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Sample records for orally effective dihydropyrimidone

  1. Novel, orally effective cyanide antidotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Herbert T; Goon, David J W; Crankshaw, Daune L; Vince, Robert; Patterson, Steven E

    2007-12-27

    A series of prodrugs of 3-mercaptopyruvate (3-MP), the substrate for the enzyme 3-mercaptopyruvate/cyanide sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) that converts cyanide to the nontoxic thiocyanate, which are highly effective cyanide antidotes, have been developed. These prodrugs of 3-MP are unique in being not only orally bioavailable, but may be administered up to an hour prior to cyanide as a prophylactic agent and are both rapid- or slow-acting when given parenterally.

  2. Effects of nutrition on oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G A Agbelusi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition represents a summation of intake, absorption, storage and utilization of foods by the tissues. Oral tissues are one of the most sensitive indicators of nutritional state of the body. Nutritional deficiencies are associated with changes in the integrity (health and appearance of the oral structures/ tissues and these changes are frequently the first clinical signs of deficiency. Nutrition affects oral health and oral health affects nutrition. The effects of malnutrition can be seen in the oral structures in all stages of human growth and development from conception to old age. The consequence of certain oral diseases may compromise the nutrition by affecting the intake and mastication particularly in some vulnerable groups like people with severe caries, severe oral ulceration, advanced periodontal disease and the resulting edentulousness. The HIV pandemic has added another dimension to the issue of nutrition and oral health. Oral lesions are some of the earliest lesions seen in HIV/AIDS and 90% of HIV/AIDS patients will have oral lesions at a point in the course of the disease. These oral lesions are painful; disturb food intake and mastication thereby further compromising the nutrition of the affected individuals. In Africa, particularly the Sub-Saharan Africa, the burden of poverty, economic downturn and the HIV pandemic have added another dimension to the issue of food availability and nutrition. Malnutrition is a real problem in this area. This paper will examine the effects of compromised nutrition on oral health and the reverse.

  3. Probiotics and oral health effects in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Stecksén-Blicks, Christina

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Probiotics are living micro-organisms added to food which beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to present a general background on probiotics and its health effects in children, and to examine the evidence for oral...... colonization and the possible impact on oral health in children and young adults. METHODS: For delivery and general health effects, recent systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and other relevant papers were used. Concerning oral installation and oral effects, a broad search for publications in English...... of daily consumption of probiotic milk. CONCLUSION: Bacteriotheraphy in the form of probiotic bacteria with an inhibitory effect on oral pathogens is a promising concept, especially in childhood, but this may not necessarily lead to improved oral health. Further placebo controlled trials that assess...

  4. Fe-Al/clay as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for solvent-free synthesis of 3, 4-dihydropyrimidones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bashir A Dar; Praveen Patidar; Sunil Kumar; Mohammad Arif Wagay; Akshay K Sahoo; Parduman R Sharma; Sanjay Pandey; Meena Sharma; Baldev Singh

    2013-05-01

    A practical, efficient, environmentally benign condensation of an aldehyde, ethylacetoacetate and urea/thiourea for the synthesis of 3, 4-dihydropyrimidinones, employing Fe-Al/clay composite catalyst is described. The process has been carried out under solvent-free conditions in the presence of very small amount of catalyst. The catalyst used for this process is easy to prepare, easy to handle, cost effective, easy to separate and recyclable at least up to 5 cycles with good to excellent yield.

  5. Effective Oral English Activities for ESL Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡波

    2014-01-01

    Oral English has always been a major problem for Chinese Eng-lish as Second Language (ESL) students. In fact, most Chinese students do not practice oral English very often, while their reading and writing abilities have gained rapid progress. However, language is a system that includes both words and sounds for communicative use, neither of which can be neglected. While there are hundred forms of classroom activities, the usage of most effective o-ral activities has become a serious issue that an ESL teacher should focuses on. The review is based on research results on effective oral ESL activities. The research results on the factors should be considered when selecting/plan-ning oral activities and applying oral activities ESL classes.

  6. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of professional oral hygiene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesov, E E; Shaĭmieva, N I; Kononenko, V I; Bersanov, R U; Monakova, N E

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal status and oral hygiene indexes were studied in 125 young employee of Kurchatov Institute. Oral hygiene values dynamic was assessed after professional oral hygiene in persons with unsatisfactory oral hygiene at baseline examination. When compared with the same values in the absence of professional oral hygiene procedures the results allowed calculating cost-effectiveness rate for biannual professional oral hygiene.

  7. Non-verbal Effects in Oral Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, G. M.; Pedrosa, M. A.

    1990-01-01

    Investigated the effects of nonverbal communication during oral examinations by testing two groups of British secondary students, one group in a face-to-face situation. Finds nonverbal effects increased the mean scores by two points but could not conclude that the increase was a result of student appearance and gestures. (CH)

  8. Effect of different oral hygiene measures on oral malodor in children aged 7-15 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyusha S Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of various oral hygiene measures individually and in combination in reducing oral malodor. Materials and Methods: A total number of 120 children diagnosed as having oral malodor (oral malodor scores 2 and above were included in the study. Children were then grouped under four oral hygiene categories (tooth brushing, tongue cleaning, mouth rinsing, and a combination group. There were 30 children in each group. The children were asked to perform oral hygiene methods individually and in combination. The children were then reassessed for oral malodor 2 h later. The results were analyzed and compared. Results: Both individual oral hygiene measure or in combination of tooth brushing, tongue cleaning, and mouth rinsing; all were effective in reducing oral malodor. Significant reduction (P < 0.05 in oral malodor was seen when all three oral hygiene measures performed together. Conclusion: Oral malodor was significantly reduced after performing oral hygiene measures individually, but reduced more when used in combination.

  9. EFFECTS OF ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES ON COAGULATING FACTORS

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    H.R. Sadeghipour Roudsari.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty young, healthy, nonsmoking women (mean age approximately 28 years taking low-dose oral contraceptive pills were recruited for the study of the effects of these pills on coagulating factors. Twenty subjects were taking LD pill (Ethinyl estradiol 0.03 mg, levonorgestrel 0.15 mg and 10 others were taking Cilest (Ethinyl estradiol 0.035 mg, Norgestimate 0.25 mg for six months. The control subjects did not receive any oral contraceptives or other medications. Our results showed that:"n1. There is no significant difference between the effects of LD and Cilest (with a different progestin content on coagulating factors."n2. No significant changes were observed between both LD users and controls in PT, APTT, and fibrinogen levels."n3. No significant changes were observed between both Cilest users and controls in PT, APTT, and fibrinogen levels."n

  10. Comparative study of effectiveness of oral acyclovir with oral erythromycin in the treatment of Pityriasis rosea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatya, A; Rajouria, E A; Karn, D K

    2012-01-01

    Pityriasis rosea is an acute, self-limiting disease, probably infective in origin, affecting mainly children and young adults, characterized by distinctive skin eruptions and minimal constitutional symptoms. Both oral Erythromycin and oral Acyclovir have been used in its management. To compare the effectiveness of oral Erythromycin and oral Acyclovir in the treatment of Pityriasis rosea. Forty two patients with clinical diagnosis of Pityriasis rosea were enrolled. They were randomized into two groups. One group was given high-dose oral Acyclovir and another group oral Erythromycin in standard dose. The participants were evaluated one, two, four, six and eight weeks and six months after commencement of the study. Forty two patients including 26 males and 16 females completed the study. After 8th week, all patients showed complete response in both the groups. The response to oral Acyclovir compared with that to oral Erythromycin was better and was statistically significant in 1st, 2nd, 4th and 6th weeks. Although it is a self-limiting disease which resolves within three weeks to three months, this study reveals that both oral Acyclovir and oral Erythromycin are helpful in decreasing the severity and duration of Pityriasis rosea. Moreover, the study also indicates that oral Acyclovir is more effective than oral Erythromycin in reducing the severity and duration of Pityriasis rosea.

  11. Review of the Evidence for Oral Health Promotion Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satur, Julie G.; Gussy, Mark G.; Morgan, Michael V.; Calache, Hanny; Wright, Clive

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries, periodontal diseases, tooth loss and oral cancers have significant burden of disease effects, quality of life and cost implications for the Australian community. Oral health promotion is a key approach to addressing these conditions endorsed as part of the National Oral Health Plan. Understanding the evidence for effectiveness of…

  12. The Effect of Oral Medication on Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jeffrey M

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this learning activity is to provide information about the effects of oral medications on wound healing. This continuing education activity is intended for physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Identify oral medications that aid in wound healing.2. Recognize oral medications that interfere with wound healing. Given the accelerated medical discoveries of recent decades, there is a surprising lack of oral medications that directly improve wound healing. Of the oral medications available, most target ancillary aspects of wound care such as pain management, infection mitigation, and nutrition. This article describes oral pharmacologic agents intended to build new tissue and aid in wound healing, as well as an introduction to oral medications that interfere with wound healing. This review will not discuss the pharmacology of pain management or treatment of infection, nor will it address nutritional supplements.

  13. Effects of Kangshen Oral Liquid on Gentamicin-induced Acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of Kangshen oral liquid (KSOL) on gentamicin sulfate (GS)-induced acute kidney injury ..... Upon GS administration, several physiological markers are .... Kara A, Bozkurt A. The protective effect of taurine.

  14. Preventive Effects of Houttuynia cordata Extract for Oral Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko Sekita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Houttuynia cordata (HC (Saururaceae has been used internally and externally as a traditional medicine and as an herbal tea for healthcare in Japan. Our recent survey showed that HC poultice (HCP prepared from smothering fresh leaves of HC had been frequently used for the treatment of purulent skin diseases with high effectiveness. Our experimental study also demonstrated that ethanol extract of HCP (eHCP has antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anti-inflammatory effects against S. aureus which caused purulent skin diseases. In this study, we focused on novel effects of HCP against oral infectious diseases, such as periodontal disease and dental caries. We determined the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of water solution of HCP ethanol extract (wHCP against important oral pathogens and investigated its cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects on human oral epithelial cells. wHCP had moderate antimicrobial effects against some oral microorganisms and profound antibiofilm effects against Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans. In addition, wHCP had no cytotoxic effects and could inhibit interleukin-8 and CCL20 productions by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human oral keratinocytes. Our findings suggested that wHCP may be clinically useful for preventing oral infectious diseases as a mouthwash for oral care.

  15. Preventive Effects of Houttuynia cordata Extract for Oral Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekita, Yasuko; Murakami, Keiji; Amoh, Takashi; Ogata, Shohei; Matsuo, Takashi; Miyake, Yoichiro; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata (HC) (Saururaceae) has been used internally and externally as a traditional medicine and as an herbal tea for healthcare in Japan. Our recent survey showed that HC poultice (HCP) prepared from smothering fresh leaves of HC had been frequently used for the treatment of purulent skin diseases with high effectiveness. Our experimental study also demonstrated that ethanol extract of HCP (eHCP) has antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anti-inflammatory effects against S. aureus which caused purulent skin diseases. In this study, we focused on novel effects of HCP against oral infectious diseases, such as periodontal disease and dental caries. We determined the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of water solution of HCP ethanol extract (wHCP) against important oral pathogens and investigated its cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects on human oral epithelial cells. wHCP had moderate antimicrobial effects against some oral microorganisms and profound antibiofilm effects against Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans. In addition, wHCP had no cytotoxic effects and could inhibit interleukin-8 and CCL20 productions by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human oral keratinocytes. Our findings suggested that wHCP may be clinically useful for preventing oral infectious diseases as a mouthwash for oral care. PMID:27413739

  16. Effects of oral clotrimazole troches on the pharmacokinetics of oral and intravenous midazolam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shord, Stacy S; Chan, Lingtak-Neander; Camp, Joseph R; Vasquez, Eva M; Jeong, Hyun-Young; Molokie, Robert E; Baum, Charles L; Xie, Hui

    2010-01-01

    AIMS The aim of the study was to determine the effects of oral clotrimazole troches on the pharmacokinetics of oral and intravenous midazolam in the plasma. METHODS We conducted a randomized, open-label, four-way crossover study in 10 healthy volunteers. Each volunteer received oral midazolam 2 mg or intravenous midazolam 0.025 mg kg−1 with and without oral clotrimazole troches 10 mg taken three times daily for 5 days. Each study period was separated by 14 days. Serial blood samples were collected up to 24 h after oral midazolam and 6 h after intravenous midazolam. Plasma concentrations for midazolam and its metabolite 1-hydroxymidazolam were measured and fitted to a noncompartmental model to estimate the pharmacokinetic parameters. RESULTS Ten healthy volunteers aged 21–26 years provided written informed consent and were enrolled into the study. Clotrimazole decreased the apparent oral clearance of midazolam from 57 ± 13 l h−1[95% confidence interval 48, 66] to 36 ± 9.8 l h−1 (95% confidence interval 29, 43) (P= 0.003). These changes were accompanied by a decrease in the area under the concentration–time curve (mean difference 22 µg h−1 l−1, P= 0.001) and bioavailability (mean difference 0.21, P= NS). There were no significant differences in the systemic clearance of midazolam with or without clotrimazole troches. CONCLUSIONS Oral clotrimazole troches decreased the apparent oral clearance of midazolam; no significant differences in the systemic clearance of midazolam were found. PMID:20233179

  17. The Washback Effect of a High-stakes Oral Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽燕

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, Guangzhou Education Bureau introduced an English oral test into its existing Guangzhou Senior Secondary School Entrance Examination (hereafter, SSSEE) with the intention of shifting from grammar-based English teaching at junior secondary school to a communication-based teaching approach. This paper presents preliminary research findings related to the washback effects of the oral test on teaching. The data were collected via focus groups and questionnaires. The nature of the washback effects of the SSSEE English oral test is discussed from six dimensions. The study shows that washback is a complex phenomenon and it can be conceptualised via a multidimensional model.

  18. Attentive Listening Is the Key to Effective Oral Business Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Thomas

    1978-01-01

    The author states that effective listening is vital to oral communications in business and a leading contributor to good human relations. He lists major barriers to listening comprehension as distractions, preconceptions, dullness, note-taking, and fatigue. (MF)

  19. Oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer during postoperative irradiation. An alleviating effect on acute radiation mucositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsura, Kouji; Masuko, Noriko; Hayashi, Takafumi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry; Sugita, Tadashi; Sakai, Kunio; Tsuchida, Emiko; Matsumoto, Yasuo; Sasamoto, Ryuta

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer on alleviating acute radiation mucositis. Eighteen patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy for tongue and oral floor cancer were evaluated. Radiotherapy was given in 2 Gy per fraction, 5 times a week for a total dose of 50 Gy in most patients. Radiation field included the tongue and oral floor. During radiotherapy, 8 patients were treated by dento-maxillofacial radiologists with special concern on oral hygiene (oral hygiene group) and the remaining 10 patients were treated with routine dental care (standard medication group). Mucositis were evaluated using JCOG grade and EORTC/RTOG score by radiotherapists or dento-maxillofacial radiologists at 10 Gy intervals. Oral hygiene plans comprised motivation to maintain oral hygiene and establishing the habits of oral self care 4 times per day. Once a week, oral hygiene and oral cleaning of patients were checked by dento-maxillofacial radiologists. Oral self care included mechanical tooth brushing and a chemical mouthwash. No patients with grade 3 and score 4 mucositis were noted in the oral hygiene group. Severe mucositis occurred less frequently in the oral hygiene group than in the standard medication group. Interruption of radiotherapy due to severe mucositis did not occur in the oral hygiene group. On the other hand, interruption of radiotherapy occurred in four patients in the standard medication group, and in three it was due to severe oral pain. Our results suggested that our method of oral hygiene was more effective for alleviating acute radiation mucositis than other methods so far reported. In addition, our method is considered to be useful in preventing rampant dental caries and severe periodontitis due to the xerostomia induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  20. Effect of Lactoferrin on Oral Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments...dental implant failures, denture stomatitis and oral yeast infections such as candidiasis. It is one of the most widely studied biofilm systems, yet...Command (USAMRMC). The project research has been completed and the following represents a final report to fulfill the reporting requirements for the

  1. Incretin effect after oral amino Acid ingestion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Ola; Pacini, Giovanni; Tura, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    is also present after amino acid ingestion is not known. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to explore insulin secretion and incretin hormones after oral and iv amino acid administration at matched total amino acid concentrations in healthy subjects. DESIGN: An amino acid mixture (Vaminolac......: Oral amino acid mixture ingestion elicits a stronger insulin secretory response than iv amino acid at matching amino acid levels and this is associated with increased GIP level, suggesting that an incretin effect exists also after oral amino acids, possibly mediated by GIP....

  2. Negligible effect of oral garlic oil on the oral absorption of pyridoxine in metadoxine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae Young; Kang, Hee Eun; Kim, Sang Geon; Lee, Myung Gull

    2010-07-01

    Metadoxine [an ion-pair between pyridoxine and pyrrolidone carboxylate (PCA)] plus garlic oil treatment synergistically reduces alcoholic steatosis compared to each agent alone. We evaluated the effect of garlic oil on the pharmacokinetics of pyridoxine. After the oral administration of metadoxine, the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to time infinity (AUC) and the peak plasma concentration (C(max)) of pyridoxine were significantly greater (by 40.6%) and higher (by 63.9%), respectively, than after oral administration of pyridoxine plus PCA. Oral metadoxine plus garlic oil also gave larger AUC (31.8%) and higher C(max) (64.9%) than pyridoxine plus PCA. However, garlic oil did not change the AUC or C(max) of pyridoxine in metadoxine. Thus, garlic oil does not enhance the metadoxine activity by affecting the absorption of pyridoxine.

  3. Effects of Oral Health Training on Dental Plaque Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M amiri

    2016-02-01

    3- oral health training (control group . Two weeks and two months after the intervention, plaque index was measured. Positive and negative changes were recorded over time, and then, the study data were analyzed using Chi-square (bonferroni adjustment, McNemar, Kruskal-Wallis  and Paired t-Test. Results: The study results revealed no significant differences between the  halitosis group and the traditional group, though both had a significant difference with the control group. Positive changes in halitosis group especially within girls were held to be more durable compared to the other groups. Conclusion: Oral health training accompanging training of oral malodor, tooth decay and periodontal disease seems to be more effective on health promotion of senior high school students in Yazd. Furthermore, oral malodor training produces more durable effects. As a result, this training style is recommended in regard with eductional programs of schools.

  4. Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Anand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer.

  5. The effects of oral and topical corticosteroid in rabbit corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki-Sasaki, Kaoru; Katsuta, Osamu; Mano, Hidetoshi; Nagano, Takashi; Nakamura, Masatsugu

    2016-09-05

    To determine the most effective route of administration of corticosteroids in the treatment of ocular surface disease, by characterizing the difference between oral prednisolone and topical dexamethasone administration using an animal model. Pharmacokinetic analyses determined the corticosteroid concentrations in the normal ocular tissues of rabbits after oral or topical administration of corticosteroids using LC-MS/MS. In wound healing analyses, the area of the epithelial defect created by keratectomy using a 6-mm trephine was calculated with an image analyzer using an orally or topically steroid-administrated animal model. The average size of basal epithelial cells, the frequency of mitotic basal epithelial cells, the number of squamous cells, and the number of hypertrophic stromal fibroblasts were determined in the enucleated corneal tissues after wound closure. By slit lamp examination, no remarkable differences were observed between orally and topically administered groups. Pharmacokinetic analyses showed that the distribution of dexamethasone after topical administration was superior to that after oral administration in the cornea. In contrast, both concentrations of corticosteroid applied topically and orally were similar with regards to AUCs (area under the concentration-time curve) in the conjunctiva. Although the healing rate was slower in the topical group, all corneas were almost healed within 96 h in the wound healing analysis. According to the histological analyses of epithelial cells, the average basal cell size was larger, the frequency of mitotic basal cells was greater, and the number of squamous epithelial cell layers was lower in the topically administered group although all of these differences were with no statistical significance. However, the number of hypertrophic stromal fibroblasts in the topically administered group was significantly lower than that in the orally administered group. There are different distributions and effects between

  6. Effects of Hangeshashinto on Growth of Oral Microorganisms

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    Haruka Fukamachi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucositis (OM in cancer patients induced by chemotherapy or radiotherapy has a significant impact on quality of life, and causes considerable morbidity. Oral microorganisms are likely to intensify the inflammatory process and aggravate the formation of ulcers. Hangeshashinto (HST, a Japanese kampo medicine, has been reported to be effective when used as a gargle for the treatment of OM. To clarify the effects of HST on oral microorganisms, we assessed its antimicrobial activity against 27 microbial species, including 19 oral bacteria and one fungus. HST extract inhibited the growth of Gram-negative bacteria, including Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella melaninogenica, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Porphyromonas asaccharolytica, though inhibitory effects were less pronounced for Gram-positive bacteria and the fungal strain. We then investigated the effects of antibacterial activities on 15 purified ingredients of HST and determined that baicalein, berberine, coptisine, [6]-shogaol, and homogentisic acid actively inhibited the growth of these bacteria. These findings showed that HST inhibits the growth of specific Gram-negative periodontopathogenic bacteria, which are significant pathogens in OM, without disturbing the normal oral flora. Our data suggest that HST may be a useful treatment for OM in patients undergoing anticancer treatment.

  7. Effectiveness of three oral hygiene regimens on oral malodor reduction: a randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Aung, Ei Ei; Ueno, Masayuki; Zaitsu, Takashi; Furukawa, Sayaka; KAWAGUCHI, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Background Breath odor is a nuisance problem for many people around the world. Bad breath affects social interactions of people in daily life by causing personal discomfort and emotional stress. There are chemical and mechanical methods for controlling oral malodor. Many studies of various mouth rinse applications and tongue cleaning procedures have been conducted. However, few studies have compared the effect of simultaneous chemical and mechanical procedures on the reduction of volatile sul...

  8. Effects of oral contraceptives in vaginal cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, M B; Ferreira, A C; Fenólio, J C; Franceschini, S A; Toloi, M R

    2000-06-01

    Many literature studies have shown that long-term use of oral contraceptives (OC) is associated with lack of protection of the epithelium of the uterine cervix. Forty-five patients, from 18 to 35 years old, users of two contraceptive formulations, of different estrogenic concentration, took part in this study as volunteers to evaluate the predisposition of the cervix to pathologies. The results found before OC use were 11% of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and 13% of HPV infection. These pathologies were correctly treated and after 5 months of OC use we found total remission of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and 4% of persistent HPV infection. These data lead us to conclude that the OC studied here interfered very little with the presented pathologic results. The risk factors that we considered relevant were: 1) age group (the patients that presented HPV and C. trachomatis infections were young university students); 2) lifestyle (most patients certified that they did not combine the use of barrier contraceptives with the use of OC); 3) multiple sexual partners; 4) low socioeconomic condition.

  9. Effects of oral motor therapy in children with cerebral palsy

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    Seray Nural Sigan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Oral motor dysfunction is a common issue in children with cerebral palsy (CP. Drooling, difficulties with sucking, swallowing, and chewing are some of the problems often seen. In this study, we aimed to research the effect of oral motor therapy on pediatric CP patients with feeding problems. Materials and Methods: Included in this single centered, randomized, prospective study were 81 children aged 12-42 months who had been diagnosed with CP, had oral motor dysfunction and were observed at the Pediatric Neurology outpatient clinic of the Children′s Health and Diseases Department, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Istanbul University. Patients were randomized into two groups: The training group and the control group. One patient from the training group dropped out of the study because of not participating regularly. Following initial evaluation of all patients by a blinded physiotherapist and pedagogue, patients in the training group participated in 1 h oral motor training sessions with a different physiotherapist once a week for 6 months. All patients kept on routine physiotherapy by their own physiotherapists. Oral motor assessment form, functional feeding assessment (FFA subscale of the multidisciplinary feeding profile (MFP and the Bayley scales of infant development (BSID-II were used to evaluate oral motor function, swallowing, chewing, the gag reflex, the asymmetrical tonic neck reflex, tongue, jaw, and mouth function, severity of drooling, aspiration, choking, independent feeding and tolerated food texture during the initial examination and 6 months later. Results: When the initial and post-therapy FFA and BSID-II scores received by patients in the training and the study group were compared, the training group showed a statistically significant improvement (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Oral motor therapy has a beneficial effect on feeding problems in children with CP.

  10. Radioprotective effects of ON 01210.Na upon oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Shubhankar; Datta, Kamal; Doiron, Kathryn; Ren, Chen; Kumar, Ramesh; Taft, David R; Fornace, Albert J; Maniar, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    ON 01210.Na (Ex-RAD), a chlorobenzylsulfone derivative was investigated for its pharmacologic and radioprotective properties when administered via oral and subcutaneous (SC) routes. The goals of the study were to assess the comparative bioavailability of ON 01210.Na when administered by oral versus SC routes and to demonstrate that the oral drug delivery of ON 01210.Na afforded survival advantage similar to SC dosing. Pharmacokinetics was studied after two doses, 24 h apart, of ON 01210.Na (500 mg/kg) administered to male C3H/Hen mice (7-9 weeks) via SC injection or oral route. The dose response (100 to 750 mg/kg) and survival advantage of ON 01210.Na administered at 24 h and 15 min prior to 7.5 or 8 Gy whole body irradiation from a ¹³⁷Cs source (dose rate 1 Gy/min) were studied in these mice. Effects on the hematopoietic system were investigated by complete blood count and granulocyte-macrophage colony forming unit assay. A significant survival advantage and hematopoietic protection were observed after prophylactic oral ON 01210.Na and results were comparable to SC administration. These findings correlated well with pharmacokinetic data. Both SC and oral ON 01210.Na showed significant survival advantage against radiation toxicity and ON 01210.Na mediated hematopoietic protection plays key role in enhanced survival of mice. Oral administration holds better clinical promise as an effective countermeasure not only for early-responders in a nuclear accident, but also for the at-risk civilian population.

  11. Oral silicon supplementation: an effective therapy for preventing oral aluminum absorption and retention in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, José L; Gómez, Mercedes; Colomina, M Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Silicon is an essential element for some lower forms of life. However, it is not generally considered an essential nutrient for mammals and the mechanisms underlying its potential essentiality remain partially unknown. In recent years, a possible association between the aluminum and silicon levels in drinking water and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been suggested. It has been reported that silicon might have a protective effect for limiting oral aluminum absorption. This review is focused primarily on the potential role of silicon in preventing oral aluminum absorption and retention in mammals. The results of a number of studies suggest that dietary silicon supplementation could be of therapeutic value for preventing chronic aluminum accumulation in the brain, and hence, be a potential therapy for AD. However, it must be noted that controversy remains about whether aluminum accumulation in the brain is a cause or a consequence of AD. It is suggested that further investigation of this issue is warranted.

  12. Effect of Diuretics on Salivary Flow, Composition and Oral Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: Evaluation of the effect of diuretics on oral health status with regard to SFRs (U and S), pH, buffering .... forward after an initial swallow, to allow saliva to collect in the mouth. .... from salivary glands leading to taste disturbance, bad breath.

  13. The Effects of Oral and Silent Reading on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Naomi; Ness, Molly

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of reading mode (oral and silent) and text genre (narrative and expository) on fourth graders' reading comprehension. While controlling for prior reading ability of 48 participants, we measured comprehension. Using a repeated measured design, data were analyzed using analysis of covariance, paired t-tests, and…

  14. No effect of oral contraceptives on the metabolism of levetiracetam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabers, Anne; Christensen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    The effect on clearance of levetiracetam (LEV) was estimated in women with epilepsy of childbearing potential using oral contraceptives (OCs). The estimated clearance (plasma concentration/daily dose) was 39 nmol/L/mg (range 14-88 nmol/L/mg) among women who did not use OC (n=30) and 38 nmol/L/mg ...

  15. Therapeutic effect of orally administered microencapsulated oxaliplatin for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanska, Aleksandra M; Karagiannis, Emmanouil D; Guajardo, Gonzalo; Langer, Robert S; Anderson, Daniel G

    2012-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the United States and other Western countries. Oral delivery of therapeutics remains the most patient accepted form of medication. The development of an oral delivery formulation for local delivery of chemotherapeutics in the gastrointestinal tract can potentially alleviate the adverse side effects including systemic cytotoxicity, as well as focus therapy to the lesions. Here we develop an oral formulation of the chemotherapeutic drug oxaliplatin for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Oxaliplatin was encapsulated in pH sensitive, mucoadhesive chitosan-coated alginate microspheres. The microparticles were formulated to release the chemotherapeutics after passing through the acidic gastric environment thus targeting the intestinal tract. In vivo, these particles substantially reduced the tumor burden in an orthotopic mouse model of colorectal cancer, and reduced mortality.

  16. Bactericidal effects of mouth rinses on oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuga, Y; Ikenoya, H; Okuda, K

    1997-11-01

    The bactericidal efficacy of two types of Listerine; Listerine and Cool Mint Listerine, and povidone iodine on oral microorganisms, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Streptococcus pyogenes, Helicobacter pylori and Candida albicans were examined. Most of the oral bacteria were killed completely by a 10-sec exposure to Listerine or Cool Mint Listerine. H. pylori, MRSA and C. albicans were also reduced by a 30-sec exposure to the Listerine mouth rinse. Bacteria in dental plaque were decreased by exposure to Listerine, Cool Mint Listerine, and povidone iodine for 30 seconds. Mouthwashing with Listerine for 30 seconds resulted in a decrease to approximately 1/100 of the viable bacterial counts in saliva. These bactericidal effects against bacteria in saliva and dental plaque indicated that Listerine and Cool Mint Listerine antiseptic are useful in oral cavity as antiseptic mouth rinses.

  17. Side Effects and Complications of Dental Materials on Oral Cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Atai; M. Atai

    2007-01-01

    Development of dental materials has had a great impact on the modern dentistry. The materials ranging from polymers to metals have different applications in dentistry. Besides their important role in healing or improving the function of oral tissues, the materials may show side effects which may, in some cases, lead to severe lesions. In this review the side effects have been summarized considering a new classification for dental materials according to the duration of their applications as te...

  18. Acrolein—an α,ß-Unsaturated Aldehyde: A Review of Oral Cavity Exposure and Oral Pathology Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dror Aizenbud

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Acrolein is a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde widely present in the environment, particularly as a product of tobacco smoke. Our previous studies indicated the adverse consequences of even short-term acrolein exposure and proposed a molecular mechanism of its potential harmful effect on oral cavity keratinocytic cells. In this paper we chose to review the broad spectrum of acrolein sources such as pollution, food, and smoking. Consequently, in this paper we consider a high level of oral exposure to acrolein through these sources and discuss the noxious effects it has on the oral cavity including on salivary quality and contents, oral resistance to oxidative stress, and stress mechanism activation in a variety of oral cells.

  19. Effect of oral health education and fluoridated dentifrices on the oral health status of visually impaired children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Visually impaired children are challenged everyday in their everyday skills. Oral hygiene practices among visually impaired children require a special approach with time and patience. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral health education and fluoridated dentifrices on the oral health status of visually impaired children. Materials and Methods: Fifty visually impaired children between 8 and 12 years of age formed the study group. Oral health education and motivation was done with the help of Braille. Modified Bass method of brushing was taught to the children and the required dental treatment was done. Subjects were randomly divided into two equal groups fluoridated and non-fluoridated. Oral hygiene index -simplified, DMFT, deft index, and Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus count were assessed at baseline, immediately after the treatment and at 3, 6, and 12 month intervals. The oral health awareness was assessed using a questionnaire at the beginning and end of the study. Results: At baseline, the mean OHI-S, DMFT and deft scores were 2.72, 0.47, and 0.51 respectively. At the end of 12 months there was a significant decrease in OHI-S scores in the fluoridated group. No significant difference was seen in DMFT and deft between the fluoridated and non-fluoridated groups at the different time interval. After the oral health education and comprehensive treatment there was a reduction in Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus counts in both groups; however, at the end of 3, 6, 12 months there was a significant decrease in fluoridated group as compared to the non-fluoridated. The oral health awareness increased significantly at the end of the study. Conclusion: The oral health education and motivation formulated for the visually impaired children was effective in improving their oral health status. Fluoridated dentifrices decreased the Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus counts and improved the oral hygiene status.

  20. Effect of Alcohol to Oral Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peycheva K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization there are almost two billion people worldwide who consume alcohol on a regular basis. It’s a common abuse and almost 80 million are diagnozed with “alcohol abuse disorders” (WHO 2002, 2004. Excessive alcohol consumption is related to more than 60 different medical conditions, as suicide, homicide and different forms of accidents. Some conditions are acute, while other conditions such as liver cirrhosis, chronic pancreatitis, haemorrhagic stroke and various forms of cancer, are chronic consequences. Non-carious destructions of teeth like dental erosion are also associated with frequent alcohol consumption, because of precipitation of salivary proline-rich proteins caused by polyphenols present in most alcoholic drinks. The high concentration of organic and inorganic acids and the habit of keeping the alcoholic drink in the mouth can cause chronic inflammations of the soft tissues in the mouth and can increase the negative side effects from metals of crowns, bridges, orthodontic devises and various restorations. A literature review has been made due to the authors clinical observations and experiences.

  1. Effect of oral care gel on the quality of life for oral lichen planus in patients with chronic HCV infection

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    Sata Michio

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral lichen planus (OLP decreases the quality of life because it can cause spontaneous pain during eating and tooth-brushing and an uncomfortable feeling in the mouth. In addition, OLP may be associated with HCV-related liver disease. We investigated the visual analogue scale (VAS and effects of oral care gel, REFRECARE-H®, on patients with OLP associated with HCV infection. Results Nine OLP patients (mean age 67.9 ± 7.6 years with HCV-related liver diseases were recruited and their VAS score determined along with a biochemical examination of the blood. Types of OLP included erosive (6 patients and reticular (3. REFRECARE-H®, an oral care gel (therapeutic dentifrice containing hinokitiol, was applied by each patient as a thin layer on the oral membrane, after each meal and at bedtime for 30 days. Application of REFRECARE-H® improved the quality of life in all terms of dry mouth, breath odor, oral freshness, oral pain during rest, oral pain at a mealtimes, taste disorder, loss of appetite, sleep disorder, depressive mood and jitteriness. VAS scores of dry mouth, breath odor, oral freshness, and sleep disorder were significantly increased 30 days after application of REFRECARE-H® (P = 0.01, P = 0.05, P = 0.03, P = 0.04. VAS scores of oral pain at a mealtimes and taste disorder were increased 30 days after application of REFRECARE-H® (P = 0.06. There was an absence of side effects. Conclusions REFRECARE-H® improved the quality of life for OLP. It is necessary for the hepatologist to educate patients regarding oral hygiene, as well as provide treatment of liver disease.

  2. The effect of arginine on oral biofilm communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, M M; Browngardt, C; Xiaohui, X; Klepac-Ceraj, V; Paster, B J; Burne, R A

    2014-02-01

    Alkali production by oral bacteria via the arginine deiminase system (ADS) increases the pH of oral biofilms and reduces the risk for development of carious lesions. This study tested the hypothesis that increased availability of arginine in the oral environment through an exogenous source enhances the ADS activity levels in saliva and dental plaque. Saliva and supra-gingival plaque samples were collected from 19 caries-free (CF) individuals (DMFT = 0) and 19 caries-active (CA) individuals (DMFT ≥ 2) before and after treatment, which comprised the use of a fluoride-free toothpaste containing 1.5% arginine, or a regular fluoride-containing toothpaste twice daily for 4 weeks. ADS activity was measured by quantification of ammonia produced from arginine by oral samples at baseline, after washout period, 4 weeks of treatment, and 2 weeks post-treatment. Higher ADS activity levels were observed in plaque samples from CF compared to those of CA individuals (P = 0.048) at baseline. The use of the arginine toothpaste significantly increased ADS activity in plaque of CA individuals (P = 0.026). The plaque microbial profiles of CA treated with the arginine toothpaste showed a shift in bacterial composition to a healthier community, more similar to that of CF individuals. Thus, an anti-caries effect may be expected from arginine-containing formulations due in large part to the enhancement of ADS activity levels and potential favorable modification to the composition of the oral microbiome.

  3. Effect of oral nutritional support on hospitalized patients with AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Pereira da Silva; Ìsis Lucilia Santos Borges de Araùjo; Poliana Coelho Cabrai; Maria Goretti Pessoa de Araùjo Burgos

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The emergence of more effective therapies for the treatment of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has reduced the rates of illness, mortality and malnutrition among infected patients. However, reduced food intake, nutrient malabsorption and metabolic alterations induced by fever and infection are seen in cases of hospital malnutrition. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of oral nutritional support (ONS) on hospitalized patients with AIDS. Me...

  4. Facilitating EFL Learners' Oral Communication through Effective Feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊芬

    2002-01-01

    Feedback is an indispensable component of teaching process.Research finding shows that one of the keys to successful language learning lies in the feedback learner receives from others.This paper proposed some solutions to feedback problems in oral communication of non-English majors.The author finds that feedback can work effectively only when learners willingly internalize teacher feedback after their affective filter.

  5. Side Effects and Complications of Dental Materials on Oral Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Atai

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of dental materials has had a great impact on the modern dentistry. The materials ranging from polymers to metals have different applications in dentistry. Besides their important role in healing or improving the function of oral tissues, the materials may show side effects which may, in some cases, lead to severe lesions. In this review the side effects have been summarized considering a new classification for dental materials according to the duration of their applications as temporary or permanent materials. The side effects of the materials are then discussed based on clinical and cellular views.

  6. School based oral health promotional intervention: Effect on knowledge, practices and clinical oral health related parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Gauba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: No organized school oral health program is existent in India. Aim: The aim of this study is to test the feasibility and efficacy of an economical school oral health promotional intervention with educational and preventive components. Settings and Design: School oral health promotional intervention carried out in one of the randomly selected school and evaluated through short duration prospective model. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 children with an age range of 10-12 years with no previous history of dental intervention were enrolled. Interventions comprised of oral health education (delivered through lecture and demonstrations by an undergraduate dental student and topical antibacterial therapy (fluoride varnish and povidone iodine. Outcomes consisted of Knowledge and practices (KAP regarding oral health, clinical oral health related parameters such as plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI and caries activity as per Modified Snyder′s test. These were reported at baseline, 3 weeks and 6 months follow-up examination by a calibrated examiner. Statistical Analysis: McNemar Bowker′s test, Student′s t-test, Pearson Chi-square tests were used. Results: Highly significant (P < 0.001 improvements in KAP scores, PI scores, GI scores and caries activity were reported at 3 weeks and 6 months follow-up examination. Conclusion: This small economical school oral health program positively influenced oral health related practices and parameters of oral health such as oral cleanliness, gingival health and caries activity.

  7. Bacteriostatic effect of simvastatin on selected oral streptococci in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene J Whitaker

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context and Objective: Simvastatin is a widely used cholesterol-lowering drug, which has been found to have a number of pleiotropic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of simvastatin against selected oral streptococci as determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Methods: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus anginosus, and Streptococcus salivarius were the test microorganisms. The serial dilution method was used to determine the MIC of simvastatin against these organisms. The MIC was defined as the lowest concentration of simvastatin that completely inhibited growth of the test organisms. Results: The data indicate that simvastatin inhibits the growth of the test organisms, with MIC's ranging from 7.8 to 15.6 μg/ml. Conclusions: Simvastatin has MIC's against the selected bacteria that compare favorably with reported values for topical agents such as essential oil, chlorhexidine gluconate, and triclosan. The levels of simvastatin required to inhibit bacterial growth of oral bacteria exceed the reported levels of the drug found in plasma or crevicular fluid of patients who are treated with this cholesterol-lowering drug. However, clinical studies are warranted to investigate the potential use of simvastatin as a novel antiplaque agent that could be used in local drug delivery to the oral cavity of those patients who are prescribed this cholesterol-lowering drug.

  8. Potential therapeutic effects of oral bisphosphonates on the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazianas, Michael; Russell, R Graham G

    2011-12-01

    Bisphosphonates are the principal drugs prescribed for the prevention of osteoporotic fractures. They are bone specific but poorly absorbed. In oral formulations, almost 99% of the administered dose remains within the intestinal tract and reaches the small and large bowel. Although the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates can irritate the distal esophageal/gastric mucosa, they improve drug-induced colitis in animal models and exhibit antitumor properties on intestinal cells in vitro. Several recent epidemiological studies provide evidence of a reduced risk of colorectal cancer in osteoporotic patients treated with oral bisphosphonates, notably alendronate. In this review, we will explore the possible mechanisms of action underlying these effects and raise the question of whether these agents might be used in the chemoprophylaxis against colorectal cancer. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. The effect of oral habits in the oral cavity of children and its treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirina Gartika

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Oral habits include habit which is continuously done and has the potential to cause defects in teeth and perioral tissues. Some of the oral habits are finger/thumb sucking, lip sucking/biting, nail biting, bruxism, abnormal swallowing and mouth breathing. The etiology of oral habits includes the disharmonious relationship between parents and children, dissatisfaction in oral phase, premature weaning, emotional disturbance, anomaly, and diseases. Oral habits will influence the development of occlusion and perioral structures in children in the growing and development process. The treatment of oral habits can be done with or without appliances. The non-appliance treatment consists of psychological approach, medical approach and myofunctional therapy while the appliance treatment will include the use of orthodontic appliances.

  10. Importance of levonorgestrel dose in oral contraceptives for effects on coagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluft, C.; Maat, M.P.M. de; Heinemann, L.A.J.; Spannagl, M.; Schramm, W.

    1999-01-01

    Combined oral contraceptives show clear differences in effect on the tissue factor-initiated coagulation test of activated protein C resistance, which is dependent on the presence and dosage of levonorgestrel. Multiphasic levonorgestrol oral contraceptives differ from monophasic contraceptives and

  11. Acrolein—an α,ß-Unsaturated Aldehyde: A Review of Oral Cavity Exposure and Oral Pathology Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Dror Aizenbud; Itay Aizenbud; Abraham Z. Reznick; Katia Avezov

    2016-01-01

    Acrolein is a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde widely present in the environment, particularly as a product of tobacco smoke. Our previous studies indicated the adverse consequences of even short-term acrolein exposure and proposed a molecular mechanism of its potential harmful effect on oral cavity keratinocytic cells. In this paper we chose to review the broad spectrum of acrolein sources such as pollution, food, and smoking. Consequently, in this paper we consider a high level of oral ...

  12. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Zakavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC methods. Tetracycline 30 μg and Erythromycin 15 μg were used as positive control and water as negative control in disk diffusion and MIC methods. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test. Results. The results showed that S. sanguis and S. mutans were the most sensitive and the most resistant bacteria against ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. Ethanolic extract had significant antibacterial effect against all tested bacteria. Aqueous extract did not show antibacterial effect on S. mutans, in contrast to ethanolic extract. Aqueous extract had significantly antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, S. salivarius, and S. sanguis compared to control (P<0.0001, but it did not show effect on S. mutans when compared with Erythromycin. According to the obtained MIC values, ethanol extract of Juglans regia bark had the lowest rate. Conclusion. The results may provide the basis for using natural antimicrobial substance for oral hygiene prophylaxis purposes.

  13. Early onset of treatment effects with oral risperidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naber Dieter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dogma of a delayed onset of antipsychotic treatment effects has been maintained over the past decades. However, recent studies have challenged this concept. We therefore performed an analysis of the onset of antipsychotic treatment effects in a sample of acutely decompensated patients with schizophrenia. Methods In this observational study, 48 inpatients with acutely decompensated schizophrenia were offered antipsychotic treatment with oral risperidone. PANSS-ratings were obtained on day 0, day 1, day 3, day 7 and day 14. Results Significant effects of treatment were already present on day 1 and continued throughout the study. The PANSS positive subscore and the PANSS total score improved significantly more than the PANSS negative subscore. Conclusion Our results are consistent with the growing number of studies suggesting an early onset of antipsychotic treatment effects. However, non-pharmacological effects of treatment also need to be taken into consideration.

  14. Preventive Effect of Rebamipide Gargle on Chemoradiotherpy-Induced Oral Mucositis in Patients with Oral Cancer: a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yasuda

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of rebamipide in preventing chemoradiotherapy-induced oral mucositis in patients with oral cancer.Material and Methods: Patients with oral cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy (daily radiotherapy plus docetaxel hydrate once a week were enrolled for this study. They were assigned in a double-blind fashion to receive either rebamipide gargle or placebo on the days of chemoradiotherapy. Oral mucositis was assessed using the WHO grading system. The primary endpoint of this study was the incidence of grade 3 - 4 mucositis after exposure to 40 Gy radiation (4 weeks. The secondary endpoint was the effect of rebamipide gargle on tumour response to chemoradiotherapy.Results: Twenty-four patients were randomly assigned to receive rebamipide gargle (n = 12 or placebo-gargle (n = 12 during chemoradiotherapy. The number of patients with severe mucositis (WHO ≥ 3 was higher in the placebo group than in the rebamipide group (83.3% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.036. In addition, no effect of rebamipide gargle on tumour response to chemoradiotherapy was recognized compared with the placebo group.Conclusions: For patients with oral cancer undergoing chemoradiotherapy, rebamipide gargle may contribute to decrease the severity of oral mucositis.

  15. Preventive effect of rebamipide gargle on chemoradiotherpy-induced oral mucositis in patients with oral cancer: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Takashi; Chiba, Hiroshige; Satomi, Takafumi; Matsuo, Akira; Kaneko, Tadayoshi; Chikazu, Daichi; Miyamatsu, Hironobu

    2012-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of rebamipide in preventing chemoradiotherapy-induced oral mucositis in patients with oral cancer. Patients with oral cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy (daily radiotherapy plus docetaxel hydrate once a week) were enrolled for this study. They were assigned in a double-blind fashion to receive either rebamipide gargle or placebo on the days of chemoradiotherapy. Oral mucositis was assessed using the WHO grading system. The primary endpoint of this study was the incidence of grade 3 - 4 mucositis after exposure to 40 Gy radiation (4 weeks). The secondary endpoint was the effect of rebamipide gargle on tumour response to chemoradiotherapy. Twenty-four patients were randomly assigned to receive rebamipide gargle (n = 12) or placebo-gargle (n = 12) during chemoradiotherapy. The number of patients with severe mucositis (WHO ≥ 3) was higher in the placebo group than in the rebamipide group (83.3% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.036). In addition, no effect of rebamipide gargle on tumour response to chemoradiotherapy was recognized compared with the placebo group. For patients with oral cancer undergoing chemoradiotherapy, rebamipide gargle may contribute to decrease the severity of oral mucositis.

  16. Effect of oral N-acetylcysteine on mucus clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, A B; Pavia, D; Agnew, J E; Lopez-Vidriero, M T; Lauque, D; Clarke, S W

    1985-07-01

    Oral N-acetylcysteine has been advocated as a mucolytic agent for use in chronic bronchitis. We have investigated the effects of regular use of this drug at a dose of 200 mg thrice daily for 4 weeks in nine patients with chronic bronchitis on lung function, lung mucociliary clearance and sputum viscosity in a controlled, double-blind, crossover study. No significant differences were found in lung function, mucociliary clearance curves or sputum viscosity following treatment with N-acetylcysteine compared to control or placebo measurements.

  17. Methodology in Seeking Stakeholder Perceptions of Effective Technical Oral Presentations: An Exploratory Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Ena; Patil, Arun; Sargunan, Rajeswary Appacutty

    2010-01-01

    Engineering communication studies indicate the importance of oral presentations as an indispensable component of workplace oral communication activities; however, since there is limited literature regarding stakeholder perceptions of effective presentation skills and attributes in technical oral presentations or final year engineering project…

  18. Effectiveness of an oral health program for mothers and their infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medeiros, P.B.; Otero, S.A.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Leal, S.C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The baby oral health program (bOHP) provides pregnant women and their future babies with oral care. AIM: To assess the bOHP effectiveness by comparing caries prevalence in infants enrolled and not enrolled in the oral health program (OHP). DESIGN: Mothers who had been invited to particip

  19. Interference effects between manual and oral motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Marie-Hélène; Cohen, Henri

    2016-03-01

    Consolidation of a motor skill is characterized by spontaneous improvement in performance between practice sessions. These offline gains can be eliminated if another skill is introduced soon afterward-a phenomenon called retroactive interference. Interference effects have been found in studies using two similar tasks involving the same motor effectors in a manual mode. The present study aimed to determine the extent to which differences in motor production mode modulate interference in skill learning. Healthy participants were assigned to one of three conditions and trained on a finger opposition sequence (FOS) learning task. All subjects were tested 24 h later on the original FOS learning task. Control subjects who were not exposed to a secondary learning task exhibited the expected offline gains after 24 h. Subjects who immediately learned a secondary task after the FOS training, either in the same manual mode (French Sign Language) or in an oral mode (CVC syllables), did not show any offline gains. Interestingly, the amount of interference was equivalent in the manual and oral learning conditions. The results reveal that interference effects in motor skill learning can occur when different effectors are involved in the primary and secondary tasks. The sequence processing abilities of the basal ganglia appear to play a major role in these interference effects.

  20. Synergistic Antibacterial Effect between Silibinin and Antibiotics in Oral Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Soo Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Silibinin is a composition of the silymarin group as a hepatoprotective agent, and it exhibits various biological activities, including antibacterial activity. In this study, the antibacterial activities of silibinin were investigated in combination with two antimicrobial agents against oral bacteria. Silibinin was determined with MIC and MBC values ranging from 0.1 to 3.2 and 0.2 to 6.4 μg/mL, ampicillin from 0.125 to 64 and 0.5 to 64 μg/mL, gentamicin from 2 to 256 and 4 to 512 μg/mL, respectively. The ranges of MIC50 and MIC90 were 0.025–0.8 μg/mL and 0.1–3.2 μg/mL, respectively. The antibacterial activities of silibinin against oral bacteria were assessed using the checkerboard and time-kill methods to evaluate the synergistic effects of treatment with ampicillin or gentamicin. The results were evaluated showing that the combination effects of silibinin with antibiotics were synergistic (FIC index <0.5 against all tested oral bacteria. Furthermore, a time-kill study showed that the growth of the tested bacteria was completely attenuated after 2–6 h of treatment with the MBC of silibinin, regardless of whether it was administered alone or with ampicillin or gentamicin. These results suggest that silibinin combined with other antibiotics may be microbiologically beneficial and not antagonistic.

  1. EFFECT OF TOBACCO ON ORAL - HEALTH AN OVERVIEW

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    Mubeen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Tobacco is the greatest disease-producing product, with its prevalent addictive habit influencing the behavior of human beings for more t han four centuries. Tobacco is consumed orally in a variety of forms such as smoking and chewable forms. Smoking is increasing rapidly throughout the developing world and is one of the b iggest threats to current and future world health. By 2030, if current trends continue, smokin g will kill more than nine million people annually. On an average, to date 47.5% of men and 1 0.3% of women are smokers. In India, tobacco products are commercially available with added scen ts and flavouring agents which not only attracts rural population but also influences urban population. Tobacco smoking is linked with many serious illnesses, such as cardiopulmonary dis eases, cancer, low birth weight, as well as with many other health problems, contributing to thousan ds of premature deaths each year When exposed to tobacco salivary behaviour is reversed a nd saliva loses its antioxidant capacity, becoming a potent pro-oxidant milieu Most oral cons equences of tobacco use impair quality of life be they as simple as halitosis or as complex as ora l birth defects, as common as periodontal disease or as troublesome as complications during wound hea ling. Tobacco smoking and chewing not only causes discolouration of teeth, periodontitis, dent al caries, altered taste, nicotinic stomatitis, but also causes leukoplakia & carcinoma with high morbi dity and mortality. It is especially important to understand that harmful effects of tobacco products are dose-dependent, that they depend more on abuse than on simple use. The aim of this review is to highlight the effect of smoking and chewing forms of tobacco on oral health. and remedies which can be thought of

  2. Cryotherapy effect on oral mucositis severity among recipients of bone marrow transplantation: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, Abdel-Qader Mahmoud

    2014-08-01

    Oral mucositis is a distressing toxic effect of cancer therapy and one of the major side effects of the myeloablative conditioning used to prepare patients for bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Oral cryotherapy is one of the recent modalities used to prevent and manage oral mucositis. The purpose of this review is to clarify the cryotherapy effect on oral mucositis severity among patients receiving myeloablative conditioning followed by BMT. A literature search was performed using six different electronic databases: CINAHL®, MEDLINE®, Nursing Ovid, PubMed, Springer, and Science Direct. Six articles were deemed relevant and included in this review. Oral mucositis increases mortality rate, length of hospital stay, opioid use, and the need for parenteral nutrition usage. It also decreases patient's quality of life and his or her desire to complete treatment. However, oral cryotherapy significantly minimizes the incidence and severity of oral mucositis and decreases secondary oral mucositis complications. Using oral cryotherapy concurrently with a regular oral care protocol can improve its efficacy for preventing and managing oral mucositis. Additional studies should be conducted to create standard oral cryotherapy protocols.

  3. The effect of xylitol on dental caries and oral flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak PA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prathibha Anand Nayak,1 Ullal Anand Nayak,2 Vishal Khandelwal3 1Department of Periodontics, NIMS Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 2Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, NIMS Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 3Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Index Dental College and Hospital, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India Abstract: Dental caries, the most chronic disease affecting mankind, has been in the limelight with regard to its prevention and treatment. Professional clinical management of caries has been very successful in cases of different severities of disease manifestations. However, tertiary management of this disease has been gaining attention, with numerous methods and agents emerging on a daily basis. Higher intake of nutritive sweeteners can result in higher energy intake and lower diet quality and thereby predispose an individual to conditions like obesity, cardiovascular disorders, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Non-nutritive sweeteners have gained popularity as they are sweeter and are required in substantially lesser quantities. Xylitol, a five-carbon sugar polyol, has been found to be promising in reducing dental caries disease and also reversing the process of early caries. This paper throws light on the role and effects of various forms of xylitol on dental caries and oral hygiene status of an individual. Keywords: xylitol, caries preventive effect, oral flora 

  4. The Effects of Cooperative-learning in the Oral English Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周莲

    2014-01-01

    Oral English teaching is one of the essential parts in language teaching. However, the oral English teaching in Chinese college English large-scale classes is far from satisfactory. In the instruction process arise a variety of problems such as the passive-ness of learners, the failure of timely feedback transmission and fewer chances of oral English practice.This study aims to probe in-to the effects of cooperative-learning in the oral English teaching of large-scale classes. It is the author ’s belief that cooperative learning may effectively improve college oral English teaching in large-scale classes.

  5. Friend or foe? Effect of oral resveratrol on cisplatin ototoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgun, Yüksel; Kırkım, Günay; Kolatan, Efsun; Kıray, Müge; Bagrıyanık, Alper; Olgun, Aybüke; Kızmazoglu, Deniz Cakır; Ellıdokuz, Hülya; Serbetcıoglu, Bulent; Altun, Zekiye; Aktas, Safiye; Yılmaz, Osman; Günerı, Enis Alpin

    2014-03-01

    Our objectives were to study effects of orally administered resveratrol (RV) against cisplatin (CDDP) ototoxicity in different doses and to investigate ultrastructural changes in the cochlea and brainstem. In vivo study using an animal model. Thirty-two male Wistar albino rats were divided into six groups. Baseline distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurements were made. In groups I, II, and III, only saline, RV, and CDDP were given, respectively. Group IV, V, and VI animals were administered 10 mg/kg/day, 1 mg/kg/day, and 0.1 mg/kg/day of RV for 10 days, respectively, before 16 mg/kg CDDP injections were administered on day 11. All animals were sacrificed after repeated DPOAEs and ABR measurements were made on day 14. Cochleas of animals were investigated with transmission electron microscopy. Apoptosis were investigated with caspase-3 activity and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) method in the brainstem. In groups IV and V, DPOAEs and ABR findings revealed that oral administration of RV 10 mg/kg/day and 1 mg/kg/day doses before CDDP injection enhanced ototoxicity. In group VI, electomicroscopy revealed better ultrastructural findings than in the cisplatin group; however, these changes were not reflected in the audiological findings accordingly. Our results implied that there were noticeable differences between different oral RV doses used for cisplatin ototoxicity. Especially in higher doses, RV was observed to enhance cisplatin ototoxicity. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Effect of Oral Feedback on Learning Consequences of Nursing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monadi Ziyarat H

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Evaluation process is done in form of formative and final assessments. Formative assessment should take place with offering feedback. This study was done with the aim of determining the effect of oral feedback on learning results of nursing students at Abadan Medical Sciences School. Materials & Methods: In this quasi-experimental interfering study, 33 of 5th semester nursing students of Abadan School of Medical Sciences who had passed pediatric training courses during the first semester of 2013-14 academic year were selected by easy and available sampling method (19 people in intervention and 14 people in control group. The data gathering tools were demographic information form, self- done questionnaire in the field of cognitive learning and checklist of learning clinical skills. Every coach was present in both types of training methods. In intervention group, the coach should offer the oral feedback at least one time per day and as closely as possible to student performance. Data was investigated using Chi-square, Mann-Whitney, statistical independent T and paired T tests. Findings: In both groups, the average of learner's scores improve significantly compared to their pre-test in field of cognitive learning (p=0.001. Also, the differential mean of learning scores among the two groups was significant (p=0.001. In the field of clinical skills, there was a significantly difference between the average of scores of intervention and control groups (p=0.001.   Conclusion: Oral feedback can improve cognitive learning and learning clinical skills among nursing students.

  7. Novel submicronized rebamipide liquid with moderate viscosity: significant effects on oral mucositis in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Takako; Sako, Nobutomo; Matsuda, Takakuni; Uematsu, Naoya; Sakurai, Kazushi; Ishida, Tatsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at developing a novel rebamipide liquid for an effective treatment of oral mucositis. The healing effects of a variety of liquids comprising submicronized rebamipide crystals were investigated using a rat cauterization-induced oral ulcer model. Whereas 2% rebamipide liquid comprising micro-crystals did not exhibit significant curative effect, 2% rebamipide liquids comprising submicronized crystals with moderate viscosities exhibited healing effects following intra-oral administration. The 2% and 4% optimized rebamipide liquids showed significant healing effects in the rat oral ulcer model (prebamipide liquid significantly reduced the percent area of ulcerated injury (prebamipide liquid with moderate viscosity following intra-oral administration showed better both healing effect in the rat oral ulcer model and preventive effect in the rat irradiation-induced glossitis model.

  8. The effects of an oral health intervention on caregivers of Head Start children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Audrey P; Kameka, Michelle; Young-Whiting, Chanadra

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an oral health educational intervention on knowledge and behavior-specific cognitions and affect in caregivers of children from 2 to 5 years of age. This was a descriptive study, with a convenience sample of 425 Head Start caregivers who attended one of 18 oral health educational programs throughout Miami-Dade County. Four research questions addressed the relationship between the oral health educational intervention and prior related behavior, personal factors, behavior-specific cognitions and affect, knowledge, and intent. The educational program was found to have a significant effect on caregivers' knowledge, cognition, affect, and intent to provide oral healthcare to their children. Educational programs have a positive impact on caregivers to increase oral health knowledge and intent to perform preventive oral health-promoting behaviors in this underserved population. Effective educational interventions are necessary in order to increase overall health in children and to decrease oral disease.

  9. Oral Health of Drug Abusers: A Review of Health Effects and Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Ekhtiari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral health problems, among the most prevalent comorbidities related to addiction, require more attention by both clinicians and policy-makers. Our aims were to review oral complications associated with drugs, oral health care in addiction rehabilitation, health services available, and barriers against oral health promotion among addicts. Drug abuse is associated with serious oral health problems including generalized dental caries, periodontal diseases, mucosal dysplasia, xerostomia, bruxism, tooth wear, and tooth loss. Oral health care has positive effects in recovery from drug abuse: patients’ need for pain control, destigmatization, and HIV transmission. Health care systems worldwide deliver services for addicts, but most lack oral health care programs. Barriers against oral health promotion among addicts include difficulty in accessing addicts as a target population, lack of appropriate settings and of valid assessment protocols for conducting oral health studies, and poor collaboration between dental and general health care sectors serving addicts. These interfere with an accurate picture of the situation. Moreover, lack of appropriate policies to improve access to dental services, lack of comprehensive knowledge of and interest among dental professionals in treating addicts, and low demand for non-emergency dental care affect provision of effective interventions. Management of drug addiction as a multi-organ disease requires a multidisciplinary approach. Health care programs usually lack oral health care elements. Published evidence on oral complications related to addiction emphasizes that regardless of these barriers, oral health care at various levels including education, prevention, and treatment should be integrated into general care services for addicts.

  10. Adverse effects of oral antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaaslan, Bircan; Guner, Rahmet

    2017-01-01

    Oral nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NAs) are currently the backbone of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection treatment. They are generally well-tolerated by patients and safe to use. To date, a significant number of patients have been treated with NAs. Safety data has accumulated over the years. The aim of this article is to review and update the adverse effects of oral NAs. NAs can cause class adverse effects (i.e., myopathy, neuropathy, lactic acidosis) and dissimilar adverse effects. All NAs carry a “Black Box” warning because of the potential risk for mitochondrial dysfunction. However, these adverse effects are rarely reported. The majority of cases are associated with lamivudine and telbivudine. Adefovir can lead to dose- and time-dependent nephrotoxicity, even at low doses. Tenofovir has significant renal and bone toxicity in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, bone and renal toxicity in patients with CHB are not as prominent as in HIV infection. Entecavir and lamivudine are not generally associated with renal adverse events. Entecavir has been claimed to increase the risk of lactic acidosis in decompensated liver disease and high Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores. However, current studies reported that entecavir could be safely used in decompensated cirrhosis. An increase in fetal adverse events has not been reported with lamivudine, telbivudine and tenofovir use in pregnant women, while there is no adequate data regarding entecavir and adefovir. Further long-term experience is required to highlight the adverse effects of NAs, especially in special patient populations, including pregnant women, elderly and patients with renal impairment. PMID:28261380

  11. Dynamics of effective oral presentations. Strategies for nurse educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitz, J M

    1994-05-01

    Oral presentations can and should be exciting events for learners and educators. Inservice faculty members who are new educators have a plethora of sources that they can use to develop and refine their presentation skills. Just as individuals learn to read by reading and write by writing, staff instructors learn to teach well by teaching. Focus on developing your teaching versatility by combining strategies, because varying methods will appeal to learners' different learning styles. Whether you are a novice or seasoned teacher, you can constantly improve your teaching skills. When you execute an effective presentation, everyone wins. You experience and enjoy your own professional growth, and learners benefit from quality educational experiences. The most important benefit of effective presentations is that surgical patients receive competent care from well-informed, up-to-date clinicians.

  12. Effects of Copaiba Oil Topical Administration on Oral Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Vivian Petersen; Webber, Liana Preto; Ortiz, Lisley; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki; Meurer, Luise; Lameira, Osmar Alves; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2017-08-01

    The effects of topical copaiba oil extract and topical corticosteroid were assessed on oral wound healing in an in vivo model using 96 male Wistar rats. Traumatic ulcers were caused in the dorsum of the tongue using a 3-mm punch tool. The animals were divided into: Control; Corticosteroid; Placebo and Copaiba oil Group. The animals received two daily applications of the products. The control group received only daily handling. Six rats in each group were euthanized at days 3, 5, 10 and 14. The animals were monitored daily to determine wound status. The weigh was assessed at day 0 and euthanasia day. The percentage of repair was calculated, and histopathological aspects were analyzed. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the results between groups and times of evaluation. Closing time was assessed through the log-rank test. The corticosteroid group lost more weight at days 10 and 14 than the control group (p oil group and the control group. We concluded that topical copaiba oil, in spite of being safe, did not accelerate the process of oral wound healing. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Effects of oral contraceptives on glucoregulatory responses to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Catherine M; Ben-Ezra, Vic; Gozansky, Wendolyn S; Scheaffer, Suzanne E

    2004-03-01

    Some of the effects of oral contraceptives (OCs) to alter glucoregulation may be ameliorated by exercise. To test this premise, the effects of acute aerobic exercise on postprandial glucose, insulin, and C-peptide responses (area under the curve [AUC]) were measured in 8 users of low-dose estrogen and progestin OCs (OC(+)) and 10 women not using OCs (OC(-)). They completed 2 randomly ordered intervention trials: (1) aerobic exercise on 3 consecutive days with a 2.5-hour, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on day 4, and (2) no exercise for 3 days prior to the OGTT (control trial). The exercise was 50 minutes of treadmill walking at 70% (.-)VO(2max). The groups were similar in age (27 +/- 3 years), waist-to-hip ratio (0.74 +/- 0.01), and cardiorespiratory fitness (32.5 +/- 1.6 mL x kg body mass(-1) x min(-1)). Fasting plasma glucose, C-peptide, and insulin levels were similar (P >.05) between groups in the control trial. In both trials, glucose(AUC) was significantly greater (13%, P <.05) in OC(+). Exercise resulted in a significant (P <.05) decrease in fasting plasma glucose and insulin, insulin(AUC), glucose(AUC) x insulin(AUC), and C-peptide(AUC) in both groups, suggesting enhanced insulin action and/or reduced pancreatic insulin secretion. Hepatic insulin extraction ([C-peptide(AUC) - insulin(AUC)())]/C-peptide(AUC)) was increased following exercise only in OC(+). Thus, insulin action was enhanced in response to exercise in young sedentary women independent of OC use. The mechanisms for the acute exercise effect on insulin action may be different in OC users compared with normally menstruating women.

