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Sample records for oral toxicity study

  1. Subacute (90 days) oral toxicity studies of Kombucha tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, R; Singh, M; Rao, P V; Bhattacharya, R; Kumar, P; Sugendran, K; Kumar, O; Pant, S C; Singh, R

    2000-12-01

    Kombucha tea (KT) is a popular health beverage and is used as an alternative therapy. KT is prepared by placing the kombucha culture in solution of tea and sugar and allowing to ferment. The inoculum is a fungus consisting of symbiotic colony of yeast and bacteria. KT is consumed in several countries and is believed to have prophylactic and therapeutic benefits in a wide variety of ailments, viz., intestinal disorders, arthritis, ageing and stimulation of immunological system. Though KT is used in several parts of the world its beneficial effects and adverse effects have not been scientifically evaluated. Since there are no animal toxicological data on KT, subacute oral toxicity study was carried out. Five groups of rats were maintained: (a) control group given tap water orally, (b) KT given 2 ml/kg orally, (c) plain tea (PT) given 2 ml/kg orally, (d) KT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v) and (e) PT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v). The rats were given this treatment daily for a period of 90 days. Weekly records of weight, feed intake, water intake and general behaviour were monitored. There was no significant difference in the growth of the animals as evidenced by the progressive body weight change. The organ to body weight ratio and histological evaluation did not show any toxic signs. The haematological and biochemical variables were within the clinical limits. The study indicates that rats fed KT for 90 days showed no toxic effects.

  2. Oral toxicity study of certain plant extracts containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şeremet, Oana Cristina; Bărbuceanu, Florica; Ionică, Floriana Elvira; Margină, Denisa Marilena; GuŢu, Claudia Maria; Olaru, Octavian Tudorel; Ilie, Mihaela; Gonciar, Veaceslav; Negreş, Simona; ChiriŢă, Cornel

    2016-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a class of toxic compounds which are found in plants. Poisoning caused by these toxins is associated with acute and chronic liver damage. Tussilago farfara (coltsfoot), Petasites hybridus (common butterbur), Senecio vernalis (eastern groundsel) and Symphytum officinale (comfrey) are traditional phytotherapic species, which beside the therapeutic bioactive compounds contain PAs. The aim of the paper was to assess the safety of some dry extracts obtained from these species. For the determination of acute toxicity, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Guideline No. 423 was used. For the determination of repeated dose oral toxicity, Senecionis vernalis herba and Symphyti radix extracts (250 mg÷kg) were administrated, by gavage, for 28 days, and their effects on animal weight, liver and biliary functions, hepatic tissue and oxidative stress were investigated. After the acute toxicity testing, the dry extracts were placed in the GHS Category V (LD50>5000 mg÷kg, p.o.). For the subacute toxicity testing, no death or any signs of toxicity were observed. Also, no significant differences in biochemical parameters were observed between control and treated groups. The observed histopathological lesions were non-specific and were not consistent with the data reported in the literature for PAs exposure. In conclusion, the administration for 28 days, of the tested extracts, in a dose which correspond to a PAs concentration over the limits imposed in some countries, produced no hepatic and biliary toxic effects. Further studies, extended over a longer period of time, are needed in order to determine the safety of plant extracts containing PAs.

  3. Four-week oral toxicity study with erythritol in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Til, H.P.; Modderman, J.

    1996-01-01

    Erythritol was orally administered to Wistar rats at dietary levels of 0, 5, and 10% for 4 weeks. Soft stools and diarrhea were observed in male and female animals of the 10% group and in female animals of the 5% group. These symptoms disappeared during the course of the study. Mean body weights of

  4. Oral acute toxicity study of selected botanical pesticide plants used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... The extracts were administered orally and the animals were observed for 24 h. ... Chronic studies should be carried out to assess whether these extracts have serious effects on experimental animals exposed to them at small doses for a long period of time.

  5. Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L. powder: acute toxicity, 90 days oral toxicity study and micronucleus assay in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idania Rodeiro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Sacha Inchi has been consumed for years by indigenous peoples. Meanwhile, its toxicological potential has not been sufficiently studied. Aims: To assess the acute, sub-chronic toxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of Sacha Inchi powder obtained from Plukenetia volubilis L. Methods: A dose of 2000 mg/kg was orally administered to rats and mice and toxicity symptoms for 14 days were observed. In repeated dose study, the product was orally administered to Sprague Dawley rats of both sexes. Animals received 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of the product for 90 days. At the end, animals were sacrificed and samples were done for hematological and biochemical analysis, organ weighs and histopathological examination. Genotoxicity potential of Sacha Inchi powder was evaluated through micronucleus test in mice. Negative controls received the vehicle (carboxymethyl cellulose, 0.5% used. Results: No morbidity or mortality at 2000 mg/kg of the product were found. Sacha Inchi powder oral administration during 90 days to rats did not lead to death, body weight gain, food consumption, or adverse events. No significant changes on hematological or biochemical parameters, organ weights or histopathological findings were observed. Induction of micronucleus formation attributable to the product was not found in mice. Conclusions: No toxicity effects after oral acute exposure of Sacha Inchi power to rats and mice were observed. Neither toxicity attributable to oral doses of the product up to 500 mg/kg during 90 days to rats were found. Results suggested Sacha Inchi powder does not have genotoxicity potential under our experimental conditions.

  6. Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of methanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of methanol extract of Clinacanthus nutans in mice. Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria, Mohammad Hafiz Abdul Rahim, Norhafizah Mohtarrudin, Arifah Abdul Kadir, Manraj Singh Cheema, Zuraini Ahmad, Ching Siew Mooi, Siti Farah Md. Tohid ...

  7. Subchronic (13-week) oral toxicity study of α-cyclodextrin in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lina, B.A.R.; Bär, A.

    2004-01-01

    The oral toxicity of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) was examined in a 13-week feeding study in which groups of Beagle dogs received α-CD in the diet at concentrations of 0 (control), 5, 10, or 20% (4dogs/sex/group). No treatment-related changes were noted in behavior or appearance of the dogs and no

  8. Subchronic (13-week) oral toxicity study of y-cyclodextrin in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Til, H.P.; Bär, A.

    1998-01-01

    The oral toxicity of γ-cyclodextrin (γ- CD) was examined in a 13-week feeding study in which four groups of four male and four female Beagle dogs received γ-CD in the diet at concentrations of 0 (control), 5, 10, or 20%. No treatment-related changes were noted in behavior or appearance of the dogs

  9. Acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats of a hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauss, A G; Merkel, D J; Glaza, S M; Sorenson, S R

    2007-02-01

    Two acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies were conducted in rats to evaluate safety of a patented preparation of hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage (BioCell Collagen II) containing collagen type II, chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronic acid. In the acute oral toxicity study, five males and five females of Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a single dose of 5000 mg of the test product per kg body weight and observed for 14 days. All animals survived and exhibited normal body weight gain throughout the study. Macroscopic necropsy examination conducted on day 15 revealed no gross pathological lesions in any of the animals. In the subchronic study, Sprague-Dawley rats (40 males, 40 females) were divided into four same-sex groups (10 animals/group). Animals in each group were administered daily either 0, 30, 300 or 1000 mg of the test product per kg of body weight for over 90 days. All animals survived and showed no significant changes in their body weights and histopathology. Although some differences were observed between the treated and control animals in several parameters, they were generally not dose-related or considered to be of toxicological significance. In conclusion, the results from the two oral toxicity studies with male and female young adult rats indicated that the test preparation from hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage collagen (BioCell Collagen II) was well tolerated at all four doses tested.

  10. Acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats with nanoscale and pigment grade titanium dioxide particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warheit, D B; Brown, S C; Donner, E M

    2015-10-01

    Data generated using standardized testing protocols for toxicity studies generally provide reproducible and reliable results for establishing safe levels and formulating risk assessments. The findings of three OECD guideline-type oral toxicity studies of different duration in rats are summarized in this publication; each study evaluated different titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles of varying sizes and surface coatings. Moreover, each study finding demonstrated an absence of any TiO2 -related hazards. To briefly summarize the findings: 1) In a subchronic 90-day study (OECD TG 408), groups of young adult male and female rats were dosed with rutile-type, surface-coated pigment-grade TiO2 test particles (d50 = 145 nm - 21% nanoparticles by particle number criteria) by oral gavage for 90 days. The no-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for both male and female rats in this study was 1000 mg/kg bw/day, the highest dose tested. The NOAEL was determined based on a lack of TiO2 particle-related adverse effects on any in-life, clinical pathology, or anatomic/microscopic pathology parameters; 2) In a 28-day repeated-dose oral toxicity study (OECD TG 407), groups of young adult male rats were administered daily doses of two rutile-type, uncoated, pigment-grade TiO2 test particles (d50 = 173 nm by number) by daily oral gavage at a dose of 24,000 mg/kg bw/day. There were no adverse effects measured during or following the end of the exposure period; and the NOAEL was determined to be 24,000 mg/kg bw/day; 3) In an acute oral toxicity study (OECD TG 425), female rats were administered a single oral exposure of surface-treated rutile/anatase nanoscale TiO2 particles (d50 = 73 nm by number) with doses up to 5000 mg/kg and evaluated over a 14-day post-exposure period. Under the conditions of this study, the oral LD50 for the test substance was >5000 mg/kg bw. In summary, the results from these three toxicity studies - each with different TiO2 particulate-types, demonstrated an absence of

  11. Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of erythritol in Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Alex K; de Cock, Peter; Crincoli, Christine M; Means, Charlotte; Wismer, Tina; Pappas, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Polyols, also known as sugar alcohols, are widely used in the formulation of tooth-friendly and reduced-calorie foods. Considering the significant health benefits of polyols in products formulated for human use, there is increased interest in evaluating potential uses in companion animal applications. Erythritol and xylitol are two polyols which are currently widely used in products ranging from reduced-sugar foods to personal care and cosmetics. Published studies have shown that both of these compounds are well-tolerated in rodents. Their toxicity profiles differ when comparing canine safety data. Doses of xylitol as low as 0.15 g/kg-BW in dogs can result in life-threatening hypoglycemia and acute liver failure, whereas erythritol is well-tolerated in dogs with reported No Adverse Effect Levels upwards of 5 g/kg-BW/day in repeat-dose studies. While pivotal studies substantiating the safe use of erythritol in humans have been published, there are limited published studies to support the safe use of erythritol in dogs. Here we present the results of an acute oral and a sub-chronic oral toxicity study in Beagle dogs. Given the potential health benefits of oral products formulated with erythritol and the data presented herein substantiating the safe use in dogs, erythritol can be safely used in products for canines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A preliminary 13-week oral toxicity study of ginger oil in male and female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeena, Kottarapat; Liju, Vijayastelter B; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2011-12-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe, ginger, is a major spice extensively used in traditional medicine. The toxicity profile of ginger oil was studied by subchronic oral administration for 13 weeks at doses of 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg per day to 6 groups of Wistar rats (5/sex per dose). Separate groups of rats (5/sex per group) received either paraffin oil (vehicle) or were untreated and served as comparative control groups. There was no mortality and no decrease in body weight or food consumption as well as selective organ weights during the study period. Administration of ginger oil to rats did not produce any treatment-related changes in hematological parameters, hepatic, renal functions, serum electrolytes, or in histopathology of selected organs. The major component of ginger oil was found to be zingiberene (31.08%), and initial studies indicated the presence of zingiberene in the serum after oral dosing. These results confirmed that ginger oil is not toxic to male and female rats following subchronic oral administrations of up to 500 mg/kg per day (no observed adverse effect level [NOAEL]).

  13. Oral Chromium Exposure and Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Brocato, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a known carcinogen when inhaled. However, inhalational exposure to Cr(VI) affects only a small portion of the population, mainly by occupational exposures. In contrast, oral exposure to Cr(VI) is widespread and affects many people throughout the globe. In 2008, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) released a 2-year study demonstrating that ingested Cr(VI) was carcinogenic in rats and mice. The effects of Cr(VI) oral exposure is mitigated by reduction in the gut, however a portion evades the reductive detoxification and reaches target tissues. Once Cr(VI) enters the cell, it ultimately gets reduced to Cr(III), which mediates its toxicity via induction of oxidative stress during the reduction while Cr intermediates react with protein and DNA. Cr(III) can form adducts with DNA that may lead to mutations. This review will discuss the potential adverse effects of oral exposure to Cr(VI) by presenting up-to-date human and animal studies, examining the underlying mechanisms that mediate Cr(VI) toxicity, as well as highlighting opportunities for future research. PMID:26231506

  14. Preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of roots of Paeonia officinalis Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Feroz; Tabassum, Nahida

    2013-01-01

    To carry out a preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of the roots of Paeonia officinalis (P. officinalis) L. Preliminary phytochemical investigation was done as per standard procedures. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per OECD 425 guidelines. The antihepatotoxic activity of aqueous extract of root of P. officinalis was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. Aqueous extract of P. officinalis at the dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was administered daily for 14 d in experimental animals. Liver injury was induced chemically, by CCl4 administration (1 mL/kg i.p.). The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), total bilirubin and total protein (TP) along with histopathological studies. Phytochemical screening revealed that the roots of P. officinalis contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenes, steroids and proteins. The aqueous extract did not cause any mortality up to 2 000 mg/kg. In rats that had received the root extract at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the substantially elevated AST, ALT, SALP, total bilirubin levels were significantly lowered, respectively, in a dose dependent manner, along with CCl4 while TP levels were elevated in these groups. Histopathology revealed regeneration of the livers in extract treated groups while Silymarin treated rats were almost normal. The aqueous extract of P. officinalis is safe and possesses antihepatotoxic potential.

  15. Phytochemistry, Brine shrimp lethality and mice acute oral toxicity studies on seed extracts of Vernonia anthelmintica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Subia; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Afroz, Syeda; Ahmed, Shadab

    2016-11-01

    Despite the widespread use of Vernonia anthelmintica seeds in traditional medicine, the need to establish the safety of the Vernonia anthelmintica is required to ascertain the safe use of this herbal medicine. The aim of the present study is to establish the acute toxicity profile of different extracts of Vernonia anthelmintica. Hexane and ethanol extract of Vernonia Anthelmintica has been studied for its brine shrimp lethality potential. Water decoction (WDVA), Hexane (HEVA) and Ethanol (EEVA) extracts of Vernonia anthelmintica has also been evaluated for their in-vivo acute oral toxicity in mice by Lorke's method. Phytochemistry of all three extracts was also evaluated for the presence of their secondary metabolites. All three extracts showed the presence of flavonoids and terpenoids, while alkaloids, tannins and fixed oils were present in HEVA and EEVA. Furthermore EEVA also showed presence of carbohydrates and HEVA also showed the presence of cardiac glycosides. Ethanol and hexane extracts of Vernonia anthelmintica showed a positive cytotoxicity in brine shrimp lethality test at 24 hours with LC50 104.16 (224.0-48.05)μg/ml and 216.11μg/ml (378.2-128.7) respectively as compared to standard drug etoposide LC50 7.46μg/ml. The oral LD50 for EEVA, HEVA and WDVA in mice by Lorke's method was greater than 5000mg/kg. The result of brine shrimp lethality test clearly exhibited the presence of bioactive compounds with cytotoxic potential; however seems to be safe for oral use since LD50 was higher than 5000mg/kg and thus safety of acute dosing in vivo practices is justified.

  16. Repeated sub-chronic oral toxicity study of xylooligosaccharides (XOS) in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yonglin; Wang, Yunzhi; Li, Yanshen; Han, Rui; Li, Chunmei; Xiao, Lin; Cho, Susan; Ma, Yukui; Fang, Chao; Lee, Albert W

    2017-06-01

    In this study, Beagle dogs were administered xylooligosaccharide (XOS, CAS # 87099-0) at doses of 0, 1250, 2500, and 5000 mg/kg/day by oral gavage for 26 weeks. A 4-week recovery period was added to observe delayed or reversible toxicity. Measurements included body weight, food consumption, clinical observations, temperature, electrocardiogram (ECG), urinalysis, blood chemistry, hematology, organ weight, gross necropsy, and histopathological examination. Except for transient diarrhea or vomiting, no treatment-related adverse effects were noted. In the mid-dose groups, transitional diarrhea was observed in the initial 1-2 weeks. In the high-dose groups, diarrhea and/or vomiting were observed episodically over the duration of treatment. However, they disappeared after XOS was withdrawn in the recovery period. Although there was a tendency toward less weight gain in the high-dose group animal group, this is typical in animals and humans fed non-digestible carbohydrates. This chronic toxicity study demonstrated that the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of XOS is 2500 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day. Based on body surface area (conversion factor of 0.54 for dogs to human), this corresponds to daily doses of 1350 mg/kg BW or 81-108 g XOS in human adults weighing 60-80 kg. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Variability of LD50 Values from Rat Oral Acute Toxicity Studies: Implications for Alternative Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative models developed for estimating acute systemic toxicity are generally evaluated using in vivo LD50 values. However, in vivo acute systemic toxicity studies can produce variable results, even when conducted according to accepted test guidelines. This variability can ma...

  18. Single, 14-Day, and 13-Week Repeated Dose Toxicity Studies of Daily Oral Gelidium elegans Extract Administration to Rats.

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    Choi, Jia; Ryu, Su-Jung; Kim, Kui-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Min; Chung, Hee-Chul; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2018-01-20

    Gelidium elegans extract (GEE) is derived from a red alga from the Asia-Pacific region, which has antioxidant, anti-adipogenic, and anti-hyperglycemic effects. However, detailed studies of the toxicology of GEE have not been performed. We evaluated the single oral dose toxicity of GEE in male and female Sprague-Dawley (CD) rats. GEE did not cause deaths or have toxic effects at dosages of 5000 mg/kg/day, although compound-colored stools and diarrhea were observed in both sexes, which lasted 5000 mg/kg. We next evaluated the repeated oral dose toxicity of GEE in CD rats over 14 days and 13 weeks. GEE did not induce any significant toxicological changes in either sex at 2000 mg/kg/day. Repeated oral dose toxicity studies showed no adverse effects, in terms of clinical signs, mortality, body mass, food consumption, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy, organ masses, or histopathology, at dosages of 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg/day. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for GEE is thus likely to be >2000 mg/kg/day, and no pathology was identified in potential target organs. Therefore, this study indicates that repeated oral dosing with GEE is safe in CD rats.

  19. Single, 14-Day, and 13-Week Repeated Dose Toxicity Studies of Daily Oral Gelidium elegans Extract Administration to Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Choi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gelidium elegans extract (GEE is derived from a red alga from the Asia–Pacific region, which has antioxidant, anti-adipogenic, and anti-hyperglycemic effects. However, detailed studies of the toxicology of GEE have not been performed. We evaluated the single oral dose toxicity of GEE in male and female Sprague-Dawley (CD rats. GEE did not cause deaths or have toxic effects at dosages of 5000 mg/kg/day, although compound-colored stools and diarrhea were observed in both sexes, which lasted <2 days. Therefore, the LD50 of GEE is likely to be >5000 mg/kg. We next evaluated the repeated oral dose toxicity of GEE in CD rats over 14 days and 13 weeks. GEE did not induce any significant toxicological changes in either sex at 2000 mg/kg/day. Repeated oral dose toxicity studies showed no adverse effects, in terms of clinical signs, mortality, body mass, food consumption, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy, organ masses, or histopathology, at dosages of 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg/day. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL for GEE is thus likely to be >2000 mg/kg/day, and no pathology was identified in potential target organs. Therefore, this study indicates that repeated oral dosing with GEE is safe in CD rats.

  20. 90-Day oral toxicity study of D-tagatose in rats.

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    Kruger, C L; Whittaker, M H; Frankos, V H; Trimmer, G W

    1999-04-01

    D-tagatose is a ketohexose, tastes like sugar and is useful as a low-calorie sweetener. To assess D-tagatose's safety, an oral 90-day toxicity study was conducted on male and female Crl:CDBR rats at dietary doses of 5, 10, 15, and 20% D-tagatose. One control group (dietary control) received only lab chow; a second control group received 20% cellulose/fructose in the diet. There were no treatment-related effects at 5% D-tagatose in the diet. At higher doses, treatment-related effects included transient soft stools in male and female animals from the 15 and 20% dose groups. This was anticipated as a result of the osmotic effect of a large dose of relatively undigested sugar and was not considered a toxic effect. All treatment groups gained weight over the study period; however, mean body weights were statistically significantly decreased in the 15 and 20% dose-group males and the 20% dose-group females at selected intervals compared to dietary control animals. No significant reduction in mean food consumption was noted in the treatment groups compared to the dietary control. Statistically significantly increased relative liver weights were noted in male and female animals from the 10, 15, and 20% dose groups compared to the dietary control. No gross pathological findings correlated with these increased liver weights. Minimal hepatocellular hypertrophy was observed in male and female animals from the 15 and 20% dose groups. An independent review of the liver slides concluded that histomorphologic changes associated with D-tagatose were restricted hepatocyte hypertrophy and hepatocyte glycogen accumulation. Therefore, it was concluded that increased liver weights and minimal hypertrophy were the result of adaptation to the high dietary levels (greater than 5% in the diet) of D-tagatose. No adverse effects were seen at 5% D-tagatose in the diet. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  1. Guidance for Reviewing OCSPP 850.2100 Avian Oral Toxicity Studies Conducted with Passerine Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance based on comparison of results from the TG223 validation studies to results from avian acute oral studies previously submitted to EPA for two test chemicals following EPA's 850.2100 (public draft) guidelines.

  2. A 4-Week Repeated-Dose Oral Toxicity Study of Bojungikgi-Tang in Crl:CD Sprague Dawley Rats

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    Sae-Rom Yoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional herbal medicines have been used for centuries in Asian countries. However, recent studies have led to increasing concerns about the safety and toxicity of herbal prescriptions. Bojungikgi-tang (BJIGT, a herbal decoction, has been used in Korea to improve physical strength. To establish the safety information, BJIGT water extract was evaluated in a 4-week repeated-dose oral toxicity test in Crl:CD Sprague Dawley rats. BJIGT was orally administered in daily doses of 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks via oral gavage in male and female rats. We examined the mortality, clinical signs, body weight change, food intake, organ weights, hematology, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis parameters. No significant changes were observed in mortality, clinical sings, body weight, food intake, organ weights, hematology, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis parameters between the control group and the BJIGT-treated groups in the rats of both sexes. The results indicate that BJIGT did not induce toxic effects at a dose level up to 2000 mg/kg in rats. Thus, this concentration is considered the nonobservable effect dose in rats and is appropriate for a 13-week subchronic toxicity study.

  3. 28-Day oral (gavage) toxicity studies of green tea catechins prepared for beverages in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengelis, Christopher P; Kirkpatrick, Jeannie B; Regan, Karen S; Radovsky, Ann E; Beck, Melissa J; Morita, Osamu; Tamaki, Yasushi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2008-03-01

    The beneficial health effects associated with drinking green tea are widely considered to be due primarily to tea catechins. Heat treatment of marketed green tea beverages for sterilization causes epimerization and/or polymerization of tea catechins. Safety studies on heat-treated tea catechins are limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate potential adverse effects, if any, of two standardized green tea catechin (GTC) preparations: one that underwent heat sterilization (GTC-H) and one that was not heat-sterilized (GTC-UH). A decaffeinated preparation of the GTC-H (GTC-HDC) was also evaluated to ascertain if any effects were due to caffeine. The GTC preparations were administered to rats once daily at levels up to 2000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. There were no deaths attributable to the GTC preparations. The clinical condition of the animals, functional observational battery, motor activity, clinical pathology evaluations, organ weights, and gross necropsy findings were unaffected by any of the GTC preparations. GTC-HDC or GTC-UH dosing had no effects on body weights or microscopic findings, whereas lower body weights and food consumption were observed in the 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day GTC-H group males. The no observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for localized gastric effects for GTC-H was 1000 mg/kg/day. No other target organs were identified. Thus, the NOAEL for systemic toxicity following oral administration was 2000 mg/kg/day for GTC-H, GTC HDC, and GTC-UH under the conditions of this study.

  4. Ninety-day oral toxicity study of rice-derived γ-oryzanol in Sprague-Dawley rats

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    Seol-Hee Moon

    Full Text Available A 90-day oral toxicity study of γ-oryzanol, a rice-derived triterpenoid ferulate, was performed by oral gavage administration to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at doses of 0, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg body weight/day. All rats administered γ-oryzanol survived throughout the study period. Both male and female rats showed no toxicologically significant changes of the general signs, examination findings, body weight, food consumption, functional observational battery results, ophthalmological findings, urinalysis, hematology tests, clinical chemistry tests, organ weights, and necropsy findings. Moreover, there were no histopathological changes related to administration of γ-oryzanol in males and females from the 2000 mg/kg body weight/day group. In conclusion, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL of γ-oryzanol exceeded 2000 mg/kg body weight/day for both male and female rats under the conditions of this study. Keywords: γ-Oryznaol, Rice, Rat, Repeated-dose oral toxicity study, NOAEL

  5. Oral two-generation reproduction toxicity study with NM-200 synthetic amorphous silica in Wistar rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterbeek, A.; Oosterwijk, T.; Schneider, S.; Landsiedel, R.; Groot, D. de; Ee, R. van; Wouters, M.; Sandt, H. van de

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) like NM-200 is used in a wide variety of technological applications and consumer products. Although SAS has been widely investigated the available reproductive toxicity studies are old and do not cover all requirements of current OECD Guidelines. As part of a

  6. Ninety-day oral toxicity study of lycopene from Blakeslea trispora in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, D.; Kuper, C.F.; Fraile, N.; Estrella, A.; Rodríguez Otero, C.

    2003-01-01

    Lycopene, as a suspension in sunflower oil (20% w/w), was tested for subchronic toxicity by administration at dietary concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0% to groups of 20 male and 20 female Wistar rats for a period of 90 days. The lycopene examined in this study was derived from a fungal

  7. Ninety-day oral toxicity study of rice-derived γ-oryzanol in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seol-Hee; Kim, Duyeol; Shimizu, Norihito; Okada, Tadashi; Hitoe, Shoketsu; Shimoda, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    A 90-day oral toxicity study of γ-oryzanol, a rice-derived triterpenoid ferulate, was performed by oral gavage administration to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at doses of 0, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg body weight/day. All rats administered γ-oryzanol survived throughout the study period. Both male and female rats showed no toxicologically significant changes of the general signs, examination findings, body weight, food consumption, functional observational battery results, ophthalmological findings, urinalysis, hematology tests, clinical chemistry tests, organ weights, and necropsy findings. Moreover, there were no histopathological changes related to administration of γ-oryzanol in males and females from the 2000 mg/kg body weight/day group. In conclusion, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of γ-oryzanol exceeded 2000 mg/kg body weight/day for both male and female rats under the conditions of this study.

  8. Acute oral toxicity test of chemical compounds in silkworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Kimihito; Nishida, Satoshi; Sugita, Takuya; Ueki, Takuro; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Okumura, Hidenobu; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2016-02-01

    This study performed an acute oral toxicity test of 59 compounds in silkworms. These compounds are listed in OECD guidelines as standard substances for a cytotoxicity test, and median lethal dose (LD(50)) werecalculated for each compound. Acute oral LD(50) values in mammals are listed in OECD guidelines and acute oral LD(50) values in silkworms were determined in this study. R(2) for the correlation between LD(50) values in mammals and LD(50) values in silkworms was 0.66. In addition, the acute oral toxicity test in silkworms was performed by two different facilities, and test results from the facilities were highly reproducible. These findings suggest that an acute oral toxicity test in silkworms is a useful way to evaluate the toxicity of compounds in mammals.

  9. Subacute Oral Toxicity Assessment of Alchornea cordifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2010-10-21

    Oct 21, 2010 ... Histopathological assessment of liver sections of treated-rats showed normal ... Keywords: Alchornea cordifolia, Rats, Subacute oral toxicity, Neutrophils, Hepatocytes, Hydropic ..... albino rats against acetaminophen-induced.

  10. A Study on the Single-dose Oral Toxicity of Super Key in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhee Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyze the single-dose oral toxicity of the super key (processed sulfur. Methods: All experiments were conducted at Medvill, an institution authorized to perform non-clinical studies, under the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP regulations. In order to investigate the oral toxicity of super key We administered it orally to Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. The SD rats were divided into four groups of five male and five female animals per group: group 1 being the control group and groups 2, 3, and 4 being the experimental groups. Doses of super key 500 mg/kg, 1,000 mg/kg and 2,000 mg/kg were administered to the experimental groups, and a dose of normal saline solution, 10 mL/kg, was administered to the control group. We examined the survival rates, weights, clinical signs, gross findings and necropsy findings. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee. (Approval number: A01-14018. Results: No deaths or abnormalities occurred in any of the four groups. Although slight decreases in the weights of some female rats were noted, no significant changes in weights or differences in the gross findings between the control group and the experimental groups were observed. To check for abnormalities in organs, we used microscopy to examine representative histological sections of each specified organ; the results showed no significant differences in any of the organs. Conclusion: The results of this research showed that administration of 500 ─ 2,000 mg/kg of super key did not cause any changes in the weights or in the results of necropsy examinations. Neither did it result in any mortalities. The above findings suggest that treatment with super key is relatively safe. Further studies on this subject are needed to yield more concrete evidence.

  11. Potential fluoride toxicity from oral medicaments: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Rizwan Ullah; Muhammad Sohail Zafar; Nazish Shahani

    2017-01-01

    The beneficial effects of fluoride on human oral health are well studied. There are numerous studies demonstrating that a small amount of fluoride delivered to the oral cavity decreases the prevalence of dental decay and results in stronger teeth and bones. However, ingestion of fluoride more than the recommended limit leads to toxicity and adverse effects. In order to update our understanding of fluoride and its potential toxicity, we have described the mechanisms of fluoride metabolism, tox...

  12. Repeated Dose 28-Days Oral Toxicity Study of Carica papaya L. Leaf Extract in Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussin Muhammad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Carica papaya L. leaves have been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of fevers and cancers. Despite its benefits, very few studies on their potential toxicity have been described. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition of the leaf extract from ‘Sekaki’ C. papaya cultivar by UPLC-TripleTOF-ESI-MS and to investigate the sub-acute oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0.01, 0.14 and 2 g/kg by examining the general behavior, clinical signs, hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and histopathology changes. A total of twelve compounds consisting of one piperidine alkaloid, two organic acids, six malic acid derivatives, and four flavonol glycosides were characterized or tentatively identified in the C. papaya leaf extract. In the sub-acute study, the C. papaya extract did not cause mortality nor were treatment-related changes in body weight, food intake, water level, and hematological parameters observed between treatment and control groups. Some biochemical parameters such as the total protein, HDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP were elevated in a non-dose dependent manner. Histopathological examination of all organs including liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Other parameters showed non-significant differences between treatment and control groups. The present results suggest that C. papaya leaf extract at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in practical use in traditional medicine in Malaysia could be considered safe as a medicinal agent.

  13. Potential fluoride toxicity from oral medicaments: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Ullah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of fluoride on human oral health are well studied. There are numerous studies demonstrating that a small amount of fluoride delivered to the oral cavity decreases the prevalence of dental decay and results in stronger teeth and bones. However, ingestion of fluoride more than the recommended limit leads to toxicity and adverse effects. In order to update our understanding of fluoride and its potential toxicity, we have described the mechanisms of fluoride metabolism, toxic effects, and management of fluoride toxicity. The main aim of this review is to highlight the potential adverse effects of fluoride overdose and poorly understood toxicity. In addition, the related clinical significance of fluoride overdose and toxicity has been discussed.

  14. Potential fluoride toxicity from oral medicaments: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Rizwan; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Shahani, Nazish

    2017-08-01

    The beneficial effects of fluoride on human oral health are well studied. There are numerous studies demonstrating that a small amount of fluoride delivered to the oral cavity decreases the prevalence of dental decay and results in stronger teeth and bones. However, ingestion of fluoride more than the recommended limit leads to toxicity and adverse effects. In order to update our understanding of fluoride and its potential toxicity, we have described the mechanisms of fluoride metabolism, toxic effects, and management of fluoride toxicity. The main aim of this review is to highlight the potential adverse effects of fluoride overdose and poorly understood toxicity. In addition, the related clinical significance of fluoride overdose and toxicity has been discussed.

  15. One Year Oral Toxicity Study of WR238605 Succinate in Dogs. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-18

    coccidia in their fecal samples will only be treated if they concurrently exhibit diarrhea. All dogs will have been vaccinated against canine distemper...Fine Granular TRANS = Transitional CG = Course Granular NA = Not Applicable HY = Hyaline TP = Triple Phosphate GR = Granular QNS = Quantity Not...infectious canine hepatitis, leptospirosis, parainfluenza, parvo, oral papilloma, and rabies by the animal supplier. In addition, the animal supplier

  16. Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of the extracts from herbs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-06-14

    Jun 14, 2012 ... Thailand registered PN in the list of herbal medical ... Pharmacy, Silpakorn University, Nakorn Pathom, Thailand. The ... automated blood analyzer (Hitachi Science Systems Ltd., Ibaraki, ..... toxic effects of the extracts in both concurrent control and ..... uric acid levels might be necessary when patients are.

  17. A one-year oral toxicity study of sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL) in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamb, J.; Hentz, K.; Schmitt, D.; Tran, N.; Jonker, D.; Junker, K.

    2010-01-01

    The toxicity of sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL) was examined in Wistar rats fed diets containing 0, 1.25, 2.5, and 5% SSL for one year, equivalent to mean daily intakes of 558, 1115, and 2214. mg/kg/day in males and 670, 1339, and 2641. mg/kg/day in females, respectively. SSL was well tolerated at

  18. Acute and Sub-chronic (28-day) Oral Toxicity Studies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    was to investigate the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of A. conyzoides leaves in Wistar rats. Methods: In the acute test, the ... associated with navel in children [4], and in the treatment of ... Ethical Committee for Teaching and. Research (ref no.

  19. Subchronic oral toxicity of silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Yong

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles has resulted in their extensive application in health, electronic, consumer, medicinal, pesticide, and home products; however, silver nanoparticles remain a controversial area of research with respect to their toxicity in biological and ecological systems. Results This study tested the oral toxicity of silver nanoparticles (56 nm over a period of 13 weeks (90 days in F344 rats following Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD test guideline 408 and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP. Five-week-old rats, weighing about 99 g for the males and 92 g for the females, were divided into four 4 groups (10 rats in each group: vehicle control, low-dose (30 mg/kg, middle-dose (125 mg/kg, and high-dose (500 mg/kg. After 90 days of exposure, clinical chemistry, hematology, histopathology, and silver distribution were studied. There was a significant decrease (P Conclusions The target organ for the silver nanoparticles was found to be the liver in both the male and female rats. A NOAEL (no observable adverse effect level of 30 mg/kg and LOAEL (lowest observable adverse effect level of 125 mg/kg are suggested from the present study.

  20. Evaluation of a subchronic (13-week) oral toxicity study, preceded by an in utero exposure phase, with arachidonic acid oil derived from Mortierella alpina in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempenius, R.A.; Lina, B.A.R.; Haggitt, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Arachidonic acid oil (ARA-oil) derived from the fungus Mortierella alpina for use in infant nutrition was tested in a subchronic (13-week) oral toxicity study in rats, preceded by an in utero exposure phase. The ARA-oil was administered as admixture to the rodent diet at dose levels of 3000 ppm,

  1. In vivo anti-psoriatic activity, biodistribution, sub-acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of orally administered methotrexate loaded chitin nanogel in comparison with methotrexate tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panonnummal, Rajitha; Jayakumar, R; Anjaneyan, Gopikrishnan; Sabitha, M

    2018-04-15

    The anti-psoriatic efficacy of orally administered methotrexate loaded chitin nanogel (MCNG) was evaluated (two doses- 2.715 mg/kg and 5.143 mg/kg) and compared against orally administered methotrexate tablet MTX (5.143 mg/kg). MCNG at both dose levels of 2.715 mg/kg and 5.143 mg/kg exhibited significant anti-psoriatic activity which is very much comparable with MTX, caused normalization of histological features and inflammatory score associated with induced psoriasis. Biodistribution studies revealed the presence of drug in serum and in vital organs at all the three cases with highest amount in MCNG at 5.143 mg/kg dose, followed by MTX tablet and are lowest in MCNG at 2.715 mg/kg dose. MCNG at the highest dose of 5.143 mg/kg caused liver, lung and kidney toxicities on sub acute toxicity studies and MTX tablet was found to be toxic on liver and lung on sub chronic toxicity studies. MCNG 2.715 mg/kg was found to be safe on both sub acute and sub chronic administrations, suggesting that it can provide sufficient serum and tissue level of methotrexate necessary to clear psoriatic lesions, without inducing systemic toxicity and expected to be a better alternative for orally administered conventional methotrexate tablet for patients who need systemic medications for psoriasis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Toxicological assessment of enzyme-treated asparagus extract in rat acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies and genotoxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomohiro; Ono, Tomoko; Sato, Atsuya; Goto, Kazunori; Miura, Takehito; Wakame, Koji; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Maeda, Takahiro

    2014-03-01

    The safety of enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) developed as a novel anti-stress functional material was assessed in acute and subchronic studies and genotoxicity assays. In the acute oral dose toxicity study, all rats survived during the test period and ETAS did not influence clinical appearance, body weight gain and necropsy findings at a dosage of 2000mg/kg body weight. Thus, the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of ETAS was determined to be greater than 2000mg/kg. The 90-day subchronic study (500, 1000 and 2000mg/kg body weight, delivered by gavage) in rats reported no significant adverse effects in food consumption, body weight, mortality, urinalysis, hematology, biochemistry, necropsy, organ weight and histopathology. In the micronucleus test of mice, the incidence of micronuclei in ETAS-administered groups (500, 1000 and 2000mg/kg/day, injected twice) was equivalent to that of the negative control group, while the positive control group receiving mitomycin C showed a high incidence. The potential of ETAS to induce gene mutation was tested using four Salmonella typhimurium strains and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA. The test sample was not mutagenic to the test strains. These results support the safety of ETAS as food and dietary supplement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Thirteen-week oral toxicity study of L-arginine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubuku, Shoji; Hatayama, Kazuhisa; Mawatari, Kazunori; Smriga, Miro; Kimura, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    The amino acid L-arginine (Arg) has been used extensively in dietary and pharmacological products. This study evaluated toxicological and behavioral effects of Arg produced by Ajinomoto Co. (Tokyo, Japan) during a dosing study with male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The amino acid was incorporated into a standard diet at doses equal to 1.25%, 2.5%, and 5.0% (w/w). A control group of rats received only a standard diet. All diets were administered ad libitum for 13 continuous weeks. To examine recoverability of any potential effects, the administration period was followed by a 5-week-long recovery, during which only a standard diet was provided. In male and female rats in each concentration group, treatment-related changes were not observed for clinical signs, body weights, diet consumption, ophthalmology, gross pathology, organ weight, or histopathology. An elevated level of plasma glucose was detected in some male rats (5.0%, w/w) during the analysis conducted in the fifth week of administration; however, the degree of the change was within the physiological range, and no changes were observed at the end of the administration period. In the same group, an increase in hemoglobin, together with a tendency toward an increase in the red blood cell counts, was found, but the change was considered toxicologically insignificant. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for Arg was estimated at 5.0% (w/w) for both genders (males, 3.3 +/- 0.1 g/kg/day; females, 3.9 +/- 0.2 g/kg/day).

  4. Thirteen-week oral toxicity study of L-glutamine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubuku, Shoji; Hatayama, Kazuhisa; Mawatari, Kazunori; Smriga, Miro; Kimura, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    L-Glutamine (Gln) is a semiessential amino acid used in enteral feeding in critically ill patients, and is contained in numerous dietary supplements available to the general public. This study evaluated toxicological effects of Gln in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Gln produced by Ajinomoto Co. (Tokyo, Japan) was incorporated into a standard diet at doses equal to 1.25%, 2.5%, and 5.0% (w/w), respectively. A control group of rats received only a standard diet. All diets were administered ad libitum for 13 consecutive weeks. To examine recoverability of any potential effects, the administration period was followed by a 5-week recovery period, during which only the standard diet was provided to all animals. Throughout the administration and recovery periods, no deaths were observed, and no changes in diet consumption, ophthalmologic findings, gross pathology, and histopathology were detected. Several changes in urine parameters (total protein, urine pH, and a positive incidence (+/-) of ketone bodies) were observed in the 2.5% and 5.0% groups at the end of the administration period. Minor increases were found in hematology parameters for the 5.0% group (platelet count, gamma-globulin, lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]), but all changes were within physiological range. No effects of administration were observed in the 1.25% group. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for Gln was estimated at 1.25% for both genders (males 0.83 +/- 0.01 g/kg/day; females, 0.96 +/- 0.06 g/kg/day).

  5. NMR-based metabonomic study of the sub-acute toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in rats after oral administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Qian; Yan, Guangyan; Deng, Pengchi; Peng, Feng; Lin, Hongjun; Xu, Youzhi; Cao, Zhixing; Zhou, Tian; Xue, Aiqin; Wang, Yanli; Cen, Xiaobo; Zhao, Ying-Lan

    2010-03-01

    As titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used commercially, their potential toxicity on human health has attracted particular attention. In the present study, the oral toxicological effects of TiO2 NPs (dosed at 0.16, 0.4 and 1 g kg - 1, respectively) were investigated using conventional approaches and metabonomic analysis in Wistar rats. Serum chemistry, hematology and histopathology examinations were performed. The urine and serum were investigated by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using principal components and partial least squares discriminant analysis. The metabolic signature of urinalysis in TiO2 NP-treated rats showed increases in the levels of taurine, citrate, hippurate, histidine, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), citrulline, α-ketoglutarate, phenylacetylglycine (PAG) and acetate; moreover, decreases in the levels of lactate, betaine, methionine, threonine, pyruvate, 3-D-hydroxybutyrate (3-D-HB), choline and leucine were observed. The metabonomics analysis of serum showed increases in TMAO, choline, creatine, phosphocholine and 3-D-HB as well as decreases in glutamine, pyruvate, glutamate, acetoacetate, glutathione and methionine after TiO2 NP treatment. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were elevated and mitochondrial swelling in heart tissue was observed in TiO2 NP-treated rats. These findings indicate that disturbances in energy and amino acid metabolism and the gut microflora environment may be attributable to the slight injury to the liver and heart caused by TiO2 NPs. Moreover, the NMR-based metabolomic approach is a reliable and sensitive method to study the biochemical effects of nanomaterials.

  6. NMR-based metabonomic study of the sub-acute toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in rats after oral administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu Qian; Lin Hongjun; Xu Youzhi; Cao Zhixing; Zhou Tian; Zhao Yinglan; Yan Guangyan; Cen Xiaobo; Deng Pengchi; Peng Feng; Xue Aiqin; Wang Yanli

    2010-01-01

    As titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) are widely used commercially, their potential toxicity on human health has attracted particular attention. In the present study, the oral toxicological effects of TiO 2 NPs (dosed at 0.16, 0.4 and 1 g kg -1 , respectively) were investigated using conventional approaches and metabonomic analysis in Wistar rats. Serum chemistry, hematology and histopathology examinations were performed. The urine and serum were investigated by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using principal components and partial least squares discriminant analysis. The metabolic signature of urinalysis in TiO 2 NP-treated rats showed increases in the levels of taurine, citrate, hippurate, histidine, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), citrulline, α-ketoglutarate, phenylacetylglycine (PAG) and acetate; moreover, decreases in the levels of lactate, betaine, methionine, threonine, pyruvate, 3-D-hydroxybutyrate (3-D-HB), choline and leucine were observed. The metabonomics analysis of serum showed increases in TMAO, choline, creatine, phosphocholine and 3-D-HB as well as decreases in glutamine, pyruvate, glutamate, acetoacetate, glutathione and methionine after TiO 2 NP treatment. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were elevated and mitochondrial swelling in heart tissue was observed in TiO 2 NP-treated rats. These findings indicate that disturbances in energy and amino acid metabolism and the gut microflora environment may be attributable to the slight injury to the liver and heart caused by TiO 2 NPs. Moreover, the NMR-based metabolomic approach is a reliable and sensitive method to study the biochemical effects of nanomaterials.

  7. NMR-based metabonomic study of the sub-acute toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in rats after oral administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu Qian; Lin Hongjun; Xu Youzhi; Cao Zhixing; Zhou Tian; Zhao Yinglan [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Yan Guangyan; Cen Xiaobo [National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Deng Pengchi [Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Peng Feng [Department of Thoracic Oncology of Cancer Center and State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Xue Aiqin [Institute of Bioengineering, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University Road 2, Xiasha, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wang Yanli, E-mail: alancenxb@sina.com [Tianjin Children' s Hospital, Tianjin 300074 (China)

    2010-03-26

    As titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2} NPs) are widely used commercially, their potential toxicity on human health has attracted particular attention. In the present study, the oral toxicological effects of TiO{sub 2} NPs (dosed at 0.16, 0.4 and 1 g kg{sup -1}, respectively) were investigated using conventional approaches and metabonomic analysis in Wistar rats. Serum chemistry, hematology and histopathology examinations were performed. The urine and serum were investigated by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using principal components and partial least squares discriminant analysis. The metabolic signature of urinalysis in TiO{sub 2} NP-treated rats showed increases in the levels of taurine, citrate, hippurate, histidine, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), citrulline, {alpha}-ketoglutarate, phenylacetylglycine (PAG) and acetate; moreover, decreases in the levels of lactate, betaine, methionine, threonine, pyruvate, 3-D-hydroxybutyrate (3-D-HB), choline and leucine were observed. The metabonomics analysis of serum showed increases in TMAO, choline, creatine, phosphocholine and 3-D-HB as well as decreases in glutamine, pyruvate, glutamate, acetoacetate, glutathione and methionine after TiO{sub 2} NP treatment. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were elevated and mitochondrial swelling in heart tissue was observed in TiO{sub 2} NP-treated rats. These findings indicate that disturbances in energy and amino acid metabolism and the gut microflora environment may be attributable to the slight injury to the liver and heart caused by TiO{sub 2} NPs. Moreover, the NMR-based metabolomic approach is a reliable and sensitive method to study the biochemical effects of nanomaterials.

  8. Polymer coated liposomes for use in the oral cavity - A study of the in vitro toxicity, effect on cell permeability and interaction with mucin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemetsrud, Therese; Kjøniksen, Anna-Lena; Hiorth, Marianne

    2018-01-01

    In this study we investigated the in vitro toxicity, impact on cell permeability and mucoadhesive potential of polymer coated liposomes intended for use in the oral cavity. A TR146 cell line was used as a model. The overall aim was to end up with a selection of safe polymer coated liposomes...... with promising mucoadhesive properties for drug delivery to the oral cavity. The following polymers were tested: chitosan, low-methoxylated pectin (LM-pectin), high-methoxylated pectin (HM-pectin), amidated pectin (AM-pectin), Eudragit, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) (p...... formulations promising for oromucosal administration. Although the chitosan coated liposomes affected the cell viability, this formulation also influenced the cell permeability, which makes it an interesting candidate for systemic drug delivery from the oral cavity....

  9. Thirteen Week Oral Toxicity Study of WR238605 with a Thirteen Week Recovery Period in Dogs. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-11

    dogs will have been vaccinated against canine distemper, infectious canine hepatitis, leptospirosis, parainfluenza, parvo, oral papilloma, and...Leukocytes NIT = Nitrite EPI = Epithelial SQ = Squamous TRANS z Transitional NA z Not Applicable TP z Triple Phosphate QNS = Quantity Not...documented on the Clinical Veterinarian Log by the veterinarian prior to study initiation. Food: Purina Certified Canine Diet No. 5007 (Ralston

  10. Toxicity of oral radiotherapy in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.S.; Fried, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Although radiotherapy is a standard form of management of head and neck tumors, treatment of the oral cavity in patients who have the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome has produced unacceptable toxicity. Five such patients are described as a warning of enhanced toxicity of oral radiotherapy in this patient population

  11. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuen Yew Teoh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynura bicolor (Compositae which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116, one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7, and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay, possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor.

  12. Safety assessment of the methanol extract of the stem bark of Amphimas pterocarpoides Harms: Acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job Tchoumtchoua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphimas pterocarpoides Harms (Leguminosae is widely used traditionally in Central and West Africa for the treatment of various ailments. However, no data regarding its safety have been published until now. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the potential toxicity of the methanol extract of the stem bark of Amphimas pterocarpoides (AP in Wistar rats following the OECD guidelines. In acute oral toxicity, female rats received a single dose of 2000 mg/kg of AP and were observed for 14 days. In subchronic toxicity, doses of 150, 300, 600 mg/kg/day of AP were given per os to rats (males and females for 28 days. No death and abnormal behaviors were observed in acute toxicity and the LD50 was estimated higher than 5000 mg/kg. In the subchronic study, AP induced no significant variation in body weight and relative weight of organs, whereas a delayed decrease of white blood cell count and granulocytes was observed. Inconsistent increase of the total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein was observed at 600 mg/kg in males. Such variation (not dose dependent and without biological relevance indicate a wide margin of safety for the traditional use of AP.

  13. The margin of internal exposure (MOIE) concept for dermal risk assessment based on oral toxicity data - A case study with caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessems, Jos G M; Paini, Alicia; Gajewska, Monika; Worth, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    Route-to-route extrapolation is a common part of human risk assessment. Data from oral animal toxicity studies are commonly used to assess the safety of various but specific human dermal exposure scenarios. Using theoretical examples of various user scenarios, it was concluded that delineation of a generally applicable human dermal limit value is not a practicable approach, due to the wide variety of possible human exposure scenarios, including its consequences for internal exposure. This paper uses physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling approaches to predict animal as well as human internal exposure dose metrics and for the first time, introduces the concept of Margin of Internal Exposure (MOIE) based on these internal dose metrics. Caffeine was chosen to illustrate this approach. It is a substance that is often found in cosmetics and for which oral repeated dose toxicity data were available. A rat PBK model was constructed in order to convert the oral NOAEL to rat internal exposure dose metrics, i.e. the area under the curve (AUC) and the maximum concentration (C max ), both in plasma. A human oral PBK model was constructed and calibrated using human volunteer data and adapted to accommodate dermal absorption following human dermal exposure. Use of the MOIE approach based on internal dose metrics predictions provides excellent opportunities to investigate the consequences of variations in human dermal exposure scenarios. It can accommodate within-day variation in plasma concentrations and is scientifically more robust than assuming just an exposure in mg/kg bw/day. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The pharmacokinetic study on the mechanism of toxicity attenuation of rhubarb total free anthraquinone oral colon-specific drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Chang, Jin-hua; Zhang, Bao-qi; Liu, Xi-gang; Liu, Pei; Xue, He-fei; Liu, Li-yan; Fu, Qiang; Zhu, Meng; Liu, Cui-zhe

    2015-07-01

    Rhubarb is commonly used as laxatives in Asian countries, of which anthraquinones are the major active ingredients, but there are an increased number of concerns regarding the nephrotoxicity of anthraquinones. In this study, we compared the pharmacokinetic characteristics of rhubarb anthraquinones in rats after orally administered with rhubarb and rhubarb total free anthraquinone oral colon-specific drug delivery granules (RTFA-OCDD-GN), and then explained why these granules could reduce the nephrotoxicity of anthraquinones when they produced purgative efficacy. A sensitive and reliable high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been fully validated for simultaneous determination of the five active components of rhubarb, and successfully applied to investigate and compare the remarkable differences in pharmacokinetic study of rhubarb anthraquinones after orally administered with rhubarb and RTFA-OCDD-GN. The results showed that, compared with rhubarb group, the AUC, Cmax, t1/2z and Vz/F of aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin and chrysophanol in rats receiving the RTFA-OCDD-GN were significantly decreased, and the Tmax of the four analytes was prolonged. Moreover, the Tmax of rhein, the Cmax of chrysophanol and emodin all have significant differences (Panthraquinone prototype excretion rates in urine and feces of aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion were all increased. These findings suggested that oral colon-specific drug delivery technology made anthraquinone aglycone to colon-specific release after oral administration. This allowed anthraquinones to not only play the corresponding purgative effect but also avoid intestinal absorption and promote excretion. And thereby greatly reduced the nephrotoxicity of rhubarb. The result is a new breakthrough in rhubarb toxicity attenuated research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A 56-Day Oral Toxicity Study of the Aqueous Extract of Rapanea melanophloeos (L. Mez in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesbon Z. Amenya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapanea melanophloeos is a tropical tree that is extensively utilized in African traditional medicine to treat helminthiases, tuberculosis, and heart-water. As with many other medicinal plants, there is insufficient information regarding the safety of therapeutic R. melanophloeos extracts. An aqueous extract of R. melanophloeos stem bark was administered to Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg for 56 days to characterize its potential toxicity after prolonged dosing. Blood samples were obtained fortnightly for serum chemistry and hematology, while organs were collected at the end of the study. The extract caused an increase in organ weight indices of the kidneys and testis at 300 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg. Hematological and biochemical examination revealed a drop in leukocyte counts and the hematocrit at 1000 mg/kg dose level, while there was a general but nondose-related elevation in alkaline phosphatase activity. There were time-associated variations in the hematological and clinical chemistry parameters at days 28, 42, and 56 in all dose levels, but most values remained within physiological limits. No pathological lesions were evident at histopathology after treatment with the extract. Our data shows that the aqueous extract of R. melanophloeos is not likely to be toxic at the doses tested and provides support to its medicinal use.

  16. Derivation of an oral toxicity reference value for nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Lynne T; Bates, Hudson K; Allen, Bruce C; Vincent, Melissa J; Oller, Adriana R

    2017-06-15

    Nickel (Ni) is in the earth's crust and can be found in environmental compartments such as water, soil, and air, as well as food. This paper presents an assessment of the oral nickel toxicity data in support of non-cancer health-based oral exposure limits or toxicity reference values (TRVs). This paper derives TRVs for three populations of interest: adults, toddlers, and people who have been dermally sensitized to nickel. The adult/lifetime TRV of 20 μg Ni/kg-day is based on post-implantation loss/perinatal mortality in a 2-generation reproductive study in rats. Several recent assessments by regulatory agencies have used the same study and endpoint, but the dose-response modeling conducted here was more appropriate for the study design. Toxicokinetic data from rats and humans indicate that the applied uncertainty factors are very conservative. Because the endpoint relates to fetal exposure and is not relevant to toddlers, a toddler TRV was derived based on decreased body weight in young rats; this TRV was also 20 μg Ni/kg-day. A separate TRV of 4 μg Ni/kg in addition to Ni in food was derived for protection of nickel-sensitized populations from flare-up of dermatitis, based on studies of single exposures in humans under conditions that maximize oral absorption. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A 5-month toxicity study of the ethanol extract of the leaves of Heliotropium indicum in Sprague Dawley rats after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, M A; Oribayo, O O; Ukpo, G E; Mbaka, G O; Akindehin, O E

    2015-01-01

    Heliotropium indicum Linn. (Boraginaceae) is used in Nigerian traditional medicine to treat tuberculosis with treatment lasting for 3 months; however, information on its toxicity is scarce. This study investigated the safety of the leaves of Heliotropium indicum after a 5 month oral administration. The leaves of H. indicum were dried; extracted in 70% ethanol and concentrated to dryness. Swiss mice were administered orally with single doses of the extract (0.5 to 12.0 g/kg b.wt /day); mortality was examined for up to 14 days. In another study, the plant material (0.5 to 2.0 g/kg b.wt /day) were administered daily by oral gavage to Sprague Dawley rats. Body weight was monitored weekly, hematological, biochemical and organ parameters were determined at the end of the 1st, 2nd and 5th months of extract administration. The oral administration of the ethanol extract of H. indicum caused dose-dependent mortality. The LD50 was 9.78 g/kg b.wt for the Swiss mice; no harmful effect was observed on the liver and kidney except the testes which exhibited considerable inflammatory changes at the highest dose of 2.0 g/kg b.wt./day after the 5th month treatment. No significant difference (P>0.05) was shown in the enzyme study, marginal increase occurred in some haematological parameters. The increase in body weight of the treated rats after its initial reduction was consistent and significantly different (P<0.05) from their initial body weight. Prolonged administration of the crude leaf extract of H. indicum is considered to be safe and nontoxic at the doses studied. However, there is a probability of a negative effect on the testes at a higher dose of the extract.

  18. GMP-grade α-TEA lysine salt: a 28-Day oral toxicity and toxicokinetic study with a 28-Day recovery period in Beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrouahen, Bella S.; Hahn, Tobias; Alderman, Zefora; Curti, Brendan; Urba, Walter; Akporiaye, Emmanuel T.

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-tocopheryloxyacetic acid (α-TEA) is a semi-synthetic derivative of naturally occurring vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) that can be delivered via an oral route. Preclinical in vitro and in vivo data demonstrated that α-TEA is a potent anti-tumor agent with a safe toxicity profile in mice. We report a comprehensive study to evaluate the toxokinetics of good manufacturing practice (GMP)-grade α-TEA in dogs after daily oral administration for 28 days, followed by a 28-day recovery period. Male and female beagle dogs received capsules of α-TEA Lysine Salt at doses of 100, 300, 1500 mg/kg/day. α-TEA plasma levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with mass spectrometric detection. During the treatment, animals were observe for clinical signs, food consumption, body weight, and subjected to ophthalmoscopic, and electrocardiographic assessments. At the end of the dosing period, blood was taken and toxicokinetic analyses and histopathology assessments were performed when animals were necropsied. Our findings showed that there was no α-TEA-related mortality or moribundity. At the highest dose, increases in white blood cells and fibrinogen levels were observed. These levels returned to normal at the end of the recovery period. Histopathological evaluation of major organs revealed no significant lesions related to α-TEA-treatment. We demonstrate that for designing clinical trials in patients, the highest non-severely toxic dose (HNSTD) of α-TEA is 1500 mg/kg/day in Beagle dogs and this data informed the design of dose-escalation studies of α-TEA in patients with advanced cancer

  19. Developmental toxicity studies with 6 forms of titanium dioxide test materials (3 pigment-different grade & 3 nanoscale) demonstrate an absence of effects in orally-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warheit, D B; Boatman, R; Brown, S C

    2015-12-01

    Six different commercial forms and sizes of titanium dioxide particles were tested in separate developmental toxicity assays. The three pigment-grade (pg) or 3 ultrafine (uf)/nanoscale (anatase and/or rutile) titanium dioxide (TiO2) particle-types were evaluated for potential maternal and developmental toxicity in pregnant rats by two different laboratories. All studies were conducted according to OECD Guideline 414 (Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study). In addition, all test materials were robustly characterized. The BET surface areas of the pg and uf samples ranged from 7 to 17 m(2)/g and 50-82 m(2)/g respectively (see Table 1). The test substances were formulated in sterile water. In all of the studies, the formulations were administered by oral gavage to time-mated rats daily beginning around the time of implantation and continuing until the day prior to expected parturition. In 3 of the studies (uf-1, uf-3, & pg-1), the formulations were administered to Crl:CD(SD) rats beginning on gestation day (GD) 6 through GD 20. In 3 additional studies (uf-2, and pg-2, pg-3 TiO2 particles), the formulations were administered to Wistar rats beginning on GD 5 through 19. The dose levels used in all studies were 0, 100, 300, or 1000 mg/kg/day; control group animals were administered the vehicle. During the in-life portions of the studies, body weights, food consumption, and clinical observations before and after dosing were collected on a daily basis. All dams were euthanized just prior to expected parturition (GD 21 for Crl:CD(SD) rats and GD 20 for Wistar rats). The gross necropsies included an examination and description of uterine contents including counts of corpora lutea, implantation sites, resorptions, and live and dead fetuses. All live fetuses were sexed, weighed, and examined externally and euthanized. Following euthanasia, fresh visceral and head examinations were performed on selected fetuses. The fetal carcasses were then processed and examined for skeletal

  20. A 90-day study of sub-chronic oral toxicity of 20 nm positively charged zinc oxide nanoparticles in Sprague Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park HS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hark-Soo Park,1 Seon-Ju Kim,1 Taek-Jin Lee,1 Geon-Yong Kim,1 EunHo Meang,1 Jeong-Sup Hong,1 Su-Hyon Kim,1 Sang-Bum Koh,1 Seung-Guk Hong,1 Yle-Shik Sun,1 Jin Seok Kang,2 Yu-Ri Kim,3 Meyoung-Kon Kim,3 Jayoung Jeong,4 Jong-Kwon Lee,4 Woo-Chan Son,5 Jae-Hak Park61General Toxicology Team, Korea Testing and Research Institute, Seoul, 2Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Namseoul University, Cheonan, 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, 4National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Seoul, 5Department of Pathology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, 6Laboratory Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, KoreaPurpose: The study reported here was conducted to determine the systemic oral toxicity and to find the no-observed-adverse-effect level of 20 nm positively charged zinc oxide (ZnOSM,20(+ nanoparticles in Sprague Dawley rats for 90 days.Methods: For the 90-day toxicity study, the high dose was set as 500 mg per kg of body weight (mg/kg and the middle and low dose were set to 250 mg/kg and 125 mg/kg, respectively. The rats were held for a 14-day recovery period after the last administration, to observe for the persistence or reduction of any toxic effects. A distributional study was also carried out for the systemic distribution of ZnOSM,20(+ NPs.Results: No rats died during the test period. There were no significant clinical changes due to the test article during the experimental period in functional assessment, body weight, food and water consumption, ophthalmological testing, urine analysis, necropsy findings, or organ weights, but salivation was observed immediately after administration in both sexes. The total red blood cell count was increased, and hematocrit, albumin, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, and mean cell hemoglobin concentration were decreased significantly compared with

  1. Intravenous voriconazole after toxic oral administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alffenaar, J.W.C.; Van Assen, S.; De Monchy, J.G.R.; Uges, D.R.A.; Kosterink, J.G.W.; Van Der Werf, T.S.

    In a male patient with rhinocerebral invasive aspergillosis, prolonged high-dosage oral administration of voriconazole led to hepatotoxicity combined with a severe cutaneous reaction while intravenous administration in the same patient did not. High concentrations in the portal blood precipitate

  2. Oral Exposure and Absorption of Toxicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides an overview of the toxicokinetics of orally absorbed xenobiotics. This includes a description of the basic anatomy and physiology of the digestive tract most relevant to the absorption process. In addition, differences in anatomy and physiology between human...

  3. Acute oral Toxicity and Antioxidant Activity of Neoglaziovia variegata

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fisiologia

    2012-09-18

    Sep 18, 2012 ... In the acute toxicity of Nv-EtOH, behavioral and physiological alterations were not observed neither animal's death in the doses of 2.0 g/kg intraperitoneally and 5.0 g/kg orally, respectively indicating low toxicity of the extract. In this experiment, it was observed that the. Nv-EtOH has LD50 > 5000 mg/kg.

  4. P-glycoprotein is responsible for the poor intestinal absorption and low toxicity of oral aconitine: In vitro, in situ, in vivo and in silico studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Cuiping, E-mail: yangsophia76@hotmail.com; Zhang, Tianhong, E-mail: wdzth@sina.com; Li, Zheng, E-mail: lizh2524@126.com; Xu, Liang, E-mail: wj24998@163.com; Liu, Fei, E-mail: liufeipharm@163.com; Ruan, Jinxiu, E-mail: ruanjx1936@yahoo.com.cn; Liu, Keliang, E-mail: keliangliu55@126.com; Zhang, Zhenqing, E-mail: zhangzhenqingpharm@163.com

    2013-12-15

    Aconitine (AC) is a highly toxic alkaloid from bioactive plants of the genus Aconitum, some of which have been widely used as medicinal herbs for thousands of years. In this study, we systematically evaluated the potential role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the mechanisms underlying the low and variable bioavailability of oral AC. First, the bidirectional transport of AC across Caco-2 and MDCKII-MDR1 cells was investigated. The efflux of AC across monolayers of these two cell lines was greater than its influx. Additionally, the P-gp inhibitors, verapamil and cyclosporin A, significantly decreased the efflux of AC. An in situ intestinal perfusion study in rats showed that verapamil co-perfusion caused a significant increase in the intestinal permeability of AC, from 0.22 × 10{sup −5} to 2.85 × 10{sup −5} cm/s. Then, the pharmacokinetic profile of orally administered AC with or without pre-treatment with verapamil was determined in rats. With pre-treatment of verapamil, the maximum plasma concentration (C{sub max}) of AC increased sharply, from 39.43 to 1490.7 ng/ml. Accordingly, a 6.7-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC{sub 0–12} {sub h}) of AC was observed when co-administered with verapamil. In silico docking analyses suggested that AC and verapamil possess similar P-gp recognition mechanisms. This work demonstrated that P-gp is involved in limiting the intestinal absorption of AC and attenuating its toxicity to humans. Our data indicate that potential P-gp-mediated drug–drug interactions should be considered carefully in the clinical application of aconite and formulations containing AC. - Highlights: • Verapamil and cyclosporin A decreased the efflux of aconitine across Caco-2 cells. • Both inhibitors decreased the efflux of aconitine across MDCKII-MDR1 cells. • Co-perfusion with verapamil increased the intestinal permeability of aconitine. • Co-administration with verapamil sharply increased the C{sub max

  5. P-glycoprotein is responsible for the poor intestinal absorption and low toxicity of oral aconitine: In vitro, in situ, in vivo and in silico studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Cuiping; Zhang, Tianhong; Li, Zheng; Xu, Liang; Liu, Fei; Ruan, Jinxiu; Liu, Keliang; Zhang, Zhenqing

    2013-01-01

    Aconitine (AC) is a highly toxic alkaloid from bioactive plants of the genus Aconitum, some of which have been widely used as medicinal herbs for thousands of years. In this study, we systematically evaluated the potential role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the mechanisms underlying the low and variable bioavailability of oral AC. First, the bidirectional transport of AC across Caco-2 and MDCKII-MDR1 cells was investigated. The efflux of AC across monolayers of these two cell lines was greater than its influx. Additionally, the P-gp inhibitors, verapamil and cyclosporin A, significantly decreased the efflux of AC. An in situ intestinal perfusion study in rats showed that verapamil co-perfusion caused a significant increase in the intestinal permeability of AC, from 0.22 × 10 −5 to 2.85 × 10 −5 cm/s. Then, the pharmacokinetic profile of orally administered AC with or without pre-treatment with verapamil was determined in rats. With pre-treatment of verapamil, the maximum plasma concentration (C max ) of AC increased sharply, from 39.43 to 1490.7 ng/ml. Accordingly, a 6.7-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC 0–12 h ) of AC was observed when co-administered with verapamil. In silico docking analyses suggested that AC and verapamil possess similar P-gp recognition mechanisms. This work demonstrated that P-gp is involved in limiting the intestinal absorption of AC and attenuating its toxicity to humans. Our data indicate that potential P-gp-mediated drug–drug interactions should be considered carefully in the clinical application of aconite and formulations containing AC. - Highlights: • Verapamil and cyclosporin A decreased the efflux of aconitine across Caco-2 cells. • Both inhibitors decreased the efflux of aconitine across MDCKII-MDR1 cells. • Co-perfusion with verapamil increased the intestinal permeability of aconitine. • Co-administration with verapamil sharply increased the C max and AUC of aconitine. • P

  6. Repeated 28-day oral toxicity study of vinclozolin in rats based on the draft protocol for the "Enhanced OECD Test Guideline No. 407" to detect endocrine effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-Ho; Moon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Tae Sung; Kang, Il Hyun; Ki, Ho Yeon; Choi, Kwang Sik; Han, Soon Young

    2006-09-01

    We performed a 28-day repeated-dose toxicity study of vinclozolin, a widely used fungicide, based on the draft protocol of the "Enhanced OECD Test Guideline 407" (Enhanced TG407) to investigate whether vinclozolin has endocrine-mediated properties according to this assay. Seven-week-old SD rats were administered with vinclozolin daily by oral gavage at dose rates of 0, 3.125, 12.5, 50 and 200 mg/kg/day for at least 28 days. The vinclozolin-treated male rats showed a reduction of epididymis and accessory sex organ weights and an alteration of hormonal patterns. A slight prolongation of the estrous cycle and changes in the estrogen/testosterone ratio and luteinizing hormone level were observed in vinclozolin-treated female rats. Thyroxin concentrations were decreased and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations were increased in both sexes; however, there were no compound-related microscopic lesions in the thyroid gland or changes in the thyroid weight. The endocrine-related effects of vinclozolin could be detected by the parameters examined in the present study based on the OECD protocol, suggesting the Enhanced TG407 protocol should be a suitable screening test for the detection of endocrine-mediated effects of chemicals.

