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Sample records for oral rehydration salts

  1. Reduced osmolarity oral rehydration salt in Cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruque, A S; Mahalanabis, D; Hamadani, J D; Zetterstrom, R

    1996-01-01

    In a controlled clinical trial conducted in 34 adults with severe cholera diarrhoea, the use of a relatively dilute oral rehydration salt (ORS) solution (sodium 67, potassium 20, chloride 66, citrate 7, glucose 89 mmol/l, osmolality 249 mOsmol/kg) caused a 29% (p=0.003) reduction in stool output over the first 24 h and a 37% (p=0.001) reduction over the first 48 h compared with 29 controls who received the hyperosmolar WHO/UNICEF ORS. No controls but 3 study-group patients had marked but asymptomatic hyponatraemia (sodium cholera.

  2. Acoustical, morphological and optical properties of oral rehydration salts (ORS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Preetha Mary, E-mail: preethageoti@gmail.com, E-mail: jayakumars030@gmail.com; Divya, P. [Department of Physics, Dr M.G.R Educational and Research Institute University Chennai- (India); Jayakumar, S., E-mail: preethageoti@gmail.com, E-mail: jayakumars030@gmail.com; Subhashree, N. S. [Department of Physics, RKM Vivekananda College, Chennai-600004 (India); Ahmed, M. Anees [Department of Physics, New College, Chennai (India)

    2015-06-24

    Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity were measured in different concentrations of oral rehydration salts (ORS) at room temperature 303 k. From the experimental data other related thermodynamic parameters, viz adiabatic compressibility, intermolecular free length, acoustic impedence, relaxation time are calculated. The experimental data were discussed in the light of molecular interaction existing in the liquid mixtures. The results have been discussed in terms of solute-solvent interaction between the components. Structural characterization is important for development of new material. The morphology, structure and grain size of the samples are investigated by SEM. The optical properties of the sample have been studied using UV Visible spectroscopy.

  3. Zinc and low osmolarity oral rehydration salts for diarrhoea: a renewed call to action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Olivier; Young, Mark W; Black, Robert E

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In 2004, WHO and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) released a joint statement recommending a new lower osmolarity oral rehydration salts (ORS) formulation and zinc supplementation for diarrhoea management. More than 5 years later, diarrhoea remains the second leading cause of death and few children in developing countries are receiving these life-saving interventions. Many countries are stalled in the technicalities of adapting national policy, while others struggle to find the funds for start-up activities. For nearly all countries, zinc supplements for children are not available locally; thus, zinc procurement continues to be a major obstacle. Global resources have not been sufficient to bring diarrhoea management to the forefront; thus, the introduction of these new recommendations has remained slow. Revitalizing diarrhoea management must become an international priority if we are going to reduce the burden of diarrhoea deaths and overall child mortality around the world. PMID:19876545

  4. Effectiveness of oral rehydration salt solution (ORS) in reduction of death during cholera epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircar, B K; Saha, M R; Deb, B C; Singh, P K; Pal, S C

    1990-01-01

    An extensive outbreak of acute gastroenteritis involving all age group of patients occurred during July-September, 1978 in the Central district of Manipur state. A total of 4469 cases occurred during the period. 45.7% of diarrhoea cases sampled and 47.6% of water samples collected from rivers were found to be positive for V.cholerae biotype EITor. Case fatality rate in this epidemic was exceptionally low (0.8%) which was attributed to the early domiciliary use of oral rehydration salt solution (ORS) in the affected villages. Utility of ORS in drastic reduction of case fatality rate during any epidemic situation was first of its kind in the Indian scene.

  5. [Oral rehydration immediately after appendectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azabache, W; Johanson, L

    1989-01-01

    An experimental study of 20 patients with appendicitis was carried out in order to know if after the appendectomy they tolerate the hidratation with rehidratant salts by mouth in place of endovenous hydratation. The oral hydratation was indicated in all the cases immediately after the operation and only was one failure (5%). In the 95% the oral hydratation was tolerated, 45% without gastric symptoms, 35% with mild gastric symptoms and in 15% with moderate gastric symptoms. The association of gentamycin-metronidazol administered by intramuscular and oral way respectively was used in 100% of the patients. In 80% as profilaxis and in 20% as treatment. Two cases had complication as sepsis of the wound one of the profilactic group (5.9%) and another of the treatment group. In conclusion the oral hydratation with rehydrating salts were tolerated for the patients immediately after the appendectomy.

  6. Evaluation of a social marketing intervention promoting oral rehydration salts in Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassegne, Sethson; Kays, Megan B; Nzohabonayo, Jerome

    2011-03-08

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death for children under five in Burundi; however, use of oral rehydration salts (ORS), the recommended first-line treatment, remains low. In 2004, PSI/Burundi launched a social marketing intervention to promote ORASEL among caregivers of children under five; the product was relaunched in 2006 with a new flavor. This study evaluates the intervention after the ORASEL relaunch, which included mass media and interpersonal communication activities. The study looks at trends in ORASEL use in Burundi and in behavioral determinants that may be related to its use. In 2006 and 2007, PSI conducted household surveys among Burundian females of reproductive age (15-49). Both surveys used a two-stage sampling process to select 30 households in each of 115 rural and urban collines throughout the nation. Survey respondents were asked about diarrhea treatment-related behavior; key behavioral determinants; and exposure to the ORASEL intervention. Data were analyzed to identify trends over time, characteristics of ORASEL users, and associations between exposure to the intervention and changes in ORASEL use and related behavioral determinants. ORASEL use among caregivers at their children's last diarrheal episode increased significantly from 20% in 2006 to 30% in 2007, and there were also desirable changes in several behavioral determinants associated with ORASEL use. Evaluation analysis showed that a higher level of exposure to the social marketing campaign was associated with greater use of ORASEL and with significant improvements in perceived availability, knowledge of the signs of diarrhea and dehydration, social support, and self-efficacy. ORS use can be improved through social marketing and educational campaigns that make the public aware of the availability of the product, encourage dialogue about its use, and increase skills and confidence relating to correct product preparation and administration. Further interventions in Burundi and

  7. Evaluation of a social marketing intervention promoting oral rehydration salts in Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nzohabonayo Jerome

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death for children under five in Burundi; however, use of oral rehydration salts (ORS, the recommended first-line treatment, remains low. In 2004, PSI/Burundi launched a social marketing intervention to promote ORASEL among caregivers of children under five; the product was relaunched in 2006 with a new flavor. This study evaluates the intervention after the ORASEL relaunch, which included mass media and interpersonal communication activities. The study looks at trends in ORASEL use in Burundi and in behavioral determinants that may be related to its use. Methods In 2006 and 2007, PSI conducted household surveys among Burundian females of reproductive age (15-49. Both surveys used a two-stage sampling process to select 30 households in each of 115 rural and urban collines throughout the nation. Survey respondents were asked about diarrhea treatment-related behavior; key behavioral determinants; and exposure to the ORASEL intervention. Data were analyzed to identify trends over time, characteristics of ORASEL users, and associations between exposure to the intervention and changes in ORASEL use and related behavioral determinants. Results ORASEL use among caregivers at their children's last diarrheal episode increased significantly from 20% in 2006 to 30% in 2007, and there were also desirable changes in several behavioral determinants associated with ORASEL use. Evaluation analysis showed that a higher level of exposure to the social marketing campaign was associated with greater use of ORASEL and with significant improvements in perceived availability, knowledge of the signs of diarrhea and dehydration, social support, and self-efficacy. Conclusions ORS use can be improved through social marketing and educational campaigns that make the public aware of the availability of the product, encourage dialogue about its use, and increase skills and confidence relating to correct product

  8. Oral rehydration solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-18

    In the US oral glucose electrolyte solutions have been marketed for over 30 years for the treatment of infantile diarrhea. Recently, oral solutions have been widely used instead of intravenous fluids for treatment of dehydration from diarrhea, especially in developing countries, where diarrhea is a major cause of death in infants and young children and facilities for intravenous fluid replacement are limited or unavailable. The high concentrations of glucose and other carbohydrates in older preparations may make the diarrhea worse. The use of 2-2 1/2% glucose, as in "Infalyte, Pedialyte R.S." and the World Health Organization (WHO) solution avoids the osmotic effect of unabsorbed glucose, makes the taste tolerable, and promotes coupled absorption of sodium from the intestine. Replacement solutions for fluid loss due to diarrhea should also contain about 20 mEq/L of potassium because diarrhea invariably results in a substantial loss of potassium. Although homemade mixtures of glucose electrolyte solutions and commercial powders that require dilution are less costly than ready to use commercial solutions, errors in mixing or diluting occur often and can have serious consequences. For rehydration after volume depletion, the sodium concentration of the replacement fluid should be between 50-90 mEq/L, regardless of the cause of the diarrhea, patient's age, or the serum sodium concentration. For early treatment of diarrhea to prevent dehydration or for maintenance of hydration after parenteral fluid replacement, 90 mEq/L of sodium is acceptable for adults and children, but may not be appropriate for infants who have a higher insensible water loss. When diarrhea in infants is not caused by cholera, some consultants prefer to use more dilute fluids that contain 50-60 mEq/L of sodium. When circulatory insufficiency (10-15% weight loss), severe vomiting, inability to drink, or severe gastric distention is present, parenteral fluid replacement is indicated. With 5-8% acute

  9. Cereal based oral rehydration solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenya, P R; Odongo, H W; Oundo, G; Waswa, K; Muttunga, J; Molla, A M; Nath, S K; Molla, A; Greenough, W B; Juma, R

    1989-07-01

    A total of 257 boys (age range 4-55 months), who had acute diarrhoea with moderate to severe dehydration, were randomly assigned to treatment with either the World Health Organisation/United Nations Childrens Fund (WHO/Unicef) recommended oral rehydration solution or cereal based oral rehydration solution made either of maize, millet, sorghum, or rice. After the initial rehydration was achieved patients were offered traditional weaning foods. Treatment with oral rehydration solution continued until diarrhoea stopped. Accurate intake and output was maintained throughout the study period. Efficacy of the treatment was compared between the different treatment groups in terms of intake of the solution, stool output, duration of diarrhoea after admission, and weight gain after 24, 48, and 72 hours, and after resolution of diarrhoea. Results suggest that all the cereal based solutions were as effective as glucose based standard oral rehydration solution in the treatment of diarrhoea.

  10. Barriers to use of oral rehydration salts for child diarrhea in the private sector: evidence from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Zachary; Shah, Manan; Sood, Neeraj

    2015-02-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of child mortality in India. Most deaths are cheaply preventable with the use of oral rehydration salts (ORS), yet many health providers still fail to provide ORS to children seeking diarrheal care. In this study, we use survey data to assess whether children visiting private providers for diarrheal care were less likely to use ORS than those visiting public providers. Results suggest that children who visited private providers were 9.5 percentage points less likely to have used ORS than those who visited public providers (95% CI 5-14). We complimented these results with in-depth interviews of 21 public and 17 private doctors in Gujarat, India, assessing potential drivers of public-private disparities in ORS use. Interview results suggested that lack of direct medication dispensing in the private sector might be a key barrier to ORS use in the private sector.

  11. 口服补液盐治疗儿童神经介导性晕厥研究进展%The research progress of oral rehydration salts treating neurally mediated syncope in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文华

    2014-01-01

    Neurally mediated syncope (NMS) is the most common children unexplained syncope.Oral rehydration salts is the basis for the treatment of NMS.Oral rehydration salts can increase the extracellular fluid and blood volume,change the redistribution of blood,avoid the emptying effect caused by inadequate left ventricular filling volume when position changes suddenly,prevent increased vagus nerve activity induced syncope,can obviously increase the NMS children's ability of orthostatic intolerance.Increase water salt intake can be incorporated into the behavior training of the NMS children's daily life,and it can reduce the occurrence rate of NMS children,and improve the quality of life.%神经介导性晕厥(neurally mediated syncope,NMS)是儿童最常见的不明原因晕厥,口服补液盐是治疗NMS的基础用药,可增加细胞外液和血容量,改变血液的重新分布,避免突然体位变化时左室充盈量不足导致的排空效应,防止迷走神经活性增强诱发晕厥发作,能明显提高NMS儿童的直立不耐受能力.增加水盐摄入纳入NMS儿童日常生活中的行为习惯培养,可减少儿童NMS的出现率,提高其生活质量.

  12. Protocol for the economic evaluation of the diarrhea alleviation through zinc and oral rehydration salt therapy at scale through private and public providers in rural Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillcutt, Samuel D; LeFevre, Amnesty E; Walker, Christa L Fischer; Black, Robert E; Mazumder, Sarmila

    2014-11-19

    Child diarrhea persists as a leading public health problem in India despite evidence supporting zinc and low osmolarity oral rehydration salts as effective treatments. Across 2 years in 2010-2013, the Diarrhea Alleviation using Zinc and Oral Rehydration Salts Therapy (DAZT) program was implemented to operationalize delivery of these interventions at scale through private and public sector providers in rural Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of DAZT program activities relative to status quo conditions existing before the study, comparing a Monte Carlo simulation method with net-benefit regression, discussing the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. A control group was not included in the 'before and after' study design as zinc has proven effectiveness for diarrhea treatment. Costs will be calculated using a societal perspective including program implementation and household out-of-pocket payments for care seeking, as well as estimates of wages lost. Outcomes will be measured in terms of episodes averted in net-benefit regression and in terms of the years of life lost component of disability-adjusted life years in the method based on Monte Carlo simulation. The Lives Saved Tool will be used to model anticipated changes in mortality over time and deaths averted based on incremental changes in coverage of oral rehydration salts and zinc. Data will derive from cross-sectional surveys at the start, midpoint, and endpoint of the program. In addition, Lives Saved Tool (LiST) projections will be used to define the reference case value for the ceiling ratio in terms of natural units. This study will be useful both in its application to an economic evaluation of a public health program in its implementation phase but also in its comparison of two methodological approaches to cost-effectiveness analysis. Both policy recommendations and methodological lessons learned will be discussed, recognizing the limitations in drawing

  13. Hypotonic oral rehydration salt for infantile rotavirus enteritis%低渗口服补液盐治疗小儿轮状病毒肠炎疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟乐璇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of hypotonic oral rehydration salt for infantile rotavirus enteritis.Methods 128 cases of infantile rotavirus enteritis admitted into our hospital were randomly divided into a control group (treated with oral rehydration salts Ⅰ) and an observation group (treated with hypotonic oral rehydration salts).The clinical symptoms and signs,serum sodium before and after treatment,and the total effective rates of the two groups were compared.Results The duration of diarrhea,the dehydration correct time,and the quantity of defecate eduction were (4.1 ± 1.3) d,(1.1 ± 0.4) d,and (47.1 ± 3.7) ml/(kg·d) in the observation group,which were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05).There was no statistical difference in serum sodium between before and after the treatment in the observation group (P > 0.05).The serum sodium was significantly higher after than before the treatment in the control group (P < 0.05).The total effective rate was 96.9% in the observation group and was 92.2% in the control group,with no statistical difference (P > 0.05).Conclusions Hypotonic oral rehydration salt for infantile rotavirus enteritis has certain effect and is worth being clinically generalized.%目的 探讨低渗口服补液盐治疗小儿轮状病毒肠炎的临床疗效.方法 选取我院收治的128例轮状病毒肠炎患儿,随机均分为对照组(口服补液盐Ⅰ治疗)和观察组(低渗口服补液盐治疗).比较两组患儿临床症状、体征改善情况、治疗前后血钠水平和治疗总有效率的差异.结果 观察组腹泻持续时间、脱水纠正时间、大便排出量分别为(4.1±1.3)d、(1.1±0.4)d、(47.1±3.7) ml/(kg·24 h),均显著低于对照组(P<0.05);观察组治疗前、后血钠水平比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),对照组血钠水平较治疗前显著升高(P<0.05);观察组和对照组治疗总有效率分别为96.9%、92.2

  14. Oral rehydration salt solution for treating cholera: ≤ 270 mOsm/L solutions vs ≥ 310 mOsm/L solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musekiwa, Alfred; Volmink, Jimmy

    2011-12-07

    Oral rehydration solution (ORS) is used to treat the dehydration caused by diarrhoeal diseases, including cholera. ORS formulations with an osmolarity (a measure of solute concentration) of ≤ 270 mOsm/L (ORS ≤ 270) are safe and more effective than ORS formulations with an osmolarity of ≥ 310 mOsm/L (ORS ≥ 310) for treating non-cholera diarrhoea. As cholera causes rapid electrolyte loss, it is important to know if these benefits are similar for people suffering from cholera. To compare the safety and efficacy of ORS ≤270 with ORS ≥ 310 for treating dehydration due to cholera. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register (April 2011), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2011), MEDLINE (1966 to April 2011), EMBASE (1974 to April 2011), and LILACS (1982 to April 2011). We also contacted organizations and searched reference lists. Randomized controlled trials comparing ORS ≤ 270 with ORS ≥ 310 for treating adults and children with acute diarrhoea due to cholera. Two reviewers independently applied eligibility criteria, assessed trial quality, and extracted data. We pooled dichotomous data using risk ratio (RR), pooled continuous data using mean difference (MD) or the standardized mean difference (SMD), and presented the results with 95% confidence intervals (CI). For glucose-based ORS, seven trials (718 participants) met the inclusion criteria. Biochemical hyponatraemia (blood sodium levels cholera, ORS ≤ 270 is associated with biochemical hyponatraemia when compared with ORS ≥ 310, but there are no differences in terms of other outcomes. Although this risk does not appear to be associated with any serious consequences, the total patient experience in existing trials is small. Under wider practice conditions, especially where patient monitoring is difficult, caution is warranted.

  15. Gastric emptying of oral rehydration solutions in acute cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, B J; Van Loon, F P; Molla, A; Molla, A M; Alam, N H

    1989-08-01

    Gastric emptying of rice powder electrolyte solution and of glucose electrolyte solution was measured by a marker dilution double sampling technique in 14 and in 16 adult patients respectively after intravenous rehydration during an attack of acute cholera. Six patients who received rice powder electrolyte solution and seven who received glucose electrolyte solution re-attended for a repeat study with the same test meal 16 days later, when fully recovered from cholera. No differences in gastric emptying patterns of the two electrolyte solutions were observed, either in the acute or in the recovered patients. Similarly, gastric emptying of both solutions was rapid during acute cholera and comparable to that observed in recovered patients. This study indicates that gastric emptying is not impaired in acute cholera and that the rate of emptying of oral rehydration solutions is adequate to account for their observed clinical efficacy in fast purging patients with acute cholera.

  16. Factors associated with the use of oral rehydration solution among mothers in west Lombok, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widarsa, K T; Muninjaya, A A

    1994-12-01

    To determine factors associated with the use of oral rehydration solution (ORS) in West Lombok, Indonesia, interviews were conducted among 293 mothers in six villages with a total population of 54,324. This study included mothers of children aged less than 2 years. The children had episode of diarrhoea in the past week during the 3-month survey period of June-August 1991. Questions asked included when ORS was used, how often it was used, how to make ORS, and the availability and accessibility of ORS in the community. Mothers were observed when preparing ORS. More than 66% of the mothers questioned had used oral rehydration therapy for home management of diarrhoea, either as packaged oral rehydration solution (ORS) or as salt-sugar solution (SSS). Fifty-six percent of mothers reported giving ORS and 10% reported giving SSS. Only 37% of mothers, however, were able to prepare ORS properly, and only 9% were able to prepare SSS properly. The following factors significantly increased the likelihood that a mother would use ORS: watching a demonstration of how to prepare ORS (odds ratio 6.34), availability of ORS (odds ratio 2.37), and accessibility of ORS (3.50). However, the ability to prepare ORS properly did not significantly increase the likelihood of feeding ORS. These results indicate that demonstrations of preparation of ORS and availability of ORS are necessary to increase the use of ORS for management of acute diarrhoea in West Lombok.

  17. Reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution for treating cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, C; Hahn, S; Volmink, J

    2004-10-18

    Oral rehydration solution (ORS) is used to treat dehydration caused by diarrheal diseases including cholera. Reduced osmolarity formulations are safe and more effective than standard ORS for treating non-cholera diarrhea. As cholera causes rapid electrolyte loss, it is important to know if these benefits are similar for people with cholera. To compare the safety and efficacy of reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution (ORS) with standard ORS for treating diarrhea due to cholera. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register (January 2004), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2004), MEDLINE (1966 to January 2004), EMBASE (1974 to January 2004), and LILACS (1982 to January 2004). We also contacted organizations and searched reference lists. Randomized controlled trials comparing reduced osmolarity ORS with standard ORS for treating adults and children with acute diarrhea due to cholera. Two reviewers independently applied eligibility criteria, assessed trial quality, and extracted data. We pooled binary data using relative risks (RR), continuous data using weighted mean difference (WMD) or the standardized mean difference (SMD), and presented the results with 95% confidence intervals (CI). For glucose-based reduced osmolarity ORS, seven trials (718 participants) met the inclusion criteria. Biochemical hyponatremia (serum sodium cholera, reduced osmolarity ORS is associated with biochemical hyponatremia when compared with standard ORS, although there are similar benefits in terms of other outcomes. Although this risk does not appear to be accompanied by serious consequences, the total patient experience in existing trials is small. Under wider practice conditions, especially where patient monitoring is difficult, caution is warranted.

  18. Acute Diarrhoea in Children: Determination of Duration Using a Combined Bismuth Hydroxide Gel and Oral Rehydration Solution Therapy vs. Oral Rehydration Solution

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    Adriana Oviedo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral rehydration salt (ORS treatment in young children with acute diarrhoea (AD has contributed to decrease mortality associated with dehydration although effective strategies to reduce morbidity associated with this disease are required. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diarrhoea duration when using combined colloidal bismuth hydroxide gel (CBHG and oral rehydration salt treatment compared with ORS therapy in children with AD. We designed a double-blind, randomised prospective study with treatment and control groups. Patients aged one to 12 years, with no prior pathology and with AD of less than 48 h were included. The Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney tests were used, as well as the Cox proportional hazards model and the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Patients were randomised into an ORS and CBHG treatment group and a control group for ORS plus placebo. (Average age: 3.2 years. The result of the post-treatment evaluation with respect to the average duration of AD was 25.5 h for the treated group vs. 41.5 h for the control group (p = 0.015. The average number of stools was 4.8 in the treated group and 8.2 in the control group (p = 0.032. We conclude that the use of CBHG plus ORS significantly reduced the duration of AD, the number of stools and the percentage of children with persistent AD after 24 h of treatment compared to the control group. AD remitted almost twice as fast in patients treated with CBHG and ORS compared to those who received ORS plus placebo.

  19. Acute Diarrhoea in Children: Determination of Duration Using a Combined Bismuth Hydroxide Gel and Oral Rehydration Solution Therapy vs. Oral Rehydration Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Adriana; Díaz, Mirna; Valenzuela, María Laura; Vidal, Victoria; Racca, Liliana; Bottai, Hebe; Priore, Graciela; Peluffo, Graciela; Di Bartolomeo, Susana; Cabral, Graciela; Toca, María del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Oral rehydration salt (ORS) treatment in young children with acute diarrhoea (AD) has contributed to decrease mortality associated with dehydration although effective strategies to reduce morbidity associated with this disease are required. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diarrhoea duration when using combined colloidal bismuth hydroxide gel (CBHG) and oral rehydration salt treatment compared with ORS therapy in children with AD. We designed a double-blind, randomised prospective study with treatment and control groups. Patients aged one to 12 years, with no prior pathology and with AD of less than 48 h were included. The Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney tests were used, as well as the Cox proportional hazards model and the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Patients were randomised into an ORS and CBHG treatment group and a control group for ORS plus placebo. (Average age: 3.2 years). The result of the post-treatment evaluation with respect to the average duration of AD was 25.5 h for the treated group vs. 41.5 h for the control group (p = 0.015). The average number of stools was 4.8 in the treated group and 8.2 in the control group (p = 0.032). We conclude that the use of CBHG plus ORS significantly reduced the duration of AD, the number of stools and the percentage of children with persistent AD after 24 h of treatment compared to the control group. AD remitted almost twice as fast in patients treated with CBHG and ORS compared to those who received ORS plus placebo. PMID:28009823

  20. Characterization of high-milk-protein powders upon rehydration under various salt concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, R; Gaiani, C; Aberkane, L; Scher, J

    2011-01-01

    Rehydration of native micellar casein and native whey isolate protein powders was followed in different ionic environments. Solutions of NaCl and CaCl2 in the concentration range of 0 to 12% (wt%) were used as rehydration media. The rehydration profiles obtained were interpreted in terms of wetting, swelling, and dispersion stages by using a turbidity method. Two behaviors were observed depending on the salt concentration. For native micellar casein powder, a significant change was observed between 3 and 6% NaCl and between 0.75 and 1.5% CaCl2. The first behavior (low salt concentration) presents a typical rehydration profile: quick wetting, swelling, and long dispersion stage. The dispersion stage of the second behavior (high salt concentration) was significantly shortened, indicating a strong modification of the protein backbone. The rehydration of whey protein powder was less influenced by salts. At low salt concentrations, a typical profile for whey powders was observed: wetting with lump formation and no swelling followed by a quick dispersion. At high CaCl2 concentrations, no turbidity stabilization was observed, indicating a possible protein unfolding and denaturation. Additionally, the changes in secondary structures of the 2 proteins upon salt increase were followed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and confirmed the different profiles observed. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 谷氨酰胺结合低渗口服补液盐治疗小儿腹泻的临床效果研究%Study on The Clinical Effects of Glutamine Combined With Reduced Osmolarity Oral Rehydration Salts to Diarrhea in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田秀华

    2015-01-01

    目的:探析谷氨酰胺结合低渗口服补液盐治疗小儿腹泻的临床疗效。方法观察患儿的症状改善情况并比较两组的治疗有效率。结果观察组治疗总有效率为94%,高于对照组的84%,有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论谷氨酰胺结合低渗口服补液盐治疗小儿腹泻可有效缓解患儿的腹泻症状。%ObjectiveTo explore the clinical efficacy of Glutamine Combined with reduced osmolarity oral rehydration salts to diarrhea in children.Methods The improvement of symptoms in children was observed, and the effective rate in two groups were compared.Results The total effective rate in observation group was 94%, signiifcantly higher than the control group(84%)(P<0.05).Conclusion Glutamine Combined with reduced osmolarity oral rehydration salts to diarrhea in children can reduce the symptoms of diarrhea in children.

  2. Treatment of cholera-like diarrhoea with oral rehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atia, A; Buchman, A L

    2010-09-01

    Cholera diarrhoea remains a major global health problem that has caused seven pandemics. The pathogenesis of cholera is attributable to the production of cholera toxin by the causative pathogen, Vibrio cholerae. The toxin causes increased production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and this results in massive water and electrolyte secretion into the intestinal lumen. These changes manifest clinically as the painless defecation of voluminous stools that resemble 'rice water', leading to severe dehydration. The cornerstone in the management of cholera diarrhoea is the use of oral rehydration solutions (ORS) to replace the water and electrolytes lost as stools. The World Health Organization recommends the use of ORS of 'reduced osmolarity' for the treatment of acute non-cholera diarrhoea and the use of rice-based ORS for the management of cholera diarrhoea. Although several attempts have been made to improve ORS, studies to evaluate some of the modifications, which include the addition of amylase-resistant starch, the use of amino acids (such as glycine, alanine and glutamine) as sodium cotransporters, and zinc-supplemented ORS, are still needed.

  3. Rehydrate locally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djokoto, E

    1997-11-01

    In 1991, in the northern region of Ghana, during the cholera epidemic, 10 rural health centers replied to a questionnaire regarding cholera case referrals. The results were as follows: 6 centers referred serious cases to hospitals, 2 did not receive patients because of fear of infection, and 2 received all patients. Although no patients admitted to the rural health centers died, many of the referred patients did. Of 14 cases referred to a hospital, 3 died in transit, 4 died at the hospital, and 7 survived. Deaths might be prevented if patients were treated promptly and locally with oral rehydration solutions based on cereals and rice; these are easy to prepare, superior to, and more available than standard oral rehydration salts (ORS). One mother walked 5 miles to a rural health post with her sick baby on her back, only to find that the dehydrated child had died on the way. During the 1991 cholera epidemic in Ghana, the author treated several patients in their homes; all recovered. Prompt and frequent rehydration in the home is the best treatment for diarrhea and cholera.

  4. Effect assessment of oral rehydration salts treating orthostatic hypotension in children%口服补液盐治疗儿童直立性低血压的疗效评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁鹤立; 李芳; 王成; 林萍; 康美华; 祝立平; 吴礼嘉; 许毅

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the curative effect of oral rehydration salts(ORS) treating orthostatic hypotension (OH) in children.Methods Twelve OH children [5 male,7 female,6-14 years old,mean (10.25 ± 2.86)years old],who came from children syncope out-patient department or in-patient department of the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from Oct.2009 to Jan.2012,complaining of syncope or pre-syncope symptoms and turned out to be HUTT positive were enrolled in this study.ORS was given (14-493) days,mean (74.50 ± 134.43) days after the follow-up review the HUTT.The SPSS 16.0 software was used for statistical analysis.Results 1.Hemodynamic changes:there was no statistical difference in heart rate of HUTT starting before(HR0) and heart rate of HUTT starting after 3 min(HR3) and systolic blood pressure of HUTT starting before(SBP0) and systolic blood pressure of HUTT starting after 3 min(SBP3) and diastolic blood pressure of HUTT starting before(DBP0) between male and female OH childern(all P > 0.05).Diastolic blood pressure of HUTT starting after 3 min(DBP3) in after treatment was significantly higher than that in before treatment [(68.42 ± 7.01) mm Hg vs (57.83 ± 13.98) mm Hg,t =-2.344,P < 0.05].When the HUTT reexamine OH children symptoms of syncope and pre-syncope were fade(n =5) or disappear(n =7).2.Gender compare of hemodynamic changes before and after treatment:there was no statistical difference in HR0 and HR3 and SBP0 and SBP3 and DBP0 and DBP3 between male and female OH childern (all P > 0.05).Conclusions ORS can obviously increase diastolic blood pressure and improve the upright intolerance symptoms in OH children.%目的 探讨口服补液盐(ORS)治疗儿童直立性低血压(OH)的疗效.方法 选取2009年10月至2012年1月在中南大学湘雅二医院儿童晕厥专科门诊就诊或住院的不明原因晕厥或先兆晕厥且行直立倾斜试验(HUTT)诊断为OH的患儿12例.男5例,女7例;年龄6~14岁[(10.25±2.86)

  5. Efficacy of oral rehydration solutions in a rat model of secretory diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolston, D D; Borodo, M M; Kelly, M J; Dawson, A M; Farthing, M J

    1987-01-01

    Controversy continues regarding the ideal composition of glucose/electrolyte solutions used for oral rehydration of infants and children with acute diarrhea. We have used cholera toxin-treated rat small intestine as a model of secretory diarrhea to assess the efficacy of oral rehydration solutions by intestinal perfusion. All solutions tested reversed net water secretion but a hypotonic bicarbonate-free solution was more effective than other solutions, including the World Health Organization oral rehydration solution (p less than 0.003). Net sodium secretion persisted with all solutions tested but there was a significant linear relationship between sodium concentration of the solution perfused and net sodium transport (r = 0.75, p less than 0.05). Cholera toxin treatment alone and in combination with perfusion of oral rehydration solutions significantly reduced plasma sodium concentration and osmolality (p less than 0.05), the effects being most marked with low sodium solutions. Although direct parallelism between observations in this animal model of secretory diarrhea and human diarrheal disease has not been established as yet, the model may be useful in assessing clinical efficacy of new oral rehydration solutions and in systematic analysis of the relative benefits of their individual components.

  6. Parents' attitudes toward oral rehydration therapy in children with mild-to-moderate dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Vered; Nadir, Erez; Schechter, Yaffa; Kline-Kremer, Adi

    2013-01-01

    According to current guidelines, the first line of treatment for mild-to-moderate dehydration is oral rehydration; the second line is rehydration through a nasogastric tube. Both methods are widely underused. This study was conducted to evaluate parents' attitudes towards rehydration methods used in pediatric emergency departments. 100 questionnaires were distributed to parents of children who visited emergency room due to gastroenteritis and suspected dehydration. 75 of the parents expected their child to get IV fluids. 49 of them would refuse to consider oral rehydration. 75 of the parents would refuse to consider insertion of nasogastric tube. Parents whose children were previously treated intravenously tended to be less likely to agree to oral treatment. Parents were more prone to decline oral rehydration if the main measurement of dehydration was the child's clinical appearance, clinical appearance with vomiting, or child's refusal to drink and were more likely to agree if the main measurement was diarrhea, diarrhea with clinical appearance, or clinical personnel opinion. This is the first study to examine parents' expectations. We found that in the majority of cases, parents' expectations contradict current guidelines. Efforts should be taken to educate parents in order to allow full implementation of the guidelines.

  7. Electrolyte and glucose contents of ripe and unripe coconut liquid as source of oral rehydration solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A O Adegoke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Electrolyte and glucose contents of 20 ripe and 20 unripe coconuts were analysed along with a commercially prepared oral rehydration solution using flame photometry for sodium, potassium and back titration method for bicarbonate estimation while glucose oxidase method was carried out for glucose estimation. The unripe coconut liquid had mean+ SEM of sodium (mmol/L 40.08 + 3.21, potassium (mmol/l 24.06 + 0.89, bicarbonate (mmol/l 1.48 + 0.20 and glucose (mmol/l 26.30 + 0.21 while the ripe coconut liquidhad sodium (mmol/l 24.60+ 1.36, Potassium (mmol/l 15.48 + 0.23, bicarbonate (mmol/l 0.80 + 0.18 and glucose concentration (mmol/l of 1.68 + 0.51 respectively. There was significant difference in the electrolyte content of the ripe and unripe coconut liquid (P< 0.05. The commercially prepared ORS had sodium (mmol/l 90.00 + 0.1, Potassium (mmol/l 20.00 + 0.1, bicarbonate (mmol/l 29.00 + 0.1 and glucose concentration (mmol/l of 111.00 + 0.1 respectively. The electrolyte and glucose contents of the ripe coconut was found not to meet minimum WHO standard of glucose concentration of 111mmol/l, sodium 90mmol/l, Potassium 20mmol/l and bicarbonate concentration of 30mmol/l for ORS. The Potassium concentration of the unripe coconut was higher than minimum WHO standard for ORS. However, the use of coconut liquid for rehydration cannot be recommended on the basis of its glucose and electrolyte composition.Industrial relevance: Coconut water is often used as an alternative solution for oral rehydration, particularly in regions where mothers' knowledge of oral rehydration is lacking. There has been no differentiation in the type of coconut water used for the purpose of replacing lost electrolytes; hence the electrolytes lost due to dehydration will not be replaced if the source of rehydration doesn’t contain the proper concentration of electrolytes. The study highlighted the deficiencies in the ripe and unripe coconut water as a rehydration source

  8. Salt fluoridation and oral health

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas M. Marthaler

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the cariesprotective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich,...

  9. 口服补液盐Ⅲ联合双歧杆菌乳杆菌三联活菌片治疗儿童急性腹泻的效果分析%The Result Analyze of Treatment Children Acute Diarrhea by Oral Rehy-dration Salts Ⅲ Compared with Live Combined Bifidobacterium、Lacto-bacillus Tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎瞳

    2016-01-01

    Objective To approach result of treatment children acute diarrhea by Oral Rehydration Salts Ⅲ compared with Live Combined Bifidobacterium、Lactobacillus Tablets. Methods To analyze 46 cases clinical data of children a-cute diarrhea in maternal and child care service centre pediatrics Zhuhai city from June 2014 to Delember 2015 were analyzed,which was to be divided into two groups by different treatment methods,control group 23 cases and combined treatment group 23 cases. The defecate frequency back to normal time、body temperature returned to normal time、stool form returned to normal time、clinical effects of two groups acute diarrhea children were detected. Results The defecate frequency back to normal time(1.7±0.4)d、body temperature returned to normal time(19.6±5.4)h、stool form returned to normal time (2.0±0.8)d of combined treatment group children acute diarrhea were lower than control group(2.4±0.6)d、(27.8 ±6.2)h、(3.7 ±1.2)d,the clinical treatment total effective rate (100%)of combined treatment group were higher than control group (82.6%),P<0.05,the difference were statistical significance. Conclusion The treatment children a-cute diarrhea by Oral Rehydration Salts Ⅲ compared with Live Combined Bifidobacterium、Lactobacillus Tablets,clini-cal symptoms could improve obviously,result is good,which is to be used.%目的:探讨口服补液盐Ⅲ联合双歧杆菌乳杆菌三联活菌片治疗儿童急性腹泻的效果情况。方法分析该院小儿血液消化内科2014年6月—2015年12月收治的46例急性腹泻患儿临床资料,依据治疗措施不同进行分组,对照组23例和联合治疗组23例。观察两组急性腹泻患儿大便次数恢复正常时间、体温恢复正常时间、大便性状恢复正常时间、临床疗效情况。结果联合治疗组急性腹泻患儿大便次数恢复正常时间(1.7±0.4)d、体温恢复正常时间(19.6±5.4)h、大便性状恢复正常时间(2.0±0.8)d均低于对照组(2.4

  10. [Biochemical composition of oral rehydration solutions and their combinations suggested for use in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyo-Rivas, J J; Rendón, F

    1989-03-01

    We studied the electrolyte composition, pH and osmolality of six solutions for oral rehydration available in drug stores in Venezuela, and also their combinations with whole milk in a dilution of 6.6%. The solutions such as Pedialyte, Hidramilac and Hidramines showed an acid pH (4.30-5.10) in direct relationship to the concentration of carbohydrates (5% or more). Also, Pedialyte and Hidramilac had greater osmolalities (360-365 mOsm/kg) than plasma. Some of the levels of sodium and potassium in the solutions were found to be under the concentrations given by the producers. The combination of whole milk with oral solutions diminishes the concentrations of sodium and potassium in the mixture, changing the sodium-glucose relationship, pH and osmolality. The therapeutic implications for the use of oral rehydration solutions with low concentrations of sodium, acid pH, large content of glucose and elevated osmolality are discussed. It is concluded that the combination of whole milk with Sueroral (WHO) is not adequate for the optimum absorption of sodium and therefore to prevent dehydration. Therefore, except for the WHO solution and Oralite, other solutions are not adequate for the correction of the electrolytic and acid-base alterations present in infants with dehydration secondary to acute diarrhea.