  14. Effect of Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasma on Pathogenic Oral Biofilms and In Vitro Reconstituted Oral Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delben, Juliana Aparecida; Zago, Chaiene Evelin; Tyhovych, Natalia; Duarte, Simone; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Considering the ability of atmospheric-pressure cold plasma (ACP) to disrupt the biofilm matrix and rupture cell structure, it can be an efficient tool against virulent oral biofilms. However, it is fundamental that ACP does not cause damage to oral tissue. So, this study evaluated (1) the antimicrobial effect of ACP on single- and dual-species biofilms of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus as well as (2) the biological safety of ACP on in vitro reconstituted oral epithelium. Standardized cell suspensions of each microorganism were prepared for biofilm culture on acrylic resin discs at 37°C for 48 hours. The biofilms were submitted to ACP treatment at 10 mm of plasma tip-to-sample distance during 60 seconds. Positive controls were penicillin G and fluconazole for S. aureus and C. albicans, respectively. The biofilms were analyzed through counting of viable colonies, confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy for detection of reactive oxygen species. The in vitro reconstituted oral epithelium was submitted to similar ACP treatment and analyzed through histology, cytotoxocity test (LDH release), viability test (MTT assay) and imunnohistochemistry (Ki67 expression). All plasma-treated biofilms presented significant log10 CFU/mL reduction, alteration in microorganism/biofilm morphology, and reduced viability in comparison to negative and positive controls. In addition, fluorescence microscopy revealed presence of reactive oxygen species in all plasma-treated biofilms. Low cytotoxicity and high viability were observed in oral epithelium of negative control and plasma group. Histology showed neither sign of necrosis nor significant alteration in plasma-treated epithelium. Ki67-positive cells revealed maintenance of cell proliferation in plasma-treated epithelium. Atmospheric-pressure cold plasma is a promissing approach to eliminate single- and dual-species biofilms of C. albicans and S. aureus without having

  15. Effect of Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasma on Pathogenic Oral Biofilms and In Vitro Reconstituted Oral Epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Aparecida Delben

    Full Text Available Considering the ability of atmospheric-pressure cold plasma (ACP to disrupt the biofilm matrix and rupture cell structure, it can be an efficient tool against virulent oral biofilms. However, it is fundamental that ACP does not cause damage to oral tissue. So, this study evaluated (1 the antimicrobial effect of ACP on single- and dual-species biofilms of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus as well as (2 the biological safety of ACP on in vitro reconstituted oral epithelium. Standardized cell suspensions of each microorganism were prepared for biofilm culture on acrylic resin discs at 37°C for 48 hours. The biofilms were submitted to ACP treatment at 10 mm of plasma tip-to-sample distance during 60 seconds. Positive controls were penicillin G and fluconazole for S. aureus and C. albicans, respectively. The biofilms were analyzed through counting of viable colonies, confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy for detection of reactive oxygen species. The in vitro reconstituted oral epithelium was submitted to similar ACP treatment and analyzed through histology, cytotoxocity test (LDH release, viability test (MTT assay and imunnohistochemistry (Ki67 expression. All plasma-treated biofilms presented significant log10 CFU/mL reduction, alteration in microorganism/biofilm morphology, and reduced viability in comparison to negative and positive controls. In addition, fluorescence microscopy revealed presence of reactive oxygen species in all plasma-treated biofilms. Low cytotoxicity and high viability were observed in oral epithelium of negative control and plasma group. Histology showed neither sign of necrosis nor significant alteration in plasma-treated epithelium. Ki67-positive cells revealed maintenance of cell proliferation in plasma-treated epithelium. Atmospheric-pressure cold plasma is a promissing approach to eliminate single- and dual-species biofilms of C. albicans and S. aureus

  16. In vitro antibacterial effect of carbamide peroxide on oral biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Shu Yao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effects of carbamide peroxide (CP and chlorhexidine (CHX on oral biofilm in vitro. Collagen-coated hydroxyapatite discs were inoculated with subgingival plaque. After 3 weeks, the emergent biofilms were subjected to 1-, 3-, and 10-min exposures of a 1% CHX gel, a 5% CP gel and rinse, and a 10% CP gel and rinse. Subsequently, the biofilms were stained using a two-colour fluorescent dye kit for confocal laser scanning microscopy, and the volume ratio of dead bacteria to all bacteria was analysed. Compared to a non-treated gel control, the active agents killed bacteria on all the discs, with higher concentration and longer exposure times killing more bacteria. The rinse form disrupted the biofilm quicker than the gel form. Overall, 10% CP showed more disruption of biofilm and a greater proportion of killed bacteria than 1% CHX (p<0.05.

  17. Effect of Probiotic Bacteria on Oral Candida in Frail Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft-Bodi, E; Jørgensen, M R; Keller, M K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a daily intake of probiotic lactobacilli on the prevalence and counts of oral Candida in frail elderly patients living in nursing homes. The study had a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled design with 2 parallel arms. The study group...... and evening). The intervention period was 12 wk, and saliva and plaque samples were collected at baseline and follow-up. The primary end point was prevalence of high Candida counts assessed from chairside tests. Secondary end points were levels of dental plaque and gingival inflammation. The groups were...... balanced at baseline. The attrition rate to follow-up was 19%. There was a statistically significant reduction in the prevalence of high Candida counts in the probiotic group but not in the placebo group, and the difference was statistically significant in both saliva and plaque (P

  18. Perceived side effects of oral contraceptives among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, E S; Goodwin, M S

    1980-11-22

    Knowledge and attitudes of adolescent females regarding the side effects of oral contraceptives were investigated. The data source was a large study of sexual and contraceptive attitudes and experience. The questionnaire responses of 486 single females attending 10 birth control and pregnancy counseling centers in Ontario, Canada were examined. The age range of the subjects was from 13-20; 71% were attending school and 69% were living at home. They were attending the centers in order to obtain contraceptives (55%), to renew OC prescriptions (20%), or to receive pregnancy counseling (25%). 29% of the subjects had used OCs before coming to the clinic, but 91% planned to use OC after their clinic visit. 8% were planning to use an IUD; 1% were planning to use a diaphragm; and less than 1% were planning to have their boyfriend use condoms. 85% of the subjects indicated that they had heard abut side effcts of OCs with weight gain as the best known side effect. Other side effects familiar to many included nausea, circulatory disorders, headaches, emotional changes, menstrual problems and cancer. About 1/2 of the subjects had learned about these side effects from the mass media or female friends, 25% from a school sex education class, 15% from their mothers, and 3% from a physician. Despite knowledge regarding side effects, most of the subjects had positive attitudes toward OCs with 59% believing that the advnatages outweighed any disadvantages.

  19. A Comparative Study on the Sedative Effect of Oral Midazolam and Oral Promethazine Medication in Lumbar Puncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojjat DERAKHSHANFAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Derakhshanfar H, Modanlookordi M, Amini A, Shahrami A. A Comparative Study of the Sedative Effect of Oral Midazolam and Oral Promethazine Medication in Lumbar Puncture. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Spring;7(2:11-16. ObjectiveLumbar puncture (LP essentially is a painful and stressful procedure that indicated for diagnosis and therapeutic purposes. One way to reduce the anxiety is to administer an oral premedication. The aim of this study is to compare clinical effects of oral midazolam and oral promethazine in LP.Materials & MethodsThis prospective randomized controlled clinical trial study wasperformed on 80 children aged 2-7 years that were candidate for LP. They were divided into two randomized equal groups. First group received oral midazolam syrup 0.5 mg/kg and the other group received oral promethazine syrup 1mg/kg. Level of sedation, hemodynamic changes and any other complications were monitored every 5 minutes from 30 minutes before the start of the procedure.ResultsMidazolam group and promethazine group were similar in age, gender and weight. Midazolam had significantly shorter onset of sedation and also shorter duration to maximal sedation. The two groups were similar with respect to sedative effect at all time. The only complication that was significantly more in midazolam group was nausea and vomiting.ConclusionMidazolam syrup and promethazine syrup have same sedative effect in children. Both of these medications are easy to use in preschool children and none of them appeared to be superior to another. References1. Ellenby MS, Tegtmeyer K, Lai S, Braner DA. Lumbar Puncture. N Engl J Med 2006;28;355(13:e12.2. Crock C, Olsson C, Phillips R, Chalkiadis G, Sawyer S, Ashley D, et al. General anesthesia or conscious sedation for painful procedures in childhood cancer: The family’s perspective. Arch Dis Child 2003;88(3:253−7.3. Holdsworth MT, Raisch DW, Winter SS, Frost JD, Moro MA, Doran NH, et al. Pain and

  20. The Effects of Journaling on Oral Communication in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grbavac, Michele; Piggott, Christopher; Rougeux, Mark

    This research project seeks to implement journaling as a means of improving oral communication in the classroom. The student population will consist of an elementary reading class, a junior high art class, and a high school math class. The probable cause literature gathered revealed a lack oral communication occurs in the classroom during…

  1. Effective Oral Language Development Strategies for Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    This action research study explored first and second grade classroom teachers' knowledge of oral language development and interventions for students at-risk of an oral language delay. This was accomplished through collaboration between a speech-language pathologist and classroom teachers. The data was aligned with assessments, the Response to…

  2. Oral exposure to polystyrene nanoparticles effects iron absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of engineered nanoparticles in food and pharmaceuticals is expected to increase, but the impact of chronic oral exposure to nanoparticles on human health remains unknown. Here, we show that chronic and acute oral exposure to polystyrene nanoparticles can influence iron uptake and iron trans...

  3. Effect of ozone on oral cells compared with established antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Karin C; Jakob, Franz M; Saugel, Bernd; Cappello, Christian; Paschos, Ekaterini; Hollweck, Regina; Hickel, Reinhard; Brand, Korbinian

    2006-10-01

    Ozone has been proposed as an alternative antiseptic agent in dentistry based on reports of its antimicrobial effects in both gaseous and aqueous forms. This study investigated whether gaseous ozone (4 x 10(6) microg m(-3)) and aqueous ozone (1.25-20 microg ml(-1)) exert any cytotoxic effects on human oral epithelial (BHY) cells and gingival fibroblast (HGF-1) cells compared with established antiseptics [chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) 2%, 0.2%; sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) 5.25%, 2.25%; hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) 3%], over a time of 1 min, and compared with the antibiotic, metronidazole, over 24 h. Cell counts, metabolic activity, Sp-1 binding, actin levels, and apoptosis were evaluated. Ozone gas was found to have toxic effects on both cell types. Essentially no cytotoxic signs were observed for aqueous ozone. CHX (2%, 0.2%) was highly toxic to BHY cells, and slightly (2%) and non-toxic (0.2%) to HGF-1 cells. NaOCl and H(2)O(2) resulted in markedly reduced cell viability (BHY, HGF-1), whereas metronidazole displayed mild toxicity only to BHY cells. Taken together, aqueous ozone revealed the highest level of biocompatibility of the tested antiseptics.

  4. The effect of low-level helium-neon laser on oral wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farimah Sardari

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that He-Ne laser had no beneficial effects on incisional oral wound healing particularly in 5 days after laser therapy. Future research in the field of laser effects on oral wound healing in human is recommended.

  5. Effects of non-oral postmenopausal hormone therapy on markers of cardiovascular risk: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemelaar, M.; Mooren, M.J. van der; Rad, M.; Kluft, C.; Kenemans, P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To review the effects of non-oral administration of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on risk markers for atherosclerotic and venous thromboembolic disease.Non-oral postmenopausal HT appears not to increase venous thromboembolic risk, whereas the effect on coronary heart disease risk is

  6. Effects of human oral mucosal tissue, saliva, and oral microflora on intraoral metabolism and bioactivation of black raspberry anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallery, Susan R; Budendorf, Deric E; Larsen, Matthew P; Pei, Ping; Tong, Meng; Holpuch, Andrew S; Larsen, Peter E; Stoner, Gary D; Fields, Henry W; Chan, Kenneth K; Ling, Yonghua; Liu, Zhongfa

    2011-08-01

    Our oral cancer chemoprevention trial data implied that patient-specific differences in local retention and metabolism of freeze-dried components of black raspberries (BRB) affected therapeutic responsiveness. Subsequent studies have confirmed that anthocyanins are key contributors to BRB's chemopreventive effects. Consequently, functional assays, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemical analyses to evaluate levels and distribution of BRB anthocyanin-relevant metabolic enzymes in human oral tissues were conducted. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) analyses of time course saliva samples collected following BRB rinses were conducted to assess local pharmacokinetics and compare the capacities of three different BRB rinse formulations to provide sustained intraoral levels of anthocyanins. Protein profiles showed the presence of key metabolic enzymes in all 15 oral mucosal tissues evaluated, whereas immunohistochemistry confirmed these enzymes were distributed within surface oral epithelia and terminal salivary ducts. β-Glucosidase assays confirmed that whole and microflora-reduced saliva can deglycosylate BRB anthocyanins, enabling generation of the bioactive aglycone, cyanidin. LC/MS-MS analyses showed retention of parent anthocyanins and their functional, stable metabolite, protocatechuic acid, in saliva for up to 4 hours after rinsing. Furthermore, postrinse saliva samples contained glucuronidated anthocyanin conjugates, consistent with intracellular uptake and phase II conversion of BRB anthocyanins into forms amenable to local recycling. Our data show that comparable to the small intestine, the requisite hydrolytic, phase II and efflux transporting enzymes necessary for local enteric recycling are present and functional in human oral mucosa. Notably, interpatient differences in anthocyanin bioactivation and capacities for enteric recycling would impact treatment as retention of bioactivated chemopreventives at the target site would sustain

  7. The effect of video-assisted oral feedback versus oral feedback on surgical communicative competences in undergraduate training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruesseler, M; Sterz, J; Bender, B; Hoefer, S; Walcher, F

    2017-08-01

    Feedback can significantly improve future performance. Reviewing one's performance by video is discussed as useful adjunct to debriefing, particularly for non-technical skills. Communicative competencies are an essential part of daily clinical practice; thus should be taught and assessed during undergraduate training. The aim of this study was to compare the educational value of video-assisted feedback versus oral feedback in communicative competencies in the surgical context. Fourth-year medical students completed a 210-min training unit of 'taking patient's history and obtaining informed consents prior to surgery' using role plays. Oral feedback was received directly thereafter using agenda-led, outcome-based guidelines (ALOBA). In the study group, the role plays were video-taped and reviewed thereafter. Afterwards, students completed two OSCE stations, where they were assessed regarding their communicative competencies and the content of the clinical scenario. One-hundred students (49 receiving video-assisted feedback, 51 oral) participated in the study. Those receiving video-assisted feedback performed significantly better in overall score in both OSCE stations (p communicative competencies at taking patient history (p = 0.029 or better), and in 2 of 5 items at obtaining informed consent (p = 0.008, <0.001). The educational effect size for both tasks was large. Using our methodology, video-assisted feedback offered a significant educational benefit over oral feedback alone during a simulated patient encounter in a surgical context.

  8. Evaluation of genotoxic effect of amalgam restorations in oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chennoju Sai Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mercury a popular heavy metal used in dentistry in the form of amalgam is a known clastogen. The assessment of micronuclei in cells is a promising tool for studying the genotoxic effect of mercury on them. Hence, a study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of micronuclei in exfoliated buccal cells of subjects with amalgam restorations. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 subjects (age and gender-matched sample of 30 study group and 30 control group were included in this study. Smears were obtained with moistened wooden spatula from buccal mucosa in close contact with amalgam restoration and fixed with 100% ethyl alcohol. After staining with Papanicolaou stain, all the slides were examined under ×40 and 1,000 cells were counted for the presence of micronuclei. The data were entered into a spread sheet and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: A statistically significant increase in the number of micronuclei containing cells was observed in the study group when compared to control group (P < 0.05. A positive correlation was observed between the duration of restoration and frequency of micronuclei (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results showed a definite genotoxic effect of amalgam restorations on the oral cavity which can be attributed to the clastogenic action of mercury in amalgam restorations.

  9. Effects of oral doses of fluoride on nestling European starlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, W.J.; Grue, C.E.; Schuler, C.A.; Bunck, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nestling European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), raised and fed by free-living adults, were given daily oral doses of either distilled water, 193 mg sodium as Na2CO3 per kg of body weight (sodium control group), or 6, 10, 13, 17,23, 30, 40, 80, 160 mg of the fluoride ion as NaF in distilled water per kg of body weight (mg/kg). Dosing began when nestlings were 24-48 hr old and continued for 16 days. The 24-hr LD50 of fluoride for day-old starlings was 50 mg/kg. The 16-day LD50 was 17 mg/kg. The sodium control group did not differ from the water control group with respect to any of the measured variables. Growth rates were significantly reduced in the 13 and 17 mg of fluoride/kg groups; weights of birds given higher dose levels were omitted from growth comparisons because of high, fluoride-induced mortality. Although pre-fledging weights for the 10, 13, and 17 mg of fluoride/kg groups averaged 3.6 to 8.6% less than controls at 17 days, this difference was not significant. Feather and bone growth of the fluoride and control groups were not different, except for keel length measured at 17 days of age which averaged less in the fluoride groups. Liver and spleen weights were not affected by fluoride treatments. No histological damage related to fluoride treatments was found in liver, spleen, or kidney. The logarithm of bone fluoride and magnesium concentration increased with the logarithm of increasing fluoride treatment levels and were significantly correlated with each other. Fluoride treatments had no effect on percent calcium or phosphorus in bone or plasma alkaline phosphatase activity. Oral doses of fluoride appear to be more toxic than equivalent dietary levels. Most birds probably acquire fluoride through their diet. Therefore, the results of the study may overestimate the potential effects of fluorides on songbirds living in fluoride-contaminated environments.

  10. Effect of oral healthcare education on knowledge, attitude and skills of care home nurses: a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugt-Lustig, K.H. de; Vanobbergen, J.N.; Putten, G.J. van der; Visschere, L.M. De; Schols, J.M.; Baat, C. de

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the literature on the effect of providing oral healthcare education to care home nurses on their oral healthcare knowledge and attitude and their oral hygiene care skills. METHODS: A literature search was obtained for relevant articles on oral healthcare educatio

  11. Effect of oral healthcare education on knowledge, attitude and skills of care home nurses: a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugt-Lustig, K.H. de; Vanobbergen, J.N.; Putten, G.J. van der; Visschere, L.M. De; Schols, J.M.; Baat, C. de

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the literature on the effect of providing oral healthcare education to care home nurses on their oral healthcare knowledge and attitude and their oral hygiene care skills. METHODS: A literature search was obtained for relevant articles on oral healthcare educatio

  12. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARTESUNATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O.Eweka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The histological effect of oral administration of artesunate, commonly used for the treatment of Malaria on the medial geniculate body (MGB of adult wistar rat was carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 210g were randomly assigned into three treatment (n=18 and control (n6 groups.The rats in the treatment group 'A' received 4mg/kg body weight of artesunate base dissolved in distilled water for 3 days. The animals in groups 'B' and 'C' received 4mg/kg body weight of artesunate dissolved in distilled water for the first day and thereafter received 2mg/kg body weight daily for six and thirteen day respectively. The control group D, received equal volume of distilled water daily using the Orogastric tube. The rats were fed with grower's mash obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State, Nigeria and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fourth, eight and fifteenth of the experiment. The medial geniculate body was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological studies.The histological findings after H&E method indicated that the treated section of the medial geniculate body showed some decreased cellular population, degenerative changes, cellular hypertrophy, with some vacuolations appearing in the stroma.Varying dosage and long administration of artesunate may have some deleterious effects on the neurons of the Medial geniculate body and this may probably have some adverse effects on auditory sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the cells of the medial geniculate body of adult wistar rats. It is therefore recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  13. Effectiveness of an Oral Health Care Training Workshop for School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . ... countries like Nigeria have poor knowledge and motivation about oral health ... intervention study was conducted among 40 school teachers who attended a ... Training methods included lectures and demonstrations on aetiology, clinical ...

  14. Effect of oral spiramycin on the faecal and oral bacteria in human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andremont, A; Trancrède, C; Desnottes, J F

    1991-03-01

    Six healthy adult volunteers were treated with 1 g of oral spiramycin twice daily for five days, and their oral and faecal microbial flora were studied. Mean saliva and serum concentrations of the antibiotic never exceeded 2.1 +/- 1.1 mg/l. The number of volunteers whose oral cavity was colonized by Enterobacteriaceae, group D streptococci, staphylococci, and fungi remained unchanged following treatment. The mean count of anaerobic faecal bacteria was 10.3 +/- 0.6 log10 cfu/g initially. This did not change significantly during the treatment, nor did the composition of the predominant anaerobic flora. Mean counts of group D streptococci were 1000 times lower than those of anaerobes before treatment, and also remained unchanged during therapy. No overgrowth of fungi, staphylococci, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa was observed. No significant modifications occurred in the mean total count of faecal Enterobacteriaceae (7.9 +/- 0.4 versus 7.4 +/- 1.0 log10 cfu/g of faeces before and during treatment respectively). However, faecal concentrations of highly spiramycin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MIC greater than or equal to 512 mg/l) increased from 4.8 +/- 1.2 to 7.0 +/- 1.8 log10 cfu/g during treatment. The MIC50 value of spiramycin for anaerobes, Enterobacteriaceae, and group D streptococci were 0.125, 64, and 0.5 mg/l respectively before treatment, and these increased to 1024, 512 and 1024 mg/l respectively during treatment. This was attributed to the rise in the faecal concentrations of spiramycin, which reached 689 +/- 48 micrograms/g of faeces on the fifth day of treatment. These concentrations decreased rapidly on cessation of treatment.

  15. Same effect of sublingual and oral captopril in hypertensive crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakiliç, E; Büyükcam, F; Kocalar, G; Gedik, S; Atalar, E

    2012-11-01

    Hypertensive crisis is a condition characterized by rapid and inappropriate symptomatic elevation of blood pressure (BP) that is commonly seen in Emergency Departments. Oral or sublingual captopril is commonly used in the Emergency Departments. The unpleasant taste of the sublingual drugs causes uncomfortable condition to the patient. Studies showing no difference between oral and sublingual captopril has been ignored so far. Herein we compared the oral and sublingual captopril efficiency in the hypertensive urgencies. In this retrospective observational study, 71 patients admitted with hypertensive urgency to Emergency Departments of two hospitals in 2011 whose blood pressure were recorded before captopril administration and blood pressure were recorded after captopril administration at 0-5-15-30-45-60 minutes were included the study. The reductions of the blood pressure of oral and sublingual captopril groups were compared. There were 28 patients at oral and 43 at sublingual captopril group. The mean age ± SD was 58.13 ± 8.66 years and 41 (57.7%) patients were female. The most common complaints were headache, nausea/vomiting and weakness. 65 (91.5%) patients were using antihypertensive drugs before admitted to hospital. The blood pressure at 0, 5, 15, 30, 45 and 60th minutes of therapy didn't show any difference between oral and sublingual captopril use. There was any difference between oral and sublingual captopril efficiency to control of hypertension in patient with hypertensive urgency. For a more comfortable treatment, oral captopril may be a more convenient choice in the hypertensive urgencies.

  16. Effectiveness of motivational interviewing at improving oral health: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Morales Cascaes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To analyze the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI at improving oral health behaviors (oral hygiene habits, sugar consumption, dental services utilization or use of fluoride and dental clinical outcomes (dental plaque, dental caries and periodontal status. METHODS : A systematic search of PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, PsyINFO, Cochrane and Google Scholar bibliographic databases was conducted looking for intervention studies that investigated MI as the main approach to improving the oral health outcomes investigated. RESULTS : Of the 78 articles found, ten met the inclusion criteria, all based on randomized controlled trials. Most studies (n = 8 assessed multiple outcomes. Five interventions assessed the impact of MI on oral health behaviors and nine on clinical outcomes (three on dental caries, six on dental plaque, four on gingivitis and three on periodontal pockets. Better quality of evidence was provided by studies that investigated dental caries, which also had the largest population samples. The evidence of the effect of MI on improving oral health outcomes is conflicting. Four studies reported positive effects of MI on oral health outcomes whereas another four showed null effect. In two interventions, the actual difference between groups was not reported or able to be recalculated. CONCLUSIONS : We found inconclusive effectiveness for most oral health outcomes. We need more and better designed and reported interventions to fully assess the impact of MI on oral health and understand the appropriate dosage for the counseling interventions.

  17. Effectiveness of motivational interviewing at improving oral health: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascaes, Andreia Morales; Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Clark, Valerie Lyn; Barros, Aluísio J D

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) at improving oral health behaviors (oral hygiene habits, sugar consumption, dental services utilization or use of fluoride) and dental clinical outcomes (dental plaque, dental caries and periodontal status). METHODS A systematic search of PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, PsyINFO, Cochrane and Google Scholar bibliographic databases was conducted looking for intervention studies that investigated MI as the main approach to improving the oral health outcomes investigated. RESULTS Of the 78 articles found, ten met the inclusion criteria, all based on randomized controlled trials. Most studies (n = 8) assessed multiple outcomes. Five interventions assessed the impact of MI on oral health behaviors and nine on clinical outcomes (three on dental caries, six on dental plaque, four on gingivitis and three on periodontal pockets). Better quality of evidence was provided by studies that investigated dental caries, which also had the largest population samples. The evidence of the effect of MI on improving oral health outcomes is conflicting. Four studies reported positive effects of MI on oral health outcomes whereas another four showed null effect. In two interventions, the actual difference between groups was not reported or able to be recalculated. CONCLUSIONS We found inconclusive effectiveness for most oral health outcomes. We need more and better designed and reported interventions to fully assess the impact of MI on oral health and understand the appropriate dosage for the counseling interventions. PMID:24789647

  18. Intrauterine devices: an effective alternative to oral hormonal contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    (1) Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are placed in the uterine cavity with the objective of providing long-term contraception, mainly by preventing fertilisation. The best-known IUDs contain copper, but there is also an IUD delivering levonorgestrel, a progestin; (2) How effective are these devices, and what are their adverse effects? To answer these questions, we analysed the literature using the standard Prescrire methodology; (3) T-shaped copper IUDs, with a copper surface area of 380 mm2 on 3 arms, and the levonorgestrel-releasing device, have similar contraceptive efficacy as combined oral contraceptives that are used correctly. In contrast, IUDs are more effective than oral contraception used incorrectly; (4) Among IUD users, there are on average about 6 pregnancies per 1000 woman-years. There is less experience with the levonorgestrel IUD which seems to be at least as effective as copper IUDs; (5) The rare intrauterine pregnancies that occur in women using an IUD generally end in miscarriage. About 25% of these pregnancies end in a live birth if the device is left in place, compared to about 90% if the device is removed; (6) Ectopic pregnancies are rarer in IUD users than in women who do not use contraception. However, about one in 20 pregnancies that occur in women using an IUD is ectopic; (7) The IUD is expelled in about 5% to 10% of cases within 5 years, and expulsion recurs in about 30% of these women; (8) Problems such as difficult insertion, pain, bleeding and syncope are reported in less than 1.5% of cases overall; (9) Uterine perforation during insertion is rare, occurring in 0.6 to 16 cases per 1000 insertions, regardless of the type of IUD. The risk of perforation is higher when the IUD is inserted less than 4 to 6 weeks after delivery or elective abortion; (10) During the first 3 months after insertion, the risk of pelvic infection is slightly higher than in the general population, especially in women with pre-existing asymptomatic Chlamydia

  19. Effect of oral nutritional support on hospitalized patients with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Pereira da Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The emergence of more effective therapies for the treatment of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS has reduced the rates of illness, mortality and malnutrition among infected patients. However, reduced food intake, nutrient malabsorption and metabolic alterations induced by fever and infection are seen in cases of hospital malnutrition. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of oral nutritional support (ONS on hospitalized patients with AIDS. Methods: The following variables were analyzed: weight, body mass index (BMI, triceps skinfold (TSF, arm circumference (AC, arm muscle circumference (AMC, albumin, hemoglobin, hematocrit and total serum lymphocytes. Results: Significant improvements were found in weight, BMI, TSF, AC, albumin and lymphocytes after 19.27 ± 7.45 days of ONS, whereas no significant improvements were found in AMC, hemoglobin or hematocrit. Conclusion: Dietary intervention with nutritional counseling and the use of supplements led to an improvement in the nutritional status of malnourished individuals with AIDS, but with an increase in adipose tissue and no impact on lean muscle mass or anemia.

  20. Effect of oral contraceptive progestins on serum copper concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, G; Kohlmeier, L; Brenner, H

    1998-10-01

    High serum copper concentration--a well-known effect of oral contraceptive (OC) use--has been linked to increased mortality from cardiovascular disease. The influence of OCs containing newer progestins has not been investigated, however. This concern was addressed in a 1987-88 cross-sectional epidemiologic study of 610 nonpregnant, nonlactating West German women 18-44 years of age. 195 women (32.1%) were current OC users, but only 152 of these women were able to cite the name of the formulation they were taking. In 70% of cases, the OC contained less than 45 mcg of ethylestradiol (median dose, 32.4 mcg). The most common progestin components were desogestrel (41%) and levonorgestrel (30%). Mean serum copper concentration was higher among users of all types of OCs than among non-users, but this concentration varied more strongly according to the OC's progestin compound than its estrogen content. The greatest increase in serum copper (55% compared with non-users) was recorded in users of OCs containing anti-androgen progestins, followed by desogestrel (46%), norethisterone/lynestrenol (42%), and levonorgestrel (34%). The increase in serum copper was more pronounced in women taking OCs containing 45 mcg or less of ethylestradiol than in users of OCs with a high estrogen dose. In the regression models, the different progestin compounds alone explained 28% of the total variance in serum copper concentration. Further investigation of OC-induced increases in serum copper concentration and their impact on cardiovascular risk are warranted.

  1. Effect of oral cephalexin in the treatment of BCG lymphadenitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayazi, Parviz; Mahyar, Abolfazl; Taremiha, Alireza; Ghorani, Najmeh; Esmailzadehha, Neda

    2014-06-01

    Lymphadenitis and abscess formation are the most common side effects of vaccination with Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG). The lower the child's age at the time of vaccination, the higher the incidence of BCG lymphadenitis tends to be. Although various therapeutic approaches are in use for the treatment of BCG lymphadenitis, there is no consensus on which of them is optimal. This study aimed to determine whether oral cephalexin treatment hastens recovery from BCG lymphadenitis. The study involved 40 children (24 boys and 16 girls) with BCG lymphadenitis who were referred to Qazvin Children's Hospital, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences between December 2008 and the end of September 2009. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups of 20 patients each (12 boys and 8 girls in each group): group A patients did not receive any treatment and served as controls, and group B patients were treated with 50 mg/kg/day cephalexin syrup, administered in four doses, for 10 days. In all patients, clinical examination was normal, except for lymphadenitis. In all patients, BCG vaccination had been performed at birth, and polymerase chain reaction tests were positive for tuberculous bacilli. The recovery period and requirement of fine needle aspiration did not significantly differ between the two groups (P 0.05). This study showed that treatment with cephalexin does not hasten recovery from BCG lymphadenitis.

  2. Erythritol Is More Effective Than Xylitol and Sorbitol in Managing Oral Health Endpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter de Cock

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide a comprehensive overview of published evidence on the impact of erythritol, a noncaloric polyol bulk sweetener, on oral health. Methods. A literature review was conducted regarding the potential effects of erythritol on dental plaque (biofilm, dental caries, and periodontal therapy. The efficacy of erythritol on oral health was compared with xylitol and sorbitol. Results. Erythritol effectively decreased weight of dental plaque and adherence of common streptococcal oral bacteria to tooth surfaces, inhibited growth and activity of associated bacteria like S. mutans, decreased expression of bacterial genes involved in sucrose metabolism, reduced the overall number of dental caries, and served as a suitable matrix for subgingival air-polishing to replace traditional root scaling. Conclusions. Important differences were reported in the effect of individual polyols on oral health. The current review provides evidence demonstrating better efficacy of erythritol compared to sorbitol and xylitol to maintain and improve oral health.

  3. Erythritol Is More Effective Than Xylitol and Sorbitol in Managing Oral Health Endpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Kauko; Honkala, Eino; Saag, Mare; Kennepohl, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To provide a comprehensive overview of published evidence on the impact of erythritol, a noncaloric polyol bulk sweetener, on oral health. Methods. A literature review was conducted regarding the potential effects of erythritol on dental plaque (biofilm), dental caries, and periodontal therapy. The efficacy of erythritol on oral health was compared with xylitol and sorbitol. Results. Erythritol effectively decreased weight of dental plaque and adherence of common streptococcal oral bacteria to tooth surfaces, inhibited growth and activity of associated bacteria like S. mutans, decreased expression of bacterial genes involved in sucrose metabolism, reduced the overall number of dental caries, and served as a suitable matrix for subgingival air-polishing to replace traditional root scaling. Conclusions. Important differences were reported in the effect of individual polyols on oral health. The current review provides evidence demonstrating better efficacy of erythritol compared to sorbitol and xylitol to maintain and improve oral health. PMID:27635141

  4. EFFECT OF INTRAMUSCULAR CEFTRIAXONE ON AEROBIC ORAL AND FECAL FLORA OF 11 HEALTHY-VOLUNTEERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIESHOSPERS, HG; TONK, RHJ; VANDERWAAIJ, D

    1991-01-01

    11 volunteers received 1 g ceftriaxone i.m. every 24 h for 5 consecutive days. Volunteers were selected on the basis of the "ceftriaxone inactivating capacity" of their faeces, which should be 250 mg/kg faeces. The effect of treatment on the aerobic oral and faecal flora was studied. In the oral

  5. The Effects of Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Patrols on Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maintenance of optimum oral health for Fleet Ballistic Missile submarine personnel is a continuing effort. Information is required concerning oral ... health status and patrol effects on this status. Ninety-one crew members of the USS JOHN MARSHALL (SSBN 611 (Gold)) were evaluated predeployment, during

  6. The effects of oral clefts on hospital use throughout the lifespan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehby, George L; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind; Murray, Jeffrey C

    2012-01-01

    Oral clefts are one of the most common birth defects worldwide. They require multiple healthcare interventions and add significant burden on the health and quality of life of affected individuals. However, not much is known about the long term effects of oral clefts on health and healthcare use...

  7. Clinical effects of flurbiprofen tooth patch on radiation-induced oral mucositis. A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokman, MA; Spijkervet, FKL; Burlage, FR; Roodenburg, JLN

    Background: Mucositis is an oral sequela of radiotherapy. In the development of mucositis several mechanisms play a role, such as inflammation and the effect of radiation on the high proliferation rate of oral basal epithelial cells. Therefore, administration of a drug with antiinflammatory and

  8. Effects of inhaled fluticasone and oral prednisolone on clinical and inflammatory parameters in patients with asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, RJ; Kerstjens, HAM; Arends, LR; Kauffman, HF; Koeter, GH; Postma, DS

    1999-01-01

    Background-Guidelines state that oral and inhaled corticosteroids are the cornerstone of asthma treatment. The effect of both types of treatment can be assessed by measuring lung and systemic parameters. Treatment far two weeks with either oral prednisolone (30 mg/day), high dose fluticasone propion

  9. Effect of Lectins from Diocleinae Subtribe against Oral Streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Holanda Teixeira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Surface colonization is an essential step in biofilm development. The ability of oral pathogens to adhere to tooth surfaces is directly linked with the presence of specific molecules at the bacterial surface that can interact with enamel acquired pellicle ligands. In light of this, the aim of this study was to verify inhibitory and antibiofilm action of lectins from the Diocleinaesubtribe against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus oralis. The inhibitory action against planctonic cells was assessed using lectins from Canavaliaensi formis (ConA, Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr, Canavalia maritima (ConM, Canavalia gladiata (CGL and Canavalia boliviana (ConBol. ConBol, ConBr and ConM showed inhibitory activity on S. mutans growth. All lectins, except ConA, stimulated significantly the growth of S. oralis. To evaluate the effect on biofilm formation, clarified saliva was added to 96-well, flat-bottomed polystyrene plates, followed by the addition of solutions containing 100 or 200 µg/mL of the selected lectins. ConBol, ConM and ConA inhibited the S. mutans biofilms. No effects were found on S. oralis biofilms. Structure/function analysis were carried out using bioinformatics tools. The aperture and deepness of the CRD (Carbohydrate Recognition Domain permit us to distinguish the two groups of Canavalia lectins in accordance to their actions against S. mutans and S. oralis. The results found provide a basis for encouraging the use of plant lectins as biotechnological tools in ecological control and prevention of caries disease.

  10. Effects of combination oral care on oral health, dry mouth and salivary pH of intubated patients: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Chun Sun; Shin, Yong Soon

    2016-10-01

    Intubated patients are at risk of oral health problems. Although a variety of oral care regimens for intubated patients have been studied, there is a lack of research on the effects of combination oral care that includes tooth brushing, chlorhexidine and cold water. This open-labelled, randomized, controlled trial aimed to evaluate the effects of combination oral care on oral health status. Participants aged 20 years and older were recruited on the first day after intubation through convenience sampling in a medical intensive care unit. Random assignment was performed using an internet randomization service. The primary outcome was oral health status. Data were collected during May and June 2013. Participants were randomized to one of two groups (23 intervention and 21 control). The final analysis included 18 patients with combination oral care and 17 in the control group. The intervention group had better oral health (effect size = 1.56), less dry mouth and higher salivary pH than the control group. Any additional burden of providing combination oral care to patients who are mechanically ventilated is worthwhile in terms of clinical outcomes.

  11. Effects of intensity-modulated radiotherapy on human oral microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zi-Yang; Tang, Zi-Sheng; Yan, Chao; Jiang, Yun-Tao; Ma, Rui; Liu, Zheng; Huang, Zheng-Wei

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in the biodiversity of the oral microflora of patients with head and neck cancer treated with postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or conventional radiotherapy (CRT). Pooled dental plaque samples were collected during the radiation treatment from patients receiving IMRT (n = 13) and CRT (n = 12). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to analyze the temporal variation of these plaque samples. The stimulated and unstimulated salivary flow rates were also compared between IMRT and CRT patients. Reductions in the severity of hyposalivation were observed in IMRT patients compared with CRT patients. We also observed that the temporal stability of the oral ecosystem was significantly higher in the IMRT group (69.96 ± 7.82%) than in the CRT group (51.98 ± 10.45%) (P oral ecosystem than CRT.

  12. Effect of epicatechin against radiation-induced oral mucositis: in vitro and in vivo study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Seob Shin

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Radiation-induced oral mucositis limits the delivery of high-dose radiation to head and neck cancer. This study investigated the effectiveness of epicatechin (EC, a component of green tea extracts, on radiation-induced oral mucositis in vitro and in vivo. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The effect of EC on radiation-induced cytotoxicity was analyzed in the human keratinocyte line HaCaT. Radiation-induced apoptosis, change in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and changes in the signaling pathway were investigated. In vivo therapeutic effects of EC for oral mucositis were explored in a rat model. Rats were monitored by daily inspections of the oral cavity, amount of oral intake, weight change and survival rate. For histopathologic evaluation, hematoxylin-eosin staining and TUNEL staining were performed. RESULTS: EC significantly inhibited radiation-induced apoptosis, change of MMP, and intracellular ROS generation in HaCaT cells. EC treatment markedly attenuated the expression of p-JNK, p-38, and cleaved caspase-3 after irradiation in the HaCaT cells. Rats with radiation-induced oral mucositis showed decreased oral intake, weight and survival rate, but oral administration of EC significantly restored all three parameters. Histopathologic changes were significantly decreased in the EC-treated irradiated rats. TUNEL staining of rat oral mucosa revealed that EC treatment significantly decreased radiation-induced apoptotic cells. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that EC significantly inhibited radiation-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes and rat oral mucosa and may be a safe and effective candidate treatment for the prevention of radiation-induced mucositis.

  13. The effects of ketoconazole and cimetidine on the pharmacokinetics of oral tramadol in greyhound dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KuKanich, B; KuKanich, K; Black, J

    2017-06-11

    Tramadol is administered to dogs for analgesia but has variability in its extent of absorption, which may hinder its efficacy. Additionally, the active opioid metabolite (M1) occurs in low concentrations. The purpose of this study was to determine if administration of oral tramadol with suspected metabolism inhibitors (ketoconazole, cimetidine) would lead to improved bioavailability of tramadol and M1. Six healthy Greyhounds were included. They were administered tramadol orally and intravenously, M1 intravenously, oral tramadol with oral ketoconazole and oral tramadol with oral cimetidine. Oral tramadol bioavailability was low (2.6%). Ketoconazole and cimetidine significantly increased tramadol bioavailability to 18.2% and 20.3%, respectively. The mean maximum plasma concentration of tramadol alone was 22.9 ng/ml, and increased to 109.9 and 143.2 μg/ml with ketoconazole and cimetidine, respectively. However, measured tramadol plasma concentrations were below the minimum concentration considered effective in humans (228 μg/ml). In all treatment groups, measured M1 concentrations (tramadol and M1 concentrations were low and variable in dogs after oral dosing of tramadol, even in combination with cimetidine or ketoconazole, but effective concentrations in dogs have not been defined. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effects of an Oral-Sensory/Oral-Motor Stimulation/Positive Reinforcement Program on the Acceptance of Nonpreferred Foods by Youth with Physical and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rita L.; Angell, Maureen E.

    2005-01-01

    This study employed a multiple probe design to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based lunchtime oral-sensory/oral-motor/positive reinforcement program on food acceptance behaviors of three youth with multiple disabilities. Overall dramatic gains in food acceptance behaviors of all participants indicated that trained school personnel were…

  15. Effect of third molar surgery on oral health-related quality of life in the first postoperative week using Dutch version of oral health impact profile-14

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, A.; Kieffer, J.M.; Lindeboom, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the effect of third molar surgery on oral health-related quality of life, related to pain and clinical variables, in the first postoperative week using the Dutch version of the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients,

  16. Effect of oral contraceptive progestins on serum copper concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Kohlmeier, L; Brenner, H

    1998-01-01

    using oral contraceptives containing antiandrogen progestins (55%; 95% CI: 37-76%), followed by desogestrel (46%; 95% CI: 36-56%), norethisteron/lynestrenol (42%; 95% CI: 29-57%), and levonorgestrel (34%; 95% CI: 24-45%). CONCLUSION: While elevated serum copper concentration was found in users of all...

  17. Effective oral treatment of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in Gunn rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hafkamp, AM; Havinga, R; Sinaasappel, M; Verkade, HJ

    2005-01-01

    We sought to develop an oral treatment for unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. In the Gunn rat model of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, dietary supplementation with the lipase inhibitor orlistat (Or1) or with calcium phosphate (Cap) decreases plasma unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) levels. We determined w

  18. Evaluating the effect of preoperative oral gabapentin on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-05-02

    May 2, 2010 ... 0riginal Research: Preoperative oral gabapentin in patients ... having pain scores ≥ 5 received rescue analgesia in the form of intravenous tramadol 0.5 mg.kg-1. If the ... decreases postoperative pain scores at zero hour and the rescue ... decreased physical and social function, as well as ... 2% lignocaine.

  19. Effect of oral THC pretreatment on marijuana cue-induced responses in cannabis dependent volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, Leslie H; Greenwald, Mark K

    2015-04-01

    The current study tested whether oral Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC: 0-, 10-, and 20-mg) pretreatment would attenuate polysensory cue-induced craving for marijuana. Cannabis dependent participants (7 males and 7 females, who smoked on average 5.4 ± 1.1 blunts daily) completed 3 experimental sessions (oral THC pretreatment dose; counterbalanced order) using a placebo-controlled within-subject crossover design. During each session, participants completed a baseline evaluation and were first exposed to neutral cues then marijuana cues while physiological measures and subjective ratings of mood, craving, and drug effect were recorded. Following placebo oral THC pretreatment, marijuana (vs. neutral) cues significantly increased ratings of marijuana craving (desire and urge to use, Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ)-Compulsivity scale), anxious mood and feeling hungry. Males also reported feeling more "Down" during marijuana cues relative to females. Pretreatment with oral THC (10-mg and/or 20-mg vs. placebo) significantly attenuated marijuana cue-induced increases in craving and anxiety but not hunger. Oral THC attenuation of the cue-induced increase in MCQ-Compulsivity ratings was observed in females only. Oral THC produced statistically (but not clinically) significant increases in heart rate and decreases in diastolic blood pressure, independent of cues. These marijuana-cue findings replicate earlier results and further demonstrate that oral THC can attenuate selected effects during marijuana multi-cue exposure, and that some of these effects may be sex-related. Results of this study suggest oral THC may be effective for reducing marijuana cue-elicited (conditioned) effects. Further study is needed to determine whether females may selectively benefit from oral THC for this purpose. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Effects of oral contraceptive agents and sex steroids on carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoff, R K

    1972-01-01

    The article offers a general interpretation of the influence of oral contraceptive agents on glucose tolerance, emphasizing comparisons of synthetic sex hormones. Although there are conflicting reports on steroid-induced diabetes in normal women, their glucose curves are often higher when under oral contraceptive treatment, suggesting that oral contraceptives may induce a form of subclinical diabetes melitus that is reversible. Evidence from diabetic women suggests definite deliterious effects from contraceptive administration. Estradiol, estriol, and estrone may improve glucose tolerance in nondiabetic women and reduce insulin requirements in diabetics. Progesterone has little effect on carbohydrate tolerance, as did synthetic progestin. Conjugated equine estrogens (equilenine or Premarin) may provoke mild to moderate deterioration of carbohydrate tolerance. Parenterally administered natural estrogens and orally administered synthetic derivatives appear to differ sharply in their effects. Sex hormones' effects on carbohydrate metabolism likely involve interactions with insulin and endogenous glucocorticoids.

  1. Effect of Oral Vitamin E on Serum Lipid Profile of Apparently Healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of oral vitamin E on serum lipid profile of Apparently Healthy. Nigerians in Benin City. Methods: Fifty eight apparently healthy non-smoking males aged 30 - 59 years were randomly .... Biochemical analysis.

  2. The effect of fixed orthodontic appliances and fluoride mouthwash on the oral microbiome of adolescents: a randomized controlled clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, J.E.; van der Kaaij, N.C.W.; Buijs, M.J.; Elyassi, Y.; van der Veen, M.H.; Crielaard, W.; ten Cate, J.M.; Zaura, E.

    2015-01-01

    While the aesthetic effect of orthodontic treatment is clear, the knowledge on how it influences the oral microbiota and the consequential effects on oral health are limited. In this randomized controlled clinical trial we investigated the changes introduced in the oral ecosystem, during and after

  3. Effect of Four Approaches to Oral Feeding Progression on Clinical Outcomes in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita H. Pickler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study of preterm infants was to test the effect of four approaches to the time of transition from gavage to full oral feedings, time to discharge, and weight gain during the transition. Methods. A randomized experimental design was used with four intervention groups: early start (32 weeks’ postmenstrual age/slow progressing experience (gradually increasing oral feedings offered per day; early start/maximum experience (oral feedings offered at every feeding opportunity; late start (34 weeks’ postmenstrual age/slow progressing experience; and late start/maximum experience. Results. The analysis included 86 preterm infants. Once oral feedings were initiated, infants in the late start/maximum experience group achieved full oral feeding and were discharged to home significantly sooner than infants in either early start group. Although not significantly different, these infants also achieved these outcomes sooner than infants in the late start/slow progressing experience group. There were no differences in weight gain across groups. Conclusions. Results suggest starting oral feedings later in preterm infants may result in more rapid transition to full oral feedings and discharge although not at early postnatal ages. Provision of a more consistent approach to oral feeding may support infant neurodevelopment and reduce length of hospitalization.

  4. The effects of oral clefts on hospital use throughout the lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wehby George L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral clefts are one of the most common birth defects worldwide. They require multiple healthcare interventions and add significant burden on the health and quality of life of affected individuals. However, not much is known about the long term effects of oral clefts on health and healthcare use of affected individuals. In this study, we evaluate the effects of oral clefts on hospital use throughout the lifespan. Methods We estimate two-part regression models for hospital admission and length of stay for several age groups up to 68 years of age. The study employs unique secondary population-based data from several administrative inpatient, civil registration, demographic and labor market databases for 7,670 individuals born with oral clefts between 1936 and 2002 in Denmark, and 220,113 individuals without oral clefts from a 5% random sample of the total birth population from 1936 to 2002. Results Oral clefts significantly increase hospital use for most ages below 60 years by up to 233% for children ages 0-10 years and 16% for middle age adults. The more severe cleft forms (cleft lip with palate have significantly larger effects on hospitalizations than less severe forms. Conclusions The results suggest that individuals with oral clefts have higher hospitalization risks than the general population throughout most of the lifespan.

  5. Isoniazid overdose: pharmacokinetics and effects of oral charcoal in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefkin, A D; Albertson, T E; Corbett, M G

    1987-11-01

    The pharmacokinetics of isoniazid following overdose in two patients is described. One patient was treated with haemodialysis for seizures and persistent coma without obvious immediate clinical improvement. In addition, three volunteer subjects were given isoniazid orally on two separate occasions. Isoniazid elimination pharmacokinetics were determined with and without concominant charcoal. Oral activated charcoal totally prevented the absorption of isoniazid. Current recommendations for treatment of isoniazid overdoses include intravenous pyridoxine (one gram IV pyridoxine for each gram of ingested isoniazid), intravenous diazepam or phenobarbital for continued seizures, and gastric decontamination with lavage and activated charcoal (1 g/kg). Extraordinary measures such as early haemodialysis and haemoperfusion should be reserved for those patients with persistent coma or refractory seizures.

  6. EFFECT OF TOBACCO ON ORAL - HEALTH AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Mubeen,; Chandrashekhar; Kavitha,; Nagarathna

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Tobacco is the greatest disease-producing product, with its prevalent addictive habit influencing the behavior of human beings for more t han four centuries. Tobacco is consumed orally in a variety of forms such as smoking and chewable forms. Smoking is increasing rapidly throughout the developing world and is one of the b iggest threats to current and future world health. By 2030, if current trends continue, smokin g will kill more than nine million pe...

  7. Classroom Anxiety and Its Effect on Oral English Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许欣; 周开元

    2013-01-01

    Language anxiety is one of the most common elements that influence language learning. Based on a questionnaire in⁃vestigation, university students’trait anxiety and environmental anxiety in English classes will be analyzed and discussed. The two types of anxiety are positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with the students’oral English ability. Results of this analysis will help promote the teachers’understanding of the classroom environment and create a favorable teaching cir⁃cumstance.

  8. EFFECT OF ORAL INSULIN IN BLOOP G1UCOSE CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJ. FARID

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tract can not be used as a route for oral administration of polypeptid hormones because"nof their enzymatic degradation."nDegradation of these macromoleculcs in acidic and alkaline conditions determines the need for using"nprotective delivery systems."nIn this research microcmulsions were used for protection of insulin against proteolytic enzymesof"ngastrointestinal tract. Cholestrol and phospholipids of egg yolk have been used as lipid phase as lipid phase"nand Lecithin as surfactant."nInsulin Regular was used as aqueous phase, being entrapped with lipidic phase in W/O manner. Male"nrabbits with body weight of about 1-1.5 KG were accomplished and oral insulin was force fed to them."nBlood collection has been carried out from heart every 15 minutes after oral administration."nReduction in blood glucose level indicates the well being protection of insulin and absorbtion of it through"nepithelium of small intestine. Increasing of glucose level in placebo demonstrates that endogenous"ninsulin has not been responsible for serum glucose reduction."nThis experiment suggests that microemulsions formed with egg Yolk compounds have the ability to be an"nalternate for parenteral administration of insulin and other chemicals sensitive to enzymatic degradation, in"nhuman.

  9. Effectiveness of oral antibiotics for definitive therapy of Gram-negative bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutob, Leila F; Justo, Julie Ann; Bookstaver, P Brandon; Kohn, Joseph; Albrecht, Helmut; Al-Hasan, Majdi N

    2016-11-01

    There is paucity of data evaluating intravenous-to-oral antibiotic switch options for Gram-negative bloodstream infections (BSIs). This retrospective cohort study examined the effectiveness of oral antibiotics for definitive treatment of Gram-negative BSI. Patients with Gram-negative BSI hospitalised for antibiotics were included in this study. The cohort was stratified into three groups based on bioavailability of oral antibiotics prescribed (high, ≥95%; moderate, 75-94%; and low, antibiotics were prescribed to 106, 179 and 77 patients, respectively, for definitive therapy of Gram-negative BSI. Mean patient age was 63 years, 217 (59.9%) were women and 254 (70.2%) had a urinary source of infection. Treatment failure rates were 2%, 12% and 14% in patients receiving oral antibiotics with high, moderate and low bioavailability, respectively (P = 0.02). Risk of treatment failure in the multivariate Cox model was higher in patients receiving antibiotics with moderate [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 5.9, 95% CI 1.6-38.5; P = 0.005] and low bioavailability (aHR = 7.7, 95% CI 1.9-51.5; P = 0.003) compared with those receiving oral antimicrobial agents with high bioavailability. These data demonstrate the effectiveness of oral antibiotics with high bioavailability for definitive therapy of Gram-negative BSI. Risk of treatment failure increases as bioavailability of the oral regimen declines.

  10. Effect of Zinc-Deficient Diet on Oral Tissues and Periodontal Indices in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Seyedmajidi, Seyed Ali; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Moghadamnia, Aliakbar; Khani, Zohreh; Zahedpasha, Samir; Jenabian, Niloofar; Jorsaraei, Gholamali; Halalkhor, Sohrab; Motallebnejad, Mina

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) as a nutritional factor affects the health of the oral tissues. This study was done for the evaluation of the effects of zinc deficiency on the oral tissues of rats. The study was carried out on 14 male Wistar rats, cessation of lactation on the 24th day after birth. The rats were randomly divided into two groups. Zinc deficient (ZD) diet was used for one group and another group was fed with a zinc-containing (ZC) diet. The alterations of the oral tissues in both groups were evaluat...

  11. Inhibitory effect for proliferation of oral bacteria in dogs by tooth brushing and application of toothpaste

    Science.gov (United States)

    WATANABE, Kazuhiro; KIJIMA, Saku; NONAKA, Chie; MATSUKAWA, Yuki; YAMAZOE, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    To investigate inhibitory effect for oral bacterial proliferation, we divided 12 dogs into 3 groups; scaling alone (C; control group), brushing (B) and application of toothpaste (P). Before scaling (Pre) and at 0 to 8 weeks after scaling (0–8 w), we collected oral bacteria from the dental surface every week and counted them using a bacterial counter. The results demonstrated a significant reduction in the number of oral bacteria for group B relative to Pre and group C, as well as for group P relative to group C at 5–7 w. Consequently, brushing may inhibit an increase in the number of oral bacteria, and toothpaste may be effective at a certain level, although not more than that of brushing. PMID:27062999

  12. Comparison of oral midazolam with a combination of oral midazolam and nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation in the effectiveness of dental sedation for young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Zahrani A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effectiveness of 0.6 mg/kg oral midazolam sedation alone and a combination of 0.6 mg/kg oral midazolam plus nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation sedation, in controlling the behavior of uncooperative children during dental treatment. Study Design: The study had a crossover design where the same patient received two different sedation regimens, that is, oral midazolam 0.6 mg/kg and oral midazolam 0.6 mg/kg with nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation during two dental treatment visits. Materials and Methods: Thirty children (17 males and 13 females were randomly selected for the study, with a mean age of 55.07 (± 9.29 months, ranging from 48 - 72 months. A scoring system suggested by Houpt et al. (1985 was utilized for assessment of the children′s behavior. Results : There was no significant (p > 0.05 difference in the overall behavior assessment between the two sedation regimens, that is, oral midazolam alone and oral midazolam plus nitrous oxide-oxygen. However, the combination of midazolam and nitrous oxide-oxygen showed significantly (p < 0.05 superior results as compared to midazolam alone, in terms of controlling movement and crying during local anesthesia administration and restorative procedures. Conclusion: Compared to oral midazolam alone, a combination of oral midazolam and nitrous oxide inhalation sedation appears to provide more comfort to pediatric dental patients and operators during critical stages of dental treatment.

  13. No effect of oral testosterone treatment on sexual dysfunction in alcoholic cirrhotic men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Wantzin, P; Eriksen, J

    1988-01-01

    The prevalence and course of sexual dysfunction was evaluated in 221 alcoholic cirrhotic men participating in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effect of oral testosterone treatment on liver disease. At entry, 67% (95% confidence limits, 61%-74%) complained of sexual dysfunction....... In conclusion, oral testosterone treatment does not significantly influence the type or course of sexual dysfunction in alcoholic cirrhotic men. However, sexual function improved after reduction of ethanol consumption in these patients....

  14. The Effect of Peer Assessment on Oral Presentation in an EFL Context

    OpenAIRE

    Saedeh Ahangari; Behzad Rassekh-Alqol; Leila Ali Akbari Hamed

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of peer assessment on oral presentation of Iranian English non-major students. To this end, 52 students of Azad and State universities of Tabriz were selected as participants. Their ages ranged from 25 to 38. The peer assessment was incorporated into the experimental group’s course to explore whether and to what extent their oral presentation skills may enhance. Data were obtained through a Likert scale questionnaire of peer assessment. Data...

  15. Effect of oral healthcare education on knowledge, attitude and skills of care home nurses: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lugt-Lustig, Kersti H M E; Vanobbergen, Jacques N O; van der Putten, Gert-Jan; De Visschere, Luc M J; Schols, Jos M G A; de Baat, Cees

    2014-02-01

    To systematically review the literature on the effect of providing oral healthcare education to care home nurses on their oral healthcare knowledge and attitude and their oral hygiene care skills. A literature search was obtained for relevant articles on oral healthcare education of nurses in care homes, using five electronic retrieval systems and databases. The search was limited to human studies, articles published in English and articles published during the period January 1990 to December 2011. The methodological quality of an article was assessed on the basis of criteria published by the Cochrane Collaboration. For articles not meeting all methodological quality criteria, relevance criteria were used to determine how much scientific evidence could be assigned to the study findings. In accordance with the methodological quality criteria, two randomized controlled trials were included. Additionally, four studies were included after determining the scientific evidence of the study findings. The studies included revealed some scientific evidence and indications that an oral healthcare education programme for care home nurses may improve the nurses' oral healthcare knowledge and attitude. Any effect of oral healthcare education to care home nurses' oral hygiene care skills could not be determined. Oral healthcare education may have a positive effect on care home nurses' oral healthcare knowledge and attitude and on care home residents' oral hygiene, whereas any effect on care home nurses' oral hygiene care skills could not be found. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The most effective and essential way of improving the oral health status education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Chachra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. Two major oral diseases, dental caries and periodontal diseases, are both ancient and widespread. The oral health situation analysis demands that the preventive program be implemented in both the developing and developed countries. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of delivering the primary preventive strategies through non dental and dental personnel. Aims and Objectives: To develops the preventive package for improving the oral health status of children utilizing the different communication approaches. To find out the most feasible and effective communication approach for delivering the preventive package. To evaluate the changes produced in terms of various soft and hard core parameters after 6 months of implementation of the oral-health preventive package in the school children of different study groups as compared to control. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on total of 972 children in the age group of 5-16 years who were randomly selected from four schools of Chandigarh and Panchkula to evaluate and compare the prevalence of dental caries and knowledge, attitude, and practice about oral health. Results and Conclusions: The results of various parameters indicate that direct communication through the dentist proved to be the most effective communication approach as compared to the other two indirect communication approaches.

  17. Taste matters - effects of bypassing oral stimulation on hormone and appetite responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetter, Maartje S; Mars, Monica; Viergever, Max A; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2014-10-01

    The interaction between oral and gastric signals is an important part of food intake regulation. Previous studies suggest that bypassing oral stimulation diminishes the suppression of hunger and increases gastric emptying rate. However, the role of appetite hormones, like cholecystokinin-8 and ghrelin, in this process is still unclear. Our objective was to determine the contributions of gastric and oral stimulation to subsequent appetite and hormone responses and their effect on ad libitum intake. Fourteen healthy male subjects (age 24.6±3.8y, BMI 22.3±1.6kg/m(2)) completed a randomized, single-blinded, cross-over experiment with 3 treatment-sessions: 1) Stomach distention: naso-gastric infusion of 500mL/0kJ water, 2) Stomach distention with caloric content: naso-gastric infusion of 500mL/1770kJ chocolate milk, and 3) Stomach distention with caloric content and oral exposure: oral administration of 500mL/1770kJ chocolate milk. Changes in appetite ratings and plasma glucose, insulin, cholecystokinin-8, and active and total ghrelin concentrations were measured at fixed time-points up to 30min after infusion or oral administration. Subsequently, subjects consumed an ad libitum buffet meal. Oral administration reduced appetite ratings more than both naso-gastric infusions (Pdecreased total ghrelin concentrations more than ingestion (all P0.05). Thus, gastric infusion of nutrients induces greater appetite hormone responses than ingestion does. These data provide novel and additional evidence that bypassing oral stimulation not only affects the appetite profile but also increases anorexigenic hormone responses, probably driven in part by faster gastric emptying. This confirms the idea that learned associations between sensory characteristics and associated metabolic consequences serve to adapt hormone responses to nutrient content. These findings underscore the importance of oral stimulation in the regulation of food intake.

  18. Clinical Effectiveness of Aloe Vera in the Management of Oral Mucosal Diseases- A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Gopakumar Ramachandran; Naidu, Giridhar Seetharam; Jain, Supreet; Makkad, Ramanpal Singh; Jha, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Aloe vera is well known for its medicinal properties which lead to its application in treating various diseases. Its use in treating oral lesions has not been much documented in literature. Aim Although, systematic reviews on aloe vera and its extracts have been done earlier, but in relation to oral diseases this is the first systematic review. The aim of the present systematic review was to compile evidence based studies on the effectiveness of Aloe vera in treatment of various oral diseases. Materials and Methods Computerized literature searches were performed to identify all published articles in the subject. The following databases were used: PUBMED [MEDLINE], SCOPUS, COCHRANE DATABASE, EMBASE and SCIENCE DIRECT using specific keywords. The search was limited to articles published in English or with an English Abstract. All articles (or abstracts if available as abstracts) were read in full. Data were extracted in a predefined fashion. Assessment was done using Jadad score. Results Fifteen studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Population of sample study ranged from 20 patients to 110 patients with clinically diagnosed oral mucosal lesions. Out of 15 studies, five were on patients with oral lichen planus, two on patients with oral submucous fibrosis, other studies were carried on patients with burning mouth syndrome, radiation induced mucositis, candida associated denture stomatitis, xerostomic patients and four were on minor recurrent apthous stomatitis. Most studies showed statistically significant result demonstrating the effectiveness of Aloe vera in treatment of oral diseases. Conclusion Although there are promising results but in future, more controlled clinical trials are required to prove the effectiveness of Aloe vera for management of oral diseases. PMID:27656587

  19. The effect of combined bleaching techniques on oral microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz-Montan Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of 10% and 37% carbamide peroxide during dental bleaching in three different modes. Materials and Methods : This five-week double-blind randomized controlled trial included 32 volunteers assigned to four groups (n = 8. Each group received bleaching agents or placebo as an in-office and at-home treatment. The dental bleaching techniques were: In-office bleaching (37% carbamide peroxide: CP37; at-home bleaching (10% carbamide peroxide: CP10 and the association of both (CP37 and CP10. Saliva samples were collected right before (baseline, right after, 12 hours after, and seven days after the treatment. Counts of total microorganisms, Streptococci, and Mutans streptococci were carried out. Friedman test (α = 0.05 was used to compare the microorganism counts. Results : The number of the all oral microorganisms remained stable during all experiment. Conclusions : No bleaching agent (CP37, CP10 or the combination of both was able to reduce the oral microorganisms tested.

  20. The effects of airborne fluorides on oral conditions in Morocco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haikel, Y.; Cahen, P.M.; Turlot, J.C.; Frank, R.M. (Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France))

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of dental caries and dental fluorosis, as well as various other oral conditions, in 2378 subjects (ages seven to 60) living in the fluoridated area of Khouribga and the non-fluoridated area of Beni Mellal, Morocco. The community index of dental fluorosis (CFI) ranged from 1.99 to 2.80 in the high-fluoride area: Over 90% of the population was affected, and more than one-third of the subjects showed moderate dental fluorosis. However, in Beni Mellal, more than 96% of the dentate subjects examined were free of dental fluorosis, and the CFI of 0.02 was considered not significant. Significant differences were observed between the two areas with respect to caries prevalence. DMFT and DMFS indices were markedly lower in the fluorosis area of Khouribga. The oral conditions of subjects appeared to be better in Khouribga, where the gingival and calculus indices were significantly lower than in Beni Mellal. The analyses of covariance showed no significant differences in plaque accumulation (PI) between the Khouribga and Beni Mellal samples. However, a close statistical correlation was found between PI and GI in Beni Mellal and Khouribga.

  1. Effect of metalloporphyrins on red autofluorescence from oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volgenant, Catherine M C; van der Veen, Monique H; de Soet, Johannes J; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the red autofluorescence from bacterial species related to dental caries and periodontitis in the presence of different nutrients in the growth medium. Bacteria were grown anaerobically on tryptic soy agar (TSA) supplemented with nutrients, including magnesium-porphyrins from spinach and iron-porphyrins from heme. The autofluorescence was then assessed at 405 nm excitation. On the TSA without additives, no autofluorescence was observed from any of the species tested. On the TSA containing sheep blood, red autofluorescence was observed only from Parvimonas micra. When the TSA was supplemented with blood, hemin, and vitamin K, red autofluorescence was observed from Actinomyces naeslundii, Bifidobacterium dentium, and Streptococcus mutans. Finally, on the TSA supplemented with spinach extract, red autofluorescence was observed from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, A. naeslundii, Enterococcus faecalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Lactobacillus salivarius, S. mutans, and Veillonella parvula. We conclude that the bacteria related to dental caries and periodontal disease exhibit red autofluorescence. The autofluorescence characteristics of the tested strains depended on the nutrients present, such as metalloporphyrins, suggesting that the metabolic products of the oral biofilm could be responsible for red autofluorescence. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  2. Effects on hemostatic variables of desogestrel- and gestodene-containing oral contraceptives in comparison with levonorgestrel-containing oral contraceptives: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, U H

    1998-09-01

    In some studies third-generation oral contraceptives have been reported to be associated with a higher risk of venous thromboembolism than are second-generation oral contraceptives, whereas recent, more refined studies have not confirmed this. The reasons for the alleged differences are under discussion, and differential effects on hemostasis have been proposed. Eighteen studies comparing second- and third-generation oral contraceptives with respect to their effects on hemostasis were analyzed. Significant changes from baseline were reported for many variables with both second- and third-generation oral contraceptives without significant between-group differences. Also, in a combined analysis of nonsignificant changes, no consistent pattern of change emerged for any marker, with the exception of higher factor VII levels associated with third-generation oral contraceptives. However, factor VII is not related to venous thromboembolism risk. In addition, 1 cross-sectional study with an unvalidated assay reported a higher ratio of activated protein C sensitivity with third-generation oral contraceptives. Only 2 components of the hemostatic system (factor VII and activated protein C sensitivity ratio) emerged as potentially differentially affected by second- and third-generation oral contraceptives; the association with venous thromboembolism risk is questionable in the former case and unknown in the latter.

