in affected plants. On the other hand, mandarin showed an active multi-component defense response against the bacterium similar to the non-host resistance pattern.

  4. Floración, crecimiento y maduración de la naranja valle Washington, citrus sinensis Osbek

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    Torres Héctor R.

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available En cítricos de ocho años, se determinó la caída de flores y frutos en tres épocas de floración y se evaluó el crecimiento utilizando el modelo logístico y modelos de línea recta. Se cuantificó el porcentaje de jugo, pulpa y cáscara en tres estados de madurez. Se encontraron tres etapas de caída de estructuras: rápida en los primeros 25 -30 días (flores, lenta 30 -200 días y estabilización; el porcentaje de formación de frutos fue del 9%. El modelo logístico no describió bien el crecimiento del fruto; con modelos de línea recta, se explicaron cuatro fases: muy lenta (0-30 días con 0.21 cm3/día intermedia (30 -105 días con 121 cm3/día, rápido crecimiento (105-195 días con 2.36 cm3/día y tendencia a estabilización (>195días con 1.1 cm3/día. Los frutos fueron aptos para el consumo desde los 180 -200 días pero pueden permanecer en el árbol hasta los 295 - 350 días. El contenido de jugo de la fruta madura fue del 35.5%.The fall of flowers and fruit was studied in 8 years old citrus at three times of flowering, growth following the logistic model and straigh line model was also studied. Percentaje of juice, pulp, and skin in three maturity stages were quantified. Three stages of structures fall were found: quick during the first 25 -30 days (flowers, slow 30-200 days and stabilization. Fruit formation percentaje was 9%. The logistic model did not describe well fruit growth; with straight line models four phases were explained: Slow (0-30 days with 0.21 cm3/day, intermediate (30-105 days with 1.21 cm3/day, quick growth (105-195 days with 2.36 cm3/day and tendency to stabilization (195 days with 1.1 cm3/day. Fruits good for consumption after 180 - 200 but main remain on the tree up to 295 - 350 days. Juice content of the rippen fruit reached 35.5 %.

  5. Trifoliate hybrids as rootstocks for Pêra sweet orange tree

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    Jorgino Pompeu Junior

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia has been used as the main rootstock for Pêra sweet orange (C. sinensis trees. However, its susceptibility to citrus blight and citrus sudden death has led to the use of disease-tolerant rootstocks, such as Cleopatra mandarin reshni, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki and Swingle citrumelo (C. paradisi x Poncirus trifoliata, which are more susceptible to drought than the Rangpur lime. These mandarin varieties are also less resistant to root rot caused by Phytophthora, and the Swingle citrumelo showed to be incompatible with the Pêra sweet orange. In search of new rootstock varieties, this study aimed at assessing the fruit precocity and yield, susceptibility to tristeza and blight and occurrence of incompatibility of Pêra sweet orange trees grafted on 12 trifoliate hybrids, on Rangpur lime EEL and Goutou sour orange, without irrigation. Tristeza and blight are endemic in the experimental area. The Sunki x English (1628 and Changsha x English Small (1710 citrandarins and two other selections of Cleopatra x Rubidoux provided the highest cumulative yields, in the first three crops and in the total of six crops evaluated. The Cleopatra x Rubidoux (1660 and Sunki x Benecke (1697 citrandarins induced early yield, while the Cravo x Swingle citromonia and C-13 citrange induced later yield. None of the rootstock varieties caused alternate bearing. Pêra sweet orange trees grafted on Swingle citrumelo, Cleopatra x Swingle (1654 citrandarin and on two selections of Rangpur lime x Carrizo citrange showed bud-union-ring symptoms of incompatibility. None of the plants presented symptoms of tristeza or blight.

  6. Gene expression in Citrus sinensis fruit tissues harvested from huanglongbing-infected trees: comparison with girdled fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hui-Ling; Burns, Jacqueline K

    2012-05-01

    Distribution of viable Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) in sweet orange fruit and leaves ('Hamlin' and 'Valencia') and transcriptomic changes associated with huanglongbing (HLB) infection in fruit tissues are reported. Viable CaLas was present in most fruit tissues tested in HLB trees, with the highest titre detected in vascular tissue near the calyx abscission zone. Transcriptomic changes associated with HLB infection were analysed in flavedo (FF), vascular tissue (VT), and juice vesicles (JV) from symptomatic (SY), asymptomatic (AS), and healthy (H) fruit. In SY 'Hamlin', HLB altered the expression of more genes in FF and VT than in JV, whereas in SY 'Valencia', the number of genes whose expression was changed by HLB was similar in these tissues. The expression of more genes was altered in SY 'Valencia' JV than in SY 'Hamlin' JV. More genes were also affected in AS 'Valencia' FF and VT than in AS 'Valencia' JV. Most genes whose expression was changed by HLB were classified as transporters or involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Physiological characteristics of HLB-infected and girdled fruit were compared to differentiate between HLB-specific and carbohydrate metabolism-related symptoms. SY and girdled fruit were smaller than H and ungirdled fruit, respectively, with poor juice quality. However, girdling did not cause misshapen fruit or differential peel coloration. Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that many selected genes changed their expression significantly in SY flavedo but not in girdled flavedo. Mechanisms regulating development of HLB symptoms may lie in the host disease response rather than being a direct consequence of carbohydrate starvation.

  7. PHLOEM PROMOTERS IN TRANSGENIC SWEET ORANGE ARE DIFFERENTIALLY TRIGGERED BY Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus

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    LUZIA YURIKO MIYATA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of promoters preferentially expressed in specific plant tissues is a desirable strategy to search for resistance for pathogens that colonize these tissues. The bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las, associated with huanglongbing disease (HLB of citrus, colonizes phloem vessels. Some promoters, besides conferring tissue-specific expression, can also respond to the presence of the pathogen. The objective of the present study was to verify if the presence of Las could modulate the activation of the phloem-specific promoters AtPP2 (Arabidopsis thaliana phloem protein 2, AtSUC2 (A. thaliana sucrose transporter 2 and CsPP2 ( pCitrus phloemrotein 2, known to be expressed in Citrus sinensis phloem. ‘Hamlin’ sweet orange plants (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck transformed with the uidA (GUS reporter gene under the control of AtPP2, AtSUC2 and CsPP2 promoters were infected to evaluate the interdependence between transgene expression and the concentration of Las. Plants were inoculated with Las by Diaphorina citri and eighteen months later, bacterial concentration and uidA expression were determined by qPCR and RT-qPCR, respectively. Reporter gene expression driven by AtSUC2 promoter was strongly and positively correlated with Las concentration. Therefore, this promoter combines desirable features of both tissue-specificity and pathogen-inducibility for the production of transgenic plants tolerant to Las.

  8. The influence of chicken eggshell powder as a buffer on biohydrogen production from rotten orange (Citrus nobilis var. microcarpa) with immobilized mixed culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damayanti, Astrilia; Sarto, Syamsiah, Siti; Sediawan, Wahyudi B.

    2017-06-01

    This research observed the influence of chicken eggshell on hydrogen production from anaerobic fermentation of rotten orange (Citrus nobilis var. microcarpa) using batch method at 36 °C and pH 7. Fermentation material were varied in several types, the first type was meat and peel of oranges with VS of 59.152 g.L-1 in A, B, C, and D compositions. The second type was orange meat added with peel (OMP) with VS of 36.852 g.L-1. The immobilized ingredients used in the experiment consisted of 2 % (w/v) alginate and active carbon with the ratio of 1:1. 3.2 g chicken eggshell powder was added to the first type of material (substrates A, B, C, and D). Results showed that pH during fermentation process using chicken eggshell as a buffer was constant at 5.5; however, without the use of chicken eggshell, the pH decreased to 3.8 and increased slightly before it stayed stable at 4.0. The total amount of gas produced in sample using the chicken eggshell was 46,35 mL.mg VS-1 and in sample produced without the eggshell, it was 3,4 mL.mg VS-1. The production of hydrogen in substrate that used chicken eggshell was 1,276 mL.gVS-1 in average on the first day. Meanwhile, for the substrate with no addition of chicken eggshell, the average production of hydrogen was 0,163 mL.gVS-1. The reduction of volatile solid (VS) in sample that used chicken eggshell was 24 %, while in sample produced without addition of chicken eggshell, the reduction was 12 %. The liquid compounds (VFA) produced in the fermentation using chicken eggshell were acetic acid and butyric acid. Meanwhile, without addition of chicken eggshell, the products were acetic acid, butyric acid, and propionic acid. This study shows that addition of chicken eggshell as a buffer effectively contributed to hydrogen production during fermentation of rotten oranges.

  9. Investigation of the effects of irradiation for quarantine treatment purposes on food quality and hygiene in citrus fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) is a major problem in citrus production sector in Turkey. In order to overcome this problem, required irradiation doses were investigated for the quarantine treatment for 'Yafa' orange (Citrus sinensis (L) Osb.), 'Star ruby' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.); 'Satsuma' tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in this project. Chemical, physical and microbiological properties of unirradiated and irradiated (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy) fruits were determined in terms of weight loss, water soluble dry matter, pH, titratable acidity, alcohol insoluble pectin, apparent color of fruits, reducing sugar, total carotenoid, flavonoid, vitamin C contents, sensory properties of fruits, total aerob mesophilic bacteria and total yeast and mould counts of fruits. Results showed that, 0.1 kGy gamma irradiation dose is sufficient for effective quarantine treatment against the Mediterranean fruit fly in citrus fruits, low dose irradiation (≤1.0 kGy) applications had no detrimental effects on citrus fruits' quality except tangerines, microbial load of fruits were seriously affected by irradiation at 1.0 kGy. In addition, under this work we noticed that, irradiated citrus fruits could be detected by using DNA comet analysis method.

  10. Fumigant Activity of Sweet Orange Essential Oil Fractions Against Red Imported Fire Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Zhang, Ning; Chen, Hongli; Zhong, Balian; Yang, Aixue; Kuang, Fan; Ouyang, Zhigang; Chun, Jiong

    2017-08-01

    Sweet orange oil fractions were prepared by molecular distillation of cold-pressed orange oil from sample A (Citrus sinensis (L.) 'Hamlin' from America) and sample B (Citrus sinensis Osbeck 'Newhall' from China) respectively, and their fumigant activities against medium workers of red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta Buren) were investigated. The volatile composition of the orange oil fractions was identified and quantified using GC-MS. Fractions from sample A (A1, A2, and A3) contained 23, 37, and 48 chemical constituents, and fractions from sample B (B1, B2, and B3) contained 18, 29, and 26 chemical constituents, respectively. Monoterpenes were the most abundant components, accounting for 73.56% to 94.86% of total orange oil fractions, among which D-limonene (65.28-80.18%), β-pinene (1.71-5.58%), 3-carene (0.41-4.01%), β-phellandrene (0.58-2.10%), and linalool (0.31-2.20%) were major constituents. Fumigant bioassay indicated that all orange oil fractions exerted good fumigant toxicity against workers of fire ants at 3, 5, 10, and 20 mg/centrifuge tubes, and B1 had the strongest insecticidal potential, followed by A1, B2, A2, B3, and A3. The fractions composed of more high volatile molecules (A1 and B1) showed greater fumigant effects than others. Compounds linalool and D-limonene, which were the constituents of the orange oil, exhibited excellent fumigant toxicity against red imported fire ant workers. Linalool killed red imported fire ant workers completely at 5, 10, and 20 mg/tube after 8 h of treatment, and D-limonene induced >86% mortality at 8 h of exposure. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. CARACTERIZAÇÃO QUÍMICA E AVALIAÇÃO DA ATIVIDADE LARVICIDA FRENTE AO Aedes aegypt do ÓLEO ESSENCIAL DA ESPÉCIE Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck (LARANJA DOCE)

    OpenAIRE

    GILSON VITORINO DE ASSUNÇÃO

    2013-01-01

    Estudos são desenvolvidos no sentido de encontrar substâncias de origem vegetal, como controle químico alternativo ao combate do vetor da dengue, uma vez em que até o presente momento não há vacina validada para a mesma. No referido trabalho, a partir da extração e do estudo analítico do óleo essencial das cascas frescas de Citrus sinensis L.Osbeck , foi possível analisar o efeito larvicida do óleo contra as larvas em terceiro estágio do mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762). Extraiu-se qua...

  12. Effects of organic fertilisation on sweet orange bearing trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccuzzo, Giancarlo; Torrisi, Biagio; Canali, Stefano; Intrigliolo, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    In a study realised over a five year period (2001-2006) on orange bearing trees [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] cv. ‘Valencia late', grafted on sour orange (C. aurantium L.), four fertiliser treatments were applied: citrus by-products compost (CB), poultry manure (PM), livestock waste compost (LW) and mineral fertiliser (MF), as control. The trees, with the exception of MF treatment, were organically grown since 1994 in the experimental farm of CRA-ACM in Lentini, Sicily, and received the same N input every year. The research objectives were to evaluate the effect of long term repeated organic fertilisers application on i) soil fertility; ii) citrus bearing trees nutritional status by means of leaf analysis and iii) yield and fruit quality, determining parameters currently utilized to evaluate sweet orange production either for fresh consumption and processing. The CB treatment showed significantly higher values of Corg in soil than MF treatment (about 30%). Corg in PM and LW treatments was higher than MF treatment (13% and 20%, respectively), but these differences were not statistically significant either from the control treatment nor from the soil fertilised with CB. Similar trend was showed by the humic and fulvic C being the values of the CB treatment significantly higher than the control. PM and LW treatments had intermediate values, without statistical significance. The long term addition to soil of a quality compost (CB) with high C/N ratio increased the level of nutrients wich usually show low availability for citrus plants (P, Fe, Zn, Mn), as demonstrated by leaf analysis. No significant difference was noticed as far as yield was concerned, whereas CB treatment enhanced some fruit quality parameters.

  13. 7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... jambhiri Lemon, Rough Mediterranean. Citrus latifolia Lime, Persian Oriental. Citrus limon Lemon..., Oriental. Citrus reticulata x C. sinensis = Citrus nobilis Orange, king Mediterranean, Melon, Oriental...

  14. RNA-Seq analysis of Citrus reticulata in the early stages of Xylella fastidiosa infection reveals auxin-related genes as a defense response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Carolina M; de Souza, Alessandra A; Takita, Marco A; Kishi, Luciano T; Machado, Marcos A

    2013-10-03

    Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), caused by Xylella fastidiosa, is one the most important citrus diseases, and affects all varieties of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb). On the other hand, among the Citrus genus there are different sources of resistance against X. fastidiosa. For these species identifying these defense genes could be an important step towards obtaining sweet orange resistant varieties through breeding or genetic engineering. To assess these genes we made use of mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco) that is known to be resistant to CVC and shares agronomical characteristics with sweet orange. Thus, we investigated the gene expression in Ponkan mandarin at one day after infection with X. fastidiosa, using RNA-seq. A set of genes considered key elements in the resistance was used to confirm its regulation in mandarin compared with the susceptible sweet orange. Gene expression analysis of mock inoculated and infected tissues of Ponkan mandarin identified 667 transcripts repressed and 724 significantly induced in the later. Among the induced transcripts, we identified genes encoding proteins similar to Pattern Recognition Receptors. Furthermore, many genes involved in secondary metabolism, biosynthesis and cell wall modification were upregulated as well as in synthesis of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and auxin. This work demonstrated that the defense response to the perception of bacteria involves cell wall modification and activation of hormone pathways, which probably lead to the induction of other defense-related genes. We also hypothesized the induction of auxin-related genes indicates that resistant plants initially recognize X. fastidiosa as a necrotrophic pathogen.

  15. Screening and Characterization of Polygalacturonase as Potential Enzyme for Keprok Garut Orange (Citrus nobilis var. chrysocarpa) Juice Clarification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widowati, E.; Utami, R.; Kalistyatika, K.

    2017-11-01

    Use of thermostable enzyme from bacilli for industrial application is significant. This research aimed to isolate thermophilic pectinolytic bacteria from orange peel and vegetable waste which produced thermostable polygalacturonase, to investigate the polygalacturonase ability in clarifying keprok Garut orange juice, and to characterize polygalacturonase based on pH optimum, temperature optimum, enzyme stability, enzyme kinetics KM, and Vmax. Obtained, 14 isolates that further selected to 4 best isolates based on highest polygalacturonase activity and keprok Garut orange juice clarification ability. Four selected enzyme isolates were AR 2, AR 4, KK 4, and KK 5 had ability to increase juice transmittance, decrease juice viscosity and also reduce total soluble solid. Furthermore 4 selected isolates were partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis method. Four partially purified enzymes were known that enzyme character of AR 2 optimum at pH 6; AR 4 optimum at pH 5.5; KK 4 optimum at pH 6; and KK 5 optimum at pH 4.5. Four enzymes were optimum at temperature 60°C thus stable at temperature 50-60°C, this characteristic indicate that enzymes were thermostable. AR 2 showed active activity stable at pH 4-7; AR 4 showed active activity stable at pH 6-7; KK 4 showed active activity stable at pH 4-6; however KK 5 stable at pH 4-5. Enzyme AR 2 and KK 4 was getting inactive at pH 11, thus AR 4 and KK 5 inactive at pH 12. KM value of AR 2, AR 4, KK 4, and KK 5 was 0.0959; 0.0974; 0.0966; and 0.178 mg/ml respectively. Vmax of AR 2, AR 4, KK 4, and KK 5 was 0.0203; 0.0202; 0.0185; and 0.0229 U/ml respectively. Enzyme AR 2 was the most compatible enzyme to be applied in keprok Garut orange juice clarification for it had the lowest KM value.

  16. Embryogenesis in gamma-irradiated habituated ovular callus of the 'Shamouti' orange as affected by auxin and by tissue age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochba, J.; Spiegel-Roy, P.

    1977-01-01

    The response of habituated embryogenic ovular callus of the 'Shamouti' orange, Citrus sinensis, to gamma irradiation was studied. Stimulation of embryogenesis was observed when only callus, but not when the medium was irradiated. Age of callus prior to subculture modified the response to irradiation as regards optimal dose for embryogenesis and radiosensitivity. Radiation intensities also modified callus response to radiation dose. Addition of unirradiated IAA to irradiated callus cultures increased embryo formation and furthered development of embryos into plantlets, with some combinations of radiation dose and IAA concentration. Addition of IAA also decreased radiosensitivity at high doses (32 kR). (author)

  17. Extending the shelf-life of citrus fruits using irradiation and/or other treatments I. 'Balady' oranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-Allah, M.A.; Khallaf, M.F.; Mahmoud, A.A.; Salem, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    Irradiation process (0, 1.50 and 2.50 kGy) gamma radiation with or without other treatments before irradiation, i.e. soaking in CaCl 2 solution or waxing were used in this study to investigate the effect of such treatments on the shelf-life of 'Balady' orange fruits at room temperature. Marketable properties (browning, decay and texture) in addition to the organoleptic evaluation of firmness, appearance, odour, colour and taste were detected. Results showed the preferability of waxing treatment before irradiation processes. On the other hand, statistical analysis of the organoleptic evaluation revealed that the shelf-life of untreated sample (control) was 20 days at room temperature, while samples exposed to the different suggested treatments were rejected after 30 days under the same conditions. (author)

  18. VIABILIDADE DO PÓLEN EM VARIEDADES DE LARANJA DOCE POLLEN VIABILITY IN SWEET ORANGE VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Tobias Domingues

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma vez que a polinização é um dos pontos decisivos para o crescimento e desenvolvimento do fruto, contribuindo com os gametas masculinos para a fecundação e determinando, na maioria das vezes, a fixação dos frutos em citros, torna-se necessário conhecer o grau de esterilidade masculina nas diferentes variedades de laranja doce para sua possível utilização em programas de melhoramento. A esterilidade é limitante para programas que envolvam a hibridação sexual, por outro lado possui sua importância econômica em citros induzindo menor número de sementes por fruto em certas variedades. Com a finalidade de caracterizar 44 variedades de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis [L.] osbeck quanto à viabilidade do pólen, foram coletadas anteras das variedades enxertadas sobre tangerineira Cleópatra. As variedades estudadas pertencem aos principais grupos de laranja doce: com acidez (como a laranja 'Pêra', de baixa acidez (como a laranja 'Lima', com umbigo (como a laranja 'Bahia' e sangüíneas (como a laranja 'Rubi Blood'. O percentual de pólen viável foi avaliado por meio da coloração com carmim acético a 25% e contagem sob microscópio ótico. Foram observados valores que variaram desde 12,0% para a 'Pêra Sem Sementes' até 88,8% para a variedade 'Hamlin Reserva'. Os clones de laranja 'Hamlin' mostraram maior percentual de pólen viável. Não foi observada presença de pólen para as variedades produtoras de laranjas de umbigo, originadas da variedade Bahia. As variedades 'Pêra', 'Valência' e 'Natal', as quais são as principais cultivares da citricultura paulista e nacional, apresentaram baixos percentuais de pólen viável.Pollination is one of the most critical points in fruit growth and development, contributing with male gametes for fertilization and determine, greatly, fruit setting in citrus. It is necessary to evaluate male sterility in sweet orange varieties for their possible use in breeding programs. The sterility limits

  19. Biochemical response of skin-coated citrus fruits irradiated for preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, E.S.

    1977-01-01

    Orange fruits (citrus Sinensis) Kind Egyptian Balady variety, were irradiated for 100, 200 and 400 Krad γ-ray doses in combination with sodium orthophenylphenate, 0.0025% incorporated in wax coatings as preirradiation treatment. The data revealed the utility of combined treatment to control postharvest decay in citrus fruits. 100 Krad extend shelflife of skin-coated fruits by 15 weeks without significant losses in Vitamin C, reducing sugars, or free amino acids and without storage disorders. Unirradiated non skin-coated and unirradiated skin-coated had a shelf-life of 7, and 10 weeks, respectively, under the same experimental storage conditions (14-20 C and R.H. 65-75%)

  20. Hydrosols of orange blossom (Citrus aurantium), and rose flower (Rosa damascena and Rosa centifolia) support the growth of a heterogeneous spoilage microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadie, Cécile; Ginies, Christian; Guinebretiere, Marie-Hélène; Renard, Catherine M G C; Cerutti, Céline; Carlin, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    Hydrosols are hydrodistillation products of aromatic plants. They contain less than 1g/L of dispersed essential oils giving organoleptic properties. Hydrosols are subjected to microbial proliferation. Reasons for spoilage have to be found in the nature of substrates supporting growth and of microbiological contaminants. The composition in essential oils and the microbiota of 22 hydrosol samples of Citrus aurantium L. ssp. amara L. (orange blossom), Rosa damascena Miller (rose D.), and Rosa centifolia L. (rose C.) flowers were analyzed to determine the factors responsible for decay. The median concentrations in essential oils were 677mg/L for orange blossom hydrosols, 205mg/L for rose D. hydrosols, and 116mg/L for rose C. hydrosols. The dry matter content of these hydrosols varied between 4.0mg/L and 702mg/L, and the carbohydrate content varied between 0.21mg/L and 0.38mg/L. These non-volatile compounds were likely carried over during distillation by a priming and foaming effect, and could be used as nutrients by microorganisms. A microbial proliferation at ambient temperature and also at 5°C has been observed in all studied hydrosols when stored in a non-sterile container. In contaminated hydrosols, maximal counts were about 7log 10 CFU/mL, while the French pharmacopeia recommends a maximal total bacterial count of 2log 10 CFU/mL. Neither yeast nor mold was detected. The isolated microbial population was composed of environmental Gram-negative bacteria, arranged in four major genera: Pseudomonas sp., Burkholderia cepacia complex, and presumably two new genera belonging to Acetobacteraceae and Rhodospirillaceae. Among those bacteria, Burkholderia vietnamiensis and Novosphingobium capsulatum were able to metabolize volatile compounds, such as geraniol to produce 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one or geranic acid, or phenylethyl acetate to produce 2-phenylethanol. EO concentrations in hydrosols or cold storage are not sufficient to insure microbiological stability. Additional

  1. Avaliação genética de seleções e híbridos de limões cravo, volkameriano e rugoso como porta-enxertos para laranjeiras Valência na presença da morte súbita dos citros Genetic evaluation of selections and hybrids of rangpur lime, volkamer and rough lemons rootstocks for Valência orange trees in the presence of the citrus sudden death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgino Pompeu Junior

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo realizar a avaliação genética da produção de frutos, eficiência produtiva e altura de laranjeiras Valência (Citrus sinensis enxertadas em seleções e híbridos dos limões Cravo (C. limonia, Volkameriano (C. volkameriana e Rugoso (C. jambhiri, em área endêmica para morte súbita dos citros (MSC. Foram avaliados 36 genótipos desses porta-enxertos, representados por cinco plantas cada, avaliados em cinco safras, do terceiro ao sétimo ano após o plantio. Sete dos genótipos avaliados apresentaram plantas com sintomas de MSC até o sétimo ano: Rangpur Otaheite orange 12901 (859, Rangpur Red Lime D.33.30 (866, Limão-Cravo EEL (871, Rangpur Borneo red (874, Citrus kokhai (1649, Limão-Rugoso 58329 (1655 e Limão- Cravo x Swingle B (1695. Para os genótipos que não manifestaram sintomas da doença, foram estimados parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos e realizada a predição de valores genéticos dos indivíduos, visando à seleção e ao melhoramento genético para as características citadas, empregando-se o método REML/BLUP (máxima verossimilhança restrita/melhor predição linear não viciada. A análise de produção de frutos de cinco safras mostrou acurácia seletiva de 84,59%, tornando-se desnecessária a avaliação de maior número de safras. A seleção dos sete melhores genótipos proporcionou ganhos genéticos de 11,5% na produção de frutos, enquanto a do melhor genótipo conferiu ganho genético de 16,3%. As maiores médias genéticas preditas (>70,0 kg.pl-1 para produção de frutos foram obtidas pelos genótipos Limão-Cravo- Ipanema (1522, Santa- Bárbara-Red- Lime (884, Limão- Cravo- Limeira (863, Limão- Cravo- Taquaritinga (869, Limão- Rugoso- do -Cabo (1643, Rangpur- Rose Lime (868 e Limão- Cravo- da- Califórnia (1467. Já a acurácia seletiva da eficiência produtiva, para quatro colheitas, foi 77,4%. Para este caráter, as maiores médias genéticas (>8,0 kg.m-3 foram dos

  2. Effect of sweet orange aroma on experimental anxiety in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goes, Tiago Costa; Antunes, Fabrício Dias; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Teixeira-Silva, Flavia

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential anxiolytic effect of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) aroma in healthy volunteers submitted to an anxiogenic situation. Forty (40) male volunteers were allocated to five different groups for the inhalation of sweet orange essential oil (test aroma: 2.5, 5, or 10 drops), tea tree essential oil (control aroma: 2.5 drops), or water (nonaromatic control: 2.5 drops). Immediately after inhalation, each volunteer was submitted to a model of anxiety, the video-monitored version of the Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT). Psychologic parameters (state-anxiety, subjective tension, tranquilization, and sedation) and physiologic parameters (heart rate and gastrocnemius electromyogram) were evaluated before the inhalation period and before, during, and after the SCWT. Unlike the control groups, the individuals exposed to the test aroma (2.5 and 10 drops) presented a lack of significant alterations (p>0.05) in state-anxiety, subjective tension and tranquillity levels throughout the anxiogenic situation, revealing an anxiolytic activity of sweet orange essential oil. Physiologic alterations along the test were not prevented in any treatment group, as has previously been observed for diazepam. Although more studies are needed to find out the clinical relevance of aromatherapy for anxiety disorders, the present results indicate an acute anxiolytic activity of sweet orange aroma, giving some scientific support to its use as a tranquilizer by aromatherapists.

  3. Partial dehydration and cryopreservation of Citrus seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graiver, Natalia; Califano, Alicia; Zaritzky, Noemí

    2011-11-01

    Three categories of seed storage behavior are generally recognized among plant species: orthodox, intermediate and recalcitrant. Intermediate seeds cannot be stored in liquid nitrogen (LN) without a previous partial dehydration process. The water content (WC) of the seeds at the moment of immersion in LN must be regarded as the most critical factor in cryopreservation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the basis of the optimal hydration status for cryopreservation of Citrus seeds: C. sinensis (sweet orange), C. paradisi (grapefruit), C. reticulata (mandarin) in LN. To study the tolerance to dehydration and LN exposure, seeds were desiccated by equilibration at relative humidities between 11 and 95%. Sorption isotherms were determined and modeled; lipid content of the seeds was measured. Seed desiccation sensitivity was quantified by the quantal response model. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms were determined on cotyledon tissue at different moisture contents to measure ice melting enthalpies and unfrozen WC. Samples of total seed lipid extract were also analyzed by DSC to identify lipid transitions in the thermograms. The limit of hydration for LN Citrus seeds treatment corresponded to the unfrozen WC in the tissue, confirming that seed survival strictly depended on avoidance of intracellular ice formation. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Quantification of Transfer of Salmonella from Citrus Fruits to Peel, Edible Portion, and Gloved Hands during Hand Peeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jiin; Friedrich, Loretta M; Danyluk, Michelle D; Schaffner, Donald W

    2017-06-01

    Although studies have quantified bacterial transfer between hands and various materials, cross-contamination between the surface of fresh citrus fruit and the edible portions during hand peeling has not been reported. This study quantifies transfer of Salmonella to the edible portion of citrus fruit from a contaminated peel during hand peeling. Citrus fruits used for this study were Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) cultivars 'Valencia' and 'Navel', Citrus unshiu (Satsuma mandarins), Citrus reticulata × Citrus paradisi ('Minneola' tangelo or 'Honeybell'), and C. paradisi (grapefruit) cultivar 'Marsh'. An avirulent Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 (ATCC 700720) resistant to rifampin was used for all experiments. The inoculum containing approximately 9 log CFU/mL (50 μL) was spot inoculated onto the equator, stem, or styler of each fruit and allowed to dry for 24 h. Six volunteers put on single-use latex gloves and peeled inoculated fruit. Peel, edible fruit portion, and gloves were collected and enumerated separately. Three replicates of the study were performed in which each volunteer peeled two inoculated fruit of each variety (n = 36 fruit per variety). Cross-contamination from contaminated surface of citrus fruits to edible portion or gloved hands during peeling was affected by inoculation sites. Average Salmonella transfer to the edible portion ranged from 0.16% (Valencia inoculated at the equator) to 5.41% (navel inoculated at the stem). Average Salmonella transfer to gloved hands ranged from 0.41% (grapefruit inoculated at the stem) to 8.97% (navel inoculated at the stem). Most Salmonella remained on the peel of citrus fruits. The average level of Salmonella remaining on the peel ranged from 5.37% (Minneola inoculated at the equator) to 66.3% (Satsuma inoculated at the styler). When grapefruit was inoculated, the Salmonella that remained on the peel showed a bimodal pattern in which some individuals left almost all Salmonella on the peel, while others left

  5. Study of the enthalpy-entropy mechanism from water sorption of orange seeds (C. sinensis cv. Brazilian for the use of agro-industrial residues as a possible source of vegetable oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Penteado Rosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Orange seeds are a promising agroindustry-waste which can be implemented in the extraction and production of vegetable oil. The relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for the processing and storage of this waste item. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of water sorption enthalpy-entropy of orange seeds (C. sinensis cv. Brazilians according to the moisture content. Therefore, desorption isotherms were determined at five different temperature (30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC under a wide range of moisture content (0.005-0.057 kg kg-1 d.b. and water activity (0.02-0.756. Theoretical and empirical models were used for modeling the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to compute the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs free energy using the Oswin model when the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium was considered.

  6. Mise au point d'un test in vitro de comportement au sel de quatre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    30 avr. 2015 ... Macfad.cv Star Ruby) et orange Shamouti (citrus sinensis) ont été maintenus sur des milieux MT renfermant ... Ruby), and 'Shamouti' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) were maintained ...... and Salinity Effects in Citrus Trees, in.

  7. Comportamento da laranjera 'Folha Murcha' em sete porta-enxertos no noroeste do Paraná Performance of 'Folha Murcha' orange on seven rootstocks in northwest of Parana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Maria Colauto Stenzel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou por um período de 14 anos, em Paranavaí-PR, o comportamento de plantas de laranjeira 'Folha Murcha' enxertadas nos porta-enxertos: limoeiros 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia, 'Rugoso da África' (Citrus jambhiri e 'Volkameriano' (Citrus volkameriana, citrangeiro 'C-13' (Citrus sinensis x Poncirus trifoliata, trifoliata (Poncirus trifoliata, tangerineiras 'Sunki' (Citrus sunki e 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos (porta-enxertos e quatro repetições, com três plantas por parcela. Os volumes das copas de plantas em tangerineira 'Cleópatra' e limoeiro 'Rugoso da África' foram significativamente maiores. Plantas em limoeiro 'Cravo' apresentaram a menor diferença entre os diâmetros dos troncos do porta-enxerto e da copa. A produção acumulada foi superior nas plantas em limoeiro 'Rugoso da África' e tangerineira 'Cleópatra' e menor em plantas sobre o trifoliata. A alternância da produção não foi acentuada nas plantas sobre os porta-enxertos avaliados. O teor de sólidos solúveis totais foi significativamente superior nos frutos obtidos de plantas enxertadas em trifoliata e menor em limoeiro 'Rugoso da África'. A qualidade do suco apresentou-se dentro dos padrões aceitáveis para variedades-copa de laranjeiras. A tangerineira 'Cleópatra' e o limoeiro 'Rugoso da África' são porta-enxertos promissores para a laranjeira 'Folha Murcha' nas condições avaliadas.This work evaluated for 14 years, in Paranavaí, PR, Brazil, the performance of 'Folha Murcha' orange trees budded on the following rootstocks: 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia, 'African' rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri, 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana, 'C-13' citrange (Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata, trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata, 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni. The experimental design was in blocks, with seven treatments

  8. Laser diagnostic technology for early detection of pathogen infestation in orange fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubileo, Gianfranco; Lai, Antonella; Piccinelli, Delinda; Puiu, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Due to an increased expectation of food products that respect high quality and safety standards, there is a need for the growth of accurate, fast, objective and non-destructive technologies for quality determination of food and agricultural products. For this purpose, a diagnostic system based on laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) was developed at ENEA Frascati Molecular Spectroscopy Laboratory (Italy). In the design of the photoacoustic detector, particular emphasis was placed in attaining a high sensitivity in detecting ethylene (ET) down to sub-parts per billion level (minimum detectable concentration 0.2 ppb). This was required due to the necessity to monitor and follow up ET production at a single fruit scale. ET is normally synthesised in very low amounts by healthy citrus fruits; however stress conditions such as pathogen attack may induce a substantial increase in the synthesised ET. In the present paper, the comparison between the ET emitted by healthy oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) cv Navel and by Phytophthora citrophthora infested Navel orange fruits are reported. The obtained results show a well evident increase in ET emission from the infested fruit with respect to the healthy one, even 24 h after the inoculation with the pathogen; at that time the tissue necrosis was not yet visible, and the fruit was also not yet damaged. The possibility to perform a real time non-destructive detection of ET traces makes the LPAS a powerful tool for monitoring the healthy state of the citrus fruits.