  11. Efficacy comparison of oral rehydration solutions containing either 90 or 75 millimoles of sodium per liter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, D; Castillo, B; Posada, G; Lizano, C; Mata, L

    1987-02-01

    In a randomized trial, 62 infants 2 to 35 months of age with dehydration due to acute watery diarrhea were allocated to one of two groups: group A received solution A (World Health Organization-recommended oral rehydration solution), which contained (mmol/L): Na+ 90, K+ 20, Cl- 80, citrate3- 10, and glucose 110; group B received solution B (Pedialyte RS; Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago), which contained (in mmol/L): Na+ 75, K+ 20, Cl- 65, citrate3- 10, and glucose 139. Oral therapy was given until clinical signs of hydration status were normal. During the 48-hour trial, the following laboratory data were collected: blood gases, serum electrolytes, glucose, urea, and creatinine values and sodium and potassium concentrations in stool and urine; serial weights and clinical signs were also reported. Six of the 62 infants, three in each group, required intravenous fluids because of high stool output. Results of clinical outcome and normalization of altered serum electrolyte values were similar in both groups. During the 48-hour trial, eight patients in group A and four in group B had mild, asymptomatic hypernatremia. Pedialyte RS was found to be a safe glucose/electrolyte solution for oral rehydration therapy.

  12. Salt fluoridation and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Marthaler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the cariesprotective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich, and several other cantons followed suit. Studies initiated in the early seventies showed that fluoride, when added to salt, inhibits dental caries. The addition of fluoride to salt for human consumption was officially authorized in 1980-82. In Switzerland 85% of domestic salt consumed is fluoridated and 67% in Germany. Salt fluoridation schemes are reaching more than one hundred million in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Cuba. The cost of salt fluoridation is very low, within 0.02 and 0.05 € per year and capita. Children and adults of the low socio-economic strata tend to have substantially more untreated caries than higher strata. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method for improving oral health. Conclusions. Salt fluoridation has cariostatic potential like water fluoridation (caries reductions up to 50%. In Europe, meaningful percentages of users have been attained only in Germany (67% and Switzerland (85%. In Latin America, there are more than 100 million users, and several countries have arrived at coverage of 90 to 99%. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method of caries prevention, and billions of people throughout the world could benefit from this method.

  13. An operational evaluation of the Community Oral Rehydration Units in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, B M; Jacoby, E R

    1994-12-01

    Since 1984, in Latin America donor agencies and national governments have extensively supported the implementation of the Community Oral Rehydration Units (CORUs) in an attempt to increase the access to oral rehydration therapy and improve the case management of diarrhoea at the community level. This study surveyed 40 CORUs in two regions of Peru to assess their operation, the number of patients with diarrhoea attended, and the knowledge of volunteers in charge. The results show that CORUs were mainly implemented close to existing health centres; the median of case load was 2.0 patients in the preceding month; and the volunteers' knowledge of case management was principally deficient in the diagnosis of hydration status, dietary management and in preventive measures. This lack of knowledge was replicated by professionals at the supervising health centres. Despite the fact that CORUs have been functioning for around four years, they exhibit numerous deficiencies which prevent them from fulfilling their objectives. A global review of the whole CORU strategy is called for.

  14. Predictors of Oral Rehydration Therapy use among under-five children with diarrhea in Eastern Ethiopia: a community based case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengistie Bezatu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rehydration therapy is a critical intervention to save the lives of children during the episodes of diarrhea. However, millions of children die every year due to failure to replace fluid effectively. The objective of this study was to identify the predictors of Oral Rehydration Therapy use among under-five children with diarrhea. Method A community based unmatched case control study was conducted in Kersa district, Eastern Ethiopia, in February, 2011. The cases were 241 under-five children with diarrhea in the preceding two weeks before the survey and who had received Oral Rehydration Therapy while the controls were 253 under-five children with diarrhea in the preceding two weeks before the survey and who had not received Oral Rehydration Therapy. The cases and the controls were compared to find out the factors that were associated with the utilization of Oral Rehydration Therapy. Result The study revealed that caregivers’ previous experience of Oral Rehydration Therapy use (AOR = 4.05, 95% CI = 2.63–6.22, seeking advice or treatment from health facilities, (AOR = 3.25, 95% CI = 2.06–5.11 and knowledge of Oral Rehydration Therapy (AOR = 3.09, 95% CI = 1.97–4.85 were found to be the positive determinants of Oral Rehydration Therapy use. Perception of teething as a cause of diarrhea was negatively associated with the utilization of Oral rehydration Therapy (AOR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37–0.98. Conclusion Health education should be strengthened on the benefit, preparation, early initiation of Oral Rehydration Therapy and the causes of diarrhea. Attention should be given to those who do not have previous experience of Oral Rehydration Therapy use and have less frequent contacts with the health facilities.

  15. Predictors of Oral Rehydration Therapy use among under-five children with diarrhea in Eastern Ethiopia: a community based case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistie, Bezatu; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu

    2012-11-24

    Rehydration therapy is a critical intervention to save the lives of children during the episodes of diarrhea. However, millions of children die every year due to failure to replace fluid effectively. The objective of this study was to identify the predictors of Oral Rehydration Therapy use among under-five children with diarrhea. A community based unmatched case control study was conducted in Kersa district, Eastern Ethiopia, in February, 2011. The cases were 241 under-five children with diarrhea in the preceding two weeks before the survey and who had received Oral Rehydration Therapy while the controls were 253 under-five children with diarrhea in the preceding two weeks before the survey and who had not received Oral Rehydration Therapy. The cases and the controls were compared to find out the factors that were associated with the utilization of Oral Rehydration Therapy. The study revealed that caregivers' previous experience of Oral Rehydration Therapy use (AOR = 4.05, 95% CI = 2.63-6.22), seeking advice or treatment from health facilities, (AOR = 3.25, 95% CI = 2.06-5.11) and knowledge of Oral Rehydration Therapy (AOR = 3.09, 95% CI = 1.97-4.85) were found to be the positive determinants of Oral Rehydration Therapy use. Perception of teething as a cause of diarrhea was negatively associated with the utilization of Oral rehydration Therapy (AOR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37-0.98). Health education should be strengthened on the benefit, preparation, early initiation of Oral Rehydration Therapy and the causes of diarrhea. Attention should be given to those who do not have previous experience of Oral Rehydration Therapy use and have less frequent contacts with the health facilities.

  16. From a pump handle to oral rehydration therapy: a model of translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stanley G

    2007-12-01

    Few afflictions have attracted as much attention and impacted on as many societal and biomedical areas as cholera. Dr. John Snow's studies launched the field of epidemiology, were early applications of medical cartography, and promoted the use of statistical methods in medicine. The finding that cholera was due to the ingestion of contaminated water lent to the demise of the prevalent "miasmatic theory of contagion," set the platform for the "germ theory of disease," and promoted the growth of public health concerns for water purification and sanitation. More recent attention to this disease led to the notion of "secretory diarrhea" and the translation of basic principles to the development of oral rehydration therapy and its "spin-offs" (Gatorade and Pedilyte).

  17. First do no harm: making oral rehydration solution safer in a cholera epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, N A; Simons, S L; Rodrigues, A; Gunnlaugsson, G; Forster, T S; Wells, J G; Hutwagner, L; Tauxe, R V; Mintz, E D

    1999-06-01

    Oral rehydration solution (ORS) is lifesaving therapy for cholera and pediatric diarrhea. During a cholera epidemic in Guinea-Bissau, we evaluated the microbiologic quality of ORS prepared at a hospital and tested a simple intervention using special vessels for disinfecting tap water with bleach and for preparing, storing, and dispensing ORS. Few coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli were recovered from tap water; however, pre-intervention ORS contained numerous bacteria including E. coli and toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1. In contrast, ORS samples from intervention vessels had few or no coliform bacteria, no E. coli, and no V. cholerae. Mean pre-intervention counts of coliform bacteria (3.4 x 10(7) colony-forming units [cfu]/100 ml) and E. coli (6.2 x 10(3) cfu) decreased significantly during the intervention period to 3.6 x 10(2) cfu and 0 cfu, respectively (P cholera and other enteric pathogens.

  18. Rice-based oral rehydration solution decreases the stool volume in acute diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, A M; Ahmed, S M; Greenough, W B

    1985-01-01

    A ramdomized trial using oral rehydration solutions (ORS) with rice or glucose was carried out in 342 patients with acute watery diarrhea in the outpatient ward of the International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, during an epidemic of cholera between December 1982-March 1983. On admission, 75% of these patients had severe dehydration and 70% were positive for Vibrio cholerae. There were 185 children aged under 10 years and 157 adults; 169 patients were treated with rice-ORS and 173 with glucose-ORS. Patients in both groups were comparable in age and body weight as well as the duration and severity of illness. Patients with severe dehydration were first rehydrated intravenously, and then treated with ORS. Those with moderate dehydration received ORS from the start. The mean stool output in the first 24 hours in children treated with rice-ORS was less than that in those treated with glucose-ORS (155 vs 204 ml/kg 24h; P0.01). The same was the case for the adult patients, the corresponding values for stool output being 115 versus 159 ml/kg24h (P0.05); the corresponding intakes in adult patients were, respectively, 180.5 and 247 ml/kg24 hours. A gain of about 10% of the body weight on admission was observed in all the groups. 6 cases (4 children and 2 adults) who failed to respond to oral rehydration after intravenous therapy all belonged to the glucose-ORS group. The study shows that, even under epidemic conditions of severe cholera or in cholera-like diarrhea, the glucose or sucrose solutions can be replaced by rice powder with improved results. Glucose and sucrose are manufactured products which are expensive and not always available in countries where diarrheal diseases are a problem. Rice, a staple food in many of these countries, reduces the fluid requirements when used in ORS and also provides increased nutrition even in the acute stage of illness.

  19. Glucose- but not rice-based oral rehydration therapy enhances the production of virulence determinants in the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Kühn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite major attempts to prevent cholera transmission, millions of people worldwide still must address this devastating disease. Cholera research has so far mainly focused on the causative agent, the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, or on disease treatment, but rarely were results from both fields interconnected. Indeed, the treatment of this severe diarrheal disease is mostly accomplished by oral rehydration therapy (ORT, whereby water and electrolytes are replenished. Commonly distributed oral rehydration salts also contain glucose. Here, we analyzed the effects of glucose and alternative carbon sources on the production of virulence determinants in the causative agent of cholera, the bacterium Vibrio cholerae during in vitro experimentation. We demonstrate that virulence gene expression and the production of cholera toxin are enhanced in the presence of glucose or similarly transported sugars in a ToxR-, TcpP- and ToxT-dependent manner. The virulence genes were significantly less expressed if alternative non-PTS carbon sources, including rice-based starch, were utilized. Notably, even though glucose-based ORT is commonly used, field studies indicated that rice-based ORT performs better. We therefore used a spatially explicit epidemiological model to demonstrate that the better performing rice-based ORT could have a significant impact on epidemic progression based on the recent outbreak of cholera in Haiti. Our results strongly support a change of carbon source for the treatment of cholera, especially in epidemic settings.

  20. Glucose- but not rice-based oral rehydration therapy enhances the production of virulence determinants in the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Juliane; Finger, Flavio; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Borgeaud, Sandrine; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea; Blokesch, Melanie

    2014-12-01

    Despite major attempts to prevent cholera transmission, millions of people worldwide still must address this devastating disease. Cholera research has so far mainly focused on the causative agent, the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, or on disease treatment, but rarely were results from both fields interconnected. Indeed, the treatment of this severe diarrheal disease is mostly accomplished by oral rehydration therapy (ORT), whereby water and electrolytes are replenished. Commonly distributed oral rehydration salts also contain glucose. Here, we analyzed the effects of glucose and alternative carbon sources on the production of virulence determinants in the causative agent of cholera, the bacterium Vibrio cholerae during in vitro experimentation. We demonstrate that virulence gene expression and the production of cholera toxin are enhanced in the presence of glucose or similarly transported sugars in a ToxR-, TcpP- and ToxT-dependent manner. The virulence genes were significantly less expressed if alternative non-PTS carbon sources, including rice-based starch, were utilized. Notably, even though glucose-based ORT is commonly used, field studies indicated that rice-based ORT performs better. We therefore used a spatially explicit epidemiological model to demonstrate that the better performing rice-based ORT could have a significant impact on epidemic progression based on the recent outbreak of cholera in Haiti. Our results strongly support a change of carbon source for the treatment of cholera, especially in epidemic settings.

  1. Impact of oral rehydration and selected public health interventions on reduction of mortality from childhood diarrhoeal diseases in Mexico.

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, G.; Tapia-Conyer, R.; Guiscafré, H.; Reyes, H; Martínez, H.; Kumate, J.

    1996-01-01

    Reported are the results of an analysis of mortality trends from diarrhoeal diseases among under-5-year-olds in Mexico between 1978 and 1993 in relation to the impact of education, basic sanitation, and selected medical care practices. The study period was divided into three stages; the first pre-dated the widespread application of oral rehydration therapy (ORT); the second, covered the implementation of a nationwide programme promoting ORT; and the third included additional measures, such as...

  2. Impact of oral rehydration and selected public health interventions on reduction of mortality from childhood diarrhoeal diseases in Mexico.

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, G.; TAPIA-CONYER, R.; Guiscafré, H; Reyes, H; Martínez, H.; Kumate, J

    1996-01-01

    Reported are the results of an analysis of mortality trends from diarrhoeal diseases among under-5-year-olds in Mexico between 1978 and 1993 in relation to the impact of education, basic sanitation, and selected medical care practices. The study period was divided into three stages; the first pre-dated the widespread application of oral rehydration therapy (ORT); the second, covered the implementation of a nationwide programme promoting ORT; and the third included additional measures, such as...

  3. Promotional Model: A New Direction for National Program in Immunization (NPI) and Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    P.EKERETE, Paulinus

    2000-01-01

    The National Program on Immunization (NPI), formerly known as the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) and Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT), were relaunched in1984 after the problems of vaccine supply have been corrected. The NPI aimed to protect children against six childhood killer disease and ORT, to remedy dehydration. In order to achieve these objectives, Partner-in-Health strategy was set up to educate, convince and motivate mothers, pregnant women and community to accept the programme....

  4. Private Sector Provision of Oral Rehydration Therapy for Child Diarrhea in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Neeraj; Wagner, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    Although diarrheal mortality is cheaply preventable with oral rehydration therapy (ORT), over 700,000 children die of diarrhea annually and many health providers fail to treat diarrheal cases with ORT. Provision of ORT may differ between for-profit and public providers. This study used Demographic and Health Survey data from 19,059 children across 29 countries in sub-Saharan Africa from 2003 to 2011 to measure differences in child diarrhea treatment between private for-profit and public health providers. Differences in treatment provision were estimated using probit regression models controlling for key confounders. For-profit providers were 15% points less likely to provide ORT (95% confidence interval [CI] 13–17) than public providers and 12% points more likely to provide other treatments (95% CI 10–15). These disparities in ORT provision were more pronounced for poorer children in rural areas. As private healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa continues to expand, interventions to increase private sector provision of ORT should be explored. PMID:24732456

  5. Oral rehydration for viral gastroenteritis in adults: a randomized, controlled trial of 3 solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S S C; Summers, R W; Rao, G R S; Ramana, S; Devi, U; Zimmerman, B; Pratap, B C V

    2006-01-01

    Pedialyte and Gatorade are advocated for the treatment of dehydration in viral gastroenteritis, but there is limited evidence to support their use. We examine the efficacy, safety, and palatability of Pedialyte, Gatorade, and a New Oral Rehydration Solution (N-ORS). This was a randomized double-blind trial conducted in an inpatient, community hospital. Seventy-five consecutive adult patients (male, 42; female, 33) admitted with viral gastroenteritis were randomized to receive Gatorade, Pedialyte, or N-ORS for 48 hours. A yogurt/rice diet was allowed ad libitum. Stool and urine output, electrolytes, fluid intake, body weight, hematocrit, and palatability of solutions were measured. Sixty completed the study. Stool frequency, consistency, and body weight improved (p Gatorade; 3, 2, and 1 with N-ORS; and 2, 2, and 1 with Pedialyte, respectively. Similarly, hyponatremia was observed in 6, 9, and 3 patients with Gatorade; 5, 3, and 4 with N-ORS; and 4, 5, and 4 with Pedialyte. Tastewise, Gatorade and N-ORS were rated higher (p Gatorade and N-ORS seem to be as effective as Pedialyte in correcting dehydration and in improving bowel symptoms. All 3 solutions were safe. Unlike other groups, hypokalemia persisted in the Gatorade group. Gatorade and N-ORS may be effective in the treatment of dehydration associated with mild viral gastroenteritis.

  6. Investigations of two oral rehydration solutions in treatment of piglets with acute gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukavić Tamara D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic disorder in acute gastroenteritis is the disrupted transport of water and electrolytes, to a different degree. The objective of these investigations was to evaluate the efficacy of two oral rehydration solutions (ORS in the treatment of acute gastroenteritis in suckling piglets. Fifty piglets, 20 with acute gastroenteritis and 30 healthy controls aged 10 days were chosen at random upon the incidence of diarrhea, for one of two ORS treatments (ORS-1 and ORS-2. The piglets with diarrhea were administered a probiotic per os on the first day and an antibiotic parenterally, until the diarrhea disappeared. All the piglets were followed clinically from days 1-6 of the investigations. Faeces samples were taken for bacteriological culture on the first day. Clinical signs of hydration were better, as well as the difference in body mass of piglets with diarrhea under the ORS-2 treatment which was significantly higher (p=0.036 in comparison with the difference in piglets under the ORS-1 treatment. All piglets with diarrhea had normally formed faeces on the sixth day. Escherichia coli was isolated from faeces of 48 piglets. Piglets with acute gastroenteritis, treated with ORS with a higher osmolarity and which contained instead of citrate, bicarbonates in higher concentrations, with less potassium, more sodium and more chlorine had a better state of hydration, with a significantly bigger difference in body mass, and the results of their control group were not significantly different against those of piglets treated with ORS of a different composition.

  7. Determination of periodontal ligament cell viability in the oral rehydration fluid Gatorade and milks of varying fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkacz, O M; Carnes, D L; Walker, W A

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to determine if the oral rehydration fluid Gatorade could serve as a suitable temporary storage medium for maintenance of periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability on avulsed teeth and 2) to determine if fat content is related to maintenance of cell viability when milk is used as the temporary storage medium. PDL cells were cultured from extracted human teeth then incubated over timed intervals from 15 to 210 min in the oral rehydration fluid Gatorade, milks of varying fat content, and saliva. Dulbeco's Modified Eagles Medium served as the positive control while tap water served as the negative control. Cell viability was determined using a colorimetric assay that used Cell Proliferation Reagent WST-1. Results using Gatorade yielded cell viability data similar to the negative control, tap water, indicating that this oral rehydration fluid was not suitable as a temporary storage medium for the avulsed tooth. However, the fat content of milk was found to have an effect on cell viability, suggesting that milks with lower fat content may be more appropriate for maintaining PDL cell viability than milks with higher fat content.

  8. Drying and Rehydration of Calcium Alginate Gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeker, R.; Li, L.; Fang, Y.; Appelqvist, I.; Mendes, E.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the rehydration properties of air-dried calcium alginate gel beads. Rehydration is shown to depend on alginate source (i.e. mannuronic to guluronic acid ratio) and the salt concentration in the rehydration medium. Rehydration curves are described adequately by the empirical W

  9. Drying and Rehydration of Calcium Alginate Gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeker, R.; Li, L.; Fang, Y.; Appelqvist, I.; Mendes, E.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the rehydration properties of air-dried calcium alginate gel beads. Rehydration is shown to depend on alginate source (i.e. mannuronic to guluronic acid ratio) and the salt concentration in the rehydration medium. Rehydration curves are described adequately by the empirical

  10. Tracking Cholera through Surveillance of Oral Rehydration Solution Sales at Pharmacies: Insights from Urban Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Azman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, pharmacy-purchased oral rehydration solution (ORS is often used to treat diarrhea, including cholera. Over-the-counter sales have been used for epidemiologic surveillance in the past, but rarely, if ever, in low-income countries. With few early indicators for cholera outbreaks in endemic areas, diarrhea-related product sales may serve as a useful surveillance tool.We tracked daily ORS sales at 50 pharmacies and drug-sellers in an urban Bangladesh community of 129,000 for 6-months while simultaneously conducting surveillance for diarrhea hospitalizations among residents. We developed a mobile phone based system to track the sales of ORS and deployed it in parallel with a paper-based system. Our objectives were to determine if the mobile phone system was practical and acceptable to pharmacists and drug sellers, whether data were reported accurately compared to a paper-based system, and whether ORS sales were associated with future incidence of cholera hospitalizations within the community. We recorded 47,215 customers purchasing ORS, and 315 hospitalized diarrhea cases, 22% of which had culture-confirmed cholera. ORS sales and diarrhea incidence were independently associated with the mean daily temperature; therefore both unadjusted and adjusted models were explored. Through unadjusted cross-correlation statistics and generalized linear models, we found increases in ORS sales were significantly associated with increases in hospitalized diarrhea cases up to 9-days later and hospitalized cholera cases up to one day later. After adjusting for mean daily temperature, ORS was significantly associated with hospitalized diarrhea two days later and hospitalized cholera one day later.Pharmacy sales data may serve as a feasible and useful surveillance tool. Given the relatively short lagged correlation between ORS sales and diarrhea, rapid and accurate sales data are key. More work is needed in creating actionable algorithms that make use of

  11. Electrophysiological Studies into the Safety of the Anti-diarrheal Drug Clotrimazole during Oral Rehydration Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem S Lexmond

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Morbidity and mortality from acute diarrheal disease remains high, particularly in developing countries and in cases of natural or man-made disasters. Previous work has shown that the small molecule clotrimazole inhibits intestinal Cl- secretion by blocking both cyclic nucleotide- and Ca(2+-gated K(+ channels, implicating its use in the treatment of diarrhea of diverse etiologies. Clotrimazole, however, might also inhibit transporters that mediate the inwardly directed electrochemical potential for Na(+-dependent solute absorption, which would undermine its clinical application. Here we test this possibility by examining the effects of clotrimazole on Na(+-coupled glucose uptake.Short-circuit currents (Isc following administration of glucose and secretagogues were studied in clotrimazole-treated jejunal sections of mouse intestine mounted in Ussing chambers.Treatment of small intestinal tissue with clotrimazole inhibited the Cl- secretory currents that resulted from challenge with the cAMP-agonist vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP or Ca(2+-agonist carbachol in a dose-dependent fashion. A dose of 30 μM was effective in significantly reducing the Isc response to VIP and carbachol by 50% and 72%, respectively. At this dose, uptake of glucose was only marginally affected (decreased by 14%, p = 0.37. There was no measurable effect on SGLT1-mediated sugar transport, as uptake of SGLT1-restricted 3-O-methyl glucose was equivalent between clotrimazole-treated and untreated tissue (98% vs. 100%, p = 0.90.Treatment of intestinal tissue with clotrimazole significantly reduced secretory responses caused by both cAMP- and Ca(2+-dependent agonists as expected, but did not affect Na(+-coupled glucose absorption. Clotrimazole could thus be used in conjunction with oral rehydration solution as a low-cost, auxiliary treatment of acute secretory diarrheas.

  12. Tracking Cholera through Surveillance of Oral Rehydration Solution Sales at Pharmacies: Insights from Urban Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Andrew S; Lessler, Justin; Satter, Syed Moinuddin; Mckay, Michael V; Khan, Azharul; Ahmed, Dilruba; Gurley, Emily S

    2015-12-01

    In Bangladesh, pharmacy-purchased oral rehydration solution (ORS) is often used to treat diarrhea, including cholera. Over-the-counter sales have been used for epidemiologic surveillance in the past, but rarely, if ever, in low-income countries. With few early indicators for cholera outbreaks in endemic areas, diarrhea-related product sales may serve as a useful surveillance tool. We tracked daily ORS sales at 50 pharmacies and drug-sellers in an urban Bangladesh community of 129,000 for 6-months while simultaneously conducting surveillance for diarrhea hospitalizations among residents. We developed a mobile phone based system to track the sales of ORS and deployed it in parallel with a paper-based system. Our objectives were to determine if the mobile phone system was practical and acceptable to pharmacists and drug sellers, whether data were reported accurately compared to a paper-based system, and whether ORS sales were associated with future incidence of cholera hospitalizations within the community. We recorded 47,215 customers purchasing ORS, and 315 hospitalized diarrhea cases, 22% of which had culture-confirmed cholera. ORS sales and diarrhea incidence were independently associated with the mean daily temperature; therefore both unadjusted and adjusted models were explored. Through unadjusted cross-correlation statistics and generalized linear models, we found increases in ORS sales were significantly associated with increases in hospitalized diarrhea cases up to 9-days later and hospitalized cholera cases up to one day later. After adjusting for mean daily temperature, ORS was significantly associated with hospitalized diarrhea two days later and hospitalized cholera one day later. Pharmacy sales data may serve as a feasible and useful surveillance tool. Given the relatively short lagged correlation between ORS sales and diarrhea, rapid and accurate sales data are key. More work is needed in creating actionable algorithms that make use of this data and in

  13. Tracking Cholera through Surveillance of Oral Rehydration Solution Sales at Pharmacies: Insights from Urban Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Andrew S.; Lessler, Justin; Satter, Syed Moinuddin; Mckay, Michael V.; Khan, Azharul; Ahmed, Dilruba; Gurley, Emily S.

    2015-01-01

    Background In Bangladesh, pharmacy-purchased oral rehydration solution (ORS) is often used to treat diarrhea, including cholera. Over-the-counter sales have been used for epidemiologic surveillance in the past, but rarely, if ever, in low-income countries. With few early indicators for cholera outbreaks in endemic areas, diarrhea-related product sales may serve as a useful surveillance tool. Methodology/Principal Findings We tracked daily ORS sales at 50 pharmacies and drug-sellers in an urban Bangladesh community of 129,000 for 6-months while simultaneously conducting surveillance for diarrhea hospitalizations among residents. We developed a mobile phone based system to track the sales of ORS and deployed it in parallel with a paper-based system. Our objectives were to determine if the mobile phone system was practical and acceptable to pharmacists and drug sellers, whether data were reported accurately compared to a paper-based system, and whether ORS sales were associated with future incidence of cholera hospitalizations within the community. We recorded 47,215 customers purchasing ORS, and 315 hospitalized diarrhea cases, 22% of which had culture-confirmed cholera. ORS sales and diarrhea incidence were independently associated with the mean daily temperature; therefore both unadjusted and adjusted models were explored. Through unadjusted cross-correlation statistics and generalized linear models, we found increases in ORS sales were significantly associated with increases in hospitalized diarrhea cases up to 9-days later and hospitalized cholera cases up to one day later. After adjusting for mean daily temperature, ORS was significantly associated with hospitalized diarrhea two days later and hospitalized cholera one day later. Conclusions/Significance Pharmacy sales data may serve as a feasible and useful surveillance tool. Given the relatively short lagged correlation between ORS sales and diarrhea, rapid and accurate sales data are key. More work is needed

  14. Polymer-based oral rehydration solution for treating acute watery diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio, Germana V; Gonzales, Maria Liza M; Dans, Leonila F; Martinez, Elizabeth G

    2016-12-13

    Acute diarrhoea is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality among children in low-income countries. Glucose-based oral rehydration solution (ORS) helps replace fluid and prevent further dehydration from acute diarrhoea. Since 2004, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the osmolarity of less than 270 mOsm/L (ORS ≤ 270) versus greater than 310 mOsm/L formulation (ORS ≥ 310). Polymer-based ORS (for example, prepared using rice or wheat) slowly releases glucose and may be superior to glucose-based ORS. To compare polymer-based oral rehydration solution (polymer-based ORS) with glucose-based oral rehydration solution (glucose-based ORS) for treating acute watery diarrhoea. We searched the following sources up to 5 September 2016: the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group (CIDG) Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 9), MEDLINE (1966 to 5 September 2016), EMBASE (1974 to 5 September 2016), LILACS (1982 to 5 September 2016), and mRCT (2007 to 5 September 2016). We also contacted researchers, organizations, and pharmaceutical companies, and searched reference lists. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of people with acute watery diarrhoea (cholera and non-cholera associated) that compared polymer-based and glucose-based ORS (with identical electrolyte contents). Two review authors independently assessed the search results and risk of bias, and extracted data. In multiple-treatment arms with two or more treatment groups, we combined outcomes as appropriate and compared collectively with the control group. Thirty-five trials that included 4284 participants met the inclusion criteria: 28 trials exclusively included children, five included adults, and two included both adults and children. Polymer-based ORS versus glucose-based ORS (osmolarity ≤ 270) Eight trials (752 participants) evaluated this comparison, and seven trials used rice as a polymer source

  15. From pedialyte to popsicles: a look at oral rehydration therapy used in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, J D

    1982-01-01

    To obtain information on the attitudes and practices concerning oral rehydration therapy in the United States and Canada, a questionnaire was sent to the chairmen of departments of pediatrics of 142 medical colleges. Some form of oral fluid therapy for treatment of diarrheal dehydration is used by the institutions of all 128 survey respondents. The most commonly used fluids, commercial sugar-electrolyte solutions (89%), clear liquids (78%), and fruit juices (58%) have very different compositions and concentrations of ingredients. Oral therapy is based on a specific written protocol at 30% of the institutions and is used most frequently to treat outpatients with mild dehydration. To determine a uniform and optimal approach to oral fluid treatment for diarrhea, comparative clinical trials are needed to assess which fluid compositions and concentrations are most effective in preventing dehydration and in treating dehydration once it has occurred.

  16. 口服补液盐[Ⅰ]治疗神经介导性晕厥儿童血清及尿电解质的变化%Changes in serum and urine electrolytes of children with neurally mediated syncope after oral rehydration salts [Ⅰ]treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文华; 王成; 许毅; 邹润梅; 吴礼嘉; 罗雪梅; 林萍; 李芳

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the changes in serum and urine electrolytes of children with neurally media-ted syncope (NMS)after oral rehydration salts (ORS)[Ⅰ]treatment.Methods The study group included 135 patients [60 male and 75 female,aged 4 -16 years,average of (10.20 ±2.68)years old]with unexplained syncope and prodro-mal symptoms of syncope in our hospital between May 2014 and April 2015.The patients underwent head -up tilt test (HUTT),and completed serum electrolytes and 24 -hour urine electrolytes,and the serum electrolytes and 24 -hour u-rine electrolytes in different hemodynamic type of HUTT were compared.Positive HUTT patients were treated with health education and ORS[Ⅰ],while negative HUTT patients were received health education.Then 21 -154(42.63 ±27.71) days later,the patients returned to hospital,for the inquiry of symptom improvement,and review of HUTT,24 -hour urine and serum electrolytes.Results (1)The total effective rate of ORS[Ⅰ]treatment was 62.96% (17 /27 cases),while negative conversion rate of HUTT was 48.15% (13 /27 cases).(2)There was no significant difference in serum electro-lytes,24 -hour urine electrolytes or 24 -hour urine volume between HUTT positive group and negative group during the first visit (all P >0.05).(3)In return visit,serum calcium [(2.30 ±0.10)mmol/L vs (2.20 ±0.09)mmol/L,t =2.72,P 0.05).(4)24 -hour urine sodium [(159.06 ±72.76)mmol/24 h vs (118.97 ±52.75)mmol/24 h,t =2.712,P 0.05).(5)There was no significant difference in serum elec-trolytes,24 -hour urine electrolytes or 24 -hour urine volume between vasovagal syncope group and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome group during the first visit(all P >0.05).Conclusions ORS[Ⅰ]treatment can obviously increase the 24 -hour urine sodium,24 -hour urine chloride in children with NMS.ORS[Ⅰ]is an effective therapy for NMS.%目的:探讨神经介导性晕厥(NMS)儿童应用口服补液盐(ORS)[Ⅰ]治疗前后血清及尿电解质的变化。方法2014

  17. Evaluation of the changes in heart rate during head-up test predicting the efficacy of oral rehydration salts on postural tachycardia syndrome in children%直立试验心率变化预测口服补液盐治疗体位性心动过速综合征的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔺婧; 刘平; 王瑜丽; 李红霞; 李雪迎; 赵娟; 唐朝枢; 杜军保; 金红芳

    2015-01-01

    目的 通过直立试验心率的变化预测口服补液盐(ORS)治疗体位性心动过速综合征(POTS)的效果.方法 选择北京大学第一医院儿科2005年7月至2013年9月收治的54例POTS患儿为研究对象,以20名健康儿童作为对照组.对POTS患儿治疗前进行症状严重程度评分及直立试验,给予ORS治疗3个月后再次进行症状严重程度评分及直立试验,根据症状评分减少程度是否大于50%将患儿分为治疗有效组及治疗无效组.应用受试者工作曲线评价卧立位心率差值及直立后10 min内最大心率对ORS治疗POTS疗效的预测价值.结果 POTS组患儿54例,年龄6~ 17(11.3±3.0)岁.对照组儿童20名,年龄10 ~ 12(11.0±0.8)岁.POTS组患儿卧立位心率差值明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义[(41±10)比(20-±7)次/min,t=-10.441,P=0.000].POTS患儿治疗后临床症状评分较治疗前显著减低[(3.2±1.8)比(5.7±2.0)分,t=10.958,P<0.001],其中有30例POTS患儿复查直立试验,治疗后卧立位心率差值较治疗前有显著降低[(33±11)比(41±ll)次/min,t=2.956,P=0.006].54例POTS患儿治疗有效26例,治疗无效28例.治疗有效组治疗前卧立位心率差值明显高于治疗无效组[(46±10)比(37±9)次/min,t=-3.582,P=0.001],治疗前直立后10 min内最大心率明显高于治疗无效组[(122±12)比(113±10)次/min,t=-2.693,P=0.010].当卧立位心率差值为41次/min时,预测应用ORS治疗POTS有效的敏感度和特异度分别为72%和70%;当直立后10 min内最大心率达到123次/min时,预测应用口服补液盐治疗POTS有效的敏感度和特异度分别为48%和78%;卧立位心率差值联合直立后10 min内最大心率预测ORS治疗POTS有效的敏感度为84%,特异度为56%.结论 采用POTS患儿直立试验中心率变化预测口服补液盐疗效,具有较好的临床价值.%Objective To predict the therapeutic efficacy of oral rehydration salts (ORS) by quantifying changes in heart rate

  18. Predictors of Oral Rehydration Therapy use among under-five children with diarrhea in Eastern Ethiopia: a community based case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Mengistie Bezatu; Berhane Yemane; Worku Alemayehu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Rehydration therapy is a critical intervention to save the lives of children during the episodes of diarrhea. However, millions of children die every year due to failure to replace fluid effectively. The objective of this study was to identify the predictors of Oral Rehydration Therapy use among under-five children with diarrhea. Method A community based unmatched case control study was conducted in Kersa district, Eastern Ethiopia, in February, 2011. The cases were 241 un...

  19. Zinc supplementation in oral rehydration solutions: experimental assessment and mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, Waseem; Perveen, Shahana; Rehman, Khalil U; Teichberg, Saul; Vancurova, Ivana; Harper, Rita G; Wapnir, Raul A

    2002-02-01

    Zinc deficiency is associated with chronic diarrhea. This condition is generally linked to an overproduction of nitric oxide (NO), which induces secretion and cellular damage as a free radical. Use of oral rehydration solutions (ORS) is an important part of diarrhea treatment, especially early in infancy and for patients with cholera. The presence of zinc in an ORS could be a positive factor in recovery from diarrheal disease. This study was undertaken to determine whether zinc added to an ORS could regulate the synthesis of NO metabolites in the lumen of zinc deficient rat intestine, acting as a gastrointestinal protector and thus accelerating normalization of intestinal function and zinc status. The effects of zinc on NO metabolism were studied in young male rats fed a zinc deficient diet for three weeks to mimic the condition of patients with recurrent diarrheal episodes. During the fourth week of the zinc deficient feedings, experimental diarrhea was induced using cathartics (magnesium citrate plus phenolphthalein) that exacerbate NO production. A standard ORS with or without 1 mM zinc was given to the rats for the last two days. A control group received a zinc sufficient diet. Rats were killed at each stage. Intestinal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was assayed, cecal fluid contents were analyzed for nitrates and nitrites, intestinal histology was examined, and activation of nuclear factor NF-kappaB DNA binding activity was determined. Rats fed the zinc-deficient diet for three weeks gained less weight than rats fed a normal zinc content diet and had a lower plasma zinc than controls (51.6 +/- 5.4 [n = 101 vs. 143.6 +/- 7.2 microg/dL [n = 11], p < 0.05). Recovery with ORS+Zn resulted in a higher plasma zinc than with the ORS-Zn (ORS+Zn: 186.5 +/- 12.2; ORS-Zn: 57.5 +/- 6.6 microg/dL, p < 0.05). The zinc-deficient diet did not alter mucosal NOS, as compared to the values of rats fed a normal diet. However, those animals which received five days of cathartic fluids

  20. Use of rice-based oral rehydration solution in a large diarrhoea treatment centre in Bangladesh: in-house production, use and relative cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Mahalanabis, D; Majid, N

    1994-12-01

    Glucose-based oral rehydration salt (ORS) is an appropriate and cost-effective tool to treat diarrhoeal dehydration. In patients with a high purging rate, particularly due to cholera, rice-based ORS has been shown to substantially reduce stool output compared to glucose ORS. However, it is not used in the hospitals or diarrhoea treatment centres largely because of the non-availability of a ready-to-use inexpensive packaged product and because of the problem of cooking. In a large diarrhoea treatment centre in Bangladesh (with an annual ORS consumption of approximately 140,000 litres), we have maintained in-house production of rice ORS and used it routinely for more than 600,000 patients over the last nine years. Semi-literate health workers cook rice ORS and supervise mothers in its use. Rice ORS is less costly (US $0.15 per patient treated compared with US $0.37 for glucose ORS) and is well accepted. It is an attractive alternative to glucose ORS in many fixed facility treatment centres in countries where rice is a staple and cholera is endemic. The process of its in-house preparation and use is described in this report which may assist hospitals wishing to use rice ORS in treating diarrhoea patients. Availability of a low cost ready-to-use rice ORS packet (which needs no cooking) with adequate shelf-life will increase its use at fixed facilities.