  3. Effectiveness of professional oral health care intervention on the oral health of residents with dementia in residential aged care facilities: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi Mohammadi, Joanna Jin; Franks, Kay; Hines, Sonia

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this review is to critically appraise and synthesize evidence on the effectiveness of professional oral health care intervention on the oral health of aged care residents with dementia.More specifically the objectives are to identify the efficacy of professional oral health care interventions on general oral health, the presence of plaque and the number of decayed or missing teeth. Dementia poses a significant challenge for health and social policy in Australia. The quality of life of individuals, their families and friends is impacted by dementia. Older people with dementia often have other health comorbidities resulting in the need for a higher level of care. From 2009 to 2010, 53% of permanent residents in Residential Aged Care Facilities (RACFs) had dementia on admission. Older Australians are retaining more of their natural teeth, therefore residents entering RACFs will have more of their natural teeth and require complex dental work than they did in previous generations. Data from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare showed that more than half the residents in RACFs are now partially dentate with an average of 12 teeth each. Furthermore, coronal and root caries are significant problems, especially in older Australians who are cognitively impaired.Residents in aged care facilities frequently have poor oral health and hygiene with moderate to high levels of oral disease and overall dental neglect. This is reinforced by aged care staff who acknowledge that the demands of feeding, toileting and behavioral issues amongst residents often take precedence over oral health care regimens. Current literature shows that there is a general reluctance on the part of aged care staff to prioritize oral care due to limited knowledge as well as existing psychological barriers to working on another person's mouth. Although staff routinely deal with residents' urinary and faecal incontinence, deep psychological barriers exist when working on someone

  4. In Vivo Antineoplastic Effects of the NSAID Sulindac in an Oral Carcinogenesis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoumas, Konstantinos; Nikitakis, Nikolaos; Perrea, Despina; Dontas, Ismene; Sklavounou, Alexandra

    2015-07-01

    The antineoplastic properties of the NSAID sulindac have long been studied. The purpose of this study was to explore sulindac's in vivo effects on oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) oncogenesis using the hamster cheek pouch oral carcinogenesis model (HOCM). Thirty Syrian golden hamsters were divided into three experimental and two control groups (n = 6 each). The animals' right buccal pouches were treated with carcinogen for 9 weeks in one experimental and one control group and for 14 weeks in all other three groups. The animals of two experimental groups received sulindac from the 1st week and those of the third experimental group from the 10th week. After the end of carcinogenesis, treated buccal pouches were removed and examined. In animals treated with carcinogen for 14 weeks, development of oral SCC and tumor volume were significantly lower in animals that received sulindac from the first week of the experiment. Oral SCC developing in animals that received sulindac were more frequently well differentiated compared with the control group. In animals treated with carcinogen for 9 weeks, the animals that received sulindac developed lower grade of epithelial dysplasia. Proliferation index Ki-67 and positivity for the antiapoptotic molecule survivin were lower in the animals that received sulindac. Treatment with sulindac appears to delays the progression of oral premalignant lesions to oral SCC in the HOCM, also resulting in smaller and better differentiated tumors. These in vivo antineoplastic effects may be related to sulindac's ability to decrease cell proliferation and to prevent survivin expression.

  5. Effects of oral administration of titanium dioxide fine-sized particles on plasma glucose in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ning; Hu, Hailong; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Wang, Changlin; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong

    2015-12-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is an authorized additive used as a food colorant, is composed of nano-sized particles (NP) and fine-sized particles (FP). Previous study reported that oral administration of TiO2 NPs triggers an increase in plasma glucose of mice. However, no previous studies have focused on toxic effects of TiO2 FPs on plasma glucose homeostasis following oral administration. In the current study, mice were orally administered TiO2 FPs greater than 100 nm in size (64 mg/kg body weight per day), and effects on plasma glucose levels examined. Our results showed that titanium levels was not changed in mouse blood, livers and pancreases after mice were orally administered TiO2 FPs. Biochemical analyzes showed that plasma glucose and ROS levels were not affected by TiO2 FPs. Histopathological results showed that TiO2 FPs did not induce pathology changes in organs, especially plasma glucose homeostasis regulation organs, such as pancreas and liver. Western blotting showed that oral administration of TiO2 FPs did not induce insulin resistance (IR) in mouse liver. These results showed that, TiO2 FPs cannot be absorbed via oral administration and affect plasma glucose levels in mice.

  6. Effects of computer-assisted oral anticoagulant therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Corell, Pernille; Madsen, Poul

    2012-01-01

    UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND: Computer-assistance and self-monitoring lower the cost and may improve the quality of anticoagulation therapy. The main purpose of this clinical investigation was to use computer-assisted oral anticoagulant therapy to improve the time to reach and the time spent within...... in a computer system by an algorithm specific to each group. The third group received traditional anticoagulation treatment by physicians. The obtained INR values were compared regarding the time to reach, and the time spent within, the therapeutic target range, corresponding to INR values from 2 to 3. RESULTS......: Patients randomized to computer-assisted anticoagulation and the CoaguChek® system reached the therapeutic target range after 8 days compared to 14 days by prescriptions from physicians (p = 0.04). Time spent in the therapeutic target range did not differ between groups. The median INR value measured...

  7. Efectos adversos del tratamiento del cáncer oral Adverse effects of oral cancer treatment

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    F.J. Silvestre-Donat

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se hace una revisión de los efectos adversos más frecuentes por la cirugía de tumores de cabeza y cuello, la radioterapia y la quimioterapia, pues no es infrecuente que el odontólogo general encuentre en su consulta complicaciones como mucositis, xerostomía, necrosis óseas, alteraciones gustativas y otras lesiones que causarán molestias considerables al paciente, disminuyendo su calidad de vida. El papel del odontólogo en el tratamiento multidisciplinario constituye un pilar importante en la prevención, el tratamiento de dichas complicaciones y la disminución de sus secuelas.In this article a revision of most frequent adverse effects of head and neck surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy is maid, because frequently general dentists deal with complications at their practises like mucositis, xerostomia, osteonecrosis, taste alterations and other pathologies which will cause disturbances to the patients, affecting their quality of live. The role of the dentist in the multidisciplinary treatment is an important element in the prevention, treatment of the complications and in the reduction of its consequences.

  8. Effect of an oral stimulation program on sucking skill maturation of preterm infants.

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    Fucile, S; Gisel, E G; Lau, C

    2005-03-01

    This study assessed the effect of an oral stimulation program on the maturation of sucking skills of preterm infants. Thirty-two preterm infants (13 males, 19 females), appropriate size for gestational age (gestational age at birth 28 wks, SD 1.2wks; birthweight 1002g, SD 251g), were randomly placed into experimental and control groups. The experimental group received a daily 15-minute oral stimulation program, consisting of stroking the peri- and intra-oral structures, for 10 days before the start of oral feedings. Sucking measures were monitored with a specially-designed nipple-bottle apparatus. Results indicate that the experimental group achieved full oral feedings 7 days sooner than the control group, and demonstrated greater overall intake (%), rate of milk transfer (mL/min), and amplitude of the expression component of sucking (mmHg). There was no difference in sucking stage maturation, sucking frequency, and amplitude of the suction component of sucking. Endurance, defined as ability to sustain the same sucking stage, sucking burst duration, and suction and expression amplitudes throughout a feeding session, was not significantly different between the two groups. The stimulation program enhanced the expression component of sucking, resulting in better oral feeding performance.

  9. Effect of zinc-deficient diet on oral tissues and periodontal indices in rats.

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    Seyedmajidi, Seyed Ali; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Moghadamnia, Aliakbar; Khani, Zohreh; Zahedpasha, Samir; Jenabian, Niloofar; Jorsaraei, Gholamali; Halalkhor, Sohrab; Motallebnejad, Mina

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) as a nutritional factor affects the health of the oral tissues. This study was done for the evaluation of the effects of zinc deficiency on the oral tissues of rats. The study was carried out on 14 male Wistar rats, cessation of lactation on the 24(th) day after birth. The rats were randomly divided into two groups. Zinc deficient (ZD) diet was used for one group and another group was fed with a zinc-containing (ZC) diet. The alterations of the oral tissues in both groups were evaluated clinically after four weeks. Also the gingival index and periodontal pocket depth were recorded. The measurement of serum zinc level was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The microscopic slides of oral tissue specimen were evaluated quantitatively. The serum zinc level of the ZD rats was lower than the ZC group (pkeratin thickening between two groups. This study indicated that oral and periodontal health was better in ZC rats than in ZD rats. Aphthous lesions were more prominent in ZD rats. This study confirmed that zinc deficiency may endanger oral and periodo ntal structures.

  10. Effects of oral and gastric stimulation on appetite and energy intake.

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    Wijlens, Anne G M; Erkner, Alfrun; Alexander, Erin; Mars, Monica; Smeets, Paul A M; de Graaf, Cees

    2012-11-01

    Appetite is regulated by many factors, including oro-sensory and gastric signals. There are many studies on contributions of and possible interaction between sensory and gastric stimulation, but there are few studies in humans using simultaneous oral and gastric stimulation. We investigated the effect of simultaneous, but independently manipulated, oral and gastric stimulation on appetite ratings and energy intake. We hypothesized that compared with no stimulation, oral and gastric stimulation would equally and additively decrease appetite ratings and energy intake. Healthy men (n = 26, 21 ± 2 years, BMI 22 ± 3 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized crossover trial with four experimental conditions and a control condition. Experimental conditions consisted of oral stimulation, with either 1 or 8 min modified sham feeding (MSF), and gastric stimulation, with either 100 or 800 ml intragastrically infused liquid (isocaloric, 99 kcal, 100 ml/min). The control condition consisted of no oral or gastric stimulation. Outcome measures were energy intake 30 min after the treatment and appetite ratings. Compared with the control condition, energy intake decreased significantly after the 8 min/100 ml (19% lower, P = 0.001) and 8 min/800 ml conditions (15% lower, P = 0.02), but not after the 1 min/100 ml (14% lower, P = 0.06) and 1 min/800 ml conditions (10% lower, P = 0.39). There was no interaction of oral and gastric stimulation on energy intake. Hunger and fullness differed across all conditions (P ≤ 0.01). In conclusion, duration of oral exposure was at least as important in decreasing energy intake as gastric filling volume. Oral and gastric stimulation did not additively decrease energy intake. Longer oro-sensory stimulation, therefore, may be an important contributor to a lower energy intake.

  11. Effect of Dexamethasone on Postoperative Vomiting and Oral Intake after Adenotonsillectomy

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    M.R. Fazel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Complications of adenotonsillectomy such as pain, nausea and vomiting, fever, inadequate oral intake, dehydration and bleeding are common and important. In addition of unpleasant feeling for patient, post operative nausea and vomiting will lead to more prolonged hospitalization and intravenous hydration. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a single dose of dexamethasone (0.5mg/kg administered before surgery could decrease postoperative vomiting and improves oral intake in the first 24-hours after adenotonsillectomy procedures.Materials & Methods: In this double-blinded, placebo controlled study, 100 patients age 5-15 years, with ASA physical status I and II were enrolled and they were randomly allocated to receive either dexamethasone (n=50 0.5 mg/kg IV (maximum dose 8 mg or an equivalent volume of saline (n=50 preoperatively. The anesthetic regimen and surgical procedures were standardized for all patients. The incidence of early and late vomiting, the first time oral intake, oral intake adequacy, and duration of IV hydration were compared in both groups. Results: Data from 100 patients were analyzed. The overall incidence of early as well as late vomiting was significantly less in dexamethasone as compared to control group (P=0.001. The time to first oral intake, oral intake adequacy, and duration of IV hydration showed significant difference in both groups (P=0.01.Conclusion: A single dose of dexamethasone was not associated with adverse effects. Dexamethasone significantly decreased the incidence of postoperative vomiting during the first 24 hour, shortened the time to the first oral intake, oral intake adequacy, and duration of IV hydration.

  12. Preventive effects of a phospholipid polymer coating on PMMA on biofilm formation by oral streptococci

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    Shibata, Yukie; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Tsuru, Kanji; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Fukazawa, Kyoko; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2016-12-01

    The regulation of biofilm formation on dental materials such as denture bases is key to oral health. Recently, a biocompatible phospholipid polymer, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-n-butyl methacrylate) (PMB) coating, was reported to inhibit sucrose-dependent biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans, a cariogenic bacterium, on the surface of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) denture bases. However, S. mutans is a minor component of the oral microbiome and does not play an important role in biofilm formation in the absence of sucrose. Other, more predominant oral streptococci must play an indispensable role in sucrose-independent biofilm formation. In the present study, the effect of PMB coating on PMMA was evaluated using various oral streptococci that are known to be initial colonizers during biofilm formation on tooth surfaces. PMB coating on PMMA drastically reduced sucrose-dependent tight biofilm formation by two cariogenic bacteria (S. mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus), among seven tested oral streptococci, as described previously [N. Takahashi, F. Iwasa, Y. Inoue, H. Morisaki, K. Ishihara, K. Baba, J. Prosthet. Dent. 112 (2014) 194-203]. Streptococci other than S. mutans and S. sobrinus did not exhibit tight biofilm formation even in the presence of sucrose. On the other hand, all seven species of oral streptococci exhibited distinctly reduced glucose-dependent soft biofilm retention on PMB-coated PMMA. We conclude that PMB coating on PMMA surfaces inhibits biofilm attachment by initial colonizer oral streptococci, even in the absence of sucrose, indicating that PMB coating may help maintain clean conditions on PMMA surfaces in the oral cavity.

  13. [Therapeutic effect of rebamipide for oral mucositis associated with FEC therapy for breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enami, Akiko; Masuda, Norikazu; Yamamura, Jun; Mizutani, Makiko; Yasojima, Hiroyuki; Shikata, Ayako; Masaoka, Miyuki; Takada, Seiko; Bamba, Nao; Yamamoto, Mie; Abe, Megumi; Makihara, Katsuya

    2014-11-01

    No guidelines for supportive drug therapy have been established for oral mucositis occurring during cancer chemotherapy. We retrospectively examined the progression of oral mucositis in 91 patients with breast cancer who received the 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC)-100 regimen between September 2007 and August 2008. Daily rebamipide was administered to patients with oral mucositis as per hospital protocol to evaluate the hypothesized preventive and mucosal protective effects of rebamipide(Mucosta®). Oral mucositis was observed in 43 patients (47%)during 4 courses of FEC. The median age of the patients was 55 years(range, 32-76 years). Of the 91 patients, 49 patients who did not receive rebamipide during the 4 FEC courses were classified as group A, 14 patients who received rebamipide before the start of FEC were classified as group B, and 28 patients who received rebamipide after developing oral mucositis were classified as group C. The incidence of oral mucositis at the start of FEC with or without rebamipide administration was observed in 5 patients in group B (36%) and 38 patients in groups A and C (49%) (p=0.3472). The mucositis grade was G1 in 4 patients and G2 in 1 patient in group B, and G1 in 20 patients and G2 plus G3 in 18 patients in groups A and C (p=0.2467). In group C, the grade decreased in 25 patients (89%) and did not occur (G0) in 17 patients (61%) during the next course, and 15 patients (54%) continued to the final course without any occurrence of mucositis. These results suggest that rebamipide is effective for the treatment of oral mucositis. Although significant differences were not observed in the groups, rebamipide has the potential to prevent development of oral mucositis and alleviate its symptoms, and seems promising as a new supportive drug therapy. We hope to verify the preventive and protective effects of rebamipide by conducting a prospective, randomized trial while treating oral mucositis with basic oral care

  14. Efectos de los diferentes colutorios para el tratamiento de la halitosis oral Effect of different mouthrinses on oral halitosis

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    P López Jornet

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: La halitosis intraoral se define como olor desagradable u ofensivo, que procede de la cavidad oral. La conexión entre mal aliento y compuestos volátiles sulfurados (CVS fue establecida por Tonzetich 1977. Los diversos productos utilizados para el tratamiento de la halitosis tienen distintos objetivos: enmascarar, antibacteriano, convertir las formas volátiles de los CVS en no volátiles o la suma de los estos dos últimos. El objetivo es comparar la eficacia de los distintos tratamientos. Material y método: Se realizo un estudio piloto doble ciego, controlado se llevo a cabo en 40 sujetos voluntarios diagnosticados de halitosis intraoral repartidos distribuidos de forma aleatoria en 4 grupos de 10 sujetos, asignándole a cada grupo un tratamiento diferente A (triclosan, fluorurosódico, cloruro de zinc, alcohol B (triclosan, fluorurosódico, cloruro de zinc fue C (lactato de zinc 0,14%, chorhexidina 0,05%, clorururo de cetilpiridino 0,05% y D con medicación placebo. El tratamiento lo realizo 10ml 2 veces día durante 3 semanas. Los resultados se valoraron el nivel de CVS mediante Halimeter® (ppb. Resultados: No encontramos en este estudio diferencias estadísticas significativas (p=0,4932 en la variable CVS medida mediante el halimeter®. Los valores comparativos de p en los 4 tratamientos ninguno fue menor de p0,01. Conclusiones: Este protocolo no ha mostrado la eficacia de ninguno de los 4 tratamientos empleados en la disminución de VSC a corto plazo de la halitosis oral.Objective: The halitosis is defined as disagreeable or offensive odor, that comes from the oral cavity. The relationship between badly breath and volatile sulfur compounds (CVS was established by Tonzetich 1977. The diverse products used for the treatment of the halitosis have different objectives: to mask, antibacterial, to turn the volatile forms of the nonvolatile CVS or the sum of the these two last ones. The objective is to compare the effectiveness of

  15. The effect of low level laser therapy in different wavelengths in the treatment of oral mucositis—proposal for extra-oral implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, J. J. C.; Queiroga, A. S.; de Biase, R. C. C. G.; Leite, E. P.; Cabral Júnior, C. R.; Limeira Júnior, F. A.

    2009-09-01

    The oral mucositis is the most frequent acute oral complication resulting from antineoplastic treatment and may worsen the clinical condition of the patient and interfere with his/her quality of life. This study aimed to comparatively evaluate, from a clinical point of view, the effect of Laser Therapy λ660 nm (wavelength of the red Laser) and λ830 nm (wavelength of the infrared Laser), at extra-oral points, in remission of severity of oral mucositis and pain associated with it in pediatric oncological patients undergoing chemotherapy with the anticancer drug methotrexate, noting which of the two wavelength is the most appropriate to this new technique. The sample consisted of 13 patients placed at random in each group and subjected to sessions of Low Level Laser Therapy, at pre-determined extra-oral points for five consecutive days, starting at the beginning of the observation of mucositis injuries. It became possible to note that from the group of patients in the group of Laser λ830 nm ( n = 6; 46.15%), four ( n = 4; 66.67%) of these patients had remission of injuries to grade 0 (WHO), and as for pain, five patients ( n = 5; 83.33%) showed no painful symptoms for mucositis injuries. In the Laser λ660 nm group ( n = 7; 53.85%), only two patients ( n = 2; 28.57%) achieved a regression of lesions to grade 0 (WHO), while four patients ( n = 4; 57.14%) had no pain. So, the extra-oral application of Laser Therapy was effective in treating injuries of oral mucositis in the patients treated; and Laser Therapy in the infrared spectrum (λ830 nm) was more effective in the treatment of oral mucositis injuries compared to the red spectrum (λ660 nm), which can be explained by the greater power of penetration of infrared rays, acting in a more expressive way in deeper places.

  16. Oral Cyanocobalamin is Effective in the Treatment of Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomollón, Fernando; Gargallo, Carla J; Muñoz, Jose Fernando; Vicente, Raquel; Lue, Alberto; Mir, Alberto; García-Alvarado, Marta; Gracia, Marta; García-López, Santiago

    2017-03-20

    Cobalamin deficiency is common in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Intramuscular cobalamin continues to be the standard therapy for the deficiency and maintenance treatment in these patients, although oral route has been demonstrated to be effective in other pathologies with impaired absorption. Our aims were to evaluate the efficacy of oral therapy in the treatment of cobalamin deficiency and in long-term maintenance in patients with Crohn's disease. We performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study that included 94 patients with Crohn's disease and cobalamin deficiency. Seventy-six patients had B12 deficiency and 94.7% of them normalized their cobalamin levels with oral treatment. The most used dose was 1 mg/day, but there were no significant differences in treatment effectiveness depending on the dose used (≥1 mg/24 h vs. cyanocobalamin provides effective acute and maintenance treatment for vitamin B12 deficiency caused by CD with or without ileum resection.

  17. Metacognitive Strategy Teaching in the ESL Oral Classroom: Ripple Effect on Non-Target Strategy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wendy Y. K.

    2010-01-01

    While strategy instruction research generally focuses on the effect of the teaching on learners' use of the strategies targeted for instruction, the present study examines the "wash over" effect on learners' use of pre-existing, non-target strategies. The study involved a treatment class and a comparison class in the ESL oral classroom in Hong…

  18. Effects of oral nutritional support in hospitalized patients with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira da Silva, Renata; Santos Borges de Araújo, Isis Lucilia; Coelho Cabral, Poliana; Pessoa de Araújo Burgos, Maria Goretti

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La aparición de terapias más eficaces para el tratamiento del Síndromes de la Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (SIDA) redujo la morbi-mortandad y la desnutrición entre los pacientes infectados. Sin embargo, en los casos de desnutrición hospitalaria, son observados reducción de la ingestión alimentaria, mala absorción de nutrientes y alteraciones metabólicas inducidas por fiebre e infecciones. Objetivos: Evaluar el impacto del Suporte Nutricional Oral (SNO) en pacientes hospitalizados portadores de SIDA. Métodos: Se analizaron los siguientes parámetros: peso, índice de masa corporal (IMC), pliegue cutánea tricipital (PCT), circunferencia del brazo (CB), circunferencia muscular del brazo (CMB), albumina, hemoglobina, hematocrito y linfocitos totales séricos. Resultados: Mejora significativa en el peso, IMC, PCT, CB, albumina y linfocitos, tras 19,27 ± 7,45 días de SNO, sin mejora significativa en la CMB, hemoglobina y hematocrito. Conclusión: La intervención dietética con recomendación nutricional y uso de suplementos promovió mejora del estado nutricional de individuos desnutridos con SIDA, pero con aumento del tejido adiposo, sin impacto en la masa magra o anemia.

  19. Effect of oral water soluble vitamin K on PIVKA-II levels in newborns.

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    Sharma, R K; Marwaha, N; Kumar, P; Narang, A

    1995-08-01

    Intramuscular administration of vitamin K for prophylaxis against hemorrhagic disease of the newborn has the disadvantage of increased cost, pain, anxiety to parents and risk of transmission of infection. Oral route is a better alternative. Oral absorption of vitamin K has been shown to be equally good using special oral preparations. However, this preparation is not available in India. A prospective study was carried out on 51 full term, healthy breastfed newborns to evaluate if the injectable water soluble preparation of vitamin K (menadione sodium bisulphite) could be as effective. Fourteen babies received 1 mg vitamin K intramuscularly, 24 received 2 mg vitamin K orally while 13 controls did not receive vitamin K at birth. PIVKA-II levels were measured in cord blood and at 72-78 hours of age in all babies as a marker of vitamin K deficiency. The overall PIVKA-II prevalence in cord blood was 64.7%. At 72-78 hours, PIVKA-II was present in 50% of babies in IM group, 58.3% of babies in oral group and in 76.9% of babies in 'no vitamin K' group (p > 0.05). The PIVKA-II levels decreased or did not change at 72-78 hours in 91.6% of babies in oral group versus 92.8% of babies in IM group (p > 0.05). On the other hand, PIVKA-II levels increased in 30.7% of babies who did not receive vitamin K as against in 7.8% of babies receiving vitamin K in either form (p < 0.05). Hence, vitamin K prophylaxis is required for all newborns at birth and injectable vitamin K (menadione sodium bisulphite) given orally to term healthy babies is effective in preventing vitamin K deficiency state.

  20. Gut Microbiota in a Rat Oral Sensitization Model: Effect of a Cocoa-Enriched Diet

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    Mariona Camps-Bossacoma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence is emerging suggesting a relation between dietary compounds, microbiota, and the susceptibility to allergic diseases, particularly food allergy. Cocoa, a source of antioxidant polyphenols, has shown effects on gut microbiota and the ability to promote tolerance in an oral sensitization model. Taking these facts into consideration, the aim of the present study was to establish the influence of an oral sensitization model, both alone and together with a cocoa-enriched diet, on gut microbiota. Lewis rats were orally sensitized and fed with either a standard or 10% cocoa diet. Faecal microbiota was analysed through metagenomics study. Intestinal IgA concentration was also determined. Oral sensitization produced few changes in intestinal microbiota, but in those rats fed a cocoa diet significant modifications appeared. Decreased bacteria from the Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla and a higher percentage of bacteria belonging to the Tenericutes and Cyanobacteria phyla were observed. In conclusion, a cocoa diet is able to modify the microbiota bacterial pattern in orally sensitized animals. As cocoa inhibits the synthesis of specific antibodies and also intestinal IgA, those changes in microbiota pattern, particularly those of the Proteobacteria phylum, might be partially responsible for the tolerogenic effect of cocoa.

  1. The effect of a commercial probiotic drink on oral microbiota in healthy complete denture wearers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutula, Justyna; Coulthwaite, Lisa; Thomas, Linda; Verran, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Background It is acknowledged that oral and general health status declines with age. The global population of denture wearers is increasing, so is the incidence of denture biofilm-related problems, such as denture-associated stomatitis, aspiration pneumonia and malodour. It has been suggested that consumption of probiotic bacteria may improve oral health. However, the effects of probiotics on the oral microbiota of denture wearers have received little attention. Methods The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of consumption of a commercial probiotic product (Yakult) on microbiota of saliva, tongue and denture biofilm in healthy complete denture wearers. Eight healthy complete denture-wearing National Health Service (NHS) patients undertook a 7-week trial comprising three phases: baseline; 4-week consumption of one bottle of Yakult per day, each containing a minimum 6.5×109 viable cells of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS); 4-week washout period. The microbial viability and composition of saliva, tongue dorsum coating and denture biofilm were assessed using a range of solid selective and indicator media. Questionnaires were used to explore participants’ denture cleaning habits and impact of wearing dentures on their life quality and well-being [modified oral health impact profile (OHIP-14)] prior to and after the study. Results Seven volunteers (1 male, 6 females) completed the trial. LcS temporarily colonised oral cavity and denture surface. There was no significant change in the viability of Streptococcus mutans, acidogenic microorganisms, total anaerobic species and Gram-negative obligate anaerobes between study phases. There was no obvious effect of LcS on occurrence and viability of Candida. Participants presented a good general knowledge of denture hygiene and their responses to OHIP-14 questionnaires improved after completing the study (p=0.16). Conclusion It appeared that 4-week consumption of probiotic drink had no overall effect on

  2. The effect of a commercial probiotic drink on oral microbiota in healthy complete denture wearers

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    Justyna Sutula

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background : It is acknowledged that oral and general health status declines with age. The global population of denture wearers is increasing, so is the incidence of denture biofilm-related problems, such as denture-associated stomatitis, aspiration pneumonia and malodour. It has been suggested that consumption of probiotic bacteria may improve oral health. However, the effects of probiotics on the oral microbiota of denture wearers have received little attention. Methods : The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of consumption of a commercial probiotic product (Yakult on microbiota of saliva, tongue and denture biofilm in healthy complete denture wearers. Eight healthy complete denture-wearing National Health Service (NHS patients undertook a 7-week trial comprising three phases: baseline; 4-week consumption of one bottle of Yakult per day, each containing a minimum 6.5×109 viable cells of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS; 4-week washout period. The microbial viability and composition of saliva, tongue dorsum coating and denture biofilm were assessed using a range of solid selective and indicator media. Questionnaires were used to explore participants’ denture cleaning habits and impact of wearing dentures on their life quality and well-being [modified oral health impact profile (OHIP-14] prior to and after the study. Results : Seven volunteers (1 male, 6 females completed the trial. LcS temporarily colonised oral cavity and denture surface. There was no significant change in the viability of Streptococcus mutans, acidogenic microorganisms, total anaerobic species and Gram-negative obligate anaerobes between study phases. There was no obvious effect of LcS on occurrence and viability of Candida. Participants presented a good general knowledge of denture hygiene and their responses to OHIP-14 questionnaires improved after completing the study (p=0.16. Conclusion : It appeared that 4-week consumption of probiotic drink had

  3. Effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the cardiovascular system after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhangjian; Wang, Yun; Zhuo, Lin; Chen, Shi; Zhao, Lin; Luan, Xianguo; Wang, Haifang; Jia, Guang

    2015-12-03

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have been widely used in various consumer products, especially food and personal care products. Compared to the well-characterized adverse cardiovascular effect of inhaled ambient ultrafine particles, research on the health response to orally administrated TiO2 NPs is still limited. In our study, we performed an in vivo study in Sprague-Dawley rats to understand the cardiovascular effect of TiO2 NPs after oral intake. After daily gastrointestinal administration of TiO2 NPs at 0, 2, 10, 50 mg/kg for 30 and 90 days, heart rate (HR), blood pressure, blood biochemical parameters and histopathology of cardiac tissues was assessed to quantify cardiovascular damage. Mild and temporary reduction of HR and systolic blood pressure as well as an increase of diastolic blood pressure was observed after daily oral administration of TiO2 NPs for 30 days. Injury of cardiac function was observed after daily oral administration of TiO2 NPs for 90 days as reflected in decreased activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH) and creatine kinase (CK). Increased white blood cells count (WBC) and granulocytes (GRN) in blood as well as increased concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the serum indicated inflammatory response initiated by TiO2 NPs exposure. It was hypothesize that cardiac damage and inflammatory response are the possible mechanisms of the adverse cardiovascular effects induced by orally administrated TiO2 NPs. Data from our study suggested that even at low dose of TiO2 NPs can induce adverse cardiovascular effects after 30 days or 90 days of oral exposure, thus warranting concern for the dietary intake of TiO2 NPs for consumers.

  4. In vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Anacardium occidentale and Mangifera indica in oral care

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    Geethashri Anand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health is an integral and important component of general health. Infectious diseases such as caries, periodontal, and gingivitis indicate the onset of imbalance in homeostasis between oral micro biota and host. The present day medicaments used in oral health care have numerous side effects. The uses of herbal plants as an alternative have gained popularity due to side effects of antibiotics and emergence of multidrug resistant strains. Anacardium occidentale (cashew and Mangifera indica (mango have been used as traditional oral health care measures in India since time immemorial. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extracts of cashew and mango leaves were obtained by maceration method. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by clear zone produced by these plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans in agar plate method, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC, and suppression of biofilm. The cytotoxic effects of plants extract was determined by microculture tetrazolium assay on human gingival fibroblast and Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79 cell lines. Results: Cashew and mango leaf extract significantly (P < 0.05 produced larger zone of inhibition against test pathogens when compared to povidone---iodine-based mouth rinses. Although the MIC and MBC/MFC values of mouth rinses were effective in lower concentrations; plant extracts significantly (P < 0.001 suppressed the biofilms of oral pathogens. The leaf extracts were less cytotoxic (P < 0.001 compared to mouth rinses. Conclusions: Plant extracts are superior to the mouth rinses and have a promising role in future oral health care.

  5. Estimating the effect of childhood socioeconomic disadvantage on oral cancer in India using marginal structural models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Rao, Sreevidya; Mejia, Gloria C; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye; Logan, Richard M; Kamath, Veena; Kulkarni, Muralidhar; Mittinty, Murthy N

    2015-07-01

    Early life socioeconomic disadvantage could affect adult health directly or indirectly. To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies of the direct effect of early life socioeconomic conditions on oral cancer occurrence in adult life. We conducted a multicenter, hospital-based, case-control study in India between 2011 and 2012 on 180 histopathologically confirmed incident oral and/or oropharyngeal cancer cases, aged 18 years or more, and 272 controls that included hospital visitors, who were not diagnosed with any cancer in the same hospitals. Life-course data were collected on socioeconomic conditions, risk factors, and parental behavior through interview employing a life grid. The early life socioeconomic conditions measure was determined by occupation of the head of household in childhood. Adult socioeconomic measures included participant's education and current occupation of the head of household. Marginal structural models with stabilized inverse probability weights were used to estimate the controlled direct effects of early life socioeconomic conditions on oral cancer. The total effect model showed that those in the low socioeconomic conditions in the early years of childhood had 60% (risk ratio [RR] = 1.6 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 1.4, 1.9]) increased risk of oral cancer. From the marginal structural models, the estimated risk for developing oral cancer among those in low early life socioeconomic conditions was 50% (RR = 1.5 [95% CI = 1.4, 1.5]), 20% (RR = 1.2 [95% CI = 0.9, 1.7]), and 90% (RR = 1.9 [95% CI = 1.7, 2.2]) greater than those in the high socioeconomic conditions when controlled for smoking, chewing, and alcohol, respectively. When all the three mediators were controlled in a marginal structural model, the RR was 1.3 (95% CI = 1.0, 1.6). Early life low socioeconomic condition had a controlled direct effect on oral cancer when smoking, chewing tobacco, and alcohol were separately adjusted in marginal structural models.

  6. [The effects of an aroma candy on oral Candida albicans colony-forming units (CFU) and oral hygiene states in healthy elderly carrying Candida albicans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Hayama, Kazumi; Takahashi, Miki; Ezawa, Kunio; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Matsukawa, Taiji; Kishi, Akinobu; Satou, Nobuya; Abe, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    In a preceding paper, we showed that aroma candy containing oligonol, capric acid, and cinnamon (cassia) powder had potent inhibitory activity against mycelial growth of Candida albicans in vitro and protective activity against murine oral candidiasis. In order to assess the effects of this candy (the test candy) on oral C. albicans colony-forming units (CFU) and oral hygiene states, a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover comparative study was performed. Twenty subjects were divided into two groups. One group ingested the test candy in the first 7 days followed by 2 weeks washing-off period, then ingested the placebo candy (control candy) for 7 days. The other group was vice versa. C. albicans CFU in all oral rinse samples from the subjects before and after 7 days ingestion of candy was measured. The degree of oral malodor in all subjects was monitored using a portable measuring instrument. The results showed no statistically significant difference between test-candy group and placebo group for C. albicans CFU. However, C. albicans CFU in test-candy group with>4,000 CFUs was significantly decreased after 7 days ingestion of test-candy (poral malodor in the test-candy group was significantly decreased after 7 days ingestion of test-candy (poral hygiene states indicated that in the test-candy group, oral malodor, glutinous feeling, and refreshing feeling significantly improved in comparison with control-candy group (poral health care of elderly carrying C. albicans.

  7. Effects of fufang yimucao oral liquid on acute ache model mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengjie Wang; Mingsan Miao; Yulin Zhang; Jingjing Shi; Yalei Yang; Huili Liu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fufang yimucao oral liquid has markedly effects on ameliorating circulation, restraining uterine constriction induced by oxytocin, alleviating dysmenorrhea, as a traditional medicine on promoting blood circulation by removing blood stasis, yimucao could ameliorate abnormal hemorrheological when hemorrhagic shock happens, enhance the hemoperfusion of organs and actively react on the result of hemorrhagic shock. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the abirritation of fufang yimucao oral liquid on pain model mice induced by hot board method and acetic acid twist body method and dysmenorrhea model mice induced by estradiol. DESIGN: Entirely randomly grouping and control experiment.SETTING: Pharmacological Laboratory, Henan College of Traditional Chinese Medicine. MATERIALS: A total of 200 female Kunming genus mice of grade 2 and weighing 18-21 g were collected. Fufang yimucao oral liquid, mainly consist of yimucao, danggui, chuanxiong, muxiang, and so on, was produced by Henan Joyline&Joysun Pharmaceutical Stock Co., Ltd. (batch number: 050701); yimucao oral liquid was produced by Shangqiu Lvyuan Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (batch number: 050108); estradiol slice by Shanghai Xinyi Kangjie Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (batch number: 050301); YSL-6A intelligence hot plate instrument by Shandong Equipments Station of the Medical Science.METHODS:The experiment was carried out in the Animal Experiment Center of the Henan College of Traditional Chinese Medicine from August to November 2005. The high-, middle- and low-dosage fufang yimucao oral liquid in the experiment was 1, 0.5 and 0.25 in volume fraction, respectively, and yimucao oral liquid was 0.5.①Among 80 mice, 60 mice were eligible in pain threshold tested by hot plate, and randomly dividing into 5 groups with 12 in each group. Mice in the high-, middle- and low-dose fufang yimucao oral liquid groups were perfused with 1 mL, 0.5 mL and 0.25 mL/mL fufang yimucao, and mice in the yimucao group and saline group were

  8. The Effects of Type and Quantity of Input on Iranian EFL Learners’ Oral Language Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hassanzadeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the written texts on foreign language learning, a group of studies has stressed the function of learning context and learning chances for learners’ language input. The present thesis had two main goals: on the one hand, different types of input to which Iranian grade four high school EFL learners’ are exposed were looked at; on the other hand, the possible relationship between types and quantity of input and Iranian EFL learners’ oral proficiency was investigated. It was supposed that EFL learners who have access to more input will show better oral proficiency than those who do not have. Instruments used in the present study for the purpose of data collation included  PET test, researcher- made questionnaire, oral language proficiency test and face- to -face interview. Data were gathered from 50 Iranian female grade four high school foreign language learners who were selected from among 120 students whose score on PET test were +1SD from the mean score. The results of the Spearman rank –order correlation test for the types of input and oral language proficiency scores, showed that the participants’ oral proficiency score significantly correlated with the intended four sources of input including spoken (rho= 0.416, sig=0.003, written (rho= 0.364, sig=0.009, aural (rho= 0.343, sig=0.015 and visual or audio-visual types of input (rho= 0.47, sig=0.00. The findings of Spearman rank –order correlation test for the quantity of input and oral language proficiency scores also showed a significant relationship between quantity of input and oral language proficiency (rho= 0.543, sig= 0.00. The findings showed that EFL learners’ oral proficiency is significantly correlated with efficient and effective input. The findings may also suggest  answers to the question why most Iranian English learners fail to speak English fluently, which might be due to  lack of effective input. This may emphasize the importance of the types and quantity of

  9. Oral Calcium-loading Test in Rickets and in Neonatal Tetany: Effect of Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, David G. D.; Forfar, John O.

    1969-01-01

    In an oral calcium-loading test performed on 10 infants with vitamin-D deficiency rickets and low fasting calcium levels, a comparison of results before and after therapy showed that vitamin D raised the serum calcium level at each stage of the test and altered the response so that a more rapid and substantial rise and fall in serum calcium occurred. The effects of vitamin D therapy on newborn infants with hypocalcaemic hyperphosphataemic tetany in another study suggests that these infants should be treated in this way to make them more responsive to oral calcium therapy. PMID:5792914

  10. Effectiveness of triclosan in the management of radiation-induced oral mucositis: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satheeshkumar P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral care in cancer patients is an important aspect in the quality of life of patients undergoing cancer therpay. Mucositis, trismus, salivary gland dysfunction are the main complications of the cancer therapy, which lead to long-term comlications such as radiation caries, poor oral hygiene and osteoradionecrosis. A timely oral evaluation and intervention in these patients can reduce the severity of the potential complications. Triclosan is an antibacterial agent widely used in periodontal therapy, the effectiveness of triclosan in the management of radiation induced oral mucositis is evaluated here. Aims: 1 To determine the effectiveness of triclosan in the management of radiation-induced oral mucositis. 2 To compare the effectiveness of triclosan mouth rinse with conventional sodium bicarbonate mouth rinse. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four patients who underwent radiation therapy for oral cancer and subsequently developed oral mucositis were included in the study. They were randomly allocated into two groups on noticing grade I mucositis (erythema. The study group was advised to use triclosan mouthwash containing triclosan 0.03% W/V and sodium bicarbonate 2 mg mouth wash for the control group. A weekly follow-up evaluation of body weight, food intake, pain and grading of mucositis were made during the radiation treatment period and post radiation treatment period. Results: Both the groups were statistically identical. All the 24 patients in both the groups passed through grade 3 mucositis on the last day of radiotherapy. However, 10 patients in the control group and only one patient in the study group entered to grade 4 mucositis. A definite change was noticed in the severity of the mucositis, food intake and weight loss. The control group took more than 45 days to resolve while the study group took only less than 28 days. Discussion: The results of the study were evaluated and tried to formulate a hypothesis so as to explain

  11. Side effects of oral antibiotics in small children with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Karin Riisager; Bregnballe, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Frequent antibiotic treatment is common in the care of patients with cystic fibrosis. The aim of the study was to explore digestion related side effects of oral antibiotics in small children with CF. Methods: A questionnaire survey was carried out. All parents of children from 0 to 6...... years followed at the CF centre in Aarhus were invited to participate. Areas of interest were diarrhoea, stomach pain, nausea, small appetite, and oral fungal infection. Results: Parents of 31 children aged 0 to 6 years participated in the study. 71% of the parents reported their child to have diarrhoea...

  12. Effect of acidity of drugs on the prediction of human oral absorption by biopartitioning micellar chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Biopartitioning micellar chromatography(BMC)is a potentially high throughput and low cost alternative for in vitro prediction of drug absorption,which can mimic the drug partitioning process in biological systems.In this paper,a data set of 56 compounds representing acidic,basic,neutral and amphoteric drugs from various structure classes with human oral absorption(HOA)data available were employed to show the effect of acidity of drugs in oral absorption prediction.HOA was reciprocally correlated to the nega...

  13. Is premedication with midazolam more effective by the sublingual than the oral route?

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Shobhana; Gadani, Hina; Kedia, Shravan

    2011-01-01

    Background: In this study, we compared the sedative effects of sublingual midazolam solution with the oral tablet as premedication. Sixty pediatric patients of ASA physical status I and II were randomly selected to receive either 0.5 mg/kg of tablet or 0.5 mg/kg of sublingual solution of midazolam as premedication, about 45 min before elective surgery. Materials and Methods: There were 30 patients in each group. In Group I, the patients received premedication in the form of oral midazolam tab...

  14. Assessing the sedative effect of oral vs submucosal meperidine in pediatric dental patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Toomarian

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: All three regimens were proved safe within the limits of the current study. Meperidine sedation in both routes was considered to be more effective. Although there was less sleep and more head/oral resistance in midazolam group, the difference between groups was not significant.

  15. Adding liraglutide to oral antidiabetic drug therapy: onset of treatment effects over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallwitz, B; Vaag, A; Falahati, A;

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the onset of treatment effects over time observed for liraglutide in combination with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs). METHODS: This analysis included patients from three phase 3, 26-week, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group trials. Prior to randomisation, patients underwent...

  16. Effectiveness of Education Programs About Oral Antibiotic Suspensions in Pediatric Outpatient Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin Hu

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrated that when compared to reading a package insert or education sheet, a pharmacist's verbal education with photographic education materials was significantly more effective and time-saving in providing caregivers with the correct knowledge of oral antibiotic suspensions in pediatrics.

  17. The effect of oral immuno-stimulation in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, H.B.; Ribeiro, A.S.; Bowden, T.J.; Bavel, C.C.A.W. van; Taverne-Thiele, A.J.; Rombout, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a 2-week period of oral immuno-stimulation from the age of 2 or 6 weeks post-fertilisation (wpf; before and after reaching the ability to produce antibodies) onwards was investigated on various immune functions of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The immuno-stimulants Aeromonas salmon

  18. The effect of oral immuno-stimulation in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Ribeiro, A.; Bowden, T.J.; Bavel, van C.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a 2-week period of oral immuno-stimulation from the age of 2 or 6 weeks post-fertilisation (wpf; before and after reaching the ability to produce antibodies) onwards was investigated on various immune functions of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The immuno-stimulants Aeromonas salmon

  19. Effect of leaving chronic oral foci untreated on infectious complications during intensive chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurhuis, J. M.; Span, L. F. R.; Stokman, M. A.; van Winkelhoff, A. J.; Vissink, A.; Spijkervet, F. K. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leukaemic patients receiving intensive chemotherapy and patients undergoing autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) are routinely screened for oral foci of infection to reduce infectious complications that could occur during therapy. In this prospective study we assessed the effect o

  20. Effect of leaving chronic oral foci untreated on infectious complications during intensive chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurhuis, J M; Span, L. F. R.; Stokman, M A; van Winkelhoff, A J; Vissink, A; Spijkervet, F K L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leukaemic patients receiving intensive chemotherapy and patients undergoing autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) are routinely screened for oral foci of infection to reduce infectious complications that could occur during therapy. In this prospective study we assessed the effect o

  1. Risk of venous thrombosis: obesity and its joint effect with oral contraceptive use and prothrombotic mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomp, Elisabeth R.; le Cessie, Saskia; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria

    2007-01-01

    In the Multiple Environmental and Genetic Assessment of risk factors for venous thrombosis (MEGA study), body weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated as risk factors. Additionally, the joint effect of obesity together with oral contraceptive use and prothrombotic mutations on the

  2. Diminished nap effects on memory consolidation are seen under oral contraceptive use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genzel, L.; Baurle, A.; Potyka, A.; Wehrle, R.; Adamczyk, M.; Friess, E.; Steiger, A.; Dresler, M.

    2014-01-01

    Many young females take exogenous hormones as oral contraceptive (OC), a condition rarely controlled for in studies on sleep and memory consolidation even though sex hormones influence consolidation. This study investigated the effects of OCs on sleep-related consolidation of a motor and declarative

  3. The Effects of Familiarization with Oral Expository Text on Listening and Reading Comprehension Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakidoy, Irene-Anna N.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of text type and early familiarization with oral expository text structures on listening and reading comprehension levels. Second-grade students read and listened to narrative and expository texts, and their comprehension was assessed with a sentence verification task. Half of the students had participated in a…

  4. The Effect of Focus on Form and Task Complexity on L2 Learners' Oral Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Second Language learners' oral task performance has been one of interesting and research generating areas of investigations in the field of second language acquisition specially, task-based language teaching and learning. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of focus on form and task complexity on L2 learners' oral…

  5. Effect of bite size and oral processing time of a semisolid food on satiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, N.; Wijk, de R.A.; Mars, M.; Stafleu, A.; Graaf, de C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Food texture plays an important role in food intake regulation. In previous studies we showed a clear effect of viscosity on ad libitum food intake and found indications that eating rate, bite size, and oral processing time (OPT) could play a role. Objective: The objective was to determi

  6. Effect of bite size and oral processing time of a semisolid food on satiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, N.; Wijk, de R.A.; Mars, M.; Stafleu, A.; Graaf, de C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Food texture plays an important role in food intake regulation. In previous studies we showed a clear effect of viscosity on ad libitum food intake and found indications that eating rate, bite size, and oral processing time (OPT) could play a role. Objective: The objective was to

  7. The Effect of Task Repetition on Fluency and Accuracy of EFL Saudi Female Learners' Oral Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashan, Amani K.; Almohaisen, Fahad M.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of task repetition on foreign language output. Twenty eight Saudi female students in the Preparatory Year (PY) at King Saud university, were randomly selected to conduct an oral information-gap task. The participants were asked to perform the task two times with two-week interval between the two performances.…

  8. The Effects of Multimedia Task-Based Language Teaching on EFL Learners' Oral L2 Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    BavaHarji, Madhubala; Gheitanchian, Mehrnaz; Letchumanan, Krishnaveni

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of tasks, with varying levels of complexity, i.e. simple, + complex and ++ complex tasks on EFL learners' oral production in a multimedia task-based language teaching environment. 57 EFL adult learners carried out a total of 12 tasks, in sets of four tasks within three different themes and different levels of…

  9. Effects of allopregnanolone on sedation in men, and in women on oral contraceptives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhoven, F. van; Backstrom, T.; Luijtelaar, G. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Smits, P.; Verkes, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Allopregnanolone is a known GABA(A) receptor agonist not previously given to men, or to women using oral contraceptives (OC). The effects of metabolites of sex hormones on the GABA(A) receptor are different between men and women. OC are known to change GABA(A) receptor subunit composition. These fac

  10. Effect of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin on the stability of cisapride in oral suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutima Boonleang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cisapride (CIS is a gastrointestinal prokinetic agent. It has been associated with rare, but serious cardiac side effects.However, it does not affect psychomotor functions or induce central depressant adverse effects. As liquid formulations arerequired in a number of cases, an oral suspension of CIS was developed from CIS tablets. The objective of this study was toinvestigate the effect of hydroxypropyl--cyclodextrin (HP--CD on the stability of CIS in oral suspension with an ultimateaim to formulate a more stable CIS oral suspension. Six batches of CIS oral suspensions, namely, 0 (control, 0.3, 1.6, and 3%HP--CD containing formulations were prepared. They were stored at 5°C and 30°C. The amounts of CIS in the suspensionswere determined by a validated stability-indicating HPLC-DAD method. The stability was assessed based on the 90%remaining. The changes in the amounts of CIS over time were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and ANCOVA. At 5°C, HP--CD had no significant effect on the stability of CIS. CIS in all four formulations was stable for at least 12.5 months. At 30°C,HP--CD affected the stability of CIS. CIS was most stable in 0.3% HP--CD containing formulation with the observed t90 ofapproximately 11 months as compared to 7 months in control formulation.

  11. Risk of venous thrombosis: obesity and its joint effect with oral contraceptive use and prothrombotic mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomp, Elisabeth R.; Cessie, le Saskia; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Doggen, Carine J.M.

    2007-01-01

    In the Multiple Environmental and Genetic Assessment of risk factors for venous thrombosis (MEGA study), body weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated as risk factors. Additionally, the joint effect of obesity together with oral contraceptive use and prothrombotic mutations on the ris

  12. Effect of oral acyclovir after penetrating keratoplasty for herpetic keratitis: a placebo-controlled multicenter trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, J.G.M. van; Rijneveld, W.J.; Remeijer, L.; Volker-Dieben, H.J.; Eggink, C.A.; Geerards, A.J.; Mulder, P.G.H.; Doornenbal, P.; Beekhuis, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prophylactic effect of oral acyclovir on the recurrence rate of herpetic eye disease after penetrating keratoplasty. DESIGN: A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-eight consecutive patients (68 eyes) with corneal opacities

  13. Effects of the Menstrual Cycle and Oral Contraception on Singers' Pitch Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Filipa M. B.; Sundberg, Johan; Howard, David M.; Sa-Couto, Pedro; Freitas, Adelaide

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Difficulties with intonation and vibrato control during the menstrual cycle have been reported by singers; however, this phenomenon has not yet been systematically investigated. Method: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial assessing effects of the menstrual cycle and use of a combined oral contraceptive pill (OCP) on pitch…

  14. Effects of oral administration of type Ⅱ collagen on adjuvant arthritis in rat sand its mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡永秀; 赵文明; 钱娴娟; 张力平

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of oral administration of type Ⅱ collagen (CⅡ) on a djuvant arthritis (AA) in rats and its mechanisms, and to compare the effects of CⅡ with those of the Chinese traditional medicine Tripterygium Polyglycoside a dministered similarly.Methods Arthritis was induced in rats by immunization using Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA). After feeding rats either soluble CⅡ or Tripterygium Polyglycoside, chan ges in degree of articular swelling and articular histological findings were observed in AA rats. Some correlative immunological indexes were measured, includi ng delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction, anti-collagen and anti-Mycoba cterium tuberculosis (MT) antibody in serum, and levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α i n articular steep in rats.Results Oral administration of CⅡ was able to alleviate both distinctly articular and general symptoms in AA rats, suppress synovium hyperplasia and inflammatory cells infiltration in arthrosis capsule. The effects brought about by CⅡ were stronger than those by Tripterygium Polyglycoside. Oral administration of CⅡ inhibi ted antigen-specific immune response, such as DTH and antibody reaction to CⅡ . In addition, the expression of IFN-γ and TNF-α in joints were locally dow nregulated. Conclusions The therapeutic effect of oral administration of CⅡ is obvious on adjuvant art hritis in rats. Its remedial mechanisms are likely related to the downregulation of both IFN-γ and TNF-α, and the suppression of cell immunity.

  15. Effects of Manipulating Task Complexity on Self-Repairs during L2 Oral Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilabert, Roger

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of manipulating the cognitive complexity of L2 oral tasks on language production. It specifically focuses on self-repairs, which are taken as a measure of accuracy since they denote both attention to form and an attempt at being accurate. By means of a repeated measures design, 42 lower-intermediate students were…

  16. Oral glutamate intake reduces acute and chronic effects of ethanol in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights ... Oral treatment with 2.5 g/kg of glutamate reversed the acute motor effects of .... error of means (SEM). For the acute .... a clinical review.

  17. The effect of oral immuno-stimulation in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Ribeiro, A.; Bowden, T.J.; Bavel, van C.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a 2-week period of oral immuno-stimulation from the age of 2 or 6 weeks post-fertilisation (wpf; before and after reaching the ability to produce antibodies) onwards was investigated on various immune functions of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The immuno-stimulants Aeromonas

  18. Diminished nap effects on memory consolidation are seen under oral contraceptive use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genzel, L.; Baurle, A.; Potyka, A.; Wehrle, R.; Adamczyk, M.; Friess, E.; Steiger, A.; Dresler, M.

    2014-01-01

    Many young females take exogenous hormones as oral contraceptive (OC), a condition rarely controlled for in studies on sleep and memory consolidation even though sex hormones influence consolidation. This study investigated the effects of OCs on sleep-related consolidation of a motor and declarative

  19. Effects of the Menstrual Cycle and Oral Contraception on Singers' Pitch Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Filipa M. B.; Sundberg, Johan; Howard, David M.; Sa-Couto, Pedro; Freitas, Adelaide

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Difficulties with intonation and vibrato control during the menstrual cycle have been reported by singers; however, this phenomenon has not yet been systematically investigated. Method: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial assessing effects of the menstrual cycle and use of a combined oral contraceptive pill (OCP) on pitch…

  20. Inhibitory effects of arabitol on caries-associated microbiologic parameters of oral Streptococci and Lactobacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loman, Abdullah Al; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare arabitol with its better studied isomer xylitol for their inhibitory effects on cell growth and acid production of oral bacteria. Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus sobrinus were used as representatives of oral streptococci and Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus fermentum were used for oral lactobacilli. Growth was followed by measuring the absorbance at 660nm, acid production by pH change. Sensitivity of these oral bacteria to arabitol and xylitol was first compared at 1% (65mM) additive concentration with glucose as sugar substrate. For all bacteria tested, the inhibitory effects of the two polyols were comparable; both were significantly stronger on streptococci (with 20-60% inhibition) than on lactobacilli (with 5-10% inhibition). Effects of arabitol and xylitol were also compared for S. mutans and S. salivarius in media with 1% of different sugar substrates: glucose (55mM), fructose (55mM), galactose (55mM) and sucrose (30mM). Inhibition occurred for all sugars: stronger on glucose and galactose (60-65%) than on fructose and sucrose (40-45%). Inhibition dependency on the arabitol/xylitol concentration from 0.01% (0.65mM) to 2% (130mM) was further determined for S. mutans and S. salivarius. Regardless of the concentration, sugar substrate and bacterial species tested, arabitol showed very similar inhibition effects to its isomer xylitol.

  1. Effects of Once-Daily Oral and Transdermal Methylphenidate on Sleep Behavior of Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Lopez, Frank A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Findling, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Methylphenidate is a leading first-line treatment for ADHD (AD/HD). This stimulant has long been suspected to adversely affect sleeping patterns of treated individuals, especially children. There are few studies on the effects of recently developed longer-acting methylphenidate treatments, such as once-daily oral or transdermal…

  2. Plasma concentrations and clinical effects after single oral doses of prazepam, clorazepate, and diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shader, R I; Pary, R J; Harmatz, J S; Allison, S; Locniskar, A; Greenblatt, D J

    1984-10-01

    In a double-blind parallel-group pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study, 31 healthy volunteers received single oral doses of prazepam (10 mg), clorazepate (7.5 mg), or diazepam (5 mg). Appearance in plasma of diazepam and of desmethyldiazepam was rapid after administration of diazepam and clorazepate, respectively, with peak plasma concentrations reached within an average of 1 hour. After oral prazepam, however, desmethyldiazepam appeared in blood slowly, with the highest mean concentration at 6 hours postdosage. Clinical self-ratings of fatigue and of "feeling spacey" were significantly different among groups, with changes over baseline being more marked with clorazepate and diazepam than with prazepam. Thus, differences in absorption rate of orally administered benzodiazepines can lead to differences in the intensity of single-dose effects, despite administration of doses that are equivalent in terms of long-term anxiolytic efficacy.

  3. The Effect of Peer Assessment on Oral Presentation in an EFL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saedeh Ahangari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of peer assessment on oral presentation of Iranian English non-major students. To this end, 52 students of Azad and State universities of Tabriz were selected as participants. Their ages ranged from 25 to 38. The peer assessment was incorporated into the experimental group’s course to explore whether and to what extent their oral presentation skills may enhance. Data were obtained through a Likert scale questionnaire of peer assessment. Data were analyzed using SPSS Software. The results specified a statistically significant difference among the groups. The findings of the present study also suggest that, when assessment criteria are definitely established, peer assessment empowers students to evaluate the performance of their peers in a manner comparable to those of the teachers. Keywords: Peer assessment, oral presentation, ELT, feedback, EFL

  4. Effects of orally self-administered bath salt constituent 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Brenda M; Russell, Lauren N; Modi, Meet S; Rice, Kenner C; Fantegrossi, William E

    2017-10-01

    Synthetic cathinones in bath salts products are psychostimulant drugs of abuse, and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a common constituent of these products. Oral MDPV has been show to stimulate locomotor activity but reinforcing, locomotor and appetitive stimulus effects of oral MDPV are unknown. Choice procedures evaluated preference for 0.03, 0.10, 0.30, and 1.00mg/mL MDPV solutions versus 0.10mg/mL quinine solution or water. To verify that oral MDPV produced pharmacological effects, locomotor activity was monitored during and after consumption of water, quinine, or MDPV solutions. Conditioned place preference (CPP) tested the apparent appetitive effects of a preferred concentration of oral MDPV with locomotor stimulant effects (0.30mg/mL), using water as a control, and compared with results from intraperitoneally-administered MDPV. Consumption of MDPV solutions (0.03-1.00mg/mL) was low when the alternative fluid was water, but a history of MDPV consumption increased MDPV choice. When paired with a quinine control solution, MDPV solutions (0.03-0.30mg/mL) were almost exclusively preferred, and treatment with the catecholamine synthesis inhibitor αMPT decreased MDPV choice. Consumption of MDPV concentrations (0.1-1.0mg/mL) stimulated locomotor activity. Chronic (10day) access to 0.30mg/mL MDPV resulted in escalated consumption, but locomotor effects did not systematically change across the access period. Finally, consumption of 0.30mg/mL MDPV elicited CPP with a magnitude similar to the preference observed following intraperitoneal administration of MDPV. Consistent with human abuse patterns, oral MDPV has reinforcing effects in the mouse which are most likely related to its psychostimulant-like pharmacological profile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of alcohol consumption status and alcohol concentration on oral pain induced by alcohol-containing mouthwash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathy, Anurag; Ravindra, Shivamurthy; Porwal, Amit; Das, Abhaya C; Kumar, Manoj; Mukhopadhyay, Indranil

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol exposure alters oral mucosa. Patient compliance with mouthwash use may be reduced by oral pain resulting from rinsing with alcohol-containing mouthwash. However, information regarding the effects of alcohol consumption and mouthwash alcohol concentration on oral pain is limited. In this double-blind, randomized, controlled cross-over study, we investigated the effects of alcohol consumption status and mouthwash alcohol concentration on response to and perception of oral pain induced by alcohol-containing mouthwash. Fifty healthy men aged 33 to 56 years were enrolled and classified as drinkers and nondrinkers according to self-reported alcohol consumption. All subjects rinsed with two commercially available mouthwash products (which contained high and low concentrations of alcohol) and a negative control, in randomized order. Time of onset of oral pain, time of cessation of oral pain (after mouthwash expectoration), and pain duration were recorded, and oral pain intensity was recorded on a verbal rating scale. Drinkers had later oral pain onset and lower pain intensity. High-alcohol mouthwash was associated with earlier pain onset and greater pain intensity. In addition, oral pain cessation was later and pain duration was longer in nondrinkers rinsing with high-alcohol mouthwash. In conclusion, alcohol consumption status and mouthwash alcohol concentration were associated with onset and intensity of oral pain.

  6. Effect of Oral Insulin on the Severity and Recovery of Methotrexate-induced Gastrointestinal Mucositis in the Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, Nicoline S S; Rings, Edmond H H M; Havinga, Rick; van der Aa, Stijn A J; Groen, Albert K; Tissing, Wim J E

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Gastrointestinal (GI) mucositis is a severe side effect of chemo- and radiotherapy. Oral insulin has been suggested as possible intestinal growth factor and possible intervention for GI mucositis. We aimed to determine the effect of oral insulin on the severity and recovery of mucositis

  7. The absorption and metabolism of a single L-menthol oral versus skin administration: Effects on thermogenesis and metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Angelica; Carrillo, Andres E; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Vakonaki, Elena; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Kenny, Glen P; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Flouris, Andreas D

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the absorption and metabolism pharmacokinetics of a single L-menthol oral versus skin administration and the effects on human thermogenesis and metabolic rate. Twenty healthy adults were randomly distributed into oral (capsule) and skin (gel) groups and treated with 10 mg kg(-1) L-menthol (ORALMENT; SKINMENT) or control (lactose capsule: ORALCON; water application: SKINCON) in a random order on two different days. Levels of serum L-menthol increased similarly in ORALMENT and SKINMENT (p > 0.05). L-menthol glucuronidation was greater in ORALMENT than SKINMENT (p  0.05). Participants reported no cold, shivering, discomfort, stress or skin irritation. We conclude that a single L-menthol skin administration increased thermogenesis and metabolic rate in humans. These effects are minor following L-menthol oral administration probably due to faster glucuronidation and greater blood menthol glucuronide levels.

  8. Oral ivermectin treatment in two cases of scabies: effective in crusted scabies induced by corticosteroid but ineffective in nail scabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtaki, Noriko; Taniguchi, Hiroko; Ohtomo, Hiroshi

    2003-05-01

    We report two cases of scabies treated with oral ivermectin (200 micro g/kg). Case 1, a 72-year-old man, developed crusted scabies with the use of oral corticosteroids due to a misdiagnosis by an earlier physician. The patient was successfully treated with two doses of oral ivermectin at a 7 day interval with concomitant topical use of crotamiton and keratolytic agents. However, the nail scabies in this patient failed to respond to these treatments. Live mites were detected from all his toenails two weeks after the second dose of ivermectin. A complete cure of the nail scabies was achieved by occlusive dressing of 1% gamma-BHC on all toenails for one month. Case 2, a 52-year-old woman, had been treated with oral corticosteroid for mesangial nephritis. She developed common scabies, but a topical scabicide, crotamiton, was not effective. Two weeks after treatment with a single dose of oral ivermectin, eggs were still detected from a burrow on her trunk. Her treatment was completed after a further two doses of oral ivermectin were administered at 7 day intervals. In both patients, the administration of oral ivermectin did not induce any clinical or laboratory side effects. Oral ivermectin is effective for crusted scabies, but not effective for nail scabies. Two doses of oral ivermectin, administered with a one-week interval, is an appropriate treatment regimen.

  9. Side effects and discontinuation of oral contraceptive use in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowitz, B; Kane, T T; Arruda, J M; Covington, D L; Morris, L

    1986-07-01

    Oral contraceptives have many advantages, but sometimes also have side effects which can cause users to switch appropriately or inappropriately to less effective methods or abandon contraception. In Brazil, 2/3 of married women of childbearing age were using contraception in 1981, and 1/2 of these were using orals. Contraceptive behavior following reported side effects in users of oral contraceptives in Southern Brazil is examined in this study, in relation to diverse factors. Among 2904 currently-married women, aged 15-44, almost 75% reported that they had used the pill at some time, and of these, 45.6% were still doing so. Data on perceived side effects were gathered for all women. There was no independent medical evaluation of the effects, so the data did not necessarily represent actual prevalence of pill related problems. Women who reported problems with the pill were less likely to be current users (25%) than women who did not (65%). However, overall contraceptive prevalence was about the same in both groups (66.2% and 67.0% respectively), indicating that women who stop using oral contraceptives usually switch to another method. However, they are more likely to be using traditional methods than women in the general population, especially if they want more children. Termination of pill use varies little according to the type of problem reported. Women with problems who sought medical attention were more likely to stop using the pill, and 82.4% of women advised to stop by their physician did so, but the major factor affecting discontinuation was the reported experience of a problem. The most frequently reported problems were headaches (38.1%), nausea (34.1%), nervousness (27.9%), and vertigo (18.3%). Physician intervention should help to avoid women's abandoning oral contraceptives unnecessarily.

  10. Inhibitory effects of Leucaena leucocephala on the metastasis and invasion of human oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hsiao-Hang; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Chang, Yu-Chao; Yang, Shun-Fa; Lin, Chia-Chieh; Lin, Chiao-Wen

    2017-02-09

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and metastasis is recognized as a major factor causing its low survival rate. The inhibition of metastasis progress and the improvement of the survival rate for oral cancer are critical research objectives. Leucaena leucocephala from the mimosa branch Leucaena genus is native to Central and South America and has been used as a traditional remedy for treating various disorders. Previous studies have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory as well as anticancer properties of L. leucocephala plant materials. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the anticancer effect induced by L. leucocephala remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of L. leucocephala extract (LLE) on SCC-9 and SAS oral cancer cells and examined the potential inhibitory mechanisms involved. The results indicated that LLE attenuated the migration and invasion abilities of both SCC-9 and SAS cells by reducing the activity and protein expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2). Regarding mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 exhibited a significant inhibitory effect in the presence of LLE. The application of ERK inhibitor and p38 inhibitor confirmed that both signalling transduction pathways were involved in the inhibition of cell metastasis. These data indicate that L. leucocephala could be a potent therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of oral cancer and a prominent plant source for anticancer research in the future.