  9. Laser diagnostic technology for early detection of pathogen infestation in orange fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giubileo, Gianfranco; Lai, Antonella; Piccinelli, Delinda; Puiu, Adriana

    2010-11-01

    Due to an increased expectation of food products that respect high quality and safety standards, there is a need for the growth of accurate, fast, objective and non-destructive technologies for quality determination of food and agricultural products. For this purpose, a diagnostic system based on laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) was developed at ENEA Frascati Molecular Spectroscopy Laboratory (Italy). In the design of the photoacoustic detector, particular emphasis was placed in attaining a high sensitivity in detecting ethylene (ET) down to sub-parts per billion level (minimum detectable concentration 0.2 ppb). This was required due to the necessity to monitor and follow up ET production at a single fruit scale. ET is normally synthesised in very low amounts by healthy citrus fruits; however stress conditions such as pathogen attack may induce a substantial increase in the synthesised ET. In the present paper, the comparison between the ET emitted by healthy oranges ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) cv Navel and by Phytophthora citrophthora infested Navel orange fruits are reported. The obtained results show a well evident increase in ET emission from the infested fruit with respect to the healthy one, even 24 h after the inoculation with the pathogen; at that time the tissue necrosis was not yet visible, and the fruit was also not yet damaged. The possibility to perform a real time non-destructive detection of ET traces makes the LPAS a powerful tool for monitoring the healthy state of the citrus fruits.

  10. Laser diagnostic technology for early detection of pathogen infestation in orange fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giubileo, Gianfranco, E-mail: gianfranco.giubileo@frascati.enea.i [ENEA Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 (Italy); Lai, Antonella; Piccinelli, Delinda [ENEA Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 (Italy); Puiu, Adriana [Tor Vergata University of Rome, Faculty of Engineering, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2010-11-11

    Due to an increased expectation of food products that respect high quality and safety standards, there is a need for the growth of accurate, fast, objective and non-destructive technologies for quality determination of food and agricultural products. For this purpose, a diagnostic system based on laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) was developed at ENEA Frascati Molecular Spectroscopy Laboratory (Italy). In the design of the photoacoustic detector, particular emphasis was placed in attaining a high sensitivity in detecting ethylene (ET) down to sub-parts per billion level (minimum detectable concentration 0.2 ppb). This was required due to the necessity to monitor and follow up ET production at a single fruit scale. ET is normally synthesised in very low amounts by healthy citrus fruits; however stress conditions such as pathogen attack may induce a substantial increase in the synthesised ET. In the present paper, the comparison between the ET emitted by healthy oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) cv Navel and by Phytophthora citrophthora infested Navel orange fruits are reported. The obtained results show a well evident increase in ET emission from the infested fruit with respect to the healthy one, even 24 h after the inoculation with the pathogen; at that time the tissue necrosis was not yet visible, and the fruit was also not yet damaged. The possibility to perform a real time non-destructive detection of ET traces makes the LPAS a powerful tool for monitoring the healthy state of the citrus fruits.

  11. The diversity of citrus endophytic bacteria and their interactions with Xylella fastidiosa and host plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, João Lúcio; Araújo, Welington Luiz; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) and has been associated with important losses in commercial orchards of all sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.)] cultivars. The development of this disease depends on the environmental conditions, including the endophytic microbial community associated with the host plant. Previous studies have shown that X. fastidiosa interacts with the endophytic community in xylem vessels as well as in the insect vector, resulting in a lower bacterial population and reduced CVC symptoms. The citrus endophytic bacterium Methylobacterium mesophilicum can trigger X. fastidiosa response in vitro, which results in reduced growth and induction of genes associated with energy production, stress, transport, and motility, indicating that X. fastidiosa has an adaptive response to M. mesophilicum. Although this response may result in reduced CVC symptoms, the colonization rate of the endophytic bacteria should be considered in studies that intend to use this endophyte to suppress CVC disease. Symbiotic control is a new strategy that uses symbiotic endophytes as biological control agents to antagonize or displace pathogens. Candidate endophytes for symbiotic control of CVC must occupy the xylem of host plants and attach to the precibarium of sharpshooter insects to access the pathogen. In the present review, we focus on interactions between endophytic bacteria from sweet orange plants and X. fastidiosa, especially those that may be candidates for control of CVC. PMID:27727362

  12. The diversity of citrus endophytic bacteria and their interactions with Xylella fastidiosa and host plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Lúcio Azevedo

    Full Text Available Abstract The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC and has been associated with important losses in commercial orchards of all sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.] cultivars. The development of this disease depends on the environmental conditions, including the endophytic microbial community associated with the host plant. Previous studies have shown that X. fastidiosa interacts with the endophytic community in xylem vessels as well as in the insect vector, resulting in a lower bacterial population and reduced CVC symptoms. The citrus endophytic bacterium Methylobacterium mesophilicum can trigger X. fastidiosa response in vitro, which results in reduced growth and induction of genes associated with energy production, stress, transport, and motility, indicating that X. fastidiosa has an adaptive response to M. mesophilicum. Although this response may result in reduced CVC symptoms, the colonization rate of the endophytic bacteria should be considered in studies that intend to use this endophyte to suppress CVC disease. Symbiotic control is a new strategy that uses symbiotic endophytes as biological control agents to antagonize or displace pathogens. Candidate endophytes for symbiotic control of CVC must occupy the xylem of host plants and attach to the precibarium of sharpshooter insects to access the pathogen. In the present review, we focus on interactions between endophytic bacteria from sweet orange plants and X. fastidiosa, especially those that may be candidates for control of CVC.

  13. Small RNA profiling reveals phosphorus deficiency as a contributing factor in symptom expression for citrus huanglongbing disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongwei; Sun, Ruobai; Albrecht, Ute; Padmanabhan, Chellappan; Wang, Airong; Coffey, Michael D; Girke, Thomas; Wang, Zonghua; Close, Timothy J; Roose, Mikeal; Yokomi, Raymond K; Folimonova, Svetlana; Vidalakis, Georgios; Rouse, Robert; Bowman, Kim D; Jin, Hailing

    2013-03-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating citrus disease that is associated with bacteria of the genus 'Candidatus Liberibacter' (Ca. L.). Powerful diagnostic tools and management strategies are desired to control HLB. Host small RNAs (sRNA) play a vital role in regulating host responses to pathogen infection and are used as early diagnostic markers for many human diseases, including cancers. To determine whether citrus sRNAs regulate host responses to HLB, sRNAs were profiled from Citrus sinensis 10 and 14 weeks post grafting with Ca. L. asiaticus (Las)-positive or healthy tissue. Ten new microRNAs (miRNAs), 76 conserved miRNAs, and many small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were discovered. Several miRNAs and siRNAs were highly induced by Las infection, and can be potentially developed into early diagnosis markers of HLB. miR399, which is induced by phosphorus starvation in other plant species, was induced specifically by infection of Las but not Spiroplasma citri that causes citrus stubborn-a disease with symptoms similar to HLB. We found a 35% reduction of phosphorus in Las-positive citrus trees compared to healthy trees. Applying phosphorus oxyanion solutions to HLB-positive sweet orange trees reduced HLB symptom severity and significantly improved fruit production during a 3-year field trial in south-west Florida. Our molecular, physiological, and field data suggest that phosphorus deficiency is linked to HLB disease symptomology.

  14. The effect of nutritional spray programs applied to mitigate symptoms of Huanglongbing on fruit drop caused by HLB and citrus canker on ‘Hamlin’ orange trees

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, P. D.; Rouse, R. E.; Teems, S. S.; Sytsma, R. E.; Shobert, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) was detected in Florida in 2005 and has reached 100% incidence in certain citrus plantings in southwest Florida. The putative causal agent of HLB in Florida is the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLa).  Citrus canker caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is endemic in Florida.  In 2011 and 2012, fruit drop on young ‘Hamlin’ trees with symptoms of HLB and/or citrus canker was particularly severe, with more than 90% fruit drop recorded. Nutritio...

  15. efficacy of rehabilitation methods on citrus canker disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Unfortunately it is increasingly devastated by canker disease. Several measures ... Le citronnier (Citrus sinensis) est une culture importante en Ouganda, où il est produit pour la consommation ... South- East Asian countries, from where it has.

  16. Effects of microwave roasting on the yield and composition of cold pressed orange seed oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydeniz Güneşer, B.; Yilmaz, E.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to valorize orange (Citrus sinensis) seeds, which are generated as waste. This study presents data about raw orange seed, the meal gained after cold pressing, and characterization data of the cold pressed seed oils. Furthermore, the effects of microwave roasting of the seds compared to regular roasting (control) were determined. The oil yield of orange seed cold pressing was around 52.93–62.99%. After cold pressing, 13.57–17.97% oil remained in the meal together with 20.68–25.61% protein. Hence, pressed meals could be valorized for different purposes. Except for turbidity, the color b* value, free acidity, the p-anisidine value and antioxidant capacity, there was no significant difference between the two oil samples for the measured physicochemical properties. Six different fatty acids were quantified and the major fatty acids were linoleic, palmitic and oleic acids. The fatty acid composition of the orange seed oil can be accepted as nutritionally balanced. Among the fifteen sterols quantified, β-sitosterol was dominant (around 77–78%). Likewise, the α-tocopherol content of the samples was not significantly different. The thermal onset and peak temperatures, and enthalpies for crystallization and melting were also reported. This study showed that good quality orange seed oils can be produced by cold pressing, and the oils could be used in food and non-food applications. [es

  17. Red Orange: Experimental Models and Epidemiological Evidence of Its Benefits on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Grosso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increasing public interest in plant antioxidants, thanks to the potential anticarcinogenic and cardioprotective actions mediated by their biochemical properties. The red (or blood orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck is a pigmented sweet orange variety typical of eastern Sicily (southern Italy, California, and Spain. In this paper, we discuss the main health-related properties of the red orange that include anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protection activities. Moreover, the effects on health of its main constituents (namely, flavonoids, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids, and anthocyanins are described. The red orange juice demonstrates an important antioxidant activity by modulating many antioxidant enzyme systems that efficiently counteract the oxidative damage which may play an important role in the etiology of numerous diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. The beneficial effects of this fruit may be mediated by the synergic effects of its compounds. Thus, the supply of natural antioxidant compounds through a balanced diet rich in red oranges might provide protection against oxidative damage under differing conditions and could be more effective than, the supplementation of an individual antioxidant.

  18. Red orange: experimental models and epidemiological evidence of its benefits on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio; Marventano, Stefano; Nolfo, Francesca; Calabrese, Giorgio; Buscemi, Silvio; Drago, Filippo; Veronesi, Umberto; Scuderi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing public interest in plant antioxidants, thanks to the potential anticarcinogenic and cardioprotective actions mediated by their biochemical properties. The red (or blood) orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) is a pigmented sweet orange variety typical of eastern Sicily (southern Italy), California, and Spain. In this paper, we discuss the main health-related properties of the red orange that include anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protection activities. Moreover, the effects on health of its main constituents (namely, flavonoids, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids, and anthocyanins) are described. The red orange juice demonstrates an important antioxidant activity by modulating many antioxidant enzyme systems that efficiently counteract the oxidative damage which may play an important role in the etiology of numerous diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. The beneficial effects of this fruit may be mediated by the synergic effects of its compounds. Thus, the supply of natural antioxidant compounds through a balanced diet rich in red oranges might provide protection against oxidative damage under differing conditions and could be more effective than, the supplementation of an individual antioxidant.

  19. Citric acid production from orange peel wastes by solid-state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Torrado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA by solid-state fermentation (SSF of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599 in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculum concentration was varied in the range 0.5·10³ to 0.7·10(8 spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume, and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·10(6 spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel, corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications.

  20. Phosphoproteomic analysis of chromoplasts from sweet orange during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yunliu; Pan, Zhiyong; Wang, Lun; Ding, Yuduan; Xu, Qiang; Xiao, Shunyuan; Deng, Xiuxin

    2014-02-01

    Like other types of plastids, chromoplasts have essential biosynthetic and metabolic activities which may be regulated via post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, of their resident proteins. We here report a proteome-wide mapping of in vivo phosphorylation sites in chromoplast-enriched samples prepared from sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] at different ripening stages by titanium dioxide-based affinity chromatography for phosphoprotein enrichment with LC-MS/MS. A total of 109 plastid-localized phosphoprotein candidates were identified that correspond to 179 unique phosphorylation sites in 135 phosphopeptides. On the basis of Motif-X analysis, two distinct types of phosphorylation sites, one as proline-directed phosphorylation motif and the other as casein kinase II motif, can be generalized from these identified phosphopeptides. While most identified phosphoproteins show high homology to those already identified in plastids, approximately 22% of them are novel based on BLAST search using the public databases PhosPhAt and P(3) DB. A close comparative analysis showed that approximately 50% of the phosphoproteins identified in citrus chromoplasts find obvious counterparts in the chloroplast phosphoproteome, suggesting a rather high-level of conservation in basic metabolic activities in these two types of plastids. Not surprisingly, the phosphoproteome of citrus chromoplasts is also characterized by the lack of phosphoproteins involved in photosynthesis and by the presence of more phosphoproteins implicated in stress/redox responses. This study presents the first comprehensive phosphoproteomic analysis of chromoplasts and may help to understand how phosphorylation regulates differentiation of citrus chromoplasts during fruit ripening. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  1. Nutrient content of biomass components of Hamlin sweet orange trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattos Jr. Dirceu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the nutrient distribution in trees is important to establish sound nutrient management programs for citrus production. Six-year-old Hamlin orange trees [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb.] on Swingle citrumelo [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macfad.] rootstock, grown on a sandy Entisol in Florida were harvested to investigate the macro and micronutrient distributions of biomass components. The biomass of aboveground components of the tree represented the largest proportion of the total. The distribution of the total tree dry weight was: fruit = 30.3%, leaf = 9.7%, twig = 26.1%, trunk = 6.3%, and root = 27.8%. Nutrient concentrations of recent mature leaves were in the adequate to optimal range as suggested by interpretation of leaf analysis in Florida. Concentrations of Ca in older leaves and woody tissues were much greater than those in the other parts of the tree. Concentrations of micronutrients were markedly greater in fibrous root as compared to woody roots. Calcium made up the greatest amount of nutrient in the citrus tree (273.8 g per tree, followed by N and K (234.7 and 181.5 g per tree, respectively. Other macronutrients comprised about 11% of the total nutrient content of trees. The contents of various nutrients in fruits were: N = 1.20, K = 1.54, P = 0.18, Ca = 0.57, Mg = 0.12, S = 0.09, B = 1.63 x 10-3, Cu = 0.39 x 10-3, Fe = 2.1 x 10-3, Mn = 0.38 10-3, and Zn = 0.40 10-3 (kg ton-1. Total contents of N, K, and P in the orchard corresponded to 66.5, 52.0, and 8.3 kg ha-1, respectively, which were equivalent to the amounts applied annually by fertilization.

  2. A set of primers for analyzing chloroplast DNA diversity in Citrus and related genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yunjiang; de Vicente, M Carmen; Meng, Haijun; Guo, Wenwu; Tao, Nengguo; Deng, Xiuxin

    2005-06-01

    Chloroplast simple sequence repeat (cpSSR) markers in Citrus were developed and used to analyze chloroplast diversity of Citrus and closely related genera. Fourteen cpSSR primer pairs from the chloroplast genomes of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and Arabidopsis were found useful for analyzing the Citrus chloroplast genome (cpDNA) and recoded with the prefix SPCC (SSR Primers for Citrus Chloroplast). Eleven of the 14 primer pairs revealed some degree of polymorphism among 34 genotypes of Citrus, Fortunella, Poncirus and some of their hybrids, with polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranging from 0.057 to 0.732, and 18 haplotypes were identified. The cpSSR data were analyzed with NTSYS-pc software, and the genetic relationships suggested by the unweighted pair group method based on arithmetic means (UPGMA) dendrogram were congruent with previous taxonomic investigations: the results showed that all samples fell into seven major clusters, i.e., Citrus medica L., Poncirus, Fortunella, C. ichangensis Blanco, C. reticulata Swingle, C. aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle and C. grandis (L.) Osbeck. The results of previous studies combined with our cpSSR analyses revealed that: (1) Calamondin (C. madurensis Swingle) is the result of hybridization between kumquat (Fortunella) and mandarin (C. reticulata), where kumquat acted as the female parent; (2) Ichang papeda (C. ichangensis) has a unique taxonomic status; and (3) although Bendiguangju mandarin (C. reticulata) and Satsuma mandarin (C. reticulata) are similar in fruit shape and leaf morphology, they have different maternal parents. Bendiguangju mandarin has the same cytoplasm as sweet orange (C. sinensis), whereas Satsuma mandarin has the cytoplasm of C. reticulata. Seventeen PCR products from SPCC1 and 21 from SPCC11 were cloned and sequenced. The results revealed that mononucleotide repeats as well as insertions and deletions of small segments of DNA were associated with SPCC1 polymorphism, whereas polymorphism

  3. Efecto del déficit hídrico en el crecimiento y desarrollo de frutos de naranja Valencia (Citrus sinensis Osbeck en el piedemonte del Meta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lucía Garzón Correa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia el área sembrada con cítricos es marginal, si se compara con el área potencial de cultivo, debido a factores como déficit de agua, nutrición y eficiencia de la formación de frutos. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto del déficit hídrico mediante la aplicación controlada de láminas de riego en el cultivo de naranja Valencia (Citrus sinensis Osbeck en el piedemonte del Meta (departamento del Meta, Colombia. Los tratamientos (T de riego fueron: T1 = 100% de la evapotranspiración del cultivo (ETc; T2 = 50% ETc; T3 = testigo = 0% ETc. El riego se aplicó desde el inicio de la floración en febrero hasta la formación del fruto en abril de 2011. El diseño experimental fue bloques completamente al azar con tres repeticiones por tratamiento. Las variables evaluadas fueron: humedad del suelo (q g, estado hídrico de la planta (Ytallo, fenología, brotación, floración, formación, crecimiento y calidad del fruto. Los árboles en el T1 presentaron un mayor número y tamaño de fruto, pero no se encontraron diferencias (P > 0.05 en producción y calidad respecto al testigo; la q g y el Ytallo fueron diferentes (P < 0.05 entre tratamientos y el testigo mostró los menores valores, 13.82% y -2.5 MPa, lo cual indica un estrés moderado.

  4. Influencia de la turbidez en el efecto antimicrobiano de la luz ultravioleta y de los pulsos luminosos de luz blanca en néctar de naranja (citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meregildo Silva Ramirez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo por objetivo determinar la influencia del nivel de turbidez en el efecto antimicrobiano de la luz ultravioleta y luz blanca en néctar de naranja (Citrus sinensis L.. Dicha investigación fue realizada en una cámara de tratamiento de luz UVC con paredes de espejo y una lámpara de luz ultravioleta de 15 watts. El néctar, sometido a un proceso de pasteurización (90 °C, 10 minutos, se inoculó con levadura liofilizada (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cepa MIT L51, hasta concentraciones de 1.0; 0.1 y 0.01 % (p/p y se determinó la turbidez de las diluciones, reportando valores de turbidez de 10564, 1304 y 813 UTN respectivamente. Las muestras fueron expuestas a tres diferentes dosis, 0.57; 1.14 y 1.71 J/cm2, tomando una muestra testigo denominada “0” minutos, para efectos de análisis inicial de microorganismos. Posteriormente a la aplicación del tratamiento se realizó el recuento en placas, en medio agar Sabouraud. Obtenidos los datos en la lectura de las colonias resultantes se determinó la tasa de supervivencia en cada tratamiento y el valor de la constante de reducción decimal “D” en J/cm2. Dichos datos mostraron que la turbidez, debido a los sólidos disueltos, influencia adversamente la actividad antimicrobiana de la luz UVC. Se concluye que la actividad antimicrobiana expresada en términos de la constante de reducción decimal “D”, bajo las condiciones de tratamiento en el néctar de naranja, depende directamente de la turbidez e indirectamente del la energía total transmitida.

  5. Numerical heat transfer model for frost protection of citrus fruits by water from a spraying system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Roy J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simplified model is developed to simulate the conditions associated with the protection of fruits from frost damage using water from a spraying system. The model simulates the movement of the solidifying water front on a single fruit, and based on that determines the spray frequency needed for a water film to continuously surround the ice-coated fruit to prevent the fruit temperature from dropping below 0ºC. Simulations are presented for the frost protection of sweet oranges (citrus sinensis. The effect of environmental conditions such as air temperature, air velocity, surface radiation and water film evaporation on the development of the ice layer encasing is considered. Simulations show the effect the encasing ice sheet thickness has on the fruit temperature if water from a spraying system is turned off permanently. Experimental tests are also conducted to determine the change in the thermal properties of citrus sinensis for operating temperatures that range from above freezing to sub-freezing. The results of the experimental tests and the numerical simulations shall lead to a better understanding of fruit protection from frost damage by the application of water from a spraying system.

  6. GUS gene expression driven by a citrus promoter in transgenic tobacco and 'Valencia' sweet orange Expressão do gene GUS controlado por promotor de citros em plantas transgênicas de tabaco e laranja 'Valência'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alves de Azevedo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was the transformation of tobacco and 'Valencia' sweet orange with the GUS gene driven by the citrus phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL gene promoter (CsPP. Transformation was accomplished by co-cultivation of tobacco and 'Valência' sweet orange explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing the binary vector CsPP-GUS/2201. After plant transformation and regeneration, histochemical analyses using GUS staining revealed that CsPP promoter preferentially, but not exclusively, conferred gene expression in xylem tissues of tobacco. Weaker GUS staining was also detected throughout the petiole region in tobacco and citrus CsPP transgenic plants.O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a transformação de plantas de tabaco e laranja 'Valência' com o gene GUS controlado pelo promotor do gene da fenilalanina amônia-liase (PAL de citros (CsPP. Foi realizada transformação genética por meio do co-cultivo de explantes de tabaco e laranja 'Valência' com Agrobacterium tumefaciens que continha o vetor binário CsPP-GUS/2201. Após a transformação e a regeneração, a detecção da atividade de GUS por ensaios histoquímicos revelou que o promotor CsPP, preferencialmente, mas não exclusivamente, confere expressão gênica em tecidos do xilema de tabaco. Expressão mais baixa de GUS também foi detectada na região de tecido de pecíolo, em plantas transgênicas (CsPP de tabaco e laranja 'Valência'.

  7. An Evaluation of the Genetic Diversity of Xylella fastidiosa Isolated from Diseased Citrus and Coffee in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, X; Miranda, V S; Machado, M A; Lemos, E G; Hartung, J S

    2001-06-01

    ABSTRACT Strains of Xylella fastidiosa, isolated from sweet orange trees (Citrus sinensis) and coffee trees (Coffea arabica) with symptoms of citrus variegated chlorosis and Requeima do Café, respectively, were indistinguishable based on repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR assays. These strains were also indistinguishable with a previously described PCR assay that distinguished the citrus strains from all other strains of Xylella fastidiosa. Because we were not able to document any genomic diversity in our collection of Xylella fastidiosa strains isolated from diseased citrus, the observed gradient of increasing disease severity from southern to northern regions of São Paulo State is unlikely due to the presence of significantly different strains of the pathogen in the different regions. When comparisons were made to reference strains of Xylella fastidiosa isolated from other hosts using these methods, four groups were consistently identified consistent with the hosts and regions from which the strains originated: citrus and coffee, grapevine and almond, mulberry, and elm, plum, and oak. Independent results from random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR assays were also consistent with these results; however, two of the primers tested in RAPD-PCR were able to distinguish the coffee and citrus strains. Sequence comparisons of a PCR product amplified from all strains of Xylella fastidiosa confirmed the presence of a CfoI polymorphism that can be used to distinguish the citrus strains from all others. The ability to distinguish Xylella fastidiosa strains from citrus and coffee with a PCR-based assay will be useful in epidemiological and etiological studies of this pathogen.

  8. From Farmers to Entrepreneurs—Strengthening Malta Orange Value Chains Through Institutional Development in Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyutiman Choudhary

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Malta orange (Citrus sinensis is an important cash crop in the mountain state of Uttarakhand, India. Smallholder farmers growing it face multiple challenges due to unorganized and inaccessible markets; they are forced to sell to intermediaries at very low prices. In response, the government of Uttarakhand introduced a minimum support price for Malta oranges; however, this failed to address farmers' problems due to poor implementation. This paper presents the results of an action research project with farmers in the Chamoli district of Uttarakhand to develop farmers' resilience by upgrading their position in the Malta orange value chain, targeting production, processing, and marketing through community-based enterprise development. Information was collected before and after the intervention by various means, including stakeholder meetings, focus group discussions, and interviews with farmers and value chain facilitators. Activities supported by the research have contributed to increased productivity and farmer incomes. Farmers became better organized, and their bargaining power improved considerably. The enterprise-based upgrading process brought about an inclusive and pro-poor Malta orange value chain system with improved terms of engagement for smallholder farmers. The research results show that policy change, improved provision of technical and financial services, establishment of common facility centers, and strengthening of farmers' institutions are imperative to enable smallholder farmers to engage in value chains and thus increase their resilience.

  9. Different transcriptional response to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri between kumquat and sweet orange with contrasting canker tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Zheng Fu

    Full Text Available Citrus canker disease caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc is one of the most devastating biotic stresses affecting the citrus industry. Meiwa kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia is canker-resistant, while Newhall navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck is canker-sensitive. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the differences in responses to Xcc, transcriptomic profiles of these two genotypes following Xcc attack were compared by using the Affymetrix citrus genome GeneChip. A total of 794 and 1324 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified as canker-responsive genes in Meiwa and Newhall, respectively. Of these, 230 genes were expressed in common between both genotypes, while 564 and 1094 genes were only significantly expressed in either Meiwa or Newhall. Gene ontology (GO annotation and Singular Enrichment Analysis (SEA of the DEGs showed that genes related to the cell wall and polysaccharide metabolism were induced for basic defense in both Meiwa and Newhall, such as chitinase, glucanase and thaumatin-like protein. Moreover, apart from inducing basic defense, Meiwa showed specially upregulated expression of several genes involved in the response to biotic stimulus, defense response, and cation binding as comparing with Newhall. And in Newhall, abundant photosynthesis-related genes were significantly down-regulated, which may be in order to ensure the basic defense. This study revealed different molecular responses to canker disease in Meiwa and Newhall, affording insight into the response to canker and providing valuable information for the identification of potential genes for engineering canker tolerance in the future.

  10. Citrus tristeza virus: An increasing trend in the virus occurrence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABC

    2015-07-29

    Jul 29, 2015 ... Citrus tristeza clostervirus (CTV) is one of the most damaging fruit viruses playing havoc in citrus ... diseases of citrus trees reported in Pakistan are tristeza, .... bark. Vein clearing and stem pitting were also observed on sweet orange trees sour ..... disposal of source of inoculum by removing old citrus trees ...

  11. Harvesting Method Affects Water Dynamics and Yield of Sweet Orange with Huanglongbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said A. Hamido

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in grove management practices may change crop water dynamics. The objective of this study was to estimate sap flow, stem water potential (Ψstem, and citrus yield as affected by harvesting methods in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis trees affected by Huanglongbing. The study was initiated in March 2015 for two years on five-year-old commercial sweet orange trees at a commercial grove located at Felda, Florida (26.61° N, 81.48° W on Felda fine sand soil (Loamy, siliceous, superactive, hyperthermic Arenic Endoaqualfs. All measurements were replicated before and after harvest in four experiments (A, B, C and D under hand and mechanical harvesting treatments. Sap flow measurements were taken on four trees per treatment with two sensors per tree. Sap flow measured by the heat balance method at hourly intervals during March and April of 2015 and 2016 significantly declined after harvesting by 25% and 35% after hand and mechanical harvesting, respectively. Ψstem measured after harvest was significantly higher than measurements before harvest. The average value of Ψstem measured increased by 10% and 6% after hand and mechanical harvesting, respectively. Mechanical harvesting exhibited lower fruit yields that averaged between 83%, 63%, 49% and 36% of hand-harvested trees under A, B, C and D experiments, respectively. It is concluded that the hand harvesting method is less stressful and less impactful on tree water uptake and fruit yield compared with mechanical harvesting.

  12. Development and characterization of activated hydrochars from orange peels as potential adsorbents for emerging organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, M E; Ledesma, B; Román, S; Bonelli, P R; Cukierman, A L

    2015-05-01

    Activated hydrochars obtained from the hydrothermal carbonization of orange peels (Citrus sinensis) followed by various thermochemical processing were assessed as adsorbents for emerging contaminants in water. Thermal activation under flows of CO2 or air as well as chemical activation with phosphoric acid were applied to the hydrochars. Their characteristics were analyzed and related to their ability to uptake three pharmaceuticals (diclofenac sodium, salicylic acid and flurbiprofen) considered as emerging contaminants. The hydrothermal carbonization and subsequent activations promoted substantial chemical transformations which affected the surface properties of the activated hydrochars; they exhibited specific surface areas ranging from 300 to ∼620 m(2)/g. Morphological characterization showed the development of coral-like microspheres dominating the surface of most hydrochars. Their ability to adsorb the three pharmaceuticals selected was found largely dependent on whether the molecules were ionized or in their neutral form and on the porosity developed by the new adsorbents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. NPK fertilization effects on concentration of nutrients in Valencia orange leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, C.; Mielniczuk, J.; Bohnen, H.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of NPK fertilization on the nutrient concentration in the leaves was evaluated in a field experiment of Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) growing in a sandy acid soil, with 4N, 3P and 4K fertilizer levels. N and Cu contents in the leaves were high, while P and Zn levels were low, in all treatments. Increasing the levels of N, P 2 O 5 and K 2 O fertilization resulted in an increase of the N, P and K concentration in the leaves, respectively. Crescent levels of N fertilization raised Mn and decreased Ca concentration in the leaves. P and K contents in the leaves correlated positively. With a great availability and absorption of K, reduction on he foliar contents of Mg and Ca ocurred. (M.A.C.) [pt

  14. Phlorin screening in various citrus species and varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louche, L M; Luro, F; Gaydou, E M; Lesage, J C

    2000-10-01

    Phlorin (3,5-dihydroxyphenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside), an orange peel marker, has been searched in 45 species and varieties of Citrus. The phlorin content was determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography in juices and aqueous peel extracts of these different fruits. The phlorin content in C. reticulata peel extract varies from 0 to 1012 mg L(-)(1) with a mean of 162 mg L(-)(1). On the contrary, phlorin was not found in mandarin and clementine juices except for mandarin "Commune" and "Beauty" (33 and 30 mg L(-)(1), respectively). In the 14 species of oranges and varieties, phlorin was detected in juices and peel extracts with a mean of 22 and 492 mg L(-)(1), respectively, while for grapefruits, means were 108 mg L(-)(1) in juices and 982 mg L(-)(1) for peel extracts. Tangors and tangelos which are hybrids (C. reticulata x C. sinensis and C. reticulata x C. paradisi, respectively) are characterized by the systematic presence of phlorin in peels (mean: 406 and 659 mg L(-)(1), respectively) while in juices its presence could be variable (0-73 mg L(-)(1)). These heterogeneity and values may be explained by the genetic variability of these hybrids and the phlorin content of their parentage group.

  15. Clonorchis sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Guillén O., Alfredo; Clínica San Borja, Lima, Perú. Facultad de Tecnología Médica, universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal, Lima, Perú.; Delgado V., María; Clínica San Borja, Lima, Perú.; Morales C., Antonio; Clínica San Borja, Lima, Perú.

    2004-01-01

    Se presenta el caso de una paciente de origen asiático con un año de permanencia en el Perú, que acude a una clínica limeña por presentar diarrea acuosa, al realizar los análisis respectivos se encuentran huevos de Clonorchis sinensis. A case of an Asian patient living in Peru for one year, who presented to a Lima clinic with aqueous diarrhea. When laboratory studies were performed, Clonorchis sinensis ova in stools were found.

  16. Stability of Citrus tristeza virus protective isolates in field conditions Estabilidade de isolados protetores contra Citrus tristeza virus em condições de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Tenório Costa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to monitor the maintenance of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV protective isolates stability in selected clones of 'Pêra' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis, preimmunized or naturally infected by the virus, after successive clonal propagations. The work was carried out in field conditions in the north of Paraná State, Brazil. Coat protein gene (CPG analysis of 33 isolates collected from 16 clones of 'Pêra' sweet orange was performed using single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP. Initially, the isolates were characterized by symptoms of stem pitting observed in clones. Then viral genome was extracted and used as template for the amplification of CPG by reverse transcription polimerase chain reaction (RTPCR. RTPCR products electrophoretic profiles were analyzed using the Jaccard coefficient and the UPGMA method. The majority of the clones had weak to moderate stem pitting symptoms and its CTV isolates showed alterations in the SSCP profiles. However, the stability of the protective complex has been maintained, except for isolates from two analised clones. Low genetic variability was observed within the isolates during the studied years.O objetivo deste trabalho foi monitorar a manutenção da estabilidade de isolados protetores contra Citrus tristeza virus (CTV em clones selecionados de laranja 'Pêra' (Citrus sinensis pré-imunizados ou infectados naturalmente pelo vírus, após sucessivas propagações clonais. O trabalho foi realizado em condições de campo, no norte do Estado do Paraná. A análise do gene da capa protéica (GPC de 33 isolados, coletados de 16 clones de laranjeira 'Pêra', foi realizada com o uso da técnica polimorfismo conformacional da fita simples (SSCP. Inicialmente, os isolados foram caracterizados por meio de sintomas de caneluras observados nos clones. Em seguida, o genoma viral foi extraído e utilizado como molde para a amplificação do GCP com uso da transcrição reversa da rea

  17. Técnicas hortícolas para optimizar el tamaño y la calidad del fruto del naranjo (Citrus sinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabezas-Gutiérrez Marco

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Con el fin de mejorar la calidad del fruto de la variedad de naranja Sweety Orange injertada sobre el patrón enanizante ‘Flying Dragon’, se realizó un experimento en el que se probaron técnicas de anillado de ramas, defoliación parcial, raleo de frutos, fertilización foliar, aplicaciones de sacarosa al follaje y poda de ramas no productivas. El trabajo se realizó en un huerto comercial en el norte del departamento del Valle del Cauca (Colombia, en plantas de 9 años de edad. Al comparar los resultados con el experimento control se observa que: i el anillado de ramas productivas influyó significativamente en la producción total de fruta por planta e incrementó el número de frutos retenidos en el árbol en un 38%; ii la aplicación de sacarosa mejoró la calidad interna del fruto al incrementar el contenido de sólidos solubles totales en un 10% y disminuir la acidez en un 36%. Ni la selección de fruta ni la fertilización foliar mostraron diferencias significativas con el tratamiento control. Se concluye que la combinación de anillado y aplicaciones externas de sacarosa pueden ser técnicas útiles para mejorar la calidad del naranjo en la zona cafetera colombiana.