  7. Styrene maleic acid-encapsulated paclitaxel micelles: antitumor activity and toxicity studies following oral administration in a murine orthotopic colon cancer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parayath NN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Neha N Parayath,1 Hayley Nehoff,1 Samuel E Norton,2 Andrew J Highton,2 Sebastien Taurin,1,3 Roslyn A Kemp,2 Khaled Greish1,4 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 4Princess Al-Jawhara Centre for Molecular Medicine, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain Abstract: Oral administration of paclitaxel (PTX, a broad spectrum anticancer agent, is challenged by its low uptake due to its poor bioavailability, efflux through P-glycoprotein, and gastrointestinal toxicity. We synthesized PTX nanomicelles using poly(styrene-co-maleic acid (SMA. Oral administration of SMA-PTX micelles doubled the maximum tolerated dose (60 mg/kg vs 30 mg/kg compared to the commercially available PTX formulation (PTX [Ebewe]. In a murine orthotopic colon cancer model, oral administration of SMA-PTX micelles at doses 30 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg reduced tumor weight by 54% and 69%, respectively, as compared to the control group, while no significant reduction in tumor weight was observed with 30 mg/kg of PTX (Ebewe. In addition, toxicity of PTX was largely reduced by its encapsulation into SMA. Furthermore, examination of the tumors demonstrated a decrease in the number of blood vessels. Thus, oral delivery of SMA-PTX micelles may provide a safe and effective strategy for the treatment of colon cancer. Keywords: oral delivery, anticancer nanomedicine, CT-26, enhanced permeability and retention (EPR effect, HUVEC, antiangiogenic

  8. Toxicity and biodistribution of orally administered casein nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Ana Gloria; Irache, Juan Manuel; Peñuelas, Iván; González Navarro, Carlos Javier; López de Cerain, Adela

    2017-08-01

    In the last years, casein nanoparticles have been proposed as carriers for the oral delivery of biologically active compounds. However, till now, no information about their possible specific hazards in vivo was available. The aim of this work was to assess the safety of casein nanoparticles when administered orally to animals through a 90 days dose-repeated toxicity study (OECD guideline 408), that was performed in Wistar rats under GLP conditions. After 90 days, no evidences of significant alterations in animals treated daily with 50, 150 or 500 mg/kg bw of nanoparticles were found. This safety agrees well with the fact that nanoparticles were not absorbed and remained within the gut as observed by radiolabelling in the biodistribution study. After 28 days, there was a generalized hyperchloremia in males and females treated with the highest dose of 500 mg/kg bw, that was coupled with hypernatremia in the females. These effects were related to the presence of mannitol which was used as excipient in the formulation of casein nanoparticles. According to these results, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) could be established in 150 mg/kg bw/day and the Lowest Observed Effect Level (LOEL) could be established in 500 mg/kg bw/day. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Cuprizone decreases intermediate and late-stage progenitor cells in hippocampal neurogenesis of rats in a framework of 28-day oral dose toxicity study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hajime; Tanaka, Takeshi; Kimura, Masayuki; Mizukami, Sayaka; Saito, Fumiyo; Imatanaka, Nobuya; Akahori, Yumi; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Developmental exposure to cuprizone (CPZ), a demyelinating agent, impairs intermediate-stage neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rat offspring. To investigate the possibility of alterations in adult neurogenesis following postpubertal exposure to CPZ in a framework of general toxicity studies, CPZ was orally administered to 5-week-old male rats at 0, 120, or 600 mg/kg body weight/day for 28 days. In the subgranular zone (SGZ), 600 mg/kg CPZ increased the number of cleaved caspase-3 + apoptotic cells. At ≥ 120 mg/kg, the number of SGZ cells immunoreactive for TBR2, doublecortin, or PCNA was decreased, while that for SOX2 was increased. In the granule cell layer, CPZ at ≥ 120 mg/kg decreased the number of postmitotic granule cells immunoreactive for NEUN, CHRNA7, ARC or FOS. In the dentate hilus, CPZ at ≥ 120 mg/kg decreased phosphorylated TRKB + interneurons, although the number of reelin + interneurons was unchanged. At 600 mg/kg, mRNA levels of Bdnf and Chrna7 were decreased, while those of Casp4, Casp12 and Trib3 were increased in the dentate gyrus. These data suggest that CPZ in a scheme of 28-day toxicity study causes endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis of granule cell lineages, resulting in aberrations of intermediate neurogenesis and late-stage neurogenesis and following suppression of immediate early gene-mediated neuronal plasticity. Suppression of BDNF signals to interneurons caused by decreased cholinergic signaling may play a role in these effects of CPZ. The effects of postpubertal CPZ on neurogenesis were similar to those observed with developmental exposure, except for the lack of reelin response, which may contribute to a greater decrease in SGZ cells. - Highlights: • Effect of 28-day CPZ exposure on hippocampal neurogenesis was examined in rats. • CPZ suppressed intermediate neurogenesis and late-stage neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. • CPZ suppressed BDNF signals to interneurons by decrease of cholinergic

  10. Cuprizone decreases intermediate and late-stage progenitor cells in hippocampal neurogenesis of rats in a framework of 28-day oral dose toxicity study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hajime; Tanaka, Takeshi; Kimura, Masayuki; Mizukami, Sayaka [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Saito, Fumiyo; Imatanaka, Nobuya; Akahori, Yumi [Chemicals Evaluation and Research Institute, Japan, 1-4-25 Koraku, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-0004 (Japan); Yoshida, Toshinori [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Shibutani, Makoto, E-mail: mshibuta@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    Developmental exposure to cuprizone (CPZ), a demyelinating agent, impairs intermediate-stage neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rat offspring. To investigate the possibility of alterations in adult neurogenesis following postpubertal exposure to CPZ in a framework of general toxicity studies, CPZ was orally administered to 5-week-old male rats at 0, 120, or 600 mg/kg body weight/day for 28 days. In the subgranular zone (SGZ), 600 mg/kg CPZ increased the number of cleaved caspase-3{sup +} apoptotic cells. At ≥ 120 mg/kg, the number of SGZ cells immunoreactive for TBR2, doublecortin, or PCNA was decreased, while that for SOX2 was increased. In the granule cell layer, CPZ at ≥ 120 mg/kg decreased the number of postmitotic granule cells immunoreactive for NEUN, CHRNA7, ARC or FOS. In the dentate hilus, CPZ at ≥ 120 mg/kg decreased phosphorylated TRKB{sup +} interneurons, although the number of reelin{sup +} interneurons was unchanged. At 600 mg/kg, mRNA levels of Bdnf and Chrna7 were decreased, while those of Casp4, Casp12 and Trib3 were increased in the dentate gyrus. These data suggest that CPZ in a scheme of 28-day toxicity study causes endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis of granule cell lineages, resulting in aberrations of intermediate neurogenesis and late-stage neurogenesis and following suppression of immediate early gene-mediated neuronal plasticity. Suppression of BDNF signals to interneurons caused by decreased cholinergic signaling may play a role in these effects of CPZ. The effects of postpubertal CPZ on neurogenesis were similar to those observed with developmental exposure, except for the lack of reelin response, which may contribute to a greater decrease in SGZ cells. - Highlights: • Effect of 28-day CPZ exposure on hippocampal neurogenesis was examined in rats. • CPZ suppressed intermediate neurogenesis and late-stage neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. • CPZ suppressed BDNF signals to interneurons by decrease of

  11. Oral toxicity of fipronil insecticide against the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris (Latreille, 1811).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Clara Tavares; Carvalho, Stephan Malfitano; Malaspina, Osmar; Nocelli, Roberta Cornélio Ferreira

    2012-10-01

    For a better evaluation of the model using Apis mellifera in toxicology studies with insecticides, the oral acute toxicity of the insecticide fipronil against the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris was determined. The results showed that fipronil was highly toxic to M. scutellaris, with a calculated LC(50) (48 h) value of 0.011 ng a.i./μL of sucrose solution and an estimated oral LD(50) (48 h) of 0.6 ng a.i./bee. Our results showed that M. scutellaris bee is more sensitive to fipronil than the model specie A. mellifera.

  12. The transferability from rat subacute 4-week oral toxicity study to translational research exemplified by two pharmaceutical immunosuppressants and two environmental pollutants with immunomodulating properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemmerling, J.; Fehlert, E.; Kuper, C.F.; Rühl-Fehlert, C.; Stropp, G.; Vogels, J.; Krul, C.; Vohr, H.W.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to chemicals may have an influence on the immune system. Often, this is an unwanted effect but in some pharmaceuticals, it is the intended mechanism of action. Immune function tests and in depth histopathological investigations of immune organs were integrated in rodent toxicity studies

  13. Evaluation of Cardiopulmonary Toxicity Following Oral Administration of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Zayerzadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Carbon nanotubes have unique mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties, with potential different applications in nanomedicine, electronics, and other industries. These new applications of carbon nanotubes in different industries lead to the increased exposure risk of nanomaterials to human. Up to now, all aspects of carbon nanotubes toxicity are not completely clear following human and animal exposures with these novel compounds. The aim of this study was to assess cardiopulmonary toxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes following oral administration in rats with respect to the histopathological and biochemical evaluation. Methods: In the present investigation, we studied cardiorespiratory toxicity of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT with regard to histopathological changes and some biomarkers including TnT, CK-MB and LDH in experimental rats following oral administration. One dose per 24 h of MWCNT suspension was administered orally (gavage technique to animals at the doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day BW for 5 days. Results: The results of these study showed oral administration of MWCNT induces histopathological complications such as severe alveolar edema and hemorrhage in lungs and myocytolysis in heart of all experimental groups of animals. In all of the groups, troponin T level showed no changes when compared to baseline. Lactate dehydrogenase and CK-MB activity showed significant increment in all of animal groups following oral administration of carbon nanotubes. Conclusions: It can be concluded that oral exposure of MWCNT may be toxic for cardiovascular and respiratory systems, because MWCNT induced biochemical alterations and histopathological abnormalities in these vital systems.

  14. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of Dracaena cinnabari resin methanol extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Afifi, Nashwan Abdullah; Alabsi, Aied Mohammed; Bakri, Marina Mohd; Ramanathan, Anand

    2018-02-05

    Dracaena cinnabari (DC) is a perennial tree that located on the Southern coast of Yemen native to the Socotra Island. This tree produces a deep red resin known as the Dragon's blood, the Twobrother's Blood or Damm Alakhwain. The current study performed to evaluate the safety of the DC resin methanol extract after a single or 28 consecutive daily oral administrations. In assessing the safety of DC resin methanol extract, acute and sub-acute oral toxicity tests performed following OECD guidelines 423 and 407, respectively, with slight modifications. In acute oral toxicity test, DC resin methanol extract administered to female Sprague Dawley rats by oral gavage at a single dose of 300 and 2000 mg/kg body weight. Rats observed for toxic signs for 14 days. In sub-acute oral toxicity test, DC resin methanol extract administered to the rats by oral gavage at 500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg body weight daily up to 28 days to male and female Spradgue Dawley rats. The control and high dose in satellite groups were also maintained and handled as the previous groups to determine the late onset toxicity of DC resin methanol extract. At the end of each test, hematological and biochemical analysis of the collected blood were performed as well as gross and microscopic pathology. In acute oral toxicity, no treatment-related death or toxic signs were observed. It revealed that the DC resin methanol extract could be well tolerated up to the dose 2000 mg/kg body weight and could be classified as Category 5. The sub-acute test observations indicated that there are no treatment-related changes up to the high dose level compared to the control. Food consumption, body weight, organ weight, hematological parameters, biochemical parameters and histopathological examination (liver, kidney, heart, spleen and lung) revealed no abnormalities. Water intake was significantly higher in the DC resin methanol extract treated groups compared to the control. This study demonstrates tolerability of DC

  15. Developmental toxicity of orally administered sildenafil citrate (Viagra) in SWR/J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Tarboush, Faisal Mohamed; Abdel-Samad, Mohamed Fathy; Al-Meteri, Mokhlid Hamed

    2011-04-01

    Normal adult inbred SWR/J mice were used to investigate the teratogenic and other possible toxic effects of various dose levels of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on fetuses. Multiple dose levels of 6.5, 13.0, 19.5, 26.0, 32.5 or 40.0 mg of sildenafil citrate/kg body weight (which correspond to the multiples of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 of human 50 mg Viagra, respectively) were orally administered into pregnant mice on days 7-9, 10-12 or 13-15 of gestation. On day 17 of pregnancy, all fetuses were removed and examined for toxic phenomena (embryo-fetal toxicity) and for external, internal and skeletal malformations. A total of 285 pregnant mice were used in the present study. None of the dams treated with sildenafil citrate at any of the oral dose levels used in the present study died during the experimental period and all dams treated with the drug failed to reveal overt signs of maternal toxicity. Moreover, the results of the present study clearly demonstrate that none of the multiple oral dose levels of the drug at any time interval used has induced any external, internal or skeletal malformations in the fetuses obtained from treated females. However, the dose level of 40 mg/kg body weight of sildenafil citrate has a growth suppressing effect on alive fetuses when it was administered at all the time intervals used in the present study. Furthermore, the dose levels 26.0, 32.5 and 40 mg/kg of the drug have embryo-fetal toxicity when the drug is applied on days 13-15 of gestation. The possible mechanisms involved in the embryo-fetal toxicity and fetal growth suppressing effects of sildenafil citrate were discussed. The results of this study have important implications for the widespread use of this drug.

  16. Oral toxicity study of tragacanth gum in B6C3F1 mice: development of squamous-cell hyperplasia in the forestomach and its reversibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, A; Tanaka, H; Tiwawech, D; Shirai, T; Ito, N

    1991-10-01

    Tragacanth gum was administered at dietary levels of 0 (control), 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0% to groups of 10 male and 10 female B6C3F1 mice for 13 wk. There were no treatment-associated effects regarding clinical signs, body or organ weights, and urinalysis or hematology data. Significant dose-related, but slight, elevations of plasma gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) level were observed in all treated animals except the 0.625% females. Single or small numbers of tiny nodules were observed on the luminal surface of the forestomach in 4 males of the 5.0% group, 2 males of the 2.5% group, and 1 male each from the 1.25 and 0.625% groups. Histopathologically, they were diagnosed as squamous-cell hyperplasia. To investigate the nature of these gross lesions, tragacanth gum was fed to groups of 30 male mice at the dietary level of 5.0% for periods of up to 48 wk; 20 males served as controls. There were no treatment-related increases of plasma GGT levels at wk 24 and 48. Although squamous-cell hyperplasias were seen in 2 out of 10 mice at wk 24, none of these proliferative lesions were apparent at wk 48, after either chronic exposure or 24 wk on basal diet. Furthermore, the levels of DNA synthesis in forestomach epithelium as measured by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry were comparable to control values at wk 24 and 48. Thus, the oral toxicity of tragacanth gum to B6C3F1 mice was concluded to be negligible.

  17. Oral bioaccessibility of toxic metals in contaminated oysters and relationships with metal internal sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shi; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2014-12-01

    The Hong Kong oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis are widely farmed in the estuarine waters of Southern China, but they accumulate Cu and Zn to alarmingly high concentrations in the soft tissues. Health risks of seafood consumption are related to contaminants such as toxic metals which are bioaccessible to humans. In the present study, we investigated the oral bioaccessibility of five toxic metals (Ag, Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn) in contaminated oysters collected from different locations of a large estuary in southern China. In all oysters, total Zn concentration was the highest whereas total Pb concentration was the lowest. Among the five metals, Ag had the lowest oral bioaccessibility (38.9-60.8%), whereas Cu and Zn had the highest bioaccessibility (72.3-93.1%). Significant negative correlation was observed between metal bioaccessibility and metal concentration in the oysters for Ag, Cd, and Cu. We found that the oral bioaccessibility of the five metals was positively correlated with their trophically available metal fraction (TAM) in the oyster tissues, and negatively correlated with metal distribution in the cellular debris. Thus, metal partitioning in the TAM and cellular debris controlled the oral bioaccessibility to humans. Given the dependence of oral bioaccessibility on tissue metal contamination, bioaccessibility needs to be incorporated in the risk assessments of contaminated shellfish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Optical Coherence Tomography for Quantitative Assessment of Microstructural and Microvascular Alterations in Late Oral Radiation Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Bahar

    More than half of head-and-neck cancer patients undergo radiotherapy at some point during their treatment. Even though the use of conformed therapeutic beams has increased radiation dose localization to the tumor, resulting in more normal tissue sparing, still, in many head-and-neck cancer patients, the healthy tissue of the oral cavity still receives a sizeable amount of radiation. This causes acute and / or late complications in these patients. The latter occur as late as several months or even years after the completion of treatment and are typically associated with severe symptoms. Currently, the clinical method for diagnosing these complications is visual examination of the oral tissue surface. However, it has been well established that such complications originate in subsurface oral tissue layers including its microvasculature. Therefore, to better understand the mechanism of these complications and to be able to diagnose them earlier, there exists a need for subsurface monitoring of the irradiated oral tissue. Histology has been used as such a tool for research purposes; however, its use in clinical diagnosis is limited due to its invasive and hazardous nature. Therefore, in this thesis, I propose to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a subsurface, micron-scale resolution optical imaging tool that can provide images of oral tissue subsurface layers down to a depth of 1-2 mm (structural OCT), as well as images demonstrating vessel morphology (speckle variance OCT) and blood flow information (Doppler OCT). This thesis explains the development of an OCT setup and an oral probe to acquire images in-vivo. Moreover, it introduces a software-based quantification platform for extracting specific biologically-meaningful metrics from the structural and vascular OCT images. It then describes the application of the developed imaging and quantification platform in a feasibility clinical study that was performed on 15 late oral radiation toxicity patients and 5 age

  19. Summary of safety evaluation toxicity studies of glufosinate ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, E; Leist, K H; Mayer, D

    1990-05-01

    This article reviews the results of toxicity studies to evaluate the safety of the herbicide glufosinate ammonium (GLA) and its formulation (200 g/litre) in laboratory animals. The data show that GLA and its formulation are slightly toxic following oral exposure. In addition, the formulation induced GLA and its formulation are slightly toxic following oral exposure. In addition, the formulation induced slight dermal toxicity and eye irritation. Testing for teratogenicity in rats and rabbits indicated no teratogenic potential, and numerous mutagenicity tests showed GLA to be non-genotoxic. Chronic toxicity testing in rats and dogs yielded no-observable-effect levels of 2 and 5 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Oncogenicity studies in rats and mice revealed no carcinogenic potential. On the basis of these toxicity data it is concluded that this herbicide is safe under conditions of recommended use.

  20. Evaluation of an acute oral gavage method for assessment of pesticide toxicity in terrestrial amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael B; Kee, Faith; Whatling, Paul; Clerkin, David; Staveley, Jane; Habig, Clifford

    2018-02-01

    Development of an acute oral toxicity test with a terrestrial-phase amphibian was considered necessary to remove the uncertainty within the field of agrochemical risk assessments. The bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) was selected for use as it is a representative of the family Ranidae and historically this species has been used as an amphibian test model species. Prior to definitive study, oral gavage methods were developed with fenthion and tetraethyl pyrophosphate. Dimethoate and malathion were subsequently tested with both male and female juvenile bullfrogs in comprehensive acute oral median lethal dose (LD50) studies. Juvenile bullfrogs were administered a single dose of the test article via oral gavage of a single gelatin capsule of dimethoate technical (dimethoate) or neat liquid Fyfanon ® Technical (synonym malathion), returned to their respective aquaria, and monitored for survival for 14 d. The primary endpoint was mortality, whereas behavioral responses, food consumption, body weight, and snout-vent length (SVL) were used to evaluate indications of sublethal toxicity (secondary endpoints). Acute oral LD50 values (95% fiducial interval) for dimethoate were 1459 (1176-1810, males) and 1528 (1275-1831, females), and for malathion they were 1829 (1480-2259, males) and 1672 (1280-2183, females) mg active substance/kg body weight, respectively. Based on the results of these studies, the methodology for the acute oral gavage administration of test items to terrestrial-phase amphibians was demonstrated as being a practical method of providing data for risk assessments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:436-450. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  1. Improving reptile ecological risk assessment: oral and dermal toxicity of pesticides to a common lizard species (Sceloporus occidentalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Scott M; Yu, Shuangying; Talent, Larry G; Maul, Jonathan D; Anderson, Todd A; Salice, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    Reptiles have been understudied in ecotoxicology, which limits consideration in ecological risk assessments. The goals of the present study were 3-fold: to improve oral and dermal dosing methodologies for reptiles, to generate reptile toxicity data for pesticides, and to correlate reptile and avian toxicity. The authors first assessed the toxicity of different dosing vehicles: 100 μL of water, propylene glycol, and acetone were not toxic. The authors then assessed the oral and dermal toxicity of 4 pesticides following the up-and-down procedure. Neither brodifacoum nor chlorothalonil caused mortality at doses ≤ 1750 μg/g. Under the "neat pesticide" oral exposure, endosulfan (median lethal dose [LD50] = 9.8 μg/g) was more toxic than λ-cyhalothrin (LD50 = 916.5 μg/g). Neither chemical was toxic via dermal exposure. An acetone dosing vehicle increased λ-cyhalothrin toxicity (oral LD50 = 9.8 μg/g; dermal LD50 = 17.5 μg/g), but not endosulfan. Finally, changes in dosing method and husbandry significantly increased dermal λ-cyhalothrin LD50s, which highlights the importance of standardized methods. The authors combined data from the present study with other reptile LD50s to correlate with available avian data. When only definitive LD50s were used in the analysis, a strong correlation was found between avian and reptile toxicity. The results suggest it is possible to build predictive relationships between avian and reptile LD50s. More research is needed, however, to understand trends associated with chemical classes and modes of action. © 2015 SETAC.

  2. Safety data on 19 vehicles for use in 1 month oral rodent pre-clinical studies: administration of hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin causes renal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healing, Guy; Sulemann, Tabassum; Cotton, Peter; Harris, Jayne; Hargreaves, Adam; Finney, Rowena; Kirk, Sarah; Schramm, Carolin; Garner, Clare; Pivette, Perrine; Burdett, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Potential new drugs are assessed in pre-clinical in vivo studies to determine their safety profiles. The drugs are formulated in vehicles suitable for the route of administration and the physicochemical properties of the drug, aiming to achieve optimal exposure in the test species. The availability of safety data on vehicles is often limited (incomplete data, access restricted/private databases). Nineteen potentially useful vehicles that contained new and/or increased concentrations of excipients and for which little safety data have been published were tested. Vehicles were dosed orally once daily to HanWistar rats for a minimum of 28 days and a wide range of toxicological parameters were assessed. Only 30% (w/v) hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin was found unsuitable owing to effects on liver enzymes (AST, ALT and GLDH), urinary volume and the kidneys (tubular vacuolation and tubular pigment). 20% (v/v) oleic acid caused increased salivation and hence this vehicle should be used with caution. As 40% (v/v) tetraethylene glycol affected urinary parameters, its use should be carefully considered, particularly for compounds suspected to impact the renal system and studies longer than 1 month. There were no toxicologically significant findings with 10% (v/v) dimethyl sulphoxide, 20% (v/v) propylene glycol, 33% (v/v) Miglyol®812, 20% (w/v) Kolliphor®RH40, 10% (w/v) Poloxamer 407, 5% (w/v) polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 or 10% (v/v) Labrafil®M1944. All other vehicles tested caused isolated or low magnitude effects which would not prevent their use. The aim of sharing these data, including adverse findings, is to provide meaningful information for vehicle selection, thereby avoiding repetition of animal experimentation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Toxicidad aguda oral de la o-vainillina Acute oral toxicity of o-vanillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamisleydi Alonso Moreno

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available El 2-hidroxi-3-metoxibenzaldehído (o-vainillina posee una probada actividad anti sickling y una baja actividad hemolítica sobre hematíes SS y normales, por lo que puede ser eficaz en el tratamiento de la anemia drepanocítica, enfermedad genética de alta prevalencia a nivel global. En este sentido se desarrolló un estudio de toxicidad aguda oral, con el objetivo de determinar sus efectos adversos. Se administró una dosis de 2 000 mg/kg de peso corporal a un grupo de ratas (3 hembras y 3 machos y el vehículo a otro grupo utilizado como control. Los animales se mantuvieron en observación durante 14 días, se determinaron las variaciones de peso, la presencia o no de síntomas y signos clínicos, y la necropsia al finalizar el estudio. Como resultado no se observó disminución del peso corporal en ninguno de los grupos experimentales, presentaron síntomas como: piloerección, respiración acelerada, actividad disminuida, acicalamiento, aislamiento a la esquina de la caja y la muerte de un animal. El análisis macroscópico de los órganos no detectó variación alguna. La DL50 de la o-vainillina se encuentra por encima de 2 000 mg/kg de peso corporal, según el sistema global armonizado2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (o-vanillin has a proven anitsickling activity and a low haemolytic activity on SS and normal red corpuscles, so it may be efficient in the treatment of drepanocytic anemia, a genetic disease of high prevalence at the world level. In this sense, an acute oral toxicity study was conducted aimed at determining its adverse effects. A dose of 2 000 mg/kg of body weight was administered to a group of rats (3 females and 3 males, where the vehicle was given to the control group. The animals were observed for 14 days. The variations of weight, the presence or not of symptoms and clinical signs, and the necropsy at the end of the study were determined. Body weight reduction was not observed in any of the experimental groups. They

  4. Argemone oil, an edible oil adulterant, induces systemic immunosuppression in Balb/c mice in an oral 28 days repeated dose toxicity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Payal; Tewari, Prachi; Kumar, Sachin; Yadav, Sarika; Ayanur, Anjaneya; Chaturvedi, Rajnish K; Das, Mukul; Tripathi, Anurag

    2018-05-01

    Consumption of edible oils contaminated with Argemone oil (AO) leads to a clinical condition called "Epidemic dropsy". Earlier studies have reported that metabolism and oxidative stress primarily contributes to AO toxicity, however, the involvement of immune system has not been assessed so far. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to systematically assess the effect of AO exposure on the function of immune system in Balb/c mice. The repeated exposure of AO for 28 days caused prominent regression of spleen and thymus; severe inflammatory changes in spleen depicted by the loss of distinct follicles, increased megakaryocyte infiltration, and enhanced expression levels of inflammatory markers (iNOS & COX-2). At the functional level, AO exposure significantly abrogated the mixed lymphocyte reaction and mitogen-stimulated lymphoproliferative activity of T and B cells, which is reflective of profound lymphocyte dysfunction upon antigen exposure. In concordance with the loss in functional activity of lymphocytes in AO exposed animals, it was found the AO altered the relative percentage of CD3 + , CD4 + , and CD28  +  T cells. Further, there was a marked decrease in the relative distribution of cells with prominent MHC I and CD1d expression in AO exposed splenocytes. Moreover, reduced levels of immune stimulatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6), and increased levels of immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 were detected in the serum of AO treated mice. Along with T and B cells, AO exposure also affected the phenotype and activation status of macrophages suggesting the inclination towards "alternative activation of macrophages". Altogether, these functional changes in the immune cells are contributing factors in AO induced immunosuppression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Oral administration of amphotericin B nanoparticles: antifungal activity, bioavailability and toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Mahasen A; AlQuadeib, Bushra T; Šiller, Lidija; Wright, Matthew C; Horrocks, Benjamin

    2017-11-01

    Amphotericin B (AMB) is used most commonly in severe systemic life-threatening fungal infections. There is currently an unmet need for an efficacious (AMB) formulation amenable to oral administration with better bioavailability and lower nephrotoxicity. Novel PEGylated polylactic-polyglycolic acid copolymer (PLGA-PEG) nanoparticles (NPs) formulations of AMB were therefore studied for their ability to kill Candida albicans (C. albicans). The antifungal activity of AMB formulations was assessed in C. albicans. Its bioavalability was investigated in nine groups of rats (n = 6). Toxicity was examined by an in vitro blood hemolysis assay, and in vivo nephrotoxicity after single and multiple dosing for a week by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and plasma creatinine (PCr) measurements. The MIC of AMB loaded to PLGA-PEG NPs against C. albicans was reduced two to threefold compared with free AMB. Novel oral AMB delivery loaded to PLGA-PEG NPs was markedly systemically available compared to Fungizone® in rats. The addition of 2% of GA to the AMB formulation significantly (p bioavailability from 1.5 to 10.5% and the relative bioavailability was > 790% that of Fungizone®. The novel AMB formulations showed minimal toxicity and better efficacy compared to Fungizone®. No nephrotoxicity in rats was detected after a week of multiple dosing of AMB NPs based on BUN and PCr, which remained at normal levels. An oral delivery system of AMB-loaded to PLGA-PEG NPs with better efficacy and minimal toxicity was formulated. The addition of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) to AMB NPs formulation resulted in a significant oral absorption and improved bioavailability in rats.

  6. Oral cancer: A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanuthai, K; Rojanawatsirivej, S; Thosaporn, W; Kintarak, S; Subarnbhesaj, A; Darling, M; Kryshtalskyj, E; Chiang, C-P; Shin, H-I; Choi, S-Y; Lee, S-S; Aminishakib, P

    2018-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and clinicopathologic features of the oral cancer patients. Biopsy records of the participating institutions were reviewed for oral cancer cases diagnosed from 2005 to 2014. Demographic data and site of the lesions were collected. Sites of the lesion were subdivided into lip, tongue, floor of the mouth, gingiva, alveolar mucosa, palate, buccal/labial mucosa, maxilla and mandible. Oral cancer was subdivided into 7 categories: epithelial tumors, salivary gland tumors, hematologic tumors, bone tumors, mesenchymal tumors, odontogenic tumors, and others. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS software version 17.0. Of the 474,851 accessioned cases, 6,151 cases (1.30%) were diagnosed in the category of oral cancer. The mean age of the patients was 58.37±15.77 years. A total of 4,238 cases (68.90%) were diagnosed in males, whereas 1911 cases (31.07%) were diagnosed in females. The male-to-female ratio was 2.22:1. The sites of predilection for oral cancer were tongue, labial/buccal mucosa, gingiva, palate, and alveolar mucosa, respectively. The three most common oral cancer in the descending order of frequency were squamous cell carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Although the prevalence of oral cancer is not high compared to other entities, oral cancer pose significant mortality and morbidity in the patients, especially when discovered late in the course of the disease. This study highlights some anatomical locations where oral cancers are frequently encountered. As a result, clinicians should pay attention to not only teeth, but oral mucosa especially in the high prevalence area as well since early detection of precancerous lesions or cancers in the early stage increase the chance of patient being cured and greatly reduce the mortality and morbidity. This study also shows some differences between pediatric and elderly oral cancer patients as well as between Asian and non-Asian oral cancer patients.

  7. Oral toxicity of Miglyol 812(®) in the Göttingen(®) minipig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bars, G; Dion, S; Gauthier, B; Mhedhbi, S; Pohlmeyer-Esch, G; Comby, P; Vivan, N; Ruty, B

    2015-12-01

    Miglyol 812(®), a mixture of medium-chain triglycerides, has been identified as an oral vehicle that could improve the solubility and possibly the bioavailability of orally administered drugs during the non-clinical safety assessment. The toxicity of Miglyol was assessed in Göttingen(®) minipigs upon daily oral administration (gavage) for six weeks, at dosing-volumes of 0.5 and 2 mL/kg/day, compared to controls receiving 0.5% CarboxyMethylCellulose/0.1% Tween(®) 80 in water at 2 mL/kg/day. The control vehicle did not induce any findings. Miglyol at 0.5 and 2 mL/kg/day induced transient tremors, abnormal color of feces and increase in triglycerides. Miglyol at 2 ml/kg/day also induced reduced motor activity, decreased food intake, respiratory signs (2/6 animals) and increased total and LDL-cholesterol. At necropsy, the lung of 3/6 animals treated at 2 mL/kg/day presented abnormal color and/or irregular surface correlated with a chronic bronchiolo-alveolar inflammation. This finding is probably due to aspiration pneumonia in relation to the administration method and the high viscosity of Miglyol. Overall, the oral administration of pure Miglyol 812(®) for six weeks up to 2 mL/kg was less tolerated than that of the control vehicle. Miglyol as vehicle for sub-chronic oral toxicity studies in minipigs should be used with a limited dosing-volume. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Renal toxicity caused by oral use of medicinal plants: the yacon example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rejane Barbosa; de Paula, Daniela Aparecida Chagas; Rocha, Bruno Alves; Franco, João José; Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo; Uyemura, Sérgio Akira; dos Santos, Wagner Ferreira; Da Costa, Fernando Batista

    2011-01-27

    Yacon [Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. & Endl.) H. Robinson, Asteraceae] is an Andean species that has traditionally been used as an anti-diabetic herb in several countries around the world, including Brazil. Its hypoglycaemic action has recently been demonstrated in normal and diabetic rats. However, studies about the safety of prolonged oral consumption of yacon leaf extracts are lacking. Thus, this work was undertaken to evaluate the repeated-dose toxicity of three extracts from yacon leaves: the aqueous extract (AE) prepared as a tea infusion; the leaf-rinse extract (LRE), which is rich in sesquiterpene lactones (STLs); and a polar extract from leaves without trichomes, or polar extract (PE), which lacks STLs but is rich in chlorogenic acids (CGAs). The major classes of the compounds were confirmed in each extract by IR spectra and HPLC-UV-DAD profiling as well as comparison to standard compounds. The toxicity of each extract was evaluated in a repeated-dose toxicity study in Wistar rats for 90 days. The PE was rich in CGAs, but we did not detect any STLs. The AE and LRE showed the presence of STLs. The polar extract caused alterations in some biochemical parameters, but the animals did not show signs of behavioural toxicity or serious lesions in organs. Alterations of specific biochemical parameters in the blood (creatinine 7.0 mg/dL, glucose 212.0 mg/dL, albumin 2.8 g/dL) of rats treated with AE (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg) and LRE (10 and 100 mg/kg) pointed to renal damage, which was confirmed by histological analysis of the kidneys. The renal damage was associated with increased blood glucose levels after prolonged oral administration of the AE. This observation suggested that the hypoglycaemic effect observed after treatment for 30 days in an earlier study is reversible and was likely the result of renal injury caused by the toxicity of yacon. Because STLs were detected in both AE and LRE, there is strong evidence that these terpenoids are the main toxic

  9. Single Oral Dose Toxicity Test of Blue Honeysuckle Concentrate in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-In; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Song, Chang-Hyun; Park, Soo-Jin; Shin, Yong-Kook; Han, Chang-Hyun; Lee, Young Joon; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain single oral dose toxicity information for concentrated and lyophilized powder of blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L., Caprifoliaceae; BHcL) in female and male ICR mice to aid in the process of developing natural origin medicinal ingredients or foods following proximate analysis and phytochemical profile measurement. The proximate analysis revealed that BHcL had an energy value of 3.80 kcal/g and contained 0.93 g/g of carbohydrate, 0.41 g/g of sugar, 0.02 g/g of protein, and 0.20 mg/g of sodium. BHcL did not contain lipids, including saturated lipids, trans fats, or cholesterols. Further, BHcL contained 4.54% of betaine, 210.63 mg/g of total phenols, 159.30 mg/g of total flavonoids, and 133.57 mg/g of total anthocyanins. Following administration of a single oral BHcL treatment, there were no treatment-related mortalities, changes in body weight (bw) or organ weight, clinical signs, necropsy or histopathological findings up to 2,000 mg/kg bw, the limited dosage for rodents of both sexes. We concluded that BHcL is a practically non-toxic material in toxicity potency. PMID:25874034

  10. Effects of subchronic oral toxic metal exposure on the intestinal microbiota of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qixiao Zhai; Tianqi Li; Leilei Yu; Yue Xiao; Saisai Feng; Jiangping Wu; Jianxin Zhao; Hao Zhang; Wei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Oral exposure to toxic metals such as cadmium (Cd),lead (Pb),copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al) can induce various adverse health effects in humans and animals.However,the effects of these metals on the gut microbiota have received limited attention.The present study demonstrated that long-term toxic metal exposure altered the intestinal microbiota of mice in a metal-specific and time-dependent manner.Subchronic oral Cu exposure for eight weeks caused a profound decline in gut microbial diversity in mice,whereas no significant changes were observed in groups treated with other metals.Cd exposure significantly increased the relative abundances of organisms from the genera Alistipes and Odoribacter and caused marked decreases in Mollicutes and unclassified Ruminococcaceae.Pb exposure significantly decreased the abundances of eight genera:unclassified and uncultured Ruminococcaceae,unclassified Lachnospiraceae,Ruminiclostridium_9,Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group,Oscillibacter,Anaerotruncus and Lachnoclostridium.Cu exposure affected abundances of the genera Alistipes,Bacteroides,Ruminococcaceae_UCG-014,Allobaculum,Mollicutes_RFg_norank,Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group,Ruminococcaceae_unclassified and Turicibacter.Al exposure increased the abundance of Odoribacter and decreased that of Anaerotruncus.Exposure to any metal for eight weeks significantly decreased the abundance of Akkermansia.These results provide a new understanding regarding the role of toxic metals in the pathogenesis of intestinal and systemic disorders in the host within the gut microbiota framework.

  11. Oral cancer: A multicenter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojanawatsirivej, Somsri; Thosaporn, Watcharaporn; Kintarak, Sompid; Subarnbhesaj, Ajiravudh; Darling, Mark; Kryshtalskyj, Eugene; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Shin, Hong-In; Choi, So-Young; Lee, Sang-shin; Shakib, Pouyan-Amini

    2018-01-01

    Background To determine the prevalence and clinicopathologic features of the oral cancer patients. Material and Methods Biopsy records of the participating institutions were reviewed for oral cancer cases diagnosed from 2005 to 2014. Demographic data and site of the lesions were collected. Sites of the lesion were subdivided into lip, tongue, floor of the mouth, gingiva, alveolar mucosa, palate, buccal/labial mucosa, maxilla and mandible. Oral cancer was subdivided into 7 categories: epithelial tumors, salivary gland tumors, hematologic tumors, bone tumors, mesenchymal tumors, odontogenic tumors, and others. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS software version 17.0. Results Of the 474,851 accessioned cases, 6,151 cases (1.30%) were diagnosed in the category of oral cancer. The mean age of the patients was 58.37±15.77 years. A total of 4,238 cases (68.90%) were diagnosed in males, whereas 1911 cases (31.07%) were diagnosed in females. The male-to-female ratio was 2.22:1. The sites of predilection for oral cancer were tongue, labial/buccal mucosa, gingiva, palate, and alveolar mucosa, respectively. The three most common oral cancer in the descending order of frequency were squamous cell carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Conclusions Although the prevalence of oral cancer is not high compared to other entities, oral cancer pose significant mortality and morbidity in the patients, especially when discovered late in the course of the disease. This study highlights some anatomical locations where oral cancers are frequently encountered. As a result, clinicians should pay attention to not only teeth, but oral mucosa especially in the high prevalence area as well since early detection of precancerous lesions or cancers in the early stage increase the chance of patient being cured and greatly reduce the mortality and morbidity. This study also shows some differences between pediatric and elderly oral cancer patients as well as

  12. Baltimore Air Toxics Study (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, D.A. [Sullivan Environmental Consulting, Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Baltimore Air Toxics Study is one of the three urban air toxics initiatives funded by EPA to support the development of the national air toxics strategy. As part of this project, the Air Quality Integrated Management System (AIMS) is under development. AIMS is designed to bring together the key components of urban air quality management into an integrated system, including emissions assessment, air quality modeling, and air quality monitoring. Urban area source emissions are computed for a wide range of pollutants and source categories, and are joined with existing point source emissions data. Measured air quality data are used to evaluate the adequacy of the emissions data and model treatments as a function of season, meteorological parameters, and daytime/nighttime conditions. Based on tested model performance, AIMS provides the potential to improve the ability to predict air quality benefits of alternative control options for criteria and toxic air pollutants. This paper describes the methods used to develop AIMS, and provides examples from its application in the Baltimore metropolitan area. The use of AIMS in the future to enhance environmental management of major industrial facilities also will be addressed in the paper.

  13. Oral toxicity evaluation of kefir-isolated Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owaga, E E; Chen, M J; Chen, W Y; Chen, C W; Hsieh, R H

    2014-08-01

    Lactobacilli kefiranofaciens M1 has shown novel immunomodulation and anti-allergy probiotic attributes in cell and animal models. An acute oral toxicity assessment of L. kefiranofaciens M1 was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were randomly assigned to four groups (12 rats/sex/group): the low dose group was orally gavaged with L. kefiranofaciens M1 at 3.0×10(8)cfu/kg bw while the medium dose and high dose groups received 9.0×10(9)cfu/kg bw and 1.8×10(10)cfu/kg bw, respectively, for 28days. The control group received phosphate buffer saline. The body weights were measured weekly while blood samples were collected for haematology and serum biochemistry tests. Histopathology of the organs (heart, liver, kidney, adrenal glands, spleen, ovary, testis), and urinalysis were conducted on study termination. The body weight gain of the L. kefiranofaciens M1 and control groups were comparable during the administration period. Overall, L. kefiranofaciens M1 did not induce adverse effects on haematology, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis parameters. Gross and microscopic histopathology of the organs revealed no toxicity effect of L. kefiranofaciens M1. In conclusion, 1.8×10(10)cfu/kg bw of L. kefiranofaciens M1 was considered as the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL), which was the highest dose tested in the present study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Safety Evaluation of Turmeric Polysaccharide Extract: Assessment of Mutagenicity and Acute Oral Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velusami, Chandrasekaran Chinampudur; Boddapati, Srinivasa Rao; Hongasandra Srinivasa, Srikanth; Richard, Edwin Jothie; Balasubramanian, Murali

    2013-01-01

    Curcuma longa Linn. (Zingiberaceae) commonly known as turmeric has long been used for centuries as a spice and household remedy. The present study was carried out to assess the possible mutagenic potential and acute oral toxicity of polysaccharide extract of turmeric rhizome (NR-INF-02) using standard tests. The standard battery of in vitro genotoxicity tests, bacterial reverse mutation test (BRMT), chromosome aberration (CA), and micronucleus (MN) tests were employed to assess the possible mutagenic activity of NR-INF-02 (Turmacin). The results showed no mutagenic effect with NR-INF-02 up to a dose of 5000 µg/mL in BRMT. The results on CA and MN tests revealed the non clastogenic activity of NR-INF-02 in a dose range of 250.36 to 2500 µg/mL with and without metabolic activation (S9). In acute oral toxicity study, NR-INF-02 was found to be safe up to 5 g/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Overall, results indicated that polysaccharide extract of C. longa was found to be genotoxically safe and also exhibited maximum tolerable dose of more than 5 g/kg rat body weight. PMID:24455673

  15. A 28-day oral gavage toxicity study of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) in CB6F1-non-Tg rasH2 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoung-Seok; Park, Sang-Jin; Kim, Yong-Bum; Han, Ji-Seok; Jeong, Eun-Ju; Moon, Kyoung-Sik; Son, Hwa-Young

    2015-12-01

    3-Monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) is a well-known contaminant of foods containing hydrolyzed vegetable protein. However, limited toxicity data are available for the risk assessment of 3-MCPD and its carcinogenic potential is controversial. To evaluate the potential toxicity and determine the dose levels for a 26-week carcinogenicity test using Tg rasH2 mice, 3-MCPD was administered once daily by oral gavage at doses of 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day for 28 days to male and female CB6F1-non-Tg rasH2 mice (N = 5 males and females per dose). The standard toxicological evaluations were conducted during the in-life and post-mortem phase. In the 100 mg/kg b.w./day group, 3 males and 1 female died during the study and showed clinical signs such as thin appearance and subdued behavior accompanied by significant decreases in mean b.w. Microscopy revealed tubular basophilia in the kidneys, exfoliated degenerative germ cells in the lumen of the seminiferous tubule of the testes, vacuolation in the brain, axonal degeneration of the sciatic nerve, and cardiomyopathy in the 100, ≥25, ≥50, 100, and 100 mg/kg b.w./day groups, respectively. In conclusion, 3-MCPD's target organs were the kidneys, testes, brain, sciatic nerve, and heart. The "no-observed-adverse-effect level" (NOAEL) of 3-MCPD was ≤25 and 25 mg/kg b.w./day in males and females, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Developmental toxicity of orally administered pineapple leaf extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Lin, Han; Shen, Jia; Lan, Jiaqi; Ma, Chao; Zhao, Yunan; Lei, Fan; Xing, Dongming; Du, Lijun

    2011-06-01

    The extract of pineapple leaves (EPL) has anti-diabetic and anti-dyslipidemic effects and can be developed into a promising natural medicine. This study was conducted to evaluate EPL's effects on developmental parameters in order to provide evidence of its safety before potential medical use. Five groups were included: a negative control that was given distilled water daily, a positive control that was dosed 7 mg/kg cyclophosphamide (CP) every two days, and three groups that were respectively dosed 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5 g/kg EPL daily. Female rats were dosed during the organogenesis period of gestation days (GD) 7-17 and terminated on GD 20. A series of parameters were examined. Data revealed that CP significantly reduced maternal body weight gains, caused maternal organ weight alterations, reduced female fertility, disturbed fetal growth and development, and caused marked teratogenic effects on fetal appearances, skeleton and internal organs. Distilled water and the three high doses of EPL did not cause any of the aforementioned effects. This study concluded that orally administered EPL is safe to rats during embryonic development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity test of G-7% NANA in rats: An application of new criterion for toxicity determination to test article-induced changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Hye Seon; An, MinJi; Lee, Ji Sun; Kim, Hee Kyong; Park, Yeong-Chul

    2018-06-01

    G-7% NANA is N-acetylneuraminic acid(NANA) containing 7% sialic acid isolated from glycomacropeptide (GMP), a compound of milk. Since NANA is likely to have immunotoxicity, the need to ensure safety for long-term administration has been raised. In this study, a 90-day repeated oral dose toxicity test was performed in rats using G-7% NANA in the dosages of 0, 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg/day.A toxicity determination criterion based on the significant change caused by the administration of the substancewas developed for estimating NOEL, NOAEL and LOAELapplied to this study. When analyzing the immunological markers, no significant changes were observed, even if other significant changes were observed in the high dose group. In accordance with the toxicity determination criterion developed, the NOEL in male and female has been determined as 2500 mg/kg/day, and the NOAEL in females has been determined as 5000 mg/kg/day. The toxicity determination criterion, applied for the first time in the repeated dose toxicity tests, could provide a basis for distinguishing NOEL and NOAEL more clearly; nevertheless, the toxicity determination criterion needs to be supplemented by adding differentiating adverse effects and non-adverse effects based on more experiences of the repeated dose toxicity tests. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumpei Washio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the ‘Warburg effect’. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases.

  19. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-06-02

    Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the 'Warburg effect'. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases.

  20. Transepithelial transport and toxicity of PAMAM dendrimers: implications for oral drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadekar, S; Ghandehari, H

    2012-05-01

    This article summarizes efforts to evaluate poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers as carriers for oral drug delivery. Specifically, the effect of PAMAM generation, surface charge and surface modification on toxicity, cellular uptake and transepithelial transport is discussed. Studies on Caco-2 monolayers, as models of intestinal epithelial barrier, show that by engineering surface chemistry of PAMAM dendrimers, it is possible to minimize toxicity while maximizing transepithelial transport. It has been demonstrated that PAMAM dendrimers are transported by a combination of paracellular and transcellular routes. Depending on surface chemistry, PAMAM dendrimers can open the tight junctions of epithelial barriers. This tight junction opening is in part mediated by internalization of the dendrimers. Transcellular transport of PAMAM dendrimers is mediated by a variety of endocytic mechanisms. Attachment or complexation of cytotoxic agents to PAMAM dendrimers enhances the transport of such drugs across epithelial barriers. A remaining challenge is the design and development of linker chemistries that are stable in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the blood stream, but amenable to cleavage at the target site of action. Recent efforts have focused on the use of PAMAM dendrimers as penetration enhancers. Detailed in vivo oral bioavailability of PAMAM dendrimer-drug conjugates, as a function of physicochemical properties will further need to be assessed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Relative oral efficacy and acute toxicity of hydroxypyridin-4-one iron chelators in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.B.; Morgan, J.; Hoyes, K.P.; Burke, L.C.; Huehns, E.R.; Hider, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between the oral efficacy and the acute toxicity of hydroxypyridin-4-one iron chelators has been investigated to clarify structure-function relationships of these compounds in vivo and to identify compounds with the maximum therapeutic safety margin. By comparing 59Fe excretion following oral or intraperitoneal administration of increasing doses of each chelator to iron-overloaded mice, the most effective compounds have been identified. These have partition coefficients (Kpart) above 0.3 in the iron-free form with a trend of increasing oral efficacy with increasing Kpart values (r = .6). However, this is achieved at a cost of increasing acute toxicity, as shown by a linear correlation between 59Fe excretion increase per unit dose and 1/LD50 (r = .83). A sharp increase in the LD50 values is observed for compounds with Kpart values above 1.0, suggesting that such compounds are unlikely to possess a sufficient therapeutic safety margin. Below a Kpart of 1.0, acute toxicity is relatively independent of lipid solubility. All the compounds are less toxic by the oral route than by the intraperitoneal route, although iron excretion is not significantly different by these two routes. At least five compounds (CP51, CP94, CP93, CP96, and CP21) are more effective orally than the same dose of intraperitoneal desferrioxamine (DFO) (P less than or equal to .02) or orally administered L1(CP20) (P less than or equal to .02)

  2. Acute oral toxicity of chemicals in terrestrial life stages of amphibians: Comparisons to birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Mark; Finnegan, Meaghean; Weltje, Lennart; Kosmala-Grzechnik, Sylwia; Gross, Melanie; Wheeler, James R

    2016-10-01

    Amphibians are currently the most threatened and rapidly declining group of vertebrates and this has raised concerns about their potential sensitivity and exposure to plant protection products and other chemicals. Current environmental risk assessment procedures rely on surrogate species (e.g. fish and birds) to cover the risk to aquatic and terrestrial life stages of amphibians, respectively. Whilst a recent meta-analysis has shown that in most cases amphibian aquatic life stages are less sensitive to chemicals than fish, little research has been conducted on the comparative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages. Therefore, in this paper we address the questions "What is the relative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages to acute chemical oral exposure when compared with mammals and birds?" and "Are there correlations between oral toxicity data for amphibians and data for mammals or birds?" Identifying a relationship between these data may help to avoid additional vertebrate testing. Acute oral amphibian toxicity data collected from the scientific literature and ecotoxicological databases were compared with toxicity data for mammals and birds. Toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages are generally sparse, as noted in previous reviews. Single-dose oral toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages were available for 26 chemicals and these were positively correlated with LD50 values for mammals, while no correlation was found for birds. Further, the data suggest that oral toxicity to terrestrial amphibian life stages is similar to or lower than that for mammals and birds, with a few exceptions. Thus, mammals or birds are considered adequate toxicity surrogates for use in the assessment of the oral exposure route in amphibians. However, there is a need for further data on a wider range of chemicals to explore the wider applicability of the current analyses and recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mouse single oral dose toxicity test of bupleuri radix aqueous extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Hu; Gam, Cheol-Ou; Choi, Seong-Hun; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the single oral dose toxicity of Bupleuri Radix (BR) aqueous extracts, it has been traditionally used as anti-inflammatory agent, in male and female mice. BR extracts (yield = 16.52%) was administered to female and male ICR mice as an oral dose of 2,000, 1,000 and 500 mg/kg (body weight) according to the recommendation of Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) Guidelines. Animals were monitored for the mortality and changes in body weight, clinical signs and gross observation during 14 days after dosing, upon necropsy; organ weight and histopathology of 14 principal organs were examined. As the results, no BR extracts treatment related mortalities, clinical signs, changes on the body and organ weights, gross and histopathological observations against 14 principal organs were detected up to 2,000 mg/kg in both female and male mice, except for soft feces and related body weight decrease detected in male mice treated with 2,000 mg/kg. Therefore, LD50 (50% lethal dose) and approximate LD of BR aqueous extracts after single oral treatment in female and male mice were considered over 2000 mg/kg, respectively. Although it was also observed that the possibilities of digestive disorders, like soft feces when administered over 2,000 mg/kg of BR extracts in the present study, these possibilities of digestive disorders can be disregard in clinical use because they are transient in the highest dosages male only.

  4. Repeated dose oral toxicity of inorganic mercury in wistar rats: biochemical and morphological alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Jegoda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to find out the possible toxic effect of mercuric chloride (HgCl2 at the histological, biochemical, and haematological levels in the wistar rats for 28 days. Materials and Methods: The biochemical and hematological alteration were estimated in four groups of rat (each group contain ten animals, which were treated with 0 (control, 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg body weight of HgCl2 through oral gavage. At the end of study all rats were sacrificed and subjected for histopathology. Result: A significantly (P < 0.05 higher level of serum alanine amino transferase (ALT, gamma Glutamyle Transferase, and creatinine were recorded in treatment groups, while the level of alkaline phosphtase (ALP was significantly decreased as compared to the control group. The toxic effect on hematoclogical parameter was characterized by significant decrease in hemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocytes count, and total leukocyte count. Gross morphological changes include congestion, severe haemorrhage, necrosis, degenerative changes in kidneys, depletion of lymphocyte in spleen, decrease in concentration of mature spermatocyte, and edema in testis. It was notable that kidney was the most affected organ. Conclusion: Mercuric chloride (HgCl caused dose-dependent toxic effects on blood parameters and kidney. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 563-567

  5. Single oral dose toxicity test of platycodin d, a saponin from platycodin radix in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Ho; Gam, Cheol-Ou; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Choi, Seong-Hun

    2011-12-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the single oral dose toxicity of platycodin D, a saponin from the root of Platycodon grandiflorum in male and female mice. Platycodin D was administered to female and male mice as an oral dose of 2000, 1000, 500, 250 and 125 mg/kg (body wt.). Animals were monitored for the mortality and changes in body weight, clinical signs and gross observation during 14 days after treatment, upon necropsy, organ weight and histopathology of 14 principle organs were examined. As the results, no platycodin D treatment related mortalities, clinical signs, changes on the body and organ weights, gross and histopathological observations against 14 principle organs were detected up to 2000 mg/kg in both female and male mice. Therefore, LD50 (50% lethal dose) and approximate LD of playtcodin D after single oral treatment in female and male mice were considered over 2000 mg/kg - the limited dosages recommended by KFDA Guidelines [2009-116, 2009], respectively.

  6. Oral Toxicity of Agro-Fungicides: Tilt (Propiconazole), Bayleton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Twelve Nubian goats were used in these experiments; they were grouped into three groups (and one control group) and dosed orally with two fungicides [Propiconazole (100mg/kg/day), Triadimefon (100mg/kg/day)] and their mixture (50:50 mg/kg/day). Animals were closely observed for clinical signs and behavior ...

  7. Acute and Subchronic Oral Toxicity Assessment of the Ethanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    given orally to male and female rats at doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 ... There were no significant differences in body weight and organ weight between ... major vital organs (liver, kidney, stomach, spleen, brain and heart) tested.

  8. Do oral aluminium phosphate binders cause accumulation of aluminium to toxic levels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Norman B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aluminium (Al toxicity was frequent in the 1980s in patients ingesting Al containing phosphate binders (Alucaps whilst having HD using water potentially contaminated with Al. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of Al toxicity in HD patients receiving Alucaps but never exposed to contaminated dialysate water. Methods HD patients only treated with Reverse Osmosis(RO treated dialysis water with either current or past exposure to Alucaps were given standardised DFO tests. Post-DFO serum Al level > 3.0 μmol/L was defined to indicate toxic loads based on previous bone biopsy studies. Results 39 patients (34 anuric were studied. Mean dose of Alucap was 3.5 capsules/d over 23.0 months. Pre-DFO Al levels were > 1.0 μmol/L in only 2 patients and none were > 3.0 μmol/L. No patients had a post DFO Al levels > 3.0 μmol/L. There were no correlations between the serum Al concentrations (pre-, post- or the incremental rise after DFO administration and the total amount of Al ingested. No patients had unexplained EPO resistance or biochemical evidence of adynamic bone. Conclusions Although this is a small study, oral aluminium exposure was considerable. Yet no patients undergoing HD with RO treated water had evidence of Al toxicity despite doses equivalent to 3.5 capsules of Alucap for 2 years. The relationship between the DFO-Al results and the total amount of Al ingested was weak (R2 = 0.07 and not statistically significant. In an era of financial prudence, and in view of the recognised risk of excess calcium loading in dialysis patients, perhaps we should re-evaluate the risk of using Al-based phosphate binders in HD patients who remain uric.

  9. Acute oral toxicity test and phytochemistry of some west african ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (SIG). Each group except the control was further divided into four sub-groups of six mice each, and were administered orally, graded doses (SI; 1,2,4 and 8, PN; 2.5, 5, 10 and 20, OC; 5,10,20 and 40, FC; 1,2,4 and 8, HE; 4,8,16,32) of the aqueous extract of each plant (g/kg body weight) after 12hours fasting. Results: The dry ...

  10. Repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study in Wistar rats with a mixture of five pesticides often found as residues in food: alphacypermethrin, bromopropylate, carbendazim, chlorpyrifos and mancozeb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, H.; Østergaard, G.; Lam, Henrik Rye

    2004-01-01

    Six dose groups of 8 male and female rats respectively received a daily dose equivalent to 0, 0.15, 0.006, 0.03, 0.15 or 0.3 mg/kg b.w./day chlorpyrifos (groups 1-6) and the last four dose groups (groups 3-6) received in addition daily doses equivalent to 18 mg/kg b.w./day alphacypermethrin, 30 mg...... of acetylcholinesterase activity in plasma and brain by chlorpyrifos was not enhanced by coadministration of the other four pesticides. Effects were seen in liver, thyroid, thymus and blood in the combination groups. However, identification of the pesticide(s) responsible for these changes would require further studies...

  11. The Acute Oral Toxicity of Commonly Used Pesticides in Iran, to Honeybees (Apis Mellifera Meda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasuli Farhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The honey bee is credited with approximately 85% of the pollinating activity necessary to supply about one-third of the world’s food supply. Well over 50 major crops depend on these insects for pollination. The crops produce more abundantly when honey bees are plentiful. Worker bees are the ones primarily affected by pesticides. Poisoning symptoms can vary depending on the developmental stage of the individual bee, and the kind of chemical employed. The oral toxicity of these insecticides: (phosalone and pirimicarb, acaricide (propargite, insecticide and acaricide (fenpropathrin, fungicides, and bactericides (copper oxychloride and the Bordeaux mixture, were evaluated for the purposes of this research. The results showed that fenpropathrin had high acute oral toxicity (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 0.54 and 0.3 ppm, respectively. Propargite had 7785 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-24h and 6736 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-48h in honeybees and is therefore, non-toxic to Apis mellifera. On the other hand, copper oxychloride had minimum acute oral toxicity to honeybees (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 4591.5 and 5407.9 ppm, respectively and was therefore considered non-toxic. Also, the Bordeaux mixture was safe to use around honeybees. Phosalone and primicarb were considered highly and moderately toxic to honeybees, respectively.

  12. Effect of some drugs on radioprotective effectiveness, toxicity and distribution of 35S-Aminopropyl-aminoethyl-thiophosphate orally administered to mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grechka, I.I.; Belavina, L.P.; Kalistpatov, G.V.; Zherebchenko, P.G.

    1979-01-01

    Studied was the influence of adreno- adn cholinolytics and cholinomimetic substances on radioprotective effectiveness and toxicity of aminopropyl-aminoehtyl-thiophosphate (APAETP) and distribution thereof among organs after oral and intraperitoneal administration. Atropine and INPEA decrease the toxicity and radioprotectiVe efficiency of APAETP when administered orally and do not influence these properties after intraperitoneal in ection. Deposition of the labelled radioprotector within the organs after oral administration is also indicative that atropine and INPEA can delay the transfer of APAETP from the stomach to the intenstine

  13. Studies on the toxic interaction between monensin and tiamulin in rats: toxicity and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szücs, G; Bajnógel, J; Varga, A; Móra, Z; Laczay, P

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics of the toxic interaction between monensin and tiamulin were investigated in rats. A three-day comparative oral repeated-dose toxicity study was performed in Phase I, when the effects of monensin and tiamulin were studied separately (monensin 10, 30, and 50 mg/kg or tiamulin 40, 120, and 200 mg/kg body weight, respectively). In Phase II, the two compounds were administered simultaneously to study the toxic interaction (monensin 10 mg/kg and tiamulin 40 mg/kg b.w., respectively). Monensin proved to be toxic to rats at doses of 30 and 50 mg/kg. Tiamulin was well tolerated up to the dose of 200 mg/kg. After combined administration, signs of toxicity were seen (including lethality in females). Monensin caused a dose-dependent cardiotoxic effect and vacuolar degeneration of the skeletal muscles in the animals given 50 mg/kg. Both compounds exerted a toxic effect on the liver in high doses. After simultaneous administration of the two compounds, there was a mild effect on the liver (females only), hydropic degeneration of the myocardium and vacuolar degeneration of the skeletal muscles. The alteration seen in the skeletal muscles was more marked than that seen after the administration of 50 mg/kg monensin alone.

  14. Sage tea-thyme-peppermint hydrosol oral rinse reduces chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: A randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutluay Yayla, Ezgi; Izgu, Nur; Ozdemir, Leyla; Aslan Erdem, Sinem; Kartal, Murat

    2016-08-01

    This pilot study aimed to investigate the preventive effect of sage tea-thyme-peppermint hydrosol oral rinse used in conjunction with basic oral care on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. An open-label randomized controlled study. Two oncology hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Patients receiving 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy regimens were divided into the intervention group (N=30) and control group (N=30). Basic oral care was prescribed to the control group, while the intervention group was prescribed sage tea-thyme-peppermint hydrosol in addition to basic oral care. All patients were called to assess their compliance with the study instructions on day 5 and 14. Oral mucositis was evaluated using an inspection method or by assessing oral cavity photos based on the World Health Organization oral toxicity scale on day 5 and 14. Most of the patients in the intervention group did not develop oral mucositis on day 5. In addition, the incidence of grade 1 oral mucositis was statistically lower in the intervention group (10%) than the control group (53.3%) on day 5. By day 14, the majority of patients in both the groups had grade 0 oral mucositis. Sage tea-thyme-peppermint hydrosol oral rinse has promising results in alleviating oral mucositis. This hydrosol can be recommended for clinical use as it is well tolerated and cost-effective. However, further randomized controlled trials are needed to support the study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Haematolohical profile of subacute oral toxicity of molybdenum and ameliorative efficacy of copper salt in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusum; Raina, R; Verma, P K; Pankaj, N K; Kant, V; Kumar, J; Srivastava, A K

    2010-07-01

    Molybdenum toxicity produces a state of secondary hypocuprosis, resulting into alterations in normal hematological profile. In the present study, ammonium molybdate alone and with copper sulfate (II) pentahydrate (ameliorative agent) was administered orally for 30 consecutive days in healthy goats of group 1 and 2, respectively, to access the effect on the hematological profile on different predetermined days of dosing. Administration of ammonium molybdate alone produced significant decline in the mean values of hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total leukocyte count (TLC), total erythrocyte count (TEC), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), with a significant increase in neutrophil level and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). However, values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and differential leukocyte count were not significantly altered. On comparing observations of ameliorative group with the group 1 goats, it is concluded that the ameliorative copper salt has beneficial effects in alleviating the alterations in the values of Hb, PCV, TLC, TEC, MCV, MCHC, and neutrophils.

  16. Toxicological evaluation of ethanolic extract from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves: Genotoxicity and subchronic oral toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiannan; Yang, Hui; Li, Yongning; Liu, Haibo; Jia, Xudong

    2017-06-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves have a long history of use as an abundant source of sweetener. The aqueous extract of stevia leaves and the predominant constitutes steviol glycosides have been intensively investigated. However, rare studies provided toxicological evaluation of bioactive components in the polar extract regarding their safety on human health. This study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of ethanolic extract of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves through a battery of in vitro and in vivo tests. Negative results were unanimously obtained from bacterial reverse mutation assay, mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay and mouse sperm malformation assay. Oral administration at dietary levels of 1.04%, 2.08% and 3.12% for 90 days did not induce significant behavioral, hematological, clinical, or histopathological changes in rats. Significant reduction of cholesterol, total protein and albumin was observed in female animals only at high dose level. The results demonstrated that Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves ethanolic extract, which is rich in isochlorogenic acids, does not possess adverse effects through oral administration in this study. Our data provided supportive evidence for the safety of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves that may potentially be used in functional foods as well as nutritional supplements beyond sweetner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of Genotoxicity and 28-day Oral Dose Toxicity on Freeze-dried Powder of Tenebrio molitor Larvae (Yellow Mealworm)

    OpenAIRE

    Han, So-Ri; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Ji-Young; Hwang, Jae Sam; Jeong, Eun Ju; Moon, Kyoung-Sik

    2014-01-01

    The larval form of Tenebrio molitor (T. molitor) has been eaten in many countries and provides benefits as a new food source of protein for humans. However, no information exists regarding its safety for humans. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxicity and repeated dose oral toxicity of the freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae. The genotoxic potential was evaluated by a standard battery testing: bacterial reverse mutation test, in vitro chromosome aberration tes...