  11. Effects of Teacher Scaffolding on Students' Oral Reading Fluency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the effects of an English teacher's scaffolding on students' passage reading fluency in Dona Berber Primary School, Ethiopia. ... to examine changes in their reading strategies and fluency as a result of teacher scaffolding.

  12. Effects of task repetition on L2 oral performance

    OpenAIRE

    Finardi, Kyria Rebeca

    2008-01-01

    This study departs from the assumption that speaking an L2 is a complex cognitive ability (FORTKAMP, 2000) whose execution seems to involve tradeoff effects among the different goals of speech production, mainly among fluency, accuracy and complexity (BYGATE, 1998, 1999, 2001b; FOSTER e SKEHAN, 1996; SKEHAN e FOSTER, 1995, 2001; SKEHAN, 1998). Bygate (2001b) studied the effects of task familiarity on L2 speech performance. He found that in repeating a narrative task there were gains in terms ...

  13. Effect of an oxygenating agent on oral bacteria in vitro and on dental plaque composition in healthy young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Mercedes eFernandez y Mostajo; Wil evan der Reijden; Mark eBuijs; Wouter eBeertsen; Fridus evan der Weijden; Wim eCrielaard; Egija eZaura

    2014-01-01

    Oral bacteria live in symbiosis with the host. Therefore, when mouthwashes are indicated, selective inhibition of taxa contributing to disease is preferred instead of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. The potential selectivity of an oxygenating mouthwash, Ardox-X® (AX), has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial potential of AX and the effects of a twice-daily oral rinse on dental plaque composition. Material and methods: In vitro, 16 oral bacterial strains w...

  14. Effects of aging on apoptosis gene expression in oral mucosal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Octavio A; Novak, M John; Kirakodu, Sreenatha; Stromberg, Arnold J; Shen, Shu; Orraca, Luis; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis; Ebersole, Jeffrey L

    2013-03-01

    Apoptotic processes are important for physiologic renewal of an intact epithelial barrier and contribute some antimicrobial resistance for bacteria and viruses, as well as anti-inflammatory effects that benefits the mucosa. The oral cavity presents a model of host-bacterial interactions at mucosal surfaces, in which a panoply of microorganisms colonizes various niches in the oral cavity and creates complex multispecies biofilms that challenge the gingival tissues. This report details gene expression in apoptotic pathways that occur in oral mucosal tissues across the lifespan, using a nonhuman primate model. Macaca mulatta primates from 2 to 23 years of age (n = 23) were used in a cross-sectional study to obtain clinical healthy gingival tissues specimens. Further, mRNA was prepared and evaluated using the Affymetrix Rhesus GeneChip and 88 apoptotic pathway genes were evaluated. The results identified significant positive correlations with age in 12 genes and negative correlations with an additional five genes. The gene effects were predicted to alter apoptosis receptor levels, extrinsic apoptotic pathways through caspases, cytokine effects on apoptotic events, Ca(+2)-induced death signaling, cell cycle checkpoints, and potential effects of survival factors. Both the positively and negatively correlated genes within the apoptotic pathways provided evidence that healthy tissues in aging animals exhibit decreased apoptotic potential compared to younger animals. The results suggested that decreased physiologic apoptotic process in the dynamic septic environment of the oral mucosal tissues could increase the risk of aging tissues to undergo destructive disease processes through dysregulated inflammatory responses to the oral microbial burden.

  15. The effect of right or left handedness on caries experience and oral hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binali Çakur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an indisputable relationship between tooth decay and oral hygiene. Caries can only be prevented by keeping tooth decay at bay. In several prophylactic methods, brushing is the most important. Brushing efficiency is directly related to an individuals′ manual dexterity. Objective: To investigate whether there were differences in oral hygiene and caries prevalence between right- and left-handers. Materials and Methods: Forty-six elementary school students were included in the study. The subjects were 30 males and 16 females, ranging in age from 11 to 13 years. Handedness was ascertained by using the Edinburgh Handedness Scale. All students were examined intraorally. During this examination, the necessary values to determine oral hygiene status and to determine caries prevalence were recorded. Results: It was observed that subjects who used their right hands were in a better position in terms of oral hygiene than those using the left (P < 0.01. In terms of caries prevalence, however, averages for right-handed individuals were lower than those for left-handed subjects, although the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions: It can be stated that the right-handed individuals have better oral hygiene and the lower incidence of caries because of their better manual dexterity and brush efficiency. So, dentists should consider better manual dexterity and brush efficiency in right-handed individuals before treatment planning. However, future well-designed neurologic studies involving larger numbers of subjects will be necessary to confirm the findings of this study and to understand more about the effects of handedness on oral hygiene performance.

  16. Effects of oral exposure to silver nanoparticles on the sperm of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, D; Garcia, T; Blanco, J; Sánchez, D J; Sirvent, J J; Domingo, J L; Gómez, M

    2016-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can induce toxicological effects in rodents. In this study, we investigated whether sub-chronic oral exposure to different doses of polyvinil pyrrolidone (PVP)-coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) (50, 100 and 200mg/kg/day) could induce harmful effects on epididymal sperm rat parameters. Sperm motility, viability and morphology were examined. Moreover, a histological evaluation of testis and epididymis was also performed. High doses of PVP-AgNPs showed higher sperm morphology abnormalities, while a progressive, but not significant effect, was observed in other sperm parameters. The current results suggest that oral sub-chronic exposure to PVP-AgNPs induces slight toxicological effects in sperm rat parameters.

  17. Effectiveness of three different oral hygiene techniques on Viridans streptococci: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tongue cleaning is an important aspect of oral hygiene maintenance along with other mechanical and chemical aids. These methods have an influence on microorganism count in saliva. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of three different oral hygiene techniques on Viridans streptococci. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial with 45 study subjects aged between 14 and 16 years and were randomly allocated into three groups: Group A - plastic tongue scraper, Group B - chlorhexidine mouthwash along with plastic tongue scraper, and Group C - chlorhexidine mouthwash. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected on the 1st, 7th, and 15th day before routine oral hygiene practices. Saliva samples were collected and incubated for 48 h on itis Salivarius(MS agar. Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus salivarius were counted. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The mean count of S. mitis, S. mutans, and S. salivarius for Group A, B, and C was found to be significant (P < 0.001 when compared between 1st, 7th, and 15th day. Between-groups comparisons revealed a significant difference between Groups A and C, B and C (P < 0.001. Conclusion: There was a significant reduction in bacterial count in all the participants indicating that all the three methods are useful in improving oral hygiene. Combination technique was found to be most effective.

  18. A STUDY OF EFFECTS OF ORAL CLONIDINE ON PREMEDICATION AND HAEMODYNAMIC CHANGES DURING LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Rao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Use of Clonidine as a premedicant started incidentally. Clonidine is a potent antihypertensive drug that suppresses RAAS. Clonidine may be beneficial during laparoscopy in patients with hypertension, cardiovascular and/or renal diseases. AIM OF STUDY To determine the effects of Oral Clonidine on premedication and haemodynamic changes during Laparoscopic surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS Study was conducted on 60 adult patients belonging to ASA physical status I & II. They were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 30 each. Group C received oral clonidine 150 mcg 90 minutes before surgery and group P received oral ranitidine 150 mg 90 minutes before surgery. Sedation score was noted on arrival to operation theatre. All vital parameters were recorded at regular intervals intra-operatively. RESULTS Clonidine premedication was able to achieve haemodynamic stability during pneumoperitoneum. CONCLUSION Premedication with 150mcg oral Clonidine has been found to be relatively safe as well as effective method that provides stable haemodynamics and protection against stress response triggered by pneumoperitoneum in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgeries.

  19. Indirect Effects of Oral Tolerance Inhibit Pulmonary Granulomas to Schistosoma mansoni Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Magela Azevedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parenteral injection of tolerated proteins into orally tolerant mice inhibits the initiation of immunological responses to unrelated proteins and blocks severe chronic inflammatory reactions of immunological origin, such as autoimmune reactions. This inhibitory effect which we have called “indirect effects of oral tolerance” is also known as “bystander suppression.” Herein, we show that i.p. injection of OVA + Al(OH3 minutes before i.v. injection of Schistosoma mansoni eggs into OVA tolerant mice blocked the increase of pulmonary granulomas. In addition, the expression of ICAM-1 in lung parenchyma in areas outside the granulomas of OVA-orally tolerant mice was significantly reduced. However, at day 18 after granuloma induction there was no difference in immunofluorescency intensity to CD3, CD4, F4/80, andα-SMA per granuloma area of tolerant and control groups. Reduction of granulomas by reexposure to orally tolerated proteins was not correlated with a shift in Th-1/Th-2 cytokines in serum or lung tissue extract.

  20. To study cost effectiveness of topical permethrin versus oral ivermectin in patients of uncomplicated scabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita B. Chhaiya

    2013-12-01

    Methods: This was an open label randomized comparative study conducted in 210 patients, randomly allocated to two groups. First group received permethrin 5% cream as single application, second group received tablet ivermectin 200mcg/kg as single dose. All the patients received antihistaminic for pruritus. The patients were followed up at intervals of one, two, three and four weeks. If there were no signs of cure, the same intervention was repeated at each follow up. The cost effectiveness was calculated on the basis of total expenditure incurred on therapy. Results: At the end of first week cure rate was 74.8% in permethrin group, 30% in oral ivermectin group. At the end of second week cure rate was 99% in permethrin group, 60% in oral ivermectin group. At the end of third week 100% cure rate was observed in permethrin while 99% in oral ivermectin group. The total cost of treatment shows that cost of tab. ivermectin was less compared to permethrin 5% but the cost to relieve itching and cost of transport was higher than permethrin 5%. Conclusions: Topical permethrin is more cost effective than oral ivermectin in treatment of uncomplicated scabies. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 799-803

  1. Effects of Oral Breathing on the Nutritional Status: Why does it Happen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunha, Daniele Andrade da

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Some children who breathe through the mouth and present nocturnal obstructive apnea can present a delay in the pondero-statural growth. Objective: The objective of this article is to analyze the orofacial myofunctional alterations found in oral breathers and the effects on their nutritional status. It focuses on the importance of the interdisciplinary team following up with the overall oral breathing alterations. Method: The used method was a literature's revision based on articles published in indexed scientific magazines, books and post-graduation works. Most articles were identified on LILACS, MEDLINE, and SCIELO databases. Results: A relation between oral breathing and an alteration in the general feeding process is noticeable and associated with difficulties in smelling, tasting, and orofacial myofunctional disorders, what comes to have an effect on the nutritional status. Final commentaries: The wide range of causes involved in oral breathing requires an interdisciplinary team trained to identify such alterations, enabling preventive measures to be undertaken, in order to avoid alterations in the general health, regular development of the face, as well as in the nutritional status in these individuals' relevant growth stages.

  2. A preliminary study of the effect of probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 on oral malodour parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, J P; Chilcott, C N; Moore, C J; Speiser, G; Tagg, J R

    2006-04-01

    To determine whether dosing with bacteriocin-producing Streptococcus salivarius following an antimicrobial mouthwash effects a change in oral malodour parameters and in the composition of the oral microbiota of subjects with halitosis. Twenty-three subjects with halitosis undertook a 3-day regimen of chlorhexidine (CHX) mouth rinsing, followed at intervals by the use of lozenges containing either S. salivarius K12 or placebo. Assessment of the subjects' volatile sulphur compound (VSC) levels 1 week after treatment initiation showed that 85% of the K12-treated group and 30% of the placebo group had substantial (>100 ppb) reductions. The bacterial composition of the saliva was monitored by culture and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Changes in the PCR-DGGE profiles occurred in most subjects following K12 treatment. In vitro testing showed that S. salivarius K12 suppressed the growth of black-pigmented bacteria in saliva samples and also in various reference strains of bacteria implicated in halitosis. Administration of bacteriocin-producing S. salivarius after an oral antimicrobial mouthwash reduces oral VSC levels. The outcome of this preliminary study indicates that the replacement of bacteria implicated in halitosis by colonization with competitive bacteria such as S. salivarius K12 may provide an effective strategy to reduce the severity of halitosis.

  3. Effects of cranberry juice on pharmacokinetics of beta-lactam antibiotics following oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Andrew, Marilee A; Wang, Joanne; Salinger, David H; Vicini, Paolo; Grady, Richard W; Phillips, Brian; Shen, Danny D; Anderson, Gail D

    2009-07-01

    Cranberry juice consumption is often recommended along with low-dose oral antibiotics for prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). Because multiple membrane transporters are involved in the intestinal absorption and renal excretion of beta-lactam antibiotics, we evaluated the potential risk of pharmacokinetic interactions between cranberry juice and the beta-lactams amoxicillin (amoxicilline) and cefaclor. The amoxicillin-cranberry juice interaction was investigated in 18 healthy women who received on four separate occasions a single oral test dose of amoxicillin at 500 mg and 2 g with or without cranberry juice cocktail (8 oz) according to a crossover design. A parallel cefaclor-cranberry juice interaction study was also conducted in which 500 mg cefaclor was administered with or without cranberry juice cocktail (12 oz). Data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods and nonlinear mixed-effects compartmental modeling. We conclude that the concurrent use of cranberry juice has no significant effect on the extent of oral absorption or the renal clearance of amoxicillin and cefaclor. However, delays in the absorption of amoxicillin and cefaclor were observed. These results suggest that the use of cranberry juice at usual quantities as prophylaxis for UTI is not likely to alter the pharmacokinetics of these two oral antibiotics.

  4. Effects of Cranberry Juice on Pharmacokinetics of β-Lactam Antibiotics following Oral Administration▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Andrew, Marilee A.; Wang, Joanne; Salinger, David H.; Vicini, Paolo; Grady, Richard W.; Phillips, Brian; Shen, Danny D.; Anderson, Gail D.

    2009-01-01

    Cranberry juice consumption is often recommended along with low-dose oral antibiotics for prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). Because multiple membrane transporters are involved in the intestinal absorption and renal excretion of β-lactam antibiotics, we evaluated the potential risk of pharmacokinetic interactions between cranberry juice and the β-lactams amoxicillin (amoxicilline) and cefaclor. The amoxicillin-cranberry juice interaction was investigated in 18 healthy women who received on four separate occasions a single oral test dose of amoxicillin at 500 mg and 2 g with or without cranberry juice cocktail (8 oz) according to a crossover design. A parallel cefaclor-cranberry juice interaction study was also conducted in which 500 mg cefaclor was administered with or without cranberry juice cocktail (12 oz). Data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods and nonlinear mixed-effects compartmental modeling. We conclude that the concurrent use of cranberry juice has no significant effect on the extent of oral absorption or the renal clearance of amoxicillin and cefaclor. However, delays in the absorption of amoxicillin and cefaclor were observed. These results suggest that the use of cranberry juice at usual quantities as prophylaxis for UTI is not likely to alter the pharmacokinetics of these two oral antibiotics. PMID:19398645

  5. Effect of bacteria on the wound healing behavior of oral epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Rupa; Xu, Fanxing; Dong, Guangyu; Li, Shuai; Tian, Chen; Ponugoti, Bhaskar; Graves, Dana T

    2014-01-01

    Wounded tissue offers opportunity to microflora to adhere, colonize, invade and infect surrounding healthy tissue. The bacteria of the oral cavity have the potential to alter the wound healing process by interacting with keratinocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate mechanisms through which oral bacteria may influence re-epithelialization by interacting with gingival keratinocytes. By an in vitro scratch assay we demonstrate that primary gingival keratinocytes have impaired closure when exposed to two well characterized oral bacteria, P. gingivalis, and to a lesser extent, F. nucleatum. P. gingivalis reduced wound closure by ∼ 40%, which was partially dependent on proteolytic activity, and bacteria was still present within infected cells 9 days later despite exposure to bacteria for only 24 h. Both oral bacteria caused keratinocyte apoptosis at the wound site with cell death being greatest at the wound edge. P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum adversely affected cell proliferation and the effect also had a spatial component being most striking at the edge. The impact of the bacteria was long lasting even when exposure was brief. Cell migration was compromised in bacteria challenged keratinocytes with P. gingivalis having more severe effect (pbacteria challenged cells showed that P. gingivalis and to a lesser extent F. nucleatum significantly downregulated cell cycle genes cyclin1, CDK1, and CDK4 (pcell migration such as integrin beta-3 and -6 were significantly downregulated by P. gingivalis (p<0.05).

  6. Effect of Chewing Gum on the Acid-Base and Mineral Balance in the Oral Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitriy Vaido; Elena Raspolina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite chewing gum (CG) is widespread, discussion about its harm and benefits is still in progress. It is unknown whether the CG effect on the teeth depends on the type of sugar substitute. The aim of the present research was to study the effect of chewing gums containing aspartame and sucralose on the acidbase balance and content of mineral components in mixed saliva after carbohydrate-containing food. METHODS The oral fluid, or “mixed” saliva had been ...

  7. Effects of orally administered bovine lactoperoxidase on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kouichirou; Horigome, Ayako; Yamauchi, Koji; Takase, Mitsunori; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2008-07-01

    The effect of lactoperoxidase (LPO) on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis was examined in mice. After 9 d of colitis induction, weight loss, colon shortening, and the histological score were significantly suppressed in mice orally administered LPO (62.5 mg/body/d) as compared to a group administered bovine serum albumin. These results suggest that LPO exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in the gastrointestinal tract.

  8. Effect of oral health education in the form of Braille and oral health talk on oral hygiene knowledge, practices, and status of 12–17 years old visually impaired school girls in Pune city: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhor, K.; Shetty, V.; Garcha, V.; Nimbulkar, G. C.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the effect of oral health education (OHE) in the form of Braille and combination with Oral health talk (OHT) on oral hygiene knowledge, practices, and status of 12–17 years old visually impaired school girls in Pune city. Materials and Methods: A 6-week comparative study was conducted among 74 residential visually impaired school girls aged 12–17 years, who were trained to read Braille. The participants were divided into two groups, namely, Group A (n = 37) receiving OHE only in the form of Braille and Group B (n = 37) receiving OHE in form of Braille and OHT at baseline, 2, and 4-week interval. Oral health knowledge was assessed using a self-administered, pre-validated, pre-tested questionnaire typed in Marathi Braille. Assessment of oral hygiene practices and status was done using standardized proforma and simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S), respectively, at baseline and at the end of 6 weeks. Data was analyzed using paired and unpaired Student's t-test. Results: The results showed a statistically significant increase in oral health knowledge levels in Group B (4.95 ± 1.66) as compared to Group A (2.97 ± 1.28). There was a significant increase in the frequency of mouth-rinsing in Group B (97.3%) as compared to Group A (86.5%) as well as in the tongue cleaning practice in Group B (100%) as compared to Group A (81.1%) at the end of 6 weeks. Conclusion: OHE in the form of Braille and OHT was more effective than OHE using only Braille. PMID:27891313

  9. Hemodynamic effect of iloprost inhalation and oral sildenafil during acute vasoreactivity test in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sompradeekul, Suree; Wattanasiriphakdee, Siriphan

    2015-02-01

    The vasoreactivity test is usually performed to identify pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients who may benefit from long-term calcium channel blocker (CCB). The first and most commonly used agent is intravenous epoprostenol. A few other agents such as intravenous adenosine and inhaled nitric oxide are also used. In Thailand, epoprostenol is not available and the others are costly. Therefore, inhaled iloprost or oral sildenafil may be alternatives to test vasoreactivity. To evaluate the hemodynamic effect and response rate of inhaled iloprost and oral sildenafil during acute vasoreactivity test in PAH patients. In this retrospective descriptive study, the authors recruited patients with idiopathic PAH (IPAH) or PAHassociated with connective tissue disease (PAH-CNT) seen at the Medicine department Siriraj Hospital between January 2005 and December 2011 for whom acute vasoreactivity test was indicated. All patients used 20 microgram of inhaled iloprost via Delphinus® nebulizer for the test. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded before and after iloprost administration. Eight of those patients subsequently had a repeated test using 100 mg of oral sildenafil. Fifteen patients had acute vasoreactivity testing. Eleven patients were IPAH and four were PAH-CNT Using ESC/ERS guidelines criteria for responsiveness to vasoreactivity test, the response rate was 13% (2 out of 15 patients) using inhaled iloprost. Hemodynamic change was seen as early as five minutes after the inhalation and the effect lasted up to 35 minutes. The response rate was 25% (2 out of 8 patients) using oral sildenafil. Hemodynamic change was seen as early as 30 minutes after sildenafil ingestion and lasted up to 480 minutes. Inhaled iloprost can be used for acute vasoreactivity test in Thailand. The hemodynamic parameters should be recorded immediately after iloprost inhalation. Oral sildenafil, however, is not a suitable agent for acute vasoreactivity test due to its extended effect.

  10. Evaluation of Antibacterial Effectiveness of Desensitizers against Oral Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Duran, Ismet; Sengun, Abdulkadir; Hadimli, Hasan Huseyin; Ulker, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Desensitizers contribute to better clinical results by reducing the rate of cervical dentin sensitivity. However, information on their antibacterial effect is limited. This study examined the antibacterial activities of a triclosan containing (Seal & Protect), a benzalconium containing desensitizer (Micro Prime), a fluoride containing prophilaxy paste (Sultan Desensitizer), two fluoride containing varnishes (Cavity Shealth and Ultra EZ), and a dentin bonding primer (All Bond). Meth...

  11. Metabolic effects of oral contraceptives: fact vs. fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Many studies show that low-dose OCs have little adverse effect on carbohydrate metabolism and are safe for healthy women, women with a history of gestational diabetes, and women with insulin-dependent diabetes to use. In fact, large epidemiologic studies indicate that OCs, even the high-dose OCs (=or 50 mcg) for long periods, do not increase the risk of diabetes. There is some evidence indicating that OC use does not heighten the progression of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, or cardiovascular complications among women with insulin-dependent diabetes. There is no significant difference in carbohydrate metabolism among the different OC formulations. One must carefully consider the risk:benefit ratio of OC use in diabetic women since pregnancy has serious consequences for both mother and fetus. Cardiovascular complications in OC users do not originate from atherogenesis. The androgenic properties of the progestin in low-dose OCs and their effect on lipids are inconsequential for later development of coronary atherogenesis. The estrogen in OCs may protect against atherosclerosis, particularly among women at high risk of atherosclerosis. Former OC users are not at an increased risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, or other heart disease. Lipid changes in OC users tend to remain within the normal range and return to pretreatment values during the pill-free week. All OCs suppress gonadotropins and subsequent ovarian androgen production. They partially suppress androgen production by the adrenals as well. This suppression from two fronts outweighs any androgenic action of the progestin alone. Further, androgenic action probably cannot overpower the estrogen effect. The dose of levonorgestrel used in OCs is too low to express androgenic effects. Since OCs suppress androgen production, all OCs tend to improve acne. OCs reduce free testosterone and increase sex hormone binding globulin levels.

  12. The effects of poverty on children's development and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Marcio A

    2012-01-01

    According to the US Census Bureau, the poverty rate for children under 18 years of age increased to 22% in 2010. Poverty leads to adverse health outcomes in children and adolescents such as harmful effects on learning, psychosocial development, physical health, productivity and family life. Because the citizens and residents of a country are its most valuable assets, it is unwise to allow housing instability, food insecurity and hunger to continue to exist at its current levels. Reducing poverty is likely to prevent illnesses, decrease hospitalizations, and lead to lower health care costs. There is also a need for intervention strategies to ensure equitable access to healthy foods across the world. Children who are food insecure are more likely to be in poor health and to have poor nutritional outcomes. Poverty may lead to poor dental health due to malnutrition or incorrect diet and it may also have an effect on the child's behavior in the dental office. An understanding of poverty will lessen the anger, frustration and prejudice that pediatric dentists may feel when working with low-income families. This manuscript presents a concise overview of the effects of poverty in children's lives.

  13. Oral creatine supplementation augments the repeated bout effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veggi K, F T; Machado, Marco; Koch, Alexander J; Santana, Sandro C; Oliveira, Sedison S; Stec, Michael J

    2013-08-01

    We examined the effects of creatine supplementation on the response to repeated bouts of resistance exercise. Young men (24.1 ± 5.2 yr) were divided into Creatine (CM, n = 9) and Placebo (PL, n = 9) groups. On day (D) 1 and D15, subjects performed four sets of bicep curls at 75% 1-RM to concentric failure. On D8-D13, subjects consumed either 20g/d creatine monohydrate or placebo. Muscle soreness and elbow joint range of motion (ROM) were assessed on D1-D5 and D15-D19. Serum creatine kinase activity (CK) was assessed on D1, D3, D5, D15, D17, and D19. The first exercise bout produced increases in muscle soreness and CK, and decreases in ROM in both groups (p Creatine supplementation provides an additive effect on blunting the rise of muscle damage markers following a repeated bout of resistance exercise. The mechanism by which creatine augments the repeated bout effect is unknown but is likely due to a combination of creatine's multifaceted functions.

  14. Antinociceptive effects of Cremophor EL orally administered to mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Tabarelli

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfactants are frequently used to improve solubilization of lipophilic drugs. Cremophor EL (CrEL is a polyoxyethylated castor oil surfactant used to solubilize water-insoluble drugs such as anesthetic, antineoplastic, immunosuppressive and analgesic drugs, vitamins and new synthetic compounds, including potential analgesics. The antinociceptive effect of CrEL (3.2, 6.4 and 10.6 g/kg, in 10 ml/kg body weight, by gavage on the abdominal writhing response induced by intraperitoneal administration of acetic acid (0.8%, 10 ml/kg body weight and on the tail immersion test was investigated in mice. Control animals received castor oil (10 ml/kg body weight or saline (0.9% NaCl, 10 ml/kg body weight. CrEL reduced nociception in a dose-dependent manner in both tests. At 10.6 g/kg, CrEL caused antinociception similar to that induced by dipyrone (300 mg/kg, by gavage in the abdominal writhing test, and antinociception similar to that induced by morphine (20 mg/kg, by gavage in the tail immersion test. The effect of castor oil was similar to that of saline in both assays. These data indicate that the appropriate controls should be used when evaluating the effects of potential antinociceptive agents dissolved in CrEL.

  15. The effects of professional oral health care on patients in the subacute stage of emergent neurosurgical disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Chisato; Hakuta, Chiyoko; Endo, Keiko; Nariai, Tadashi; Ueno, Masayuki; Shinada, Kayoko; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of professional oral health care (POHC) on patients who were in the subacute stage of neurosurgical disorders. Forty subjects (26 male, 14 female) with acute cerebrovascular disorders or neurotrauma were randomly divided into two groups. The intervention group (n = 21) received POHC treatment by dental hygienists, and the control group (n = 19) did not. To evaluate the change in oral health status of the subjects, an oral examination was carried out at baseline and four weeks later. For the subjects in the intervention group, periodontal condition, oral hygiene status, and oral function improved statistically significantly. The detection rate for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was statistically significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group. These results suggest that POHC performed by dental hygienists in collaboration with nurses plays an important role in the promotion not only of oral health but also of general health.

  16. Effect of oral proguanil on human lymphocyte proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Flachs, H

    1986-01-01

    In vitro studies have indicated that the antifolates pyrimethamine [4, 6] and cycloguanil (the active metabolite of proguanil) suppress the proliferation of stimulated human lymphocytes; proguanil has no effect [2]. During the early growth phase of the cells, 14C-thymidine (14C-TdR) incorporation...... on human lymphocytes, the present study was undertaken. Little information is available about the serum levels of proguanil and cycloguanil following ingestion of prophylactic doses [8]. Therefore, the serum concentrations of proguanil and cycloguanil were estimated, to allow comparison with previous...

  17. The Effects of Pre-feeding Oral Stimulations and Non-nutritive Sucking on Physical Growth and Independent Oral Feeding of Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Khalessi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding failures and oral feeding problems in preterm infants result in long-term health complications. In this study, therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of oral stimulation along with non-nutritive sucking (NNS on independent oral feeding initiation and weight gain in preterm infants. Methods: This prospective randomized clinical trial was carried out at Aliasghar Hospital in Tehran, Iran, 2014. A total of 50 26-32 weeks gestational age hospitalized infants, who were fed through tubes, were recruited in the study. The newborns were randomized into A, B and C groups. In the A and B groups, the neonates were stimulated through oral stimulation as well as non-nutritive sucking for 5 or 10 days, while in the group C, no especial intervention was performed. Infants' mean daily weight gain, the number of days until initiation of oral feeding, oral feeding progression, the number of days until reaching full oral feeding and date of discharge were recorded. The obtained data were analyzed and compared in the three groups using SPSS version 16.0. Results: Of all the participants, 25 cases (55.55% were male. Mean gestational age at birth and mean birth weight were 28.64±1.93 weeks and 1337.11±185.07 grams, respectively. In the group A, newborns' weight at reaching four and eight oral feedings per day and their weights at discharge were significantly higher than the other two groups (P=0.016, 0.001 and 0.001, respectively. Mean daily weight gain in the group A was higher (84.2850 g than the other groups (69.5814 vs. 64.2677 g. However, ANOVA results showed that this difference was not significant (P=0.108. Moreover, independent samples t-test indicated that this difference between groups A and C was significant (P=0.049. Conclusion: In clinically stable preterm neonates, oral stimulation and should be implemented to increase their weight; however, further studies are required to address this issue.

  18. The Effects of Preoperative Oral Pregabalin and Perioperative Intravenous Lidocaine Infusion on Postoperative Morphine Requirement in Patients Undergoing Laparatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senniye Ulgen Zengin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the effects of preoperative oral pregabalin and perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion on postoperative morphine requirement, adverse effects, patients’ satisfaction, mobilization, time to first defecation and time to discharge in patients undergoing laparotomy.

  19. Body weight reducing effect of oral boric acid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2011-01-01

    Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (pboric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear.

  20. Effect of Premedication with Oral Clonidine on Hemodynamic Response during Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deganwa, Mangi Lal; Sharma, Rajesh; Khare, Avneesh; Sharma, Divya

    2017-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment available for the acute treatment of depression in patients who do not respond to medications. It is generally used as a second line treatment for many psychological disorders, mainly major depression and schizophrenia where medication is not effective. ECT is often associated with some complications such as hypertension, tachycardia arrhythmia and even myocardial infarction. Various methods have been used for prevention or control of these cardiovascular side effects. The aim of this study was evaluating the effect of oral clonidine (0.3 mg) with control group to know the effect of oral clonidine on hemodynamic response during ECT. This prospective randomized crossover clinical trial was performed on 25 patients aged 20-50 years, weight 50-70 kg with ASA I and II who were candidates for ECT. Prior to ECT, each patient received oral doses of clonidine (0.3 mg) or a placebo 90 minutes before ECT. Baseline Heart rate, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures were noted just before securing the intravenous cannula. The same parameters were noted after induction, immediately after seizure cessation following delivery of the electric shock and at 1 minute interval for 10 minutes. Data was analyzed by ANOVA test (analysis of variance). P heart rate and mean arterial pressure by clonidine (0.3 mg) was evident and statistically significant when compared with control group. Oral clonidine (0.3 mg) decreases the acute hypertensive response after electroconvulsive therapy; however, this antihypertensive effect was achieved by decreasing the blood pressure before the electrical stimulus.

  1. Synergistic Antibacterial Effects of Nanoparticles Encapsulated with Scutellaria baicalensis and Pure Chlorhexidine on Oral Bacterial Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Cham-Fai Leung

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Scutellaria baicalensis (SB is a traditional Chinese medicine for treating infectious and inflammatory diseases. Our recent study shows potent antibacterial effects of nanoparticle-encapsulated chlorhexidine (Nano-CHX. Herein, we explored the synergistic effects of the nanoparticle-encapsulated SB (Nano-SB and Nano-CHX on oral bacterial biofilms. Loading efficiency of Nano-SB was determined by thermogravimetric analysis, and its releasing profile was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatographyusing baicalin (a flavonoid compound of SB as the marker. The mucosal diffusion assay on Nano-SB was undertaken in a porcine model. The antibacterial effects of the mixed nanoparticles (Nano-MIX of Nano-SB and Nano-CHX at 9:1 (w/w ratio were analyzed in both planktonic and biofilm modes of representative oral bacteria. The Nano-MIX was effective on the mono-species biofilms of Streptococcus (S. mutans, S. sobrinus, Fusobacterium (F. nucleatum, and Aggregatibacter (A. actinomycetemcomitans (MIC 50 μg/mL at 24 h, and exhibited an enhanced effect against the multi-species biofilms such as S. mutans, F. nucleatum, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromonas (P. gingivalis (MIC 12.5 μg/mL at 24 h that was supported by the findings of both scanning electron microscopy (SEM and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CLSM. This study shows enhanced synergistic antibacterial effects of the Nano-MIX on common oral bacterial biofilms, which could be potentially developed as a novel antimicrobial agent for clinical oral/periodontal care.

  2. The Effect of Using a Multiple Intelligences-Based Training Programme on Developing English Majors' Oral Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Mahmoud Mohammad Sayed

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of using a Multiple Intelligences-Based Training Programme on developing first-year English majors' oral communication skills. Based on literature review and related studies, a list of 20 oral communication skills was prepared and displayed over a panel of jury members to select…

  3. Effects of Targeted Test Preparation on Scores of Two Tests of Oral English as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of targeted test preparation, or coaching, on oral English as a second language test scores. The tests in question were the Basic English Skills Test Plus (BEST Plus), a scripted oral interview published by the Center for Applied Linguistics, and the Versant English Test (VET), a computer-administered and…

  4. An Analysis of Speech Structure and Perception Processes and Its Effects on Oral English Teaching Centering around Lexical Chunks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Li; NIE Yong-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The paper tries to analyze speech perception in terms of its structure, process, levels and models. Some problems con⁃cerning speech perception have been touched upon. The paper aims at providing some reference for oral English teaching and learning in the light of speech perception. It is intended to arouse readers’reflection upon the effect of speech perception on oral English teaching.

  5. Effectiveness of a motivational-behavioural skills protocol for oral hygiene among patients with hyposalivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jornet, Pia; Fabio, Camacho-Alonso; Consuelo, Rodríguez Agudo; Paz, Andujar Mateos

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a motivational-behavioural skills protocol for plaque control in patients with hyposalivation. In a randomised, evaluator-blinded, controlled trial, 60 subjects with hyposalivation (12 men and 48 women) were randomly assigned to two groups: the control group received basic oral hygiene instruction, while for the study (intervention) group, oral hygiene instruction was based on cognitive behavioural principles and motivational interviewing (MI). Both groups were given oral hygiene instruction once every 15 days, with a total of four sessions over a 2-month period: plaque extension and community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN), frequency and duration of brushing, frequency of interdental cleaning and scores based on scale of 'self-efficacy for brushing of the teeth'. Clinical characteristics were compared between the two groups. Both control and intervention group patients showed significantly lower plaque indices, bleeding indices and an improvement in probe depth after the 2-month study period. Interproximal brushing was significantly more frequent among the intervention group (p = 0.016). In patients with hyposalivation, the application of oral hygiene instruction based on cognitive principles and MI offers benefits for periodontal health. Longer-term studies are needed to confirm these results. © 2013 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Multimodality Imaging of the Effects of a Novel Dentifrice on Oral Biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdaharian, Janet; Dadkhah, Mohammad; Sabokpey, Sara; Biren-Fetz, John; Chung, Na Eun; Wink, Cherie; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Objective Oral biofilm formation and progression on the surface of the tooth can lead to advanced oral disease such as gingivitis. The purpose of this randomized, controlled, double-blinded study was to evaluate the effects of a novel dental gel on oral plaque biofilm using multimodal imaging techniques. Materials and Methods Twenty-five subjects with moderate gingival inflammation (Löe and Silness Gingival Index ≥ 2) and pocket depths <4 were randomly assigned to brush twice daily for 21 days with the test or the control dental gel. In vivo multimodality in situ imaging was performed over a 3-week period using in vivo Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Non-Linear Optical microscopy (NLOM). Plaque levels, gingival inflammation and gingival bleeding were also charted on days 0, 7, 14, and 21 using standard clinical indices. Results After 3 weeks, OCT and NLOM images showed a macroscopic break-up of the plaque layer and smaller, fragmented residual deposits in the test group with no apparent changes in the pellicle. Biofilm was also reduced in the control group, but to a lesser degree with regard to thickness, continuity and surface area. Paralleling these imaging results, clinical indices were significantly improved in both groups (P <0.05) and significantly lower in the test group (P <0.05). Conclusion Both dental gels reduced oral biofilm with the test gel showing greater efficacy (P <0.05) as determined by clinical and imaging parameters. PMID:24916419

  7. Effect of a thiolated polymer on oral paclitaxel absorption and tumor growth in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föger, Florian; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Wannaprasert, Thanakul; Huck, Christian; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas; Werle, Martin

    2008-02-01

    The anticancer agent paclitaxel is currently commercially available only as an infusion due to its low oral bioavailability. An oral formulation would be highly beneficial for patients. Besides the low solubility, the main reason for the limited oral bioavailability of paclitaxel is that it is a substrate of the efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Recently, it has been demonstrated that P-gp can be inhibited by thiolated polymers. In this study, an oral paclitaxel formulation based on thiolated polycarbophil was evaluated in vivo in wild-type rats and in mammary cancer-induced rats. The paclitaxel plasma level after a single administration of paclitaxel was observed for 12 h in healthy rats. Moreover, cancer-induced rats were treated weekly for 5 weeks with the novel formulation. It was demonstrated that (1) co-administration of thiolated polycarbophil significantly improved paclitaxel plasma levels, (2) a more constant pharmacokinetic profile could be achieved and (3) the tumor growth was reduced. These effects can most likely be attributed to P-gp inhibition. According to the achieved results, thiolated polymers are believed to be interesting tools for the delivery of P-gp substrates such as paclitaxel.

  8. Effect of smokeless tobacco products on human oral bacteria growth and viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Jin, Jinshan; Pan, Hongmiao; Feng, Jinhui; Cerniglia, Carl E; Yang, Maocheng; Chen, Huizhong

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the toxicity of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) on oral bacteria, seven smokeless tobacco aqueous extracts (STAEs) from major brands of STPs and three tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs) were used in a growth and viability test against 38 oral bacterial species or subspecies. All seven STAEs showed concentration-dependent effects on the growth and viability of tested oral bacteria under anaerobic culture conditions, although there were strain-to-strain variations. In the presence of 1 mg/ml STAEs, the growth of 4 strains decreased over 0.32-2.14 log10 fold, while 14 strains demonstrated enhanced growth of 0.3-1.76 log10 fold, and the growth of 21 strains was not significantly affected. In the presence of 10 mg/ml STAEs, the growth of 17 strains was inhibited 0.3-2.11 log10 fold, 18 strains showed enhanced growth of 0.3-0.97 log10 fold, and 4 strains were not significantly affected. In the presence of 50 mg/ml STAEs, the growth of 32 strains was inhibited 0.3-2.96 log10 fold, 8 strains showed enhanced growth of 0.3-1.0 log10 fold, and 2 strains were not significantly affected. All seven STAEs could promote the growth of 4 bacterial strains, including Eubacterium nodatum, Peptostreptococcus micros, Streptococcus anginosus, and Streptococcus constellatus. Exposure to STAEs modulated the viability of some bacterial strains, with 21.1-66.5% decrease for 4 strains at 1 mg/ml, 20.3-85.7% decrease for 10 strains at 10 mg/ml, 20.0-93.3% decrease for 27 strains at 50 mg/ml, and no significant effect for 11 strains at up to 50 mg/ml. STAEs from snuffs inhibited more tested bacterial strains than those from snus indicating that the snuffs may be more toxic to the oral bacteria than snus. For TSNAs, cell growth and viability of 34 tested strains were not significantly affected at up to 100 μg/ml; while the growth of P. micros was enhanced 0.31-0.54 log10 fold; the growth of Veillonella parvula was repressed 0.33-0.36 log10 fold; and the cell

  9. Effect of oral niacin on central retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynon, Michael W; Paulus, Yannis M; Rahimy, Ehsan; Alexander, Janet L; Mansour, Sam E

    2017-06-01

    Niacin, a treatment for dyslipidemia, is known to induce vasodilation as a secondary effect. Previous instances of patients with chronic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and cystoid macular edema (CME) have been observed to spontaneously improve when placed on systemic niacin for hypercholesterolemia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of niacin on CRVO and associated ocular complications. A prospective, single-center, non-randomized, interventional case series of niacin for CRVO was conducted. Best-correct visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT), and ocular complications were analyzed in 50 patients over 1 year. Eight patients were controls. The mean initial logMAR BCVA was 0.915, and improved with niacin to 0.745 (P = 0.12), 0.665 (P = 0.02) and 0.658 (P = 0.03) after 3, 6, and 12 months of follow-up, respectively. At baseline, mean CMT was 678.9 μm, and improved to 478.1 μm (P = 0.001), 388.6 μm (P < 0.001), and 317.4 μm (P < 0.001) for the same time points. The control group had a mean initial logMAR BCVA of 1.023, which gradually deteriorated to 1.162 (P = 0.36) after 12 months, and baseline CMT of 700.0 μm at baseline, which gradually improved to 490.9 μm (P = 0.06) after 12 months. Panretinal photocoagulation for neovascularization was required in 5 patients (13.2%) receiving niacin and 3 (37.5%) controls. These data suggest that niacin may be associated with functional and anatomic improvements in eyes with CRVO. Future investigations will help ascertain whether there is a role for niacin as an adjunct therapy to intravitreal injections in the management of CRVO.

  10. Oral findings in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome and oral lichen planus - a preliminary study on the effects of bovine colostrum-containing oral hygiene products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.M.; Torpet, L.A.; Reibel, J.

    2002-01-01

    Primary Sjögren's syndrome, oral lichen planus, bovine colostrum, saliva, xerostomia, oral mucosa......Primary Sjögren's syndrome, oral lichen planus, bovine colostrum, saliva, xerostomia, oral mucosa...

  11. Antimicrobial effect of acidified nitrate and nitrite on six common oral pathogens in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Deng-sheng; LIU Yin; ZHANG Chun-mei; YANG Sheng-hui; WANG Song-lin

    2006-01-01

    Background Salivary nitrate is positively correlated with plasma nitrate and its level is 9 times the plasma level after nitrate loading. Nitrate in saliva is known to be reduced to nitrite by oral bacteria. Nitrate and nitrite levels in saliva are 3-5 times those in serum in physiological conditions respectively in our previous study. The biological functions of high salivary nitrate and nitrite are still not well understood. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of nitrate and nitrite on main oral pathogens under acidic conditions.Methods Six common oral pathogens including Streptococcus mutans NCTC 10449, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4646, Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277, Capnocytophaga gingivalis ATCC 33624, Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 10953, and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 were cultured in liquid medium. Sodium nitrate or sodium nitrite was added to the medium to final concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 10 mmol/L. All of the microorganisms were incubated for 24 to 48 hours. The optical densities (OD) of cell suspensions were determined and the cultures were transferred to solid nutrient broth medium to observe the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration for the six tested pathogens.Results Nitrite at concentrations of 0.5 to 10 mmol/L had an inhibitory effect on all tested organisms at low pH values. The antimicrobial effect of nitrite increased with the acidity of the medium. Streptococcus mutans NCTC 10449 was highly sensitive to nitrite at low pH values. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4646 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 were relatively resistant to acidified nitrite. Nitrate at the given concentrations and under acidic conditions had no inhibitory effect on the growth of any of the tested pathogens.Conclusion Nitrite, at a concentration equal to that in human saliva, is both cytocidal and cytostatic to six principal oral pathogens in vitro, whereas nitrate at a similar

  12. The Effectiveness of Oral Health Education Program with and without Involving Self-Maintainable Oral Hygiene Skills among the Visually Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RVS. Krishna Kumar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vision is the most important sense for interpreting the world around us and when sightis impaired especially in childhood it can have detrimental effects on physical, neurological, cognitiveand emotional development and remains the remainder of an individual’s life time.Aim: Evaluating the effectiveness of a Dental Health Education program with and without involvingSelf Maintainable Oral hygiene skills among the institutionalized visually impaired children inChittoor and Nellore Districts of Andhra Pradesh, India.Material & Methods: A single blind, controlled, repeated measure trial to study the effects of healtheducation program involving with and without self-maintainable oral hygiene skills among visuallyimpaired children of two different visually impaired institutes was designed. Statistical analysis wasperformed using the SPSS version 19.0 software package.Results: Comparison of mean PCR scores at first evaluation to that of base line indicated that therewas an overall mean reduction to about 26 % .After second evaluation the mean reduction of PCRamong cases and controls was 68.84% and 21 % respectively .After third evaluation the values werecompared between cases and controls and among themselves to find the final effectiveness of theconducted study. Results showed that health education is beneficial in improving oral hygiene of thevisually impaired children and are able to perform self-maintainable skills taught to them with relativeease.Conclusion: Health education is beneficial in improving oral hygiene of the visually impairedchildren. Health education combined with self-maintainable skill training provides the maximumbenefits in terms of improvement in oral hygiene as is evident from this study. Self-maintainable oralhygiene skill training is definitely achievable amongst the visually impaired subjects. The visuallyimpaired subjects are able to perform self-maintainable skills taught to them with relative ease.

  13. Inactivating effects of the lactoperoxidase system on bacterial lyases involved in oral malodour production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Manabu; Shin, Kouichirou; Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki; Hironaka, Shouji

    2015-10-01

    The main components of oral malodour have been identified as volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), including hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and methyl mercaptan (CH(3)SH). The lactoperoxidase (LPO) system (consisting of LPO, glucose oxidase, glucose and thiocyanate) was previously shown to exhibit antimicrobial activities against some oral bacteria in vitro and suppressive effects on VSCs in mouth air in a clinical trial. Here, we examined the in vitro effects of the LPO system on the activities of the bacterial lyases involved in the production of VSCs by oral anaerobes. The exposure of crude bacterial extracts of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis or purified methionine γ-lyase to the LPO system resulted in the inactivation of their lyase activities through l-cysteine and l-methionine, which was linked to the production of H(2)S and CH(3)SH, respectively. The exposure of living F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis cells to the LPO system resulted in the suppression of cell numbers and lyase activities. The inactivation of the crude bacterial extracts of F. nucleatum and purified methionine γ-lyase by the LPO system was partly recovered by the addition of DTT. Therefore, the LPO system may inactivate bacterial lyases including methionine γ-lyase by reacting with the free cysteine residues of lyases. These results suggested that the LPO system suppresses the production of VSCs not only through its antimicrobial effects, but also by its inactivating effects on the bacterial lyases of F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis.

  14. Oral pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2008-05-01

    Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth.

  15. The Effect of Fixed Orthodontic Appliances and Fluoride Mouthwash on the Oral Microbiome of Adolescents - A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Koopman

    Full Text Available While the aesthetic effect of orthodontic treatment is clear, the knowledge on how it influences the oral microbiota and the consequential effects on oral health are limited. In this randomized controlled clinical trial we investigated the changes introduced in the oral ecosystem, during and after orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances in combination with or without a fluoride mouthwash, of 10-16.8 year old individuals (N = 91. We followed several clinical parameters in time, in combination with microbiome changes using next-generation sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. During the course of our study, the oral microbial community displayed remarkable resilience towards the disturbances it was presented with. The effects of the fluoride mouthwash on the microbial composition were trivial. More pronounced microbial changes were related to gingival health status, orthodontic treatment and time. Periodontal pathogens (e.g. Selenomonas and Porphyromonas were highest in abundance during the orthodontic treatment, while the health associated Streptococcus, Rothia and Haemophilus gained abundance towards the end and after the orthodontic treatment. Only minor compositional changes remained in the oral microbiome after the end of treatment. We conclude that, provided proper oral hygiene is maintained, changes in the oral microbiome composition resulting from orthodontic treatment are minimal and do not negatively affect oral health.

  16. THE EFFECT OF TASK REPETITION AND NOTICING ON EFL LEARNERS’ ORAL OUTPUT

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    Sasan Baleghizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Teaching grammar is still a topic of heated debate in second/foreign language teaching. One major approach to teaching grammar holds that the learners should receive reactive focus on form in the context of communicative language teaching. The present study is an attempt to examine the effect of task repetition along with reactive focus on form on learners’ subsequent accurate output. To achieve this end, four Iranian intermediate EFL students participated in this study by volunteering to present lectures while their voices were being recorded. After transcribing their voices at home, the participants corrected their mistakes and submitted the draft to their teacher for additional corrections. The revised draft was returned to the participants to prepare themselves for a second oral presentation. The comparison of the number of erroneous utterances made in the first and the second presentations confirmed the positive effect of task repetition on the participants’ more accurate second oral performance.

  17. Protective effects of orally applied fullerenol nano particles in rats after a single dose of doxorubicin

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    Ičević Ivana Đ.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxylated, water soluble, fullerenol C60(OH24 nano particles (FNP in vitro and in vivo models, showed an expressive biological activity. The goal of this work was to investigate the potential protective effects of orally applied FNP on rats after a single dose of doxorubicin (DOX (8 mg/kg (i.p. 6 h after the last application of FNP. After the last drug administration, the rats were sacrificed, and the blood and tissues were taken for the analysis. Biochemical and pathological results obtained in this study indicate that fullerenol (FNP, in H2O:DMSO (80:20, w/w solution given orally in final doses of 10, 14.4, and 21.2 mg/kg three days successively, has the protective (hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effect against doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity via its antioxidant properties.

  18. Effect of Preventive Oral Hygiene Measures on the Development of New Carious lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Malka; Bidoosi, Mervat; Levin, Liran

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of preventive oral hygiene measures on the development of new carious lesions. Children regularly and irregularly attending recall appointments in a paediatric dental clinic were interviewed regarding their preventive measures performance. Newly developed carious lesions were also recorded. The files of 651 children were analysed. A significant negative correlation was found between newly developed carious lesions and total number (P carious lesions: brushing regularly twice a day, concentration of fluoride in the toothpaste greater than 1100 ppm and frequency of follow-ups. Regular toothbrushing twice a day is of high importance for caries prevention. Fluoride concentration of > 1100 ppm in toothpaste should be recommended for children (considering the child's age) in order to maximise the fluoride protective effect. The importance of attending periodic recall appointments in order to maintain long term oral health should be emphasised.

  19. No significant effects of single intravenous, single oral and subchronic oral administration of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors on striatal [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT binding in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knol, R.J.J.; Booij, J. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Graduate School of Neurosciences, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bruin, K. de; Eck-Smit, B.L.F. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-03-15

    [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT is a valuable diagnostic tool to discriminate Lewy body dementia from Alzheimer's dementia. To date, however, it is uncertain whether the frequently used acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) by demented patients, have an effect on [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT binding to dopamine transporters (DATs). Earlier animal studies showed a decline of DAT availability after acute intravenous injection of AChEIs. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of single intravenous, single oral and subchronic oral administration of AChEIs on DAT availability in the rat brain as measured by [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT. Biodistribution studies were performed in Wistar rats (n = 5-16 per group). Before [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT injection, rats were injected intravenously with a single dose of the AChEI rivastigmine (2.5 mg/kg body weight) or donepezil (0.5 mg/kg), the DAT-blocker methylphenidate (10 mg/kg) or saline. A second group was orally treated with a single dose of rivastigmine or donepezil (2.5 mg/kg), methylphenidate (10 mg/kg) or saline before injection of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT. Studies were also performed in rats that were orally treated during 14 consecutive days with either rivastigmine (1 mg/kg daily), donepezil (1.5 mg/kg daily), methylphenidate (2.5 mg/kg) or saline. Brain parts were assayed in a gamma counter, and specific striatum/cerebellum ratios were calculated for the [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT binding to DATs. No significant effects of either single intravenous, single oral or subchronic oral administration of AChEIs on striatal FP-CIT binding could be detected. Single pretreatment with methylphenidate resulted in an expected significantly lower striatal FP-CIT binding. We conclude that in rats, single intravenous and single or subchronic oral administration of the tested AChEIs does not lead to an important alteration of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT binding to striatal DATs. Therefore, it is unlikely that these drugs will induce large effects on the interpretation of

  20. Effects of Administration of Fostamatinib on Blood Concentrations of an Oral Contraceptive in Healthy Female Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    Scientific Terminology Rheumatoid Arthritis, Healthy Female Volunteers, Pharmacokinetics, Oral Contraceptive, Drug-drug Interaction; Laymen Terminology Level of Oral Contraceptive in Blood, Oral Contraceptive, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Drug -Drug Interaction

  1. Soluplus micelles for improving the oral bioavailability of scopoletin and their hypouricemic effect in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ying-chun; Li, Sha; Liu, Chang; Gong, Tao; Sun, Xun; Fu, Yao; Zhang, Zhi-rong

    2017-01-01

    Scopoletin is an active coumarin possessing a variety of pharmacological activities, including anti-hyperuricemic effect, but with poor solubility. To improve its oral bioavailability, we attempted to encapsulate scopoletin into Soluplus micelles (Soluplus-based scopoletin micelles, Sco-Ms) and evaluated the hypouricemic action of Sco-Ms. Sco-Ms were prepared using a thin-film hydration method. Sco-Ms displayed near spherical shapes with an average size of 59.4±2.4 nm (PDI=0.08±0.02). The encapsulation efficiency of scopoletin was 87.3%±1.5% with a loading capacity of 5.5%±0.1%. Sco-Ms were further characterized using transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared techniques and scanning electron microscopy. After oral administration in rats, Sco-Ms exhibited significantly improved absorption in each intestinal segment compared to free scopoletin, with the duodenum and jejunum being the main absorption regions. In rats administered Sco-Ms (at an equivalent dose of free scopoletin of 100 mg/kg, po), the AUC0–∞ and Cmax of Sco-Ms were 4.38- and 8.43-fold, respectively, as large as those obtained following administration of free scopoletin. After oral administration in rats, Sco-Ms did not alter the tissue distributions of scopoletin, but significantly increased the scopoletin levels in the liver. In potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice, oral administration of Sco-Ms (at an equivalent dose of free scopoletin of 300 mg/kg) reduced the serum uric acid concentration to the normal level. The results suggest that Soluplus-based micelle system greatly improves the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs, such as scopoletin, and represents a promising strategy for their oral delivery. PMID:28112183

  2. Comparative Effects of Injectable and Oral Hormonal Contraceptives on Lipid Profile

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    Adebayor Adegoke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and AimsThe continual use of hormonal contraceptives among women within reproductive age has been on the increase. The effects of these contraceptives on lipid metabolism vary depending on the type of hormonal contraceptive. This study was carried out among Nigerian women, to compare theeffects of injectable hormonal contraceptives to that of combined oral contraceptives on lipid profile (triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low density lipo-protein-cholesterol.MethodsThe lipid profile of a total of 83 women (50 of whom were non-users of contraceptives while the remaining 33 used different hormonal contraceptives; 26 of them used the injectable hormonalcontraceptives while 7 used oral contraceptives were estimated using enzymatic methods except low density lipoprotein- cholesterol (LDL-C which was by calculation.ResultsThere was a significant change (p 0.05 in total cholesterol (TC and high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C levels in women on oral contraceptives, while in injectable hormonal contraceptive users, there was significant change (p < 0.05 in HDL-C and LDL-C, and no significant change in TG and TC levels. The Castelli risk index I and II (TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C were more reduced in women using injectable contraceptives (1.65 and 0.45, respectively than in oral contraceptive users (1.80 and 0.56,respectively.ConclusionThe result indicated that the use of injectable hormonal contraceptives is more beneficial than combined oral contraceptives among these women.

  3. Oral effectiveness of PMIC4, a novel hydroxyethylpiperazine analogue, in Leishmania amazonensis

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    Mariela Ferreira de Vasconcelos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pentavalent antimonials have saved the lives of thousands of Leishmania-infected patients more than seventy years but, unfortunately, they are highly toxic and require parenteral delivery. Therefore, the search for safer and orally delivered alternative is a need. This paper describes the antileishmanial properties of PMIC4, a novel hydroxyethylpiperazine analogue. PMIC4 showed potent activity against intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis, with IC50 of 1.8 μM and selectivity index higher than 100-fold, calculated in relation to the toxicity on the host cell. Following laboratory animal welfare policies, we analyzed the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET properties and calculated the Lipinski’s rule of five of PMIC4 before proceeding to in vivo tests. PMIC4 satisfied Lipinski’s rule of five and presented high probability of human intestinal absorption, suggesting a good chance of druglikeness and oral bioavailability. For in vivo studies, PMIC4 was administered via intralesional injection (3.4 mg/kg/day, three times a week or orally (34.0 mg/kg/day, five times a week to L. amazonensis-infected BALB/c mice throughout the 98 day experiments. At the end of the treatment period, serum markers of toxicity were measured. When administered orally, PMIC4 controlled the lesions in L. amazonensis-infected BALB/c mice without altering serological markers of toxicity. These results demonstrate that PMIC4 is a promising molecular scaffold, orally effective against experimental leishmaniasis.

  4. Effects of block analgesia on attenuating intraoperative stress responses during oral surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    Mamiya, H.; Ichinohe, T.; Kaneko, Y

    1997-01-01

    Surgical intervention affects cardiorespiratory function and deteriorates the homeostatic mechanisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of block analgesia, which may minimize the intraoperative stress responses during oral surgery. In addition, we evaluated whether block analgesia could lessen the anesthetic requirements. Twenty-eight operative patients were randomly allocated to one of four groups: group 1, 1.3MAC without block analgesia; group 2, 1.6MAC without block analgesi...

  5. A STUDY OF EFFECTS OF ORAL CLONIDINE ON PREMEDICATION AND HAEMODYNAMIC CHANGES DURING LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Rao; Mahesh,

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Use of Clonidine as a premedicant started incidentally. Clonidine is a potent antihypertensive drug that suppresses RAAS. Clonidine may be beneficial during laparoscopy in patients with hypertension, cardiovascular and/or renal diseases. AIM OF STUDY To determine the effects of Oral Clonidine on premedication and haemodynamic changes during Laparoscopic surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS Study was conducted on 60 adult patients belonging to ASA physical...

  6. Clinical effects of an oral supplement rich in antioxidants on skin radiance in women

    OpenAIRE

    Dumoulin M; Gaudout D; Lemaire B

    2016-01-01

    Marion Dumoulin, David Gaudout, Benoit Lemaire Activ’Inside, Libourne, France Background: Environmental factors impact the skin aging resulting in decrease of skin radiance. Nutrition and particularly antioxidants could help to fight against skin degradation.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an oral supplement rich in specific antioxidants, SkinAx2TM, on the improvement of the skin radiance in women.Methods: The open-label clinical stu...

  7. Early effects of oral administration of omeprazole and roxatidine on intragastric pH

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The ideal medication for the treatment of acid-related diseases, e.g., peptic ulcers, stress-related gastric bleeding, functional dyspepsia, and gastroesophageal reflux disease, should have a rapid onset of action to promote hemostasis and relieve the symptoms. The aim of our study was to investigate the inhibitory effects on gastric acid secretion of a single oral administration of a proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole 20 mg, and an H2-receptor antagonist, roxatidine 75 mg. Methods:...

  8. The effect of cimetidine on the single dose pharmacokinetics of oral clobazam and N-desmethylclobazam.

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    The effect of cimetidine on the single dose pharmacokinetics of orally administered clobazam and N-desmethylclobazam (NDMC) was studied in volunteers. Cimetidine inhibited the elimination of both clobazam and NDMC and inhibited the rate of formation of NDMC from clobazam. The increase in the AUC for NDMC generated from clobazam was relatively greater than that for clobazam itself. This suggests that NDMC elimination is inhibited to a relatively greater extent than clobazam elimination. The in...

  9. Clinical effects of an oral supplement rich in antioxidants on skin radiance in women

    OpenAIRE

    Dumoulin M; Gaudout D; Lemaire B

    2016-01-01

    Marion Dumoulin, David Gaudout, Benoit Lemaire Activ’Inside, Libourne, France Background: Environmental factors impact the skin aging resulting in decrease of skin radiance. Nutrition and particularly antioxidants could help to fight against skin degradation.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an oral supplement rich in specific antioxidants, SkinAx2TM, on the improvement of the skin radiance in women.Methods: The open-label clinical stu...

  10. Assessment of Nutritional Status in Children With Cancer and Effectiveness of Oral Nutritional Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürlek Gökçebay, Dilek; Emir, Suna; Bayhan, Turan; Demir, Hacı Ahmet; Gunduz, Mehmet; Tunc, Bahattin

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common consequence of cancer in children, but the most effective methods of nutrition intervention are under debate. We aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of children diagnosed with cancer, and to investigate the effect of oral nutritional supplements on anthropometric measurements, biochemical parameters, and outcome. A randomized clinical study of 45 newly diagnosed cancer patients was performed. Anthropometric and biochemical data and related factors were assessed at 0, 3, and 6 months after diagnosis. On initial anthropometric assessment, prevalence of malnutrition by weight or height was found to be lower as compared with body mass index (BMI), or weight for height (WFH), or arm anthropometry. Twenty-six of the patients (55%) received oral nutritional supplement. During the second 3 months after diagnosis, there was a statistically significant decrease in number of the patients with WFH Nutritional intervention is necessary to promote normal development and increase functional status as a child receives intensive treatment. Protein- and energy-dense oral nutritional supplements are effective for preventing weight loss in malnourished children.

  11. Liposomes as a carrier for oral administration of insulin: effect of formulation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhari, K B; Labhasetwar, V; Dorle, A K

    1994-01-01

    The present work was undertaken to study the effect of liposome formulation factors on its efficiency as a carrier for oral administration of insulin. The insulin-liposomes were prepared by two methods: solvent evaporation hydration and solvent spherule evaporation, with various variables such as concentration of insulin (I), lecithin (L), cholesterol (C), and Tween-80 (T). It was found that the insulin-liposomes when administered orally could produce hypoglycaemia. Variation in liposome composition was found to affect the efficiency of liposome as a carrier for oral administration of insulin. A liposome system containing L, 100 mg; C, 20 mg; I, 150 units; T, 1 per cent v/v, and prepared by the solvent spherule evaporation method was found to be most effective. The effect of insulin-liposome had prolonged action in diabetes-induced rabbits compared with that in normal rabbits. The results of the insulin-liposome system were comparable with the action of 1 unit of insulin/kg administered subcutaneously.

  12. Effect of Reinforcement of Oral Health Education Message through Short Messaging Service in Mobile Phones: A Quasi-Experimental Trial

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    Harish C. Jadhav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This paper aims to assess the effectiveness of reinforcement of oral health education message through short messaging service (SMS in mobile phones. Material and Methods. 400 subjects from two colleges (200 from each college belonging to 18–20 years age group possessing mobile phones were randomly selected and baseline examination of oral hygiene and gingival status was carried out using Oral Hygiene Index (OHI and Gingival Index (GI. Oral health education was provided to all the subjects. Oral health education message was reinforced through short messaging service (SMS in mobile phones for the subjects belonging to the intervention group. There was no such reinforcement for the control group. Follow-up examinations were done at the end of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 6th month. After the 3rd month, subjects of the intervention group did not receive oral health education message through short messaging service (SMS and were followed up after next three months. Compiled data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 statistical software. Result. Mean OHI and GI scores in intervention group were significantly (p<0.01 less than those of control group after the 2nd, 3rd, and 6th month. Conclusion. Reinforcement of oral health education message through short messaging service (SMS is effective media to improve oral health.

  13. Effectiveness of E-Learning in Oral Radiology Education: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Glaucia Nize M; Leite, André F; Figueiredo, Paulo T de S; Pimentel, Nara M; Flores-Mir, Carlos; de Melo, Nilce S; Guerra, Eliete N S; De Luca Canto, Graziela

    2016-09-01

    E-learning has been used recently in dental curricula to support traditional learning methods. However, the published literature concerning e-learning in oral radiology has shown mixed conclusions. The aim of this systematic review was to provide a synthesis of the effectiveness of e-learning in oral radiology education when compared with traditional classroom learning methods. A search of the literature was conducted on the LILACS, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. Trials registries were also consulted for ongoing trials, and a partial grey literature search was conducted. Controlled trials about oral radiology education that compared any e-learning method with a control group using any traditional classroom instruction method were included. E-learning effectiveness was measured using three outcomes from Kirkpatrick's model of evaluation: attitudes about e-learning, knowledge gain, and performance on clinical procedures. Data were analyzed descriptively. Qualitative appraisal was performed according to the Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomized trials and MINORS tool for non-randomized trials. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Risk of bias was identified related to the selection procedures, blinding, lack of sample size calculation, and incomplete analyses. Ten studies reported that students had positive attitude when using e-learning. Results from the knowledge gain outcome were mixed. Only two studies examined performance on clinical procedures, showing contrasting results. The evidence reviewed in this study suggests that e-learning in oral radiology is at least as effective as traditional learning methods and that students have positive attitudes about e-learning.

  14. Effect of a novel antimicrobial peptide chrysophsin-1 on oral pathogens and Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Tao, Rui; Tong, Zhongchun; Ding, Yonglin; Kuang, Rong; Zhai, Shafei; Liu, Jun; Ni, Longxing

    2012-02-01

    Dental caries and pulpal diseases are common oral bacterial infectious diseases. Controlling and reducing the causative pathogens, such as Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis, is a key step toward prevention and treatment of the two diseases. Chrysophsin-1 is a cationic antimicrobial peptide having broad-spectrum bactericidal activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial activity of chrysophsin-1 against several oral pathogens and S. mutans biofilms and performed a preliminary study of the antimicrobial mechanism. Cytotoxic activity of chrysophsin-1 against human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) was investigated. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill assay were used to evaluate the killing effect of chrysophsin-1. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze morphological and membrane change in oral pathogens. Live/Dead staining, in conjunction with confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM), was used to observe and analyze S. mutans biofilms. MIC and MBC results demonstrated that chrysophsin-1 had different antimicrobial activities against the tested oral microbes. Lysis and pore formation of the cytomembrane were observed following treatment of the bacteria with chrysophsin-1 for 4h or 24h by SEM. Furthermore, CLSM images showed that chrysophsin-1 remarkably reduced the viability of cells within biofilms and had a significantly lethal effect against S. mutans biofilms. Toxicity studies showed that chrysophsin-1 at concentration between 8 μg/ml and 32 μg/ml had little effect on viability of HGFs in 5 min. Our findings suggest that chrysophsin-1 may have potential clinical applications in the prevention and treatment of dental caries and pulpal diseases.