     

  18. Citrus asymmetric somatic hybrids produced via fusion of gamma-irradiated and iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bona, Claudine Maria de [Instituto Agronomico do Parana (IAPAR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: debona@iapar.br; Gould, Jean Howe [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Ecosystem Science and Management], e-mail: gould@tamu.edu; Miller Junior, J. Creighton [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Horticultural Sciences], e-mail: jcmillerjr@tamu.edu; Stelly, David [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences], e-mail: stelly@tamu.edu; Louzada, Eliezer Silva [Texas A and M University, Kingsville, TX (United States). Citrus Center], e-mail: e-louzada@tamu.edu

    2009-05-15

    The objective of this study was to produce citrus somatic asymmetric hybrids by fusing gamma.irradiated protoplasts with iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts. Protoplasts were isolated from embryogenic suspension cells of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad.) cultivars Ruby Red and Flame, sweet oranges (C. sinensis Osbeck) 'Itaborai', 'Natal', Valencia', and 'Succari', from 'Satsuma' (C. unshiu Marcow.) and 'Changsha' mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco) and 'Murcott' tangor (C. reticulata x C. sinensis). Donor protoplasts were exposed to gamma rays and receptor protoplasts were treated with 3 mmol L{sup -1} iodoacetamide (IOA), and then they were fused for asymmetric hybridization. Asymmetric embryos were germinated, and the resulting shoots were either grafted onto sour orange, rough lemon or 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x Poncirus trifoliata) x 'Sunki' mandarin rootstock seedlings, or rooted after dipping their bases in indol.butyric acid (IBA) solution. The products were later acclimatized to greenhouse conditions. Ploidy was analyzed by flow cytometry, and hybridity was confirmed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis of plantlet DNA samples. The best treatment was the donor-recipient fusion combination of 80 Gy.irradiated 'Ruby Red' protoplasts with 20 min IOA.treated 'Succari' protoplasts. Tetraploid and aneuploid plants were produced. Rooting recalcitrance was solved by dipping shoots' stems in 3,000 mg L{sup -1} IBA solution for 10 min. (author)

  19. Transmissibilidade do vírus da leprose de cercas-vivas, quebra-ventos e plantas daninhas para laranjeiras através de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes Transmission of leprosis virus from hedge rows, windbreaks and weeds to orange trees via Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozana Maria de Andrade Maia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes é transmissor do vírus da leprose dos citros, doença responsável por significativa redução da produtividade. Objetivou-se avaliar neste trabalho a possibilidade de algumas plantas utilizadas como cercas-vivas e quebra-ventos, além de plantas daninhas de pomares cítricos serem hospedeiras do vírus da leprose. O experimento foi realizado em laboratório e casa-de-vegetação na FCAV/UNESP, Jaboticabal-SP-Brasil. De uma criação-estoque de ácaros, criados sobre frutos de citros (Citrus sinensis contendo lesões de leprose, foram transferidos 100 ácaros para uma unidade experimental das seguintes espécies: Hibiscus sp., Malvaviscus mollis, Grevillea robusta, Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, Bixa orellana, Commelina benghalensis, Sida cordifolia, Ageratum conyzoides e Citrus sinensis, e mantidas em casa de vegetação por um período de 90 dias. Depois desse período, 160 ácaros foram recuperados dessas espécies vegetais e transferidos para quatro mudas das variedades cítricas 'Natal' e 'Valência' (20 ácaros/planta, e foram mantidas por 60 dias em casa de vegetação. Decorrido esse período, quantificou-se o número de lesões de leprose presentes nas folhas, ramos e caules das mudas cítricas. Em mudas cítricas da variedade 'Natal', foram observados sintomas da leprose decorrentes da transferência de ácaros provenientes de C. sinensis, A. conyzoides, C. benghalensis e B. orellana. Na variedade 'Valência', sintomas de leprose ocorreram em mudas infestadas com ácaros criados sobre C. sinensis, S. cordifolia benghalensis, B. orellana e A. conyzoides. Mudas cítricas das variedades 'Natal' e 'Valência' não manifestaram sintomas de leprose com ácaros procedentes de M. mollis, Hibiscus sp., G. robusta e M. caesalpiniaefolia.The mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes is a vector of the citrus leprosies virus, a disease that significantly reduces orange production. We examined whether some plant

  20. Distribution and quantification of Candidatus Liberibacter americanus, agent of huanglongbing disease of citrus in São Paulo State, Brasil, in leaves of an affected sweet orange tree as determined by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Diva C; Saillard, Colette; Couture, Carole; Martins, Elaine C; Wulff, Nelson A; Eveillard-Jagoueix, Sandrine; Yamamoto, Pedro T; Ayres, Antonio J; Bové, Joseph M

    2008-06-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), an insect-transmitted disease of citrus, known for many years in Asia and Africa, has appeared in the state of São Paulo State (SSP), Brazil, in 2004, and the state of Florida, USA, in 2005. HLB endangers the very existence of citrus, as trees infected with the bacterial pathogen, irrevocably decline. In the absence of curative procedures, control of HLB is difficult and only based on prevention. Even though not available in culture, the HLB bacterium could be shown to be Gram-negative and to represent a new candidate genus, Candidatus Liberibacter, in the alpha subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Three Candidatus (Ca.) L. species occur: Ca. L. africanus in Africa, Ca. L. asiaticus in Asia, SSP, and Florida, and Ca. L. americanus in SSP. The liberibacters occur exclusively in the phloem sieve tubes. On affected trees, HLB symptoms are often seen on certain branches only, suggesting an uneven distribution of the Liberibacter. Occurrence of Ca. L. americanus, the major HLB agent in SSP, has been examined in 822 leaf samples from an affected sweet orange tree by two conventional PCR techniques and a newly developed real time (RTi) PCR, also used for quantification of the Liberibacter in the leaves. Even though RTi-PCR was able to detect as few as 10 liberibacters per gram of leaf tissue (l/g), no liberibacters could be detected in any of the many leaf samples from a symptomless branch, while in blotchy mottle leaves from symptomatic branches of the same tree, the Liberibacter titer reached values as high as 10(7)l/g. These results demonstrate the uneven distribution of the Liberibacter in HLB-affected trees.

  1. Clonorchis sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Guillén O

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente de origen asiático con un año de permanencia en el Perú, que acude a una clínica limeña por presentar diarrea acuosa, al realizar los análisis respectivos se encuentran huevos de Clonorchis sinensis.

  2. INFLUÊNCIA DO ANELAMENTO E ESTIOLAMENTO DE RAMOS NA PROPAGAÇÃO DA LARANJEIRA VALÊNCIA (Citrus sinensis Osbeck ATRAVÉS DE ESTACAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. CASTRO

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando estudar a influência do condicionamento de ramos, através do anelamento e estiolamento parcial, sobre o enraizamento de estacas de laranjeira cv. Valência, conduziu-se o experimento no período de fevereiro a dezembro de 1993. Para o anelamento foi utilizado arame fino de cobre com o qual provocou-se um estrangulamento na base do ramo. No estiolamento, utilizou-se fita preta de polietileno, que foi enrolada na base das brotações. De cada ramo condicionado, obteve-se apenas uma estaca com 15 cm de comprimento, diâmetro médio de 0,5 cm e um par de folhas apicais, cortadas pela metade. O plantio das estacas foi realizado em 12.04.93, em substrato de areia lavada e peneirada. Adotou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3x3, resultante das combinações entre os períodos de zero, 30 e 60 dias dos fatores anelamento e estiolamento. Verificou-se que não ocorreu enraizamento nas estacas que permaneceram três meses no substrato e variou de 0 até 26,04% para aquelas que permaneceram oito meses. O período de estiolamento influenciou significativamente o percentual de estacas enraizadas.With the aim of studying the effect of branch conditioning through girdling and banding on Valência orange cuttings a rooting trial was carried out from February to December of 1993. The girdling was performed with a thin cooper wire tightly tied at the branch base reaching the log, and the banding with black poliethylene tape, covering the branch at the base of the sprouts. Each conditioned branch gave one cutting of 15 cm length, 0.5 cm diameter and a pair of half cut apical leaves. Cuttings were planted on Dec.04, 93, in washed and sieved sand substrate. The experimental design was completely randomized, with a factorial 3 x 3 from 0, 30 and 60 day periods, girdling and banding. There was no rooting in cuttings that remained three months in the substrate and there was up to 26.04% rooting for those ones that lasted for

  3. 'Valencia' sweet orange tree flowering evaluation under field conditions Avaliação do florescimento de laranjeiras valência em condição de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since citrus flowering is a key process in citriculture and its evaluation is often difficult due to the canopy structure and field sampling, the aim of this research was to give some directions regarding the evaluation of flowering in field-grown sweet orange plants. This study was conducted in a citrus orchard of sweet orange plants cv. 'Valencia' [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] grafted on 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka or 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck rootstocks, with North-South orientation. Generative structures [buds, flowers and fruitlets (diameter O florescimento dos citros é um processo chave na citricultura e sua avaliação é dificultada devido à estrutura da copa e amostragem em campo. O objetivo desse artigo foi fornecer algumas indicações de como avaliar o florescimento de laranjeiras em condição de campo. Esse estudo foi conduzido em um pomar de laranjeiras 'Valência' [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] enxertadas em tangerineira 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka ou limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck, com orientação Norte-Sul. As estruturas reprodutivas [botões florais, flores e frutos (diâmetro < 3 cm] foram quantificadas semanalmente entre agosto e novembro de 2005, utilizando guias de 1 m² posicionadas no terço médio da copa das plantas, amostrando aproximadamente um volume de 1 m³. As guias foram divididas em duas partes para que duas pessoas pudessem realizar as avaliações, e posicionadas nas orientações sudeste, sudoeste, nordeste e noroeste, em sete plantas. Alguns aspectos do florescimento dos citros foram avaliados: (i quantas plantas são necessárias para uma amostragem representativa do florescimento; (ii em qual orientação deve ser feita a medida e (iii qual volume da copa das plantas que deve ser amostrado. Ao se considerar os aspectos práticos da produção dos citros, um método rápido, simples e representativo é necessário para avaliar o florescimento

  4. 78 FR 41259 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... therefore opposed importation of fresh citrus fruit from Uruguay until its effectiveness could be validated...'' imports. The commenter stated that this argument is invalid due to the year-round marketing of citrus... metric tons, which is less than 3 percent of U.S. production. Uruguay's total fresh orange and lemon...

  5. Disinfestation of export oranges and tangerines (Citrus spp) against medfly Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera; Tephritidae) by gamma irradiation (Co-60)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, N.

    1990-01-01

    A gamma bean 650 cobalt-60 source was utilized for irradiation (0; 10; 50; 100; 200; 300; 400; 500; 750 and 1000 Gy) of fresh ripe fruits artificially interested by immature stages of Ceratitis capitata to determine the sterilizing and lethal doses. The sensorial and chemical analyses did not show any significant differences between the control and irradiated samples. Differences on loss of weight of oranges show that 500 and 1000 Gy doses were responsible for increasing the loss of water content. (author)

  6. Producción y desarrollo de nueve variedades de naranja Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck en la zona plana del Valle del Cauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar C. Raúl

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available En árboles de naranja de cinco años injertados sobre mandarina Cleopatra, se evaluaron nueve variedades sembradas en un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar. El crecimiento de los frutos presentó las tres fases típicas, con duración variable dependiendo de la variedad: lento, crecimiento acelerado y estabilización. Los máximos crecimientos se obtuvieron en las variedades Old Vini, Valencia y Valle Washington. En todas las variedades los sólidos solubles disminuyeron y el porcentaje de acidez aumentó hasta ciertos límites con la edad del fruto. Considerando como momento óptimo para iniciar la cosecha una relación de sólidos solubles: acidez de 9.5:1, la más temprana fue la Valle Washington (7.5 meses, intermedias Old Vini y Australia Navel y la más tardía García Valencia. Todas las variedades presentaron contenidos de jugo mayores del 50 % Y color atractivo de la pulpa. El color más atractivo de la corteza se obtuvo en Parson Brown (97.5 % amarillo, las otras variedades fluctuaron entre 48 y 79%. Todas las variedades tuvieron menos de seis semillas por fruto. Se presentaron dos épocas de cosecha y las variedades con mayor producción: Hamlin, García Valencia y Pineapple tuvieron la mayor variación mensual. La mejor alternativa sembrando 90% de variedades para industria y 10 % para mesa se obtuvo con las variedades Pineapple, Hamlin, Parson Brown, Valle Washington y Old Vini.Five years old orange trees, were grafted on Cleopatra scions of nine cultivars planted in a completely randomized block design were evaluated. Fruit growths presented three typical phases of variable lenght, depending on the cultivar: slow , rapid and stable growth rates. Largest growth were observed in the old Vini, Valencia and Valle Washington cultivars. In all cases total soluble solid contents and acidity increased, up to certain point, with fruit age. Considering that the optimum time to iniciate cropping is when the relationship

  7. Response of 'Nagpur' mandarin, 'Mosambi' sweet orange and 'Kagzi' acid lime to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladaniya, M.S.; Singh, Shyam; Wadhawan, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of irradiation dose and refrigerated storage conditions on 'Nagpur' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), 'Mosambi' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and 'Kagzi' acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) were investigated. Mature fruits of these three species were treated with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 kGy radiation. 'Nagpur' mandarin and 'Mosambi' sweet oranges were stored at 6-7 deg. C and 90-95% r.h. for 75 and 90 days, respectively, while 'Kagzi' acid limes were stored at 8±1 deg. C and 90-95% r.h. for 90 days. Physico-chemical parameters, sensory attributes and respiration rate were measured besides losses and disorders. In 'Nagpur' mandarin, radiation dose upto 1.5 kGy did not cause any rind disorder. Radiation treatments did not reduce the extent of decay. Penicillium rot was delayed in fruit treated with 1.5 kGy, while it appeared early in 0 kGy. Irradiation doses were ineffective to control rots due to Botryodiplodia theobromae and Alternaria citri. Doses upto 1.5 kGy did not cause any significant effect on fruit firmness and juice content; however, total soluble solids increased, while titratable acidity and vitamin 'C' content decreased. Texture and flavour scores as recorded after a week, were not affected by irradiation except in 1.5 kGy. In 'Mosambi' sweet orange, radiation treatments caused peel disorder in the form of brown sunken areas after 90 days and reduced fruit firmness, acidity and vitamin C content. The TSS content was higher in treated fruit. Flavour and texture were not affected by the doses of irradiation used. In treated acid limes (mature yellow), weight loss and decay were higher than untreated fruit (0 kGy) although difference was non-significant. Juice, TSS, titratable acidity and vitamin C contents were significantly less in treated fruit than in 0 kGy. Texture and flavour scores were also less in treated fruit than in 0 kGy. The stem-end rind breakdown was higher in untreated fruit than treated ones although difference

  8. Thermal degradation kinetics of anthocyanins from blood orange, blackberry, and roselle using the arrhenius, eyring, and ball models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisse, Mady; Vaillant, Fabrice; Acosta, Oscar; Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie; Dornier, Manuel

    2009-07-22

    Anthocyanin stability was assessed over temperatures ranging from 30 to 90 degrees C for seven products: blood orange juice [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck]; two tropical highland blackberry juices (Rubus adenotrichus Schlech.), one with high content and the other with low content of suspended insoluble solids (SIS); and four roselle extracts (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). The blackberry juice showed the highest content of anthocyanins with 1.2 g/L (two times less in the roselle extracts and 12 times less in the blood orange juice). The rate constant for anthocyanin degradation and isothermal kinetic parameters were calculated according to three models: Arrhenius, Eyring, and Ball. Anthocyanins in blood orange juice presented the highest rate constant for degradation, followed by the blackberry juices and roselle extracts. Values of activation energies were 66 and 37 kJ/mol, respectively, for blood orange and blackberry and 47-61 kJ/mol for roselle extracts. For the blackberry juices, a high SIS content provided only slight protection for the anthocyanins. The increasing content of dissolved oxygen, from 0.5 to 8.5 g/L, did not significantly increase the rate constant. For both isothermal and nonisothermal treatments, all three models accurately predicted anthocyanin losses from different food matrices.

  9. Synthesis of core-shell molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres by precipitation polymerization for the inline molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction of thiabendazole from citrus fruits and orange juice samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, Francisco; Turiel, Esther; Cormack, Peter A G; Martín-Esteban, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres with narrow particle size distributions and core-shell morphology by a two-step precipitation polymerization procedure is described. Polydivinylbenzene (poly DVB-80) core particles were used as seed particles in the production of molecularly imprinted polymer shells by copolymerization of divinylbenzene-80 with methacrylic acid in the presence of thiabendazole (TBZ) and an appropriate porogen. Thereafter, polymer particles were packed into refillable stainless steel HPLC columns used in the development of an inline molecularly imprinted SPE method for the determination of TBZ in citrus fruits and orange juice samples. Under optimized chromatographic conditions, recoveries of TBZ within the range 81.1-106.4%, depending upon the sample, were obtained, with RSDs lower than 10%. This novel method permits the unequivocal determination of TBZ in the samples under study, according to the maximum residue levels allowed within Europe, in less than 20 min and without any need for a clean-up step in the analytical protocol. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Bio-based synthesis of silver nanoparticles from orange waste: effects of distinct biomolecule coatings on size, morphology, and antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros CHN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Caio Henrique Nasi de Barros, Guilherme Crispim Faria Cruz, Willian Mayrink, Ljubica Tasic Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Department of Organic Chemistry, Instituto de Química da Universidade Estadual de Campinas–Unicamp, Campinas, SP, Brazil Purpose: Despite the numerous reports on biological syntheses of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, little is known about the composition of their capping agents, protein corona of plant extract-mediated synthesis, and their influence on the properties of AgNPs. Here, orange (Citrus sinensis waste was utilized as a source of an extract for AgNP synthesis (the protein corona composition of which was elucidated, and also as a starting material for hesperidin and nanocellulose extraction, which were used for bio-based AgNP synthesis. A comparison of the results using the two methods of synthesis is presented. Methods: AgNPs were synthesized using orange (C. sinensis peel extract (­Or-AgNPs in a biological route, and using hesperidin (Hsd-AgNPs and nanocellulose (extracted from oranges in a green chemical route. Characterization of nanoparticles was carried out using zeta potential and hydrodynamic size measurements, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Elucidation of proteins from protein corona was performed via ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer experiments. Antimicrobial activity was assessed via minimum inhibitory concentration assays against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac, the bacterium that causes citric canker in oranges. Results: Or-AgNPs were not completely uniform in morphology, having a size of 48.1±20.5 nm and a zeta potential of −19.0±0.4 mV. Stabilization was performed mainly by three proteins, which were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS experiments. Hsd-AgNPs were smaller (25.4±12.5 nm and had uniform morphology. Nanocellulose provided a strong steric and electrostatic (−28.2±1.0 mV stabilization to the nanoparticles

  11. Dispersion patterns and sampling plans for Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sétamou, Mamoudou; Flores, Daniel; French, J Victor; Hall, David G

    2008-08-01

    The abundance and spatial dispersion of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) were studied in 34 grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad.) and six sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] orchards from March to August 2006 when the pest is more abundant in southern Texas. Although flush shoot infestation levels did not vary with host plant species, densities of D. citri eggs, nymphs, and adults were significantly higher on sweet orange than on grapefruit. D. citri immatures also were found in significantly higher numbers in the southeastern quadrant of trees than other parts of the canopy. The spatial distribution of D. citri nymphs and adults was analyzed using Iowa's patchiness regression and Taylor's power law. Taylor's power law fitted the data better than Iowa's model. Based on both regression models, the field dispersion patterns of D. citri nymphs and adults were aggregated among flush shoots in individual trees as indicated by the regression slopes that were significantly >1. For the average density of each life stage obtained during our surveys, the minimum number of flush shoots per tree needed to estimate D. citri densities varied from eight for eggs to four flush shoots for adults. Projections indicated that a sampling plan consisting of 10 trees and eight flush shoots per tree would provide density estimates of the three developmental stages of D. citri acceptable enough for population studies and management decisions. A presence-absence sampling plan with a fixed precision level was developed and can be used to provide a quick estimation of D. citri populations in citrus orchards.

  12. [The relationship between activity and gene expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and peel pitting in 'Fengjie' navel orange fruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng-Guo; Gao, Xue; Fan, Jing; Yang, Ying-Wu; Li, Dao-Gao; Kanellis, Angelos K

    2006-06-01

    Citrus fruit is prone to develop peel pitting during development and storage, which greatly decreases its fresh market value because of the deterioration of the peel. In the present study, we have examined the effect of different temperatures (15 degrees C and 4 degrees C), waxing and mechanical damage on the changes in the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and the incidence of peel pitting in 'Fengjie' navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) fruits. The expression levels of PAL2, PAL6 genes in the peel during the development of peel pitting have been investigated through semi-quantitative PCR method. The incidence of peel pitting was greatly enhanced by waxing and mechanical damage and was decreased in lower temperature storage (4 degrees C) (Fig.1). Waxing and mechanical damage might be the important factors inducing peel pitting and suitable low temperature could decrease the incidence of this disease. The PAL activity increased during the whole storage period in accordance with the development of this pitting (Fig.2). The expression levels of PAL2 and PAL6 genes in damaged peel were higher than those in healthy peel and the expression of PAL2 is much more higher than that of PAL6 (Figs.4 and 5). The results suggested that the enzyme activity of PAL, along with the expression of PAL2 gene is highly related to this peel pitting occurred on 'Fengjie' navel orange fruits.

  13. Yield, Esterification Degree and Molecular Weight Evaluation of Pectins Isolated from Orange and Grapefruit Peels under Different Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayah, Mohamed Yassine; Chabir, Rachida; Benyahia, Hamid; Rodi Kandri, Youssef; Ouazzani Chahdi, Fouad; Touzani, Hanan; Errachidi, Faouzi

    2016-01-01

    Orange (Citrus sinensis) and grapefruit (Citrus paradise) peels were used as a source of pectin, which was extracted under different conditions. The peels are used under two states: fresh and residual (after essential oil extraction). Organic acid (citric acid) and mineral acid (sulfuric acid) were used in the pectin extraction. The aim of this study is the evaluation the effect of extraction conditions on pectin yield, degree of esterification “DE” and on molecular weight “Mw”. Results showed that the pectin yield was higher using the residual peels. Moreover, both peels allow the obtainment of a high methoxyl pectin with DE >50%. The molecular weight was calculated using Mark-Houwink-Sakurada equation which describes its relationship with intrinsic viscosity. This later was determined using four equations; Huggins equation, kramer, Schulz-Blaschke and Martin equation. The molecular weight varied from 1.538 x1005 to 2.47x1005 g/mol for grapefruit pectin and from 1.639 x1005 to 2.471 x1005 g/mol for orange pectin. PMID:27644093

  14. Fate and control of pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms in orange blossom (Citrus aurantium) and rose flower (Rosa centifolia) hydrosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadie, C; Cerutti, C; Carlin, F

    2016-12-01

    Hydrosols are hydrodistillation products used in food and cosmetic industries, perfumery, pharmacy and aromatherapy. The ability of preservatives to control previously reported bacterial proliferation and spoilage was evaluated. All tested preservatives were authorized for food and cosmetic application. Major pathogens of concern for foods and cosmetics were poorly able to grow in rose and orange blossom hydrosols when inoculated and incubated at 30°C. Commercial antimicrobials, such as isothiazolinone, chlorphenesin and paraben solutions, benzyl alcohol and sodium benzoate at pH = 5·0, controlled the growth of Pseudomonas and Burkholderia sp. strains representative of the natural microbiota of both hydrosols for >90 days at 30°C, only at concentrations close to the authorized limits. Concentrations of some of the tested preservatives that controlled growth at 5°C were lower than at 30°C. Pathogenic micro-organisms likely represent a low risk in rose flower and orange blossom hydrosol. However, the oligotrophic character of hydrosols and the antimicrobial properties of their essential oils do not prevent microbiological spoilage by the naturally present microbiota. In the absence of aseptic conditions and microbial inactivation process, only preservatives can stabilize hydrosols for a several-month storage. Several effective preservatives have been identified. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. The use of Citrus tissue culture for mutation breeding. Effects of plant growth substances and gamma irradiation on embryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochba, J.; Spiegel-Roy, P.

    1976-01-01

    An embryogenic callus subcultured from unfertilized ovules of the 'Shamouti' orange (Citrus sinensis) was established and is used for mutation-breeding. The callus is habituated and lines of differing embryogenic potential were established. The effect of growth substances and of gamma-irradiation on embryogenesis were studied. Auxins and cytokinins inhibited embryogenesis while inhibitors of auxin synthesis and a cytokinin antagonist significantly stimulate embryogenesis in an embryogenic line. A non-embryogenic callus line did not respond to these treatments. Stimulation of embryogenesis was observed when callus but not when the medium was irradiated. Age of callus prior to subculture and irradiation intensities modify irradiation induced embryogenesis by changing optimal dose range and radiosensitivity of the callus. Addition of IAA to unirradiated medium resulted in increased embryogenesis and greatly stimulated plantlet development in certain combinations of irradiation dose and IAA concentration. (author)

  16. Essential Oil Variation from Twenty Two Genotypes of Citrus in Brazil-Chemometric Approach and Repellency Against Diaphorina citri Kuwayama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Moacir Dos Santos; Ribeiro, Leandro do Prado; Borgoni, Paulo Cesar; Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes da; Forim, Moacir Rossi; Fernandes, João Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Vendramin, José Djair; Machado, Marcos Antônio

    2016-06-22

    The chemical composition of volatile oils from 22 genotypes of Citrus and related genera was poorly differentiated, but chemometric techniques have clarified the relationships between the 22 genotypes, and allowed us to understand their resistance to D. citri. The most convincing similarities include the synthesis of (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-caryophyllene for all 11 genotypes of group A. Genotypes of group B are not uniformly characterized by essential oil compounds. When stimulated with odor sources of 22 genotypes in a Y-tube olfactometer D. citri preferentially entered the arm containing the volatile oils of Murraya paniculata, confirming orange jasmine as its best host. C. reticulata × C. sinensis was the least preferred genotype, and is characterized by the presence of phytol, (Z)-β-ocimene, and β-elemene, which were not found in the most preferred genotype. We speculate that these three compounds may act as a repellent, making these oils less attractive to D. citri.

  17. Co-infection of sweet orange with severe and mild strains of citrus tristeza virus is overwhelmingly dominated by the severe strain on both the transcriptional and biological levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus tristeza is one of the most destructive citrus diseases and is caused by the phloem-restricted Closterovirus, Citrus tristeza virus. Mild strain CTV-B2 does not cause obvious symptoms on indicators whereas severe strain CTV-B6 causes symptoms, including stem pitting, cupping, yellowing and s...

  18. Clinical study to assess the efficacy and safety of a citrus polyphenolic extract of red orange, grapefruit, and orange (Sinetrol-XPur) on weight management and metabolic parameters in healthy overweight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Constantin; Gerbi, Alain; Elbez, Yves; Caillard, Philippe; Zamaria, Nicolas; Cloarec, Maurice

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the efficacy and safety effects of Sinetrol-XPur (polyphenolic citrus dry extract) in weight management; metabolic parameters; and inflammatory, glycemic and oxidative status. In a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, Sinetrol-XPur was given to overweight subjects twice daily with meals in the tested group (N = 47) versus a placebo group (N = 48). Waist and hip circumference and abdominal fat were decreased in the Sinetrol-XPur group as compared with the placebo group (p < 0.0001) (-5.71% vs. -1.56% for waist, -4.71% vs. -1.35% for hip and -9.73% vs. -3.18% for fat). Inflammatory markers were reduced (C-reactive protein: -22.87% vs. +61%; fibrinogen: -19.93% vs. -1.61%, p < 0.01). Oxidative stress was lowered as seen by the reduction of malondialdehyde (-14.03% vs. 2.76%) and the increase in superoxide dismutase and glutathione (17.38% vs. 2.19% and 4.63% vs. -2.36%, respectively, p < 0.01). No adverse effects were observed. Kidney, liver, and lipid panels remained unchanged. These results indicated that Sinetrol-XPur supplementation is a viable option for reducing abdominal fat, waist and hip circumference, and body weight and for improving inflammatory, glycemic, and oxidative status in healthy overweight individuals. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Lipolytic effect of a polyphenolic citrus dry extract of red orange, grapefruit, orange (SINETROL) in human body fat adipocytes. Mechanism of action by inhibition of cAMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Constantin; Gerbi, Alain; Tenca, Guillaume; Juchaux, Franck; Bernard, François-Xavier

    2008-10-01

    The present study investigated the lipolytic (break of fat stored) effect of a citrus-based polyphenolic dietary supplement (SINETROL) at human adipocytes (ex vivo), body fat (clinical) and biochemical levels (inhibition of phosphodiesterase). Free fatty acids (FFA) release was used as indicator of human adipocyte lipolysis and SINETROL activity has been compared with known lipolytic products (isoproterenol, theopylline and caffeine). SINETROL stimulated significantly the lipolytic activity in a range of 6 fold greater than the control. Moreover, SINETROL has 2.1 greater activity than guarana 12% caffeine while its content in caffeine is 3 times lower. Clinically, two groups of 10 volunteers with BMI relevant of overweight were compared during 4 and 12 weeks with 1.4 g/day SINETROL and placebo supplementation. In the SINETROL Group the body fat (%) decreased with a significant difference of 5.53% and 15.6% after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively, while the body weight (kg) decreased with a significant difference of 2.2 and 5.2 kg after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively. These observed effects are linked to SINETROL polyphenolic composition and its resulting synergistic activity. SINETROL is a potent inhibitor of cAMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE) (97%) compared to other purified compounds (cyanidin-3 glycoside, narangin, caffeine). These results suggest that SINETROL has a strong lipolytic effect mediated by cAMP-PDE inhibition. SINETROL may serve to prevent obesity by decreasing BMI.

  20. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Marcio dos Santos; Irenilza de Alencar Nääs; Mario Mollo Neto; Oduvaldo Vendrametto

    2013-01-01

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in ...

  1. Involvement of an ethylene response factor in chlorophyll degradation during citrus fruit degreening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorophyll degradation naturally occurs during plant senescence. However, in fruit such as citrus, it is a positive characteristic, as degreening is an important colour development contributing to fruit quality. In the present work, Citrus sinensis Osbeck, cv. Newhall fruit was used as a model for ...

  2. Deficiência hídrica agrava os sintomas fisiológicos da clorose variegada dos citros em laranjeira 'Natal' Water deficiency intensifies physiological symptoms of citrus variegated clorosis in 'Natal' sweet orange plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caruso Machado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A clorose variegada dos citros (CVC é uma doença que tem promovido sérios prejuízos aos laranjais das regiões Norte e Nordeste do Estado de São Paulo, onde a deficiência hídrica e as altas temperaturas são mais frequentes. Assim, este trabalho objetivou a avaliação do efeito da deficiência hídrica no desenvolvimento de sintomas fisiológicos em laranjeira 'Natal' com CVC. Foram realizadas medidas do potencial da água na folha, transpiração, condutância estomática e assimilação de CO2, em laranjeiras em condições naturais e submetidas à irrigação. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições. A condutância estomática, a transpiração diária e o potencial da água na folha foram menores nas plantas com CVC. A assimilação diária de CO2 foi menor nas laranjeiras com CVC mesmo quando irrigadas. De fato, a irrigação diminuiu o efeito da CVC, porém não impediu o estabelecimento da doença em laranjeiras inoculadas com Xylella fastidiosa. Em relação aos demais tratamentos, as plantas infectadas e mantidas sob condições naturais (sem irrigação apresentaram maior comprometimento das trocas gasosas, mesmo quando as avaliações fisiológicas foram feitas em período úmido (verão.Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC is a disease that has caused serious economical losses in citrus grove located in the North and Northeastern regions of São Paulo State, where water deficiency and high temperature occur frequently. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of water deficiency on the development of physiological symptoms in 'Natal' sweet orange plants with CVC. Measurements of leaf water potential, transpiration, stomatal conductance e CO2 assimilation were taken in plants under natural conditions and submitted to irrigation. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with five replications. Stomatal conductance, daily transpiration and leaf water potential were

  3. Exogenous application of the plant signalers methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid induces changes in volatile emissions from citrus foliage and influences the aggregation behavior of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri, vector of Huanglongbing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Patt

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing, also known as citrus greening, is a destructive disease that threatens citrus production worldwide. It is putatively caused by the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las. Currently, the disease is untreatable and efforts focus on intensive insecticide use to control the vector, Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri. Emerging psyllid resistance to multiple insecticides has generated investigations into the use of exogenously applied signaling compounds to enhance citrus resistance to D. citri and Las. In the present study, we examined whether foliar applications of methyl jasmonate (MJ, a volatile signaling compound associated with the induced systemic resistance pathway, and salicylic acid, a constituent of the systemic acquired resistance pathway, would elicit the emission of defense-related volatiles in citrus foliage, and what effect this might have on the host-plant searching behavior of D. citri. Comparisons were made of volatiles emitted from growing shoots of uninfected and Las-infected 'Valencia' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis trees over two consecutive sampling days. A settling behavioral assay was used to compare psyllid attraction to MJ-treated vs. Tween-treated citrus sprigs. All three main effects, Las infection status, plant signaler application, and sampling day, influenced the proportions of individual volatile compounds emitted in different treatment groups. MJ- and SA-treated trees had higher emission rates than Tween-treated trees. Methyl salicylate (MeSA and β-caryophyllene were present in higher proportions in the volatiles collected from Las-infected + trees. On the other hand, Las-infected + MJ-treated trees emitted lower proportions of MeSA than did Las-infected + Tween-treated trees. Because MeSA is a key D. citri attractant, this result suggests that MJ application could suppress MeSA emission from Las-infected trees, an approach that could be used to discourage psyllid

  4. Exogenous application of the plant signalers methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid induces changes in volatile emissions from citrus foliage and influences the aggregation behavior of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri), vector of Huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Joseph M; Robbins, Paul S; Niedz, Randy; McCollum, Greg; Alessandro, Rocco

    2018-01-01

    Huanglongbing, also known as citrus greening, is a destructive disease that threatens citrus production worldwide. It is putatively caused by the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las). Currently, the disease is untreatable and efforts focus on intensive insecticide use to control the vector, Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri). Emerging psyllid resistance to multiple insecticides has generated investigations into the use of exogenously applied signaling compounds to enhance citrus resistance to D. citri and Las. In the present study, we examined whether foliar applications of methyl jasmonate (MJ), a volatile signaling compound associated with the induced systemic resistance pathway, and salicylic acid, a constituent of the systemic acquired resistance pathway, would elicit the emission of defense-related volatiles in citrus foliage, and what effect this might have on the host-plant searching behavior of D. citri. Comparisons were made of volatiles emitted from growing shoots of uninfected and Las-infected 'Valencia' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) trees over two consecutive sampling days. A settling behavioral assay was used to compare psyllid attraction to MJ-treated vs. Tween-treated citrus sprigs. All three main effects, Las infection status, plant signaler application, and sampling day, influenced the proportions of individual volatile compounds emitted in different treatment groups. MJ- and SA-treated trees had higher emission rates than Tween-treated trees. Methyl salicylate (MeSA) and β-caryophyllene were present in higher proportions in the volatiles collected from Las-infected + trees. On the other hand, Las-infected + MJ-treated trees emitted lower proportions of MeSA than did Las-infected + Tween-treated trees. Because MeSA is a key D. citri attractant, this result suggests that MJ application could suppress MeSA emission from Las-infected trees, an approach that could be used to discourage psyllid colonization during

  5. Exogenous application of the plant signalers methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid induces changes in volatile emissions from citrus foliage and influences the aggregation behavior of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri), vector of Huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Paul S.; Niedz, Randy; McCollum, Greg; Alessandro, Rocco

    2018-01-01

    Huanglongbing, also known as citrus greening, is a destructive disease that threatens citrus production worldwide. It is putatively caused by the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las). Currently, the disease is untreatable and efforts focus on intensive insecticide use to control the vector, Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri). Emerging psyllid resistance to multiple insecticides has generated investigations into the use of exogenously applied signaling compounds to enhance citrus resistance to D. citri and Las. In the present study, we examined whether foliar applications of methyl jasmonate (MJ), a volatile signaling compound associated with the induced systemic resistance pathway, and salicylic acid, a constituent of the systemic acquired resistance pathway, would elicit the emission of defense-related volatiles in citrus foliage, and what effect this might have on the host-plant searching behavior of D. citri. Comparisons were made of volatiles emitted from growing shoots of uninfected and Las-infected ‘Valencia’ sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) trees over two consecutive sampling days. A settling behavioral assay was used to compare psyllid attraction to MJ-treated vs. Tween-treated citrus sprigs. All three main effects, Las infection status, plant signaler application, and sampling day, influenced the proportions of individual volatile compounds emitted in different treatment groups. MJ- and SA-treated trees had higher emission rates than Tween-treated trees. Methyl salicylate (MeSA) and β-caryophyllene were present in higher proportions in the volatiles collected from Las-infected + trees. On the other hand, Las-infected + MJ-treated trees emitted lower proportions of MeSA than did Las-infected + Tween-treated trees. Because MeSA is a key D. citri attractant, this result suggests that MJ application could suppress MeSA emission from Las-infected trees, an approach that could be used to discourage psyllid colonization during

  6. Consumer preferences for fresh citrus: Impacts of demographic and behavioral characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    From 2000 to 2006, per capita consumption of fresh citrus fruit increased by 11.0%, but the relative shares of types of citrus consumed changed. Per capita consumption of the historically dominant citrus fruit, fresh oranges, experienced a continuous decline from 12.4 pounds to 7.4 pounds from 1990 ...