  18. Toxic effects of oral 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene in the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarland, Craig A., E-mail: craig.a.mcfarland@us.army.mi [US Army Public Health Command (Prov), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Quinn, Michael J [US Army Public Health Command (Prov), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Boyce, John [Biotechnics, LLC, Hillsborough, NC 27278 (United States); LaFiandra, Emily M; Bazar, Matthew A [US Army Public Health Command (Prov), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Talent, Larry G [Oklahoma State University, Department of Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Johnson, Mark S [US Army Public Health Command (Prov), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    The compound 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2A-DNT) was evaluated under laboratory conditions in the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) to assess the potential for reptile toxicity. Oral LD{sub 50} values were 1406 and 1867 mg/kg for male and female lizards, respectively. Based on responses from a 14-day subacute study, a 60-day subchronic experiment followed where lizards were orally dosed at 0, 5, 15, 20, 25, 30 mg/kg-d. At day 60, number of days and survivors, food consumption, and change in body weight were inversely related to dose. Signs of toxicity were characterized by anorexia and generalized cachexia. Significant adverse histopathology was observed in hepatic tissue at {>=}15 mg/kg-d, consistent with hepatocellular transdifferentiation. Based on survival, loss of body weight, diminished food intake, changes in liver, kidney, and testes, and increased blood urea nitrogen, these data suggest a LOAEL of 15 mg/kg-d and a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg-d in S. occidentalis. - Research highlights: Oral LD{sub 50} (mg/kg) values were 1406 for male and 1867 for female lizards. Dose-dependent hepatocellular transdifferentiation was observed at {>=}5 mg/kg-d. Chromaturia in 2A-DNT and the parent TNT suggest biomarkers of exposure and effect. Health effects of metabolites support comprehensive ecological risk assessments. - The Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) is a suitable reptile model for assessing the toxicity of energetic compounds and their metabolites.

  19. Toxic effects of oral 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene in the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, Craig A.; Quinn, Michael J.; Boyce, John; LaFiandra, Emily M.; Bazar, Matthew A.; Talent, Larry G.; Johnson, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    The compound 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2A-DNT) was evaluated under laboratory conditions in the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) to assess the potential for reptile toxicity. Oral LD 50 values were 1406 and 1867 mg/kg for male and female lizards, respectively. Based on responses from a 14-day subacute study, a 60-day subchronic experiment followed where lizards were orally dosed at 0, 5, 15, 20, 25, 30 mg/kg-d. At day 60, number of days and survivors, food consumption, and change in body weight were inversely related to dose. Signs of toxicity were characterized by anorexia and generalized cachexia. Significant adverse histopathology was observed in hepatic tissue at ≥15 mg/kg-d, consistent with hepatocellular transdifferentiation. Based on survival, loss of body weight, diminished food intake, changes in liver, kidney, and testes, and increased blood urea nitrogen, these data suggest a LOAEL of 15 mg/kg-d and a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg-d in S. occidentalis. - Research highlights: → Oral LD 50 (mg/kg) values were 1406 for male and 1867 for female lizards. → Dose-dependent hepatocellular transdifferentiation was observed at ≥5 mg/kg-d. → Chromaturia in 2A-DNT and the parent TNT suggest biomarkers of exposure and effect. → Health effects of metabolites support comprehensive ecological risk assessments. - The Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) is a suitable reptile model for assessing the toxicity of energetic compounds and their metabolites.

  20. Oral bioaccessibility of toxic and essential elements in raw and cooked commercial seafood species available in European markets

    KAUST Repository

    Alves, Ricardo N.; Maulvault, Ana L.; Barbosa, Vera L.; Fernandez-Tejedor, Margarita; Tediosi, Alice; Kotterman, Michiel; van den Heuvel, Fredericus H.M.; Robbens, Johan; Fernandes, José O.; Romme Rasmussen, Rie; Sloth, Jens J.; Marques, Antó nio

    2017-01-01

    The oral bioaccessibility of several essential and toxic elements was investigated in raw and cooked commercially available seafood species from European markets. Bioaccessibility varied between seafood species and elements. Methylmercury bioaccessibility varied between 10 (octopus) and 60% (monkfish). Arsenic (>64%) was the toxic element showing the highest bioaccessibility. Concerning essential elements bioaccessibility in raw seafood, selenium (73%) and iodine (71%) revealed the highest percentages. The bioaccessibility of elements in steamed products increased or decreased according to species. For example, methylmercury bioaccessibility decreased significantly after steaming in all species, while zinc bioaccessibility increased in fish (tuna and plaice) but decreased in molluscs (mussel and octopus).Together with human exposure assessment and risk characterization, this study could contribute to the establishment of new maximum permissible concentrations for toxic elements in seafood by the European food safety authorities, as well as recommended intakes for essential elements.

  1. Oral bioaccessibility of toxic and essential elements in raw and cooked commercial seafood species available in European markets

    KAUST Repository

    Alves, Ricardo N.

    2017-11-17

    The oral bioaccessibility of several essential and toxic elements was investigated in raw and cooked commercially available seafood species from European markets. Bioaccessibility varied between seafood species and elements. Methylmercury bioaccessibility varied between 10 (octopus) and 60% (monkfish). Arsenic (>64%) was the toxic element showing the highest bioaccessibility. Concerning essential elements bioaccessibility in raw seafood, selenium (73%) and iodine (71%) revealed the highest percentages. The bioaccessibility of elements in steamed products increased or decreased according to species. For example, methylmercury bioaccessibility decreased significantly after steaming in all species, while zinc bioaccessibility increased in fish (tuna and plaice) but decreased in molluscs (mussel and octopus).Together with human exposure assessment and risk characterization, this study could contribute to the establishment of new maximum permissible concentrations for toxic elements in seafood by the European food safety authorities, as well as recommended intakes for essential elements.

  2. Toxic corneal epitheliopathy after intravitreal methotrexate and its treatment with oral folic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorovoy, Ian; Prechanond, Tidarat; Abia, Maravillas; Afshar, Armin R; Stewart, Jay M

    2013-08-01

    To determine whether oral folic acid can ameliorate an iatrogenic, visually significant corneal epitheliopathy, which commonly occurs with intravitreal injections of methotrexate for the treatment of intraocular lymphoma. We report 2 cases of visually significant corneal epitheliopathy occurring after intravitreal injections of methotrexate for intraocular lymphoma. The first patient did not receive any treatment for the corneal disease, and the second patient with bilateral intraocular lymphoma received 1 mg of oral folic acid daily, a commonly used dosage for patients on systemic methotrexate. In the first patient without treatment, there was a complete regression of the corneal epithelial disease only when the frequency of intravitreal methotrexate was reduced from weekly to monthly as per a commonly used dosage regimen for methotrexate. In the second patient, the corneal disease improved 80% within 1 week of initiating oral folic acid for her eye already experiencing severe epitheliopathy during her weekly dosing regimen of methotrexate and also had significantly decreased epithelial disease in her second eye that started weekly intravitreal methotrexate several weeks after beginning oral folic acid. Currently, oral folic acid supplements are recommended for patients using systemic methotrexate to minimize drug toxicity. We suggest a similar use in patients undergoing intravitreal methotrexate injections to decrease toxic effects on the corneal epithelium.

  3. Acute and Subchronic Oral Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Ageratum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, histological studies revealed that the extract caused dose-dependent lesions, resulting in hepatorenal changes correlated with a high level of transaminases activity and hyperleukocytosis at 800 mg/kg dose level. The hemoglobin and hematocrit concentrations were also high in all groups treated with the extract.

  4. Copper pellets simulating oral exposure to copper ammunition: Absence of toxicity in American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Lahner, Lesanna L.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the potential toxicity of copper (Cu) in raptors that may consume Cu bullets, shotgun pellets containing Cu, or Cu fragments as they feed on wildlife carcasses, we studied the effects of metallic Cu exposure in a surrogate, the American kestrel (Falco sparverius). Sixteen kestrels were orally administered 5 mg Cu/g body mass in the form of Cu pellets (1.18–2.00 mm in diameter) nine times during 38 days and 10 controls were sham gavaged on the same schedule. With one exception, all birds retained the pellets for at least 1 h, but most (69%) regurgitated pellets during a 12-h monitoring period. Hepatic Cu concentrations were greater in kestrels administered Cu than in controls, but there was no difference in Cu concentrations in the blood between treated and control birds. Concentration of the metal-binding protein metallothionein was greater in male birds that received Cu than in controls, whereas concentrations in female birds that received Cu were similar to control female birds. Hepatic Cu and metallothionein concentrations in kestrels were significantly correlated. Histopathologic alterations were noted in the pancreas of four treated kestrels and two controls, but these changes were not associated with hepatic or renal Cu concentrations, and no lesions were seen in other tissues. No clinical signs were observed, and there was no treatment effect on body mass; concentrations of Cu, hemoglobin, or methemoglobin in the blood; or Cu concentrations in kidney, plasma biochemistries, or hematocrit. Based on the parameters we measured, ingested Cu pellets pose little threat to American kestrels (and presumably phylogenetically related species), although the retention time of pellets in the stomach was of relatively short duration. Birds expected to regurgitate Cu fragments with a frequency similar to kestrels are not likely to be adversely affected by Cu ingestion, but the results of our study do not completely rule out the potential for toxicity in

  5. ProTox: a web server for the in silico prediction of rodent oral toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drwal, Malgorzata N; Banerjee, Priyanka; Dunkel, Mathias; Wettig, Martin R; Preissner, Robert

    2014-07-01

    Animal trials are currently the major method for determining the possible toxic effects of drug candidates and cosmetics. In silico prediction methods represent an alternative approach and aim to rationalize the preclinical drug development, thus enabling the reduction of the associated time, costs and animal experiments. Here, we present ProTox, a web server for the prediction of rodent oral toxicity. The prediction method is based on the analysis of the similarity of compounds with known median lethal doses (LD50) and incorporates the identification of toxic fragments, therefore representing a novel approach in toxicity prediction. In addition, the web server includes an indication of possible toxicity targets which is based on an in-house collection of protein-ligand-based pharmacophore models ('toxicophores') for targets associated with adverse drug reactions. The ProTox web server is open to all users and can be accessed without registration at: http://tox.charite.de/tox. The only requirement for the prediction is the two-dimensional structure of the input compounds. All ProTox methods have been evaluated based on a diverse external validation set and displayed strong performance (sensitivity, specificity and precision of 76, 95 and 75%, respectively) and superiority over other toxicity prediction tools, indicating their possible applicability for other compound classes. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Acute and chronic toxicity studies of the water extract from dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute and chronic toxicities of the water extract from the dried fruits of Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. were assessed in both female and male rats. For the study of acute toxicity, a single oral administration of the water extract at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight (10 female, 10 male) was performed and the results ...

  7. Evaluation of Genotoxicity and 28-day Oral Dose Toxicity on Freeze-dried Powder of Tenebrio molitor Larvae (Yellow Mealworm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, So-Ri; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Ji-Young; Hwang, Jae Sam; Jeong, Eun Ju; Moon, Kyoung-Sik

    2014-06-01

    The larval form of Tenebrio molitor (T. molitor) has been eaten in many countries and provides benefits as a new food source of protein for humans. However, no information exists regarding its safety for humans. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxicity and repeated dose oral toxicity of the freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae. The genotoxic potential was evaluated by a standard battery testing: bacterial reverse mutation test, in vitro chromosome aberration test, and in vivo micronucleus test. To assess the repeated dose toxicity, the powder was administered once daily by oral gavage to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at dose levels of 0, 300, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. The parameters which were applied to the study were mortality, clinical signs, body and organ weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum chemistry, gross findings and histopathologic examination. The freezedried powder of T. molitor larvae was not mutagenic or clastogenic based on results of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assays. Furthermore, no treatment-related changes or findings were observed in any parameters in rats after 28 days oral administration. In conclusion, the freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae was considered to be non-genotoxic and the NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) was determined to be 3000 mg/kg/day in both sexes of SD rats under our experimental conditions.

  8. Evaluation of Genotoxicity and 28-day Oral Dose Toxicity on Freeze-dried Powder of Tenebrio molitor Larvae (Yellow Mealworm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, So-Ri; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Ji-Young; Hwang, Jae Sam; Jeong, Eun Ju

    2014-01-01

    The larval form of Tenebrio molitor (T. molitor) has been eaten in many countries and provides benefits as a new food source of protein for humans. However, no information exists regarding its safety for humans. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxicity and repeated dose oral toxicity of the freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae. The genotoxic potential was evaluated by a standard battery testing: bacterial reverse mutation test, in vitro chromosome aberration test, and in vivo micronucleus test. To assess the repeated dose toxicity, the powder was administered once daily by oral gavage to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at dose levels of 0, 300, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. The parameters which were applied to the study were mortality, clinical signs, body and organ weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum chemistry, gross findings and histopathologic examination. The freezedried powder of T. molitor larvae was not mutagenic or clastogenic based on results of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assays. Furthermore, no treatment-related changes or findings were observed in any parameters in rats after 28 days oral administration. In conclusion, the freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae was considered to be non-genotoxic and the NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) was determined to be 3000 mg/kg/day in both sexes of SD rats under our experimental conditions. PMID:25071922

  9. Cytotoxicity and Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity of Bacterial Cellulose-Poly (acrylamide-sodium acrylate Hydrogel: A Carrier for Oral Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Pandey 1,2 * , Hira Choudhury 1, Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd Amin 2

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preliminary safety evaluation of polymer intended to use as drug delivery carrier is essential. Methods: In this study polyacrylamide grafted bacterial cellulose (BC/AM hydrogel was prepared by microwave irradiation initiated free radical polymerization. The synthesized hydrogel was subjected to in vitro cytotoxicity and acute gastrointestinal toxicity studies to evaluate its biological safety as potential oral drug delivery carrier. Results: The results indicate that hydrogel was non cytotoxic and did not show any histopathological changes in GI tract after a high dose of oral administration. Conclusion: The results revealed that hydrogel composed of bacterial cellulose and polyacrylamide is safe as oral drug delivery carrier.

  10. Oral bioaccessibility of toxic and essential elements in raw and cooked commercial seafood species available in European markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alves, Ricardo N.; Maulvault, Ana L.; Barbosa, Vera L.; Fernandez-Tejedor, Margarita; Tediosi, Alice; Kotterman, Michiel; Heuvel, van den Fredericus H.M.; Robbens, Johan; Fernandes, José O.; Romme Rasmussen, Rie; Sloth, Jens J.; Marques, António

    2017-01-01

    The oral bioaccessibility of several essential and toxic elements was investigated in raw and cooked commercially available seafood species from European markets. Bioaccessibility varied between seafood species and elements. Methylmercury bioaccessibility varied between 10 (octopus) and 60%

  11. Reproductive toxicity in rats after chronic oral exposure to low dose of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Rong; Ai Guoping; Xu Hui; Su Yongping; Cheng Tianmin; Leng Yanbing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the reproductive toxicity in rats induced by low dose of depleted uranium (DU). Methods: Male and female rats(F 0 generation) were exposed to DU in food at doses of 0, 0.4, 4 and 40 mg·kg -1 ·d -1 for 160 days, respectively. Then the activities of enzymes in testis and sexual hormone contents in serum were detected. Mature male rats were mated with female rats exposed to the same doses for 14 days. Pregnant rate and normal labor rate in F 0 rats were detected, as well as the survival rate and weight of F 1 rats within 21 d after birth. Results: No adverse effects of DU on fertility were evident at any dose in F 0 rats. Compared with control group, the rate of pregnancy, normal labor, survival of offspring birth and offspring nurture in F 1 generation of high-dose group reduced to 40.0%, 33.3%, 33.3%, and 33.3%, respectively. The sexual hormone contents in F 0 generation exposed increased, but those in Fl rats decreased significantly. The activities of lactate dehydrogenase-X (LDH-X) decreased in F 1 rats exposed to high-dose of DU, and those of sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), LDH and Na + -K + -ATPase decreased in F 1 rats exposed to DU. Conclusions: Reproduction function, growth and development of F 0 rats are not obviously affected after chronic oral exposure to DU, while the toxicity effects in F 1 generation was observed at any dose. (authors)

  12. Acute oral toxicity test and phytochemistry of some West African medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awobajo, F O; Omorodion-Osagie, E; Olatunji-Bello, I I; Adegoke, O A; Adeleke, T I

    2009-01-01

    Although there is increased acceptance and utilization of medicinal plants worldwide, many are used indiscriminately without recourse to any safety test. Thus, the need for toxicity tests to determine the safe dose for oral consumption. LD50 and phytochemistry of four medicinal plants of West Africa were investigated. Thirty male and non pregnant female Swiss albino mice weighing 20grams each were used for this study. They were divided into the Control (C), Oldenlandia corymbosa L. aqueous leaf-extract treated (OCG), Parquetina nigrescens aqueous leaf extract treated (PNG), Hybanthus enneaspermus aqueous leaf extract treated (HEG), Ficus carica leaf extract treated (FCG) and Sesamum indicum aqueous seeds extract treated group (SIG). Each group except the control was further divided into four sub-groups of six mice each, and were administered orally, graded doses (SI; 1, 2, 4 and 8, PN; 2.5, 5, 10 and 20, OC; 5, 10, 20 and 40, FC; 1, 2, 4 and 8, HE; 4, 8, 16, 32) of the aqueous extract of each plant (g/kg body weight) after 12 hours fasting. The dry aqueous leaf extracts of HE, OC, PN, FC all have dark brown colour and pH ranging from 6.1 to 7.2 while the seed extract of SI has a light brown color with pH of 7.0. Flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, anthocyanosides, saponin, and reducing sugar were present in all extracts, while cyanogenic glycoside was present only in HE. LD50 determination results obtained using Thompson and Finney methods were as follows; OC; 14.14 +/- 0.27 and 10.56 +/- 0.20, PN; 12.60 +/- 0.10 and 13.10 +/- 0.10, HE; 8.14 +/- 0.30 and 8.24 +/- 0.35, FC; 3.36 +/- 0.26 and 4.00 +/- 0.04, SI; 4.00 +/- 0.10 and 3.10 +/- 0.22 respectively (LD50 values are in g/kg body weight. The results of this study have provided an oral LD50 from where a safe dose can be chosen for further research into the merits of the consumption of these medicinal plants.

  13. Assessment of oral toxicity and safety of pentamethylchromanol (PMCol), a potential chemopreventative agent, in rats and dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeblad, Matthew; Kapetanovic, Izet M.; Kabirov, Kasim K.; Detrisac, Carol J.; Dinger, Nancy; Mankovskaya, Irina; Zakharov, Alexander; Lyubimov, Alexander V.

    2010-01-01

    2,2,5,7,8-Pentamethyl-6-chromanol (PMCol) was administered by gavage in rats for 28 days at dose levels of 0, 100, 500, and 2000 mg/kg/day. PMCol administration induced decreases in body weight gains and food consumption, hepatotoxicity (increased TBILI, ALB, ALT, TP; increased relative liver weights; increased T4 and TSH), nephrotoxicity (increased BUN and BUN/CREAT, histopathology lesions), effect on lipid metabolism (increased CHOL), anemia, increase in WBC counts (total and differential), coagulation (FBGN↑and PT↓) and hyperkeratosis of the nonglandular stomach in the 2000 mg/kg/day dose group (in one or both sexes). In the 500 mg/kg/day dose group, toxicity was seen to a lesser extent. In the 100 mg/kg/day dose group, only increased CHOL (females) was observed. To assess the toxicity of PMCol in male dogs it was administered orally by capsule administration for 28 days at dose levels of 0, 50, 200 and 800 mg/kg/day (four male dogs/dose group). PMCol treatment at 800 mg/kg/day resulted in pronounced toxicity to the male dogs. Target organs of toxicity were liver and thymus. Treatment at 200 mg/kg/day resulted in toxicity consistent with slight adverse effect on the liver only. The results of the safety pharmacology study indicate that doses of 0, 50, 200 and 800 mg/kg administered orally did not have an effect on the QT interval, blood pressures and body temperatures following dosing over a 24-h recording period. Under the conditions of this study, the no-observed-adverse effect level (NOAEL) for daily oral administration of PMCol by gavage for 28 days to male rats was 100 mg/kg/day and 50 mg/kg in male dogs. In female rats, the NOAEL was not established due to statistically significant and biologically meaningful increases in CHOL level seen in the 100 mg/kg/day dose group. The results of these studies indicated that administration of PMCol at higher dose levels resulted in severe toxicity in dogs and moderate toxicity in rats, however, administration at

  14. Prophylaxis of mucosal toxicity by oral propantheline and cryotherapy in children with malignancies undergoing myeloablative chemo-radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Atsushi; Imaizumi, Masue; Saisho-Hattori, Takako; Koizumi, Yoshitsugu; Iinuma, Kazuie; Minegishi, Masayoshi

    2006-01-01

    Mucosal toxicity is an incapacitating complication of intensive chemo-radiotherapy for children with malignant disorders, and is physically and psychologically distressful. It is therefore important to minimize mucosal toxicity in those patients. In this report, the effects of the combined prophylaxis of oral cooling (cryotherapy) and administration of propantheline, an anticholinergic drug, were studied in patients (aged 2-16 year) with acute leukemias or solid tumors, who underwent myeloablative chemo-radiotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell rescue from 1993 to 1997. Patients were pretreated with the combined prophylaxis (n=12) or single prophylaxis (n=5), or left untreated (n=7). The combined prophylaxis significantly reduced the severe mucositis (combined, 8.3%; single, 20.0%; and untreated, 42.9%) and severe diarrhea (combined, 16.7%; single, 60.0%; and untreated, 57.1%). Moreover, the combined prophylaxis tended to shorten the periods of febrile episodes defined as temperature >38 deg C (combined, 3.8 days; single, 4.6 days; and untreated, 5.6 days). Therefore, the combination of propantheline and oral cryotherapy may be feasible and effective for reduction of mucosal toxicity in patients with malignancy who undergo high-dose chemotherapy. (author)

  15. ACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES AND ANTIDOTAL THERAPY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES AND ANTIDOTAL THERAPY OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF JATROPHA CURCAS SEEDS IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS. ... with the aim of investigating the toxicity of the ethanol seed extract of JC in rats, mice, and chicks; and also to use conventional antidotes to treat intoxication in rats due to ...

  16. Distribution, Metabolism and Toxic Effects of Beta-Cypermethrin in Lizards (Eremias argus) Following Oral Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Xu, Peng; Diao, Jinling; Di, Shanshan; Li, Ruiting; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2016-04-05

    Beta-cypermethrin (BCYP), a synthetic pyrethriod (PYR) pesticide which is a mixture of the alpha- and theta- cypermethrin, have been reported various toxicological profiles to non-target organisms. But little is known about assimilation, accumulation and toxic effects of BCYP in reptiles. The present study firstly elucidated absorption, tissue distribution, excretion of BCYP in Eremias argus . Treated group were administered orally with BCYP 20mg/kg body weight (bw) dissolved in corn oil. Neurotoxicity was observed at 24h after gavage, and the poisoning symptom ameliorated at 72h. The changes of BCYP concentration depended on degradation time and tissues. Lizards had a strong capacity to eliminate BCYP with different tissue distribution. The tissues concentration of BCYP from high to low were intestine, stomach, heart, kidney, blood, lung, liver and brain. Bimodal phenomena were observed in lung, liver and kidney. These results may be due to the activities of enzymes, circadian rhythm, and enterohepatic circulation in lizards. Based on the results of organ coefficient and histopathology analysis in liver, the liver was confirmed as the main target organ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Oral repeated-dose systemic and reproductive toxicity of 6:2 fluorotelomer alcohol in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushkor Mukerji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 6:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (6:2 FTOH was evaluated for potential systemic repeated-dose and reproductive toxicity in mice. 6:2 FTOH was administered by oral gavage to CD-1 mice as a suspension in 0.5% aqueous methylcellulose with 0.1% Tween-80 at dosages of 1, 5, 25, or 100 mg/kg/day. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL for systemic toxicity was 25 mg/kg/day (males and 5 mg/kg/day (females, based on effects at higher doses on mortality, clinical observations, body weight, nutritional parameters, hematology (red and white blood cell, clinical chemistry (liver-related, liver weights, and histopathology (liver, teeth, reproductive tract, and mammary gland. However, 6:2 FTOH was not a selective reproductive toxicant. The NOAEL for reproductive toxicity was >100 mg/kg/day; no effects on reproductive outcome were observed at any dosage. The NOAEL for viability and growth of the offspring was 25 mg/kg/day, based on clinical signs of delayed maturation in pups, and reductions in pup survival and pup body weight during lactation at 100 mg/kg/day. While the severity of the effects was generally greater in mice than previously reported in CD rats, the overall NOAELs were identical in both species, 5 mg/kg/day for systemic toxicity and 25 mg/kg/day for offspring viability/growth. 6:2 FTOH was not a selective reproductive toxicant in either species; no effects on reproductive outcome occurred at any dose level, and any effects observed in offspring occurred at dose levels that induced mortality and severe toxicity in maternal animals.

  18. Evaluation of Sub-acute Oral Toxicity of Lithium Carbonate Microemulsion (Nano Size) on Liver and Kidney of Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Heibatullah; Salimi, Anayatollah; Rezaie, Anahita; Jazayeri Shushtari, Fereshteh; Goudarzi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The development of drug delivery systems has improved the therapeutic and toxic properties of existing drugs in therapy. Microemulsion systems are novel vehicles for drug delivery, which have been developed in recent years. These systems are currently of interest to the pharmaceutical scientist because of their considerable potential to act as drug delivery vehicles by incorporating into a wide range of drug molecules. Although these systems improved solubility and bioavailability of drugs, they may have potential toxic effects on the body organs. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine a possible hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effect of lithium carbonate microemulsion (LCME) in a mice model. Materials and Methods: Eighty male Swiss albino mice were randomly allocated to eight experimental groups, as follows: Group 1, as negative control group were treated orally with normal saline (0.9% NaCl); Group 2, received microemulsion base without drug as control group; Groups 3 to 5, received lithium carbonate (LC) solution in doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively; Groups 6 to 8, received LCME orally in doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively. All drugs were administered orally for ten consecutive days. Serum glutamate pyruvate aminotransferase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate aminotransferase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and plasma creatinine (Cr), as markers of liver and kidney toxicity in treated mice, were measured. Furthermore, the changes of tissue were assessed by histopathologic examination. Results: The findings showed that serum activity of ALP, SGOT, and SGPT and the levels of BUN and Cr in microemulsion base group was greater than normal saline group. However, this difference was not significant. Administration of LC and LCME in all doses resulted in a significant increase in the levels of BUN and serum activity of SGOT and SGPT in comparison to normal saline group (P < 0

  19. Loggerhead oral cavity morphometry study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard external morphometrics and internal oral cavity morphometrics data were collected on wild and captive reared loggerhead sea turtles in size classes ranging...

  20. Oral toxicity of silver ions, silver nanoparticles and colloidal silver – a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Niels; Lam, Henrik Rye

    2014-01-01

    Orally administered silver has been described to be absorbed in a range of 0.4-18% in mammals with a human value of 18%. Based on findings in animals, silver seems to be distributed to all of the organs investigated, with the highest levels being observed in the intestine and stomach. In the skin......, silver induces a blue-grey discoloration termed argyria. Excretion occurs via the bile and urine. The following dose-dependent animal toxicity findings have been reported: death, weight loss, hypoactivity, altered neurotransmitter levels, altered liver enzymes, altered blood values, enlarged hearts...... and immunological effects. Substantial evidence exists suggesting that the effects induced by particulate silver are mediated via silver ions that are released from the particle surface. With the current data regarding toxicity and average human dietary exposure, a Margin of Safety calculation indicates at least...

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on acute oral toxicity of ethanolic extract of red ginger (zingiber officinale)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermin Katrin; Winarti Andayani; Susanto; Hendig Winarno

    2014-01-01

    Red ginger is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various types of diseases. Evaluation of the toxic properties of red ginger is very important to know the negative harmful impact to human health. Therefore, before it is consumed by humans, it is needed to conduct acute oral toxicity of red ginger extract in mice. Thin rhizome of red ginger in poly ethylene plastic packaging was irradiated by gamma rays at a dose of 10 kGy with a dose rate of 10 kGy/h. The ethanol extract of unirradiated as well as irradiated red ginger was then tested for the acute oral toxicity using OECD Guideline test method. The results showed that throughout the 14 days of treatment there was a change in behavior pattern, clinical symptoms and body weight of control mice and treatment groups. Histopathological examination of kidneys, heart, liver, lungs and spleen of the dose less than 1250 mg/kg body weight showed normal condition and no significant side effects observation. While central venous damage and a reduced number of hepatocyte cells in male mice occurred in the test dose higher than 2000 mg/kg body weight, whereas in female mice it occurred in the test group dose higher than 1250 mg/kg bw. Based on renal histology of male and female mice at doses higher than 1250 mg/kg body weight, there were damage to Bowman's capsule, glomerulus, proximal vessel and distal vessels. LD50 of unirradiated and irradiated with 10 kGy of ethanol extract of red ginger were 1887 mg/kg body weight and 2639 mg/kg body weight, respectively, and it can be categorized as moderately toxic. Oral administration of ethanol extract of red ginger with dose of 1250 mg/kg body weight gave an effect in mice organs. From these results it can be concluded that oral administration of both unirradiated and irradiated with a dose 10 kGy of ethanol extract consider safe at a dose less than 1250 mg/kg body weigh. (author)

  2. Sub-chronic oral toxicity of Cuminum cyminum L.'s essential oil in female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Ostad, Seyed Naser; Asemi, Zatollah; Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Hejazi, Sara; Sharafati-Chaleshtori, Reza; Rashidi, Aliakbar; Akbari, Hosein; Sharifi, Nasrin

    2017-08-01

    The current study was performed to evaluate the toxicity of Cuminum cyminum L. (C. cyminum)'s essential oil after 23 days and 45 days of repeated oral administration in female Wistar rats. A total of 80 healthy female Wistar rats were randomly selected and divided into 4 groups. The rats were gavaged with C. cyminum's essential oil at dose levels of 0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day. Clinical signs, body weight, hematology, serum biochemistry and organ histopathology were assessed once after 23 days and again after 45 days passed from the start of the intervention. Oral administration of C. cyminum's essential oil had no observed adverse effects on clinical signs, mortality, body weight, hematology, biochemistry and organ histology (liver, kidneys, spleen and lungs) in a sample of healthy female Wistar rats after 23 days and 45 days from the start of the study. However, an increase in serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) was found only at dose level of 1000 mg/kg/d C. cyminum's essential oil, after the 23-days interval. We conservatively defined the non-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for C. cyminum's essential oil as 500 mg/kg/d in female Wistar rats. The present study results should be treated with cautious in terms of the other organs' toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Extrapolation for exposure duration in oral toxicity: A quantitative analysis of historical toxicity data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, C.N.; Hakkert, B.C.; Bos, P.M.J.; Heer, C.de

    2004-01-01

    For human risk assessment, experimental data often have to be extrapolated for exposure duration, which is generally done by means of default values. The purpose of the present study was twofold. First, to derive a statistical distribution for differences in exposure duration that can be used in a

  4. Effect of exposure routes on the relationships of lethal toxicity to rats from oral, intravenous, intraperitoneal and intramuscular routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Zhong H; Long, Shuang; Zhou, Yuan Y; Peng, Zi Y; Sun, Yi N; Chen, Si W; Su, Li M; Zhao, Yuan H

    2015-11-01

    The lethal toxicity values (log 1/LD(50)) of 527 aliphatic and aromatic compounds in oral, intravenous, intramuscular and intraperitoneal routes were used to investigate the relationships of log 1/LD(50) from different exposure routes. Regression analysis shows that the log 1/LD(50) values are well correlated between intravenous and intraperitoneal or intramuscular injections. However, the correlations between oral and intravenous or intraperitoneal routes are relatively poor. Comparison of the average residuals indicates that intravenous injection is the most sensitive exposure route and oral administration is the least sensitive exposure route. This is attributed to the difference in kinetic process of toxicity testing. The toxic effect of a chemical can be similar or significantly different between exposure routes, depending on the absorption rates of chemicals into blood. Inclusion of hydrophobic parameter and fractions of ionic forms can improve the correlations between intravenous and intraperitoneal or oral routes, but not between intraperitoneal and oral routes. This is due to the differences of absorption rate in different exposure environments from different routes. Several factors, such as experimental uncertainty, metabolism and toxic kinetics, can affect the correlations between intravenous and intraperitoneal or oral routes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of distribution and toxicity following repeated oral dosing of different vanadium oxide nanoparticles in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun-Jung, E-mail: pejtoxic@hanmail.net [Myunggok Eye Research Institute, Konyang University, Daejeon 302-718 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gwang-Hee [School of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Cheolho [Seoul Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 126-16 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Wan, E-mail: dwkim1@korea.ac.kr [School of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Vanadium is an important ultra-trace element derived from fuel product combustion. With the development of nanotechnology, vanadium oxide nanoparticles (VO NPs) have been considered for application in various fields, thus the possibility of release into the environment and human exposure is also increasing. Considering that verification of bioaccumulation and relevant biological responses are essential for safe application of products, in this study, we aimed to identify the physicochemical properties that determine their health effects by comparing the biological effects and tissue distribution of different types of VO NPs in mice. For this, we prepared five types of VO NPs, commercial (C)-VO{sub 2} and -V{sub 2}O{sub 5} NPs and synthetic (S)-VO{sub 2}, -V{sub 2}O{sub 3,} and -V{sub 2}O{sub 5} NPs. While the hydrodynamic diameter of the two types of C-VO NPs was irregular and impossible to measure, those of the three types of S-VO NPs was in the range of 125–170 nm. The S- and C-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} NPs showed higher dissolution rates compared to other VO NPs. We orally dosed the five types of VO NPs (70 and 210 μg/mouse, approximately 2 and 6 mg/kg) to mice for 28 days and compared their biodistribution and toxic effects. We found that S-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and S-V{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs more accumulated in tissues compared to other three types of VO NPs, and the accumulated level was in order of heart>liver>kidney>spleen. Additionally, tissue levels of redox reaction-related elements and electrolytes (Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and Ca{sup 2+}) were most clearly altered in the heart of treated mice. Notably, all S- and C-VO NPs decreased the number of WBCs at the higher dose, while total protein and albumin levels were reduced at the higher dose of S-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and S-V{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs. Taken together, we conclude that the biodistribution and toxic effects of VO NPs depend on their dissolution rates and size (surface area). Additionally, we suggest that further studies

  6. Single oral dose toxicity test of polycalcium, a mixed composition of polycan and calcium lactate-gluconate 1:9 (G/G) in SD rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo-Wan; Choi, Jae-Suk; Ha, Yu-Mi; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Ki-Young; Cho, Hyung-rae; Rha, Chae-hun; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2013-11-01

    The object of this study was to obtain acute oral toxicity information of Polycalcium, a mixed composition of Polycan and Calcium lactate-gluconate 1:9 (g/g), in Sprague-Dawely (SD) rats. In order to investigate the toxicity and identify target organs, Polycalcium were once orally administered to female and male SD rats at dose levels of 2000, 1000, 500 and 0 (control) mg/kg body weights. The mortality, changes on body weight and clinical signs were monitored during 14 days after treatment with gross observation, changes on the organ weights and histopathology of principle organs and treatment sites based on the recommendation of KFDA Guidelines [2009-116, 2009]. As the results of single oral treatment of Polycalcium, no treatment related mortalities were observed within 14 days after end of treatment up to 2000 mg/kg, the limited dosage of rodents in the both genders. In addition, no Polycalcium treatment related changes on the body and organ weights, clinical signs, necropsy and histopathological findings were detected. The results obtained in this study suggest that the Polycalcium is non-toxic in rats. The LD50 and approximate LD in rats after single oral dose of Polycalcium were considered over 2000 mg/kg in both female and male, respectively.

  7. Radiation toxicity studies in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Carnes, B.A.; Duggal, K.

    1985-01-01

    These studies provide data that identify tissue sensitivities, target organs, disease processes, life shortening values, and mortality rates that result from continuous and terminated exposures to whole-body radiations and relate them to various total doses and dose rates. The data from protracted exposures given at rates between 3.8 and 26.3 cGys per day show that the life shortening and numbers of fatal tumors are determined by total dose when the irradiation is terminated at total doses between 450 and 3000 cGys. 4 refs

  8. Oral bioaccessibility of toxic and essential elements in raw and cooked commercial seafood species available in European markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Ricardo N.; Maulvault, Ana L.; Barbosa, Vera L.

    2017-01-01

    The oral bioaccessibility of several essential and toxic elements was investigated in raw and cooked commercially available seafood species from European markets. Bioaccessibility varied between seafood species and elements. Methylmercury bioaccessibility varied between 10 (octopus) and 60...... % (monkfish). Arsenic (> 64%) was the toxic element showing the highest bioaccessibility. Concerning essential elements bioaccessibility in raw seafood, selenium (73 %) and iodine (71 %) revealed the highest percentages. The bioaccessibility of elements in steamed products increased or decreased according...

  9. Acute Oral Toxicity of Tetrodotoxin in Mice: Determination of Lethal Dose 50 (LD50 and No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Abal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tetrodotoxin (TTX is starting to appear in molluscs from the European waters and is a hazard to seafood consumers. This toxin blocks sodium channels resulting in neuromuscular paralysis and even death. As a part of the risk assessment process leading to a safe seafood level for TTX, oral toxicity data are required. In this study, a 4-level Up and Down Procedure was designed in order to determine for the first time the oral lethal dose 50 (LD50 and the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL in mice by using an accurate well-characterized TTX standard.

  10. Safety studies of homoeopathic drugs in acute, sub-acute and chronic toxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Homoeopathic drugs are frequently recommended in day to day life as therapeutic agents by homoeopathic practitioners. However, safety of homoeopathic drugs remains a challenge because of the high variability of chemical components involved. Aim: The objective of the present study was to investigate the acute, subacute, and chronic oral toxicity of different homoeopathic drugs (Ferrum phosphoricum 3X, Ferrum phosphoricum 6X, Calcarea phosphoricum 6X, and Magnesium phosphoricum 6X in experimental models. Materials and Methods: In acute oral toxicity study, homoeopathic drugs were administered orally at 2000mg/kg body weight, and animals were observed for toxic symptoms till 10 days as per the OECD guidelines. For subacute and chronic toxicity study, homoeopathic drugs were administered for 28 and 180 days, respectively, as per the OECD guidelines. At the end of 28 and 180 days, the animals were sacrificed and toxicity parameters were assessed. Histopathological evaluation of different organs was also performed to assess any toxicity. Results: In acute toxicity study, no mortality was found at a dose of 2000 mg/kg which indicates that oral LD50of homoeopathic drugs were more than 2000 mg/kg. The administration of drugs at a dose of 70 mg/kg body weight for 28 and 180 days did not produce any significant change in haematological and biochemical parameters of male and female rats as compared to normal control group. No pathological changes were observed in histology of various organs of treated rats as compared to normal control animals. Conclusion: These homoeopathic drugs are safe & produce no toxicity when administered for longer duration.

  11. Acute oral toxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of hydroalcoholic extract from Lampaya medicinalis Phil in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Glauco; Paredes, Adrián; Olivares, Alberto; Bravo, Jaime

    2014-03-26

    Algesia and inflammation are related with several pathological conditions. It is known that many drugs available for the treatment of these problems cause unwanted side effects. This study was aimed at evaluating acute toxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of Lampaya medicinalis Phil. (Verbenaceae) widely used in the folk medicine of Northern Chile against rheumatism, arthritis and body joints pain. Oral administration of hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) at the highest dose of 3000 mg/ Kg body weight resulted in no mortalities or evidence of significant behavioral changes. Histological examination revealed normal architecture and no significant adverse effects were observed on the liver, kidney, heart, lung or ovaries and testicles. The results suggest that the oral administration of hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) from Lampaya medicinalis did not produce any toxic effect in rats. Hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in dose - response relationship, at test doses of 37.5, 75, 150 and 300 mg/Kg body weight. Maximum inhibition (61.98 ± 2.69%) was noted at 300 mg/Kg after 2 h of drug treatment carrageenan induced paw edema, whereas indomethacin produced 47.90 ± 1.16% of inhibition. The inhibitory values of edema at 3 h postcarrageenan were 31.04 ± 0.75%, 40.51 ± 2.36%, 48.97 ± 1.14% and 56.87 ± 0.41% for 37.5, 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg of extract respectively. Indomethacin (10 mg/Kg) gave a percentage inhibition of 49.44 ± 1.44. HAE (300 and 150 mg/kg) induced an anti-inflammatory effect greater than (or comparable) with the effect of indomethacin from 2nd to 4th hours of the experiment. Our results reveal for first time that compounds contained in the hydroalcoholic extract of Lampaya medicinalis Phil exert anti-inflammatory effect and the oral administration is safe and non toxic up to dose level 3000 mg/kg body weight. The anti-inflammatory activity may be associated with the presence of flavonoids. These

  12. Acute oral toxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of hydroalcoholic extract from Lampaya medicinalis Phil in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Morales

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Algesia and inflammation are related with several pathological conditions. It is known that many drugs available for the treatment of these problems cause unwanted side effects. This study was aimed at evaluating acute toxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of Lampaya medicinalis Phil. (Verbenaceae widely used in the folk medicine of Northern Chile against rheumatism, arthritis and body joints pain. RESULTS: Oral administration of hydroalcoholic extract (HAE at the highest dose of 3000 mg/ Kg body weight resulted in no mortalities or evidence of significant behavioral changes. Histological examination revealed normal architecture and no significant adverse effects were observed on the liver, kidney, heart, lung or ovaries and testicles. The results suggest that the oral administration of hydroalcoholic extract (HAE from Lampaya medicinalis did not produce any toxic effect in rats. Hydroalcoholic extract (HAE significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in dose - response relationship, at test doses of 37.5, 75, 150 and 300 mg/Kg body weight. Maximum inhibition (61.98 ± 2.69% was noted at 300 mg/Kg after 2 h of drug treatment carrageenan induced paw edema, whereas indomethacin produced 47.90 ± 1.16% of inhibition. The inhibitory values of edema at 3 h postcarrageenan were 31.04±0.75%, 40.51 ± 2.36%, 48.97 ± 1.14% and 56.87 ± 0.41% for 37.5, 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg of extract respectively. Indomethacin (10 mg/Kg gave a percentage inhibition of 49.44 ± 1.44. HAE (300 and 150 mg/kg induced an anti-inflammatory effect greater than (or comparable with the effect of indomethacin from 2nd to 4th hours of the experiment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal for first time that compounds contained in the hydroalcoholic extract ofLampaya medicinalis Phil exert anti-inflammatory effect and the oral administration is safe and non toxic up to dose level 3000 mg/kg body weight. The anti

  13. Blood Parameters and Toxicity of Chromium Picolinate Oral Supplementation in Lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallago, Bruno Stéfano Lima; Braz, ShélidaVasconcelos; Marçola, Tatiana Guerrero; McManus, Concepta; Caldeira, Denise Ferreira; Campeche, Aline; Gomes, Edgard Franco; Paim, Tiago Prado; Borges, Bárbara Oliveira; Louvandini, Helder

    2015-11-01

    The effects of oral supplementation of chromium picolinate (CrPic) on various blood parameters and their possible toxicity on the liver, kidneys, lungs, heart, and testis were investigated. Twenty-four Santa Inês (SI) lambs were treated with four different concentrations of CrPic (six animals/treatment): placebo, 0.250, 0.375, and 0.500 mg CrPic/animal/day for 84 days. The basal diet consisted of hay Panicum maximum cv Massai and concentrate. Blood and serum were collected fortnightly for analysis. On day 84, the animals were euthanized, and histopathological analysis in the liver, kidney, heart, lung, and testis was made. The liver and kidney were also submitted to electronic microscopy analysis. Differences between treatments (P plasm protein (day 56 and day 84), and triglycerides (day 70). There was no statistically significant relationship between Cr supplementation and histopathology findings, although some animals treated with supplementary Cr showed morphological changes in the liver, kidney, and testis. Thus, the effectiveness of supplementation with Cr remains in doubt as to its physiological action and toxicity in sheep.

  14. Photoprotective effect and acute oral systemic toxicity evaluation of the novel heterocyclic compound LQFM048.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinhal, Daniela C; de Ávila, Renato Ivan; Vieira, Marcelo S; Luzin, Rangel M; Quintino, Michelle P; Nunes, Liliane M; Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos Chaves; de Camargo, Henrique Santiago; Pinto, Angelo C; Dos Santos Júnior, Helvécio M; Chiari, Bruna G; Isaac, Vera; Valadares, Marize C; Martins, Tatiana Duque; Lião, Luciano M; de S Gil, Eric; Menegatti, Ricardo

    2016-08-01

    The new heterocyclic derivative LQFM048 (3) (2,4,6-tris ((E)-ethyl 2-cyano-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate)-1,3,5-triazine) was originally designed through the molecular hybridization strategy from Uvinul® T 150 (1) and (E)-ethyl 2-cyano-3-(4hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate (2) sunscreens, using green chemistry approach. This compound was obtained in global yields (80%) and showed an interesting redox potential. In addition, it is thermally stable up to temperatures around 250°C. It was observed that LQFM048 (3) showed a low degradation after 150min of sunlight exposure at 39°C, whereas the extreme radiation conditions induced a considerable photodegradation of the LQFM048 (3), especially when irradiated by VIS and VIS+UVA. During the determination of sun protection factor, LQFM048 (3) showed interesting results, specially as in association with other photoprotective compounds and commercial sunscreen. Additionally, the compound (3) did not promote cytotoxicity for 3T3 fibroblasts. Moreover, it was not able to trigger acute oral systemic toxicity in mice, being classified as a compound with low acute toxicity hazard (2.000mg/kg>LD50compound synthesized using green chemistry approach is promising showing potential to development of a new sunscreen product with advantage of presenting redox potential, indicating antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Oral toxicity of silver ions, silver nanoparticles and colloidal silver--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadrup, Niels; Lam, Henrik R

    2014-02-01

    Orally administered silver has been described to be absorbed in a range of 0.4-18% in mammals with a human value of 18%. Based on findings in animals, silver seems to be distributed to all of the organs investigated, with the highest levels being observed in the intestine and stomach. In the skin, silver induces a blue-grey discoloration termed argyria. Excretion occurs via the bile and urine. The following dose-dependent animal toxicity findings have been reported: death, weight loss, hypoactivity, altered neurotransmitter levels, altered liver enzymes, altered blood values, enlarged hearts and immunological effects. Substantial evidence exists suggesting that the effects induced by particulate silver are mediated via silver ions that are released from the particle surface. With the current data regarding toxicity and average human dietary exposure, a Margin of Safety calculation indicates at least a factor of five before a level of concern to the general population is reached. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Continuous low-dose oral chemotherapy in recurrent and persistent carcinoma of cervix following chemoradiation: A comparative study between prolonged oral cyclophosphamide and oral etoposide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upasana Baruah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the efficacy and toxicities of low-dose oral cyclophosphamide and oral etoposide in patients with persistent and recurrent cervical cancer with gross pelvic disease following full course of chemoradiation therapy. Materials and Methods: 30 patients with recurrent and persistent cervical cancer with gross pelvic disease were enrolled in this trial. The patients were randomly divided into two groups of 15 patients each with one group receiving low dose oral cyclophosphamide (100 mg/day and the other group receiving low-dose oral etoposide (50 mg/day. Results were statistically analysed by IBM SPSS Statistics 19. Results: Oral etoposide was not well tolerated with grade 2 neutropenia occurring in 33.3% and grade 3 neutropenia in 6.6% and thrombocytopenia occurring in 13.3%. Oral cyclophosphamide group on the other hand was better tolerated with none of the patients having thrombocytopenia and 6.6% patients having grade 2 neutropenia. There were two complete response (15.38% and one partial response at the end of study (7.6% in the cyclophosphamide group whereas there was no complete response and two partial response (16.6% in the oral etoposide group. Conclusion: Long-term, low-dose oral etoposide was found to be less tolerated without any significant effect with patients with persistent and recurrent cervical cancer with gross pelvic disease following full course of chemoradiation therapy in contrast to oral cyclophosphamide which was found to be effective and well-tolerated by the patients.

  17. 40 CFR 799.9310 - TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... displaying each type of lesion. (ii) When applicable, all observed results, qualitative and quantitative... be used throughout the duration of the study and the research sample should be stored under... method during the entire experimental period. (iii) For substances of low toxicity, it is important to...

  18. Acute and Sub-Acute Oral Toxicity Evaluation of Astragalus hamosus Seedpod Ethanolic Extract in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadmehdi Hassanzadeh-Taheri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral consumption of Astragalus hamosus L. (AH seedpod has been widely prescribed in traditional medicine system. However, its toxicity evaluation has never been investigated. Hence, the current study was performed to evaluate the toxicological profile of AH seedpod in acute and subacute assessments based on the OECD-guidelines 425 and 407 in male and female Wistar rats. Methods: In the acute study, ethanolic extract of AH at a single dose of 2000 mg/kg was orally administrated to six female rats. In the subacute assay, AH at the three different oral doses (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg were administrated to both male and female rats for 28 consecutive days. Results: No death or behavioural changes were observed in the treated animals. In subacute test, in both sexes, no changes in organ weights observed. Biochemically, compared to the control, AH at the dose of 300 mg/kg slightly increased (p<0.05 uric acid and creatinine and declined total cholesterol levels in both male and female rats. However, there is no statistically difference in other parameters such as albumin, triglyceride, blood urea, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase between AH treated groups and untreated controls. Hematologic parameters showed that AH at the maximum dose decreased red blood cells count only in male rats. Histopathological evaluation of liver and kidney exhibited no noticeable alterations in AH treated animals. Conclusion: It could be concluded that high excessive and long term consumption of AH may lead to renal dysfunction and deficiency in hematopoietic system.

  19. Acute and subacute oral toxicity evaluation of Tephrosia purpurea extract in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talib Hussain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity of 50% ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (T. purpurea in rodents. Methods: The acute toxicity test was conducted in Swiss albino mice. The extract of T. purpurea was administrated in single doses of 50, 300 and 2000 mg/ kg and observed for behavioral changes and mortality, if any. In subacute toxicity study, Wistar rats of either sex were administered two doses of T. purpurea i.e., 200 and 400 mg/kg (One-tenth and one-fifth of the maximum tolerated dose, p.o. for 4 weeks. During 28 days of treatment, rats were observed weekly for any change in their body weight, food and water intake. At the end of 28 days, rats were sacrificed for hematological, biochemical and histopathology study. Results: In the acute toxicity study, T. purpurea was found to be well tolerated upto 2 000 mg/kg, produced neither mortality nor changes in behavior in mice. In subacute toxicity study, T. purpurea at dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg did not produce any significant difference in their body weight, food and water intake when compared to vehicle treated rats. It also showed no significant alteration in hematological and biochemical parameters in experimental groups of rats apart from a decrease in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphate content at the dose of 400 mg/kg. Histopathological study revealed normal architecture of kidney and liver of T. purpurea treated rats. Conclusions: These results demonstrated that there is a wide margin of safety for the therapeutic use of T. purpurea and further corroborated the traditional use of this extract as an anti hepatocarcinogenic agent

  20. Toxicity studies of the water extract from the calyces of Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute and chronic toxicities of the water extract from calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were studied in male and female rats. After 14 days of a single oral administration of test substance 5,000 mg/kg body weight, measurement of the body and organ weights, necropsy and health monitoring were performed. No signs and ...

  1. The effect of oral administration of Allium sativum extracts on lead nitrate induced toxicity in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Veena; Sharma, Arti; Kansal, Leena

    2010-03-01

    Lead is a common environmental occupational toxic metal, known to have indirect oxidative effects. Considering the antioxidant properties of garlic, this study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of garlic extracts in terms of normalization of altered hematological, biochemical and immunological parameters, and depletion of inorganic lead burden in blood, kidney and brain tissues. Chronic lead nitrate ingestion showed a significant decline in total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, lymphocyte and monocyte content, while neutrophil content increased in lead nitrate treated group. Pb(NO(3))(2) exposure elicited a significant escalation in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level and depletion in reduced glutathione content and antioxidant enzymes namely, superoxide dismutase and catalase in kidney and brain. Activities of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase augmented significantly in kidney and brain of lead exposed mice. Lead nitrate treatment decreased protein content while cholesterol and lead burden increased significantly. A decrease in viability of macrophage, phagocytic index, immunoglobulin level and plaque count were the salient features observed in lead exposed animals. However, oral administration of garlic extracts to Pb(NO(3))(2) treated groups attenuated the deranged parameters to some extent. This indicates that garlic can be a protective regimen for lead toxicity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Oral coatings: a study on the formation, clearance and perception

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho, S.

    2015-01-01

    Oral coatings are residues of food and beverages that coat the oral mucosa after consumption. Several studies have reported on the lubrication properties in mouth, and the after-feel and after-taste impact of oral coatings. Further, oral coatings have been suggested to influence subsequent taste perception. Although it is well known that oral coatings can influence sensory perception, there was little information available on the chemical composition and physical properties of oral coatings. ...

  3. Safety assessment of hydroethanolic rambutan rind extract: acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinkratok, Aree; Suwannaprapha, Parin; Srisawat, Rungrudee

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the safety of rambutan rind extract (RRE) in male Wistar rats. While acute toxicity was evaluated by feeding the rats with single doses of RRE (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 mg/kg) and its sub-chronic toxicity was observed in rats orally administered with RRE (500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg) daily for 30 days. In acute toxicity study, the LD50 was found to be greater than 5000 mg/kg of RRE. In sub-chronic toxicity study, no mortality and sign of toxicity was found up to 1000 mg/kg/day of RRE. At 2000 mg/kg/day dose, the mortality rate was 12.5%. Significant decreases in body weight gain and food consumption were found in both acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies. In acute toxicity study, all the studied doses of RRE did not alter serum levels of triglyceride (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) andalanine aminotransferase (ALT). In sub-chronic toxicity study, all studied doses of RRE significantly decreased plasma levels of TG and blood urea nitrogen, but did not alter plasma levels of AST and ALT. TC levels did not show any significant change in both the studies. The obtained results provide basic information for in vivo experimental studies of the pharmacological potentiality of RRE.

  4. Pharmacological assay of Cordia verbenacea V: oral and topical anti-inflammatory activity, analgesic effect and fetus toxicity of a crude leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertié, J A A; Woisky, R G; Wiezel, G; Rodrigues, M

    2005-05-01

    Cordia verbenacea D.C. (Borraginaceae) is a perennial bush plant that grows widely along the southeastern coast of Brazil. Its leaves have been used in folk medicine for their anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory and cicatrizing activities. We have already described the anti-inflammatory properties of C. verbenacea and its low toxicity in different acute animal models. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity in sub-chronic animal models of a crude leaf lyophilized extract when administered by oral route or topically applied, and concomitantly, its analgesic potency and toxicity to the fetus. Topical administration of the extract inhibited nystatin-induced edema proportionally to the doses used, and this effect at a dose of 4.56 mg/kg body wt. was similar to that observed with 6.0 mg/kg body wt. of naproxen. In miconazole-induced edema, the leaf extract at a dose of 1.24 mg/kg body wt., orally administered, has a very similar effect as compared to nimezulide (2.5 mg/kg body wt.) and dexamethasone (0.2 mg/kg body wt.). At an oral dose of 2.48 mg/kg body wt. the extract showed a very low analgesic effect, and total absence of fetus toxicity at doses of less than 7.44 mg/kg body wt.

  5. Classification of baseline toxicants for QSAR predictions to replace fish acute toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nendza, Monika; Müller, Martin; Wenzel, Andrea

    2017-03-22

    Fish acute toxicity studies are required for environmental hazard and risk assessment of chemicals by national and international legislations such as REACH, the regulations of plant protection products and biocidal products, or the GHS (globally harmonised system) for classification and labelling of chemicals. Alternative methods like QSARs (quantitative structure-activity relationships) can replace many ecotoxicity tests. However, complete substitution of in vivo animal tests by in silico methods may not be realistic. For the so-called baseline toxicants, it is possible to predict the fish acute toxicity with sufficient accuracy from log K ow and, hence, valid QSARs can replace in vivo testing. In contrast, excess toxicants and chemicals not reliably classified as baseline toxicants require further in silico, in vitro or in vivo assessments. Thus, the critical task is to discriminate between baseline and excess toxicants. For fish acute toxicity, we derived a scheme based on structural alerts and physicochemical property thresholds to classify chemicals as either baseline toxicants (=predictable by QSARs) or as potential excess toxicants (=not predictable by baseline QSARs). The step-wise approach identifies baseline toxicants (true negatives) in a precautionary way to avoid false negative predictions. Therefore, a certain fraction of false positives can be tolerated, i.e. baseline toxicants without specific effects that may be tested instead of predicted. Application of the classification scheme to a new heterogeneous dataset for diverse fish species results in 40% baseline toxicants, 24% excess toxicants and 36% compounds not classified. Thus, we can conclude that replacing about half of the fish acute toxicity tests by QSAR predictions is realistic to be achieved in the short-term. The long-term goals are classification criteria also for further groups of toxicants and to replace as many in vivo fish acute toxicity tests as possible with valid QSAR

  6. Acute and 28-day subchronic toxicity studies of mangiferin, a glucosylxanthone isolated from Mangifera indica L. stem bark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalena Prado

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Pharmacological properties of mangiferin have been reported, but few studies have investigated mangiferin toxicity. Aims: To study the acute and 28-day toxicity effects of mangiferin in rodents. Methods: Single doses of mangiferin were administered by oral or i.p. route or were applied dermally to Sprague-Dawley rats and Balb/C mice. Clinical symptoms of animals were observed during 14 days after treatment. Animals also received single oral doses daily for 28 consecutive days. Blood biochemistry, hematology and pathology findings were reported. Results: In the acute study, no toxic effects were observed after dermal exposure to mangiferin 2000 mg/kg but transient dyspnea, flank position and piloerection were observed after oral administration to this xanthone. I.p. administration induced similar toxicity signs, but at the highest dose (2000 mg/kg all mice, one female rat and one male rat died. Rats orally treated with mangiferin (250-1000 mg/kg for 28 days did not show any abnormal clinical signs or hematology alterations, when compared to control group animals. Histopathological alterations like vacuolar degeneration, necrosis and increment of apoptosis of the acinar cells were observed in the exocrine pancreas of rats at 1000 mg/kg. This suggesting that exocrine pancreas was the target organ for mangiferin’s toxicity. Conclusions: These studies indicated that acute and subchronic toxicities of mangiferin for oral exposure are low.

  7. Antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens and immunomodulatory effects and toxicity of geopropolis produced by the stingless bee Melipona fasciculata Smith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberio, Silvana A; Pereira, Antônio Luís A; Dutra, Richard P; Reis, Aramys S; Araújo, Maria José A M; Mattar, Nadia S; Silva, Lucilene A; Ribeiro, Maria Nilce S; Nascimento, Flávia Raquel F; Guerra, Rosane N M; Monteiro-Neto, Valério

    2011-11-04

    Native bees of the tribe Meliponini produce a distinct kind of propolis called geopropolis. Although many pharmacological activities of propolis have already been demonstrated, little is known about geopropolis, particularly regarding its antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens. The present study aimed at investigating the antimicrobial activity of M. fasciculata geopropolis against oral pathogens, its effects on S. mutans biofilms, and the chemical contents of the extracts. A gel prepared with a geopropolis extract was also analyzed for its activity on S. mutans and its immunotoxicological potential. Antimicrobial activities of three hydroalcoholic extracts (HAEs) of geopropolis, and hexane and chloroform fractions of one extract, were evaluated using the agar diffusion method and the broth dilution technique. Ethanol (70%, v/v) and chlorhexidine (0.12%, w/w) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Total phenol and flavonoid concentrations were assayed by spectrophotometry. Immunotoxicity was evaluated in mice by topical application in the oral cavity followed by quantification of biochemical and immunological parameters, and macro-microscopic analysis of animal organs. Two extracts, HAE-2 and HAE-3, showed inhibition zones ranging from 9 to 13 mm in diameter for S. mutans and C. albicans, but presented no activity against L. acidophilus. The MBCs for HAE-2 and HAE-3 against S. mutans were 6.25 mg/mL and 12.5 mg/mL, respectively. HAE-2 was fractionated, and its chloroform fraction had an MBC of 14.57 mg/mL. HAE-2 also exhibited bactericidal effects on S. mutans biofilms after 3 h of treatment. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in total phenol and flavonoid concentrations were observed among the samples. Signs toxic effects were not observed after application of the geopropolis-based gel, but an increase in the production of IL-4 and IL-10, anti-inflammatory cytokines, was detected. In summary, geopropolis produced by M. fasciculata can

  8. Toxicity studies of the water extract from the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Itharat, Arunporn; Khonsung, Parirat; Lertprasertsuke, Nirush; Jaijoy, Kanjana

    2013-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicities of the water extract from calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were studied in male and female rats. After 14 days of a single oral administration of test substance 5,000 mg/kg body weight, measurement of the body and organ weights, necropsy and health monitoring were performed. No signs and differences of the weights or behaviour compared to the control rats were observed. The results indicated that the single oral administration of H. sabdariffa extract in the amount of 5,000 mg/kg body weight does not produce acute toxicity. The chronic toxicity was determined by oral feeding both male and female rats daily with the extract at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight for 270 days. The examinations of signs, animal behaviour and health monitoring showed no defects in the test groups compared to the control groups. Both test and control groups (day 270th) and satellite group (day 298th) were analysed by measuring their final body and organ weights, taking necropsy, and examining haematology, blood clinical chemistry, and microanatomy. Results showed no differences from the control groups. Overall, our study demonstrated that an oral administration of H. sabdariffa extract at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 270 days does not cause chronic toxicity in rat.

  9. Subacute oral toxicity investigation of nanoparticulate and ionic silver in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Niels; Löschner, Katrin; Bergström, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Subacute toxicity of 14 nm nanoparticulate silver (Ag-NP) stabilised with polyvinylpyrrolidone and ionic silver in the form of silver acetate (Ag-acetate) was investigated in four-week-old Wistar rats. Animals received orally by gavage the following: vehicle control (10 $, 6 #); Ag-NP at doses: 2.......25 (8 $), 4.5 (8 $) or 9 mg/kg bw/day (10 $, 6 #); or Ag-acetate 9 mg silver/kg bw/day (8 $) for 28 days. Clinical, haematolological and biochemical parameters, organ weights, macro- and microscopic pathological changes were investigated. Caecal bacterial phyla and their silver resistance genes were...... quantified. For the Ag-NP groups, no toxicological effects were recorded. For Ag-acetate, lower body weight gain (day 4–7, 11–14, 14–16, P\\0.05; overall, day 1–28, P\\0.01), increased plasma alkaline phosphatase (P\\0.05), decreased plasma urea (P\\0.05) and lower absolute (P\\0.01) and relative (P\\0.05) thymus...

  10. An Oral Contraceptive Drug Interaction Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradstreet, Thomas E.; Panebianco, Deborah L.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on a two treatment, two period, two treatment sequence crossover drug interaction study of a new drug and a standard oral contraceptive therapy. Both normal theory and distribution-free statistical analyses are provided along with a notable amount of graphical insight into the dataset. For one of the variables, the decision on…

  11. Oral coatings: a study on the formation, clearance and perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camacho, S.

    2015-01-01

    Oral coatings are residues of food and beverages that coat the oral mucosa after consumption. Several studies have reported on the lubrication properties in mouth, and the after-feel and after-taste impact of oral coatings. Further, oral coatings have been suggested to influence subsequent taste

  12. Avisalmvac: evaluation studies of stability and toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Botus,

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In Pasteur Institute laboratories there was developed AVISALMVAC, a vaccine against avian Salmonella, a biological product that contains S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium bacterin, with oil adjuvant. This paper presents the results of the studies regarding the stability and toxicity evaluation of this vaccine stored under conditions recommended by the manufacturer (2-80C at the end of the period of validity. The vaccine stability was assessed by serological and histopathological analysis of samples from SPF chickens vaccinated with the product at the end of the period of validity. The study of Avisalmvac toxicity was carried out by inoculation of the product or its components on Vero cell monolayer, and the effects were microscopically recorded or by MTT test, applied at 6 days post-inoculation. Antibody titers recorded at 2 and 3 weeks post vaccination demonstrated the vaccine ability (used after an year since manufacture to induce synthesis of specific antibodies and therefore, the product stability was proven. Histopathological examinations carried out on samples taken at 18 days post vaccinationfrom the vaccination site (skeletal muscle and skin and spleen, did not show any lesions associated to vaccination with Avisalmvac. The cytotoxicity analysis made by inoculating the vaccine or its components on Vero cell monolayer and the microscopic examination did not record visible cytopathic effects for any vaccine dilutions or vaccine components. The cell metabolism evaluation by MTT assay made at 6 days after vaccine/vaccine components inoculation on Vero monolayer, shown the ability of the vaccine and oil adjuvant to stimulate cell metabolism, and a certain degree of toxicity / inhibition of dehydrogenase metabolism associated to one of emulsifier but at dilutions higher than those used in the vaccine formula.

  13. Acute Oral Toxicity of 3-Chloro-4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolidinone (Compound 1) in ICR Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Acute Oral Toxicity, N- Chloramine , Mouse, Mammalian Toxicology, Water Disinfectant , 3-Chloro-4, 4 -dimethyl-2...Amer Ind Hyg Assoc Q 1943; 10:93-96. 7. Mora EC, Kohl HH, Wheatley WB, et al. Properties or a new chloramine disinfectant and detoxicant. Poultry Sci...ORGANIZATION Mammalian Toxicology (If applicable) US Army Biomedical Research Division of Toxicology SGRD-ULE- T and Development Laboratory 6c. ADDRESS

  14. Epidemiological characterization of oral cancer. Study Protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Fernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is a disease of high impact globally. It ranks as the sixth more frequent one among all types of cancer. In spite of being a widely known pathology and easy access to the diagnosis, the lack of epidemiological data reported in the last 10 years in Chile called attention to. At the global level, the World Health Organization (WHO has developed a project called “GLOBOCAN” in order to collect epidemiological data of the global cancer, between its data, highlights the high incidence and high rate of mortality in the male sex, parameter that shows tendency to replicate in both America and Chile. In consequence to these data, a narrative review of the literature concerning the epidemiological profile of the different forms of oral cancer in the past 15 years was done. The diagnosis of oral cancer crosses transversely the Dental Science, forcing us to establish triads of work between oral and maxillofacial surgeons, pathologists and dentists of the various specialties, so as to allow a timely research, appropriate biopsies and histopathological studies finishes with the purpose of, on the one hand, obtain timely and accurate diagnostics, in addition, maintaining the epidemiological indicators.