  1. Effects of oral rehydration therapy on gastric volume and pH in patients with preanesthetic H2 antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Kishiko; Niwa, Hidetomo; Kitayama, Masatou; Satoh, Yutaka; Hirota, Kazuyoshi

    2012-12-01

    Recent preanesthetic fasting practice allows patients to take clear fluids up to 2 h before surgery without taking any antacid for the prophylaxis of aspiration pneumonia; this practice is defined as oral rehydration therapy (ORT). It has been reported that with ORT the gastric volume may be significantly lower than that with a standard fasting regimen, although in a standard fasting regimen without preanesthetic antacid, gastric pH and volume values could be critical for causing aspiration pneumonia. In this study we compared gastric fluid status in patients with ORT and those with a standard fasting regimen; patients in both groups received a preanesthetic H(2) antagonist. One hundred and four patients were randomly assigned to either the ORT or standard fasting group, and all were given roxatidine 75 mg 2 h before surgery. After the induction of anesthesia, the gastric contents were collected via a gastric tube to measure gastric volume and pH. Neither gastric volume nor pH differed between the groups (ORT 9.6 ± 8.2 ml and 5.6 ± 1.7, respectively, vs. standard fasting 8.5 ± 6.8 ml and 5.5 ± 1.7, respectively). These data suggest that ORT may not reduce gastric volume in patients receiving a preanesthetic H(2) antagonist.

  2. Impact of oral rehydration and selected public health interventions on reduction of mortality from childhood diarrhoeal diseases in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, G; Tapia-Conyer, R; Guiscafré, H; Reyes, H; Martínez, H; Kumate, J

    1996-01-01

    Reported are the results of an analysis of mortality trends from diarrhoeal diseases among under-5-year-olds in Mexico between 1978 and 1993 in relation to the impact of education, basic sanitation, and selected medical care practices. The study period was divided into three stages; the first pre-dated the widespread application of oral rehydration therapy (ORT); the second, covered the implementation of a nationwide programme promoting ORT; and the third included additional measures, such as immunization and improvements in basic sanitation. Mortality rates decreased progressively, at an average of 1.8% per year in the first stage, 6.4% in the second, and 17.8% in the third. The importance of literacy campaigns for women and the promotion of ORT was confirmed. Both of these measures reduced mortality; however, a greater reduction resulted from a massive immunization campaign against measles and improvements in sanitation (expansion of the drainage and piped water systems, improved water chlorination procedure, and effective prohibition of the use of sanitary sewage for vegetable irrigation).

  3. Manual de Adiestramiento sobre Terapia de Rehidratacion Oral y Control de las Enfermedades Diarreicas (Oral Rehydration Therapy and the Control of Diarrheal Diseases). Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Mari; And Others

    This Spanish-language manual was developed to train Peace Corps volunteers and other community health workers in Spanish-speaking countries in oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and the control of diarrheal diseases. Using a competency-based format, the manual contains three training modules (organized in seven sessions) that focus on interrelated…

  4. Rapid IV Versus Oral Rehydration: Responses to Subsequent Exercise Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    energy , carbohydrate, fat, protein, sodium, and potassium content (Food Processor II, ESHA Research, Salem, OR). There were no differences (P > 0.05...evaporative sweat loss. Oxygen consumption (V̇O2) was measured every 8 min via a pnuemotach (Hans Rudolph, Kansas City, MO) attached to a metabolic cart...mL), or, alternately, no fluid was given (NF). For the ORAL trial, the saline solution was mixed with a nonnutritive sweetener (1 gI225 mLj1 of 0.45

  5. [Sport drinks: not a suitable rehydration solution for children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousma, M; Bakker, A J; de Vries, T W

    2003-02-01

    A two-months-old male infant with gastroenteritis had been given a sports drink (Aquarius) by the general practitioner as a treatment for dehydration and was referred because of ongoing vomiting and weight loss. The child recovered after reinstitution of normal bottle-feeding and administration of a regular oral rehydration solution (ORS). The sports drink was analysed and found to contain less salt than ORS. As a result, the salt:sugar ratio was not optimal. Sports drinks are therefore contraindicated in the treatment of dehydration in children.

  6. Management of childhood diarrhea and use of oral rehydration salts in a suburban West African community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S; Mølbak, Kare

    1999-01-01

    % of the episodes were treated with ORS and the amount given was insufficient. Mothers with no knowledge of ORS did not use it during the observed attack of diarrhea regardless of contact with a health center, which suggests that maternal knowledge is an important determinant of whether health personnel provide ORS...... on the quantity of ORS needed, early signs of dehydration, treatment of teething diarrhea, and breast feeding, and address mothers who have no prior knowledge of ORS. Management of diarrhea may be improved by a more liberal distribution of ORS sachets....

  7. Management of childhood diarrhea and use of oral rehydration salts in a suburban West African community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S; Mølbak, Kare

    1999-01-01

    . Children with diarrhea considered to be caused by teething were less likely to receive ORS in the acute phase (risk ratio = 0.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.5-0.9). Univariate analyses showed that the use of ORS was related to number of reported symptoms, the mother being the care taker, consultations......, previous use of ORS, good knowledge of ORS, and having ORS sachets at home. Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that the presence of ORS sachets at home at the onset of diarrhea was the strongest predictor of use (hazard ratio = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.9-3.6). Improved health education should focus more...... on the quantity of ORS needed, early signs of dehydration, treatment of teething diarrhea, and breast feeding, and address mothers who have no prior knowledge of ORS. Management of diarrhea may be improved by a more liberal distribution of ORS sachets....

  8. Hidratación oral continua o a dosis fraccionadas en niños deshidratados por diarrea aguda Oral rehydration in continuous administration or in fractionated doses in dehydrated children with acute diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Mota-Hernández

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la seguridad y efectividad de dos técnicas de hidratación oral. Material y métodos. Ensayo clínico aleatorio, hecho en el Servicio de Hidratación Oral del Hospital Infantil de México, Federico Gómez, entre septiembre de 1998 y junio de 1999. Cuarenta pacientes deshidratados por diarrea aguda, menores de cinco años, recibieron suero oral ad libitum (grupo AL y otros cuarenta lo recibieron en dosis fraccionada (grupo DF. Las características clínicas fueron similares en ambos grupos. Los resultados se presentan como promedio y desviación estándar o mediana, según la distribución de frecuencias simples y relativas. Resultados. El promedio de gasto fecal en el grupo AL fue 11.0±7.5 g/kg/h y en el grupo DF 7.1±7.4 (p=0.03. La ingesta de suero, el tiempo de hidratación y la diuresis promedio, fueron similares entre ambos grupos (p>0.05. Seis pacientes del grupo AL y cinco del DF tuvieron gasto fecal alto (>10 g/kg/hora, mejorando con la administración de atole de arroz. Un paciente del grupo AL y dos pacientes del DF tuvieron vómitos persistentes, mejorando con gastroclisis. Ningún paciente requirió rehidratación intravenosa. Conclusiones. Estos resultados sugieren que la administración de suero oral ad libitum, bajo supervisión, es tan segura y efectiva como la técnica de dosis fraccionada para el tratamiento de niños deshidratados por diarrea aguda.Objective. To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of two oral rehydration techniques. Material and Methods. A randomized clinical trial was conducted at the oral rehydration unit of Hospital Infantil de Mexico "Federico Gomez", between September 1998 and June 1999. Forty patients five-year old and younger children, dehydrated due to acute diarrhea, were given oral rehydration solution (ORS ad libitum (AL group; another forty patients received ORS in fractionated doses (FD group. Clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Results are presented as

  9. THE CLINICAL EFFICACY OF HYPOOSMOLYARNY ORAL SOLUTION WITH LACTOBACILLUS GG FOR REHYDRATION IN INTESTINAL INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

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    V. F. Uchaikin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 60 patients with moderate forms of the OCI «osmotic» (76.7% and «invasive» (23.3% such as diarrhea, aged 3—12 years, to evaluate the clinical effectiveness, impact on water and electrolyte metabolism, acid-base balance and intestinal microbiocenosis hypoosmolyarny solution with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG «Regidron Bio» (30 patients and hyperosmolarny solution (30 patients. It was found that in the group of patients receiving «Regidron Bio», in contrast to the hyperosmolarny solution, is rapidly disappearing symptoms of intoxication and exsicosis, abdominal pain, meteorism and liquid watery diarrhea. The average duration of the acute period is reduced from 4,06 ± 0,32 to 3,07 ± 0,27 day (P < 0,05. Already by the end of the 1st day of the beginning of rehydration, almost all patients (90% are normalized malformations of blood electrolytes and glucose, hematocrit, and on the 2nd day, which took place in 80% of patients with metabolic acidosis. The addition of the «Bio rehydron» Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG facilitates, unlike hyperosmolarny solution indicator normalizing lg Lactobacilli (in 73.3% and Enterococci (93.3%, but has no significant positive impact on the amount of Bifidobacteria and Escherichia coli.

  10. A randomized controlled trial of glucose versus amylase resistant starch hypo-osmolar oral rehydration solution for adult acute dehydrating diarrhea.

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    Balakrishnan S Ramakrishna

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reduction of gross diarrhea rate in excess of that seen over time with intravenous therapy and appropriate antibiotics is not usually achieved by oral glucose-electrolyte rehydration therapy for cholera and cholera-like diarrheas. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This prospective randomized clinical trial at a tertiary referral hospital in southern India was undertaken to determine whether amylase resistant starch, substituting for glucose in hypo-osmolar oral rehydration solution, would reduce diarrhea duration and weight in adults with acute severe dehydrating diarrhea. 50 adult males with severe watery diarrhea of less than three days' duration and moderate to severe dehydration were randomized to receive hypo-osmolar ORS (HO-ORS or HO-ORS in which amylase resistant high amylose maize starch 50g/L substituted for glucose (HAMS-ORS. All remaining therapy followed standard protocol. Duration of diarrhea (ORS commencement to first formed stool in hours was significantly shorter with HAMS-ORS (median 19, IQR 10-28 compared to HO-ORS (median 42, IQR 24-50 (Bonferroni adjusted P, P(adj<0.001. Survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier showed faster recovery from diarrhea in the HAMS-ORS group (P<0.001, log rank test. Total diarrhea fecal weight in grams (median, IQR was not significantly lower in the HAMS-ORS group (2190, 1160-5635 compared to HO-ORS (5210, 2095-12190 (P(adj = 0.08. However, stool weight at 13-24 hours (280, 0-965 vs. 1360, 405-2985 and 25-48 hours (0, 0-360 vs. 1080, 55-3485 were significantly lower in HAMS-ORS compared to HO-ORS group (P(adj = 0.048 and P = 0.012, respectively. ORS intake after first 24 hours was lower in the HAMS-ORS group. Subgroup analysis of patients with culture isolates of Vibrio cholerae indicated similar significant differences between the treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to HO-ORS, HAMS-ORS reduced diarrhea duration by 55% and significantly reduced fecal weight after the first 12 hours of ORS

  11. [An evaluation of the 4 years of the Oral Rehydration Service of the Hospital Infantil de Monterrey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraira-Gutiérrez, A; Méndez-Jara, A; Ruiz-Villalpando, G

    1992-06-01

    At four years of being founded the Service of Oral Hydration from Hospital Infantil de Monterrey, we carried out this investigation to know its productivity, to determine costs of internments, death rates due to diarrhea and dehydration in the hospital and at a State level. The statistics from the hospital were revised in the previous and subsequent years to the institution of the Service in September of 1986, so as the statistics of death due to diarrhea from the State Health Department. The cases attended were 12,139, from which 9,024 belonged to plan A, 2,983 to plan B and 72 to plan C. Three hundred (300) doctors were trained and nine (9) research studies were accomplished. A decrease was achieved from the hospital rate admission by diarrhea and dehydration, throw the oral dehydration therapy in a 66%, the mortality rate was reduced 72% and an expenditure of $619,243,480.00 pesos in drugs and auxiliary examinations of diagnostic was avoided. At a State level the general death rate due to diarrhea got a cutdown of 13.1 to 5.8, and in infants under a year old decreased from 275 to 122.3. The oral hydration therapy applied in the State seems to be the main reason in that results.

  12. Efficacy and safety of oral rehydration solution with reduced osmolarity in adults with cholera: a randomised double-blind clinical trial. CHOICE study group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, N H; Majumder, R N; Fuchs, G J

    1999-07-24

    The effects of oral rehydration solution (ORS) with reduced osmolarity on children with acute watery diarrhoea are known, but little is known about the effects of such ORS on adults with cholera. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of an ORS with reduced osmolarity with that of standard WHO ORS in adults with cholera. We undertook a double-blind, controlled clinical trial in adults with severe cholera at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. Our primary outcomes were mean stool output in the 24 h after randomisation, proportion of patients who needed unscheduled intravenous therapy, and proportion of patients with biochemical hyponatraemia 24 h after randomisation. 147 patients received ORS with reduced osmolarity and 153 received standard WHO ORS. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of main outcome variables: mean initial 24 h and total stool output (reduced osmolarity vs standard WHO ORS 212 [SE 8] vs 207 [8] and 284 [13] vs 273 [13] g/kg respectively), duration of diarrhoea (46 [1.5] vs 43 [1.5]). The proportion of patients vomiting during the first 24 h and the proportion who received unscheduled intravenous infusion during the first 24 h was similar between groups. More patients on reduced osmolarity ORS than on standard WHO ORS developed hyponatraemia during the first 24 h, defined as serum sodium concentration below 130 mmol/L (29 of 142 vs 16 of 150; odds ratio 2.1 [95% CI 1.1-4.1]). However, all hyponatraemic patients in both groups were symptom-free and the proportion of patients with serum sodium concentration below 125 mmol/L was similar between groups. There was no difference in clinical outcome between cholera patients treated with reduced osmolarity ORS solution and those treated with standard WHO ORS. The risk of increased incidence of symptom-free hyponatraemia in patients with cholera treated with an ORS with reduced osmolarity should be further assessed by meta-analysis. The

  13. Las prácticas maternas frente a la enfermedad diarreica infantil y la terapia de rehidratación oral Maternal practice in case of infantile diarrhea and oral rehydration therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene Alvarez-Larrauri

    1998-05-01

    of diarrheic episodes in their children under 5 years of age, the degree of generalization, and the relationship with the social frame that sustains them. Material and methods. A sample of 300 families was randomly selected from a total of 15 740. Quantitative and qualitative information was gathered through structured open surveys. Non-parametric statistical analysis of the therapeutic practices was performed and their relationship with socioeconomic variables was analyzed. Results. The two practices considered to obstruct the oral rehydration therapy most, were common: infrequent use of oral rehydration serum (ORS and contraindicated medication. Non-parametric analysis indicated a significant relationship between contraindicated practices and a mistaken concept of dehydration. On the other hand, the relationship between a correct concept of dehydration and a using ORS, b not using contraindicated medication and c limiting the use of traditional medicine was also significant. Socioeconomic variables had no significant relationship with any particular practice nor with the concept of dehydration. Qualitative interpretation describes how the social meanings that sustain these practices are constructed and reproduced through social nets. Conclusions. The participation of health suppliers in the reproduction of therapeutic practices should be further investigated, as well as their relationship with the reproduction patterns of social meaning through the nets of social aid.

  14. The Oral Health Status and the Treatment Needs of Salt Workers at Sambhar Lake, Jaipur, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sanadhya, Sudhanshu; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Sharda, Archana Jagat; Asawa, Kailash; TAK, Mridula; Batra, Mehak; Daryani, Hemasha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Salt workers are exposed to the adversities of environmental conditions such as direct sunlight, salt dust and contact with brine, which have an impact on the health of workers. Since oral health is an integral part of the general health, we planned to determine its effect on the oral cavity.

  15. Acute and subacute oral toxicity of periodate salts in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Emily May; Crouse, Lee C B; Eck, William S

    2017-02-01

    Periodate salts are being developed as potential replacements for perchlorate due to potential health hazards associated with exposure to perchlorate. The aim of this study was to investigate acute and subacute effects of periodate salts in rats. Acute oral toxicity of potassium and sodium periodate was determined using the Sequential Stage-Wise Probit method. The LD50 for potassium periodate was 732 (95% CI = 539-838, slope = 13.4) and 685 mg/kg (95% CI = 580-809, slope = 10.6) for females and males, respectively. The LD50 for sodium periodate was 318 (95% CI = 292-347, slope = 24.3) and 741 mg/kg (95% CI = 704-779, slope = 31.2) for females and males, respectively. In the subacute study, rats were administered sodium periodate at five doses (1/16 LD50 up to LD50) or distilled water for 14-days via oral gavage. Female rats in the 318 mg/kg-day group and male rats in the 185, 370, and 741 mg/kg-day groups exhibited moribundity, kidney toxicity, uremia, and a stress response. BMDL10s of 17.2 and 33.7 mg/kg-day were derived for females and males, respectively. Comparison with the NOAEL for perchlorate-induced thyroid toxicity in rats (0.009 mg/kg-day) suggests sodium periodate is less toxic than perchlorate on a subacute basis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Stability of pharmaceutical salts in solid oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Haichen; Byrn, Stephen R; Zhou, Qi Tony

    2017-03-09

    Using pharmaceutical salts in solid dosage forms can raise stability concerns, especially salt dissociation which can adversely affect the product performance. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the salt instability encountered in solid state formulations is imperative to ensure the product quality. The present article uses the fundamental theory of acid base, ionic equilibrium, relationship of pH and solubility as a starting point to illustrate and interpret the salt formation and salt disproportionation in pharmaceutical systems. The criteria of selecting the optimal salt form and the underlying theory of salt formation and disproportionation are reviewed in detail. Factors influencing salt stability in solid dosage forms are scrutinized and discussed with the case studies. In addition, both commonly used and innovative strategies for preventing salt dissociations in formulation, on storage, and during manufacturing will be suggested herein. This article will provide formulation scientists and manufacturing engineers an insight into the mechanisms of salt disproportionation and salt formation, which can help them avoid and solve the instability issues of pharmaceutical salts in the product design.

  17. GLC determination of plasma drug levels after oral administration of clorazepate potassium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D J; Chun, A H

    1975-10-01

    Plasma nordiazepam levels resulting from the oral administration of clorazepate potassium salts were determined by a sensitive GLC assay. Nordiazepam and the internal standard (diazepam) were selectively extracted into ether at pH 9.2, hydrolyzed to their respective benzophenones, and quantified by electron-capture detection. The assay was used in a comparative bioavailability study of single equimolar oral doses of monopotassium and dipotassium salts of clorazepate in dogs. Both clorazepate salts were rapidly absorbed and exhibited mean peak total drug levels after 1 hr. Clorazepate levels accounted for about 50% of the total drug levels present. No statistical difference in the plasma drug levels of clorazepate mono- and dipotassium salts and the metabolite was found in dogs.

  18. Concentração de sódio e glicose em soro de reidratação oral preparado por Agentes Comunitários de Saúde Sodium and glucose concentration in therapeutical solution for oral rehydration prepared by Community Health Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Fernandes do Carmo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A diarreia infantil é importante causa de morbimortalidade, sendo indicativo para terapia de reidratação oral (TRO. Este estudo objetivou avaliar o teor de sódio e glicose em soro de reidratação oral preparado por Agentes Comunitários de Saúde (ACS que atuam em Unidades Básicas de Saúde (UBS, caracterizando o perfil e o conhecimento destes sobre a TRO. Após responderem questionário com informações profissionais e sobre a TRO, os ACS a prepararam por três métodos. O teor de glicose e de sódio das TRO foi determinado e comparado ao proposto pela OMS. Na análise estatística foram utilizados ANOVA, Tukey e odds ratio. Participaram do estudo 52 ACS, majoritariamente mulheres e com ensino médio completo (90,4%. A adequação da TRO foi de 3,9; 9,8 e 28,9% para a colher caseira, colher medida e punhado pitada, respectivamente. O preparo da TRO com a colher caseira resultou em 88,0% das amostras com teor de sódio perigoso à saúde (>101 mmol/L. Entre os ACS, 38,5% tinham menos de 2 anos de trabalho, com risco 4,8 vezes maior de preparar TRO inadequada em sódio. Os ACS referiram indicar a TRO no tratamento da diarreia infantil, desconhecendo efeitos colaterais do preparo inadequado. A composição da TRO produzida pelos ACS foi inadequada em todos os métodos. É recomendável treinamento dos ACS no preparo da TRO.Infant Diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children and oral rehydration therapy (ORT is required. This study evaluates the composition of ORT prepared by Community Health Agents (CHAs working in Basic Health Units, assessing their profile and knowledge about ORT. After the CHAs answer specific questions, they are invited to prepare ORT using three methods. Glucose and sodium levels were then quantified and compared with WHO recommendations. ANOVA, Tukey and odds ratio were used for statistical analysis. 52 CHAs participated, mainly females, and 90.4% with full high school education. The adequacy of

  19. Effect of oral salt loading on blood pressure and lymphocyte sodium metabolism in borderline hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, K E; Jest, P; Klitgaard, N A

    1986-01-01

    A randomized double-blind cross-over trial was performed to test the effects of oral salt loading (normal diet + 200 mmol NaCl/day for 4 weeks followed by normal diet + 400 mmol/day for 1 week) against placebo on blood pressure and lymphocyte sodium homeostasis in 10 young borderline hypertensive...... men, genetically predisposed for essential hypertension. Salt loading caused no significant changes in blood pressure levels, lymphocyte sodium content and efflux. In conclusion, our subjects seem insensitive to a few weeks of excessive salt intake....

  20. 21 CFR 201.306 - Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man. 201.306 Section 201.306 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.306 Potassium...

  1. Effective Treatment of Unconjugated Hyperbilirubinemia With Oral Bile Salts in Gunn Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuperus, Frans J. C.; Hafkamp, Anja M.; Havinga, Rick; Vitek, Libor; Zelenka, Jaroslav; Tiribelli, Claudio; Ostrow, J. Donald; Verkade, Henkjan J.

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims: we tested the hypothesis that oral administration of bile salts, which are known to increase the biliary excretion of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB), decreases unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in the Gunn rat model. Methods: Adult Gunn rats were fed a standard diet or the same diet s

  2. Ketorolac salt is a newly discovered DDX3 inhibitor to treat oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Sabindra K; Routray, Samapika; Veeramachaneni, Ganesh Kumar; Dash, Rupesh; Botlagunta, Mahendran

    2015-04-28

    DDX3 belongs to DEAD box RNA helicase family and is involved in the progression of several types of cancer. In this work, we employed a High Throughput Virtual screening approach to identify bioactive compounds against DDX3 from ZINC natural database. Ketorolac salt was selected based on its binding free energy less than or equals to -5 Kcal/mol with reference to existing synthetic DDX3 inhibitors and strong hydrogen bond interactions as similar to crystallized DDX3 protein (2I4I). The anti-cancer activity of Ketorolac salt against DDX3 was tested using oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines. This compound significantly down regulated the expression of DDX3 in human OSCC line (H357) and the half maximal growth inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Ketorolac salt in H357 cell line is 2.6 µM. Ketorolac salt also inhibited the ATP hydrolysis by directly interacting with DDX3. More importantly, we observed decreased number of neoplastic tongue lesions and reduced lesion severity in Ketorolac salt treated groups in a carcinogen induced tongue tumor mouse model. Taken together, our result demonstrates that Ketorolac salt is a newly discovered bioactive compound against DDX3 and this compound can be used as an ideal drug candidate to treat DDX3 associated oral cancer.

  3. Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-24

    Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

  4. Indicação da Terapia de Reidratação Oral no setor de emergência: decisão baseada na clínica? Use of Oral Rehydration Therapy in the emergency unit: a clinical-based decision?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auxiliadora Damianne P. V. da Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar a literatura acerca da indicação da terapia de reidratação oral (TRO no contexto do Setor de Emergência, buscando fatores inerentes à formação do médico, à atitude do cuidador e, finalmente, à dinâmica do próprio serviço como determinantes à sua aplicação. FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão não-sistemática da literatura incluindo artigos originais e meta-análises, nos idiomas inglês, português e espanhol, a partir das bases de dados Pubmed/Medline, Cochrane Collaboration, Lilacs e SciELO, no período de 1990 a 2008. Foram utilizados os termos "oral rehydration therapy", "diarrhea case management", "emergency department" e palavras relacionadas. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Realizada em local apropriado, a TRO mostrou eficácia semelhante à terapia venosa no restabelecimento do nível de hidratação em crianças com diarreia aguda no Setor de Emergência. O tempo de formado e a experiência profissional, o conhecimento e o treinamento no manejo da diarreia aguda mostraram associação à utilização da TRO. Entretanto, relatos de inconveniência de sua administração no Setor de Emergência incluem falta de espaço físico e pressão assistencial, sugerindo, ao mesmo tempo, inadequação estrutural e uso inapropriado do serviço nesses casos. A relação com o cuidador também influencia na decisão médica, com o relato de desconfiança deste quanto à eficácia da terapia sendo citado como barreira à sua indicação. CONCLUSÕES: A subutilização da TRO no Setor de Emergência está associada a fatores extrínsecos à formação médica, como questões estruturais e fatores inerentes à relação com o cuidador diante das suas expectativas quanto à terapia.OBJECTIVE: To review the literature about indication of oral rehydration therapy (ORT for children in the emergency unit, seeking factors related to medical training, caregiver's attitude and units' conditions as determinants for that practice. DATA SOURCES: Non

  5. Improved oral absorption of cilostazol via sulfonate salt formation with mesylate and besylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo JH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jae Hong Seo, Jung Bae Park, Woong-Kee Choi, Sunhwa Park, Yun Jin Sung, Euichaul Oh, Soo Kyung Bae College of Pharmacy and Integrated Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, South Korea Objective: Cilostazol is a Biopharmaceutical Classification System class II drug with low solubility and high permeability, so its oral absorption is variable and incomplete. The aim of this study was to prepare two sulfonate salts of cilostazol to increase the dissolution and hence the oral bioavailability of cilostazol.Methods: Cilostazol mesylate and cilostazol besylate were synthesized from cilostazol by acid addition reaction with methane sulfonic acid and benzene sulfonic acid, respectively. The salt preparations were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The water contents, hygroscopicity, stress stability, and photostability of the two cilostazol salts were also determined. The dissolution profiles in various pH conditions and pharmacokinetic studies in rats were compared with those of cilostazol-free base.Results: The two cilostazol salts exhibited good physicochemical properties, such as nonhygroscopicity, stress stability, and photostability, which make it suitable for the preparation of pharmaceutical formulations. Both cilostazol mesylate and cilostazol besylate showed significantly improved dissolution rate and extent of drug release in the pH range 1.2–6.8 compared to the cilostazol-free base. In addition, after oral administration to rats, cilostazol mesylate and cilostazol besylate showed increases in Cmax and AUCt of approximately 3.65- and 2.87-fold and 3.88- and 2.94-fold, respectively, compared to cilostazol-free base.Conclusion: This study showed that two novel salts of cilostazol, such as cilostazol mesylate and cilostazol besylate, could be used to enhance its oral absorption. The findings warrant further preclinical and clinical studies on cilostazol mesylate and

  6. Consistent antioxidant and antihypertensive effects of oral sodium nitrite in DOCA-salt hypertension

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    Jefferson H. Amaral

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common disease that includes oxidative stress as a major feature, and oxidative stress impairs physiological nitric oxide (NO activity promoting cardiovascular pathophysiological mechanisms. While inorganic nitrite and nitrate are now recognized as relevant sources of NO after their bioactivation by enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways, thus lowering blood pressure, mounting evidence suggests that sodium nitrite also exerts antioxidant effects. Here we show for the first time that sodium nitrite exerts consistent systemic and vascular antioxidant and antihypertensive effects in the deoxycorticosterone-salt (DOCA-salt hypertension model. This is particularly important because increased oxidative stress plays a major role in the DOCA-salt hypertension model, which is less dependent on activation of the renin-angiotensin system than other hypertension models. Indeed, antihypertensive effects of oral nitrite were associated with increased plasma nitrite and nitrate concentrations, and completely blunted hypertension-induced increases in plasma 8-isoprostane and lipid peroxide levels, in vascular reactive oxygen species, in vascular NADPH oxidase activity, and in vascular xanthine oxidoreductase activity. Together, these findings provide evidence that the oral administration of sodium nitrite consistently decreases the blood pressure in association with major antioxidant effects in experimental hypertension.

  7. Drying and rehydration of oyster mushroom

    OpenAIRE

    Giannini Pasiznick Apati; Sandra Aparecida Furlan; João Borges Laurindo

    2010-01-01

    Dehydration and rehydration processes of Pleurotus ostreatus fruiting bodies were investigated in this work. Mushroom samples were dehydrated at 40, 50 and 60 ºC, using drying air with relative humidity of 75 %. The rehydration was investigated at different temperatures of immersion water (25, 55 and 85 ºC) and different immersion times (30, 75 and 120 minutes). The best rehydration occurred for the samples dried at 40 ºC. The rehydration could be done in water at room temperature, during 30 ...

  8. Intravenous rehydration of malnourished children with acute gastroenteritis and severe dehydration: A systematic review [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty A. Houston

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rehydration strategies in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM and severe dehydration are extremely cautious. The World Health Organization (WHO SAM guidelines advise strongly against intravenous fluids unless the child is shocked or severely dehydrated and unable to tolerate oral fluids. Otherwise, guidelines recommend oral or nasogastric rehydration using low sodium oral rehydration solutions. There is limited evidence to support these recommendations. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs and observational studies on 15th June 2017 comparing different strategies of rehydration therapy in children with acute gastroenteritis and severe dehydration, specifically relating to intravenous rehydration, using standard search terms. Two authors assessed papers for inclusion. The primary endpoint was evidence of fluid overload. Results: Four studies were identified, all published in English, including 883 children, all of which were conducted in low resource settings. Two were randomised controlled trials and two observational cohort studies, one incorporated assessment of myocardial and haemodynamic function. There was no evidence of fluid overload or other fluid-related adverse events, including children managed on more liberal rehydration protocols. Mortality was high overall, and particularly in children with shock managed on WHO recommendations (day-28 mortality 82%. There was no difference in safety outcomes when different rates of intravenous rehydration were compared. Conclusions: The current ‘strong recommendations’ for conservative rehydration of children with SAM are not based on emerging evidence. We found no clinical trials providing a direct assessment of the current WHO guidelines, and those that were available suggested that these children have a high mortality and remain fluid depleted on current therapy. Recent studies have reported no evidence of fluid overload or

  9. Avaliação dos efeitos de uma intervenção educativa para promoção do uso da Terapia de Reidratação Oral (TRO em trabalhadores de farmácias Evaluating the potential of an intervention aimed at promoting oral rehydration therapy (ORT by educating pharmacy employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Oshiro

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available A diarréia constitui uma das principais causas de morbi-mortalidade na infância. As farmácias são locais bastante procurados pela população para resolução de problemas de saúde. Visando contribuir para o uso racional de medicamentos, mediante promoção da TRO, foi realizado um estudo de intervenção em farmácias de Corumbá e Ladário. Os medicamentos mais indicados foram SRO (50%, antidiarréicos (39%, Sulfametoxazol/Trimetoprim (27% e levedo (22% na entrevista semi-estruturada; SRO (75%, Sulfametoxazol/Trimetoprim (25% e levedo (25% nas respostas ao questionário, demonstrando a importância do uso de mais de uma metodologia para a obtenção de dados fidedignos. A intervenção educativa foi realizada em 86,7% das farmácias. Os resultados mostraram que mesmo tendo adquirido conhecimento do manejo adequado da diarréia, os trabalhadores de farmácia ainda recomendam outros medicamentos e não SRO exclusivamente. O trabalho evidencia que para conseguir a adesão dos trabalhadores de farmácia aos protocolos oficiais para episódios diarréicos, necessita-se também de medidas normativas em relação aos medicamentos contra-indicados para crianças e reformular as atividades da farmácia e do farmacêutico.Diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood, and Brazilians rely heavily on pharmacies for the resolution of this and other health problems. To promote the rational use of both pharmaceuticals and oral rehydration therapy (ORT, an intervention study was performed in pharmacies in Southwestern Brazil. Semi-structured interviews showed oral rehydration solution, or ORS (50%, antidiarrheals (39%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (27%, and yeast (22% to be the most frequently suggested drugs, whereas questionnaire responses were ORS (75%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (25%, and yeast (25%, thus revealing that more than one methodology is needed if reliable data are to be obtained. An educational intervention was

  10. Effects of orally self-administered bath salt constituent 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Brenda M; Russell, Lauren N; Modi, Meet S; Rice, Kenner C; Fantegrossi, William E

    2017-10-01

    Synthetic cathinones in bath salts products are psychostimulant drugs of abuse, and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a common constituent of these products. Oral MDPV has been show to stimulate locomotor activity but reinforcing, locomotor and appetitive stimulus effects of oral MDPV are unknown. Choice procedures evaluated preference for 0.03, 0.10, 0.30, and 1.00mg/mL MDPV solutions versus 0.10mg/mL quinine solution or water. To verify that oral MDPV produced pharmacological effects, locomotor activity was monitored during and after consumption of water, quinine, or MDPV solutions. Conditioned place preference (CPP) tested the apparent appetitive effects of a preferred concentration of oral MDPV with locomotor stimulant effects (0.30mg/mL), using water as a control, and compared with results from intraperitoneally-administered MDPV. Consumption of MDPV solutions (0.03-1.00mg/mL) was low when the alternative fluid was water, but a history of MDPV consumption increased MDPV choice. When paired with a quinine control solution, MDPV solutions (0.03-0.30mg/mL) were almost exclusively preferred, and treatment with the catecholamine synthesis inhibitor αMPT decreased MDPV choice. Consumption of MDPV concentrations (0.1-1.0mg/mL) stimulated locomotor activity. Chronic (10day) access to 0.30mg/mL MDPV resulted in escalated consumption, but locomotor effects did not systematically change across the access period. Finally, consumption of 0.30mg/mL MDPV elicited CPP with a magnitude similar to the preference observed following intraperitoneal administration of MDPV. Consistent with human abuse patterns, oral MDPV has reinforcing effects in the mouse which are most likely related to its psychostimulant-like pharmacological profile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Rapid versus standard intravenous rehydration in paediatric gastroenteritis: pragmatic blinded randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Stephen B; Parkin, Patricia C; Willan, Andrew R; Schuh, Suzanne

    2011-11-17

    To determine if rapid rather than standard intravenous rehydration results in improved hydration and clinical outcomes when administered to children with gastroenteritis. Single centre, two arm, parallel randomised pragmatic controlled trial. Blocked randomisation stratified by site. Participants, caregivers, outcome assessors, investigators, and statisticians were blinded to the treatment assignment. Paediatric emergency department in a tertiary care centre in Toronto, Canada. 226 children aged 3 months to 11 years; complete follow-up was obtained on 223 (99%). Eligible children were aged over 90 days, had a diagnosis of dehydration secondary to gastroenteritis, had not responded to oral rehydration, and had been prescribed intravenous rehydration. Children were excluded if they weighed less than 5 kg or more than 33 kg, required fluid restriction, had a suspected surgical condition, or had an insurmountable language barrier. Children were also excluded if they had a history of a chronic systemic disease, abdominal surgery, bilious or bloody vomit, hypotension, or hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemia. Rapid (60 mL/kg) or standard (20 mL/kg) rehydration with 0.9% saline over an hour; subsequent fluids administered according to protocol. clinical rehydration, assessed with a validated scale, two hours after the start of treatment. prolonged treatment, mean clinical dehydration scores over the four hour study period, time to discharge, repeat visits to emergency department, adequate oral intake, and physician's comfort with discharge. Data from all randomised patients were included in an intention to treat analysis. 114 patients were randomised to rapid rehydration and 112 to standard. One child was withdrawn because of severe hyponatraemia at baseline. There was no evidence of a difference between the rapid and standard rehydration groups in the proportions of participants who were rehydrated at two hours (41/114 (36%) v 33/112 (30%); difference 6.5% (95% confidence

  12. Rehydration characteristics and modeling of cassava chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajala, A.S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava chips with dimension 4x2x0.2cm were re-hydrated in distilled water at 200C, 300C and 400C in a laboratory water bath. Kinetics of re-hydration was investigated using three different re-hydration models namely Peleg, exponential and Weibull. The pattern of water absorption was observed to be faster at the initial period of soaking. Higher temperature induces faster moisture absorption in the chips. Non linear regression analysis was used to fit in the experimental data and the coefficient of determination was found to be greater than 0.72 for all the models. The values of R2 , RMSE, MBE and reduced chi square showed that Weibull model best described the re-hydrating behaviour of the cassava chips.

  13. Effects of oral salt supplementation on physical performance during a half-ironman: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, J; González-Millán, C; Salinero, J J; Abián-Vicén, J; Areces, F; Lledó, M; Lara, B; Gallo-Salazar, C; Ruiz-Vicente, D

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of oral salt supplementation to improve exercise performance during a half-ironman triathlon. Twenty-six experienced triathletes were matched for age, anthropometric data, and training status, and randomly placed into the salt group (113 mmol Na(+) and 112 mmol Cl(-)) or the control group (cellulose). The experimental treatments were ingested before and during a real half-ironman triathlon competition. Pre- and post-race body mass, maximal force during a whole-body isometric strength test, maximal height during a countermovement jump, were measured, and blood samples were obtained. Sweat samples were obtained during the running section. Total race time was lower in the salt group than in the control group (P = 0.04). After the race, whole-body isometric strength (P = 0.17) and jump height (P = 0.49) were similarly reduced in both groups. Sweat loss (P = 0.98) and sweat Na(+) concentration (P = 0.72) were similar between groups. However, body mass tended to be less reduced in the salt group than in the control group (P = 0.09) while post-race serum Na(+) (P = 0.03) and Cl(-) (P = 0.03) concentrations were higher in the salt group than in the control group. Oral salt supplementation was effective to lessen body mass loss and increase serum electrolyte concentration during a real half-ironman.