  7. Saving Citrus: Does the Next Generation See GM Science as a Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Joy N.; Ruth, Taylor K.; Owens, Courtney T.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Taylor, Melissa R.; Ellis, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of Florida's most prominent commodities, providing 66% of the total United States' value for oranges. Florida's citrus production decreased 21% in 2014 from the previous season, partly due to the disease citrus greening. The science of genetic modification (GM) is one of the most promising solutions to the problem. However, a…

  8. Effect of season on the quality of forages selected by sheep in citrus plantations in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard K. Adjorlolo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at assessing the effects of season on chemical composition of forages selected by sheep grazing in a citrus plantation. Forage species growing in a sweet orange (Citrus sinensis plantation were identified and sampled monthly for 2 years. Samples were bulked on monthly basis for chemical analysis. The average dry matter content of the forages increased from the rainy to the dry season but effects of season on the chemical components were inconsistent. Some species, such as Asystasia gangetica, had a higher crude protein concentration in the dry season, whereas for others, such as Panicum repens, the reverse occurred. However, average concentrations of crude protein, detergent fiber and components of fiber for all species for the rainy season were not significantly different from the dry season values. It was concluded that there were differences among forage species in their responses to changing seasons, such that grazing ruminants may select a diet to enable them to meet their nutritional requirements, provided forage biomass is adequate.Keywords: Crop-livestock integration, tree plantations, chemical composition, seasonal effects, forage quality.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(2271-277

  9. Induced mutations in citrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel-Roy, P.; Vardi, Aliza

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Parthenocarpic tendency is an important prerequisite for successful induction of seedlessness in breeding and especially in mutation breeding. A gene for asynapsis and accompanying seedless fruit has been found by us in inbred progeny of cv. 'Wilking'. Using budwood irradiation by gamma rays, seedless mutants of 'Eureka' and 'Villafranca' lemon (original clone of the latter has 25 seeds) and 'Minneola' tangelo have been obtained. Ovule sterility of the three mutants is nearly complete, with some pollen fertility still remaining. A semi-compact mutant of Shamouti orange has been obtained by irradiation. A programme for inducing seedlessness in easy peeling citrus varieties and selections has been initiated. (author)

  10. Diversidade de abelhas visitantes das flores de Citrus em pomares de laranjeira e tangerineira Diversity of flowers visiting bees of Citrus in salinas, state of minas gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tigre do Nascimento

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A presença de abelhas em culturas de valor comercial, no período de florescimento, é importante não apenas para garantir a polinização cruzada, quando indispensável, mas também para incrementar a produção de frutos e sementes. Nessa perspectiva, o presente trabalho teve a finalidade de identificar as abelhas visitantes das flores em pomar de laranjeira (Citrus sinensis e tangerineira (Citrus reticulata em Salinas - MG. O trabalho foi conduzido na fazenda experimental Santa Isabel, da Escola Agrotécnica Federal de Salinas - MG, em pomares de laranjeira com as variedades, pera, baía e baianinha, e de tangerineira, variedade poncã. As coletas das abelhas visitantes das culturas da laranjeira e tangerineira foram feitas nas floradas principais, entre os meses de agosto e outubro. Foram coletadas as abelhas que visitaram as flores nos horários entre 06 h e 18 h, totalizando 52 horas na laranjeira e 50 horas na tangerineira. No pomar de laranjeira, foram coletados 5.045 espécimes com riqueza de 12 espécies, e na tangerineira, 1.428 espécimes com 20 espécies. As espécies de abelhas de maior predominância e dominância em todos os horários amostrados foram Apis mellifera e Trigona spinipes na cultura da laranjeira e A. mellifera, T. spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula na cultura da tangerineira.The presence of bees on cultures with commercial value during flowering is important to ensure the cross-pollination, when necessary, but also to increase the production of fruits and seeds. This work aimed to identify flowers' visiting bees on orange and tangerine orchards in Salinas - MG. The work was leaded on Santa Isabel experimental farm of the Federal Agro-technical School of Salinas - MG, on orange orchards (Citrus sinensis with pear, bahia and baianinha varieties in the spacing of 5,0 x 6,0, and on tangerine orchards (C. reticulate using poncã variety in the spacing of 5,0 x 5,0. The sampling of visiting bees from orange and tangerine

  11. Soil microbial biomass under different management and tillage systems of permanent intercropped cover species in an orange orchard

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    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To mitigate soil erosion and enhance soil fertility in orange plantations, the permanent protection of the inter-rows by cover species has been suggested. The objective of this study was to evaluate alterations in the microbial biomass, due to different soil tillage systems and intercropped cover species between rows of orange trees. The soil of the experimental area previously used as pasture (Brachiaria humidicola was an Ultisol (Typic Paleudult originating from Caiuá sandstone in the northwestern part of the State of Paraná, Brazil. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated: conventional tillage (CT in the entire area and strip tillage (ST (strip width 2 m, in combination with different ground cover management systems. The citrus cultivar 'Pera' orange (Citrus sinensis grafted onto 'Rangpur' lime rootstock was used. Soil samples were collected after five years of treatment from a depth of 0-15 cm, under the tree canopy and in the inter-row, in the following treatments: (1 CT and an annual cover crop with the leguminous species Calopogonium mucunoides; (2 CT and a perennial cover crop with the leguminous peanut Arachis pintoi; (3 CT and an evergreen cover crop with Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum; (4 CT and a cover crop with spontaneous Brachiaria humidicola grass vegetation; and (5 ST and maintenance of the remaining grass (pasture of Brachiaria humidicola. Soil tillage and the different cover species influenced the microbial biomass, both under the tree canopy and in the inter-row. The cultivation of brachiaria increased C and N in the microbial biomass, while bahiagrass increased P in the microbial biomass. The soil microbial biomass was enriched in N and P by the presence of ground cover species and according to the soil P content. The grass species increased C, N and P in the soil microbial biomass from the inter-row more than leguminous species.

  12. Weedy hosts and prevalence of potential leafhopper vectors (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) of a phytoplasma (16SrIX group) associated with Huanglongbing symptoms in citrus groves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, R N; Teixeira, D C; Yamamoto, P T; Lopes, J R S

    2012-04-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a severe citrus (Citrus spp.) disease associated with the bacteria genus Candidatus Liberibacter, detected in Brazil in 2004. Another bacterium was found in association with HLB symptoms and characterized as a phytoplasma belonging to the 16SrIX group. The objectives of this study were to identify potential leafhopper vectors of the HLB-associated phytoplasma and their host plants. Leafhoppers were sampled every other week for 12 mo with sticky yellow cards placed at two heights (0.3 and 1.5 m) in the citrus tree canopy and by using a sweep net in the ground vegetation of two sweet orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, groves infected by the HLB-phytoplasma in São Paulo state. Faunistic analyses indicated one Agalliinae (Agallia albidula Uhler) and three Deltocephalinae [Balclutha hebe (Kirkaldy), Planicephalus flavicosta (Stål), and Scaphytopius (Convelinus) marginelineatus (Stål)] species, as the most abundant and frequent leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Visual observations indicated an association of leafhopper species with some weeds and the influence of weed species composition on leafhopper abundance in low-lying vegetation. S. marginelineatus and P. flavicosta were more frequent on Sida rhombifolia L. and Althernantera tenella Colla, respectively, whereas A. albidula was observed more often on Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq. and B. hebe only occurred on grasses. DNA samples of field-collected S. marginelineatus were positive by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing tests for the presence of the HLB-phytoplasma group, indicating it as a potential vector. The association of leafhoppers with their hosts may be used in deciding which management strategies to adopt against weeds and diseases in citrus orchards.

  13. Development of direct somatic embryogenesis and regeneration on citrus sinesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong Saw Peng; Alvina Lindsay Mijen; Rusli Ibrahim

    2004-01-01

    The plant regeneration processes in Citrus sinensis involves direct somatic embryogenesis. Culture medium used was MS basal supplemented with 50 mg/L sucrose, 0.27% agar and 0.1% vitamin at pH 5.8. Sucrose is the major carbon source for the induction of somatic embryo and also the maturation and germination of somatic embryo. (Author)

  14. An Orange is an Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Martin

    1975-01-01

    The citrus thrips is a small insect pest that causes some cosmetic damage, but seldom causes yield reduction, tree kills, or lower the nutritional value or eating quality of citrus fruits. In California however, economic and marketing factors have prompted the massive, unnecessary overuse of insecticides to kill this pest. (Author/MA)

  15. Soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization under different tillage systems and Permanent Groundcover cultivation between Orange trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the alterations in carbon and nitrogen mineralization due to different soil tillage systems and groundcover species for intercropped orange trees. The experiment was established in an Ultisol soil (Typic Paleudults originated from Caiuá sandstone in northwestern of the state of Paraná, Brazil, in an area previously cultivated with pasture (Brachiaria humidicola. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated: conventional tillage (CT in the entire area and strip tillage (ST with a 2-m width, each with different groundcover vegetation management systems. The citrus cultivar utilized was the 'Pera' orange (Citrus sinensis grafted onto a 'Rangpur' lime rootstock. The soil samples were collected at a 0-15-cm depth after five years of experiment development. Samples were collected from under the tree canopy and from the inter-row space after the following treatments: (1 CT and annual cover crop with the leguminous Calopogonium mucunoides; (2 CT and perennial cover crop with the leguminous peanut Arachis pintoi; (3 CT and evergreen cover crop with Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum; (4 CT and cover crop with spontaneous B. humidicola grass vegetation; and (5 ST and maintenance of the remaining grass (pasture of B. humidicola. The soil tillage systems and different groundcover vegetation influenced the C and N mineralization, both under the tree canopy and in the inter-row space. The cultivation of B. humidicola under strip tillage provided higher potential mineralization than the other treatments in the inter-row space. Strip tillage increased the C and N mineralization compared to conventional tillage. The grass cultivation increased the C and N mineralization when compared to the others treatments cultivated in the inter-row space.

  16. Seasonal Population Dynamics of Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Sweet Orange Trees Maintained under Continuous Deficit Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A two-year study was conducted in a citrus orchard [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. ‘Valencia’] to determine influence of plant water stress on population dynamics of glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar). Experimental treatments included irrigation at 100% of the crop...

  17. The Types of Essentials Oil Components Isolated From the Leaves of Citrus Aurantifolia and Citrus Nobilis

    OpenAIRE

    Wulandari, Mutiara Juni; Mohammad Anwar Jamaludin,, Lailatul Riska, Agustin Laela Prunama; Mumun Nurmilawati, Indra Fauzi

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil or known as the eteris oil (etheric oil) was result from secondary metabolism of a plant. In general essential oil contains of citronellal, Citronelal, Citronelol, Limonen, β-Pinene dan sabinene. The components essential oil derived from citrus plants commonly used by perfume industry, on other hand it is used as essentials oil orange flavour addition in some drinks and food, and also as an antioxidant and anti cancer. One of the essential oil is produced by Citrus aurantifolia ...

  18. Different adaptation strategies of two citrus scion/rootstock combinations in response to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra de Souza, Joadson; de Andrade Silva, Edson Mario; Coelho Filho, Mauricio Antônio; Morillon, Raphaël; Bonatto, Diego; Micheli, Fabienne; da Silva Gesteira, Abelmon

    2017-01-01

    Scion/rootstock interaction is important for plant development and for breeding programs. In this context, polyploid rootstocks presented several advantages, mainly in relation to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we analyzed the response to drought of two different scion/rootstock combinations presenting different polyploidy: the diploid (2x) and autotetraploid (4x) Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia, Osbeck) rootstocks grafted with 2x Valencia Delta sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) scions, named V/2xRL and V/4xRL, respectively. Based on previous gene expression data, we developed an interactomic approach to identify proteins involved in V/2xRL and V/4xRL response to drought. A main interactomic network containing 3,830 nodes and 97,652 edges was built from V/2xRL and V/4xRL data. Exclusive proteins of the V/2xRL and V/4xRL networks (2,056 and 1,001, respectively), as well as common to both networks (773) were identified. Functional clusters were obtained and two models of drought stress response for the V/2xRL and V/4xRL genotypes were designed. Even if the V/2xRL plant implement some tolerance mechanisms, the global plant response to drought was rapid and quickly exhaustive resulting in a general tendency to dehydration avoidance, which presented some advantage in short and strong drought stress conditions, but which, in long terms, does not allow the plant survival. At the contrary, the V/4xRL plants presented a response which strong impacts on development but that present some advantages in case of prolonged drought. Finally, some specific proteins, which presented high centrality on interactomic analysis were identified as good candidates for subsequent functional analysis of citrus genes related to drought response, as well as be good markers of one or another physiological mechanism implemented by the plants.

  19. Different adaptation strategies of two citrus scion/rootstock combinations in response to drought stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joadson Dutra de Souza

    Full Text Available Scion/rootstock interaction is important for plant development and for breeding programs. In this context, polyploid rootstocks presented several advantages, mainly in relation to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we analyzed the response to drought of two different scion/rootstock combinations presenting different polyploidy: the diploid (2x and autotetraploid (4x Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia, Osbeck rootstocks grafted with 2x Valencia Delta sweet orange (Citrus sinensis scions, named V/2xRL and V/4xRL, respectively. Based on previous gene expression data, we developed an interactomic approach to identify proteins involved in V/2xRL and V/4xRL response to drought. A main interactomic network containing 3,830 nodes and 97,652 edges was built from V/2xRL and V/4xRL data. Exclusive proteins of the V/2xRL and V/4xRL networks (2,056 and 1,001, respectively, as well as common to both networks (773 were identified. Functional clusters were obtained and two models of drought stress response for the V/2xRL and V/4xRL genotypes were designed. Even if the V/2xRL plant implement some tolerance mechanisms, the global plant response to drought was rapid and quickly exhaustive resulting in a general tendency to dehydration avoidance, which presented some advantage in short and strong drought stress conditions, but which, in long terms, does not allow the plant survival. At the contrary, the V/4xRL plants presented a response which strong impacts on development but that present some advantages in case of prolonged drought. Finally, some specific proteins, which presented high centrality on interactomic analysis were identified as good candidates for subsequent functional analysis of citrus genes related to drought response, as well as be good markers of one or another physiological mechanism implemented by the plants.

  20. Diversidade genética entre híbridos de laranja-doce e tangor 'Murcott' avaliada por fAFLP e RAPD Genetic diversity among hybrids of sweet orange and 'Murcott' tangor evaluated by fAFLP and RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinês Bastianel

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade genética em uma população de 148 híbridos de tangor 'Murcott' (Citrus reticulata Blanco x C. sinensis L. Osbeck e laranja 'Pêra' (C. sinensis L. Osbeck obtidos por polinização controlada, pelo uso de marcadores fAFLP e RAPD. Marcadores polimórficos (416 marcadores fAFLP e 33 RAPD foram utilizados para avaliar a similaridade genética entre os híbridos, calculada com o coeficiente Jaccard pelo método UPGMA. A consistência de cada agrupamento foi determinada pelo programa BOOD. Houve alta similaridade genética entre os parentais. A laranja 'Pêra' apresentou maior número (132 de loci em heterozigose em relação ao tangor 'Murcott' (105, corroborando a teoria de origem híbrida para a laranja-doce. Observaram-se dois grupos distintos de plantas, e um deles abrangeu 80% dos híbridos com maior similaridade com a laranja 'Pêra'. A análise bootstrap não revelou consistência estatística entre esses grupos. Marcadores fAFLP são mais eficientes na avaliação do polimorfismo, sendo indicados para seleção de indivíduos híbridos mais próximos a um dos parentais.The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic diversity in a population of 148 hybrids of 'Murcott' tangor (Citrus reticulata Blanco x C. sinensis L. Osbeck and 'Pêra' sweet orange (C. sinensis L. Osbeck, obtained by controlled polination, using fAFLP and RAPD markers. Polymorphic markers (416 fAFLP and 33 RAPD markers were used to evaluate genetic similarity among the hybrids, calculated by the coefficient of Jaccard, using the UPGMA method. The consistency of each group was determined by software BOOD. There was high genetic similarity within the parents. 'Pêra' sweet orange had a higher number of loci in heterozygosis (132 compared to 'Murcott' tangor (105, supporting the theory of hybrid origin for sweet oranges. Two distinct groups of plants were observed: one group had 80% of the hybrids that displayed

  1. Comportamento de catorze porta-enxertos para o limão eureka km 47 na região de Araraquara-SP Behaviour of fourteen rootstocks for eureka lemon [Citrus limon (L Burm. F. ] cv. km 47, in Araraquara, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Orlando de Figueiredo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o comportamento de 14 porta-enxertos para o limão 'Eureka km 47' [Citrus limon (L. Burm. f.], clone nucelar, em experimento instalado em 1991, na Fazenda Fittipaldi, Araraquara-SP. Os porta-enxertos foram: tangelos 'Orlando' e 'Seminole' (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macfad., tangerinas 'Cleópatra' (C. reshni hort. ex Tanaka e 'Sunki' [C. sunki (Hayata hort. ex Tanaka], limões 'Cravo' (C. limonia Osbeck, 'Rugoso da África' (C. jambhiri Lush. e 'Volkameriano Catania 2' (C. volkameriana V. Ten. & Pasq., laranja 'Caipira DAC' [C. sinensis (L. Osbeck], laranja 'Azeda Doble Cálice' (C. aurantium L., trifoliatas 'EEL'e 'Kryder 8-5' [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.], citrange 'Morton' [P. trifoliata (L. Raf. x C. sinensis (L. Osbeck], C. karna Raf. e C. pennivesiculata (Lush. Tanaka. As produções foram avaliadas no período de 1998 a 2002. As maiores produções médias em peso de frutos estiveram relacionadas aos porta-enxertos C. pennivesiculata e tangerina 'Cleópatra' (>220 kg/planta. Entre os porta-enxertos que induziram as mais baixas produções, estão C. karna, os dois tangelos, os dois trifoliatas e a 'Caipira DAC' (Fourteen rootstocks were compared in a trial started in 1991, for Eureka lemon cv. km 47, nucellar clone, in Araraquara, Brazil. The rootstocks tested were Orlando and Seminole tangelos (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macfad., Cleopatra mandarin (C. reshni hort. ex Tanaka, Sunki mandarin [C. sunki (Hayata hort. ex Tanaka], Rangpur Lime (C. limonia Osbeck, Rough Lemon cv. African (C. jambhiri Lush., and Volkamerican cv Catania 2 (C. volkameriana V. Ten. & Pasq., sweet orange [C. sinensis (L. Osbeck] cv. Caipira DAC, sour orange (C. aurantium L., Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. cv. EEL, P. trifoliata (L. Raf. cv. Kryder 8-5, Morton citrange [P. trifoliata (L. Raf. x C. sinensis (L. Osbeck], C. karna Raf. and C. pennivesiculata (Lush. Tanaka. Yield was measured by weight of fruits per tree, for a period of

  2. In vitro pollen germination of five citrus species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.; Perveen, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of present study is In vitro germination of the pollen grains of five Citrus species belonging to the family Rutaceae viz., Citrus aurantium L. var., aurantium Hook.f., C. limon (L.) Brum. f., C. paradisii Macfad, C. reticulata Blanco and C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck. using hanging drop technique. The germination was checked up to 48 weeks, for the pollen stored at different temperatures like 4 degree C, -20 degree C, -30 degree C and -60 degree C. The study indicates that low temperature and low relative humidity is better than high temperature and humidity with respect to pollen germination capacity and viability. Freeze dryer (-60 degree C) seems to be the best method to maintain pollen viability of stored pollen grains for a long period of time. Among five species Citrus aurantium, C. limon and C. sinensis showed high percentage of germination as compared to C. reticulata and C. paradisii. (author)

  3. UJI DAYA HAMBAT PERASAN BUAH JERUK SIAM BANJAR (Citrus reticulata TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN Shigella dysenteriae

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    Eka Kumalasari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Siam orange (Citrus reticulata is kind of orange which a lot in Sout Borneo and a national top variety called banjar siam orange. Orange contains secondary metabolites flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids which cause damage bacteria cell wall permeability. Objective of this study is to find out inhibition siam orange fruit squeeze to Shigella dysenteriae growth. This study is an experimental research laboratory. Inhibition test of siam banjar orange (Citrus reticulata fruit squeeze to Shigella dysenteriae growthwas conducted with diffusion methodwhich performed at Bacteriology Laboratory of Banjarbaru Center Veterinary. Result of phytochemicals screening showedthat banjar siam orange fruit squeeze contain alkaloids, saponins, and flavonoids. Result of the study showed banjar siam orange fruit squeeze has the ability to inhibite Shigella dysenteriae growth with 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% concentrations. The higher concentration of banjar siam orange squeeze, the greater diameter of inhibition zone result.

  4. Citrus peel extract incorporated ice cubes to protect the quality of common pandora: Fish storage in ice with citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerlikaya, Pinar; Ucak, Ilknur; Gumus, Bahar; Gokoglu, Nalan

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ice with albedo and flavedo fragments of Citrus (Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.)) extracts on the quality of common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus). Concentrated citrus extracts were diluted with distilled water (1/100 w/v) before making of ice. The ice cubes were spread on each layer of fishes and stored at 0 °C for 15 days. The pH value showed a regular increase in all samples. TVB-N levels of bitter orange treatment groups were recorded lower than the other groups reaching to 25.11 ± 0.02 mg/100 g at the end of the storage. The TMA-N values of bitter orange treatment groups were lower than that of control and grapefruit treatment groups. In terms of TBARS value, alteration was observed in the control samples and this value significantly (p extracts treatment groups at the end of storage since their antioxidant capacity. The oxidation was suppressed in citrus extracts treatment groups, especially in bitter orange flavedo treatment. The results showed the bitter orange albedo and bitter orange flavedo extracts in combination with ice storage have more effectiveness in controlling the biochemical indices in common pandora.

  5. Efeitos do 2,4-D, em laranjeira baianinha Effects of 2,4-D on the baianinha orange

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    Ody Rodriguez

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de conhecer a reação da laranjeira Baianinha à aplicação de 2,4-D, principalmente com relação à queda de frutas, executamos um experimento de pulverização de plantas com solução deste hormônio sintético, na Estação Experimental de Limeira, zona de maior densidade citrícola do Estado de São Paulo. Tôdas as concentrações do ácido, usadas no experimento, causaram modificações nos caracteres normais da laranjeira (Citrus sinensis Osb. As fôlhas, flôres e frutas sofreram modificações mais ou menos acentuadas, de acordo com a concentração do produto, os resultados permitindo contra-indicar pulverizações com 2,4-D nas condições apresentadas; mostram também, que as modificações atribuídas ao hormônio só se produziram durante a safra em que se fizeram os tratamentos. São apresentados dados das produções, do aumento de pêso das frutas e de queda das mesmas e das fôlhas, bem como ilustrações das principais modificações ocorridas nas frutas. A aplicação do 2,4-D causou decréscimo linear do número de frutas, proporcional as dosagens do hormônio. Como conseqüência houve aumento do seu pêso médio. Êste fato pode ser de utilidade para outras variedades cítricas, quando houver interesse no aumento de tamanho das frutas.The reaction of the Baianinha orange (Citrus sinensis Osb., a Brazilian hud sport of the Washington Navel, to applications of 2,4-D was studied at the Limeira Agr. Exp. Sta., São Paulo. All concentrations of this hormonial herbicide used in the tests induced some modifications of the normal characteristics of the plants when compared with the controls. The leaves, flowers, and fruits were the plant parts most affected by the treatments. Some of the morphological changes induced on the fruits tend to confirm the view that the Baia orange originated as a mutation from the Seleta variety. Data obtained on the yield, weight per fruit, and fruit drop indicate that application

  6. Design and evaluation of in vivo formulations based on orange (Citrus sinensis and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L, essential oils and acetic acid Diseño y evaluación in vivo de formulaciones para acné basadas en aceites esenciales de naranja (Citrus sinensis, albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L y ácido acético

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    Jennifer Herazo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Currently, the antimicrobial resistance of bacterial strains involved in the development of acne is a reality, it is necessary to find alternatives to antibiotic treatment.
    Objectives. Designing gel formulations based on essential oils and acetic acid and evaluate its effectiveness in volunteers patients affected by acne.
    Materials and methods. Masked simple experimental study of three gel formulations on four groups of seven patients. Treatments antibacterial (essential oils, keratolytic and mixed (acetic acid, were applied daily for eight weeks. Weekly checks were conducted to evaluate the improvement in patients.
    Results. All groups reported improvement of acne condition, which ranged between 43% and 75% clearance of lesions, with little discomfort or side effects after application of treatments, which disappeared within minutes.
    Conclusions. The formulations prepared were found to be chemically and physically stable during application of treatments, which was demonstrated by gas chromatography, where no evidence no change neither the composition profiles of essential oils nor in acetic acid. The results were ranked good to excellent, particularly for acetic acid, which achieved improvements of over 75%, a result of their joint activity antiseptic and keratolytic. Side effects (burning and redness disappeared within a few minutes of completing the application, therefore, did not prevent adherence to treatment.
    Introducción. Actualmente la resistencia a los antimicrobianos de las cepas bacterianas involucradas en el desarrollo del acné es una realidad, se hace necesario buscar alternativas terapéuticas para su tratamiento.
    Objetivos. Diseñar formulaciones tipo gel con base en aceites esenciales y ácido acético y evaluar su efectividad en pacientes voluntarios afectados por acné.
    Materiales y métodos. Estudio experimental simple enmascarado de tres formulaciones tipo gel sobre cuatro grupos de siete pacientes. Los tratamientos antibacteriano (aceites esenciales, queratolítico y mixto (ácido acético, se aplicaron diariamente por espacio de ocho semanas. Se realizaron controles semanales para evaluar la evolución de los pacientes.
    Resultados. Todos los grupos reportaron mejoría (desaparición de las lesiones de la condición del acné, las cuales oscilaron entre el 43% y el 75%, con leves efectos secundarios transitorios relacionados a la aplicación de los tratamientos utilizados
    Conclusiones. Las formulaciones estudiadas mostraron ser estables química y físicamente durante la aplicación de los tratamientos, lo cual se demostró mediante análisis de cromatografía de gases, en donde no se evidenció ningún cambio en los perfiles de composición de los aceites esenciales ni en el del ácido acético. Los resultados se catalogaron entre buenos y excelentes, en particular el del ácido acético, que logró mejorías superiores al 75%, dada su actividad mixta antiséptica y queratolítica. Los efectos secundarios (ardor y enrojecimiento desaparecieron a los pocos minutos de realizada la aplicación, y no impidieron la adherencia a los tratamientos.

  7. Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DOD Clinical Practice Guidelines Access and Quality Data Medical Inspector Patient Safety ... Orange was a tactical herbicide used by the U.S. military from 1962 to 1975, named for the orange band around the storage barrel. The military sprayed millions ...

  8. Índice de qualidade em um latossolo amarelo coeso cultivado com citros Quality index in a cohesive yellow latosol cultivated with citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernandes de Melo Filho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é o maior produtor mundial de citros e exportador de suco concentrado de laranja. Na região Nordeste, a citricultura tem grande importância social, onde é cultivada predominantemente por produtores com áreas menores do que 10 hectares, em solos como caráter coeso. Na Bahia, a citricultura é explorada sobre diversas condições tecnológicas, e especialmente nos Tabuleiros Costeiros os pomares têm baixa longevidade e produtividade em função das limitações dos solos coesos à produção agrícola. Este trabalho tem como objetivo determinar a qualidade física e química de um Latossolo Amarelo Coeso cultivado com citros. O estudo foi realizado na região do Recôncavo Baiano, em um pomar comercial de laranja "Pera" (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. sob porta-enxerto de limão-cravo (Citrus limonia L. Osb.. Para a determinação do índice de qualidade do solo (IQS, utilizou-se o método proposto por Karlen & Stott (1994, e amostras foram coletadas em duas camadas: 0,00 - 0,20 m e 0,20 - 0,40 m. Os resultados mostraram que o Latossolo Amarelo Coeso sob manejo tradicional para a cultura de citros apresentou índice de qualidade regular, com limitações determinadas pela elevada resistência do solo à penetração, baixa permeabilidade à água e baixo teor de matéria orgânica, o que resulta em limitações para permitir o crescimento e o aprofundamento do sistema radicular e prover o fornecimento e a disponibilidade de água para as plantas cítricas.Brazil is the greatest citrus producer and exporter of concentrated orange juice in the world. In the Northeast, the citriculture has a large social importance for farming family, which is predominantly cultivated for small farmers. In Bahia state the citriculture has been exploited under several technology conditions and especially in the Costal table lands soil the orchards have low longevity and productivity based on the cohesive soil limitations for rural production. The purpose of

  9. Fluxo de seiva e fotossíntese em laranjeira 'Natal' com clorose variegada dos citros Sap flow and photosynthesis of 'Natal' sweet orange plants with citrus variegated chlorosis

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    Eduardo Caruso Machado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da clorose variegada dos citros (CVC, no fluxo de seiva, trocas gasosas e atividade fotoquímica em laranjeira 'Natal', com e sem CVC, em condição de campo. O curso diário do fluxo de seiva, potencial da água na folha, assimilação de CO2, transpiração, condutância estomática e eficiência quântica máxima e efetiva do fotossistema II foram avaliados. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições. O fluxo de seiva foi 1,9 vez superior nas plantas sadias em relação às doentes. Em plantas doentes ocorreu queda de 43, 28 e 33% na assimilação de CO2, condutância estomática e transpiração, respectivamente. As plantas com CVC apresentaram fotoinibição dinâmica. Uma vez que a eficiência quântica efetiva apresentou um padrão de resposta semelhante, durante o dia, em ambos os tratamentos, o efeito protetor da fotorrespiração no aparato fotoquímico em plantas com CVC é discutido. As quedas de assimilação de CO2, transpiração e de fluxo de seiva, nas plantas com CVC, foram decorrentes do menor valor da condutância estomática, possivelmente causado pela colonização dos vasos do xilema pela Xylella fastidiosa.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC on sap flow, gas exchanges and photochemical activity in 'Natal' sweet orange plants with and without CVC under field condition. Diurnal courses of sap flow, leaf water potential, CO2 assimilation rate and transpiration, stomatal conductance, potential and effective quantum efficiency of photosystem II were evaluated. The experiment was arranged in a random block design with five repetitions. Healthy plants showed sap flow values around 1.9 times higher than injured ones. Injured plants exhibited reductions of 43, 28 and 33% in CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance and leaf transpiration, respectively. CVC-affected plants showed dynamic

  10. Antioxidant capacity of hesperidin from citrus peel using electron spin resonance and cytotoxic activity against human carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ashaal, Hanan A; El-Sheltawy, Shakinaz T

    2011-03-01

    Hesperidin is a flavonoid that has various pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antiviral activities. The aim of the study is the isolation of hesperidin from the peel of Citrus sinensis L. (Rutaceae), and the evaluation of its antioxidant capacity and cytotoxicity against different human carcinoma cell lines. In the present work, hesperidin is identified and confirmed using chromatographic and spectral analysis. To correlate between hesperidin concentration and antioxidant capacity of peel extracts, extraction was carried out using 1% HCl-MeOH, MeOH, alkaline solution, the concentration of hesperidin determined qualitatively and quantitatively using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, in vitro antioxidant capacity of hesperidin and the extracts against free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) performed using an electron spin resonance spectrophotometer (ESR). Cytotoxic assay against larynx, cervix, breast and liver carcinoma cell lines was performed. Hesperidin was found to be moderately active as an antioxidant agent; its capacity reached 36%. In addition, the results revealed that hesperidin exhibited pronounced anticancer activity against the selected cell lines. IC₅₀ were 1.67, 3.33, 4.17, 4.58 µg/mL, respectively. Orange peels are considered to be a cheap source for hesperidin which may be used in the pharmaceutical industry as a natural chemopreventive agent. Hesperidin and orange peel extract could possess antioxidant properties with a wide range of therapeutic applications.