  15. Oral ftorafur versus intravenous 5-fluorouracil. A comparative study in patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, E; Pedersen, H

    1987-01-01

    The toxicities of oral Ftorafur (1 g/m2/day 1-21) and intravenous 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (500 mg/m2/day 1-5) were compared in a prospective randomized study in patients with colorectal cancer. The treatment courses were repeated every 6th week. Leucopenia was more common after 5-FU. Leucocyte nadir...

  16. Cholesterol reduction and lack of genotoxic or toxic effects in mice after repeated 21-day oral intake of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Celso A R A; Bidinotto, Lucas T; Takahira, Regina K; Salvadori, Daisy M F; Barbisan, Luís F; Costa, Mirtes

    2011-09-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) is currently used in traditional folk medicine. Although this species presents widespread use, there are no scientific data on its efficacy or safety after repeated treatments. Therefore, this work investigated the toxicity and genotoxicity of this lemongrass's essential oil (EO) in male Swiss mice. The single LD(50) based on a 24h acute oral toxicity study was found to be around 3500 mg/kg. In a repeated-dose 21-day oral toxicity study, mice were randomly assigned to two control groups, saline- or Tween 80 0.01%-treated groups, or one of the three experimental groups receiving lemongrass EO (1, 10 or 100mg/kg). No significant changes in gross pathology, body weight, absolute or relative organ weights, histology (brain, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, stomach, spleen and urinary bladder), urinalysis or clinical biochemistry were observed in EO-treated mice relative to the control groups. Additionally, blood cholesterol was reduced after EO-treatment at the highest dose tested. Similarly, data from the comet assay in peripheral blood cells showed no genotoxic effect from the EO. In conclusion, our findings verified the safety of lemongrass intake at the doses used in folk medicine and indicated the beneficial effect of reducing the blood cholesterol level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Studies on the toxicity of RSU-1069

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, G.F.; Gulyas, S.

    1986-01-01

    RSU-1069 combines an aziridine function with a 2-nitroimidazole and has been reported to exhibit extraordinary radiosensitization both in vitro and in vivo. Such sensitization appears to be at variance with the electron affinity of the compound. In addition, recent experiments suggest that the compound is highly toxic to hypoxic tumor cells in vivo. On the assumption that the observed radiosensitizing ability may be a manifestation of toxicity and because of the high in vivo toxicity, we have investigated aerobic and hypoxic toxicity, both in wild type CHO cells and in mutants sensitive to a variety of DNA damaging agents. With wild type cells under aerobic conditions, the compound is approximately 50 times as toxic as misonidazole and under hypoxic conditions, approximately 250 times as toxic. The ratio of hypoxic to aerobic toxicity is approximately 80 times. Under aerobic conditions, repair-deficient mutants are 10 times as sensitive to RSU-1069 as wild type cells and approximately 100 times as sensitive under hypoxic conditions. The ratio of hypoxic to aerobic toxicity for the mutant cells is approximately 900. Based on these observations, we suggest that under aerobic conditions the aziridine function is primarily responsible for toxicity, whereas, under hypoxic conditions, the aziridine moiety combined with a reduced 2-nitroimidazole moiety produces a bifunctional agent

  18. Meta-analysis of toxicity and teratogenicity of 133 chemicals from zebrafish developmental toxicity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrafish developmental toxicity testing is an emerging field, which faces considerable challenges regarding data meta-analysis and the establishment of standardized test protocols. Here, we present an initial correlation study on toxicity of 133 chemicals based on data in the li...

  19. Antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens and immunomodulatory effects and toxicity of geopropolis produced by the stingless bee Melipona fasciculata Smith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberio Silvana A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Native bees of the tribe Meliponini produce a distinct kind of propolis called geopropolis. Although many pharmacological activities of propolis have already been demonstrated, little is known about geopropolis, particularly regarding its antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens. The present study aimed at investigating the antimicrobial activity of M. fasciculata geopropolis against oral pathogens, its effects on S. mutans biofilms, and the chemical contents of the extracts. A gel prepared with a geopropolis extract was also analyzed for its activity on S. mutans and its immunotoxicological potential. Methods Antimicrobial activities of three hydroalcoholic extracts (HAEs of geopropolis, and hexane and chloroform fractions of one extract, were evaluated using the agar diffusion method and the broth dilution technique. Ethanol (70%, v/v and chlorhexidine (0.12%, w/w were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Total phenol and flavonoid concentrations were assayed by spectrophotometry. Immunotoxicity was evaluated in mice by topical application in the oral cavity followed by quantification of biochemical and immunological parameters, and macro-microscopic analysis of animal organs. Results Two extracts, HAE-2 and HAE-3, showed inhibition zones ranging from 9 to 13 mm in diameter for S. mutans and C. albicans, but presented no activity against L. acidophilus. The MBCs for HAE-2 and HAE-3 against S. mutans were 6.25 mg/mL and 12.5 mg/mL, respectively. HAE-2 was fractionated, and its chloroform fraction had an MBC of 14.57 mg/mL. HAE-2 also exhibited bactericidal effects on S. mutans biofilms after 3 h of treatment. Significant differences (p Conclusions In summary, geopropolis produced by M. fasciculata can exert antimicrobial action against S. mutans and C. albicans, with significant inhibitory activity against S. mutans biofilms. The extract with the highest flavonoid concentration, HAE-2, presented the

  20. ALKALOIDAL COMPOSITION AND TOXICITY STUDIES OF THREE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mattock's test for unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids (hepatotoxic) revealed that only C. retusa contained these alkaloids amongst the three species. This indicated that this is a potentially toxic specie. The alkaloids of C. retusa were toxic to albino (Wistar) rats. Marked microscopic lesions were found, principally in the liver.

  1. Toxicity studies of drugs and chemicals in animals: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    S. Saganuwan

    2017-01-01

    Toxicity study is the investigation of either short or long-term toxic effects of a drug or chemical on animals. The toxicity is dose-dependent as asserted by Paracelsus over 500 years ago. However, short-term toxic effect is determined using median lethal dose (LD50) first introduced by Trevan in 1927 and revised many times. Presently there is a growing preponderance of rejection of scientific papers on acute toxicity study, simply because of the belief that in the current hazard and safety ...

  2. Toxicity Assessment for EPA's Hydraulic Fracturing Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains data used to develop multiple manuscripts on the toxicity of chemicals associated with the hydraulic fracturing industry. These manuscripts...

  3. Accumulation of Arsenic Speciation and In Vivo Toxicity Following Oral Administration of a Chinese Patent Medicine Xiao-Er-Zhi-Bao-Wan in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaoyang Luo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Realgar-containing traditional Chinese medicines such as Xiao-Er-Zhi-Bao-Wan (XEZBW, have been widely used for thousands of years. However, events associated with arsenic-induced ailments have increasingly become a public concern. To address the toxicity of XEZBW, we studied the histopathology and blood biochemistry of rats exposed to XEZBW using technology like high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled mass spectrometry to determine arsenic speciation. Our results demonstrated that dimethylarsinic acid (DMA increased from 18.57 ± 7.45 to 22.74 ± 7.45 ng/g in rat kidney after oral administration for 7 and 14 days, which was 10-fold higher than the levels observed in controls. Trivalent arsenite As(III showed a large increase on day 7 (26.99 ± 1.98 ng/g, followed by a slight decrease on day 14 (13.67 ± 6.48 ng/g. Total arsenic levels on day 7 (185.52 ± 24.56 ng/g and day 14 (198.57 ± 26.26 ng/g were nearly twofold higher than that in the control group (92.77 ± 14.98 ng/g. Histopathological analysis showed mild injury in the liver and kidney of rats subjected to oral administration of realgar for 14 days. As in the XEZBW groups, a mild injury in these organs was observed after administration for 14 days. This study inferred that the toxicity of arsenic was concentration- and time-dependent. The accumulation of DMA, a byproduct of choline metabolism, was responsible for inducing higher toxicity. Therefore, we concluded that measuring the levels of DMA, instead of total arsenic, might be more suitable for evaluating the toxicity of realgar-containing traditional Chinese medicines.

  4. Toxicity evaluation of methoxy poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) polymeric micelles following multiple oral and intraperitoneal administration to rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkhathlan, Ziyad; Qamar, Wajhul; Ali, Raisuddin; Kfoury, Hala; Alghonaim, Mohammed

    2017-09-01

    Methoxy poly(ethylene oxide)- block -poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PEO- b -PCL) copolymers are amphiphilic and biodegradable copolymers designed to deliver a variety of drugs and diagnostic agents. The aim of this study was to synthesize PEO- b -PCL block copolymers and assess the toxic effects of drug-free PEO- b -PCL micelles after multiple-dose administrations via oral or intraperitoneal (ip) administration in rats. Assembly of block copolymers was achieved by co-solvent evaporation method. To investigate the toxicity profile of PEO- b -PCL micelles, sixty animals were divided into two major groups: The first group received PEO- b -PCL micelles (100 mg/kg) by oral gavage daily for seven days, while the other group received the same dose of micelles by ip injections daily for seven days. Twenty-four hours following the last dose, half of the animals from each group were sacrificed and blood and organs (lung, liver, kidneys, heart and spleen) were collected. Remaining animals were observed for further 14 days and was sacrificed at the end of the third week, and blood and organs were collected. None of the polymeric micelles administered caused any significant effects on relative organ weight, animal body weight, leucocytes count, % lymphocytes, liver and kidney toxicity markers and organs histology. Although the dose of copolymers used in this study is much higher than those used for drug delivery, it did not cause any significant toxic effects in rats. Histological examination of all the organs confirmed the nontoxic nature of the micelles.

  5. Toxicity evaluation of methoxy poly(ethylene oxide-block-poly(ε-caprolactone polymeric micelles following multiple oral and intraperitoneal administration to rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyad Binkhathlan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Methoxy poly(ethylene oxide-block-poly(ɛ-caprolactone (PEO-b-PCL copolymers are amphiphilic and biodegradable copolymers designed to deliver a variety of drugs and diagnostic agents. The aim of this study was to synthesize PEO-b-PCL block copolymers and assess the toxic effects of drug-free PEO-b-PCL micelles after multiple-dose administrations via oral or intraperitoneal (ip administration in rats. Assembly of block copolymers was achieved by co-solvent evaporation method. To investigate the toxicity profile of PEO-b-PCL micelles, sixty animals were divided into two major groups: The first group received PEO-b-PCL micelles (100 mg/kg by oral gavage daily for seven days, while the other group received the same dose of micelles by ip injections daily for seven days. Twenty-four hours following the last dose, half of the animals from each group were sacrificed and blood and organs (lung, liver, kidneys, heart and spleen were collected. Remaining animals were observed for further 14 days and was sacrificed at the end of the third week, and blood and organs were collected. None of the polymeric micelles administered caused any significant effects on relative organ weight, animal body weight, leucocytes count, % lymphocytes, liver and kidney toxicity markers and organs histology. Although the dose of copolymers used in this study is much higher than those used for drug delivery, it did not cause any significant toxic effects in rats. Histological examination of all the organs confirmed the nontoxic nature of the micelles.

  6. Technetium-99m-labeled deoxynivalenol from Fusarium mycotoxin alters organ toxicity in BALB/c mice by oral and intravenous route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Chattopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of deoxynivalenol, both intravenously and orally, was investigated in male and female BALB/c mice. Technetium-99m (99m Tc-labeled deoxynivalenol was administered to mice by tail vein injection and orally dosed. Distribution of labeled deoxynivalenol at 26 hours was monitored by gamma-scintigraphy. In the evaluated organs, the accumulation of radioactive deoxynivalenol was correlated with the amount of radioactivity. In addition, the toxicity of deoxynivalenol was measured by biochemical assays followed by histopathological findings. Kidney and hepatic marker enzymes were significantly increased in intravenously administered deoxynivalenol as compared to orally treated mice. Intravenously treated mice showed severe damage in liver and kidney when compared to those orally exposed. Biodistribution of 99mTc-labeled deoxynivalenol differed between oral and intravenous treatment. In intravenously exposed mice, deoxynivalenol was distributed primarily in the liver and kidney whereas in oral exposure, it was found in the stomach and intestines after 26 hours. Deoxynivalenol toxicity, associated with its biodistribution and organ toxicity, was greatest where it had accumulated. The results show that the toxicity of deoxynivalenol is associated with organ accumulation.

  7. Technetium-99m-labeled deoxynivalenol from Fusarium mycotoxin alters organ toxicity in BALB/c mice by oral and intravenous route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, P; Pandey, A; Goyary, D; Chaurasia, A; Singh, L; Veer, V. [Division of Pharmaceutical Technology, Defence Research Laboratory, Assam (India); Department of Life Sciences, Defense Research Development and Organization, New Delhi (India)

    2012-07-01

    The toxicity of deoxynivalenol, both intravenously and orally, was investigated in male and female BALB/c mice. Technetium-99m ({sup 99m} Tc)-labeled deoxynivalenol was administered to mice by tail vein injection and orally dosed. Distribution of labeled deoxynivalenol at 26 hours was monitored by gamma scintigraphy. In the evaluated organs, the accumulation of radioactive deoxynivalenol was correlated with the amount of radioactivity. In addition, the toxicity of deoxynivalenol was measured by biochemical assays followed by histopathological findings. Kidney and hepatic marker enzymes were significantly increased in intravenously administered deoxynivalenol as compared to orally treated mice. Intravenously treated mice showed severe damage in liver and kidney when compared to those orally exposed. Biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled deoxynivalenol differed between oral and intravenous treatment. In intravenously exposed mice, deoxynivalenol was distributed primarily in the liver and kidney whereas in oral exposure, it was found in the stomach and intestines after 26 hours. Deoxynivalenol toxicity, associated with its biodistribution and organ toxicity, was greatest where it had accumulated. The results show that the toxicity of deoxynivalenol is associated with organ accumulation. (author)

  8. Technetium-99m-labeled deoxynivalenol from Fusarium mycotoxin alters organ toxicity in BALB/c mice by oral and intravenous route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, P; Pandey, A; Goyary, D; Chaurasia, A; Singh, L; Veer, V.

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of deoxynivalenol, both intravenously and orally, was investigated in male and female BALB/c mice. Technetium-99m ( 99m Tc)-labeled deoxynivalenol was administered to mice by tail vein injection and orally dosed. Distribution of labeled deoxynivalenol at 26 hours was monitored by gamma scintigraphy. In the evaluated organs, the accumulation of radioactive deoxynivalenol was correlated with the amount of radioactivity. In addition, the toxicity of deoxynivalenol was measured by biochemical assays followed by histopathological findings. Kidney and hepatic marker enzymes were significantly increased in intravenously administered deoxynivalenol as compared to orally treated mice. Intravenously treated mice showed severe damage in liver and kidney when compared to those orally exposed. Biodistribution of 99m Tc-labeled deoxynivalenol differed between oral and intravenous treatment. In intravenously exposed mice, deoxynivalenol was distributed primarily in the liver and kidney whereas in oral exposure, it was found in the stomach and intestines after 26 hours. Deoxynivalenol toxicity, associated with its biodistribution and organ toxicity, was greatest where it had accumulated. The results show that the toxicity of deoxynivalenol is associated with organ accumulation. (author)

  9. Preparation of five 3-MCPD fatty acid esters, and the effects of their chemical structures on acute oral toxicity in Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Man; Liu, Jie; Wu, Yizhen; Gao, Boyan; Wu, Pingping; Shi, Haiming; Sun, Xiangjun; Huang, Haiqiu; Wang, Thomas Ty; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2017-02-01

    3-monochloro-1, 2-propanediol fatty acid esters (3-MCPDEs) comprise a group of food toxicants formed during food processing. 3-MCPDEs have received increasing attention concerning their potential negative effects on human health. However, reports on the toxicity of 3-MCPD esters are still limited. To determine the effects of fatty acid substitutions on the toxicity of their esters, 1-stearic, 1-oleic, 1-linoleic, 1-linoleic-2-palmitic and 1-palmitic-2-linoleic acid esters of 3-MCPD were synthesized and evaluated with respect to their acute oral toxicities in Swiss mice. 3-MCPDEs were obtained through the reaction of 3-MCPD and fatty acid chlorides, and their purities and structures were characterized by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), infrared, 1 H and 13 C spectroscopic analyses. Medial lethal doses of 1-stearic, 1-oleic, 1-linoleic, 1-linoleic-2-palmitic and 1-palmitic-2-linoleic acid esters were 2973.8, 2081.4, 2016.3, 5000 and > 5000 mg kg -1 body weight. For the first time, 3-MCPDEs were observed for their toxic effects in the thymus and lung. In addition, major histopathological changes, as well as blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, were examined for mice fed the five 3-MCPDEs. The results from the present study suggest that the degree of unsaturation, chain length, number of substitution and relative substitution locations of fatty acids might alter the toxicity of 3-MCPDEs. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. [Tricholoma equestre--animal toxicity study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorowski, Zygmunt; Sznitowska, Małgorzata; Wiśniewski, Marek; Sein Anand, Jacek; Waldman, Wojciech; Ronikier, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Animal toxicity study of Tricholoma equestre mushrooms stored for 12 months at (-)20 degrees C was performed using 30 male BALB/c mice. Three groups of 5 mice each were given suspension of T. equestre powder in water, boiled aqueous extract and chloroform-methanol extract dissolved in Miglyol 812 by gavage for three consecutive days. Mice in control groups were given water, Miglyol 812 and p-phenylenediamine (CAS 106-50-3). Creatine kinase activity was determined in serum collected 72 hours after the final dose. Mean activity of serum creatine kinase in mice treated with T. equestre powder, aqueous extract, chloroform-methanol extract and Miglyol 812 were 157 +/- 93, 129 +/- 30, 96 +/- 38, 111 +/- 66 U/L respectively and did not differ significantly from mean activity in mice which were given water (107 +/- 38 U/L). Mean serum creatine kinase activity in p-phenylenediamine group (265 +/- 63 U/L) was significantly higher than in group treated with water (p<0.01). Extracts of Tricholoma equestre mushrooms stored for 12 months at (-)20 degrees C did not cause rhabdomyolysis in male BALB/c mice.

  11. Accurate prediction of the toxicity of benzoic acid compounds in mice via oral without using any computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein; Gharagheizi, Farhad; Shokrolahi, Arash; Zakinejad, Sajjad

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel method is introduced for desk calculation of toxicity of benzoic acid derivatives. ► There is no need to use QSAR and QSTR methods, which are based on computer codes. ► The predicted results of 58 compounds are more reliable than those predicted by QSTR method. ► The present method gives good predictions for further 324 benzoic acid compounds. - Abstract: Most of benzoic acid derivatives are toxic, which may cause serious public health and environmental problems. Two novel simple and reliable models are introduced for desk calculations of the toxicity of benzoic acid compounds in mice via oral LD 50 with more reliance on their answers as one could attach to the more complex outputs. They require only elemental composition and molecular fragments without using any computer codes. The first model is based on only the number of carbon and hydrogen atoms, which can be improved by several molecular fragments in the second model. For 57 benzoic compounds, where the computed results of quantitative structure–toxicity relationship (QSTR) were recently reported, the predicted results of two simple models of present method are more reliable than QSTR computations. The present simple method is also tested with further 324 benzoic acid compounds including complex molecular structures, which confirm good forecasting ability of the second model.

  12. Prenatal development toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong JS

    2014-12-01

    administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs. Morphological examinations of the fetuses demonstrated significant differences in incidences of abnormalities in the group administered 400mg/kg/day. Meanwhile, no significant difference was found in the Zn content of fetal tissue between the control and high-dose groups. These results showed that oral doses for the study with 15-days repeated of ZnOSM20(+ NPs were maternotoxic in the 200 mg/kg/day group, and embryotoxic in the 400 mg/kg/day group. Keywords: developmental toxicity, maternal toxicity, nanotoxicology, teratogenicity

  13. Studies on toxicity, anti-stress and hepato-protective properties of Kombucha tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauline, T; Dipti, P; Anju, B; Kavimani, S; Sharma, S K; Kain, A K; Sarada, S K; Sairam, M; Ilavazhagan, G; Devendra, K; Selvamurthy, W

    2001-09-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate toxicity, anti-stress activity and hepato-protective properties of Kombucha tea. Kombucha tea was fed orally for 15 days using three different doses i.e. normal dose, five and ten times the dose. Rats were then sacrificed and various biochemical, and histological parameters were estimated. Anti-stress activity was evaluated either by 1) by exposing animals to cold and hypoxia and estimating the levels of malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione in plasma/blood or 2) by subjecting the animals to restraint stress and recording faecal output. Hepato-toxicity was induced by challenging the animals to an acute dose of paracetamol (1 gm/kg) orally and determining the plasma levels of SGPT, SGOT and MDA. The effect of oral administration of different doses of K-tea to albino rats was examined and the results indicate that K-tea has no significant toxicity as revealed by various biochemical and histopathological parameters. K-tea has been found to prevent lipid peroxidation and fall in reduced glutathione level when rats were exposed to cold and hypoxia in simulated chamber. Further, K-tea has also been found to decrease the Wrap-restraint faecal pellet output in rats. K-tea has also been found to decrease paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity significantly. The study shows that K-tea has anti-stress and hepato-protective activities.

  14. Evaluation of 90-day Repeated Dose Oral Toxicity, Glycometabolism, Learning and Memory Ability, and Related Enzyme of Chromium Malate Supplementation in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weiwei; Wu, Huiyu; Li, Qian; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Yao; Zhao, Ting; Feng, Yun; Mao, Guanghua; Li, Fang; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-11-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the 90-day oral toxicity of chromium malate in Sprague-Dawley rats. The present study inspected the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes, lipid metabolism, and learning and memory ability in metabolically healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that all rats survived and pathological, toxic, feces, and urine changes were not observed. Chromium malate did not cause measurable damage on liver, brain, and kidney. The fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index, C-peptide, hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of normal rats in chromium malate groups had no significant change when compared with control group and chromium picolinate group under physiologically relevant conditions. The serum and organ content of Cr in chromium malate groups had no significant change compared with control group. No significant changes were found in morris water maze test and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and true choline esterase (TChE) activity. The results indicated that supplementation with chromium malate did not cause measurable toxicity and has no obvious effect on glycometabolism and related enzymes, learning and memory ability, and related enzymes and lipid metabolism of female and male rats. The results of this study suggest that chromium malate is safe for human consumption.

  15. Reliability of intra-oral camera using teledentistry in screening of oral diseases – Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyana Chakravarthy Pentapati

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion/recommendations: Intra-oral camera was shown to be a reliable tool to identify common oral diseases. Further studies involving applications like sealant retention, pre-malignant lesions, recurrent apthae, gingival recession and dental malocclusion and effectiveness in regular screening are needed.

  16. Oral acute toxicity study of selected botanical pesticide plants used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    The widely used plants were identified and selected for biosafety assessments namely: Ocimum ... estimated that hardly 0.1% of the agrochemicals used for .... electric motor. ... amounts of the vehicle substances (distilled water for ethanol and.

  17. OECD 28-days oral toxicity study on fumonisin B1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs M de; Egmond HP van; Jong WH de; Loveren H van; LPI; ARO; MGB

    1999-01-01

    Het beschreven experiment werd uitgevoerd om inzicht te verkrijgen over effecten van lage doseringen fumonisine B1 op target organen en het immuunsysteem. Mannelijke ratten van drie weken oud werden oraal via maagsonde behandeld met 0, 0,19, 0,75 of 3 mg/kg lichaamsgewicht fumonisine B1,

  18. Subchronic oral toxicity studies with erythritol in mice and rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Til, H.P.; Kuper, C.F.; Falke, H.E.; Bär, A.

    1996-01-01

    Erythritol is a sugar alcohol (polyol) with potential applications as a low-calorie, bulk sweetener. Ingested erythritol is efficiently absorbed and excreted unchanged via the urine since it is not metabolized systemically by the animal or human body. Erythritol was administered to four groups of 10

  19. Acute oral toxicity study of Thymus serrulatus and Thymus schimperi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carvacrol chemotypes) than in those treated with the thymol chemotypes (Ofl, Ala, Tar, and Bal). The organ to body weight ratios of the control group were either significantly higher than or comparable to that of the treatment groups implying that the ...

  20. 13-week oral toxicity study with stanol esters in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnbull, D.; Whittaker, M.H.; Frankos, V.H.; Jonker, D.

    1999-01-01

    Plant sterols and their saturated derivatives, known as stanols, reduce serum cholesterol when consumed in amounts of approximately 2 g per day. Stanol fatty acid esters have been developed as a highly fat-soluble form that may lower cholesterol more effectively than stanols. Stanol esters occur

  1. Acute toxicity and the 28-day repeated dose study of a Siddha medicine Nuna Kadugu in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaswamy Ramaswamy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuna Kadugu (NK, a Siddha medicine prepared from leaves and fruits of Morinda Pubescens, used for the treatment of various skin diseases. Though NK has been widely used for several decades, no scientific report was available on its safety. Present study was undertaken to demonstrate the oral toxicity of NK in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods Acute and 28-day repeated oral toxicity studies were performed following OECD test guidelines 423 and 407, respectively, with minor modifications. In acute oral toxicity study, NK was administered at 2000mg/kg b.wt., p.o and animals were observed for toxic signs at 0, 0.5, 1, 4, 24 h and for next 14 days. Gross pathology was performed at the end of the study. In repeated dose, the 28- day oral toxicity study, NK was administered at 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg b.wt./p.o/day. Two satellite groups (control and high dose were also maintained to determine the delayed onset toxicity of NK. Animals were observed for mortality, morbidity, body weight changes, feed and water intake. Haematology, clinical biochemistry, electrolytes, gross pathology, relative organ weight and histopathological examination were performed. Results In acute toxicity study, no treatment related death or toxic signs were observed with NK administration. In the repeated dose study, no significant differences in body weight changes, food / water intake, haematology, clinical biochemistry and electrolytes content were observed between control and NK groups. No gross pathological findings and difference in relative organ weights were observed between control and NK treated rats. Histopathological examination revealed no abnormalities with NK treatment. Conclusion Acute study reveals that the LD50 of NK is greater than 2000mg/kg, b.wt. in fasted female rats and can be classified as Category 5. 28-day repeated oral toxicity demonstrates that the No Observed Adverse Effect Level of NK is greater than 900 mg/kg b.wt./day, p.o in rats

  2. Evaluation of cardiovascular toxicity of carbon nanotubes functionalized with sodium hyaluronate in oral regenerative medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joviano-Santos, J.V.; Sá, M.A.; De Maria, M.L.A.; Almeida, T.C.S. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Geraldo, V.; Oliveira, S.; Ladeira, L.O. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Ferreira, A.J. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2014-05-23

    It has been demonstrated that carbon nanotubes (CNTs) associated with sodium hyaluronate (HY-CNTs) accelerate bone repair in the tooth sockets of rats. Before clinical application of HY-CNTs, it is important to assess their biocompatibility. Moreover, cardiac toxicity may be caused by the translocation of these particles to the blood stream. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible changes in cardiovascular function in male Wistar rats whose tooth sockets were treated with either CNTs or HY-CNTs (100 μg/mL, 0.1 mL). Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored in conscious rats 7 days after treatment. Cardiac function was evaluated using the Langendorff perfusion technique. The data showed no changes in blood pressure or heart rate in rats treated with either CNTs or HY-CNTs, and no significant changes in cardiac function were found in any of the groups. To confirm these findings, experiments were conducted in rats injected intraperitoneally with a high concentration of either CNTs or HY-CNTs (0.75 mg/kg). The same parameters were analyzed and similar results were observed. The results obtained 7 days following injection indicate that the administration of low concentrations of CNTs or HY-CNTs directly into tooth sockets did not cause any significant change in cardiovascular function in the rats. The present findings support the possibility of using these biocomposites in humans.

  3. Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of kefir by oral administration in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz Rosa, Damiana; Gouveia Peluzio, Maria do Carmo; Pérez Bueno, Tania; Vega Cañizares, Ernesto; Sánchez Miranda, Lilian; Mancebo Dorbignyi, Betty; Chong Dubí, Dainé; Espinosa Castaño, Ivette; Marcin Grzes Kowiak, Lukasz; Fortes Ferreira, Célia Lucia de Luces

    2014-06-01

    Kefir is obtained by fermentation of milk with complex microbial populations present in kefir grains. Several health-promoting benefits have been attributed to kefir consumption. The objective of this work was to conduct a subchronic toxicity study, offering the rats normal or high-doses of kefir and evaluating growth, hematology and blood chemistry, as well as assessing bacterial translocation and the integrity of the intestinal mucosa of animals. Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 6/group): control group received 0.7 mL of water, kefir group received 0.7 mL/day of kefir, (normodose), and Hkefir group received 3.5 mL/day of kefir (fivefold higher dose). Feeding was carried out by gavage. The animals were housed in individual cages and maintained under standard conditions for 4 weeks. The normodose and high-dose of kefir supplementation did not harm the animals since growth, hematology and blood chemistry in rats, as well as the potential pathogenicity in tissues were within normal limits, demonstrating that consumption of normodose and highdose of kefir are safe. In addition, administration of the normodose of kefir reduced cholesterol levels and improved the intestinal mucosa of the rats. These results demonstrate that the consumption of kefir is safe. Importantly, while damages are not seen for the high-dose, the normodose consumption is recommended due to the pronounced beneficial effects, as safety is concerned. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. A review of toxicity superselective intra-arterial concurrent chemoradiotherapy (SIACC) for oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Takeshi; Uehara, Masataka; Ikeda, Mihoko; Tajima, Nobutaka; Ikeda, Hideyoshi; Kawasaki, Takako; Asahina, Izumi

    2011-01-01

    Superselective intra-arterial concurrent chemoradiotherapy (SIACC) for oral cancer has been favored for its efficacy and ability to not damage organs. SIACC was applied to 13 previously untreated patients with oral cancer for the purpose of avoiding surgical resection of the primary tumor in our hospital from 2007 to 2009. Although a complete response of the primary tumor was achieved in all cases, various adverse events also occurred. All patients experienced leucopenia, and most patients suffered from mucotitis and dry mouth. One patient had dizziness and nausea due to the catheter insertion into the vertebra artery. Although SIACC is an important treatment strategy for oral cancer, careful attention for adverse events should be taken into account during and after treatment. (author)

  5. Alternative methods for the median lethal dose (LD(50)) test: the up-and-down procedure for acute oral toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispin, Amy; Farrar, David; Margosches, Elizabeth; Gupta, Kailash; Stitzel, Katherine; Carr, Gregory; Greene, Michael; Meyer, William; McCall, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    The authors have developed an improved version of the up-and-down procedure (UDP) as one of the replacements for the traditional acute oral toxicity test formerly used by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member nations to characterize industrial chemicals, pesticides, and their mixtures. This method improves the performance of acute testing for applications that use the median lethal dose (classic LD50) test while achieving significant reductions in animal use. It uses sequential dosing, together with sophisticated computer-assisted computational methods during the execution and calculation phases of the test. Staircase design, a form of sequential test design, can be applied to acute toxicity testing with its binary experimental endpoints (yes/no outcomes). The improved UDP provides a point estimate of the LD50 and approximate confidence intervals in addition to observed toxic signs for the substance tested. It does not provide information about the dose-response curve. Computer simulation was used to test performance of the UDP without the need for additional laboratory validation.

  6. Studies of radiation and chemical toxicity. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Annual report for the Studies of Radiation and Chemical Toxicity Program at the University of Rochester is presented. Progress is reported on four projects: Neurobehavorial Toxicity of Organometallic Fuel Additives, Mechanisms of Permanent and Delayed Pathologic Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Solid State Radiation Chemistry of the DNA Backbone, and Pulmonary Biochemistry

  7. Self-Esteem, Oral Health Behaviours, and Clinical Oral Health Status in Chinese Adults: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Luzy Siu-Hei; Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This is an exploratory study to examine the relations among self-esteem, oral health behaviours and clinical oral health status in Chinese adults. In addition, gender differences in clinical oral health status and oral health behaviours were explored. Methods: Participants were 192 patients from a private dental clinic in Hong Kong…

  8. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of honokiol microemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Li, Jianguo; Zhang, Wei; An, Quan; Wen, Jianhua; Wang, Aiping; Jin, Hongtao; Chen, Shizhong

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of honokiol microemulsion. In the acute toxicity tests, the mice were intravenously injected graded doses of honokiol microemulsion and were observed for toxic symptoms and mortality daily for 14 days. In the sub-chronic toxicity study, rats were injected honokiol microemulsion at doses of 100, 500, 2500 μg/kg body weight (BW) for 30 days. After 30 days treatment and 14 days recovery, the rats were sacrificed for hematological, biochemical and histological examination. In the acute toxicity tests, the estimated median lethal dosage (LD50) was 50.5mg/kg body weight in mice. In the sub-chronic toxicity tests, the non-toxic reaction dose was 500 μg/kg body weight. In each treatment group, degeneration or/and necrosis in vascular endothelial cells and structure change of vessel wall can be observed in the injection site (cauda vein) of a few animals while there were no changes in the vessels of other organs. The overall findings of this study indicate that the honokiol microemulsion is non-toxic up to 500 μg/kg body weight, and it has irritation to the vascular of the injection site which should be paid attention to in clinical medication. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Role of diet in absorption and toxicity of oral cadmium- A review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of diet or its components in the absorption, distribution and toxicity of cadmium (Cd) has received attention in recent times. Experimental evidence in literature strongly suggests that the absorption of Cd is dependent on factors such as age, pH, diet and intestinal metallothionein (MT) production. The chemical forms ...

  10. Large Dataset of Acute Oral Toxicity Data Created for Testing in Silico Models (ASCCT meeting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute toxicity data is a common requirement for substance registration in the US. Currently only data derived from animal tests are accepted by regulatory agencies, and the standard in vivo tests use lethality as the endpoint. Non-animal alternatives such as in silico models are ...

  11. Oral Streptococcal Endocarditis, Oral Hygiene Habits, and Recent Dental Procedures: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Xavier; Millot, Sarah; Chirouze, Catherine; Selton-Suty, Christine; Moby, Vanessa; Tattevin, Pierre; Strady, Christophe; Euvrard, Edouard; Agrinier, Nelly; Thomas, Daniel; Hoen, Bruno; Alla, François

    2017-06-15

    We aimed to compare oral hygiene habits, orodental status, and dental procedures in patients with infective endocarditis (IE) according to whether the IE-causing microorganism originated in the oral cavity. We conducted an assessor-blinded case-control study in 6 French tertiary-care hospitals. Oral hygiene habits were recorded using a self-administered questionnaire. Orodental status was analyzed by trained dental practitioners blinded to the microorganism, using standardized clinical examination and dental panoramic tomography. History of dental procedures was obtained through patient and dentist interviews. Microorganisms were categorized as oral streptococci or nonoral pathogens using an expert-validated list kept confidential during the course of the study. Cases and controls had definite IE caused either by oral streptococci or nonoral pathogens, respectively. Participants were enrolled between May 2008 and January 2013. Cases (n = 73) were more likely than controls (n = 192) to be aged calculus, and infectious dental diseases did not significantly differ between groups. Patients with IE caused by oral streptococci differ from patients with IE caused by nonoral pathogens regarding background characteristics, oral hygiene habits, and recent dental procedures, but not current orodental status. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. [New approaches to oral cavity opportunistic microbiota study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tets, G V; Vikina, D S; Vecherkovskaia, M F; Domorad, A A; Kharlamova, V V; Tets, V V

    2013-01-01

    Identification of some bacteria of the oral microbiota in humans including opportunistic pathogens capable of causing infections of various locations is a challenging problem for dentistry. Lack of knowledge on oral microbiota is the result of the absence of appropriate culture technique for isolation of pure cultures of those bacteria. The paper presents the study on mixed oral microbial biofilms with isolation and identification of insufficiently explored or still unknown aerobic opportunistic bacteria.

  13. A novel method for delineation of oral mucosa for radiotherapy dose–response studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, Jamie A.; Welsh, Liam C.; Gulliford, Sarah L.; Harrington, Kevin J.; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    There is currently no standard method for delineating the oral mucosa and most attempts are oversimplified. A new method to obtain anatomically accurate contours of the oral mucosa surfaces was developed and applied to 11 patients. This is expected to represent an opportunity for improved toxicity modelling of oral mucositis

  14. Toxicity of the styrene metabolite, phenylglyoxylic acid, in rats after three months' oral dosing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladefoged, Ole; Lam, Henrik Rye; Ostergaard, G.

    1998-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were dosed with 0, 1250, 3750 or 5000 mg/l of phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA) (CAS no. 611-73-4) in the drinking water ad libitum for 3 months. During the entire treatment period, there were no gross signs of toxicity related to PGA. No changes in neurobehavior were found after using ....... Alternatively, the ototoxicity of styrene, like toluene, may be caused the parent compound itself and not by a metabolite like PGA. (C) 1998 Inter Press, inc....

  15. Don’t live in a town where there are no doctors: toxic epidermal necrolysis initially misdiagnosed as oral thrush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Abdul Majid; Hussain, Waleed Mohd; Fatani, Mohamad Ibrahim; Ali, Khaled Shawkat; Khoujah, Amer Mohd; Akhtar, Mubeena; Maimani, Ghassan Adnan Al; Raja, Sadeya Hanif; Basraheel, Ashraf; Fareed, Khurram

    2009-01-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare but life threatening skin disease that is most commonly drug induced. The exact pathogenesis of TEN is still unknown and many drugs, including prednisolone, cyclosporin and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), have been used in an attempt to halt the disease process. The use of IVIG in particular is controversial. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has made a labelling change to the drug information for carbamazepine. Owing to recent data implicating the HLA allele B*1502 as a marker for carbamazepine induced Stevens–Johnson syndrome and TEN in Han Chinese, the FDA recommends genotyping all Asians for the allele. We present an interesting case of carbamazepine induced TEN which was confused with oral thrush, had no skin lesions on presentation, and had an excellent response to a 5 day course of methylprednisolone and high dose IVIG in combination. PMID:22207871

  16. Toxicity studies of drugs and chemicals in animals: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saganuwan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity study is the investigation of either short or long-term toxic effects of a drug or chemical on animals. The toxicity is dose-dependent as asserted by Paracelsus over 500 years ago. However, short-term toxic effect is determined using median lethal dose (LD50 first introduced by Trevan in 1927 and revised many times. Presently there is a growing preponderance of rejection of scientific papers on acute toxicity study, simply because of the belief that in the current hazard and safety as-sessment of drugs and chemicals, LD50 values are no longer used. In view of this, literature search was carried out with a view to investigating the relevance of LD50 in development and assessment of drugs and chemicals. The findings revealed that in the past, many animals had been used for LD50 determination. OECD has reduced the number of test animals to 5–15 and presently it is further re-duced to 2–6. Acute toxicity study is being carried out in medicinal plants research and in the study of patent medicine. Although the application of LD50 has been drastically reduced, it is still applied and accepted in some parts of the world. Moreover, animals on which LD50 tests are conducted, should be allowed to die to see the end effect of the test drug or chemical because euthanisia of test animals may mask some toxicity signs of the test agents. Therefore, toxicity study of drugs and chemicals is a sci-entific process necessary for discovery and development of drugs as well as identification of potential toxicants.

  17. Oral ketamine for children with chronic pain: a pilot phase 1 study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredlau, Amy-Lee; McDermott, Michael P.; Adams, Heather; Dworkin, Robert H; Venuto, Charles; Fisher, Susan; Dolan, James G; Korones, David N

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess whether oral ketamine aids is is safe at higher dosages for sedating children and whether it may be an option for control of chronic pain in children. Study design A prospective study was performed on 12 children with chronic pain to identify the maximum tolerated dosage of oral ketamine. Participants were given 14 days of oral ketamine, three times daily, at dosages ranging from 0.25–1.5 mg/kg/dose. Participants were assessed for toxicity and for pain severity at baseline and on day 14 of treatment. Results Two participants, both treated at 1.5 mg/kg/dose, experienced dose-limiting toxicities (sedation and anorexia). One participant, treated at 1 mg/kg/dose, opted to stop ketamine treatment due to new pain on treatment. Nine participants completed their course of ketamine treatment. Of these 12 children, 5 experienced improvement in their pain scores, two with complete resolution of pain, lasting for more than 4 weeks off ketamine treatment. Conclusion Oral ketamine at dosages of 0.25–1 mg/kg/dose appears to be safe when given for 14 days to children with chronic pain. PMID:23403253

  18. Toxicity Studies of the Crude Aqueous Root Extract of Albizzia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    drugs commonly used today are of herbal origin. Higher ... stored in small, capped plastic container at ... Acute Toxicity Studies: The limit test dose, ..... may be due to factors other than kidney problem ... Protein (total protein) in serum, urine.

  19. Acute Toxicity Study of Zerumbone-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carrier on BALB/c Mice Model

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    Heshu Sulaiman Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zerumbone- (ZER- loaded nanostructure lipid carrier (NLC (ZER-NLC prepared for its antileukemia effect in vitro was evaluated for its toxicological effects by observing changes in the liver, kidney, spleen, lung, heart, and brain tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow stem cells. The acute toxicity study for ZER-NLC was conducted by orally treating BALB/c mice with a single dose with either water, olive oil, ZER, NLC, or ZER-NLC for 14 days. The animals were observed for clinical and behavioral abnormalities, toxicological symptoms, feed consumption, and gross appearance. The liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen, and brain tissues were assessed histologically. Total haemogram was counted by hemocytometry and microhematocrit reader. Bone marrow examination in terms of cellular morphology was done by Wright staining with bone marrow smear. Furthermore, serum biochemical parameters were determined spectrophotometrically. Grossly all treated mice, their investigated tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow were normal. At oral doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg ZER-NLC there was no sign of toxicity or mortality in BALB/c mice. This study suggests that the 50% lethal dose (LD50 of ZER-NLC is higher than 200 mg/kg, thus, safe by oral administration.

  20. Formulation studies for mirtazapine orally disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Simay; Aytekin, Eren; Yavuz, Burçin; Bozdağ Pehlivan, Sibel; Ünlü, Nurşen

    2016-01-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) recently have gained much attention to fulfill the needs for pediatric, geriatric, and psychiatric patients with dysphagia. Aim of this study was to develop new ODT formulations containing mirtazapine, an antidepressant drug molecule having bitter taste, by using simple and inexpensive preparation methods such as coacervation, direct compression and to compare their characteristics with those of reference product (Remereon SolTab). Coacervation method was chosen for taste masking of mirtazapine. In vitro characterization studies such as diameter and thickness, weight variation, tablet hardness, tablet friability and disintegration time were performed on tablet formulations. Wetting time and in vitro dissolution tests of developed ODTs also studied using 900 mL 0.1 N HCl medium, 900 mL pH 6.8 phosphate buffer or 900 mL pH 4.5 acetate buffer at 37 ± 0.2 °C as dissolution medium. Ratio of Eudragit® E-100 was chosen as 6% (w/w) since the dissolution profile of A1 (6% Eudragit® E-100) was found closer to the reference product than A2 (4% Eudragit® E-100) and A3 (8% Eudragit® E-100). Group D, E and F formulations were presented better results in terms of disintegration time. Dissolution results indicated that Group E and F formulations showed optimum properties in all three dissolution media. Formulations D1, D4, D5, E3, E4, F1 and F5 found suitable as ODT formulations due to their favorable disintegration times and dissolution profiles. Developed mirtazapine ODTs were found promising in terms of showing the similar characteristics to the original formulation.

  1. Analysis of the Toxicity and Histopathology Induced by the Oral Administration of Pseudanabaena galeata and Geitlerinema splendidum (Cyanobacteria Extracts to Mice

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    Marisa Rangel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are common members of the freshwater microbiota in lakes and drinking water reservoirs, and are responsible for several cases of human intoxications in Brazil. Pseudanabaena galeata and Geitlerinema splendidum are examples of the toxic species that are very frequently found in reservoirs in Sao Paulo, which is the most densely populated area in Brazil. In the search for toxic strains collected from water reservoirs and maintained in the Cyanobacterial Culture Collection (CCIBt of the Institute of Botany of Brazil, the acetic acid extracts (AE of P. galeata CCIBt 3082 and G. splendidum CCIBt 3223 were analyzed by planar chromatography, which indicated the absence of cyanotoxins. Animal tests were then carried out, and both extracts were found to induce toxic effects in mice when administered intraperitoneally. The present study aimed to investigate whether the oral ingestion of the above mentioned cyanobacteria extracts would also induce toxic effects in mice. Necropsy and histopathological studies were conducted using tissue samples from the animals, which were euthanized one week after the administration of the extracts. The AE of P. galeata did not cause death but did induce transient symptoms, including eyebrow ptosis, straub tail, and pain. The euthanized animals presented hemorrhage in the liver, whereas the histological analysis showed disorganization of the hepatic parenchyma, necrosis, hyperemia, and proximity of the centrilobular vein in the liver. In addition, alterations in the convoluted tubules of the kidneys were observed, and the lungs were unaffected. The AE of G. splendidum caused only one death, and induced transient symptoms, such as dyspnea, paralysis, and pain, in the other mice. The necropsy of the euthanized mice showed hemorrhage in the lungs and liver. The lungs presented hemorrhagic focuses, alveolar collapse, and granulomatous foci. The liver presented hemorrhagic and enlarged sinusoids, hyperemia

  2. Analysis of the toxicity and histopathology induced by the oral administration of Pseudanabaena galeata and Geitlerinema splendidum (cyanobacteria) extracts to mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Marisa; Martins, Joyce C G; Garcia, Angélica Nunes; Conserva, Geanne A A; Costa-Neves, Adriana; Sant'Anna, Célia Leite; de Carvalho, Luciana Retz

    2014-01-22

    Cyanobacteria are common members of the freshwater microbiota in lakes and drinking water reservoirs, and are responsible for several cases of human intoxications in Brazil. Pseudanabaena galeata and Geitlerinema splendidum are examples of the toxic species that are very frequently found in reservoirs in Sao Paulo, which is the most densely populated area in Brazil. In the search for toxic strains collected from water reservoirs and maintained in the Cyanobacterial Culture Collection (CCIBt) of the Institute of Botany of Brazil, the acetic acid extracts (AE) of P. galeata CCIBt 3082 and G. splendidum CCIBt 3223 were analyzed by planar chromatography, which indicated the absence of cyanotoxins. Animal tests were then carried out, and both extracts were found to induce toxic effects in mice when administered intraperitoneally. The present study aimed to investigate whether the oral ingestion of the above mentioned cyanobacteria extracts would also induce toxic effects in mice. Necropsy and histopathological studies were conducted using tissue samples from the animals, which were euthanized one week after the administration of the extracts. The AE of P. galeata did not cause death but did induce transient symptoms, including eyebrow ptosis, straub tail, and pain. The euthanized animals presented hemorrhage in the liver, whereas the histological analysis showed disorganization of the hepatic parenchyma, necrosis, hyperemia, and proximity of the centrilobular vein in the liver. In addition, alterations in the convoluted tubules of the kidneys were observed, and the lungs were unaffected. The AE of G. splendidum caused only one death, and induced transient symptoms, such as dyspnea, paralysis, and pain, in the other mice. The necropsy of the euthanized mice showed hemorrhage in the lungs and liver. The lungs presented hemorrhagic focuses, alveolar collapse, and granulomatous foci. The liver presented hemorrhagic and enlarged sinusoids, hyperemia, proximity of the

  3. Toxicity studies of Cordia salicifolia extract Estudo da toxidade do extrato de Cordia salicifolia

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    Roberto Kenji Nakamura Cuman

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para determinar a toxicidade aguda do extrato total de Cordia salicifolia (DL50 após administração oral e intraperitoneal em camundongos, assim como os efeitos do extrato sobre alguns parâmetros bioquímicos no plasma de ratos após um tratamento prolongado (90 dias. A DL50 do extrato administrado por v.o. foi maior que 2000 mg/Kg, enquanto a DL50 por via i.p. foi aproximadamente 920 mg/Kg. A administração oral diária do extrato nas doses de 20, 100, 200 e 400 mg/kg por um período de 90 dias não causou modificações no ganho de peso corporal, no peso dos órgãos, nos parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos dos animais. Estes resultados indicam que a administração do extrato por um período mais prolongado não provocou efeitos de toxicidade nos animaisThis study was carried out to determine the acute toxicity of the whole Cordia salicifolia extract (LD50 after oral and intraperitoneal administration in mice, and its effect on certain biochemical parameters in the plasma of rats after 90 days of administration. The oral LD50 value of the extract was higher than 2000 mg/kg while the LD50 by intraperitoneal injections was about 920 mg/kg. A daily oral administration of extracts at 20, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg doses for 90 days did not cause significant changes in the body weight gain, organs weight or biochemical assays and hematology in the animals. The results showed that the administration of the extract for a prolonged period did not produce toxic effects in the animals

  4. An Empirical Study Analyzing Job Productivity in Toxic Workplace Environments

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    Amna Anjum

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This empirical study aims to determine the effects of a toxic workplace environment, which can negatively impact the job productivity of an employee. Methodology: Three hundred questionnaires were randomly distributed among the staff members of seven private universities in Pakistan with a final response rate of 89%. For analysis purposes, AMOS 22 was used to study the direct and indirect effects of the toxic workplace environment on job productivity. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA was conducted to ensure the convergent and discriminant validity of the factors, while the Hayes mediation approach was used to verify the mediating role of job burnout between the four dimensions of toxic workplace environment and job productivity. A toxic workplace with multiple dimensions, such as workplace ostracism, workplace incivility, workplace harassment, and workplace bullying, was used in this study. Findings: By using the multiple statistical tools and techniques, it has been proven that ostracism, incivility, harassment, and bullying have direct negative significant effects on job productivity, while job burnout was shown to be a statistical significant mediator between the dimensions of a toxic workplace environment and job productivity. Finally, we concluded that organizations need to eradicate the factors of toxic workplace environments to ensure their prosperity and success. Practical Implications: This study encourages managers, leaders, and top management to adopt appropriate policies for enhancing employees’ productivity. Limitations: This study was conducted by using a cross-sectional research design. Future research aims to expand the study by using a longitudinal research design.

  5. An Empirical Study Analyzing Job Productivity in Toxic Workplace Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Amna; Ming, Xu; Siddiqi, Ahmed Faisal; Rasool, Samma Faiz

    2018-05-21

    Purpose: This empirical study aims to determine the effects of a toxic workplace environment, which can negatively impact the job productivity of an employee. Methodology: Three hundred questionnaires were randomly distributed among the staff members of seven private universities in Pakistan with a final response rate of 89%. For analysis purposes, AMOS 22 was used to study the direct and indirect effects of the toxic workplace environment on job productivity. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted to ensure the convergent and discriminant validity of the factors, while the Hayes mediation approach was used to verify the mediating role of job burnout between the four dimensions of toxic workplace environment and job productivity. A toxic workplace with multiple dimensions, such as workplace ostracism, workplace incivility, workplace harassment, and workplace bullying, was used in this study. Findings: By using the multiple statistical tools and techniques, it has been proven that ostracism, incivility, harassment, and bullying have direct negative significant effects on job productivity, while job burnout was shown to be a statistical significant mediator between the dimensions of a toxic workplace environment and job productivity. Finally, we concluded that organizations need to eradicate the factors of toxic workplace environments to ensure their prosperity and success. Practical Implications: This study encourages managers, leaders, and top management to adopt appropriate policies for enhancing employees’ productivity. Limitations: This study was conducted by using a cross-sectional research design. Future research aims to expand the study by using a longitudinal research design.

  6. Exposición infantil a plastificantes potencialmente tóxicos en productos de uso oral Infant exposure to potentially toxic plasticizers in products for oral use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Patricia Bustamante-Montes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia en el uso de productos infantiles orales entre menores de tres años de edad y medir su concentración de ftalatos, sustancias potencialmente tóxicas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó, en 1999, una entrevista domiciliaria a 199 madres de niños del área metropolitana de la ciudad de Toluca. Por cromatografía de gases se identificaron y cuantificaron diversos ftalatos de productos de uso oral empleados por los niños participantes y se estimó la contribución de estas fuentes a la ingesta diaria de ftalatos. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de uso de estos productos fue de 13%, siendo mayor entre los niños, menores de 18 meses de edad, pertenecientes al estrato socioeconómico bajo. Las concentraciones variaron desde trazas hasta 67.0% del peso. La exposición media calculada proveniente de los productos manufacturados con policloruro de vinilo y ftalatos fue de 13.94 µg/ kg de peso/día, IC 95% (9.08, 18.89. CONCLUSIONES: La exposición a ftalatos proveniente de productos para chupar o morder se encuentra dentro de los límites reportados en otros países; sin embargo, otras fuentes pueden incrementarla. Dado que algunos ftalatos han mostrado ser tóxicos en el sistema reproductivo, y este potencial efecto es plausible en el hombre, es necesaria la investigación de otras fuentes y determinar la exposición total a través de biomarcadores.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of oral product use in children less than three years of age, and to measure the concentration of phthalates as potentially toxic products. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 1999, 199 mothers of children living in the city of Toluca agreed to household interviews. Samples of oral products used by the children were taken and analyzed by gas chromatography to identify and quantify phthalate concentrations, to estimate the daily intake of phthalates from this source. RESULTS: The prevalence of oral product use was 13%. Male infants less than 18

  7. Acute oral safety study of sodium caseinate glycosylated via maillard reaction with galactose in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anadón, Arturo; Martínez, Maria A; Ares, Irma; Castellano, Victor; Martínez-Larrañaga, Maria R; Corzo-Martínez, Marta; Moreno, F Javier; Villamiel, Mar

    2014-03-01

    In order to potentially use sodium caseinate (SC) glycated with galactose (Gal) in the food industry as a new functional ingredient with proved technological and biological properties, an evaluation of oral acute toxicity has been carried out. An acute safety study with SC-Gal glycoconjugates in the Wistar rat with a single oral gavage dose of 2,000 mg/kg of body weight was conducted. The SC-Gal glycoconjugates were well tolerated; no adverse effects or mortality was observed during the 2-week observation period. No abnormal signs, behavioral changes, body weight changes, or alterations in food and water consumption occurred. After this period, no changes in hematological and serum chemistry parameters, organ weights, or gross pathology or histopathology were detected. It was concluded that SC-Gal glycoconjugates obtained via the Maillard reaction were well tolerated in rats at an acute oral dose of 2,000 mg/kg of body weight. The SC-Gal glycoconjugates have a low order of acute toxicity, and the oral 50 % lethal dose for male and female rats is in excess of 2,000 mg/kg of body weight.

  8. Avaliação da toxicidade oral subcrônica da bixina para ratos Oral toxicity assessment of annatto in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Pedreira Lapa Bautista

    2004-06-01

    determined. The health of the animals was checked. At the end of the study a biochemistry (glucose, creatinine, total cholesterol, triglyceride, asparagine transaminase and g-glutamyl transaminase and hematological examination was carried out. All the animals were subjected to a gross-pathological assessment followed by liver, kidney, adrenals, spleen and tests weight. A histopathological analysis (liver and kidney was performed. From the weight parameters clinical, clinical chemistry and haematology, necroscopy and histology viewpoints, it can be said that annatto, under the chosen test condition, was no toxic to the rat.

  9. Oral toxicity management in head and neck cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and radiation: Dental pathologies and osteoradionecrosis (Part 1) literature review and consensus statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buglione, Michela; Cavagnini, Roberta; Di Rosario, Federico; Sottocornola, Lara; Maddalo, Marta; Vassalli, Lucia; Grisanti, Salvatore; Salgarello, Stefano; Orlandi, Ester; Paganelli, Corrado; Majorana, Alessandra; Gastaldi, Giorgio; Bossi, Paolo; Berruti, Alfredo; Pavanato, Giovanni; Nicolai, Piero; Maroldi, Roberto; Barasch, Andrei; Russi, Elvio G.; Raber-Durlacher, Judith; Murphy, Barbara; Magrini, Stefano M.

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy and/or surgery is the typical treatment for head and neck cancer patients. Acute side effects (such as oral mucositis, dermatitis, salivary changes, taste alterations, etc.), and late toxicities in particular (such as osteo-radionecrosis,

  10. A Validation Study of the Student Oral Proficiency Assessment (SOPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lynn E.; Kenyon, Dorry M.; Rhodes, Nancy C.

    This study validated the Student Oral Proficiency Assessment (SOPA), an oral proficiency instrument designed for students in elementary foreign language programs. Elementary students who were tested with the SOPA were also administered other instruments designed to measure proficiency. These instruments included the Stanford Foreign Language Oral…

  11. Synthesis, Characterization, and Acute Oral Toxicity Evaluation of pH-Sensitive Hydrogel Based on MPEG, Poly(ε-caprolactone, and Itaconic Acid

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    Liwei Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A kind of chemically cross-linked pH-sensitive hydrogels based on methoxyl poly(ethylene glycol-poly(caprolactone-acryloyl chloride (MPEG-PCL-AC, PECA, poly(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (MPEGMA, MEG, N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS, and itaconic acid (IA were prepared without using any organic solvent by heat-initiated free radical method. The obtained macromonomers and hydrogels were characterized by 1H NMR and FT-IR, respectively. Morphology study of hydrogels was also investigated in this paper, and it showed that the hydrogels had good pH-sensitivity. The acute toxicity test and histopathological study were conducted in BALB/c mice. The results indicated that the maximum tolerance dose of the hydrogel was higher than 10000 mg/kg body weight. No morality or signs of toxicity were observed during the whole 7-day observation period. Compared to the control groups, there were no important adverse effects in the variables of hematology routine test and serum chemistry analysis both in male or female treatment group. Histopathological study also did not show any significant lesions, including heart, liver, lung, spleen, kidney, stomach, intestine, and testis. All the results demonstrated that this hydrogel was nontoxic after gavage. Thus, the hydrogel might be the biocompatible potential candidate for oral drug delivery system.

  12. Study on the Potential Toxicity of a Thymoquinone-Rich Fraction Nanoemulsion in Sprague Dawley Tats

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    Maznah Ismail

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxicological studies constitute an essential part of the effort in developing an herbal medicine into a drug product. A newly developed thymoquinone-rich fraction nanoemulsion (TQRFNE has been prepared using a high pressure homogenizer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential acute toxicity of this nanoemulsion in Sprague Dawley rats. The acute toxicity studies were conducted as per the OECD guidelines 425, allowing for the use of test dose limit of 20 mL TQRFNE (containing 44.5 mg TQ/kg. TQRFNE and distilled water (DW as a control were administered orally to both sexes of rats on Day 0 and observed for 14 days. All the animals appeared normal, and healthy throughout the study. There was no observed mortality or any signs of toxicity during the experimental period. The effects of the TQRFNE and DW groups on general behavior, body weight, food and water consumption, relative organ weight, hematology, histopathology, and clinical biochemistry were measured. All the parameters measured were unaffected as compared to the control (DW group. The administration of 20 mL TQRFNE /kg was not toxic after an acute exposure.

  13. Clinical effectiveness, toxicity, and failure patterns of helical tomotherapy for postoperative oral cavity cancer patients

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    Hsieh CH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chen-Hsi Hsieh,1–3 Pei-Wei Shueng,1,4 Li-Ying Wang,5 Li-Jen Liao,6 Yu-Chin Lin,7 Ying-Shiung Kuo,8 Wu-Chia Lo,6 Chien-Fu Tseng,8 Hui-Ju Tien,1 Hsiu-Ling Chou,9,10 Yen-Ping Hsieh,11 Le-Jung Wu,1 Yu-Jen Chen3,12–14 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, 2Department of Medicine, 3Institute of Traditional Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, 4Department of Radiation Oncology, National Defense Medical Center, 5School and Graduate Institute of Physical Therapy, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, 6Department of Otolaryngology, 7Division of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, 8Department of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, 9Department of Nursing, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, 10Department of Nursing, Oriental Institute of Technology, Taipei, 11Department of Senior Citizen Service Management, National Taichung University of Science and Technology, Taichung, 12Department of Radiation Oncology, 13Department of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, 14Graduate Institute of Sport Coaching Science, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan Background: The outcome of postoperative high- and intermediate-risk oral cavity cancer (OCC patients receiving helical tomotherapy (HT remains limited. Materials and methods: Between November 2006 and November 2012, 53 postoperative high- and intermediate-risk OCC patients treated with HT were enrolled. Results: The 4-year locoregional, local, and regional control rates were 66%, 76.4%, and 94.3%, respectively. The 4-year locoregional control rates of oral tongue and buccal mucosa cancer were 88.3% and 37.1%, respectively (P=0.012. Eleven (20.8% patients experienced locoregional failure. In-field failure occurred in six of 53 (11.3% in the primary area and three of 53 (5.7% in the regional lymph-node area. No marginal failure was noted. Two of 53 (3.8% experienced out-of-field failure. The rates of grade 3 dermatitis

  14. Evaluation of the water disinfection by-product dichloroacetonitrile-induced biochemical, oxidative, histopathological, and mitochondrial functional alterations: Subacute oral toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ying; Li, Fang; Shen, Haijun; Lu, Rongzhu; Yin, Siqi; Yang, Qi; Li, Zhuangfa; Wang, Suhua

    2018-03-01

    Dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), an emerging nitrogenous disinfection by-product, is more genotoxic and cytotoxic than the currently regulated carbonaceous disinfection by-products such as haloacetic acids. Few mechanistic studies have been conducted on the hepatic and renal toxicities of DCAN. This study examined the clinical biochemical, hematological, histopathological, oxidative, and mitochondrial functional alterations to evaluate the systematic toxicity after subacute oral exposure of 11 or 44 mg/kg/day in rats for 28 days. Body and spleen weights were lower, and organ-to-body weight ratios of the liver and kidney were higher in rats administered 44-mg/kg DCAN than in controls. The activities of serum alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, and concentrations of blood serum urea nitrogen and retinol-binding protein were increased in rats administered 44-mg/kg DCAN compared with those of controls, thereby indicating hepatic and renal damage in this group. This was confirmed by histopathological alterations, including hepatic sinus dilation, extensive hemorrhage, vacuolar degeneration in the liver and glomerulus hemorrhage, and renal tubular swelling, in DCAN-exposed rats. Exposure to 44-mg/kg DCAN induced hepatic oxidative damage shown by the significant increase in malonaldehyde levels, a poisonous product of lipid peroxidation. Exposure to 44-mg/kg DCAN significantly increased hepatic glutathione content and mitochondrial bioenergy as noted by the elevation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c oxidase activity, which might be attributed to compensatory pathophysiologic responses to DCAN-induced hepatic mitochondrial damage.

  15. The oral-systemic disease connection: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bobby K; Kullman, Leif; Sharma, Prem N

    2016-11-01

    The study aimed at determining the association between oral disease and systemic health based on panoramic radiographs and general health of patients treated at Kuwait University Dental Center. The objective was to determine whether individuals exhibiting good oral health have lower propensity to systemic diseases. A total of 1000 adult patients treated at Kuwait University Dental Center were randomly selected from the patient's records. The general health of patients was assessed from the medical history of each patient recorded during their visit to the clinic. The number of reported diseases and serious symptoms were used to develop a medical index. The oral health of these patients was assessed from panoramic radiographs to create an oral index by evaluating such parameters as caries, periodontitis, periapical lesions, pericoronitis, and tooth loss. In a total of 887 patients, 43.8 % had an oral index between 3 and 8, of which significantly higher (62.1 %) patients were with medical conditions compared to those without (33.2 %; p relationship when the diagnosis of oral disease was based primarily on radiographic findings. Future research needs to include prospective clinical and interventional studies. The significance of the oral-systemic disease connection highlights the importance of preventing and treating oral disease which have profound medical implications on general health.

  16. Evaluation of the Genotoxic Potential against H2O2-Radical-Mediated DNA Damage and Acute Oral Toxicity of Standardized Extract of Polyalthia longifolia Leaf

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    Subramanion L. Jothy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been used in medicoculturally diverse countries around the world, where it is a part of a time-honoured tradition that is respected even today. Polyalthia longifolia leaf extract has been previously reported as an efficient antioxidant in vitro. Hence, the genotoxic effects of P. longifolia leaf were investigated by using plasmid relation, comet, and Allium cepa assay. In the presence of  ∙OH radicals, the DNA in supercoil was start nicked into open circular form, which is the product of the single-stranded cleavage of supercoil DNA and quantified as fragmented separate bands on agarose gel in plasmid relation assay. In the plasmid relation and comet assay, the P. longifolia leaf extract exhibited strong inhibitory effects against H2O2-mediated DNA damage. A dose-dependent increase of chromosome aberrations was also observed in the Allium cepa assay. The abnormalities scored were stickiness, c-mitosis, bridges, and vagrant chromosomes. Micronucleated cells were also observed at the interphase. The results of Allium cepa assay confirmed that the methanol extracts of P. longifolia exerted no significant genotoxic or mitodepressive effects at 100 μg/mL. Thus, this study demonstrated that P. longifolia leaf extract has a beneficial effect against oxidative DNA damage. This experiment is the first report for the protective effect of P. longifolia on DNA damage-induced by hydroxyl radicals. Additionally in acute oral toxicity study, female rats were treated at 5000 mg/kg body weight of P. longifolia leaf extract and observed for signs of toxicity for 14 days. P. longifolia leaf extract did not produce any treatment-related toxic effects in rats.

  17. [Toxicity studies of landiolol hydrochloride (ONO-1101) (1). Single intravenous toxicity study in rats and dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, K; Kasahara, T; Yanagisawa, Y; Nanba, T; Aze, Y; Shinomiya, K; Yonezawa, H; Fujita, T

    1997-12-01

    Single dose toxicity studies of landiolol hydrochloride (ONO-1101), a novel ultra short acting beta-blocker, were conducted in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and beagle dogs. ONO-1101 was administered intravenously at a dose level of 37.5, 75, 150 or 300 mg/kg to rats of both sexes and 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg to male dogs. In the rat study, 5/6 males in the 150 mg/kg group and all animals in the 300 mg/kg group died during or right after administration. Survivors in the 150 mg/kg group showed temporal hypoactivity, bradypnea, dyspnea, tremor, loss of righting reflex and reddish lacrimation up to 5 min after injection. One male in the 150 mg/kg group had a tendency of suppression on body weight gain. No effects on clinical signs and body weight gain were seen in the 75 mg/kg group or lower. Necropsy findings showed only red tear in the majority of the decedents. In the dog study, all animals died within 6 min after administration in the 100 mg/kg group, showed ataxic gait, rolling and tachypnea followed by bradypnea and gasping/apnea. Incontinence of urine, defecation and vocalization were also seen in each one of two animals before death. Temporal hypoactivity was seen 1 min after administration in the 50 mg/kg group. No clinical signs were seen in the 25 mg/kg group. ONO-1101 did not affect bodyweight or food consumption. Necropsy findings of the decedents showed no abnormalities. It is indicated that the minimum lethal doses are 150 mg/kg in rats and 100 mg/kg in dogs.