  15. Effects of oral and parenteral selenium supplements on residues in meat, milk and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, A M; Fasulo, D A; Craigmill, A L

    1990-01-01

    Oral and parenteral preparations of Se are used worldwide to prevent and treat nutritional muscular dystrophy and other Se deficiency syndromes. There are extensive published data on the effects of oral supplementation on Se residues in food animal products. Very little published data exist on the effects of parenteral administration on Se residues, even for cattle and swine in which parenteral preparations are used extensively. The distribution of Se into kidney and liver appears to be equivalent for both forms of supplementation. Elimination of Se in milk is greater after parenteral administration and correlates with high plasma Se levels, however the milk excretion drops quickly and after 4 d returns to control levels (Little et al. 1979). Of particular interest is the finding that up to 18% of Se in an oral diet may be excreted in milk (Maus et al. 1980). Use of Se supplements in poultry results in increased levels of Se in liver, kidney, and eggs. Distribution of Se into liver and kidney is much greater than into breast muscle indicating a greater capacity of these organs to accumulate Se. Excretion of Se into eggs results in Se levels equivalent to those in liver and kidney, indicating that eggs are an important route of Se excretion in laying hens (Ort and Latshaw 1978). When Se supplementation stops, the liver, kidney, and egg white and yolk residues decline quickly to control values within 1-2 wk. Breast muscle Se content changes little during supplementation and after withdrawal of supplementation. Oral and parenteral selenium supplementation in swine result in greater accumulation of Se in liver and kidney than in muscle. Oral selenium supplementation also increases the excretion of Se into milk. This method has been used to prevent Se deficiency disease in piglets (Mahan et al. 1975). Oral supplementation with 0.1 ppm Se, as sodium selenate, did not result in levels of Se in blood, meat, or viscera at slaughter (Jenkins and Winter 1973). Despite the

  16. The effects of oral Acyclovir in the treatment of necrotizing Herpetic keratouveitis

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    "Hosseini Tehrani M;Poormostadam B;Vallaei N;Raiszadeh F "

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of administering oral acyclovir in conjunction with topical acyclovir and steroids in the treatment of necrotizing herpetic keratouveitis. All patients with necrotizing herpetic keratouveits who have been consulted during 1996-1997 at the farbi Eye Hospital were studied . the patients were randomly assigned to two groups. In the first group, topical acyclovir ointment and topical steroids were administered, while the second group took oral acyclovir, 1600 mg in four divided does in addition to the above mentioned treatment. The patients undervent follow-up examination every three days in the first three weeks and therafter periodically for one year.After three weeks, 92% and 88% improvement was observed in the first and second groups, respectively. The observed difference was not statistically significant. Making nonpharmacologic interventions such as application of soft contact lenses, corneal grafts, and conjunctival flaps were inevitable in some cases in both groups. Secondary infection was observed in three patients (first grop and two patients (2 and group.The sample size was not large enough to draw a definite statistical conclusion, but it seems that the addition of oral acyclovir has no added effect in the treatment of necrotizing herpetic keratouveitis than topical acyclovir and steroids. In this study , the males were affected more frequently than females.

  17. Fibrotic Effects of Arecoline N-Oxide in Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tzer-Min; Luo, Shun-Yuan; Chiang, Shang-Lun; Yeh, Kun-Tu; Hsu, Hui-Ting; Wu, Cheng-Tien; Lu, Chi-Yu; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2015-06-24

    The metabolites of environmental chemicals play key roles in carcinogenesis. Areca nut is strongly associated with the development of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) or cancer. The main alkaloid in the areca nut is arecoline, which is highly cytotoxic and genotoxic. Arecoline N-oxide, a metabolite of areca nut alkaloids, which has been identified in animal urine, has been shown to induce mutagenicity in bacteria. In this study, it was found that its protein adduct could be detected in oral keratinocytes treated with areca nut extract. Increased collagen expression and severity of squamous hyperplasia were observed in arecoline N-oxide treated mice. In cultured oral fibroblasts, arecoline N-oxide showed stronger effects on the increase of fibrotic related genes including TGF-beta1, S100A4, MMP-9, IL-6, and fibronectin and a decrease of E-cadherin as compared with arecoline. Finally, arecoline N-oxide stimulation effectively increased the DNA damage marker, gamma-H2A.X, both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these results indicate that arecoline N-oxide shows a high potential for the induction of OPMD.

  18. [Effects of arecoline and nicotine on the expression of hTERT in oral keratinocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi-jun; Ling, Tian-you; Yin, Xiao-min; Li, Xia; Huang, Yan

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the effects of arecoline and nicotine on the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) mRNA and protein in cultured normal human oral keratinocytes (KC). The experiments were divided into arecoline group, arecoline/nicotine group and control group. The hTERT mRNA and protein expression of KC was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. Arecoline could induce the hTERT mRNA and protein expression of KC in a dose dependent manner, the hTERT mRNA and protein expression of KC was higher in 0.030, 0.060, 0.090 g/L arecoline group than control group (P arecoline. Arecoline could increase the expression of hTERT mRNA and protein in oral keratinocytes. Nicotine had a synergistic effect on arecoline. hTERT over-expression induced by arecoline and nicotine may play an important role in the malignant transformation of oral submucous fibrosis.

  19. Effect of Oral Dimenhydrinate in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis: A Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Gheini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: One of the major causes of mortality in children is acute gastroenteritis. Vomiting is common in early stages of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oral dimenhydrinate (DH in the control of vomiting in cases of acute gastroenteritis in children. Methods: This double-blind, randomized, clinical trial was conducted in a university-affiliated hospital in a western province of Iran. Two hundred children aged one to 12 years old were randomly assigned to either drug or placebo groups. Children in the drug group received oral DH as four doses of 1 mg/kg every six hours (maximum 200 mg, and children in the placebo group received a placebo drug. The patients variables were compared 24 hours after receiving the first dose and at seven and 14 days after discharge. Results: The mean number of episodes of vomiting was 4.4±2.5 in the drug group versus 4.4±2.1 in the placebo group, which was not statistically significant (p0.050. Conclusions: Oral DH in children with acute gastroenteritis does not reduce the number and duration of vomiting. However, our results showed that consumption of DH in acute gastroenteritis patients was effective in reducing the frequency and duration of diarrhea and further investigation into this is warranted.

  20. Effectiveness of oral hygiene instruction media on periodontal health among hearing impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunakul, Malee; Kuphasuk, Yosvimol; Boonyathanasit, Romcharee

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of oral hygiene instruction media on periodontal health in hearing impaired children over a period of three months. The study was carried out among 66 hearing impaired children (aged 6-10 years). The children were randomly divided into 4 groups by oral hygiene instruction media type: video presentation group, illustrated book group, both video presentation and illustrated book group, and control group. The gingival index (GI), gingival bleeding index (BI), and plaque index (PI) were recorded at baseline and at 3 months follow-up. After three months, there was a significant reduction from baseline in the mean values for GI, BI, and PI in all groups including the control group (p < 0.001). Further studies to determine what factors resulted in this reduction are accessary.

  1. EFFECTS OF ORAL HYGIENE UPON THE QUALITY OF BREATHING IN CHILDREN SUFFERING FROM BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Olar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, bronchial asthma represents a major public health problem. SCOPE: The study discusses the effects of bacterial plaque control upon the quality of respiration in a group of ashtmatic children previously subjected to professional dental scaling and brushing, comparatively with a similar group, whose habits of oral hygiene had not been influenced. In both groups, the indices of bacterial plaque and gingival bleeding were calculated, respiratory functional samples were taken, the number of eosinophylls, the concentration of seric IgE and salivary sIgA were analyzed, and bacterial concentration and morphology of the dental plaque were determined. Statistically, the quality of respiration has been significantly improved in the children whose dental plaque had been controlled. Correlations have been evidenced among asthma symptomatology, indices of oral health, immunological markers and the bacterial profile of the dental plaque.

  2. Effects of Oral Administration of Type II Collagen on Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentham, David E.; Dynesius-Trentham, Roselynn A.; Orav, E. John; Combitchi, Daniel; Lorenzo, Carlos; Sewell, Kathryn Lea; Hafler, David A.; Weiner, Howard L.

    1993-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory synovial disease thought to involve T cells reacting to an antigen within the joint. Type II collagen is the major protein in articular cartilage and is a potential autoantigen in this disease. Oral tolerization to autoantigens suppresses animal models of T cell-mediated autoimmune disease, including two models of rheumatoid arthritis. In this randomized, double-blind trial involving 60 patients with severe, active rheumatoid arthritis, a decrease in the number of swollen joints and tender joints occurred in subjects fed chicken type II collagen for 3 months but not in those that received a placebo. Four patients in the collagen group had complete remission of the disease. No side effects were evident. These data demonstrate clinical efficacy of an oral tolerization approach for rheumatoid arthritis.

  3. Long-term Effects of Oral Clefts on Health Care Utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saaby Pedersen, Morten; Wehby, George L.; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind

    2015-01-01

    Oral clefts are among the most common birth defects affecting thousands of newborns each year, but little is known about their potential long-term consequences. In this paper, we explore the impact of oral clefts on health care utilization over most of the lifespan. To account for time-invariant ...... individuals have slightly higher utilization of some health care services in adulthood (particularly for diseases of the nervous and respiratory system). These results have important implications for affected individuals, their families, and their health professionals....... clefts use more health services than their unaffected siblings. Additional results show that the effects are driven primarily by congenital malformation-related hospitalizations and intake of anti-infectives. Although the absolute differences in most health care utilization diminish over time, affected...

  4. Bacterial-killing effect of atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasma jet and oral mucosa response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dexi; Xiong, Zilan; Du, Tianfeng; Zhou, Xincai; Cao, Yingguang; Lu, Xinpei

    2011-12-01

    Recently, plasma sterilization has attracted increasing attention in dental community for the atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasma jet (APNPs), which is driven by a kilohertz pulsed DC power, may be applied to the dental and oral diseases. However, it is still in doubt whether APNPs can effectively kill pathogenic bacteria in the oral cavity and produce no harmful effects on normal oral tissues, especially on normal mucosa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial-killing effect of APNPs in the biofilms containing a single breed of bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, P.g.), and the pathological changes of the oral mucosa after treatment by APNPs. P.g. was incubated to form the biofilms in vitro, and the samples were divided into three groups randomly: group A (blank control); group B in which the biofilms were treated by APNPs (the setting of the equipment: 10 kHz, 1600 ns and 8 kV); group C in which the biofilms were exposed only to a gas jet without ignition of the plasma. Each group had three samples and each sample was processed for up to 5 min. The biofilms were then fluorescently stained, observed and photographed under a laser scanning confocal microscope. In the animal experiment, six male Japanese white rabbits were divided into two groups randomly (n=3 in each group) in terms of the different post-treatment time (1-day group and 5-day group). The buccal mucosa of the left side and the mucosa of the ventral surface of the tongue were treated by APNPs for 10 min in the same way as the bacterial biofilm experiment in each rabbit, and the corresponding mucosa of the other sides served as normal control. The clinical manifestations of the oral mucosa were observed and recorded every day. The rabbits were sacrificed one or five day(s) after APNPs treatment. The oral mucosa were harvested and prepared to haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. Clinical observation and histopathological scores were used to assess mucosal changes. The results

  5. The Study of Oral Clonidine Effect in Duration of Spinal Anesthesia with Lidocaine and Its Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Baalbaki

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available There are many kinds of intervention to prolong the duration of spinal anesthesia which one of them is preoperation oral drugs. The purpose of this study was determination of clonidine effects in duration of spinal anesthesia and its complications. This study was a double - blinded randomized controlled clinical trial in 40-60 years old males of Mobasher and Ekbatan hospitals in Hamadan. In this study there were 40 cases candidated for spinal anesthesia and we divided them to 2 groups i.e. test and control then the results were recorded on questionnaire sheets. The test cases were prescribed 0.2 mg clonidine P.O. preoperatively and their duration of spinal anesthesia prolonged 11 minutes averagely and decreased its complications related to control prescribed placebo. Hence , the result showed preparation oral clonidine prolongs the duration of spinal anesthesia and decreases its complications like hypotention , nausea and vomiting.

  6. Oral Cyanocobalamin is Effective in the Treatment of Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Crohn’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomollón, Fernando; Gargallo, Carla J.; Muñoz, Jose Fernando; Vicente, Raquel; Lue, Alberto; Mir, Alberto; García-Alvarado, Marta; Gracia, Marta; García-López, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Cobalamin deficiency is common in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). Intramuscular cobalamin continues to be the standard therapy for the deficiency and maintenance treatment in these patients, although oral route has been demonstrated to be effective in other pathologies with impaired absorption. Our aims were to evaluate the efficacy of oral therapy in the treatment of cobalamin deficiency and in long-term maintenance in patients with Crohn’s disease. We performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study that included 94 patients with Crohn’s disease and cobalamin deficiency. Seventy-six patients had B12 deficiency and 94.7% of them normalized their cobalamin levels with oral treatment. The most used dose was 1 mg/day, but there were no significant differences in treatment effectiveness depending on the dose used (≥1 mg/24 h vs. <1 mg/24 h). Eighty-two patients had previous documented B12 deficiency and were treated with oral B12 to maintain their correct cobalamin levels. After a mean follow-up of 3 years, the oral route was effective as maintenance treatment in 81.7% of patients. A lack of treatment adherence was admitted by 46.6% of patients in who the oral route failed. In conclusion, our study shows that oral cyanocobalamin provides effective acute and maintenance treatment for vitamin B12 deficiency caused by CD with or without ileum resection. PMID:28335526

  7. Oral Cyanocobalamin is Effective in the Treatment of Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Crohn’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gomollón

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cobalamin deficiency is common in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD. Intramuscular cobalamin continues to be the standard therapy for the deficiency and maintenance treatment in these patients, although oral route has been demonstrated to be effective in other pathologies with impaired absorption. Our aims were to evaluate the efficacy of oral therapy in the treatment of cobalamin deficiency and in long-term maintenance in patients with Crohn’s disease. We performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study that included 94 patients with Crohn’s disease and cobalamin deficiency. Seventy-six patients had B12 deficiency and 94.7% of them normalized their cobalamin levels with oral treatment. The most used dose was 1 mg/day, but there were no significant differences in treatment effectiveness depending on the dose used (≥1 mg/24 h vs. <1 mg/24 h. Eighty-two patients had previous documented B12 deficiency and were treated with oral B12 to maintain their correct cobalamin levels. After a mean follow-up of 3 years, the oral route was effective as maintenance treatment in 81.7% of patients. A lack of treatment adherence was admitted by 46.6% of patients in who the oral route failed. In conclusion, our study shows that oral cyanocobalamin provides effective acute and maintenance treatment for vitamin B12 deficiency caused by CD with or without ileum resection.

  8. PREVENTION OF CUTANEOUS SIDE EFFECTS OF TOPICAL TRETINOIN: USE OF ORAL VITAMINE E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G FAGHIHI

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous folicles. Tretinoin is used as one of the topical treatments for acne vulgaris. It has different cutaneous side effects such as erythema, scaling, irritation and photosensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral Vitamine E in preventing the cutaneous side effects of topical tretinoin in acne patients.
    Methods: A clinical trial was performed in AI-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan for six months in 2000. 80 patients with mild to moderate facial acne were randomized into 2 groups. Group 1 (controls received topical solution of tretinoin 0.05 percent nightly and group 2 (cases received daily oral 100mg of Vit. E in addition. All patients were followed at 1, 4 and 6 weeks after initiation of treatment. Children under 12 years old, pregnant or lactating women were excluded.
    Results: At the end of one week, no cutaneous side effects were observed in 25 percent (10 of group 1 and 15 percent (6 of group 2 (P > 0.05. At the end of 4 weeks, 25 percent (10 of group 1 and 60 percent (24 of group 2 were without any cutaneous complications, while at the end of 6 weeks, 35 percent (14 of group 1 in comparison to 75 percent (30 of group 2 were free of any cutaneous side effects (P < 0.05. The most common side effect in both groups was exfoliation.
    Discussion: Daily oral 100 mg of Vit. E has been effective in preventing cutaneous complications of topical tretinoin in acne management, but there is a delay of one week in its onset of action. Meanwhile, Vitamine E is a safe modality with no undesirable effects in acne patients.

  9. Modulation of the Effects of Lung Immune Response on Bone Marrow by Oral Antigen Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Xavier-Elsas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic airway inflammation is attenuated by oral tolerization (oral exposure to allergen, followed by conventional sensitization and challenge with homologous antigen, which decreases airway allergen challenge-induced eosinophilic infiltration of the lungs and bone marrow eosinophilia. We examined its effects on bone marrow eosinophil and neutrophil production. Mice of wild type (BP-2, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 and mutant strains (lacking iNOS or CD95L were given ovalbumin (OVA or water (vehicle orally and subsequently sensitized and challenged with OVA (OVA/OVA/OVA and H2O/OVA/OVA groups, resp.. Anti-OVA IgG and IgE, bone marrow eosinophil and neutrophil numbers, and eosinophil and neutrophil production ex vivo were evaluated. T lymphocytes from OVA/OVA/OVA or control H2O/OVA/OVA donors were transferred into naïve syngeneic recipients, which were subsequently sensitized/challenged with OVA. Alternatively, T lymphocytes were cocultured with bone marrow eosinophil precursors from histocompatible sensitized/challenged mice. OVA/OVA/OVA mice of the BP-2 and BALB/c strains showed, relative to H2O/OVA/OVA controls, significantly decreased bone marrow eosinophil counts and ex vivo eosinopoiesis/neutropoiesis. Full effectiveness in vivo required sequential oral/subcutaneous/intranasal exposures to the same allergen. Transfer of splenic T lymphocytes from OVA/OVA/OVA donors to naive recipients prevented bone marrow eosinophilia and eosinopoiesis in response to recipient sensitization/challenge and supressed eosinopoiesis upon coculture with syngeneic bone marrow precursors from sensitized/challenged donors.

  10. Evaluating the In-vitro Antibacterial Effect of Iranian Propolis on Oral Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh Kashi, Tahereh Sadat; Kasra Kermanshahi, Ruha; Erfan, Mohammad; Vahid Dastjerdi, Elahe; Rezaei, Yashar; Tabatabaei, Fahimeh Sadat

    2011-01-01

    Propolis has traditionally been used in curing infections and healing wounds and burns. Current researches have shown that propolis has antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral actions however, the pharmacological activity of propolis is highly variable depending on its geographic origin. There have been few studies on the effects of Iranian propolis on the oral microorganisms. In this in-vitro study, the antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic and water extracts of the Iranian propolis (10%, w/v) from north-east area of Tehran was evaluated. Susceptibility of the oral strains tested (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668; Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 9222; Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923; Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 9854 and Lactobacillus casei ATCC 39392) was evaluated using the agar diffusion method at a concentration of 20 mg/mL of propolis and the zones of growth inhibition were measured. Antibacterial activity was determined by using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) at different concentrations of propolis. The ethanolic extract showed bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity against all the strains, with MIC and MBC ranges of 250-500 µg/mL. The MIC concentration of the water extract was 500 µg/mL against S. mutans and E. faecalis. The water extract showed bactericidal activity only against S. mutans (20 mg/mL). These results indicate that the ethanolic extract is probably more useful in the control of oral biofilms and subsequent dental caries development. However, to determine the consequence of the ethanolic extract of Iranian propolis on the oral mucosa, in-vivo studies of its possible effects are needed.

  11. Effect of oral mucosa transplantation in the treatment of severe contracted conjunctival sac after ocular prosthesis implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Dong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the clinic effect of oral mucosa transplantation in the treatment of severe contracted conjunctival sac after ocular prosthesis implantation.METHODS: Thirty-three cases(33 eyeswith globe disorders and severe contracted conjunctval sac were operated ocular prosthesis implantation firstly, and conjunctival sac plasty using oral mucosa after 6mo. RESULTS: Thirty-one cases were successful, no complications appeared. One case had primary ptosis and 1 case had recurrent conjunctival sac contracture.CONCLUSION: It is recognised that the methods of oral mucosa transplantation in severe contracted conjunctival sac after ocular prosthesis implantation are effective on those cases.

  12. The effects of a new therapeutic triclosan/copolymer/sodium-fluoride dentifrice on oral bacteria, including odorigenic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furgang, David; Sreenivasan, Prem K; Zhang, Yun Po; Fine, Daniel H; Cummins, Diane

    2003-09-01

    This investigation examined the in vitro and ex vivo antimicrobial effects of a new dentifrice, Colgate Total Advanced Fresh, formulated with triclosan/copolymer/sodium fluoride, on oral bacteria, including those odorigenic bacteria implicated in bad breath. The effects of Colgate Total Advanced Fresh were compared to commercially available fluoride dentifrices that served as controls. Three experimental approaches were undertaken for these studies. In the first approach, the dentifrice formulations were tested in vitro against 13 species of oral bacteria implicated in bad breath. The second approach examined the antimicrobial activity derived from dentifrice that was adsorbed to and released from hydroxyapatite disks. In this approach, dentifrice-treated hydroxyapatite disks were immersed in a suspension of bacteria, and reduction in bacterial viability from the release of bioactive agents from hydroxyapatite was determined. The third approach examined the effect of treating bacteria immediately after their removal from the oral cavity of 11 adult human volunteers. This ex vivo study examined the viability of cultivable oral bacteria after dentifrice treatment for 2 minutes. Antimicrobial effects were determined by plating Colgate Total Advanced Fresh and control-dentifrice-treated samples on enriched media (for all cultivable oral bacteria) and indicator media (for hydrogen-sulfide-producing organisms), respectively. Results indicated that the antimicrobial effects of Colgate Total Advanced Fresh were significantly greater than either of the other dentifrices for all 13 oral odorigenic bacterial strains tested in vitro (P Colgate Total Advanced Fresh-treated hydroxyapatite disks were significantly more active in reducing bacterial growth than the other dentifrices tested (P oral bacteria with Colgate Total Advanced Fresh demonstrated a 90.9% reduction of all oral cultivable bacteria and a 91.5% reduction of oral bacteria producing hydrogen sulfide compared with

  13. Effectiveness of Oral N-acetyl-cystein in Reduction of Pulmonary Complications in Smokers Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SJ Mir Hoseini; MH Abdollahi; H Hoseini; A Halvani; N Rahati Talab; SK Foroozan Nia; H Moshtaghion

    2009-01-01

    .... In this study, the effect of oral N-acetyl-cystein in reduction of severity of hypoxemia and atelectasis in current smokers who smoked more than 10 packs/year and had undergone CABG was evaluated. Methods...

  14. The effect of phosphate based glasses on the formation and viability of oral bacterial biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, April Miranda

    glasses investigated exhibited some ability to reduce the viability of oral bacterial biofilms, silver glasses proving more effective, although they did not manage to maintain viable counts at the low levels initially observed.

  15. A randomized control trial study, single blinded, the effect of gamelan and oral glucose solution intervention toward infants' pain respond in immunization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Endang Zulaicha Susilaningsih; Indria Laksmi Gamayanti; Purwanta Purwanta

    2016-01-01

    .... The research objective is to analyse and compare the effect of oral glucose intervention, gamelan music, and combined of oral glucose and gamelan music to the infants pain response in immunization. Methods...

  16. In-vitro antimicrobial effectiveness of herbal-based mouthrinses against oral microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju; Ying; Teh; Rabiah; Rawi; Siti; Suraiya; Md; Noor; Haslina; Taib; Suharni; Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial effectiveness of commercial herbal-based mouthrinses against oral microorganisms. Methods: A total of three mouthrinses(OX, Pesona and Watsons) were tested for their antimicrobial activity against six oral organisms, Streptococcus mutans(S. mutans), Streptococcus sobrinus(S. sobrinus), Lactobacillus salivarius(L. salivarius), Staphylococcus aureus(S. aureus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa(P. aeruginosa) and Candida albicans(C. albicans) by standard agar-disk diffusion assay. Oradex mouthrinse containing 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate and sterile distilled water was served as positive and negative controls, respectively. Results: All mouthrinse formulations were effective in inhibiting the growth of S. mutans, S. sobrinus, L. salivarius and C. albicans. Among the tested mouthrinses, Pesona was the only effective mouthrinse against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, similar to Oradex mouthrinse. Pesona mouthrinse formulation appears to be as effective as Oradex mouthrinse formulation to kill S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference among the tested formulations regarding their antimicrobial activities(P > 0.05).Conclusions: Pesona was not the only herbal mouthrinse effective in inhibiting the growth of S. mutans, S. sobrinus, L. salivarius and C. albicans in vitro. All tested formulations were effective against those strains. Our findings may serve as a guide for selecting a kind of herbal mouthrinses as well as providing information to the dental professionals about the efficacy of these products.

  17. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Softrata, Abier; Azeem, Muhammad; Pütsep, Katrin; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents.

  18. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Ocheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents.

  19. Effect of dental education on Peruvian dental students' oral health-related attitudes and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Manuel; Camino, Javier; Oyakawa, Harumi Rodriguez; Rodriguez, Lyly; Tong, Liyue; Ahn, Chul; Bird, William F; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2013-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of dental education on oral health-related attitudes and behavior of students in a five-year dental program in Peru. A survey using the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI), which consists of twenty dichotomous responses (agree-disagree) regarding oral health behavior and attitudes, was completed by Year 1 and Year 5 dental students at the Universidad Inca Garcilaso de la Vega in Lima, Peru. A total of 153 Year 1 students and 120 Year 5 students responded to the Spanish version of the HU-DBI questionnaire. The data were analyzed using chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses. Compared to the Year 1 students, the Year 5 dental students were more likely to agree with questions such as "I think I can clean my teeth well without using toothpaste" (OR=0.24, 95% CI: 0.10-0.58); "I have used a dye to see how clean my teeth are" (OR=0.19, 95% CI: 0.10-0.36); and "I have had my dentist tell me that I brush very well" (OR=0.34, 95% CI: 0.17-0.69). Overall, the data showed that the curriculum in this dental school in Peru resulted in more positive oral health-related attitudes and behavior among Year 5 dental students compared to those of Year 1 dental students.

  20. COMPARING EFFECTIVENESS OF ORAL AND INTRANASAL MIDAZOLAM FOR PREMEDITATION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P SAJEDI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Preoperative evaluation and psychological preparation is important before anesthesia. Children are very dependent to their parents, specially before 5 years. Anesthesiologist must administer anxiolytic and sedative drugs before separation from parents as premeditation. The aim of this study is comparison survey on effect of oral midazolam and intranasal midazolam in children 1 to 5 years as premeditation. Methods. In a clinical trial study performed through first half of 1377 at St. Alzahra Center (Isfahan University of Medicine, sixty healthy children in first class of ASA who had non gastrointestinal elective surgery were studied. Group one consisted of thirty children who received intravenous form midazolam (0.5 mg/kg with fruit juice orally 45 to 60 minutes before operation. Group 2 consisted of thirty children who received midazolam (IV form 0.2 mg/kg intranasally 15 minutes before operation. Findings. Anxiety was less in first group during administration of drug. Forty four percent were quiet in this group (P < 0.005. Seventy six percent of children who well accepted the drug, were in the first group (P < 0.005. There was no significant statistical difference between two groups in other aspects of study. Conclusion. Oral administration of midazolam has better acceptance in children than intranasal with less anxiety.

  1. Effect of dolomite oral exposure in Wistar rats during organogenesis period of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarto, Alicia; Bellma, Addis; Tillán, Juana; Gabilondo, Tatiana; Guerra, Isbel; Ocanto, Zuleira; Couret, Micaela; González, Ricardo

    2008-09-01

    The potential of oral exposure to dolomite, a natural product that contains calcium and magnesium, to initiate teratogenesis was analyzed in Wistar rats. Animals received dolomite oral dosages of 500 and 1500mg/kg during the period of gestation from day 6-15 post conceptionem (p.c.). Maternal, embryo and fetal toxicity were evaluated. Dolomite exposure did not produce maternal toxicity assessed by clinical observations, body weight gain, hematology parameters and relative organs weight. Signs of embryo-fetal toxicity were not observed. Skeletal malformations and visceral variations were similar in control and dolomite-treated groups. On the other hand, slight increase was observed in fetal body weight in the dolomite-treated group. Treatment with dolomite resulted in significantly decreased incidences of unossified xiphisternum, incomplete ossification of xiphisternum and sternebrae. These effects could be caused by a beneficial influence of calcium and magnesium salts present in dolomite on ossification process. In conclusion, in this study we found that the oral exposure to rats of up to 1500mg/kg of dolomite during organogenesis did not induce significant maternal and embryo-fetal toxicity.

  2. Histopathological Examination of Oralmedic Effects on Oral Wound Healing Process: an Animal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Akhavan Karbassi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introductions: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS is a common disease and suitable treatment has been unsuccessful. The purpose of this study was evaluating oral wound healing process following use of Oralmedic. Methods: In this animal study, mucosal ulcers with the same size were made in the lower lip of 12 mice with the same weight, gender and race. The mice were selected randomly divided into two groups of six mice each, oralmedic and distilled groups. The Oralmedic has been used on the wound in the first group and distilled water was applied on the wound in the second group twice a day for 5 days. On the fifteenth day, biopsy was obtained from wound healing areas and they were investigated through microscopic examination. Results: The epithelium in the restored areas in both two groups was almost normal (p>0.05. In the studied groups, oral medic created different inflammatory effects in the connective tissues. In terms of medicine, formation of the granulation tissue showed a significant difference between two groups, but this difference was not statistically significant. The amount of collagen in the connective tissues were different. Histologic observations showed that after using Oralmedic, some changes such as inflammation, scar formation, and fibrosis were observed in the surface of epithelium of the mucosa and connective tissues. Conclusion: The important  point in use of oral medications, in addition to changes in the surface epithelium of the mucosa, is deeper changes that can lead to important and sometimes problematic consequences.

  3. Effect of single oral dose of tramadol on gastric secretions pH

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    Khan Mueen Ullah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tramadol is an atypical analgesic agent. It has been shown that intramuscular or intravenous injection tramadol is able to inhibit M3 muscarinic receptors. Tramadol is able to mediate smooth muscles contraction and glandular secretions. We have evaluated the effects of single oral dose of tramadol given preoperatively on gastric juices pH in patients electively scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: Sixty adult, American Society of Anesthesiologist I and II patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo (n = 30 or oral tramadol 50 mg (n = 30. General anesthesia was induced using propofol, fentanyl and cisatracurium. After induction of anesthesia 5 ml of gastric fluid was aspirated through orogastric tube. The gastric fluid pH was measured using pH meter. Result: There was no significant difference in the pH between the groups. Gastric pH of the placebo and tramadol groups was 1.97 versus 1.98 (P = 0.092 respectively. Conclusion: Preoperatively single oral dose of tramadol was unable to elevate the desired level of gastric acid secretions pH (>2.5. This may be due to pharmacokinetic disparity between the analgesic and pH elevating properties of tramadol.

  4. Effects of epimedium polysaccharide-propolis flavone oral liquid on mucosal immunity in chickens.

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    Chen, Xiaolan; Chen, Xingying; Qiu, Shulei; Hu, Yuanliang; Jiang, Chunmao; Wang, Deyun; Fan, Qiang; Zhang, Cunshuai; Huang, Yee; Yu, Yun; Yang, Haifeng; Liu, Cui; Gao, Zhenzhen; Hou, Ranran; Li, Xiuping

    2014-03-01

    A previous study found that epimedium polysaccharide (EP)-propolis flavonoid (PF) injection (EPI) produced reliable immunoenhancement. In this study, we investigate the effects of EP-PF oral liquid (EFO) on mucosal immunity in the chicken small intestine while using EPI, EP and PF as controls. Groups of fourteen-day-old chickens were given EFO orally at one of the three doses when they were vaccinated with ND vaccine. On days 7, 21 and 35 after the first vaccination, six chickens were selected randomly from each group for measurements of the sIgA and IL-17 contents of the washing liquors of the duodenum and jejunum, counts of the lymphocytes in the duodenal endothelium and counts of the IgA(+) cells in the jejunal endothelium and cecum tonsil. The results indicated that EFO significantly promoted the secretion of sIgA and IL-17 and increased the numbers of lymphocyte and IgA(+) cells. Furthermore, EFO was more efficient than EPI at the high and medium doses. These findings indicate that EPO may enhance intestinal mucosal immunity and may be exploited as an oral immunopotentiator.

  5. EFFECT OF ORAL CLONIDINE PREMEDICATION ON HAEMODYNAMIC CHANGES DURING LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY - A CLINICAL STUDY

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    Abu Lais Mustaque

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Laparoscopic surgeries are the recent advances in the field of surgery and are the essence of today’s surgical practice. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has revolutionised gall bladder surgeries and has become the treatment of choice for cholelithiasis. This procedure has minimised the numbers of open cholecystectomy performed these days. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To study the effect of oral clonidine premedication on haemodynamic changes during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. MATERIALS & METHODS The present study was conducted in the Department of Anaesthesiology of Assam Medical College, Dibrugarh for a period of one year from July 2012 to June 2013 on patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy at operation theatre of Department of General Surgery of Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dibrugarh. A total of 150 adult patients of either sex between the age group of 18 to 40 years of ASA-1 and ASA-2 undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were divided randomly into two groups of 75 patients each. RESULTS With the present study that oral premedication with Tab. Clonidine 150 mcg administered 90 minutes before surgery was able to prevent adverse haemodynamic changes during elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia. CONCLUSION Hence, from the findings of this study, we can reasonably recommend oral premedication with Tab. Clonidine 150 mcg in otherwise healthy patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy

  6. Effects of English and Persian Subtitles on Oral Fluency and Accuracy of Intermediate Iranian EFL Learners

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    Fatemeh Khosh Ayand

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempted to explore the effects of employing English and Persian subtitles on the Iranian EFL learners' oral fluency and accuracy. From among 100 intermediate Iranian EFL learners in Donyaye Sokhan Language Institute in Isfahan, Iran, 60 were selected in the wake of administering the PET (Preliminary English Test as the participants of the study, and were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group. The control group was exposed to movies without any subtitles, while one of the experimental groups watched movies with English subtitles and the other watched movies with Persian subtitles. The format of pretest and posttest was semi-structured interview in which students answered several questions. Fluency scores were derived out of the formula suggested by Yuan and Ellis (2003, while accuracy was quantified through Foster and Skehan’s (1996 procedure. The analysis of the obtained data via SPSS indicated that (a the successful performance of the participants in the experimental groups was shown to be attributable to using subtitles as a method for improving oral fluency and accuracy, (b there were no significant differences between the two experimental groups, and (c oral fluency and accuracy of the control group did not ameliorate significantly in the course of this experiment.

  7. The effect of three whitening oral rinses on enamel micro-hardness.

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    Potgieter, E; Osman, Y; Grobler, S R

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect on human enamel micro-hardness of three over-the-counter whitening oral rinses available in South Africa. Enamel fragments were gathered into three groups of 15 each. One group was exposed to Colgate Plax Whitening Blancheur, the second group to White Glo 2 in 1 and the third to Plus White, in each case for periods recommended by the respective manufacturers. Surface micro-hardness of all groups was measured before and after a 14 day treatment period. pH levels of the oral rinses were also determined with a combination pH electrode. Pre- and post- treatment data were analysed by the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Sum Test. According to the micro-hardness values no significant (p > 0.05) enamel damage was found as a result of treatment. However, it was observed that Colgate Pax and White Glo decreased the enamel hardness, an early sign of enamel damage, while Plus White showed a small increase in hardness. The three whitening oral rinses on the South African market do not damage the tooth enamel significantly when used as recommended by the manufacturers. However, extending the contact period and increasing the frequency of application might lead to damage of enamel.

  8. Locally advanced oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: Barriers related to effective treatment

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    K C Lakshmaiah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral cavity cancer is a significant health problem in India. Majority of patients present with locally advanced disease requiring multimodality treatment. Compliance to recommended treatment is an important factor affecting outcome. Aims: The aim was to evaluate the outcome of locally advanced oral cavity cancer patients with regards to treatment adherence and to assess reasons of noncompliance. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study. We included patients referred to Department of Medical Oncology for induction chemotherapy in view of locally advanced oral cavity cancer. Results: Only 15 (26% patients completed planned treatment schedule. Their 1 year overall survival was 93%. The remaining 43 patients who received inadequate treatment had a dismal 21% 1 year overall survival. Illiteracy, poverty, long waiting list for surgery, prolonged delay for health scheme treatment plan approval and dissatisfaction with attitude of hospital staffs are major barriers related to effective treatment of these patients. Conclusions: A detailed discussion with patient and their relatives regarding recommended treatment, proper implementation of health schemes, increasing trained manpower to avoid long waiting list for surgery, provision of additional financial support for family member accompanying the patient and a sympathetic approach toward patients are needed to help these patients overcome the battle.

  9. Effect of Adherence on Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Relationships of Oral Targeted Anticancer Drugs.

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    Cardoso, Evelina; Csajka, Chantal; Schneider, Marie P; Widmer, Nicolas

    2017-06-20

    The emergence of oral targeted anticancer agents transformed several cancers into chronic conditions with a need for long-term oral treatment. Although cancer is a life-threatening condition, oncology medication adherence-the extent to which a patient follows the drug regimen that is intended by the prescriber-can be suboptimal in the long term, as in any other chronic disease. Poor adherence can impact negatively on clinical outcomes, notably because most of these drugs are given as a standard non-individualized dosage despite marked inter-individual variabilities that can lead to toxic or inefficacious drug concentrations. This has been especially studied with the prototypal drug imatinib. In the context of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), increasingly advocated for oral anticancer treatment optimization, unreported suboptimal adherence affecting drug intake history may lead to significant bias in the concentration interpretation and inappropriate dosage adjustments. In the same way, suboptimal adherence may also bias the results of pharmacokinetic modeling studies, which will affect in turn Bayesian TDM interpretation that relies on such population models. Detailed knowledge of the influence of adherence on plasma concentrations in pharmacokinetic studies or in routine TDM programs is however presently missing in the oncology field. Studies on this topic are therefore eagerly awaited to better pilot the treatment of cancer with the new targeted agents and to find their optimal dosage regimen. Hence, the development and assessment of effective medication adherence programs are warranted for these treatments.

  10. Effect of UV-photofunctionalization on oral bacterial attachment and biofilm formation to titanium implant material.

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    de Avila, Erica Dorigatti; Lima, Bruno P; Sekiya, Takeo; Torii, Yasuyoshi; Ogawa, Takahiro; Shi, Wenyuan; Lux, Renate

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial biofilm infections remain prevalent reasons for implant failure. Dental implant placement occurs in the oral environment, which harbors a plethora of biofilm-forming bacteria. Due to its trans-mucosal placement, part of the implant structure is exposed to oral cavity and there is no effective measure to prevent bacterial attachment to implant materials. Here, we demonstrated that UV treatment of titanium immediately prior to use (photofunctionalization) affects the ability of human polymicrobial oral biofilm communities to colonize in the presence of salivary and blood components. UV-treatment of machined titanium transformed the surface from hydrophobic to superhydrophilic. UV-treated surfaces exhibited a significant reduction in bacterial attachment as well as subsequent biofilm formation compared to untreated ones, even though overall bacterial viability was not affected. The function of reducing bacterial colonization was maintained on UV-treated titanium that had been stored in a liquid environment before use. Denaturing gradient gel-electrophoresis (DGGE) and DNA sequencing analyses revealed that while bacterial community profiles appeared different between UV-treated and untreated titanium in the initial attachment phase, this difference vanished as biofilm formation progressed. Our findings confirm that UV-photofunctionalization of titanium has a strong potential to improve outcome of implant placement by creating and maintaining antimicrobial surfaces.

  11. Interactive Effects of the Carbon Paper, Sodium Bicarbonate and Oral Contraceptive Pills on Morphine Urine Test

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    Solhi, H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: A major problem for labs. esp. medicolegal centers is drug test false positive and negative results. Using carbonpaper, sodium bicarbonate or oral contraceptive pills (OCP are commonamong addict people to make the results negative. Therefore, we decidedto evaluate the effect of carbon paper, sodium bicarbonate or OCP onmorphine urine test.Material and Methods: We performed this pre-experimental study onthe urine samples of all people referred to narcotic drug laboratory ofMarkazi province during May of 2005. Of 2110 urine samples, theMorphine Rapid Test of 208 samples was positive. Then by means ofTLC method, we confirmed the presence of morphine metabolites in 150urine samples. After that, we divided these samples into three equalgroups for adding carbon paper, sodium bicarbonate or OCP.Results: The results show that in carbon paper group, 41 cases arepositive and nine cases unclear. In sodium bicarbonate group, 45 samplesare positive and 5 cases unclear. In estrogen conjugate group, all 50samples are positive.Conclusion: According to this study, adding carbon paper, sodiumbicarbonate or oral contraceptive pills cannot make negative theMorphine Rapid Test result.Key words: Morphine Rapid Test, Carbon paper, Sodium bicarbonate,Oral contraceptive pill.

  12. Antimicrobial effects of silver zeolite, silver zirconium phosphate silicate and silver zirconium phosphate against oral microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sirikamon Saengmee-anupharb; Toemsak Srikhirin; Boonyanit Thaweboon; Sroisiri Thaweboon; Taweechai Amornsakchai; Surachai Dechkunakorn; Theeralaksna Suddhasthira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activities of silver inorganic materials, including silver zeolite (AgZ), silver zirconium phosphate silicate (AgZrPSi) and silver zirconium phosphate (AgZrP), against oral microorganisms. In line with this objective, the morphology and structure of each type of silver based powders were also investigated. Methods: The antimicrobial activities of AgZ, AgZrPSi and AgZrP were tested against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, Candidaalbicans and Staphylococcus aureus using disk diffusion assay as a screening test. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum lethal concentration (MLC) were determined using the modified membrane method. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the morphology and structure of these silver materials. Results: All forms of silver inorganic materials could inhibit the growth of all test microorganisms. The MIC of AgZ, AgZrPSi and AgZrP was 10.0 g/L whereas MLC ranged between 10.0-60.0 g/L. In terms of morphology and structure, AgZrPSi and AgZrP had smaller sized particles (1.5-3.0 µm) and more uniformly shaped than AgZ. Conclusions: Silver inorganic materials in the form of AgZ, AgZrPSi and AgZrP had antimicrobial effects against all test oral microorganisms and those activities may be influenced by the crystal structure of carriers. These results suggest that these silver materials may be useful metals applied to oral hygiene products to provide antimicrobial activity against oral infection.

  13. Psychology of behaviour change is key to effective oral health promotion.

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    Holmes, Richard D

    2016-09-01

    oral health promotion in the dental surgery more effective.

  14. Pharmacokinetics and Concentration-Effect Relationship of Oral LSD in Humans.

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    Dolder, Patrick C; Schmid, Yasmin; Haschke, Manuel; Rentsch, Katharina M; Liechti, Matthias E

    2015-06-24

    The pharmacokinetics of oral lysergic acid diethylamide are unknown despite its common recreational use and renewed interest in its use in psychiatric research and practice. We characterized the pharmacokinetic profile, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship, and urine recovery of lysergic acid diethylamide and its main metabolite after administration of a single oral dose of lysergic acid diethylamide (200 μg) in 8 male and 8 female healthy subjects. Plasma lysergic acid diethylamide concentrations were quantifiable (>0.1 ng/mL) in all the subjects up to 12 hours after administration. Maximal concentrations of lysergic acid diethylamide (mean±SD: 4.5±1.4 ng/mL) were reached (median, range) 1.5 (0.5-4) hours after administration. Concentrations then decreased following first-order kinetics with a half-life of 3.6±0.9 hours up to 12 hours and slower elimination thereafter with a terminal half-life of 8.9±5.9 hours. One percent of the orally administered lysergic acid diethylamide was eliminated in urine as lysergic acid diethylamide, and 13% was eliminated as 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-lysergic acid diethylamide within 24 hours. No sex differences were observed in the pharmacokinetic profiles of lysergic acid diethylamide. The acute subjective and sympathomimetic responses to lysergic acid diethylamide lasted up to 12 hours and were closely associated with the concentrations in plasma over time and exhibited no acute tolerance. These first data on the pharmacokinetics and concentration-effect relationship of oral lysergic acid diethylamide are relevant for further clinical studies and serve as a reference for the assessment of intoxication with lysergic acid diethylamide. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  15. Radioprotective effects of oral 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin in mice: bone marrow and small intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Our previous research demonstrated that one subcutaneous injection of 17-Dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG) 24 hours (h) before irradiation (8.75 Gy) increased mouse survival by 75%. However, the protective mechanism of 17-DMAG is currently unknown. The present study aimed to investigate whether oral administration of 17-DMAG was also radioprotective and the potential role it may play in radioprotection. Results A single dose of orally pre-administered (24, 48, or 72 h) 17-DMAG (10 mg/kg) increased irradiated mouse survival, reduced body weight loss, improved water consumption, and decreased facial dropsy, whereas orally post-administered 17-DMAG failed. Additional oral doses of pre-treatment did not improve 30-day survival. The protective effect of multiple pre-administrations (2−3 times) of 17-DMAG at 10 mg/kg was equal to the outcome of a single pre-treatment. In 17-DMAG-pretreated mice, attenuation of bone marrow aplasia in femurs 30 days after irradiation with recovered expressions of cluster of differentiation 34, 44 (CD34, CD44), and survivin in bone marrow cells were observed. 17-DMAG also elevated serum granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), decreased serum fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand, and reduced white blood cell depletion. 17-DMAG ameliorated small intestinal histological damage, promoted recovery of villus heights and intestinal crypts including stem cells, where increased leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) was found 30 days after irradiation. Conclusions 17-DMAG is a potential radioprotectant for bone marrow and small intestine that results in survival improvement. PMID:24499553

  16. Nanostructured lipid carriers used for oral delivery of oridonin: an effect of ligand modification on absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaotong; Zhang, Xingwang; Ye, Yanghuan; Zhang, Tianpeng; Wang, Huan; Ma, Zhiguo; Wu, Baojian

    2015-02-20

    Oridonin (Ori) is a natural compound with notable anti-inflammation and anti-cancer activities. However, therapeutic use of this compound is limited by its poor solubility and low bioavailability. Here a novel biotin-modified nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) was developed to enhance the bioavailability of Ori. The effect of ligand (biotin) modification on oral absorption of Ori encapsulated in NLCs was also explored. Ori-loaded NLCs (Ori-NLCs) were prepared by the melt dispersion-high pressure homogenization method. Biotin modification of Ori-NLCs was achieved by EDC and NHS in aqueous phase. The obtained biotin-decorated Ori-NLCs (Bio-Ori-NLCs) were 144.9nm in size with an entrapment efficiency of 49.54% and a drug load of 4.81%. Oral bioavailability was enhanced by use of Bio-Ori-NLCs with a relative bioavailability of 171.01%, while the value of non-modified Ori-NLCs was improved to 143.48%. Intestinal perfusion showed that Ori solution unexpectedly exhibited a moderate permeability, indicating that permeability was not a limiting factor of Ori absorption. Ori could be rapidly metabolized that was the main cause of low bioavailability. However, there was a difference in the enhancement of bioavailability between Bio-Ori-NLCs and conventional NLCs. Although severe lipolyses happened both on Bio-Ori-NLCs and non-modified NLCs, the performance of Bio-Ori-NLCs in the bioavailability improvement was more significant. Overall, Bio-Ori-NLCs can further promote the oral absorption of Ori by a ligand-mediated active transport. It may be a promising carrier for the oral delivery of Ori. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Oral Appliances Therapy

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    ... your sleep doctor may schedule you for a sleep study to verify treatment success. Follow-Up Visits Follow-up visits with your dentist will be needed to ensure the optimal fit of the oral appliance. Effective oral appliances ...

  18. Effectiveness of reactive oral cholera vaccination in rural Haiti: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Louise C; Hilaire, Isabelle J; Teng, Jessica E; Almazor, Charles P; Jerome, J Gregory; Ternier, Ralph; Boncy, Jacques; Buteau, Josiane; Murray, Megan B; Harris, Jason B; Franke, Molly F

    2015-01-01

    Background Between April and June 2012, a reactive cholera vaccination campaign was conducted in Haiti using an oral inactivated bivalent whole-cell vaccine (BivWC). Methods We conducted a case-control study to estimate field effectiveness of the vaccine. Cases had acute watery diarrhea, sought treatment at one of three participating cholera treatment units from October 24, 2012 through March 9, 2014, and had a stool sample positive for cholera by culture. For each case, four controls (individuals who did not seek treatment for acute watery diarrhea) were matched by location of residence, calendar time, and age. We also conducted a bias-indicator case-control study to assess the likelihood of bias in the vaccine effectiveness (VE) study. Findings During the study period, 114 eligible individuals presented with acute watery diarrhea and were enrolled. 47 were analyzed as cases in the VE case-control study and 42 as cases in the bias-indicator study. In multivariable analyses, VE was 63% [95% confidence interval (CI): 8%–85%] by self-reported vaccination and 58% [95% CI: 13%–80%] for verified vaccination. Neither self-reported nor verified vaccination was significantly associated with non-cholera diarrhea (VE: 18% [95% CI: −208%–−78%] by self-report and −21% [95%CI: −238%–57%] for verified vaccination). Interpretation BivWC oral cholera vaccine was effective in protecting against cholera in Haiti during the study period –from 4 through 24 months after vaccination. Vaccination is an important component of epidemic cholera control efforts. Funding National Institutes of Health, Delivering Oral Vaccines Effectively project, Department of Global Health and Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School. PMID:25701994

  19. Comparative oral and topical decongestant effects of phenylpropanolamine and d-pseudoephedrine.

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    Erickson, C H; McLeod, R L; Mingo, G G; Egan, R W; Pedersen, O F; Hey, J A

    2001-01-01

    Nonselective adrenergic alpha-agonists such as phenylpropanolamine and d-pseudoephedrine are widely used as decongestants to treat nasal congestion associated with a variety of nasal diseases. Although the activity of these drugs is well established in clinical studies, a direct comparison of their nasal decongestant effect as determined by changes in nasal cavity dimensions and nasal architecture has not been studied. Using acoustic rhinometry, we evaluated the effects of these drugs on nasal cavity volume, minimum cross-sectional area (Amin), and the distance from the nosepiece to the Amin (Dmin) in a feline, pharmacological model of nasal congestion. Administration of topical compound 48/80 (1%), a mast cell histamine liberator, into the left nasal passageway decreased nasal volume by 66%, reduced Amin by 51%, and increased Dmin by 116%. The congestive responses to compound 48/80 (1%) were reproducible through six weeks. In a subset of cats, the nasal cavity volume effect of repetitive exposure to compound 48/80, given once every two weeks for six weeks, was not different from the nasal responses after the initial exposure to compound 48/80. Pretreatment with oral phenylpropanolamine (10 mg/kg) or oral d-pseudoephedrine (10 mg/kg) attenuated the nasal effects of compound 48/80, but were associated with a pronounced increase in systolic blood pressure of +51 and +82 mmHg, respectively. A similar decongestant profile was observed with phenylpropanolamine (1%) and d-pseudoephedrine (1%) when given topically. Topical phenylpropanolamine (1%) and d-pseudoephedrine (1%) 45 minutes after dosing increased blood pressure +44 and +17 mmHg, respectively, over control animals. We conclude that oral and topical phenylpropanolamine and d-pseudoephedrine display equieffective nasal decongestant activity and produce similar cardiovascular profiles characterized by significant increases in blood pressure.

  20. Cytotoxic Effect of Thymus caramanicus Jalas on Human Oral Epidermoid Carcinoma KB Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekrazad, Reza; Afzali, Mehrad; Pasban-Aliabadi, Hamzeh; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Aminizadeh, Maryam; Mostafavi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Identifying new chemotherapeutic agents with fewer side effects is a major concern for scientists today. Thymus caramanicus Jalas (Lamiaceae family) is one of the species of Thymus that grows wild in different regions of Iran. Traditionally, leaves of this plant are used in the treatment of diabetes, arthritis and cancer. Here was investigated the cytotoxic property of Thymus caramanicus essential oil and extract in human oral epidermoid carcinoma KB cells. Cell viability was measured by MTT and neutral red assays. The cells were exposed to different concentrations of essential oil (0.05-1 µL/mL) and extract (25-150 µg/mL) for 24 h. Doxorubicin was used as anticancer control drug. The data showed that the essential oil (IC50=0.44 µL/mL) and extract (IC50=105 µg/mL) induce potent cytotoxic property. Surprisingly, cytotoxic effects of essential oil and extract of this plant on KB cancer cells were greater than those on normal gingival HGF1-PI1 cell line. In addition, Thymus caramanicus could potentiate the effect of doxorubicin in sub-effective concentrations. The results of the present study indicate that essential oils and extracts of Thymus caramanicus have potential anti-proliferative property on KB cells and can be used as pharmaceutical case study for oral cancer treatments.

  1. Acute effects of sono-activated photocatalytic titanium dioxide nanoparticles on oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi Nejad, S; Takahashi, Hiromasa; Hosseini, Hamid; Watanabe, Akiko; Endo, Hitomi; Narihira, Kyoichi; Kikuta, Toshihiro; Tachibana, Katsuro

    2016-09-01

    Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) is a new treatment modality using ultrasound to activate certain chemical sensitizers for cancer therapy. In this study, effects of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with photocatalytic titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on human oral squamous cell line HSC-2 were investigated. Viability of HSC-2 cells after 0, 0.1, 1, or 3s of HIFU irradiation with 20, 32, 55 and 73Wcm(-2) intensities in the presence or absence of TiO2 was measured immediately after the exposures in vitro. Immediate effects of HIFU (3s, 73Wcm(-2)) combined with TiO2 on solid tumors were also examined by histological study. Cytotoxic effect of HIFU+TiO2in vitro was significantly higher than that of TiO2 or HIFU alone with the tendency to increase for higher HIFU intensity, duration, and TiO2 concentration in the suspension. In vivo results showed significant necrosis and tissue damage in HIFU and HIFU+TiO2 treated samples. However, penetration of TiO2 nanoparticles into the cell cytoplasm was only observed in HIFU+TiO2 treated tissues. In this study, our findings provide a rational basis for the development of an effective HIFU based sonodynamic activation method. This approach offers an attractive non-invasive therapy technique for oral cancer in future.

  2. EFFECT OF ORAL CLONIDINE PREMEDICATION ON THE ONSET AND DURATION OF SPINAL ANESTHESIA WITH HYPERBARIC BUPIVACAINE

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    Shruthi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spinal anesthesia is the most common technique used for lower abdominal surgeries. Hyperbaric Bupivacaine has limited duration of action. Clonidine has been used to prolong the duration of local anaesthetic. Hence in our study, we studied the effects of oral clonidine premedication on spinal anaesthesia with hyperbaric Bupivacaine with reference to sedation, onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade including its effects on hemodynamic status. METHODS: Prospective randomized, double – blinded placebo, control study, two groups of thirty patients each were selected. One group (Group C received 150μg clonidine tablets and the other group (Group B received placebo, 90 minutes before anesthesia. Primary outcome were sedation, onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade. Hemodynamic and other effects of the study drug were the secondary outcomes. RESULT: It was observed that clonidine premedication resulted in higher incidence of moderate sedation, hastens the onset of sensory block but has no effect on the onset of motor blockade. It prolonged the duration of sensory and motor blockade. Clonidine at a dose of 150μg is not associated with any greater change in heart rate and blood pressure following spinal anesthesia. CONCLUSION: We conclude that oral clonidine premedication,in patients with hyperbaric bupivacaine hastesns the onset of sensory block and prolongs the duration of sensory and motor anesthesia with moderate sedation.

  3. Consistent antioxidant and antihypertensive effects of oral sodium nitrite in DOCA-salt hypertension

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    Jefferson H. Amaral

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common disease that includes oxidative stress as a major feature, and oxidative stress impairs physiological nitric oxide (NO activity promoting cardiovascular pathophysiological mechanisms. While inorganic nitrite and nitrate are now recognized as relevant sources of NO after their bioactivation by enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways, thus lowering blood pressure, mounting evidence suggests that sodium nitrite also exerts antioxidant effects. Here we show for the first time that sodium nitrite exerts consistent systemic and vascular antioxidant and antihypertensive effects in the deoxycorticosterone-salt (DOCA-salt hypertension model. This is particularly important because increased oxidative stress plays a major role in the DOCA-salt hypertension model, which is less dependent on activation of the renin-angiotensin system than other hypertension models. Indeed, antihypertensive effects of oral nitrite were associated with increased plasma nitrite and nitrate concentrations, and completely blunted hypertension-induced increases in plasma 8-isoprostane and lipid peroxide levels, in vascular reactive oxygen species, in vascular NADPH oxidase activity, and in vascular xanthine oxidoreductase activity. Together, these findings provide evidence that the oral administration of sodium nitrite consistently decreases the blood pressure in association with major antioxidant effects in experimental hypertension.

  4. The Effectiveness of Topical Pimecrolimus in the Treatment of Oral Lichen Planus

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    Mehmet Kamil Mülayim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Oral lichen planus (OLP is a chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology that affects the skin and the mucosa, especially the oral mucosa. Several therapeutic agents have been investigated for the treatment of OLP. All agents used in the OLP therapy are palliative. Potent topical steroids are used as the conventional therapy for OLP. Since side-effects or steroid resistance may be encountered, alternative treatments may be necessary. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the topical pimecrolimus in the treatment of OLP. Methods: Seventeen patients with OLP were recruited into this study. Topical pimecrolimus 1% cream was applied twice a day to the affected areas. Patients were followed up for 3-6 months. Photographs of the lesions were taken and analyzed for areas of ulceration, erythema, and reticulation in every clinical examination. Results: We found that topical pimecrolimus 1% cream was an effective treatment for OLP. Two patients could not complete the treatment protocol because of the side effects such as local irritation and nausea. Conclusion: Topical pimecrolimus may be a valuable second treatment choice for patients with steroid-related side-effects or steroid-resistant OLP. However further randomized controlled studies have to be conducted to compare conventional treatment of topical corticosteroid with topical pimecrolimus.

  5. Effects of oral iron chelator deferasirox on human malignant lymphoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong Gwon; Kim, Jung-Lim; Park, Joohee; Lee, Soonwook; Park, Seh Jong; Kim, Jun Suk

    2012-01-01

    Background Iron is essential for cell proliferation and viability. It has been reported that iron depletion by a chelator inhibits proliferation of some cancer cells. Deferasirox is a new oral iron chelator, and a few reports have described its effects on lymphoma cells. The goal of this study was to determine the anticancer effects of deferasirox in malignant lymphoma cell lines. Methods Three human malignant lymphoma cell lines (NCI H28:N78, Ramos, and Jiyoye) were treated with deferasirox at final concentrations of 20, 50, or 100 µM. Cell proliferation was evaluated by an MTT assay, and cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the relative activity of various apoptotic pathways. The role of caspase in deferasirox-induced apoptosis was investigated using a luminescent assay. Results The MTT assay showed that deferasirox had dose-dependent cytotoxic effects on all 3 cell lines. Cell cycle analysis showed that the sub-G1 portion increased in all 3 cell lines as the concentration of deferasirox increased. Early apoptosis was also confirmed in the treated cells by Annexin V and PI staining. Western blotting showed an increase in the cleavage of PARP, caspase 3/7, and caspase 9 in deferasirox-treated groups. Conclusion We demonstrated that deferasirox, a new oral iron-chelating agent, induced early apoptosis in human malignant lymphoma cells, and this apoptotic effect is dependent on the caspase-3/caspase-9 pathway. PMID:23071474

  6. Simvastatin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles for improved oral bioavailability and sustained release: Effect of formulation variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Soni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to prepare a nanoparticulate formulation of simvastatin (SV for improving oral bioavailability and sustaining the drug release while investigating the effect of various formulation parameters on characteristics of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles containing SV were prepared by a modified emulsification solvent evaporation technique using a biodegradable polymer, poly(d,l-lactide-coglycolide (PLGA as a sustained release carrier. The effect of various formulation parameters such as drug polymer ratios (SV:PLGA, 1:4 to 1:1, organic solvents (methanol/dichloromethane, and surfactants (PVA/polysorbate-80 in a fixed concentration (0.5%, w/v were studied for particle size, drug loading, and entrapment efficiency. Nanoparticles were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and their shapes were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. An aqueous solubility study indicated that the dissolution rates were remarkably increased for nanoparticles compared with the drug alone. The in vitro drug release study of the nanoparticles showed a biphasic release pattern: one initial burst release of 40.56% in the first 4 h which can be helpful to improve the penetration of drug followed by a second slow-release phase (extended release consistent with a Higuchi diffusion mechanism. The hypolipidemic activity of nanoparticles was determined in comparison with SV in male Wistar rats for changes in total cholesterol (CH and triglyceride (TG levels in blood. Nanoparticles showed a significantly better in vivo performance than SV in reducing total CH and TG levels which is primarily attributed to the improved solubility and dissolution of nanoparticles. Together, these results indicate that nanoparticulate formulations are ideal carriers for oral administration of SV having great potential to improve the oral bioavailability and sustain the drug release, thereby minimizing the dose-dependent adverse effects and maximizing

  7. Antimicrobial Effect of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles on Some Oral Bacteria and Candida Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiri M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Acid producing bacteria including Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli cause tooth demineralization and lead to tooth decay. Also, oral colonization of the species of Candida has been reported in many studies that are resistant to antifungal agents. Objectives: In this study, antibacterial and antifungal effects of nano-CuO were studied against some oral bacteria and yeast fungi. Materials and Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs for oral bacterial and fungal test strains were determined in 96-well microtiter plate technique. The agar diffusion test (ADT was employed to assess the antifungal properties of nystatin. Results: The MIC50 value of CuO NPs was determined at the range of 1–10 µg/ml for S. mutans, < 1 µg/ml for L. acidophilus, and 10 µg/ml for L. casei. Higher concentrations of CuO NPs (100-1000 µg/ml were effective on the bacterial cell growth, resulting in 100% reduction in the optical density in TSB medium. The cells of Candida albicans, C. krusei and C. glabrata were treated with CuO NPs and the results showed a decrease in fungal growth at a concentration of 1-1000 µg/ml in TSB medium. The MIC50 value of CuO NPs was determined 1000 µg/ml for three species of Candida. The diameter of growth inhibition zones of 1100 µg/ml nystatin was obtained 15-21 mm for clinical isolates of three species of Candida. Conclusions: With respect to the potential bactericidal activity of CuO NPs on various cariogenic bacteria examined in this study, these NPs could be introduce as a candidate control agent for preventing dental caries or dental infections. In our study, on the other hand, Nano copper oxide had a weak effect on the candida species.

  8. Lupeol evokes anticancer effects in oral squamous cell carcinoma by inhibiting oncogenic EGFR pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauth, Sanchita; Ray, Sudipta; Bhattacharyya, Sayantan; Mehrotra, Debapriya Ghosh; Alam, Neyaz; Mondal, Goutam; Nath, Partha; Roy, Asoke; Biswas, Jaydip; Murmu, Nabendu

    2016-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway is overexpressed in head and neck cancer (HNC). Lupeol, a natural triterpene (phytosterol found in fruits, vegetables, etc.), has been reported to be effective against multiple cancer indications. Here we investigate the antitumor effects of Lupeol and underlying mechanism in oral cancer. Lupeol-induced antitumor response was evaluated in two oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines (UPCI:SCC131 and UPCI:SCC084) by viability (MTT), proliferation, and colony formation assays. Lupeol-mediated induction of apoptosis was examined by caspase 3/7 assay and flow cytometry. Effect of Lupeol on EGFR in the presence or absence of EGF was delineated by Western blot. The mRNA stability assay was performed to check the role of Lupeol on COX-2 mRNA regulation. Lupeol inhibited proliferation of OSCC cells in vitro by inducing apoptosis 48 h post treatment. Ligand-induced phosphorylation of EGFR and subsequent activation of its downstream molecules such as protein kinase B (PKB or AKT), I kappa B (IκB), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) was also found to be, in part, suppressed. Interestingly, Lupeol suppressed expression of COX-2 at mRNA and protein level in a time-dependent manner. Primary explants from oral squamous cell carcinoma tissues further confirmed significant inhibition of proliferation (Ki67) in Lupeol-treated explants as compared to untreated control at 48 h. Together these data suggest that Lupeol may act as a potent inhibitor of the EGFR signaling in OSCC and therefore imply its role in triggering antitumor efficacy.