  11. Desarrollo vegetativo de patrones cítricos cultivados en condiciones de invernadero bajo dos sistemas de riego Vegetative development of citrus seedlings cultivated at greenhouse conditions and submitted to two irrigations systems

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    Gilmar Schäfer

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se evaluó el desarrollo vegetativo de patrones cítricos cultivados en invernadero bajo dos sistemas de riego. El experimento se realizó en la Estação Experimental Agronômica de la Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, ubicada en Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, entre los meses de septiembre de 2003 y abril de 2004, totalizando 225 días de experimentación. El diseño experimental fue de parcelas subdivididas, en factorial 2 x 3, con 4 repeticiones de 22 contenedores cada. En las parcelas principales se evaluaron los sistemas de riego (microaspersión y capilaridad y en las subparcelas los patrones cítricos Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf., citrangero 'C37' [P. trifoliata x Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. cv. Pêra] y lima 'Rangpur' (C. limonia Osb.. En condiciones de invernadero los patrones cítricos presentan un desarrollo vegetativo más rápido bajo riego por capilaridad respecto a la microaspersión. Los patrones cítricos evaluados presentan desarrollos vegetativos distintos, donde el citrangero 'C37' supera a los demás.The aim of the present work was to evaluate the vegetative development of citrus rootstock seedlings cultivated under greenhouse conditions with two irrigation systems. The experiment was conducted at the Estação Experimental Agronômica , Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, located in Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from September 2003 to April 2004, totalizing 225 days of experimentation. The experimental design was a split-plot, in a 2x3 factorial, with 4 replications of 22 pots each. In the main plot the irrigation systems was evaluated (micro sprinkler and capillarity and in the split-plot the citrus rootstocks [Trifoliate orange - Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf., 'C37' citrange - P. trifoliata x Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. cv. Pêra and 'Rangpur' lime - C. limonia Osb.] were evaluated. The main result showed in conditions of greenhouse citrus rootstock seedlings

  12. Qualidade industrial e maturação de frutos de laranjeira "valência" sobre seis porta-enxertos Industrial quality and maturation of fruits of 'valência' sweet orange trees on six rootstocks

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    Pedro Antonio Martins Auler

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de seis porta-enxertos sobre a maturação e as características físico-químicas de frutos de laranjeira 'Valência', instalou-se um experimento em janeiro de 1994, no município de Nova Esperança-PR. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, três plantas úteis por parcela e seis tratamentos, constituídos pelos porta-enxertos: limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia, tangerineiras 'Cleópatra' (C. reshni e 'Sunki' (C. sunki, citrangeiro 'Troyer' (Poncirus trifoliata x C. sinensis, tangeleiro 'orlando' (C. tangerina x C. paradisi e laranjeira 'Caipira'(C. sinensis. Avaliou-se a qualidade dos frutos em sete safras e a curva de maturação foi estimada para os anos de 1999 e 2000. Todos os porta-enxertos proporcionaram qualidade aceitável aos frutos da laranjeira 'Valência', com destaque para o citrangeiro 'Troyer' que superou o limoeiro 'Cravo' em rendimento industrial. Em um ano considerado com padrão climático normal, a evolução do índice tecnológico ajustou-se a uma equação de regressão quadrática, proporcionando melhor rendimento industrial quando os frutos foram colhidos no início de novembro, independentemente do porta-enxerto utilizado.In order to evaluate the influence of six rootstocks on the maturation and the physical characteristics and chemical composition of 'Valência' fruits, a research was conducted in a field established in 1994, in Nova Esperança city, state of Paraná, Brazil. A complete randomized block design was used, with four replications, three evaluated trees per plot and six treatments, constituted by the rootstocks: 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia, 'Cleopatra' (C. reshni and 'Sunki' (C. sunki mandarins, 'Troyer' citrange (Poncirus trifoliata x C. sinensis, 'orlando' tangelo (C. tangerina x C. paradisi and 'Caipira' sweet orange (C. sinensis. Fruit quality was evaluated along seven harvesting seasons and the maturation curve was

  13. Homologues of CsLOB1 in citrus function as disease susceptibility genes in citrus canker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junli; Huguet-Tapia, Jose Carlos; Hu, Yang; Jones, Jeffrey; Wang, Nian; Liu, Sanzhen; White, Frank F

    2017-08-01

    The lateral organ boundary domain (LBD) genes encode a group of plant-specific proteins that function as transcription factors in the regulation of plant growth and development. Citrus sinensis lateral organ boundary 1 (CsLOB1) is a member of the LBD family and functions as a disease susceptibility gene in citrus bacterial canker (CBC). Thirty-four LBD members have been identified from the Citrus sinensis genome. We assessed the potential for additional members of LBD genes in citrus to function as surrogates for CsLOB1 in CBC, and compared host gene expression on induction of different LBD genes. Using custom-designed transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors, two members of the same clade as CsLOB1, named CsLOB2 and CsLOB3, were found to be capable of functioning similarly to CsLOB1 in CBC. RNA sequencing and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed a set of cell wall metabolic genes that are associated with CsLOB1, CsLOB2 and CsLOB3 expression and may represent downstream genes involved in CBC. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  14. Concentrations of p-synephrine in fruits and leaves of Citrus species (Rutaceae) and the acute toxicity testing of Citrus aurantium extract and p-synephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbo, M D; Larentis, E R; Linck, V M; Aboy, A L; Pimentel, A L; Henriques, A T; Dallegrave, E; Garcia, S C; Leal, M B; Limberger, R P

    2008-08-01

    Dietary supplements containing bitter orange unripe fruit extract/p-synephrine are consumed worldwide for lose weight. This study were conducted to determine the concentration of p-synephrine in unripe fruits and leaves from Citrus aurantium Lin, C. sinensis Osbeck, C. deliciosa Ten, C. limon Burm and C. limonia Osbeck, collected in Southern Brazil, and to evaluate the acute toxicity of C. aurantium extract and p-synephrine. A high performance liquid chromatographic method with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was optimized and validated for determination of p-synephrine. The results indicate that all of analyzed samples present p-synephrine in amounts that range from 0.012% to 0.099% in the unripe fruits and 0.029 to 0.438% in the leaves. Acute oral administration of C. aurantium extracts (2.5% p-synephrine, 300-5,000 mg/kg) in mice produced reduction of locomotor activity, p-synephrine (150-2,000 mg/kg) produced piloerection, gasping, salivation, exophtalmia and reduction in locomotor activity, which was confirmed in spontaneous locomotor activity test. All the effects were reversible and persisted for 3-4h. The toxic effects observed seem to be related with adrenergic stimulation and should alert for possible side effects of p-synephrine and C. aurantium.

  15. Orange Book

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence (Orange Book or OB) is a list of drugs approved under Section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act...

  16. Efeito dos extratos do albedo de Citrus sinensis, Lentinula edodes, Agaricus blazei e dos compostos orgânicos voláteis produzidos por Saccharomyces cerevisiae no controle da mancha preta dos citros

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Toffano

    2010-01-01

    A mancha preta dos citros é uma doença que limita a exportação de laranja brasileira para os países da Europa. Exceto para Citrus aurantium e seus híbridos, todas as outras variedades são susceptíveis ao patógeno. Com isso existe um grande interesse para que esta doença não ocorra, uma vez que é considerada uma doença quarentenária A1. Problemas associados à aquisição de resistência e a percepção do público em geral sobre o impacto potencial das práticas tradicionais de controle sobre a saúde...

  17. SCREENING FITOKIMIA, AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN ANTIMIKROBA PADA BUAH JERUK LEMON(Citrus limon DAN JERUK NIPIS (Citrus aurantiifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindya Nirmala Permata

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The desire to live healthy by eating natural foods and drinks into the lifestyle of the community. Orange becomes one of the fruits that become functional food to maintain and maintain health. The purpose of this research is to know the difference of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity on Citrus limon and Citrus aurantiifolia. The research method is laboratory experimental research with descriptive analysis. This research was conducted in February-April 2017 at the Laboratory of Plant Biological Microbiology and Plant Chemistry Department of Biology State University of Malang. Phytochemical screening by color reaction method, total phenol with Folin Ciocalteu method, antioxidant activity with DPPH method and antimicrobial activity with disc method. Screening results show the presence of saponins and alkaloids but there are no flavonoids, terpenoids and tannins. Total phenol test showed total phenol content in Lemon (Citrus limon of 110,25 mg GAE / 100ml while in Lime (Citrus aurantiifolia 116,5 mg GAE / 100ml. The antioxidant activity of Lemon Citrus (Citrus limon 49.593 g / ml and Lime (Citrus aurantiifolia 49.589g / ml. Antimicrobial activity test obtained the highest zone of resistance at 100% concentration of each citrus fruit. The conclusion of this study is that there is a difference of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity in both oranges, where the lemon fruits (C.limon antioxidant activity is higher than and Lime (C. aurantiifolia, while the antimicrobial activity of lemon (C. aurantiifolia is higher Rather than lemon (C.limon.

  18. Depletion of abscisic acid levels in roots of flooded Carrizo citrange (Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf. × Citrus sinensis L. Osb.) plants is a stress-specific response associated to the differential expression of PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbona, Vicent; Zandalinas, Sara I; Manzi, Matías; González-Guzmán, Miguel; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2017-04-01

    Soil flooding reduces root abscisic acid (ABA) levels in citrus, conversely to what happens under drought. Despite this reduction, microarray analyses suggested the existence of a residual ABA signaling in roots of flooded Carrizo citrange seedlings. The comparison of ABA metabolism and signaling in roots of flooded and water stressed plants of Carrizo citrange revealed that the hormone depletion was linked to the upregulation of CsAOG, involved in ABA glycosyl ester (ABAGE) synthesis, and to a moderate induction of catabolism (CsCYP707A, an ABA 8'-hydroxylase) and buildup of dehydrophaseic acid (DPA). Drought strongly induced both ABA biosynthesis and catabolism (CsNCED1, 9-cis-neoxanthin epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 1, and CsCYP707A) rendering a significant hormone accumulation. In roots of flooded plants, restoration of control ABA levels after stress release was associated to the upregulation of CsBGLU18 (an ABA β-glycosidase) that cleaves ABAGE. Transcriptional profile of ABA receptor genes revealed a different induction in response to soil flooding (CsPYL5) or drought (CsPYL8). These two receptor genes along with CsPYL1 were cloned and expressed in a heterologous system. Recombinant CsPYL5 inhibited ΔNHAB1 activity in vitro at lower ABA concentrations than CsPYL8 or CsPYL1, suggesting its better performance under soil flooding conditions. Both stress conditions induced ABA-responsive genes CsABI5 and CsDREB2A similarly, suggesting the occurrence of ABA signaling in roots of flooded citrus seedlings. The impact of reduced ABA levels in flooded roots on CsPYL5 expression along with its higher hormone affinity reinforce the role of this ABA receptor under soil-flooding conditions and explain the expression of certain ABA-responsive genes.

  19. The aconitate hydratase family from Citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cercos Manuel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing fruits and are catabolized thereafter during ripening. Aconitase, that transforms citrate to isocitrate, is the first step of citric acid catabolism and a major component of the citrate utilization machinery. In this work, the citrus aconitase gene family was first characterized and a phylogenetic analysis was then carried out in order to understand the evolutionary history of this family in plants. Gene expression analyses of the citrus aconitase family were subsequently performed in several acidic and acidless genotypes to elucidate their involvement in acid homeostasis. Results Analysis of 460,000 citrus ESTs, followed by sequencing of complete cDNA clones, identified in citrus 3 transcription units coding for putatively active aconitate hydratase proteins, named as CcAco1, CcAco2 and CcAco3. A phylogenetic study carried on the Aco family in 14 plant species, shows the presence of 5 Aco subfamilies, and that the ancestor of monocot and dicot species shared at least one Aco gene. Real-time RT-PCR expression analyses of the three aconitase citrus genes were performed in pulp tissues along fruit development in acidic and acidless citrus varieties such as mandarins, oranges and lemons. While CcAco3 expression was always low, CcAco1 and CcAco2 genes were generally induced during the rapid phase of fruit growth along with the maximum in acidity and the beginning of the acid reduction. Two exceptions to this general pattern were found: 1 Clemenules mandarin failed inducing CcAco2 although acid levels were rapidly reduced; and 2 the acidless "Sucreña" orange

  20. Citrus tissue culture employing vegetative explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, H C; Singh, S K; Sharma, A K; Agnihotri, S

    2001-11-01

    Citrus being a number one fruit of the world due to its high nutritional value, huge production of fruits and fruit products, the citrus industry may be considered a major fruit industry. Though citrus orchard area in India is comparable to USA, the produce is far less, while its export is nil. Biotechnology has played an outstanding role in boosting the citrus industry, e.g., in Spain, which is now the biggest exporter of citrus fruit with the application of micrografting. Amongst the fruit trees, perhaps the maximum tissue culture research has been done in citrus during the past four decades, however, the results of practical value are meagre. The shortfalls in citrus tissue culture research and some advancements made in this direction along with bright prospects are highlighted, restricting the review to vegetative explants only. Whilst utilization of nucellar embryogenesis is limited to rootstocks, the other aspects, like, regeneration and proliferation of shoot meristems measuring 200 microm in length--a global breakthrough--of two commercially important scion species, Citrus aurantifolia and C. sinensis and an important rootstock, C. limonia, improvement of micrografting technique, cloning of the same two scion species as well as some Indian rootstock species, employing nodal stem segments of mature trees, of immense practical value have been elaborated. A rare phenomenon of shift in the morphogenetic pattern of differentiation from shoot bud differentiation to embryoid formation occurred during the long-term culture of stem callus of C. grandis. Stem callus-regenerated plants of C. aurantifolia, C. sinensis and C. grandis showed variation in their ploidy levels and a somaclonal variant of C. sinensis, which produced seedless fruits was isolated. Tailoring of rooting in microshoots to a tap root-like system by changing the inorganic salt composition of the rooting medium, resulting in 100% transplant success, and germplasm preservation through normal growth

  1. Avaliação do potencial hídrico foliar, umidade do solo e temperatura do ar no período pré- florescimento dos citros Evaluation of the leaf water potencial, soil humidity and air temperature on the pre-bloom of citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Céu Monteiro da Cruz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido em um pomar de citros localizado no Setor de Fruticultura do Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Viçosa-UFV/Viçosa-MG, no período de março a setembro de 2004. O objetivo foi avaliar a influência do potencial hídrico das folhas e do solo sobre o florescimento da tangerineira 'Poncã', laranjeira 'Serra d'Água'e limeira ácida 'Tahiti' nas condições climáticas de Viçosa-MG. A temperatura do ar (ºC e a precipitação pluviométrica (mm foram avaliadas diariamente durante o período experimental. O potencial hídrico no solo e nas folhas foi avaliado em dois horários (7:00 às 8:00 h manhã e 13:00 às 14:00 h tarde. As cultivares utilizadas foram laranjeira 'Serra d'Água'(Citrus sinensis (L. Osb., tangerina 'Poncã' (Citrus reticulata Blanco e limeira ácida 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tanaka., enxertadas sobre limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osb.. Observou-se que o potencial hídrico foliar dos citros diminuiu sob condições de altas temperaturas e déficit hídrico no solo, entretanto, varia em função dos cultivares, observando-se os maiores valores para a limeira 'Tahiti'. O florescimento ocorreu após um período de baixas temperaturas seguido por uma redução do potencial hídrico do solo. A limeira ácida 'Tahiti' é mais precoce, quando comparada com a tangerineira 'Poncã' e a laranjeira 'Serra D'Água'.This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of leaf and soil water potential on flowering of 'Ponkan' mandarin, 'Tahiti' acid lime, and 'Serra d'Água' orange trees under the climate conditions of Viçosa State de Minas Gerais. The experiment was carried out at the Federal University of Viçosa-UFV, in an orchard located in the Fruit crop Sector of the Crop Sciences Department in the period of March to September of 2004. Were evaluate daily during the experimental period the air temperature (ºC and the pluvial precipitation (mm. The soil and the leaf water potential ware

  2. Mutated clones of sweet orange cv. pera with late ripening obtained through mutation induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha Latado, Rodrigo; Tulmann Neto, Augusto; Ando, Akihiko; Iemma, Antonio Francisco; Pompeu Junior, Jorgino; Figueiredo, Jose Orlando; Pio, Rose Mary; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Namekata, Takao; Ceravolo, Leonardo; Rossi, Antonio Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Sweet orange cv. Pera (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) harvested from July to November, is the most important cultivar in growing area and consumption in Brazil. To obtain mutants for many characteristics, one-year-old shoots were irradiated at 40 Gy of gamma-rays and the axillary buds were budded. After two cutting-backs, about 7,580 V3M1 plants were obtained. Total of 127 putative mutants were selected from these plants for further examination. The main purpose of this experiment was to obtain late ripening clones which have good fruit quality. These all plants were divided into 15 groups based on the characteristics and random blocks design with 5 replications, including one control plant in each block, was used. The plants were planted 4 X 7 meters and were grown in field condition without artificial irrigation. Ten fruits from each tree were used in evaluating the fruit characteristics such as contents of soluble solid (TSS), acidity, ratio of juice content and skin color, for four years. The data was analyzed by Dunnett test using SAS program. Six clones (9, 10, 16, 21, 58 and 84) were considered as late ripening mutants because they showed lower level of TSS or less ratio of juice content, comparing with the control, in more than one evaluation. The color of the skin of some mutants indicates that they have later ripening characteristics. Other agronomic characteristics are under evaluation in order to see if these mutants can be released as new cultivars

  3. Relationships between nutrient composition of flowers and fruit quality in orange trees grown in calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, Maribela; Beja, Pedro; Correia, Pedro José; de Varennes, Amarilis; Faria, Eugénio Araújo

    2005-06-01

    To determine if flower nutrient composition can be used to predict fruit quality, a field experiment was conducted over three seasons (1996-1999) in a commercial orange orchard (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. 'Valencia Late', budded on Troyer citrange rootstock) established on a calcareous soil in southern Portugal. Flowers were collected from 20 trees during full bloom in April and their nutrient composition determined, and fruits were harvested the following March and their quality evaluated. Patterns of covariation in flower nutrient concentrations and in fruit quality variables were evaluated by principal component analysis. Regression models relating fruit quality variables to flower nutrient composition were developed by stepwise selection procedures. The predictive power of the regression models was evaluated with an independent data set. Nutrient composition of flowers at full bloom could be used to predict the fruit quality variables fresh fruit mass and maturation index in the following year. Magnesium, Ca and Zn concentrations measured in flowers were related to fruit fresh mass estimations and N, P, Mg and Fe concentrations were related to fruit maturation index. We also established reference values for the nutrient composition of flowers based on measurements made in trees that produced large (> 76 mm in diameter) fruit.

  4. Mutation selection and induction in pera sweet orange using gamma - rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulmann Neto, Augusto; Menten, Jose O.M.; Ando, Akihiko; Ceravolo, Leonardo; Namakata, Takao; Rossi, Antonio C.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the present research was the evaluate the methodology to select mutants of interest in the pera sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.), using bud gamma irradiation with 4.0 kR. The cutting back method was applied to the V1M1 branches originated after irradiation, and the six first buds from these branches were used to obtain V2M1 generation. Buds from these V2M1 branches were grafted to get the V3M1 generation. Selection was made in the quadrants (North, South, East and West) of the surviving plants, and 127 were selected. these plants differed from the controls in addition to the agronomic characteristics such as canopy height, seed number in the fruits, yield, fruit shape, leave morphology, etc. The higher frequency of morphological changes observed in the leaves and fruits, leads to conclude that the fifth and sixth buds along the V1M1 branch should be used when the present methodology is applied. The system of dividing the selecting plants into quadrants proved to be efficient because, despite the cutting back method used, the plants still showed chimerism. The selected clones are under evaluation in field condition in order to confirm the nature and the genetic stability of changes. (author)

  5. Sweet orange trees grafted on selected rootstocks fertilized with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium

    OpenAIRE

    Quaggio,José Antônio; Mattos Junior,Dirceu; Cantarella,Heitor; Stuchi,Eduardo Sanches; Sempionato,Otávio Ricardo

    2004-01-01

    The majority of citrus trees in Brazil are grafted on 'Rangpur lime' (Citrus limonia Osb.) rootstock. Despite its good horticultural performance, search for disease tolerant rootstock varieties to improve yield and longevity of citrus groves has increased. The objective of this work was to evaluate yield efficiency of sweet oranges on different rootstocks fertilized with N, P, and potassium. Tree growth was affected by rootstock varieties; trees on 'Swingle' citrumelo [Poncirus trifoliata (L....

  6. Raman Spectroscopy an Option for the Early Detection of Citrus Huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Moisés Roberto Vallejo; Mendoza, María Guadalupe Galindo; Elías, Miguel Ghebre Ramírez; González, Francisco Javier; Contreras, Hugo Ricardo Navarro; Servín, Carlos Contreras

    2016-05-01

    This research describes the application of portable field Raman spectroscopy combined with a statistical analysis of the resulting spectra, employing principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), in which we determine that this method provides a high degree of reliability in the early detection of Huanglongbing (HLB) on Sweet Orange, disease caused by the bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. Symptomatic and asymptomatic plant samples of Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis), Persian Lime (C. latifolia), and Mexican Lime (C. aurantifolia) trees were collected from several municipalities, three at Colima State and three at Jalisco State (HLB presence). In addition, Sweet Orange samples were taken from two other Mexican municipalities, one at San Luis Potosí and the other at Veracruz (HLB absent). All samples were analyzed by real-time PCR to determine its phytosanitary condition, and its spectral signatures were obtained with an ID-Raman mini. Spectral anomalies in orange trees HLB-positive, were identified in bands related to carbohydrates (905 cm(-1), 1043 cm(-1), 1127 cm(-1), 1208 cm(-1), 1370 cm(-1), 1272 cm(-1), 1340 cm(-1), and 1260-1280 cm(-1)), amino acids, proteins (815 cm(-1), 830 cm(-1), 852 cm(-1), 918 cm(-1), 926 cm(-1), 970 cm(-1), 1002 cm(-1), 1053 cm(-1), and 1446 cm(-1)), and lipids (1734 cm(-1), 1736 cm(-1), 1738 cm(-1), 1745 cm(-1), and 1746 cm(-1)). Moreover, PCA-LDA showed a sensitivity of 86.9 % (percentage of positives, which are correctly identified), a specificity of 91.4 % (percentage of negatives, which are correctly identified), and a precision of 89.2 % (the proportion of all tests that are correct) in discriminating between orange plants HLB-positive and healthy plants. The Raman spectroscopy technique permitted rapid diagnoses, was low-cost, simple, and practical to administer, and produced immediate results. These are essential features for phytosanitary

  7. Effect of foliar applied (Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn) in citrus production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurshid, F.; Sarwar, S.; Khattak, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the impact of micronutrients (Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn) on sweet orange (Citrus Sinensis L.), blood red var., on farmer's orchard at Khanpur, district Haripur, NWFP, during 2002-03. Micronutrients were applied in foliar sprays over the canopy of each tree. The main effects and interactions of Zinc sulphate (Zn), iron sulphate (Fe), Copper Sulphate (Cu) and Manganese Sulphate (Mn) were studied in factorial combinations. A basal dose of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was applied at the rate 1.5, 1 and 1 kg tree/sup -1/. Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn were applied alone and in various combinations at the rate 0.115, 0.057, 0.05 and 0.13 kg in 100 liters of water. Application of micronutrients significantly increased Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn concentrations in leaves, compared with control. Zn treatments significantly increased the yield, number of fruit and total sugar. Manganese treatments significantly increased the total soluble solids and reduced the acidity of fruit juice. Other quality parameters, including fruit size, percent peel, percent pulp, sugar as well as total soluble solids, were improved with the application of Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn. (author)

  8. Nutrient digestibility and evaluation of protein and carbohydrate fractionation of citrus by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lashkari, Saman; Taghizadeh, Akbar

    2013-01-01

    The protein and carbohydrate fractionation and nutrient digestibility of citrus by‐products were determined. Ruminal, intestinal and total tract CP disappearance values were measured by a modified three‐step (MTSP) method and in vitro CP disappearance method (IVCP). Test feeds were orange pulp (OP...... to the results, it could be concluded that citrus by‐products have high nutritive value and also, the in vitro techniques can be easily used to determine of the nutritive value of citrus by‐products....

  9. Chemical composition of the essential oils of Citrus sinensis cv. valencia and a quantitative structure-retention relationship study for the prediction of retention indices by multiple linear regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larijani Kambiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the volatile fraction obtained by head-space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME, single drop microextraction (SDME and the essential oil obtained by cold-press from the peels of C. sinensis cv. valencia were analyzed employing gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The main components were limonene (61.34 %, 68.27 %, 90.50 %, myrcene (17.55 %, 12.35 %, 2.50 %, sabinene (6.50 %, 7.62 %, 0.5 % and α-pinene (0 %, 6.65 %, 1.4 % respectively obtained by HS-SPME, SDME and cold-press. Then a quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR study for the prediction of retention indices (RI of the compounds was developed by application of structural descriptors and the multiple linear regression (MLR method. Principal components analysis was used to select the training set. A simple model with low standard errors and high correlation coefficients was obtained. The results illustrated that linear techniques such as MLR combined with a successful variable selection procedure are capable of generating an efficient QSRR model for prediction of the retention indices of different compounds. This model, with high statistical significance (R2 train = 0.983, R2 test = 0.970, Q2 LOO = 0.962, Q2 LGO = 0.936, REP(% = 3.00, could be used adequately for the prediction and description of the retention indices of the volatile compounds.

  10. Energy requirement and economic analysis of citrus production in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Burhan E-mail: bozkan@akdeniz.edu.tr; Akcaoz, Handan; Karadeniz, Feyza

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the energy requirements of the inputs and output in citrus production in the Antalya province of Turkey. Data for the production of citrus fruits (orange, lemon and mandarin) were collected from 105 citrus farms by using a face to face questionnaire method. The research results revealed that lemon production was the most energy intensive among the three fruits investigated. The energy input of chemical fertilizer (49.68%), mainly nitrogen, has the biggest share in the total energy inputs followed by Diesel (30.79%). The lemon production consumed a total of 62 977.87 MJ/ha followed by orange and mandarin with 60 949.69 and 48 838.17 MJ/ha, respectively. The energy ratios for orange, mandarin and lemon were estimated to be 1.25, 1.17 and 1.06, respectively. On average, the non-renewable form of energy input was 95.90% of the total energy input used in citrus production compared to only 3.74% for the renewable form. The benefit-cost ratio was the highest in orange production (2.37) followed by lemon. The results indicate that orange production in the research area is most remunerative to growers compared to lemon and mandarin.

  11. Hydrothermal treatment favors peeling of 'Pera' sweet orange fruit and does not alter quality Tratamento hidrotérmico facilita o descascamento de laranja 'Pera' e não afeta sua qualidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília de Arruda

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumer demand for ready-to-eat-products has stimulated the development of new processing techniques to prepare fresh-cut fruit and vegetables. The aim of this study was to propose a peeling method for 'Pera' oranges (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osb. by using a hydrothermal treatment and to determine its influence on the respiratory activity, physicochemical and sensorial characteristics, as well as on the peeling time. Cooled oranges (6ºC were immersed in heated water (50ºC for eight minutes and then, peeled and stored at 6ºC. The internal fruit temperatures taken at 1 and 3 cm depths (from fruit surface were 15ºC and 10ºC, respectively, at the end of the hydrothermal treatment. Non-hydrothermally-treated peeled oranges were used as control. The peeling time for treated oranges was 3.2 times as short as the time used for the control. The yield of marketable oranges was 95% for hydrothermally-treated oranges versus 60% for control. The respiratory activity of hydrothermally-treated oranges was greater than that of control oranges only during the first hour after peeling. The hydrothermal treatment influenced neither the physicochemical quality (given by soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid content nor fruit flavor. Oranges peeled with the aid of the hydrothermal treatment had better appearance. The hydrothermal treatment makes the peeling of oranges easier and does not affect their respiratory activity or their physicochemical and sensorial qualities.A demanda dos consumidores por produtos 'prontos para o consumo' tem estimulado o desenvolvimento de técnicas de processamento para preparar frutas e hortaliças minimamente processadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi propor um método de descascamento para laranja 'Pera' (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osb. pelo uso do tratamento hidrotérmico e determinar sua influência na atividade respiratória, características físico-químicas e sensoriais e no tempo de descascamento de laranja 'Pera

  12. Gene coexpression network analysis of fruit transcriptomes uncovers a possible mechanistically distinct class of sugar/acid ratio-associated genes in sweet orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Liang; Cao, Minghao; Zheng, Jian; Zhao, Yihong; Zheng, Zhi-Liang

    2017-10-30

    The ratio of sugars to organic acids, two of the major metabolites in fleshy fruits, has been considered the most important contributor to fruit sweetness. Although accumulation of sugars and acids have been extensively studied, whether plants evolve a mechanism to maintain, sense or respond to the fruit sugar/acid ratio remains a mystery. In a prior study, we used an integrated systems biology tool to identify a group of 39 acid-associated genes from the fruit transcriptomes in four sweet orange varieties (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) with varying fruit acidity, Succari (acidless), Bingtang (low acid), and Newhall and Xinhui (normal acid). We reanalyzed the prior sweet orange fruit transcriptome data, leading to the identification of 72 genes highly correlated with the fruit sugar/acid ratio. The majority of these sugar/acid ratio-related genes are predicted to be involved in regulatory functions such as transport, signaling and transcription or encode enzymes involved in metabolism. Surprisingly, only three of these sugar/acid ratio-correlated genes are weakly correlated with sugar level and none of them overlaps with the acid-associated genes. Weighted Gene Coexpression Network Analysis (WGCNA) has revealed that these genes belong to four modules, Blue, Grey, Brown and Turquoise, with the former two modules being unique to the sugar/acid ratio control. Our results indicate that orange fruits contain a possible mechanistically distinct class of genes that may potentially be involved in maintaining fruit sugar/acid ratios and/or responding to the cellular sugar/acid ratio status. Therefore, our analysis of orange transcriptomes provides an intriguing insight into the potentially novel genetic or molecular mechanisms controlling the sugar/acid ratio in fruits.

  13. PRODUCTION OF ESSENTIAL ORANGE OIL MICROCAPSULES: COMPARISON OF THE USE OF SURFACTANTS CETILTRIMETILAMONOUS BROMIDE AND POLYSORBATE 20 BY ELECTRONIC SCAN MICROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSSI SOARES Wagner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Commercial applications of microcapsules began to appear in the textile industry in the late 1990s increasing investments in research to develop functional tissues, with a special focus on value aggregation, coating them with various active substances for the development of innovative products and according to fashion. Microcapsules have been presented as an alternative with regard to the encapsulation of essential oils since it is one of the most effective methods to achieve the goal of controlled release. The orange essential oil has biocidal properties and has been used microencapsulated as an ecological botanical insecticide. The characteristics of microcapsules containing aromatic oils, such as morphology and particle size distribution, depend on the preparation conditions such as the type of emulsifier used and the viscosity of the core material. Thus, for the microcapsules to be effectively used for the development of innovative products in the textile industry, studies on their formulation and characterization are necessary. This article proposes to compare the use of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and polysorbate surfactants by means of their morphology, by scanning electron microscopy analysis on the formulation of microcapsules whit melamine formaldehyde shell with core of orange essential oil (citrus sinensis combined with a non-volatile oil Medium Chain Triglycerides produced by interfacial polymerization method. At the end, the microcapsules were analyzed by microcoscopies and the differences in microcapsule morphologies were observed according to the kind of surfactant used.

  14. Produtividade e qualidade dos frutos da laranjeira 'Pêra' clone IAC em 16 porta-enxertos na região de Bebedouro-SP Yield and fruit quality of 'Pêra' sweet orange clone IAC on 16 rootstocks in Bebedouro region, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sanches Stuchi

    2004-08-01

    and chemical fruit characteristics such as fruit size, total soluble solids, acidity, ratio juice content and technological index of 'Pera' IAC sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck], in a high inoculum pressure area of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC. The spacement was 6.0 m between rows and 3.5 m between trees. The experimental design used was randomized blocks, with three replications and two trees per plot. The rootstocks tested were 'Sun Chu Sha Kat' mandarin (Citrus reticulata, 'Pectinífera' (C. reticulata, 'Shekwasha' (C. depressa Hayata, 'Pectinífera/Shekwasha' (C. depressa Hayata, 'Batangas' (C. reticulata, 'Oneco' (C. reticulata, citrangor [citrange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf. x C. sinensis x C. sinensis], citrandarin (C. sunki hort. ex Tanaka x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf. cv. English, 'Sunki' (C. sunki, 'Suen-Kat' (C. sunki, Nasnaran (C. amblycarpa Ochse, 'Venezuela' mandarin (C. reticulata, 'Heen Naran' mandarin (C. lycopersicaeformis, 'Cravo' (C. limonia Osbeck x 'Cleopatra' (C. reshni hort ex Tanaka, 'Cravo' (C. limonia, 'Cleopatra' (C. reshni. CVC intensity was different due to rootstocks effects and not related with yield until the fourth year of production. With the exception of the Nasnaran mandarin the rootstocks induced initial fruit production and quality similar to 'Cravo'.

  15. A new approach for visual identification of orange varieties using neural networks and metaheuristic algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Sabzi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate classification of fruit varieties in processing factories and during post-harvesting applications is a challenge that has been widely studied. This paper presents a novel approach to automatic fruit identification applied to three common varieties of oranges (Citrus sinensis L., namely Bam, Payvandi and Thomson. A total of 300 color images were used for the experiments, 100 samples for each orange variety, which are publicly available. After segmentation, 263 parameters, including texture, color and shape features, were extracted from each sample using image processing. Among them, the 6 most effective features were automatically selected by using a hybrid approach consisting of an artificial neural network and particle swarm optimization algorithm (ANN-PSO. Then, three different classifiers were applied and compared: hybrid artificial neural network – artificial bee colony (ANN-ABC; hybrid artificial neural network – harmony search (ANN-HS; and k-nearest neighbors (kNN. The experimental results show that the hybrid approaches outperform the results of kNN. The average correct classification rate of ANN-HS was 94.28%, while ANN-ABS achieved 96.70% accuracy with the available data, contrasting with the 70.9% baseline accuracy of kNN. Thus, this new proposed methodology provides a fast and accurate way to classify multiple fruits varieties, which can be easily implemented in processing factories. The main contribution of this work is that the method can be directly adapted to other use cases, since the selection of the optimal features and the configuration of the neural network are performed automatically using metaheuristic algorithms.