  18. Antioxidant status in oral subchronic toxicity of fipronil and fluoride co-exposure in buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Kamalpreet Kaur; Dumka, Vinod Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The effects of fipronil and fluoride co-exposure were investigated on antioxidant status of buffalo calves. A total of 24 healthy male buffalo calves divided into 4 groups were treated for 98 consecutive days. Group I, receiving no treatment, served as the control. Animals of groups II and III were orally administered with fipronil at the dosage of 0.5 mg/kg/day and sodium fluoride (NaF) at the dosage of 6.67 mg/kg/day, respectively, for 98 days. Group IV was coadministered with fipronil and NaF at the same dosages as groups II and III. Administration of fipronil alone produced significant elevation in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decrease in the levels of nonenzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH). However, it did not produce any significant effect on the activities of enzymatic antioxidants including glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). NaF exposure led to enhanced oxidative stress as shown by significant increase in the LPO and SOD activities while GPx and CAT activities and GSH levels were significantly decreased. Co-exposure to fipronil and NaF showed additive effects on LPO, GPx activity, and GSH levels. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Oral cobalamin supplementation in cats with hypocobalaminaemia: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toresson, Linda; Steiner, Joerg M; Olmedal, Gunilla; Larsen, MajBritt; Suchodolski, Jan S; Spillmann, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objective of the study was to evaluate whether oral cobalamin supplementation can restore normocobal-aminaemia in cats with hypocobalaminaemia and clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease. Methods This was a retrospective study based on a computerised database search for client-owned cats treated at Evidensia Specialist Animal Hospital, Helsingborg, Sweden, during the period December 2013 to August 2016. Inclusion criteria were cats with clinical signs of chronic enteropathy, an initial serum cobalamin concentration ⩽250 pmol/l (reference interval 214-738 pmol/l) and oral treatment with cobalamin tablets. Results Twenty-five cats met the inclusion criteria. The cats were treated with 0.25 mg cyanocobalamin tablets once daily. Serum cobalamin concentration was rechecked 27-94 days after continuous oral cobalamin supplementation. All cats had serum cobalamin concentrations above the reference interval after oral cobalamin supplementation. Median (range) serum cobalamin concentration was 128 pmol/l (111-250 pmol/l) prior to treatment and 2701 pmol/l (738-16,359 pmol/l) after supplementation. This difference was statistically significant ( P cats with hypocobalaminaemia. Thus, oral cobalamin supplementation is a promising alternative to parenteral administration. Prospective comparative studies in cats being treated with parenteral vs oral cobalamin supplementation in a larger number of patients are warranted before oral supplementation can be recommended for routine use.

  20. Studying the effect of CO2-induced acidification on sediment toxicity using acute amphipod toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basallote, M Dolores; De Orte, Manoela R; DelValls, T Ángel; Riba, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage is increasingly being considered one of the most efficient approaches to mitigate the increase of CO2 in the atmosphere associated with anthropogenic emissions. However, the environmental effects of potential CO2 leaks remain largely unknown. The amphipod Ampelisca brevicornis was exposed to environmental sediments collected in different areas of the Gulf of Cádiz and subjected to several pH treatments to study the effects of CO2-induced acidification on sediment toxicity. After 10 days of exposure, the results obtained indicated that high lethal effects were associated with the lowest pH treatments, except for the Ría of Huelva sediment test. The mobility of metals from sediment to the overlying seawater was correlated to a pH decrease. The data obtained revealed that CO2-related acidification would lead to lethal effects on amphipods as well as the mobility of metals, which could increase sediment toxicity.

  1. Multigeneration reproduction and male developmental toxicity studies on atrazine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSesso, John M; Scialli, Anthony R; White, Tacey E K; Breckenridge, Charles B

    2014-06-01

    Reproductive toxicity of Atrazine (ATR) was evaluated in two rat multigenerational studies. Development of male reproductive parameters was evaluated in separate studies after prenatal or postnatal exposure. In multigenerational studies, rats received dietary concentrations of 0, 10, 50, 100 or 500 ppm ATR. In separate studies in female rats, ATR was administered by gavage at 0, 1, 5, 25 or 125 mg/kg/day during pregnancy (GD6-21) or lactation (LD2-21). Plasma testosterone concentration, testicular and epididymal weights, and sperm counts were measured in male offspring on PND70 and 170. In the multigenerational studies, parental systemic toxicity occurred at 500 ppm (38.7 mg/kg/day), but reproductive endpoints were unaffected. In the prenatal study, maternal toxicity and embryo-fetal mortality occurred at 125 mg/kg/day. In male offspring, testosterone levels and sperm counts were unaffected, although the percentage of abnormal sperm increased at 125 mg/kg/day (PND 70) and 25 mg/kg/day (PND170). In the postnatal study, maternal toxicity and reduced body weights of male offspring occurred at 125 mg/kg/day. Additionally, reduced testicular (PND70, PND170) and epididymal (PND70) weights and increased numbers of abnormal sperm (PND70, PND170) were seen, but no changes in plasma testosterone or sperm counts. Dietary administration of ATR did not affect rat reproduction up to a parentally toxic dose of 38.7 mg/kg/day. Some effects on male reproductive system development occurred after high dose, bolus administration to dams, but doses were much higher than expected under normal use conditions. Thus, oral RfDs for ATR would be protective for reproductive effects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. [Combined use of irradiation and DNA tumor vaccine to treat canine oral malignant melanoma: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A; Buchholz, J; Ruess-Melzer, K; Lang, J; Kaser-Hotz, B

    2013-02-01

    Melanoma is the most common oral tumor in dogs, characterized by rapid growth, local invasion, and high metastatic rate. The goal of this study was to evaluate the combination of radiation therapy and DNA tumor vaccine. We hypothesized, that the concurrent use would not increase toxicity. Nine dogs with oral melanoma were treated with 4 fractions of 8 Gray at 7-day intervals. The vaccine was given 4 times every 14 days, beginning at the first radiation fraction. Local acute radiation toxicities were assessed according to the VRTOG toxicity scoring scheme over a time period of 7 weeks. In none of the evaluated dogs, mucositis, dermatitis and conjunctivitis exceeded grade 2. In 3 dogs mild fever, lethargy, and local swelling at the injection site were seen after vaccine application. In conclusion, the concurrent administration of radiation therapy and vaccine was well tolerated in all dogs.

  3. Acute toxicity study of methanolic extract of Asparagus pubescens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acute toxicity study of methanolic extract of Asparagus pubescens root was studied on rats. The indices of the study were the liver enzymes (transaminases), cholesterol, creatinine and urea serum levels as well as the ionic analysis. Both alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) showed a ...

  4. The use of pig hepatocytes for biotransformation and toxicity studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    1991-01-01

    The three main objectives of this study were, (1) to investigate the possibility to isolate viable hepatocytes from liver samples of pigs, (2) to study their use for biotransformation and toxicity studies, and (3) to demonstrate the value of this model, in particular in the field of residue

  5. Tri-Service Center for Oral Health Studies (TSCOHS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Tri-Service Center for Oral Health Studies (TSCOHS), a service of the Postgraduate Dental College, is chartered by the Department of Defense TRICARE Management...

  6. Subchronic Toxicity Study of Standardized Methanolic Extract of Mitragyna Speciosa Korth in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ulul Ilmie Ahmad Nazri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitragyna speciosa Korth, or better known as ketum, has long been used by traditional folk around Southeast Asia to prevent fatigue from working under hot tropical weather and as a replacement of opium, which can then cause addiction. To date, no findings have been reported of the toxic effect of ketum subchronically (28 days. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of subchronic effect of standardised methanolic extract of ketum (SMEMS in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were orally administered with 100, 200, and 500 mg/kg of SMEMS for 28 days. Body weights were recorded daily. They were terminated at day 28 to obtain data for haematology, biochemistry, and histopathology of the brain, liver, kidney, lung, heart, sciatic nerve, and spinal cord. The SMEMS affected body weight compared to control group. Biochemistry findings showed that liver and kidney were affected with the abnormal values in AST, creatinine, globulin, glucose, total protein, and urea. However, SMEMS produced toxic effect more to liver, kidney, and lung than other organs as observed histopathologically. The results suggested subchronic exposure of ketum is toxic to the physiology of the animals.

  7. Oral cancer in the UAE: a multicenter, retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Raeefa; Gaballah, Kamis

    2013-01-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence of various malignant oral lesions in the UAE and correlate cases of squamous cell carcinomas with age, gender, site, grade, clinical presentations at the time of diagnosis, and the prevalence of neck metastasis. Materials and methods A multicenter, retrospective study was conducted at four major hospitals in the UAE. The study was based on histopathology reports of biopsies of oral tissues. Results Of the 992 oral biopsy reports retrieved, 147 cases of malignant tumors were found which accounted for 14.9% of the total biopsies. Fifteen different types of malignant lesions were diagnosed, of which oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was the most prevalent and made up 11.4% of the overall oral biopsies retrieved. The commonest presentation of cancer was ulceration (31.17%), followed by lumps and white lesions. The most common site where the lesions were diagnosed was the tongue (51.9%), followed by the cheeks and lips. OSCC accounted for 77% of all malignancies reported. Neck dissections were conducted in only 20.8% of all OSCC cases diagnosed at Mafraq and Tawam hospitals, of which 43.75% showed evidence of neck metastasis. Conclusion Oral cancer is not an uncommon disease in the UAE. This may mandate more awareness campaigning, including screening procedures for early detection of cancerous lesions and other potentially malignant oral diseases. Elective neck dissections to detect lymph node metastasis should be more routinely performed, in particular for tongue carcinomas because of the early neck involvement potential. PMID:23985381

  8. A combined toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles and vitamin C in food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Yuan, Lulu; Yao, Chenjie; Ding, Lin; Li, Chenchen; Fang, Jie; Sui, Keke; Liu, Yuanfang; Wu, Minghong

    2014-12-21

    At present, safety evaluation standards for nanofood additives are made based on the toxic effects of a single additive. Since the size, surface properties and chemical nature influence the toxicity of nanomaterials, the toxicity may have dramatically changed when nanomaterials are used as food additives in a complex system. Herein, we investigated the combined toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and vitamin C (Vc, ascorbic acid). The results showed that Vc increased the cytotoxicity significantly compared with that of the ZnO only NPs. When the cells were exposed to ZnO NPs at a concentration less than 15 mg L(-1), or to Vc at a concentration less than 300 mg L(-1), there was no significant cytotoxicity, both in the case of gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) and neural stem cells (NSCs). However, when 15 mg L(-1) of ZnO NPs and 300 mg L(-1) of Vc were introduced to cells together, the cell viability decreased sharply indicating significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, the significant increase in toxicity was also shown in the in vivo experiments. The dose of the ZnO NPs and Vc used in the in vivo study was calculated according to the state of food and nutrition enhancer standard. After repeated oral exposure to ZnO NPs plus Vc, the injury of the liver and kidneys in mice has been indicated by the change of these indices. These findings demonstrate that the synergistic toxicity presented in a complex system is essential for the toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of nanofood.

  9. Prediction of Acute Mammalian Toxicity Using QSAR Methods: A Case Study of Sulfur Mustard and Its Breakdown Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wheeler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Predicting toxicity quantitatively, using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR, has matured over recent years to the point that the predictions can be used to help identify missing comparison values in a substance’s database. In this manuscript we investigate using the lethal dose that kills fifty percent of a test population (the LD50 for determining relative toxicity of a number of substances. In general, the smaller the LD50 value, the more toxic the chemical, and the larger the LD50 value, the lower the toxicity. When systemic toxicity and other specific toxicity data are unavailable for the chemical(s of interest, during emergency responses, LD50 values may be employed to determine the relative toxicity of a series of chemicals. In the present study, a group of chemical warfare agents and their breakdown products have been evaluated using four available rat oral QSAR LD50 models. The QSAR analysis shows that the breakdown products of Sulfur Mustard (HD are predicted to be less toxic than the parent compound as well as other known breakdown products that have known toxicities. The QSAR estimated break down products LD50 values ranged from 299 mg/kg to 5,764 mg/kg. This evaluation allows for the ranking and toxicity estimation of compounds for which little toxicity information existed; thus leading to better risk decision making in the field.

  10. WWTP respirometric application. Toxicity and biodegradability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar Sanchis, M. I.; Llorens Pascual del Riquelme, M.; Meseguer Zapata, V. F.; Ortuno Sandoval, J.; Perez martin, A. B.; Saez Mercader, J.

    2009-01-01

    Respirometry is the measurements of the oxygen consumption of microorganisms present in activated sludge, which can be related to both biomass growth and substrate consumption to obtain energy. Yh parameter (biomass/substrate yield), denominated heterotrophic biomass yield coefficient, express the portion of substrate transformed to biomass. eight municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) with different activated sludge biological treatment were selected to study wastewater biodegradability by measuring respiration rate in dynamic mode. The selection of the WWTP was based on the aeration system operating in the biological reactor. Besides, the effect of heavy metals and some organic compounds on biological process has been studied. (Author) 12 refs.

  11. Brown coal derived humate inhibits contact hypersensitivity; An efficacy, toxicity and teratogenicity study in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rensburg, C.E.J.; Snyman, J.R.; Mokoele, T.; Cromarty, A.D. [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa). Faculty of Health Science

    2007-10-15

    The effects of two humate products were compared to that of prednisolone on a contact hypersensitivity rat model. Rats, sensitized with dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB), were placed on a daily oral treatment of 61 mg/kg BW of humate derived from either leonardite or bituminous coal or on prednisolone at one mg/kg BW and challenged 6 days later with a topical application of DNFB to the right ear. The inflamed ears were measured daily. In a toxicity study rats were exposed to daily oral treatment of leonardite humate at 1,000 mg/kg BW for 1 month. A teratogenicity study was done where pregnant rats were treated with 500 mg/kg BW on days 5 to 17 of pregnancy. Only the leonardite humate compared favourably with prednisolone in suppressing contact hypersensitivity. No signs of toxicity were observed and weight gain was normal during the 6-day and 1 month treatments and during the teratogenicity study with the leonardite humate. However, the rats on the other two products experienced slower weight gain. The identification of a naturally occurring nontoxic compound with anti-inflammatory activity is exciting and merits further evaluation in the treatment of patients suffering from inflammatory conditions.

  12. A clinical study of oral carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shigenori; Ito, Zenya; Takahashi, Kazuhiko; Ohkubo, Hideki; Wada, Tetsuro; Senarita, Masamitsu; Hara, Akira; Kusakari, Jun; Ohara, Kiyosi

    1999-01-01

    Seventy patients of oral carcinoma, including lip and tongue cancer, were treated at University of Tsukuba Hospital from March 1988 to March 1998. Treatment for each patient was determined according to TNM classification (UICC, 1987). Eight cases of non-squamous cell carcinoma, which were insensitive to radiation or chemotherapy, were surgically treated. Out of 70 cases, sixty-two were pathologically categorized as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). For SCC cases of stage I or II, full-dose irradiation, including brachytherapy as well as conventional irradiation, was fundamentally the treatment of choice, but in six cases surgical treatment was performed after irradiation of 50 Gy in order to assure curability. In cases of stage III or IV, the treatment of choice was a combination of the surgery and radiotherapy. Fifteen cases, however, were treated only by conventional radiotherapy, brachytherapy (RALS) and/or chemotherapy, because of the patient's refusal to surgery, local or systemic condition, his or her age, and so on. Our treatment plans have consequently resulted in the overall 5-year survival rate of 75.2% for oral SCC. (author)

  13. Neutron and gamma-ray toxicity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, E.J.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported from studies on the late effects of irradiation on large populations of mice. The effectiveness of neutron and gamma radiation for production of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases and life shortening is compared. Basic studies of cellular and functional indices of radiation injury, which provide the opportunity for fundamental new contributions to the understanding of late radiation effects in the vascular, immune, and hematopoietic systems are also reported. Both structural and functional changes in the vasculature have been observed during the second year after irradiation. The structural changes in the pinna include collapse of arteries, arterioles, and some veins along with alterations in the smooth musculature and accumulation of significant fibrosis. Late ultrastructural changes observed in myofibrils involve the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Cardiac muscle also showed alteration in the size and number of mitochondria, and fibrosis development within 7 days of irradiation. (U.S.)

  14. Oral Candida colonization in oral cancer patients and its relationship with traditional risk factors of oral cancer: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnuaimi, Ali D; Wiesenfeld, David; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Reynolds, Eric C; McCullough, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Candida, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, has been implicated in oral and oesophageal cancers. This study aimed to examine oral Candida carriage in 52 oral cancer patients and 104 age-, gender- and denture status-matched oral cancer-free subjects. We assessed general health, smoking and alcohol drinking habits, use of alcohol-containing mouthwash and periodontal status (community periodontal index of treatment needs). Yeasts were isolated using oral rinse technique and genetically identified via Real-Time PCR-High resolution melting curve analysis of conserved ribosomal DNA. Conditional and binary logistic regressions were used to identify explanatory variables that are risk factors for oral cancer. The frequencies of oral yeasts' presence and high oral colonization were significantly higher in oral cancer than non-oral cancer patients (p=001; p=0.033, respectively). No significant difference in the isolation profile of Candida species was found between the two groups, except C. parapsilosis was more frequent in non-oral cancer group. Differences were noticed in the incidence of C. albicans strains where significantly more C. albicans genotype-A was isolated from cancer patients and significantly more C. albicans genotype-B isolated from non-cancer patients. Multiple regression analyses showed significant association with cancer observed for alcohol drinking (OR=4.253; 95% CI=1.351, 13.386), Candida presence (OR=3.242; 95% CI=1.505, 6.984) and high oral colonization (OR=3.587; 95% CI=1.153, 11.162). These results indicate that there is a significant association between oral cancer occurrence and Candida oral colonization and that the observed genotypic diversity of C. albicans strains may play a role in oral carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gut-related studies of radionuclide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.

    1983-01-01

    This project is concerned with the behavior of radioactive materials that mayu be ingested as a consequence of a reactor accident, unavoidable occupational exposure, or after release to the environment and incorporation into the food chain. Current emphasis is on evaluating hazards from ingested actinides as a function of animal age, species, nutrition, and diet, or chemicophysical state of the actinide. We are also concerned with the behavior of actinides that are inhaled and pass through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract after clearance from the lungs. Recent experiments showed that adult swine absorbed more 238 Pu nitrate than had previously been indicated in studies with 239 Pu nitrate, three times more than is absorbed by rats. Absorption of 238 Pu by rats on a vitamin-D-deficient diet was about 10 times higher than absorption by rats on a balanced diet. Studies on the effect of chemical form on actinide absorption showed that the citrate forms of 238 Pu, 241 Am and 244 Cm were transported in higher quantities than the nitrate forms across the intestine. Citrate had no effect on the 237 Np transport, but the mass of isotope administered was found to be important. Absorption by neonates was inversely related to the mass of neptunium gavaged, in contrast to the effect of mass on neptunium absorption by adult rats. Organic binding of 238 Pu in liver tissue, in situ, resulted in decreased absorption by adult or neonatal rats. These results demonstrate that animal age, species and nutritional state are important factors in determining GI absorption of actinide compounds. Chemical form and oxidation state also influence transport. These effects vary with animal age and with the actinide in question

  16. Models hosts for the study of oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2012-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection caused by yeast of the Candida genus, primarily Candida albicans. It is generally associated with predisposing factors such as the use of immunosuppressive agents, antibiotics, prostheses, and xerostomia. The development of research in animal models is extremely important for understanding the nature of the fungal pathogenicity, host interactions, and treatment of oral mucosal Candida infections. Many oral candidiasis models in rats and mice have been developed with antibiotic administration, induction of xerostomia, treatment with immunosuppressive agents, or the use of germ-free animals, and all these models has both benefits and limitations. Over the past decade, invertebrate model hosts, including Galleria mellonella, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila melanogaster, have been used for the study of Candida pathogenesis. These invertebrate systems offer a number of advantages over mammalian vertebrate models, predominantly because they allow the study of strain collections without the ethical considerations associated with studies in mammals. Thus, the invertebrate models may be useful to understanding of pathogenicity of Candida isolates from the oral cavity, interactions of oral microorganisms, and study of new antifungal compounds for oral candidiasis.

  17. A fusion protein containing a lepidopteran-specific toxin from the South Indian red scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus and snowdrop lectin shows oral toxicity to target insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitches Elaine

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite evidence suggesting a role in plant defence, the use of plant lectins in crop protection has been hindered by their low and species-specific insecticidal activity. Snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA is transported to the haemolymph of insects after oral ingestion, and can be used as a basis for novel insecticides. Recombinant proteins containing GNA expressed as a fusion with a peptide or protein, normally only toxic when injected into the insect haemolymph, have the potential to show oral toxicity as a result of GNA-mediated uptake. Results A gene encoding a toxin, ButaIT, from the red scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus was synthesised and assembled into expression constructs. One construct contained ButaIT alone, whereas the other contained ButaIT fused N-terminally to a GNA polypeptide (ButaIT/GNA. Both recombinant proteins were produced using the yeast Pichia pastoris as an expression host, and purified. Recombinant ButaIT and ButaIT/GNA were acutely toxic when injected into larvae of tomato moth (Lacanobia oleracea, causing slow paralysis, leading to mortality or decreased growth. ButaIT/GNA was chronically toxic when fed to L. oleracea larvae, causing decreased survival and weight gain under conditions where GNA alone was effectively non-toxic. Intact ButaIT/GNA was detected in larval haemolymph from insects fed the fusion protein orally, demonstrating transport of the linked polypeptide across the gut. Proteolysis of the fusion protein was also observed. ButaIT/GNA was significantly more toxic that GNA alone when fed to the homopteran Nilaparvata lugens (rice brown planthopper in liquid artificial diet. Conclusion The ButaIT/GNA recombinant fusion protein is toxic to lepidopteran larvae both when injected and when fed orally, showing the utility of GNA as a carrier to transport potentially toxic peptides and proteins across the insect gut. Although ButaIT has been claimed to be lepidopteran

  18. The oral mucosa in leprosy: a clinical and histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado; Michalany, Nilceo Schwery; Weckx, Luc Louis Maurice; Neto Pimentel, Dalva Regina; Hirata, Cleonice Hitomi Watashi; de Avelar Alchorne, Maurício Mota

    2006-01-01

    Multibacillary leprosy may involve the oral mucosa, with or without apparent lesions. There are few studies that deal with this issue in the era of multidrug therapy. To assess the frequency of oral mucosa involvement in multibacillary leprosy patients. A transversal study with twenty non-treated multibacillary leprosy patients. The patients were treated in Dracena, São Paulo, between 2000 and 2002. Clinical examination of the oral mucosa was carried out. All patients were submitted to jugal mucosa, soft palate and tongue biopsies, in altered or in pre-established sites. The cross-sections were stained by techniques of hematoxilin-eosin and Ziehl-Neelsen. Granuloma and alcohol-acid-resistant bacilli findings determined the specific histopathological involvement. The study involved 19 patients with an average of 2.5 years of disease progression. Specific histopathological involvement occurred in the tongue and soft palate of one lepromatous patient with an apparently normal oral mucosa. (1) Clinical alterations in the oral mucosa does not imply disease involvement, it is necessary to have histopathological confirmation. (2) Apparent specific clinical alterations are rare. (3) The clinically normal oral mucosa can show specific histopathological involvement.

  19. TOXICITY BEHAVIORS IN ORGANIZATIONS: STUDY OF RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF TOXIC EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCES SCALE

    OpenAIRE

    Bektas, Meral; Erkal, Pinar

    2016-01-01

    In toxic organizations which are mostly destructive instead of being constrictive towards its employees, toxicity behaviors emerge as a result of the formal and informal relationships. Toxicity behaviors are often negatively affect motivation, job satisfaction or performance of the employees in workplace. Basic toxicity behaviors in organizations are: extreme jealousy, biting words, emphasis  superiority emphasis, getting angry, offending employees, strict control, heavy job workload, limited...

  20. Developmental and reproductive toxicity of inorganic arsenic: animal studies and human concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, M S; Macintosh, M S; Baumrind, N

    1998-01-01

    Information on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of inorganic arsenic is available primarily from studies in animals using arsenite and arsenate salts and arsenic trioxide. Inorganic arsenic has been extensively studied as a teratogen in animals. Data from animal studies demonstrate that arsenic can produce developmental toxicity, including malformation, death, and growth retardation, in four species (hamsters, mice, rats, rabbits). A characteristic pattern of malformations is produced, and the developmental toxicity effects are dependent on dose, route, and the day of gestation when exposure occurs. Studies with gavage and diet administration indicate that death and growth retardation are produced by oral arsenic exposure. Arsenic is readily transferred to the fetus and produces developmental toxicity in embryo culture. Animal studies have not identified an effect of arsenic on fertility in males or females. When females were dosed chronically for periods that included pregnancy, the primary effect of arsenic on reproduction was a dose-dependent increase in conceptus mortality and in postnatal growth retardation. Human data are limited to a few studies of populations exposed to arsenic from drinking water or from working at or living near smelters. Associations with spontaneous abortion and stillbirth have been reported in more than one of these studies, but interpretation of these studies is complicated because study populations were exposed to multiple chemicals. Thus, animal studies suggest that environmental arsenic exposures are primarily a risk to the developing fetus. In order to understand the implications for humans, attention must be given to comparative pharmacokinetics and metabolism, likely exposure scenarios, possible mechanisms of action, and the potential role of arsenic as an essential nutrient.

  1. Toxicity and antipyretic studies of the crude extract of Tephrosia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicity and antipyretic studies of the crude extract of Tephrosia bractiolata leaves. MOA Onaolapo, HC Nzelibe, AO Aduadi, JO Ayo. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jopat.v9i1.48589.

  2. Oral cancer awareness in Spain: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Centelles, P; Estany-Gestal, A; Bugarín-González, R; Seoane-Romero, J M

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the level of oral cancer knowledge and awareness in a Spanish general population. A cross-sectional study using an anonymous questionnaire applied in the community to randomly selected laypersons. Sample size for the general population was determined by quota sampling, resulting in 1,041 individuals. A total of 1,707 pedestrians were approached (response: 61%). When the participants were asked about what cancers had they heard about (up to ten), oral cancer was mentioned in first place by 2% of the sample and by 22% in any order. When specifically asked about oral cancer, the percentage of interviewees who were familiar with it raised to 72%. Participants were also asked about the main signs or symptoms of oral cancer, and the most frequently (22%) mentioned as the first warning sign was a non-healing ulcer. Tobacco smoking generally was recognised as the most important (57%) risk factor for oral cancer. This pilot study revealed a low awareness of oral cancer, and a poor knowledge of its signs and symptoms and risk factors. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dose-dependent transitions in mechanisms of toxicity: case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slikker, William; Andersen, Melvin E.; Bogdanffy, Matthew S.; Bus, James S.; Cohen, Steven D.; Conolly, Rory B.; David, Raymond M.; Doerrer, Nancy G.; Dorman, David C.; Gaylor, David W.; Hattis, Dale; Rogers, John M.; Setzer, R. Woodrow; Swenberg, James A.; Wallace, Kendall

    2004-01-01

    Experience with dose response and mechanisms of toxicity has shown that multiple mechanisms may exist for a single agent along the continuum of the full dose-response curve. It is highly likely that critical, limiting steps in any given mechanistic pathway may become overwhelmed with increasing exposures, signaling the emergence of new modalities of toxic tissue injury at these higher doses. Therefore, dose-dependent transitions in principal mechanisms of toxicity may occur, and could have significant impact on the interpretation of reference data sets for risk assessment. To illustrate the existence of dose-dependent transitions in mechanisms of toxicity, a group of academic, government, and industry scientists, formed under the leadership of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI), developed a series of case studies. These case studies included acetaminophen, butadiene, ethylene glycol, formaldehyde, manganese, methylene chloride, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), progesterone/hydroxyflutamide, propylene oxide, vinyl acetate, vinyl chloride, vinylidene chloride, and zinc. The case studies formed the basis for technical discourse at two scientific workshops in 2003

  4. Phase I study of 4-demethoxydaunorubicin by oral route in patients with advanced cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup-Hansen, A; Andersen, E; Elbaek, K

    1988-01-01

    In a phase I trial 4-demethoxydaunorubicin (4-dm DNR) was administered as oral capsules once a week to 51 adults with advanced mainly gastrointestinal solid tumors. No fatal toxicity was observed at doses up to 25.0 mg/m2. Dose-limiting granulocytopenia and non-hematologic toxicity developed...

  5. Some scientific landmarks of the MIT radium toxicity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maletskos, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Until the recent forced termination of the studies on radium toxicity, more than six decades of investigation and research have been devoted to them. These studies involve ∼2400 subjects who were exposed to long-term internally deposited radium [high linear energy transfer (LET)], whose health status was evaluated in great detail and whose radiation dosimetry was based on measurements of their actual radium body burdens. The quality and usefulness of these studies are, therefore, in sharp contrast to other human radiation-exposure studies that involve instantaneous or somewhat protracted external low-LET exposures and inferred radiation dose, as in the atomic-bomb survivor studies. As a consequence of national news in 1932 concerning the gruesome death of a prominent Pittsburgh businessman and sportsman, Robley D. Evans became involved with radium toxicity, and its study became an important project when he joined the faculty of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology physics department and set up the interdisciplinary Radioactivity Center

  6. Acute toxicity and genotoxicity study of fermented traditional herb formula Guibi-tang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwayong; Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Yang, Hye Jin; Kim, Hyun-Kyu; Song, Kyung Seuk; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2014-10-28

    Guibi-tang (Guipi-tang in Chinese and Kihi-to in Japanese) is a multi-herb traditional medicine commonly prescribed to treat psychoneurosis in East Asia. Although this medicine has been widely used, there is little available information on the safety and toxicity of Guibi-tang, especially on the fermented one. Guibi-tang, composed of 12 herbs, was fermented with bacteria and lyophilized. Single dose acute toxicity in rats was observed for 14 days after administration. Genetic toxicity of fermented Guibi-tang was evaluated on bacterial reverse mutation in Salmonella and Escherichia spp., chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and micronucleus formation in mice. Ingredients in FGBT were identified and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In acute oral toxicity study, behavior, clinical signs and body weight changes were normal observing in all experimental animals. No revertant colonies were found in any bacterial cultures examined. Morphological or numerical anomalies and significant increased number of aberrant metaphases were not observed. Micronucleus assay showed no significant increases in the frequency of inducing micronuclei in any dose examined. Decursinol, decursin, glycyrrhizin, and 6-gingerol in fermented Guibi-tang were identified and quantitated. As a whole, no acute and genotoxic effects were found in all the assays and parameters analyzed. Fermented Guibi-tang was recognized as safe and non-toxic, and therefore can be used for applications of traditional medicine in modern complementary and alternative therapeutics and health care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Toxicity of ozone and nitrogen dioxide to alveolar macrophages: comparative study revealing differences in their mechanism of toxic action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, I. M.; Poelen, M. C.; Hempenius, R. A.; Gijbels, M. J.; Alink, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    The toxicity of ozone and nitrogen dioxide is generally ascribed to their oxidative potential. In this study their toxic mechanism of action was compared using an intact cell model. Rat alveolar macrophages were exposed by means of gas diffusion through a Teflon film. In this in vitro system, ozone

  8. Single dose toxicity and biodistribution studies of [18F] fluorocholine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Danielle C.; Santos, Priscilla F.; Silveira, Marina B.; Ferreira, Soraya Z.; Malamut, Carlos; Silva, Juliana B. da; Souza, Cristina M.; Campos, Liliane C.; Ferreira, Enio; Araujo, Marina R.; Cassali, Geovanni D.

    2013-01-01

    [ 18 F]Fluorocholine ( 18 FCH) is a valuable tool for non-invasive diagnosis using positron emission tomography (PET). This radiotracer has been proven to be highly effective in detecting recurrences and staging prostate cancer, diagnoses brain, breast, and esophageal tumors and also hepatocellular carcinoma. The higher uptake of fluorocholine by malignant tumors results from increased choline kinase activity due to accelerated cell multiplication and membrane formation. According to the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA), radiopharmaceuticals have to be registered before commercialization. The aim of this work was to evaluate single dose toxicity and biodistribution of 18 FCH in mice, since preclinical safety studies are required for register. Experimental procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee on Animal Use (CEUA-IPEN/SP). Single dose toxicity and biodistribution studies were conducted in Swiss mice. No signs of toxicity were observed during clinical trial. No changes in the parameters which were examined, such as: body weight, food consumption, clinical pathology parameters or lesions microscopic were noted. Biodistribution results indicated high physiological tracer uptake in kidney, liver and heart 30 min after injection. Lower activities were recorded in other organs/tissues: pancreas, intestine, spleen, bone, bladder, muscle, brain and blood. Initial preclinical investigations showed no toxic effects of 18 FCH at investigated doses and a biodistribution profile very similar to other reports in literature. This information is essential to support future human trials. (author)

  9. Potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Anirudh

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancers in India, unlike in the West are the most common cancers encountered, be it a primary or a tertiary referral practice. This makes the study and management of these cancers an important issue especially for the otolaryngologist. It is well known that the most common variant of oral cancers is the squamous cell carcinoma. Also the etiology is well established; with tobacco use in both smoking and smokeless forms, alcohol, betel nut and recently the Human Papilloma virus infection being implicated. Certain conditions which definitely increase the probability of getting oral cancers are known and this study aims in revisiting these aspects of pre-malignancy. The progression from a pre-cancerous lesion/condition to frank cancer is well established across many studies and many specialties. Also timely recognizing these pre-cancerous conditions and administration of proper treatment will greatly help in reducing the morbidity and mortality from subsequent much advanced and dangerous oral cancer. Keeping these facts in mind this study was planned to study the established pre-cancerous lesions which are known to progress to oral cancers.

  10. Oral carcinogenicity study with nickel sulfate hexahydrate in Fischer 344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heim, Katherine E.; Bates, Hudson K.; Rush, Rusty E.; Oller, Adriana R.

    2007-01-01

    Until now, existing data on the oral carcinogenicity of nickel substances have been inconclusive. Yet, the assessment of oral carcinogenicity of nickel has serious scientific and regulatory implications. In the present study, nickel sulfate hexahydrate was administered daily to Fischer 344 rats by oral gavage for 2 years (104 weeks) at exposure levels of 10, 30 and 50 mg NiSO 4 ·6H 2 O/kg. This treatment produced a statistically significant reduction in body weight of male and female rats, compared to controls, in an exposure-related fashion at 30 and 50 mg/kg/day. An exposure-dependent increase in mortality was observed in female rats. However, the overall study survival rate (males and females) was at least 25 animals per group (compliant with OECD guidelines) in the treated animals. Daily oral administration of nickel sulfate hexahydrate did not produce an exposure-related increase in any common tumor type or an increase in any rare tumors. One tumor type was statistically increased in a nickel sulfate-treated group compared to the study controls (keratoacanthoma in the 10 mg NiSO 4 ·6H 2 O/kg/day males), but there was no exposure-response relationship for this common tumor type. This study achieved sufficient toxicity to reach the Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) while maintaining a sufficiently high survival rate to allow evaluation for carcinogenicity. The present study indicated that nickel sulfate hexahydrate does not have the potential to cause carcinogenicity by the oral route of exposure in the Fischer 344 rat. Data from this and other studies demonstrate that inhalation is the only route of exposure that might cause concern for cancer in association with nickel exposures

  11. The oral microbiota of Irish children in health and disease: a longitudinal and cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, Eimear

    2017-01-01

    The oral cavity harbours a very rich and diverse microbial community. In the last decade, the oral microbiota of children and adults has been studied in detail using continuously developing DNA sequencing methods. In particular focusing on the oral microbiome changes in the presence of diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease and the relationship of the oral microbiome with oral health and disease states. The overall aim of these studies was to unravel the complexity of the oral ec...

  12. Assessment of the safety of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin: reverse mutation assay, acute and 90-day subchronic repeated oral toxicity in rats, and acute no-effect level for diarrhea in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Yuko; Kishimoto, Yuka; Tagami, Hiroyuki; Kanahori, Sumiko

    2013-01-01

    A series of safety assessments were performed on hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin prepared by converting the reducing terminal glucose of resistant maltodextrin into sorbitol. The reverse mutation assay did not show mutagenicity. Acute and 90-day subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats showed no death was observed in any groups, including the group receiving the highest single dose of 10 g/kg body weight or the highest dose of 5 g/kg body weight per day for 90 days. Mucous or watery stools were observed in the hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin treatment group on the acute study, which were transient and were associated with the osmotic pressure caused by intake of the high concentrations. Subchronic study showed dose-dependent increases in the weights of cecum alone, cecal contents alone, and cecum with cecal contents as well as hypertrophy of the cecal mucosal epithelium, which are considered to be common physiological responses after intake of indigestible carbohydrates. These results indicated that the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin was 10 g/kg body weight or more on the acute oral toxicity study and 5.0 g/kg body weight/day or more on the 90-day subchronic repeated oral toxicity study in rats. Further study performed in healthy adult humans showed that the acute no-effect level of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin for diarrhea was 0.8 g/kg body weight for men and more than 1.0 g/kg body weight for women. The results of the current safety assessment studies suggest that hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin is safe for human consumption.

  13. Subacute and subchronic oral toxicity of p-chlorotoluene in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrill, J.B.; Robinson, M.; Wolfe, G.W.; Billups, L.H.

    1990-01-01

    P-Chlorotoluene was administered by gavage for 14 and 90 days to male and female Sprague-Dawley-derived rats at dose levels of 200, 600 and 1800 mg/kg/day and 50, 200 and 800 mg/kg/day, respectively. In the 14-day study 8 of 10 animals of each sex in the high-dose group died due to treatment. Other treatment-related signs for these animals included an adverse effect upon body weight, and clinical signs of salivation, tremors and prostration. In the 200 and 600 mg/kg/day groups there were no apparent treatment-related effects. In the 90-day study, 4 of 10 males and 2 of 10 females in the high-dose group died due to treatment. Other signs for this treatment group included an adverse effect upon body weight, and clinical signs of languid behavior, prostration, tremors, sensitive to touch, epistaxis and respiratory distress. Increases in alkaline phosphatase and creatinine (males only), and increases in adrenal (absolute and relative, females), kidney (relative, both sexes) and liver (relative, both sexes) weights were also noted.

  14. Ciguatoxins and Maitotoxins in Extracts of Sixteen Gambierdiscus Isolates and One Fukuyoa Isolate from the South Pacific and Their Toxicity to Mice by Intraperitoneal and Oral Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Rex; Murray, Sam; Rhodes, Lesley L.; Larsson, Michaela E.; Harwood, D. Tim

    2017-01-01

    Ciguatoxins (CTXs), and possibly maitotoxins (MTXs), are responsible for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning, an important health problem for consumers of reef fish (such as inhabitants of islands in the South Pacific Ocean). The habitational range of the Gambierdiscus species is expanding, and new species are being discovered. In order to provide information on the potential health risk of the Gambierdiscus species, and one Fukuyoa species (found in the Cook Islands, the Kermadec Islands, mainland New Zealand, and New South Wales, Australia), 17 microalgae isolates were collected from these areas. Unialgal cultures were grown and extracts of the culture isolates were analysed for CTXs and MTXs by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and their toxicity to mice was determined by intraperitoneal and oral administration. An isolate of G. carpenteri contained neither CTXs nor MTXs, while 15 other isolates (including G. australes, G. cheloniae, G. pacificus, G. honu, and F. paulensis) contained only MTX-1 and/or MTX-3. An isolate of G. polynesiensis contained both CTXs and MTX-3. All the extracts were toxic to mice by intraperitoneal injection, but those containing only MTX-1 and/or -3 were much less toxic by oral administration. The extract of G. polynesiensis was highly toxic by both routes of administration. PMID:28665362

  15. Ciguatoxins and Maitotoxins in Extracts of Sixteen Gambierdiscus Isolates and One Fukuyoa Isolate from the South Pacific and Their Toxicity to Mice by Intraperitoneal and Oral Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Munday

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ciguatoxins (CTXs, and possibly maitotoxins (MTXs, are responsible for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning, an important health problem for consumers of reef fish (such as inhabitants of islands in the South Pacific Ocean. The habitational range of the Gambierdiscus species is expanding, and new species are being discovered. In order to provide information on the potential health risk of the Gambierdiscus species, and one Fukuyoa species (found in the Cook Islands, the Kermadec Islands, mainland New Zealand, and New South Wales, Australia, 17 microalgae isolates were collected from these areas. Unialgal cultures were grown and extracts of the culture isolates were analysed for CTXs and MTXs by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, and their toxicity to mice was determined by intraperitoneal and oral administration. An isolate of G. carpenteri contained neither CTXs nor MTXs, while 15 other isolates (including G. australes, G. cheloniae, G. pacificus, G. honu, and F. paulensis contained only MTX-1 and/or MTX-3. An isolate of G. polynesiensis contained both CTXs and MTX-3. All the extracts were toxic to mice by intraperitoneal injection, but those containing only MTX-1 and/or -3 were much less toxic by oral administration. The extract of G. polynesiensis was highly toxic by both routes of administration.

  16. Ciguatoxins and Maitotoxins in Extracts of Sixteen Gambierdiscus Isolates and One Fukuyoa Isolate from the South Pacific and Their Toxicity to Mice by Intraperitoneal and Oral Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Rex; Murray, Sam; Rhodes, Lesley L; Larsson, Michaela E; Harwood, D Tim

    2017-06-30

    Ciguatoxins (CTXs), and possibly maitotoxins (MTXs), are responsible for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning, an important health problem for consumers of reef fish (such as inhabitants of islands in the South Pacific Ocean). The habitational range of the Gambierdiscus species is expanding, and new species are being discovered. In order to provide information on the potential health risk of the Gambierdiscus species, and one Fukuyoa species (found in the Cook Islands, the Kermadec Islands, mainland New Zealand, and New South Wales, Australia), 17 microalgae isolates were collected from these areas. Unialgal cultures were grown and extracts of the culture isolates were analysed for CTXs and MTXs by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and their toxicity to mice was determined by intraperitoneal and oral administration. An isolate of G. carpenteri contained neither CTXs nor MTXs, while 15 other isolates (including G. australes, G. cheloniae , G. pacificus , G. honu , and F. paulensis ) contained only MTX-1 and/or MTX-3. An isolate of G. polynesiensis contained both CTXs and MTX-3. All the extracts were toxic to mice by intraperitoneal injection, but those containing only MTX-1 and/or -3 were much less toxic by oral administration. The extract of G. polynesiensis was highly toxic by both routes of administration.

  17. In vivo toxicity studies of europium hydroxide nanorods in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, Chitta Ranjan; Abdel Moneim, Soha S.; Wang, Enfeng; Dutta, Shamit; Patra, Sujata; Eshed, Michal; Mukherjee, Priyabrata; Gedanken, Aharon; Shah, Vijay H.; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Lanthanide nanoparticles and nanorods have been widely used for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in biomedical nanotechnology due to their fluorescence and pro-angiogenic properties to endothelial cells, respectively. Recently, we have demonstrated that europium (III) hydroxide [Eu III (OH) 3 ] nanorods, synthesized by the microwave technique and characterized by several physico-chemical techniques, can be used as pro-angiogenic agents which introduce future therapeutic treatment strategies for severe ischemic heart/limb disease, and peripheral ischemic disease. The toxicity of these inorganic nanorods to endothelial cells was supported by several in vitro assays. To determine the in vivo toxicity, these nanorods were administered to mice through intraperitoneal injection (IP) everyday over a period of seven days in a dose dependent (1.25 to 125 mg kg -1 day -1 ) and time dependent manner (8-60 days). Bio-distribution of europium elements in different organs was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Short-term (S-T) and long-term (L-T) toxicity studies (mice euthanized on days 8 and 60 for S-T and L-T, respectively) show normal blood hematology and serum clinical chemistry with the exception of a slight elevation of liver enzymes. Histological examination of nanorod-treated vital organs (liver, kidney, spleen and lungs) showed no or only mild histological changes that indicate mild toxicity at the higher dose of nanorods.

  18. Oral treatment with a rattlesnake native polypeptide crotamine efficiently inhibits the tumor growth with no potential toxicity for the host animal and with suggestive positive effects on animal metabolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeiro, Joana D; Marinovic, Marcelo P; Carapeto, Fernando Cintra; Dal Mas, Caroline; Monte, Gabriela Guilherme; Carvalho Porta, Lucas; Nering, Marcela B; Oliveira, Eduardo B; Hayashi, Mirian A F

    2018-02-01

    The efficacy of crotamine as antitumoral was first demonstrated by daily intraperitoneal (IP) injections of low doses of this toxin in an animal model bearing melanoma tumors. Significant inhibition of tumor growth and increased lifespan of mice bearing tumor was also noticed after 21 consecutive days of this daily IP administration of crotamine. However, due to the limited acceptance of treatments by IP route in clinical conditions, herein, we evaluated the antitumor effect of this native polypeptide employing the oral route. The efficacy of crotamine in inhibiting the melanoma growth in vivo, even after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of the animal, was confirmed here. In addition, biochemical biomarkers and also histopathological analysis showed both the absence of any potential toxic effects in tissues or organs of the animal in which the highest accumulation of crotamine is expected. Interestingly, a reduction of weight gain was observed mainly in animals with tumor treated with crotamine by IP route, but not by oral administration. Albeit, oral administered crotamine was able to significantly decrease the body weight gain of healthy animals without tumor. Taking advantage of this same experimental animal models receiving crotamine by oral route, it was possible to show metabolic changes as the increased capacity of glucose clearance, which was accompanied by a reduction of the total cholesterol, and by increased high-density lipoprotein levels, both observed mainly in the absence of tumor. Triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein were also significantly decreased, but only in the absence of tumor. Taken together, these data suggest a clear trend for metabolic positive effects and mischaracterize unhealthy condition of animals, with or without tumors, treated with crotamine for 21 days. In addition, this study confirmed the efficacy of crotamine administered by oral route as antitumor agent, which besides the additional advantage of

  19. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of the water extract from root of Imperata cylindrica (Linn. Raeusch. in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siharat Chunlaratthanaphorn

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The water extract from root of Imperata cylindrica (Linn. Raeusch. was studied for acute and subchronic toxicities. The extract at a single dose of 5,000 mg/kg was administered orally to female and male rats (5 male, 5 female. After 14 days, signs and behavioral changes, mortality, gross and histopathological changes of internal organs were examined. The extract did not produce signs of toxicity. For the subchronic toxicity test, the extract at doses of 300, 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight was orally administered to rats daily for 90 days (10 male, 10 female. The observation of signs, behavior and health status showed no abnormality in the test groups as compared with the controls. At the end of the study, necropsy and histopathology examination were performed in all animals in the control group, the test groups and the satellite group in which the extract was discontinued for another 28 days. Body and organ weights, hematological and blood clinical chemistry were also examined. The results suggest that the water extract of Imperata cylindrica (Linn. Raeusch does not cause acute and subchronic toxicities in rats.

  20. Systematic reviews of oral complications from cancer therapies, Oral Care Study Group, MASCC/ISOO : methodology and quality of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brennan, Michael T.; Elting, Linda S.; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.

    Oral complications are commonly experienced by patients undergoing cancer therapies. The Oral Care Study Group of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer/International Society of Oral Oncology (MASCC/ISOO) has completed nine systematic reviews including Bisphosphonate

  1. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of the water extract from dried fruits of Piper nigrum L. in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanjana Jaijoy

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate acute and subchronic toxicities of the water extract from the dried fruits of Piper nigrum L. A single oral administration of the extract at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight (5 male, 5 female did not produce signs of toxicity, behavioral changes, mortality, changes on gross appearance or histopathological changes of internal organs. The subchronic toxicity was determined by oral feeding both male and female rats (10 male, 10 female daily with the test substance at the doses of 300, 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight continuously for 90 days. The examinations of signs, animal behavior and health monitoring showed no abnormalities in the test groups as compared to the controls. The test and control groups (on the 90th day and the satellite group (on the 118th day were analyzed by measuring their final body and organ weights, taking necropsy, and examining hematology, blood clinical chemistry and histopathology. The results suggest that the water extract from the dried fruits of P. nigrum does not cause acute or subchronic toxicities in either male or female rats.

  2. Fundaments for the study of orality in written language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gaston Hilgert

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we put forth some reflections upon the production of effects of orality in written texts in light of the fundaments of enunciation. In this theoretical context, we show that the study of orality in written language should not depart from the random identification of lexical and syntactic, figurative and thematic, stylistic or rhetoric resources. What matters is the identification of the interactive scenario in which these linguistic resources are manifested. The interactive scenario is configured by the relationship between narrator/narratee revealed in the text. If this relation takes place by means of the interaction between an I (narrator and a you (narratee, either explicit or implicit, then it is instituted, in this scenario, the basic principle of dialog, of conversation, which defines the proximity condition of the interlocutors and, therefore, the interactive scenario favorable to the use of orality resources. When this relation, however, takes place in the form of a third person narrator who addresses him/herself to an implicit reader, the scenario of distancing is installed, in which orality resources may be unfit or, if they occur, they may have specific functions. This text addresses special attention to the interactive scenario set by the interaction between I/you, showing, in different examples, traits of orality determined by such interaction, and also the various degrees of proximity that this interaction may reveal in its various manifestations.

  3. Malnutrition in patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer-prevalence and relationship with oral symptoms : an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager-Wittenaar, Harriet; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Vissink, Arjan; van Oort, Rob P.; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to assess prevalence of malnutrition after treatment for oral/oropharyngeal cancer and to explore how oral symptoms relate to malnutrition after treatment. In this cross-sectional study, malnutrition (weight loss a parts per thousand yenaEuro parts per thousand 10% in 6 months or a

  4. Chamomile infusion cryotherapy to prevent oral mucositis induced by chemotherapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Paula Elaine Diniz; Ciol, Marcia A; de Melo, Nilce Santos; Figueiredo, Paulo Tadeu de Souza; Leite, André Ferreira; Manzi, Natália de Melo

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to compare cryotherapy made only with water and cryotherapy made with chamomile infusion for prevention and reduction of intensity of oral mucositis in patients with cancer receiving 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin. This is a randomized pilot study with two groups: cryotherapy made only with water (control group, n = 18) and cryotherapy made with chamomile infusion (chamomile group, n = 20). Both groups were instructed to swish the ice around in their oral cavity for at least 30 min during chemotherapy. Assessment of oral mucosa occurred on days 8, 15, and 22 after the first day of chemotherapy. Fifty percent of the patients in the control and 30 % in the chamomile group developed oral mucositis. Mouth pain score was higher in patients in the control group on all evaluations (p = 0.02 for day 8, p = 0.09 for day 15, and p = 0.14 for day 22). Patients in the chamomile group never developed mucositis with grade 2 or higher. Presence of ulceration was statistically significant on day 8 (16 % in the control vs. 0 % in the chamomile group, p = 0.10), but not in days 15 and 22, although 11 % still had ulcerations in the control group and none in the chamomile group. The occurrence of oral mucositis was lower in patients in the chamomile group than in the control group. When compared to the controls, the chamomile group presented less mouth pain and had no ulcerations. Cryotherapy was well tolerated by both groups, and no toxicity related to chamomile was identified.

  5. A 13-week toxicity study of acrylamide administered in drinking water to hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Toshio; Kitahashi, Tsukasa

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is known to induce tumors in various organs/tissues in rats and mice. Epidemiological studies of oral exposure have generated controversial results but mortality studies of people who work with AA have indicated increased rates of pancreatic cancer. In the present study, for dose selection for chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity studies, 13-week toxicity of AA was evaluated in Syrian hamsters, which are sensitive to induction of pancreatic ductal carcinogenesis, at concentrations required to provide doses of 0 (control), 20, 30 and 50 mg kg(-1) body weight in drinking water. Treatment with AA caused abnormal gait advancing to hind limb paralysis in all males and females at 50 mg kg(-1). Body weights in 30 and 50 mg kg(-1) males and 50 mg kg(-1) females were lower than in the controls. At termination of the study, red blood cells (RBC) and hemoglobin (Hb) were decreased or showed a tendency for a decrease at 20 and 30 mg kg(-1) in females. Microscopically, axonal/myelin degeneration of sciatic nerves was observed in all AA-treated groups with dose dependence. No obvious changes were found in pancreatic ducts/ductules in any groups of animal. These results indicated the maximum tolerated dose for long-term studies of AA to be 20 mg kg(-1) or less in both male and female Syrian hamsters. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Photocatalytic degradation of rosuvastatin: Analytical studies and toxicity evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Tiele Caprioli, E-mail: tiele@enq.ufrgs.br [Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Engenheiro Luiz Englert s/n, CEP: 90040-040 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Pizzolato, Tânia Mara [Chemical Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Gonçalves, 9500, CEP: 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Arenzon, Alexandre [Ecology Center, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Gonçalves, 9500, CEP: 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Segalin, Jeferson [Biotechnology Center, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Gonçalves, 9500, CEP: 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Lansarin, Marla Azário [Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Engenheiro Luiz Englert s/n, CEP: 90040-040 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-01-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of rosuvastatin, which is a drug that has been used to reduce blood cholesterol levels, was studied in this work employing ZnO as catalyst. The experiments were carried out in a temperature-controlled batch reactor that was irradiated with UV light. Preliminary the effects of the photocatalyst loading, the initial pH and the initial rosuvastatin concentration were evaluated. The experimental results showed that rosuvastatin degradation is primarily a photocatalytic process, with pseudo-first order kinetics. The byproducts that were generated during the oxidative process were identified using nano-ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nano-UPLC–MS/MS) and acute toxicity tests using Daphnia magna were done to evaluate the toxicity of the untreated rosuvastatin solution and the reactor effluent. - Highlights: • The photocatalytic degradation of rosuvastatin was studied under UV irradiation. • Commercial catalyst ZnO was used. • Initial rosuvastatin concentration, photocatalyst loading and pH were evaluated. • The byproducts generated during the oxidative process were detected and identified. • Acute toxicity tests using Daphnia magna were carried out.

  7. Toxicity studies of detoxified Jatropha meal (Jatropha curcas) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, K D; Darukeshwara, J; Rathina Raj, K; Narasimhamurthy, K; Saibaba, P; Bhagya, S

    2008-12-01

    Jatropha curcas, a tropical plant introduced in many Asian and African countries is presently used as a source of biodiesel. The cake after oil extraction is rich in protein and is a potential source of livestock feed. In view of the high toxic nature of whole as well as dehulled seed meal due to the presence of toxic phorbol esters and lectin, the meal was subjected to alkali and heat treatments to deactivate the phorbol ester as well as lectin content. After treatment, the phorbol ester content was reduced up to 89% in whole and dehulled seed meal. Toxicity studies were conducted on male growing rats by feeding treated as well as untreated meal through dietary source. All rats irrespective of treatment had reduced appetite and diet intake was low accompanied by diarrhoea. The rats also exhibited reduced motor activity. The rats fed with treated meals exhibited delayed mortality compared to untreated meal fed rats (p0.02). There were significant changes both in terms of food intake and gain in body weight. Gross examination of vital organs indicated atrophy compared to control casein fed rats. However, histopathological examination of various vital organs did not reveal any treatment related microscopic changes suggesting that the mortality of rats occurred due to lack of food intake, diarrhoea and emaciation. Further studies are in progress for complete detoxification of J. curcas meal for use in livestock feed.

  8. Phase I study of oral S-1 and concurrent radiotherapy in patients with unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Taketo; Ishihara, Takeshi; Nakamura, Kazuyoshi; Shirai, Yoshihiko; Nakagawa, Akihiko; Kawakami, Hiroyuki; Uno, Takashi; Ito, Hisao; Saisho, Hiromitsu

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine derivative, with concurrent radiotherapy in patients with unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients with histopathologically proven, unresectable, locally advanced pancreatic cancer were eligible. Radiotherapy was delivered in 1.8 Gy daily fractions to a total dose of 50.4 Gy over 5.5 weeks. S-1 was administered orally twice a day from Day 1 to 14 and 22 to 35 at escalating doses from 60 to 80 mg/m 2 /day. Results: Sixteen patients were enrolled in this study. Three patients received S-1 at 60 mg/m 2 /day, 3 at 70 mg/m 2 /day, and 10 at 80 mg/m 2 /day. Though 1 patient at the final dose level (80 mg/m 2 /day) experienced a dose limiting toxicity (biliary infection with Grade 3 neutropenia), the MTD was not reached in this study. The most common toxicities were anorexia and leukocytopenia, with Grade 3 toxicity occurring in 31% and 6.3% of the patients, respectively. Conclusions: The recommended dose of S-1 with concurrent radiotherapy was determined to be 80 mg/m 2 /day from Day 1 to 14 and 22 to 35 in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Oral S-1 and radiotherapy is well tolerated and feasible and should be further investigated

  9. On the Importance of Cultural Factors in Oral English Studying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Juan

    2016-01-01

    Language communication, in some way, is cultural communication, in order to have a better ability of communicating, students have to know and understand enough culture knowledge. This paper will analyze the relationship between language and culture, emphasize the importance of cultural factors in oral English studying.

  10. Oral cancer: a retrospective study of 100 Danish cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Rindum, J; Pindborg, J J

    1997-01-01

    One hundred Danes with oral cancer who were collected consecutively from 1986 to 1991 were evaluated retrospectively. The study included subjective and objective observations in 56% men and in 44% women. M:F ratio was 1.2:1. Fifty percent of the patients were non-smokers. Nine percent were women...

  11. Impact of oral rehabilitation on patients with head and neck cancer: A study using the Liverpool Oral Rehabilitation Questionnaire and the Oral Health Impact Profile-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholam, Kanchan P; Dugad, Jinesh A; Sadashiva, Karthik M

    2017-04-01

    The treatment of oral cancers affects oral functions and quality of life (QOL). Dental rehabilitation is a major step toward enhancing quality of life after controlling the disease. The effects of the disease, treatment, and rehabilitation need to be evaluated to assess oral health-related QOL. The Liverpool Oral Rehabilitation Questionnaire version 3 (LORQv3) and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) are specific assessment questionnaires of oral rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of oral rehabilitation on patients with head and neck cancer by using the LORQv3 and OHIP-14 questionnaires and to discover and document specific patient-derived problems related to the issues of oral rehabilitation. The LORQv3 and OHIP-14 questionnaires were administered to 60 participants with oral cancer, who were in need of oral rehabilitation. They were asked to rate their dental problems on a Likert scale before fabrication of their prostheses (baseline) and at the 3-month follow-up visit after prosthetic rehabilitation. Paired comparison was done using the Wilcoxon signed rank test according to the distribution, and Cronbach alpha was used to assess internal consistency. Subscale scores were determined by mean value (α=.05). For the LORQv3 questionnaire, a 10% to 27% improvement was found in the domain of oral function, and a 20% improvement in orofacial appearance, with improvement in patient satisfaction with the prosthesis. Using the OHIP-14 questionnaire, a 45% to 67% improvement was generally seen in all domains. After assessment using the LORQv3 and OHIP-14 questionnaires, prosthetic rehabilitation was seen to contribute to the betterment of patients with head and neck cancer. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Tavaborole, a Novel Boron-Containing Small Molecule Pharmaceutical Agent for Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis: I. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaravino, Vic; Coronado, Dina; Lanphear, Cheryl; Hoberman, Alan; Chanda, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    Tavaborole is a topical antifungal agent approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of toenail onychomycosis. As part of the nonclinical development program, reproductive and developmental toxicity studies were conducted (rat oral fertility and early embryonic development, rat (oral) and rabbit (dermal) embryo-fetal development). There were no effects on fertility or reproductive performance at doses up to 300 mg/kg/d (107 times the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] based on mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve comparisons). In the rat embryo-fetal development toxicity studies, teratogenicity was not observed at doses up to 100 mg/kg/d (29 times the MRHD). However, several treatment-related skeletal malformations and variations were observed at 300 mg/kg/d (570 times the MRHD). In rabbit embryo-fetal development toxicity studies dosed via oral or dermal administration, the no observable adverse effect level for maternal toxicity and embryo-fetal toxicity was 50 mg/kg/d (16 times the MRHD) and 5% (26 times the MRHD), respectively. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Clinicopathological Studies on Gentamicin Toxicity in White Leghorn Commercial Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najam Ul Islam, M. Zargham Khan1, M. Kashif Saleemi*1, Ahrar Khan1, Sheraz Ahmed Bhatti1, Muhammad Yousaf2 and Zahoor-ul-Hassan3

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Gentamicin is an effective and economical drug used to control infectious diseases in poultry but is highly toxic and had slow clearance from the body. This study aimed to report three cases of gentamicin toxicity in three White Leghorn (WLH layer flocks in different poultry producing areas of Pakistan. In first case, gentamicin was injected in a 9000 WLH layer flock @ 10 mg/kg body weight (BW for seven times during 9-15 weeks for age. In second case, gentamicin was injected in a flock of 7500 WLH layers @ 25 mg/kg BW for four times during 17-18 weeks of age. In third case, gentamicin was injected in flock of 16000 WLH layers @ 22.22 mg/kg BW three times in 20-21 weeks of age. Flock wise mortality was 8.69, 82.63 and 71.86%, respectively. Birds were dehydrated, emaciated and had prominent keel bone. Clinical signs included dehydration, decreased body weight leading to emaciation, decreased feed intake, increased water intake and watery diarrhea. Necropsy revealed prominent keal bone, shrunken muscles swollen kidneys bulging out from bony sockets. Petechial and echymotic hemorrhages were present on heart and skeletal muscles. Liver was enlarged with hemorrhagic streaks on its surface. Microscopically, hemorrhages and acute tubular necrosis was recorded in kidneys. Liver had hemorrhages, cellular infiltration and vacuolar (fatty degeneration of hepatocytes. From the results, it could be concluded that overdosing and repeated administration of gentamicin was highly toxic to birds.

  14. Impact of oral mucosa lesions on the quality of life related to oral health. An etiopathogenic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Vilchis, María-del-Carmen; López-Ríos, Patricia; García, Ixchel-Maya

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess the impact of oral mucosa lesions on quality of life related to oral health (QLROH) and additionally to establish whether the etiopathogenicy of oral lesion is associated to the degree of QLROH impact. Material and Methods In this cross-sectional study performed on a non-probability sample of 247 consecutively patients attending the oral medicine and pathology clinic the Spanish version of Oral Health Impact Profile-49 questionnaire (OHIP-49-mx) was applied. Responses were recorded on Likert-type scale whose values ranged from 0 (never) to 4 (always). Values greater than the 50 percentile (median) were considered as indicative of poor quality of life. All patients were orally examined and diagnosed. In accordance to their etiopathogenicy 6 study groups were formed: 4 corresponded to MIND classification for diseases (Metabolic, Inflammatory, Neoplastic, and Development groups), with ≥2 diseases and no-lesion group. To identify possible differences of OHIP-49 values between study groups an ANOVA (one factor) parametric and a chi square tests were performed (SPSS®20.0). Results The OHIP-49-mx values were higher than the 50 percentile (established at 39) in metabolic, inflammatory, development, and ≥2 diseases groups, suggesting that this type of oral lesions negatively impact the quality of life. ≥2 diseasesgroup followed by metabolic and inflammatory diseases group (p 0.001) depicted worst quality of life. Functional limitation (p 0.003), pain, physical inability (p 0.001) and psychological disabilities dimensions exhibited greater values in all groups. Conclusions Injured oral mucosa negatively impacts quality of life, specifically functional limitation, physical inability and psychological disabilities could lead to social isolation.To our knowledge, this is the first time that an association between QLROH and the etiopathogenicy of oral mucosal diseases is established. Key words:Quality of life, quality of life related to oral health

  15. Oral pyogenic granuloma: a epidemiologic study of 191 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Santana SANTOS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of pyogenic granuloma and compare the data obtained with those of other reports in the worldliterature. Methods: The study material was surveyed from the records of patients with diagnosis of oral pyogenic granuloma, at the Oral Pathology Laboratory of the School of Dentistry of the University of Pernambuco, in the period from January 1992 to March 2007 (15 years. The following indicators were analyzed: gender, age group, race, anatomic location, diameter of lesions and presence of symptomatology.Results: Among the 5007 records in the laboratory, 3.81% corresponded to lesions diagnosed as oral pyogenic granuloma, in which 19.9% of the patients were in the second decade of life, 40.1% were white, the gingiva was the most affected location (77.9% and lesion of smaller diameter (0.1 to 2 cm were those most observed at the initial diagnosis. Conclusion: The clinical-pathological characteristics of oral pyogenic granuloma in the studied population are similar to those of other studies in the literature

  16. Toxicity Study of Antidiabetics Functional Drink of Piper crocatum and Cinnamomum burmannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEGA SAFITHRI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Piper crocatum and Cinnamomum burmannii formulations is known to be a new diabetes functional drink. Thus, its toxicological profile needs to be studied. At present, the formulation was evaluated for the repeated dose toxicity study. The Sprague dawley albino rats were treated with P. crocatum and C. burmannii formulations (0, 630, 1260, and 1890 mg/kg and administered orally for a period of 28 days in albino rats. The effects on body weight, food and water consumption, organ weight, hematology, clinical biochemistry as well as histology were studied. There were no significant differences in the body weight, organ weights and feeding habits between control and treated animals. Hematological analysis showed no marked differences in any of the parameters examined in either the control or treated groups. There were no significant changes that occurred in the blood chemistry analysis including glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, SGPT, and SGOT in experimental animals. Pathologically, neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed. The formulation of P. crocatum and C. burmannii was found safe in repeated dose toxicity studies.

  17. Oral implications of the vegan diet: observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffranchi, L; Zotti, F; Bonetti, S; Dalessandri, D; Fontana, P

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate oral changes in subjects who have assumed a vegan diet for a long time (at least 18 months), that is to say, a diet completely lacking in meat and animal derivatives. A sample of 15 subjects was analyzed, all from northern Italy and aged 24 to 60 year, composed of 11 men and 4 women who had been following a vegan diet for a minimum of 18 months to a maximum of 20 years. In parallel with the study sample, a control group (15 subjects) with the same criteria of age, sex, and place of origin all following an omnivorous diet was chosen. The sample answered a questionnaire that investigated their eating habits, the frequency with which they eat meals, the main foodstuffs assumed, oral hygiene habits, and any painful symptomatology of the teeth or more general problems in the oral cavity. The sample was then subject to objective examination in which the saliva pH was measured and the teeth were checked for demineralization of the enamel, white spots, and caries (using KaVo DIAGNOdent) with particular attention being paid to the localization of these lesions, and lastly, sounding was carried out to detect any osseous defects and periodontal pockets. The study revealed greater incidence of demineralization and white spots in the vegan subjects compared to the omnivorous ones localized at the neck of the teeth and on the vestibular surfaces of dental elements (with the exception of the lower anterior group). The saliva pH, more acid in the omnivorous patients, ranged between four and six. Changes in oral conditions in both groups of subjects were observed. In order to research into the cause-effect relationship of the vegan diet on the oral cavity effectively, the sample needs to be studied for a longer period of time and the results re-evaluated.