  14. Oral immunization against hepatitis B using bile salt stabilized vesicles (bilosomes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Anshuman; Khatri, Kapil; Gupta, Prem N; Goyal, Amit K; Mehta, Abhinav; Vyas, Suresh P

    2008-01-01

    Most of the presently available vaccines including hepatitis B vaccines administered through parenteral route, fail to induce a mucosal antibody response. Therefore, oral immunization appears to be an effective and attractive alternative to parenteral immunization. However, the problem of degradation of antigen in the harsh and hostile environment of the gastrointestinal tract consequently requires larger doses and more frequent dosing of antigen. Furthermore, much larger doses can induce antigen tolerance. Therefore the purpose of the present study was firstly to overcome these problems by the use of bile salt stabilized vesicles (bilosomes) and HBsAg as the model antigen,which could provide both protection to the antigen as well as enable transmucosal uptake and subsequent immunization. Another purpose of this study was to determine the dose that could produce serum antibody titres against hepatitis B via the oral route compared to those following intramuscular immunization. In the present study bilosomes containing recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen were prepared by a lipid cast film method. HBsAg loaded bilosomeswere characterized in vitro for their shape, size, percent antigen entrapment and stability. Fluorescence microscopy was carried out to confirm the uptake of bilosomes by gut associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). The in vivo part of the study comprised estimation of anti-HBsAg IgG response in serum and anti-HBsAg sIgA in various body secretions using specific ELISA techniques following oral immunization with low dose loaded bilosomes (B1, 10 microg), intermediate dose loaded bilosomes (B2, 20 microg) and high dose loaded bilosomes (B3, 50 microg) in BALB/c mice. Fluorescence microscopy suggested that there was an increase in fluorescence intensity following the uptake of bilosomes entrapped FITC-BSA in gut associated lymphoid tissues. The high dose HBsAg bilosomes (B3, 50 microg) produced comparable anti-HBsAg IgG levels in serum to those observed in

  15. Niosomal carriers enhance oral bioavailability of carvedilol: effects of bile salt-enriched vesicles and carrier surface charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzani, Gelareh; Haeri, Azadeh; Daeihamed, Marjan; Bakhtiari-Kaboutaraki, Hamid; Dadashzadeh, Simin

    2015-01-01

    Carvedilol (CRV) is an antihypertensive drug with both alpha and beta receptor blocking activity used to preclude angina and cardiac arrhythmias. To overcome the low, variable oral bioavailability of CRV, niosomal formulations were prepared and characterized: plain niosomes (without bile salts), bile salt-enriched niosomes (bilosomes containing various percentages of sodium cholate or sodium taurocholate), and charged niosomes (negative, containing dicetyl phosphate and positive, containing hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide). All formulations were characterized in terms of encapsulation efficiency, size, zeta potential, release profile, stability, and morphology. Various formulations were administered orally to ten groups of Wistar rats (n=6 per group). The plasma levels of CRV were measured by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and pharmacokinetic properties of different formulations were characterized. Contribution of lymphatic transport to the oral bioavailability of niosomes was also investigated using a chylomicron flow-blocking approach. Of the bile salt-enriched vesicles examined, bilosomes containing 20% sodium cholate (F2) and 30% sodium taurocholate (F5) appeared to give the greatest enhancement of intestinal absorption. The relative bioavailability of F2 and F5 formulations to the suspension was estimated to be 1.84 and 1.64, respectively. With regard to charged niosomes, the peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) of CRV for positively (F7) and negatively charged formulations (F10) were approximately 2.3- and 1.7-fold higher than after a suspension. Bioavailability studies also revealed a significant increase in extent of drug absorption from charged vesicles. Tissue histology revealed no signs of inflammation or damage. The study proved that the type and concentration of bile salts as well as carrier surface charge had great influences on oral bioavailability of niosomes. Blocking the lymphatic absorption pathway

  16. Enhanced oral absorption of insulin-loaded liposomes containing bile salts: a mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Mengmeng; Tan, Ya'nan; Guan, Peipei; Hovgaard, Lars; Lu, Yi; Qi, Jianping; Lian, Ruyue; Li, Xiaoyang; Wu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Liposomes containing bile salts (BS-liposomes) significantly enhanced the oral bioavailability of insulin (rhINS). However, the underlying absorption mechanisms have not been well understood yet. In this study, the transiting fate of the liposomes was first investigated using fluorescent imaging tools to confirm the effect of enhanced gastrointestinal stability. In order to obtain evidence of enhanced transcellular permeation, the interaction between BS-liposomes and the biomembrane was investigated in Caco-2 cell lines. BS-liposomes were found to be more stable in the gastrointestinal tract by showing prolonged residence time in comparison with conventional liposomes. BS-liposomes were significantly more effective for cellular uptake and transport of rhINS; and this effect was found to be size- and concentration-dependent. A good linear correlation was observed between the concentration of the liposomes and uptake/transport of rhINS. Confocal laser scanning microscopy visualization further validated the transcellular transit of BS-liposomes. The BS-liposomes showed little effect on cytotoxicity and did not induce apoptosis within 24h investigation. It was concluded that BS-liposomes showed improved in vivo residence time and enhanced permeation across the biomemebranes. Mechanisms of trans-enterocytic internalization could be proposed as an interpretation for enhanced absorption of insulin-loaded liposomes.

  17. Terapia de reidratação oral para diarréia aguda em região do nordeste do Brasil, 1986-1989 Oral rehydration therapy for acute diarrhoea in a region of northeastern Brazil, 1986-1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis E. S. Galvão

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a utilização da Terapia de Reidratação Oral (TRO no tratamento da diarréia infantil aguda em menores de cinco anos de idade, através de inquérito domiciliar transversal nos anos de 1986 e 1989, em três localicadades da ilha de São Luís, MA, Brasil. A prevalência da doença diarréica foi alta (16,8% e 7,8% e a utilização da TRO baixa (31% e 25,3%, em 1986 e 1989, havendo decréscimo estatisticamente significante desta taxa entre esses anos. A utilização da TRO foi maior entre 6 e 23 meses de idade da criança, entre as mães com segundo grau, quando a indicação do tratamento foi feita por agentes de saúde e quando a mãe não usou medicamento para diarréia. O uso da TRO não mostrou associação com a renda familiar e com a relação do chefe de família no emprego. Entre as intervenções propostas para melhor promoção do uso da TRO, sugeriu-se uma política de educação em saúde direcionada às comunidades mais carentes, progamas de reciclagem dos profissionais de saúde no tratamento da diarréia infantil e programas de treinamento para agentes de saúde.Some aspects of the use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT in the treatment of acute infant diarrhoea in children under five years of age in three different areas of S. Luís Island, Maranhão, Brazil were analysed. This paper is based on data from a transversal study carried out by "Projeto de Controle da Doença Diarréica Infantil no Maranhão" in the districts of Vila Palmeira and Anjo da Guarda in the municipality of S. Luís and in two other districts in S. José de Ribamar county, involving 13,867 children under five years of age, in 1986 and 1989. Chi-square analysis and Fisher's exact test were used for significance testing. The study revealed a high prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases and a low usage of ORT in the areas analysed, with a significant decrease in the former from 1986 to 1989, and a great variance from one area to another,especially in

  18. Initial experience with oral gold salts in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in patients followed up for one year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignère, G C; Giavarini, S; Longatti, S

    1984-01-01

    Fifteen patients, eight males and seven females, suffering from classic or definite rheumatoid arthritis were treated for 1 year with Auranofin, a new gold salt active by the oral route, different from parenteral gold as far as dosage, mechanism of action and toxicity are concerned. Patients received a dosage of 3 mg twice daily, equivalent to 0.85 mg of elemental gold, in order to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and tolerability of this new compound. Subjective and objective parameters were monitored during the trial and serum gold levels were assayed every 2 months by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Our study, which is on-going, shows the therapeutic efficacy of Auranofin which seems better tolerated than parenteral gold salts and will probably become a widely used drug in the long-term treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

  19. Drying and rehydration of oyster mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannini Pasiznick Apati

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Dehydration and rehydration processes of Pleurotus ostreatus fruiting bodies were investigated in this work. Mushroom samples were dehydrated at 40, 50 and 60 ºC, using drying air with relative humidity of 75 %. The rehydration was investigated at different temperatures of immersion water (25, 55 and 85 ºC and different immersion times (30, 75 and 120 minutes. The best rehydration occurred for the samples dried at 40 ºC. The rehydration could be done in water at room temperature, during 30 minutes. Water sorption isotherms of samples were determined at 30, 40 and 50 ºC. Both GAB and BET models satisfactorily represented the experimental data of moisture sorption of dried mushrooms.Processos de desidratação e de rehidratação de cogumelos da espécie Pleurotus ostreatus foram avaliados neste trabalho. Os cogumelos foram desidratados a 40, 50 e 60 ºC, com umidade relativa do ar de 75 %. O processo de rehidratação foi avaliado para diferentes temperaturas de água de imersão (25, 55 e 85 ºC e diferentes tempos de imersão (30, 75 e 120 minutos. A melhor temperatura de secagem foi 40 ºC, levando em consideração a melhor rehidratação dos cogumelos desidratados nesta temperatura. A rehidratação pode ser feita em água a temperatura ambiente, por 30 minutos. Isotermas de sorção de umidade de amostras foram determinadas a 30, 40 e 50 ºC.Tanto o modelo de GAB quanto o de BET representaram satisfatoriamente os dados experimentais de isoterma de sorção de umidade.

  20. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  1. In vivo analysis of supersaturation/precipitation/absorption behavior after oral administration of pioglitazone hydrochloride salt; determinant site of oral absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yusuke; Sugihara, Masahisa; Kawakami, Ayaka; Imai, So; Itou, Takafumi; Murase, Hirokazu; Saiki, Kazunori; Kasaoka, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

    2017-08-30

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo supersaturation/precipitation/absorption behavior in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract based on the luminal concentration-time profiles after oral administration of pioglitazone (PG, a highly permeable lipophilic base) and its hydrochloride salt (PG-HCl) to rats. In the in vitro precipitation experiment in the classic closed system, while the supersaturation was stable in the simulated gastric condition, PG drastically precipitated in the simulated intestinal condition, particularly at a higher initial degree of supersaturation. Nonetheless, a drastic and moderate improvement in absorption was observed in vivo at a low and high dose of PG-HCl, respectively. Analysis based on the luminal concentration of PG after oral administration of PG-HCl at a low dose revealed that most of the dissolved PG emptied from the stomach was rapidly absorbed before its precipitation in the duodenum. At a high dose of PG-HCl, PG partly precipitated in the duodenum but was absorbed to some extent. Therefore, the extent of the absorption was mainly dependent on the duodenal precipitation behavior. Furthermore, a higher-than expected absorption after oral administration of PG-HCl from in vitro precipitation study may be due to the absorption process in the small intestine, which suppresses the precipitation by removal of the drug. This study successfully clarify the impact of the absorption process on the supersaturation/precipitation/absorption behavior and key absorption site for a salt formulation of a highly permeable lipophilic base based on the direct observation of in vivo luminal concentration. Our findings may be beneficial in developing an ideal physiologically based pharmacokinetic model and in vitro predictive dissolution tools and/or translating the in silico and in vitro data to the in vivo outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydration and endocrine responses to intravenous fluid and oral glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rosendal, S P; Strobel, N A; Osborne, M A; Fassett, R G; Coombes, J S

    2015-06-01

    Athletes use intravenous (IV) saline in an attempt to maximize rehydration. The diuresis from IV rehydration may be circumvented through the concomitant use of oral glycerol. We examined the effects of rehydrating with differing regimes of oral and IV fluid, with or without oral glycerol, on hydration, urine, and endocrine indices. Nine endurance-trained men were dehydrated by 4% bodyweight, then rehydrated with 150% of the fluid lost via four protocols: (a) oral = oral fluid only; (b) oral glycerol = oral fluid with added glycerol (1.5 g/kg); (c) IV = 50% IV fluid, 50% oral fluid; and (d) IV with oral glycerol = 50% IV fluid, 50% oral fluid with added glycerol (1.5 g/kg), using a randomized, crossover design. They then completed a cycling performance test. Plasma volume restoration was highest in IV with oral glycerol > IV > oral glycerol  > oral. Urine volume was reduced in both IV trials compared with oral. IV and IV with oral glycerol resulted in lower aldosterone levels during rehydration and performance, and lower cortisol levels during rehydration. IV with oral glycerol resulted in the greatest fluid retention. In summary, the IV conditions resulted in greater fluid retention compared with oral and lower levels of fluid regulatory and stress hormones compared with both oral conditions.

  3. Open sun drying of green bean: influence of pretreatments on drying kinetics, colour and rehydration capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    İsmail, Osman; Kantürk Figen, Aysel; Pişkin, Sabriye

    2017-04-01

    Green bean ( Phaseolus Vulgaris L), classified under legume family, is a primary source of dietary protein in human diets especially in the agricultural countries. Green bean is susceptible to rapid deterioration because of their high moisture content and in order to prevent and present the green bean drying process is applied. In this study, effects of pretreatments on drying kinetics, colour and rehydration capacity of green bean were investigated. It was observed that the pretreatment affected the drying time. The shortest drying times were obtained from pretreated samples with blanched. Drying times were determined as 47, 41 and 29 h for natural, salted and blanch, respectively. The results showed that pretreatment and ambient temperature significantly ( P = 0.05) affected the drying rate and the drying time. The effective moisture diffusivity was determined by using Fick's second law and was found to be range between 3.15 × 10-10 and 1.2 × 10-10 m2/s for the pre-treated and natural green bean samples. The rehydration values were obtained 2.75, 2.71, 2.29 (g water/g dry matter) for the blanched, salted and natural samples. The effective diffusion coefficients were calculated using the data collected during the falling rate period and the experimental data are fitted to seven thin layer drying models which found in the literature. The Logarithmic model was found to best describe the drying behavior of fresh green beans under open air sun. Rehydration time and color parameters had been determined in order to improve the quality of dried green bean. Regarding with rehydration time and colour data, the best results were obtained at blanched drying conditions.

  4. Open sun drying of green bean: influence of pretreatments on drying kinetics, colour and rehydration capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    İsmail, Osman; Kantürk Figen, Aysel; Pişkin, Sabriye

    2016-08-01

    Green bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L), classified under legume family, is a primary source of dietary protein in human diets especially in the agricultural countries. Green bean is susceptible to rapid deterioration because of their high moisture content and in order to prevent and present the green bean drying process is applied. In this study, effects of pretreatments on drying kinetics, colour and rehydration capacity of green bean were investigated. It was observed that the pretreatment affected the drying time. The shortest drying times were obtained from pretreated samples with blanched. Drying times were determined as 47, 41 and 29 h for natural, salted and blanch, respectively. The results showed that pretreatment and ambient temperature significantly (P = 0.05) affected the drying rate and the drying time. The effective moisture diffusivity was determined by using Fick's second law and was found to be range between 3.15 × 10-10 and 1.2 × 10-10 m2/s for the pre-treated and natural green bean samples. The rehydration values were obtained 2.75, 2.71, 2.29 (g water/g dry matter) for the blanched, salted and natural samples. The effective diffusion coefficients were calculated using the data collected during the falling rate period and the experimental data are fitted to seven thin layer drying models which found in the literature. The Logarithmic model was found to best describe the drying behavior of fresh green beans under open air sun. Rehydration time and color parameters had been determined in order to improve the quality of dried green bean. Regarding with rehydration time and colour data, the best results were obtained at blanched drying conditions.

  5. Microstructure, texture and oral processing: New ways to reduce sugar and salt in foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stieger, M.A.; Velde, van de F.

    2013-01-01

    Food oral processing as the bridge between food texture, microstructure and sensory perception has gained enormous interest in the last decade. This review provides an overview of the role of the microstructure of soft- and semi-solid foods in food oral processing and sensory perception. Phase

  6. Salt and fluid loading: effects on blood volume and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Hamouti, Nassim

    2012-01-01

    During prolonged exercise, fluid and salt losses through sweating reduce plasma volume which leads to heart rate drift in association with hyperthermia and reductions in performance. Oral rehydration with water reduces the loss of plasma volume and lessens heart rate drift and hyperthermia. Moreover, the inclusion of sodium in the rehydration solution to levels that double those in sweat (i.e., around 90 mmol/l Na(+)) restores plasma volume when ingested during exercise, and expands plasma volume if ingested pre-exercise. Pre-exercise salt and fluid ingestion with the intention of expanding plasma volume has received an increasing amount of attention in the literature in recent years. In four studies, pre-exercise salt and fluid ingestion improved performance, measured as time to exhaustion, either during exercise in a thermoneutral or in a hot environment. While in a hot environment, the performance improvements were linked to lowering of core temperatures and heart rate, the reasons for the improved performance in a thermoneutral environment remain unclear. However, when ingesting pre-exercise saline solutions above 0.9% (i.e., > 164 mmol/l Na(+)), osmolality and plasma sodium increase and core temperature remain at dehydration levels. Thus, too much salt counteracts the beneficial effects of plasma volume expansion on heat dissipation and hence in performance. In summary, the available literature suggests that pre-exercise saline ingestion with concentrations not over 164 mmol/l Na(+) is an ergogenic aid for subsequent prolonged exercise in a warm or thermoneutral environment.

  7. Influence factors of salt-sensitive hypertension and responses of blood pressure and urinary sodium and potassium excretion to acute oral saline loading among essential hypertensive patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘叶舟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence factors of saltsensitive hypertension and to observe changes of blood pressures and urinary sodium and potassium excretion in response to acute oral saline loading among essential hypertensive patients in China.Methods Essential hypertensive patients from Beijing Jinzhan second community were included in this study.Salt-sensitivity was determined via the improved Sullivan’s acute oral saline loading

  8. Proliposomes containing a bile salt for oral delivery of Ginkgo biloba extract: Formulation optimization, characterization, oral bioavailability and tissue distribution in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Teng, Lirong; Xing, Gaoyang; Bi, Ye; Yang, Shuang; Hao, Fei; Yan, Guodong; Wang, Xinmei; Lee, Robert J; Teng, Lesheng; Xie, Jing

    2015-09-18

    Proliposomes containing a bile salt were developed to improve the oral bioavailability of Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE). GbE loaded proliposomes (P-GbE) were successfully prepared by spray drying method. The formulation was optimized using the response surface methodology. FE-SEM, DSC, and FT-IR were used to study the surface morphology and molecular state of proliposomes, and demonstrated key interactions between the formulation ingredients. In vitro studies showed delayed release and enhanced dissolution of Ginkgo flavonoids and terpene lactones from GbE proliposomes. Proliposomes significantly enhanced GbE absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and decreased its elimination. The bioavailabilities of quercetin, kaempferol, isorhmnetin, ginkgolide A, ginkgolide B and ginkgolide C from proliposomes relative to the control were 245%, 211%, 264%, 203%, 333%, and 294%, respectively. Proliposomes were shown to selectively deliver GbE to critical target tissues. In conclusion, development of proliposomes formulation for GbE solved the problem of its poor oral bioavailability, prolonged its duration of action, and increased drug distribution in critical tissues, especially in the brain, therefore, warrant further investigation.

  9. The effects of dehydration, moderate alcohol consumption, and rehydration on cognitive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Christopher; Leveritt, Michael; Shum, David; Desbrow, Ben

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the impact of mild-moderate dehydration on alcohol-induced deteriorations in cognitive functions. Sixteen healthy males participated in a single-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design study involving 4 experimental trials (separated by ≥7 d). In each trial, participants were dehydrated by 2.5% body mass through exercise. After 1 h recovery in a thermo-neutral environment (22 ± 2 °C, 60-70% relative humidity) 4 tasks from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were administered to the participants (test 1). In two of the trials, participants were provided with water equivalent to either 50% or 150% body mass loss and given salt (NaCl) capsules (50 mmol/L). A set volume of alcohol or placebo was then consumed in each trial, incorporating the conditions: dehydration-placebo (DP), dehydration-alcohol (DA), partial rehydration-alcohol (PA), and full rehydration-alcohol (FA). The same 4 CANTAB tasks were then re-administered (test 2). Subjective ratings of mood and estimates of alcohol intoxication and driving impairment were also recorded in each trial. Alcohol consumption caused deterioration on 3 of the 4 CANTAB measures (viz., choice reaction time, executive function and response inhibition). This reduction in performance was exacerbated when participants were dehydrated compared to trials where full rehydration occurred. Subjective ratings of impairment and intoxication were not significantly different between any of the trials where alcohol was consumed; however ratings for alcohol trials were significantly higher than in the placebo trial. These findings suggest that rehydration after exercise that causes fluid loss can attenuate alcohol-related deterioration of cognitive functions. This may pose implications for post match fluid replacement if a moderate amount of alcohol is also consumed.

  10. A novel bile salts-lipase polymeric film-infused minitablet system for enhanced oral delivery of cholecalciferol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Miles C; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; Tomar, Lomas K; Du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2016-11-01

    Few researchers have investigated the use of multiple physiological enhancers combined with synthetic carriers to augment delivery of nutraceuticals. The current work describes the development of an oral delivery system termed a bioactive association platform (BAP) capable of delivering nutraceutical actives from a formulation framework specifically for enhancing the in vitro and in vivo performance of model vitamin, cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3). Synthesis of a novel triple vitamin minitablet and an optimized bile salt/lipase alginate-glycerin film provided unique oral components for inclusion in a BAP capsule. Component validation and physicochemical characterizations included comparative ex vivo permeability, chemical structure mapping, thermodynamic analysis and magnetic resonance imaging. In vitro dissolution studies of the BAP produced an area under the dissolution curve (AUC) for cholecalciferol release that was 28% greater than a conventional comparator product. A total of 84.01% of cholecalciferol was released from the BAP within 3 h versus only 59% from a comparator. Ex vivo permeation studies revealed superior cholecalciferol membrane diffusion from the triple vitamin minitablet BAP component. In vivo performance showed a greater mean change from baseline cholecalciferol to peak plasma levels (Cmax) from the BAP compared to the comparator (55.66 versus 46.05 ng/mL). Cholecalciferol bioavailability was improved in vivo with an AUC0-inf from the BAP that was 3.2× greater than the conventional product. The BAP was also superior at improving and maintaining serum levels of the main metabolite, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, compared to the conventional system. In vitro and in vivo results thus confirmed improvements in cholecalciferol dissolution, membrane permeability and plasma drug levels. The study results position the BAP as an ideal oral vehicle for enhanced delivery of cholecalciferol.

  11. Photosynthetic recovery of desiccated intertidal seaweeds after rehydration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Yan; GAO Kunshan; TANAKA Jiro

    2005-01-01

    Intertidal seaweeds experience periodical desiccation and rehydration to different extents due to the tidal cycles and their vertical distributions. Their photosynthetic recovery process during the rehydration may show different patterns among the seaweeds from different zonations or depths at intertidal zone. In this study 12 species of seaweeds collected from the upper, middle, lower and sublittoral zones were examined. The relationship of the photosynthetic recovery to vertical distribution was assessed by comparing their patterns of photosynthetic and respiratory performances after rehydration following desiccation. Both the photosynthesis and dark respiration declined during emersion, showing certain degrees of recovery after re-immersion into seawater for most species, but the extents were markedly different from one species to the other. The species from upper intertidal zone after being rehydrated for 1 hour, following 2 hours of desiccation, achieved 100 % recovery of their initial physiological activity, while most of the lower or sublittoral species did not achieve full recovery. It is the ability to withstand desiccation stress (fast recovery during rehydration), but not that to avoid desiccation (water retain ing ability) that determines the distribution of intertidal seaweeds. Such physiological behavior during rehydration after desiccation reflects the adaptive strategy of intertidal seaweeds against desiccation and their capabilityof primary production in the process of rehydration.

  12. Knowledge and Use of Oral Rehydration Therapy among Mothers of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    rated as poor, fair and good while the ORT/SSS knowledge scores of 0-5, >5-10 and >10-16 were ... Training, public enlightenment and social marketing strategies are needed to promote .... statistics, t-test and ANOVA at p=0.05. ... Public Servants. Teaching. Farming. Others (auxiliary nurse, students). 172 .... Don't know.

  13. Use of oral rehydration therapy in the treatment of childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ways to increase ORT use in the management of childhood diarrhoea. ... five parents (64.7%) had only one child of less than five years old, while 237 .... Presence of blood in stools. Fever. Loss of weight. Sunken eyes. Inactivity. Refusal to ...

  14. Hypoglycemic activity and oral bioavailability of insulin-loaded liposomes containing bile salts in rats: the effect of cholate type, particle size and administered dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Mengmeng; Lu, Yi; Hovgaard, Lars; Guan, Peipei; Tan, Yanan; Lian, Ruyue; Qi, Jianping; Wu, Wei

    2012-06-01

    Oral delivery of protein or polypeptide drugs remains a challenge due to gastric and enzymatic degradation as well as poor permeation across the intestinal epithelia. In this study, liposomes containing bile salts were developed as a new oral insulin delivery system. The primary goal was to investigate the effect of cholate type, particle size and dosage of the liposomes on the hypoglycemic activity and oral bioavailability. Liposomes containing sodium glycocholate (SGC), sodium taurocholate (STC) or sodium deoxycholate (SDC) were prepared by a reversed-phase evaporation method. After oral administration, all liposomes elicited a certain degree of hypoglycemic effect in parallel with an increase in blood insulin level. The highest oral bioavailability of approximately 8.5% and 11.0% could be observed with subcutaneous insulin as reference for SGC-liposomes in non-diabetic and diabetic rats, respectively. Insulin-loaded liposomes showed slower and sustained action over a period of over 20 h with peak time around 8-12h. SGC-liposomes showed higher oral bioavailability than liposomes containing STC or SDC and conventional liposomes. The hypoglycemic effect was size-dependent with the highest at 150 nm or 400 nm and was proportionally correlated to the administered dose. The results supported the hypothesis of insulin absorption as intact liposomes.

  15. Optimisation of octinyl succinic anhydride starch stablised w1/o/w2 emulsions for oral destablisation of encapsulated salt and enhanced saltiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Natalie; Tarrega, Amparo; Parmenter, Christopher; Hewson, Louise; Wolf, Bettina; Fisk, Ian D

    2017-08-01

    Sodium (salt) was encapsulated within the inner water phase of w1/o/w2 food emulsions externally stabilised by starch particles with the ultimate aim of enhancing saltiness perception. The physical properties of the starch particles were modified by octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) treatment (0-3%) to vary the degree of hydrophobicity of the emulsifying starch. During oral processing native salivary amylase hydrolysed the starch and destabilised the o/w emulsion releasing the inner w/o phase and subsequently sodium into the oral cavity, resulting in a salty taste. Whilst increasing OSA treatment levels increased the stability of the emulsion, intermediate or low levels of starch modification resulted in enhanced saltiness. It is therefore proposed that 1.5% OSA modified starch is optimal for sodium delivery and 2% OSA modified starch is optimal for sodium delivery in systems that require greater process stability. It is also shown that sodium release was further enhanced by oral processing and was positively correlated with native amylase activity. The results demonstrate a promising new approach for the reduction of salt or sugar in emulsion based foods.

  16. A study on the rehydration ability of isolated apple cells after osmotic dehydration treatments

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    [EN] A study on rehydration of isolated apple cells is presented. Isolated cells previously dehydrated in 35% and 25% sucrose solutions were rehydrated in 5% sucrose under the microscope with the aim of analyzing the phenomena that take place during rehydration. Cells response to rehydration was found to be more heterogeneous than their response to hypertonic treatments. Cells showed different degrees of delay in their response, which was related to differences in the formation an...

  17. Dehydration and rehydration in competative sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, R J; Shirreffs, S M

    2010-10-01

    Dehydration, if sufficiently severe, impairs both physical and mental performance, and performance decrements are greater in hot environments and in long-lasting exercise. Athletes should begin exercise well hydrated and should drink during exercise to limit water and salt deficits. Many athletes are dehydrated to some degree when they begin exercise. During exercise, most drink less than their sweat losses, some drink too much and a few develop hyponatraemia. Athletes should learn to assess their hydration needs and develop a personalized hydration strategy that takes account of exercise, environment and individual needs. Pre-exercise hydration status can be assessed from urine frequency and volume, with additional information from urine color, specific gravity or osmolality. Changes in hydration status during exercise can be estimated from the change in body mass: sweat rate can be estimated if fluid intake and urinary losses are also measured. Sweat salt losses can be determined by collection and analysis of sweat samples. An appropriate, individualized drinking strategy will take account of pre-exercise hydration status and of fluid, electrolyte and substrate needs before, during and after a period of exercise.

  18. Cryopreservation of coffee zygotic embryos: dehydration and osmotic rehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maísa de Siqueira Pinto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Conservation of plant genetic resources is important to prevent genetic erosion. Seed banks are the most common method of ex situ conservation; however, coffee seeds can not be stored by conventional methods. Cryopreservation is a viable alternative for long-term conservation of species that produce intermediate or recalcitrant seeds, as coffee. The aim of this work was to cryopreserve Coffea arabica L. cv Catuaí Vermelho IAC 144 zygotic embryos, and analyse the effects of dehydration prior cryopreservation and osmotic rehydration after thawing, in embryos germination and seedlings formation after cryopreservation. Prior to cryopreservation, different dehydration times (0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min were tested. Dehydrated embryos were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen for 1 hour, and after thawing were rehydrated by osmotic solutions. Dehydrated and non-cryopreserved embryos were also analysed. The test with 2,3,5 triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC was used to evaluate the embryos viability. Non-dehydrated embryos did not survive after freezing. Embryos that were dehydrated until 20% of the moisture content did not germinate when osmotic rehydration was not performed. In contrast, cryopreserved embryos with the same moisture content presented 98% germination when they were rehydrated slowly in osmotic solution. According to tetrazolium tests, embryos presented maximum viability (75% after dehydration for 60 minutes (23% moisture content. Therefore, coffee zygotic embryos (Coffea arabica L. cv. Catuaí Vermelho can be successfully cryopreserved using physical dehydration in silica gel for 60 minutes (23% moisture content, followed by osmotic rehydration after thawing. This method allowed a germination of 98% of cryopreserved zygotic embryos.

  19. New chitosan salt in gastro-resistant oral formulation could interfere with enteric bile salts emulsification of diet fats: preliminary laboratory observations and physiologic rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratter, Andrea; Frare, Carmen; Uras, Giovanni; Bonini, Mauro; Casari Bariani, Enrico; Ragazzo, Barbara; Gaballo, Paolo; Longobardi, Pasquale; Codemo, Carlo; Paoli, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Chitosan (CH) is a polymer of glucosamine that is extracted from the shells of several sea fruits. It is well recognized as a nutritional supplement that is used to reduce body weight and blood lipid levels, but its clinical efficacy has not been clearly demonstrated. The true mechanism of action and physiological processes involved in these properties of CH are not yet understood or explained. The most accepted theories assume that CH reduces dietary fat absorption by trapping the fat in the gastric lumen. The very low pH of the gastric lumen induces CH jellification and, therefore, entrapment of the fats. This article describes the most plausible mechanism by which CH interferes with fat absorption in the first part of the enteric tract while interacting with cholic acids. We emphasize the weak points of the classic CH-containing formulations, which are unable to prove this theory. We also report preliminary experimental data of a new CH salt-containing formulation that is capable of effectively interfering with bile salt emulsification processes and, as a result, reducing dietary fat absorption.

  20. Experimental study on rehydration conditions of freeze-dried platelets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju-li FAN; Xian-guo XU; Shao-zhi ZHANG; Fa-ming ZHU; Guang-ming CHEN; Li-xing YAN

    2009-01-01

    A rehydration process for freeze-dried human platelets was studied on 1 ml of samples.The effects of prehydration duration,prehydration temperature,an rehydration solution on the recovery rate,mean platelet volume(MPV),and platelet distribution width(PDW)were investigated.The mass changes during the prehydration process were also studied.Three prehydration durations:0,1.5,and 3.5 h,and two rehydration solutions:platelet-poor plasma and phosphate-buffered saline(PBS),were tested.It was found that:(1)the prehydration was of significance;(2)1.5 h of prehydration had better effects than 3.5 h of prehydration;(3)as a rehydration solution,the platelet-poor plasma behaved better than the PBS.The impacts of prehydration duration and temperature on the results were studied.There was almost no difference between 35 and 37℃.Among all the prehydration durations tested,15,30,60,90,and 120 min,the best result was achieved with the time duration of 15 min.The weights of prehydrated platelets at the end of each test were measured and the water contents were calculated.Atier 15 min of prehydration,the water contents in the samples were about(4.8±0.01)%and(5.27±0.29)%(w/w)corresponding to the conditions of 35 and 37 ℃.respectively.These results will be helpful for further studies on the freeze-drying of mammalian cells.

  1. Effect of the dose of oral Hydrocortisone on growth rate during long-term treatment of children with salt losing congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ciaccio

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the dose of oral hydrocortisone on stature growth rate of patients with the salt losing form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia and adequate electrolyte balance was here assessed. Thirty patients (21 girls and 9 boys were followed longitudinally for 0.52 to 8.64 years, between chronological ages 0.35 and 8.64 years. Nine consecutive periods (Ps of follow up were defined in order to compare two auxological parameters, height (H at the end of a follow up P and DH standard deviation score (SDS. According to growth rate during a particular P, two types of Ps were defined: Ps with DH SDS > -0.5 (Group 1, satisfactory growth rate and Ps with DH SDS = or 18 mg/m²/day and grew poorly, but they were able to recover, at least temporarily, when the dose was adjusted during the following years.

  2. Enhanced oral bioavailability of silymarin using liposomes containing a bile salt: preparation by supercritical fluid technology and evaluation in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Zhao, Yaping; Zhang, Yongtai; Dang, Beilei; Liu, Ying; Feng, Nianping

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to develop a procedure to improve the dissolution and bioavailability of silymarin (SM) by using bile salt-containing liposomes that were prepared by supercritical fluid technology (ie, solution-enhanced dispersion by supercritical fluids [SEDS]). The process for the preparation of SM-loaded liposomes containing a bile salt (SM-Lip-SEDS) was optimized using a central composite design of response surface methodology with the ratio of SM to phospholipids (w/w), flow rate of solution (mL/min), and pressure (MPa) as independent variables. Particle size, entrapment efficiency (EE), and drug loading (DL) were dependent variables for optimization of the process and formulation variables. The particle size, zeta potential, EE, and DL of the optimized SM-Lip-SEDS were 160.5 nm, -62.3 mV, 91.4%, and 4.73%, respectively. Two other methods to produce SM liposomes were compared to the SEDS method. The liposomes obtained by the SEDS method exhibited the highest EE and DL, smallest particle size, and best stability compared to liposomes produced by the thin-film dispersion and reversed-phase evaporation methods. Compared to the SM powder, SM-Lip-SEDS showed increased in vitro drug release. The in vivo AUC(0-t) of SM-Lip-SEDS was 4.8-fold higher than that of the SM powder. These results illustrate that liposomes containing a bile salt can be used to enhance the oral bioavailability of SM and that supercritical fluid technology is suitable for the preparation of liposomes.

  3. Cysteine modified and bile salt based micelles: preparation and application as an oral delivery system for paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Fan, Xiaohui; Zhao, Yanli; Li, Lingbing

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to construct a cysteine modified polyion complex micelles made of Pluronic F127-chitosan (PF127-CS), Pluronic F127-cysteine (PF127-cysteine) and sodium cholate (NaC) and to evaluate the potential of the micelles as an oral drug delivery system for paclitaxel. Systematic studies on physicochemical properties including size distribution, zeta-potential and morphology were conducted to validate the formation of micelle structure. Compared with Pluronic micelles, drug-loading capacity of PF127-CS/PF127-cysteine/NaC micelles was increased from 3.35% to 12.77%. Both the critical micelle concentration and the stability test confirmed that the PF127-CS/PF127-cysteine/NaC micelles were more stable in aqueous solution than sodium cholate micelles. Pharmacokinetic study demonstrated that when oral administration the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞) and the absolute bioavailability of paclitaxel-loaded micelles were five times greater than that of the paclitaxel solution. In general, PF127-CS/PF127-cysteine/NaC micelles were proven to be a potential oral drug delivery system for paclitaxel.

  4. Rapid parenteral rehydration in children with dehydration due to acute diarrheal disease Hidratación parenteral rápida en pacientes deshidratados por enfermedad diarreica aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Bastidas

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Between May and July 1987, we studied 36 children with second or third degree dehydration secondary to acute diarrheal disease of less than one week duration; they had no serious associated problems. Parenteral rehydration was carried out with a solution similar in composition to the one recommended by the World Health Organization for Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT. Rehydration was achieved in 30 patients within 6 hours and In 3 more within 12 hours; there were no cases of hypernatremia or hyperkalemia. It is concluded that parenteral rehydration with a solution similar to the one employed for ORT is an adequate alternative when oral rehydration is not indicated in children with diarrheal disease.

    Entre mayo y julio de 1987 se estudiaron 36 niños que ingresaron al Hospital Infantil de Medellín con deshidratación de segundo o tercer grado, secundaria a enfermedad diarreica de evolución menor de una semana y sin enfermedad grave asociada. La hidratación se llevó a cabo parenteralmente empleando una mezcla de composición similar a la que recomienda la Organización Mundial de la Salud para la Terapia de Rehidratación Oral (TRO. Se logró la hidratación en un lapso de 6 horas en 30 de los 36 pacientes y en 3 más en las siguientes 6 horas; no se produjeron casos de hipernatremia ni de hiperkalemia. Se concluye que la hidratación parenteral, con una solución de composición similar a la de la TRO, es una alternativa adecuada cuando no está indicada la hidratación oral del niño con enfermedad diarreica.

  5. Heat--sweat--dehydration--rehydration: a praxis oriented approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouns, F

    1991-01-01

    In any situation where heat production as a result of physical exercise exceeds heat elimination from the body by radiation and convection, the body will depend on sweat secretion and evaporation for its thermoregulation. Sweat secretion will reach maximal levels at high energy expenditures in the heat but will be limited when exercising in the cold climate. Athletes and their coaches should understand some of the principles of thermoregulation in order to make an adequate decision about optimal fluid and carbohydrate replacement in a specific situation. In general it is advised that the carbohydrate content of rehydration drinks should be low (max 80 g l-1) when sweat loss is maximal, may be intermediate when both carbohydrate availability and moderate dehydration influence performance (up to 110 g l-1), and may be maximal (up to 160 g l-1) when the sweat loss is minimized and carbohydrate is the major determinant of the rate of fatigue development. Sodium should be added to rehydration drinks in order to maximize fluid and carbohydrate absorption. A range of electrolyte values for replacement of sweat induced losses, based on whole body wash down procedure is presented.

  6. Apparent light requirement for activation of photosynthesis upon rehydration of desiccated beachrock microbial mats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Ulrich; Gademann, Rolf; Bird, Paul

    2002-01-01

    excitation. Even after desiccation for long time periods under full sunlight, beachrock showed rapid recovery of photosynthesis after rehydration in the light (t1/2~ 15 min). However, when rehydrated in the dark, the quantum yield of energy conversion of PSII remained zero over extended periods of time...