  9. Effects of the neonatal intensive care unit environment on preterm infant oral feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickler RH

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rita H Pickler,1 Jacqueline M McGrath,2 Barbara A Reyna,3 Heather L Tubbs-Cooley,1 Al M Best4, Mary Lewis,3 Sharon Cone,3 Paul A Wetzel51Department of Patient Services, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA; 2School of Nursing, University of Connecticut and Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Hartford, CT, USA; 3VCU Medical Center, Children's Hospital of Richmond, Richmond, VA, USA; 4School of Dentistry, 5School of Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USAObjective: To examine the effect of neonatal intensive care unit environmental characteristics (perceived levels of light and sound, and time of day in open unit wards and single-family rooms (SFRs on oral feeding outcomes in preterm infants.Design: Data were collected at each scheduled oral feeding for 87 preterm infants from the first oral feeding until discharge. Data included the prescribed volume of feeding and the volume consumed, the infant's level of wakefulness before feeding, and the nurse's perception of light and sound.Results: Data were collected on 5111 feedings in the ward unit and 5802 in the SFR unit from feedings involving 87 preterm infants. Light and sound were rated significantly lower in the SFR (χ2 = 139 and 1654.8, respectively. Feeding times of 9 am, 12 noon, and 3 pm were associated with the highest perceived levels of light and sound, regardless of unit design (P < 0.0001. Moderate light levels and feeding times of 12, 3, and 6 am were associated with improved feeding outcomes. Infants consumed a greater proportion of their prescribed feeding volume when fed in the open ward and when awake before feeding.Conclusion: Further study on the clinical effects of unit design is needed, as is study on the effects of environmental stimuli, so that interventions can be appropriately developed and tailored for infants needing the most support for optimal development.Keywords: NICU design, clinical outcomes, environment

  10. Anti-inflammatory effects of orally administered glucosamine oligomer in an experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kazuo; Osaki, Tomohiro; Kurozumi, Seiji; Kiyose, Masatoshi; Tsuka, Takeshi; Murahata, Yusuke; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Itoh, Norihiko; Minami, Saburo; Sato, Kimihiko; Okamoto, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-22

    Anti-inflammatory effects of oral administration of the glucosamine oligomers (chito-oligosaccharides: COS) were evaluated in an experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Oral administration of COS improved shortening of colon length and tissue injury (as assessed by histology) in mice. Oral administration of COS inhibited inflammation in the colonic mucosa by suppression of myeloperoxidase activation in inflammatory cells, as well as activation of nuclear factor-kappa B, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Oral administration of COS also reduced serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6). Moreover, it prolonged survival time in mice. These data suggest that COS have anti-inflammatory effects in an experimental model of IBD, and could be new functional foods for IBD patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical effects of an oral supplement rich in antioxidants on skin radiance in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumoulin M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Marion Dumoulin, David Gaudout, Benoit Lemaire Activ’Inside, Libourne, France Background: Environmental factors impact the skin aging resulting in decrease of skin radiance. Nutrition and particularly antioxidants could help to fight against skin degradation.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an oral supplement rich in specific antioxidants, SkinAx2TM, on the improvement of the skin radiance in women.Methods: The open-label clinical study enrolled 35 women, aged 40–70, with facial dull complexion. Subjects were supplemented orally with a daily dosage of 150 mg of an antioxidant-rich formulation containing superoxide dismutase-rich melon concentrate, grape seed extract rich in monomers of flavanols, vitamin C, and zinc for 8 weeks. Each subject served as her own control. The C.L.B.T.™ test has been used to evaluate facial skin coloring (C, luminosity (L, brightness (B, and transparency (T involved in skin radiance. Facial skin imperfections have been assessed by clinical assessment. Firmness has been evaluated by clinical assessment and cutometer measurement. Finally, an auto-questionnaire has been carried out in order to evaluate the satisfaction of the subjects concerning different parameters involved in skin radiance and the global efficacy of the supplement.Results: Skin “red pink” and “olive” colors were significantly improved after supplementation (P<0.0001. Luminosity was increased by 25.9% (P<0.0001 whereas brightness and transparency were not affected by the supplementation. Facial skin imperfections were significantly reduced after the antioxidant-rich formulation intake (global reduction: –18.0%; P<0.0001. Indeed, dark circles, redness, and spots significantly diminished after oral treatment. Firmness and elasticity have been shown to be improved. Subjects were globally satisfied by the product (82.4% and have found improvements on their facial skin. Furthermore, 64.7% reported to look

  12. Analgesic effect of topical oral capsaicin gel in burning mouth syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette Rose; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of repeated topical application of oral capsaicin gel in two different concentrations for relief of burning/stinging sensations in patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: This randomized double-blind cross-over study included 22...... improved the burning/stinging symptoms assessed on VAS compared with baseline (p = 0.002). There was no statistically significant difference between the two concentrations of the gels on relieving symptoms. Four patients dropped out during the intervention period due to gastrointestinal side...

  13. Effect of papaverine and atropine on pharmacokinetics of paracetamol administered orally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcicki, J; Kaźmierczyk, J; Gawrońska-Szklarz, B; Samochowiec, L

    1979-01-01

    The effect of intramuscular injection of atropine and papaverine on the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of paracetamol in healthy men was investigated. The open two-compartment model was applied and the calculations were performed using a program for the Hewlett-Packard 9830 B system. An increase of the extent of bioavailability of paracetamol was observed after the atropine administration, however the absorption of the drug was delayed. The administration of papaverine did not change the AUC and Cmax, but tmax was significantly longer.

  14. Evaluation of effect of topical ozone therapy on salivary Candidal carriage in oral candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isha Khatri

    2015-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: There was gradual but significant reduction in Candidal CFU count in both groups. At the end of the treatment, Candidal CFU count reduction in ozone group (60.5% reduction was more than the clotrimazole group (32.3% reduction. 14 patients (70% with candidiasis in ozone group were reduced to 6 (30% whereas only 8 patients (40% out of 13 (65% in clotrimazole group, although intergroup comparison was not statistically significant. Ozone therapy was much more effective in reducing the patients with candidiasis to a state of carriers. These findings suggest that ozonated water might be useful to treat oral candidiasis.

  15. Effects of iron-oxide nanoparticles and magnetic fields on oral biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alas, Gema; Pagano, Ronald E.; Nguyen, Jane Q.; Bandara, H. M. H. Nihal; Ivanov, Sergei A.; Smolyakov, Gennady A.; Huber, Dale L.; Smyth, Hugh D. C.; Osiński, Marek

    2017-02-01

    Human mouth is a host of a large gamut of bacteria species, with over 700 of different bacteria strains identified. Most of these bacterial species are harmless, some are beneficial (such as probiotics assisting in food digestion), but some are responsible for various diseases, primarily tooth decay and gum diseases such as gingivitis and periodontitis. For example, Streptococus mutans produces enamel-eroding acids, while Porphyromonas gingivalis is strongly linked to periodontitis. In this paper, we report on the effects of exposure of oral biofilms to iron oxide nanoparticles and static magnetic fields as possible bactericidal agent.

  16. The immunological effects of oral polio vaccine provided with BCG vaccine at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Karkov, Hanne Sophie; Lund, Najaaraq

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaccines may have non-specific effects. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau suggested that oral polio vaccine at birth (OPV0) provided with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine was associated with down-regulation of the immune response to BCG vaccine 6 weeks later. Based...... BCG alone at birth, and subsequently randomised to have a blood sample taken at 2, 4 or 6 weeks post-randomisation. Excreted levels of cytokines (IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ) were measured from whole blood in vitro stimulations with a panel of recall vaccine antigens (BCG, PPD, OPV), mitogen...

  17. Effect of oral salt loading on blood pressure and lymphocyte sodium metabolism in borderline hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, K E; Jest, P; Klitgaard, N A

    1986-01-01

    A randomized double-blind cross-over trial was performed to test the effects of oral salt loading (normal diet + 200 mmol NaCl/day for 4 weeks followed by normal diet + 400 mmol/day for 1 week) against placebo on blood pressure and lymphocyte sodium homeostasis in 10 young borderline hypertensive...... men, genetically predisposed for essential hypertension. Salt loading caused no significant changes in blood pressure levels, lymphocyte sodium content and efflux. In conclusion, our subjects seem insensitive to a few weeks of excessive salt intake....

  18. Effects of oral L-carnitine and DL-carnitine supplementation on alloxan-diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Barbosa Bazotte; Gisele Lopes-Bertolini

    2012-01-01

    The effect of oral L-carnitine (LC) or DL-carnitine (DLC) supplementation during one or four weeks (200 or 400 mg.kg-1.day-1) in diabetic rats was investigated. After the supplementation period, the blood was collected for the evaluation of total (TC) and free L-carnitine (FC), glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triacylglycerol. Tissues were collected for the determination of TC and FC concentrations. The c...

  19. Effectiveness of a Motivation and Practical Skills Development Methods on the Oral Hygiene of Orphans Children in Kaunas, Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markeviciute, Greta; Narbutaite, Julija

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a motivation and practical skills development methods on the oral hygiene of orphans. Sixty eight orphans aged between 7 and 17 years from two orphanages in Kaunas were divided into two groups: practical application group and motivation group. Children were clinically examined by determining their oral hygiene status using Silness-Löe plaque index. Questionnaire was used to estimate the oral hygiene knowledge and practices at baseline and after 3 months. Statistical analysis included: Chi-square test (χ(2)), Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test, nonparametric Mann-Whitney test, Spearman's rho correlation coefficient and Kappa coefficient. All children had a plaque on at least one tooth in both groups: motivation 1.14 (SD 0.51), practical application 1.08 (SD 0.4) (P = 0.58). Girls in both groups showed significantly better oral hygiene than boys (P oral hygiene status improved in both groups significantly 0.4 (SD 0.35) (P oral hygiene was determined in practical application group 0.19 (SD 0.27) in comparison with motivation group 0.55 (SD 0.32) (P oral hygiene, especially when they're based on practical skills training.

  20. Effect of oral sucrose shortly before exercise on work capacity in McArdle disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.T.; Haller, R.G.; Vissing, J.

    2008-01-01

    ingestion of either 75 g of sucrose or a placebo 40 minutes before exercise, or 37 g of sucrose or a placebo 5 minutes before exercise. Patients were blinded to test substances. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Treatment effectiveness was assessed by monitoring heart rate and perceived exertion during exercise......BACKGROUND: Oral sucrose (75 g) ingested 40 minutes before exercise improves exercise tolerance in McArdle disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a lower dose of sucrose administered closer in time to exercise could have a similar beneficial effect on exercise capacity in patients with Mc....... RESULTS: Both sucrose treatments dramatically improved exercise tolerance, compared with the placebo. The low-dose, 5-minute sucrose trial had a more sustained effect on exercise capacity than the 40-minute trial. The more sustained effect was probably related to more continuous glucose uptake from...

  1. Effects of orally administered yeast-derived beta-glucans: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsen, Anne Berit C; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen; Knutsen, Svein H

    2014-01-01

    Yeast-derived beta-glucans (Y-BG) are considered immunomodulatory compounds suggested to enhance the defense against infections and exert anticarcinogenic effects. Specific preparations have received Generally Recognized as Safe status and acceptance as novel food ingredients by European Food Safety Authority. In human trials, orally administered Y-BG significantly reduced the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections in individuals susceptible to upper respiratory tract infections, whereas significant differences were not seen in healthy individuals. Increased salivary IgA in healthy individuals, increased IL-10 levels in obese subjects, beneficial changes in immunological parameters in allergic patients, and activated monocytes in cancer patients have been reported following Y-BG intake. The studies were conducted with different doses (7.5-1500 mg/day), using different preparations that vary in their primary structure, molecular weight, and solubility. In animal models, oral Y-BG have reduced the incidence of bacterial infections and levels of stress-induced cytokines and enhanced antineoplastic effects of cytotoxic agents. Protective effects toward drug intoxication and ischemia/reperfusion injury have also been reported. In conclusion, additional studies following good clinical practice principles are needed in which well-defined Y-BG preparations are used and immune markers and disease endpoints are assessed. Since optimal dosing may depend on preparation characteristics, dose-response curves might be assessed to find the optimal dose for a specific preparation. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Effect of electric toothbrush on residents' oral hygiene: a randomized clinical trial in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjeld, Katrine G; Mowe, Morten; Eide, Hilde; Willumsen, Tiril

    2014-04-01

    A single-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial was performed to investigate the effect of electric toothbrushes (ET) compared with manual toothbrushes (MT) on residents in nursing homes and to evaluate the caregiver's opinion on ET. A sample of 180 nursing-home residents were given either a new ET or a new MT. Oral examinations were performed to measure dental hygiene, using the Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified (OHI-S). Both groups received the same instructions for use. After 2 months participants were re-examined. Questionnaires were then sent to their caregivers. Participants' mean age was 86.1 ± 7.7 yr, and the mean number of remaining teeth was 20 ± 5.6. No specific intervention effect was found for ET. Both groups showed identical improvements in the OHI-S, from 1.27 ± 0.63 at baseline (the mean value for all participants) to 1.01 ± 0.53 after 2 months. Of 152 caregivers who responded to the questionnaire, the majority evaluated ET to be beneficial and less time-consuming compared with MT, also for demented residents. In a frail population, no difference is found in the effect of ET compared with MT. However, the ET appears to be a useful aid for residents who receive assistance with dental hygiene.

  3. An investigation of the effect of gastrointestinal microbial activity on oral arsenic bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Brian D; James, Kyle J; Van de Wiele, Tom R; Dodd, Matt; Casteel, Stan W; Wickstrom, Mark; Siciliano, Steven D

    2013-01-01

    In vitro gastrointestinal (GI) microbial activity in the colon compartment facilitates the arsenic release from soils into simulated GI fluids. Consequentially, it is possible that in vitro models that neglect to include microbial activity underestimate arsenic bioaccessibility when calculating oral exposure. However, the toxicological relevance of increased arsenic release due to microbial activity is contingent upon the subsequent absorption of arsenic solubilized in the GI lumen. The objectives of this research are to: (1) assess whether microbes in the in vitro small intestine affect arsenic solubilization from soils, (2) determine whether differences in the GI microbial community result in differences in the oral bioavailability of soil-borne arsenic. In vitro GI microbial activity in the distal small intestine increased arsenic release from soils; however, these effects were unlikely to be relevant since they were transient and demonstrated small effect sizes. In vivo arsenic absorption for juvenile swine was unaffected by antibiotic treatment. Therefore, it appears that microbial effects on arsenic release do not result in increased arsenic bioavailability. However, it remains to be seen whether the results for the limited set of soils described herein can be extrapolated to arsenic contaminated sites in general.

  4. The effects of swallowing disorders, dysgeusia, oral mucositis and xerostomia on nutritional status, oral intake and weight loss in head and neck cancer patients: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Valentina; Stevanin, Simone; Bianchi, Monica; Aleo, Giuseppe; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Sasso, Loredana

    2016-04-01

    Combined-modality treatment of head and neck cancer is becoming more common, driven by the idea that organ(s) preservation should maintain patient appearance and the function of organ(s) involved. Even if treatments have improved, they can still be associated with acute and late adverse effects. The aim of this systematic review was to retrieve current data on how swallowing disorders, dysgeusia, oral mucositis, and xerostomia affect nutritional status, oral intake and weight loss in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. A systematic literature search covered four relevant electronic databases from January 2005 to May 2015. Retrieved papers were categorised and evaluated considering their methodological quality. Two independent reviewers reviewed manuscripts and abstracted data using a standardised form. Quality assessment of the included studies was performed using the Edwards Method Score. Of the 1459 abstracts reviewed, a total of 25 studies were included. The most studied symptom was dysphagia, even if symptoms were interconnected and affected one other. In most of the selected studies the level of evidence was between 2 and 3, and their quality level was from medium to low. There are limited data about dysgeusia, oral mucositis and xerostomia outcomes available for HNC patients. There is a lack of well-designed clinical trials and multicenter-prospective cohort studies, therefore further research is needed to ascertain which aspects of these symptoms should be measured. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. CLINICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECT OF LOW LEVEL LASER TREATMENT OF ORAL MUCOSA DECUBITUS ULCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Lalabonova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Decubitus ulcers in the oral mucosa tend to be very painful causing discomforting sensation in patients in speaking and eating. Low energy lasers can provide an alternative method for the treatment of these ulcers.The aim of the present paper was to assess clinically the healing effect of low level laser irradiation on oral mucosa decubitus ulcers.Material and methods: A total of 90 patients with decubitus ulcers were treated in the present study; they were randomly assigned to three groups: group I included 30 patients treated with low level laser (LLL irradiation (wavelength of irradiation 658 nm; group II - 30 patients treated with laser irradiation of 904 nm; and group III (controls - 30 patients who received a standard conventional treatment with "granofurin" and "solcoseryl".The treatment sessions in all three groups were administered once daily. The patients in groups I and II were irradiated with focused irradiation at an angle from a distance using a conically shaped light probe 3 mm in diameter. The irradiated area was 0.5 cm2. The light was focused on the oral mucosa ulcer and the surrounding inflamed mucosa at a distance of 0.5 to 1 cm. Diode lasers were used in the study. The dosage of irradiation was 1.2 J/cm2.Results and discussion: The treatment effect was evaluated by changes in the studied parameters: pain intensity, erythema, and epithelialization. They were assessed at baseline, and at days 1, 3 and 5. Conclusions: LLLT administered with the proposed methodology manages pain rapidly and accelerates the process of epithelialization of decubitus ulcers in the soft tissues of the mouth.

  6. EFFECT OF ORAL CLONIDINE AND INTRAVENOUS LIDOCAINE ON INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE FOLLOWING LARYNGOSCOPY AND INTUBATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P KASHEFI

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Control and prevention of increase in ntraocular Pressure (lOP can affect outcome of ophthalmologic surgical procedures. Sometimes it's necessary to administer a succinylcholine and intubate the trachea in cases of penetrating eye trauma and corneal laceration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of intravenous lidocaine and oral clonidine as premedicants on lOP following administration of succinylcholine and intubation of trachea. Methods. This study was a double blind clinical trial performed on 90 patients aged 20 - 40 years in physical status of ASA I, II (American Society of Anesthesiologists candidated for nonophthalmic elective surgical procedures. Patients were randomly divided into three groups. The first group received oral clonidine 300 µg/kg, 90-120 minutes before induction(clonidine group. The scond group received IV Lidocaine 1.5mg/kg 3 minutes preceding the induction (lidocaine group and the third group received no premedicant (control group. Induction and maintenance of anesthesia were performed by identical techniques for all three groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference of lOP at second and fifth postinduction minutes between clonidine and lidocaine groups(p > 0.05 but this difference was statistically significant between clonidine and control, as well as lidocaine versus control groups (p < 0.05. Discussion. Oral clonidine 300 µg, 90-120 minute preinduction and intravenous lidocaine 1.5mg/kg, 3 minutes preinduction could be used as effective premedicants to prevent increase in lOP following induction with succinylcholine and intubation of trachea.

  7. Effect of early nutrition support on postoperative rehabilitation in patients with oral cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing-An Zhang; Xiao-Yao Tan; Lan-Fang Zhang; Hua-Dong Wang; Xin-Sheng Han; Hua-Wei Ming

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of early nutrition support on the postoperative nutrition metabolism and rehabilitation in patients with oral cancer.Methods:A total of 80 patients with oral cancer who were admitted in our hospital from January, 2013 to January, 2015 were included in the study, and divided into the observation group (early nutrition support) and control group (routine treatments) with 40 cases in each group. The postoperative basic nutrition requirement amount in the observation group was calculated according to Harris-Nenedict formula. The appropriate pharmaceutics and nutritional pathway were selected. The patients in the control group were given routine diets after operation. The levels of ALB, PAB, TRF, TCL, IgM, IgG, and IgA before and after operation in the two groups were compared. The body mass and wound healing in the two groups were recorded and compared.Results:The body mass and serum TRF level after operation in the observation group were slightly reduced, but were not significantly different from those before operation (P>0.05). The serum ALB, PAB, and TLC levels after operation in the observation group were significantly reduced when compared with before operation (P0.05), but the above indicators were significantly elevated after operation (P<0.05). The peripheral blood IgM, IgG, and IgA levels 1 week after operation in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). The stage I healing rate of the surgical wound in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions: The early nutrition support can effectively enhance the postoperative nutrition status and immunological function in patients with oral cancer, and is beneficial for the postoperative rehabilitation.

  8. Effect of Oral Administration of Enterococcus faecium Ef1 on Innate Immunity of Sucking Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-fen Li, Yi Huang§, Ya-li Li, Qin Huang, Zhi-wen Cui, Dong-you Yu, Imran R. Rajput and Cai-hong Hu*

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of orally administered Enterococcus faecium EF1 on innate immune responses of jejunal mucosa in newborn piglets. Twenty-four commercial crossbred healthy newborn piglets were randomly divided into two groups, control (T0 and treatment (T1 group. Each group consists of 12 piglets. T1 was administered sterilized skim milk 2 ml piglet-1 day-1 with addition of E. faecium EF1 (5~6×108 cfu/ml by oral gavage on alternative odd days (1st, 3rd and 5th after birth. T0 fed with the same volume of sterilized skim milk without probiotics. The merciful killing of piglets at the 25th day after birth was performed to collect the samples of jejunal mucosa to measure the innate cytokine responses and the Toll-like receptors gene expression by quantitative real time PCR. The results showed that TGF-β1 and TNF-α concentrations increased and mRNA expression levels also improved significantly in T1 as compared to T0. While, the production of IFN-γ and IL-8 decreased significantly in T1 and gene expression modification was not observed. In addition, TLR (Toll-like receptor 2 and TLR 9 transcription levels were up-regulated in treatment (T1 group. These findings revealed that oral administration of E. faecium EF1 was effective to activate innate immunity and could modulate the TLRs expression in jejunal mucosa of piglets.

  9. Effects of fluorotherapy on oral changes caused by a vegan diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotti, F; Laffranchi, L; Fontana, P; Dalessandri, D; Bonetti, S

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the effects of fluorotherapy on the oral health of subjects who had been following a vegan diet (lacking in meat and animal derivatives) for a long period of time (at least 1 year and 6 months). A preliminary study (t0) evaluated 50 subjects, all from northern Italy and aged 24-60 years (28 male and 22 female) who had been following a vegan diet for a minimum of 18 months to a maximum of 20 years, and compared them with a control group of 50 individuals following a Mediterranean diet. All vegan subjects showed oral changes such as white spots, lesions invisible to the naked eye and decreased salivary pH values (~5-6). In a second study (t1), the 50 vegan subjects were randomly divided into two subgroups of 25. Subgroup SG1 underwent fluorotherapy with sodium fluoride (Elmex fluoride gel® 1.25%) administered once daily for 1 year. Subgroup SG2 served as controls and did not receive fluorotherapy. The following parameters were recorded before the start of fluorotherapy and again after 1 year: salivary pH; Decayed, Missing, Filled teeth Index; presence and location of white spots and lesions not visible to the naked eye; Plaque Index, and Gingival Index. In SG1, larger lesions became smaller in diameter and small lesions disappeared, a statistically significant improvement compared with SG2, despite the persistence of restricted eating habits and the oral hygiene conditions being similar to those at t0. Salivary pH showed no significant change in either subgroup. Daily application of a topical 1.25% fluoride gel is effective in reducing the incidence of white spot lesions caused by a vegan diet.

  10. Effects of Oral Gabapentin, Local Bupivacaine and Intravenous Pethidine on Post Tonsillectomy Pain

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    Soroush Amani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tonsillectomy is one of the most common surgeries performed worldwide. Post-operative pain arising from tonsillectomy is one of the earliest complications that can postpone oral nutrition and increase the hospitalization period. Administration of opioids via injection is usually preferred to relive pain in these patients. However, the side effects of this approach prompted us to seek alternative treatments. In this study, the effectiveness of oral gabapentin is compared with an intravenous (IV injection of pethidine and a local injection of bupivacaine in the control of pain after tonsillectomy.   Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was performed on 7-15 year-old patients who were candidates for tonsillectomy at Shahrekord Kashani hospital from 2012–2013. The patients were divided into three groups at random. Group 1 was give 20 mg/kg oral gabapentin 1 hour before anesthesia. In Group 2, 2.5 ml bupivacaine 0.25% was injected into each tonsil bed by a surgeon. In Group 3,1 mg/kg pethidine was injected intravenously after intubation. To assess post-operative pain, the Oucher scale was used in recovery as well as 3,6,12, and 24 hours after surgery.   Results: The pain score was lowest in the gabapentin group and highest in the bupivacaine group during the study. The pain score in the gabapentin group was significantly lower than that in the bupivacaine group (P0.05.   Conclusion:  Gabapentin, with its antihyperalgesic properties and other unknown properties, is a convenient drug for controlling pain following tonsillectomy.

  11. The Effects of Blended Instruction on Oral Reading Performance and their Relationships to a Five-Factor Model of Personality

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    Isao Miyaji

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, 'Blended Instruction' - an effective method of instructions utilizing e-Learning materials in English education - consists of an individual learning part, a collaborative learning part and a teacher instruction part. In the individual learning, students act out model dialogues in the WBT courseware which incorporated a high quantity of video and sound clips. In the collaborative learning, students perform the dialogues in pairs and assessed each other's performance. Our recent research in a high school showed that the skill of the students' oral reading was improved in most criteria of assessment through blended instruction. However, it is still not clear what kind of relationship exists between the development of the students' oral reading skills and their personalities. With this in mind, the authors have studied the effects of the blended instruction on the junior high school students' oral reading performance and their relationships to the five-factor model of personality. The result of the research shows that the skill of the students' oral reading was improved in most criteria of assessment and the blended instruction was effective for the personality group, 'Introverted unintelligent person' in the most categories of oral reading criteria as well as the personality group, 'Sociable hard-worker'. The important factor for that group in oral reading performance turned out to be 'Sense Reading'.

  12. Randomized controlled study to evaluate the effectiveness of dexamethasone oral minipulse therapy versus oral minocycline in patients with active vitiligo vulgaris

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    Akhilendra Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral minocycline has been recently shown to halt disease progression in active vitiligo. Aims: The present study was planned to compare the efficacy and tolerability of oral minocycline with oral mini pulse (OMP corticosteroids in active vitiligo. Methods: A total of 50 patients with actively spreading vitiligo were randomized to receive either minocycline 100 mg/day (Group I - 25 patients or OMP 2.5 mg dexamethasone on 2 consecutive days in a week (Group II - 25 patients for 6 months. These were followed-up at every 2 weeks interval. Mean vitiligo disease activity score (VIDA and mean Vitiligo Area Scoring Index (VASI were assessed in all patients in addition to the photographic comparison before and after treatment. Results: Both groups showed a significant decrease in VIDA from 4.0 to 1.64 ± 0.86 (P < 0.001 in Group I and from 4.0 to 1.68 ± 0.69 (P < 0.001 in Group II. However, the difference between the mean VIDA scores in the two groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.60 at the end of treatment period. The mean VASI declined from 1.71 ± 1.45 to 1.52 ± 1.43 Group I (P = 0.06 and from 1.39 ± 1.31 to 1.17 ± 1.34 in Group II (P = 0.05. The difference between VASI in Group I and II was not significant at the end of 24 weeks of treatment (P = 0.11. Conclusion: Both dexamethasone OMP and oral minocycline are effective drugs for managing the arrest of disease activity in vitiligo.

  13. An orally active formulation of angiotensin-(1-7 produces an antithrombotic effect

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    Rodrigo Araujo Fraga-Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The heptapeptide angiotensin-(1-7 is a component of the renin-angiotensin system, which promotes many beneficial cardiovascular effects, including antithrombotic activity. We have recently shown that the antithrombotic effect of angiotensin-(1-7 involves receptor Mas-mediated NO-release from platelets. Here, we describe an orally active formulation based on angiotensin-(1-7 inclusion in cyclodextrin [Ang-(1-7- CyD] as an antithrombotic agent. Cyclodextrins are pharmaceutical tools that are used to enhance drug stability, absorption across biological barriers and gastric protection. METHOD: To test the antithrombotic effect of Ang-(1-7-CyD, thrombus formation was induced in the abdominal vena cava of spontaneously hypertensive rats that were pretreated either acutely or chronically with Ang-(1-7-CyD. Male Mas-knockout and wild-type mice were used to verify the role of the Mas receptor on the effect of Ang-(1-7-CyD. RESULTS: Acute or chronic oral treatment with Ang-(1-7-CyD promoted an antithrombotic effect (measured by thrombus weight; all values are, respectively, untreated vs. treated animals in spontaneously hypertensive rats (acute: 2.86 + 0.43 mg vs. 1.14 + 0.40 mg; chronic: 4.27 + 1.03 mg vs. 1.39 + 0.68 mg. This effect was abolished in Mas-knockout mice (thrombus weight in Mas wild-type: 0.76 + 0.10 mg vs. 0.37 + 0.02 mg; thrombus weight in Mas-knockout: 0.96 + 0.11 mg vs. 0.87 + 0.14 mg. Furthermore, the antithrombotic effect of Ang-(1-7-CyD was associated with an increase in the plasma level of Angiotensin-(1-7. CONCLUSION: These results show for the first time that the oral formulation Ang-(1-7-CyD has biological activity and produces a Mas-dependent antithrombotic effect.

  14. Eficacia de la higiene oral en adultos jóvenes fumadores y no fumadores Oral higiene effectiveness in smoker and non smoker young adults

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    Gustavo Feser

    2003-06-01

    del área de la salud y como avance para posteriores estudios de casos y controles que realizaremos en poblaciones semejantes, con el objeto de controlar la variable "higiene oral" como factor de confusión en el diseño etiológico causal que le corresponde al hábito de fumar.This study was carried out on a population of young adult dentistry students. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of smokers in this group and to establish the effectiveness of oral hygiene practices of this group of students. In a first stage, a group of students were asked about their smoking habits, initiating age and amount of cigarettes per day, in order to determine the prevalence of smokers. In a second stage, students were randomized selecting a total of 61 individuals, 32 of them didn't have smoking habits and 29 has it; in order to determine oral hygiene's effectiveness. The age average of non smokers was 23 ±2,109 years old, and of smokers 23,655 ± 1,913 year-old, not existing significant difference between them. Green & Vermillion simplified oral hygiene index was carried out to each student. AlI measures were registered by a gauged examiner to avoid the interexaminer mistake. Information on smoking habits was asked at the end of examination in order to avoid the subjectivity of the clinic examiner. The oral hygiene index assigned for each group was 1,103 (lC 95% 0,344-1,861 for smokers and 1,218 (lC 95% 0,245-2, 191 for non smokers. By confronting data and fixing p value <5%, we conclude that there are no significant differences between the accumulation of supragingival plaque in both groups, and the effectiveness of oral hygiene among young adult smokers and non smokers is similar and acceptable. This study determines smokers prevalence in health-area students, and Iike an advance for future "casecontrol" studies that we'lI carry out in similar populations, in order to control "oral hygiene" variable as a confusin factor in the etiologic causal design that

  15. Effects of polymer molecular weight on relative oral bioavailability of curcumin

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    Lin LC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Yin-Meng Tsai,1 Wan-Ling Chang-Liao,1 Chao-Feng Chien,1 Lie-Chwen Lin,1,2 Tung-Hu Tsai,1,31Institute of Traditional Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, 2National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, 3Department of Education and Research, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, TaiwanBackground: Polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles have been used to increase the relative oral bioavailability of hydrophobic compounds and polyphenols in recent years, but the effects of the molecular weight of PLGA on bioavailability are still unknown. This study investigated the influence of polymer molecular weight on the relative oral bioavailability of curcumin, and explored the possible mechanism accounting for the outcome.Methods: Curcumin encapsulated in low (5000–15,000 and high (40,000–75,000 molecular weight PLGA (LMw-NPC and HMw-NPC, respectively were prepared using an emulsification-solvent evaporation method. Curcumin alone and in the nanoformulations was administered orally to freely mobile rats, and blood samples were collected to evaluate the bioavailability of curcumin, LMw-NPC, and HMw-NPC. An ex vivo experimental gut absorption model was used to investigate the effects of different molecular weights of PLGA formulation on absorption of curcumin. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection was used for quantification of curcumin in biosamples.Results: There were no significant differences in particle properties between LMw-NPC and HMw-NPC, but the relative bioavailability of HMw-NPC was 1.67-fold and 40-fold higher than that of LMw-NPC and conventional curcumin, respectively. In addition, the mean peak concentration (Cmax of conventional curcumin, LMw-NPC, and HMw-NPC was 0.028, 0.042, and 0.057 µg/mL, respectively. The gut absorption study further revealed that the HMw-PLGA formulation markedly increased the absorption rate of curcumin in the duodenum and resulted in excellent bioavailability

  16. Oral mucosal injection of a local anesthetic solution containing epinephrine enhances muscle relaxant effects of rocuronium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Asako; Terakawa, Yui; Matsuura, Nobuyuki; Ichinohe, Tatsuya; Kaneko, Yuzuru

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how submucosal injection of a clinically relevant dose of a lidocaine hydrochloride solution containing epinephrine affects the muscle relaxant effects of rocuronium bromide. Sixteen patients scheduled for orthognathic surgery participated in this study. All patients were induced with fentanyl citrate, a target-controlled infusion of propofol and rocuronium bromide. Anesthesia was maintained by total intravenous anesthesia. After nasotracheal intubation, an infusion of rocuronium bromide was started at 7 µg/kg/min, and the infusion rate was then adjusted to maintain a train of four (TOF) ratio at 10 to 15%. The TOF ratio just prior to oral mucosal injection of a 1% lidocaine hydrochloride solution containing 10 µg/mL epinephrine (LE) was taken as the baseline. TOF ratio was observed for 20 minutes, with 1-minute intervals following the start of injection. Mean epinephrine dose was 85.6 ± 18.6 µg and mean infusion rate of rocuronium bromide was 6.3 ± 1.6 µg/kg/min. TOF ratio began to decrease 2 minutes after the injection of LE, reached the minimum value at 3.1 ± 3.6% 12 minutes after the injection, and then began to recover. We conclude that oral mucosal injection of LE enhances the muscle relaxant effects of rocuronium bromide.

  17. Effect of brivaracetam on CYP3A activity, measured by oral midazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockis, Armel; Watanabe, Shikiko; Scheen, André J

    2015-05-01

    Brivaracetam is a synaptic vesicle protein 2A ligand in phase III development for epilepsy. A phase I, open-label, randomized study was conducted in 42 healthy male participants to assess the effect of brivaracetam on CYP3A activity using midazolam as a probe. Participants were randomized to oral brivaracetam 5, 50, or 150 mg/day from Day 8 to Day 14. A single oral dose (7.5 mg) of midazolam was administered on Days 1, 13, and 20, and full pharmacokinetic profiles were obtained. For all brivaracetam doses, the areas under the plasma concentration-time curves from 0 to infinity (AUCinf ) for midazolam and 1'-hydroxymidazolam were similar on Days 13 and 20 compared with Day 1. Following brivaracetam 150 mg/day, the Day 13/Day 1 AUCinf ratio (90% confidence interval) was 1.09 (0.97, 1.21) and 1.04 (0.93, 1.17) for midazolam and 1'-hydroxymidazolam, respectively. For the Day 20/Day 1 comparison, the corresponding AUCinf ratios were 1.10 (0.98, 1.23) and 1.07 (0.97, 1.18). Maximum midazolam plasma concentration was increased on both Day 13 and Day 20 vs. Day 1 but the relevance of this finding was unclear. This study indicates that brivaracetam up to 150 mg/day has no significant inducing or inhibiting effect on CYP3A activity.

  18. Oral administration of Brazilian propolis exerts estrogenic effect in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yoshinori; Tobe, Takao; Ueda, Koji; Takada, Tatsuyuki; Kojima, Nakao

    2015-04-01

    Propolis, a natural product derived from plants by honeybees, is a mixture of several hundred chemicals, including flavonoids, coumaric acids, and caffeic acids, some of which show estrogen-like activity. In this study, the estrogenic activity of crude ethanolic extract of Brazilian propolis was determined using several in vitro and in vivo assays. Propolis was found to bind to human estrogen receptors (ERs). Furthermore, propolis induced the expression of estrogen-responsive genes in ER-positive MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells. These in vitro assays suggest that propolis exerts estrogenic activity; therefore, in vivo experiments were conducted using ovariectomized rats. Oral administration of propolis (55 or 550 mg/kg/day for 3 days) significantly increased uterine wet weight and luminal epithelium thickness in comparison with the corresponding values in the corn oil-treated control group. Moreover, propolis induced ductal cell proliferation in the mammary glands. These effects were completely inhibited by full ER antagonist ICI 182,780, confirming that the effects of propolis are mediated by the ER. Our data show that oral intake of propolis induces estrogenic activity in ER-expressing organs in vivo and suggest that Brazilian propolis is a useful dietary source of phytoestrogens and a promising treatment for postmenopausal symptoms.

  19. Reversing anticoagulant effects of novel oral anticoagulants: role of ciraparantag, andexanet alfa, and idarucizumab

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    Hu TY

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tiffany Y Hu,1 Vaibhav R Vaidya,2 Samuel J Asirvatham2,31Mayo Medical School, 2Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, 3Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: Novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs are increasingly used in clinical practice, but lack of commercially available reversal agents is a major barrier for mainstream use of these therapies. Specific antidotes to NOACs are under development. Idarucizumab (aDabi-Fab, BI 655075 is a novel humanized mouse monoclonal antibody that binds dabigatran and reverses its anticoagulant effect. In a recent Phase III study (Reversal Effects of Idarucizumab on Active Dabigatran, a 5 g intravenous infusion of idarucizumab resulted in the normalization of dilute thrombin time in 98% and 93% of the two groups studied, with normalization of ecarin-clotting time in 89% and 88% patients. Two other antidotes, andexanet alfa (PRT064445 and ciraparantag (PER977 are also under development for reversal of NOACs. In this review, we discuss commonly encountered management issues with NOACs such as periprocedural management, laboratory monitoring of anticoagulation, and management of bleeding. We review currently available data regarding specific antidotes to NOACs with respect to pharmacology and clinical trials.Keywords: novel oral anticoagulant, dabigatran, idarucizumab, reversal

  20. Effect of Oral Midazolam Premedication on Children's Co-operation Before General Anesthesia in Pediatric Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviani, Nasser; Shahtusi, Mina; Haj Norousali Tehrani, Maryam; Nazari, Sara

    2014-09-01

    Premedication is expedient in reducing the psychological trauma from recalling the unpleasant pre-anesthetic phases, hence, inducing a trouble-free anesthesia. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of oral midazolam in co-operation of the subjects before general anesthesia and in recalling the pre-anesthetic phases, performed on children candidate for dental treatment under general anesthesia. In this prospective clinical trial study, 62 healthy non-cooperative children, candidate for dental treatment under general anesthesia, were randomly divided into study and control groups. The children received 20ml orange juice, 20 minutes before starting the anesthesia. The juice of the test group contained 0.5mg/kg of midazolam and that of the control group included no medication. The induction and the maintenance process of anesthesia were similar in both groups. The manner of subjects when separated from parents, their cooperation during intravenous catheterization, and recalling the pre-anesthetic events were recorded. Data were analyzed by adopting chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. Most of the children in the test group had a comfortable separation from parents, restful IV catheterization and 90% of the subjects did not recall the pre-anesthetic events. Under the circumstances of this study, it could be concluded that 0.5mg/kg oral midazolam premedication is effective for comfortable separation of children from parents and restful IV catheterization and also forgetting the pre-anesthetic events.

  1. Anticancer Effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza Alcohol Extract on Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cells

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    Wen-Hung Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have reported significant effects from Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza in terms of inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis in breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinomas, promyelocytic leukemia, and clear cell ovary carcinomas. Here we report our data indicating that Danshen extracts, especially alcohol extract, significantly inhibited the proliferation of the human oral squamous carcinoma (OSCC cell lines HSC-3 and OC-2. We also observed that Danshen alcohol extract activated the caspase-3 apoptosis executor by impeding members of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP family, but not by regulating the Bcl-2-triggered mitochondrial pathway in OSCC cells. Our data also indicate that the extract exerted promising effects in vivo, with HSC-3 tumor xenograft growth being suppressed by 40% and 69% following treatment with Danshen alcohol extract at 50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively, for 34 days. Combined, our results indicate appreciable anticancer activity and significant potential for Danshen alcohol extract as a natural antioxidant and herbal human oral cancer chemopreventive drug.

  2. EFFECT OF ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES (LD AND CILEST ON CLOTTING FACTORS VIII AND IX

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    H.R. Sadeghipour Roudsari

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on epidemiologic data, women who take oral contraceptives seem to have an increased risk of developing thromboembollic disease. The thrombotic effects of oral contraceptive (OC are probably mediated, at least partly through their effects on the coagulation system. Plasma levels of several clotting factors have been shown to be elevated in OC users, and this increase is graduated according to the dose of estrogen. In this study, fifty healthy and non smoking women, aged 18-35 years, were randomly assigned to treatment with 2 different OCs: a monophasic pill containing 30 pg of ethinyl estradiol plus 150µg levonorgestrel (LD and a monophasic pill containing 35µg ethinylestradiol plus 250pg norgestimate (Cilest. Factor VIII plasma values were significantly decreased (P<0.05 only in women treated with the preparation LD, but the levels of factor VIII were not significantly different in the group treated with Cilest. Factor IX plasma values were significantly increased (P<0.05 only in women treated with the preparation Cilest, but the levels of factor Ix were not significantly different in the group treated with LD. In LD and cilest users factors VIII and IX were not significantly changed (P<0.05 in overweight and obese subjects in comparison to normal weight.

  3. Minimum Effective Dose of Cattle and Sheep BSE for Oral Sheep Infection.

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    Gillian McGovern

    Full Text Available The minimum dose required to cause infection of Romney and Suffolk sheep of the ARQ/ARQ or ARQ/ARR prion protein gene genotypes following oral inoculation with Romney or Suffolk a sheep Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE-derived or cattle BSE-derived agent was investigated using doses ranging from 0.0005g to 5g. ARQ/ARQ sheep which were methionine (M / threonine (T heterozygous or T/T homozygous at codon 112 of the Prnp gene, dosed ARQ/ARR sheep and undosed controls did not show any evidence of infection. Within groups of susceptible sheep, the minimum effective oral dose of BSE was found to be 0.05g, with higher attack rates following inoculation with the 5g dose. Surprisingly, this study found no effect of dose on survival time suggesting a possible lack of homogeneity within the inoculum. All clinical BSE cases showed PrPd accumulation in brain; however, following cattle BSE inoculation, LRS involvement within Romney recipients was found to be significantly lower than within the Suffolk sheep inoculated group which is in agreement with previous reports.

  4. Does switching from oral to subcutaneous administration of methotrexate influence on patient reported gastro-intestinal adverse effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Charles B; Lage-Hansen, Philip R; Koefoed, Mette

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: When treating patients with methotrexate (MTX) the most frequently reported adverse effects (AE) are gastrointestinal (GI) with nausea being reported by 10-20%. If intolerable AE of oral MTX persist, switching from oral to subcutaneous (SC) or intramuscular (IM) administration...... is common. However, this approach is largely empirical and the evidence is inconsistent. To our knowledge, this will be the first study to estimate the change in GI AE of switching from oral to SC MTX. METHODS: A retrospective postal survey was sent to patients who had changed from oral MTX to SC MTX. GI AE...... was rated by visual analogue scale (VAS) regarding frequency and intensity of nausea, frequency of vomiting and frequency of discomfort. All participants gave informed consent. No further ethical clearance was necessary according to national law. RESULTS: Of the sample 39/57 (68.4%) responded. Significant...

  5. [Application of diversified teaching methods to improve the teaching effects in the course of oral histology and pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen; Li, Lei; Wang, Li-zhen; Hu, Yu-hua; Zhang, Chun-ye; Li, Jiang

    2016-02-01

    Oral histology and pathology is one of the most important courses in stomatological education which works as a bridge between basic medical courses and clinical courses of oral science. The knowledge of oral histopathology may help the students to correctly understand the histogenesis and development of oral diseases and provide the information for correct treatment and prevention. In order to make the students grasp the necessary basic theories, increase the interest in learning, and improve the teaching effect, we explored a diversified teaching system which included diverse teaching modes, online courses and courseware construction. The application of this system offered the interaction between students and teachers and combination of classes with the internet, and made the boring pathological knowledge be associated with clinical practice. These diversified teaching methods had been used in practice and obtained good teaching results.

  6. The effect of oral temperature on the temperature perception of liquids and semisolids in the mouth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, L.; Wijk, de R.A.; Prinz, J.F.; Bilt, van der A.; Janssen, A.M.; Bosman, F.

    2002-01-01

    This work examined the influence of oral temperature on oral perception of temperature in liquids and semisolids. A panel of 20 adults assessed the temperature of water, custard dessert and mayonnaise. Oral temperatures were manipulated by 5-s mouth rinses of 10, 35 and 55°C performed prior to

  7. Effects of 3-styrylchromones on metabolic profiles and cell death in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells

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    Hiroshi Sakagami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 4H-1-benzopyran-4-ones (chromones are important naturally-distributing compounds. As compared with flavones, isoflavones and 2-styrylchromones, there are only few papers of 3-styrylchromones that have been published. We have previously reported that among fifteen 3-styrylchromone derivatives, three new synthetic compounds that have OCH3 group at the C-6 position of chromone ring, (E-3-(4-hydroxystyryl-6-methoxy-4H-chromen-4-one (compound 11, (E-6-methoxy-3-(4-methoxystyryl-4H-chromen-4-one (compound 4, (E-6-methoxy-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxystyryl-4H-chromen-4-one (compound 6 showed much higher cytotoxicities against four epithelial human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC lines than human normal oral mesenchymal cells. In order to further confirm the tumor specificities of these compounds, we compared their cytotoxicities against both human epithelial malignant and non-malignant cells, and then investigated their effects on fine cell structures and metabolic profiles and cell death in human OSCC cell line HSC-2. Cytotoxicities of compounds 4, 6, 11 were assayed with MTT method. Fine cell structures were observed under transmission electron microscope. Cellular metabolites were extracted with methanol and subjected to CE-TOFMS analysis. Compounds 4, 6, 11 showed much weaker cytotoxicity against human oral keratinocyte and primary human gingival epithelial cells, as compared with HSC-2, confirming their tumor-specificity, whereas doxorubicin and 5-FU were highly cytotoxic to these normal epithelial cells, giving unexpectedly lower tumor-specificity. The most cytotoxic compound 11, induced the mitochondrial vacuolization, autophagy suppression followed by apoptosis induction, and changes in the metabolites involved in amino acid and glycerophospholipid metabolisms. Chemical modification of lead compound 11 may be a potential choice for designing new type of anticancer drugs.

  8. Effect of Oral Tissue Fluids on Compressive Strength of MTA and Biodentine: An In vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, Divya; Vasantharajan, Madhusudhan

    2017-04-01

    Over the past many years various root end filling materials have been used which have been tested for their physical properties but each of them had certain limitations. In clinical practice, root end filling materials are exposed to oral tissue fluids which may compromise their longevity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of oral tissue fluids on compressive strength of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and biodentine. MTA and biodentine cylinders measuring 6 mm × 4 mm were prepared using acrylic blocks. They were divided into six groups; (Group 1) (MTA) (n=3), (Group 2) MTA contaminated with saliva, (MTA-S) (n=3), Group 3: MTA contaminated with blood, MTA-B (n=3), Group 4: Biodentine (BD), Group 5: Biodentine contaminated with saliva (BD-S) (n=5), Group 6: Biodentine contaminated with blood (BD-B) (n=5). The mould was contaminated with saliva and blood and incubated at 37°C at 100% humidity for three days and compressive strength (MPa) was measured using universal testing machine and the data was analyzed statistically using one-way ANOVA test. There was no significant difference in the compressive strength between the three groups i.e., MTA, MTA-S, MTA-B (p > 0.05). However, there was higher compressive strength in the MTA-B group when compared to MTA and MTA-S. Also, there was no statistical significant difference between BD, BD-S, BD-B (p>0.05). This study showed that the compressive strength of MTA and biodentine was not adversely affected by contamination with oral tissue fluids like blood and saliva.

  9. Effect of Aaloe vera Gel Versus Local triamcinolone in Treatment of Oral Lichen Planus

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    Amanat D.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Oral lichen planus (OLP is a chronic inflammatory disorder which can specially be painful in atrophic, erosive and ulcerative forms. In this area, different treatment plans with different results have been evaluated Purpose: The aim of this article is to compare the effect of aloe vera gel and local triamcinolone in treatment of oral lichen planus lesions.Materials and Method: In this double blind research, 50 patients (13 males and 37 females having oral lichen planus lesions were selected and randomly divided into two groups. The first group received 70% aloe vera gel and the second group, 0.1% local triamcinolone. Both groups used the drug locally 3 times a day for 8 weeks. All the patients were under follow up every 2 weeks. Clinical evaluation and pain reduction was evaluated by Thongprasom and VAS methods in both groups. Data were evaluated by repeated measure technique.Results: 20 patients of the triamcinolone group showed good response to treatment and 3 patients had complete remission during the treatment period. In aloe vera group, 9 patients had good response and no one showed complete remission ( p <0.001. No significant lesion was seen in both groups during the treatment period Conclusion: Application of aloe vera gel is suggested in treatment of erosive and atrophic lichen planus lesions in comparison with steroids. However, according to the results of this study, the use of steroid instead of aloe vera in treating ulcerative lichen planus lesions is a better and more appropriate choice.

  10. Approaches to improve the oral bioavailability and effects of novel anticancer drugs berberine and betulinic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandraiah Godugu

    Full Text Available The poor bioavailability of Berberine (BBR and Betulinic acid (BA limits the development of these promising anticancer agents for clinical use. In the current study, BBR and BA in spray dried (SD mucoadhesive microparticle formulations were prepared.A patented dual channel spray gun technology established in our laboratory was used for both formulations. Gastrointestinal (GI permeability studies were carried out using Caco-2 cell monolayer grown in in-vitro system. The oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profile of SD formulations were studied in Sprague Dawley rats. A549 orthotopic and H1650 metastatic NSCLC models were utilized for the anticancer evaluations.Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that BBR and BA SD formulations resulted in 3.46 and 3.90 fold respectively, significant increase in plasma Cmax concentrations. AUC levels were increased by 6.98 and 7.41 fold in BBR and BA SD formulations, respectively. Compared to untreated controls groups, 49.8 & 53.4% decrease in the tumor volumes was observed in SD formulation groups of BBR and BA, respectively. Molecular studies done on excised tumor (A549 tissue suggested that BBR in SD form resulted in a significant decrease in the survivin, Bcl-2, cyclin D1, MMP-9, HIF-1α, VEGF and CD31 expressions. Cleaved caspase 3, p53 and TUNEL expressions were increased in SD formulations. The RT-PCR analysis on H1650 tumor tissue suggested that p38, Phospho-JNK, Bax, BAD, cleaved caspase 3&8 mRNA expressions were significantly increased in BA SD formulations. Chronic administration of BBR and BA SD formulations did not show any toxicity.Due to significant increase in oral bioavailability and superior anticancer effects, our results suggest that spray drying is a superior alternative formulation approach for oral delivery of BBR and BA.

  11. Effect of Oral Tissue Fluids on Compressive Strength of MTA and Biodentine: An In vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasantharajan, Madhusudhan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Over the past many years various root end filling materials have been used which have been tested for their physical properties but each of them had certain limitations. In clinical practice, root end filling materials are exposed to oral tissue fluids which may compromise their longevity. Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of oral tissue fluids on compressive strength of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and biodentine. Materials and Methods MTA and biodentine cylinders measuring 6 mm × 4 mm were prepared using acrylic blocks. They were divided into six groups; (Group 1) (MTA) (n=3), (Group 2) MTA contaminated with saliva, (MTA-S) (n=3), Group 3: MTA contaminated with blood, MTA-B (n=3), Group 4: Biodentine (BD), Group 5: Biodentine contaminated with saliva (BD-S) (n=5), Group 6: Biodentine contaminated with blood (BD-B) (n=5). The mould was contaminated with saliva and blood and incubated at 37°C at 100% humidity for three days and compressive strength (MPa) was measured using universal testing machine and the data was analyzed statistically using one-way ANOVA test. Results There was no significant difference in the compressive strength between the three groups i.e., MTA, MTA-S, MTA-B (p > 0.05). However, there was higher compressive strength in the MTA-B group when compared to MTA and MTA-S. Also, there was no statistical significant difference between BD, BD-S, BD-B (p>0.05). Conclusion This study showed that the compressive strength of MTA and biodentine was not adversely affected by contamination with oral tissue fluids like blood and saliva. PMID:28571272

  12. Clinical effects of an oral supplement rich in antioxidants on skin radiance in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Marion; Gaudout, David; Lemaire, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Background Environmental factors impact the skin aging resulting in decrease of skin radiance. Nutrition and particularly antioxidants could help to fight against skin degradation. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an oral supplement rich in specific antioxidants, SkinAx2TM, on the improvement of the skin radiance in women. Methods The open-label clinical study enrolled 35 women, aged 40–70, with facial dull complexion. Subjects were supplemented orally with a daily dosage of 150 mg of an antioxidant-rich formulation containing superoxide dismutase-rich melon concentrate, grape seed extract rich in monomers of flavanols, vitamin C, and zinc for 8 weeks. Each subject served as her own control. The C.L.B.T.™ test has been used to evaluate facial skin coloring (C), luminosity (L), brightness (B), and transparency (T) involved in skin radiance. Facial skin imperfections have been assessed by clinical assessment. Firmness has been evaluated by clinical assessment and cutometer measurement. Finally, an auto-questionnaire has been carried out in order to evaluate the satisfaction of the subjects concerning different parameters involved in skin radiance and the global efficacy of the supplement. Results Skin “red pink” and “olive” colors were significantly improved after supplementation (Pskin imperfections were significantly reduced after the antioxidant-rich formulation intake (global reduction: −18.0%; Pskin. Furthermore, 64.7% reported to look better at the end of the supplementation. Conclusion The oral supplement containing the antioxidant-rich formulation was found to improve skin radiance by reducing skin coloring, increasing face luminosity, reducing imperfections, and improving skin firmness in women with dull complexion. PMID:27799805

  13. Preclinical study of a cost-effective photodynamic therapy protocol for treating oral candidoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Nathalia Ramos; Ribeiro, Daniela Garcia; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan; Bonfá, Karla; Menezes, Michelli Sobreiro; Oliveira, Viviane de Cássia; de Souza, Raphael Freitas

    2017-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment for oral candidoses. Its use as an alternative to antifungals prevents several adverse effects, including microbial resistance. However, most PDT protocols do not employ devices and consumables commonly available in dental practice, thus influencing treatment affordability. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of a PDT method based on light curing units' blue LEDs combined to a plaque-disclosing composition (5% erythrosine) against C. albicans in culture and in a murine model of oral candidosis. Standard and resistant fungal strains were tested in vitro in planktonic and biofilm forms. PDT (pre-irradiation time periods: 30 and 60 s; irradiation time: 3 min) was compared to control conditions without light and/or erythrosine. Mice with induced oral candidosis (n = 40) randomly received PDT or similar control conditions with subsequent C. albicans count. These mice underwent histological analysis, as well as 12 healthy mice submitted to experimental treatments. PDT completely inactivated C. albicans planktonic cells and biofilm. Control conditions presented minor differences (ANOVA, p < 0.05), with mean values ranging from 5.2 to 6.8 log10 (UFC/mL). Infected mice presented no significant difference in C. albicans counts consequent to treatments (ANOVA, p = 0.721), although the PDT protocol was able to enhance the inflammatory infiltrate in healthy mice. It can be concluded that the tested PDT protocol can inactivate C. albicans but still needs further investigation in order to achieve efficacy and safety.

  14. Early effects of oral administration of omeprazole and roxatidine on intragastric pH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi IIDA; Masato YONEDA; Tomoko KOIDE; Hirokazu TAKAHASHI; Chikako TOKORO; Ayumu GOTO; Yasunobu ABE; Noritoshi KOBAYASHI; Kensuke KUBOTA; Eiji GOTOH; Shin MAEDA; Shingo KATO; Atsushi NAKAJIMA; Masahiko INAMORI; Yusuke SEKINO; Eiji SAKAI; Takashi UCHIYAMA; Hiroki ENDO; Kunihiro HOSONO; Yasunari SAKAMOTO; Koji FUJITA

    2012-01-01

    Objective:The ideal medication for the treatment of acid-related diseases,e.g.,peptic ulcers,stressrelated gastric bleeding,functional dyspepsia,and gastroesophageal reflux disease,should have a rapid onset of action to promote hemostasis and relieve the symptoms.The aim of our study was to investigate the inhibitory effects on gastric acid secretion of a single oral administration of a proton pump inhibitor,omeprazole 20 mg,and an H2-receptor antagonist,roxatidine 75 mg.Methods:Ten Helicobacterpylori-negative male subjects participated in this randomized,two-way crossover study.Intragastric pH was monitored continuously for 6 h after single oral administration of omeprazole 20 mg and roxatidine 75 mg.Each administration was separated by a 7-d washout period.Results:During the 6-h study period,the average pH after administration of roxatidine was higher than that after administration of omeprazole (median:4.45 vs.2.65; P=0.0367).Also during the 6-h study period,a longer duration of maintenance at pH above 2,5,and 6 was observed after administration of roxatidine 75 mg than after administration of omeprazole 20 mg (median:90.6% vs.55.2%,P=0.0284; 43.7% vs.10.6%,P=0.0125; 40.3% vs.3.3%,P=0.0125;respectively).Conclusions:In Helicobacter pylori-negative healthy male subjects,oral administration of roxatidine 75 mg increased the intragastric pH more rapidly than that of omeprazole 20 mg.

  15. Effectiveness of behavioral vaccine on the oral health of children in Komarapalayam, South India: A randomized controlled pilot trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Umamaheswari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health education and promotion have emerged as a strong force against the traditional, dominant, and curative model of health practice. In pediatric dentistry, the utilization of an entertaining, easy to understand, and practical educational material is warranted. Behavioral vaccine is a simple, scientifically proven practice that is repeated to increase well-being. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of conventional (instructional dental hygiene program and “Good Behavior Game” (GBG (contingency dental hygiene program – a behavioral vaccine on the practice of oral hygiene among 5–7-year-old schoolchildren. Study Design: A total of sixty children aged 5–7 years were divided into two groups. Each group had thirty children. Materials and Methods: A pretest estimation of debris index-simplified (DI-S was carried out. Children in Group A were given oral health education through instructional oral hygiene program. Children in Group B were allowed to participate in GBG daily for a week. The DI-S was recorded on the 8th day and 3 months after the intervention in both the groups. Results: In Group B, the good oral hygiene score dramatically increased from 10% to 93.3% 1 week after the intervention. There was a relative decrease in percentage of children who scored fair and poor also. At the end of 3-month follow-up, 90% of children had good oral hygiene. In Group A, there was a significant improvement in oral hygiene after 1 week, but it was not significant after 3 months. Conclusion: The present study was undertaken to advance the area of behavioral vaccine as an alternative for teaching basic oral health concepts in children. In this study, the GBG was found to be an effective intervention aid for educating children.

  16. Effects of L-arginine oral supplements in pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats Efeitos da oferta oral de L-arginina em ratas prenhas espontaneamente hipertensas

    OpenAIRE

    José Ricardo Sousa Ayres de Moura; Nelson Sass; Sérgio Botelho Guimarães; Paulo Roberto Leitão de Vasconcelos; Rosiane Mattar; Luis Kulay Jr.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of L-arginine oral supplementation in spontaneously hypertensive pregnant rats (SHR). METHODS: Thirty SHR and ten Wistar-EPM-1 virgin female rats were used in the study. Before randomization, females were caged with males of the same strain (3:1). Pregnancy was confirmed by sperm-positive vaginal smear (Day 0). Wistar-EPM-1 rats served as counterpart control (C-1). SHR rats were randomized in 4 groups (n=10): Group Control 2, non-treated rats; Group L-Arginine...

  17. Effect of Diuretics on Salivary Flow, Composition and Oral Health Status: A Clinico-biochemical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanthi, B; Kannan, N; Patil, RR

    2014-01-01

    Background: Saliva represents an increasingly useful tool of diagnosis. Several factors such as salivary flow rates (SFRs) (unstimulated and stimulated) (U and S), pH, buffering capacity and consistency can be altered due to several disease processes or medications prescribed for various diseases. Alterations of SFRs, pH, buffering capacity and various ion concentrations can influence the pathogenesis of some of the oral diseases. Aim: Evaluation of the effect of diuretics on oral health status with regard to SFRs (U and S), pH, buffering capacity, total protein content, various ion concentrations and oral mucosal lesions. Subjects and Methods: A total of 100 patients were categorized into test group and control group based on usage of diuretics. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva were collected and evaluated for flow rates. Salivary pH was measured using pH meter. Buffering capacity was measured using Aranha's technique. Salivary Na+, K+ and Cl− concentrations were measured using electrolyte analyzer CORNLEY ACCULYTE-3P in ion-selective electrode method. Salivary total protein content was measured by spectrophotometric method. Dental Caries and periodontal status were measured by using decayed, missing, filled teeth index and Russell's periodontal index respectively. Oral mucosal examination was carried out to identify the mucosal lesions. Results: The obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis using Statistical package for social sciences software (SPSS), version 16, IBM Company by Chi-square test and unpaired t-test. Highly significant P for alterations of SFR/U (P < 0.001), SFR/S (P < 0.001), pH (P < 0.001), Na+ concentration (P < 0.001), buffering capacity (P < 0.001) and moderate significance for Cl− concentration (P < 0.01) were found. Alterations of total protein (P = 0.14) and K+ (P = 0.65) concentrations were not statistically significant. High prevalence was found for caries (P < 0.01), periodontal status (P < 0.001) and mucosal lesions

  18. Effect of oral propranolol on splanchnic oxygen uptake and haemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Flemming; Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Becker, Povl Ulrik

    1987-01-01

    In order to elucidate the effect of beta-adrenergic blockade on liver metabolism and haemodynamics, splanchnic oxygen uptake, hepatic removal of indocyanine green (ICG) and splanchnic and systemic haemodynamics were studied in 13 patients with cirrhosis before and 1.5-2 h after an oral dose of 80...... mg propranolol. All patients underwent hepatic vein catheterization and had a primed continuous intravenous infusion of ICG. Azygos vein catheterization was performed in six patients. Splanchnic (hepatic-intestinal) oxygen uptake (median control 68 ml/min vs. beta-blockade 56 ml/min, P less than 0...... pressure, stroke volume, and systemic vascular resistance remained essentially unchanged. The results indicate that besides the well-known cardiovascular effects of propranolol, beta-adrenergic blockade may also reduce hepatic metabolic functions as evidenced by the significantly decreased splanchnic...

  19. Effect of Oral Application of Xylanase on Some Hematological and Serum Biochemical Parameters in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfiqar Ahmad1*, Masood Sadiq Butt2, Riaz Hussain3, Anwaar Ahmed4 and Muhammad Riaz5

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the possible toxic effects of xylanase enzyme on various hematological and some serum biochemical parameters in broiler chicks. For this purpose seventy five broiler birds were randomly divided into five equal groups (A-E each having 15 birds. Xylanase was given orally @ 0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 IU/bird/day for 28 days. The blood samples with and without anticoagulant (EDTA; 1mg/ml were collected from all the birds for hematological and serum biochemical analysis. Non-significant results were recorded for erythrocyte, leukocyte and platelets count as well as total protein, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit values. Similarly, the liver, kidneys and cardiac enzymes, serum minerals and lipid profiles were not significantly different in all treated groups as compared to control. The results of present study revealed that xylanase treatments had non-significant effects on kidneys, heart and blood forming tissues exhibiting its safety for food applications.

  20. The Effects of Oral Application of Cyromazine and Triflumuron on House-Fly Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vazirianzadeh

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Accumulations of large quantities of wastes (manure, used litter, dead birds which are excellent medium for fly-larvae over poultry houses provide breeding places for different groups of fly pests, with house-flies being the dominant species. This project is a comparative lab study. In this research project the larvicidal effects of cyromazine and triflumuron were studied as two Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs to reduce the fly population using oral application. Both IGRs had a signifi-cant effect on larval mortality compared with their controls among the concentrations (P< 0.01, Fisher's LSD with Bonf-feroni correction including a dose-dependent relationship. Comparisons among LC50 and LC90 values, using fiducial limits, showed that cyromazine was significantly more toxic to the larvae of the two strains than triflumuron. It is concluded that cyromazine should be used in a larvicidal programme to control house-fly rather than triflumuron.

  1. The Effects of Oral Application of Cyromazine and Triflumuron on House-Fly Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vazirianzadeh

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Accumulations of large quantities of wastes (manure, used litter, dead birds which are excellent medium for fly-larvae over poultry houses provide breeding places for different groups of fly pests, with house-flies being the dominant species. This project is a comparative lab study. In this research project the larvicidal effects of cyromazine and triflumuron were studied as two Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs to reduce the fly population using oral application. Both IGRs had a signifi-cant effect on larval mortality compared with their controls among the concentrations (P< 0.01, Fisher's LSD with Bonf-feroni correction including a dose-dependent relationship. Comparisons among LC50 and LC90 values, using fiducial limits, showed that cyromazine was significantly more toxic to the larvae of the two strains than triflumuron. It is concluded that cyromazine should be used in a larvicidal programme to control house-fly rather than triflumuron.

  2. Effect of repeated oral administration on taurocholate on hepatic excretory function in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, J B; Klaassen, C D

    1981-07-01

    The effect of repeated administration of taurocholate on bile acid pool size, biliary composition and biliary excretory capacity for bile acids and two xenobiotics was determined. The bile acid pool was increased 50 to 60% by oral administration of sodium taurocholate (300--900 mg/kg, 10 ml/kg) every 12 hr for 2 days to male Sprague-Dawley rats. Bile flow, biliary excretion of bile acids, cholesterol and phospholipid and the concentrations of phospholipid and bile acids in bile were increased in rats treated with 750 mg of taurocholate per kg. No effect was observed on Na+,K+ or Cl- levels. The biliary transport maximum for taurocholate was increased by 30% in rats treated with 750 mg/kg. In contrast, the plasma disappearance and biliary excretion of phenol-3,6-dibromphthalein and ouabain were not affected by taurocholate administration.

  3. Preventive effects of Xin-Kang oral liquid on viral myocarditis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the preventive effects of Xin-Kang oral liquid on myocarditis induced by Coxsakie virus B (CVB), the medicine was given to mice two days prior to the challenge of mice with the CVB to induce myocarditis. The oral liquid was continuously given to mice for 20 days and quantitative histological changes at various stages of the myocarditis were observed. The pathological changes on the cardiac surface were significantly reduced in Xin-Kang treated mice compared to those in control group (P < 0.01 ), and the occurrence of severe myocardium damage (massive cardiac tissue death and degradation) was less in the Xin-Kang group than the groups either challenged with CVB or treated with interferon. The group treated with 0. 015g per gram body weight per day showed significant improvement over the viral group (P < 0.01). The results proved that Xin-Kang could protect the cardiac muscle from viral infection and accelerate recovery of damaged cardiac tissue.