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDY FOR SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF VASELINE OIL AND GLYCELAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Voronkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary therapeutic approaches offer a wide range of laxative agents, which are often used without a control, exceeding the regime recommended. Therefore, the comparative study for subchronic toxicity of both drugs from this group (Vaseline oil and Glycelax appears interesting.The aim of the study was the comparison of a toxic influence of 14-days application of the drugs under study.Methods. The drugs were studied in two doses: higher therapeutic, and toxic, which 10 times exceeds therapeutic dose. We used “Polispektr-8/B” electrocardiograph, BC 2800vet (Mindray hematologic veterinary analyzer, BS-380 (Mindray biochemical analyzer, CL-50 urine analyzer. After the animals autopsy we determined organs’ coefficient (heart, lungs, spleen, liver, stomach, kidneys, adrenals.Results. While studying the ECG of female rats, amplitude of R wave increased after they got Glycelax in both doses. Female rats who got Vaseline oil this index decreased at minimum dose and increased at maximum dose. After Glycelax application, male rats had an increased activity of alanine aminotransferase. After Vaseline oil application at maximum dose, female rats had alkaline phosphatase activity lowered. Female rats, which got a maximum dose of Vaseline oil had a total protein lowered. Glycelax at maximum dose increased the content of bilirubin and its fractions in male and female rats, while Vaseline oil application at maximum dose increased the content of bilirubin in female rats. Male rats which got Glycelax had hemoglobin and hematocrit level increased.Conclusion. At long-term application of Vaseline oil, animals of both genders had heart disorders with possible development of arrhythmia, hepatotoxic effect, lipid exchange dysfunction. After excessive use of Glycelax the above mentioned is added with possible hemoglobin and rheological blood properties level decrease.

  19. Evaluación de la toxicidad aguda oral e irritación sobre mucosa bucal de la solución CM-95 tratada magnéticamente Oral acute toxicity and irritation on buccal mucosa evaluation of the CM-95 solution magnetically treated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Díaz Bestard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La Solución CM-95 tratada magnéticamente es un producto en desarrollo que mostró propiedades inmunoestimulantes en ensayos preclínicos, característica que la hacen adecuada como candidata a inmunopotenciador. En este trabajo se evaluaron los posibles efectos tóxicos preclínicos de la Solución CM-95 tratada magnéticamente, por el método de las Clases de Toxicidad Aguda y el de irritación de la mucosa oral, adaptando las normas OECD 423 y la ISO 10993-10, respectivamente. En el método de las Clases de Toxicidad Aguda se utilizó el ensayo límite, en ratas Sprague Dawley hembras, en el cual la dosis estuvo relacionada con el nivel de inducción magnética, en este caso 0,16 T, aplicado a la Solución CM-95; y el volumen a administrar de la misma, calculado sobre la base de 2 ml de la solución por 100 g de peso corporal. La determinación de la irritación de la mucosa oral se llevó a cabo en hámster Sirios Dorados hembras mediante un ensayo a dosis repetidas durante 7 días de tratamiento en la bolsa gular derecha, con pellet de algodón impregnado con 0,5 ml de la solución tratada magnéticamente con la misma inducción. No se encontró mortalidad ni evidencias de signos tóxicos para el ensayo de toxicidad aguda, y se obtuvo un índice de irritación sobre mucosa oral de 0, por lo que la sustancia estudiada se enmarcó como "No clasificada" y "No irritante" según la metodología empleada. Estos resultados complementarán otros estudios toxicológicos para avalar la seguridad de esta Solución para su uso futuro como fármaco por vía oral.CM-95 solution magnetically treated is a product which showed immunologic properties in preliminary tests, characteristic that makes it adequate as inmunopotentiator candidate. In this study the possible preclinical toxic effects of CM-95 Solution magnetically treated were evaluated, by the Acute Toxicity Class method and oral mucosa irritation test, adapting guideline OECD 423 and ISO 10993

  20. Acute toxicity and gastroprotection studies with a newly synthesized steroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketuly, Kamal A; Hadi, A Hamid A; Golbabapour, Shahram; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdul Majid, Nazia; Abdulla, Mahmood A

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic steroids, such as 9α-bromobeclomethasonedipropionate, have shown gastroprotective activity. For example, the potent glucocorticoid steroid, beclomethasone dipropionate, has been used for treatment of bowel ulcerations. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a synthetic steroid, (20S)-22-acetoxymethyl-6β-methoxy-3α,5-dihydro-3'H-cyclopropa[3α,5]-5α-pregnane (AMDCP), on ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injuries in rats. Rats were divided into 8 groups. The negative control and ethanol control groups were administered Tween 20 (10%v/v) orally. The reference control group, 20 mg/kg omeprazole (10% Tween 20, 5 mL/kg), was administrated orally. The experimental groups received 1, 5, 10, 15 or 20 mg/kg of the AMDCP compound (10% Tween 20, 5 mL/kg). After 60 min, Tween 20 and absolute ethanol was given orally (5 mL/kg) to the negative control group and to the rest of the groups, and the rats were sacrificed an hour later. The acidity of gastric content, gastric wall mucus and areas of mucosal lesions were assessed. In addition, histology and immunohistochemistry of the gastric wall were assessed. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were also measured. The ethanol control group exhibited severe mucosal lesion compared with the experimental groups with fewer mucosal lesions along with a reduction of edema and leukocyte infiltration. Immunohistochemical staining of Hsp70 and Bax proteins showed over-expression and under-expression, respectively, in the experimental groups. The experimental groups also exhibited high levels of PGE2 as well as a reduced amount of MDA. AMDCP decreased the acidity and lipid peroxidation and increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes. The current investigation evaluated the gastroprotective effects of AMDCP on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats. This study also suggests that AMDCP might be useful as a gastroprotective agent.

  1. Studies of metronidazole radiosensitizing effect in radiation treatment of patients with oral cavity cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, P.Yu.; Daryalova, S.L.; Pelevina, I.I.; Karakulov, R.K.; Zel'vin, B.M.; Kiseleva, E.S.; Kvasov, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    Clinical observations of 26 patients with tongue, oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer receiving telegammatherapy by dynamic dose fractionation scheme in combination with metronidazole (MZ), and of 38 patients from the control group treated using the identical schedule without MZ suggest that MZ favors increasing radiation damage in tumors in those sites without changing the character or intensifying early radiation reactions. After oral administration of MZ in single doses of 5-6 g/m 2 it reached its maximum in the blood serum within 2-4 h. When the total dose of 30-60 g of MZ was used, a marked toxic effect manifest in gastrointestinal symptoms was observed in 33.3% of patients. MZ has a negative effect on liver functions; however, changes in biochemical tests were reversible and within normal values. Simultaneous studies of biopsy material from 22 patients (11 from each group) in terms of proliferation activity showed that oral cavity tumors contain a significant portion of proliferating cells which notably decrease in the course of radiation therapy. The decrease is marked to a greater extent after irradiation in combination with MZ. (author)

  2. A study of complexity of oral mucosa using fractal geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S R Shenoi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The oral mucosa lining the oral cavity is composed of epithelium supported by connective tissue. The shape of the epithelial-connective tissue interface has traditionally been used to describe physiological and pathological changes in the oral mucosa. Aim: The aim is to evaluate the morphometric complexity in normal, dysplastic, well-differentiated, and moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the oral mucosa using fractal geometry. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 periodic acid–Schiff stained histological images of four groups: normal mucosa, dysplasia, well-differentiated SCC, and moderately differentiated SCC were verified by the gold standard. These images were then subjected to fractal analysis. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA and post hoc test: Bonferroni was applied. Results: Fractal dimension (FD increases as the complexity increases from normal to dysplasia and then to SCC. Normal buccal mucosa was found to be significantly different from dysplasia and the two grades of SCC (P < 0.05. ANOVA of fractal scores of four morphometrically different groups of buccal mucosa was significantly different with F (3,76 = 23.720 and P< 0.01. However, FD of dysplasia was not significantly different from well-differentiated and moderately differentiated SCC (P = 1.000 and P = 0.382, respectively. Conclusion: This study establishes FD as a newer tool in differentiating normal tissue from dysplastic and neoplastic tissue. Fractal geometry is useful in the study of both physiological and pathological changes in the oral mucosa. A new grading system based on FD may emerge as an adjuvant aid in cancer diagnosis.

  3. Genetic and rat toxicity studies of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R. Maronpot

    Full Text Available Introduction: Microbiologically derived cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase is used commercially as a processing agent in manufacture of food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Its toxic potential was evaluated in anticipation of use in the production of alpha-glycosyl isoquercitrin, a water-soluble form of quercetin. Methods: Following OECD guidelines, CGTase, produced by Bacillus pseudalcaliphilus DK-1139, was evaluated in a genotoxicity battery consisting of a bacterial reverse mutation assay, an in vitro micronucleus (MN assay and MN and comet assays using B6C3F1 male and female mice. These same genotoxicity assays were also conducted for sodium sulfate, a contaminant of CGTase preparation. In a 90-day Sprague Dawley rat toxicity study, CGTase was administered by gavage in water at daily doses of 0, 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg/day. Results: CGTase did not induce mutations with or without metabolic activation in the bacterial reverse mutation assay. Formation of micronuclei was not induced in either in vitro or in vivo MN assays with or without metabolic activation. No induction of DNA damage was detected in male or female mouse liver, stomach, or duodenum in the comet assay. Sodium sulfate also tested negative in these same genotoxicity assays. In the 90-day repeated dose rat study there were no treatment-related adverse clinical or pathological findings. Conclusion: The genotoxicity assays and repeated dose toxicity study support the safe use of CGTase in production of alpha-glycosyl isoquercitrin. Keywords: Micronucleus assay, Comet assay, Enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ, Food additive, Flavonol, Sodium sulfate

  4. Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dust in Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    NASA has been contemplating returning astronauts to the moon for long-duration habitation and research and using it as a stepping-stone to Mars. Other spacefaring nations are planning to send humans to the moon for the first time. The surface of the moon is covered by a layer of fine dust. Fine terrestrial dusts, if inhaled, are known to pose a health risk to humans. Some Apollo crews briefly exposed to moon dust that adhered to spacesuits and became airborne in the Lunar Module reported eye and throat irritation. The habitable area of any lunar landing vehicle or outpost would inevitably become contaminated with lunar dust. To assess the health risks of exposure of humans to airborne lunar dust, we evaluated the toxicity of Apollo 14 moon dust in animal lungs. Studies of the pulmonary toxicity of a dust are generally first done by intratracheal instillation (ITI) of aqueous suspensions of the test dust into the lungs of rodents. If a test dust is irritating or cytotoxic to the lungs, the alveolar macrophages, after phagocytizing the dust particles, will release cellular messengers to recruit white blood cells (WBCs) and to induce dilation of blood capillary walls to make them porous, allowing the WBCs to gain access to the alveolar space. The dilation of capillary walls also allows serum proteins and water entering the lung. Besides altering capillary integrity, a toxic dust can also directly kill the cells that come into contact with it or ingest it, after which the dead cells would release their contents, including lactate dehydrogenase (a common enzyme marker of cell death or tissue damage). In the treated animals, we lavaged the lungs 1 and 4 weeks after the dust instillation and measured the concentrations of these biomarkers of toxicity in the bronchioalveolar lavage fluids to determine the toxicity of the dust. To assess whether the inflammation and cellular injury observed in the biomarker study would lead to persistent or progressive histopathological

  5. Clinicopathologic Correlation of Oral Lichen Planus and Oral Lichenoid Lesions: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mravak-Stipetić, Marinka; Lončar-Brzak, Božana; Bakale-Hodak, Iva; Seiwerth, Sven; Majstorović, Martina; Grce, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesions (OLL) are clinically and histologically similar lesions but their treatment planning and prognosis are different. The review of the literature indicates numerous criteria to distinguish these two lesions; however there is a lot of inconsistency. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the correlation of histopathology and clinical OLP and OLL diagnosis and to clarify which histopathologic criteria could best distinguish these two diagnoses. A retrospective study showed that clinically diagnosed 92 OLPs and 14 OLLs have been confirmed histopathologically in 52.2% and 42.9% of cases, respectively. In addition, histopathology showed statistically significant more eosinophils (P < 0.0005), plasma cells (P < 0.0005), and granulocytes (P < 0.05) in OLL than OLP. To establish histopathological diagnosis of OLP and OLL it should be mandatory to define the type of cells in mononuclear infiltrate, which can be associated more accurately with clinical feature and patient history. Therefore, currently accepted diagnostic criteria for OLP and OLL should be modified and validated on a larger number of patients taking into account particular distinguishing histopathological features. PMID:25531004

  6. OralCard: a bioinformatic tool for the study of oral proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrais, Joel P; Rosa, Nuno; Melo, José; Coelho, Edgar D; Amaral, Diana; Correia, Maria José; Barros, Marlene; Oliveira, José Luís

    2013-07-01

    The molecular complexity of the human oral cavity can only be clarified through identification of components that participate within it. However current proteomic techniques produce high volumes of information that are dispersed over several online databases. Collecting all of this data and using an integrative approach capable of identifying unknown associations is still an unsolved problem. This is the main motivation for this work. We present the online bioinformatic tool OralCard, which comprises results from 55 manually curated articles reflecting the oral molecular ecosystem (OralPhysiOme). It comprises experimental information available from the oral proteome both of human (OralOme) and microbial origin (MicroOralOme) structured in protein, disease and organism. This tool is a key resource for researchers to understand the molecular foundations implicated in biology and disease mechanisms of the oral cavity. The usefulness of this tool is illustrated with the analysis of the oral proteome associated with diabetes melitus type 2. OralCard is available at http://bioinformatics.ua.pt/oralcard. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Oral healthcare of preschool children in Trinidad: a qualitative study of parents and caregivers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Naidu, Rahul

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about oral health in early childhood in the West Indies or the views and experiences of caregivers about preventive oral care and dental attendance The aims of this study were to explore and understand parents and caregivers\\' experience of oral healthcare for their preschool aged children and how, within their own social context, this may have shaped their oral health attitudes and behaviours. These data can be used to inform oral health promotion strategies for this age group.

  8. STUDIES OF CHOSEN TOXIC ELEMENTS CONCENTRATION IN MULTIFLOWER BEE HONEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Popiela

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available 72 544x376 Normal 0 21 false false false  The aim of the study was to determine the bioaccumulation level of chosen toxic elements (Zn, Cu, Pb, As and Cd in multiflower honey collected from Brzeg area. Biological material (honey was mineralized using the microwave technique at an elevated pressure in the microprocessor station of pressure in the type Mars 5. Quantitative analysis of elements (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn was performed by plasma spectrometry method using a Varian ICP-AES apparatus. The presence of toxic elements was determined in examined biological materials. The elements fallowed the fallowing decreasing order with respect to their content of honey: Zn>Cu>Pb>As>Cd. The average concentrations of studied elements observed in multi-flower honey were as follows: 6.24 mg.kg-1 of zinc, 2.75 mg.kg-1 of copper, 0.53, 0.071, 0.042 mg.kg-1of lead, arsenic and cadmium, respectively. Lead was the most problematic in bee honey because its average content exceeded the maximum acceptable concentration. Additionally, this metal concentration was 60% higher in studied samples than allowable standard of lead content.doi:10.5219/134 

  9. Tunable functionality and toxicity studies of titanium dioxide nanotube layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feschet-Chassot, E.; Raspal, V.; Sibaud, Y.; Awitor, O.K.; Bonnemoy, F.; Bonnet, J.L.; Bohatier, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we have developed a simple process to fabricate scalable titanium dioxide nanotube layers which show a tunable functionality. The titanium dioxide nanotube layers were prepared by electrochemical anodization of Ti foil in 0.4 wt.% hydrofluoric acid solution. The nanotube layers structure and morphology were characterized using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The surface topography and wettability were studied according to the anodization time. The sample synthesized displayed a higher contact angle while the current density reached a local minimum. Beyond this point, the contact angles decreased with anodization time. Photo-degradation of acid orange 7 in aqueous solution was used as a probe to assess the photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide nanotube layers under UV irradiation. We obtained better photocatalytic activity for the sample fabricated at higher current density. Finally we used the Ciliated Protozoan T. pyriformis, an alternative cell model used for in vitro toxicity studies, to predict the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanotube layers in a biological system. We did not observe any characteristic effect in the presence of the titanium dioxide nanotube layers on two physiological parameters related to this organism, non-specific esterases activity and population growth rate.

  10. Mouse Models for Studying Oral Cancer: Impact in the Era of Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J J; Young, C D; Zhou, H M; Wang, X J

    2018-04-01

    Model systems for oral cancer research have progressed from tumor epithelial cell cultures to in vivo systems that mimic oral cancer genetics, pathological characteristics, and tumor-stroma interactions of oral cancer patients. In the era of cancer immunotherapy, it is imperative to use model systems to test oral cancer prevention and therapeutic interventions in the presence of an immune system and to discover mechanisms of stromal contributions to oral cancer carcinogenesis. Here, we review in vivo mouse model systems commonly used for studying oral cancer and discuss the impact these models are having in advancing basic mechanisms, chemoprevention, and therapeutic intervention of oral cancer while highlighting recent discoveries concerning the role of immune cells in oral cancer. Improvements to in vivo model systems that highly recapitulate human oral cancer hold the key to identifying features of oral cancer initiation, progression, and invasion as well as molecular and cellular targets for prevention, therapeutic response, and immunotherapy development.

  11.  A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY OF ORAL HEALTH AND ORAL-HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG FRAIL ELDERLY PERSONS ON ADMISSION TO A SPECIAL ORAL-HEALTHCARE PROGRAM IN COPENHAGEN CITY,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Hede, Borge; Nielsen, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of oral health and oral health-related quality of life among frail elderly persons on admission to a special oral health care programme in Copenhagen City, Denmark Aim: To describe the oral health and the oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of citizens in Copenhagen...... City on admission to a specific oral health-care programme for disabled elderly persons. Further, to analyse how various factors influence the oral health and the OHRQoL among these patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 189 persons (average 85 years) consecutively admitted to a special oral...... health-care programme. Clinical data and data from interviews comprising social factors, life-style, dental visit habits, oral hygiene practices and self-perceived oral health were collected. A modified index on perceived dysfunction, discomfort and disability due to oral disorders was used. Results...

  12. Subchronic toxicity study of corn silk with rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuina; Zhang, Tiehua; Liu, Jun; Lu, Shuang; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Erlei; Wang, Zuozhao; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Jingbo

    2011-09-01

    Corn silk is a traditional herbal medicine in China, which has been used in many parts of the world for the treatment of edema as well as for cystitis, gout, kidney stones, nephritis, prostatitis and similar ailments. However, there is little scientific evidence about its safety. As a part of its safety assessment, a subchronic toxicity was performed in this paper. The subchronic toxicity was investigated in male and female Wistar rats by dietary administration at concentrations of 0.5%, 2.0% and 8.0% (w/w) for 90 days. Overall health, body weight, food consumption, hematology, blood chemistry, organ weights, gross and microscopic appearance of tissues were compared between test and control groups. A number of significant differences were seen between groups, but none of them was considered to be adverse. Based on the present study, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of corn silk is at least 8.0% which corresponds to a mean daily corn silk intake of approximately 9.354 and 10.308 g/day/kg body weight for males and females, respectively. The results obtained in the present study suggest that consumption of corn silk has no adverse effects and support the safety of corn silk for humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Motor vehicle-related air toxics study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    Section 202 (1)(1) of the Clean Air Act (CAA), as amended (Section 206 of the Clean Air Act Amendments) (CAAA) of 1990 added paragraph (1) to Section 202 of the (CAA), directs the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to complete a study by May 15, 1992 of the need for, and feasibility of, controlling emissions of toxic air pollutants which are unregulated under the Act and associated with motor vehicles and motor vehicle fuels. The report has been prepared in response to Section 202 (1)(1). Specific pollutants or pollutant categories which are discussed in the report include benezene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, diesel particulate matter, gasoline particulate matter, and gasoline vapors as well as certain of the metals and motor vehicle-related pollutants identified in Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. The focus of the report is on carcinogenic risk. The study attempts to summarize what is known about motor vehicle-related air toxics and to present all significant scientific opinion on each issue

  14. Overview of Chronic Oral Toxicity Values for Chemicals Present in Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids, Flowback and Produced Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    as part of EPA's Hydraulic Fracturing Drinking Water Assessment, EPA is summarizing existing toxicity data for chemicals reported to be used in hydraulic fracturing fluids and/or found in flowback or produced waters from hydraulically fractured wells

  15. A prospective comparison of common toxicity criteria adverse events Version 3 and 4 in assessing oral mucositis for oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hickman

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Differences in grading of mucositis scored by V3 and V4 are frequent. Relationships between biologically effective dose and rates of grade 3 mucositis have historically been based on mucosal appearances. It is not known whether the same relationships apply when mucositis is graded based on symptomatic grading systems. Both V3 and V4 should be used in clinical trials to improve understanding of mucositis and its relationship to quality of life and late mucosal toxicity.

  16. Treatment of oral leukoplakia with photodynamic therapy: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranzena Panneer Selvam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study: Oral leukoplakia (OL is the most common potentially malignant disorder that may transform into oral carcinoma. By treating leukoplakia in its incipient stage, the risk of occurrence of oral carcinoma can be prevented. In this aspect, photodynamic therapy (PDT can serve as a useful treatment modality. The aim of the study is to treat patients with OL using PDT in which 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA is used as a photosensitizer. Materials and Methods: Five patients with OL were included in the study. They were treated with 10% ALA mediated PDT (light source: Xenon lamp, power: 0.1 W, wavelength: 630 ± 5 nm, total dose: 100 J/cm 2 per session for 6-8 sessions. Follow-up was done for a period of 1 year. Results: One month (4 weeks after ALA-PDT, the response was evaluated based on clinical examination. It was as follows: Complete response: Two patients; partial response: Two patients; and no response: One patient. There was no recurrence in any of the cases. Conclusion: There was satisfactory reduction in the size of the OL lesion without any side-effects. Thus, ALA mediated PDT seems to be a promising alternative for the treatment of OL.

  17. Efficacy and safety of oral alitretinoin in severe oral lichen planus--results of a prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, M; Urosevic-Maiwald, M; Goldinger, S M; Frauchiger, A L; Dreier, J; Belloni, B; Mangana, J; Jenni, D; Dippel, M; Cozzio, A; Guenova, E; Kamarachev, J; French, L E; Dummer, R

    2016-02-01

    Patients with severe oral lichen planus refractory to standard topical treatment currently have limited options of therapy suitable for long-term use. Oral alitretinoin (9-cis retinoic acid) was never systematically investigated in clinical trials, although case reports suggest its possible efficacy. To assess the efficacy and safety of oral alitretinoin taken at 30 mg once daily for up to 24 weeks in the treatment of severe oral lichen planus refractory to standard topical therapy. We conducted a prospective open-label single arm pilot study to test the efficacy and safety of 30 mg oral alitretinoin once daily for up to 24 weeks in severe oral lichen planus. Ten patients were included in the study. Primary end point was reduction in signs and symptoms measured by the Escudier severity score. Secondary parameters included pain and quality of life scores. Safety parameters were assessed during a follow-up period of 5 weeks. A substantial response at the end of treatment, i.e. >50% reduction in disease severity measured by the Escudier severity score, was apparent in 40% of patients. Therapy was well tolerated. Adverse events were mild and included headache, mucocutaneous dryness, musculoskeletal pain, increased thyroid-stimulating hormone and dyslipidaemia. Alitretinoin given at 30 mg daily reduced disease severity of severe oral lichen planus in a substantial proportion of patients refractory to standard treatment, was well tolerated and may thus represent one therapeutic option for this special group of patients. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  18. Impact of oral mucosa lesions on the quality of life related to oral health. An etiopathogenic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Vilchis, María-del-Carmen; López-Ríos, Patricia; García, Ixchel-Maya; Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis-Alberto

    2016-03-01

    To assess the impact of oral mucosa lesions on quality of life related to oral health (QLROH) and additionally to establish whether the etiopathogenicy of oral lesion is associated to the degree of QLROH impact. In this cross-sectional study performed on a non-probability sample of 247 consecutively patients attending the oral medicine and pathology clinic the Spanish version of Oral Health Impact Profile-49 questionnaire (OHIP-49-mx) was applied. Responses were recorded on Likert-type scale whose values ranged from 0 (never) to 4 (always). Values greater than the 50 percentile (median) were considered as indicative of poor quality of life. All patients were orally examined and diagnosed. In accordance to their etiopathogenicy 6 study groups were formed: 4 corresponded to MIND classification for diseases (Metabolic, Inflammatory, Neoplastic, and Development groups), with ≥2 diseases and no-lesion group. To identify possible differences of OHIP-49 values between study groups an ANOVA (one factor) parametric and a chi square tests were performed (SPSS®20.0). The OHIP-49-mx values were higher than the 50 percentile (established at 39) in metabolic, inflammatory, development, and ≥2 diseases groups, suggesting that this type of oral lesions negatively impact the quality of life. ≥2 diseasesgroup followed by metabolic and inflammatory diseases group (p 0.001) depicted worst quality of life. Functional limitation (p 0.003), pain, physical inability (p 0.001) and psychological disabilities dimensions exhibited greater values in all groups. Injured oral mucosa negatively impacts quality of life, specifically functional limitation, physical inability and psychological disabilities could lead to social isolation.To our knowledge, this is the first time that an association between QLROH and the etiopathogenicy of oral mucosal diseases is established.

  19. Oral health-related quality of life after prosthetic rehabilitation in patients with oral cancer: A longitudinal study with the Liverpool Oral Rehabilitation Questionnaire version 3 and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholam, K P; Chouksey, G C; Dugad, J

    2016-01-01

    Prosthodontic rehabilitation helps to improve the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL). The Liverpool Oral Rehabilitation Questionnaire (LORQ) and Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) are specific tools that measure OHRQOL. The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of oral rehabilitation on patients' OHRQOL following treatment for cancer of oral cavity using LORQ version 3 (LORQv3) and OHIP-14 questionnaire. Secondary objectives were to identify issues specific to oral rehabilitation, patients compliance to prosthetic rehabilitation, the effect of radiation treatment on prosthetic rehabilitation, to achieve meaningful differences over a time before & after prosthetic intervention, to carryout and document specific patient-deprived problem. Seventy-five oral cancer patients were studied. Patients were asked to rate their experience of dental problems before fabrication of prosthesis and after 1 year using LORQv3 and OHIP-14. The responses were compared on Likert scale. Patients reported with extreme problems before rehabilitation. After 1 year of prosthetic rehabilitation, there was improvement noticed in all the domain of LORQv3 and OHIP-14. Complete compliance to the use of prosthetic appliances for 1 year study period was noted. In response to the question no. 40 (LORQv3), only 15 patients who belonged to the obturator group, brought to notice the problems which were not addressed in the LORQv3 questionnaire. The study showed that the oral cancer patients coped well and adapted to near normal oral status after prosthetic rehabilitation. This contributed to the improved overall health-related quality of life.

  20. Physicochemical, pharmacokinetic, efficacy and toxicity profiling of a potential nitrofuranyl methyl piperazine derivative IIIM-MCD-211 for oral tuberculosis therapy via in-silico-in-vitro-in-vivo approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magotra, Asmita; Sharma, Anjna; Singh, Samsher; Ojha, Probir Kumar; Kumar, Sunil; Bokolia, Naveen; Wazir, Priya; Sharma, Shweta; Khan, Inshad Ali; Singh, Parvinder Pal; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Singh, Gurdarshan; Nandi, Utpal

    2018-02-01

    Recent tuberculosis (TB) drug discovery programme involve continuous pursuit for new chemical entity (NCE) which can be not only effective against both susceptible and resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) but also safe and faster acting with the target, thereby shortening the prolonged TB treatments. We have identified a potential nitrofuranyl methyl piperazine derivative, IIIM-MCD-211 as new antitubercular agent with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 0.0072 μM against H37Rv strain. Objective of the present study is to investigate physicochemical, pharmacokinetic, efficacy and toxicity profile using in-silico, in-vitro and in-vivo model in comprehensive manner to assess the likelihood of developing IIIM-MCD-211 as a clinical candidate. Results of computational prediction reveal that compound does not violate Lipinski's, Veber's and Jorgensen's rule linked with drug like properties and oral bioavailability. Experimentally, IIIM-MCD-211 exhibits excellent lipophilicity that is optimal for oral administration. IIIM-MCD-211 displays evidence of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) induction but no inhibition ability in rhodamine cell exclusion assay. IIIM-MCD-211 shows high permeability and plasma protein binding based on parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) and rapid equilibrium dialysis (RED) assay model, respectively. IIIM-MCD-211 has adequate metabolic stability in rat liver microsomes (RLM) and favourable pharmacokinetics with admirable correlation during dose escalation study in Swiss mice. IIIM-MCD-211 has capability to appear into highly perfusable tissues. IIIM-MCD-211 is able to actively prevent progression of TB infection in chronic infection mice model. IIIM-MCD-211 shows no substantial cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line. In acute toxicity study, significant increase of total white blood cell (WBC) count in treatment group as compared to control group is observed. Overall, amenable preclinical data make IIIM-MCD-211 ideal

  1. STUDY OF THE TOXIC EFFECTS OF CYPERMETHRIN IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mehmood Hasan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the toxic effects of a commercially available pesticide, cypermethrin (CM, on animals. This pesticide was administered in the form of aerosol spray through a nebulizer. The study was performed in four different groups and a constant dose of the pesticide was administered once, twice, thrice and four times a day to the respective group for a period of 30 days. The animals were then dissected to study the pesticide effects on different organs. The organs were preserved in 10% formalin. The tissues were processed by basic histopathological method and the slides were prepared for observation. The results were recorded on a performa and were quantified by a unique scoring system. It is concluded that the injurious effects to the mentioned organs were dose and frequency dependent.

  2. Safety evaluation of the ethyl acetate extract on irradiated tea parasite: Acute toxicity study on mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendig Winarno

    2011-01-01

    Many studies of the pharmacological efficacy of tea parasite and the use of ionizing radiation for decontamination of microbes and extending shelf life have been reported, but there is no information on its safety, such as the acute toxicity. In this study, the acute toxicity of two ethyl acetate extracts from unirradiated and irradiated (irradiation dose of 10 kGy) tea parasites Scurrula atropurpurea on Swiss Webster mice have been examined. The observation was done after the treatment of a single oral dose of ethyl acetate extract in various dose groups, i.e.: control (0 g/kg of mice body weight), D1 (0.625 g/kg), D2 (1.25 g/kg), D3 (2.5 g/kg) D4 (5 g/kg), D5 (10 g/kg) by observing the effect on behavioral response (pharmacological profile), the body weight gains and mortality until the day 14 th . At the last day, the observation of vital organs has also been done. The result showed that no acute toxicity was found in mice treated with a single oral dose of ethyl acetate extract from unirradiated tea parasite and irradiated tea parasite at the dose of 10 kGy. At the dose up to 10 g/kg (equivalent to 77.6 g of extract which administered to human), the normal body weight gains were observed in mice of all dose groups, no mice deaths in any of the dose groups, and no significant change (p > 0.05) in organ weights relative to the body weight i.e.: liver, spleen, kidneys, lung, heart, testes and seminal vesicle (for male), and ovaries and uterus (for female). The approximate lethal doses for male and female mice were determined to be higher than 10 g/kg of mice body weight. It is suggested that the treatment of ethyl acetate extract from unirradiated and irradiated tea parasites until dose up to 10 g/kg of mice body weight was still safe. (author)

  3. Hospital waste management and toxicity evaluation: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsakona, M.; Anagnostopoulou, E.; Gidarakos, E.

    2007-01-01

    Hospital waste management is an imperative environmental and public safety issue, due to the waste's infectious and hazardous character. This paper examines the existing waste strategy of a typical hospital in Greece with a bed capacity of 400-600. The segregation, collection, packaging, storage, transportation and disposal of waste were monitored and the observed problematic areas documented. The concentrations of BOD, COD and heavy metals were measured in the wastewater the hospital generated. The wastewater's toxicity was also investigated. During the study, omissions and negligence were observed at every stage of the waste management system, particularly with regard to the treatment of infectious waste. Inappropriate collection and transportation procedures for infectious waste, which jeopardized the safety of staff and patients, were recorded. However, inappropriate segregation practices were the dominant problem, which led to increased quantities of generated infectious waste and hence higher costs for their disposal. Infectious waste production was estimated using two different methods: one by weighing the incinerated waste (880 kg day -1 ) and the other by estimating the number of waste bags produced each day (650 kg day -1 ). Furthermore, measurements of the EC 50 parameter in wastewater samples revealed an increased toxicity in all samples. In addition, hazardous organic compounds were detected in wastewater samples using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrograph. Proposals recommending the application of a comprehensive hospital waste management system are presented that will ensure that any potential risks hospital wastes pose to public health and to the environment are minimized

  4. Four common pesticides, their mixtures and a formulation solvent in the hive environment have high oral toxicity to honey bee larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanyi Zhu

    Full Text Available Recently, the widespread distribution of pesticides detected in the hive has raised serious concerns about pesticide exposure on honey bee (Apis mellifera L. health. A larval rearing method was adapted to assess the chronic oral toxicity to honey bee larvae of the four most common pesticides detected in pollen and wax--fluvalinate, coumaphos, chlorothalonil, and chloropyrifos--tested alone and in all combinations. All pesticides at hive-residue levels triggered a significant increase in larval mortality compared to untreated larvae by over two fold, with a strong increase after 3 days of exposure. Among these four pesticides, honey bee larvae were most sensitive to chlorothalonil compared to adults. Synergistic toxicity was observed in the binary mixture of chlorothalonil with fluvalinate at the concentrations of 34 mg/L and 3 mg/L, respectively; whereas, when diluted by 10 fold, the interaction switched to antagonism. Chlorothalonil at 34 mg/L was also found to synergize the miticide coumaphos at 8 mg/L. The addition of coumaphos significantly reduced the toxicity of the fluvalinate and chlorothalonil mixture, the only significant non-additive effect in all tested ternary mixtures. We also tested the common 'inert' ingredient N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone at seven concentrations, and documented its high toxicity to larval bees. We have shown that chronic dietary exposure to a fungicide, pesticide mixtures, and a formulation solvent have the potential to impact honey bee populations, and warrants further investigation. We suggest that pesticide mixtures in pollen be evaluated by adding their toxicities together, until complete data on interactions can be accumulated.

  5. Four common pesticides, their mixtures and a formulation solvent in the hive environment have high oral toxicity to honey bee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wanyi; Schmehl, Daniel R; Mullin, Christopher A; Frazier, James L

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the widespread distribution of pesticides detected in the hive has raised serious concerns about pesticide exposure on honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) health. A larval rearing method was adapted to assess the chronic oral toxicity to honey bee larvae of the four most common pesticides detected in pollen and wax--fluvalinate, coumaphos, chlorothalonil, and chloropyrifos--tested alone and in all combinations. All pesticides at hive-residue levels triggered a significant increase in larval mortality compared to untreated larvae by over two fold, with a strong increase after 3 days of exposure. Among these four pesticides, honey bee larvae were most sensitive to chlorothalonil compared to adults. Synergistic toxicity was observed in the binary mixture of chlorothalonil with fluvalinate at the concentrations of 34 mg/L and 3 mg/L, respectively; whereas, when diluted by 10 fold, the interaction switched to antagonism. Chlorothalonil at 34 mg/L was also found to synergize the miticide coumaphos at 8 mg/L. The addition of coumaphos significantly reduced the toxicity of the fluvalinate and chlorothalonil mixture, the only significant non-additive effect in all tested ternary mixtures. We also tested the common 'inert' ingredient N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone at seven concentrations, and documented its high toxicity to larval bees. We have shown that chronic dietary exposure to a fungicide, pesticide mixtures, and a formulation solvent have the potential to impact honey bee populations, and warrants further investigation. We suggest that pesticide mixtures in pollen be evaluated by adding their toxicities together, until complete data on interactions can be accumulated.

  6. Enzymatic, antimicrobial and toxicity studies of the aqueous extract of Ananas comosus (pineapple) crown leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sangita; Bhattacharyya, Debasish

    2013-11-25

    Various parts of the plant pineapple (Ananas comosus) are used in traditional medicine worldwide for treatment of a number of diseases and disorders. In folk medicine, pineapple leaf extract was used as an antimicrobial, vermicide, purgative, emmenagoogue, abortifacient, anti-oedema and anti-inflammatory agent. Compared to the fruit and stem extracts of pineapple, information about its leaf extract is limited. The potential of pineapple crown leaf extract as an ethno-medicine has been evaluated in terms of its enzymatic activities related to wound healing, antimicrobial property and toxicity. Major protein components of the extract were revealed by 2-D gel electrophoresis followed by MS/MS analysis. Zymography, DQ-gelatin assay were performed to demonstrate proteolytic, fibrinolytic, gelatinase and collagenase activities. DNase and RNase activities were revealed from agarose gel electrophoresis. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated spectrophotometrically from growth inhibition. Sprague-Dawley rat model was used to measure acute and sub-acute toxicity of the extract by analyzing blood markers. The extract contains several proteins that were clustered under native condition. Proteomic studies indicated presence of fruit bromelain as major protein constituent of the extract. It showed nonspecific protease activity, gelatinolytic, collagenase, fibrinolytic, acid and alkaline phosphatase, peroxidase, DNase and RNase activities along with considerable anti-microbial property. The leaf extract did not induce any toxicity in rats after oral administration of acute and sub-acute doses. Pineapple leaf extract is nontoxic, contains enzymes related to damage tissue repairing, wound healing and possibly prevents secondary infections from microbial organisms. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel technology to prepare oral formulations for preclinical safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Toshiyuki; Hashimoto, Naofumi

    2008-02-28

    A novel method to prepare oral formulations, normally suspended dosage form, for preclinical safety studies in animals has been developed using a rotation/revolution mixer. Small hard balls made of zirconia were added to the mixing process to evaluate effectiveness in making a high quality suspension. The driving with balls loaded in the cylindrical container (vessel) of the mixer was quite efficient in dispersing and milling the particles of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in an aqueous medium. The API powder and a small amount of oral aqueous medium (vehicle) were successfully mixed by the spinning motion of the balls in the vessel as though the paste-like suspension was kneaded with a mortar and pestle. It was found that the milled suspension with the mean size of 10-20microm could be prepared, in addition finer milling of less than 10microm could be achieved by selecting the material of vessel. Optimum driving conditions including mixing time, size and quantity of balls, and the standard operational procedure was established using compounds varying in physicochemical properties. The particle size and quantitative analysis by HPLC showed that the resultant suspension was well-milled and highly homogeneous with the nearly intended concentration of API. The proposed method established by this experiment could be applied to the actual safety studies in the real preparation scale of oral suspension.

  8. Nonclinical Safety Assessment of Morus alba L. Fruits: Study of 90-D Toxicity in Sprague Dawley Rats and Genotoxicity in Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bo Yoon; Kim, Seon Beom; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Park, Hyun; Kim, Sung Yeon

    2016-05-01

    Morus alba L. is a traditional herb with a long history of consumption, both as an edible fruit and as medicine. However, its safety evaluation has not yet been established. The objective of this study was to evaluate subchronic oral toxicity and genotoxicity of M. alba L. fruits (MFE). The subchronic toxicity after daily oral administration of MFE at 0, 40, 200, and 1000 mg/kg for 90 d was examined in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. MFE administration did not lead to death, adverse effects, change in food and water consumption, and body weight gain. Significant toxic effects were not found within the parameters of organ weight, biochemical values, and hematological and urine analysis between the control and the MFE group. The genotoxicity of MFE was assayed by Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA102, and TA1535. No genotoxicity was found in all the tested strains. Thus in this study, a no-observed-adverse-effect level for MFE in 90 d repeated oral toxicity study in rats was determined to be greater than 1000 mg/kg regardless of gender. The results also suggested that MFE does not have a genotoxicity potential. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Technique, pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and efficacy of intratumoral etanidazole and radiotherapy for treatment of spontaneous feline oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, S.M.; LaCreta, F.; Helfand, S.; VanWinkle, T.; Curran, W.J. Jr.; Brown, D.Q.; Hanks, G.

    1991-01-01

    The histologic appearance, locoregional recurrence, and rate/site of metastases of spontaneous feline oral squamous cell carcinoma are similar to head and neck cancer in humans. A feasibility study of intratumoral Etanidazole, a hypoxic cell sensitizer, and radiation therapy were instituted in this model. Eleven cats with feline squamous cell carcinoma were treated with intratumoral Etanidazole and radiation therapy. Total Etanidazole doses were 1.5-24.0 gms/m2 (0.5-6.9 gms). The tumor partial response rate was 100% (11/11); the median volume regression was 70%. All cats have died as a result of tumor recurrence or tumor-related complications. Median survival was 116 days. Ten cats have been autopsied. Non-necrotic and necrotic tumor cells were identified at the treatment site in all cats. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed in six cats. Following intravenous infusion, the plasma elimination of the Etanidazole was biexponential. The systemic availability following intratumoral administration was 61.2 +/- 21.1%. Peak plasma Etanidazole levels were observed 14 minutes following intratumoral injection, after which elimination was biexponential. Thirty minutes following intratumoral Etanidazole administration, tumor Etanidazole levels were 62.8% of plasma levels. Feline squamous cell carcinoma appears to be a useful model of human head and neck cancer. Cats tolerate substantial doses of intratumoral and intravenous Etanidazole. Etanidazole and radiation therapy cause rapid regression, but not cure, of feline squamous cell carcinoma. There is a similarity between the intravenous kinetics of Etanidazole in humans and cats. Further studies in this model are planned

  10. Expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma: An immunohistochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Bangalore Nagarajachar; Sanjai, Karpagaselvi; Kumaraswamy, Jayalakshmi; Papaiah, Lokesh; Pandey, Bhavna; Jyothi, Bellur MadhavaRao

    2016-01-01

    Background: Telomerase is an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase that synthesizes TTAGGG telomeric DNA sequences and almost universally provides the molecular basis for unlimited proliferative potential. The telomeres become shorter with each cycle of replication and reach a critical limit; most cells die or enter stage of replicative senescence. Telomere length maintenance by telomerase is required for all the cells that exhibit limitless replicative potential. It has been postulated that reactivation of telomerase expression is necessary for the continuous proliferation of neoplastic cells to attain immortality. Use of immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a useful, reliable method of localizing the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) protein in tissue sections which permits cellular localization. Although there exists a lot of information on telomerase in oral cancer, little is known about their expression in oral epithelial dysplasia and their progression to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) compared to normal oral mucosa. This study addresses this lacuna. Aims: To compare the expression of hTERT protein in oral epithelial dysplasia and OSCC with normal oral mucosa by Immunohistochemical method. Subjects and Methods: In this preliminary study, IHC was used to detect the expression of hTERT protein in OSCC (n = 20), oral epithelial dysplasia (n = 21) and normal oral mucosa (n = 10). The tissue localization of immunostain, cellular localization of immunostain, nature of stain, intensity of stain, percentage of cells stained with hTERT protein were studied. A total number of 100 cells were counted in each slide. Statistical Analysis: All the data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16.0. The tissue localization, cellular localization of cytoplasmic/nuclear/both of hTERT stain, staining intensity was compared across the groups using Pearson's Chi-square test. The mean percentage of cells stained for oral epithelial dysplasia, OSCC and normal oral mucosa were

  11. Facile Synthesis of Novel Coumarin Derivatives, Antimicrobial Analysis, Enzyme Assay, Docking Study, ADMET Prediction and Toxicity Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailee V. Tiwari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The work reports the synthesis under solvent-free condition using the ionic liquid [Et3NH][HSO4] as a catalyst of fifteen novel 3-((dicyclohexylamino(substituted phenyl/heteryl-methyl-4-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-onederivatives 4a–o as potential antimicrobial agents. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, mass spectral studies and elemental analyses. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal and antibacterial activity. The compound 4k bearing 4-hydroxy-3-ethoxy group on the phenyl ring was found to be the most active antifungal agent. The compound 4e bearing a 2,4-difluoro group on the phenyl ring was found to be the most active antibacterial agent. The mode of action of the most promising antifungal compound 4k was established by an ergosterol extraction and quantitation assay. From the assay it was found that 4k acts by inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis in C. albicans. Molecular docking studies revealed a highly spontaneous binding ability of the tested compounds to the active site of lanosterol 14α-demethylase, which suggests that the tested compounds inhibit the synthesis of this enzyme. The synthesized compounds were analyzed for in silico ADMET properties to establish oral drug like behavior and showed satisfactory results. To establish the antimicrobial selectivity and safety, the most active compounds 4e and 4k were further tested for cytotoxicity against human cancer cell line HeLa and were found to be non-cytotoxic in nature. An in vivo acute oral toxicity study was also performed for the most active compounds 4e and 4k and results indicated that the compounds are non-toxic.

  12. Oral Hygiene Levels in Children of Tribal Population of Eastern Ghats: An Epidemiological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Raju, P Krishnam; Vasanti, D; Kumar, J Raghavendra; Niranjani, K; Kumar, M S Saravana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral hygiene has been given due importance since ages. Different cultures have been using different methods for the maintenance of good oral hygiene. The study was done to find out the oral hygiene levels in children of tribal population and to correlate the brushing methods used and the oral hygiene levels. Methodology: A total of 5129 children of 5-12 years age (boys 2778, girls 2351) were checked for the simplified oral hygiene index in the study. Results: The overall oral hygi...

  13. [Epidemiological study of oral health in a young adult Mapuche population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Maza, F J; Cueto, M V

    1989-04-01

    An epidemiological study on oral health was conducted on 200 mapuche natives, aged from 14 to 30 years in order to correlate their oral health level with their oral health habits, scholar level, age and sex. DMFT index and the simplified Oral Hygiene Index were evaluated in the sample of studied patients. It was found a 18.15 DMFT score, higher than the national level in our country, and the simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) was 1.7, showing deficient oral hygiene habits. A direct relationship between a low scholar level and a high caries index and a high OHI-S index was found.

  14. Raman spectroscopic studies on exfoliated cells of oral and cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hole, Arti; Sahu, Aditi; Shaikh, Rubina; Tyagi, Gunjan; Murali Krishna, C.

    2018-01-01

    Visual inspection followed by biopsy is the standard procedure for cancer diagnosis. Due to invasive nature of the current diagnostic methods, patients are often non-compliant. Hence, it is necessary to explore less invasive and rapid methods for early detection. Exfoliative cytology is a simple, rapid, and less invasive technique. It is thus well accepted by patients and is suitable for routine applications in population screening programs. Raman spectroscopy (RS) has been increasingly explored for disease diagnosis in the recent past. In vivo RS has previously shown promise in management of both oral and cervix cancers. In vivo applications require on-site instrumentation and stringent experimental conditions. Hence, RS of less invasive samples like exfoliated cells has been explored, as this facilitates collection at multiple screening centers followed by analysis at a centralized facility. In the present study, efficacy of Raman spectroscopy in classification of 15 normal and 29 abnormal oral exfoliated cells specimens and 28 normal and 38 abnormal cervix specimens were explored. Spectra were acquired by Raman microprobe (HE 785, Horiba-Jobin-Yvon, France) from several areas to span the pellet. Spectral acquisition parameters were: microscopic objective: 40X, power: 40 mW, acquisition time: 15 s and average: 3. PCA and PC-LDA of pre-processed spectra was carried out on a 4-model system of normal and tumor of both cervix and oral specimens. Leave-one-out-cross-validation findings indicate 73 % correct classification. Findings suggest RS of exfoliated cells may serve as a patient-friendly, non-invasive, rapid and objective method for management of cervix and oral cancers.

  15. Oral microemulsions of paclitaxel: in situ and pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nornoo, Adwoa O; Zheng, Haian; Lopes, Luciana B; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Reed, Rachel

    2009-02-01

    The overall goal of this study was to develop cremophor-free oral microemulsions of paclitaxel (PAC) to enhance its permeability and oral absorption. The mechanism of this enhancement, as well as characteristics of the microemulsions relevant to the increase in permeability and absorption of the low solubility, low permeability PAC was investigated. Phase diagrams were used to determine the macroscopic phase behavior of the microemulsions and to compare the efficiency of different surfactant-oil mixtures to incorporate water. The microemulsion region on the phase diagrams utilizing surfactant-myvacet oil combinations was in decreasing order: lecithin: butanol: myvacet oil (LBM, 48.5%)>centromix CPS: 1-butanol: myvacet oil (CPS, 45.15%)>capmul MCM: polysorbate 80: myvacet oil (CPM, 27.6%)>capryol 90: polysorbate 80: myvacet oil (CP-P80, 23.9%)>capmul: myvacet oil (CM, 20%). Oil-in-water (o/w) microemulsions had larger droplet sizes (687-1010 nm) than the water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsions (272-363 nm) when measured using a Zetasizer nano series particle size analyzer. Utilizing nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), the self-diffusion coefficient (D) of PAC in CM, LBM and CPM containing 10% of deuterium oxide (D(2)O) was 2.24x10(-11), 1.97x10(-11) and 0.51x10(-11) m(2)/s, respectively. These values indicate the faster molecular mobility of PAC in the two w/o microemulsions (CM and LBM) than the o/w microemulsion--CPM. The in situ permeability of PAC through male CD-IGS rat intestine was 3- and 11-fold higher from LBM and CM, respectively, than that from the control clinical formulation, Taxol (CE, cremophor: ethanol) in a single pass perfusion study. PAC permeability was significantly increased in the presence of the pgp/CYP3A4 inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA). This enhancement may be attributed to the pgp inhibitory effect of the surfactants, oil and/or the membrane perturbation effect of the surfactants. The oral disposition of PAC in CM, LBM and CPM compared

  16. Toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles to zebrafish embryo: a physicochemical study of toxicity mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Wei; Zhang Zhiyong; Tian Wenjing; He Xiao; Ma Yuhui; Zhao Yuliang; Chai Zhifang

    2010-01-01

    The biological impact of engineered nanomaterials released into the aquatic environment is a major concern. In this work, the properties of ZnO nanoparticles (nano-ZnO, 30 nm) were characterized in a water suspension (E3 medium), and a zebrafish 96-h post fertilization (hpf) embryo-larval test was performed to assess the toxicity of nano-ZnO suspension. Nano-ZnO was found to readily form aggregates with different sizes; small aggregates (142.4-517.7 nm) were still suspended in E3 medium, but large aggregates (>1 μm) quickly deposited on the bottom of 24-well plates; nano-ZnO was partially dissolved to Zn species (Zn (dis) ) in E3 medium. In the nano-ZnO suspension, small aggregates, Zn (dis) , and large aggregates might jointly exert influence on the development of zebrafish embryos. The embryo toxicity test revealed that nano-ZnO killed zebrafish embryos (50 and 100 mg/L), retarded the embryo hatching (1-25 mg/L), reduced the body length of larvae, and caused tail malformation after the 96 hpf exposure. Zn (dis) only partially contributed to the toxicity of nano-ZnO. This research highlights the need to further investigate the ecotoxicity of nano-ZnO in the water environment.

  17. Overview of avian toxicity studies for the Deepwater Horizon Natural Resource Damage Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursian, Steven J.; Alexander, C.R.; Cacela, Dave; Cunningham, Fred L.; Dean, Karen M.; Dorr, Brian S.; Ellis, Christine K.; Godard-Codding, Céline A.J.; Guglielmo, Christopher G.; Hanson-Dorr, Katie C.; Harr, Kendall E.; Healy, Katherine A.; Hooper, Michael J.; Horak, Katherine E.; Isanhart, John P.; Kennedy, Lisa V.; Link, Jane E.; Maggini, Ivan; Moye, John K.; Perez, Christina R.; Pritsos, Chris A.; Shriner, Susan A.; Trust, Kinberly A.; Tuttle, Peter L.

    2017-01-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 establishes liability for injuries to natural resources because of the release or threat of release of oil. Assessment of injury to natural resources resulting from an oil spill and development and implementation of a plan for the restoration, rehabilitation, replacement or acquisition of natural resources to compensate for those injuries is accomplished through the Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process. The NRDA process began within a week of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, which occurred on April 20, 2010. During the spill, more than 8500 dead and impaired birds representing at least 93 avian species were collected. In addition, there were more than 3500 birds observed to be visibly oiled. While information in the literature at the time helped to identify some of the effects of oil on birds, it was not sufficient to fully characterize the nature and extent of the injuries to the thousands of live oiled birds, or to quantify those injuries in terms of effects on bird viability. As a result, the US Fish and Wildlife Service proposed various assessment activities to inform NRDA injury determination and quantification analyses associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, including avian toxicity studies. The goal of these studies was to evaluate the effects of oral exposure to 1–20 ml of artificially weathered Mississippi Canyon 252 oil kg bw-1 day-1 from one to 28 days or one to five applications of oil to 20% of the bird's surface area. It was thought that these exposure levels would not result in immediate or short-term mortality but might result in physiological effects that ultimately could affect avian survival, reproduction and health. These studies included oral dosing studies, an external dosing study, metabolic and flight performance studies and field-based flight studies. Results of these studies indicated changes in hematologic endpoints including formation of Heinz bodies and changes in cell counts

  18. Two new rodent models for actinide toxicity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.N.; Jones, C.W.; Gardner, P.A.; Lloyd, R.D.; Mays, C.W.; Charrier, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    Two small rodent species, the grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), have tenacious and high retention in the liver and skeleton of plutonium and americium following intraperitoneal injection of Pu and Am in citrate solution. Liver retention of Pu and Am in the grasshopper mouse is higher than liver retention in the deer mouse. Both of these rodents are relatively long-lived, breed well in captivity, and adapt suitably to laboratory conditions. It is suggested that these two species of mice, in which plutonium retention is high and prolonged in both the skeleton and liver, as it is in man, may be useful animal models for actinide toxicity studies

  19. Two new animal models for actinide toxicity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.N.; Gardner, P.A.; Jones, C.W.; Lloyd, R.D.; Mays, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Two small rodent species, the grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) have tenacious retention in the liver and skeleton of plutonium and americium. The retention following intraperitoneal injection of Pu and Am in citrate solution ranged from 20 to 47% (liver) and 19 to 42% (skeleton), relatively independent of post-injection times, varying from 30 to 125 days. Based on observations extended to 125 days post-injection, the biological half-times appeared to be long. Both of these rodents are relatively long-lived (median lifespans of approximately 1400 days), breed well in captivity, and adapt suitably to laboratory conditions. It is suggested that these two species of mice, in which plutonium is partitioned between the skeleton and liver in a manner similar to that of man, may be useful animal models for actinide toxicity studies

  20. Antihyperglycemic and subchronic toxicity study of Moringa stenopetala leaves in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesemma Sileshi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity and subchronic toxicity of an extract of Moringa stenopetala (M. stenopetala leaves in mice. Methods: Antihyperglycemic activities of various solvent subfractions and chromatographic fractions were investigated in alloxan induced diabetic mice. All fractions were administered intragastrically using oral gavage at a dose of 500 mg/kg. For the subchronic toxicity investigation of the 70% ethanol extract of M. stenopetala leaves, a daily dose of 300 or 600 mg/kg body weight was administered to mice over 96 d. Some hematological and plasma biochemical parameters were measured as indices of organ specific toxicity. Preliminary phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity investigation was done using thin layer chromatography method. Results: Among the solvent subfractions of the 70% ethanol extract tested only butanol subfraction exhibited significant reduction of blood glucose level (P<0.05 at 2 h (53.44% and 4.5 h (46.34% in diabetic mice and it was further fractionated chromatographically. This resulted in isolation of three chromatographic fractions (fraction 1, 2, and 3 which exhibited maximal blood glucose reduction (P<0.01 at 6 h (77.2%, at 4.5 h (69.1% and at 4.5 h (71.96% after administration. Furthermore, these fractions exhibited comparable antioxidant activity, and preliminary phytochemical screening indicated the presence of phenolic compounds which may be phenolic glycoside in all fractions. The subchronic toxicity study of the 70% ethanol extract of M. stenopetala leaves revealed that there were no significant differences in body weight, between controls and treated mice. Hematological analysis showed no differences in most parameters examined. Furthermore, it did not significantly affect plasma creatinine, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides and CA125 levels. It also did not significantly affect the plasma T3, T4 and THS level. It, however, caused a significant dose

  1. Study of P21 Expression in Oral Lichen Planus and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Immunohistochemical Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghaei, Fahimeh; Shojaei, Setareh; Afshar-Moghaddam, Noushin; Zargaran, Massoumeh; Rastin, Verisheh; Nasr, Mohsen; Moghimbeigi, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    Lichen planus is a mucocutaneous disease that is relatively common in middle aged individuals. Some studies have shown that oral lichen planus has a potential to progress to squamous cell carcinoma.p21 is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that regulates the cell cycle, thus it acts as an inhibitor in cell proliferation. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the immunostaining of p21 (as a proliferation inhibitory factor) in oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In this descriptive cross-sectional study, p21expression was investigated in 24 samples of oral lichen planus (OLP), 24 samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and 24 samples of oral epithelial hyperplasia (OEH) by employing immunohistochemical staining. The mean percentage of p21-positive cells in OSCC (54.5±6.6) was significantly higher than that in OLP (32.8±6.08) and OEH (9.4±3.8). Moreover, OLP samples expressed p21 significantly higher than the OEH. Kruskal Wallis test revealed a statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the intensity of staining (plichen planus to SCC. Therefore, continuous follow-up periods for OLP are recommended for diagnosis of the malignant transformations in early stages.

  2. Oral administration of Moringa oleifera oil but not coconut oil prevents mercury-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarikwu, S O; Benjamin, S; Ebah, S G; Obilor, G; Agbam, G

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of administration of coconut oil (CO) and Moringa oleifera oil (MO) on testicular oxidative stress, sperm quality and steroidogenesis parameters in rats treated with mercury chloride (HgCl 2 ). After 15 days of oral administration of CO (2 ml kg -1 body weight) and MO (2 ml kg -1 body weight) along with intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of HgCl 2 (5 mg kg -1 body weight) alone or in combination, we found that CO treatment did not protect against HgCl 2 -induced poor sperm quality (motility, count) as well as decreased testosterone level and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) activity. Treatment with CO alone decreased glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in rat's testis, whereas MO did not change these parameters. Cotreatment with MO prevented HgCl 2 -induced testicular catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, poor sperm quality and low testosterone level and also blocks the adverse effect of CO+HgCl 2 (2 ml kg -1 body weight + 5 mg kg -1 body weight) on the investigated endpoints. In conclusion, MO and not CO decreased the deleterious effects of HgCl 2 on sperm quality and steroidogenesis in rats and also strengthen the antioxidant defence of the testes. Therefore, MO is beneficial as an antioxidant in HgCl 2 -induced oxidative damage. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. A critical review of the literature to conduct a toxicity assessment for oral exposure to methyl salicylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Tracy; Rogers, Sarah; Franzen, Allison; Gentry, Robinan

    2017-02-01

    Methyl salicylate is the predominant constituent of oil of wintergreen and is used as a pesticide, a denaturant, an external analgesic, a fragrance ingredient, and a flavoring agent in products such as chewing gum, baked goods, syrups, candy, beverages, ice cream, and tobacco products; and it occurs naturally in some vegetables and berries. Methyl salicylate is of interest to the tobacco industry as oil of wintergreen is used as a flavorant in tobacco products. The purpose of this investigation was to conduct a critical review of the available literature for oral exposure to methyl salicylate, incorporating an analysis of the quality of the studies available and the current understanding of the mode of action. Following a review of all of the available literature, the most appropriate data sets for dose-response modeling were reported by Gulati et al. in which significant changes in reproductive/development endpoints were reported to occur after exposure to 500 mg/kg/d of methyl salicylate in male and female mice. Benchmark dose modeling was performed and the most sensitive endpoint, the number of litters per mating pair, was associated with a BMDL of 220 mg/kg/d. This BMDL was chosen as the point of departure and adjusted by a body weight scaling factor to derive a human equivalent dose. Based on the uncertainty factor analysis, the POD for methyl salicylate was adjusted by a UF of 3 for interspecies uncertainty to derive an allowable daily intake of 11 mg/kg/d.

  4. Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF : A study of 101 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J V Tupkari

    2007-01-01

    The study showed male preponderance affecting individuals in second and third decades of life. All the patients had the habit of chewing betel leaves, betel nuts, tobacco, gutkha, alone or in various combinations. The associated causative factors were high chilli intake, nutritional deficiencies, and the clinical features were varied such as burning sensation, intolerance to spicy food, restricted mouth opening and difficulty in speech and deglutition. Histopathology was the characteristic of OSMF and was consistent with clinical grades of the disease but could not be corelated to the degree of mouth opening. The study of 101 cases of oral submucous fibrosis is reported.

  5. Combinations of genetic data in a study of oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling Thyge; Møller, Gert Lykke; Mondal, Pinaki

    2015-01-01

    In the single locus strategy a number of genetic variants are analyzed, in order to find variants that are distributed significantly different between controls and patients. A supplementary strategy is to analyze combinations of genetic variants. A combination that is the genetic basis...... for a polygenic disorder will not occur in in control persons genetically unrelated to patients, so the strategy is to analyze combinations of genetic variants present exclusively in patients. In a previous study of oral cancer and leukoplakia 325 SNPs were analyzed. This study has been supplemented...

  6. Metronomic therapy with oral 6-mercaptopurine in elderly acute myeloid leukemia: A prospective pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Kapoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML in elderly patients differs biologically from that in younger patients and is known to have unfavorable chromosomal rearrangements, higher resistance, and lower tolerance to chemotherapy. In such circumstances, instead of giving full-blown chemotherapy, palliative metronomic chemotherapy (MCT could be a treatment option. Patients and Methods: We performed a prospective pilot study of old AML patients (age >60 years not amenable to curative treatment. Thirty-two patients were enrolled into the study and were treated with daily oral 6-mercaptopurine 75 mg/m 2 . The following inclusion criteria were used: age >60 years, nonpromyelocytic AML, the absence of uncontrolled comorbidities, and patient not amenable to curative treatment. Overall survival (OS was calculated using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were used to calculate the hazards ratio of significant factors. Results: The median age of the patients was 69 years (range: 61-86 years with male: female ratio of 2.5:1. About 59.4% of patients had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 while rest had the status of 3. The median OS was 6 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.4-7.6. Males had median OS of 7 months (95% CI: 5.4-8.6 versus females with OS of 3 months (95% CI: 1.5-4.4; P = 0.008. There was no survival difference on the basis of baseline hemoglobin or French-American-British class. There were no Grade 4 toxicities and no episode of febrile neutropenia. Conclusions: MCT with oral 6-mercaptopurine is an attractive treatment option in elderly AML patients who are not amenable to curative therapy with minimal toxicities.

  7. A Study on the D. magna and V. fischeri Toxicity Relationship of Industrial Wastewater from Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, S.; Lee, S.; Chun Sang, H.; Park, T. J.; Kim, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that high concentration of TDS (total dissolved solid) in industrial effluent gives rise to the toxicity to the Daphnia magna toxicity test. D. magna is vulnerable to relatively low TDS concentration showing the 24-hr EC50 of Salinity 0.6% (as the sea salt concentration). Recently, standard mandatory toxicity testing using Daphnia magna has been used to monitor industrial effluent toxicity according to Korea standard method (Acute Toxicity Test Method of the Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Crustacea), ES 04704. 1a) under regulation. Since only one acute toxicity testing is applied in the present, we are trying to introduce microbial battery for more complete toxicity assessment. In this study, the acute toxicities between daphnids and microbes were compared. The results of D. magna and Vibrio fischeri toxicity test from 165 industrial wastewater effluents showed high positive correlation. In addition, the possibility of predicting daphnia toxicity from the bacterial toxicity data amounts to 92.6% if we consider salinity effect (>5ppt) together. From this study, we found that the V. fischeri toxicity test is a powerful battery tool to assess the industrial wastewater toxicity. Here, we suggest that luminescent bacteria toxicity test be useful not only for complete toxicity assessment which can't be obtained by daphnia toxicity testing only but also for the reduction cost, time, and labor in the Korean society. Keywords : D. magna, V. fischeri, Industrial waste water, battery test Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (15IFIP-B089908-02) from Plant Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government

  8. Preventive Effect of Rebamipide Gargle on Chemoradiotherpy-Induced Oral Mucositis in Patients with Oral Cancer: a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yasuda

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of rebamipide in preventing chemoradiotherapy-induced oral mucositis in patients with oral cancer.Material and Methods: Patients with oral cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy (daily radiotherapy plus docetaxel hydrate once a week were enrolled for this study. They were assigned in a double-blind fashion to receive either rebamipide gargle or placebo on the days of chemoradiotherapy. Oral mucositis was assessed using the WHO grading system. The primary endpoint of this study was the incidence of grade 3 - 4 mucositis after exposure to 40 Gy radiation (4 weeks. The secondary endpoint was the effect of rebamipide gargle on tumour response to chemoradiotherapy.Results: Twenty-four patients were randomly assigned to receive rebamipide gargle (n = 12 or placebo-gargle (n = 12 during chemoradiotherapy. The number of patients with severe mucositis (WHO ≥ 3 was higher in the placebo group than in the rebamipide group (83.3% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.036. In addition, no effect of rebamipide gargle on tumour response to chemoradiotherapy was recognized compared with the placebo group.Conclusions: For patients with oral cancer undergoing chemoradiotherapy, rebamipide gargle may contribute to decrease the severity of oral mucositis.

  9. Toxicity study about a medicinal plant Casearia sylvestris: A contribution to the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameni, A Z; Latorre, O A; Torres, L M B; Górniak, S L

    2015-12-04

    Casearia sylvestris S.w (Salicaceae) is catalogued by the Brazilian Unified Health System as a plant of interest for the Brazilian population with the purpose of treating inflammatory disorders, such as pain and gastrointestinal disorders based on the folk use and some literature about efficacy; however, no toxicological studies concerned the safety of extract fluid of this plant have been reported. The present study was carried out to evaluate the acute and subchronic toxicity of the hydroethanolic extract fluid (FE) obtained from leaves of C. sylvestris in Wistar rats. In the acute toxicity test three female Wistar rats were treated with a single dose of FE (2000 mg/kg) administered by oral gavage and observed for 14 days in order to identify signs of toxicity or death. In subchronic toxicity study animals received, by daily gavage three doses 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg of the FE of the plant for 28 and 90 days. The animals were observed daily for clinical signs and mortality. Body weight and food consumption were measured weekly and at the end of treatment were analysed hematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters. Also was analysed the cellularity of bone marrow and spleen. Moreover, phytochemical analysis by HPLC-PDA-ESI(+)/MS and CG/MS/EI was carried out to qualify the constituents of the extract. The results of acute study indicated that the LD50 is higher than 2000 mg/kg and at 28 and 90 day oral toxicity showed that there were no toxic effects detected in any of the parameters evaluated: body weight and relative organ weight, general behavioral changes, haematological and biochemical parameters and histopathological examination. The analysis by HPLC-PDA-ESI(+)/MS and CG/MS/EI identified the flavonoids rutin, quercetin and luteolin and also chlorogenic on the extract. Based on this study the hydroethanolic fluid extract of C. sylvestris could be safe even when used over a long period for therapeutic uses proposed by the Brazilian Unified Health

  10. A Comparative Study of the Oral Microbiome Compositions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... external factors such as oral hygiene practices,[6] types. Original Article ..... exclusive bacterial species; Porphyromonas gingivalis,. Pasteurella pneumotropica, Tannerella .... oral health and disease. Virulence 2014;5:424-32.