  7. Multiphysics pore-scale model for the rehydration of porous foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.; Vergeldt, F.J.; As, van H.; Dalen, van G.; Voda, A.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a pore-scale model describing the multiphysics occurring during the rehydration of freeze-dried vegetables. This pore-scale model is part of a multiscale simulation model, which should explain the effect of microstructure and pre-treatments on the rehydration rate. Simulatio

  8. Efectividad de la rehidratación oral en niños pequeños con enfermedad diarreica aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Castañeda Avalos

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio en el que participaron 100 niños de 0 a 2 años de edad, de 6 consultorios de médicos de la familia pertenecientes al Policlínico Docente "19 de Abril", que fueron llevados a consulta por presentar enfermedad diarreica aguda sin haber recibido antes ningún tratamiento y se les indicaron sales de rehidratación oral. Se obtuvo un predominio en el sexo femenino y en las edades de 4 a 11 meses. La mayor parte presentaba buen estado nutricional entre el 3 y el 10 percentil. Ningún caso necesitó ingreso hospitalario por deshidratación; los 8 casos que ingresaron fueron otras las causas. La mayor parte de los padres conocían las sales de rehidratación oral, pero sólo un grupo menor las usó espontáneamente. La mayoría de los padres poseía un nivel educacional medio.A study was conducted with the participation of 100 children between 0 and 2 years of age from 6 medical offices of the family doctor which belong to the "19 de Abril" teaching polyclinics and who were taken to consultation because of an acute diarrheal disease without treatment. Patients were prescribed oral rehydration salts. Females predominated, as well as the age group of 4-11 months. Most of them presented with a good nutritional status between percentile 3 and 10. None of the patients required hospitalization because of dehydration; 8 cases were admitted due to other causes. Most of the parents knew about oral rehydration salts, but only one group used them spontaneously. The majority of parents had a mid-educational level.

  9. Effects of relaxation of gluten network on rehydration kinetics of pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Takenobu; Hasegawa, Ayako; Adachi, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the relaxation of the gluten network on pasta rehydration kinetics. The moisture content of pasta, under conditions where the effects of the diffusion of water on the moisture content were negligible, was estimated by extrapolating the average moisture content of pasta of various diameters to 0 mm. The moisture content of imaginary, infinitely thin pasta did not reach equilibrium even after 1 h of rehydration. The rehydration of pasta made of only gluten was also measured. The rate constants estimated by the Long and Richman equation for both the pasta indicated that the rehydration kinetics of infinitely thin pasta were similar to those of gluten pasta. These results suggest that the swelling of starch by fast gelatinization was restricted by the honeycomb structural network of gluten and the relaxation of the gluten network controlled pasta rehydration kinetics.

  10. Increased Milk Protein Concentration in a Rehydration Drink Enhances Fluid Retention Caused by Water Reabsorption in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kentaro; Saito, Yuri; Ashida, Kinya; Yamaji, Taketo; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Oda, Munehiro

    2015-01-01

    A fluid-retention effect is required for beverages that are designed to prevent dehydration. That is, fluid absorbed from the intestines should not be excreted quickly; long-term retention is desirable. Here, we focused on the effect of milk protein on fluid retention, and propose a new effective oral rehydration method that can be used daily for preventing dehydration. We first evaluated the effects of different concentrations of milk protein on fluid retention by measuring the urinary volumes of rats fed fluid containing milk protein at concentrations of 1, 5, and 10%. We next compared the fluid-retention effect of milk protein-enriched drink (MPD) with those of distilled water (DW) and a sports drink (SD) by the same method. Third, to investigate the mechanism of fluid retention, we measured plasma insulin changes in rats after ingesting these three drinks. We found that the addition of milk protein at 5 or 10% reduced urinary volume in a dose-dependent manner. Ingestion of the MPD containing 4.6% milk protein resulted in lower urinary volumes than DW and SD. MPD also showed a higher water reabsorption rate in the kidneys and higher concentrations of plasma insulin than DW and SD. These results suggest that increasing milk protein concentration in a beverage enhances fluid retention, which may allow the possibility to develop rehydration beverages that are more effective than SDs. In addition, insulin-modifying renal water reabsorption may contribute to the fluid-retention effect of MPD.

  11. Rehydration ratio of fluid bed-dried vegetables

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Z Bobić; I Bauman; D Ćurić

    2002-06-01

    Fluid-bed drying of vegetable pieces has been investigated. The vegetables used have been potatoes, parsley roots, celery roots and carrots of various dimensions. Starting water content was: potatoes 78%, parsley roots 85.1%, celery roots 93.6%, and carrots 88.6%. Temperatures of fluidisation have varied from 60° to 100°C at velocities of 0.71 ms-1. The goal has been to obtain dry vegetables with 6% to 10% water content and of good rehydration quality. Experimental data (bed height, gas temperature and velocity, pressure drop over the bed, drying time) have been measured and relevant values have been calculated. The results have shown that drying of vegetables in a fluidized bed produces dry vegetable pieces of excellent quality in a much shorter time than in continuous belt-dryers which are generally used.

  12. Rehydration of a reattached fractured tooth fragment after prolonged dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhun, Neslihan; Onay, Emel Olga; Ungor, Mete

    2012-01-01

    Crown fractures of the anterior teeth are one of the most common outcomes of trauma to the orofacial region. The reattachment of dental fragments is a conservative treatment and should be considered a primary treatment choice in the restoration of anterior tooth fractures. This article presents a clinical technique for the restoration of a fractured maxillary lateral incisor by reattaching the tooth fragment that was kept in dry conditions for five days with the aid of adhesive dentistry. The esthetic compromise of white color (due to excessive dehydration of the segment) was reconciled after one month of service in the mouth by regaining the natural color by rehydration. The one-year clinical evaluation revealed a successful outcome for this technique, and the patient was pleased with the esthetic results of the conservative treatment modality.

  13. Features of the Treatment for the Syndrome of Dehydration in Infants and Older Children, Newborns: Fundamentals of Parenteral Rehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Snisar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In pediatric practice, the syndrome of dehydration is quite common. In children, the most likely cause of the fluid loss is gastroenteritis syndrome and diarrhea of various origins. These causes are often associated with diarrhea and vomiting that results in the loss of water and electrolytes in various proportions. In contrast to the treatment of critical conditions, such as hypovolemic and septic shock, there is no standardized approach to the correction of mild to moderate syndrome of dehydration. The role of oral rehydration in the prehospital and hospital stage is significantly underestimated. This article is a sign of interest in the unification of approaches to the treatment of such conditions, makes it possible to get acquainted with a generalized view of the treatment and prevention of a variety of adverse reactions on the background of oral and/or parenteral rehydration. Our survey reminds the practitioner about the features of dehydration syndrome in children of different age groups, the importance of taking into account the pathogenesis of various types of dehydration during the diagnosis, de­monstrates the importance of knowledge in the field of infusion media in the context of the therapy balanced in terms of the volume and components, as well as considers the target fluid spaces of the body under pathological losses. We investigate the concept of physiological infusion solution on the basis of evidence-based medicine. This review is advisory, it is based both on the national experience in the treatment of the syndrome of dehydration and foreign resources analysis.

  14. Denatured globular protein and bile salt-coated nanoparticles for poorly water-soluble drugs: Penetration across the intestinal epithelial barrier into the circulation system and enhanced oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Yang, Ke; Fan, Lifang; Lv, Yaqi; Jin, Zhu; Zhu, Shumin; Qin, Chao; Wang, Yiao; Yin, Lifang

    2015-11-10

    Oral drug delivery is the most preferred route for patients; however, the low solubility of drugs and the resultant poor absorption compromise the benefits of oral administration. On the other hand, for years, the overwhelmingly accepted mechanism for enhanced oral absorption using lipid nanocarriers was based on the process of lipid digestion and drug solubilization in the small intestine. Few reports indicated that other bypass pathways are involved in drug absorption in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) for oral delivery of nanocarriers. Herein, we report a new nanoemulsion system with a denatured globular protein with a diameter of 30 nm, soybean protein isolates (SPI), and bile salt as emulsifiers, aiming to enhance the absorption of insoluble drugs and explore other pathways for absorption. A BCS class II drug, fenofibrate (FB), was used as the model drug. The SPI and bile salt-coated Ns with a diameter of approximately 150 nm were prepared via a high-pressure homogenizing procedure. Interestingly, the present Ns could be converted to solid dosage form using fluid-bed coating technology, maintaining a nanoscale size. Most importantly, in a model of in situ rat intestinal perfusion, Ns could penetrate across the intestinal epithelial barrier into the systemic circulation and then obtain biodistribution into other tissues. In addition, Ns significantly improved FB oral absorption, exhibited as a greater than 2- and 2.5-fold increase in Cmax and AUC0-t, respectively, compared to the suspension formulation. Overall, the present Ns are promising nanocarriers for the oral delivery of insoluble drugs, and the penetration of intact Ns across the GIT barrier into systemic circulation may be a new strategy for improved drug absorption with the use of nanocarriers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Responses of the Lichen Photobiont Trebouxia erici to Desiccation and Rehydration (II) Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichen desiccation tolerance is associated with cellular protection mechanisms directed against the oxidative stress produced during dehydration and/or rehydration, however, these mechanisms are not well understood. In other poikilohydric organisms, changes in the synthesis of proteins have bee...

  16. Intensification of alcoholic fermentation upon dehydration-rehydration of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zikmanis, P.B.; Kruce, R.V.; Auzina, L.P.; Margevica, M.V.; Beker, M.J.

    1988-02-01

    In comparison with intact yeast, dehydrated-rehydrated cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae show significantly higher ethanol production from exogenous substrate under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions, particularly when low concentration (0.1%) of glucose are used. For populations with a higher percentage of viable rehydrated cells (above 70%) a more notable decrease in the Pasteur effect (the difference between the quantity of ethanol formed under anaerobic and aerobic conditions) is observed. (orig.)

  17. Distinct contractile and cytoskeletal protein patterns in the Antarctic midge are elicited by desiccation and rehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aiqing; Benoit, Joshua B; Lopez-Martinez, Giancarlo; Elnitsky, Michael A; Lee, Richard E; Denlinger, David L

    2009-05-01

    Desiccation presents a major challenge for the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica. In this study, we use proteomic profiling to evaluate protein changes in the larvae elicited by dehydration and rehydration. Larvae were desiccated at 75% relative humidity (RH) for 12 h to achieve a body water loss of 35%, approximately half of the water that can be lost before the larvae succumb to dehydration. To evaluate the rehydration response, larvae were first desiccated, then rehydrated for 6 h at 100% RH and then in water for 6 h. Controls were held continuously at 100% RH. Protein analysis was performed using 2-DE and nanoscale capillary LC/MS/MS. Twenty-four identified proteins changed in abundance in response to desiccation: 16 were more abundant and 8 were less abundant; 84% of these proteins were contractile or cytoskeletal proteins. Thirteen rehydration-regulated proteins were identified: 8 were more abundant and 5 were less abundant, and 69% of these proteins were also contractile or cytoskeletal proteins. Additional proteins responsive to desiccation and rehydration were involved in functions including stress responses, energy metabolism, protein synthesis, glucogenesis and membrane transport. We conclude that the major protein responses elicited by both desiccation and rehydration are linked to body contraction and cytoskeleton rearrangements.

  18. Milk as an effective post-exercise rehydration drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirreffs, Susan M; Watson, Phillip; Maughan, Ronald J

    2007-07-01

    The effectiveness of low-fat milk, alone and with an additional 20 mmol/l NaCl, at restoring fluid balance after exercise-induced hypohydration was compared to a sports drink and water. After losing 1.8 (sd 0.1) % of their body mass during intermittent exercise in a warm environment, eleven subjects consumed a drink volume equivalent to 150 % of their sweat loss. Urine samples were collected before and for 5 h after exercise to assess fluid balance. Urine excretion over the recovery period did not change during the milk trials whereas there was a marked increase in output between 1 and 2 h after drinking water and the sports drink. Cumulative urine output was less after the milk drinks were consumed (611 (sd 207) and 550 (sd 141) ml for milk and milk with added sodium, respectively, compared to 1184 (sd 321) and 1205 (sd 142) ml for the water and sports drink; P drinking the milk drinks but returned to net negative fluid balance 1 h after drinking the other drinks. The results of the present study suggest that milk can be an effective post-exercise rehydration drink and can be considered for use after exercise by everyone except those individuals who have lactose intolerance.

  19. Preparation of an amorphous sodium furosemide salt improves solubility and dissolution rate and leads to a faster Tmax after oral dosing to rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line Hagner; Gordon, Sarah; Holm, René

    2013-01-01

    to an increase in media surfactant concentration was not seen. The amorphous salt demonstrated an 8- and 20-fold higher intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) when compared to amorphous and crystalline free acid, respectively. The promising properties of the amorphous salt in vitro were further evaluated in an in vivo...

  20. Hypernatremic diarrheal dehydration treated with oral glucose-electrolyte solution containing 90 or 75 mEq/L of sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, C; Pizarro, D; Castillo, B; Posada, G

    1988-01-01

    Of 33 infants with hypernatremic dehydration (serum Na+ of greater than or equal to 150 mEq/L) 7 were excluded, 6 because severe alteration of the level of consciousness or shock precluded oral rehydration and 1 because he was given glucose-electrolyte solution plus water. We studied the remaining 27 infants. Twenty (group A) were treated with the World Health Organization-recommended oral rehydration solution (90 mEq/L Na+) and seven (group B) were treated with Pedialyte-RS (Abbott Laboratories Ltd.; 75 mEq/L Na+). The rehydrating solutions were administered in a volume equivalent to twice the clinically estimated fluid deficit. Initial serum sodium was 156.7 +/- 0.9 mEq/L for group A and 155.8 +/- 1.8 mEq/L for group B (mean +/- SEM). The mean time to achieve rehydration was 14.3 and 16.6 h for groups A and B, respectively. Twenty-four hours after commencing oral rehydration, serum Na+ had decreased to 144.8 +/- 1.8 mEq/L for group A and 144.5 +/- 0.9 mEq/L for group B. In two patients in group A, the serum Na+, which, had not decreased to less than 150 mEq/L at 24 h, did so at 48 h. Only in one case (group A) did the serum Na+ increase. This patient had high stool output and failed to become rehydrated after 24 h of unsuccessful oral rehydration. None of the patients had seizures or persistent CNS dysfunction. We conclude that the slow administration of oral rehydration solutions containing either 90 or 75 mEq/L Na+ is a safe and effective treatment of hypernatremic dehydration.

  1. Processing Technology of Tilapia Rehydration Fish%罗非鱼复水鱼丸加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽; 张玲; 崔伟媚

    2013-01-01

    研究以罗非鱼为原料加工新型复水鱼丸的加工工艺。通过实验获得复水鱼丸的理想配方为:罗非鱼鱼肉和淀粉的质量比为10∶1,食盐的用量为鱼肉质量的2.4%,添加面筋蛋白占鱼肉质量的2%,鸡蛋清、白糖、清水、黄酒、米醋、味精各占鱼肉质量的10%、3%、8%、1%、1%和0.3%,其余香辛料和调味品适量;通过单因素和正交试验,优化出复水鱼丸的最佳油炸条件为:油炸温度130℃,油炸4 min,油料比2∶1。鱼丸在90℃下复水15 min品质最佳,复水后产品色泽金黄,味道鲜美,香气浓郁,无油腻感,是一种既营养又方便的新型食品,可直接食用也可用作方便食品的配料。%This article studied the processing technology of rehydration fish taking the tilapia as raw materials. The ideal ingredient for producing rehydration fish was like this:the mass ratio between tilapia fish and starch was 10∶1, the amount of salt accounted for 2.4%of the fish. The amount of added gluten protein accounted for 2%of the fish .Besides, the amount of egg white, sugar, water, rice wine, vinegar, monosodium glutamate respectively accounted for 10%,3%,8%1%,1%and 0.3%of the fish, and the other spices&condiments were required to be appropriate. The perfect fried condition for optimizing rehydration fish by the single factor and orthogonal experiments was as follows:the fried temperature was 130℃, and last for 4 min and the ratio between oil and material was 2∶1. The rehydration fish was perfectly expected to be under 90℃for 15 min, which made it golden in color and delicious in taste and fragrant but not greasy. Therefore, it was not only nutritious but convenient new food which could be eaten directly or used as a kind of ingredient for convenient food.

  2. Organ specific proteomic dissection of Selaginella bryopteris undergoing dehydration and rehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah eDeeba

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To explore molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological response of Selaginella bryopteris, a comprehensive proteome analysis was carried out in roots and fronds undergoing dehydration and rehydration. Plants were dehydrated for 7 days followed by 2 h and 24 h of rehydration. In roots out of 59 identified spots, 58 protein spots were found to be up-regulated during dehydration stress. The identified proteins were related to signaling, stress and defense, protein and nucleotide metabolism, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, storage and epigenetic control. Most of these proteins remained up-regulated on first rehydration, suggesting their role in recovery phase also. Among the 90 identified proteins in fronds, about 49% proteins were up-regulated during dehydration stress. Large number of ROS scavenging proteins was enhanced on dehydration. Many other proteins involved in energy, protein turnover and nucleotide metabolism, epigenetic control were also highly upregulated. Many photosynthesis related proteins were upregulated during stress. This would have helped plant to recover rapidly on rehydration. This study provides a comprehensive picture of different cellular responses elucidated by the proteome changes during dehydration and rehydration in roots and fronds as expected from a well-choreographed response from a resurrection plant.

  3. Surviving metabolic arrest: photosynthesis during desiccation and rehydration in resurrection plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challabathula, Dinakar; Puthur, Jos T; Bartels, Dorothea

    2016-02-01

    Photosynthesis is the key process that is affected by dehydration in plants. Desiccation-tolerant resurrection plants can survive conditions of very low relative water content. During desiccation, photosynthesis is not operational, but is recovered within a short period after rehydration. While homoiochlorophyllous resurrection plants retain their photosynthetic apparatus during desiccation, poikilochlorophyllous resurrection species dismantle chloroplasts and degrade chlorophyll but resynthesize them again during rehydration. Dismantling the chloroplasts avoids the photooxidative stress in poikilochlorophyllous resurrection plants, whereas it is minimized in homoiochlorophyllous plants through the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes and protective proteins or metabolites. Although the cellular protection mechanisms in both of these species vary, these mechanisms protect cells from desiccation-induced damage and restore photosynthesis upon rehydration. Several of the proteins synthesized during dehydration are localized in chloroplasts and are believed to play major roles in the protection of photosynthetic structures and in recovery in resurrection species. This review focuses on the strategies of resurrection plants in terms of how they protect their photosynthetic apparatus from oxidative stress during desiccation without membrane damage and with full recovery during rehydration. We review the role of the dehydration-induced protection mechanisms in chloroplasts and how photosynthesis is restored during rehydration.

  4. The organic air pollutant cumene hydroperoxide interferes with NO antioxidant role in rehydrating lichen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá, M; Gasulla, F; Pradas Del Real, A E; García-Breijo, F; Reig-Armiñana, J; Barreno, E

    2013-08-01

    Organic pollutants effects on lichens have not been addressed. Rehydration is critical for lichens, a burst of free radicals involving NO occurs. Repeated dehydrations with organic pollutants could increase oxidative damage. Our aim is to learn the effects of cumene hydroperoxide (CP) during lichen rehydration using Ramalina farinacea (L.) Ach., its photobiont Trebouxia spp. and Asterochloris erici. Confocal imaging shows intracellular ROS and NO production within myco and phycobionts, being the chloroplast the main source of free radicals. CP increases ROS, NO and lipid peroxidation and reduces chlorophyll autofluorescence, although photosynthesis remains unaffected. Concomitant NO inhibition provokes a generalized increase of ROS and a decrease in photosynthesis. Our results suggest that CP induces a compensatory hormetic response in Ramalina farinacea that could reduce the lichen's antioxidant resources after repeated desiccation-rehydration cycles. NO is important in the protection from CP.

  5. Whey protein nanofibrils: the environment-morphology-functionality relationship in lyophilization, rehydration, and seeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveday, Simon M; Su, Jiahong; Rao, M Anandha; Anema, Skelte G; Singh, Harjinder

    2012-05-23

    Amyloid-like fibrils from β-lactoglobulin have potential as efficient thickening and gelling agents for food and biomedical applications, but the link between fibril morphology and bulk viscosity is poorly understood. We examined how lyophilization and rehydration affects the morphology and rheological properties of semiflexible (i.e., straight) and highly flexible (i.e., curly) fibrils, the latter made with 80 mM CaCl(2). Straight fibrils were fractured into short rods by lyophilization and rehydration, whereas curly fibrils sustained little damage. This was reflected in the viscosities of rehydrated fibril dispersions, which were much lower for straight fibrils than for curly fibrils. Lyophilized straight or curly fibrils seeded new fibril growth, but viscosity enhancement due to seeding was negligible. We believe that the increase in fibril concentration caused by seeding was counterbalanced by a decrease in fibril length, reducing the ability of fibrils to form physical entanglement networks.

  6. [The role of cortical microtubules in moss protonemal cells during dehydration/rehydration cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Ling; Ouyang, Hao-Miao; Liu, Xiang-Lin; Xia, Gui-Xian

    2003-05-01

    Plant cells response to water deficit through a variety of physiological processes. In this work, we studied the function of microtubule cytoskeleton during dehydration/rehydration cycle in moss (Atrichum undulatum) protonemal cells as a model system. The morphological and cytological change of protonemal cells during dehydration and rehydration cycle were first investigated. Under normal conditions, protonemal cells showed bright green colour and appeared wet and fresh. Numerous chloroplasts distributed regularly throughout the cytoplasm in each cell. After dehydration treatment, protonemal cells lost most of their chlorophylls and turned to look yellow and dry. In addition, dehydration caused plasmolysis in these cells. Upon rehydration, the cells could recover completely from the dehydrated state. These results indicated that moss had a remarkable intrinsic ability to survive from the extreme drought stress. Microtubule, an important component of cytoskeleton, is considered to play crucial roles in the responses to some environmental stresses such as cold and light. To see if it is also involved in the drought tolerance, dynamic organization of microtubules in protonemal cells of Atrichum undulatum subjected to drought and rehydration were examined by indirect immunofluorescence combined with confocal lasersharp scanning microscopy. The cortical microtubules were arranged into a fine structure with a predominant orientation parallel to the long axis of the cells in the control cells. After dehydration, the microtubule organization was remarkablly altered and the fine microtubule structure disappeared whereas some thicker cables formed. When the cells were grown under rehydration conditions, the fine microtubule arrays reappeared. These results provided a piece of evidence that microtubules play a role in the cellular responses to drought stress in moss. Furthermore, we analyzed the effects of the microtubule-disrupting agent colchicine on the morphology recovery

  7. Tracking Cholera through Surveillance of Oral Rehydration Solution Sales at Pharmacies: Insights from Urban Bangladesh

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Azman, Andrew S; Lessler, Justin; Satter, Syed Moinuddin; Mckay, Michael V; Khan, Azharul; Ahmed, Dilruba; Gurley, Emily S

    2015-01-01

    .... We tracked daily ORS sales at 50 pharmacies and drug-sellers in an urban Bangladesh community of 129,000 for 6-months while simultaneously conducting surveillance for diarrhea hospitalizations among residents...

  8. Oral hypertonic saline causes transient fall of vasopressin in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seckl, J.R.; Williams, D.M.; Lightman, S.L.

    1986-08-01

    After dehydration, oral rehydration causes a fall in plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) that precedes changes in plasma osmolality. To investigate further the stimulus for this effect, its specificity, and association with thirst, six volunteers were deprived of water for 24 h and given a salt load on two separate occasions. On each study day they then drank rapidly 10 ml/kg of either tap water or hypertonic saline (360 mosmol/kg). There was a significant fall in plasma AVP from 2.0 +/- 0.3 to 1.2 +/- 0.4 pmol/l 5 min after drinking water and from 1.8 +/- 0.3 to 0.9 +/- 0.2 pmol/l after hypertonic saline. Plasma osmolality fell 30-60 min after water and was unchanged after saline. Plasma renin activity, oxytocin, and total protein all remained unchanged. All subjects reported diminished thirst after hypertonic saline. Gargling with water reduced thirst but did not affect plasma AVP. There appears to be a drinking-mediated neuroendocrine reflex that decreases plasma AVP irrespective of the osmolality of the liquid consumed. The sensation of thirst did not correlate with plasma osmolality and was not always related to plasma AVP concentration. AVP was measured by radioimmunoassay.

  9. Effect of rapid drinking of oral rehydration salts on children with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and the mechanism%快速饮用口服补液盐对儿童体位性心动过速综合征的影响及机制分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏琛; 李艳; 蒋辉

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨快速饮用大量口服补液盐对儿童体位性心动过速综合征的影响及机制.方法:对21例体位性心动过速综合征患儿于两次直立倾斜试验(HUTT)前15 min分别给予250 ml和30 ml的口服补液盐,采用多功能心电监护仪记录心率和测定血压、心动过速的时间,利用动态心电图分析系统进行心率变异分析.结果:快速饮用大量口服补液盐能够明显延长出现HUTT阳性反应的时间(P=0.035);与30 ml组的直立位心率(126.65±10.63)次/min相比,250 ml组(109.86±11.57)次/min明显下降,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);250 ml组在平卧位时LFnorm、HFnorm的值与30 ml组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),LF/HF的值较30 ml组稍减低但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).250 ml组和30 ml组LF/HF在平卧位改为直立位后均表现为持续升高,但在HUTT5min时250 ml组LF/HF值较30 ml组低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:快速饮用大量口服补液盐能在一定程度上延长体位性心动过速综合征患儿的直立耐受时间,且不会影响动脉血压.

  10. Observation of Effect of Metoproloi Combined with Oral Rehydration Salt in Treatmentof Children Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome%美托洛尔联合口服补液盐治疗儿童体位性心动过速综合征疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左英俊; 武清敏; 高金霞; 张静; 郭玉娜

    2009-01-01

    目的:观察美托洛尔联合口服补液盐对儿童体位性心动过速综合征(POTS)的治疗作用.方法:将经过直立倾斜试验确诊的39例POTS患儿随机分为对照组(13例)及治疗组(26例),对照组给予健康教育,口服谷维素10 mg,2次/d及口服补液盐250 ml/d;治疗组给予健康教育,口服美托洛尔,1 mg/(kg·d),2次/d及口服补液盐250 ml/d.随访3个月后患儿的症状改善情况.结果:治疗3个月后,治疗组患儿的有效率明显高于对照组(P<0.05).结论:美托洛尔联合口服补液盐可有效地治疗儿童体位性心动过速综合征.

  11. [The clinical estimation of ketoprofen lysine salt effect on the intensitivity of acute pain syndrome in the oral cavity during surgical procedures and postoperative period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durnovo, E A; Shashurina, S V; Bespalova, N A; Khomutinnikova, N E; Gliavina, I A; Marochkina, M S; Iartseva, A V

    2013-01-01

    Is studying and control of the clinical efficacy and safety of ketoprofen lysine salt (КLS) (the commercial name is "Oki" manufacturer by Dompe CPA, Italy) in the form of sachets and solutions for application in postoperative period after dental surgeries procedures. The comparison of the analgetic effect of systemic and local forms of the "Oki" drug, depending on the type and extent of surgery procedures. Was carried out surgical treatment and patients examination in the postoperative period. Surgical procedures included: vestibulolasty, vestibulolasty with apically-displaced flap, vestibulolasty with apically-displaced flap and a free palatal mucogingival graft, removal impacted and dystopic teeth, periodontal surgery. The research was conducted in the Surgical stomatology and Maxillofacial surgery Department (stomatological policlinic of the Nizhny Novgorod State Medical Academy). Was noted rapid advanced of anesthesia when using sachets and solutions of the ketoprofen lysine salt (the commercial name is "Oki" manufacturer by Dompe CPA, Italy) in postoperative period after dental surgical procedures. Was noted a more advanced of analgetic effect in the application therapy by DCI solution when open surgical wound presented. Analgetic effect was observed after 20-30 min and was maintained in the postoperative period to an average of 8 hours. Local application sachets and solution of the ketoprofen lysine salt (KLS ), in our opinion, is the most appropriate and is highly effective when open surgical wound presented. Ketoprofen lysine salt (KLS) has a neutral pH and does not irritate the gastrointestinal tract, that determines the safety of its used.

  12. The impact of freeze-drying on microstructure and rehydration properties of carrot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voda, A.; Homan, N.; Witek, M.; Duijster, A.; Dalen, van G.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Nijsse, J.; Vliet, van L.J.; As, van H.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of freeze-drying, blanching and freezing rate pre-treatments on the microstructure and on the rehydration properties of winter carrots were studied by µCT, SEM, MRI and NMR techniques. The freezing rate determines the size of ice crystals being formed that leave pores upon drying. Their a

  13. Acute maternal rehydration increases the urine production rate in the near-term human fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haak, MC; Aarnoudse, JG; Oosterhof, H.

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the effect of a decrease of maternal plasma osmolality produced by hypotonic rehydration on the fetal urine production rate in normal near-term human fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-one healthy pregnant women attending the clinic for antenatal care were studied

  14. Differential proteomics of dehydration and rehydration in bryophytes: evidence towards a common desiccation tolerance mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz DE Carvalho, Ricardo; Bernardes DA Silva, Anabela; Soares, Renata; Almeida, André M; Coelho, Ana Varela; Marques DA Silva, Jorge; Branquinho, Cristina

    2014-07-01

    All bryophytes evolved desiccation tolerance (DT) mechanisms during the invasion of terrestrial habitats by early land plants. Are these DT mechanisms still present in bryophytes that colonize aquatic habitats? The aquatic bryophyte Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw. was subjected to two drying regimes and alterations in protein profiles and sucrose accumulation during dehydration and rehydration were investigated. Results show that during fast dehydration, there is very little variation in protein profiles, and upon rehydration proteins are leaked. On the other hand, slow dehydration induces changes in both dehydration and rehydration protein profiles, being similar to the protein profiles displayed by the terrestrial bryophytes Physcomitrella patens (Hedw.) Bruch and Schimp. and, to what is comparable with Syntrichia ruralis (Hedw.) F. Weber and D. Mohr. During dehydration there was a reduction in proteins associated with photosynthesis and the cytoskeleton, and an associated accumulation of proteins involved in sugar metabolism and plant defence mechanisms. Upon rehydration, protein accumulation patterns return to control values for both photosynthesis and cytoskeleton whereas proteins associated with sugar metabolism and defence proteins remain high. The current results suggest that bryophytes from different ecological adaptations may share common DT mechanisms.

  15. Rehydration with soft drink-like beverages exacerbates dehydration and worsens dehydration-associated renal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Arroyo, Fernando E; Cristóbal, Magdalena; Arellano-Buendía, Abraham S; Osorio, Horacio; Tapia, Edilia; Soto, Virgilia; Madero, Magdalena; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Roncal-Jiménez, Carlos; Bankir, Lise; Johnson, Richard J; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura-Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    Recurrent dehydration, such as commonly occurs with manual labor in tropical environments, has been recently shown to result in chronic kidney injury, likely through the effects of hyperosmolarity to activate both vasopressin and aldose reductase-fructokinase pathways. The observation that the latter pathway can be directly engaged by simple sugars (glucose and fructose) leads to the hypothesis that soft drinks (which contain these sugars) might worsen rather than benefit dehydration associated kidney disease. Recurrent dehydration was induced in rats by exposure to heat (36°C) for 1 h/24 h followed by access for 2 h to plain water (W), a 11% fructose-glucose solution (FG, same composition as typical soft drinks), or water sweetened with noncaloric stevia (ST). After 4 wk plasma and urine samples were collected, and kidneys were examined for oxidative stress, inflammation, and injury. Recurrent heat-induced dehydration with ad libitum water repletion resulted in plasma and urinary hyperosmolarity with stimulation of the vasopressin (copeptin) levels and resulted in mild tubular injury and renal oxidative stress. Rehydration with 11% FG solution, despite larger total fluid intake, resulted in greater dehydration (higher osmolarity and copeptin levels) and worse renal injury, with activation of aldose reductase and fructokinase, whereas rehydration with stevia water had opposite effects. In animals that are dehydrated, rehydration acutely with soft drinks worsens dehydration and exacerbates dehydration associated renal damage. These studies emphasize the danger of drinking soft drink-like beverages as an attempt to rehydrate following dehydration.

  16. The importance of salt in the athlete's diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Verle

    2007-07-01

    Salt consists of sodium and chloride, and is important for normal physiologic function. High sweat rates in athletes result in loss of both fluids and sodium. Fluid replacement with hypotonic solutions will lead to incomplete rehydration and possible complications such as hyponatremia, decreased performance, heat cramps, or other heat-related illness. There is significant individual variation in sodium loss during activity. In some the losses can be replaced by normal dietary intake, whereas in others the losses can be dramatic and increased dietary intake is essential. There are various methods to increase sodium intake, such as increased use of table salt on foods, salty snacks, adding salt to sports drinks, and use of salt tablets. Emphasis on replacement of fluids is also important, but care must be taken to avoid overhydration. Simple measures such as recording daily pre- and postexercise body weight can aid in making fluid and sodium ingestion decisions; in some cases, a comprehensive evaluation is necessary.

  17. Expression of GPD1 and SIP18 genes during rehydration in active dry industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae cider-making yeast strains (ADY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncerzewicz, Anna; Kamińska-Wojteczek, Karolina; Młynarczyk, Izabella; Misiewicz, Anna

    2017-01-01

    In this study we determined the influence of different sugar concentration in media, time of rehydration and type of strain on relative expression level of GPD1 and SIP18 genes of active dry cider-making yeast strains, followed by the assessment of the impact of rehydration on the fermentation process. High expression of SIP18 at the beginning of rehydration was shown to be due to high transcription of the gene during the drying process. High sugar concentrations of media initiated transcription of the GPD1 gene and triggered the cellular glycerol biosynthesis pathway in examined strains. Rehydration time and type of strain showed to have no statistically significant impact on the course of the fermentation; RT qPCR results depended mainly on the time of rehydration and sugar concentration of the medium. This is the first attempt to confront rehydration time and molecular mechanisms acting upon rehydration with the course of the fermentation process.

  18. Effect of electrolyte addition to rehydration drinks consumed after severe fluid and energy restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lewis J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the effect of electrolyte addition to drinks ingested after severe fluid and energy restriction (FER). Twelve subjects (6 male and 6 female) completed 3 trials consisting of 24-hour FER (energy intake: 21 kJ·kg body mass; water intake: 5 ml·kg body mass), followed by a 2-hour rehydration period and a 4-hour monitoring period. During rehydration, subjects ingested a volume of drink equal to 125% of the body mass lost during FER in 6 aliquots, once every 20 minutes. Drinks were a sugar-free lemon squash (P) or the P drink with the addition of 50 mmol·L sodium chloride (Na) or 30 mmol·L potassium chloride (K). Total void urine samples were given before and after FER and every hour during rehydration and monitoring. Over all trials, FER produced a 2.1% reduction in body mass and negative sodium (-67 mmol), potassium (-48 mmol), and chloride (-84 mmol) balances. Urine output after drinking was 1627 (540) ml (P), 1391 (388) ml (K), and 1150 (438) ml (Na), with a greater postdrinking urine output during P than Na (p ≤ 0.05). Ingestion of drink Na resulted in a more positive sodium balance compared with P or K (p drink K resulted in a more positive potassium balance compared with P or Na (p drink results in an increased sodium balance that augments greater drink retention compared with a low electrolyte placebo drink.

  19. Enhancement of drying and rehydration characteristics of okra by ultrasound pre-treatment application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüfekçi, Senem; Özkal, Sami Gökhan

    2017-02-01

    Effect of ultrasound application prior to hot air drying on drying and rehydration kinetics, rehydration ratio and microstructure of okra slices were investigated. For this purpose, the selected parameters are ultrasound pre-treatment time (10, 20 and 30 min), ultrasound amplitude (55 and 100%) and the temperature of drying air (60 and 70 °C). 5 mm thick cylindrical shaped okra slices were used in the experiments. The samples were immersed in water and ultrasonic pre-treatments were done in water with ultrasonic probe connected to an ultrasonic generator with 20 kHz frequency. Pre-treated samples were dried in a tray drier with a 0.3 m/s air velocity. Ultrasound pre-treatment affected the drying rate of the okra slices significantly. Drying time of okra slices was decreased by the application of ultrasound pre-treatment. Modified Page model found to be the most suitable model for describing the drying characteristics of okra slices. Improvements in rehydration properties of the dried samples were observed due to the ultrasound pre-treatment. The influence of the ultrasound pre-treatment on microstructure was clearly observed through scanning electron microscopy images of the dried samples. As the amplitude of ultrasound increased the changes in structure of the okra tissue increased.

  20. F-actin reorganization upon de- and rehydration in the aeroterrestrial green alga Klebsormidium crenulatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaas, Kathrin; Holzinger, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Filamentous actin (F-actin) is a dynamic network involved in many cellular processes like cell division and cytoplasmic streaming. While many studies have addressed the involvement of F-actin in different cellular processes in cultured cells, little is known on the reactions to environmental stress scenarios, where this system might have essential regulatory functions. We investigated here the de- and rehydration kinetics of breakdown and reassembly of F-actin in the streptophyte green alga Klebsormidium crenulatum. Measurements of the chlorophyll fluorescence (effective quantum yield of photosystem II [ΔF/Fm']) via pulse amplitude modulation were performed as a measure for dehydration induced shut down of physiological activity, which ceased after 141±15min at ∼84% RH. We hypothesized that there is a link between this physiological parameter and the status of the F-actin system. Indeed, 20min of dehydration (ΔF/Fm'=0) leads to a breakdown of the fine cortical F-actin network as visualized by Atto 488 phalloidin staining, and dot-like structures remained. Already 10min after rehydration a beginning reassembly of F-actin is observed, after 25min the F-actin network appeared similar to untreated controls, indicating a full recovery. These results demonstrate the fast kinetics of F-actin dis- and reassembly likely contributing to cellular reorganization upon rehydration. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Fermentation profile and identification of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts of rehydrated corn kernel silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, B F; Ávila, C L S; Bernardes, T F; Pereira, M N; Santos, C; Schwan, R F

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical and microbiological characteristics and to identify the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts involved in rehydrated corn kernel silage. Four replicates for each fermentation time: 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 150, 210 and 280 days were prepared. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and PCR-based identification were utilized to identify LAB and yeasts. Eighteen bacteria and four yeast species were identified. The bacteria population reached maximum growth after 15 days and moulds were detected up to this time. The highest dry matter (DM) loss was 7·6% after 280 days. The low concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates (20 g kg(-1) of DM) was not limiting for fermentation, although the reduction in pH and acid production occurred slowly. Storage of the rehydrated corn kernel silage increased digestibility up to day 280. This silage was dominated by LAB but showed a slow decrease in pH values. This technique of corn storage on farms increased the DM digestibility. This study was the first to evaluate the rehydrated corn kernel silage fermentation dynamics and our findings are relevant to optimization of this silage fermentation. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Rapid reactivation of cyanobacterial photosynthesis and migration upon rehydration of desiccated marine microbial mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun eChennu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Desiccated cyanobacterial mats are the dominant biological feature in the Earth's arid zones. While the response of desiccated cyanobacteria to rehydration is well documented for terrestrial systems, information about the response in marine systems is lacking. We used high temporal resolution hyperspectral imaging, liquid chromatography, pulse-amplitude fluorometry, oxygen microsensors and confocal laser microscopy to study this response in a desiccated microbial mat from Exmouth Gulf, Australia. During the initial 15 minutes after rehydration chlorophyll a concentrations increased 2-5 fold and cyanobacterial photosynthesis was re-established. Although the mechanism behind this rapid increase of chlorophyll a remains unknown, we hypothesize that it involves resynthesis from a precursor stored in desiccated cyanobacteria. The subsequent phase (15 min – 48 h involved migration of the reactivated cyanobacteria towards the mat surface, which led, together with a gradual increase in chlorophyll a, to a further increase in photosynthesis. We conclude that the response involving an increase in chlorophyll a and recovery of photosynthetic activity within minutes after rehydration is common for cyanobacteria from desiccated mats of both terrestrial and aquatic origin. However the response of upward migration and its triggering factor appears to be mat-specific and likely linked to other factors.