  16. Use of the heat dissipation method for sap flow measurement in citrus nursery trees1 Uso do método de dissipação de calor para a medição do fluxo de seiva em mudas cítricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Augusto Girardi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sap flow could be used as physiological parameter to assist irrigation of screen house citrus nursery trees by continuous water consumption estimation. Herein we report a first set of results indicating the potential use of the heat dissipation method for sap flow measurement in containerized citrus nursery trees. 'Valencia' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] budded on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck was evaluated for 30 days during summer. Heat dissipation probes and thermocouple sensors were constructed with low-cost and easily available materials in order to improve accessibility of the method. Sap flow showed high correlation to air temperature inside the screen house. However, errors due to natural thermal gradient and plant tissue injuries affected measurement precision. Transpiration estimated by sap flow measurement was four times higher than gravimetric measurement. Improved micro-probes, adequate method calibration, and non-toxic insulating materials should be further investigated.O fluxo de seiva poderia ser utilizado como parâmetro fisiológico para fomentar a irrigação de mudas cítricas em cultivo protegido pela estimação do consumo contínuo de água. Neste trabalho, reportam-se os primeiros resultados, indicando o uso potencial e as limitações iniciais do método de dissipação de calor para medição do fluxo de seiva em mudas cítricas em recipientes. Mudas de laranjeira-doce 'Valência' [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] enxertadas sobre limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck foram avaliadas por 30 dias, durante o verão. Sondas de dissipação de calor e sensores do tipo termopar foram construídos a partir de materiais prontamente disponíveis e de baixo custo para favorecer o acesso ao método por viveiristas. O fluxo de seiva apresentou alta correlação com a temperatura do ar dentro da estufa telada. Contudo, erros inerentes ao gradiente térmico natural e a injúrias nos tecidos do caule afetaram a

  17. Study of the enthalpy-entropy mechanism from water sorption of orange seeds (C. sinensis cv. Brazilian for the use of agro-industrial residues as a possible source of vegetable oil production Estudo do mecanismo entálpico-entrópico de sorção da água de sementes de laranja (C. sinensis cv. Brasileira, para a utilização de resíduos agroindustriais como uma possível fonte de produção de óleo vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Penteado Rosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Orange seeds are a promising agroindustry-waste which can be implemented in the extraction and production of vegetable oil. The relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for the processing and storage of this waste item. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of water sorption enthalpy-entropy of orange seeds (C. sinensis cv. Brazilians according to the moisture content. Therefore, desorption isotherms were determined at five different temperature (30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC under a wide range of moisture content (0.005-0.057 kg kg-1 d.b. and water activity (0.02-0.756. Theoretical and empirical models were used for modeling the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to compute the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs free energy using the Oswin model when the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium was considered.As sementes de laranja são resíduos promissores da agroindústria com um alto potencial de aplicação na produção de óleo vegetal. A relação entre o conteúdo de umidade de equilíbrio e a atividade de água fornece informações úteis para seu processamento e armazenamento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o mecanismo entalpia-entropia de sorção da água de sementes de laranja (C. sinensis cv. Brasileiros em função do teor de umidade. Para isso, isotermas de dessorção das sementes de laranja foram determinados em cinco níveis de temperaturas (30, 40, 50, 60 e 70 ºC em um intervalo de umidade de equilíbrio (0.005-0.057 kg kg-1 d.b. e atividade de água de 0,02-0,756. Modelos teóricos e empíricos foram usados para a modelagem das isotermas de dessorção. A solução analítica da equação de Clausius-Clapeyron foi proposta para calcular o calor isostérico de sorção, a entropia diferencial e a energia livre de Gibbs através do modelo de Oswin quando o

  18. Evaluation of the Tolerance of Some Citrus Rootstocks to Citrus Nematode in Greenhouse (Tylenchulus semipenetrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mohammad Alian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Citrus nematode is one of the most important damaging nematodes of citrus trees, spreading widely in most areas under citrus planting causing dieback, the gradual decline of trees and crop decrease in citrus orchards. Eighty citrus cultivars and species are sensitive to this nematode. From other nematode hosts, we can refer to olive, fig, medlar, persimmon, pear and grapevine. Surveys Full filled in Mazandaran province is indicative of the widespread of this nematode in citrus horticulture and the level of infection in some samples is so high, thus it is necessary to use different ways of controlling this parasite. Materials and Methods: This research was carried out for 2 successive years and the reaction of sin citrus rootstocks including Citromelo, Poncirus, Sour Orange, Bakraee, Rough lemon and Off-type to citrus nematode under controlled conditions in the greenhouse was evaluated. Three months years old plants of this rootstock Were planted in completely random design with 5 replications in pots containing the population of 40 larvae per cubic centimeter of soil and after six months, the level of infection of roots was investigated and then the most tolerable rootstock for nematode was introduced on the basis of the least population of young females and adult females injected in one gram of root volume. Results and Discussion: Experiment results on the basis of LSD test in two successive years indicated that there is a meaningful statistical difference between Citrumelo and poncirus Poncirus with the least population of nematode of adult female on the root and other treatments the results show that sour orange and off-type rootstocks are the most sensitive to citrus nematode, poncirus Poncirus and Citrumelo are the most tolerable to nematode Bakraee and Rough lemon are in the biotype group with average tolerance (relatively sensitive to citrus nematode. Purpose of this research is to assess the sensitivity level of six citrus

  19. Estimation of Fluoride Concentration of Various Citrus and Non-Citrus Fruits Commonly Consumed and Commercially Available in Mathura City

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    Navin Anand Ingle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since fluoride is available from various sources, the total ingestion of fluoride by a person should be estimated taking into consideration the fluoride consumed from all the sources including fruits. There are very few epidemiological studies carried out associated with fluoride estimation in fruit samplesand especially in the Indian scenario Objective: To estimate and compare the fluoride concentration of different commercially available citrus and non-citrus fruits in Mathura city. Materials & Method: Fifteen different types of fruits commercially available and consumed by people ofMathura City were collected. Out of the 15 fruit samples 5 were citrus fruits and 10 were non-citrus fruits. The fluoride estimation of fruit samples was done at Central Laboratory,Lucknow. Juices of all 15 fruit samples were prepared, from each sample 10 ml of juice was measured and fluoride testing of each sample was carried out by using Orion 4 star -ion electrode analyzer. The collected data was analyzed using the statistical software program SPSS, version 17. Results: The fluoride concentration in citrus fruits ranged from 0.04ppm (Orange to 0.08 ppm (Tomato while in non-citrus fruits it ranged from 0.04ppm (chikoo to 0.18 ppm (Guava. No significant difference was observed between the mean fluoride concentration of citrus and non citrus fruits. Conclusions: Both citrus and non citrus fruits have fluorides. Guava was found to have the maximumamount of fluoridecontent (0.18 ppm among both the citrus and non citrus fruits.

  20. Nutrição e produção da laranjeira "Folha Murcha" em porta-enxertos e plantas de cobertura permanente na entrelinha Nutrition and yield of the 'Folha Murcha' orange in rootstocks and groundcover management systems

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    Jonez Fidalski

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O estado nutricional e a produção de citros não são conhecidos para as diferentes combinações copa/porta-enxertos e plantas de coberturas permanente na entrelinha. O estudo foi instalado em um experimento de laranjeira "Folha Murcha" [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb.] com oito anos de idade, conduzido entre 1997 a 2002, no município de Paranavaí, região Noroeste do Paraná. O solo corresponde a um Argissolo Vermelho distr��fico típico textura areia/franco arenoso. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, sendo os tratamentos constituídos por sete porta-enxertos: limoeiro "Cravo", limoeiro "Rugoso da África", limoeiro "Volcameriano", tangerineira "Cleópatra", tangerineira "Sunki", citrangeiro "C-13" e Trifoliata, com três plantas em cada parcela experimental. As repetições foram constituídas por três blocos com a cobertura Paspalum notatum e por um bloco com Arachis pintoi. Foram avaliados os teores dos nutrientes foliares e a produção de frutos da laranjeira "Folha Murcha". O manejo das entrelinhas com a leguminosa elevou os teores de N à faixa excessiva nas folhas do porta-enxerto limoeiro "Cravo", e reduziu a produção de frutos da laranjeira "Folha Murcha" em relação à gramínea. Nas entrelinhas com gramínea, a produção de frutos da laranjeira "Folha Murcha" foi dependente das safras agrícolas e dos teores foliares de Ca, Mg e Zn. A absorção máxima de Ca pelas folhas de laranjeira "Folha Murcha" precede a de Mg e Zn. Nestas condições, os porta-enxertos tangerineira "Cleópatra" e limoeiro "Rugoso da África" apresentaram maior produção de frutos de laranjeira "Folha Murcha".The nutritional status and yield of citrus are not known for different canopy/rootstocks and soil groundcover management systems. The study was set up in a 8-year-old 'Folha Murcha' [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb.] orange experiment, and was carried out from 1997 to 2002 in Paranavai, in the northwest region of the state of Parana

  1. 78 FR 46249 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Arizona-California Citrus Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... citrus fruit group for Valencia oranges, you may choose seventy-five percent (75%) of the maximum price... lemons (Imperial, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Ventura Counties).'' The commenters... Coastal counties produce lemons that bloom up to three times per year due to their moderate growing...

  2. Efeitos de algumas práticas de cultivo do solo, na nutrição mineral dos citros Effect of soil management practices on mineral nutrition of citrus tree

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    J. Romano Gallo

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes sistemas de cultivo do solo no pomar cítrico foram comparados no presente trabalho, por meio da análise foliar. Os tratamentos estudados fazem parte de um experimento com plantas da variedade Hamlin sôbre laranjeira caipira (Citrus sinensis Osbeck instalodo no Estação Experimental de Limeira, do Instituto Agronômico. Amostras de fôlhas do ciclo vegetativo da primavera foram colhidas a intervalos regulares, desde outubro de 1957 a março de 1959 e analisadas para os seguintes elementos: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe e Mn. São apresentados os tendências das curvas de concentração dos elementos nutritivos nas fôlhas e os resultados de produção correspondentes a quatro onos de colheita. Como observação mais importante foi verificado que a cobertura morta de capim e a adubação verde de mucuna aumentaram de modo sensível o teor de fósforo nas fôlhas dos citros. As produções de laranja acompanharam a ordem dos níveis dêsse elemento na folhagem.The influence of several soil management systems on the mineral nutrition and production of citrus trees was studied. This study was mode in an experimental orchard installed in 1949 with Hamlin orange on sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck. Differential treatments were started in 1953. Since 1956 all plots received uniform fertilizer applications and liming. The cultural treatments employed are as follows: clean cultivation with herbicide; clean cultivation plus a cover crop of velvet bean (Stizolobium aterrimum Pip. & Trac. planted in the spring and cut down in the fall; clean cultivation plus a cover crop of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp. planted in the spring and cut down in the fall; molasses grass (Melinis minutiflora Béauv. mulch; and superficial soil plowing. Leaf samples of the spring cycle were collected from each treatment at regular intervals, from October, 1957 to March, 1959, and analysed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn. The seasonal variations in mineral

  3. ORGANOGÊNESE IN VITRO DE Citrus EM FUNÇÃO DE CONCENTRAÇÕES DE BAP E SECCIONAMENTO DO EXPLANTE CITRUS IN VITRO ORGANOGENESIS RELATED TO BAP CONCENTRATIONS AND EXPLANT SECTION

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    THAÍS LACAVA DE MOURA

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso de técnicas biotecnológicas no melhoramento in vitro de Citrus depende diretamente do desenvolvimento de protocolos eficientes para regeneração de plantas. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de concentrações de 6-benzilaminopuria (BAP na organogênese in vitro de limão-'Cravo' e laranja-'Pêra', bem como o efeito do seccionamento do explante em laranja-'Valência'. Para o limão-'Cravo', foram utilizados como explante, segmentos internodais de plântulas germinadas in vitro, cultivados em meio MT e variando-se as concentrações de BAP em 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5 e 10 mg.L-1. Nas laranjas-'Pêra' e 'Valência' os explantes foram segmentos do epicótilo de plântulas germinadas in vitro. Os explantes de laranja-'Pêra' foram cultivados em meio MT variando-se as concentrações de BAP em 0; 1; 2; 3 e 4 mg.L-1. Para a laranja-'Valência', metade dos explantes foram seccionados e cultivados em meio MT acrescido de 1,0 mg.L-1 de BAP. Todas as brotações obtidas foram alongadas no meio de cultura MT + 25 g.L-1 de sacarose + 1 mg.L-1 de ácido giberélico (GA3 e enraizadas no meio MT + 25 g.L-1 de sacarose + 0,5 g.L-1 de carvão ativado + 1 mg.L-1 de ácido naftaleno acético (ANA. O melhor resultado para o número de brotações adventícias foi obtido na concentração 2,5 mg.L-1 de BAP para limão-'Cravo', e nas concentrações 1,0 e 2,0 mg.L-1 de BAP para laranja-'Pêra'. O seccionamento dos explantes favoreceu a organogênese in vitro da laranja-'Valência', porém as brotações apresentaram menor índice de enraizamento.The establishment of efficient plant regeneration protocols is essential for the success and application of in vitro breeding biotechnologies in Citrus. The objective of this work was to verify the effect of 6-benzilaminopurine (BAP on the in vitro organogenesis of Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia (L. Osbeck and 'Pera' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, and the effect of cutting the explant on the in vitro organogenesis of

  4. Induction of apoptosis by Citrus paradisi essential oil in human leukemic (HL-60) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Tomona; Sakaguchi, Ikuyo; Mori, Masahiro; Ikeda, Norikazu; Kato, Yoshiko; Minamino, Miki; Watabe, Kazuhito

    2003-01-01

    Limonene is a primary component of citrus essential oils (EOs) and has been reported to induce apoptosis on tumor cells. Little is known about induction of apoptosis by citrus EOs. In this study, we examined induction of apoptosis by Citrus aurantium var. dulcis (sweet orange) EO, Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) EO and Citrus limon (lemon) EO. These EOs induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells and the apoptosis activities were related to the limonene content of the EOs. Moreover, sweet orange EO and grapefruit EO may contain components besides limonene that have apoptotic activity. To identify the components with apoptotic activity, grapefruit EO was fractionated using silica gel columns, and the components were analyzed by GC-MS. The n-hexane fraction contained limonene, and the dichloromethane fraction (DF) contained aldehyde compounds and nootkatone. Decanal, octanal and citral in the DF showed strong apoptotic activity, suggesting that the aldehyde compounds induced apoptosis strongly in HL-60 cells.

  5. California mild CTV strains that break resistance in Trifoliate Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the final report of a project to characterize California isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) that replicate in Poncirus trifoliata (trifoliate orange). Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of viral small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and assembly of full-length sequences of mild California CTV i...

  6. Bio-based synthesis of silver nanoparticles from orange waste: effects of distinct biomolecule coatings on size, morphology, and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Caio Henrique Nasi; Cruz, Guilherme Crispim Faria; Mayrink, Willian; Tasic, Ljubica

    2018-01-01

    Despite the numerous reports on biological syntheses of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), little is known about the composition of their capping agents, protein corona of plant extract-mediated synthesis, and their influence on the properties of AgNPs. Here, orange ( Citrus sinensis ) waste was utilized as a source of an extract for AgNP synthesis (the protein corona composition of which was elucidated), and also as a starting material for hesperidin and nanocellulose extraction, which were used for bio-based AgNP synthesis. A comparison of the results using the two methods of synthesis is presented. AgNPs were synthesized using orange ( C. sinensis ) peel extract (Or-AgNPs) in a biological route, and using hesperidin (Hsd-AgNPs) and nanocellulose (extracted from oranges) in a green chemical route. Characterization of nanoparticles was carried out using zeta potential and hydrodynamic size measurements, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Elucidation of proteins from protein corona was performed via ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer experiments. Antimicrobial activity was assessed via minimum inhibitory concentration assays against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri ( Xac ), the bacterium that causes citric canker in oranges. Or-AgNPs were not completely uniform in morphology, having a size of 48.1±20.5 nm and a zeta potential of -19.0±0.4 mV. Stabilization was performed mainly by three proteins, which were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments. Hsd-AgNPs were smaller (25.4±12.5 nm) and had uniform morphology. Nanocellulose provided a strong steric and electrostatic (-28.2±1.0 mV) stabilization to the nanoparticles. Both AgNPs presented roughly the same activity against Xac , with the minimum inhibitory concentration range between 22 and 24 μg mL -1 . Despite the fact that different capping biomolecules on AgNPs had an influence on morphology, size, and stability of AgNPs, the antibacterial

  7. Bio-based synthesis of silver nanoparticles from orange waste: effects of distinct biomolecule coatings on size, morphology, and antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Caio Henrique Nasi; Cruz, Guilherme Crispim Faria; Mayrink, Willian; Tasic, Ljubica

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Despite the numerous reports on biological syntheses of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), little is known about the composition of their capping agents, protein corona of plant extract-mediated synthesis, and their influence on the properties of AgNPs. Here, orange (Citrus sinensis) waste was utilized as a source of an extract for AgNP synthesis (the protein corona composition of which was elucidated), and also as a starting material for hesperidin and nanocellulose extraction, which were used for bio-based AgNP synthesis. A comparison of the results using the two methods of synthesis is presented. Methods AgNPs were synthesized using orange (C. sinensis) peel extract (Or-AgNPs) in a biological route, and using hesperidin (Hsd-AgNPs) and nanocellulose (extracted from oranges) in a green chemical route. Characterization of nanoparticles was carried out using zeta potential and hydrodynamic size measurements, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Elucidation of proteins from protein corona was performed via ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer experiments. Antimicrobial activity was assessed via minimum inhibitory concentration assays against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac), the bacterium that causes citric canker in oranges. Results Or-AgNPs were not completely uniform in morphology, having a size of 48.1±20.5 nm and a zeta potential of −19.0±0.4 mV. Stabilization was performed mainly by three proteins, which were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments. Hsd-AgNPs were smaller (25.4±12.5 nm) and had uniform morphology. Nanocellulose provided a strong steric and electrostatic (−28.2±1.0 mV) stabilization to the nanoparticles. Both AgNPs presented roughly the same activity against Xac, with the minimum inhibitory concentration range between 22 and 24 μg mL−1. Conclusion Despite the fact that different capping biomolecules on AgNPs had an influence on morphology, size, and stability

  8. Influence of Immigration on Epiphytic Bacterial Populations on Navel Orange Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Lindow, S. E.; Andersen, G. L.

    1996-01-01

    Factors that influenced the increase in epiphytic bacterial population size on navel orange leaves during winter months were investigated to test the assumption that such populations were the result of multiplication on orange leaves. The population sizes of bacteria of different kinds, including ice nucleation-active (Ice(sup+)) bacteria, were from 6- to 30-fold larger on leaves of navel orange trees adjacent to other plant species than on trees growing near other citrus species. Total and I...

  9. Effect of 2.4-D exogenous application on the abscission and fruit growth in Sweet orange. var. Salustiana.

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    Rebolledo Alexander

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The effect of 2.4-D applications in full bloom on the abscission and fruit growth process was studied on sweet orange fruit in 20-year-old trees of Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck cv. Salustiana with a high flowering level. Abscission was determined on the whole tree and on the leafy inflorescences. Growth variables of the fruit were characterized (diameter, fresh and dry weight. 2.4-D application (20 mg L-1, 3.6 L per tree increased the growth rate of the fruits and fruits size at maturity, however reduced the number of fruits which kept constant the yield at harvest. Differences between the diameter of the control fruits and the fruits treated with 2.4-D were observed during the early fruitlet development and until day 43 after anthesis. These differences increased with time following a linear relationship. For all the studied variables the diary increase level reaches the maximum by day 53, when the cell expansion of the vesicles starts.

  10. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Chemical Profile, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Algerian Citrus Essential Oils and Their Application in Sardina pilchardus

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    Djamel Djenane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stored fish are frequently contaminated by foodborne pathogens. Lipid oxidation and microbial growth during storage are also important factors in the shelf-life of fresh fish. In order to ensure the safety of fish items, there is a need for control measures which are effective through natural inhibitory antimicrobials. It is also necessary to determine the efficacy of these products for fish protection against oxidative damage, to avoid deleterious changes and loss of commercial and nutritional value. Some synthetic chemicals used as preservatives have been reported to cause harmful effects to the environment and the consumers. The present investigation reports on the extraction by hydrodistillation and the chemical composition of three citrus peel essential oils (EOs: orange (Citrus sinensis L., lemon (Citrus limonum L. and bergamot (Citrus aurantium L. from Algeria. Yields for EOs were between 0.50% and 0.70%. The chemical composition of these EOs was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The results showed that the studied oils are made up mainly of limonene (77.37% for orange essential oil (EO; linalyl acetate (37.28%, linalool (23.36%, for bergamot EO; and finally limonene (51.39%, β-pinene (17.04% and γ-terpinene (13.46% for lemon EO. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the EOs was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus using the agar diffusion technique. Results revealed that lemon EO had more antibacterial effects than that from other EOs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs showed a range of 0.25–0.40 μL/mL. Lemon and bergamot citrus peel EOs were added at 1 × MIC and 4 × MIC values to Sardina pilchardus (S. pilchardus experimentally inoculated with S. aureus at a level of 3.5 log10 CFU/g and stored at 8 ± 1 °C. The results obtained revealed that the 4 × MIC value of bergamot reduced completely the growth of S. aureus from day 2 until the end of storage. The presence of EOs

  12. Production of haploid plant of 'Banpeiyu' pummelo [Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.] by pollination with soft X-ray-irradiated pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahata, Masaki; Yasuda, Kiichi; Kunitake, Hisato; Nagasawa, Kohji; Harusaki, Seiichi; Komatsu, Haruki

    2010-01-01

    To induce haploid plants in Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. 'Banpeiyu', we evaluated the effect of pollination with soft X-ray-irradiated pollen on fruit set and seed development, and carried out ovule culture. When 'Banpeiyu' pummelo pistils were pollinated with X-ray-irradiated pollen of 'Fukuhara' sweet orange [C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck], the exposure doses affected the fruit set. The number of seeds per fruit was also affected by the exposure dose, and tended to decrease as the dose increased; however, all developed seeds obtained from these crosses were diploid. In the ovule culture of 'Banpeiyu' pummelo, six embryoids shown haploidy were obtained in all treatments. One haploid plantlet with 9 chromosomes was regenerated from an embryoid in a culture of ovules established 40 days after pollination with 400 Gray (Gy)-irradiated pollen of 'Tosa-buntan' pummelo (C. maxima). This haploid was suggested to be derived from 'Banpeiyu' pummelo by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) analysis. (author)

  13. Essential Oil Variation from Twenty Two Genotypes of Citrus in Brazil—Chemometric Approach and Repellency Against Diaphorina citri Kuwayama

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    Moacir dos Santos Andrade

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of volatile oils from 22 genotypes of Citrus and related genera was poorly differentiated, but chemometric techniques have clarified the relationships between the 22 genotypes, and allowed us to understand their resistance to D. citri. The most convincing similarities include the synthesis of (Z-β-ocimene and (E-caryophyllene for all 11 genotypes of group A. Genotypes of group B are not uniformly characterized by essential oil compounds. When stimulated with odor sources of 22 genotypes in a Y-tube olfactometer D. citri preferentially entered the arm containing the volatile oils of Murraya paniculata, confirming orange jasmine as its best host. C. reticulata × C. sinensis was the least preferred genotype, and is characterized by the presence of phytol, (Z-β-ocimene, and β-elemene, which were not found in the most preferred genotype. We speculate that these three compounds may act as a repellent, making these oils less attractive to D. citri.

  14. A filter paper-based liquid culture system for citrus shoot organogenesis - a mixture-amount experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a static liquid culture system on shoot regeneration from citrus epicotyl explants. Two citrus types were used, Carrizo citrange and Ridge Pineapple sweet orange. A liquid culture system comprised of a Petri dish, cellulose filter paper dis...

  15. Description of a novel mild strain of Citrus tristeza virus in California that reacts with monoclonal antibody MCA13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick decline caused by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) destroyed citrus on sour orange rootstock in southern California in the 1930’s -40’s. However, use of resistant/tolerant CTV rootstocks, certified pathogen-free budwood, and quarantines have limited further economic damage from CTV. Multi-locus mar...

  16. Desenvolvimento vegetativo, produção e qualidade dos frutos da laranjeira ‘Folha Murcha' sobre seis porta-enxertos no Norte do Paraná Vegetative growth, yield and quality fruits of the ‘Folha Murcha' orange on six rootstocks in North Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Maria Colauto Stenzel

    2005-12-01

    variedades copa de laranja.This research evaluated, in Londrina, PR, Brazil, ‘Folha Murcha' orange trees on the rootstocks: ‘Caipira' orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osb., ‘Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb., ‘Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan., ‘Florida' rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush., ‘Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., and ‘Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Ten. & Pasq.. The experimental design was used as randomized blocks with six rootstocks as treatments, five replications and three plants per plot. Height, diameter, and canopy volume were significantly higher in trees budded on ‘Caipira' orange, when compared with those budded on ‘Volkamer' lemon. The smallest difference between trunk diameters below/above the bud occurred in trees on ‘Rangpur' lime and ‘Sunki' mandarin. Cumulative yield was superior for trees on ‘Rangpur' lime and ‘Caipira' orange, without showing statistical difference between themselves, but were significantly different from those on ‘Cleopatra' mandarin and ‘Volkamer' lemon. Yield efficiency was not influenced by the studied rootstocks. Fruit weight was significantly higher for trees on ‘Sunki' mandarin, compared to those on ‘Rangpur' lime, ‘Florida' rough lemon, and ‘Volkamer' lemon. Total soluble solids (TSS showed high contents in fruits of ‘Folha Murcha' orange on ‘Volkamer' lemon and on ‘Rangpur' lime, without differences between themselves. Total titratable acidity (TTA, (TSS/TTA ratio, and juice color were not influenced by the rootstocks tested. ‘Rangpur' lime and ‘Volkamer' lemon provided significantly higher technological index values in relation to the other rootstocks. The juice quality parameters evaluated were within the acceptable standards for orange canopy varieties.

  17. Sistema radicular dos citros em Neossolo Quartzarênico dos Tabuleiros Costeiros sob irrigação e sequeiro Citrus root system in Coastal Tablelands on Typic Quartzipsamment under irrigation and rainfed conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laercio Duarte Souza

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o sistema radicular da laranjeira 'Pêra' Citrus sinensis (L. Osb., enxertada em limoeiro 'Rugoso' Citrus jambhiri Lush., plantada no espaçamento 6x4 m, sob sistema irrigado com microaspersores e sob sequeiro. O solo da área experimental, localizada em Itapicuru, BA, é um Neossolo Quartzarênico, com horizonte subsuperficial coeso. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, e foram avaliadas cinco plantas em cada sistema. Amostras de raiz foram coletadas a cada 0,5 m de distância do caule, em seis profundidades, em quatro locais, na linha de plantas e seis nas entrelinhas. A distribuição das raízes foi avaliada em três classes de diâmetro (1 mm. A comparação entre os locais, em relação à planta, nos sistemas irrigado e sequeiro, tanto na linha de plantas quanto na entrelinha, apresentou diferenças na distribuição de raízes apenas à profundidade de 0-0,20 m. As 36 combinações dos três diâmetros de raiz e das seis profundidades, entre os sistemas irrigado e sequeiro, mostraram diferenças na distribuição de raízes apenas no diâmetro 0,5 e The aim of this work was to evaluate the root system of 'Pera' orange tree Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. grafted on 'Rugoso' lemon tree Citrus jambhiri Lush., cultivated with spacing within and between rows of 4 and 6 m, respectively, under rainfed conditions and under irrigation. The experimental area was established in Itapicuru, BA, Brazil, in a Typic Quartzipsamment soil with a subsuperficial cohesive layer. The experimental was a completely randomized design with five plants evaluated at each system. Root samples were collected in six positions between rows and four positions within rows, spaced of 0.5 m from tree's stem. At each position, the roots were sampled in six depths. Root distribution was evaluated using three ranges of root diameters (1 mm. Comparing the positions from the plants, within and between rows in both systems

  18. Fita plástica e fita degradável na enxertia de citros Plastic and degradable tape on citrus budding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pedroso de Oliveira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de fitas plástica e degradável no pegamento e no desenvolvimento de enxertos de citros, em viveiro telado. Borbulhas certificadas de 6-8 mm das cultivares de laranjeira-de-umbigo 'Navelina' (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, tangerineira 'Marisol' (C. reticulata Blanco e do híbrido 'Nova' [C. clementina x (C. paradisi x C. tangerina ] foram enxertadas em limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia Osbeck, com 10 meses de idade, em fevereiro de 2003. A fixação das borbulhas nos porta-enxertos foi feita com fitas de dois tipos: fita plástica de polietileno transparente e fita degradável de parafilme. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em esquema fatorial (3 cultivares x 2 tipos de fita, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições, sendo as unidades experimentais constituídas por dez plantas. A média geral de pegamento dos enxertos foi elevada (99,6%, em razão das condições propícias à enxertia fornecidas no viveiro telado. Não houve efeito do tipo de fita no pegamento dos enxertos nem das cultivares no pegamento e desenvolvimento dos enxertos. No entanto, o desenvolvimento dos enxertos foi sensivelmente maior quando a enxertia foi realizada com fita degradável em relação à fita plástica.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the plastic and degradable tape on budding efficiency and scion development of citrus in nursery under screenhouse. Certificated 6-8 mm buds of the cultivars navel orange 'Navelina' (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, mandarin 'Marisol' (C. reticulata Blanco and the hybrid 'Nova' [C. clementina x (C. paradisi x C. tangerina ] were budded on 10 months rangpur lime (C. limonia Osbeck, in February 2003. The buds were attached to the rootstocks using either one of two types of tape: plastic polyethylene transparent tape and parafilm degradable tape. The experimental design was a factorial entirely randomized with 3 cultivars, 2 tape types and four

  19. Avaliação nutricional de citrinos em agricultura biológica Nutritional evaluation of citrus orchard under organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Domingos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresentam-se alguns resultados preliminares referentes à caracterização e avaliação do estado nutricional de um pomar de laranjeiras (Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. cv. ‘Valencia Late’ instalado em agricultura biológica num solo com elevado teor de calcário activo do Centro de Experimentação Agrária de Tavira da Direcção Regional de Agricultura do Algarve. Com o objectivo de caracterizar o solo do pomar em estudo foram realizadas colheitas de solo a duas profundidades (0-25 e 25-50 cm e efectuadas diversas determinações, nomeadamente: textura, matéria orgânica, fósforo e potássio assimiláveis, e calcário total e activo. Durante 2 anos (2002 e 2003 foram efectuadas colheitas de flores na plena floração e colheitas de folhas de Abril a Outubro e foi determinada a sua composição mineral (macro e micronutrientes. Nas mesmas datas de amostragem fizeram-se estimativas do teor de clorofila total das folhas através da utilização do aparelho de SPAD-502. Os resultados são discutidos com base nas variações sazonais dos nutrientes nas folhas e flores e comparados com os valores referenciados para a agricultura convencional. Foi ainda testada a aplicabilidade de um modelo de diagnóstico nutricional, baseado na análise floral, e estabelecido para citrinos em agricultura convencional.This study presents some preliminary results concerning the characterization and evaluation of the nutritional status of a or-ganic-grown orange grove (Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. cv. ‘Valencia Late’ established on a calcareous soil in the south of Portugal (Tavira -Direcção Regional de Agricultura do Algarve. Composite soil samples were collected at two depths (0-25 and 25-50cm and various parameters were determined namely: texture, organic matter, extractable phosphorus and potassium, and total and active lime. During two years (2002 and 2003 the mineral composition of flowers (full bloom and leaves between April and October was

  20. Mudas de laranjeira 'valência' sobre dois porta-enxertos e sob diferentes manejos de adubação 'Valencia' sweet orange nursery trees on two rootstocks under different fertilizer managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Augusto Girardi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O manejo da adubação é uma das principais práticas culturais para a produção de mudas cítricas em cultivo protegido. Avaliou-se o efeito de seis tipos de manejo das adubações comercialmente recomendadas na produção de mudas de laranjeira 'Valência' [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] enxertada sobre os porta-enxertos limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck e citrumeleiro 'Swingle' [Citrus paradisi Macf. x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.]. As avaliações foram conduzidas a partir da transplantação dos porta-enxertos até 180 dias após a enxertia, em viveiro empresarial, em Conchal-SP. Os manejos corresponderam a duas soluções de fertilizantes solúveis aplicadas isoladamente, soluções de fertilizante solúveis associadas a fertilizante de liberação controlada e aplicação exclusiva de fertilizante de liberação controlada. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o fatorial 2 x 6 (porta-enxerto x manejo da adubação, em blocos casualizados, com três repetições e 12 mudas na parcela. O limoeiro 'Cravo' induziu maior crescimento ao enxerto. O crescimento vegetativo das mudas foi similar após o uso de fertilizantes solúveis ou de liberação controlada, apesar da grande variação de quantidades totais de nutrientes fornecidas às plantas. Desta forma, o viveirista poderá optar pelo manejo mais econômico ou prático, conforme as condições locais.The fertilizer program is a major practice for screened citrus nursery tree production. The effect of six fertilizer programs commercially recommended was evaluated on the production of 'Valência' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] nursery trees budded on rootstocks 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck and 'Swingle' citrumelo [Citrus paradisi Macf. x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.]. Experimental work was carried out from rootstock transplant until 180 days after budding, in a citrus nursery in Conchal, SP, Brazil. Fertilizer managements consisted of two soluble fertilizers

  1. The effect of pre spring spray to reduce of citrus important pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, B; Damavandian, M R; Shoushtaril, R Vafaei; Tafaghodynia, B

    2008-10-01

    The importance of pre spring spray against citrus aphids, Pulvinaria aurantii Cockerell and Panonychus citri McGregor that are the most important pest of citrus during spring was tested. In this research, 150 trees ten years old sweet orange (Thomson navel on Citrus aurantium (root stocks)) in a citrus orchard approximately three hectares sampled. The experiment was laid out in a totally randomized (one-way) design replicated five times. According to the results, the pre spring spray do not effect on population density of citrus aphids and P. aurantii during March, April, May and June. However, the P. citri population decreased. Therefore, it seems the pre spring spray in citrus orchards is not necessary, but if P. citri is observed, the pre spring spray should be recommended.

  2. [Orange Platform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toba, Kenji

    2017-07-01

    The Organized Registration for the Assessment of dementia on Nationwide General consortium toward Effective treatment in Japan (ORANGE platform) is a recently established nationwide clinical registry for dementia. This platform consists of multiple registries of patients with dementia stratified by the following clinical stages: preclinical, mild cognitive impairment, early-stage, and advanced-stage dementia. Patients will be examined in a super-longitudinal fashion, and their lifestyle, social background, genetic risk factors, and required care process will be assessed. This project is also notable because the care registry includes information on the successful, comprehensive management of patients with dementia. Therefore, this multicenter prospective cohort study will contribute participants to all clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease as well as improve the understanding of individuals with dementia.