  11. A pilot study of rebamipide-gargle for chemoradiotherapy-induced mucositis in oral cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Takashi; Chiba, Hiroshige; Satomi, Takafumi; Matsuo, Akira; Kaneko, Tadayoshi; Miyamatsu, Hironobu

    2008-01-01

    Mucositis induced by chemoradiotherapy is one of the serious side effects of cancer therapy for oral cancer. It is caused by toxic free radicals (activated oxygen) produced by these therapeutic modalities. Rebamipide is a novel anti-ulcer drug which possesses various cytoprotective activities such as free radical scavenging, induction of prostaglandin-E and acceleration of ulcer healing. We report the results of a pilot study on rebamipide-gargle for inhibition of mucositis induced by chemo-radiotherapy. The present study was conducted on 13 patients (7 men and 6 women; age range 53-88) with oral cancer. They received radiotherapy (30-60 Gy) for the oro-facial area and chemotherapy (docetaxel: 11 cases; tegafur-uracil (UFT): 1 case; radiotherapy alone: 1 case) with simultaneous addition of 1% rebamipide-gargle treatment (10-15 times/day) to prevent the onset of mucositis. Informed consent was obtained prior to entry. Nine cases had grade 1-2 according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, and 4 patients were classified as grade 3-4. No adverse reactions that could be caused by the rebamipide gargle were observed. These results suggested that rebamipide gargle could inhibit the occurrence of stomatitis induced by chemoradiotherapy. (author)

  12. Haloacetonitriles: metabolism and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, John C; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Ahmed, Ahmed E

    2009-01-01

    The haloacetonitriles (HANs) exist in drinking water exclusively as byproducts of disinfection. HANs are found in drinking water more often, and in higher concentrations, when surface water is treated by chloramination. Human exposure occurs through consumption of finished drinking water; oral and dermal contact also occurs, and results from showering, swimming and other activities. HANs are reactive and are toxic to gastrointestinal tissues following oral administration. Such toxicity is characterized by GSH depletion, increased lipid peroxidation, and covalent binding of HAN-associated radioactivity to gut tissues. The presence of GSH in cells is an important protective mechanism against HAN toxicity; depletion of cellular GSH results in increased toxicity. Some studies have demonstrated an apparently synergistic effect between ROS and HAN administration, that may help explain effects observed in GI tissues. ROS are produced in gut tissues, and in vitro evidence indicates that ROS may contribute to the degradation and formation of reactive intermediates from HANs. The rationale for ROS involvement may involve HAN-induced depletion of GSH and the role of GSH in scavenging ROS. In addition to effects on GI tissues, studies show that HAN-derived radiolabel is found covalently bound to proteins and DNA in several organs and tissues. The addition of antioxidants to biologic systems protects against HAN-induced DNA damage. The protection offered by antioxidants supports the role of oxidative stress and the potential for a threshold in han-induced toxicity. However, additional data are needed to substantiate evidence for such a threshold. HANs are readily absorbed from the GI tract and are extensively metabolized. Elimination occurs primarily in urine, as unconjugated one-carbon metabolites. Evidence supports the involvement of mixed function oxidases, the cytochrome P450 enzyme family and GST, in HAN metabolism. Metabolism represents either a detoxification or

  13. Psychiatric morbidity in oral lichen planus: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Ranjan Pati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the clinical types and association of psychological factors in patients with Oral Lichen Planus (OLP. Materials and Methods: An analytical age- and sex-matched study involved 30 patients with oral lichen planus (group 1 and 30 control subjects (group 2. We applied the following psychometric tests to both groups: General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Results: The patients with OLP were found to exhibit statistically significant higher anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction with the tests that were used (GHQ 24 and HADS than the control group (P > 0.05. The study group likewise exhibited greater depression and somatic symptoms. The mean total of the GHQ and HAD scores were found to be higher in the study group than in the controls (P > 0.05. Among the various types of OLP, patients with the erosive type had higher mean scores for anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and depression. Conclusion: In most patients psychiatric morbidity was strongly associated with OLP, which could support its role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease. The higher scores of the General Health Questionnaire and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale gave an insight into the hypothesis that psychological factors are associated with the causation of OLP.

  14. Antifungal activity of oral (Tragacanth/acrylic acid) Amphotericin B carrier for systemic candidiasis: in vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Heba A; Radwan, Rasha R; Raafat, Amany I; Ali, Amr El-Hag

    2018-02-01

    In an effort to increase the oral bioavailability of Amphotericin B (AmB), a pH-sensitive drug carrier composed of Tragacanth (Trag) and acrylic acid (AAc) was prepared using γ-irradiation. The swelling behavior of (Trag/AAc) hydrogels was characterized as a function of pH and ionic strength of the swelling medium. The obtained swelling indices revealed the ability of the prepared hydrogel to protect a loaded drug in stomach-simulated medium (Fickian behavior) and to release such drug in intestinal-simulated medium (non-Fickian behavior). In vitro release studies of the antifungal (AmB) were performed to evaluate the hydrogel potential as a drug carrier. The antifungal activity of the prepared oral formulation was investigated in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis. Data revealed that (Trag/AAc)-AmB has a potent antifungal efficacy as demonstrated by prolonging the survival time and reducing the tissue fungal burden, serum antibody titers, as well as inflammatory cytokines in kidney and liver tissues. Furthermore, in vivo toxicity of (Trag/AAc)-AmB was assessed via measuring kidney and liver functions, and results displayed the safety of this novel AmB formulation which was confirmed by histopathological examination. Overall, results indicated that the prepared (Trag/AAc)-AmB is an effective oral delivery system for AmB with better bioavailability and minimal toxicity and could represent a promising approach for improving the therapeutic index of the drug.

  15. Study on toxicity mutation of crown-vetch induced by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Huying; Yu Hongbin; Ma Jianzong

    1992-01-01

    The suckers of Germany crown-vetch were irradiated by 60 Co gamma ray and fast neutron. The toxicity mutation frequency and genetic stability of crown-vetch were studied. The various toxicity mutants were found in M 1 . Most of the toxicity mutants was unstable in M 2 , Stable mutant was very few (about 2.0-12.9%). β-nitropropionic acid in the low toxicity mutants selected was 31.7-39.8 mg/g. Genetic characteristics of low toxicity mutants were stable in M 3 -M 5

  16. Study on irradiation of freshening ginseng and toxicity test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ziwen; Xu Dechun; Yang Wanqi

    1991-01-01

    The ginsengs irradiated by 1 or 2 kGy of γ-rays have been stored for 6 months under room temperature. Its freshening rates was 86.67% and 88.33% respectively. The saponin content was maintained. The irradiated ginsengs had the vigour of sap fully and beautiful colour. Therefore they can be stored much longer for sell. The toxicity test showed that there was no toxicity for irradiated ginsengs

  17. [Advance in study on zearalenone's toxicity and determination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qing-Hua; Xu, Yang

    2005-07-01

    The article is intended to introduce the zearalenone's toxicity, determination methods and prevention. Zearalenone is one of the most widely distributed mycotoxins produces by Fusarium Species, it is harm to animals and human. And it can induce human liver cancer,carcinoma of tesis esophagus cancer. Now we use high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, thin layer chromatography, non-toxicity determinations to detect it.

  18. Oral manifestations of hospitalized cirrhotics at shaikh zayed hospital, lahore: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijaz, S.; Ijaz, T.Q.; Butt, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    In Pakistan cirrhosis has reached alarming proportions due to spread of HCV and HBV viruses. Some of the oral manifestations of cirrhosis have been found to exhibit geographically variability. There is no research available on the oral health of these patients in Pakistan and their specific oral problems are not known. This study examined a cohort of cirrhotic patients admitted at Shaikh Zayed hospital Lahore to assess their oral health status and needs. Materials and methods: Thirty consecutive patients admitted with diagnosis of cirrhosis were examined for oral health status. Extra oral examination included any visible lesions or abnormalities on the face, head or neck region, lymph node enlargement and TMJ dysfunction. Intra oral examination included measurement of caries (DMFT) and periodontal disease level (CPITN), oral mucosal lesions, prosthetic status and prosthetic needs of the patients. All findings were recorded on the standard WHO oral health survey form. The oral health of this cohort was poor compared to the general population. Xerostomia (20%), papillary atrophy (100%), oral Melanosis (90%), petechieal hemorrhages (26%) and glossitis (53%) were found prevalent in the sample. Two females had oral lichen planus and one of the patients had oral ulceration. DMFT score (Mean=5.7) was not different from national average (Mean=8.02). Periodontal disease was more severe than general population. Less than 21% of the sample wore prostheses and over 50% needed one. TMJ dysfunction was common but fewer patient complained of the condition that the number of patients with clinical signs. Conclusions: Oral health of cirrhotic population is worse than general population and they have significant oral health needs. Further research is required to investigate this relationship. Effective oral health education of patients and physicians is required to reduce the burden of oral disease thus improving quality of life for these patients. (author)

  19. Oral submucous fibrosis: A clinico-histopathological study in Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kumar K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF is a precancerous condition associated with the use of areca nut in various forms. There are very few reports to correlate the clinical stage to histopathological grading in OSF. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based study was conducted on 75 OSF cases who visited our hospital in Chennai from 2000-2003. A detailed history of each patient was recorded along with a clinical examination. Biopsy was performed for histopathological correlation. Clinical stage of the disease in terms of the ability to open one′s mouth was correlated with histopathological grading. Results: The male to female ratio of OSF cases was 6:1. All forms of areca nut products were associated with OSF. Chewing of paanmasala was associated with early presentation of OSF as compared to chewing of the betel nut. Out of 57 cases, which were in clinical stage II, 91.2% had histological grading of I and II in equal proportions and 8.8% had histological grade III. Out of 13 cases that showed a clinical stage of III, 52% showed a histological grade of II, 40% grade III and 8% grade I. Conclusion: In the present study, there was no direct correlation between clinical stages and histopathological grading. The possibility of difference in the severity and extent of fibrosis in different regions of the oral mucosa and involved muscles were considered as contributory factors for this variation.

  20. Study on acute toxicity of anti-vertigo granule on mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhonghua; Hao, Shaojun; Xie, Guoqi; Li, Jun; Su, Feng; Liu, Xiaobin; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2018-04-01

    To observe the effect of anti - glare particles on acute toxicity of mice. Methods: 40 male and female mice weighing 18 - 21 g were randomly divided into anti - glare granule group and normal saline control group. The maximum volume of anti - glare particles (0.94 g/ml) was administered before the experiment. Results: the oral toxicity of the suspension was very small. The maximal concentration of mice was given at the maximum volume of gastric perfusion, and it was given three times in 1st. The cumulative maximum tolerance dose was 112.8g/kg per day. The dose was 226 times of clinical dosage and no death was found in mice. Conclusion: the toxicity of Kangxuan granules is very small and it can be considered safe in clinical use.

  1. Six-month oral toxicity of D-004, a lipid extract from Roystonea regia fruits, in Sprague Dawley rats

    OpenAIRE

    Balia Pardo; Ariadne Gutiérrez; Rafael Gámez; Miriam Noa; Gisela Marrero; Yohany Pérez; Rosa María González; Dayisell Curveco; Haydée García; Eddy Goicochea

    2009-01-01

    El D-004 es un extracto lipídico obtenido del fruto de la palma real (Roystonea regia) que consiste en una mezcla de ácidos grasos, en la cual los ácidos oleico, palmítico, láurico y mirístico son los más abundantes. El tratamiento oral con D-004 inhibe significativamente la hiperplasia prostática inducida por testosterona en roedores. Este ensayo se realizó para investigar la toxicidad inducida por el D-004 en ratas Sprague Dawley (SD). Las ratas de ambos sexos fueron distribuidas al azar en...

  2. Histopathological Study of Cyclosporine Pulmonary Toxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Said Elshama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosporine is considered one of the common worldwide immunosuppressive drugs that are used for allograft rejection prevention. However, articles that address adverse effects of cyclosporine use on the vital organs such as lung are still few. This study aims to investigate pulmonary toxic effect of cyclosporine in rats by assessment of pulmonary histopathological changes using light and electron microscope examination. Sixty male adult albino rats were divided into three groups; each group consists of twenty rats. The first received physiological saline while the second and third groups received 25 and 40 mg/kg/day of cyclosporine, respectively, by gastric gavage for forty-five days. Cyclosporine reduced the lung and body weight with shrinkage or pyknotic nucleus of pneumocyte type II, degeneration of alveoli and interalveolar septum beside microvilli on the alveolar surface, emphysema, inflammatory cellular infiltration, pulmonary blood vessels congestion, and increase of fibrous tissues in the interstitial tissues and around alveoli with negative Periodic Acid-Schiff staining. Prolonged use of cyclosporine induced pulmonary ultrastructural and histopathological changes with the lung and body weight reduction depending on its dose.

  3. In vitro toxicity studies of polymer-coated gold nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayavarapu, Raja G; Petersen, Wilma; Manohar, Srirang; Van Leeuwen, Ton G [Biomedical Photonic Imaging Group, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); Hartsuiker, Liesbeth; Otto, Cees [Medical Cell Biophysics, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); Chin, Patrick; Van Leeuwen, Fijs W B [Division of Diagnostic Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Janssen, Hans, E-mail: S.Manohar@utwente.nl [Division of Cell Biology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-04-09

    We evaluated cellular responses to polymer-treated gold nanorods, which were synthesized using the standard wet-chemistry method that utilizes hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The nanorod dispersions were coated with either polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Two sizes of nanorods were tested, with optical responses peaking at 628 and 773 nm. The cells were from mammary adenocarcinoma (SKBR3), Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO), mouse myoblast (C2C12) and Human Leukemia (HL60) cell lines. Their mitochondrial function following exposure to the nanorods were assessed using the MTS assay. We found PEGylated particles to have superior biocompatibility compared with PSS-coated nanorods, which showed substantial cytotoxicity. Electron microscopy showed no cellular uptake of PEGylated particles compared with their PSS counterparts. PEGylated gold nanorods also exhibited better dispersion stability in the presence of cell growth medium; PSS-coated rods tended to flocculate or cluster. In the case of the PSS particles, toxicity correlated with surface area across the two sizes of nanorods studied.

  4. Oral toxicity management in head and neck cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and radiation: Dental pathologies and osteoradionecrosis (Part 1) literature review and consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buglione, Michela; Cavagnini, Roberta; Di Rosario, Federico; Sottocornola, Lara; Maddalo, Marta; Vassalli, Lucia; Grisanti, Salvatore; Salgarello, Stefano; Orlandi, Ester; Paganelli, Corrado; Majorana, Alessandra; Gastaldi, Giorgio; Bossi, Paolo; Berruti, Alfredo; Pavanato, Giovanni; Nicolai, Piero; Maroldi, Roberto; Barasch, Andrei; Russi, Elvio G; Raber-Durlacher, Judith; Murphy, Barbara; Magrini, Stefano M

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy and/or surgery is the typical treatment for head and neck cancer patients. Acute side effects (such as oral mucositis, dermatitis, salivary changes, taste alterations, etc.), and late toxicities in particular (such as osteo-radionecrosis, hypo-salivation and xerostomia, trismus, radiation caries etc.), are often debilitating. These effects tend to be underestimated and insufficiently addressed in the medical community. A multidisciplinary group of head and neck cancer specialists met in Milan with the aim of reaching a consensus on clinical definitions and management of these toxicities. The Delphi Appropriateness method was used for developing the consensus, and external experts evaluated the conclusions. This paper contains 10 clusters of statements about the clinical definitions and management of head and neck cancer treatment sequels (dental pathologies and osteo-radionecroses) that reached consensus, and offers a review of the literature about these topics. The review was split into two parts: the first part dealt with dental pathologies and osteo-radionecroses (10 clusters of statements), whereas this second part deals with trismus and xerostomia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute oral toxicity of 3-MCPD mono- and di-palmitic esters in Swiss mice and their cytotoxicity in NRK-52E rat kidney cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Man; Gao, Bo-Yan; Qin, Fang; Wu, Ping-Ping; Shi, Hai-Ming; Luo, Wei; Ma, Ai-Niu; Jiang, Yuan-Rong; Xu, Xue-Bing; Yu, Liang-Li Lucy

    2012-10-01

    The acute oral toxicity of 1-palmitoyl-3-chloropropanediol (3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate) and 1,2-bis-palmitoyl-3-chloropropanediol (3-MCPD dipalmitate) in Swiss mice were examined, along with their cytotoxicity in NRK-52E rat kidney cells. LD50 (median lethal dose) value of 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate was determined 2676.81 mg/kg body weight (BW). The results showed that 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate dose-dependently decreased the mean body weight, and caused significant increase of serum urea nitrogen and creatinine in dead mice compared to the control and survived mice. Major histopathological changes in mice fed 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate were renal tubular necrosis, protein casts and spermatids decrease in the seminiferous tubules. According to the limit test for 3-MCPD dipalmitate, LD50 value of 3-MCPD dipalmitate was presumed to be greater than 5000 mg/kg BW. Obvious changes were not observed on mean body weight, absolute and relative organ weight or serum urea nitrogen and creatinine levels in mice fed 3-MCPD dipalmitate. However, renal tubular necrosis, protein casts and spermatids decrease were also observed in the dead mice. In addition, MTT and LDH assay results only showed the cytotoxicity of 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate in NRK-52E rat kidney cells in a dose-dependent manner. Together, the results indicated a greater toxicity of 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate compared to 3-MCPD dipalmitate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Temporomandibular disorders and parafunctional oral habits: an anamnestic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa de Oliveira Melchior

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency and severity of the signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD, the frequency of parafunctional oral habits and the correlation between the variables by means of the patients' perception regarding their problem. METHODS: One hundred patients diagnosed with TMD, through a clinical examination of their masticatory system, answered the questions of a previously published protocol concerning the signs and symptoms most frequently reported in the literature. RESULTS: According to the results from the non parametric statistical analysis, the frequency for the following signs and symptoms was significant: Fatigue and muscle pain, joint sounds, tinnitus, ear fullness, headache, chewing impairment and difficulty to yawn (p<0.01 and otalgia (p<0.05. As to the parafunctional oral habits, there was a significant presence of teeth clenching during the day and night (p<0.01 and teeth grinding at night (p<0.05. The variable correlation analysis showed that there was a positive correlation between symptom frequency and severity; age was correlated with the presence of otalgia, cervical pain and teeth sensitivity, besides being correlated with muscle and joint pain severity. Habit frequency was negatively correlated with age. TMD duration was also positively correlated with the symptoms of tinnitus, ear fullness, muscle and joint pain. CONCLUSION: The study results showed that the anamnestic assessment using ProDTMMulti can predict the severity of the TMD case.

  7. Acute And Subchronic Toxicity Studies Of SNEDDS (Self Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems) From Ethyl Acetate Extract Of Bay Leaf (Eugenia polyantha W.) with Virgin Coconut Oil As Oil Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihapsara, F.; Alamsyah, R. I.; Widiyani, T.; Artanti, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    Bay leaf (Eugenia polyantha) is widely used as an alternative therapy for diabetic and hypercholesterol. However, the administration of the extract has a low oral bioavailability, therefore it is prepared by Self Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SNEDDS) ethyl acetate extract of bay leaf. Therefore, acute and subchronic toxicity test is required. The toxicity test performed was an experimental study, including acute and subchronic toxicity tests. Animal experiments were used using Wistar strain rats. Acute toxicity test using 5 groups (n=5) consisted of 1 control group and 4 groups of SNEDDS dose with 48 mg/kgBW 240 mg/kg, 1200 mg/kg, and 6000 mg/kg, while for subchronic toxicity test with 1 group control and 3 groups of doses of SNEDDS with dose group variation 91.75 mg/kgBW, 183.5 mg/kg, and 367 mg/kg. Duration of observation at acute toxicity test for 14 days while for subcronic toxicity test for 28 days with continuous SNEDDS dosage. The results of the acute toxicity test showed toxic symptoms and obtained median lethal dose (LD50) values from SNEDDS from ethyl acetate extract of bay leaf 1409.30 mg/kgBW belonging to slightly toxic category. Subchronic toxicity studies show that the test drug has minor damage in liver and kidneys and moderate damage in pancreas.

  8. Is Boric Acid Toxic to Reproduction in Humans? Assessment of the Animal Reproductive Toxicity Data and Epidemiological Study Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duydu, Yalçın; Başaran, Nurşen; Ustündağ, Aylin; Aydın, Sevtap; Undeğer, Ulkü; Ataman, Osman Yavuz; Aydos, Kaan; Düker, Yalçın; Ickstadt, Katja; Waltrup, Brita Schulze; Golka, Klaus; Bolt, Hermann Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Boric acid and sodium borates are classified as toxic to reproduction in the CLP Regulation under "Category 1B" with the hazard statement of "H360FD". This classification is based on the reprotoxic effects of boric acid and sodium borates in animal experiments at high doses. However, boron mediated reprotoxic effects have not been proven in epidemiological studies so far. The epidemiological study performed in Bandırma boric acid production plant is the most comprehensive published study in this field with 204 voluntarily participated male workers. Sperm quality parameters (sperm morphology, concentration and motility parameters), FSH, LH and testosterone levels were determined in all participated employees as the reproductive toxicity biomarkers of males. However, boron mediated unfavorable effects on reproduction in male workers have not been determined even in the workers under very high daily boron exposure (0.21 mg B/kg-bw/day) conditions. The NOAEL for rat reproductive toxicity is equivalent to a blood boron level of 2020 ng/g. This level is higher than the mean blood boron concentration (223.89 ± 69.49 ng/g) of the high exposure group workers in Bandırma boric acid production plant (Turkey) by a factor of 9. Accordingly, classifying boric acid and sodium borates under "Category 1B" as "presumed reproductive human toxicant in the CLP regulation seems scientifically not reasonable. The results of the epidemiological studies (including the study performed in China) support for a down-classification of boric acid from the category 1B, H360FD to category 2, H361d, (suspected of damaging the unborn child).

  9. Toxic effects of isoproturon on periphyton communities a microcosm study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild; Altenburger, Rolf

    2005-02-01

    Coastal and estuarine ecosystems are increasingly exposed to herbicide contamination. To study the potential risks of these pollutants, the establishment of periphyton communities under exposure of a concentration series of isoproturon in a range of 0.0024-0.312 mg L -1 was investigated in a microcosm study. After two weeks of growth, chronic effects on biomass development, measured as Chl a fluorescence, taxonomic composition and photosynthetic capacity of PS II of attached microalgae were analysed using a pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorescence-based method. Algal classes were differentiated according to their pigment systems using four excitation wavelengths. Biomass remained constant up to pre-exposure concentrations of 0.02 mg L -1 isoproturon but decreased within one order of magnitude at the highest test concentration. Algal classes shifted from diatoms to chlorophytes at pre-exposure concentrations of 0.02-0.39 mg L -1. Community structure of diatoms representing the dominant group of attached algae at lower test concentrations was studied by microscopic analysis revealing that species numbers were highest at lowest test concentrations as compared to controls. At higher test concentrations Navicula halophila dominated with 89% of the diatom biomass but was abnormally shaped. Pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) of periphyton to isoproturon was determined by short-term inhibition tests of photosynthesis. Pre-exposed communities increased their effect concentrations (EC 50) up to threefold within the 0.039 mg L -1 pre-treatment. Our results suggest that attached microalgal communities have a high potential of tolerance development to isoproturon at lower levels of contamination due to the replacement of sensitive species by more tolerant algae, although these species seemed to be affected too. We conclude that herbicide concentrations in river basins, estuaries or coastal zones may change community structure and primary production of

  10. Immunohistochemical study of p21 and Bcl-2 in leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutariya, Rakesh V; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha

    2016-11-01

    Oral Squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) results from genetic damage, leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation of damaged cells and the cell death. In the course of its progression, visible changes are taking place at the cellular level (atypical) and the resultant at the tissue level (epithelial dysplasia). The Aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the expressions of intensity of p21 and Bcl-2 in Leukoplakia, oralsubmucous fibrosis (OSMF) and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Total 60 cases, 30 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma, 15 cases of oral submucous fibrosis and 15 cases of Leukoplakia were evaluated immunohistochemically for p21 and Bcl-2 expression. p21 showed positive expression in 13 (86.67%) cases out of 15 cases of OSMF, 12 (80%) cases of leukoplakia out of 15 cases and 24 (80%) cases out of 30 cases of OSCC. The Bcl-2 expression was positive in 13 (86.67%) cases of OSMF, all cases of Leukoplakia and 25 (83.33%) cases of OSCC. No statistical significance was noted in the expression of p21 and Bcl-2 positive expression between OSMF, Leukoplakia and OSCC. Statistical analysis for comparison of intensity of p21 expression in different grades of OSCC showed no significance. Statistical significance difference was found between the expressions of Bcl-2 in moderately and poorly differentiated SCC. The intensity of p21 and Bcl-2 expressions in different grades of OSCC indicates a key role in progression of oral neoplasia.

  11. International Active Surveillance Study of Women Taking Oral Contraceptives (INAS-OC Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Dinger, Juergen C; Bardenheuer, Kristina; Assmann, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background A 24-day regimen of contraceptive doses of drospirenone and ethinylestradiol (DRSP/EE 24d) was recently launched. This regimen has properties which may be beneficial for certain user populations (e.g., women suffering from premenstrual dysphoric disorder or acne). However, it is unknown whether this extended regimen has an impact on the cardiovascular risk associated with the use of oral contraceptives (OCs). The INternational Active Surveillance study of women taking Oral...

  12. Study of oral Ketoconazole on recurrent & extensive Pityriasis Versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghaddami M

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Several topical agents have been used for treating Pityriasis versicolor. But the main problem is recurrence. In this study 82 patients with recurrent and/or extensive from of infection were treated with oral Ketoconazole. 200 mg once daily for a maximum of 4 weeks. Seventeen patients have been infected for the first time and sixty five for the several times. The duration of disease in most cases (35.4% were between 1-3 years. Out of 82 studied patients only 60 cases were referred for follow up. The clinical and mycological cure were seen in 54 cases (90% after 15 days therapy. In other 6 patients after 15 days the lesions have not cured completely so the treatment was continued for other 2 weeks, but after that, only one of them referred to the clinic, which treatment extended with topical therapy.

  13. A comparative study on the mast cells count in oral squamous cell carcinoma and normal oral mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Dastpak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is one of the 10 most common malignant tumors and SCC accounts 94% of all oral malignancies. Mast cells are regarded as complex and multifunctional cells, playing a significant role in immunopathology . The aim of this study is to evaluate the number of mast cells in tissue sections of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC in comparison with normal mucosa. Materials & Methods: Sixty paraffin-embedded specimens were obtained from the archives of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology,dental school of Babol university of medical science (15 high grade,15 low grade and 30 Iritation Fibroma. Classification of OSCC cases was according to the BRODER`S malignancy grading system. Hematoxylin and Eosin-stained slides were re-evaluated before entering the samples in our study. Toluidine blue(1% staining was used to identify Mast cells in samples . We used SPSS software version 18 and one way ANOVA test for analyzing data. Results: The highest mast cell count was seen in normal tissue and it was higher in low grade OSCC in comparison with high grade, but the differences between groups weren’t statistically significant. The Mean count of mast cell between OSCC and normal oral mucosa was statistically significant different(p=0.019.We didn’t observe any statistically significant difference between Mast cell counts of control group and low grade OSCC . The same result was seen between high garde and low grade OSCC . The Mean mast cell count difference between male and female groups weren’t statistically significant. The Mean mast cell count difference between high grade OSCC and control group was significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: According to the results, the average amount of mast cells decreased in OSCC in comparison with normal oral mucosa . It does not seem that mast cells play an important role in tumor progression, although further study is needed. 

  14. World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI: an international validation study of clinical competencies for advanced training in oral medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John C; Clark, Hadleigh J; Hong, Catherine H L; Jurge, Sabine; Muthukrishnan, Arvind; Kerr, A Ross; Wray, David; Prescott-Clements, Linda; Felix, David H; Sollecito, Thomas P

    2015-08-01

    To explore international consensus for the validation of clinical competencies for advanced training in Oral Medicine. An electronic survey of clinical competencies was designed. The survey was sent to and completed by identified international stakeholders during a 10-week period. To be validated, an individual competency had to achieve 90% or greater consensus to keep it in its current format. Stakeholders from 31 countries responded. High consensus agreement was achieved with 93 of 101 (92%) competencies exceeding the benchmark for agreement. Only 8 warranted further attention and were reviewed by a focus group. No additional competencies were suggested. This is the first international validated study of clinical competencies for advanced training in Oral Medicine. These validated clinical competencies could provide a model for countries developing an advanced training curriculum for Oral Medicine and also inform review of existing curricula. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Pilot Study into the Association between Oral Health Status and Human Papillomavirus—16 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Xiaohang Sun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the next 20 years, oropharyngeal cancers (OPC will represent the majority of head and neck cancers (HNCs in the United States. It is estimated that human papillomavirus (HPV may account for as much as 70% to 80% of OPCs in North America and in certain parts of Europe. It is hence crucial to understand the disease risk factors and natural history of oral HPV infections. We hypothesized that poor oral health (by measures such as poor oral hygiene and periodontal disease leads to a higher degree of oral HPV-16 infections within a patient cohort from a dental school clinic. This study aims to test this hypothesis and gauge possible disease associations before larger scale studies. Subjects and Methods: 223 participants were recruited in this study from the University of Queensland Dental School clinic. Clinical oral health parameters (such as oral hygiene measures and periodontal disease measurements have been examined and determined by dental professionals. We have collected oral rinse samples from these volunteers. Results: 10 (4.5% out of 223 participants were found to have HPV-16 DNA in their oral rinse samples using NB2 endpoint PCR and Sanger sequencing. Within the HPV-16 DNA positive subjects, 7 (70% and 3 (30% were associated with poor oral hygiene and periodontal disease, respectively. Conclusion: Our results show a trend towards a positive correlation between oral HPV-16 infection and poor clinical oral health status.

  16. Hepatorenal toxicity studies of sub-chronic administration of calyx ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Group A, was fed with growers mesh and distilled water as control. Groups B to F were administered orally with the aqueous extract at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5g /kg body weight respectively and the treatment period was 28 days. A decreased in weights of the animals were observed at all dose levels. The activities of liver maker ...

  17. Removable denture-related oral mucosal lesions: descriptive clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçen Akçiçek

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a relationship between removable denture-related oral mucosal lesions and denture type, and demographic characteristics. Materials and Method: The age, sex, denture type, systemic condition and medication use, presence of denture-related oral mucosal lesions (DROML, their locations and patients’ awareness of above mentioned lesions were recorded for 199 patients. Pearson chi-square test was used to analyse the relationship between the DROML and denture type, and demographic characteristics of the patients. Results: Among the patients included to the study, 122 (61.3% were female and 77 (38.7% were male. Ninety-six patients (48.2% exhibited DROML, whereas 103 patients (51.8% had no DROML. No relationship was detected between DROML and age, and sex (p>0.05. The most commonly detected DROML was denture stomatitis (34.7%. Denture stomatitis was significantly more frequently seen in partial denture wearers (p<0.05, while epulis fissuratum and flabby ridge were statistically more frequent in complete denture wearers (p<0.001. Traumatic ulcer was more frequently found in mandibular complete denture wearers (p<0.05, while epulis fissuratum and flabby ridge were significantly more common in maxillary complete denture wearers (p<0.001. Among the patients with DROML, 57.3% stated that they were unaware of these lesions. Conclusion: In this study sample, the rate of DROML was high in patients wearing removable dentures (48.2%, and more than half of the patients with DROML were not aware of these lesions. Upon these findings, it is considered that removable denture wearers should follow the denture usage instructions and should be informed about the importance of periodic controls.

  18. Sleep disorders and oral health: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra, Maria Clotilde; Schmitt, Audrey; Thomas, Frederique; Danchin, Nicolas; Pannier, Bruno; Bouchard, Philippe

    2017-05-01

    Sleep disorders (SDs), particularly sleep deprivation, may alter the immune system and induce systemic inflammation. Recent evidence supports an association between SDs and periodontal diseases. This cross-sectional epidemiological study aims to compare oral health variables, such as the amount of plaque/calculus, gingival inflammation, and masticatory function, in individuals with and without SDs. The study population consisted in a French cohort of individuals who underwent medical and oral examinations between 2012 and 2013. Multivariate logistic regression and general linear models were used for group comparisons. Over a total of 29,870 individuals, 11,185 (37.4 %) reported to suffer from SDs on a regular basis. Compared to individuals without SDs, SD individuals were older (mean age 44.2 vs. 45.3 years; p < 0.0001), prevalently female (38.6 vs. 52.1 %; p < 0.0001), and with higher BMI (25.3 vs. 25.7; p < 0.0001). Moreover, SD individuals displayed a significantly higher prevalence of comorbidities, higher level of gingival inflammation (adjusted odds ratio 1.22 [95 % confidence interval 1.13-1.32]), and lower masticatory function (1.45 [1.33-1.58]). Short sleepers (<6 h of sleep/night) were found to be at an increased risk of gingival inflammation (1.25 [1.1-1.4]). SD individuals with moderate-to-high gingival inflammation showed a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease (1.39 [1.04-1.84]) compared to SD individuals with low or no gingival inflammation. Individuals with self-report SDs are at increased risk of gingival inflammation. The coexistence of SDs and gingival inflammation is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. These findings provide evidence for an association between SDs and gingival inflammation and support further clinical and experimental studies.

  19. Evaluation and interpretation of maternal toxicity in Segment II studies: Issues, some answers, and data needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, John M.; Chernoff, Neil; Keen, Carl L.; Daston, George P.

    2005-01-01

    Biologically rational regulatory policies with regards to developmental toxicity are often based on the extrapolation of standard laboratory rodent bioassay results to the human population. Significantly contributing to the difficulty of this task is the possibility that general toxic effects on the maternal organism may affect the developing conceptus. This review examines maternal factors which may bear directly or indirectly upon developmental outcome, with emphasis on those of greatest relevance to the hazard assessment process. Standard teratology testing protocols call for top dosage levels that induce overt maternal toxicity, and the developmental effects of this toxicity (both alone, and with concurrent embryo/fetal insult) continue to present regulators with considerable interpretive difficulties. In response to these problems, there have been both research and literature review efforts dealing with the relationship of maternal and developmental toxicity. Maternally mediated developmental toxicity occurs with a number of agents, and toxicant-induced alterations in maternal physiology may affect the conceptus at dosages not causing overt maternal toxicity. Relevant studies are reviewed here, and suggestions for avenues of future research are offered including the identification of any syndromes of developmental effects occurring at maternally toxic levels irrespective of the causative agent, and experimental approaches for the characterization of maternal toxicity

  20. Learning Historical Thinking with Oral History Interviews: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Intervention Study of Oral History Interviews in History Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Christiane; Wagner, Wolfgang; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of the oral history approach with respect to students' historical competence. A total of 35 ninth-grade classes (N = 900) in Germany were randomly assigned to one of four conditions--live, video, text, or a (nontreated) control group--in a pretest, posttest, and follow-up design. Comparing the three…

  1. hepatorenal toxicity studies of sub-chronic administration of calyx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    significant (p>0.05) increase in concentrations of total protein and albumin were observed in ... suggest that high dose of calyx extracts of H.sabdariffa may be toxic to liver and kidney. .... monitoring liver damage (Wada and Snell, 1962).

  2. 40 CFR 798.4900 - Developmental toxicity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exposure of the mother during pregnancy. (b) Definitions. (1) Developmental toxicity is the property of a chemical that causes in utero death, structural or functional abnormalities or growth retardation during... least part of the pregnancy covering the major period of organogenesis, to several groups of pregnant...

  3. Progress report of preliminary studies of beryllium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, H.C.

    1947-09-01

    This document was prepared in connection with a symposium of beryllium poisoning held at the Saranac Laboratories and describes progress made and a research program aimed at characterizing the toxicity of beryllium. Seven individual papers in this document are separately indexed and cataloged for the database.

  4. Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity Study of n-pentane in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Kyu Kim

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: The no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL of n-pentane is evaluated as being more than 6,885 ppm (20.3 mg/L in both male and female rats. n-pentane was not a classified specific target organ toxicity in the globally harmonized classification system (GHS.

  5. Acute toxicity studies of aqueous stem bark extract of Ximenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... the aqueous stem bark extract revealed the presence of cardiac ... needs of rural populations in African and other third world ... Table 1. Phytochemical screening of Ximenia Americana. ... Table 2. Post mortem gross pathology result of acute toxicity of ... while the treated groups showed variable weight loss.

  6. Fundamental studies for CT in the oral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shinichiro

    1984-01-01

    Fundamental studies were attempted regarding the clinical application of CT (TCT-60A) in the oral region. The investigation assessed the following: 1) calculation of CT-No for oral hard tissues, 2) test for linearity CT-No vs. the linear attenuation coefficient in high X-ray attenuation materials, 3) observation of artifacts caused by dental materials and 4) measurement of patient doses of CT used at the maxillary sinus. The results obtained were as follows. 1) Calculated CT-No (E=70 KeV) values for oral hard tissues were enamel 3.51 x 10 3 , dentine 2.40 x 10 3 , cementum 1.88 x 10 3 , cortical bone 1.48 x 10 3 and mandible 1.01 x 10 3 . 2) Linearity for CT-No vs. the linear attenuation coefficient gave a good relative coefficient between lucite and teflon, but linearity between lucite and aluminum was not good enough. 3) Three different artifacts from the copper rod were observed: (1) connection line artifact, (2) star-burst artifact and (3) figure-eight artifact. 4) Under shot caused by composite resin was observed, and artifact from both the radiopaque composite resin and amalgam were the same kinds as those from the copper rod. 5) Calculated CT-No (E=66 KeV) values for dental materials were copper 5.48 x 10 4 , composite resin 1.24 x 10 3 , radiopaque composite resin 4.65 x 10 3 and amalgam 2.27 x 10 5 . 6) Absorbed doses of lenses and thyroid gland using CT at the mixillary sinus region were 59 mrad (59 x 10 -2 mGy) and 17 mrad (17 x 10 -2 mGy) for a single scanning. 7) The volume dose of the head under a single CT scanning was estimated as 820 g.rad (820 x 10 -5 Kg.Gy) by the TLD method, and 900 g.rad (900 x 10 -5 Kg.Gy) by the film dosimetry method. The difference in these values was considered to be the effect arising from ununiformity of the X-ray beam. (author)

  7. Rat two-generation reproductive toxicity study of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, M; Fujii, S; Furukawa, M; Kiguchi, M; Ikka, T; Harazono, A

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the low-dose effects of bisphenol A (BPA) in a rat two-generation reproduction study. Groups of 25 male and 25 female Crj: CD (SD) IGS rats were given BPA at 0.2, 2, 20, or 200 microg/kg/day by gastric intubation throughout the study beginning at the onset of a 10- and 2-week premating period, in F0 males and females, respectively, and continuing through the mating, gestation, and lactation periods, for two generations. There were adult (F0, F1, F2) and postnatal day (PND) 22 (F1, F2) necropsies: the oldest F2 males and females being killed at postnatal weeks 7 and 14, respectively. No compound-related clinical signs or effects on body weight or food consumption were observed in any generation. There were no compound-related changes in surface righting reflex, negative geotaxis reflex, mid-air righting reflex, pinna detachment, incisor eruption, eye opening, testes descent, preputial separation, or vaginal opening in F1 and F2 generations, or behavior in the open field or water filled multiple T-maze in the F1 generation. No test compound-related changes in estrous cyclicity, copulation index, fertility index, number of implantations, gestation length, litter size, pup weight, pup sex ratio, pup viability, or other functional reproductive measures were noted in any generation. A few significant changes in the anogenital distance (AGD) per cube root of body weight ratio were found at 0.2 and 20 microg/kg in F1 males, at 2, 20, and 200 microg/kg in F1 females, and at 20 and 200 microg/kg in F2 females. However, the changes in the AGD were consistently small (within 5% of control values), and no continuous changes in the AGD or AGD/cube root of body weight ratio were detected. There were no compound-related changes in epididymal sperm counts or motility in F0 and F1 males. No compound-related necropsy findings or effects on organ weight including the reproductive organs were found in any generation. Histopathologic examinations

  8. Toxicity of formaldehyde and acrolein mixtures : in vitro studies using nasal epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassee, F.R.; Stenhuis, W.S.; Groten, J.P.; Feron, V.J.

    1996-01-01

    In vitro studies with human and rat nasal epithelial cells were carried out to investigate the combined toxicity of formaldehyde and acrolein and the role of aldehyde dehydrogenases in this process. These studies showed that the toxic effect of mixtures of aldehydes was additive. In addition,

  9. Evaluación de la toxicidad aguda oral y de la actividad antimicrobiana de una mezcla de aceite de hígado de tiburones de Cuba Assessment of the oral acute toxicity and the antimicrobial activity of an oily mixture from shark's liver of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caridad Margarita García Peña

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la toxicidad aguda oral y la actividad antimicrobiana de una mezcla de aceites de hígado de tiburón, de las especies Rhincodon typu (tiburón ballena y Galeocerdo cuvier (tiburón tigre, que habitan en zonas aledañas a las costas del litoral norte occidental de Cuba, para su posterior uso farmacéutico, debido a que presenta un alto contenido de vitaminas y de ácidos grasos, que le confieren actividad antioxidante y antiinflamatoria. El estudio de la toxicidad aguda oral demostró que la mezcla de aceites de hígado de tiburones, no provocó alteraciones macroscópicas en los órganos extraídos, ni síntomas tóxicos severos, ni mortalidad de ninguno de los animales empleados en el estudio a la dosis de 20 mL/kg. Los resultados del estudio de la actividad antimicrobiana demostraron una ligera actividad bacteriostática frente a K. pneumoniae; además una actividad antifúngica frente a Microsporum canis; y resistencia frente a C. albicans y T. mentagrophytes a las concentraciones evaluadas.The total acute toxicity and the antimicrobial activity of an oil mixtures from shark liver of Rhicodon typu (whale-shark and Galeocerdo cuvier (tigger-shark was assessed in species leaving in the adjacent costs of Cuban northern coastal for its subsequent pharmaceutical use due to its high content of vitamins and fatty acids and its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Study of oral acute toxicity demonstrated that oil mixture of shark liver hasn't macroscopic alterations in removed organs, severe toxic symptoms and on mortality of any animals used in study at 20 mL/kg dose. Study results of antimicrobial activity showed a slight bacteriostatic activity against K. pneumoniae and an antifungal activity against Microsporum canis, and a resistance against C. albicans and T. mentagrophytes at assessed concentrations.

  10. The effect of sodium bicarbonate oral rinse on salivary pH and oral microflora: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandel, Siddhartha; Khan, Mohsin Ali; Singh, Nishi; Agrawal, Amiya; Khare, Vinita

    2017-01-01

    Present study is designed to explore the effect of sodium bicarbonate oral rinse on salivary pH and oral micro flora. Twenty five healthy subjects were recruited for the study in department of dentistry in Era Medical College. Subjects were abstained from tooth brushing overnight pre rinse (control) samples were collected after one hour of dinner and were asked to rinse with pre calibrated freshly prepared sodium bicarbonate solution. The salivary samples were then collected the following morning using sterile gauze in marked bottles. Aerobic bacterial culture was done by plating the sample directly from the swab on the surface of Blood agar and Mac Conkeys media respectively. The colony forming units and ph were calculated for the pre rinse and post rinse saliva sample. Results shows that salivary pH increased significantly after sodium Bicarbonate oral rinse. There was a marginal decrease in number of CFU/ml for bacteria especially Viridans Streptococci, Moraxella species. Sodium Bicarbonate oral rinse may be considered as a cheap and effective alternative for chlorhexidine and alcohol based mouth wash, especially where long duration usage is required.

  11. Aloe vera is non-toxic to cells: A microculture tetrazolium technique colorimetric assay study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Gopakumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aloe vera (Av, a succulent of Liliaceae family is now a widely used medicinal plant. Its′ application covers a wide spectrum of human diseases, including oral mucosa, gastric mucosa and skin. Aloe vera preparations in the form of gel, mouth washes and cream are applied topically for many oral diseases. The applications include oral lichen planus, candidiasis, oral submucous fibrosis, geographic tongue, etc. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the cytotoxicity of Av on human fibroblasts. Materials and Methods: Aloe vera preparation (70% was applied on the fibroblast cell lineage and the cell viability was evaluated by microculture tetrazolium technique (MTT colorimetric assay. Results: The cell viability at different concentrations was measured. The cells have maintained their viability at different concentrations used in the study. Conclusion: Our study shows the cell viability at different sample concentrations of Av. This could open up wide clinical applications of Av for reactive, inflammatory and potentially malignant oral and other mucocutaneous diseases.

  12. The Meaning and Significance of Contemporary Media in Collecting and Studying Croatian Oral Literary Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda Babić

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the study of Croatian oral literary heritage, great importance present the records that have remained preserved as notes on documents, books, songs and poems as part of literary works. Records shows that oral literary text is the subject of research and study of oral heritage. However, the records themselves are not sufficient for studying oral literary text and its context. The text is accompanied by a recorded voice that faithfully represents the diction, rhythm, tone and color of the narrator voice. Videos shows the gestures, context and emotion of the narrator. Without the role of the modern media, oral literary records would be insufficient for studying fundamental aspects of communicativeness that can be interpreted as a context. The media of public communication greatly affects the expansion of the basic ideas of the oral transmission of text which is - storytelling.

  13. Oral sodium phenylbutyrate in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas: a dose escalation and pharmacologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuphanich, Surasak; Baker, Sharyn D; Grossman, Stuart A; Carson, Kathryn A; Gilbert, Mark R; Fisher, Joy D; Carducci, Michael A

    2005-04-01

    We determined the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), toxicity profile, pharmacokinetic parameters, and preliminary efficacy data of oral sodium phenylbutyrate (PB) in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas. Twenty-three patients with supratentorial recurrent malignant gliomas were enrolled on this dose escalation trial. Four dose levels of PB were studied: 9, 18, 27, and 36 g/day. Data were collected to assess toxicity, response, survival, and pharmacokinetics. All PB doses of 9, 18, and 27 g/day were well tolerated. At 36 g/day, two of four patients developed dose-limiting grade 3 fatigue and somnolence. At the MTD of 27 g/day, one of seven patients developed reversible grade 3 somnolence. Median survival from time of study entry was 5.4 months. One patient had a complete response for five years, and no partial responses were noted, which yielded an overall response rate of 5%. Plasma concentrations of 706, 818, 1225, and 1605 muM were achieved with doses of 9, 18, 27, and 36 g/day, respectively. The mean value for PB clearance in this patient population was 22 liters/h, which is significantly higher than the 16 liters/h reported in patients with other malignancies who were not receiving P450 enzyme-inducing anticonvulsant drugs (P = 0.038). This study defines the MTD and recommended phase 2 dose of PB at 27 g/day for heavily pretreated patients with recurrent gliomas. The pharmacology of PB appears to be affected by concomitant administration of P450-inducing anticonvulsants.

  14. Oral sodium phenylbutyrate in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas: A dose escalation and pharmacologic study1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuphanich, Surasak; Baker, Sharyn D.; Grossman, Stuart A.; Carson, Kathryn A.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Fisher, Joy D.; Carducci, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    We determined the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), toxicity profile, pharmacokinetic parameters, and preliminary efficacy data of oral sodium phenylbutyrate (PB) in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas. Twenty-three patients with supratentorial recurrent malignant gliomas were enrolled on this dose escalation trial. Four dose levels of PB were studied: 9, 18, 27, and 36 g/day. Data were collected to assess toxicity, response, survival, and pharmacokinetics. All PB doses of 9, 18, and 27 g/day were well tolerated. At 36 g/day, two of four patients developed dose-limiting grade 3 fatigue and somnolence. At the MTD of 27 g/day, one of seven patients developed reversible grade 3 somnolence. Median survival from time of study entry was 5.4 months. One patient had a complete response for five years, and no partial responses were noted, which yielded an overall response rate of 5%. Plasma concentrations of 706, 818, 1225, and 1605 μM were achieved with doses of 9, 18, 27, and 36 g/day, respectively. The mean value for PB clearance in this patient population was 22 liters/h, which is significantly higher than the 16 liters/h reported in patients with other malignancies who were not receiving P450 enzyme–inducing anticonvulsant drugs (P = 0.038). This study defines the MTD and recommended phase 2 dose of PB at 27 g/day for heavily pretreated patients with recurrent gliomas. The pharmacology of PB appears to be affected by concomitant administration of P450-inducing anticonvulsants. PMID:15831235

  15. HPV prevalence in a Mid-European oral squamous cell cancer population: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Torre, Daniel; Burtscher, Doris; Soelder, Elisabeth; Offermanns, Vincent; Rasse, Michael; Puelacher, Wolfgang

    2018-04-29

    HPV infection has been investigated intensively regarding oropharyngeal carcinoma. However, there is still lack of knowledge about the impact of oral HPV infections concerning oral squamous cell carcinoma. The present study investigates the prevalence of oral HPV infection in such patients, identifying possible differences between HPV+ and HPV- patients. 106 consequent patients were investigated. After completion of a study questionnaire regarding risk factors, a brush smear sample was taken in each subject to identify the individual oral HPV status (overall/low risk/high risk). 35.8% of the patients were tested positive for HPV in the oral cavity (14% low risk, 28.3% high risk). Patients with oral HPV infection and high risk HPV infection were significantly younger (pHPV infection. Finally, patients with high risk oral HPV infection had experienced more tooth extractions during their lifetime. Oral HPV infections may influence the course of disease of oral squamous cell carcinoma as HPV+ patients are about 10 years younger. It seems that high alcohol consumption facilitates high risk HPV infection. It may be presumed that both alcohol consumption and high risk oral HPV infection act synergistically, explaining earlier cancer onset. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Toxicity and survival results of a phase II study investigating the role of postoperative chemoradioimmunotherapy for gastric adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bese, N.S.; Yildirim, A.; Oeber, A. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Istanbul Univ., Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Bueyuekuenal, E.; Oezgueroglu, M.; Demir, G.; Mandel, N.M.; Demirelli, F.; Serdengecti, S. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Medical Oncology Section, Istanbul Univ., Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2005-10-01

    Background and purpose: to investigate the role of postoperative concomitant chemoradioimmunotherapy in gastric adenocarcinoma patients. Patients and methods: 59 pateints, who underwent total or subtotal gastrectomy, with lymph node involvement, positive microscopic surgical margins or serosal involvement were included in the study. Radiotherapy started concomitantly with chemotherapy and levamisole. Extended-field radiotherapy was given to gastric bed and regional lymphatics via two anterior-posterior/posterior-anterior fields. A total dose of 45 Gy in 25 fractions with a fraction size of 1.8 Gy was planned. In 28 patients (48%) with positive surgical margins a 10-Gy boost dose was given to the anastomosis site. An adjuvant i.v. bolus of 450 mg/m{sup 2}/day 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was administered concomitantly during the first 3 days and at the 20th day of irradiation. After completion of radiotherapy, i.v. boluses of 450 mg/m{sup 2}/day 5-FU and 25 mg/m{sup 2}/day rescuvorin were continued for 6 months once a week. Levamisole 40 mg/day orally was started at the 1st day of radiotherapy and also continued for 6 months. Median follow-up was 37 months (7-112 months). Results: median survival was 23 months. Overall 3- and 5-year survival rates amounted to 35% and 14%, respectively. Median survival of the patients with positive surgical margins was 22 months. The 3- and 5-year locoregional control rates were 59% and 55%, respectively. The most common toxicity was upper gastrointestinal system toxicity, which was observed in 42 patients (71%). Four patients (7%) died on account of early toxic effects, and six (10%) could not complete treatment. Conclusion: although 48% of the study population involved patients with microscopic residual disease, the survival results as a whole were satisfactory. However, due to high toxicity, radiotherapy must be delivered with the most proper techniques along with adequate nutrition and supportive care. (orig.)

  17. Structural studies on a non-toxic homologue of type II RIPs from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structural studies on a non-toxic homologue of type II RIPs from bitter gourd: Molecular basis of non-toxicity, conformational selection and glycan structure. MS accepted http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci. THYAGESHWAR CHANDRAN, ALOK SHARMA and M VIJAYAN. J. Biosci. 40(5), October 2015, 929–941, © Indian Academy of ...

  18. study of oral and gingival microbial flora in institutionalized mentally

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    from the mouth and gingiva of 138 institutionalized mentally retarded patients of Sari to culture in specific media to ... Key words: Oral and gingival microbial flora, Mental retardation, D%, Sari ... staphylococcus aureus and, in case of negative.

  19. Oral health literacy in adult dental patients - A clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The papers II and III of this thesis are not available in Munin. Paper II: Stein, L., Bergdahl, M., Pettersen, K. S., Bergdahl, J.: “The association between oral health literacy and alexithymia: Implications for patient-clinician communication”. (Manuscript). Published version with title “Exploring the association between oral health literacy and alexithymia” available in Community Dental Health 2015, 32(3):143 - 147. Paper III: Stein, L., Bergdahl, M., Pettersen, K. S., Bergdahl...

  20. Oral HPV Infection and Sexuality: A Cross-Sectional Study in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Bloome

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Human Papillomavirus (HPV is the main risk factor for cervical cancers and is associated with close to 36% of oropharyngeal cancers. There is increasing evidence that oral HPV transmission is related to sexual behavior but to our knowledge studies that involve women who have sex with women have not been performed. We examined the prevalence of oral HPV according to sexual behavior among a population-based sample of 118 women and have made some inferences of possible predictors of oral HPV infection. Women were categorized as heterosexual (history of vaginal sex and/or oral sex with males only, n = 75, bisexual (history of vaginal sex and oral sex with females, n = 32 and other (no history of vaginal sex but oral sex with females [homosexuals], virgins and women with incomplete sexual exposure data, n = 11 The prevalence of oral HPV infection was 12/118 (10.2% for the overall study population and was not significantly different between heterosexual and bisexual women (10.7% (8/75 vs. 12.5% (4/32, p = 0.784. There was no oral HPV detected among homosexual women, virgins or among women where sexual exposure was unknown. Never smokers were more likely to be oral HPV+ compared to former smokers (Adjusted Odds Ratio (Adj OR = 0.1, 95% CI, 0.0–1.1 and there was no difference in risk between never smokers and current smokers (Adj OR = 0.7, 95% CI, 0.1–4.6. Twenty-five percent (3/12 of oral HPV+ women had a history of HPV and/or genital warts compared to 9% (10/106 of oral HPV-women (p = 0.104. For the women with a history of vaginal sex (n = 110, oral HPV status was statistically significantly different according to oral sex exposure (p = 0.039. A higher proportion of oral HPV-positive women reported that they had no history of oral sex exposure compared to oral HPV-negative women (4/12, 33% vs. 7/98, 8%. The prevalence of cervical HPV infection did not vary between heterosexuals and bisexuals (35.7% (25/70 vs. 35.5% (11/31, p-value 0.411 and for

  1. Associations between oral hygiene habits, diet, tobacco and alcohol and risk of oral cancer: A case-control study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bhawna; Bray, Freddie; Kumar, Narinder; Johnson, Newell W

    2017-12-01

    This study examines the association between the incidence of oral cancer in India and oral hygiene habits, diet, chewing and smoking tobacco, and drinking alcohol. We also assessed the effects of oral hygiene habits with oral cancer risk among chewers versus never chewers. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Pune, India, based on face-to-face interviews, anthropometry, and intra-oral examinations conducted for 187 oral cancer cases and 240 controls. Poor oral hygiene score was associated with a significant risk of oral cancer (adjusted OR=6.98; 95%CI 3.72-13.05). When stratified by tobacco-chewing habit, the poor oral hygiene score was a significant risk factor only among ever tobacco chewers (adjusted OR=14.74; 95%CI 6.49-33.46) compared with never chewers (adjusted OR=0.71; 95%CI 0.14-3.63). Dental check-ups only at the time of pain by ever-chewers with poor oral hygiene was associated with an elevated risk (adjusted OR=4.22; 95%CI 2.44-7.29), while consumption of green, yellow, and cruciferous vegetables and citrus fruits was protective. A linear dose-response association was observed between oral cancer and chewing tobacco in terms of age at initiation, duration, and frequency of chewing per day (P25 years (adjusted OR=2.31; 95%CI 1.14-4.71) elevated the risk of oral cancer. Good oral hygiene habits - as characterized by healthy gums, brushing more than once daily, use of toothpaste, annual dental check-ups, and a minimal number of missing teeth - can reduce the risk of oral cancer significantly. In addition to refraining from chewing/smoking tobacco, a diet adequate in fruits and vegetables may protect against the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk of caries and oral health: preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Gatti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The incidence of injury cariosa remains high, despite the improvements achieved in the last years. Recent national epidemiological surveys, 4 years old children have healthy teeth in 80% of cases at 12 years the percentage is reduced to 50%. In Italy, the almost total absence on the territory of “dental services to the Community”, makes even more difficult to achieve a solution to the problem “caries.” To address this problem, the Ministry of Labor, Health and Social Policy in October 2008 adopted the national guidelines in order to make suggestions to the various professionals (pediatricians, dentists, microbiologists, dental hygienists, etc., making them interact to maintain and restore oral health. It was the first time that the Ministry of Health has addressed the problem by inserting the figure of the microbiologist in dentistry. Aims. The present study aim was to identify subjects at risk of caries by clinical microbiological testing of saliva and the index DMFT/dmft (Decayed, Missing and Filling Permanent Teeth in both adults and particularly children in order to take preventive measures early as reported in “National guidelines for the promotion of oral health and prevention of oral diseases in age of development”. The study began in June 2009 and will last one year with as goal to have, in 2010, 90% of children between 5 and 6 years caries free and 18 years with any lost tooth decay. Materials and methods. Recruited 164 patients were divided into three age groups: 124 adults aged between 20 and 40 years, 40 children which 21 till 5 years old and 19 till 12 years old. Microbiological testing was aimed by finding CFU / ml of saliva of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp., Slide CRT bacteria (Ivoclar. Clinically, intraoral examination was performed to evaluate the DMFT (Decayed teeth, Missing or Filling calculated over 28 permanent teeth and the dmft (decayed teeth, missing or filling calculated on 20

  3. Pharmacokinetics of orally administered low-dose rapamycin in healthy dogs: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jeanne C.; Allstadt, Sara D.; Fan, Timothy M.; Khanna, Chand; Lunghofer, Paul J.; Hansen, Ryan J.; Gustafson, Daniel L.; Legendre, Alfred M.; Galyon, Gina D.; LeBlanc, Amy K.; Martin-Jimenez, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the pharmacokinetics of orally administered rapamycin in healthy dogs. Animals 5 healthy purpose-bred hounds. Procedures The study consisted of 2 experiments. In experiment 1, each dog received rapamycin (0.1 mg/kg, PO) once; blood samples were obtained immediately before and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after administration. In experiment 2, each dog received (0.1 mg/kg, PO) once daily for 5 days; blood samples were obtained immediately before and at 3, 6, 24, 27, 30, 48, 51, 54, 72, 75, 78, 96, 96.5, 97, 98, 100, 102, 108, 120, 144, and 168 hours after the first dose. Blood rapamycin concentration was determined by a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by compartmental and non-compartmental analyses. Results Mean ± SD blood rapamycin terminal half-life, area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 48 hours after dosing, and maximum concentration were 38.7 ± 12.7 h, 140 ± 23.9 ng•h/mL, and 8.39 ± 1.73 ng/mL, respectively, for experiment 1, and 99.5 ± 89.5 h, 126 ± 27.1 ng•h/mL, and 5.49 ± 1.99 ng/mL, respectively, for experiment 2. Pharmacokinetic parameters for rapamycin after administration of 5 daily doses differed significantly from those after administration of 1 dose. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Results indicated that oral administration of low-dose (0.1 mg/kg) rapamycin to healthy dogs achieved blood concentrations measured in ng/mL. The optimal dose and administration frequency of rapamcyin required to achieve therapeutic effects in tumor-bearing dogs, as well as toxicity after chronic dosing, needs to be determined. PMID:26709938

  4. Study of oral clefts: Indication of gene-environment interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, S.J.; Beaty, T.H.; Panny, S. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    In this study of infants with isolated birth defects, 69 cleft palate-only (CPO) cases, 114 cleft lip with or without palate (CL/P), and 284 controls with non-cleft birth defects (all born in Maryland during 1984-1992) were examined to test for associations among genetic markers and different oral clefts. Modest associations were found between transforming growth factor {alpha} (TGF{alpha}) marker and CPO, as well as that between D17S579 (Mfd188) and CL/P in this study. The association between TGF{alpha} marker and CPO reflects a statistical interaction between mother`s smoking and child`s TGF{alpha} genotype. A significantly higher risk of CPO was found among those reporting maternal smoking during pregnancy and carrying less common TGF{alpha} TaqI allele (odds ratio=7.02 with 95% confidence interval 1.8-27.6). This gene-environment interaction was also found among those who reported no family history of any type of birth defect (odds ratio=5.60 with 95% confidence interval 1.4-22.9). Similar associations were seen for CL/P, but these were not statistically significant.

  5. cDNA microarray analysis of human keratinocytes cells of patients submitted to chemoradiotherapy and oral photobiomodulation therapy: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Heliton S; Wajnberg, Gabriel; Pinho, Marcos B; Jorge, Natasha Andressa Nogueira; de Moraes, Joyce Luana Melo; Stefanoff, Claudio Gustavo; Herchenhorn, Daniel; Araújo, Carlos M M; Viégas, Celia Maria Pais; Rampini, Mariana P; Dias, Fernando L; de Araujo-Souza, Patricia Savio; Passetti, Fabio; Ferreira, Carlos G

    2018-01-01

    Oral mucositis is an acute toxicity that occurs in patients submitted to chemoradiotherapy to treat head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In this study, we evaluated differences in gene expression in the keratinocytes of the oral mucosa of patients treated with photobiomodulation therapy and tried to associate the molecular mechanisms with clinical findings. From June 2009 to December 2010, 27 patients were included in a randomized double-blind pilot study. Buccal smears from 13 patients were obtained at days 1 and 10 of chemoradiotherapy, and overall gene expression of samples from both dates were analyzed by complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray. In addition, samples from other 14 patients were also collected at D1 and D10 of chemoradiotherapy for subsequent validation of cDNA microarray findings by qPCR. The expression array analysis identified 105 upregulated and 60 downregulated genes in our post-treatment samples when compared with controls. Among the upregulated genes with the highest fold change, it was interesting to observe the presence of genes related to keratinocyte differentiation. Among downregulated genes were observed genes related to cytotoxicity and immune response. The results indicate that genes known to be induced during differentiation of human epidermal keratinocytes were upregulated while genes associated with cytotoxicity and immune response were downregulated in the laser group. These results support previous clinical findings indicating that the lower incidence of oral mucositis associated with photobiomodulation therapy might be correlated to the activation of genes involved in keratinocyte differentiation.

  6. Study Bioprospecting of Medicinal Plant Extracts of the Semiarid Northeast: Contribution to the Control of Oral Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Suênia P. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental pathologies can be caused by plaque-forming bacteria and yeast, which reside in the oral cavity. The bacteria growing in dental plaque, a naturally occurring biofilm, display increased resistance to antimicrobial agents. The objective was the evaluation of a preclinical assay of medicinal plants of the semiarid region from the northeast against oral pathogenic microorganism, aiming at bioprospecting a new product. The selection of plant material for this study was based on the ethnobotanical data on the traditional use of plants from the semiarid region. The thirty extracts were subjected to the determination of antibiofilm activity against gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria and yeast. The hydroalcoholic extract which showed positive antibiofilm activity against most of the microorganisms tested in agar diffusion assay was further tested for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and Bioassay with Artemia salina. Plant samples tested in this study exhibited good antibiofilm activity for the treatment of oral problems. The Schinopsis brasiliensis showed greater activity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, but toxicity against Artemia salina.

  7. Oral health in patients taking psychotropic medications: Results from a pharmacy-based pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Lisa J; Swigart, Kimberly; McNelis, Gavin; Milgrom, Peter; Downing, Donald F

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with mental illness face an increased risk of oral disease compared with those without mental illness. The goals of this study were to examine the self-reported oral health and dental access of individuals filling psychotropic medication prescriptions and to determine whether pharmacy patients would choose to speak with a pharmacist about their oral health if given the option to do so. Pharmacists across 6 community pharmacies within a local chain identified and surveyed adult patients filling prescriptions for psychotropic medications. Surveys included questions about oral health, dry mouth, and dental care utilization. Six community pharmacy locations. Adults (≥18 years of age) filling prescriptions for psychotropic medications. Not applicable. Self-reported oral health, dental utilization, desire to discuss oral health with a pharmacist. Participants (N = 178) filling prescriptions were mostly (65.9%) female with a mean age of 48.2 years (SD 14.3, range 19-82 years). One in 4 (24.9%) said their mouths "always" or "frequently" felt dry; these individuals were significantly more likely to have last seen a dentist for emergency (rather than routine) treatment (P oral health as significantly worse (P oral health; they reported poorer oral health than those who opted not to speak with a pharmacist (P oral health than patients without dry mouth. Although dry mouth and poor oral health were common in this sample of individuals taking psychotropic medications, this did not consistently translate into seeking information regarding oral health. Future research will focus on pharmacist-initiated oral health interventions with high-risk patients. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Oral health matters for the nutritional status of older persons-A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindmark, Ulrika; Jansson, Henrik; Lannering, Christina; Johansson, Linda

    2018-03-01

    To explore the association between oral health and nutritional status in the context of daily care for older people. Oral problems often increase with age and affect a person's ability to chew and swallow. They might also influence the ability to maintain a satisfactory nutritional status. Oral health awareness is therefore of great importance in nursing care for older people. A retrospective cross-sectional study. Data from the Swedish quality register, Senior Alert, were used, including structured assessments of both oral and nutritional status using the Revised Oral Assessment Guide-Jönköping and the Mini Nutritional Assessment. In total, 1,156 persons (mean age: 82.8 ± 7.9) had both oral and nutritional assessments registered by the nursing staff in daily care. Approximately 29% of participants had moderate oral health problems. Another 12% had severe problems. Over 60% of the persons were considered at risk of malnutrition or were malnourished. There was a weak correlation between poor nutritional status and poor oral health, and approximately one-third of the persons who were at risk or malnourished had simultaneous oral problems. A multivariate logistic regression revealed that when problems involving voice and swallowing were present, there was also a greater possibility of being assessed as at risk of malnourishment or being malnourished. There is a relationship between oral health problems and nutritional status, indicating the importance of evaluating oral health status in older persons with nutritional problems. Nursing staff involved in care for older people should be aware of the importance of including regular oral health check-ups in their work. There is also a need for nursing staff members and oral health professionals to exchange knowledge. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. An acute toxicity study of Heliotropium scottae Rendle in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahome, W M; Muchiri, D J; Mugera, G M

    1994-08-01

    Twenty-four hour ip median lethal doses (LD50) of freeze-dried aqueous extracts of Heliotropium scottae Rendle leaves and stems in mice were determined and clinical signs noted. The LD50 of the leaf extract was 3.0 g/kg, while that of the stems was 3.5 g/kg. Clinical signs were excitement, prostration, rapid breathing, gasping for breath and death. The signs were the same for both the leaf and stem extracts. It was concluded that both the leaves and stems of H scottae have slight acute toxicity.