  3. Rapid Reactivation of Cyanobacterial Photosynthesis and Migration upon Rehydration of Desiccated Marine Microbial Mats

    KAUST Repository

    Chennu, Arjun

    2015-12-24

    Desiccated cyanobacterial mats are the dominant biological feature in the Earth’s arid zones. While the response of desiccated cyanobacteria to rehydration is well-documented for terrestrial systems, information about the response in marine systems is lacking. We used high temporal resolution hyperspectral imaging, liquid chromatography, pulse-amplitude fluorometry, oxygen microsensors, and confocal laser microscopy to study this response in a desiccated microbial mat from Exmouth Gulf, Australia. During the initial 15 min after rehydration chlorophyll a concentrations increased 2–5 fold and cyanobacterial photosynthesis was re-established. Although the mechanism behind this rapid increase of chlorophyll a remains unknown, we hypothesize that it involves resynthesis from a precursor stored in desiccated cyanobacteria. The subsequent phase (15 min–48 h) involved migration of the reactivated cyanobacteria toward the mat surface, which led, together with a gradual increase in chlorophyll a, to a further increase in photosynthesis. We conclude that the response involving an increase in chlorophyll a and recovery of photosynthetic activity within minutes after rehydration is common for cyanobacteria from desiccated mats of both terrestrial and marine origin. However, the response of upward migration and its triggering factor appear to be mat-specific and likely linked to other factors.

  4. Thin layer drying of wormwood ( Artemisia absinthium L.) leaves: dehydration characteristics, rehydration capacity and energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigi, Mohsen

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed at determining the influence of temperature on drying, rehydration and consumed energy characteristics of common wormwood leaves during thin layer drying. The experiments were carried out at temperatures of 50, 60 and 70 °C and a constant air velocity of 0.7 m s-1. The dehydration duration decreased significantly with increasing drying air temperature. The usefulness of five different mathematical models to simulate the experimental drying kinetics was evaluated and the Midilli model was found to be the best model for explaining the curves. Effective moisture diffusivity values were obtained to be in the range of 7.099 × 10-8-3.191 × 10-7 m2 s-1. Rehydration capacity of the dried leaves increased with increasing rehydration water temperature and decreasing drying air temperature. The specific energy consumption decreased with any increment in drying air temperature and varied from 17.64 to 32.09 kWh kg-1.

  5. Postexercise rehydration with beer impairs fluid retention, reaction time, and balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Salamanca, Rebeca; Aragón-Vargas, Luis Fernando

    2014-10-01

    Beer is promoted by popular media as a good choice for rehydration, but there is limited support for the claim. To assess the effect of beer alcohol on rehydration and motor control, 11 young (24.4 ± 3.7 years old) males of legal drinking age were dehydrated to 2.12% ± 0.20% body mass (mean ± SD) by exercising in a climatic chamber (31.7 ± 1.6 °C, 55.0% ± 8.3% relative humidity) on 3 different days, 1 week apart, and rehydrated with 100% of their sweat loss using water (WATER), 4.6% alcohol beer (BEER), or low-alcohol beer (LAB), in random order. Urine output, blood alcohol content (BAC), reaction time (RT), and balance (as measured by center of pressure velocity (VCoP)) were measured every 30 min over 3 h and compared via 2-way, repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs). After consuming ≈1.6 L in 1 h, urine output was greater for BEER (1218 ± 279 mL) than for LAB (745 ± 313 mL, p = 0.007) and WATER (774 ± 304 mL, p = 0.043). BAC remained at 0 with WATER and LAB; with BEER, BAC reached 0.857 g/L (95% confidence intervals [0.752, 0.963]) immediately postrehydration. RT was longer for BEER (0.314 ± 0.039 s) than for LAB (0.294 ± 0.034 s, p = 0.009), but was no different from WATER (0.293 ± 0.049 s, p = 0.077). VCoPx was significantly higher for BEER (0.0284 ± 0.0020 m/s) compared with LAB (0.0233 ± 0.0010 m/s) or WATER (0.0238 ± 0.0010 m/s) (p = 0.022), but VCoPy was not different among beverages. In conclusion, rehydration with BEER resulted in higher diuresis, slower RT, and impaired VCoP than rehydration with LAB or WATER.

  6. Phosphate salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... levels that are too high, and for preventing kidney stones. They are also taken for treating osteomalacia (often ... But intravenous phosphate salts should not be used. Kidney stones (nephrolithiasis). Taking potassium phosphate by mouth might help ...

  7. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  8. Fungal-associated NO is involved in the regulation of oxidative stress during rehydration in lichen symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reig-Armiñana Jose

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS are normally produced in respiratory and photosynthetic electron chains and their production is enhanced during desiccation/rehydration. Nitric oxide (NO is a ubiquitous and multifaceted molecule involved in cell signaling and abiotic stress. Lichens are poikilohydrous organisms that can survive continuous cycles of desiccation and rehydration. Although the production of ROS and NO was recently demonstrated during lichen rehydration, the functions of these compounds are unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the role of NO during rehydration of the lichen Ramalina farinacea (L. Ach., its isolated photobiont partner Trebouxia sp. and Asterochloris erici (Ahmadjian Skaloud et Peksa (SAG 32.85 = UTEX 911. Results Rehydration of R. farinacea caused the release of ROS and NO evidenced by the fluorescent probes DCFH2-DA and DAN respectively. However, a minimum in lipid peroxidation (MDA was observed 2 h post-rehydration. The inhibition of NO in lichen thalli with c-PTIO resulted in increases in both ROS production and lipid peroxidation, which now peaked at 3 h, together with decreases in chlorophyll autofluorescence and algal photobleaching upon confocal laser incidence. Trebouxia sp. photobionts generate peaks of NO-endproducts in suspension and show high rates of photobleaching and ROS production under NO inhibition which also caused a significant decrease in photosynthetic activity of A. erici axenic cultures, probably due to the higher levels of photo-oxidative stress. Conclusions Mycobiont derived NO has an important role in the regulation of oxidative stress and in the photo-oxidative protection of photobionts in lichen thalli. The results point to the importance of NO in the early stages of lichen rehydration.

  9. Whole transcriptome characterization of the effects of dehydration and rehydration on Cladonia rangiferina, the grey reindeer lichen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junttila, Sini; Laiho, Asta; Gyenesei, Attila; Rudd, Stephen

    2013-12-10

    Lichens are symbiotic organisms with a fungal and an algal or a cyanobacterial partner. Lichens inhabit some of the harshest climates on earth and most lichen species are desiccation-tolerant. Lichen desiccation-tolerance has been studied at the biochemical level and through proteomics, but the underlying molecular genetic mechanisms remain largely unexplored. The objective of our study was to examine the effects of dehydration and rehydration on the gene expression of Cladonia rangiferina. Samples of C. rangiferina were collected at several time points during both the dehydration and rehydration process and the gene expression intensities were measured using a custom DNA microarray. Several genes, which were differentially expressed in one or more time points, were identified. The microarray results were validated using qRT-PCR analysis. Enrichment analysis of differentially expressed transcripts was also performed to identify the Gene Ontology terms most associated with the rehydration and dehydration process. Our data identify differential expression patterns for hundreds of genes that are modulated during dehydration and rehydration in Cladonia rangiferina. These dehydration and rehydration events clearly differ from each other at the molecular level and the largest changes to gene expression are observed within minutes following rehydration. Distinct changes are observed during the earliest stage of rehydration and the mechanisms not appear to be shared with the later stages of wetting or with drying. Several of the most differentially expressed genes are similar to genes identified in previous studies that have investigated the molecular mechanisms of other desiccation-tolerant organisms. We present here the first microarray experiment for any lichen species and have for the first time studied the genetic mechanisms behind lichen desiccation-tolerance at the whole transcriptome level.

  10. Chemical heat pumping - a rapid experimental procedure for investigating the suitability of salt hydrates under dynamic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Jan; Azoulay, Michel; Pablo, J. de

    A rapid experimental procedure of interest in determining the suitability of salt hydrates to be used in chemical heat pumping is described. Thermogravimetry under controlled water vapour pressure is utilized as the key diagnostic method. The test procedure relies largely on two critical tests: a cycling and an inhibition test. The former gives information on the stoichiometric reversibility and hysteresis between the dehydration and rehydration branches, while the inhibition test yields more quantitative information about the extent of inhibition. The latter represents a source of irreversibility inherent to the salt hydrate system. The test procedure is discussed and illustrated using four different salt hydrates: barium chloride, sodium sulphide, magnesium chloride and lithium hydroxide.

  11. Subcutaneous dextrose for rehydration of elderly patients – an evidence-based review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Tari; Cassano, Anne-Marie

    2004-01-01

    Background In the Rehabilitation and Aged Care Services Program at Southern Health in Victoria, saline hypodermoclysis is a relatively common method of rehydration. However, there were questions about the safety and effectiveness of subcutaneous infusion of other fluids and, in particular, dextrose solutions. This review aimed to assess the safety and effectiveness of rehydration of elderly patients with subcutaneous 5% dextrose solutions compared with intravenous 5% dextrose solutions. Methods We searched the Cochrane Library, Medline, IDIS, CINAHL, Current Contents, Premedline, Australasian Medical Index, the Joanna Briggs Institute, the US National Guideline Clearinghouse and bibliographies of retrieved articles. Searching was undertaken in July 2003. Studies selected were primary studies (or systematic reviews of primary studies) providing evidence as to the effectiveness and safety of subcutaneous infusion of dextrose solutions for rehydration of elderly patients. We included articles published in English in the last 10 years. Data were extracted by a single researcher. Results From our search we identified 15 potentially relevant articles. We obtained the full text of these articles to determine their relevance. After application of the inclusion criteria, four articles remained for appraisal including one systematic review, two randomised controlled trials and one cohort study. Conclusion The four studies appraised all provide evidence that appropriate volumes of subcutaneous dextrose infusions (in the form of half-normal saline-glucose 5%, 40 g/L dextrose and 30 mmol/L NaCl, or 5% dextrose solution and 4 g/L NaCl, or two-thirds 5% glucose and one-third normal saline) can be used effectively for the treatment of dehydration, with similar rates of adverse effects to intravenous infusion. The evidence in this area is limited, and larger randomised controlled trials using validated outcome measures would be useful to confirm these results. PMID:15086959

  12. Dehydration, rehydration, and overhydration alter patterns of gene expression in the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Martinez, Giancarlo; Benoit, Joshua B; Rinehart, Joseph P; Elnitsky, Michael A; Lee, Richard E; Denlinger, David L

    2009-05-01

    We investigated molecular responses elicited by three types of dehydration (fast, slow and cryoprotective), rehydration and overhydration in larvae of the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica. The larvae spend most the year encased in ice but during the austral summer are vulnerable to summer storms, osmotic stress from ocean spray and drying conditions due to wind and intense sunlight. Using suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH), we obtained clones that were potentially responsive to dehydration and then used northern blots to evaluate the gene's responsiveness to different dehydration rates and hydration states. Among the genes most responsive to changes in the hydration state were those encoding heat shock proteins (smHsp, Hsp70, Hsp90), antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase), detoxification (metallothionein, cytochrome p450), genes involved in altering cell membranes (fatty acid desaturase, phospholipase A2 activating protein, fatty acyl CoA desaturase) and the cytoskeleton (actin, muscle-specific actin), and several additional genes including a zinc-finger protein, pacifastin and VATPase. Among the three types of dehydration evaluated, fast dehydration elicited the strongest response (more genes, higher expression), followed by cryoprotective dehydration and slow dehydration. During rehydration most, but not all, genes that were expressed during dehydration continued to be expressed; fatty acid desaturase was the only gene to be uniquely upregulated in response to rehydration. All genes examined, except VATPase, were upregulated in response to overhydration. The midge larvae are thus responding quickly to water loss and gain by expressing genes that encode proteins contributing to maintenance of proper protein function, protection and overall cell homeostasis during times of osmotic flux, a challenge that is particularly acute in this Antarctic environment.

  13. Preservation of histological structure of cells in human skin presenting mummification and corification processes by Sandison's rehydrating solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collini, Federica; Andreola, Salvatore Ambrogio; Gentile, Guendalina; Marchesi, Matteo; Muccino, Enrico; Zoja, Riccardo

    2014-11-01

    To overcome the difficulties of construction and interpretation of microscopic material from corpses presenting mummification and corification processes, a variety of techniques and tricks are used: in this research the results of applying the Sandison's rehydrating solution are presented, generally used in archeological field on Egyptian mummies of different ages, in human cadaveric material in an advanced state of decomposition. Nineteen skin specimens were taken from corpses presenting corification and mummification processes, discovered in a time ranging between one and four months and exhumed after 11 years. Each biological sample was divided into two parts: one, directly fixed in buffered formalin 10%; the other, preliminarily treated with the Sandison's rehydrating solution and, therefore, post-fixed in 10% buffered formalin. All samples were then carried out the routine histological preparation, and the sections were stained by hematoxylin-eosin and by other histochemical stains. Under the microscope, the samples placed directly into formalin, showed marked structural changes of the various components, while those previously rehydrated with the Sandison's rehydrating solution allowed the clear recognition of different structures. The use of the Sandison's rehydrating solution on skin samples presenting corification and mummification processes, preserving significantly its general setting, stands as an indispensable procedure in the study of such cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Parental rehydration with pizarro's solution, of infants dehydrated by diarrheal disease Hidratación parenteral con solución 90 (Solución Pizarro en niños deshidratados por enfermedad diarreica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo García Gutiérrez

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Pizarro's solution for parenteral rehydration has the following composition in mmol/l: sodium: 90, potassium 20, chloride 80, acetate 30 and glucose 111. Fifty dehydrated infants were parenterally rehydrated with this solution in order to confirm its safety and efficacy. Mean age was 10.3::!: 8.1 months (SEM; 31 were males and 19 females; 27 (54% were undernourished; 45 (90% had previously received oral rehydration therapy. Pizarro's solution was intravenously administered at the rate of 25 ml/kg/hour. Blood samples for determination of sodium, potassium, glucose and blood gases were drawn at the beginning of therapy and after achieving rehydration. AII infants were rehydrated uneventfully. Initial weight was 6.63 :t 2.85 kg. Average weight gain was 5.18 :t 2.59%. The volume of fluid administered was 105.8 :t 45.8 ml/kg. Time to achieve rehydration was 4.32 :t2.13 hours. Serum sodium levels were 139.32 :t 9.03 and 137.10 :t 7.62 mmol/l, serum potassium levels were 4.10 :t 1.06 and 4.22 :t 0.76 mmol/l, blood pH was 7.25 :t 0.197 and 7.34 :t 0.088, blood glucose levels were 122.18 :t 66.31 and 117.46 :t 47 mg/dl at admission and after rehydration, respectively. We concluded that Pizarro's solution is suitable and safe for intravenous rehydration of infants dehydrated by diarrheal disease when oral rehydration therapy is not feasible.

    El objetivo de este estudio fue comprobar la seguridad y eficacia de la solución recomendada por Pizarro para el tratamiento parenteral de la deshidratación. Se hidrataron 50 niños con edad promedio de 10.3 :t 8.1 meses. De ellos 31 fueron hombres y 19 mujeres; 27 (54% presentaban desnutrición y 45 (90% habían recibido hidratación oral. Se programó la corrección del déficit con 25 ml/kg/hora. Se tomaron muestras de

  15. POST-EXERCISE REHYDRATION WITH DIFFERENT BEVERAGES: PURE WATER, SPORTS DRINK, AND ROSELLE TEA

    OpenAIRE

    María de Lourdes Mayol Soto; Luis Fernando Aragón Vargas

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the suitability of roselle tea (Hibiscus Sabdariffa L.) for post-exercise rehydration, compared with pure water and a sports drink. Roselle tea is a beverage widely consumed in Mexico and highly regarded because of its purported diuretic properties. Sixteen physically active male students from the University of Costa Rica, aged 17 to 23 years old, drank each one of the three treatments on different days, the same day of the week, in random order....

  16. Effects of Food Additives on Drying Rate, Rehydration Ratio and Sense Value of Freeze-dried Dumplings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingli Jiao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dumpling has always been a traditional and delicious food in China. Nevertheless, the rehydration effects, especially the nip of dumplings, are far from people’s satisfaction. To solve this problem, in this study, aimed at the improving the rehydration properties of freeze-dried dumplings, three kinds of food additives, including compound phosphate, soybean lecithin and guar gum, were added into dumplings wrappers. Results showed that, the drying rate, rehydration ratio and sense value were the highest with respective addition of 0.1% compound phosphate, 0.6% soybean lecithin and 0.35% guar gum. The interactions between freeze-dried dumplings and food additives were discussed, which provided the theory foundation for preparation of freeze-dried food.

  17. Freshwater toxicity testing using rehydrated Philodina sp. (Rotifera) as test animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Terry W; Johnston, Rachel K; Matthews, Amelia B

    2017-10-01

    Rotifers have become widely used in aquatic toxicology as a rapid screening test for toxicity. The commercial availability of diapausing embryos (cysts) have facilitated their popularity because test animals can be obtained without having to master the details of culturing. Other rotifer species have life stages capable of surviving desiccation and also could be used in non-culture systems for toxicity assessment. In this article, we describe a system for toxicity testing in freshwater based on rehydrating desiccated bdelloid rotifers in the genus Philodina. These animals can remain in this anhydrobiotic state for more than one year and then rehydrate within hours to provide animals for toxicity tests. We describe three endpoints: a 1.5 h ingestion test, a 24 h mortality test, and a five day reproductive test. The latter test requires feeding and a method using a dried commercial product is explained. Using desiccated rotifers and dried food in toxicity tests make this system especially attractive because of its flexibility and low threshold of biological expertise required to execute the tests. The use of the Philodina toxicity test is illustrated with four metals: copper, lead, mercury and cadmium. Reproduction generally was the most sensitive endpoint, with EC50s of 0.33, 0.44, 0.60, and 0.12 mg/L, respectively. Ingestion was a close second with EC50s of 0.13, 1.64, 0.64, and 6.26 mg/L, respectively. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Determination of the drying and rehydration kinetics of freeze dried kiwi ( Actinidia deliciosa) slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergün, Kadriye; Çalışkan, Gülşah; Dirim, Safiye Nur

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the drying and rehydration kinetics of freeze dried kiwi slices. Well-known thin layer drying models (Lewis, Page, Modified Page I, Henderson and Pabis, Modified Henderson and Pabis, Logarithmic, Midilli, Modified Midilli, Two-term, Two-term Exponential, Modified Two-term Exponential, and Wang and Singh) were fitted to the experimental data. A nonlinear regression analysis was used to evaluate the parameters of the selected models using statistical software SPSS 16.0. For the freeze drying process of the kiwi slices, the highest R2 value (0.997), and the lowest RMSE (0.018) as well as the χ2 (0.0004) values were obtained from the Two-term Exponential model. The effective moisture diffusivity (Deff) of the freeze dried kiwi slices was calculated with the Fick's diffusion model as 7.302 × 10-10 m2/s. The rehydration behavior was determined using distilled water at different solid-liquid ratios at room temperature (18 ± 1 °C) using Peleg's model. The kinetics of the total soluble solid loss was also determined.

  19. Changes in freezing point of blood and milk during dehydration and rehydration in lactating cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, M.; Rasmussen, M.D.; Nielsen, Mette Olaf

    2005-01-01

    We studied the influence of short-term changes in water intake in 4 lactating Holstein cows on diurnal fluctuation of packed cell volume (PCV), freezing point of blood (FP blood), freezing point of milk ( FP milk), and the relationship between changes in FP blood and FP milk. The experiment lasted...... 108 h and was divided into 3 periods: 1) control (38 h); 2) dehydration/rehydration with 4 consecutive 12-h sequences: 8 h without water, 0.5-h access to water, 1.5 h without water, and 2-h access to water; and (3) 22 h for reconstitution. Cows were milked at 12-h intervals. Blood was sampled from...... the jugular vein hourly throughout the experiment, and at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, and 240 min after initiated rehydration following the 8-h dehydration sequences. Intakes of free water and water in feed were recorded every hour. The PCV was negatively affected by water intake within the hour...

  20. Investigation of the microstructure of milk protein concentrate powders during rehydration: alterations during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimouni, A; Deeth, H C; Whittaker, A K; Gidley, M J; Bhandari, B R

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this work was to use scanning electron microscopy to investigate the microstructure of rehydrated milk protein concentrate powder (MPC) particles. A sample preparation method for scanning electron microscopy analysis of rehydrated MPC particles is described and used to characterize the time course of dissolution and the effects of prior storage on the dissolution process. The results show that a combination of different types of interactions (e.g., bridges, direct contact) between casein micelles results in a porous, gel-like structure that restrains the dispersion of individual micelles into the surrounding liquid phase without preventing water penetration and solubilization of nonmicellar components. During storage of the powder, increased interactions occur between and within micelles, leading to compaction of micelles and the formation of a monolayer skin of casein micelles packed close together, the combination of which are proposed to be responsible for the slow dissolution of stored MPC powders. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of the drying and rehydration kinetics of freeze dried kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa) slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergün, Kadriye; Çalışkan, Gülşah; Dirim, Safiye Nur

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the drying and rehydration kinetics of freeze dried kiwi slices. Well-known thin layer drying models (Lewis, Page, Modified Page I, Henderson and Pabis, Modified Henderson and Pabis, Logarithmic, Midilli, Modified Midilli, Two-term, Two-term Exponential, Modified Two-term Exponential, and Wang and Singh) were fitted to the experimental data. A nonlinear regression analysis was used to evaluate the parameters of the selected models using statistical software SPSS 16.0. For the freeze drying process of the kiwi slices, the highest R2 value (0.997), and the lowest RMSE (0.018) as well as the χ2 (0.0004) values were obtained from the Two-term Exponential model. The effective moisture diffusivity (Deff) of the freeze dried kiwi slices was calculated with the Fick's diffusion model as 7.302 × 10-10 m2/s. The rehydration behavior was determined using distilled water at different solid-liquid ratios at room temperature (18 ± 1 °C) using Peleg's model. The kinetics of the total soluble solid loss was also determined.

  2. Comparison of salt taste thresholds and salt usage behaviours between adults in Myanmar and Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyungjin; Kim, So Mi; Jeong, Seong Su; Kim, Soon Bae

    2016-12-01

    Excessive oral salt intake can induce hypertension. According to previous studies, the prevalence of hypertension is higher in Myanmar than in Korea. We postulated that Myanmar adults had higher salt taste thresholds and eat much saltier food. This study aimed to compare salt taste thresholds and salt usage behaviour scores between adults in Myanmar and Korea. This cross-sectional study enrolled patients who visited volunteer medical service clinics at Ansung in Korea and Hlegu and Bago in Myanmar in August 2014. We measured the vital signs, heights, and weights of each patient and evaluated detection thresholds, recognition thresholds, and salt preferences. All patients underwent urinalysis and spot urine Na tests. Additionally, they each completed a salt usage behaviour questionnaire. A total of 131 patients were enrolled, including 64 Myanmarese patients and 67 Korean patients. Blood pressure was significantly higher in the Myanmarese than in the Koreans. Detection and recognition thresholds, salt preferences, and spot urine sodium and salt usage behaviour scores were also higher in the Myanmarese than in the Korean subjects. We calculated correlation coefficients between systolic blood pressure and parameters that were related to salt intake. The detection and recognition thresholds were significantly correlated with systolic blood pressure. All parameters related to salt intake, including detection and recognition thresholds, salt preference, salt usage behaviour scores and spot urine sodium concentrations, are significantly higher in Myanmarese than in Korean individuals.

  3. POST-EXERCISE REHYDRATION WITH DIFFERENT BEVERAGES: PURE WATER, SPORTS DRINK, AND ROSELLE TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Mayol Soto

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to assess the suitability of roselle tea (Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. for post-exercise rehydration, compared with pure water and a sports drink. Roselle tea is a beverage widely consumed in Mexico and highly regarded because of its purported diuretic properties. Sixteen physically active male students from the University of Costa Rica, aged 17 to 23 years old, drank each one of the three treatments on different days, the same day of the week, in random order. They arrived in the laboratory euhydrated and, after a standardized breakfast and a brief rest, exercised intermittently on a stationary bicycle in a climate-controlled room (30-35°C and 85% RH until reaching 2.3% body mass loss dehydration. After a 30-min rest at room temperature, they drank a volume equivalent to 150% of their body mass loss of the drink assigned to that day, within 45 minutes. At the end of rehydration (0 min urine collection was performed and repeated every 30 min for a total of 3 hours. Each sample was measured for volume, color and density. Sample volumes were analyzed as percentage of ingested fluid. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and  two-way ANOVAs (repeated measures on both factors. While there were no statistically significant differences in total urine output (p = 0.084, an interaction was found between urine output, density, and color, with time (p < 0.001. Post-hoc analysis showed urine output to be higher initially with the sports drink, but it was significantly lower at time points  150 and 180 min. In addition, urine was significantly darker and denser at 0, 150, and 180 min with this drink, suggesting greater fluid conservation. From the results it is possible to conclude that roselle tea did not show a diuretic effect 3 hours after consumption, in exercise-dehydrated subjects. While it seems like rehydration is almost identical with the three drinks, urine composition and output dynamics is

  4. Effect of Dehydration Conditions on the Chemical, Physical, and Rehydration Properties of Instant Whole Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Azufrado

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    Juan Alberto Resendiz Vazquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dehydration conditions on the chemical, physical, and rehydration properties of instant whole beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Azufrado using a 22 factorial design (air temperature: 25°C and 30°C, air velocity: 0.5 m/s and 1.0 m/s. To determine the kinetic parameters, the rehydration data were fitted to three models: Peleg’s, First Order, and Sigmoid. The protein, fat, and ash contents of the beans were not significantly affected (P>0.05 by the dehydration conditions. Of the 11 physical properties of the instant whole beans, only water activity and splitting were significantly affected by dehydration conditions (P0.05 between the observed and predicted equilibrium moisture contents of the instant whole beans. Regarding the rehydration kinetics for the instant whole beans, the activation energy values ranged from 23.56 kJ/mol to 30.48 kJ/mol, depending on the dehydration conditions. The dehydration conditions had no significant effect (P>0.05 on the rehydration properties of instant whole beans.

  5. Anaerobic performance when rehydrating with water or commercially available sports drinks during prolonged exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coso, Juan Del; Estevez, Emma; Baquero, Raúl Antonio; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2008-04-01

    The effects that rehydrating drinks ingested during exercise may have on anaerobic exercise performance are unclear. This study aimed to determine which of four commercial rehydrating drinks better maintains leg power and force during prolonged cycling in the heat. Seven endurance-trained and heat-acclimatized cyclists pedaled for 120 min at 63% maximum oxygen consumption in a hot, dry environment (36 degrees C; 29% humidity, 1.9 m.s-1 airflow). In five randomized trials, during exercise, subjects drank 2.4 +/- 0.1 L of (i) mineral water (WAT; San Benedetto), (ii) 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (Gatorade lemon), (iii) 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (Powerade Citrus Charge), (iv) 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution with lower sodium concentration than other sports drinks (Aquarius orange), or (v) did not ingest any fluid (DEH). Fluid balance, rectal temperature (Trec), maximal cycling power (Pmax), and leg maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) were measured. During DEH, subjects lost 3.7 +/- 0.2% of initial body mass, whereas subjects lost only 0.8% +/- 0.1% in the other trials (p rehydration with commercially available sports drinks during prolonged exercise in the heat preserves leg force, whereas rehydrating with water does not. However, low sodium concentration in a sports drink seems to preclude its ergogenic effects on force.

  6. Effect of drink carbohydrate content on postexercise gastric emptying, rehydration, and the calculation of net fluid balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, David J; Evans, Gethin H; James, Lewis J

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the gastric emptying and rehydration effects of hypotonic and hypertonic glucose-electrolyte drinks after exercise-induced dehydration. Eight healthy males lost ~1.8% body mass by intermittent cycling and rehydrated (150% of body mass loss) with a hypotonic 2% (2% trial) or a hypertonic 10% (10% trial) glucose-electrolyte drink over 60 min. Blood and urine samples were taken at preexercise, postexercise, and 60, 120, 180, and 240 min postexercise. Gastric and test drink volume were determined 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min postexercise. At the end of the gastric sampling period 0.3% (2% trial) and 42.1% (10% trial; p drinks remained in the stomach. Plasma volume was lower (p drinks were retained. Net fluid balance was greater from 120 min during the 10% trial (p rehydration drink might be mediated by a slower rate of gastric emptying, but the slow gastric emptying of such solutions makes rehydration efficiency difficult to determine in the hours immediately after drinking, compromising the calculation of net fluid balance.

  7. The influence of microwave-assisted drying techniques on the rehydration behavior of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Magdalena; Markowski, Marek

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of: (a) different drying methods, (b) hot air temperature in a convection oven, and (c) the moisture content of fruits dehydrated by multi-stage drying which involves a transition between different stages of drying, on the rehydration kinetics of dry blueberries. Models describing rehydration kinetics were also studied. Blueberries dehydrated by multi-stage microwave-assisted drying, which involved a hot air pre-drying step at 80 °C until the achievement of a moisture content of 1.95 kg H2O kg(-1)DM, were characterized by significantly higher rates of initial and successive rehydration as well as smaller initial loss of soluble solids in comparison with the samples dried by other methods. The highest initial rehydration rate and the smallest loss of soluble solids after 30 min of soaking were determined at 0.46 min(-1) and 0.29 kg DM kg(-1)DM, respectively. The Peleg model and the first-order-kinetic model fit the experimental data well.

  8. Seasonal Changes in Leaf Tissue Rehydration of One Annual and Two Perennial Grass Forage Species Induced by Bioclimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirini - Ia KAPSALI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioclimate signifies the continuous interplay between plants and climate factors (primarily drought and has a direct impact on the water relations and the duration of the rehydration process in water stressed plants. To explore the association between bioclimate and water physiology of forage species in semi-arid Mediterranean grasslands, we determined the seasonal variation in leaf water potential, turgid weight and relative water content in wild growing Dactylis glomerata L., Bromus inermis Leyss (perennial and Bromus sterilis L. (annual during the growing season. The study was conducted at the farm of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. The results of the current study reveal that B. sterilis maintained high levels of water potential most probably by accelerating its biological cycle and decreasing water content because it fails to sustain turgidity. Dactylis glomerata and B. inermis presented even higher water contents than B. sterilis for the same water potential. Dactylis glomerata exhibited substantially higher water potential and content than B. inermis by keeping the rehydration duration stable. The extensive creeping rhizome seems to allow B. inermis to sustain high values of water potential and content possibly ensuring turgidity. Regardless of the grass species the duration of rehydration ranged from 2.5 to 3.5 hours throughout the growing season. Our findings demonstrate that (a D. glomerata and B. inermis are better adapted to Mediterranean semiarid conditions than B. sterilis and (b turgid weight in Mediterranean forage species can safely be determined after a rehydration period of 3.5 hours.

  9. Effect of different drying methods on moisture ratio and rehydration of pumpkin slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seremet Ceclu, Liliana; Botez, Elisabeta; Nistor, Oana-Viorela; Andronoiu, Doina Georgeta; Mocanu, Gabriel-Danut

    2016-03-15

    This study was carried to determine the influence of hot air drying process and combined methods on physicochemical properties of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) samples. The experiments in hot air chamber were lead at 50, 60 and 70 °C. The combined method consists of a triple combination of the main drying techniques. Thus, in first stage the samples were dried in hot air convection at 60 °C followed by hot air ventilation at 40 °C simultaneous with microwave. The time required to reduce the moisture content to any given level was highly dependent on the drying conditions. So, the highest value of drying time in hot air has been 540 min at 50 °C, while the lowest time has been 189 min in hot air combined by microwave at 40 °C and a power of 315 W. The samples dried by hot air shows a higher rehydration capacity than samples dried by combined method.

  10. Material Research on Salt Hydrates for Seasonal Heat Storage Application in a Residential Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferchaud, C.J.; Zondag, H.A.; De Boer, R. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    Water vapor sorption in salt hydrates is a promising method to realize seasonal solar heat storage in the residential sector. Several materials already showed promising performance for this application. However, the stability of these materials needs to be improved for long-term (30 year) application in seasonal solar heat storages. The purpose of this article is to identify the influence of the material properties of the salt hydrates on the performance and the reaction kinetics of the sorption process. The experimental investigation presented in this article shows that the two salt hydrates Li2SO4.H2O and CuSO4.5H2O can store and release heat under the operating conditions of a seasonal solar heat storage in a fully reversible way. However, these two materials show differences in terms of energy density and reaction kinetics. Li2SO4.H2O can release heat with an energy density of around 0.80 GJ/m{sup 3} within 4 hours of rehydration at 25C, while CuSO4.5H2O needs around 130 hours at the same temperature to be fully rehydrated and reaches an energy density of 1.85 GJ/m{sup 3}. Since the two salts are dehydrated and hydrated under the same conditions, this difference in behavior is directly related to the intrinsic properties of the materials.

  11. Photosynthetic recovery and acclimation to excess light intensity in the rehydrated lichen soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Lei, Yaping; Lan, Shubin; Hu, Chunxiang

    2017-01-01

    As an important successional stage and main type of biological soil crusts (BSCs) in Shapotou region of China (southeastern edge of Tengger Desert), lichen soil crusts (LSCs) often suffer from many stresses, such as desiccation and excess light intensity. In this study, the chlorophyll fluorescence and CO2 exchange in the rehydrated LSCs were detected under a series of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) gradients to study the photosynthetic acclimation of LSCs. The results showed that although desiccation leaded to the loss of photosynthetic activity in LSCs, the fluorescence parameters including Fo, Fv and Fv/Fm of LSCs could be well recovered after rehydration. After the recovery of photosynthetic activity, the effective photosynthetic efficiency ΦPSII detected by Imaging PAM had declined to nearly 0 within both the lichen thallus upper and lower layers when the PAR increased to 200 μE m-2 s-1, however the net photosynthesis detected by the CO2 gas analyzer in the LSCs still appeared when the PAR increased to 1000 μE m-2 s-1. Our results indicate that LSCs acclimating to high PAR, on the one hand is ascribed to the special structure in crust lichens, making the incident light into the lichen thallus be weakened; on the other hand the massive accumulation of photosynthetic pigments in LSCs also provides a protective barrier for the photosynthetic organisms against radiation damage. Furthermore, the excessive light energy absorbed by crust lichens is also possibly dissipated by the increasing non-photochemical quenching, therefore to some extent providing some protection for LSCs. PMID:28257469

  12. Dehydration rates and rehydration efficacy of water and sports drink during one hour of moderate intensity exercise in well-trained flatwater kayakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jeremy M F; Chia, Jason K K; Aziz, Abdul Rashid; Tan, Benedict

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the amount of water loss and percentage dehydration experienced during 1 hour of paddling on the kayak ergometer so as to help coaches and athletes tailor a suitable and adequate rehydration regime. Also, rehydration efficacy between water and a well established, commercially available sports drink (Gatorade, Quaker Oats company, USA) was investigated in this cross-over study. Ten national flatwater kayakers were monitored in a controlled setting while paddling the kayak ergometer for 1 hour at an intensity sustainable for long distance marathon. They rehydrated themselves ad libitum with provided beverage. Post-void towel-dried body mass was measured before and after the exercise with percentage dehydration calculated. Body core temperature (tympanic temperatures), ratings of perceived exertion and thirst index were monitored every 15 minutes. The amount of fluid consumed, urine output and urine specific gravity were obtained after exercise. The results [mean +/- standard deviation (SD)] showed that kayakers underwent 1.10 +/- 0.52% dehydration while rehydrating with water as compared to 0.72 +/- 0.38% while rehydrating with Gatorade. Also, athletes on water rehydration had higher rating of perceived exertion (RPE) at the 30th and 60th minute mark of the exercise. Overall, athletes undergoing water rehydration lost significantly more body mass (0.70 +/- 0.39 kg) as compared to rehydrating with Gatorade (0.46 +/- 0.27). Although the hydration efficacy of Gatorade proved superior to that of water, the athletes' hydration habits with either fluids did not provide adequate hydration. It is recommended that specific strategies be developed to address dehydration and rehydration issues of kayakers in Singapore.