  4. The effect of red, green and blue lasers on healing of oral wounds in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekrazad, Reza; Mirmoezzi, Amir; Kalhori, Katayoun Am; Arany, Praveen

    2015-07-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) can improve wound healing in non-diabetic and diabetic animals. We compared the effects of red, green, and blue lasers in terms of accelerating oral wound healing in diabetic rats. Diabetes was successfully induced in 32 male Wistar rats using intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotocin (150 mg/kg). After intraperitoneal injection of the anesthetic agent, a full-thickness oral wound (10 mm × 2 mm) was created aseptically with a scalpel on hard palate of the diabetic rats. The study was performed using red (630 nm), green (532 nm), and blue (425 nm) lasers and a control group. We used an energy density of 2J/cm2 and a treatment schedule of 3 times/week for 10 days. The area of wounds was measured and recorded on a chart for all rats. On the 10th day, the samples were then sacrificed and a full-thickness sample of wound area was prepared for pathological study. We observed a significant difference (plaser and two other lasers - blue and green (plaser and green laser (p=0.777). The results of the present study provide evidence that wound healing is slower in control rats compared to the treatment groups. Moreover, the findings suggest that wound healing occurs faster with red laser compared to blue and green lasers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of appendectomy and oral tolerance on dextran sulfate sodium colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yue; Zhe Shen; Chao-Hui Yu; Hua Ye; Yue-Fang Ye; You-Ming Li

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the concomitant effects of appendectomy and oral tolerance on colitis. METHODS: Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) was investigated at a 7-d interval after ovalbumin (OVA) administration and immunization under normal and colitis conditions in appendectomized or sham-operated mice. Pathological scores for the colon were graded after ingestion of colon-extracted protein (CEP) and induction of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis in appendectomized or sham-operated mice. Thereafter, Th1 and Th2 in Peyer's patches and spleen lymphocytes were detected in CEP-treated and bovine serum albumin (BSA)-treated control mice. RESULTS: In appendectomized mice, DTH was not inhibited at day 7 after OVA administration and at the initial phase of DSS colitis, whereas it was inhibited at day 14 and day 21. However, in sham-operated mice, it was inhibited during the whole procedure and the onset of DSS colitis. The protective role of CEP against DSS colitis was present in sham-operated mice, with predominant improvement of colonic pathological changes, while vanished in the appendectomized mice. A shift from Th1 to Th2 in Peyer's patches resulted from a decrease of Th1 cells with the ingestion of CEP. Compared with BSA in the sham-operated group, no predominant changes were observed in the appendectomized mice. CONCLUSION: Appendectomy interferes with the protective role of CEP in DSS colitis via a shift from Th2 to Th1 during oral tolerance induction.

  6. Oral amino acids in elderly subjects: effect on myocardial function and walking capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, Roldano; Piccolotto, Roberto; Negut, Christian; Tiengo, Antonio; Avogaro, Angelo

    2005-01-01

    With advancing age the risk of developing serious nutritional deficiencies increases, and disturbances to the actions of insulin and insulin-like growth factor, coupled with reduced protein/amino acid (AA) intake, impair protein synthesis in muscles. To assess the effects of administering oral AAs on walking capacity and perceived walking impairment, isometric muscular strength, and myocardial function at rest and during isometric exercise. One hundred elderly subjects (aged >65 years) with reduced physical activity were randomized to receive an oral AA mixture (12 g/day) or placebo for 3 months. At baseline and after 3 months of therapy we assessed physical capacity with the 6-min walk test, and perceived physical impairment with the walking impairment questionnaire (WIQ); we assessed maximal isometric muscular strength of the right hand with a handgrip dynamometer, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) using quantitative two-dimensional echocardiography at rest and during acute overload. Three months of AA treatment resulted in significant increases in 6-min walk distance (268.8 +/- 34.9 vs. 212 +/- 40 m, p speed: 72.2 +/- 14.4 vs. 52.8 +/- 12%, p stairs: 98.2 +/- 24 vs. 72.4 +/- 22%, p walking capacity. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Mechanism of Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Aysan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effect of oral boric acid intake on reducing body weight has been previously demonstrated although the mechanism has been unclear. This research study reveals the mechanism. Subjects. Twelve mice were used, in groups of six each in the control and study groups. For five days, control group mice drank standard tap water while during the same time period the study group mice drank tap water which contains 0.28 mg/250 mL boric acid. After a 5-day period, gene expression levels for uncoupling proteins (UCPs in the white adipose tissue (WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT, and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT and total body weight changes were analyzed. Results. Real time PCR analysis revealed no significant change in UCP3 expressions, but UCP2 in WAT (: 0.0317, BAT (: 0.014, and SMT (: 0.0159 and UCP1 in BAT (: 0.026 were overexpressed in the boric acid group. In addition, mice in the boric acid group lost body weight (mean 28.1% while mice in the control group experienced no weight loss but a slight weight gain (mean 0.09%, . Conclusion. Oral boric acid intake causes overexpression of thermogenic proteins in the adipose and skeletal muscle tissues. Increasing thermogenesis through UCP protein pathway results in the accelerated lipolysis and body weight loss.

  8. Effective web videoconferencing for proctoring online oral exams: a case study at scale in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Okada

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The challenging of assessing formal and informal online learning at scale includes various issues. Many universities who are now promoting “Massive Online Open Courses” (MOOC, for instance, focus on relatively informal assessment of participant competence, which is not highly ‘quality assured’. This paper reports best practices on the use of a web videoconferencing application to quality control student assignments through online oral examination at scale. In this case study, we examine the use of a simple online conferencing technology FlashMeeting (FM by a Brazilian University to provide ‘quality assurance’ in the assessment of twelve online postgraduate courses in Law for 20,000 students. Our research questions investigate the benefits and recommendations of using FM in online oral exams at scale. Our qualitative and quantitative data analysis centres on 3,462 short format interviews through FM conducted for this purpose by a group of around fifty assessors from September 2008 to September 2012. The effective use of FM provided evidence with respect to high quality assurance recognised by the Institution with respect to: students’ identity, their knowledge and ownership of written work. The key benefits identified from the perspective of assessors and students were: reliable examination, credible technology, authentic assessment, interactive e-Viva, low cost, scalable process and practical testing in terms of time, effort and money.

  9. Effect of food on the bioavailability of bromazepam following oral administration in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, J; Inotsume, N; Nakano, M

    1990-05-01

    The effect of food on the rate and extent of bioavailability of bromazepam was examined in seven normal volunteers following a single oral dose of 10 mg bromazepam with 200 ml of water in the fasting and non-fasting states. Plasma concentrations of bromazepam were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography. A tmax value in a non-fasting state was prolonged from 2.3 +/- 0.3 (mean +/- S.E.M.) to 2.8 +/- 0.6 h but not significantly different (p greater than 0.05) whereas a Cmax value was significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased from 259 +/- 12.7 (mean +/- S.E.M.) to 169 +/- 13.9 ng/ml. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve in the non-fasting state was also significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased from 1844 +/- 145 (mean +/- S.E.M.) to 1233 +/- 98.1 ng.h/ml after oral administration of bromazepam.

  10. Effects of probiotic fermented milk on biofilms, oral microbiota, and enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Carolina Simonetti; Oliveira, Lidiane Viana; Brighenti, Fernanda Lourenção; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Martinhon, Cleide Cristina Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo the effects of 2 brands of probiotic fermented milk on biofilms, oral microbiota, and enamel. For the in situ experiment, ten volunteers wore palatine devices containing four blocks of bovine dental enamel over 3 phases, during which 20% sucrose solution, Yakult® (Treatment A), and Batavito® (Treatment B) were dropped on the enamel blocks. Salivary microbial counts were obtained and biofilm samples were analyzed after each phase. For the in vivo experiment, the same ten volunteers drunk Yakult® (Treatment C) and Batavito® (Treatment D) in two phases. Saliva samples were collected for microbial analysis after each phase. The in situ study showed that in comparison with Treatment A, Treatment B resulted in fewer total cultivable anaerobes and facultative microorganisms in biofilms, higher final microhardness, lower percentage change in surface hardness, and smaller integrated subsurface enamel hardness. In the in vivo study, Treatment D resulted in a reduction in the counts of all microorganisms. The results suggested that the probiotic fermented milk Batavito®, but not Yakult®, reduced the amount of oral microorganisms and mineral loss in bovine enamel.

  11. Effectiveness of Aloe Vera and Antioxidant along with Physiotherapy in the Management of Oral Submucous Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nisha; Hebbale, Manjula; Mhapuskar, Amit; Ul Nisa, Shams; Thopte, Shameeka; Singh, Saumya

    2016-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a well-established precancerous condition affecting the oral mucosa. It is a disease that causes significant morbidity (in terms of loss of mouth function as tissues become rigid and mouth opening becomes difficult) and mortality (when transformation into squamous cell carcinoma occurs). The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of Aloe vera with antioxidant when given along with physiotherapy in the management of OSMF. Forty patients presenting with clinical signs and symptoms of OSMF were included for the study after informed consent. Group A included 20 patients who received Aloe vera gel (forever living gel) along with physiotherapy. Group B included 20 patients who received antioxidant capsules twice daily for 3 months along with physiotherapy exercises four times in a day. The following parameters, that is, burning sensation, mouth opening, tongue protrusion and cheek flexibility were recorded at each visit. Majority of the participant enrolled were in the age range of 30 to 35 years. Improvement in all the parameters was seen with the individuals receiving Aloe vera gel in comparison to antioxidants. So, Aloe vera being a soothing, simple and safe mode of treatment along with proper habit restriction can be considered to be an effectual protocol in the management of OSMF. The analgesic effects of Aloe vera with the physiotherapy exercises provide better results in reducing burning sensation and improving mouth opening, tongue protrusion and cheek flexibility in comparison to antioxidants.

  12. Effects of High-Temperature-Pressure Polymerized Resin-Infiltrated Ceramic Networks on Oral Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Tassin

    Full Text Available The development of CAD-CAM techniques called for new materials suited to this technique and offering a safe and sustainable clinical implementation. The infiltration of resin in a ceramic network under high pressure and high temperature defines a new class of hybrid materials, namely polymer infiltrated ceramics network (PICN, for this purpose which requires to be evaluated biologically. We used oral stem cells (gingival and pulpal as an in vitro experimental model.Four biomaterials were grinded, immersed in a culture medium and deposed on stem cells from dental pulp (DPSC and gingiva (GSC: Enamic (VITA®, Experimental Hybrid Material (EHM, EHM with initiator (EHMi and polymerized Z100™ composite material (3M®. After 7 days of incubation; viability, apoptosis, proliferation, cytoskeleton, inflammatory response and morphology were evaluated in vitro.Proliferation was insignificantly delayed by all the tested materials. Significant cytotoxicity was observed in presence of resin based composites (MTT assay, however no detectable apoptosis and some dead cells were detected like in PICN materials. Cell morphology, major cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix components were not altered. An intimate contact appeared between the materials and cells.The three new tested biomaterials did not exhibit adverse effects on oral stem cells in our experimental conditions and may be an interesting alternative to ceramics or composite based CAD-CAM blocks.

  13. Biochemical evaluation of the therapeutic effectiveness of honey in oral mucosal ulcers.

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    Yilmaz, Nergiz; Nisbet, Ozlem; Nisbet, Cevat; Ceylan, Gözlem; Hoşgör, Fatih; Dede, O Doğu

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and quantify the therapeutic value of honey in oral mucosal ulcers healing in comparison with Glyceroloxytriester (TGO). We also aimed to biochemically evaluate the healing effects of honey which had been collected from the Blacksea region flora on mucosal ulcers resulting in material loss.Thirty wistar rats (240+/-30 g) were enrolled in this study. Excisional wounds were performed in all rats for animal oral mucosal ulcer model. They were randomly allocated to three groups: group 1 was treated with Apitherapeutic agent or honey (0,1 ml, 2x1), group 2 was treated with TGO (0,1ml, 2x1) locally, Group 3 served as the control group.Following the surgical procedure on day 7, biopsy specimens were taken from right buccal mucosa and on day 14 biopsy specimens were taken from left bucal mucosa in all rats. Afterwards, hydroxy pyroline levels were measured. Data were analyzed statistically.There was no statistically significant difference between Group 1 and 2, and also between Group 2 and 3, but there was statistically significant difference between Group 1 and 3 on day 7. There was no statistically significant difference between Group 1, 2 and 3 on day 14.

  14. Effect of oral arginine supplementation on GH secretion and lipid metabolism in Wistar trained rats

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    E. Luciano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Oral Arginine Supplementation (OAS and exercise are able to modify the secretion of the Growth Hormone (GH that stimulates the lipid metabolism. The aim of the study was to verify the effect of the OAS, the aerobic exercise and the combination of the OAS with the aerobic exercise on the GH secretion and lipid metabolism in rats. The sample was composted for 40 male wistar rats, divided in four groups: Sedentary control (SC, sedentary arginine (SA, trained control (TC and trained arginine (TA. The AS and AT received the oral supplementation in alternated days and the groups CT and AT realized swimming exercise for 1hour/day with overload equivalent to 5% of body mass five days per week during 4 weeks. The concentrations of GH were significantly difference between the sedentary groups (SC and AS and (TC and AT and the lipid metabolism did not change throughout all groups. In conclusions, aerobic physical training did not modify the lipid metabolism and diminishes the values of GH concentration and the OAS did not modify the concentration of GH in Wistar rats.

  15. The immune system of the gut and potential adverse effects of oral nanocarriers on its function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Őrfi, Erik; Szebeni, János

    2016-11-15

    There is substantial effort in modern pharmacotherapy to use nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems (nDDS) for improving the oral absorption of drugs. An often neglected circumstance regarding this approach is that the gut is a major part of the immune system that may be vulnerable for immune-cell toxicity, or mediate humoral immune response against various components of nDDS, recognized as foreign. This review recapitulates the structure and function of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), i.e., the enteral section of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) and reminds how virus-like nDDS may potentially induce immunogenicity just as attenuated or killed viruses do in oral vaccines. Furthermore, we present examples for immune toxicities of emulsifiers and polymer-containing micelles, manifested in complement activation-related pseudoallergy (CARPA). A major message of the review is that early testing of immunogenicity or other adverse immune effects of nDDS in appropriate test systems or models may be prudent to recognize the risk of rare immune problems that may surface in late-stage clinical trials or after marketing of nDDS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Size-exclusive effect of nanostructured lipid carriers on oral drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huipeng; Chen, Minglei; Su, Zhigui; Sun, Minjie; Ping, Qineng

    2016-09-10

    Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) to form a controlled nanostructure are a new generation of lipid nanoparticles. In addition to formulation and particle surface properties, particle size had great influence for overcoming gastrointestinal (GI) barriers on the oral drug delivery of lipid based nanoparticles. In the present study, we investigated the effect of size on oral drug delivery for NLCs. The NLCs with different particle sizes (NLCs100nm, NLCs200nm and NLCs300nm) were prepared by using solvent evaporation method and the coumarin-6 (C6) or DiO/DiI was loaded in the nanoparticles as the fluorescence probe. The MTT assay indicated that both blank NLCs and C6-loaded NLCs displayed relatively low toxicity towards Caco-2 cells. Cellular uptake mechanisms of NLCs with different sizes were found to be similar and governed by active endocytosis, clathrin- and caveolae-mediated process. However, the smaller nanoparticle (NLC-100nm) showed higher uptake efficiency in Caco-2 cell (Poral administration. NLC-100nm exhibited the most stability according to the most stable FRET signal. In situ rat intestinal absorption experiments and in vitro ligated rat intestinal loops model demonstrated that all NLCs could rapidly penetrate duodenum versus jejunum, ileum and colon (Poral drug delivery of lipid based nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF LEMONGRASS OIL ON ORAL MICROORGANISMS: AN IN VITRO STUDY

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    Ruchika Goyal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to know antibacterial effect of lemongrass oil on oral microorganisms: Streptococcus mutans, Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The disc diffusion test for the Streptococcus mutans, was carried out at various concentrations of lemongrass oil as neat, 1:2, 1:5, 1:10, 1:20 and 1: 25. The punch hole diffusion technique was used for Prevotella intermedia and Porhyromonas gingivalis at various concentrations of lemongrass oil as neat, 1:2, 1:5, 1:10, 1:20 and 1:25. The disc diffusion test for Streptococcus mutans showed the zone of inhibition of >40mm, >40mm, >20mm, 14mm,14mm at the concentration of neat, 1:2, 1:5, 1:10, 1:20 respectively. The punch hole diffusion technique used for Prevotella intermedia and Porhyromonas gingivalis showed Zone of inhibition of >30mm, >20mm, >10mm at the concentrations of neat, 1:2, 1:5, and 1:10 respectively. The study has demonstrated that essential oil of lemongrass has significant antimicrobial potential against oral microorganisms S.mutans, P. intermedia and P. gingivalis.

  18. The effect of oral Isotretinoin on plasma level of folic acid

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    amir majdein amir javanbakht

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Acne vulgaris is one of the most common skin disorders and Isotretinoin has widely been used as a treatment for its severe and resistant cases in recent years. Considering the controversy over the effect of systemic Isotretinoin on reducing the plasma level of folic acid and the negative effect of this reduction on health, this study was conducted to assess the influence of systemic Isotretinoin on the plasma level of folic acid during the years 2008 and 2009 in Khorramabad city. Materials and Methods: 61 patients including 38 women and 23 men with severe or moderate acne (age mean 23.6+6 y/o who were resistant to conventional treatments were supplemented with 0.5mg/kg/day of oral Isotretinoin for 30 days. They were instructed not to use any other drugs with an effect on folic acid level or change their diet. The serum levels of folic acid were measured at the baseline and at the end of the treatment period. The statistical analyses were carried out using the paired T-test. Results: The mean levels of folic acid were 26.75+9.42 nmol/lit and 23.6+8.42 nmol/lit at the baseline and after 30 days of Isotretinoin supplementation respectively. This showed a significant decrease in plasma folic acid level (p=0.008. Conclusion: This study revealed a significant reduction in plasma level of folic acid following a 30 day use of oral Isotretinoin in acne patients. Concerning the important role of folic acid in metabolic functions, we recommend further studies to assess the effect of longer periods of Isotretinoin treatment as well as other relevant factors on folic acid metabolism. Moreover, folic acid supplementation and simultaneous use of Isotretinoin is recommended in patients with acne.

  19. Oral calcitonin

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    Hamdy RC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald C Hamdy,1,2 Dane N Daley11Osteoporosis Center, College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, 2Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Johnson City, TN, USAAbstract: Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through β-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ. Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis failed to

  20. Effects of PEGylated lipid nanoparticles on the oral absorption of one BCS II drug: a mechanistic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingwang; Chen, Guijiang; Zhang, Tianpeng; Ma, Zhiguo; Wu, Baojian

    2014-01-01

    Lipid nanocarriers are becoming a versatile platform for oral delivery of lipophilic drugs. In this article, we aimed to explore the gastrointestinal behaviors of lipid nanoparticles and the effect of PEGylation on oral absorption of fenofibrate (FN), a Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) II model drug. FN-loaded PEGylated lipid nanoparticles (FN-PLNs) were prepared by the solvent-diffusion method and characterized by particle size distribution, morphology, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and drug release. Lipolytic experiments were performed to assess the resistance of lipid nanoparticles against pancreatic lipase. Pharmacokinetics was evaluated in rats after oral administration of FN preparations. The obtained FN-PLNs were 186.7 nm in size with an entrapment efficiency of >95%. Compared to conventional lipid nanoparticles, PLNs exhibited slower drug release in the lipase-containing medium, strikingly reduced mucin binding, and suppressed lipolysis in vitro. Further, oral absorption of FN was significantly enhanced using PLNs with relative bioavailability of 123.9% and 157.0% to conventional lipid nanoparticles and a commercial formulation (Lipanthyl(®)), respectively. It was demonstrated that reduced mucin trapping, suppressed lipolysis, and/or improved mucosal permeability were responsible for increased oral absorption. These results facilitated a better understanding of the in vivo fate of lipid nanoparticles, and suggested the potential of PLNs as oral carriers of BCS II drugs.

  1. Effectiveness of oral health education among primary health care workers at the primary health center in Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh

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    Muthyala Pavana Sandhya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary dental care can be a way of achieving good oral health for the community. This can be achieved by integration of oral health care with the existing primary health care activities through training of primary health care workers on aspects of oral health. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of oral health education among primary health care workers at the primary health center (PHC in Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: Descriptive longitudinal study was conducted from June 2010 to August 2010 at a PHC. Knowledge about oral health among primary health care workers was pretested using a self-administered questionnaire prepared in local language (Telugu. Later after a month health education was provided to the health workers, and pamphlets with information on oral health were distributed. Posttest assessment was done 1-month after providing health education using the same questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 12.0 software, Student′s t-test was used to compare knowledge scores between pre and posttests. Results: A total of 118 Primary Health Care Workers with the majority in the 20-30 years age group participated in the study. Posttest assessment showed a change in knowledge level with an overall increase in knowledge level of primary health care workers with a mean difference of 12.56 ± 3.23, which was highly significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The knowledge about oral health was poor, and it improved after providing health education to primary health care workers. Change in knowledge was appreciable and may play a key role in oral health promotion of the vast majority of the rural population.

  2. Antibacterial Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Punica granatum Linn. Petal on Common Oral Microorganisms.

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    Hajifattahi, Farnaz; Moravej-Salehi, Elham; Taheri, Maryam; Mahboubi, Arash; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to assess the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum Linn. (P. granatum) petal on Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods. In this in vitro study, P. granatum extract was prepared using powdered petals and water-ethanol solvent. Antibacterial effect of the extract, chlorhexidine (CHX), and ampicillin was evaluated on brain heart infusion agar (BHIA) using the cup-plate method. By assessing the diameter of the growth inhibition zone, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extract were determined for the above-mentioned bacteria. Results. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum petal had inhibitory effects on the proliferation of all five bacterial strains with maximum effect on S. mutans with MIC and MBC of 3.9 mg/mL. The largest growth inhibition zone diameter belonged to S. sanguinis and the smallest to E. faecalis. Ampicillin and CHX had the greatest inhibitory effect on S. sanguinis. Conclusions. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum had a significant antibacterial effect on common oral bacterial pathogens with maximum effect on S. mutans, which is the main microorganism responsible for dental plaque and caries.

  3. Antibacterial Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Punica granatum Linn. Petal on Common Oral Microorganisms

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    Farnaz Hajifattahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aimed to assess the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum Linn. (P. granatum petal on Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods. In this in vitro study, P. granatum extract was prepared using powdered petals and water-ethanol solvent. Antibacterial effect of the extract, chlorhexidine (CHX, and ampicillin was evaluated on brain heart infusion agar (BHIA using the cup-plate method. By assessing the diameter of the growth inhibition zone, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of the extract were determined for the above-mentioned bacteria. Results. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum petal had inhibitory effects on the proliferation of all five bacterial strains with maximum effect on S. mutans with MIC and MBC of 3.9 mg/mL. The largest growth inhibition zone diameter belonged to S. sanguinis and the smallest to E. faecalis. Ampicillin and CHX had the greatest inhibitory effect on S. sanguinis. Conclusions. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum had a significant antibacterial effect on common oral bacterial pathogens with maximum effect on S. mutans, which is the main microorganism responsible for dental plaque and caries.

  4. The effects of oral contraceptives on well-being and sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, J; Sartorius, N

    1990-01-01

    The extent to which the high discontinuation rate for oral contraceptives is due to adverse effects of mood, well-being and sexuality is explored, taking into account early studies on high dose combined and sequential pills, recent studies on low-dose combined and triphasics, experimental design factors, effects of OCs on free androgen levels, psychosocial factors and reasons for choosing or stopping pills, effects on depressive illness, premenstrual syndrome, sexuality, and possible mechanisms for direct effects of steroids on mood and sexuality. Study design is complicated by selection of early or late oral contraceptive users, types of controls, and unknown confounding factors such as reason for choice of pills, effect of a reliable contraceptive on the sexual relationship, prior history of depression and premenstrual tension. Furthermore virtually all topics reviewed here resulted in inconsistent or contradictory findings, making a case for individual variation and subgroups of women with different responses regarding the end point being examined. Examples include whether progestogen alter female sexual desire or male attraction; and whether rising or falling free testosterone levels affect sexual response. Factors affecting experimental design include culture, language, life-cycle, type of relationship, personal qualities affecting contraceptive choice, manner of eliciting reports of side effects, steroid dose, whether ovulation was blocked, initial or established pill-use, possibility of missed pills, and type of controls. Current pill users seem to discontinue for depression and low libido less frequently than did users of higher dose pills, and severity scores of adverse effects are lower. Premenstrual and other cyclic events may be altered in timing, and premenstrual symptoms are relieved in most women, but worsened in some who take pills. It is likely that women with depressive and premenstrual complaints tend to discontinue pills, leaving the remaining

  5. The effect of chronic alcohol intoxication and smoking on the activity of oral peroxidase The effect of chronic alcohol intoxication and smoking on the activity of oral peroxidase

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    Napoleon Waszkiewicz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Peroxidase is the most important antioxidant enzyme in saliva. Through peroxidation of thiocyanate in
    the presence of H2O2, peroxidase catalyses the formation of bacteriocidic compounds such as hypothiocyanate.
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication and smoking on the activity
    of oral peroxidase (OPO. A total of 37 volunteers participated in the study. This cohort consisted of 17 male
    alcohol-dependent smoking patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (AS group, alcohol + smoking (mean
    age: 42 years; range: 26–55 (100–700 g/day of alcohol; 10–20 cigarettes/day and 20 control male social drinkers
    (CNS group, control non-smokers with no history of alcohol abuse or smoking (mean age: 42 years; range:
    30–53. Salivary peroxidase activity was measured by the colorimetric method. The differences between groups
    were evaluated using the Mann–Whitney U test. There was significantly higher activity of OPO (p = 0.00001
    and significantly lower salivary flow (SF (p = 0.007 in alcohol-dependent smokers after chronic alcohol intoxication
    compared to the control group. OPO activity significantly correlated with the number of days of alcohol
    intoxication, but not with smoking. Gingival index (GI was significantly higher in smoking alcohol-dependent
    persons than in the control group, and correlated with OPO activity. The sensitivity of the OPO test was 70% in
    smoking alcoholics, while specificity was 95%. The increased activity of OPO suggests chronic oxidative stress is
    more likely due to ethanol action than to smoking. Smoking alcohol-dependent persons have a worse periodontal
    status than controls. OPO activity as a marker of chronic alcohol abuse may help in the diagnosis of alcoholism.Peroxidase is the most important antioxidant enzyme in saliva. Through peroxidation of thiocyanate in
    the presence of H2O2, peroxidase

  6. Effect of famotidine on the pharmacokinetics of apixaban, an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor

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    Upreti VV

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Vijay V Upreti,1 Yan Song,1 Jessie Wang,2 Wonkyung Byon,3 Rebecca A Boyd,3 Janice M Pursley,4 Frank LaCreta,1 Charles E Frost1 1Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacometrics, Discovery Medicine and Clinical Pharmacology, 2Exploratory Development Global Biometric Sciences, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ, 3Primary Care Clinical Pharmacology, Pfizer, Groton, CT, 4Analytical and Bioanalytical Department, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ, USA Background: Apixaban is an oral, selective, direct factor Xa inhibitor approved for thromboprophylaxis after orthopedic surgery and stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation, and under development for treatment of venous thromboembolism. This study investigated the effect of a gastric acid suppressant, famotidine (a histamine H2-receptor antagonist, on the pharmacokinetics of apixaban in healthy subjects. Methods: This two-period, two-treatment crossover study randomized 18 healthy subjects to receive a single oral dose of apixaban 10 mg with and without a single oral dose of famotidine 40 mg administered 3 hours before dosing with apixaban. Plasma apixaban concentrations were measured up to 60 hours post-dose and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Results: Famotidine did not affect maximum apixaban plasma concentration (Cmax or area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to infinite time (AUC∞. Point estimates for ratios of geometric means with and without famotidine were close to unity for Cmax (0.978 and AUC∞ (1.007, and 90% confidence intervals were entirely contained within the 80%–125% no-effect interval. Administration of apixaban alone and with famotidine was well tolerated. Conclusion: Famotidine does not affect the pharmacokinetics of apixaban, consistent with the physicochemical properties of apixaban (lack of an ionizable group and pH-independent solubility. Apixaban pharmacokinetics would not be affected by an increase in gastrointestinal pH due to

  7. Long-term oral appliance therapy in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome : a controlled study on dental side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doff, M. H. J.; Finnema, K. J.; Hoekema, A.; Wijkstra, P. J.; de Bont, L. G. M.; Stegenga, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess possible dental side effects associated with long-term use of an adjustable oral appliance compared with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and to study the relationship between these possible side effects and t

  8. Long-term oral appliance therapy in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome : a controlled study on dental side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doff, M. H. J.; Finnema, K. J.; Hoekema, A.; Wijkstra, P. J.; de Bont, L. G. M.; Stegenga, B.

    This study aimed to assess possible dental side effects associated with long-term use of an adjustable oral appliance compared with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and to study the relationship between these possible side effects and

  9. The therapeutic effect of PLAG against oral mucositis in hamster and mouse model

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    Ha-Reum Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced mucositis can limit the effectiveness of cancer therapy and increase the risk of infections. However, no specific therapy for protection against mucositis is currently available. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of PLAG (1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol, acetylated diglyceride in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU-induced oral mucositis animal models. Hamsters were administered 5-FU (80 mg/kg intraperitoneally on days 0, 6, and 9. The animals’ cheek pouches were then scratched equally with the tip of an 18-gauge needle on days 1, 2, and 7. PLAG was administered daily at 250 mg/kg/day. PLAG administration significantly reduced 5-FU/scratching–induced mucositis. Dramatic reversal of weight loss in PLAG-treated hamsters with mucositis was observed. Histochemical staining data also revealed newly differentiated epidermis and blood vessels in the cheek pouches of PLAG-treated hamsters, indicative of recovery. Whole blood analyses indicated that PLAG prevents 5-FU–induced excessive neutrophil transmigration to the infection site and eventually stabilizes the number of circulating neutrophils. In a mouse mucositis model, mice with 5-FU–induced disease treated with PLAG exhibited resistance to body-weight loss compared with mice that received 5-FU or 5-FU/scratching alone. PLAG also dramatically reversed mucositis-associated weight loss and inhibited mucositis-induced inflammatory responses in the tongue and serum. These data suggest that PLAG enhances recovery from 5-FU–induced oral mucositis and may therefore be a useful therapeutic agent for treating side effects of chemotherapy, such as mucositis and cachexia.

  10. Effect of corrosion products (neodymium iron boron) on oral fibroblast proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R D; McDonald, F

    1995-01-01

    The biological effects of the corrosion products of neodymium iron boron (Nd2Fe14B) magnets are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the types of corrosion product and to evaluate the effect of the corrosion products (CP) of Nd2Fe14B magnets on the proliferation of human oral mucosal fibroblasts. Uncoated Nd2Fe14B magnets were stored in saline at 37 degrees C for 6 months and the corrosion products collected. 100 microL of a cell suspension (human oral mucosal fibroblasts [14 x 10(4) cells/mL]) was aliquoted into 72 wells of a 96-well plate, the remaining plates receiving culture medium only. After 12 h incubation at 37 degrees C, each well then received 100 microL of either (A) culture medium, (B) 100% CP, (C) 50% CP, or (D) 0% CP. The plates were reincubated at 37 degrees C for a further 48, 96, or 144 h. Fibroblast proliferation was assessed using the methylene blue uptake/elution technique. The compounds in the corrosion product were examined using quantitative X-ray analysis. Statistical analysis (ANOVA, Bonferroni's test 0.05, SAS v 6.04), showed that at each time point, the cell numbers in groups B, C, and D were significantly lower than group A. Within groups B, C, and D no significant differences were found, despite the suggestion of a dose response effect. Fibroblast proliferation in the presence of corrosion products was significantly lower than with culture medium. Fibroblast proliferation did occur in the presence of 0, 50, and 100% CP. The actual corrosion products appeared to be salts of iron but 3.2% (+/- 0.6) of neodymium chloride (NdCl3) was found.

  11. Oral dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) replacement in older adults: effects on central adiposity, glucose metabolism, and blood lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Catherine M.; Gozansky, Wendolyn S.; Van Pelt, Rachael E.; Wolfe, Pamela; Schwartz, Robert S.; Kohrt, Wendy M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim was to determine the effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) therapy on changes in central adiposity, insulin action, and blood lipids. Many of the actions of DHEA in humans are thought to be mediated through its conversion to sex hormones, which are modulators of adiposity, muscularity, and insulin sensitivity. The effects of DHEA replacement on regional tissue composition, glucose metabolism, and blood lipid profile in older adults have been inconsistent. Design a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. The intervention was oral DHEA 50 mg/d or placebo for 12 months. Participants 58 women and 61 men, aged 60–88 yr, with low serum DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) levels at study entry. Measurements Computed tomography measures of abdominal fat areas, thigh muscle and fat areas, DXA-derived trunk fat mass, serum glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge, and fasted serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides were assessed before and after the intervention. Results There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences between the DHEA and placebo groups in the changes in regional tissue composition or glucose metabolism. HDL-cholesterol (P =0.01) and fasted triglycerides (P =0.02) decreased in women and men taking DHEA. Conclusion Restoring serum DHEAS levels in older adults to young adult levels for 1 year does not appear to reduce central adiposity or improve insulin action. The benefit of DHEA on decreasing serum triglycerides must be weighed against the HDL-lowering effect. PMID:21521341

  12. [Clinical effectiveness of salvianolic acid B and triamcinolone acetonide in treatment of oral submucous fibrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, X C; Zheng, L; Zhu, R; Wang, B P; Zhou, T; Du, Y X

    2017-01-09

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of salvianolic acid B (SA-B) and triamcinolone acetonide (TA) by means of combined intralesional injection in the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). Methods: According to clinical findings and symptoms, TA combined with SA-B were consecutively applied intralesionally 1 time weekly for 30 times. Mouth opening degree, color change of the buccal mucosae and numeral increase of the capillary vessels were determined by degree Ⅰ-Ⅳ visual analog scale were evaluated at 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively. Results: One hundred and fourteen subjects fulfilled the study without obvious adverse reactions. After treatment for 1 year, the net gain in mouth opening of the early stage group was (5.5 ± 1.5) mm at 12 months, (8.8 ± 1.6) mm at 24 months and (12.0±1.2) mm at 36 months. The net gain in mouth opening of the middle stage group were (5.3±1.7) mm at 12 months, (10.5±1.5) mm at 24 months and (14.5±2.4) mm at 36 months. The net gain in mouth opening of the advanced stage group were (5.7±1.3) mm at 12 months, (13.7±1.3) mm at 24 months and (15.5±1.5) mm at 36 months. The effective rates of color change of the buccal mucosae and numeral increase of the capillary vessels after treatment for 36 months were 100% in early stage group, 93% (51/55) in middle stage group and 90% (36/40) in advanced stage group. Conclusions: TA and SA-B combined intralesional injection in the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis is effective.

  13. Short- and long-term effects of oral vancomycin on the human intestinal microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Sandrine; Scher, Jose U.; Djukovic, Ana; Jiménez, Nuria; Littman, Dan R.; Abramson, Steven B.; Pamer, Eric G.; Ubeda, Carles

    2017-01-01

    Background Oral vancomycin remains the mainstay of therapy for severe infections produced by Clostridium difficile, the most prevalent cause of healthcare-associated infectious diarrhoea in developed countries. However, its short- and long-term effects on the human intestinal microbiota remain largely unknown. Methods We utilized high-throughput sequencing to analyse the effects of vancomycin on the faecal human microbiota up to 22 weeks post-antibiotic cessation. The clinical relevance of the observed microbiota perturbations was studied in mice. Results During vancomycin therapy, most intestinal microbiota genera and operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were depleted in all analysed subjects, including all baseline OTUs from the phylum Bacteroidetes. This was accompanied by a vast expansion of genera associated with infections, including Klebsiella and Escherichia/Shigella. Following antibiotic cessation, marked differences in microbiota resilience were observed among subjects. While some individuals recovered a microbiota close to baseline composition, in others, up to 89% of abundant OTUs could no longer be detected. The clinical relevance of the observed microbiota changes was further demonstrated in mice, which developed analogous microbiota alterations. During vancomycin treatment, mice were highly susceptible to intestinal colonization by an antibiotic-resistant pathogen and, upon antibiotic cessation, a less-resilient microbiota allowed higher levels of pathogen colonization. Conclusions Oral vancomycin induces drastic and consistent changes in the human intestinal microbiota. Upon vancomycin cessation, the microbiota recovery rate varied considerably among subjects, which could influence, as validated in mice, the level of susceptibility to pathogen intestinal colonization. Our results demonstrate the negative long-term effects of vancomycin, which should be considered as a fundamental aspect of the cost–benefit equation for antibiotic prescription. PMID

  14. Short- and long-term effects of oral vancomycin on the human intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Sandrine; Scher, Jose U; Djukovic, Ana; Jiménez, Nuria; Littman, Dan R; Abramson, Steven B; Pamer, Eric G; Ubeda, Carles

    2017-01-01

    Oral vancomycin remains the mainstay of therapy for severe infections produced by Clostridium difficile, the most prevalent cause of healthcare-associated infectious diarrhoea in developed countries. However, its short- and long-term effects on the human intestinal microbiota remain largely unknown. We utilized high-throughput sequencing to analyse the effects of vancomycin on the faecal human microbiota up to 22 weeks post-antibiotic cessation. The clinical relevance of the observed microbiota perturbations was studied in mice. During vancomycin therapy, most intestinal microbiota genera and operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were depleted in all analysed subjects, including all baseline OTUs from the phylum Bacteroidetes. This was accompanied by a vast expansion of genera associated with infections, including Klebsiella and Escherichia/Shigella. Following antibiotic cessation, marked differences in microbiota resilience were observed among subjects. While some individuals recovered a microbiota close to baseline composition, in others, up to 89% of abundant OTUs could no longer be detected. The clinical relevance of the observed microbiota changes was further demonstrated in mice, which developed analogous microbiota alterations. During vancomycin treatment, mice were highly susceptible to intestinal colonization by an antibiotic-resistant pathogen and, upon antibiotic cessation, a less-resilient microbiota allowed higher levels of pathogen colonization. Oral vancomycin induces drastic and consistent changes in the human intestinal microbiota. Upon vancomycin cessation, the microbiota recovery rate varied considerably among subjects, which could influence, as validated in mice, the level of susceptibility to pathogen intestinal colonization. Our results demonstrate the negative long-term effects of vancomycin, which should be considered as a fundamental aspect of the cost-benefit equation for antibiotic prescription. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford

  15. Effect of Oral Carbohydrate Intake on Labor Progress: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rahmani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of information regarding biochemical changes in women during labor and its outcomes on maternal and neonatal health still is an unanswered question. This study aims to explore the effectiveness of oral carbohydrate intake during labor on the duration of the active phase and other maternal and neonatal outcomes.Methods: A parallel prospective randomized controlled trial, conducted at the University Affiliated Teaching Hospital in Gonabad. Totally, 190 women were randomly assigned to an intervention (N=87 or control (N=90 group. Inclusion criteria were low-risk women with singleton cephalic presentation; and cervical dilatation 3-4 cm. Randomization was used by random number generator on every day. Odd numbers was used for intervention and even numbers for control group. Intervention was based on the preferences between: 3 medium dates plus 110 ml water; 3 dates plus 110 ml light tea without sugar; or 110 ml orange juice. The protocol is only run once but women ate and drank gradually before second stage of labor. Control group were fasted as routine practice. Neither participants nor care givers or staff could be blinded to group allocation. Differences between duration of the active phase of labor were assessed as primary outcome measure.Results: There was significant difference in the length of second stage of labor (P <.05. The effect size for this variable was 0.48. There were no significant differences in other maternal and neonatal outcomes.Conclusions: Oral intake of carbohydrate was an effective method for shortening the duration of second stage of labor in low-risk women.

  16. Effect of methoxychlor on Ca2+ handling and viability in OC2 human oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Li-Ling; Shu, Su-Shung; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Hsieh, Yao-Dung; Chu, Sau-Tung; Chi, Chao-Chuan; Liang, Wei-Zhe; Ho, Chin-Man; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2011-05-01

    The effect of the insecticide methoxychlor on the physiology of oral cells is unknown. This study aimed to explore the effect of methoxychlor on cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) in human oral cancer cells (OC2) by using the Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dye fura-2. Methoxychlor at 5-20 μM increased [Ca(2+)](i) in a concentration-dependent manner. The signal was reduced by 70% by removing extracellular Ca(2+). Methoxychlor-induced Ca(2+) entry was not affected by nifedipine, econazole, SK&F96365 and protein kinase C modulators but was inhibited by the phospholipase A2 inhibitor aristolochic acid. In Ca(2+)-free medium, treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitor thapsigargin or 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ) inhibited or abolished methoxychlor-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. Incubation with methoxychlor also inhibited thapsigargin- or BHQ-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. Inhibition of phospholipase C with U73122 did not alter methoxychlor-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. At 5-20 μM, methoxychlor killed cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect of methoxychlor was not reversed by chelating cytosolic Ca(2+) with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid/AM (BAPTA/AM). Annexin V-FITC data suggest that methoxychlor (10 and 20 μM) evoked apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Together, in human OC2, methoxychlor induced a [Ca(2+)](i) rise probably by inducing phospholipase C-independent Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca(2+) entry via phospholipase A(2)-sensitive channels. Methoxychlor induced cell death that may involve apoptosis.

  17. Novel small-molecule AMPK activator orally exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Yu, Li-Fang; Zhang, Li-Na; Qiu, Bei-Ying; Su, Ming-Bo; Wu, Fang; Chen, Da-Kai; Pang, Tao; Gu, Min; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Wei-Ping; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Li, Jing-Ya, E-mail: jyli@mail.shcnc.ac.cn; Nan, Fa-Jun, E-mail: fjnan@mail.shcnc.ac.cn; Li, Jia, E-mail: jli@mail.shcnc.ac.cn

    2013-12-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a pivotal guardian of whole-body energy metabolism, has become an attractive therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome. Previously, using a homogeneous scintillation proximity assay, we identified the small-molecule AMPK activator C24 from an optimization based on the original allosteric activator PT1. In this paper, the AMPK activation mechanism of C24 and its potential beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism on db/db mice were investigated. C24 allosterically stimulated inactive AMPK α subunit truncations and activated AMPK heterotrimers by antagonizing autoinhibition. In primary hepatocytes, C24 increased the phosphorylation of AMPK downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase dose-dependently without changing intracellular AMP/ATP ratio, indicating its allosteric activation in cells. Through activating AMPK, C24 decreased glucose output by down-regulating mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in primary hepatocytes. C24 also decreased the triglyceride and cholesterol contents in HepG2 cells. Due to its improved bioavailability, chronic oral treatment with multiple doses of C24 significantly reduced blood glucose and lipid levels in plasma, and improved the glucose tolerance of diabetic db/db mice. The hepatic transcriptional levels of PEPCK and G6Pase were reduced. These results demonstrate that this orally effective activator of AMPK represents a novel approach to the treatment of metabolic syndrome. - Highlights: • C24 activates AMPK through antagonizing autoinhibition within α subunit. • C24 activates AMPK in hepatocytes and decreases glucose output via AMPK. • C24 exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice. • C24 represents a novel therapeutic for treatment of metabolic syndrome.

  18. Azathioprine is effective for oral involvement in Crohn's disease but not for orofacial granulomatosis alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, A; Goel, R; Elliott, T; Campbell, H; Hullah, E; Patel, P; Challacombe, S; Escudier, M; Sanderson, J D

    2016-04-01

    There have been no previous reports assessing the effectiveness of azathioprine (AZA) in the treatment of orofacial granulomatosis (OFG). This report is a review of patients receiving AZA for active OFG with or without concomitant gut Crohn's disease (CD) in a specialist tertiary referral centre. Clinical response was defined by Global Physician Assessment at 4-, 12- and 24-month follow-up and a standardised oral disease activity score (ODAS). Sixty of 215 patients seen with OFG in our clinic over a 12-year period were treated with AZA. Of these, 22 had concomitant CD. The proportion of patients responding to AZA with a diagnosis of CD/OFG vs. OFG only at 4, 12 and 24 months were 54% vs. 21% (P = 0.03), 59% vs. 21% (P = 0.003) and 41% vs. 24% (P = 0.16), respectively. A statistically significant difference was seen between starting and follow-up ODAS scores at 4 months in the CD/OFG group which was not observed in the OFG only group. Factors predicting a need for AZA included a diagnosis of intestinal CD, sulcal swelling, sulcal ulcers and upper lip involvement. The factor predicting response to treatment was a diagnosis of CD at 12 months of follow-up. No difference in the number of adverse effects was observed between the two groups of patients. AZA is significantly more effective in the treatment of oral disease with a concurrent diagnosis of CD rather than in the treatment of OFG alone. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Osteoporosis grave con aplastamientos vertebrales en dermatomiositis juvenil: Efecto del tratamiento con alendronato oral Severe osteoporosis with vertebral crushes in juvenile dermatomyositis: Effect of oral alendronate therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Tau

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Los glucocorticoides son usados comúnmente para el tratamiento de enfermedades inflamatorias, autoinmunes, enfermedades malignas, y en la prevención de rechazo de órganos trasplantados. Un efecto secundario frecuente del tratamiento prolongado es la pérdida de masa ósea que se produce por varios mecanismos y es causa de osteoporosis y fracturas vertebrales. El tratamiento con disfosfonatos ha sido propuesto para esta situación. Presentamos un caso clínico de osteoporosis grave en una niña con dermatomiositis juvenil, que respondió favorablemente al tratamiento con disfosfonatos orales.Glucocorticoids are used for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, cancer, and in prevention of organ rejects. A frequent secondary effect of longterm treatment with corticoids is the loss of bone mass, caused by several mechanisms: decrease in the intestinal calcium absorption, increase of the renal calcium excretion at the distal renal tubule, suppressive effect on the osteoblast and also in apoptosis of osteoclasts, inhibition in local production of IGF I (Insulin-like growth factor and IGFBPs (binding IGF I proteins necessary for bone metabolism, and decrease on osteocalcin production. Longterm treatment with corticoids is associated with osteoporosis and vertebral fractures. To improve this condition, treatment with bisphosphonates has been proposed. We present here a clinical case of a girl with dermatomyositis and severe osteoporosis with vertebral crushes, who responded well to oral bisphophonate treatment.

  20. Oral Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Oral Medication The first treatment for type 2 diabetes blood ... new — even over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money ...

  1. Clinical and Experimental Study on Effect of Yangxin Fumai Oral Liquid (

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of Yangxin Fumai Oral Liquid (YFOL,养心复脉口服液), a Chinese herbal medicine for nourishing Heart and restoring pulse, in treating patients with extrasystole. Methods: The effect of YFOL was observed in treating 30 patients with different kinds of extrasystole and compared with that in 30 patients treated by propafenone. The effect of YFOL on experimental arrhythmia was studied in animals as well. Results: Clinical observation showed that the effect of treatment against extrasystole in the two groups was similar, but the YFOL group showed better results in symptom improvement (P<0.01) with no marked side-effect. Experimental study showed that YFOL could reduce the chloroform induced ventricular fibrillation occurrence in mice, delay the initiating time of ventricular extrasystole, tachycardia and fibrillation induced by aconitine, BaCl2 and coronary artery ligation in rats, or shorten the lasting time of arrhythmia, reduce the attacking frequency of ventricular extrasystole. There was significant difference in comparing with the control group (P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusion:YFOL is a good and convenient Chinese herbal preparation for different kinds of extrasystole with few toxic and side-effect in clinical practice.

  2. Deferasirox, an oral iron chelator, prevents hepatocarcinogenesis and adverse effects of sorafenib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naoki; Yamasaki, Takahiro; Takami, Taro; Uchida, Koichi; Fujisawa, Koichi; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Saeki, Issei; Terai, Shuji; Sakaida, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Although sorafenib is expected to have a chemopreventive effect on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence, there are limitations to its use because of adverse effects, including effects on liver function. We have reported that the iron chelator, deferoxamine can prevent liver fibrosis and preneoplastic lesions. We investigated the influence of administering a new oral iron chelator, deferasirox (DFX), on the effects of sorafenib. We used the choline-deficient l-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet-induced rat liver fibrosis and HCC model. We divided rats into four groups: CDAA diet only (control group), CDAA diet with sorafenib (sorafenib group), CDAA diet with DFX (DFX group), and CDAA diet with DFX and sorafenib (DFX + sorafenib group). Liver fibrosis and development of preneoplastic lesions were assessed. In addition, we assessed adverse effects such as changes in body and liver weight, skin damage (eruption, dryness, and hair loss), which is defined as hand-foot skin syndrome, in the sorafenib and DFX + sorafenib groups. The combination of DFX + sorafenib markedly prevented liver fibrosis and preneoplastic lesions better than the other treatments. Furthermore, the combination therapy significantly decreased adverse effects compared with the sorafenib group. In conclusion, the combination therapy with DFX and sorafenib may be a useful adjuvant therapy to prevent recurrence after curative treatment of HCC. PMID:27257345

  3. Deferasirox, an oral iron chelator, prevents hepatocarcinogenesis and adverse effects of sorafenib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naoki; Yamasaki, Takahiro; Takami, Taro; Uchida, Koichi; Fujisawa, Koichi; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Saeki, Issei; Terai, Shuji; Sakaida, Isao

    2016-05-01

    Although sorafenib is expected to have a chemopreventive effect on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence, there are limitations to its use because of adverse effects, including effects on liver function. We have reported that the iron chelator, deferoxamine can prevent liver fibrosis and preneoplastic lesions. We investigated the influence of administering a new oral iron chelator, deferasirox (DFX), on the effects of sorafenib. We used the choline-deficient l-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet-induced rat liver fibrosis and HCC model. We divided rats into four groups: CDAA diet only (control group), CDAA diet with sorafenib (sorafenib group), CDAA diet with DFX (DFX group), and CDAA diet with DFX and sorafenib (DFX + sorafenib group). Liver fibrosis and development of preneoplastic lesions were assessed. In addition, we assessed adverse effects such as changes in body and liver weight, skin damage (eruption, dryness, and hair loss), which is defined as hand-foot skin syndrome, in the sorafenib and DFX + sorafenib groups. The combination of DFX + sorafenib markedly prevented liver fibrosis and preneoplastic lesions better than the other treatments. Furthermore, the combination therapy significantly decreased adverse effects compared with the sorafenib group. In conclusion, the combination therapy with DFX and sorafenib may be a useful adjuvant therapy to prevent recurrence after curative treatment of HCC.

  4. Effects of Withania somnifera on oral ethanol self-administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peana, Alessandra T; Muggironi, Giulia; Spina, Liliana; Rosas, Michela; Kasture, Sanjay B; Cotti, Elisabetta; Acquas, Elio

    2014-10-01

    Recent evidence has shown that Withania somnifera Dunal (Ashwagandha or Indian ginseng), a herbal remedy used in traditional medicine, impairs morphine-elicited place conditioning. Here, we investigated the effect of W. somnifera roots extract (WSE) on motivation for drinking ethanol using operant self-administration paradigms. Wistar rats were trained to self-administer ethanol (10%) by nose-poking. The effects of WSE (25-75 mg/kg) were evaluated on acquisition and maintenance, on ethanol breakpoint under a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement and on the deprivation effect and reinstatement of seeking behaviours. Moreover, on the basis of the recent suggestion of an involvement of GABAB receptors in WSE central effects, we studied the interaction between WSE and GABAB ligands. The effect of WSE on saccharin (0.05%) oral self-administration was also tested. The results show that WSE reduced the acquisition, maintenance and breakpoint of ethanol self-administration. WSE also reduced the deprivation effect, reinstatement of ethanol-seeking behaviours and saccharin reinforcement. Furthermore, the GABAB receptor antagonist, phaclofen, counteracted the ability of WSE to impair the maintenance of ethanol self-administration. These findings show that WSE, by an action that may involve GABAB receptors, impairs motivation for drinking ethanol and suggest that further investigations should be performed to determine whether W. somnifera may represent a new approach for the management of alcohol abuse.

  5. [The effects of grape seed and coriander oil on biochemical parameters of oral fluid in patients with periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaishvili, M; Gogua, M; Franchuki, Q; Tufinashvili, T; Zurabashvili, D

    2014-10-01

    Biochemical changes that are taking place in patients with periodontitis 1 and 2 the quality of the individuals place in a laqtatdegidrogenazis, alkaline phosphatase activity increase and reduced activity amilazais. Therefore we can conclude that, there is an increase in superoxide substances, which causes an increase in the oral cavity patobakteriebis and quality of periodontitis. The grape seed and coriander oil is of vegetable origin and antioxidant drugs. Their action causes a statistically significant increase in the amilazis, alkaline phosphatase and laqtatdegidrogenazis reduction, while the latter leads pH - rate of return to oral fluid. It should be noted that the positive effect of coriander oil, but less effective.

  6. Antihypertensive effect of long-term oral administration of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) collagen peptides on renovascular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yongliang; Sun, Liping; Zhang, Yufeng; Liu, Gaoxiang

    2012-02-01

    Antihypertensive effect of long-term oral administration of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) collagen peptides (JCP) on renovascular hypertension rats (RVHs) was evaluated. The systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure of the RVHs were significantly reduced with administration of JCP (p oral treatment with high dose JCP (p > 0.05). Furthermore, effect of JCP on angiotensin II (Ang II) concentration of plasma had no significance (p > 0.05), but JCP significantly inhibited the Ang II concentration in RVHs' kidney (p < 0.05). The kidney should be the target site of JCP.

  7. Early and late physical and psychosocial effects of primary surgery in patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Annelise; Jarden, Mary

    2016-01-01

    in this review was 3386; of these, 1996 were treated by surgery alone and 1390 with combined surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. The studies showed that because of the nature of their disease, patients are negatively affected by the different types of surgical treatment for oral......The purpose of this systematic review is to explore early and late physical and psychosocial effects of primary surgery for oral and oropharyngeal cancers and to investigate the factors that influence these effects. PubMed, Cinahl, and PsycInfo were searched for studies concerning patients...

  8. Effect of education of primary health care workers on HIV-related oral lesions in Nairobi East district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucina N. Koyio

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. An estimated 90% of HIV-infected people are likely to develop oral lesions in the course of HIV infection. Oro-pharyngeal candidiasis (OPC, an early marker for HIV-infection, can be diagnosed during an oral examination (OE. Primary healthcare (PHC providers in Kenya are neither trained nor sufficiently equipped to perform this simple, cheap and non-invasive examination. The PHC system in Kenya offers an opportunity to integrate early recognition and management of oral lesions into general health care. This study aims to estimate the effect of a multifaceted intervention for PHC providers in training them to perform an OE. Specifically, our primary objective is to establish whether the intervention is effective in increasing: i the frequency of early detection of HIV-related oral lesions; and ii referral rates for HIV-testing. Design and methods. The study has been designed in two parts: a retrospective clinical data record study and a prospective cohort study with pre-post control group design, carried out in 2 administrative divisions in Nairobi East district. The intervention group will receive one day of training on recognition of HIV-related oral lesions and other common oral conditions. Reminder sessions will be held at individual health facilities. Routine tally sheets will be used to record all patients with HIV-related oral lesions, dental caries and periodontal disease. A convenience sample of all the PHC in a division will be used. It will not be possible to blind investigators or assessors. Expected impact of the study for Public Health. Early recognition and treatment of HIV infection influences long-term survival rates and will reduce healthcare expenditure.

  9. Effectiveness of a Motivation and Practical Skills Development Methods on the Oral Hygiene of Orphans Children in Kaunas, Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Markeviciute

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a motivation and practical skills development methods on the oral hygiene of orphans. Material and Methods: Sixty eight orphans aged between 7 and 17 years from two orphanages in Kaunas were divided into two groups: practical application group and motivation group. Children were clinically examined by determining their oral hygiene status using Silness-Löe plaque index. Questionnaire was used to estimate the oral hygiene knowledge and practices at baseline and after 3 months. Statistical analysis included: Chi-square test (χ2, Fisher‘s exact test, Student‘s t-test, nonparametric Mann-Whitney test, Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient and Kappa coefficient. Results: All children had a plaque on at least one tooth in both groups: motivation 1.14 (SD 0.51, practical application 1.08 (SD 0.4 (P = 0.58. Girls in both groups showed significantly better oral hygiene than boys (P < 0.001. After 3 months educational program oral hygiene status improved in both groups significantly 0.4 (SD 0.35 (P < 0.001. Significantly better oral hygiene was determined in practical application group 0.19 (SD 0.27 in comparison with motivation group 0.55 (SD 0.32 (P < 0.001. By comparing results of first and second questionnaire surveys on use of soft drinks, the statistically significant decline of their use was in both groups (P = 0.004. Conclusions: Educational programs are effective in improving oral hygiene, especially when they’re based on practical skills training.

  10. Oral myiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Thalaimalai Saravanan; Mathan A Mohan; Meera Thinakaran; Saneem Ahammed

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability ...

  11. Comparative Effects of Two Oral Appliances on Upper Airway Structure in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kate; Deane, Sheryn A.; Chan, Andrew S.L.; Schwab, Richard J.; Ng, Andrew T.; Darendeliler, M. Ali; Cistulli, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Oral appliances are increasingly being used for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Mandibular advancement splint (MAS) mechanically protrudes the mandible, while the tongue stabilizing device (TSD) protrudes and holds the tongue using suction. Although both appliances can significantly improve or ameliorate OSA, their comparative effects on upper airway structure have not been investigated. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Sleep Investigation Unit. Patients: 39 patients undergoing oral appliance treatment for OSA. Interventions: OSA patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the upper airway during wakefulness at baseline and with MAS and TSD in randomized order. Treatment efficacy was determined by polysomnography in a subset of 18 patients. Measurements and Results: Upper airway lumen and surrounding soft tissue structures were segmented using image analysis software. Upper airway dimensions and soft tissue centroid movements were determined. Both appliances altered upper airway geometry, associated with movement of the parapharyngeal fat pads away from the airway. TSD increased velopharyngeal lateral diameter to a greater extent (+0.35 ± 0.07 vs. +0.18 ± 0.05 cm; P < 0.001) and also increased antero-posterior diameter with anterior displacement of the tongue (0.68 ± 0.04 cm; P < 0.001) and soft palate (0.12 ± 0.03 cm; P < 0.001). MAS resulted in significant anterior displacement of the tongue base muscles (0.35 ± 0.04 cm). TSD responders (AHI reduction ≥ 50%) increased velopharyngeal volume more than non-responders (+2.65 ± 0.9 vs. –0.44 ± 0.8 cm3; P < 0.05). Airway structures did not differ between MAS responders and non-responders. Conclusions: These results indicate that the patterns and magnitude of changes in upper airway structure differ between appliances. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the clinical relevance of these changes, and whether they can be used to predict treatment outcome. Citation

  12. Intraocular pressure-lowering effect of oral paracetamol and its in vitro corneal penetration properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nabiel Mohamed, David MeyerDivision of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South AfricaBackground: Several studies have confirmed the ability of cannabinoids to reduce intraocular pressure. Experimental data recently demonstrated unequivocally that the analgesic effect of paracetamol is due to its indirect action on cannabinoid receptors. The question then arises as to whether paracetamol can reduce intraocular pressure via its effect on intraocular cannabinoid receptors.Methods: A 2-week, prospective, randomized, controlled, single-center, parallel-group pilot study was carried out to determine the efficacy and safety of paracetamol 1 g orally administered every 6 hours in adult patients with primary or secondary open angle glaucoma as compared with topical levobunolol 0.5% twice a day. Patient well-being was closely monitored throughout the study and focused on hepatic safety in accordance with Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network criteria. The in vitro diffusion kinetics of acetaminophen in a phosphate-buffered solution in rabbit and human corneas was also investigated, with the view to a topical application.Results: Eighteen adult patients were enrolled in the study, with nine in the topical levobunolol group and nine in the oral paracetamol group. In the levobunolol group, the mean reduction in intraocular pressure at day 7 was 7.5 mmHg (P < 0.008 and at day 14 was 9.1 mmHg (P < 0.005, from a mean baseline intraocular pressure of 29.6 mmHg. The corresponding figures for the paracetamol group were 8.8 mmHg (P < 0.0004 at day 7 and 6.5 mmHg (P < 0.004 at day 14, from a mean baseline intraocular pressure of 29.4 mmHg. Both study regimens were well tolerated. No serious treatment-related adverse events were reported in either of the treatment groups. Liver function tests, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, or heart rate remained unchanged in both groups during the 2 weeks of the study. In

  13. Effect of chewing gums containing the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri on oral malodour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Mette K; Bardow, Allan; Jensdottir, Thorbjörg

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of chewing gums containing probiotic bacteria on oral malodour. The null hypothesis was that no difference would be displayed compared with placebo gums. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five healthy young adults with self-reported malodorous morning breath completed...... this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial. The design included run-in and wash-out periods interspersed by two intervention periods of 14 days each. The subjects were instructed to chew one gum in the morning and one in the evening containing either two strains of probiotic lactobacilli (L...... lower in the probiotic group compared with the placebo group (p probiotic chewing...

  14. In vitro effect of coffee on oral malodor-related parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gov, Y; Sterer, N; Rosenberg, M

    2010-06-01

    In the present investigation we examined the effect of three brands of coffee on microbial volatile sulfur compound (VSC) production using a decarboxylase incubation assay. Stimulated whole saliva was added to decarboxylase medium supplemented with 0.005% hemin. Incubation was carried out anaerobically for 72 h in the presence of powdered coffee at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 2.0% (w/v), as compared with appropriate controls. VSC levels were determined using OralChroma™ and Halimeter™ and malodor was scored by an experienced odor judge. Experimental biofilm was grown with or without coffee and examined for VSC-producing bacteria using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results showed that VSC and malodor levels were decreased by 85% in the presence of 2% coffee. The data suggest that coffee components reduce malodor production, VSC levels and experimental biofilm VSC-producing bacteria in vitro.

  15. Effect of oral propranolol on splanchnic oxygen uptake and haemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Becker, U;

    1987-01-01

    In order to elucidate the effect of beta-adrenergic blockade on liver metabolism and haemodynamics, splanchnic oxygen uptake, hepatic removal of indocyanine green (ICG) and splanchnic and systemic haemodynamics were studied in 13 patients with cirrhosis before and 1.5-2 h after an oral dose of 80.......01), azygos venous oxygen saturation (76 vs. 67%, P less than 0.05), ICG clearance (263 vs. 226 ml/min, P less than 0.01), wedged-to-free hepatic vein pressure (16 vs. 13.5 mm Hg, P less than 0.01), hepatic blood flow (1.18 vs. 0.78 l/min, P less than 0.01), cardiac index (3.42 vs. 2.53 l/min . min 2, P less...

  16. The effects of naltrexone on cadmium-induced increases in oral ethanol self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, J R; Horger, B A; Pugh, C K; Bratton, G R; Rowe, L D

    1990-01-01

    Adult male rats were exposed to a standard laboratory diet (N = 20), or an adulterated diet containing 100 ppm added cadmium (N = 20), for 60 days. On Day 61, half the animals from each dietary condition received subcutaneous implants of two 30 mg naltrexone pellets, and the remaining half the animals received identical implants of 30 mg placebo pellets. One week later, animals from groups created by this interaction (Groups Control-Placebo, Control-Naltrexone, Cadmium-Placebo, Cadmium-Naltrexone) were tested in an ethanol self-administration paradigm that presented a 10% ethanol solution (v/v) in both a choice and nonchoice format. The results indicated that cadmium exposure increased the oral self-administration of ethanol in the choice setting where water was offered as an alternative, and the opiate antagonist naltrexone failed to attenuate this effect.

  17. Effect of hypnosis on oral function and psychological factors in temporomandibular disorders patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Randi; Zachariae, Robert; Svensson, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of hypnosis in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) with focus on oral function and psychological outcomes. Forty women (mean age +/- s.d.: 38.6 +/- 10.8 years) suffering from TMD (mean duration 11.9 +/- 9.9 years) were randomized to four individual 1......, psychological symptoms (Symptom Check List 60), pain coping strategies (Coping Strategies Questionnaire), sleep difficulties (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and use of analgesics. Data were analyzed with between-groups within-subjects anovas. The hypnosis group significantly reduced the daily NRS pain scores...... from 4.5 +/- 2.1 at baseline to 2.9 +/- 2.4 after treatment (P hypnosis group also increased use of the coping strategy...

  18. Comparative study of the effects of two bleaching agents on oral microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkmin, Yara Tardelli; Sartorelli, Renata; Flório, Flávia Martão; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vivo effects of bleaching agents containing 10% carbamide peroxide (Platinum/Colgate) or 7.5% hydrogen peroxide (Day White 2Z/Discus Dental) on mutans Streptococcus during dental bleaching. The products were applied on 30 volunteers who needed dental bleaching. In each volunteer, one of the two bleaching agents was used on both dental arches one hour a day for three weeks. Analysis of the bacterial counts was made by collecting saliva before (baseline values), during (7 and 21 days) bleaching treatments and 14 days posttreatment. The Friedman non-parametric analysis (alpha=0.05) found no differences in microorganism counts at different times for each group for both agents (p>0.05). The Mann Whitney nonparametric test (alpha=0.05) showed no differences in micro-organism counts for both agents (p>0.05). Different bleaching agents did not change the oral cavity mutans Streptococcus counts.

  19. Effect of combination antiretroviral therapy on the frequency of oral candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayuti Hasibuan

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients. It serves as important markers of HIV infection, viral load, and CD4 cells count in the blood and predict disease progression to AIDS. The development of oral candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients associated by imbalances between Candida and impaired host immune defenses that caused by decreased of CD4 cell counts and the increased of plasma HIV-viral load. Since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy combination, commonly known as Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART, it has been observed that certain oral lesions, such as oral candidiasis as declined. The aim of this paper is to review the mechanism of combination antiretroviral therapy influenced the frequency of oral candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patient. We conclude that combination antiretroviral therapy generally reduced the frequency and severity of oral candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patient.