  10. Genotoxicity, acute and subchronic toxicity studies in rats of a rooster comb extract rich in sodium hyaluronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canut, Lourdes; Zapatero, Jorge; López, Sílvia; Torrent, Anna; Ruhí, Ramon; Vicente, Laura

    2012-04-01

    The toxicity of a rooster comb extract (IB0004) that contains mainly sodium hyaluronate was assessed in acute and subchronic studies and in a bacterial reverse mutation assay. In a single dose acute study, male and female rats were administered 2000 mg/kg body weight (bw) of the product and observed for 14 days. No mortality was recorded, thus it was considered that the minimum lethal dose for rats by oral route was greater than 2000 mg/kg bw. A 90-day subchronic study (5, 55 and 600 mg/kg bw/day, oral gavage) with 50 male and 50 female Wistar-Hannover rats produced no significant adverse effects on food consumption, body weight, mortality, clinical biochemistry, hematology, gross pathology, and histopathology. Although some differences were observed between the treated and control animals in body weight gain (%) and some hematological parameters, these changes were generally minor in nature and, are considered to be of no toxicological significance. The no-observable-adverse-effects level was established at 600 mg/kg bw/day. There was no evidence of mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537 or in Escherichia coli WP2 uvra pkM101. In conclusion, the results from these safety studies support the safety of rooster comb extract IB0004 in food. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute, reproductive toxicity and two-generation teratology studies of a standardized quassinoid-rich extract of Eurycoma longifolia Jack in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Bin-Seng; Das, Prashanta Kumar; Chan, Kit-Lam

    2014-07-01

    The roots of Eurycoma longifolia Jack are popularly sought as herbal medicinal supplements to improve libido and general health amongst the local ethnic population. The major quassinoids of E. longifolia improved spermatogenesis and fertility but toxicity studies have not been well documented. The reproductive toxicity, two generation of foetus teratology and the up-and-down acute toxicity were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats orally treated with quassinoid-rich E. longifolia extract (TAF273). The results showed that the median lethal dose (LD50 ) of TAF273 for female and male rats was 1293 and >2000 mg/kg, respectively. Fertility index and litter size of the TAF273 treated were significantly increased when compared with those of the non-treated animals. The TAF273-treated dams decreased in percentage of pre-implantation loss, post-implantation loss and late resorption. No toxic symptoms were observed on the TAF273-treated pregnant female rats and their foetuses were normal. The no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) obtained from reproductive toxicity and teratology studies of TAF273 in rats was 100 mg/kg body weight/day, being more than 10-fold lower than the LD50 value. Thus, any human dose derived from converting the rat doses of 100 mg/kg and below may be considered as safe for further clinical studies. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The relationship between observer-based toxicity scoring and patient assessed symptom severity after treatment for head and neck cancer. A correlative cross sectional study of the DAHANCA toxicity scoring system and the EORTC quality of life questionnaires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Kenneth; Bonde Jensen, Anders; Grau, Cai

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Morbidity is an important issue in cancer research. The observer-based toxicity scoring system used by DAHANCA (the Danish head and neck cancer study group) has proved itself sensitive to differences in toxicity in a large randomised study, but like other toxicity scoring systems it has not been formally validated. Conversely, the EORTC quality of life questionnaire (QLQ) has been validated as a tool for collecting information about the consequences of disease and treatment on the well being of cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the two methods of side effect recording. Patients and methods: One hundred and sixteen recurrence free patients with laryngeal (n=44), pharyngeal (n=34) and oral cavity (n=38) cancer attending follow-up after radiotherapy (n=83) or surgery (n=33) completed EORTC C30, the core questionnaire concerning general symptoms and function and EORTC H and N35 the head and neck specific questionnaire. The attending physicians in the follow-up clinic evaluated and recorded DAHANCA toxicity scores on the same patients. Results: The DAHANCA toxicity scoring system and the EORTC QLQ correlated with several clinical endpoints. The conceptually similar endpoints of the two methods correlated significantly. The objective endpoints of the DAHANCA scoring system were only correlated with quality of life endpoints to a very low degree. The DAHANCA toxicity scores had a low sensitivity (0.48-0.74) in detecting equivalent subjective complaints from the questionnaires and the observer-based scoring system severely underestimated patient complaints. A specific patient group where the DAHANCA score had a higher tendency to fail could not be detected. Conclusion: The DAHANCA toxicity score is an effective instrument in assessing objective treatment induced toxicity in head and neck cancer patients but insensitive and non-specific with regard to patient assessed subjective endpoints. This

  13. Phase I clinical and pharmacokinetic study of S-1 plus oral leucovorin in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Takayuki; Hyodo, Ichinosuke; Nishina, Tomohiro; Narahara, Hiroyuki; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Yoshisue, Kunihiro; Boku, Narikazu

    2017-01-01

    S-1 has shown a response rate of 35% in chemonaïve patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Leucovorin enhances the antitumor activity of 5-fluorouracil, and concurrent oral administration of S-1 and leucovorin may represent a more active treatment option for mCRC. S-1 (35 mg/m 2 ) and leucovorin (25 mg/body) were orally administered twice daily to chemonaïve patients with mCRC. Predefined dose (schedule)-limiting toxicities (DLTs) during the first course and treatment continuity during the first two courses were evaluated during three periods of treatment with S-1 plus leucovorin (level 0, 2 weeks; level 1, 3 weeks; and level 2, 4 weeks), each followed by a 2-week rest. The pharmacokinetics (PK) of S-1 and leucovorin were studied on days 1 and 14 of the first course. Fifteen patients were enrolled. All three patients had DLTs at level 2, and this level was considered the maximum tolerated schedule. Level 0 was designated as the recommended schedule based on the incidences of DLTs and treatment continuity. The main toxic effects were gastrointestinal, such as diarrhea and stomatitis. There was no grade 4 adverse event or treatment-related death. The overall response rate was 67% (95% confidence interval, 38-88%). The PK profiles of S-1 plus leucovorin were similar to those in previous studies. The recommended schedule was 2 weeks of S-1 plus leucovorin followed by a 2-week rest. The increased response and gastrointestinal toxicities of S-1 plus leucovorin as compared with S-1 monotherapy suggest that co-administration of leucovorin enhanced the activity of S-1.

  14. Zinc oxide nanoparticles: a 90-day repeated-dose dermal toxicity study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryu HJ

    2014-12-01

    was dose-dependent irritation at the site of application, there were no abnormal findings related to ZnO NPs in other organs. Increased concentrations of ZnO in the liver, small intestine, large intestine, and feces were thought to result from oral ingestion of ZnO NPs via licking. Penetration of ZnO NPs through the skin seemed to be limited via the dermal route. This study demonstrates that there was no observed adverse effect of ZnO NPs up to 1,000 mg/kg body weight when they are applied dermally. Keywords: zinc oxide, nanoparticles, subchronic toxicity, dermal exposure

  15. Social inequalities in children's oral health-related quality of life: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragt, L.; Wolvius, E.B.; Raat, H.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Ongkosuwito, E.M.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is the most important patient-reported outcome measure in oral health research. The purpose of the present research was to study the association of family socioeconomic position (SEP) with children's OHRQoL. METHODS: This cross-sectional study

  16. OECD validation study to assess intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the zebrafish embryo toxicity test for acute aquatic toxicity testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busquet, F.; Strecker, R.; Rawlings, J.M.; Belanger, S.E.; Braunbeck, T.; Carr, G.J.; Cenijn, P.H.; Fochtman, P.; Gourmelon, A.; Hübler, N.; Kleensang, A.; Knöbel, M.; Kussatz, C.; Legler, J.; Lillicrap, A.; Martínez-Jerónimo, F.; Polleichtner, C.; Rzodeczko, H.; Salinas, E.; Schneider, K.E.; Scholz, S.; van den Brandhof, E.J.; van der Ven, L.T.; Walter-Rohde, S.; Weigt, S.; Witters, H.; Halder, M.

    2014-01-01

    A The OECD validation study of the zebrafish embryo acute toxicity test (ZFET) for acute aquatic toxicity testing evaluated the ZFET reproducibility by testing 20 chemicals at 5 different concentrations in 3 independent runs in at least 3 laboratories. Stock solutions and test concentrations were

  17. Toxicity of Transition Metal Oxide Nanoparticles: Recent Insights from in vitro Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Aronstam

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has evolved to play a prominent role in our economy. Increased use of nanomaterials poses potential human health risk. It is therefore critical to understand the nature and origin of the toxicity imposed by nanomaterials (nanotoxicity. In this article we review the toxicity of the transition metal oxides in the 4th period that are widely used in industry and biotechnology. Nanoparticle toxicity is compellingly related to oxidative stress and alteration of calcium homeostasis, gene expression, pro-inflammatory responses, and cellular signaling events. The precise physicochemical properties that dictate the toxicity of nanoparticles have yet to be defined, but may include element-specific surface catalytic activity (e.g., metallic, semiconducting properties, nanoparticle uptake, or nanoparticle dissolution. These in vitro studies substantially advance our understanding in mechanisms of toxicity, which may lead to safer design of nanomaterials.

  18. Oral and written language in late adulthood: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzner, Tracy L; Kemper, Susan

    2003-01-01

    As a part of the Nun Study, a longitudinal investigation of aging and Alzheimer's disease, oral and written autobiographies from 118 older women were analyzed to examine the relationship between spoken and written language. The written language samples were more complex than the oral samples, both conceptually and grammatically. The relationship between the linguistic measures and participant characteristics was also examined. The results suggest that the grammatical and conceptual characteristics of oral and written language are affected by participant differences in education, cognitive status, and physical function and that written language samples have greater power than oral language samples to differentiate between high- and low-ability older adults.

  19. Towards Global QSAR Model Building for Acute Toxicity: Munro Database Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Chavan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of 436 Munro database chemicals were studied with respect to their corresponding experimental LD50 values to investigate the possibility of establishing a global QSAR model for acute toxicity. Dragon molecular descriptors were used for the QSAR model development and genetic algorithms were used to select descriptors better correlated with toxicity data. Toxic values were discretized in a qualitative class on the basis of the Globally Harmonized Scheme: the 436 chemicals were divided into 3 classes based on their experimental LD50 values: highly toxic, intermediate toxic and low to non-toxic. The k-nearest neighbor (k-NN classification method was calibrated on 25 molecular descriptors and gave a non-error rate (NER equal to 0.66 and 0.57 for internal and external prediction sets, respectively. Even if the classification performances are not optimal, the subsequent analysis of the selected descriptors and their relationship with toxicity levels constitute a step towards the development of a global QSAR model for acute toxicity.

  20. The effects of characteristics of substituents on toxicity of the nitroaromatics: HiT QSAR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz'min, Victor E.; Muratov, Eugene N.; Artemenko, Anatoly G.; Gorb, Leonid; Qasim, Mohammad; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2008-10-01

    The present study applies the Hierarchical Technology for Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (HiT QSAR) for (i) evaluation of the influence of the characteristics of 28 nitroaromatic compounds (some of which belong to a widely known class of explosives) as to their toxicity; (ii) prediction of toxicity for new nitroaromatic derivatives; (iii) analysis of the effects of substituents in nitroaromatic compounds on their toxicity in vivo. The 50% lethal dose concentration for rats (LD50) was used to develop the QSAR models based on simplex representation of molecular structure. The preliminary 1D QSAR results show that even the information on the composition of molecules reveals the main tendencies of changes in toxicity. The statistic characteristics for partial least squares 2D QSAR models are quite satisfactory ( R 2 = 0.96-0.98; Q 2 = 0.91-0.93; R 2 test = 0.89-0.92), which allows us to carry out the prediction of activity for 41 novel compounds designed by the application of new combinations of substituents represented in the training set. The comprehensive analysis of toxicity changes as a function of substituent position and nature was carried out. Molecular fragments that promote and interfere with toxicity were defined on the basis of the obtained models. It was shown that the mutual influence of substituents in the benzene ring plays a crucial role regarding toxicity. The influence of different substituents on toxicity can be mediated via different C-H fragments of the aromatic ring.

  1. Betel quid oral lichenoid lesions: a hospital based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Sugandha; Vengal, Manoj; Raju, Bina; Patil, Neelkant; Sathosker, Sujatha; Bateja, Sumit; David, Jamil

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk indicators of betel quid oral lichenoid lesions in chewers. A total of 1209 chewers were identified and categorized into three main groups based on the type of lesion: betel quid oral lichenoid lesions only, betel quid oral lichenoid lesions in association with quid-induced other oral mucosal lesions, and no lesions. Multinomial regression analyses were used to determine associations between dependent and independent variables. Betel quid oral lichenoid lesions were more common in individuals who chewed quid comprising both tobacco and areca nut, and in those who chewed it two to three, or greater than three, times a day. Betel quid oral lichenoid lesions + quid-induced other oral mucosal lesions were more likely to occur in females, and in individuals who chewed quid containing both tobacco and areca nut, in their processed and unprocessed forms, and greater than three times a day. The prevalence of betel quid oral lichenoid lesions was higher than that reported in previous studies conducted in India. Increase in the frequency and duration of quid chewing was associated with increased likelihood of developing these oral lichenoid lesions. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Lecithin-gold hybrid nanocarriers as efficient and pH selective vehicles for oral delivery of diacerein-In-vitro and in-vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Ibrahim; Hussain, Syed Zajif; Shahzad, Atif; Khan, Jahanzeb Muhammad; Ur-Rehman, Habib; Rehman, Mubashar; Usman, Faisal; Razi, Muhammad Tahir; Shah, Muhammad Raza; Hussain, Irshad

    2016-05-01

    We report the synthesis and evaluation of lecithin-gold hybrid nanocarriers for the oral delivery of drugs with improved pharmacokinetics, Au-drug interactive bioactivity and controlled drug releasing behavior at physiological pH inside human body. For this purpose, diacerein, a hydrophobic anti-arthritic drug, was loaded in lecithin NPs (LD NPs), which were further coated by Au NPs either by in-situ production of Au NPs on LD NPs or by employing pre-synthesized Au NPs. All LDAu NPs were found to release drug selectively at the physiological pH of 7.4 and showed 2.5 times increase in the oral bioavailability of diacerein. Pharmacological efficacy was significantly improved i.e., greater than the additive effect of diacerein and Au NPs alone. LDAu NPs started suppressing inflammation at first phase, whereas LD NPs showed activity in the second phase of inflammation. These results indicate the interaction of Au NPs with prostaglandins and histaminic mediators of first phase of carrageenan induced inflammation. Acute toxicity study showed no hepatic damage but the renal toxicity parameters were close to the upper safety limits. Toxicity parameters were dependent on surface engineering of LDAu NPs. Apart from enhancing the oral bioavailability of hydrophobic drugs and improving their anti-inflammatory activity, these hybrid nanocarriers may have potential applications in gold-based photothermal therapy and the tracing of inflammation at atherosclerotic and arthritic site. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A retrospective study of oral cysts in Nigerian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salako, N O; Taiwo, E O

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of oral cysts that were seen over an 11-year period in children at a dental institution in Nigeria was carried out. In general, oral cysts accounted for only 2.6% of the total biopsied lesions during the period under review. The most common oral cysts were the mucous retention cysts, the gingival cysts of infants and the dentigerous cyst. The commonest sites were the maxilla, the mandible and the floor of the mouth respectively and there was no significant difference in sex preference. Most of the cases were seen in the age group 11-16 years while the least was in the group aged 6-10 years.

  4. Video fluoroscopic techniques for the study of Oral Food Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Koichiro; Palmer, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Food oral processing and pharyngeal food passage cannot be observed directly from the outside of the body without instrumental methods. Videofluoroscopy (x-ray video recording) reveals the movement of oropharyngeal anatomical structures in two dimensions. By adding a radiopaque contrast medium, the motion and shape of the food bolus can be also visualized, providing critical information about the mechanisms of eating, drinking, and swallowing. For quantitative analysis of the kinematics of oral food processing, radiopaque markers are attached to the teeth, tongue or soft palate. This approach permits kinematic analysis with a variety of textures and consistencies, both solid and liquid. Fundamental mechanisms of food oral processing are clearly observed with videofluoroscopy in lateral and anteroposterior projections. PMID:27213138

  5. Intellectual disability and impact on oral health: a paired study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Juliana Santos; Prado Júnior, Raimundo Rosendo; de Sousa Lima, Kássio Rafael; de Oliveira Amaral, Heylane; Moita Neto, José Machado; Mendes, Regina Ferraz

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to assess the oral health status, the treatment needed, and the type of dental health services access of intellectually disabled (ID) subjects in Teresina, Brazil. The sample consisted of 103 ID subjects matriculated in centers for special needs people and 103 siblings. Results were analyzed using paired t-test, chi-square test, and odds ratio. ID subjects had fair (63.1%; p siblings had a good oral hygiene (n = 103 [55.3%]; p siblings. Thirty percent of ID subjects had never received dental treatment and had difficulty accessing public health services. Their treatment needs were, therefore, higher than non-ID subjects. The access to oral health services was unsatisfactory, thus it is important to implement educational and health promotion inclusion policies for people with ID. ©2013 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A phase ii study of concurrent accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy and carboplatin/oral etoposide for elderly patients with stage iii non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeremic, Branislav; Shibamoto, Yuta; Milicic, Biljana; Milisavljevic, Slobodan; Nikolic, Nebojsa; Dagovic, Aleksandar; Aleksandrovic, Jasna; Radosavljevic-Asic, Gordana

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate feasibility, toxicity, and efficacy of accelerated hyperfractionated radiation therapy and concurrent carboplatin/oral etoposide in elderly (> 70 years) patients with stage III non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 1988 and June 1993, a total of 58 patients entered a phase II study. Carboplatin (400 mg/m 2 ) was given intravenously on days 1 and 29, and etoposide (50 mg/m 2 ) was given orally on days 1-21 and 29-42. Accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy was administered starting on day 1, with a total dose of 51 Gy in 34 fractions over 3.5 weeks. Results: In 55 evaluable patients, the complete response rate was 27% and the overall response rate was 65%. For the 55 patients, the median survival time was 10 months, and the 1-, 2-, and 5-year survival rates were 45%, 24%, and 9.1%, respectively. The median time until relapse was 8 months and the 1-, 2-, and 5-year relapse-free survival rates were 45%, 20%, and 9.1%, respectively. The median time to local recurrence was 14 months and the 5-year local control rate was 13%; the median time to distant metastasis was 18 months and the 5-year distant metastasis-free rate was 15%. Hematological, esophageal, and bronchopulmonary acute grade 3 or 4 toxicities were observed in 22%, 7%, and 4% of the patients, respectively. There was no grade 5 toxicity or late grade ≥ 3 toxicity. Conclusion: Concurrent accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy and carboplatin/oral etoposide produced relatively low and acceptable toxicity. The survival results appeared to be comparable to those obtained in nonelderly patients with stage III non-small-cell lung cancer treated by full-dose radiation

  7. Oral Cancer Awareness Among Dental Patients in Omdurman, Sudan: a cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiker, Tasneem Mohammed; Osman, Khansa Awad Alkareem; Mohamed, Safa Abdelrawf; Mohamed, Matab Abdalrhaman; Almahdi, Hatim Mohammed

    2017-03-23

    Oral cancer is a preventable disease. Its occurrence is mostly due to lifestyle. In Sudan, the use of smokeless tobacco (Toombak) has long been linked to oral cancer. Knowledge of the signs and symptoms of oral cancer may well aid in early diagnosis and treatment. This is bound to result in increasing survival rates, as well as reducing the oral cancer burden on the society. This study aimed to assess oral cancer awareness regarding knowledge of signs, symptoms, risk factors and sources of the information. Furthermore, it attempts to evaluate attitudes towards oral cancer screening and any previous experience of screening, amongst dental patients attending University of Science and Technology (UST) Dental Teaching Hospital. Omdurman, Sudan. A hospital based cross-sectional study, interviewer-administered questionnaire was conducted amongst 500 adult patients attending the UST Dental Hospital during 2015. A total of 57.7% (286) of the individuals demonstrated good knowledge of signs and symptoms, whereas 49% (139) expressed good knowledge of risk factors of oral cancer. For the majority of the individuals 66.1% (290), the most common source of information about oral cancer was from the media, while 33.9% individuals (149), obtained knowledge from direct contact of health workers. The overwhelming majority, 93.2% (466) never screened for oral cancer despite their positive attitude towards it 66.4% (332). Knowledge of risk factors associated significantly with those reported positive attitude towards oral cancer screening and those reported direct contact with health workers as a source of information, (p ≤ 0.001). Moreover, females and those living in urban districts scores higher than their counterpart in knowledge of risk factor of oral cancer. In addition, those employed 58.6% (280) and 62.8% (164) with correct believes about oral cancer showed significant association with positive knowledge of signs and symptoms (p ≤ 0.05). Awareness levels, knowledge

  8. A study of the treatment of oral multiple primary cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takayuki; Kamata, Shin-etsu; Kawabata, Kazuyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The subjects were 30 multiple primary cancers (out of 2,169 oral squamous cell carcinoma including lip cancers), which were treated at the Division of Head and Neck, Cancer Institute Hospital. Seven synchronous carcinomas and 23 metachronous cases were seen. The most common site of the primary cancer was the tongue. Surgical treatment was performed for the first treatment in 5 cases of the 7 synchronous cancers. On the other hand, radical treatment was performed in 11 cases of the 23 metachronous cancers. Fourteen of the 18 cases were treated by surgical treatment and controlled. It is suggested that surgical treatment is the most effective for oral multiple primary cancers. (author)

  9. The Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) study: objectives and methods of a study investigating causality, course, and clinical relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; Jager, Gerry; Vervaeke, Hylke K. E.; Schilt, Thelma; Reneman, Liesbeth; Booij, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Ramsey, Nick F.; Korf, Dirk J.; van den Brink, Wim

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the objectives and methods of The Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) study focussing on the causality, course, and clinical relevance of ecstasy neurotoxicity. Previous studies suggest that ecstasy (3,4 methylene-dioxymethamphetamine, MDMA, XTC) is toxic toward brain serotonin

  10. Oral Hygiene and Dietary Habits in Adolescents with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaripour, Adriano; Willershausen, Ines; Hassan, Muhamed; Ebenezer, Supriya; Willershausen, Brita

    2016-03-01

    Fixed orthodontic appliances (FOAs) may cause a temporary deterioration of oral hygiene with corresponding gingival inflammatory changes. Optimal oral hygiene and dietary changes are essential in order to avoid periodontal inflammation. The present study investigates to what extent the recommendations made by the orthodontist are followed by young patients. A total of 67 adolescent patients with FOA were examined and interviewed. The control group consisted of 70 patients of the same age who had not undergone any orthodontic treatment. A specific questionnaire (assessing dietary habits, oral hygiene measures) was used and comprehensive oral findings along with oral hygiene status were evaluated. The analysis of the data showed that despite intensive oral hygiene and dietary advice in the patients with FOA, there was no change in diet or oral hygiene habits. There were significantly higher signs of gingival inflammation and amount of dental plaque in FOA patients. Nutritional recommendations and oral hygiene measures for young people with FOA were not adequately enforced. The findings indicate that frequent recalls should be scheduled with repeated reinforcement of oral hygiene and dietary modifications in FOA patients.

  11. Patients’ perceptions of oral cancer screening in dental practice: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Oral cancer is increasing in incidence in the UK and indeed worldwide. Delay in diagnosis is common; up to half of patients are diagnosed with advanced lesions. Thus it is essential to develop methods to aid early detection. This study aimed to assess dental patients’ experiences and awareness of oral cancer and screening within general dental practice. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 184 English-speaking adults, with no previous history of oral cancer was conducted. The questionnaire collected data on participant’s knowledge of oral cancer, experience of ‘screening’, attitudes and feelings towards having a screening, anticipated help-seeking behaviours, health-related behaviours (particularly risk factors) and sociodemographics. Results Twenty percent of respondents had never heard of oral cancer; 77% knew little or nothing about it and 72% did not know that their Dentist routinely screens for oral cancer. Overall, attitudes to screening were positive. Ninety two percent of respondents would like their Dentist to tell them if they were being screened for signs of oral cancer and 97% would like help from their Dentists to reduce their risk. Conclusion Patients seem generally unaware of oral cancer screening by their dentist but are happy to take part in screening, would like to be informed, and welcome the support of their Dentist to reduce their risk of developing oral cancer. PMID:23249393

  12. Impact of socio-demographic variables, oral hygiene practices and oral habits on periodontal health status of Indian elderly : a community-based study.

    OpenAIRE

    Shah N; Sundaram K

    2003-01-01

    Periodontal disease is the most common cause of tooth loss. It is has insidious onset, chronic course, and commonly result due to cumulative effect of dietary habits, oral hygiene methods and oral habits practiced over the years. This study was planned to evaluate the periodontal health status of elderly population (above 60 years) in the community, using CPITN index, gingival recession, mobility of teeth and halitosis, using modified WHO Oral Health Survey Proforma. In addition, impact of se...

  13. Prostate hypofractionated radiation therapy with injection of hyaluronic acid: acute toxicities in a phase 2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapet, Olivier; Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie; Faix, Antoine; Ruffion, Alain; Jalade, Patrice; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Azria, David

    2015-03-15

    Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapet, Olivier; Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie; Faix, Antoine; Ruffion, Alain; Jalade, Patrice; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Azria, David

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity

  15. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapet, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.chapet@chu-lyon.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); EMR3738, Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie [Pole Information Médicale Evaluation Recherche, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); EA SIS, Université de Lyon, Lyon (France); Faix, Antoine [Department of Urology, Clinique Beausoleil, Montpellier (France); Ruffion, Alain [Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Department of Urology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Jalade, Patrice [Department of Medical Physics, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity.

  16. Exploring the Oral Communication Strategies Used by Turkish EFL Learners: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Yusuf; Mutlu, Gülçin; Sisman, Yavuz Selim

    2018-01-01

    This study set out with a threefold purpose: to examine (1) the oral communication strategies (CSs) employed by tertiary-level Turkish EFL learners, (2) the use of CSs based on exposure to English through audio-visual tools, university subject domain and gender differences, (3) the correlation between use of CSs and oral proficiency scores. To…

  17. Bereaved relatives' perspectives of the patient's oral intake towards the end of life: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raijmakers, N.J.H.; Clark, J.B.; Zuylen, L. van; Allan, S.G.; Heide, A. van der

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patients approaching death often have a decreasing oral intake, which can be distressing for relatives. Little is known about the relatives' experiences with and perceptions of oral intake at the end of life. Aim:This study aims to contribute to a more thorough understanding of

  18. Oral health status of adults in Southern Vietnam - a cross-sectional epidemiological study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen-Chau, T.C.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Truong, N.B.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Before strategies or protocols for oral health care can be advised at population level, epidemiological information on tooth decay patterns and its effects on oral function are indispensable. The aim of this study was to investigate influences of socio-demographic variables on the

  19. Maternal Risk Factors for Oral Clefts: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jafar Golalipour

    2011-01-01

     Conclusions:  The results of this study indicate that higher parity is significantly associated with an increased risk of an oral cleft, while Fars ethnicity and a low intake of folic acid increased the incidence of oral clefts but not significantly.

  20. Treatment of acute relapses in multiple sclerosis at home with oral dexamethasone : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, J; Zwanikken, C; Zorgdrager, A; Oenema, D

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of treating relapses of multiple sclerosis (MS) at home with oral dexamethasone. Twenty-five out of 28 consecutive patients with MS who presented with a relapse of less than 2 weeks' duration were treated on an open basis with oral

  1. Determinants of oral hygiene behavior : a study based on the theory of planned behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk-Werkhoven, Y.A.; Dijkstra, Arie; van der Schans, C.P.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to develop an index for oral hygiene behavior (OHB) and to examine potential predictors of this actual behavior based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Measures of oral health knowledge (OHK) and the expected effect of having healthy teeth on social

  2. Webinar Presentation: Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Neurodevelopment.

  3. CLINICO-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF ORAL CANCER: A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil H Agrawal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is heading towards various types of non-communicable diseases, which are also known as modern epidemics. Among these modern epidemics cancer is among the ten commonest cause of mortality in developing countries including India. Oral cancer is a major problem in India and accounts for 50-70% of all the cancers diagnosed. Ninety percent (90% of oral cancers in South East Asia including India are linked to tobacco chewing and tobacco smoking. Research question: What is the profile of Oral cancer (Oral cavity cases reported in the hospital? Objective: To study the clinico-epidemiological profile associated with Oral cancer cases. Methods: Study Design: Hospital based, Cross -sectional study. Settings: Shri Siddhivinayak Ganapati Cancer Hospital, Miraj, Maharashtra. Participants and Sample size: As it is a time bound study sample size comprised of all the confirmed cases of oral cancer reported in the hospital during the study period. The study was carried out from 1st March 2005 to 28th February 2006. Study variables included demographic factors, socioeconomic factors, enquiries regarding modifiable risk factors such as tobacco usage, alcohol consumption, site involved (within oral cavity, staging, histopathological examination, treatment modality used. Data entry and statistical analysis was done using Microsoft excel. Data presented in form of percentages and proportions. Results: Out of the total 160 cases, majority of the subjects were above 40 years age. 36 (22% of subjects were young adults (below 40 years age. 125 (78% subjects were male. Most of the subjects belonged to upper lower and lower middle socio-economic scale according to modified Kuppuswamy classification. It was observed that 139 (87% cases consumed tobacco in all forms. Out of these, ninety cases consumed tobacco in chewable form. Tobacco was chewed mainly in the form of gutka. Only ten (10 female subjects chewed tobacco. No female subjects smoked. The most

  4. Campaigning for Children's Oral Health: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Arguably, the ultimate application of evidenced-based communications is translating the research recommendations into a full-fledged media campaign. This article explains the development and implementation of Watch Your Mouth, a campaign based on FrameWorks Institute's research on children's oral health. To date, this innovative campaign has been…

  5. Bioequivalence study on two brands of 10% enrofloxacin oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A bioequivalence of two brands of 10% enrofloxacin was tested in broiler chickens using a parallel design at 20 mg/kg bodyweight orally. Blood was sampled before and after drug administration for 24 hours. Plasma enrofloxacin concentrations were analyzed using microbiological assay. Peak plasma concentrations ...

  6. Thirteen week toxicity study of dietary l-tryptophan in rats with a recovery period of 5 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibui, Yusuke; Matsumoto, Hideki; Masuzawa, Yoko; Ohishi, Takumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi; Sakai, Ryosei

    2018-04-01

    Although l-tryptophan is nutritionally important and widely used in medical applications, toxicity data for its oral administration are limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of an experimental diet containing added l-tryptophan at doses of 0 (basal diet), 1.25%, 2.5% and 5.0% when administered to Sprague-Dawley rats for 13 weeks. There were no toxicological changes in clinical signs, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, necropsy, organ weight and histopathology between control rats and those fed additional l-tryptophan. Body weight gain and food consumption significantly decreased throughout the administration period in males in the 2.5% group and in both sexes in the 5.0% group. At the end of the dosing period, decreases in water intake in males in the 5.0% group and in serum glucose in females in the 5.0% group were observed. The changes described above were considered toxicologically significant; however, they were not observed after a 5 week recovery period, suggesting reversibility. Consequently, the no-observed-adverse-effect level of l-tryptophan in the present study was 1.25% for males and 2.5% for females (mean intake of l-tryptophan: 779 mg kg -1 body weight day -1 [males] and 1765 mg kg -1 body weight day -1 [females]). As the basal diet used in this study contained 0.27% of proteinaceous l-tryptophan, the no-observed-adverse-effect level of overall l-tryptophan was 1.52% for males and 2.77% for females (mean intake of overall l-tryptophan: 948 mg kg -1 body weight day -1 (males) and 1956 mg kg -1 body weight day -1 (females)). We conclude that l-tryptophan has a low toxicity profile in terms of human use. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Oral traumatic ulcerative granuloma with stromal eosinophilia: A clinicopathological study of 34 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei-Ren; Chang, Julia Yu-Fong; Wu, Yang-Che; Cheng, Shih-Jung; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Wang, Yi-Ping

    2015-09-01

    Traumatic ulcerative granuloma with stromal eosinophilia (TUGSE) is a special oral ulcerative lesion that shares many clinical features of an oral squamous cell carcinoma. This study reports the clinicopathological features of 34 oral TUGSE lesions in Taiwanese patients. Thirty-four TUGSE cases were retrieved from the files of the Department of Oral Pathology and Oral Diagnosis, National Taiwan University Hospital from 2003 to 2009. Their clinical data and histopathological features were examined, collected, and analyzed. The study group included 22 male and 12 female patients (64.7% and 35.3%, respectively) with oral TUGSE. The mean age of the patients was 49 years (range, 8 to 80 years). The most common site for oral TUGSE lesions was the tongue (23 cases, 67.6%), followed by the buccal mucosa (6 cases, 17.6%), retromolar area (2 cases, 5.9%), floor of the mouth and lingual sulcus (2 cases, 5.9%), and lip (1 case, 3.0%). For 23 tongue cases, 19 occurred on the dorsum and the tip (82.6%) and 4 on the ventral surface (17.4%). Of the 34 oral TUGSE lesions, 13 (38.2%) had a mild, 11 (32.4%) a moderate, and 10 (29.4%) a severe eosinophilic infiltrate. Oral TUGSE lesions occur more frequently on the dorsal surface and the tip of the tongue and in male patients between 41 and 60 years of age. The eosinophilic infiltrates in oral TUGSE lesions show a scattered or clustered pattern, and their density varies from case to case. Oral TUGSE is a self-limiting lesion, and aggressive surgical treatment is usually not required. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Dietary score and the risk of oral cancer: a case-control study in southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa; Yan, Lingjun; Lin, Lisong; Liu, Fengqiong; Qiu, Yu; Wang, Jing; Wu, Junfeng; Liu, Fangping; Huang, Jiangfeng; Cai, Lin; He, Baochang

    2017-05-23

    This study aims to develop a simple dietary score to comprehensively evaluate the role of diet in the risk of oral cancer. A case-control study including 930 oral cancer cases and 2667 frequency-matched controls was performed in Fujian, China. Unconditional logistic regression model was used to estimate the effects of dietary factors on oral cancer. After adjustment for potential confounders, less intake of domestic meat (oral cancer. Then these variables were incorporated to establish dietary risk score. Assessed by the receiver operating characteristic curve, the score showed a satisfactory discriminatory capacity, with an area under the curve of 0.682 (95% CI: 0.662-0.702). Moreover, the score was positively associated with the risk of oral cancer as quartiles, and the association was apparently stronger in tobacco smokers or alcohol drinkers. Additionally, there were significant multiplicative interactions between the score and tobacco smoking or alcohol drinking for oral cancer. In the present study, a convenient dietary score with satisfactory discriminatory capacity was developed to assess the collected effect of dietary factors on oral cancer, which could provide a new strategy for the prevention of oral cancer through changing in dietary habits.

  9. Experimental study on acute toxicity of Qingnao tablet to mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guoqi; Wang, Huamin; Ma, Zhenzhen; Hao, Shaojun; Li, Jun; Wang, Hongyu; Wen, Zhonghua; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effect of Qingnao tablets on acute toxicity in mice. Forty mice, half male and half female, were randomly divided into normal saline group and Qingnao tablet group. After fasting for 12 hours, the mice were given 0. 4 ml / 10 g in maximum volume. In 1st, the rats were perfused 3 times (every 8 hours). The rats in the saline group were perfused with the same volume of saline in the same way. The mice were observed continuously within 3 hours and then every hour. The mice were given a normal diet for 14 consecutive days, and the changes of autonomous activity, reaction, diet, stool, secretion, eye and nose were observed daily. The mice fasted on the 13th day and weighed on the 14th day. And then put the mice to death, The changes of the liver, heart, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, intestines, and brain were observed by the naked eye. There was no obvious abnormality in normal saline group. The autonomous activity of mice in the administration group decreased after initial administration, and gradually returned to normal after 2 hours of administration. On the day of administration, the stool of the mice became dark brown, and the feces returned to normal after 1.1 days of normal urination. No other mice had abnormal secretion, reaction, eye nose, diet, etc. On the 14th day, there were no visible heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, gastrointestinal tract in normal saline group and Qingnao tablet group. Abnormal changes in brain and other organs (edema, color, etc.). In the normal saline group and Qingnao tablet group, the initial weight of the mice was: 21.70 ± 0.97N 21.71 ± 1.13, and the weight of the mice on the 7th day was 29.70 ± 2.4c28.65 ± 3.11. On the 14th day, the body weight was 32.38 ± 3.40, 33.77 ± 3.82. Qingnao tablet has no obvious toxicity to the main organs of mice, so it can be considered safe in clinical use.

  10. Developmental toxicity study of D-tagatose in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, C L; Whittaker, M H; Frankos, V H; Schroeder, R E

    1999-04-01

    D-tagatose is a low-calorie sweetener that tastes like sucrose. The developmental toxicity of D-tagatose was investigated in Crl:CD(SD)BR rats administered D-tagatose at three dose levels (4000, 12,000, and 20,000 mg/kg body wt/day) via gastric intubation on days 6-15 of gestation. No compound-related toxicity was seen among any of the maternal groups. No treatment-related clinical effects were seen in the maternal animals at the 4000 mg/kg/day dose level. At the mid- and high-dose levels, most maternal animals had unformed or watery stools; this effect was most prominent early in the treatment period (Gestation Days 6-8). This effect was attributed to the osmotic effect of the large amount of D-tagatose given to the animals at these doses. Since D-tagatose is not digested or absorbed to a large extent, most of the sugar passes into the colon where it absorbs water and is fermented by colonic bacteria. Mean weight gain for the low- and mid-dose animals was comparable to the control; however, the high-dose group experienced a mean weight loss over the Gestation Day 6-9 interval. Over the entire treatment interval, however, mean weight gain for the high-dose animals was comparable to control. The decreased weight gain in the high-dose animals during the Gestation Day 6-9 interval was considered to be a direct result of laxation. In addition to the effect of laxation on body weight, reduced food consumption also contributed to the decreased weight gain. In the low-dose animals, no effect on food consumption was seen; however, both mid- and high-dose animals had food consumption values that were statistically significantly lower than the control. Food consumption was lowest during the Gestation Day 6-9 interval, the period when laxation was most prominent. Food consumption rebounded and was statistically significantly higher than the control for the mid- and high-dose animals during the posttreatment interval. Maternal liver weight for the low-dose animals was

  11. Collecting standardised oral health data via mobile application: A proof of concept study in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost C L den Boer

    Full Text Available FDI World Dental Federation, founded as Fédération Dentaire Internationale, has taken the initiative to develop the Oral Health Observatory, a mobile application to conduct oral health surveys worldwide. The aim is to collect reliable standardized international data on oral health and oral health care via a network of dentists. A proof of concept study project was set up in the Netherlands to test the methodology and to validate the approach. Data about caries, gingivitis, oral self-care and oral health related quality of life were analysed and compared to datasets validated in other studies. The Android app embeds three questionnaires addressing oral health history, status and patient behaviour. One questionnaire was completed by the patient and two by the dentist. The proof of concept study involved two phases: in the first phase, five dentists, regular participants in KNMT-surveys, evaluated the usability of the app; after the first phase, the app was adjusted for a second phase. For this phase an extra 15 dentists were recruited from a group of 20 other dentists: five of them declined to participate. Attention was paid to ensuring there was a proportional representation of gender, age and region. In the second phase the five first and 15 new participants collected data on up to a maximum of 38 patients. Data from this 653 patients correspond with results from previously published surveys on the prevalence of caries and gingivitis in the Netherlands. Hence demonstrating an association between caries and gingivitis with oral self-care, problems eating and experiencing oral pain. This proof of concept study shows that the app makes it possible to collect reliable information on oral health in a short period of time. Both dentists and patients evaluated the methodology as user-friendly. Altogether, the results of this proof of concept study are promising.

  12. Collecting standardised oral health data via mobile application: A proof of concept study in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boer, Joost C L; van Dijk, Ward; Horn, Virginie; Hescot, Patrick; Bruers, Josef J M

    2018-01-01

    FDI World Dental Federation, founded as Fédération Dentaire Internationale, has taken the initiative to develop the Oral Health Observatory, a mobile application to conduct oral health surveys worldwide. The aim is to collect reliable standardized international data on oral health and oral health care via a network of dentists. A proof of concept study project was set up in the Netherlands to test the methodology and to validate the approach. Data about caries, gingivitis, oral self-care and oral health related quality of life were analysed and compared to datasets validated in other studies. The Android app embeds three questionnaires addressing oral health history, status and patient behaviour. One questionnaire was completed by the patient and two by the dentist. The proof of concept study involved two phases: in the first phase, five dentists, regular participants in KNMT-surveys, evaluated the usability of the app; after the first phase, the app was adjusted for a second phase. For this phase an extra 15 dentists were recruited from a group of 20 other dentists: five of them declined to participate. Attention was paid to ensuring there was a proportional representation of gender, age and region. In the second phase the five first and 15 new participants collected data on up to a maximum of 38 patients. Data from this 653 patients correspond with results from previously published surveys on the prevalence of caries and gingivitis in the Netherlands. Hence demonstrating an association between caries and gingivitis with oral self-care, problems eating and experiencing oral pain. This proof of concept study shows that the app makes it possible to collect reliable information on oral health in a short period of time. Both dentists and patients evaluated the methodology as user-friendly. Altogether, the results of this proof of concept study are promising.

  13. Toxicity evaluation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl and other compounds involved in studies of fossil fuels biodesulphurisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, L; Paixão, S M

    2011-10-01

    The acute toxicity of some compounds used in fossil fuels biodesulphurisation studies, on the respiration activity, was evaluated by Gordonia alkanivorans and Rhodococcus erythropolis. Moreover, the effect of 2-hydroxybiphenyl on cell growth of both strains was also determined, using batch (chronic bioassays) and continuous cultures. The IC₅₀ values obtained showed the toxicity of all the compounds tested to both strains, specially the high toxicity of 2-HBP. These results were confirmed by the chronic toxicity data. The toxicity data sets highlight for a higher sensitivity to the toxicant by the strain presenting a lower growth rate, due to a lower cells number in contact with the toxicant. Thus, microorganisms exhibiting faster generation times could be more resistant to 2-HBP accumulation during a BDS process. The physiological response of both strains to 2-HBP pulse in a steady-state continuous culture shows their potential to be used in a future fossil fuel BDS process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Oral health status of cracker workers in Sivakasi, Tamil Nadu, India - A cross-sectional study

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    M Mary Sherley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Poor oral health and untreated oral diseases have a significant impact on quality of life. Oral and general health of cracker workers is in association with their working environment. Aim: To assess the oral health status of cracker workers in Sivakasi. Materials and Methods: A total of 350 subjects were included in this study. The subjects were randomly selected from 10 companies in Sivakasi. Data were collected by using WHO Oral Health Assessment Form for Adults (2013. The proforma included questions on knowledge, attitude, and practices of oral hygiene. Statistical analysis was performed using statistical package for social sciences version 16.0. Results: Among 350 subjects, 34.9% were males and 65.1% were females. The mean number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth was 2.52, 4.17, and 1.32, respectively. The mean of sextants with shallow pockets is 5.9 and its percentage is 54. The mean of sextants with deep pockets is 1.5 and its percentage is 14.6. Oral lesions were found to be present among 4.3% of study subjects. Conclusion: Workers of fireworks industries those with dental caries, periodontal problems, and other dental complaints should be examined repeatedly for their oral health status.

  15. A multicenter study of biopsied oral and maxillofacial lesions in a Brazilian pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leni Verônica de Oliveira; Arruda, José Alcides Almeida; Martelli, Stephanie Joana; Kato, Camila de Nazaré Alves de Oliveira; Nunes, Laiz Fernanda Mendes; Vasconcelos, Ana Carolina Uchoa; Tarquinio, Sandra Beatriz Chaves; Gomes, Ana Paula Neutzling; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Mesquita, Ricardo Alves; Silveira, Marcia Maria Fonseca da; Sobral, Ana Paula Veras

    2018-03-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of oral and maxillofacial lesions among children from representative regions of Brazil. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted. Biopsy records comprising the period from 2000 to 2015 were obtained from the archives of three Brazilian oral pathology referral centers. A total of 32,506 biopsy specimens were analyzed, and specimens from 1,706 children aged 0-12 years were selected. Gender, age, anatomical location and histopathological diagnosis were evaluated. Descriptive statistics was carried out. Likelihood ratio tests were used to evaluate the association between the categorical variables. The level of significance was set at 0.05. The post-hoc test was used to identify the subgroups that significantly differed from one another, and the Bonferroni correction was applied. A total of 1,706 oral and maxillofacial lesions were diagnosed in pediatric patients, including 51.9% girls. Oral mucocele was the most prevalent reactive/inflammatory lesion (64%). The most commonly affected sites were the lips (34.5%) and mandible (19.9%). A significant association was observed between age and the group of lesions of the oral cavity (p oral and maxillofacial lesions were frequent and showed wide diversity, with the prevalence of mucocele. Knowledge of oral lesions is important for pediatric dentists worldwide, since it provides accurate data for the diagnosis and oral health of children.

  16. The development of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia in oral lichen planus. A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente-Pendás, Santiago; González-Garcia, Manuel; García-Martín, José-Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Was to describe 14 cases of a proliferative verrucous leukoplakia as a clinical evolution of oral lichen planus. Material and Methods The clinical and histopathological characteristics of 14 cases of OLP that progress towards a plaque-like and verrucous form were indicated, with monitoring over a period of six to 24.3 years. Results The female/male ratio was 11/3, (78.6 and 21.4%). The mean age when the first biopsy was undertaken was 56.4 years old. None of the patients smoked during the study. As bilateral reticular was clinically diagnostic criterion, the second most frequent clinical form was the plaque form (n=10; 71.4%), followed by the atrophic (n=6; 42.8%), and erosive forms (n=4; 28.5%). Clinically it spread towards attached gingival mucosa and the hard palate. In the histopathologic study, there were a predominance of hyperkeratosis and verrucous epithelial hyperplasia. Three of the cases progressed to a squamous cell carcinoma, and one patient developed two verrucous carcinoma. Conclusions Further research is needed to demonstrate if proliferative multifocal oral lichen planus and proliferative multifocal oral leukoplakia are the same disorder but have different behaviour of malignancy for reasons of origin. Key words:Oral lichen planus, proliferative verrucous oral leukoplakia, malignant oral lichen planus, multifocal verrucous oral lichen planus, proliferative verrucous oral lichen planus. PMID:27031060

  17. Ozonides: intermediates in ozone-induced toxicity : a study on their mechanism of toxic action and detoxification by antioxidants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempenius, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Ozone is a major constituent of photochemical smog. The toxicity of ozone is well documented and has been related to its strong oxidative potential. The principal target organ for ozone toxicity is the respiratory system. Unsaturated fatty acids, which are present in both the lipids of the

  18. Ethnobotanical Study of Toxic Plants in Ngadiwono Village, Tosari District, Pasuruan Regency, East Java

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    Anggraeni In Oktavia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The society in Ngadiwono village is part of Tengger tribe that depends on their surrounding environment on fulfilling the life necessities. However, the society knowledge obout toxic plant has never been revealed. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to documenting the toxic plants in Ngadiwono village according to society knowledge and scientific study on its toxic content. This study was conducted in Ngadiwono Village, Tosari District, Pasuruan Regency. The informants were chosen by using snowball method (n=14. Interview was conducted using semi-structural method. The collected data was analysed to obtain ICS value (Index Cultural Significance and UVs (Use Value. The identification of toxic compound was based on previous study. The study result identified 8 plants that considered to be toxic by local society: bedor (Girardinia palmata Blume., yellow kecubung (Brugmansia suaveolens Bercht. & J.Presl, white kecubung (Brugmansia suaveolens Bercht. & J.Presl, jarak (Ricinus communis L., yellow terpasan (Cestrum elegans (Brongn. Schltdl, red terpasan (Cestrum elegans (Brongn. Schltdl, kudisan (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd., and ciplukan (Physalis peruviana L.. The highest ICS value was found in jarak (Ricinus communis. Meanwhile, the lowest ICS value was found in yellow and red terpasan (Cestrum elegans due to its minimum use by local society. The highest UVs was found in kudisan. Keywords: Ethnobotany, Ngadiwono, Plant, Tengger, Toxic

  19. The promotion of oral health within the Healthy School context in England: a qualitative research study

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    Harris Rebecca V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy Schools programmes may assist schools in improving the oral health of children through advocating a common risk factor approach to health promotion and by more explicit consideration of oral health. The objectives of this study were to gain a broad contextual understanding of issues around the delivery of oral health promotion as part of Healthy Schools programmes and to investigate the barriers and drivers to the incorporation of oral health promoting activities in schools taking this holistic approach to health promotion. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out with coordinators of Healthy Schools programmes in the Northwest of England. Interview transcripts were coded using a framework derived from themes in the interview schedule. Results All 22 Healthy Schools coordinators participated and all reported some engagement of their Healthy Schools scheme with oral health promotion. The degree of this engagement depended on factors such as historical patterns of working, partnerships, resources and priorities. Primary schools were reported to have engaged more fully with both Healthy Schools programmes and aspects of oral health promotion than secondary schools. Participants identified healthy eating interventions as the most appropriate means to promote oral health in schools. Partners with expertise in oral health were key in supporting Healthy Schools programmes to promote oral health. Conclusion Healthy Schools programmes are supporting the promotion of oral health although the extent to which this is happening is variable. Structures should be put in place to ensure that the engagement of Healthy Schools with oral health is fully supported.

  20. Oral health of adults in northern Norway – A pilot study

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    Sarah M. Adekoya

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a deficiency of data on oral health of adults in northern Norway, and available reports indicate poorer oral health in the north as compared with the rest of the country. The objective of this pilot study was to develop and test out tools for a larger epidemiological study of oral health among adults in northern Norway. The study was conducted in the municipalities of Nordkapp and Båtsfjord located in the northernmost county, Finnmark. Questionnaires and letters of invitation were sent to 100 randomly selected individuals in each town, in total 200. Those who filled and returned the questionnaires were sent appointment cards to a free oral examination at the local dental clinic. The main finding from the study was a low response rate; 34% responded to the questionnaire and 26.5% attended the oral examination. Response rate was highest among women above forty years old (37% and lowest among men under forty years (12%. There is a necessity for further studies and strategies to increase response rate to subsequent oral epidemiologic studies in northern Norway. Radiological examination is not necessary for such studies but a questionnaire and a physical oral examination should be included.

  1. Relevance of psychosocial factors to quality of life in oral cancer and oral lichen planus: a prospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Madiha; Kanatas, Anastasios; Herzberg, Philipp Y; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Rana, Majeed

    2015-09-01

    We can improve our understanding of how patients cope with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) by making a comparison with their processes of coping and those used in other conditions. We have therefore compared quality of life (QoL), severity of symptoms, coping strategies, and factors that influence coping between patients with oral SCC and those with oral lichen planus. We asked 104 patients with oral SCC and 51 with oral lichen planus to complete questionnaires about their coping strategies, social support, locus of control, spirituality, QoL, and severity of symptoms. The outcome was that patients with oral SCC were far more likely to resort to coping strategies such as depressive coping, distraction, and self-motivation. The groups also differed regarding QoL and severity of symptoms. Patients with oral SCC had a poorer QoL and higher depression scores, whereas patients with oral lichen planus had better scores in the social support and spirituality categories. Patients with oral SCC generally had more distress than those with oral lichen planus. Not only did the former resort to depressive coping strategies, but they also had poorer QoL and higher values for depression. For the patients with oral lichen planus, social support and spirituality were protective, whereas they were associated with distress by patients with oral SCC. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. LD/sub 50/ and selenium concentration in organs of rabbit following oral application of sodium selenite and toxicity verification of Ursoselevit-Praemix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berschneider, F.; Hess, M.; Neuffer, K.; Willer, S.

    1976-07-01

    LC/sub 50/24 hr/ was established in the first of a series of experiments on 72 rabbits for orally applied sodium selenite. The dosage was 8.62 mg/kg live weight, the confidence interval being (1 - ..cap alpha.. = 0.95) +/- 0.13 mg/kg. The value was four times as high following intravenous application. Complete lethality was recorded from 15 mg Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3//kg live weight within 21 hours. Thirty-six animals were involved in the second experiment of the series. They had 50 or 100 percent Ursoselevit-Praemix (30 ppm Se) in their rations. Body mass development of the test animals was superior to that recorded from the controls in the first 50 days, after which limit the former declined strongly in a few days. Their general condition worsened. Postmortem finding, following slaughter, included catarrhal enteritis, toxic liver dystrophy, scattered pulpous tumors in the spleen, and interstitial nephritis. In the third experiment (50 percent Ursoselevit-Praemix with 60 ppm Se in the rations), the test animals developed better than the controls during the first two months, after which point they exhibited the same clinical symptoms as those observed in the second experiment, stopped putting on weight, and eventually turned cachectic. The pathomorphological findings were identical with those obtained from the second experiment. The selenium concentrations in the organs of the test animals all were much higher than those of the controls. Their amounts in excess to base values were up to eleven times in the blood, nine times in the liver, twelve times in the kidneys, and 13 times in the muscles. 11 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Acute and subchronic toxicity studies of methanol extract of Polygonum minus leaves in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christapher, Parayil Varghese; Parasuraman, Subramani; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran

    2017-06-01

    Medicinal plant preparations may contain high levels of toxic chemical constituents to potentially cause serious harm to animals and/or humans. Thus, toxicity studies are important to assess the toxic effects of plant derived products. Polygonum minus is used traditionally for different ailments in Southeast Asia. This study was conducted to establish the acute and subchronic toxicity profile of the methanol extract of P. minus leaves. The acute toxicity study showed that the methanol extract of P. minus is safe even at the highest dose tested of 2000 mg/kg in female Sprague Dawley rats. There were no behavioural or physiological changes and gross pathological abnormalities observed. The subchronic toxicity study of methanol extract of P. minus at 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg were conducted in both sexes of Sprague Dawley rats. There were no changes observed in the extract treated animal's body weight, food and water intake, motor coordination, behaviour and mental alertness. The values of haematological and biochemical parameters were not different between the treated and control animals. The relative organ weights of extract-treated animals did not differ with that of control animals. Based on the present findings, the methanol extract of P. minus leaves could be considered safe up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Proliferative activity in oral pyogenic granuloma: A comparative immunohistochemical study

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    Rezvani Gita

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Pyogenic granuloma (PG is one of the most common reactive vascular lesions in the oral mucosa, which has been divided into the lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH and the non lobular type (non-LCH as two distinct entities, on the basis of some investigations. Aims: This study aims to compare the proliferative and angiogenic activity of two histological types of PG to determine whether they have two distinct types of biological behavior. Settings and Design: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, immunostaining was performed on 10 cases of each type of PG. Materials and Methods: About 4μm sections were cut from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks and each specimen was stained with both anti-CD31 and anti-Ki-67 antibodies simultaneously. Labeling index (LI was determined for both types by counting Ki-67 and CD31 positive cells separately and simultaneously in 1000 stromal and luminal cells. Micro vessel count (MVC, the mean number of micro vessels in five areas at Χ200 magnification, was also determined for both groups. Statistical Analysis: The results were statistically compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Ki-67 LI in LCH (5.4 ± 2.4 was higher than non-LCH (3.9 ± 3.9. The percentage of CD31 positive cells in LCH (28.5 ± 22 was lower than non-LCH (37.1 ± 20.8 and simultaneously immunostaining for both markers in LCH type (2.4 ± 2.1 was higher than non-LCH (1.2 ± 1. The MVC was approximately 77.35 ± 34.6 and 82.6 ± 42.7 in the lobular areas of LCH and central areas of non-LCH PG, respectively. These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: These results demonstrate a higher proliferation activity in endothelial cells of LCH PG than in non-LCH.

  5. Immunohistochemical study of integrin α₅β₁, fibronectin, and Bcl-2 in normal oral mucosa, inflammatory fibroepithelial hyperplasia, oral epithelial dysplasia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Manuel Antonio Gordón; de Matos, Felipe Rodrigues; Freitas, Roseana de Almeida; Galvão, Hébel Cavalcanti

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the immunoexpression of integrin α₅β₁, fibronectin, and the Bcl-2 protein in normal oral mucosa (NOM), inflammatory fibroepithelial hyperplasia (IFH), oral epithelial dysplasia (OED), and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Eleven cases of NOM, 16 IFH, 20 OED, and 27 OSCC were selected for analysis of the immunoexpression of integrin α₅β₁, fibronectin, and bcl-2 protein. There was an association between the intensity and location of the integrin α₅β₁ expression, especially in the OSCC, that 48.1% of cases showed weak immunoreactivity and 40.7% in the suprabasal layer (P < 0.05). There was an association between the pattern and distribution of fibronectin expression in basement membrane, where 90% of NOM showed a pattern of linear continuous and 80% of OED exhibited focal distribution (P < 0.05). The fibronectin expression in connective tissue was predominantly intense with an association of staining pattern among the different specimens, where 37% of OSCC showed a reticular pattern (P < 0.05). There was an association of bcl-2 protein among the types of specimens, especially in IFH and OSCC, where 100% of the cases exhibited scores 1 of staining (P < 0.05). Within this context, the interaction of integrin α₅β₁ with its main ligand in the extracellular matrix, fibronectin, is suggested to influence the survival of tumor cells and to favor their proliferation by modulating apoptosis through the upregulation of antiapoptotic proteins or the suppression of apoptotic mediators.

  6. Methods of acute biological assays in guinea-pigs for the study of toxicity and innocuity of drugs and chemicals

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    Gui Mi Ko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 602 samples were tested by the following assays performed at the animal facilities (Cedeme of the Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP: 385 for dermal irritability, 90 for ocular irritability (discontinued in 1995, 31 for systemic toxicity by injection, 26 for oral acute toxicity, 15 for toxicity by intracutaneous injection, 15 for skin sensitization, 15 for toxicity of serum and vaccines for human use, 14 for toxicity by intramuscular implantation, 7 for pyrogens, 2 for acute dermal toxicity, and 2 for irritation of mucous membrane. The following agents were tested: cosmetics and related substances (42.0%, chemicals used in industry (32.9%, plastics, rubber, and other polymers (15.9%, agrotoxics (4.0%, medicines (2.7%, and vaccines (2.5%. In the present description, emphasis was given to tests of dermal irritability and sensitization. This work was conducted entirely in animal facilities, according to our general belief that animal facilities at universities, while considering ethic principles and sanitary, genetic, nutritional, and pathophysiological controls, also require laboratories specialized in areas such as transgenics, cryopreservation, ambiental physiology, functional genomics, alternative models, and mainly activities and research on methods in toxicology, as focused in this study.Descrevemos os testes usados em ensaios biológicos de curta duração para estudo de toxicidade e inocuidade de cosméticos, fármacos e outras substâncias químicas, feitos no Biotério Central/Cedeme da Unifesp, de 1986 a 2000. Testamos 602 amostras nos seguintes ensaios: 385 de irritação cutânea, 90 de irritação ocular (até 1995, 31 de toxicidade sistêmica por injeção, 26 de toxicidade oral aguda, 15 de toxicidade por aplicação intracutânea, 15 de sensibilização da pele, 15 de toxicidade de soros e vacinas de uso humano, 14 de toxicidade por implantação intramuscular, 7 de pirogênio, 2 de toxicidade dérmica aguda e

  7. Nursing Administrators' Views on Oral Health in Long-Term Care Facilities: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Janelle Y; Couch, Elizabeth T; Walsh, Margaret M; Rowe, Dorothy J

    2018-04-01

    Purpose: To explore the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of supervising nurse administrators (SNAs) regarding the oral care provided to long-term care facility (LTCF) residents and the role of dental professionals in those facilities. Methods: The investigators of this study partnered with the National Association of Nursing Administrators to send this cross-sectional study consisting of a 35-item electronic survey to its members whose email addresses were in their database. Online software tabulated responses and calculated frequencies (percentages) of responses for each survey item. Results: Of the 2,359 potential participants, 171 (n=171) completed the survey for a 7% response rate. Only 25% of the respondents were familiar with the expertise of dental hygienists (DHs), however once informed, the majority were interested in having DHs perform oral health staff trainings, oral screenings, and dental referrals and initiate fluoride varnish programs. Most respondents correctly answered the oral health-related knowledge items, understood that oral health is important to general health, but reported that the LTCF residents' oral health was only "good" or "fair." Fewer than half, (48%) of the SNAs were "very satisfied" with the quality of oral care provided to the residents. While more than half reported that they had no dentist on staff or on-site dental equipment, 77% reported that they would consider on-site mobile oral care services. Oral health training for staff was provided primarily by registered nurses, however only 32% reported including identification of dental caries as part of the in-service training. Conclusion: This exploratory study lays the foundation for more extensive research investigating various strategies to improve the oral health of LTCF residents, including increased collaboration between DHs and SNAs. Copyright © 2018 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  8. Plant exposure chambers for study of toxic chemical-plant interactions (journal version)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, J.C.; Pfleeger, T.

    1987-01-01

    Chambers for the study of plant uptake and phytotoxicity of toxic, radio-labeled chemicals are described. The chambers are designed to meet the criteria of continuously stirred tank reactors while providing containment for toxic chemicals. They are computer managed and operated within a controlled-environment room. Besides providing controlled conditions within the contained spaces, continuous measurements are made of various environmental parameters and plant transpiration, net photosynthesis, and dark respiration in up to 18 separate chambers

  9. Bioassay method for toxicity studies of insecticide formulations to Tuta absoluta (meyrick, 1917)

    OpenAIRE

    Galdino, Tarcísio Visintin da Silva; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho; Morais, Elisangela Gomes Fidelis de; Silva, Nilson Rodrigues; Silva, Geverson Aelton Rezende da; Lopes, Mayara Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Chemical control is the main method for controlling the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Reported techniques for the evaluation of insecticide toxicity to the tomato leafminer are not in agreement with field conditions and do not allow us to verify whether doses used in the field are efficient for control. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a bioassay methodology to study the toxicity of insecticide formulations to T. absoluta that repre...

  10. Bioassay method for toxicity studies of insecticide formulations to tuta absoluta (meyrick, 1917).

    OpenAIRE

    GALDINO, T. V. da S.; PICANÇO, M. C.; MORAIS, E. G. F. de; SILVA, N. R.; SILVA, G. A. R da; LOPES, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical control is the main method for controlling the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Reported techniques for the evaluation of insecticide toxicity to the tomato leafminer are not in agreement with field conditions and do not allow us to verify whether doses used in the field are efficient for control. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a bioassay methodology to study the toxicity of insecticide formulations to T. absoluta that repre...

  11. Study of the migration of toxic metals in steelmaking waste using radioactive tracing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, C.; Jauzein, M.; Charentus, T.; Margrita, R.; Dechelette, O.

    1991-01-01

    The danger presented by toxic metals contained in steelmaking wastes put into slag piles may be neutralized by suitably chosen alternation of these wastes when they are deposited. Presentation of a study method using radioactive tracing of the migration of toxic metal (cadmium, zinc, chromium) in steelmaking wastes (slag, blast furnace sludge). This non destructive method was used in columns in the laboratory, but may be used in on-site slag piles [fr

  12. An Assessment of the Oral Bioavailability of Three Ca-Channel Blockers Using a Cassette-Microdose Study: A New Strategy for Streamlining Oral Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shinji; Kataoka, Makoto; Suzaki, Yuki; Imai, Hiromitsu; Morimoto, Takuya; Ohashi, Kyoichi; Inano, Akihiro; Togashi, Kazutaka; Mutaguchi, Kuninori; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2015-09-01

    A cassette-microdose (MD) clinical study was performed to demonstrate its usefulness for identifying the most promising compound for oral use. Three Ca-channel blockers (nifedipine, nicardipine, and diltiazem) were chosen as model drugs. In the MD clinical study, a cassette-dose method was employed in which three model drugs were administered simultaneously. Both intravenous (i.v.) and oral (p.o.) administration studies were conducted to calculate the oral bioavailability (BA). For comparison, p.o. studies with therapeutic dose (ThD) levels were also performed. In all studies, blood concentrations of each drug were successfully determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with the lower limit of quantification of 0.2-2.0 pg/mL. Oral BA of nifedipine in the MD study was approximately 50% and in the same range with that obtained in the ThD study, whereas other two drugs showed significantly lower BA in the MD study, indicating a dose-dependent absorption. In addition, compared with the ThD study, absorption of nicardipine was delayed in the MD study. As a result, nifedipine was considered to be most promising for oral use. In conclusion, a cassette-MD clinical study is of advantage for oral drug development that enables to identify the candidate having desired properties for oral use. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  13. A clinicopathological study of various oral cancer diagnostic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ulaganathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is one of the most commonly occurring malignant tumors in the head and neck regions with high incident rate and mortality rate in the developed countries than in the developing countries. Generally, the survival rate of cancer patients may increase when diagnosed at early stage, followed by prompt treatment and therapy. Recently, cancer diagnosis and therapy design for a specific cancer patient have been performed with the advanced computer-aided techniques. The responses of the cancer therapy could be continuously monitored to ensure the effectiveness of the treatment process that hardly requires diagnostic result as quick as possible to improve the quality and patient care. This paper gives an overview of oral cancer occurrence, different types, and various diagnostic techniques. In addition, a brief introduction is given to various stages of immunoanalysis including tissue image preparation, whole slide imaging, and microscopic image analysis.

  14. Further study of the reactions of fishes to toxic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J R.E.

    1948-01-01

    This paper records some further observations on the reactions of fish to toxic solutions. The method of experimentation resembles that described in a previous paper by the writer (Jones, 1947b). In every case the solution is presented as an alternative to the Aberystwyth tap water, which is well aerated, very soft, of pH 6.8. In experiments with sodium sulphide a supply system is arranged in which dilute sodium sulphide solution, brought to pH 6.8 by the addition of sulphuric acid, is automatically made up as it runs into the observation vessel. Gasterosteus aculeatus l. reacts negatively to a 0.001N solution almost immediately; at greater dilution the reaction t