  13. Low Osmolar Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS for Treating Diarrhea in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupani MP

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Standard WHO-ORS reduces dehydration, but does not reduce stool volume and duration of diarrhea. Low osmolar ORS produce maximal water absorption. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of low osmolar ORS in comparison to standard WHO-ORS. Evidence acquisition: A systematic review and meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs comparing efficacy of low osmolar ORS and standard WHO-ORS in childhood diarrhea was carried out. RCTs were searched in PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, DOAJ, Google Scholar and Google. The data was extracted in Excel and entered in Review Manager 5.3 for calculation of effect sizes. Results: The outcome of stool output was reported in 9 trails. Reduced osmolarity ORS resulted in significantly reduced stool output as compared with standard WHO-ORS (pooled standardized mean difference -0.44, 95% CI -0.72 to -0.15. Information for the outcome of duration of diarrhea was available from 6 trials. The pooled standardized mean difference was -0.21 (95% CI -0.79 to 0.37, suggesting that reduced osmolarity ORS did not have significant effect on the duration of diarrhea as compared to standard WHO-ORS. The outcome of need for intravenous fluid therapy was reported in 8 trials. The meta-analysis revealed that reduced osmolarity ORS when compared to WHO standard ORS was associated with fewer unscheduled intravenous infusions (Odds Ratio 0.62, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.83. The meta-analysis for the outcome of vomiting reported in 5 clinical trials showed that children treated with low osmolar ORS were less likely to vomit than children treated with standard WHO-ORS (Odds Ratio 0.74, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.97. Conclusion: Low osmolar ORS when compared to standard WHO-ORS is associated with reduced stool output, reduction in need for unscheduled intravenous infusion and lesser episodes of vomiting. However, there was no significant difference in duration of diarrhea

  14. Low Osmolar Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) for Treating Diarrhea in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rupani MP; Gaonkar NT; Bhatt GS

    2015-01-01

    Context: Standard WHO-ORS reduces dehydration, but does not reduce stool volume and duration of diarrhea. Low osmolar ORS produce maximal water absorption. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of low osmolar ORS in comparison to standard WHO-ORS. Evidence acquisition: A systematic review and meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) comparing efficacy of low osmolar ORS and standard WHO-ORS in childhood diarrhea was carried out. RCTs were searched in PubMed, Co...

  15. Effects of rehydration solution on hematological and biochemical parameters in induced buffalo neonatal calf diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zaman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimentally diarrhoea with enteropathogenic E. coli was induced in 18 buffalo calves (a week old which were divided into three equal groups while 4th group of six calves served as uninfected, untreated control. All the calves were monitored twice daily. Diarrhea developed in all treatment groups within 2-6 hours post infection. Twenty four hours after the on-set of diarrhea, neonates of Group (G-1 was treated with antibiotic (Kanamycin®, Farvet Laboratories, Holland @ 10 mg/kg b.wt I/M plus rehydration solution (sodium chloride-10g, potassium chloride-4g, sodium bicarbonate-20g, glucose-50g and water-4 litres @ 250–500 ml/day/I/V, G-2 with antibiotic and G-3 with rehydration solution. Diarrheic contents varied from semi solid to watery in consistency, yellowish to greenish yellow colour with blood or mucous and frequency of defecation was 6-10 times/day. Dehydration was mild (4-5% in G-1, moderate (6-9% in G-3 and severe (10-12% in G-2 calves. Most severe signs of dehydration appeared in G-2 calves. Neonates in this group showed severe dryness of cornea, loss of suckling reflex, sunken eyes, dry mucous membranes and cold extremities. Temperature was significantly high in G-3 calves than G-1, G-2 and control calves. Pulse and respiration rates were low in all treatment groups than the control group. Total erythrocytic counts and hematocrit were high (P<0.05 in G-2 calves. Calves treated with Kanamycin showed crenated erythrocytes in the blood smears. Leukocytosis mainly due to neutrophilia was observed in all the treated calves than the control group. Serum total protein and globulin were low (P<0.05 in control calves than all treatment groups. Albumin was high in G-2 calves than calves of G-1, G-3 and control group. Immunglobulins were high (P<0.05 in G-2 calves than G-1, G-3 and control calves.

  16. Comparing the rehydration potential of different milk-based drinks to a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbrow, Ben; Jansen, Sarah; Barrett, Abby; Leveritt, Michael D; Irwin, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the rehydration potential of a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage with several varieties of milk following exercise-induced fluid losses. Fifteen male participants (age 24.9 ± 5.5 years, height 179.3 ± 4.9 cm, body mass 75.8 ± 6.6 kg (mean ± SD)) lost 2.0% ± 0.2% body mass through intermittent cycling before consuming a different beverage on 4 separate occasions. Drinks included cow's milk (286 kJ·100 mL(-1)), soy milk (273 kJ·100 mL(-1)), a milk-based liquid meal supplement (Sustagen Sport (Nestle); 417 kJ·100 mL(-1)), and a sports drink (Powerade (Coca Cola Ltd); 129 kJ·100 mL(-1)). Beverages were consumed over 1 h in volumes equivalent to 150% of body mass loss. Body mass, blood and urine samples, and measures of gastrointestinal tolerance were obtained before and hourly for 4 h after beverage consumption. Net body mass at the conclusion of each trial was significantly less with Powerade (-1.37 ± 0.3 kg) than with cow's milk (-0.92 ± 0.48 kg), soy milk (-0.78 ± 0.37 kg), and Sustagen Sport (-0.48 ± 0.39 kg). Net body mass was also significantly greater for Sustagen Sport compared with cow's milk trials, but not soy milk. Upon completion of trials, the percentage of beverage retained was Sustagen Sport 65.1% ± 14.7%, soy milk 46.9% ± 19.9%, cow's milk 40.0% ± 24.9%, and Powerade 16.6% ± 16.5%. Changes in plasma volume and electrolytes were unaffected by drink treatment. Subjective ratings of bloating and fullness were higher during all milk trials compared with Powerade whereas ratings of overall thirst were not different between beverages. Milk-based drinks are more effective rehydration options compared with traditional sports drinks. The additional energy, protein, and sodium in a milk-based liquid meal supplement facilitate superior fluid recovery following exercise.

  17. Determination of optimal rehydration, fixation and staining methods for histological and immunohistochemical analysis of mummified soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekota, A-M; Vermehren, M

    2005-01-01

    During an excavation headed by the German Institute for Archaeology, Cairo, at the tombs of the nobles in Thebes-West, Upper Egypt, three types of tissues from different mummies were sampled to compare 13 well known rehydration methods for mummified tissue with three newly developed methods. Furthermore, three fixatives were tested with each of the rehydration fluids. Meniscus (fibrocartilage), skin, and a placenta were used for this study. The rehydration and fixation procedures were uniform for all methods. The stains used were standard hematoxylin and eosin, elastica van Gieson, periodic acid-Schiff, and Grocott, and five commercially obtained immunohistochemical stains including pancytokeratin, vimentin, alpha-smooth-muscle-actin, basement membrane collagen type IV, and S-100 protein. The sections were examined by transmitted light microscopy. Our study showed that preservation of the tissue is dependent on the quality and effectiveness of the combination of the rehydration and fixation solutions, and that the quality of the histological and histochemical stains is dependent on the tissue quality. In addition, preservation of the antigens in the tissues is dependent on tissue quality, and fungal permeation had no influence on the tissue. Finally, the results are tissue specific. For placenta the best solution combination was Sandison and solution III (both fixed with formaldehyde) while results for skin were best with Ruffer I (using formaldehyde and Schaffer as fixatives), Grupe et al. (using formaldehyde as a fixative) and solution III (in combination with formaldehyde and Bouin fixatives). Ruffer II (using formaldehyde as a fixative) and solution III (in combination with Schaffer fixative) gave the best results for fibrocartilage.

  18. A Simple Assay Demonstrating the Effect of Rehydration on the Orsellinate Depside Hydrolase Activity of Evernia prunastri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, A; Vicente, C; Estrella Legaz, M

    1984-09-01

    A new, simple assay of orsellinate depside hydrolase (EC. 3.1.1.40) by high performance liquid chromatography is described. Enzymatic hydrolysis of evernic acid produces equimolar amounts of both orsellinic and everninic acids. Evernia prunastri thallus has a pre-existent, partially inactive hydrolase, which is activated after rehydration of the thallus. Copyright © 1984 Gustav Fisher Verlag, Stuttgart. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  19. Whole transcriptome characterization of the effects of dehydration and rehydration on Cladonia rangiferina, the grey reindeer lichen

    OpenAIRE

    Junttila, Sini; Laiho, Asta; Gyenesei, Attila; Rudd, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Background Lichens are symbiotic organisms with a fungal and an algal or a cyanobacterial partner. Lichens inhabit some of the harshest climates on earth and most lichen species are desiccation-tolerant. Lichen desiccation-tolerance has been studied at the biochemical level and through proteomics, but the underlying molecular genetic mechanisms remain largely unexplored. The objective of our study was to examine the effects of dehydration and rehydration on the gene expression of Cladonia ran...

  20. Rehydration with a caffeinated beverage during the nonexercise periods of 3 consecutive days of 2-a-day practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Kelly A; Casa, Douglas J; Roti, Melissa W

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of rehydration with a caffeinated beverage during nonexercise periods on hydration status throughout consecutive practices in the heat. Ten (7 women, 3 men) partially heat- acclimated athletes (age 24 +/-1y, body fat 19.2 +/- 2 %, weight 68.4 +/- 4.0 kg, height 170 +/- 3 cm) completed 3 successive days of 2-a-day practices (2 h/practice, 4 h/d) in mild heat (WBGT = 23 C). The 2 trials (double-blind, random, cross-over design) included; 1) caffeine (CAF) rehydrated with Coca-Cola and 2) caffeine-free (CF) rehydrated with Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola. Urine and psychological measures were determined before and after each 2-h practice. A significant difference was found for urine color for the post-AM time point, F = 5.526, P = 0.031. No differences were found among other variables (P > 0.05). In summary, there is little evidence to suggest that the use of beverages containing caffeine during nonexercise might hinder hydration status.

  1. Relax and refill: xylem rehydration prior to hydraulic measurements favours embolism repair in stems and generates artificially low PLC values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifilò, Patrizia; Raimondo, Fabio; Lo Gullo, Maria A; Barbera, Piera M; Salleo, Sebastiano; Nardini, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    Diurnal changes in percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC), with recorded values being higher at midday than on the following morning, have been interpreted as evidence for the occurrence of cycles of xylem conduits' embolism and repair. Recent reports have suggested that diurnal PLC changes might arise as a consequence of an experimental artefact, that is, air entry into xylem conduits upon cutting stems, even if under water, while under substantial tension generated by transpiration. Rehydration procedures prior to hydraulic measurements have been recommended to avoid this artefact. In the present study, we show that xylem rehydration prior to hydraulic measurements might favour xylem refilling and embolism repair, thus leading to PLC values erroneously lower than those actually experienced by transpiring plants. When xylem tension relaxation procedures were performed on stems where refilling mechanisms had been previously inhibited by mechanical (girdling) or chemical (orthovanadate) treatment, PLC values measured in stems cut under native tension were the same as those measured after sample rehydration/relaxation. Our data call for renewed attention to the procedures of sample collection in the field and transport to the laboratory, and suggest that girdling might be a recommendable treatment prior to sample collection for PLC measurements.

  2. Influences of dehydration and rehydration on the lubrication properties of phospholipid polymer-grafted cross-linked polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarimitsu, Seido; Moro, Toru; Kyomoto, Masayuki; Watanabe, Kenichi; Tanaka, Sakae; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Murakami, Teruo

    2015-07-01

    Surface modification by grafting of biocompatible phospholipid polymer onto the surface of artificial joint material has been proposed to reduce the risk of aseptic loosening and improve the durability. Poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC)-grafted cross-linked polyethylene (CLPE) has shown promising results for reducing wear of CLPE. The main lubrication mechanism for the PMPC layer is considered to be the hydration lubrication. In this study, the lubrication properties of PMPC-grafted CLPE were evaluated in reciprocating friction test with rehydration process by unloading in various lubricants. The start-up friction of PMPC-grafted CLPE was reduced, and the damage of PMPC layer was suppressed by rehydration in water or hyaluronic acid solutions. In contrast, the start-up friction of PMPC-grafted CLPE increased in fetal bovine serum solution, and the damage for PMPC layer was quite noticeable. Interestingly, the start-up friction of PMPC-grafted CLPE was reduced in fetal bovine serum solution containing hyaluronic acid, and the damage of the PMPC layer was suppressed. These results indicate that the rehydration by unloading and hyaluronic acid are elemental in maximizing the lubrication effect of hydrated PMPC layer.

  3. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Transported from Roots to Shoots Promotes Leaf Abscission in Cleopatra Mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.) Seedlings Rehydrated after Water Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudela, D; Primo-Millo, E

    1992-09-01

    The effect of water stress and subsequent rehydration on 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content, ACC synthase activity, ethylene production, and leaf abscission was studied in Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.) seedlings. Leaf abscission occurred when drought-stressed plants were allowed to rehydrate, whereas no abscission was observed in plants under water stress conditions. In roots of water-stressed plants, a high ACC accumulation and an increase in ACC synthase activity were observed. Neither increase in ACC content nor significant ethylene production were detected in leaves of water-stressed plants. After rehydration, a sharp rise in ACC content and ethylene production was observed in leaves of water-stressed plants. Content of ACC in xylem fluid was 10-fold higher in plants rehydrated for 2 h after water stress than in nonstressed plants. Leaf abscission induced by rehydration after drought stress was inhibited when roots or shoots were treated before water stress with aminooxyacetic acid (AOA, inhibitor of ACC synthase) or cobalt ion (inhibitor of ethylene-forming enzyme), respectively. However, AOA treatments to shoots did not suppress leaf abscission. The data indicate that water stress promotes ACC synthesis in roots of Cleopatra mandarin seedlings. Rehydration of plants results in ACC transport to the shoots, where it is oxidized to ethylene. Subsequently, this ethylene induces leaf abscission.

  4. Drying kinetics, rehydration and colour characteristics of convective hot-air drying of carrot slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doymaz, İbrahim

    2016-03-01

    The effects of air drying temperature, slice thickness and pre-treatment application on the drying kinetics of carrot slices during convective drying in the range 50-70 °C were investigated. Results indicated that drying time, rehydration ratio and colour characteristics of carrot slices were more affected by drying air temperature, followed by pre-treatment applications. Five thin-layer drying models were applied to describe the drying kinetics. Midilli et al. model was the best model to characterize the drying kinetics of carrot slices. The moisture effective diffusivity calculated from the second Fick's law of diffusion ranged from 3.46 × 10-10 to 1.02 × 10-9 m2/s. The values of activation energy determined from the slope of the Arrhenius plot, ln(D eff ) versus 1/(T + 273.15), were 35.53, 43.42, and 37.75 kJ/mol for blanch, potas and control samples, respectively.

  5. Effect of an isotonic rehydration sports drink and exercise on urolithiasis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu N.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of physical exercise as well as the influence of hydration with an isotonic sports drink on renal function in male Wistar rats. Four groups were studied over a period of 42 days: 1 control (N = 9; 2 physical exercise (Exe, N = 7; 3 isotonic drink (Drink, N = 8; 4 physical exercise + isotonic drink (Exe + Drink, N = 8. Physical exercise consisted of running on a motor-driven treadmill for 1 h/day, at 20 m/min, 5 days a week. The isotonic sports drink was a commercial solution used by athletes for rehydration after physical activity, 2 ml administered by gavage twice a day. Urine cultures were performed in all animals. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected in metabolic cages at the beginning and at the end of the protocol period. Urinary and plasma parameters (sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine, calcium did not differ among groups. However, an amorphous material was observed in the bladders of animals in the Exe + Drink and Drink groups. Characterization of the material by Western blot revealed the presence of Tamm-Horsfall protein and angiotensin converting enzyme. Physical exercise and the isotonic drink did not change the plasma or urinary parameters measured. However, the isotonic drink induced the formation of intravesical matrix, suggesting a potential lithogenic risk.

  6. Drying kinetics, rehydration and colour characteristics of convective hot-air drying of carrot slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doymaz, İbrahim

    2017-01-01

    The effects of air drying temperature, slice thickness and pre-treatment application on the drying kinetics of carrot slices during convective drying in the range 50-70 °C were investigated. Results indicated that drying time, rehydration ratio and colour characteristics of carrot slices were more affected by drying air temperature, followed by pre-treatment applications. Five thin-layer drying models were applied to describe the drying kinetics. Midilli et al. model was the best model to characterize the drying kinetics of carrot slices. The moisture effective diffusivity calculated from the second Fick's law of diffusion ranged from 3.46 × 10-10 to 1.02 × 10-9 m2/s. The values of activation energy determined from the slope of the Arrhenius plot, ln( D eff ) versus 1/(T + 273.15), were 35.53, 43.42, and 37.75 kJ/mol for blanch, potas and control samples, respectively.

  7. The effects of exercise, heat, cooling and rehydration strategies on cognitive function in football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, S; Maughan, R; Shirreffs, S; Ozgünen, K; Kurdak, S; Ersöz, G; Binnet, M; Dvorak, J

    2010-10-01

    We investigated the cognitive effects of exercising in the heat on the field players of two football teams in a series of three matches. Different rehydration and cooling strategies were used for one of the teams during the last two games. Cognitive functions were measured before, during and immediately after each football match, as well as core temperature, body mass, plasma osmolality and glucose levels, allowing an estimate of their differential impacts on cognition. The pattern of results suggests that mild-moderate dehydration during exercise in the heat (up to 2.5%) has no clear effect on cognitive function. Instead, plasma glucose and core temperature changes appear to be the main determinants: higher glucose was related to faster and less accurate performance, whereas core temperature rises had the opposite effect. The 50% correlation between plasma glucose and core temperatures observed during exercise in the heat may help to stabilize cognitive performance via their opposing effects. The glucose-like effects of sports drinks appear to be mediated by increased plasma glucose levels, because drinks effects became non-significant when plasma glucose levels were added to the models. The cooling intervention had only a beneficial effect on complex visuo-motor speed.

  8. Vascular uptake of rehydration fluids in hypohydrated men at rest and exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Geelen, G.; Jackson, C. G. R.; Saumet, J.-L.; Juhos, L. T.; Keil, L. C.; Fegan-Meyer, D.; Dearborn, A.; Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.; Whittam, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to formulate and to evaluate rehydration drinks, which would restore total body water and plasma volume (PV), for astronauts to consume before and during extravehicular activity, a few hours before reentry, and immediately after landing. In the first experiment (rest, sitting), five healthy men (23-41 yr), previously dehydrated for 24 hr., drank six (1a, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7) fluid formulations (one each at weekly intervals) and then sat for 70 min. Pre-test PV were measured with Evans blue dye and changes in PV were calculated with the hematocrit-hemoglobin transformation equation. This rest experiment simulated hypohydrated astronauts preparing for reentry. The second experiment (exercise, supine) followed the same protocol except four healthy men (30-46 yr) worked for 70 min. in the supine position on a cycle ergometer at a mean load of 71+/-1 percent of their peak aerobic work capacity. This exercise experiment simulated conditions for astronauts with reduced total body water engaging in extravehicular activity.

  9. Oral Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Oral Medication The first treatment for type 2 diabetes blood ... new — even over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money ...

  10. Oral myiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Thalaimalai Saravanan; Mathan A Mohan; Meera Thinakaran; Saneem Ahammed

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability ...

  11. Fluoride and Oral Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S

    2016-01-01

    of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fi elds of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fl uorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fl uoride......The discovery during the fi rst half of the 20th century of the link between natural fl uoride, adjusted fl uoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fl uoride in improving oral health...... including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fl uorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision...

  12. Effects of dry, wet, and rehydrated corn bran and corn processing method in beef finishing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macken, C N; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Milton, C T; Stock, R A

    2004-12-01

    Two finishing trials were conducted to determine the effects of adding different types of corn bran, a component of corn gluten feed, on cattle performance. In Trial 1, 60 English crossbred yearling steers (283 +/- 6.7 kg) were used in a completely randomized design with four dietary treatments. Treatments were diets with no corn bran, dry corn bran (86% DM), wet corn bran (37% DM), and rehydrated dry bran (37% DM). Bran was fed at 40% of dietary DM. All finishing diets had (DM basis) 9% corn steep liquor with distillers solubles, 7.5% alfalfa hay, 3% tallow, and 5% supplement. Gain efficiency and ADG were greater (P < 0.01) for cattle fed no corn bran compared with all treatments containing corn bran; however, no differences were detected across corn bran types. In Trial 2, 340 English crossbred yearling steers (354 +/- 0.6 kg) were used in a randomized block design with treatments assigned based on a 2 x 4 + 2 factorial arrangement (four pens per treatment). One factor was the corn processing method used (dry-rolled corn, DRC; or steam-flaked corn, SFC). The other factor was corn bran type: dry (90% DM), wet (40% DM), or dry bran rehydrated to 40 or 60% DM. Bran was fed at 30% of dietary DM, replacing either DRC or SFC. Two control diets (DRC and SFC) were fed with no added bran. All finishing diets contained (DM basis) 10% corn steep liquor with distiller's solubles, 3.5% alfalfa hay, 3.5% sorghum silage, and 5% supplement. Corn bran type did not affect DMI (P = 0.61), ADG (P = 0.53), or G:F (P = 0.10). Dry matter intake was greater (P < 0.01) by steers fed bran compared with those fed no bran, and was greater by steers fed DRC than by steers fed SFC (P < 0.01). Interactions occurred (P < 0.01) between grain source and bran inclusion for ADG and G:F. The ADG by steers fed the SFC diet without bran was greater (P < 0.01) than by steers fed SFC diets with bran, whereas the ADG by steers fed DRC diets with or without bran was similar. Daily gain was 15.2% greater

  13. Effect of the dose of oral Hydrocortisone on growth rate during long-term treatment of children with salt losing congenital adrenal hyperplasia Efecto de la dosis oral de hidrocortisona sobre la velocidad de crecimiento en niños con la forma perdedora de sodio de la hiperplasia suprarrenal congénita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ciaccio

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the dose of oral hydrocortisone on stature growth rate of patients with the salt losing form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia and adequate electrolyte balance was here assessed. Thirty patients (21 girls and 9 boys were followed longitudinally for 0.52 to 8.64 years, between chronological ages 0.35 and 8.64 years. Nine consecutive periods (Ps of follow up were defined in order to compare two auxological parameters, height (H at the end of a follow up P and DH standard deviation score (SDS. According to growth rate during a particular P, two types of Ps were defined: Ps with DH SDS > -0.5 (Group 1, satisfactory growth rate and Ps with DH SDS = or 18 mg/m²/day and grew poorly, but they were able to recover, at least temporarily, when the dose was adjusted during the following years.El propósito del estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la dosis dehidrocortisona sobre la velocidad de crecimiento en pacientes con la forma perdedora de sodio de la hiperplasia suprarrenal congénita, en adecuado balance hidroelectrolítico. Se siguieron en forma longitudinal 30 pacientes (21 niñas y 9 niños durante 0.52 a 8.64 años, con edades cronológicas entre 0.35 y 8.64 años. Se definieron 9 períodos (P consecutivos de seguimiento para comparar: el score de desviación estándar (SDS para talla (T al final del P y el DSDS T (diferencia en el SDS de talla. Se definieron dos tipos de Ps: P con DSDS T > -0.5 (Grupo 1, velocidad de crecimiento satisfactoria y P con DSDS = o 18 mg/m²/día y crecieron poco. Sin embargo, la talla se recuperó cuando la dosis fue ajustada en años posteriores.

  14. In vitro salt release from model cheeses varying in texture and aroma

    OpenAIRE

    Syarifuddin, Adiansyah, T. Thomas-Danguin, C.Septier, E. Semon and C. Salles

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Health authorities recommend a reduction in salt (NaCl) and fat contents in food. Reducing such components without affecting food acceptability is a major challenge because of their multi functional properties. A strategy to compensate for salt reduction sensorially is to improve in-mouth salt release. We performed a study to evaluate salt release in cheese-like products in conditions that mimic food oral processing. Model cheeses were prepared according to a full-factorial desig...

  15. The behaviour of salt and salt caverns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Salts are mined for both storage and extraction purposes, either via dry or solution mining techniques. For operational, environmental and geological purposes, it is important to understand and predict the in situ behaviour of salt, in particular the creep and strength characteristics. A micro-mecha

  16. Comparative analysis of different oral approaches to treat Vibrio cholerae infection in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Koley, Hemanta; Mitra, Soma; Saha, Dhira Rani; Sarkar, Banwarilal

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we have established an oral phage cocktail therapy in adult mice model and also performed a comparative analysis between phage cocktail, antibiotic and oral rehydration treatment for orally developed Vibrio cholerae infection. Four groups of mice were orally infected with Vibrio cholerae MAK 757 strain. Phage cocktail and antibiotic treated groups received 1×10(8) plaque forming unit/ml (once a daily) and 40mg/kg (once a daily) as an oral dose respectively for consecutive three days after bacterial infection. In case of oral rehydration group, the solution was supplied after bacterial infection mixed with the drinking water. To evaluate the better and safer approach of treatment, tissue and serum samples were collected. Here, phage cocktail treated mice reduced the log10 numbers of colony per gram by 3log10 (p0.05). Besides, it was evident that antibiotic and phage cocktail treated group had a gradual decrease in both IL-6 and TNF-α level for 3 days (pcholera ciprofloxacin was found to be a better antimicrobial agent, but from the safety and specificity point of view, a better method of application could fill the bridge and advances the phages as a valuable agent in treating Vibrio cholerae infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Complete inactivation of photosynthetic activity during desiccation and rapid recovery by rehydration in the aerial microalga Trentepohlia jolithus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Li, Y; Liu, J

    2016-11-01

    Aerial microalgae are more exposed to harsh and rapidly changing environmental conditions, including desiccation and radiation. Under high light, aerial algae in the desiccated state would be highly subject to photodamage. Therefore, aerial algae need effective protective mechanisms to dissipate excess excitation energy. In this study, the changes in photosynthetic behaviors during desiccation and after rehydration in Trentepohlia jolithus were confirmed using chlorophyll a fluorescence (OJIP) transient, allowing determination of the photoprotection mechanisms of this aerial alga. The filaments of T. jolithus cells at 25% relative air humidity (RH) are significantly shrunken compared with those at 100% and 87% RH, decreasing the surface area for light absorption. At 25% RH, the shape and intensity of the OJIP transient disappeared, but recovered rapidly to the level at 100% RH after 5 s of rehydration. Compared with 100% RH, the maximum quantum yield of PSII (φPo ), phenomenological energy fluxes for absorption (ABS/CSm) and active PSII reaction centers (RCs) at 25% RH decreased significantly, the specific energy fluxes for absorption (ABS/RC) increased significantly, but the specific energy fluxes for trapping (TRo/RC) at 25% RH did not change. These parameters at 25% RH recovered rapidly to the level at 100% RH after 5 s of rehydration. These results suggest that the efficiency of PSII light absorption and activities of PSII RCs were reversibly down-regulated in desiccated T. jolithus, which may be a special adaptive mechanism for the survivability of aerial microalgae in habitats with rapidly changing water availability.

  18. Cooking without salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    DASH diet; High blood pressure - DASH; Hypertension - DASH; Low-salt diet - DASH ... Explore cooking with salt substitutes. Add a splash of lemon and other citrus fruits, or wine, to soups and other dishes. Or use them ...

  19. Post-exercise rehydration: Effect of consumption of beer with varying alcohol content on fluid balance after mild dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarthe Wijnen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The effects of moderate beer consumption after physical activity on rehydration and fluid balance are not completely clear. Therefore, in this study we investigated the effect of beer consumption, with varying alcohol content, on fluid balance after exercise-induced dehydration.Methods: Eleven healthy males were included in this cross over study (age 24.5 ± 4.7 yrs, body weight 75.4 ± 3.3 kg, VO2max 58.3 ± 6.4 mL · kg · min-1. Subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer for 45 min at 60 % of their maximal power output (Wmax until mild dehydration (1 % body mass loss. Thereafter, in random order, one of five experimental beverages was consumed, in an amount equal to 100% of their sweat loss: non-alcoholic beer (0.0 %, low-alcohol beer (2.0 %, full-strength beer (5.0 %, an isotonic sports drink and water. Fluid balance was assessed up till 5 hours after rehydration.Results: After 1 hour, urine production was significantly higher for 5 % beer compared to the isotonic sports drink (299 ± 143 mL vs 105 ± 67 mL; p < 0.01. At the end of the 5 h observation period net fluid balance (NFB was negative for all conditions (p = 0.681, with the poorest fluid retention percentage for 5 % beer (21 % fluid retention and the best percentage for the isotonic sports drink (42 %. Non-alcoholic beer, low-alcoholic beer and water resulted in fluid retention of 36 %, 36 % and 34 % respectively (p = 0.460. Conclusions: There was no difference in NFB between the different beverages. Only a short-lived difference between full-strength beer and the isotonic sports drink in urine output and NFB was observed after mild exercise-induced dehydration. Fluid replacement – either in the form of non-alcoholic beer, low-alcoholic beer, full-strength beer, water or an isotonic sports drink of 100 % of body mass loss was not sufficient to achieve full rehydration. The combination of a moderate amount of beer, with varying alcohol content, enough water or electrolyte

  20. Post-Exercise Rehydration: Effect of Consumption of Beer with Varying Alcohol Content on Fluid Balance after Mild Dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Annemarthe H C; Steennis, Jora; Catoire, Milène; Wardenaar, Floris C; Mensink, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The effects of moderate beer consumption after physical activity on rehydration and fluid balance are not completely clear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of beer consumption, with varying alcohol content, on fluid balance after exercise-induced dehydration. Eleven healthy males were included in this cross over study (age 24.5 ± 4.7 years, body weight 75.4 ± 3.3 kg, VO2max 58.3 ± 6.4 mL kg min(-1)). Subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer for 45 min at 60% of their maximal power output (Wmax) until mild dehydration (1% body mass loss). Thereafter, in random order, one of five experimental beverages was consumed, in an amount equal to 100% of their sweat loss: non-alcoholic beer (0.0%), low-alcohol beer (2.0%), full-strength beer (5.0%), an isotonic sports drink, and water. Fluid balance was assessed up till 5 h after rehydration. After 1 h, urine production was significantly higher for 5% beer compared to the isotonic sports drink (299 ± 143 vs. 105 ± 67 mL; p sports drink (42%). Non-alcoholic beer, low-alcoholic beer, and water resulted in fluid retention of 36, 36, and 34%, respectively (p = 0.460). There was no difference in NFB between the different beverages. Only a short-lived difference between full-strength beer and the isotonic sports drink in urine output and NFB was observed after mild exercise-induced dehydration. Fluid replacement - either in the form of non-alcoholic beer, low-alcoholic beer, full-strength beer, water, or an isotonic sports drink of 100% of body mass loss was not sufficient to achieve full rehydration. The combination of a moderate amount of beer, with varying alcohol content, enough water or electrolyte- and carbohydrate beverages, and salty foods might improve rehydration, but more research is needed.

  1. Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1, use an oral rehydration solution such as Pedialyte. These solutions contain water and salts proportioned to replenish fluids and electrolytes. Pedialyte ice pops also are available. Rest. You need ...

  2. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalaimalai Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy.

  3. The salts of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.; Van Hart, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    Salt compounds are apparently an important component of the fine-grained regolith on Mars. Salt enrichment may be explained either as a secondary concentration of chemical weathering products or as direct incorporation of planetary released volatiles. Geochemical measurements and chemical relationships constrain the salt species and resultant physicochemical consequences. A likely assemblage is dominated by (Mg,Na)SO4, NaCl, and (Mg,Ca)CO3. Formation of brine in equilibrium with such a salt mixture is unlikely under the temperature and water-vapor restrictions prevalent over most, if not all, of the Martian surface. Acidic conditions, accompanying salt formation, favor the preferential destruction of susceptible igneous minerals.

  4. BEBIDAS ENERGIZANTES: ¿HIDRATANTES O ESTIMULANTES? Energy drinks: rehydrating agents or stimulants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Cote-Menéndez

    2011-09-01

    .Background. Energy drinks can be found almost everywhere; their consumption has increased due to ease of access to them, their stimulant properties and the idea that they are harmless. Scarce knowledge about their characteristics has led to them being confused with rehydrating drinks and thus their indiscriminate use, even though rehydrating drinks seek to prevent dehydration and energy drinks have a stimulant effect. Objective. Describing energy drinks' components and analysing their effects, undesired reactions and precautions regarding their use. Materials and methods. The literature in Pubmed was reviewed using the MeSH terms «caffeine» OR «taurine» OR «gluconates» combined with the term «energy drinks» with specifiers, 42 articles being found. The summaries were analysed and 29 articles were included in the study. Results. Energy drinks contain methylxanthines, carbohydrates, taurine, vitamins and/or guaraná (caffeine source from an Amazon region berry. Most stimulant effects happen at the expense of high concentrations of methylxanthines such as caffeine. Such high concentrations increase the risk of poisoning and caffeine dependence. Cases of arrhythmia, heart attack, exacerbation of psychiatric symtomatology and convulsions associated with their consumption have been reported. Furthermore, mixing them with alcohol increases alcohol poisoning-related damage. They are not recommended for sportspeople due to their diuretic and cardiovascular effects. Conclusions. It has been shown that energy drink components are not completely innocuous. Even though their chronic effects remain unknown, the literature does warn about the damage to health which could be caused by strong acute consumption or frequent consumption. Measures must thus be implemented which are aimed at broadcasting the consequences of these substances and restricting their consumption by atrisk populations.

  5. Chloroplast biogenesis during rehydration of the resurrection plant Xerophyta humilis: parallels to the etioplast-chloroplast transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Robert A; Collett, Helen; Cooper, Keren; Takahashi, Yuichiro; Farrant, Jill M; Illing, Nicola

    2008-12-01

    De-etiolation of dark-grown seedlings is a commonly used experimental system to study the mechanisms of chloroplast biogenesis, including the stacking of thylakoid membranes into grana, the response of the nuclear-chloroplast transcriptome to light, and the ordered synthesis and assembly of photosystem II (PSII). Here, we present the xeroplast to chloroplast transition during rehydration of the resurrection plant Xerophyta humilis as a novel system for studying chloroplast biogenesis, and investigate the role of light in this process. Xeroplasts are characterized by the presence of numerous large and small membrane-bound vesicles and the complete absence of thylakoid membranes. While the initial assembly of stromal thylakoid membranes occurs independently of light, the formation of grana is light dependent. Recovery of photosynthetic activity is rapid in plants rehydrated in the light and correlates with the light-dependent synthesis of the D1 protein, but does not require de novo chlorophyll biosynthesis. Light-dependent synthesis of the chlorophyll-binding protein Lhcb2 and digalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase 1 correlated with the formation of grana and with the increased PSII activity. Our results suggest that the molecular mechanisms underlying photomorphogenic development may also function in desiccation tolerance in poikilochlorophyllous resurrection plants.

  6. Desiccoplast-etioplast-chloroplast transformation under rehydration of desiccated poikilochlorophyllous Xerophyta humilis leaves in the dark and upon subsequent illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solymosi, Katalin; Tuba, Zoltán; Böddi, Béla

    2013-04-15

    The transformation of desiccoplasts into etioplasts and the parallel appearance of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) forms were observed with transmission electron microscopy and 77K fluorescence spectroscopy, when air-dried detached leaves of the poikilochlorophyllous desiccation tolerant plant Xerophyta humilis were floated in water in the dark. After 1 week of rehydration, pregranal plastids with newly synthesized prothylakoid (PT) lamellae and mainly non-photoactive Pchlide forms developed, while etioplasts with prolamellar bodies (PLBs) and photoactive, 655nm emitting Pchlide form accumulated primarily in the basal leaf regions after 2 weeks of regeneration. When these latter leaves were illuminated with continuous light for 3 days, the etioplasts transformed into regular chloroplasts and the fluorescence emission bands characteristic of green leaves appeared. These results show that, upon rehydration, the dehydrated chlorenchyma cells are able to regenerate pregranal plastids and etioplasts from desiccoplasts in the dark, which can transform into regular chloroplasts when they are illuminated. This means that the differentiation of pregranal plastids and etioplasts and their greening process is a basic property of fully differentiated cells of X. humilis. Consequently, these processes are not merely characteristic for seedlings with meristematic and differentiating young tissues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Microbiological assessment and evaluation of rehydration instructions on powdered infant formulas, follow-up formulas, and infant foods in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah Sani, N; Hartantyo, S H P; Forsythe, S J

    2013-01-01

    A total of 90 samples comprising powdered infant formulas (n=51), follow-up formulas (n=21), and infant foods (n=18) from 15 domestic and imported brands were purchased from various retailers in Klang Valley, Malaysia and evaluated in terms of microbiological quality and the similarity of rehydration instructions on the product label to guidelines set by the World Health Organization. Microbiological analysis included the determination of aerobic plate count (APC) and the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and Cronobacter spp. Isolates of interest were identified using ID 32E (bioMérieux France, Craponne, France). In this study, 87% of powdered infant formulas, follow-up formulas, and infant foods analyzed had an APC below the permitted level of food tested. Other Enterobacteriaceae detected from powdered infant and follow-up formulas were Citrobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., and other Enterobacter spp. No Cronobacter species were found in any samples. Rehydration instructions from the product labels were collated and it was observed that none directed the use of water with a temperature >70°C for formula preparation, as specified by the 2008 revised World Health Organization guidelines. Six brands instructed the use of water at 40 to 55°C, a temperature range that would support the survival and even growth of Enterobacteriaceae. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Salt appetite is reduced by a single experience of drinking hypertonic saline in the adult rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Greenwood

    Full Text Available Salt appetite, the primordial instinct to favorably ingest salty substances, represents a vital evolutionary important drive to successfully maintain body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. This innate instinct was shown here in Sprague-Dawley rats by increased ingestion of isotonic saline (IS over water in fluid intake tests. However, this appetitive stimulus was fundamentally transformed into a powerfully aversive one by increasing the salt content of drinking fluid from IS to hypertonic saline (2% w/v NaCl, HS in intake tests. Rats ingested HS similar to IS when given no choice in one-bottle tests and previous studies have indicated that this may modify salt appetite. We thus investigated if a single 24 h experience of ingesting IS or HS, dehydration (DH or 4% high salt food (HSD altered salt preference. Here we show that 24 h of ingesting IS and HS solutions, but not DH or HSD, robustly transformed salt appetite in rats when tested 7 days and 35 days later. Using two-bottle tests rats previously exposed to IS preferred neither IS or water, whereas rats exposed to HS showed aversion to IS. Responses to sweet solutions (1% sucrose were not different in two-bottle tests with water, suggesting that salt was the primary aversive taste pathway recruited in this model. Inducing thirst by subcutaneous administration of angiotensin II did not overcome this salt aversion. We hypothesised that this behavior results from altered gene expression in brain structures important in thirst and salt appetite. Thus we also report here lasting changes in mRNAs for markers of neuronal activity, peptide hormones and neuronal plasticity in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus following rehydration after both DH and HS. These results indicate that a single experience of drinking HS is a memorable one, with long-term changes in gene expression accompanying this aversion to salty solutions.