  20. Clinical and microbiological effects of a subantimicrobial dose of oral doxycycline on periodontitis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S E; Hwang, S Y; Jeong, M; Lee, Y; Lee, E R; Park, Y W; Ahn, J S; Kim, S; Seo, K

    2016-02-01

    Doxycycline is regarded as an effective treatment for periodontal inflammation. In humans, it has been shown that the long-term administration of a subantimicrobial dose of doxycycline (SDD) does not induce antimicrobial effects on the subgingival microflora and furthermore does not affect antimicrobial susceptibility. The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of oral administration of SDD on normal periodontal microflora and antimicrobial susceptibility in dogs. Experimental periodontitis was induced in 12 experimental dogs using a silk and wire-twisted ligature for 60 days. After the periodontitis induction period, the ligature was removed, and dental cleaning (subgingival and supragingival ultrasonic scaling) was performed. The dogs were randomly assigned to one of two groups: an SDD group with six dogs receiving 2 mg/kg PO once daily and a control group with six dogs receiving a placebo. At weeks 0, 4 and 8, clinical periodontal parameters were evaluated. After the clinical assessments, subgingival plaque was sampled and then cultured in an anaerobic system for one week, and the total anaerobes, Porphyromonas spp., Bacteroides spp. and Pasteurella spp. counts were investigated. Using the agar dilution method, the minimum bactericidal concentration of doxycycline was evaluated and the resistance for doxycycline was monitored during this experimental phase. The clinical periodontal status of the SDD group was significantly improved compared to the control group (P  0.05), and antibacterial resistance was not established in the SDD group during the experimental periods (P <0.05). These results suggest that the once daily oral regimen of 2 mg/kg of doxycycline could serve as a SDD in dogs.

  1. Beneficial effects of calcium oral coadministration in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojiljkovic, Nenad; Stoiljkovic, Milan; Mihailovic, Dragan; Randjelovic, Pavle; Ilic, Sonja; Gocmanac-Ignjatovic, Marija; Veljkovic, Milica

    2012-01-01

    Frequent therapeutical use of an aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin (GM) is limited by its nephrotoxic effects often characterized by both morphological and functional alterations of kidney leading to acute renal failure. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of dietary calcium supplementation on GM-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Experiments were performed on 30 adult male Wistar rats divided into three groups of 10 animals each. G-group received GM intraperitoneally at a dose of 100 mg/kg; GCa-group received the same dose of GM concomitantly with 1 g/kg calcium carbonate given orally; and C-group, serving as control, received 1 mL/day of normal saline. All groups were treated during 8 consecutive days. Quantitative evaluation of GM-induced structural and functional changes of kidney was performed by histopathological, morphometrical, and biochemical analyses. Compared with control, G-group of rats were found to have diffusely and unequally thickened glomerular basement membrane with neutrophil cells infiltration. In addition, vacuolization of cytoplasm of proximal tubule cells with coagulation-type necrosis was observed. These GM-induced pathological lesions were significantly reduced in the rats of GCa-group. Morphometric analysis revealed statistically significant differences in the size of glomeruli (area, major and minor axes, perimeter), optical density, and roundness of glomeruli (p Biochemical analysis showed significant elevation in blood urea and serum creatinine concentrations, whereas potassium concentration was lowered in G-group compared with the other groups (p < 0.01). It is concluded that oral supplementation of calcium during treatment with GM resulted in significant reduction of morphological and functional kidney alterations.

  2. Histological effects of oral administration of nutmeg on the kidneys of adult Wister rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Osayame Eweka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The effects of oral administration of nutmeg commonly used as spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol on the kidneys of adult Wistar rats were carefully studied. Material and Methods: Rats of both sexes (n = 24, with average weight of 220g were randomly assigned into two treatments (A & B of (n=16 and Control (c (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment groups (A & B received 0.1g (500mg/kg body weight and 0.2g (1000mg/kg body weight of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds respectively on a daily basis for forty-two days. The control group (c received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for forty-two days. The growers′ mash feeds was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo state, Nigeria and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on the forty-third day of the experiment. The kidneys were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde for routine histological study after hematoxylin and eosin method. Result: The histological findings in the treated sections of the kidneys showed distortion of the renal cortical structures, vacuolations appearing in the stroma and some degree of cellular necrosis, with degenerative and atrophic changes when compared to the control group. Conclusion: These findings indicate that oral administration of nutmeg may have some deleterious effects on the kidneys of adult Wistar rats at higher doses and by extension may affect its excretory and other metabolic functions. It is recommended that caution should therefore be advocated in the intake of this product and further studies be carried out to examine these findings.

  3. Effect of oral sirolimus therapy on inflammatory biomarkers following coronary stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.C.M. Rosa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of oral sirolimus, administered to prevent and treat in-stent restenosis (ISR, on the variation of serum levels of inflammatory markers following coronary stenting with bare metal stents. The mean age of the patients was 56 ± 13 years, 65% were males and all had clinically manifested ischemia. Serum levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP concentration were determined by chemiluminescence and serum levels of all other biomarkers by ELISA. One group of patients at high risk for ISR received a loading oral dose of 15 mg sirolimus and 5 mg daily thereafter for 28 days after stenting (SIR-G. A control group (CONT-G was submitted to stenting without sirolimus therapy. The increase in hs-CRP concentration was highest at 24 h after stenting in both groups. A significant difference between SIR-G and CONT-G was observed at 4 weeks (-1.50 ± 5.0 vs -0.19 ± 0.4, P = 0.008 and lost significance 1 month after sirolimus discontinuation (-1.73 ± 4.3 vs -0.01 ± 0.7, P = 0.0975. A continuous fall in MMP-9 concentration was observed in SIR-G, with the greatest reduction at 4 weeks (-352.9 ± 455 vs +395.2 ± 377, P = 0.0004, while a positive variation was noted 4 weeks after sirolimus discontinuation (227 ± 708 vs 406.2 ± 472.1, P = 0.0958. SIR-G exhibited a higher increase in P-selectin after sirolimus discontinuation at week 8 (46.1 ± 67.9 vs 5.8 ± 23.7, P = 0.0025. These findings suggest that the anti-restenotic actions of systemic sirolimus include anti-proliferative effects and modulation of the inflammatory response with inhibition of adhesion molecule expression.

  4. Effects of TiO2 nano glass ionomer cements against normal and cancer oral cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Contreras, Rene; Scougall-Vilchis, Rogelio J; Contreras-Bulnes, Rosalia; Kanda, Yumiko; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Incorporation of nanoparticles (NPs) into the glass ionomer cements (GICs) is known to improve their mechanical and antibacterial properties. The present study aimed to investigate the possible cytotoxicity and pro-inflammation effect of three different powdered GICs (base, core build and restorative) prepared with and without titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles. Each GIC was blended with TiO2 nanopowder, anatase phase, particle size pestle to a fine powder, and then subjected to the sterilization by autoclaving. Human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (HCS-2, HSC-3, HSC-4, Ca9-22) and human normal oral cells [gingival fibroblast (HGF), pulp (HPC) and periodontal ligament fibroblast (HPLF)] were incubated with different concentrations of GICs in the presence or absence of TiO2 nanoparticles, and the viable cell number was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. Prostaglandin E2 was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Changes in fine cell structure were assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Cancer cells exhibited moderate cytotoxicity after 48 h of incubation, regardless of the type of GIC and the presence or absence of TiO2 NPs. GICs induced much lower cytotoxicity against normal cells, but induced prostaglandin E2 production, in a synergistic wanner with interleukin-1β. The present study shows acceptable to moderate biocompatibility of GICs impregnated with TiO2 nanoparticles, as well as its pro-inflammatory effects at higher concentrations. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. Effective management of venous thromboembolism in the community: non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Raj Patel Department of Haematological Medicine, King's Thrombosis Centre, King's College Hospital, London, UK Abstract: Anticoagulation therapy is essential for the effective treatment and secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE. For many years, anticoagulation for acute VTE was limited to the use of initial parenteral heparin, overlapping with and followed by a vitamin K antagonist. Although highly effective, this regimen has several limitations and is particularly challenging when given in an ambulatory setting. Current treatment pathways for most patients with deep-vein thrombosis typically involve initial hospital or community-based ambulatory care with subsequent follow-up in a secondary care setting. With the introduction of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs into routine clinical practice, it is now possible for the initial acute management of patients with deep-vein thrombosis to be undertaken by primary care. As hospital admissions associated with VTE become shorter, primary care will play an increasingly important role in the long-term management of these patients. Although the NOACs can potentially simplify patient management and improve clinical outcomes, primary care physicians may be less familiar with these new treatments compared with traditional therapy. To assist primary care physicians in further understanding the role of the NOACs, this article outlines the main differences between NOACs and traditional anticoagulation therapy and discusses the benefit–risk profile of the different NOACs in the treatment and secondary prevention of recurrent VTE. Key considerations for the use of NOACs in the primary care setting are highlighted, including dose transition, risk assessment and follow-up, duration of anticoagulant therapy, how to minimize bleeding risks, and the importance of patient education and counseling. Keywords: venous thromboembolism, oral anticoagulant, prevention, treatment, primary

  6. Effect of three fluoride compounds on the growth of oral normal and tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acra, Alejandro Mena; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Matsuta, Tomohiko; Adachi, Kazunori; Otsuki, Sumiko; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Koh, Teho; Machino, Mamoru; Ogihara, Takashi; Watanabe, Koji; Watanabe, Shigeru; Salgado, Angel Visoso; Bastida, Norma M Montiel

    2012-01-01

    Comparative study of the growth inhibition by different types of fluoride compounds used in dentistry has been limited. We investigated the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF), diammine silver fluoride [Ag(NH3)2F] and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on the growth of eleven human normal and tumor cells in total. Viable cell number was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis induction was evaluated by caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation. Fluoride was determined using a fluoride-specific electrode. All compounds had little or no growth stimulating effect (hormesis) on all cells. Ag(NH3)2F exhibited the highest cytotoxicity towards both normal and tumor cells. 5-FU had the selective cytostatic activity towards oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, whereas NaF was selectively cytotoxic towards glioblastoma cell lines. None of the compounds induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and only 5-FU induced slight activation of caspase-3 in an oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line (HSC-2). Cytotoxicity of fluoride compounds was not reduced by superoxide dismutase and catalase, reducing the possibility of the involvement of reactive oxygen species in the mechanism of action. Approximately 0.01-0.09% initially added NaF was recovered from the cells, whereas the cellular uptake of Ag(NH3)2F and 5-FU was below the detection limit. Cytotoxicity of fluoride compounds may not be directly linked to their tumor specificity nor to their apoptosis-inducing activity.

  7. Histological effects of oral administration of nutmeg on the kidneys of adult Wister rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Osayame Eweka

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The effects of oral administration of nutmeg commonly used as spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol on the kidneys of adult Wistar rats were carefully studied. Material and Methods: Rats of both sexes (n = 24, with average weight of 220g were randomly assigned into two treatments (A & B of (n=16 and Control (c (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment groups (A & B received 0.1g (500mg/kg body weight and 0.2g (1000mg/kg body weight of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds respectively on a daily basis for forty-two days. The control group (c received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for forty-two days. The growers’ mash feeds was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo state, Nigeria and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on the forty-third day of the experiment. The kidneys were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde for routine histological study after hematoxylin and eosin method. Result: The histological findings in the treated sections of the kidneys showed distortion of the renal cortical structures, vacuolations appearing in the stroma and some degree of cellular necrosis, with degenerative and atrophic changes when compared to the control group. Conclusion: These findings indicate that oral administration of nutmeg may have some deleterious effects on the kidneys of adult Wistar rats at higher doses and by extension may affect its excretory and other metabolic functions. It is recommended that caution should therefore be advocated in the intake of this product and further studies be carried out to examine these findings.

  8. Beryllium metal I. experimental results on acute oral toxicity, local skin and eye effects, and genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strupp, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of soluble metal compounds is often different from that of the parent metal. Since no reliable data on acute toxicity, local effects, and mutagenicity of beryllium metal have ever been generated, beryllium metal powder was tested according to the respective Organisation for Economical Co-Operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Acute oral toxicity of beryllium metal was investigated in rats and local effects on skin and eye in rabbits. Skin-sensitizing properties were investigated in guinea pigs (maximization method). Basic knowledge about systemic bioavailability is important for the design of genotoxicity tests on poorly soluble substances. Therefore, it was necessary to experimentally compare the capacities of beryllium chloride and beryllium metal to form ions under simulated human lung conditions. Solubility of beryllium metal in artificial lung fluid was low, while solubility in artificial lysosomal fluid was moderate. Beryllium chloride dissolution kinetics were largely different, and thus, metal extracts were used in the in vitro genotoxicity tests. Genotoxicity was investigated in vitro in a bacterial reverse mutagenicity assay, a mammalian cell gene mutation assay, a mammalian cell chromosome aberration assay, and an unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay. In addition, cell transformation was tested in a Syrian hamster embryo cell assay, and potential inhibition of DNA repair was tested by modification of the UDS assay. Beryllium metal was found not to be mutagenic or clastogenic based on the experimental in vitro results. Furthermore, treatment with beryllium metal extracts did not induce DNA repair synthesis, indicative of no DNA-damaging potential of beryllium metal. A cell-transforming potential and a tendency to inhibit DNA repair when the cell is severely damaged by an external stimulus were observed. Beryllium metal was also found not to be a skin or eye irritant, not to be a skin sensitizer, and not to have relevant acute oral

  9. Cost-effectiveness of oral anticoagulants for treatment of atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canestaro, William J; Patrick, Amanda R; Avorn, Jerry; Ito, Kouta; Matlin, Olga S; Brennan, Troyen A; Shrank, William H; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2013-11-01

    New anticoagulants may improve health outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation, but it is unclear whether their use is cost-effective. A Markov state transition was created to compare 4 therapies: dabigatran 150 mg BID, apixaban 5 mg BID, rivaroxaban 20 mg QD, and warfarin therapy. The population included those with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation who were eligible for treatment with warfarin. Compared with warfarin, apixaban, rivaroxaban, and dabigatran, costs were $93 063, $111 465, and $140 557 per additional quality-adjusted life year gained, respectively. At a threshold of $100 000 per quality-adjusted life year, apixaban provided the greatest absolute benefit while still being cost-effective, although warfarin would be superior if apixaban was 2% less effective than expected. Although apixaban was the optimal strategy in our base case, in probabilistic sensitivity analysis, warfarin was optimal in an equal number of iterations at a cost-effectiveness threshold of $100 000 per quality-adjusted life year. While at a standard cost-effectiveness threshold of $100 000 per quality-adjusted life year, apixaban seems to be the optimal anticoagulation strategy; this finding is sensitive to assumptions about its efficacy and cost. In sensitivity analysis, warfarin seems to be the optimal choice in an equal number of simulations. As a result, although all the novel oral anticoagulants produce greater quality-adjusted life expectancy than warfarin, they may not represent good value for money.

  10. Supplementation with Vitamin B6 Reduces Side Effects in Cambodian Women Using Oral Contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chivorn Var

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal contraceptives may produce side effects that deter women from their use as a method of family planning. In nutritionally vulnerable populations these effects may be more pronounced due to micronutrient deficiencies and health status. Previous studies have been unable to resolve whether micronutrient supplementation may reduce such side effects. Aim: In a longitudinal study, 1011 women obtaining oral contraception through the public health system in rural Cambodia were allocated to either intervention or control groups, receiving either daily Vitamin B6 supplement or care as usual (without placebo. Results: The intervention participants (n = 577 reported fewer side effects in three categories: nausea/no appetite, headache, and depression compared with control group participants (n = 434. Conclusion: Women taking Vitamin B6 supplement were less likely to report side effects in a nutritionally vulnerable population. Underlying nutrition status should be considered by clinicians and reproductive health policy makers in the context of providing contraceptive services. Further investigation into micronutrient supplementation, particularly with B6, in reproductive-aged women using hormonal contraception should be conducted in other settings to determine the potential for widespread adoption.

  11. Potential effectiveness of strategies to promote oral health in primary health care: comparative study among Brazilian capitals and regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Antonio Dercy; Moysés, Samuel Jorge; Kusma, Solena Ziemer; Moysés, Simone Tetu

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the potential effectiveness of strategies of Oral Health Promotion (OHP), which are carried out by teams in primary health care (PHC) in Brazilian capitals and regions. A sample of 1,848 dentists were interviewed (1,819 valid responses) working in the PHC of 26 capitals and the Federal District. The Effectiveness of the Assessment Tool for the Promotion of Oral Health Strategies was used. It is composed of 23 indicators grouped into three dimensions: oral health, health public policies, and human and social development. The answers were arranged in a Likert scale (1-5), and the final score obtained for each sample unit can range from 23 to 115. Higher score values indicate greater potential for the strategy to promote oral health. Statistically significant differences were identified among the analyzed geopopulation units considering the study object. The Southeast and South regions had better performance for the OHP strategies in comparison to the other regions of Brazil (p ≤ 0.01). The OHP strategies identified in the study were heterogeneous, with better results favoring the Southeast regions, with disadvantages for people living in capitals from the Central-North-Northeast of Brazil. Efforts should be undertaken aiming to qualify the PHC teams, especially for those in disadvantageous regions. Therefore, an alignment of PSB strategies to the principles and values of health promotion is required, addressed to the social health determinants (SHDs) and in order to fight the inequalities in oral health.

  12. Effectiveness of a social marketing media campaign to reduce oral cancer racial disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jennifer M; Tomar, Scott L; Dodd, Virginia; Logan, Henrietta L; Choi, Youjin

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a systematic evaluation of a theory-driven oral cancer awareness media campaign. We surveyed a cohort of residents in an intervention city (250) and a control city (250) immediately prior to and after the media campaign. Participants (125 black/African American and 125 white) in each city completed surveys at baseline and follow-up. Oral cancer campaign awareness was assessed in both cities, along with 4 hypothetical health campaigns. Oral cancer awareness, oral cancer exam awareness, intent to receive an oral cancer exam, interest in exam, and receipt of exam were also assessed in both cities, both at baseline and follow-up. Intervention city residents showed a significant increase in recognition of the campaign, awareness of the oral cancer exam, and interest in getting an exam, while no significant changes in those topics were found for the control city. Blacks/African Americans in the intervention city were significantly more likely than whites to demonstrate increases in awareness of the campaign, oral cancer awareness, and interest in receiving an oral cancer exam. A theory-driven media campaign was successful in increasing awareness of the oral cancer exam and interest in the exam among blacks/African Americans.

  13. The effect of oral tizanidine on postoperative pain relief after elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reihanak Talakoub

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Oral administration of 4 mg tizanidine before laparoscopic cholecystectomy reduces postoperative pain, opioid consumption, and consequence of the duration of stay in recovery room without any complication.

  14. Penetration effect of prostaglandin E2 gel on oral mucosa of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafinus Arifin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several researches reported that Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 injection on buccal mucosa combined with orthodontic pressure can faster tooth movement but has disadvantages such as high alveolar bone and root resorption furthermore pain from injection needle. PGE2 gel was made to better replace the lacks of injectable PGE2. Purpose: This research was aimed to prove that PGE 2 gel can penetrate rat’s oral mucosa effecting the appearance of PMN cells. Methods: This research was an in vivo laboratory experiment using 36 Sprague Dawley rats which were divided into 3 groups: normal group, topical PGE2 gel group after 1, 2, 4, 8 hours (4 subgroups, and topical gel without PGE2 group after 1, 2, 4, 8 hours (4 subgroups. Each group consists of 4 rats, therefore the total sample for all research groups were 36 rats. Gel with 25 µg/mL of PGE2 and gel without PGE2 were applied on oral mucosa for 2 minutes. Then, the rats were sacrificed after 1 hour, 2 hours, 4 hours, and 8 hours application. After that, the samples were prepared for histological examination with Hematoxyllin and Eosin. The picture were taken with OptiLab View and PMN cells amount were counted with light microscope, set 400 times of magnification. Results: Penetration effect of PGE2 gel on rat’s oral mucosa result in PMN inflammation cells distribution. One-way ANOVA showed no significant difference on PMN cells count in rats’ lower jaws between groups of normal and gel without PGE2. There was significant difference between groups of PGE2 gel and gel without PGE2 (p=0,001. PGE2 gel application showed PGE2 as inflammatory media, even though administered topically. Conclusion: PGE2 gel can penetrate rat’s oral mucosa, effecting PMN cells 1, 2, 4 and 8 hours after application of PGE2 gel.Latar belakang: Beberapa penelitian melaporkan bahwa injeksi (Prostaglandin E2 PGE2pada mukosa bukal yang dikombinasikan dengan tekanan ortodonti dapat mempercepat pergerakan gigi, tapi

  15. A randomized control trial study, single blinded, the effect of gamelan and oral glucose solution intervention toward infants' pain respond in immunization

    OpenAIRE

    Endang Zulaicha Susilaningsih; Indria Laksmi Gamayanti; Purwanta Purwanta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Immunization injection procedure can cause pain in infants, so that non-pharmacological techniques approach is required to overcome it. Distraction techniques are used to reduce pain in infants including oral glucose administration and the distraction of music. How oral glucose effects in reducing pain in infants when compared with the distraction of music is not known. The research objective is to analyse and compare the effect of oral glucose intervention, gamelan music, and com...

  16. Effects of oral valganciclovir prophylaxis for cytomegalovirus infection in heart transplant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doesch AO

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Andreas O Doesch,1 Janika Repp,1 Nina Hofmann,1 Christian Erbel,1 Lutz Frankenstein,1 Christian A Gleissner,1 Constanze Schmidt,1 Arjang Ruhparwar,2 Christian Zugck,1 Paul Schnitzler,3 Philipp Ehlermann,1 Thomas J Dengler,4 Hugo A Katus11Department of Cardiology, 2Department of Cardiac Surgery, 3Department of Infectious Disease, Virology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, 4Department of Cardiology, SLK Kliniken Heilbronn, Bad Friedrichshall, GermanyBackground: Cytomegalovirus (CMV infection is a serious complication following heart transplantation. This study (June 2003-January 2010 retrospectively assessed the effects of oral valganciclovir prophylaxis in adult heart transplant recipients during the first year after transplantation.Methods: In patients with normal renal function, 900 mg of oral valganciclovir was administered twice daily for 14 days after heart transplant followed by 900 mg per day for following 6 months. In the event of renal insufficiency, valganciclovir was adjusted according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Antigenemia testing for pp65 antigen and simultaneous polymerase chain reaction (PCR were used to document exposure to CMV. From 2003 to 2010, 146 patients (74.0% men of mean age 50.7 ± 10.3 years at the time of heart transplant were included.Results: A total of 16 patients (11.0% of total, 75.0% male had a positive pp65 and PCR result (ie, CMV infection during the year following heart transplant; three of these patients had discontinued valganciclovir prophylaxis within the first 6 months following transplant because of leukopenia, including one patient developed CMV colitis. Two further patients developed CMV pneumonia during prophylactic valganciclovir therapy. Eight patients had positive pp65 and PCR tests in the 6–12 months after heart transplant following cessation of routine prophylaxis. One of these patients developed CMV pneumonia and another developed CMV colitis and CMV pneumonia. Thirty-seven of

  17. Oral mycophenolate mofetil prevents in-stent intimal hyperplasia without edge effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilkay, Erdogan; Tirikli, Latif; Ozercan, Ibrahim; Yavuzkir, Mustafa; Karaca, Ilgin; Rahman, Ali; Arslan, Nadi

    2006-01-01

    Neointimal hyperplasia is in the forefront in in-stent restenosis. Prevention of in-stent restenosis is possible by reducing and inhibiting the hyperplasia of smooth muscle cells. The authors planned this study to test the hypothesis that when administered orally, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) could inhibit in-stent neointimal hyperplasia. The study included 14 New Zealand rabbits. The rabbits were allocated to 2 different groups: Group 1 included 7 rabbits that were given MMF, 40 mg/kg/day by oral route. Group 2 included 7 rabbits that were not given MMF after the stenting. Sampling materials were taken before and after stenting by incising the artery so as to cover a 5-mm area. The samples taken from the edge of the stent in Group 1 showed focal neointimal cell proliferation, but it was less than that from the control group. Neointimal thickness was 0.048 +/-0.009 mm and neointimal area was 0.0925 +/-0.019 mm(2). Apparent neointimal cell proliferation and thickening of the intimal layer were observed in Group 2. Neointimal thickness at the stent edge was 0.147 +/-0.051 mm and the neointimal area was 0.154 +/-0.023 mm(2). The differences between groups in terms of neointimal thickness and neointimal area were statistically significant (p=0.001 for thickness and p=0.001 for area). In-stent artery samples of Group 1 showed that some subjects had no neointimal cell proliferation, while others had very limited focal intimal thickening. Neointimal thickening was 0.071 +/-0.003 mm and neointimal area was 0.073 +/-0.003 mm(2). In Group 2 apparent, and mostly focal, neointimal cell proliferation and formation of intimal layer were observed in the stent. Neointimal thickening was 0.154 +/-0.069 mm and neointimal area was 0.279 +/-0.059 mm(2). The comparison between groups showed significant differences (p=0.011 for thickness and p=0.001 for area). It was established in the third month that endothelialization was completed in both groups. Oral MMF decreased in-stent intimal

  18. The effect of pycnogenol on patients with dysmenorrhea using low-dose oral contraceptives

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    Maia Jr H

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hugo Maia Jr, Clarice Haddad, Julio Casoy Centro de Pesquisa e Assistência em Reprodução Humana (CEPARH, Salvador, Bahia, BrazilObjective: Menstrual symptoms such as dysmenorrhea usually occur during the hormone-free interval in oral contraceptive users. Progestin withdrawal activates NF-κB transcription factor, which upregulates both vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and Cox-2 expression in the endometrium. The use of natural NF-κB inhibitors such as pycnogenol may block this response, improving dysmenorrhea.Patients and methods: Twenty-four patients with severe dysmenorrhea were allocated to one of two treatment groups. In Group A (n=13, women were treated with an oral contraceptive containing 15 µg of ethinyl estradiol and 60 mg of gestodene (Adoless® in a 24/4 regimen for three consecutive cycles. Women in Group B (n=11 used the same contraceptive regimen together with 100 mg of pycnogenol (Flebon® continuously for 3 months. Pain scores were graded using a visual analog scale (VAS before and during the hormone-free interval at the end of the third treatment cycle.Results: Before treatment, VAS pain scores for dysmenorrhea were 8 and 9 in Groups A and B, respectively. However, by the end of the third treatment cycle, pain scores had decreased significantly (P<0.05 both in groups A and B. The final pain scores were 6 in Group A and 2 in Group B, a difference that was statistically significant (P<0.0001. In Group B, 27% of the patients became pain-free, while in Group A, none of the women reported complete disappearance of this symptom. The number of bleeding days was also lower in Group B.Discussion: Pycnogenol effectively decreased pain scores and the number of bleeding days when administered concomitantly with a low-dose 24/4 oral contraceptive containing gestodene.Keywords: gestodene, hormone-free interval, pain

  19. Differential effects of oral and transdermal menopausal hormone therapy on prostacyclin and thromboxane in platelets.

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    Raz, Limor; Hunter, Larry W; Jayachandran, Muthuvel; Heit, John A; Miller, Virginia M

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Menopausal hormone therapies (MHT) may increase thrombotic risk but modulate endothelial function and reduce development of vascular lesions. This study compared effects of MHT on prostanoid-modulated adenosine triphosphate (ATP) secretion from platelets in relationship with endothelial reactive hyperemia (RH) index and carotid intima medial thickness (CIMT). Participants were healthy, recently menopausal women of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) randomized to one of three treatments: oral conjugated equine estrogen (oCEE, 0.45 mg/day), transdermal 17β-estradiol (tE2, 50 μg/day) each with intermittent oral progesterone or placebo pills and patch (PL). Prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 were assessed by quantification of their stable metabolites (6-keto-prostaglandin F1α, 6-k-PGF1α; thromboxane B2, TXB2), using ELISA. Dense granule ATP secretion from activated platelets was determined by bioluminescence; RH and CIMT were determined by fingertip tonometry and ultrasound, respectively. After 48 months of treatment, platelet content of 6-k-PGF1α and TXB2 was significantly lower in oCEE compared to the PL. Inhibition of ATP secretion by exogenous activation of cAMP associated with platelet 6-k-PGF1α (r = -0.41, P = 0.04) and TXB2 (r = 0.71, P = 0.0005) only in the oCEE group. Serum and platelet content of 6-k-PGF1α and TXB2 associated positively in the PL and tE2 groups. Serum 6-k-PGF1α positively associated with RH in the oCEE group (r = 0.73, P = 0.02), while serum TXB2 positively associated with CIMT in the tE2 group (r = 0.64, P = 0.01). Thus, oCEE and tE2 differentially affect prostanoid-mediated platelet secretory pathways but alone would not account for an increased thrombotic risk for oral MHT. Furthermore, platelet-derived prostanoids may contribute to RH and vascular remodeling in healthy menopausal women.

  20. Early inflammatory changes in radiation-induced oral mucositis. Effect of pentoxifylline in a mouse model

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    Gruber, Sylvia; Bozsaky, Eva; Roitinger, Eva; Schwarz, Karoline [Medical University/AKH Vienna, Applied and Translational Radiobiology, Dept. Radiation Oncology/CD Lab. Med. Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Vienna (Austria); Schmidt, Margret [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dept. Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany); Doerr, Wolfgang [Medical University/AKH Vienna, Applied and Translational Radiobiology, Dept. Radiation Oncology/CD Lab. Med. Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Vienna (Austria); Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dept. Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Early inflammation is a major factor of mucosal reactions to radiotherapy. Pentoxifylline administration resulted in a significant amelioration of radiation-induced oral mucositis in the mouse tongue model. The underlying mechanisms may be related to the immunomodulatory properties of the drug. The present study hence focuses on the manifestation of early inflammatory changes in mouse tongue during daily fractionated irradiation and their potential modulation by pentoxifylline. Daily fractionated irradiation with 5 fractions of 3 Gy/week (days 0-4, 7-11) was given to the snouts of mice. Groups of 3 animals per day were euthanized every second day between day 0 and 14. Pentoxifylline (15 mg/kg, s. c.) was administered daily from day 5 to the day before sacrifice. The expression of the inflammatory proteins TNFα, NF-κB, and IL-1β were analysed. Fractionated irradiation increased the expression of all inflammatory markers. Pentoxifylline significantly reduced the expression of TNFα and IL-1β, but not NF-κB. Early inflammation, as indicated by the expression of the inflammatory markers TNFα, NF-κB, and IL-1β, is an essential component of early radiogenic oral mucositis. Pentoxifylline differentially modulated the expression of different inflammatory markers. The mucoprotective effect of pentoxifylline does not appear to be based on modulation of NF-κB-associated inflammation. (orig.) [German] Fruehe entzuendliche Veraenderungen sind ein bedeutender Faktor waehrend der Strahlenreaktion der Schleimhaut. Die Behandlung mit Pentoxifyllin erzielte eine signifikante Minderung strahleninduzierter oraler Mukositis im Mauszungenmodel. Die zugrundeliegenden Mechanismen sind potenziell auf die immunomodulatorischen Eigenschaften des Wirkstoffs zurueckzufuehren. Die vorliegenden Untersuchungen fokussieren daher auf die Manifestation frueher entzuendlicher Veraenderungen in der Mauszunge waehrend taeglich fraktionierter Bestrahlung und deren potenzieller Modifikation

  1. Dose responsive effects of subcutaneous pentosan polysulfate injection in mucopolysaccharidosis type VI rats and comparison to oral treatment.

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    Michael Frohbergh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated the benefits of daily, oral pentosan polysulfate (PPS treatment in a rat model of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS type VI. Herein we compare these effects to once weekly, subcutaneous (s.c. injection. The bioavailability of injected PPS is greater than oral, suggesting better delivery to difficult tissues such as bone and cartilage. Injected PPS also effectively treats osteoarthritis in animals, and has shown success in osteoarthritis patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One-month-old MPS VI rats were given once weekly s.c. injections of PPS (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg, human equivalent dose (HED, or daily oral PPS (4 mg/kg HED for 6 months. Serum inflammatory markers and total glycosaminoglycans (GAGs were measured, as were several histological, morphological and functional endpoints. Overall, weekly s.c. PPS injections led to similar or greater therapeutic effects as daily oral administration. Common findings between the two treatment approaches included reduced serum inflammatory markers, improved dentition and skull lengths, reduced tracheal deformities, and improved mobility. Enhanced effects of s.c. treatment included GAG reduction in urine and tissues, greater endurance on a rotarod, and better improvements in articular cartilage and bone in some dose groups. Optimal therapeutic effects were observed at 2 mg/kg, s.c.. No drug-related increases in liver enzymes, coagulation factor abnormalities or other adverse effects were identified following 6 months of s.c. PPS administration. CONCLUSIONS: Once weekly s.c. administration of PPS in MPS VI rats led to equal or better therapeutic effects than daily oral administration, including a surprising reduction in urine and tissue GAGs. No adverse effects from s.c. PPS administration were observed over the 6-month study period.

  2. Effects of carbachol matching oral fluid resuscitation on intestinal mucosa blood flow and absorption rate of dogs suffered hemorrhagic shock

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    Lin LI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects of carbachol matching oral fluid resuscitation on intestinal mucosa blood flow(IMBF and intestinal absorption rate of dogs suffered hemorrhagic shock.Methods Twenty-four hours after a preliminary intubation of carotid artery,jugular vein and jejunum by asepsis,twelve Beagle dogs were subjected to a loss of 40% total blood volume to establish animal model of hemorrhagic shock.Animals were then divided into oral resuscitation group and carbachol group(6 each.Dogs in oral resuscitation group were given by gastric tube the glucose-electrolyte solution(GES,which was 3 times volume of blood loss,within 24h after bleeding;while dogs in carbachol group were given GES added carbachol(0.25μg/kg.The IMBF and intestinal absorption rate of water before hemorrhage(0h and 2,4 and 8h after hemorrhage were measured.All the animals were sacrificed at 8h after hemorrhage to record the intestinal GES volume.Results The intestinal absorption rate of water remarkably decreased after hemorrhage in both groups,while in carbachol,group it was obviously higher than that in oral resuscitation group(P < 0.05.The GES volume absorbed by intestine in carbachol group was high than that in oral resuscitation group 8h after hemorrhage(P < 0.05.The IMBF decreased significantly in the both groups after hemorrhage,and then increased gradually 2h after hemorrhage.The IMBF in carbachol group was obviously higher than that in oral resuscitation group(P < 0.05.Conclusion Carbachol in oral resuscitation with GES can improve intestinal absorption rate of water and GES,and increase IMBF in dogs with 40% blood loss.

  3. Effects of PEGylated lipid nanoparticles on the oral absorption of one BCS II drug: a mechanistic investigation

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    Zhang XW

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Xingwang Zhang,* Guijiang Chen,* Tianpeng Zhang, Zhiguo Ma, Baojian WuDivision of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Lipid nanocarriers are becoming a versatile platform for oral delivery of lipophilic drugs. In this article, we aimed to explore the gastrointestinal behaviors of lipid nanoparticles and the effect of PEGylation on oral absorption of fenofibrate (FN, a Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS II model drug. FN-loaded PEGylated lipid nanoparticles (FN-PLNs were prepared by the solvent-diffusion method and characterized by particle size distribution, morphology, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and drug release. Lipolytic experiments were performed to assess the resistance of lipid nanoparticles against pancreatic lipase. Pharmacokinetics was evaluated in rats after oral administration of FN preparations. The obtained FN-PLNs were 186.7 nm in size with an entrapment efficiency of >95%. Compared to conventional lipid nanoparticles, PLNs exhibited slower drug release in the lipase-containing medium, strikingly reduced mucin binding, and suppressed lipolysis in vitro. Further, oral absorption of FN was significantly enhanced using PLNs with relative bioavailability of 123.9% and 157.0% to conventional lipid nanoparticles and a commercial formulation (Lipanthyl®, respectively. It was demonstrated that reduced mucin trapping, suppressed lipolysis, and/or improved mucosal permeability were responsible for increased oral absorption. These results facilitated a better understanding of the in vivo fate of lipid nanoparticles, and suggested the potential of PLNs as oral carriers of BCS II drugs.Keywords: fenofibrate, lipid nanoparticles, PEGylation, oral bioavailability, absorption mechanism

  4. In vivo Raman spectroscopy of oral buccal mucosa: a study on malignancy associated changes (MAC)/cancer field effects (CFE).

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    Singh, S P; Sahu, Aditi; Deshmukh, Atul; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Krishna, C Murali

    2013-07-21

    Occurrence of metachronous and synchronous secondary tumors in oral cavities has been associated with poor prognosis and decreased 5-year disease-free survival rates. The origin of secondary tumors in the oral cavity has been primarily attributed to cancer field effects (CFE) or malignancy-associated changes (MAC) in uninvolved areas. Classification of normal, cancerous and pre-cancerous oral lesions by in vivo Raman spectroscopy (RS) has already been demonstrated. In the present study, MAC/CFE in oral buccal mucosa were explored. In vivo Raman spectra from 84 subjects (722 spectra) under five categories - cancer and contralateral normal (opposite side of tumor), healthy controls (no tobacco habit, no cancer), habitués healthy controls (tobacco habit, no cancer) and non-habitués contralateral normal (no tobacco habit with cancer) were acquired. Mean and difference spectra suggest that loss of lipids and additional features representing proteins and DNA are characteristics of all pathological conditions, with respect to healthy controls. Spectral data were analyzed by PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out cross-validation. Results suggest that Raman characteristics of mucosa of healthy controls are exclusive, while those of habitués healthy controls are similar to those of contralateral normal mucosa. It was observed that the cluster of non-habitués contralateral normal mucosa is different from habitués healthy controls, suggesting that malignancy associated changes can be identified and also indicating that transformation of uninvolved oral mucosa due to tobacco habit or malignancy is different. The findings of the study demonstrate the potential of RS in identifying early transformation changes in oral mucosa and the efficacy of this approach in oral cancer applications.

  5. Effects of Oral Administration of Silymarin in a Juvenile Murine Model of Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis

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    Veronica Marin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in adolescents is challenging the global care system. No therapeutic strategies have been defined so far, and changes in the lifestyle remain the only alternative. In this study, we assessed the protective effects of silymarin in a juvenile non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH model and the in vitro effects on fat-laden human hepatocytes. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to HFHC diet immediately after weaning. After eight weeks, animals showed histological signs of NASH. Silymarin was added to the HFHC diet, the treatment continued for additional 12 weeks and the effects on BMI, hepatomegaly, visceral fat, lipid profile, transaminases, HOMA-IR, steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis, oxidative stress, and apoptosis were determined. The switch from HFHC to control diet was used to mimic life style changes. In vitro experiments were performed in parallel in human hepatocytes. HFHC diet supplemented with silymarin showed a significant improvement in glycemia, visceral fat, lipid profile, and liver fibrosis. Moreover, it reduced (both in vitro and in vivo ALT, hepatic inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Lifestyle changes restored the control group parameters. The data presented show the beneficial effects of the oral administration of silymarin in the absence of changes in the dietary habits in a juvenile model of NASH.

  6. The Protective Effects of Oral Low-dose Quercetin on Diabetic Nephropathy in Hypercholesterolemic Mice

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    Isabele Beserra Santos Gomes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Diabetic nephropathy (DN is one of the major causes of end-stage renal disease, and the incidence of DN is increasing worldwide. Considering our previous report indicating that chronic treatment with oral low-dose quercetin (10 mg/Kg demonstrated renoprotective, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects in the C57BL/6J model of diabetic nephropathy, we investigated whether this flavonoid could also have beneficial effects in concurrent DN and spontaneous atherosclerosis using the apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse (apoE-/-. Methods: DN was induced by streptozotocin (100 mg/kg/day, for 3 days in adult apoE-/-mice. Six weeks later, the mice were divided into the following groups: diabetic apoE-/- mice treated with quercetin (DQ, 10 mg/kg/day, 4 weeks, diabetic ApoE-/- mice treated with vehicle (DV and non-treated non-diabetic (ND mice.Results: Quercetin treatment caused a reduction in polyuria (~30%, glycemia (~25%, abolished the hypertriglyceridemia and had significant effects on renal function, including decreased proteinuria (~15% and creatininemia (~30%, which were accompanied by beneficial effects on the renal structural changes, including normalization of the index of glomerulosclerosis and kidney weight.Conclusions: Our data revealed that quercetin treatment significantly reduced DN in hypercholesterolemic mice by inducing biochemical and morphological modifications. Thus, this translational study highlights the importance of quercetin as a potential nutraceutical for the management of DN, including in diabetes associated with dyslipidemia.

  7. Orally administered whole egg demonstrates antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming test on rats.

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    Nagasawa, Mao; Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Ogino, Yumi; Yoshida, Junki; Tomonaga, Shozo; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have reported that vegetarian diets are associated with a higher prevalence of major depression. Therefore, we hypothesised that the consumption of animal products, especially eggs, may have positive effects on mental health, especially on major depression, because a previous study reported that egg consumption produces numerous beneficial effects in humans. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of chronic whole-egg treatment on depression-like behaviours in Wistar rats, a control strain, and Wistar Kyoto rats, an animal model of depression. In both the rats, either whole-egg solution (5 ml/kg) or distilled water (5 ml/kg) was orally administrated for 35 days. During these periods, the open-field test (OFT) was conducted on the 21st day, and a forced swimming test (FST) was enforced on the 27th and 28th days. On the 36th day, the plasma and brain were collected. Chronic whole-egg treatment did not affect line crossing in the OFT, whereas it reduced the total duration of immobility in the FST on both strains. Furthermore, interestingly, the results indicated the possibility that whole-egg treatment elevated the incorporation of tryptophan into the brain, and the tryptophan concentration in the prefrontal cortex was actually increased by the treatment. This study demonstrated that whole-egg treatment exerts an antidepressant-like effect in the FST. It is suggested that whole egg may be an excellent food for preventing and alleviating the conditions of major depression.

  8. [Sampling plan, weighting process and design effects of the Brazilian Oral Health Survey].

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    Silva, Nilza Nunes da; Roncalli, Angelo Giuseppe

    2013-12-01

    To present aspects of the sampling plan of the Brazilian Oral Health Survey (SBBrasil Project). with theoretical and operational issues that should be taken into account in the primary data analyses. The studied population was composed of five demographic groups from urban areas of Brazil in 2010. Two and three stage cluster sampling was used. adopting different primary units. Sample weighting and design effects (deff) were used to evaluate sample consistency. In total. 37,519 individuals were reached. Although the majority of deff estimates were acceptable. some domains showed distortions. The majority (90%) of the samples showed results in concordance with the precision proposed in the sampling plan. The measures to prevent losses and the effects the cluster sampling process in the minimum sample sizes proved to be effective for the deff. which did not exceeded 2. even for results derived from weighting. The samples achieved in the SBBrasil 2010 survey were close to the main proposals for accuracy of the design. Some probabilities proved to be unequal among the primary units of the same domain. Users of this database should bear this in mind, introducing sample weighting in calculations of point estimates, standard errors, confidence intervals and design effects.

  9. Effects of Oral Exposure to Fungicides on Honey Bee Nutrition and Virus Levels.

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    Degrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Chen, Yanping; Watkins Dejong, Emily; Chambers, Mona L; Hidalgo, Geoffrey

    2015-12-01

    Sublethal exposure to fungicides can affect honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in ways that resemble malnutrition. These include reduced brood rearing, queen loss, and increased pathogen levels. We examined the effects of oral exposure to the fungicides boscalid and pyraclostrobin on factors affecting colony nutrition and immune function including pollen consumption, protein digestion, hemolymph protein titers, and changes in virus levels. Because the fungicides are respiratory inhibitors, we also measured ATP concentrations in flight muscle. The effects were evaluated in 3- and 7-d-old worker bees at high fungicide concentrations in cage studies, and at field-relevant concentrations in colony studies. Though fungicide levels differed greatly between the cage and colony studies, similar effects were observed. Hemolymph protein concentrations were comparable between bees feeding on pollen with and without added fungicides. However, in both cage and colony studies, bees consumed less pollen containing fungicides and digested less of the protein. Bees fed fungicide-treated pollen also had lower ATP concentrations and higher virus titers. The combination of effects we detected could produce symptoms that are similar to those from poor nutrition and weaken colonies making them more vulnerable to loss from additional stressors such as parasites and pathogens.

  10. Sex Differences in the Physiological and Behavioral Effects of Chronic Oral Methylphenidate Treatment in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Lisa S.; Michaelos, Michalis; Gandhi, Jason; Fricke, Dennis; Miao, Erick; Lam, Chiu-Yim; Mauceri, Anthony; Vitale, Melissa; Lee, Junho; Paeng, Soyeh; Komatsu, David E.; Hadjiargyrou, Michael; Thanos, Panayotis K.

    2017-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MP) is a psychostimulant prescribed for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Previously, we developed a dual bottle 8-h-limited-access-drinking-paradigm for oral MP treatment of rats that mimics the pharmacokinetic profile of treated patients. This study assessed sex differences in response to this treatment. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of three treatment groups at 4 weeks of age (n = 12/group): Control (water), low dose (LD) MP, and high dose (HD) MP. Rats drank 4 mg/kg MP (LD) or 30 mg/kg MP (HD) during the first hour, and 10 mg/kg (LD) or 60 mg/kg MP (HD) for the remaining 7 h each day. Throughout 3 months of treatment, rats were monitored for body weight, food intake, and fluid intake; as well as tested for open field behavior, circadian activity, novel object recognition, and social interaction. Chronic MP treated rats exhibited reduced fluid intake during distinct treatment weeks to a greater extent in males, and reduced total fluid intake in males only. HD MP treatment decreased body weight in both sexes, while HD MP increased total food intake in females only, likely to offset energy deficits resulting from MP-induced hyperactivity. LD and HD MP increased locomotor activity in the open field, particularly in females and during later treatment weeks. MP dose-dependently increased activity during the dark cycle of circadian testing in females, while in males hyperactivity was only exhibited by HD rats. HD MP increased center activity to a greater extent in males, while MP increased rearing behavior in females only. MP had no effect on social behavior or novel object recognition in either sex. This study concludes that chronic oral MP treatment at clinically-relevant dosages has significant effects on food intake, body weight, open field behavior, and wake cycle activity. Particularly marked sex differences were apparent for locomotor activity, with females being significantly more sensitive to the

  11. A comparison of the sedative effect of oral versus nasal midazolam combined with nitrous oxide in uncooperative children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musani, I E; Chandan, N V

    2015-10-01

    To compare a combination of oral midazolam (0.2 mg/kg body weight) and nitrous oxide-oxygen sedation with a combination of intranasal midazolam (0.1 mg/kg body weight) and nitrous oxide-oxygen sedation for effectiveness, patient acceptability and safety profile in controlling the behaviour of uncooperative children. Thirty children, 4-10 years of age, referred for dental treatment were included in the study with a crossover design. Each patient was sedated with a combination of either oral midazolam and nitrous oxide-oxygen sedation or intranasal midazolam and nitrous oxide-oxygen sedation at subsequent dental treatment visits. During the treatment procedure, the study recorded scales for drug acceptability, onset of sedation, acceptance of nasal mask, sedation, behavioural, safety, overall behaviour and alertness. The grade of acceptability of midazolam in both groups was consistently good. There was a significant difference (p midazolam. The mean time of onset for oral midazolam was 20.1 (17-25) min and for intranasal midazolam 12.1 (8-18) min. The efficacy profile of the present study included: acceptance of nasal mask, sedation score, crying levels, motor movements and overall behaviour scores. The results did not show any statistically significant differences. All the parameters were highly satisfactory. The difference in alertness was statistically significant (p value midazolam. The intranasal route of midazolam administration has a quick onset of action and a quick recovery of the patient from sedation as compared to the oral route of midazolam administration. Midazolam administered through the intranasal route is as effective as the oral route at a lower dosage. Therefore, it is an effective alternative to oral route for a paediatric dental situation.

  12. The Effect of BCAA and ISO-WHEY Oral Nutritional Supplements on Dialysis Adequacy

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    Afaghi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Protein-energy malnutrition is a common problem in hemodialysis patients and has different outcomes such as reduced quality of life, longer hospitalization time, lower dialysis adequacy, and higher mortality rate. Investigation of dialysis adequacy is an important method for assessing hemodialysis patients, and improving the dialysis adequacy is an important healthcare team goal. Objectives The present study aims to investigate and compare the effects of BCAA and ISO-WHEY oral nutritional supplements on dialysis adequacy. Methods In a clinical trial study, 66 hemodialysis patients were randomly divided into three groups: Group A (n = 22, Group B (n = 22, and Group C or the control group (n = 22. In Groups A and B, as prescribed and controlled by nutritionists and nephrologists, respectively, ISO-WHEY and BCAA protein powder were used for 2 months on a daily basis. For all groups, before intervention and 1 and 2 months after intervention, the dialysis adequacy was measured using URR and Kt/V. Finally, the data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics Base 21.0 software. Results Out of 66 patients, 61 (19 in Group A, 20 in Group B, and 22 in Group C completed the study period, and before intervention, all groups were equal in terms of quality and quantity variables (P > 0.05. After intervention, there was a significant difference between the three groups with regard to the variables of dialysis adequacy based on Kt/V and URR to independent-t test and repeated measures ANOVA (P < 0.05. Conclusions Results show that the intake of oral nutritional supplements leads to an improvement in the dialysis adequacy of hemodialysis patients. Therefore, the use of nutritional supplements along with patients' training and regular consultation will be helpful in improving the nutritional status, dialysis adequacy, and eventually the quality of life.

  13. Genetic determinants of response and adverse effects following vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants

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    Parameshwar S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin K antagonist anticoagulants (warfarin/acenocoumarol are commonly used anticoagulants that require careful clinical management to balance the risks of over anticoagulation and bleeding with those of under anticoagulation and clotting. Genetic variants of the enzyme that metabolizes vitamin K antagonist anticoagulant, cytochrome P-450 2C9 (CYP2C9, and of a key pharmacologic target of vitamin K antagonists anticoagulant, vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1, contribute to differences in patients responses to various anticoagulant doses. Methods: In thirty patients on oral vitamin K antagonist anticoagulant therapy, presented with either clotting manifestations (valve thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and DVT or prolonged INR/bleeding manifestations, we assessed CYP2C9 genotypes, VKORC1 haplotypes, clinical characteristics, response to therapy (as determined by the international normalized ratio [INR], and bleeding events. Results: Of the thirty patients, thirteen patients INR was high and four patients presented with major bleeding and four with minor bleeding manifestations. Out of thirteen patients with high INR, ten patients showed CYP2C9 polymorphism ( 1/ 3 and 2/ 3 of poor metabolizer genotype. Most of the high INR patients were recently started on oral vitamin K antagonist anticoagulant. Most patients presented with clotting manifestations with below therapeutic INR are noncompliant with anticoagulants. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the CYP2C9 polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of over anticoagulation and of bleeding events among patients on vitamin K antagonists' anticoagulant setting. Screening for CYP2C9 variants may allow clinicians to develop dosing protocols and surveillance techniques to reduce the risk of adverse drug reactions in patients receiving vitamin K antagonist anticoagulants. However the cost-effectiveness of genotyping of patients must be considered. [Int J Res Med Sci

  14. Effect of oral epidermal growth factor on mucosal healing in rats with duodenal ulcer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jane CJ Chao; Kuo-Yu Liu; Sheng-Hsuan Chen; Chia-Lang Fang; Chih-Wei Tsao

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on mucosal healing in rats with duodenal ulcer.METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham operation without EGF, sham operation with EGF, duodenal ulcer without EGF, or duodenal ulcer with EGF groups. Additionally, normal rats without operation served as the control group. Duodenal ulcer was induced in rats by 300 mL/L acetic acid. Rats with EGF were orally administered at a dose of 60 μg/kg/day in drinking water on the next day of operation (day 1). Healing of duodenal ulcer was detected by haematoxylin and eosin staining. Cell growth of damaged mucosa was determined by the contents of nucleic acids and proteins. The level of EGF in duodenal mucosa was measured by ELISA.RESULTS: The pathological results showed that duodenal ulcer rats with EGF improved mucosal healing compared with those without EGF after day 5. Duodenal ulcer rats with EGF significantly increased duodenal DNA content compared with those without EGF on day 15 (6.44±0.54mg/g VS 1.45±0.52 mg/g mucosa, P<0.05). Duodenal RNA and protein contents did not differ between duodenal ulcer rats with and without EGF during the experimental period.Sham operation and duodenal ulcer rats with EGF significantly increased duodenal mucosal EGF content compared with those without EGF on day 5 (76.0±13.7 ng/g VS 35.7±12.9ng/g mucosa in sham operation rats, and 68.3±10.9 ng/gVS 28.3±9.2 ng/g mucosa in duodenal ulcer rats, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: Oral EGF can promote mucosal healing of the rats with duodenal ulcer by stimulating mucosal proliferation accompanied by an increase in mucosal EGF content.

  15. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamic Effects of Flunixin after Intravenous, Intramuscular and Oral Administration to Dairy Goats

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    Odensvik K

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacokinetics and the prostaglandin (PG synthesis inhibiting effect of flunixin were determined in 6 Norwegian dairy goats. The dose was 2.2 mg/kg body weight administered by intravenous (i.v., intramuscular (i.m. and oral (p.o. routes using a cross-over design. Plasma flunixin content was analysed by use of liquid chromatography and the PG synthesis was evaluated by measuring plasma 15-ketodihydro-PGF2α by a radioimmuno-assay. Results are presented as median (range. The elimination half-lives (t1/2·λ were 3.6 (2.0–5.0, 3.4 (2.6–6.8 and 4.3 (3.4–6.1 h for i.v., i.m. and p.o. administration, respectively. Volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss was 0.35 (0.23–0.41 L/kg and clearance (CL, 110 (60–160 mL/h/kg. The plasma concentrations after oral administration showed a double-peak phenomenon with the two peaks occurring at 0.37 (0.25–1 and 3.5 (2.5–5.0 h, respectively. Both peaks were in the same order of magnitude. Bioavailability was 79 (53–112 and 58 (35%–120% for i.m. and p.o. administration, respectively. 15-Ketodihydro-PGF2α plasma concentrations decreased after flunixin administration independent of the route of administration.

  16. Effects of aprepitant on the pharmacokinetics of controlled-release oral oxycodone in cancer patients.

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    Yutaka Fujiwara

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Oxycodone is a µ-opioid receptor agonist widely used in the treatment of cancer pain. The predominant metabolic pathway of oxycodone is CYP3A4-mediated N-demethylation to noroxycodone, while a minor proportion undergoes 3-O-demethylation to oxymorphone by CYP2D6. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the mild CYP3A4 inhibitor aprepitant on the pharmacokinetics of orally administered controlled-release (CR oxycodone. METHOD: This study design was an open-label, single-sequence with two phases in cancer patients with pain who continued to be administered orally with multiple doses of CR oxycodone every 8 or 12 hours. Plasma concentration of oxycodone and its metabolites were measured up to 8 hours after administration as follows: on day 1, CR oxycodone was administered alone; on day 2, CR oxycodone was administered with aprepitant (125 mg, at the same time of oxycodone dosing in the morning. The steady-state trough concentrations (Css were measured from day 1 to day 3. RESULTS: Aprepitant increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-8 of oxycodone by 25% (p<0.001 and of oxymorphone by 34% (p<0.001, as well as decreased the AUC0-8 of noroxycodone by 14% (p<0.001. Moreover, aprepitant increased Css of oxycodone by 57% (p = 0.001 and of oxymorphone by 36% (p<0.001 and decreased Css of noroxycodone by 24% (p = 0.02 at day 3 compared to day 1. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical use of aprepitant in patients receiving multiple doses of CR oxycodone for cancer pain significantly altered plasma concentration levels, but would not appear to need modification of the CR oxycodone dose. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN.ac.jp UMIN000003580.

  17. Effects of oral exposure to mining waste on in vivo dopamine release from rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, V M; Dufour, L; Carrizales, L; Díaz-Barriga, F; Jiménez-Capdeville, M E

    1998-01-01

    Several single components of mining waste (arsenic, manganese, lead, cadmium) to which humans are exposed at the mining area of Villa de la Paz, Mexico, are known to provoke alterations of striatal dopaminergic parameters. In this study we used an animal model to examine neurochemical changes resulting from exposure to a metal mixture. We used microdialysis to compare in vivo dopamine release from adult rats subchronically exposed to a mining waste by oral route with those from a control group and from a sodium arsenite group (25 mg/kg/day). We found that arsenic and manganese do accumulate in rat brain after 2 weeks of oral exposure. The mining waste group showed significantly decreased basal levels of dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC; 66.7 +/- 7.53 pg/ microl) when compared to a control group (113.7 +/- 14.3 pg/ microl). Although basal dopamine release rates were comparable among groups, when the system was challenged with a long-standing depolarization through high-potassium perfusion, animals exposed to mining waste were not able to sustain an increased dopamine release in response to depolarization (mining waste group 5.5 +/- 0.5 pg/ microl versus control group 21.7 +/- 5.8 pg/ microl). Also, DOPAC and homovanillic acid levels were significantly lower in exposed animals than in controls during stimulation with high potassium. The arsenite group showed a similar tendency to that from the mining waste group. In vivo microdialysis provides relevant data about the effects of a chemical mixture. Our results indicate that this mining waste may represent a health risk for the exposed population. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9681976

  18. Combining insulins with oral antidiabetic agents: effect on hyperglycemic control, markers of cardiovascular risk and disease

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    Kjeld Hermansen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Kjeld Hermansen, Lene Sundahl Mortensen, Marie-Louise HermansenDepartment of Endocrinology and Metabolism C, Aarhus University Hospital, DK-8000 Aarhus, DenmarkAbstract: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Unfortunately, several potential barriers exist for CVD risk management in diabetes, including the need for significant lifestyle changes, potential problems with hypoglycemia, weight gain, injection tolerability, treatment complexity with current diabetes therapies and other, unmodifiable factors. Improving glycemic control may impact CVD risk. Treatment of T2DM usually starts with lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise. When these become insufficient, pharmacotherapy is required. Various oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs are available that reduce hyperglycemia. The first line of therapy is usually metformin, since it does not increase weight and seems to have a beneficial effect on CVD mortality and risk factors. As T2DM progresses, insulin treatment becomes necessary for the majority of patients. The last few years have seen the development of long-acting, rapid-acting, and premixed insulin analog formulations. The treat-to-target algorithms of recent studies combining OADs plus insulin analogs have demonstrated that patients can reach glycemic treatment targets with low risk of hypoglycemia, greater convenience, and – with some analogs – limited weight gain vs conventional insulins. These factors may possibly have a positive influence on CVD risk. Future studies will hopefully elucidate the benefits of this approach.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hyperglycemia, insulin, oral antidiabetic drugs

  19. Effect of age on the pharmacokinetics of polymorphic nimodipine in rats after oral administration

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    Wenli Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The previous investigation has proved that their existed pharmacokinetic difference between the different crystal forms of the polymorphic drugs after oral administration. However, no systemic investigations have been made on the change of this pharmacokinetic difference, resulted either from the physiological or from the pathological factors. In this paper, we used polymorphic nimodipine (Nim as a model drug and investigated the effect of age difference (2- and 9-month old on the pharmacokinetics after oral delivery in rats. As the results shown, for L-form of Nim (L-Nim, the AUC0–24 h in 2-month-old rats was 343.68±47.15 ng·h/mL, which is 23.36% higher than that in 9-month-old rats. For H-form of Nim (H-Nim, the AUC0–24 h in 2-month-old rats was 140.91±19.47 ng·h/mL, which is 54.64% higher than that in 9-month-old rats. The AUC0–24 h ratio between H-Nim and L-Nim was 2.44 in 2-month-old rats and 3.06 in 9-month-old rats. Since age difference could result in unparallelled change of the absorption and bioavailability of the polymorphic drugs, the results in this experiment are of value for further investigation of crystal form selection in clinical trials and rational clinical application of the polymorphic drugs.

  20. Effect of age on the pharmacokinetics of polymorphic nimodipine in rats after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenli; Wang, Xiaona; Chen, Ruilian; Zhang, Kaixuan; Li, Yao; Li, Yi; Si, Duanyun; Gong, Junbo; Yin, Dianshu; Wang, Yongli; Wei, Zhenping; Yang, Mingshi

    2016-09-01

    The previous investigation has proved that their existed pharmacokinetic difference between the different crystal forms of the polymorphic drugs after oral administration. However, no systemic investigations have been made on the change of this pharmacokinetic difference, resulted either from the physiological or from the pathological factors. In this paper, we used polymorphic nimodipine (Nim) as a model drug and investigated the effect of age difference (2- and 9-month old) on the pharmacokinetics after oral delivery in rats. As the results shown, for L-form of Nim (L-Nim), the AUC0-24 h in 2-month-old rats was 343.68±47.15 ng·h/mL, which is 23.36% higher than that in 9-month-old rats. For H-form of Nim (H-Nim), the AUC0-24 h in 2-month-old rats was 140.91±19.47 ng·h/mL, which is 54.64% higher than that in 9-month-old rats. The AUC0-24 h ratio between H-Nim and L-Nim was 2.44 in 2-month-old rats and 3.06 in 9-month-old rats. Since age difference could result in unparallelled change of the absorption and bioavailability of the polymorphic drugs, the results in this experiment are of value for further investigation of crystal form selection in clinical trials and rational clinical application of the polymorphic drugs.

  1. Anticancer Effect of Ursodeoxycholic Acid in Human Oral Squamous Carcinoma HSC-3 Cells through the Caspases

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    Liang Pang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bear bile was used as a traditional medicine or tonic in East Asia, and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA is the most important compound in bear bile. Further, synthetic UDCA is also used in modern medicine and nutrition; therefore, its further functional effects warrant research, in vitro methods could be used for the fundamental research of its anticancer effects. In this study, the apoptotic effects of UDCA in human oral squamous carcinoma HSC-3 cells through the activation of caspases were observed by the experimental methods of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide assay, DAPI (4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, flow cytometry analysis, RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay and Western blot assay after HSC-3 cells were treated by different concentrations of UDCA. With 0 to 400 μg/mL UDCA treatment, UDCA had strong growth inhibitory effects in HSC-3 cells, but had almost no effect in HOK normal oral cells. At concentrations of 100, 200 and 400 μg/mL, UDCA could induce apoptosis compared to untreated control HSC-3 cells. Treatment of 400 μg/mL UDCA could induce more apoptotic cancer cells than 100 and 200 μg/mL treatment; the sub-G1 DNA content of 400 μg/mL UDCA treated cancer cells was 41.3% versus 10.6% (100 μg/mL and 22.4% (200 μg/mL. After different concentrations of UDCA treatment, the mRNA and protein expressions of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, Bax, Fas/FasL (Fas ligand, TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, DR4 (death receptor 4 and DR5 (death receptor 5 were increased in HSC-3 cells, and mRNA and protein expressions of Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2, Bcl-xL (B-cell lymphoma-extra large, XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, cIAP-1 (cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1, cIAP-2 (cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 2 and survival were decreased. Meanwhile, at the highest concentration of 400 μg/mL, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, Bax, Fas/FasL, TRAIL, DR4, DR5, and

  2. Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2013-09-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers.

  3. Switching, Adverse Effects and Use of Over-the-Counter Analgesics among Users of Oral Anticoagulants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Maja Hellfritzsch; Hyllested, Lea Maria Rønneberg; Meegaard, Line

    2017-01-01

    Oral anticoagulants are widely used but information on important aspects in that respect is not available from medical registers or clinical databases. Therefore, we conducted a survey including patients filling a prescription for oral anticoagulants at two large Danish community pharmacies. We...

  4. Oral glucose intake inhibits hypothalamic neuronal activity more effectively than glucose infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.; Vidarsdottir, S.; Graaf, C. de; Stafleu, A.; Osch, M.J.P. van; Viergever, M.A.; Pijl, H.; Grond, J. van der

    2007-01-01

    We previously showed that hypothalamic neuronal activity, as measured by the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI signal, declines in response to oral glucose intake. To further explore the mechanism driving changes in hypothalamic neuronal activity in response to an oral glucose load,

  5. Taste matters-effects of bypassing oral stimulation on hormone and appetite responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spetter, M.S.; Mars, M.; Viergever, M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Smeets, P.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between oral and gastric signals is an important part of food intake regulation. Previous studies suggest that bypassing oral stimulation diminishes the suppression of hunger and increases gastric emptying rate. However, the role of appetite hormones, like cholecystokinin-8 and ghrel

  6. [Oral health care volunteering in developing countries 2. Providing care effectively].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van; Slater, J.J.; Vugt, P. van; Rietmeijer, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    Oral health care volunteering in developing countries based on the traditional Western model does not contribute to sustainable improvement and has, presumably, negative consequences for the local health care system. The oral health care can and should be delivered more efficacious. To achieve effic

  7. Relationship between lethal toxicity in oral administration and injection to mice: effect of exposure routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Ning, Zhong H; Tai, Hong W; Long, Shuang; Qin, Wei C; Su, Li M; Zhao, Yuan H

    2015-03-01

    The lethal toxicity (LD₅₀) in oral administration, intravenous, intraperitoneal, intramuscular and subcutaneous injections were used to investigate relationships of log 1/LD₅₀ from different exposure routes. Regression analysis showed that log 1/LD₅₀ in oral route was related to the toxicity in injection route. This relationship in lethality between the two routes is apparently due to the same mechanisms of the compounds to the same species. However, the scatter in the correlation curve indicates that exposure route is an important factor that influences the relationship. Some compounds with low intestinal absorption exhibit much less toxicity in oral administration than that in the injection route. A systemic bias of log 1/LD₅₀ between oral and injection routes indicates that tissue distribution of compounds between blood and target site is a very rapid process, leading to log 1/LD₅₀ in injection greater than those in oral administration. Although compounds can be metabolized in the body both from oral and injection routes, first-pass metabolism occurs in oral route but not in injection route. This will result in decrease of toxicity in oral route for most compounds as compared with injection route. In addition, experimental uncertainty, differences in gender, and species can also affect relationships of log1/LD₅₀ between exposure routes.

  8. Dietary vitamin K guidance: an effective strategy for stable control of oral anticoagulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous factors have been identified as risk factors for instability of oral anticoagulation, including variability in vitamin K intake. However few studies have directly tested the feasibility of manipulating dietary vitamin K to achieve stable oral anticoagulation. Recent findings from a rando...