  3. Cyclic lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 elicit defense-related gene expression in citrus fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of cyclic lipopeptides obtained from B. subtilis ABS-S14 on eliciting defense-related gene transcription and activity of defense-related enzymes glucanase (GLU), chitinase (CHI), peroxidase (POX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia fruit were determined. The maximum level ...

  4. Identificação de espécies de citros mediante polimorfismo enzimático Identification of citrus species by means of enzymatic polymorphism

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    Haiko Enok Sawazaki

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, mediante polimorfismo enzimático em gel de poliacrilamida, a variabilidade genética das espécies de laranja-doce (Citrus sinensis; laranja-azeda (C. aurantium; tangerinas clementina (C. clementina, sunki (C. sunki, cleópatra (C. reshni e poncã (C. rsticulata; lima-da-pérsia (C. limettioides; limão-galego (C. aurantifolia; limão-cravo (C. limonia e trifoliata (Poncirus trifoliata. Extratos de folhas foram analisados para as isoenzimas de malato deidrogenase (MDH, enzima málica (ME, leucino amino peptidase (LAP, glutamato oxaloacetato transaminase (GOT, fosfoglucoisomerase (PGI, fosfoglucomutase (PGM e isocitrato deidrogenase (IDH. Verificou-se grande variabilidade genética interespecífica, porém nenhuma entre os cultivares de laranja-doce. Foram encontradas algumas aloenzimas, além das referidas pela literatura em gel de amido, como aquelas de uma região próxima ao loco conhecido por Pgm-1, responsável por proteínas monoméricas. Este sistema, denominado PGM, revelou a maior diferenciação entre as espécies, tendo apresentado duas regiões distintas com 9 alelos. No sistema MDH, foram considerados dois locas codificando para proteínas diméricas com 7 alelos; no ME, um loco com 3 alelos; no LAP, possivelmente dois locos responsáveis por proteínas monoméricas com 4 alelos; no GOT, dois focos com 7 alelos; no PGI, um loco com 3 alelos e no IDH, um loco com 4 alelos.The genetic diversity of citrus cultivars was studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis on sweet orange (C. sinensis; tangerines (C. clementine, C. sunki, C. reshni, C. reticulata; Palestine lime (C. Iimettioides; West Indian lime (C. aurantifolia; Rangpur lime (C. limonia, Sour orange (C. aurantium and Poncirus trifoliata. Citrus leaf extracts were analysed for isozymes of malato dehidrogenase (MDH, malic enzyme (ME, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT, phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI, phosphoglucose mutase (PGM and

  5. Citrus Seed Oils Efficacy against Larvae of Aedes aegypti

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    Hazrat Bilal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue fever is a serious public health issue in Pakistan for many years. Globally plants have been reported to contain compounds with insecticidal properties. These properties have been demonstrated more recently on the larval stages of mosquitoes. Therefore, Citrus cultivar seeds were evaluated for larvicidal potential against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti.Methods: Extraction of oil was done by a steam distillation method and oils were evaluated according to WHO guidelines for larvicides 2005 for evaluation of insecticidal properties of citrus seed extracts against mosquito larvae.Result: Among the Citrus cultivar seed oil, rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri had the lowest LC50 value (200.79ppm, while musambi (C. sinensis var musambi had the highest LC50 value (457.30ppm after 24 h of exposure.Conclusion: Citrus cultivars have some larvicidal potential but C. jambhiri had the greatest potential against A. ae­gypti larvae. Further small-scale field trials using the extracts of C. jambhiri will be conducted to determine opera­tional feasibility.

  6. Análisis de la distribución de raíces de 12 patrones injertados con naranja "frost valencia" Citrus sinensis L. oesbeck de 14 años de edad, en condiciones climáticas de Palmira, Valle del Cauca Analysis of root distribution in 12 citrus rootstocks grown in Palmira, the Cauca Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escobar T. William

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En el Centro Nacional de Investigaciones del ICA, Palmira, se estudió el sistema de raíces de 12 patrones injertados con naranja Frost Valencia, de 14 años de edad, sembrados en un suelo Franco-Arcilloso. Se tomaron muestras a 1.0, 1,5, 2.0 y 3.0 m de distancia de la base del árbol y a profundidades de 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80 Y 80-100 cm, considerando cada distancia. Los patrones que mostraron la mayor densidad de raíces fueron: Amblycarpa, Citrange Carrizo y Mandarina Cleopatra. Se encontró correlación directa y altamente significativa entre el sistema de raíces menores de 2 mm de diámetro con la altura y diámetro del árbol, lo mismo que con el volumen de la copa. Estos aspectos son de especial importancia para evaluar el grado de adaptación a diferentes condiciones de suelo, al momento de plantar un huerto.

    At the ICA National Research Center in Palmira a study of the root system of 12 rootstocks grafted with "Frost Valencia" orange 14 years old grown on clay-loam soil was conducted. Root samples were taken at distances of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 m from stem and a depth of 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80 and 80-100 cm in each distances. The rootstocks Amblycarpa, Citrange Carrizo and Cleopatra Mandarin presented the greater root densities. The height, diameter and the foliage tree volume showed positive correlation whit a diameter lesser than two millimeter. That's special importance for the adaptation several soil's conditions.

  7. Quantitative distribution of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in citrus plants with citrus huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbin; Levy, Laurene; Hartung, John S

    2009-02-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), or greening disease, is strongly associated with any of three nonculturable gram-negative bacteria belonging to 'Candidatus Liberibacter spp.' 'Ca. Liberibacter spp.' are transmitted by citrus psyllids to all commercial cultivars of citrus. The diseases can be lethal to citrus and have recently become widespread in both São Paulo, Brazil, and Florida, United States, the locations of the largest citrus industries in the world. Asiatic HLB, the form of the disease found in Florida, is associated with 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' and is the subject of this report. The nonculturable nature of the pathogen has hampered research and little is known about the distribution of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in infected trees. In this study, we have used a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay to systematically quantify the distribution of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes in tissues of six species of citrus either identified in the field during survey efforts in Florida or propagated in a greenhouse in Beltsville, MD. The populations of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' inferred from the distribution of 16S rDNA sequences specific for 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in leaf midribs, leaf blades, and bark samples varied by a factor of 1,000 among samples prepared from the six citrus species tested and by a factor of 100 between two sweet orange trees tested. In naturally infected trees, above-ground portions of the tree averaged 10(10) 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes per gram of tissue. Similar levels of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes were observed in some but not all root samples from the same plants. In samples taken from greenhouse-inoculated trees, levels of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes varied systematically from 10(4) genomes/g at the graft inoculation site to 10(10) genomes/g in some leaf petioles. Root samples from these trees also contained 'Ca. L. asiaticus' at 10(7) genomes/g. In symptomatic fruit tissues, 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes were also readily detected and quantified. The highest

  8. Investigações sôbre a tristeza dos Citrus: II - Conceitos e dados sôbre a reação das plantas cítricas à tristeza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Costa

    1949-01-01

    expression. The writers, on the basis of observed plant responses, have discussed the mode of inheritance of the main characteristis involved in plant reaction to tristeza. Some seedling progenies of known crosses between Poncirus trifoliata and sweet oranges (citranges have been found to permit virus increase as the sweet orange parent does, whereas others behave like P. trifoliata and apparently do not permit virus multiplication. No relationship has been found between the trifoliata leaf-shape and inability to permit virus increase, since some of the hybrids that possess the trifoliata leaves, permit virus multiplication. Backcrosses of citranges to sweet oranges show a tendency to behave like the sweet orange parent. Hybrids between P. trifoliata and grapefruits (citrumelos have behaved in most cases as the parent P. trifoliata. This seems to indicate that tolerant tissues and inability to permit virus increase are dependent on dominant factors in this type of cross. Hybrids between Citrus reticulata and C. paradisi (tangelos do not show a clear-cut type of inheritance. Some tangelos behave Uke the mandarin parent, possessing tolerant tissues ; others behave like the grapefruit parent indicating possession of non-tolerant tissues. The inability to permit virus increase is a characteristic of little value in a rootstock improvement since tops of most commercial citrus varieties permit virus multiplication. It is pointed out that improvement of citrus rootstock with respect to tristeza should be aimed at combining tolerant tissues such as found in P. trifoliata or hybrids, C. sinensis, C. reticulata, etc., with other favorable characters such as vigor, resistance to gummosis, etc. Field tests showed that the reaction of infective buds on different rootstocks varies not only according to the tolerance of non-tolerance of the rootstock tissues, but also according to whether the buds themselves belong to types that possess non-tolerant or tolerant tissues. Infective buds of

  9. Correlação entre composição das fôlhas e produção, e tamanho de frutos, em laranjeira baianinha Correlation between leaf composition and yields, and orange fruit sizes, as affected by fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Romano Gallo

    1966-01-01

    Full Text Available Dados de produção de 4 anos de colheita (1961-64 foram estudados em relação aos elementos minerais contidos nas fôlhas com 6 meses de idade, colhidas anualmente num ensaio fatorial NPK 3X3X3 de longa duração, com laranjeira baianinha (Citrus sinensisOsb. enxertada sôbre cavalo de laranja caipira (C. sinensisOsb.. As análises da variância dos teores de N e K das fôlhas mostraram efeitos lineares, positivos e altamente significativos da adubação com os respectivos elementos. Êsse efeito, para P, ficou limitado a uma dose do fertilizante. A adubação com superfosfato provocou, ainda, aumento no teor de Ca das fôlhas, significativo ao nível de 1%. Os estudos efetuados revelaram que: o aumento do teor de nitrogênio nas fôlhas aumentou a produção (pêso e número e diminuiu o tamanho (pêso médio dos frutos; o aumento do teor de potássio aumentou o tamanho dos frutos; e o aumento do teor de cálcio aumentou a produção (pêso. O teor de fósforo não influiu significativamente na produção ou tamanho de frutos.Orange yields and the size of the fruits harvested in the years 1961 to 1964 were related with the content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and calcium in six-month old leaves collected each year in a long-term experimental orchard with Baianinha orange trees (Citrus sinensis,Osbeck, at the Citrus Experiment Station of Limeira, State of São Paulo. The trees were budded on sweet orange rootstock (C. sinensis,Osb. in a factorial experiment NPK 3X3X3 started in 1951. The average weight or size of the fruit was calculated from the weight record and the total number of fruits from each plot or treatment. The influence of applied fertilizers on foliage composition and tree response (production, fruit size was also reported. Analysis of variance of the data obtained revealed several differences due to the fertilizer treatments to be significant, as can be seen in table 1. The following correlations were found to be

  10. Elemental composition changes in citrus affected by the CVC disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadai Fernandes de, A.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.; Turra, C.; Franca de, E.J.; Bacchi, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) disease results in serious economical losses for the Brazilian citriculture. The influence of CVC disease on the elemental composition of citrus plants was investigated. Leaves of sweet orange varieties Hamlin, Pera Rio and Valencia were collected from healthy and CVC-affected trees for chemical characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Significant differences between healthy and CVC-affected leaves were identified for Ca, Ce, Co, Eu, Fe, K, La, Na, Nd, Rb, Sc and Sm. Rare earth elements presented consistently higher mass fractions in the healthy leaves. (author)

  11. A Web Based Sweet Orange Crop Expert System using Rule Based System and Artificial Bee Colony Optimization Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Prof.M.S.Prasad Babu,; Mrs.J.Anitha,; K.Hari Krishna

    2010-01-01

    Citrus fruits have a prominent place among popular and exclusively grown tropical and sub-tropical fruits. Their nature ,multifold nutritional and medicinal values have made them so important. Sweet Orange Crop expert advisory system is aimed at a collaborative venture with eminent Agriculture Scientist and Experts in the area of Sweet Orange Plantation with an excellent team of computer Engineers, Programmers and designers. This Expert System contains two main parts one is Sweet Orange Infor...

  12. Efficient micropropagation of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... shoots/explant) in comparison to control (0.00±0.00 shoots/explant). Microshoots were rooted best (75.00±14.43%) under the treatment 100μM NAA for 48 hrs. and rooted plantlets were transferred to soil, following acclimatization were taken to maturity in the polyhouse. Keywords: Malta, Himalaya, benzyl adenine (BA), ...

  13. Produção, qualidade dos frutos e estado nutricional da laranja valência sob fertirrigação e adubação convencional Yield, fruit quality and nutritional status of valencia orange under fertigation and conventional fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza H. Duenhas

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar os efeitos de doses de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio aplicadas via água de irrigação em comparação à aplicação convencional de fertilizantes, com irrigação e sem irrigação. O experimento foi conduzido em um pomar de laranja 'Valência' (Citrus sinensis Osbeck localizado em Pratânia - SP, durante três anos consecutivos, e analisados os dados do último ano de observação. As diferentes formas de aplicação dos fertilizantes e a redução das doses fornecidas via água de irrigação não resultaram em diferenças significativas sobre o número médio de frutos e produtividade. Também não foram constatadas diferenças estatísticas dos tratamentos sobre a qualidade do suco e o estado nutricional das plantas, com exceção do teor de fósforo.The purpose of this study was to compare doses of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium applied through irrigation water and conventional fertilizer application, with and without irrigation. The experiment was carried out in a Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck orchard in Pratania City, São Paulo State, Brazil, during three consecutive years. The data of the last year of observation were analysed. The different fertilizer application methods and the reduction of fertigation doses did not result in significative differences on the average number of fruits and productivily. Statistical differences of treatments on juice quality and plants nutritional status were not found, except leaf phosphorus.

  14. Efeito da radiação gama sobre o perfil sensorial de suco de laranja Effect of gamma irradiation on sensory profile of orange juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Regina Verruma-Bernardi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de doses de radiações sobre as características sensoriais do suco fresco de laranja variedade 'Pêra' (Citrus sinensis L conservado sob refrigeração. Utilizou-se amostras de suco de laranja refrigerado (controle e suco de laranja refrigerado irradiado com 1,5 e 3,0kGy por hora (Cobalto60, armazenadas a 4ºC por 1, 7, 14 e 21 dias a 4ºC. Para a análise sensorial realizou-se a Análise Descritiva Quantitativa, na qual provadores selecionados e treinados avaliaram a aparência, aroma, sabor e textura oral dos sucos. As doses de radiação alteraram características de aparência como cor, brilho e grumosidade. As amostras de suco irradiados apresentaram coloração amarelo mais claro, maior brilho e menor grumosidade que o suco controle. Os sucos irradiados apresentaram também maior intensidade de aroma cozido, passado e artificial, gosto ácido, amargo, sabor cozido, de sumo, passado e de laranja artificial. As doses de radiação utilizadas alteraram as características de corpo e adstringência. A cor e a grumosidade do suco não irradiado intensificaram-se com o tempo de armazenamento. Com base nos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que a irradiação do suco promoveu alterações nas características sensoriais.The objective of this work was to evaluate the characteristics of the irradiated fresh of 'Pera' sweet orange (Citrus sinnensis L. juice and kept refrigerated. Samples of orange juice (control and samples irradiated with 1.5 and 3.0kGy per hour (Cobalt 60 were stored for 1, 7, 14 and 21 days at 4ºC. Quantitative Descriptive Analysis was conducted by a selected trained panels that evaluated appearance, aroma, flavor and texture of juices. Radiation levels affected appearance characteristics as color, shine and gummy. Irradiated juice resulted more clear and shinny and less gummy, more cooked, with past and artificial aroma, more acid, bitter, cooked, sap, past and with accentuated

  15. Enhanced Acquisition Rates of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' by the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in the Presence of Vegetative Flush Growth in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sétamou, Mamoudou; Alabi, Olufemi J; Kunta, Madhurababu; Jifon, John L; da Graça, John V

    2016-10-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid preferentially feeds and exclusively reproduces on young, newly emerged flush shoots of citrus. Asian citrus psyllid nymphs feed and complete their life stages on these flush shoots. Recent studies conducted under greenhouse conditions have shown that the transmission rates of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas), the putative causal agent of huanglongbing disease of citrus, are enhanced when flush shoots are present. However, it is unclear if CLas acquisition by migrant adult Asian citrus psyllids is similarly enhanced. To address this knowledge gap, cohorts of Asian citrus psyllid adults were allowed 1-wk acquisition access period (AAP) on flushing and nonflushing shoots of qPCR-tested symptomatic (CLas+) and asymptomatic (CLas-) 10-yr-old sweet orange trees under field conditions. After the AAP, they were tested for CLas by qPCR. Progeny Asian citrus psyllid adults that emerged 4 wk post-AAP were similarly retrieved and tested. Eighty percent of flushing and 30% of nonflushing CLas+ trees produced infective Asian citrus psyllid adults, indicating that flush shoots have greater potential to be inoculum sources for CLas acquisition. Concomitantly, 21.1% and 6.0% infective adults were retrieved, respectively, from flushing and nonflushing CLas+ trees, indicating that Asian citrus psyllid adults acquire CLas more efficiently from flush shoots relative to mature shoots. In addition, 12.1% of infective Asian citrus psyllid adult progeny were obtained from 70% of flushing CLas+ trees. Significantly lower mean Ct values were also obtained from infective adults retrieved from flushing relative to nonflushing trees. The results underscore the role of flush shoots in CLas acquisition and the need to protect citrus trees from Asian citrus psyllid infestations during flush cycles. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  16. Application of Sensory Evaluation, HS-SPME GC-MS, E-Nose, and E-Tongue for Quality Detection in Citrus Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shanshan; Wang, Jun

    2015-10-01

    In this study, electronic tongue (E-tongue), headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), electronic nose (E-nose), and quantitative describe analysis (QDA) were applied to describe the 2 types of citrus fruits (Satsuma mandarins [Citrus unshiu Marc.] and sweet oranges [Citrus sinensis {L.} Osbeck]) and their mixing juices systematically and comprehensively. As some aroma components or some flavor molecules interacted with the whole juice matrix, the changes of most components in the fruit juice were not in proportion to the mixing ratio of the 2 citrus fruits. The potential correlations among the signals of E-tongue and E-nose, volatile components, and sensory attributes were analyzed by using analysis of variance partial least squares regression. The result showed that the variables from the sensor signals (E-tongue system and E-nose system) had significant and positive (or negative) correlations to the most variables of volatile components (GC-MS) and sensory attributes (QDA). The simultaneous utilization of E-tongue and E-nose obtained a perfect classification result with 100% accuracy rate based on linear discriminant analysis and also attained a satisfying prediction with high coefficient association for the sensory attributes (R(2) > 0.994 for training sets and R(2) > 0.983 for testing sets) and for the volatile components (R(2) > 0.992 for training sets and R(2) > 0.990 for testing sets) based on random forest. Being easy-to-use, cost-effective, robust, and capable of providing a fast analysis procedure, E-nose and E-tongue could be used as an alternative detection system to traditional analysis methods, such as GC-MS and sensory evaluation by human panel in the fruit industry. Being easy-to-use, cost-effective, robust, and capable of providing a fast analysis procedure, E-nose and E-tongue could be used as an alternative detection system to traditional analysis methods for characterizing food flavors. Based on those

  17. Two of a kind but different: Luminescent carbon quantum dots from Citrus peels for iron and tartrazine sensing and cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzimitakos, Theodoros; Kasouni, Athanasia; Sygellou, Lamprini; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Troganis, Anastasios; Stalikas, Constantine

    2017-12-01

    Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon peels were used to synthesize two different kinds of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) via an unsophisticated and inexpensive carbonization procedure. The proposed synthesis is straightforward and adheres to the principles of green chemistry since no organic solvents are used and no toxic by-products are formed, while the residual resources employed facilitate the large scale synthesis of dots. The Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon peels are proved to be excellent precursors for the synthesis of CQDs with highly practical applications. The CQDs display strong excitation-independent, blue fluorescence, which is stable over time. Splendid water dispersibility, photostability and stability over a wide range of pH are some of the main advantages of the CQDs, which enable them to be used as a fluorescent probes. Although many of their features are alike, our findings demonstrate that each kind of the CQDs lend itself to quite distinct analytical applications. The developed fluorescent probes possess high potential for sensitive and selective detection of Fe 3+ (Citrus sinensis CQDs) and tartrazine (Citrus limon CQDs) via a quenching mechanism. The decrease in fluorescence intensity is in linear relationship with the concentrations of Fe 3+ and tartrazine in the ranges of 0.01-1.0μM and 0.6-23.5μΜ, respectively. Moreover, their low cytotoxicity reinforces their applicability towards cell bioimaging and intracellular detection of Fe 3+ , which were further studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of the effects of light source and plant materials in psyllid trapping levels in the traps for citrus shipping containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), the principle vector for Huanglongbing (HLB), has been reported to be transported in truckloads of oranges in Florida. Citrus, especially Key limes and lemons, are shipped to the U.S. from Mexican states that are heavily infested with HLB and live, infected psyllids c...

  19. Citrus Waste Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

    2007-01-30

    Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

  20. Citrus leprosis and its status in Florida and Texas: past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, C C; Rodrigues, J C V; Derrick, K S; Achor, D S; French, J V; Welbourn, W C; Ochoa, R; Kitajima, E W

    2003-01-01

    According to published reports from 1906 to 1968, leprosis nearly destroyed the Florida citrus industry prior to 1925. This was supported with photographs showing typical leprosis symptoms on citrus leaves, fruit, and twigs. Support for the past occurrence of citrus leprosis in Florida includes: (1) presence of twig lesions in affected orange blocks in addition to lesions on fruits and leaves and corresponding absence of similar lesions on grapefruit; (2) yield reduction and die-back on infected trees; and (3) spread of the disease between 1906 and 1925. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination of tissue samples from leprosis-like injuries to orange and grapefruit leaves from Florida in 1997, and fruits from grapefruit and sweet orange varieties from Texas in 1999 and 2000 did not contain leprosis-like viral particles or viroplasm inclusions. In contrast, leprosis viroplasm inclusions were readily identified by TEM within green non-senescent tissues surrounding leprosis lesions in two of every three orange leaf samples and half of the fruit samples obtained from Piracicaba, Brazil. Symptoms of leprosis were not seen in any of the 24,555 orange trees examined across Florida during 2001 and 2002. The authors conclude that citrus leprosis no longer exists in Florida nor occurs in Texas citrus based on: (1) lack of leprosis symptoms on leaves, fruit, and twigs of sweet orange citrus varieties surveyed in Florida: (2) failure to find virus particles or viroplasm inclusion bodies in suspect samples from both Florida and Texas examined by TEM; (3) absence of documented reports by others on the presence of characteristic leprosis symptoms in Florida; (4) lack of its documented occurrence in dooryard trees or abandoned or minimal pesticide citrus orchard sites in Florida. In view of the serious threat to citrus in the U.S., every effort must be taken to quarantine the importation of both citrus and woody ornamental plants that serve as hosts for Brevipalpus

  1. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN 1119-7455. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF SWEET ORANGE, CITRUSSINENSIS(L) ... ABSTRACT. Sweet orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) rind powder and oil were evaluated for the control of maize ..... Natural Pesticides from the neem tree.

  2. Physicochemical Characteristics of Citrus Seed Oils from Kerman, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reazai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a great deal of attention on usage, byproducts, and wastes of the food industry. There have been many studies on the properties of citrus seeds and extracted oil from citrus grown in Kerman, Iran. The rate of oil content of citrus seeds varies between 33.4% and 41.9%. Linoleic acid (33.2% to 36.3% is the key fatty acid found in citrus seeds oil and oleic (24.8% to 29.3% and palmitic acids (23.5% to 29.4% are the next main fatty acids, respectively. There are also other acids found at trivial rates such as stearic, palmitoleic, and linolenic. With variation between 0.54 meg/kg and 0.77 mgq/kg in peroxide values of citrus seed oils, acidity value of the oil varies between 0.44% and 0.72%. The results of the study showed that citrus seeds under study (orange and sour lemon grown in Kerman province and the extracted oil have the potential of being used as the source of edible oil.

  3. Nutritional evaluation of citrus orchard under organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Domingos, I.; Candeias, M.F.; Correia, P.J.; Pestana, M.

    2009-01-01

    Neste trabalho apresentam-se alguns resultados preliminares referentes à caracterização e avaliação do estado nutricional de um pomar de laranjeiras (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb. cv. ‘Valencia Late’ instalado em agricultura biológica num solo com elevado teor de calcário activo do Centro de Experimentação Agrária de Tavira da Direcção Regional de Agricultura do Algarve. Com o objectivo de caracterizar o solo do pomar em estudo foram realizadas colheitas de solo a duas profundidades (0-25 e 25-50...

  4. Isolation, characterization and modification of citrus pectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA KRATCHANOVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orange and lemon peels were used for obtaining pectic polysaccharides. Citrus peels were previously treated with 96% ethanol, and the obtained alcohol-insoluble solids (AIS were subjected to a sequential extraction with hot distilled water and hot 0.5% HCl. Water- and acid-extracted orange (WEOP and AEOP and lemon (WELP and AELP pectins were obtained. Acid extraction gave higher yields of pectin than water extraction and lemon peels were richer in pectin. Comparative investigations were carried out with chromatographically purified commercial citrus pectin (CPCP. Chemical and physicochemical characterization of all pectins was accomplished. It was found that pectins were similar in anhydrouronic acid content (AUАC, 69-81%, but differed in their degree of methylesterification (DM, 55-81%. Generally water-extracted pectins were with higher DM. Both orange pectins were with higher DM and degree of acetylation (DA, 2%, in comparison with the corresponding lemon pectins. Water-extracted pectins were with higher degree of feruloylation (DF, 0.12-0.34%. To our knowledge this is the first report on the estimation of ester-linked ferulic acid in orange and lemon peel pectins. Pectic polysaccharides differed in molecular weight and homogeneity. WELP was with the highest molecular weight and homogeneity. The pectins contained D-galacturonic and D-glucuronic acids, L-arabinose, D-galactose, L-fucose, L-rhamnose and D-xylose. All investigated pectins showed immunostimulating activity by complement activation in the classical pathway at 1.25 and 2.5 mg/mL. Pectic polysaccharides were modified with endopolygalacturonase. Enzyme-modified CPCP and WEOP had higher anti-complementary activity than the corresponding initial pectins.

  5. Relations among Valencia orange yields with soil and leaf nutrients in Northwestern Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonez Fidalski

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Valencia orange orchards established on soils of low fertility in the Northwest region of Paraná State, Brazil, have showed symptoms of Mg deficiency and reduced fruit yields. The objective of this study was to verify the relationship between yield with soil and leaf nutrients during 1996/97 growing season. Two sites of low and high productivity were selected in seven orchards. Leaf and soil samples (fertilized rows and interrows were collected in 1996. The results showed that the citrus yields were negatively related with soil Mg/K and Ca+Mg/K ratios in the fertilized rows, and fruit weight positively correlated with leaf Zn in the low productivity orchards. The fruit weight was positively related with leaf Ca and soil Ca in the fertilized rows of the high productivity orchards. The results suggested an adequate lime and K fertilization managements in the fertilized rows, as well as an adequate Zn supply.Os pomares de laranja Valência (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck estabelecidos em solos de baixa fertilidade da região noroeste do Paraná, tem apresentado sintomas de desequilíbrio nutricional, principalmente deficiência de Mg e redução da produção e do tamanho dos frutos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar as relações da produção e peso dos frutos com os nutrientes das folhas e do solo de sete pomares de laranja Valência na safra de 1996/97, em talhões de produtividade inferior e superior. Em 1996, foram coletadas amostras de folha e de solo nas faixas de adubação e nas entrelinhas. Os resultados mostraram que a produção de frutos correlacionou-se negativamente com as relações dos cátions Mg/K e Ca+Mg/K do solo das faixas de adubação dos pomares de baixa produtividade e, o peso dos frutos, correlacionou-se positivamente com os teores foliares de Zn. Nos pomares de produtividade superior, o peso dos frutos correlacionou-se positivamente com os teores de Ca das folhas e do solo nas faixas de adubação. Estes

  6. Citrus plastid-related gene profiling based on expressed sequence tag analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tercilio Calsa Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastid-related sequences, derived from putative nuclear or plastome genes, were searched in a large collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs and genomic sequences from the Citrus Biotechnology initiative in Brazil. The identified putative Citrus chloroplast gene sequences were compared to those from Arabidopsis, Eucalyptus and Pinus. Differential expression profiling for plastid-directed nuclear-encoded proteins and photosynthesis-related gene expression variation between Citrus sinensis and Citrus reticulata, when inoculated or not with Xylella fastidiosa, were also analyzed. Presumed Citrus plastome regions were more similar to Eucalyptus. Some putative genes appeared to be preferentially expressed in vegetative tissues (leaves and bark or in reproductive organs (flowers and fruits. Genes preferentially expressed in fruit and flower may be associated with hypothetical physiological functions. Expression pattern clustering analysis suggested that photosynthesis- and carbon fixation-related genes appeared to be up- or down-regulated in a resistant or susceptible Citrus species after Xylella inoculation in comparison to non-infected controls, generating novel information which may be helpful to develop novel genetic manipulation strategies to control Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC.

  7. Insulin sensitivity and lipid profile of eutrophic individuals after acute intake of fresh orange juice in comparison to the commercial-pasteurized orange juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus flavonoids from orange juice (OJ) have shown hypolipidemic, hypotension, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the extraction and commercial pasteurization of OJ can influence its nutritional composition in comparison to the fresh squeezed OJ. We evaluated the insulin sensitivity, and th...

  8. [Citrus boron nutrient level and its impact factors in the Three Gorges Reservoir region of Chongqing, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Peng, Liang-Zhi; Chun, Chang-Pin; Jiang, Cai-Lun; Ling, Li-Li; Wang, Nan-Qi; Xing, Fei; Huang, Yi

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the level of boron nutrient in citrus and its impact factors, a total of 954 citrus leaf samples and 302 soil samples were collected from representative orchards in the 12 main citrus production counties in the Three Gorges Reservoir region of Chongqing to determine the boron content in citrus leaves, as well as the relationships between leaf boron content with soil available boron content, soil pH value, cultivar, rootstock and the age of tree. Results indicated that the leaf samples from 41.6% orchards (tree did affect the leaf boron content. The leaves from the orchards with soil pH of 4.5-6.4 demonstrated significantly higher boron contents than with the soil pH of 6.5-8.5. The leaf boron contents in the different cultivars was ranged as Satsuma mandarin > pomelo > valencia orange > sweet orange > tangor > navel orange. The citrus on trifoliate orange and sour pomelo rootstocks had significantly higher leaf boron contents than on Carrizo citrange and red tangerine rootstocks. Compared with the adult citrus trees (above 8 year-old), 6.6% more of leaf samples of younger trees (3 to 8 year-old) contained boron contents in the optimum range (35-100 mg x kg(-1)).

  9. Digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lashkari, Saman; Taghizadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment was carried out to determine the digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products. Grapefruit pulp (GP), lemon pulp (LE), lime pulp (LI) and orange pulp (OP) were the test feed. Digestion kinetic of whole citrus by-products and neutral detergent fiber (NDF......) fraction and acid detergent fiber (ADF) fractions of citrus by-products were measured using the in vitro gas production technique. Fermentation kinetics of the neutral detergent soluble carbohydrates (NDSC) fraction and hemicelluloses were calculated using a curve subtraction. The fermentation rate...... of whole was the highest for the LE (p by-products lag time was longer for hemicellulose than other carbohydrate fractions. There was no significant difference among potential gas production (A) volumes of whole test feeds (p

  10. A Comprehensive Analysis of Chromoplast Differentiation Reveals Complex Protein Changes Associated with Plastoglobule Biogenesis and Remodeling of Protein Systems in Sweet Orange Flesh1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lun; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-01-01

    Globular and crystalloid chromoplasts were observed to be region specifically formed in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) flesh and converted from amyloplasts during fruit maturation, which was associated with the composition of specific carotenoids and the expression of carotenogenic genes. Subsequent isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomic analyses of purified plastids from the flesh during chromoplast differentiation and senescence identified 1,386 putative plastid-localized proteins, 1,016 of which were quantified by spectral counting. The iTRAQ values reflecting the expression abundance of three identified proteins were validated by immunoblotting. Based on iTRAQ data, chromoplastogenesis appeared to be associated with three major protein expression patterns: (1) marked decrease in abundance of the proteins participating in the translation machinery through ribosome assembly; (2) increase in abundance of the proteins involved in terpenoid biosynthesis (including carotenoids), stress responses (redox, ascorbate, and glutathione), and development; and (3) maintenance of the proteins for signaling and DNA and RNA. Interestingly, a strong increase in abundance of several plastoglobule-localized proteins coincided with the formation of plastoglobules in the chromoplast. The proteomic data also showed that stable functioning of protein import, suppression of ribosome assembly, and accumulation of chromoplast proteases are correlated with the amyloplast-to-chromoplast transition; thus, these processes may play a collective role in chromoplast biogenesis and differentiation. By contrast, the chromoplast senescence process was inferred to be associated with significant increases in stress response and energy supply. In conclusion, this comprehensive proteomic study identified many potentially new plastid-localized proteins and provides insights into the potential developmental and molecular mechanisms underlying chromoplast

  11. cDNA-AFLP analysis reveals the adaptive responses of citrus to long-term boron-toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Qi, Yi-Ping; Yang, Lin-Tong; Ye, Xin; Jiang, Huan-Xin; Huang, Jing-Hao; Chen, Li-Song

    2014-10-28

    Boron (B)-toxicity is an important disorder in agricultural regions across the world. Seedlings of 'Sour pummelo' (Citrus grandis) and 'Xuegan' (Citrus sinensis) were fertigated every other day until drip with 10 μM (control) or 400 μM (B-toxic) H3BO3 in a complete nutrient solution for 15 weeks. The aims of this study were to elucidate the adaptive mechanisms of citrus plants to B-toxicity and to identify B-tolerant genes. B-toxicity-induced changes in seedlings growth, leaf CO2 assimilation, pigments, total soluble protein, malondialdehyde (MDA) and phosphorus were less pronounced in C. sinensis than in C. grandis. B concentration was higher in B-toxic C. sinensis leaves than in B-toxic C. grandis ones. Here we successfully used cDNA-AFLP to isolate 67 up-regulated and 65 down-regulated transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) from B-toxic C. grandis leaves, whilst only 31 up-regulated and 37 down-regulated TDFs from B-toxic C. sinensis ones, demonstrating that gene expression is less affected in B-toxic C. sinensis leaves than in B-toxic C. grandis ones. These differentially expressed TDFs were related to signal transduction, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism, protein and amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, cell wall and cytoskeleton modification, stress responses and cell transport. The higher B-tolerance of C. sinensis might be related to the findings that B-toxic C. sinensis leaves had higher expression levels of genes involved in photosynthesis, which might contribute to the higher photosyntheis and light utilization and less excess light energy, and in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging compared to B-toxic C. grandis leaves, thus preventing them from photo-oxidative damage. In addition, B-toxicity-induced alteration in the expression levels of genes encoding inorganic pyrophosphatase 1, AT4G01850 and methionine synthase differed between the two species, which might play a role in the B-tolerance of C. sinensis. C. sinensis

  12. Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes albopictus Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazrat Bilal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecticidestherefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to suppressmosquito larval population.Methods: WHO recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used.Results: Among the two citrus cultivars tested as larvicide against Aedes albopictus, valencia late (Citrus sinensis wasthe best in terms of LC50 (297 ppm, % mortality (97% and LT50 (18.49 hours then freutrall early (Citrus reticulatewith LC50 (377.4 ppm, % mortality (88% and LT50 (31 hours, While nomilin gave lowest LC50 (121.04 ppm than limonin (382.22 ppm after 72 hours of exposure. Valencia late also had more limonin and nomilin (377 μg/ml and 21.19 μg/ml than freutrall early (5.29 μg/ml and 3.89 μg/ml respectively.Conclusion: Valencia late showed best results in term of LC50, LT50 and percentage mortality against Aedes albopictus as it has more amount of nomilin then freutrall early, however further evaluation in the field conditions is required.

  13. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Marcio dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in order to make possible selection of all interveners involved in the chain. The study using the Social Network Analysis (SNA showed that the densest relationships in the network are from exporters to importers and from orange growers to the orange processing industry. No difference was found in the values of the network geodesic distance or the clustering coefficients from 2005 to 2009. The degree of centrality increased steadily throughout the years indicating that the processing industry attempts to minimize the risks by centralizing the actions. A decrease in export of orange juice from 2007 (2.07 10(6 t to 2008 (2.05 10(6 t was found, probably due to the world's financial crisis with recovery in 2009. Since 2004, there has been an increase of nearly 10% per year in the market preference of concentrate juice (OFCJ when compared to the "not from concentrated" juice (NFC. Nowadays the NFC market represents nearly 50% of all Brazilian export which impacted in the logistic distribution and transportation issues.

  14. Produção e qualidade de frutos de cultivares de laranja-doce no norte do Paraná Fruit production and quality of sweet orange cultivars in northern Paraná state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleide Hissano Tazima

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi a caracterização de acessos de laranja-doce [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de Citros (BAG Citros do IAPAR, em Londrina-PR. Foram estudados os acessos I-02 'Piralima'; I-03 'Barão'; I-11 'Natal', I-16 'Hamlin', I-17 'Seleta-Vermelha', I-60 'Natal', enxertados sobre limão- 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck. As plantas foram conduzidas em espaçamento de 7,0 m x 7,0 m e sem irrigação. Os dados de produção (de 1983 a 1997 e as características físico-químicas dos frutos (de 1984 a 2000, como massa (MF, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez titulável total (ATT, ratio (SST/ATT, rendimento em suco (Suco e índice tecnológico (IT foram submetidos à análise de variância, complementada pelo teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. O acesso I-16 'Hamlin' foi o mais produtivo (218,1 kg por planta e diferiu-se dos demais. Para a massa do fruto, destacaram-se os acessos I-17 'Seleta-Vermelha' (208,8 g e I-11 'Natal' (142,0 g, sem diferença entre si. Com relação às características químicas dos frutos, os acessos apresentaram resultados semelhantes, dentro dos padrões considerados adequados para as cultivares, exceto o acesso I-17, 'Seleta- Vermelha', que teve índice tecnológico menor que 2,0 kg.caixa-1 de SST.The aim of this work was to characterize sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] accessions from the IAPAR Active Citrus Germplasm Bank (AGB Citrus in Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. The accessions studied were: I-02 'Piralima', I-03 'Barão', I-11 'Natal', I-16 'Hamlin', I-17 'Seleta Vermelha', I-60 'Natal', I-67 budded on Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck. The plants had 7.0 m x 7.0 m spacing, and were carried out without irrigation. Data of yield (from 1983 to 1997 and fruit physical-chemical characteristics (from 1984 to 2000, like fruit mass (FM, total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, ratio (TSS/TTA, juice content and technological index (TI were submitted

  15. Health Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution (Cadmium, Lead, Arsenic in Citrus Marketed in Tehran, Iran, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Saleh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Today, the environment pollution with heavy metals has increased. It is important to study various types of pollutions specially those regarding fruits. The effect of pollutions on food safety for human consumption is a global concern.  This study was conducted for health assessment of heavy metals pollution (cadmium, lead, and arsenic in citrus marketed in Tehran, Iran in 2015. Materials & Methods: After collecting and preparing 2 samples from each citrus species (tangerine, grapefruit, sweet lime, sour orange, orange with acid digestion method, the citrus pulp and peel were surveyed. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES was used to determine the concentrations of heavy metals with three replications. Moreover, SPSS version 19 was employed to perform statistical analysis. Results: The results showed that the concentration average of Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic in citrus samples of the pulp parts were 19.73, 42.95 and 2.30 mg/kg and in peel parts were 20.09, 42.71 and 2.12 mg/kg, respectively. The average concentrations of heavy metals were higher than WHO maximum permissible limits. Conclusions: Based on these results, consumption of citrus species has no adverse effect on the consumers’ health (except Sweet lime, Orange, Tangerine and Grapefruit in lead is risky for adults and Sweet lime and Orange that Health Index in Lead and Arsenic and Sour Orange, Tangerine and Grapefruit that Health Index in Lead is more than 1 and is risky for children. Thus, individuals living in Tehran should be cautious about using these citrus fruits and researchers should try to obtain national standards in the field of entering these metals to food in environmental conditions that are in Iran.

  16. The genetics of tolerance to tristeza disease in citrus rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Bordignon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled pollinations between four elite citrus rootstocks, Citrus limonia - 'Limeira' rangpur lime (Cravo, C. sunki - 'Sunki' mandarin (Sunki, C. aurantium - 'São Paulo' sour orange (Azeda and Poncirus trifoliata - 'Davis A' trifoliate orange (Trifoliata, resulted in 1614 nucelar and 1938 hybrid plants identified by the isozyme loci Pgi-1, Pgm-1, Got-1, Got-2, Aps-1, Me-1, Prxa-1 and or by the morphological markers broadness of leaf petiole wing or trifoliolate leaves. Tolerance to the citrus tristeza virus (CTV was evaluated under nursery and field conditions for several years by the reaction of Valencia orange infected with a severe strain of CTV and grafted onto the hybrids and nucellar clones. Genetic analyses indicated that tolerance was controlled by at least two loci designated here as Az and t interacting in dominant-recessive epistasis. Genotypes Az__ __ __ and __ __ tt were tolerant while azaz T__ was intolerant. The intolerant Azeda was azaz TT, the tolerant rootstocks Sunki and Cravo were Azaz tt and the Trifoliata was Azaz TT. The different degrees of intolerance seen in some hybrids may reflect the inability of segregating modifiers from parental clones to overcome the epistatic interaction that controls the major tolerance reaction.

  17. Shallow irradiation of Citrus Unshiu by cathod ray, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Hiroyuki; Kawashima, Koji; Umeda, Keiji

    1978-01-01

    The effect of 150 Krad cathode ray irradiation on the shelf life and quality of ''Citrus Unshiu'' was investigated. Citrus Unshiu (Japanese mandarin orange ''Satsuma'') were kept at 5 0 C for 2 months without pretreatment and irradiated. Both irradiated and non-irradiated samples were stored in the special storage boxes in which temperature, humidity and sterile air circulation were controlled. After 44 days, the percentage of spoiled oranges in irradiated and non-irradiated samples stored at 8 0 C were 57.5% and 64% respectively, on the other hand when stored at 3 0 C the percentage were 26% and 51% respectively. Rate of spoilage was significantly lower in the irradiated samples than non-irradiated ones. Irradiated effect on the shelf life extension was more conspicuous when the storage temperature was kept at 3 0 C. By the sensory examination, any difference for taste and flavor between irradiated and non-irradiated samples was not detected. The taste and flavor of the oranges stored at 8 0 C changed worse after long time storage but when stored at 3 0 C, such tendency was not observed. Undesirable odor and flavor were not detected by the panel with the irradiated samples in this experiment. The results showed that shelf life of the ''Citrus Unshiu'' could be extended by the combination of irradiation with 150 Krad cathode ray and storage at 3 0 C. (auth.)

  18. In vitro organogenesis in some citrus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Henrique Schinor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitro organogenesis of Citrus was studied for the genotypes Citrus sinensis cv. 'Natal', C. limonia, C. volkameriana, and C. aurantium, with the use of epicotyl segments-derived explants, cultured in MT salts and vitamins medium supplemented with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP - 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 or 2.0 mg L-1. For the recalcitrant genotypes C. limonia and C. aurantium the in vitro organogenesis was also studied with internodal segments-derived explants, cultured in MT salts and vitamins medium supplemented with 0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0, or 4.0 mg L-1 of BAP. The efficiency of culture medium supplementation with the combination of BAP (0.0; 1.0, or 2.0 mg L-1 and NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid - 0.0; 0.3, or 0.5 mg L-1 in the development of adventitious shoots was evaluated for C. aurantium. Culture medium supplementation with BAP is not essential for the adventitious shoots development in the four genotypes studied when epicotyl segments-derived explants are used. In general, culture media supplementation with BAP decreased the percentage of responsive explants excepted for C. sinensis cv. 'Natal' and C. limonia when the concentrations of 1.5 and 2.0 mg/L were used. The presence of cytokinin, in concentrations up to 2 mg/L, stimulated the in vitro organogenesis when internodal segments-derived explants were used for C. limonia and C. aurantium. For C. aurantium no adventitious shoots developed in explants (internodal segments cultured in basal culture medium, without BAP supplementation. Although no statistic differences could be detected, culture media supplementation with the combination of BAP and NAA favored the development of adventitious shoots in C. aurantium. The best concentration of NAA varied according to BAP concentration. The results presented herein, show that Citrus in vitro organogenesis depends on the interaction of culture medium composition, explant differentiation level, and genotype.

  19. Citrus asymmetric somatic hybrids produced via fusion of gamma-irradiated and iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts Híbridos somáticos assimétricos de citros produzidos pela fusão de protoplastos irradiados e tratados com iodoacetamida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Maria de Bona

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to produce citrus somatic asymmetric hybrids by fusing gamma-irradiated protoplasts with iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts. Protoplasts were isolated from embryogenic suspension cells of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad. cultivars Ruby Red and Flame, sweet oranges (C. sinensis Osbeck 'Itaboraí', 'Natal', Valencia', and 'Succari', from 'Satsuma' (C. unshiu Marcow. and 'Changsha' mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco and 'Murcott' tangor (C. reticulata x C. sinensis. Donor protoplasts were exposed to gamma rays and receptor protoplasts were treated with 3 mmol L-1 iodoacetamide (IOA, and then they were fused for asymmetric hybridization. Asymmetric embryos were germinated, and the resulting shoots were either grafted onto sour orange, rough lemon or 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x Poncirus trifoliata x 'Sunki' mandarin rootstock seedlings, or rooted after dipping their bases in indol-butyric acid (IBA solution. The products were later acclimatized to greenhouse conditions. Ploidy was analyzed by flow cytometry, and hybridity was confirmed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP analysis of plantlet DNAsamples. The best treatment was the donor-recipient fusion combination of 80 Gy-irradiated 'Ruby Red' protoplasts with 20 min IOA-treated 'Succari' protoplasts. Tetraploid and aneuploid plants were produced. Rooting recalcitrance was solved by dipping shoots' stems in 3,000 mg L-1 IBA solution for 10 min.O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir híbridos somáticos assimétricos de citros pela fusão de protoplastos irradiados com raios gama e protoplastos tratados com iodoacetamida. Protoplastos foram isolados de suspensões celulares embriogênicas de pomelo (Citrus paradisi Macfad., cultivares Ruby Red e Flame, de laranja doce (C. sinensis Osbeck 'Itaboraí', 'Natal', Valencia' e 'Succari', de tangerinas 'Satsuma' (C. unshiu Marcow. e 'Changsha' (C. reticulata Blanco e de tangor 'Murcott' (C. reticulata x C. sinensis

  20. Deep sequencing of viral small-RNAs of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) reveals genomic differences between two Italian isolates of CTV

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recent Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) epidemic of quick decline (QD) killed many sweet orange trees grafted on sour orange rootstock in Sicily but left some asymptomatic trees in the same field. Recent reports indicated cross-protection involves exclusion of a severe CTV strain by a mild strain of th...

  1. An investigation of boron-toxicity in leaves of two citrus species differing in boron-tolerance using comparative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Wen; Huang, Zeng-Rong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Yang, Lin-Tong; Guo, Peng; Chen, Li-Song

    2015-06-18

    Limited data are available on boron (B)-toxicity-responsive proteins in plants. We first applied 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) to compare the effects of B-toxicity on leaf protein profiles in B-tolerant Citrus sinensis and B-intolerant Citrus grandis seedlings, and identified 27 (20) protein species with increased abundances and 23 (25) protein species with decreased abundances from the former (latter). Generally speaking, B-toxicity increased the abundances of protein species involved in antioxidation and detoxification, proteolysis, cell transport, and decreased the abundances of protein species involved in protein biosynthesis in the two citrus species. The higher B-tolerance of C. sinensis might include following several aspects: (a) protein species related to photosynthesis and energy metabolism in C. sinensis leaves were more adaptive to B-toxicity than in C. grandis ones, which was responsible for the higher photosynthesis and for the better maintenance of energy homeostasis in the former; and (b) the increased requirement for detoxification of reactive oxygen species and cytotoxic compounds due to decreased photosynthesis was less in B-toxic C. sinensis leaves than in B-toxic C. grandis ones. B-toxicity-responsive protein species involved in coenzyme biosynthesis differed between the two species, which might also contribute to the higher B-tolerance of C. sinensis. B-toxicity occurs in many regions all over the world, especially in arid and semiarid regions due to the raising of B-rich water tables with high B accumulated in topsoil. In China, B-toxicity often occurs in some citrus orchards. However, the mechanisms of citrus B-tolerance are still not fully understood. Here, we first used 2-DE to identify some new B-toxicity-responsive-proteins involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, antioxidation and detoxification, signal transduction and nucleotide metabolism. Our results showed that proteins involved in photosynthesis and energy metabolism

  2. Structure and composition of the assemblage of parasitoids associated to Phyllocnistis citrella pupae Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus orchards in Southern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, Simone M.; Redaelli, Luiza R.; Soglio, Fabio K. Dal

    2007-01-01

    The structure and composition of the assemblage of pupal parasitoids of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, the citrus leaf miner, were studied in two citrus orchards (Citrus deliciosa Tenore cv. Montenegrina and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco hybrid Murcott), in Montenegro County (29 deg 68S and 51 deg 46W), southern Brazil. At fortnightly samplings, from July 2001 to June 2003, all the new shoots from 24 randomly selected trees were inspected. The species richness reached five native species in the Murcott orchard, and six in Montenegrina. In Murcott, the presence of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an exotic species, was detected in the first year of sampling, probably migrating from the nearby areas where it had been released for the miner control. In Montenegrina, its presence was only registered in the second year. A. citricola in both areas was dominant and changed the community structure of parasitoid complex of P. citrella in both orchards. (author)

  3. Metabolite Profiling of Candidatus Liberibacter Infection in Hamlin Sweet Oranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Wei-Lun; Wang, Yu

    2018-04-18

    Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening disease, caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), is considered the most serious citrus disease in the world. CLas infection has been shown to greatly affect metabolite profiles in citrus fruits. However, because of uneven distribution of CLas throughout the tree and a minimum bacterial titer requirement for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection, the infected trees may test false negative. To prevent this, metabolites of healthy Hamlin oranges (CLas-) obtained from the citrus undercover protection systems (CUPS) were investigated. Comparison of the metabolite profile of juice obtained from CLas- and CLas+ (asymptomatic and symptomatic) trees revealed significant differences in both volatile and nonvolatile metabolites. However, no consistent pattern could be observed in alcohols, esters, sesquiterpenes, sugars, flavanones, and limonoids as compared to previous studies. These results suggest that CLas may affect metabolite profiles of citrus fruits earlier than detecting infection by PCR. Citric acid, nobiletin, malic acid, and phenylalanine were identified as the metabolic biomarkers associated with the progression of HLB. Thus, the differential metabolites found in this study may serve as the biomarkers of HLB in its early stage, and the metabolite signature of CLas infection may provide useful information for developing a potential treatment strategy.

  4. Characterization of a Proposed Dichorhavirus Associated with the Citrus Leprosis Disease and Analysis of the Host Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Jaramillo, José Luis; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto; Rojas-Morales, Lourdes; López-Buenfil, José Abel; Morales-Galván, Oscar; Chavarín-Palacio, Claudio; Ramírez-Pool, José Abrahán; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The causal agents of Citrus leprosis are viruses; however, extant diagnostic methods to identify them have failed to detect known viruses in orange, mandarin, lime and bitter orange trees with severe leprosis symptoms in Mexico, an important citrus producer. Using high throughput sequencing, a virus associated with citrus leprosis was identified, belonging to the proposed Dichorhavirus genus. The virus was termed Citrus Necrotic Spot Virus (CNSV) and contains two negative-strand RNA components; virions accumulate in the cytoplasm and are associated with plasmodesmata—channels interconnecting neighboring cells—suggesting a mode of spread within the plant. The present study provides insights into the nature of this pathogen and the corresponding plant response, which is likely similar to other pathogens that do not spread systemically in plants. PMID:25004279

  5. Characterization of a Proposed Dichorhavirus Associated with the Citrus Leprosis Disease and Analysis of the Host Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Cruz-Jaramillo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The causal agents of Citrus leprosis are viruses; however, extant diagnostic methods to identify them have failed to detect known viruses in orange, mandarin, lime and bitter orange trees with severe leprosis symptoms in Mexico, an important citrus producer. Using high throughput sequencing, a virus associated with citrus leprosis was identified, belonging to the proposed Dichorhavirus genus. The virus was termed Citrus Necrotic Spot Virus (CNSV and contains two negative-strand RNA components; virions accumulate in the cytoplasm and are associated with plasmodesmata—channels interconnecting neighboring cells—suggesting a mode of spread within the plant. The present study provides insights into the nature of this pathogen and the corresponding plant response, which is likely similar to other pathogens that do not spread systemically in plants.

  6. Incidence and epidemiology of Citrus tristeza virus in the Valencian community of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambra, M; Gorris, M T; Marroquín, C; Román, M P; Olmos, A; Martínez, M C; de Mendoza, A H; López, A; Navarro, L

    2000-11-01

    The first outbreak of citrus tristeza disease in Spain caused by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was recorded in 1957 in the Valencian Community (VC). In total c. 40 million trees, mainly of sweet orange and mandarin grafted on sour orange rootstocks, declined due to CTV. Large-scale surveys in different municipalities of the VC indicated that the disease spread very fast. Incidence increased from 11% in 1989 to 53% in 1998. Toxoptera aurantii and Aphis spiraecola (inefficient aphid vectors of CTV) predominated before 1985-87. Since then the relatively efficient vector Aphis gossypii has become dominant and induced an epidemic that has been modelled. The large number of A.gossypii that visited each clementine tree (estimated to exceed 97000 per year) explained the difference between the temporal pattern of spread of CTV in clementine which followed the Gompertz model and that in sweet orange (logistic model). The susceptibility of the different citrus species to CTV infection by aphids seems to depend on the number of young, succulent shoots produced. The epidemiological data allowed specific recommendations to be made to growers in order to facilitate a change to a modern citrus industry based on the use of selected varieties grafted on tristeza-tolerant rootstocks produced within a certification scheme. This has been done already in almost 90% of the VC citrus-growing area. The tristeza problem has been solved unless more aggressive isolates are introduced and become prevalent.

  7. Host status of grapefruit and Valencia oranges for Anastrepha serpentina and Anastrepha ludens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastrepha serpentina, known as the zapote fly or serpentine fruit fly, is occasionally captured in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Lists of host plants for this species include several species of citrus, such as oranges and grapefruit. Current regulatory procedures require quarantines and treatme...

  8. Hybrid Origins of Citrus Varieties Inferred from DNA Marker Analysis of Nuclear and Organelle Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Akira; Nonaka, Keisuke; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Goto, Shingo; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Mochizuki, Takako; Nagasaki, Hideki; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu

    2016-01-01

    Most indigenous citrus varieties are assumed to be natural hybrids, but their parentage has so far been determined in only a few cases because of their wide genetic diversity and the low transferability of DNA markers. Here we infer the parentage of indigenous citrus varieties using simple sequence repeat and indel markers developed from various citrus genome sequence resources. Parentage tests with 122 known hybrids using the selected DNA markers certify their transferability among those hybrids. Identity tests confirm that most variant strains are selected mutants, but we find four types of kunenbo (Citrus nobilis) and three types of tachibana (Citrus tachibana) for which we suggest different origins. Structure analysis with DNA markers that are in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium deduce three basic taxa coinciding with the current understanding of citrus ancestors. Genotyping analysis of 101 indigenous citrus varieties with 123 selected DNA markers infers the parentages of 22 indigenous citrus varieties including Satsuma, Temple, and iyo, and single parents of 45 indigenous citrus varieties, including kunenbo, C. ichangensis, and Ichang lemon by allele-sharing and parentage tests. Genotyping analysis of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes using 11 DNA markers classifies their cytoplasmic genotypes into 18 categories and deduces the combination of seed and pollen parents. Likelihood ratio analysis verifies the inferred parentages with significant scores. The reconstructed genealogy identifies 12 types of varieties consisting of Kishu, kunenbo, yuzu, koji, sour orange, dancy, kobeni mikan, sweet orange, tachibana, Cleopatra, willowleaf mandarin, and pummelo, which have played pivotal roles in the occurrence of these indigenous varieties. The inferred parentage of the indigenous varieties confirms their hybrid origins, as found by recent studies. PMID:27902727

  9. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of Ca, K and Mg from in vitro citrus culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arruda Sandra C. C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An ultrasound extraction procedure for Ca, K and Mg from in vitro plant cultures is proposed, comparing cultures of different embryogenic levels of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limonia, employing ultrasound energy. Parameters related to metals extraction, such as plant material sampling, acid concentration and sonication time were investigated. For accuracy check, the proposed ultrasound extraction procedure was compared with a microwave-assisted digestion procedure and no differences in the results were verified at 95% of the confidence level. With this simple and accurate extraction procedure, it was possible to determine differences in Ca, K and Mg concentrations during Citrus embryo formation/development and between cultures (embryogenic and non-embryogenic. Finally, the ultrasound extraction method demonstrated to be an excellent alternative for handless sampling and operational costs.

  10. Soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization under different tillage systems and Permanent Groundcover cultivation between Orange trees Mineralização do carbono e nitrogênio sob diferentes preparos de solo e coberturas permanentes intercalares em pomar de laranjeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the alterations in carbon and nitrogen mineralization due to different soil tillage systems and groundcover species for intercropped orange trees. The experiment was established in an Ultisol soil (Typic Paleudults originated from Caiuá sandstone in northwestern of the state of Paraná, Brazil, in an area previously cultivated with pasture (Brachiaria humidicola. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated: conventional tillage (CT in the entire area and strip tillage (ST with a 2-m width, each with different groundcover vegetation management systems. The citrus cultivar utilized was the 'Pera' orange (Citrus sinensis grafted onto a 'Rangpur' lime rootstock. The soil samples were collected at a 0-15-cm depth after five years of experiment development. Samples were collected from under the tree canopy and from the inter-row space after the following treatments: (1 CT and annual cover crop with the leguminous Calopogonium mucunoides; (2 CT and perennial cover crop with the leguminous peanut Arachis pintoi; (3 CT and evergreen cover crop with Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum; (4 CT and cover crop with spontaneous B. humidicola grass vegetation; and (5 ST and maintenance of the remaining grass (pasture of B. humidicola. The soil tillage systems and different groundcover vegetation influenced the C and N mineralization, both under the tree canopy and in the inter-row space. The cultivation of B. humidicola under strip tillage provided higher potential mineralization than the other treatments in the inter-row space. Strip tillage increased the C and N mineralization compared to conventional tillage. The grass cultivation increased the C and N mineralization when compared to the others treatments cultivated in the inter-row space.No presente trabalho, foi avaliada a mineralização do Carbono e Nitrogênio devido ao cultivo intercalar de diferentes coberturas permanentes em pomar de laranjeira. O experimento foi

  11. Modification of carotenoid levels by abscission agents and expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in 'valencia' sweet orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alferez, Fernando; Pozo, Luis V; Rouseff, Russell R; Burns, Jacqueline K

    2013-03-27

    The effect of 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMNP) and ethephon on peel color, flavedo carotenoid gene expression, and carotenoid accumulation was investigated in mature 'Valencia' orange ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) fruit flavedo at three maturation stages. Abscission agent application altered peel color. CMNP was more effective than ethephon in promoting green-to-red (a) and blue-to-yellow (b) color at the middle and late maturation stages and total carotenoid changes at all maturation stages. Altered flow of carotenoid precursors during maturation due to abscission agents was suggested by changes in phytoene desaturase (Pds) and ζ-carotene desaturase (Zds) gene expression. However, each abscission agent affected downstream expression differentially. Ethephon application increased β-carotene hydroxilase (β-Chx) transcript accumulation 12-fold as maturation advanced from the early to middle and late stages. CMNP markedly increased β- and ε-lycopene cyclase (Lcy) transcript accumulation 45- and 15-fold, respectively, at midmaturation. Patterns of carotenoid accumulation in flavedo were supported in part by gene expression changes. CMNP caused greater accumulation of total flavedo carotenoids at all maturation stages when compared with ethephon or controls. In general, CMNP treatment increased total red carotenoids more than ethephon or the control but decreased total yellow carotenoids at each maturation stage. In control fruit flavedo, total red carotenoids increased and yellow carotenoids decreased as maturation progressed. Trends in total red carotenoids during maturation were consistent with measured a values. Changes in carotenoid accumulation and expression patterns in flavedo suggest that regulation of carotenoid accumulation is under transcriptional, translational, and post-translational control.

  12. The effects of citrus rootstocks on Valencia Late and Rhode Red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For N, K, Mg, Mn and Cu, Carrizo citrange has the highest means while Troyer and sour orange have the highest concentrations for P and. Fe, and Ca, Zn and Na, respectively. We recommend utilizations of Carrizo and Troyer citrange rootstocks for eastern Mediterranean region citrus production as they had higher ability to ...

  13. Effect of Citrus paradisi extract and juice on arterial pressure both in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Juárez, J A; Tenorio-López, F A; Zarco-Olvera, G; Valle-Mondragón, L Del; Torres-Narváez, J C; Pastelín-Hernández, G

    2009-07-01

    Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) consumption is considered as beneficial and it is popularly used for the treatment of a vast array of diseases, including hypertension. In the present study, the coronary vasodilator and hypotensive effects of Citrus paradisi peel extract were assessed in the Langendorff isolated and perfused heart model and in the heart and lung dog preparation. In both models, Citrus paradisi peel extract decreased coronary vascular resistance and mean arterial pressure when compared with control values (60 +/- 15 x 10(7) dyn s cm(-5) vs 100 +/- 10 x 10(7) dyn s cm(-5) and 90 mmHg vs 130 +/- 15 mmHg, respectively). These decreases in coronary vascular resistance and mean arterial pressure were blocked when isolated and perfused hearts and mongrel dogs were pre-treated with L-NAME. In humans, Citrus paradisi juice decreased diastolic arterial pressure and systolic arterial pressure both in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. Citrus paradisi juice produced a greater decrease in mean arterial pressure when compared with Citrus sinensis juice, cow milk and a vitamin C-supplemented beverage. However, more detailed studies are required to isolate, purify and evaluate the chemical compounds responsible for this pharmacological effect and to clarify its possible role for treating hypertension. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Towards the identification of flower-specific genes in Citrus spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Carnier Dornelas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus sinensis is a perennial woody species, for which genetic approaches to the study of reproductive development are not readily amenable. Here, the usefulness of the CitEST Expressed Sequence Tag (EST database is demonstrated as a reliable new resource for identifying novel genes exclusively related to Citrus reproductive biology. We performed the analysis of an EST dataset of the CitEST Project containing 4,330 flower-derived cDNA sequences. Relying on bioinformatics tools, sequences exclusively present in this flower-derived sequence collection were selected and used for the identification of Citrus putative flower-specific genes. Our analysis revealed several Citrus sequences showing significant similarity to conserved genes known to have flower-specific expression and possessing functions related to flower metabolism and/or reproductive development in diverse plant species. Comparison of the Citrus flower-specific sequences with all available plant peptide sequences unraveled 247 unique transcripts not identified elsewhere within the plant kingdom. Additionally, 49 transcripts, for which no biological function could be attributed by means of sequence comparisons, were found to be conserved among plant species. These results allow further gene expression analysis and possibly novel approaches to the understanding of reproductive development in Citrus.

  15. PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN PEMBIBITAN JERUK BEBAS PENYAKIT CVPD (Citrus Vein Phloem Degeneration DI DESA KATUNG KINTAMANI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiartayasa W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The community service in the form of training about free orange seed of disease CVPD (Citrus Vein Phloem Degenaration was conducted in Katung village, district of Kintamani, Bangli regency on 10 August 2007. The training activity aimed to improve knowledge of farmers about CVPD disease, symptom, transmission, insect vector, and integrated pest management. The topics covered were disease symptoms, and pathogen bacteria, Diaphorina citri are as insect vector infection mechanism, election of free orange mains crops CVPD, disease distribution and integrated management of CVPD. The training was attended by 25 participants from local groups of Katung village. The methods used in this activity were lectures, demonstration and practical work in the citrus field. All participants enthusiastically took part and hoped to have the next intensive training of citrus culture.

  16. (HLB) infected citrus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... 1Departments of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul ... Huanglongbing (HLB) disease, also known as citrus ..... Huanglongbing: A destructive, newly-emerging,.

  17. Quantification of Xylella fastidiosa from Citrus Trees by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Antonio C; Vallim, Marcelo A; Semighini, Camile P; Araújo, Welington L; Goldman, Gustavo H; Machado, Marcos A

    2002-10-01

    ABSTRACT Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), a destructive disease of sweet orange cultivars in Brazil. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays constitute the principal diagnostic method for detection of these bacteria. In this work, we established a real-time quantitative PCR (QPCR) assay to quantify X. fastidiosa in naturally and artificially infected citrus. The X. fastidiosa cell number detected in the leaves increased according to the age of the leaf, and bacteria were not detected in the upper midrib section in young leaves, indicating temporal and spatial distribution patterns of bacteria, respectively. In addition, the X. fastidiosa cell number quantified in leaves of 'Pera' orange and 'Murcott' tangor reflected the susceptible and resistant status of these citrus cultivars. None of the 12 endophytic citrus bacteria or the four strains of X. fastidiosa nonpathogenic to citrus that were tested showed an increase in the fluorescence signal during QPCR. In contrast, all 10 CVC-causing strains exhibited an increase in fluorescence signal, thus indicating the specificity of this QPCR assay. Our QPCR provides a powerful tool for studies of different aspects of the Xylella-citrus interactions, and can be incorporated into breeding programs in order to select CVC-resistant plants more quickly.

  18. Citrus orchard planted with no tillage and conventional systemsHuerto de cítricos plantado con sistema de cero labranza y sistema convencional

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    Carmen Silvia Vieira Janeiro Neves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available No tillage system has brought many advantages to soil protection, without reducing the yield of annual crops. This system has been adapted for Citrus orchards, with the plantation of trees in furrows opened in areas previously occupied by pastures. This work had as objective to evaluate tree development, root system, yield, and soil characteristics in an orchard planted in two systems. The study was made in Parana State, Brazil, in a medium texture oxisol with ‘Valência’ orange (Citrus sinensis L. trees with Rangpur lime rootstock (Citrus limonia Osbeck. The treatments were no tillage (furrowing and plantation and conventional plantation (hole area plowing and disk harrowing before furrowing and plantation. The yield was 86 - 129 kg of fruits per plant, without significant difference between treatments. The plantation systems either do not affect the development of the plants, the amount of roots and the fruit quality. In the conventional plantation system the soil has greater resistance to penetration in inter rows than in the zero tillage system plantation.El sistema de cero labranza ha traído muchas ventajas en la protección del suelo, sin perjudicar el rendimiento de los cultivos anuales. Este sistema ha sido adaptado para los huertos citrícolas, realizándose la plantación en surcos abiertos en terrenos anteriormente ocupados por pastizales. El trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar el desarrollo de las plantas y del sistema radicular, producción, características del suelo en un huerto plantado en dos sistemas de labranza. El estudio fue realizado en el Noroeste de Paraná, en un oxisol con textura media, en plantas de naranja ‘Valência’ con patrón de lima Rangpur. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron: cero labranza (apertura de surcos y plantación y plantación convencional (arado de discos y grada, seguido de apertura de surcos y plantación. La producción fue de 86 a 129 kg de frutos por planta, sin diferencia significativa

  19. Influence of the Sting Nematode, Belonolaimus longicaudalus, on Young Citrus Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D T

    1985-10-01

    The sting nematode, Belonolaimus longicaudatus, was associated with poor growth of citrus in a central Florida nursery. Foliage of trees was sparse and chlorotic. Affected rootstocks included Changsha and Cleopatra mandarin orange; Flying Dragon, Rubidoux, and Jacobsen trifoliate orange; Macrophylla and Milam lemon; Palestine sweet lime; sour orange; and the hybrids - Carrizo, Morton, and Rusk citrange and Swingle citrumelo. Root symptoms included apical swelling, development of swollen terminals containing 3-5 apical meristems and hyperplastic tissue, coarse roots, and a reduction in the number of fibrous roots. Population densities as high as 392 sting nematodes per liter soil were detected, with 80% of the population occurring in the top 30 cm of soil; however, nematodes were detected to 107 cm deep. Although an ectoparasite, the nematode was closely associated with citrus root systems and was transported with bare root nursery stock. Disinfestation was accomplished by hot water treatment (49 C for 5 minutes).

  20. Comparative transcriptome analysis unveils the tolerance mechanisms of Citrus hystrix in response to 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hu

    Full Text Available Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, a highly devastating citrus disease, is associated with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiacitus' (CLas, a member of phloem-inhabiting α-proteobacteria. HLB can affect all cultivated citrus and no cure is currently available. Previous studies showed that Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix, primarily grown in South Asia and Southeast Asia, was tolerant to HLB but the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this study, gene expression profiling experiments were performed on HLB-tolerant C. hystrix and HLB-susceptible C. sinensis three months after inoculation with CLas using RNA-seq data. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs in the two citrus cultivars were mainly in