  9. Oral Thrush

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding mothers In addition to the distinctive white mouth lesions, infants may have trouble feeding or be fussy ... candidiasis (yeast infection) patient information. American Academy of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology. http://www.aaomp.org/public/oral-candidiasis.php. ...

  10. Oral Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    鈴木, 規子; スズキ, ノリコ; Noriko, SUZUKI

    2004-01-01

    The major oral functions can be categorized as mastication, swallowing, speech and respiratory functions. Dysfunction of these results in dysphagia, speech disorders and abnormal respiration (such as Sleep Apnea). These functions relate to dentistry in the occurrence of : (1) oral preparatory and oral phases, (2) articulation disorders and velopharyngeal incompetence (VPI), and (3) mouth breathing, respiratory and blowing disorders. These disorders are related to oral and maxillofacial diseas...

  11. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect....... Thus, orally administered DDC enhanced cadmium-induced duodenal and ileal tissue damage and inhibition of peristalsis, as indicated by an increased intestinal transit time. At low cadmium doses, the whole-body retention of cadmium was increased by oral DDC administration. Intraperitoneally administered...

  12. Solubilization of rehydrated frozen highly concentrated micellar casein for use in liquid food applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; McMahon, D J; Metzger, L E; Kommineni, A; Vollmer, A H

    2015-09-01

    observed to be within the normal size range but packed very closely together, with only ~20 to 50 nm of space between them. We proposed that cold-gelation of HC-MCC occurs when the kinetic energy of the casein micelles is sufficiently reduced to inhibit their mobility in relation to adjacent casein micelles. Understanding solubilization of rehydrated frozen HC-MCC and its rheological properties can help in designing process systems for using HC-MCC as a potential ingredient in liquid food. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  14. Comparative effects of selected non-caffeinated rehydration sports drinks on short-term performance following moderate dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snell Peter G

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of moderate dehydration and consequent fluid replenishment on short-duration maximal treadmill performance was studied in eight healthy, fit (VO2max = 49.7 ± 8.7 mL kg-1 min-1 males aged 28 ± 7.5 yrs. Methods The study involved a within subject, blinded, crossover, placebo design. Initially, all subjects performed a baseline exercise test using an individualized treadmill protocol structured to induce exhaustion in 7 to 10 min. On each of the three subsequent testing days, the subjects exercised at 70-75% VO2max for 60 min at 29-33°C, resulting in a dehydration weight loss of 1.8-2.1% body weight. After 60 min of rest and recovery at 22 C, subjects performed the same treadmill test to voluntary exhaustion, which resulted in a small reduction in VO2max and a decline in treadmill performance by 3% relative to the baseline results. Following another 60 min rest and recovery, subjects ingested the same amount of fluid lost in the form of one of three lemon-flavored, randomly assigned commercial drinks, namely Crystal Light (placebo control, Gatorade® and Rehydrate Electrolyte Replacement Drink, and then repeated the treadmill test to voluntary exhaustion. Results VO2max returned to baseline levels with Rehydrate, while there was only a slight improvement with Gatorade and Crystal Light. There were no changes in heart rate or ventilation with all three different replacement drinks. Relative to the dehydrated state, a 6.5% decrease in treadmill performance time occurred with Crystal Light, while replenishment with Gatorade, which contains fructose, glucose, sodium and potassium, resulted in a 2.1% decrease. In contrast, treatment with Rehydrate, which comprises fructose, glucose polymer, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, amino acids, thiols and vitamins, resulted in a 7.3% increase in treadmill time relative to that of the dehydrated state. Conclusions The results indicate that constituents other than water

  15. The struggle to maintain hydration and osmoregulation in animals experiencing severe dehydration and rapid rehydration: the story of ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silanikove, N

    1994-05-01

    Ruminants in tropical and desert areas routinely experience cycles of severe dehydration and rapid rehydration. These animals can withstand severe dehydration (18-40% of initial body weight), which exceeds considerably the capacity of most monogastric mammals. This capacity is related to their ability to use, during the course of dehydration, their large water reservoir in the rumen, which contributes 50-70% of the total water loss. As rumen fluid is in approximate isotonicity with systemic fluid, the utilization of gut water during the course of dehydration involves a considerable load of sodium and potassium. Consequently, the effectiveness of utilization of rumen fluid during dehydration depends on the capacity of the kidney to 'desalt' the water absorbed from the gut and on maintenance of salivary flow to the rumen. Following rehydration, ruminants can imbibe their entire water deficit in one drinking and the entire amount ingested is first retained in the rumen. The rumen volume at this stage may exceed the extracellular fluid volume and the sudden drop in rumen osmolality creates a huge osmotic gradient (200-300 mosmol kg-1) between the rumen and systemic fluid. Ruminant animals are confronted at this stage by two opposing tasks, each of them of vital importance: (i) the need to prevent the osmotic hazard leading to water intoxication; and (ii) the need to retain the ingested water, so that it is not missing for the next dehydration cycle. The most prevalent view until recently was a theory which attributes an osmotic protective mechanism to the rumen wall. However, such a capacity has not yet been demonstrated and is challenged by contradictory observations that large amounts of water are absorbed from the rumen following rehydration. The view that is most consistent with available information is that gustatory-alimentary and hepatoportal signals regarding the presence of large amounts of water in the rumen and the absorption of water from the gut activate a

  16. Comparative effects of selected non-caffeinated rehydration sports drinks on short-term performance following moderate dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Peter G; Ward, Robert; Kandaswami, Chithan; Stohs, Sidney J

    2010-08-22

    The effect of moderate dehydration and consequent fluid replenishment on short-duration maximal treadmill performance was studied in eight healthy, fit (VO2max = 49.7 +/- 8.7 mL kg-1 min-1) males aged 28 +/- 7.5 yrs. The study involved a within subject, blinded, crossover, placebo design. Initially, all subjects performed a baseline exercise test using an individualized treadmill protocol structured to induce exhaustion in 7 to 10 min. On each of the three subsequent testing days, the subjects exercised at 70-75% VO2max for 60 min at 29-33 degrees C, resulting in a dehydration weight loss of 1.8-2.1% body weight. After 60 min of rest and recovery at 22 C, subjects performed the same treadmill test to voluntary exhaustion, which resulted in a small reduction in VO2max and a decline in treadmill performance by 3% relative to the baseline results. Following another 60 min rest and recovery, subjects ingested the same amount of fluid lost in the form of one of three lemon-flavored, randomly assigned commercial drinks, namely Crystal Light (placebo control), Gatorade(R) and Rehydrate Electrolyte Replacement Drink, and then repeated the treadmill test to voluntary exhaustion. VO2max returned to baseline levels with Rehydrate, while there was only a slight improvement with Gatorade and Crystal Light. There were no changes in heart rate or ventilation with all three different replacement drinks. Relative to the dehydrated state, a 6.5% decrease in treadmill performance time occurred with Crystal Light, while replenishment with Gatorade, which contains fructose, glucose, sodium and potassium, resulted in a 2.1% decrease. In contrast, treatment with Rehydrate, which comprises fructose, glucose polymer, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, amino acids, thiols and vitamins, resulted in a 7.3% increase in treadmill time relative to that of the dehydrated state. The results indicate that constituents other than water, simple transportable monosaccharides and sodium are

  17. Contrasting strategies used by lichen microalgae to cope with desiccation-rehydration stress revealed by metabolite profiling and cell wall analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, Danilo C; Hell, Aline F; Braga, Marcia R; Del Campo, Eva M; Casano, Leonardo M

    2016-05-01

    Most lichens in general, and their phycobionts in particular, are desiccation tolerant, but their mechanisms of desiccation tolerance (DT) remain obscure. The physiological responses and cell wall features of two putatively contrasting lichen-forming microalgae, Trebouxia sp. TR9 (TR9), isolated from Ramalina farinacea (adapted to frequent desiccation-rehydration cycles), and Coccomyxa solorina-saccatae (Csol), obtained from Solorina saccata (growing in usually humid limestone crevices, subjected to seasonal dry periods) was characterized. Microalgal cultures were desiccated under 25%-30% RH and then rehydrated. Under these conditions, RWC and ψw decreased faster and simultaneously during dehydration in Csol, whereas TR9 maintained its ψw until 70% RWC. The metabolic profile indicated that polyols played a key role in DT of both microalgae. However, TR9 constitutively accumulated higher amounts of polyols, whereas Csol induced the polyol synthesis under desiccation-rehydration. Csol also accumulated ascorbic acid, while TR9 synthesized protective raffinose-family oligosaccharides (RFOs) and increased its content of phenolics. Additionally, TR9 exhibited thicker and qualitatively different cell wall and extracellular polymeric layer compared with Csol, indicating higher water retention capability. The findings were consistent with the notion that lichen microalgae would have evolved distinct strategies to cope with desiccation-rehydration stress in correspondence with the water regime of their respective habitats. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Analysis of Alphalactalbumin and Betalactoglobulin from the Rehydration of Bovine Colostrum Powder Using Cloud Point Extraction and Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alphalactalbumin (α-La and betalactoglobulin (β-Lg in the rehydration of bovine colostrum powder were successfully separated by cloud point extraction using a nonionic surfactant Triton X-114. The effects of different factors, including the surfactant concentration, sample volume, electrolyte, and pH were discussed. The optimized conditions for cloud point extraction of alphalactalbumin (α-La and betalactoglobulin (β-Lg can be concluded that the best surfactant is 1% (w/v Triton X-114, 200 μL of sample volume, 150 mmol/L NaCl, and 6% (w/v sucrose. After cloud point extraction, the capillary electrophoresis is used to check the efficiency of the extraction procedure. The results had been effectively confirmed by the characterization with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS.

  19. Simultaneous decay of contact-angle and surface-tension during the rehydration of air-dried root mucilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arye, Gilboa; Chen, Fengxian

    2016-04-01

    Plants can extract or exude water and solutes at their root surface. Among the root exudates, the mucilage exhibits a surfactant like properties - depressing the surface-tension (ST, mN/m) at the water-air interface. The amphipathic nature of some of the mucilage molecules (e.g. lipids) is thought to be the reason for its surfactant like behavior. As the rhizosphere dries out, re-orientation and/or re-configuration of amphipathic molecules at the solid-air interface, may impart hydrophobic nature to the rhizosphere. Our current knowledge on the ST of natural and/or model root mucilage is based on measurements of the equilibrium ST. However, adsorption of amphipathic molecules at the water-air interface is not reached instantaneously. The hydrophobic nature of the rhizosphere was deduced from the initial advancing CA, commonly calculated from the first few milliseconds up to few seconds (depending on the method employed). We hypothesized that during the rehydration of the root mucilage; both quantities are dynamic. Processes such as water absorbance and dissolution, may vary the interfacial tensions as a function of time. Consequently, simultaneous reduction of both CA and ST as a function of time can be expected. The main objective of this study was to characterize and quantify the extent, persistency and dynamic of the CA and ST during rehydration of air-dried root mucilage. The study was involved with measurements of dynamic and equilibrium ST using the pedant drop or Wilhelmy plate method, respectively. Glass slides were coated with naturally occurring or model root mucilage and the CA of a sessile drop was measured optically, as a function of time. The results were analyzed based on the Young-Dupré and Young-Laplace equations, from which the simultaneous decay of CA and ST was deduced. The implication for the wettability and water flow in the rhizosphere will be discussed.

  20. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging of photosynthetic activity and pigment contents of the resurrection plants Ramonda serbica and Ramonda nathaliae during dehydration and rehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashi, Bekim; Babani, Fatbardha; Kongjika, Efigjeni

    2013-07-01

    The desiccation-tolerant plants of the R. serbica and R. nathaliae are resurrection plants which are able to fully recover their physiological function after anabiosis. A comparison of chlorophyll fluorescence imaging and photosynthetic pigment contents responses of R. serbica and, for the first time, R. nathaliae to dehydration and rehydration were investigated. For this purpose, plants after collection from their natural habitats were kept fully watered for 14 days at natural condition. The experiment was conducted with mature leaves of both species. R. serbica and R. nathaliae plants were dehydrated to 5.88 % and 7.87 % relative water content (RWC) by withholding water for 15 days, afterwards the plants were rehydrated for 72 hours to 94.67 % and 97.02 % RWC. During desiccation, R. serbica plants preserved the chlorophyll content about 84 %, while R. nathaliae about 90 %. During dehydration when RWC were more than 40 %, photochemical efficiency of PSII for photochemistry, the Fv/Fm ratio, decreased about 40 % in R. nathaliae plants, but a strong reduction with 60 % was recorded for R. serbica. Following rehydration, the Fv/Fm ratio recovered more rapidly in R. nathaliae. The higher photosynthetic rates could also be detected via imaging the chlorophyll fluorescence decrease ratio Rfd, which possessed higher values after rehydration leaves of R. nathaliae as compared to R. serbica. The results showed that the photosynthetic activity and chlorophyll contents after rehydration are recovered more rapidly in R. nathaliae in comparison to R. serbica.

  1. An RT-qPCR approach to study the expression of genes responsible for sugar assimilation during rehydration of active dry yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudano, Enrico; Costantini, Antonella; Noti, Olta; Garcia-Moruno, Emilia

    2010-09-01

    A short reactivation period in aqueous media is required for active dry yeast (ADY) to be utilised in winemaking. Rehydration restores the active metabolic conditions necessary for good fermentative and competitive abilities. We used a reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) method with relative quantification to investigate the expression of seven hexose transporter genes (HXT1-7) and one invertase-encoding gene (SUC2) during ADY rehydration in water with or without sucrose. For this, seven candidate reference genes were evaluated, and the three most stably expressed genes were selected and used for mRNA normalisation. The results show that, during the rehydration in the presence of sucrose, yeast cells are able to immediately hydrolyse this sugar into glucose and fructose as soon as they are introduced in the medium. Subsequently, differential glucose/fructose uptake occurs, which is mediated by hexose transporters. At the transcriptomic level, there is a strong induction of the high-affinity transporters, HXT2 and HXT4, and the low-affinity transporters, HXT3 and HXT1, when ADY is rehydrated with sucrose, while HXT5 and HXT6/7 are expressed at high levels with a moderate tendency to decrease. In water, the HXT2 gene was the only one of the transporter genes studied that showed significant variations. These results suggest that during rehydration, expression is not simply regulated by the affinity to hexose but is also controlled by other mechanisms that allow the cell to bypass glucose control. Moreover, the expression of SUC2 showed little variation in media with sucrose, suggesting that other invertases and/or posttranscriptional controls exist.

  2. Oral histoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Karthikeya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal disease that takes various clinical forms, among which oral lesions are rare. The disseminated form of the disease that usually occurs in association with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is one of the AIDS-defining diseases. Isolated oral histoplasmosis, without systemic involvement, with underlying immunosuppression due to AIDS is very rare. We report one such case of isolated oral histoplasmosis in a HIV-infected patient.

  3. SALT for Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    1996-01-01

    Discusses Schuster's Suggestive-Accelerative Learning Techniques (SALT) Method, which combines Lozanov's Suggestopedia with such American methods as Asher's Total Physical Response and Galyean's Confluent Education. The article argues that students trained with the SALT Method have higher achievement scores and better attitudes than others. (14…

  4. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  5. SALT for Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    1996-01-01

    Discusses Schuster's Suggestive-Accelerative Learning Techniques (SALT) Method, which combines Lozanov's Suggestopedia with such American methods as Asher's Total Physical Response and Galyean's Confluent Education. The article argues that students trained with the SALT Method have higher achievement scores and better attitudes than others. (14…

  6. BLOOD PRESSURE CHANGE WITH AGE IN SALT-SENSITIVE TEENAGERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Ye; Zhi-quan Liu; Jian-jun Mu; Xi-han Fu; Jun Yang; Bao-lin Gao; Xiao-hong Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Objective To observe blood pressure change with age in salt-sensitive teenagers whose salt sensitivity were determined by repeated testing.Methods Salt sensitivity was determined through intravenous infusion of normal saline combined with volume-depletion by oral diuretic furosemide in 55 teenagers. After five years, salt sensitivity was re-examined and subject blood pressure was followed up. Blood pressure changes in salt-sensitive teenagers were compared to that of non-salt sensitive teenagers over five years.Results After 5 years, the repetition rate of salt sensitivity determined by intravenous saline loading is 92.7%. In teenagers with salt sensitivity on the baseline, both the systolic blood pressure increments and increment rates were much higher than non-salt sensitive teenagers (12.7±12.1 mmHg vs. 2.8±5.2 mmHg, P< 0.01; 12.2%± 12.0% vs. 2.5% ±4.4%, P< 0.001,respectively). There was a similar trend for diastolic blood pressure (8.4 ± 6.4 mmHg vs. 3.7 ± 6.4 mmHg, P = 0.052; 13.2% ±10.6 % vs. 6.8%± 10.1%, P = 0.053, respectively).Conclusions Salt sensitivity determined by intravenous saline loading showed good reproducibility. Blood pressure increments with age were much higher in salt-sensitive teenagers than non-salt sensitive teenagers, especially in terms of systolic blood pressure.

  7. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-06-08

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained.

  8. Salt Tolerance in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsui-Hung Phang; Guihua Shao; Hon-Ming Lam

    2008-01-01

    Soybean is an Important cash crop and its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress. High salt Imposes negative impacts on growth, nodulation, agronomy traits, seed quality and quantity, and thus reduces the yield of soybean. To cope with salt stress, soybean has developed several tolerance mechanisms, including: (I) maintenance of ion homeostasis; (ii) adjustment in response to osmotic stress; (iii) restoration of osmotic balance; and (iv) other metabolic and structural adaptations. The regulatory network for abiotic stress responses in higher plants has been studied extensively in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Some homologous components involved in salt stress responses have been identified in soybean. In this review, we tried to integrate the relevant works on soybean and proposes a working model to descdbe Its salt stress responses at the molecular level.

  9. Salt and nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticinesi, Andrea; Nouvenne, Antonio; Maalouf, Naim M; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    Dietary sodium chloride intake is nowadays globally known as one of the major threats for cardiovascular health. However, there is also important evidence that it may influence idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis onset and recurrence. Higher salt intake has been associated with hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia, which are major risk factors for calcium stone formation. Dietary salt restriction can be an effective means for secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. Thus in this paper, we review the complex relationship between salt and nephrolithiasis, pointing out the difference between dietary sodium and salt intake and the best methods to assess them, highlighting the main findings of epidemiologic, laboratory and intervention studies and focusing on open issues such as the role of dietary salt in secondary causes of nephrolithiasis.

  10. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

  11. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  12. Influence of ensiling, exogenous protease addition, and bacterial inoculation on fermentation profile, nitrogen fractions, and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility in rehydrated and high-moisture corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraretto, L F; Fredin, S M; Shaver, R D

    2015-10-01

    Exogenous protease addition may be an option to increase proteolysis of zein proteins and thus starch digestibility in rehydrated and high-moisture corn (HMC) ensiled for short periods. In addition, microbial inoculation may accelerate fermentation and increase acid production and thus increase solubilization of zein proteins. Four experiments were performed to evaluate the effect on fermentation profile, N fractions, and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility (ivSD) of the following: (1) rehydration and ensiling of dry ground corn; (2) exogenous protease addition to rehydrated un-ensiled and ensiled corn; (3) exogenous protease addition or inoculation in rehydrated ensiled corn; and (4) exogenous protease addition or inoculation in HMC. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 were performed with 7 treatments: dry ground corn (DGC); DGC rehydrated to a targeted dry matter content of 70% (REH); REH treated with exogenous protease (REH+); REH ensiled for 30 d (ENS); ENS treated with exogenous protease (ENS+); ENS treated with a microbial inoculant containing Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, Enterococcus faecium, and Pediococcus sp. (ENSI); and ENS treated with exogenous protease and microbial inoculant (ENSI+). Experiment 1 compared DGC, REH, and ENS with ivSD being greater for ENS (64.9%) than DGC and REH (51.7% on average). Experiment 2 compared REH and ENS without or with exogenous protease addition (REH+ and ENS+, respectively). Ensiling and exogenous protease addition increased ivSD, but exogenous protease addition was more effective in ENS than REH (6.4 vs. 2.6 percentage unit increase). Experiment 3 compared the effects of exogenous protease addition and inoculation in ENS corn (ENS, ENS+, ENSI, and ENSI+). The addition of protease, but not inoculant, increased ivSD. Inoculation reduced pH and acetate, propionate, and ethanol concentrations, and increased lactate and total acid concentrations. In experiment 4, 8 treatments were a combination of HMC noninoculated

  13. Infant salt preference and mother's morning sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, S R; Bernstein, I L

    1998-06-01

    Evidence for an association between early pregnancy sickness and offspring salt (NaCl) preference has been obtained from studying offspring as young adults. To determine whether effects on NaCl preference are expressed in infancy, the present study examined 16-week-old infants whose mothers reported either little or no vomiting (N = 15) or frequent moderate to severe vomiting (N = 14) during the first 14 weeks of their pregnancy. The infants' oral-motor facial reactions to each solution and their relative intakes of distilled water and 0.1m and 0.2m NaCl were used as measures of preference. Infants of mothers who reported no or mild symptoms had a significantly lower relative intake of salt solutions than infants whose mothers reported moderate to severe symptoms (p < 0.01). The former infants also showed a greater number of aversive facial responses when given 0.2m NaCl (p < 0.05). Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that maternal dehydration, induced by moderate to severe vomiting during pregnancy, can lead to enhanced salt preference in offspring. They also provide a potential explanation for some of the variability encountered when human infants are tested for their salt preference.

  14. Oral Histoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, Gillian A; Nelson, Brenda L

    2017-02-20

    A 44-year-old female presented to her general dentist with the chief complaint of a painful mouth sore of 2 weeks duration. Clinical examination revealed an irregularly shaped ulcer of the buccal and lingual attached gingiva of the anterior mandible. A biopsy was performed and microscopic evaluation revealed histoplasmosis. Histoplasmosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulate, is the most common fungal infection in the United States. Oral lesions of histoplasmosis are generally associated with the disseminated form of histoplasmosis and may present as a fungating or ulcerative lesion of the oral mucosa. The histologic findings and differential diagnosis for oral histoplasmosis are discussed.

  15. Oral leukoplakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The idea of identifying oral lesions with a precancerous nature, i.e. in the sense of pertaining to a pathologic process with an increased risk for future malignant development, of course is to prevent frank malignancy to occur in the affected area. The most common oral lesion with a precancerous...... nature is oral leukoplakia, and for decades it has been discussed how to treat these lesions. Various treatment modalities, such as systemic therapies and surgical removal, have been suggested. The systemic therapies tested so far include retinoids, extracts of green tea, inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2...

  16. Salt Pomo: An Ethnogeography

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Helen

    1986-01-01

    Recent research in Salt Pomo territory has produced new ethnogeographic data to add to the named villages identified in much earlier studies (Barrett 1904, 1908; Merriam MS, 1966, 1977). This new information is of particular interest because it significantly increases our general knowledge of the Salt Pomo, about whom little is otherwise known, and because it contributes to an understanding of their settlement pattern as well as to broader, regional land-use analyses. In addition, the study a...

  17. Hygroscopic Salts on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorri, R.; Davila, A. F.; Chittenden, J.; Haberle, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    We present preliminary results on the influence of a salt-rich regolith in the water cycle of Mars. Global climate modeling shows that the relative humidity on the Martian surface often reaches values above the deliquescence point of salts that are common components of the regolith. At the deliquescence point, these salts will absorb atmospheric water vapor and form a saturated, transient liquid solution that is stable under a range of temperatures. If atmospheric temperatures fall below the eutectic point of the solution, the later will freeze in the pore space of the regolith, thereby resulting in a net transport of water from the vapor phase in the atmosphere, to the solid state in the regolith. This simple model partially accounts for some the distribution of water on the Martian surface as revealed by Mars Odyssey, in particular, we find that: even though the Cl and surface water distributions detected by HEND/ODYSSEY are highly correlated, salt deliquescence under the the present atmospheric conditions does not explain the overall distribution of water in the near surface regolith. However deliquescence of salt-rich soils could be an important contributor to the distribution of water in the regolith at high obliquity. In that scenario the water in the near-surface regolith would be the remnant of high obliquity conditions salt deliquescence is still active in different regions on Mars today, and it should be introduced as a parameter in the modern GCMs as a new ground/atmosphere interaction

  18. Studying the effectiveness of re-hydration on productivity in a sugar beet workers among farmers in West Azarbaijan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Golbabaei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heat-related illnesses are major causes of morbidity in the world. Workers who are exposed to extreme heat are not be able to activate their compensatory mechanisms and their health will consequently be at risk. Heat stress due to its impact on work performance increases the likelihood of worker disease and injuries and it also affect productivity. During sugar beet harvest, farmers from about 8 am to 4 pm, are exposed to sunlight and excessive heat. Therefore, preventive measures are essential in order to protect the health of farmers and improve productivity. The aim of this project as to study the effectiveness of the rehydration to reduce heat stress and increasing productivity during sugar beet harvest, conducted in 2012.   .Material and Method: in this project, 20 farmers from sugar beet farmers were studied during summer season, from 8 am to 4 pm in West Azarbaijan- Boukan city where the average temperature and relative humidity were 29.85 0C and 41%, respectively during sugar beet harvest. Selection criteria were defined as working more than 50% of the day’s working schedule and to have worked for at least 10 days of the follow-up period. Individual characteristics and water consumption rate during the work shift and also Production output data by farmers were recorded at the end of the working day. Environmental parameters using a portable monitoring device was measured and recorded and finally, the collected data was used for analysis using spss software version 20.   .Results: WBGT-TWA index for four the period of the time from morning to afternoon obtained 27.39 0C, as it was greater than the allowable thresholds. Ten workers receive 6-7 L of liquid and harvest production was significantly increased among those who are better hydrated (P=0.005, from 5 to 7 tons of harvest sugar beet per any worker per day, against lower 5 tons for farmers without drinking enough water.  . Conclusion: Farmers productivity can be

  19. LC-TOF/MS determination of phthalates in edible salts from food markets in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirwono, Warnadi; Nam, Yun Sik; Park, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Kang-Bong

    2013-01-01

    Residual quantities of 12 phthalates have been monitored in edible salts (raw salts, refined salts, refined salts with additives and baked salts) available in Korean food markets. Liquid-liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS) was used to analyse the samples. The method was validated and showed linear correlation (R² > 0.996) in the range 0.5-100 ng g⁻¹ for all target analytes. Recoveries were 85.9-108.4%, except for diethyl phthalate (DEP). Relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2.7-6.0% and the limits of detection (LODs) were 1.2-2.8 ng g⁻¹. Although the contamination of phthalates in salt would be trivial in comparison to those of other main foods and below the reference dose of the Chronic Oral Exposure recommended by US-EPA, the availability of reference data could be valuable for food chemists and salt manufacturers.

  20. Oral ondansetron administration in emergency departments to children with gastroenteritis: an economic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B Freedman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of antiemetics for children with vomiting is one of the most controversial decisions in the treatment of gastroenteritis in developed countries. Ondansetron, a selective serotonin receptor antagonist, has been found to be effective in improving the success of oral rehydration therapy. However, North American and European clinical practice guidelines continue to recommend against its use, stating that evidence of cost savings would be required to support ondansetron administration. Thus, an economic analysis of the emergency department administration of ondansetron was conducted. The primary objective was to conduct a cost analysis of the routine administration of ondansetron in both the United States and Canada. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cost analysis evaluated oral ondansetron administration to children presenting to emergency departments with vomiting and dehydration secondary to gastroenteritis from a societal and health care payer's perspective in both the US and Canada. A decision tree was developed that incorporated the frequency of vomiting, intravenous insertion, hospitalization, and emergency department revisits. Estimates of the monetary costs associated with ondansetron use, intravenous rehydration, and hospitalization were derived from administrative databases or emergency department use. The economic burden in children administered ondansetron plus oral rehydration therapy was compared to those not administered ondansetron employing deterministic and probabilistic simulations. We estimated the costs or savings to society and health care payers associated with the routine administration of ondansetron. Sensitivity analyses considered variations in costs, treatment effects, and exchange rates. In the US the administration of ondansetron to eligible children would prevent approximately 29,246 intravenous insertions and 7,220 hospitalizations annually. At the current average wholesale price, its routine administration

  1. Fluoride and Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S; Lennon, M A; Petersen, P E; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Whelton, H; Whitford, G M

    2016-06-01

    The discovery during the first half of the 20th century of the link between natural fluoride, adjusted fluoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fluoride in improving oral health. Epidemiological studies of fluoridation programmes have confirmed their safety and their effectiveness in controlling dental caries. Major advances in our knowledge of how fluoride impacts the caries process have led to the development, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of other fluoride vehicles including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fluorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fields of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fluorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fluoride strategies has come from many sources including government health departments as well as international and national grant agencies. In addition, the unique role which industry has played in the development, formulation, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of the various fluoride vehicles and strategies is noteworthy. This updated version of 'Fluoride and Oral Health' has adopted an evidence-based approach to its commentary on the different fluoride vehicles and strategies and also to its recommendations. In this regard, full account is taken of the many recent systematic reviews published in peer reviewed literature.

  2. Oral pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2008-05-01

    Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth.

  3. Herpes - oral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000606.htm Herpes - oral To use the sharing features on this page, ... 374. Read More Atopic dermatitis Cancer Fever Genital herpes Mouth ulcers Vesicles Review Date 8/14/2015 Updated ...

  4. Disparities in Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2020: Oral Health Objectives Site Map Disparities in Oral Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Oral health ... to get and keep dental insurance. Disparities in Oral Health Some of the oral health disparities that exist ...

  5. Development of a salt drug with improved solubility: Ethionamide nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Luan F.; Carvalho, Paulo S.; de Melo, Cristiane C.; Ellena, Javier

    2017-06-01

    To avoid drug resistance, an adequate tuberculosis treatment should include not only a first-line drug but also at least one second-line drug such as, for example, Ethionamide (ETH). However, the dissolution rate and oral absorption of ETH is highly limited by its low aqueous solubility. Considering that a salt is in general more soluble than its parent compound, herein we depicted a new supramolecular modification of ETH, an Ethionamide nitrate salt (ETHNO3). This salt is the first ETH structure that has been crystallized with four independent ionic pairs (ETH+NO3-) in the asymmetric unit. In addition to the structural study, the salt formation was also identified on the FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The thermal behavior of ETHNO3 was also investigated here together with its solubility profile in three dissolution media (purified water, pH 4.0 and 7.0).

  6. Estudio de la Cinética de Rehidratación de Zanahoria (Daucus Carota Deshidratadas Rehydration Kinetics Study of the Dehydrated Carrot (Daucus carota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yendi I Melquíades

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio cinético de la rehidratación de zanahorias para dos tipos de cortes o geometrías (placas y cilindros. Las zanahorias fueron lavadas, peladas y cortadas para someterlas a un tratamiento de 5 min. en agua destilada a 80 ºC antes de ser deshidratadas en un horno de convección a diferentes temperaturas. La cinética de rehidratación se obtuvo por medio de un modelo difusional y se determinó su posible dependencia con la temperatura mediante una relación de tipo Arrhenius. Se observó que la rehidratación se ve afectada por el pretratamiento debido a los cambios estructurales, que finalmente afectan la capacidad de rehidratación de las muestras. Los coeficientes de difusión no presentan tal dependencia.A kinetic study of the rehydration of carrots for two types of cuts (geometries (slabs and cylinders, is presented. The carrots were washed, peeled and cut an then treated for 5 min in distilled water at 80 ºC before being dehydrated in a convection oven at different temperatures. The rehydration kinetics was obtained by means of a diffusion model and its temperature dependence was determined by an Arrhenius type relationship. It was observed that the rehydration is affected by the pretreatment due to the structural changes that finally affect the rehydration capacity of the samples. Diffusion coefficients do not present such dependence.

  7. Prevention and control of iodine deficiency: studies on the efficacy of oral iodized oil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furnée, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    Iodized oil, either injected or given orally, is the major alternative to iodized salt for controlling iodine deficiency. Oral administration has considerable advantages despite its shorter duration of effect. Little information is available on factors which influence the effect of orally administer

  8. Evaluation of chitosan quaternary ammonium salt-modified resin denture base material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Rong; Zhong, Zhaohua; Lin, Lexun

    2016-04-01

    Chitosan quaternary ammonium salt displays good antioxidant and antibacterial characteristics and it shows appreciable solubility in water. When added to the traditional denture material to form a resin base, it could promote good oral health by improving the oral environment. In this study, chitosan quaternary ammonium salt was added to the denture material following two different methods. After three months of immersion in artificial saliva, the specimens were tested for tensile strength and were scanned by electron microscope. The murine fibroblast cytotoxicity and antibacterial properties were also tested. The result showed no significant differences in the tensile strength and in the proliferation of murine L929 fibroblast cells. The two structures of chitosan quaternary ammonium salt-modified denture material had different degrees of corrosion resistance and antimicrobial properties. These results indicate that chitosan quaternary ammonium salt-modified resin denture base material has the potential to become a new generation oral denture composite material.

  9. Simultaneous measurement of aldosterone and cortisol by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: application to dehydration-rehydration studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Paul J; van Rosendal, Simon P; Coombes, Jeff S; Gordon, Richard D; Stowasser, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Aldosterone and cortisol are useful biomarkers of dehydration and stress, respectively. The aim of this study was to develop an HPLC-tandem mass spectrometric method for the simultaneous measurement of aldosterone and cortisol in human plasma that could be applied to the study of athletes undergoing exercise and rehydration. Samples were prepared and analysed using an on-line sample preparation/HPLC system coupled to a triple quadrupole tandem-mass spectrometer. Samples (200 microL) were pre-treated and extracted on Hysphere C18 HD cartridges (7 microm, Spark Holland). Chromatography was performed on a Sunfire C18 analytical column (50 mm x 3.0 mm, 3 microm, Waters) under isocratic conditions at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The mobile phase consisted of 35% acetonitrile/water. Mass spectrometric detection was by selected reaction monitoring using negative electrospray ionization conditions. The assay had an analytical range of 25-500 pg/mL and 25-500 ng/mL for aldosterone and cortisol, respectively (r(2)>0.992, n=22). Inter-day accuracy and imprecision for quality control samples was 99.4-106% and dehydration, rehydration and exercise when measured by this method. The reported method is suitable to facilitate the study of athletes undergoing dehydration and rehydration protocols.

  10. Effects of protectant and rehydration conditions on the survival rate and malolactic fermentation efficiency of freeze-dried Lactobacillus plantarum JH287.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sae-Byuk; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Park, Heui-Dong

    2016-09-01

    In this study, Lactobacillus plantarum JH287 was used as a malolactic fermentation starter in Campbell Early wine production. L. plantarum JH287 was first lyophilized, and the malolactic fermentation potential of freeze-dried L. plantarum JH287 was investigated. Different protective media and rehydration conditions were tested to improve the survival rate of freeze-dried L. plantarum JH287. Optimal protective medium contained 10 % sorbitol and 10 % skim milk. The optimal rehydration condition was a 1-h rehydration time conducted in the same protective media, and the combination of these two methods produced a survival rate of 86.37 %. In addition, a 77.71 % survival rate was achieved using freeze-dried samples that were stored at 4 °C for 2 months. Freeze-dried L. plantarum JH287 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermivin were used to inoculate the Campbell Early grape must to decrease its malic acid content. Using this mixed-fermentation method, wine showed a decrease in malic acid content after 9 days of fermentation. GC-MS analysis detected 15 volatile ester compounds in the wine. A sensory evaluation showed that the taste and aroma of mix-fermented wine were better than those of the control that had not been inoculated with L. plantarum JH287.

  11. Efficacy of organic acids, bacteriocins, and the lactoperoxidase system in inhibiting the growth of Cronobacter spp. in rehydrated infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Satoru; Rea, Mary C; Lothe, Sheba; Morgan, Sheila; Begley, Maire; O'Connor, Paula M; Fitzsimmons, Aidan; Kamikado, Hideaki; Walton, Richard; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2012-10-01

    Thirty-three antimicrobial agents, including antimicrobial peptides (nisin, lacticin 3147, isracidin), organic acids, emulsifiers (organic acid esters), glycine, lysozyme, tocopherol, EDTA, milk fat globule membrane, and the lactoperoxidase system (LPOS) were screened for anti-Cronobacter sakazakii activity. The compounds were initially screened individually in parallel in synthetic media. Those showing antimicrobial activity were then tested in reconstituted whole milk and finally in reconstituted powdered infant formula (PIF), using mild temperatures of reconstitution and prolonged storage at room temperature. Propionic acid and monocaprylin (as POEM M-100) in combination showed inhibitory activity at sufficiently low concentrations (0.1 to 0.2%) in milk to be considered as potential antimicrobial additives for the inhibition of C. sakazakii in reconstituted PIF. More interestingly, LPOS, when combined with the broad-spectrum bacteriocins nisin or lacticin 3147, inhibited outgrowth of C. sakazakii at 37°C for 8 h. The combined effects of POEM M-100 and either acetate or propionate and LPOS with lacticin 3147 or nisin were evaluated under the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations-World Health Organization high-risk scenario for PIF, i.e., low temperature of reconstitution and long storage or feeding times at ambient temperature. In the presence of LPOS and lacticin 3147, growth of Cronobacter spp. was inhibited for up to 12 h when the PIF was rehydrated at 40 or 50°C. These results highlight the potential of combinatory approaches to improving the safety of infant milk formula.

  12. Convective drying of hawthorn fruit (Crataegus spp.): Effect of experimental parameters on drying kinetics, color, shrinkage, and rehydration capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Serdar; Beşe, Ayşe Vildan

    2016-11-01

    Thin layer drying characteristics and physicochemical properties of hawthorn fruit (Crataegus spp.) were investigated using a convective dryer at air temperatures 50, 60 and 70°C and air velocities of 0.5, 0.9 and 1.3m/s. The drying process of hawthorn took place in the falling rate period, and the drying time decreased with increasing air temperature and velocity. The experimental data obtained during the drying process were fitted to eleven different mathematical models. The Midilli et al.'s model was found to be the best appropriate model for explaining the drying behavior of hawthorn fruit. Effective moisture diffusion coefficients (Deff) were calculated by Fick's diffusion model and their values varied from 2.34×10(-10)m(2)/s to 2.09×10(-9)m(2)/s. An Arrhenius-type equation was applied to determine the activation energies. While the shrinkage decreased, the rehydration ratio increased with increasing air temperature and air velocity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Medical and biological basis of the recipe of cultured milk products-containing rehydrating beverage for the athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novokshanova, A L; Ozhiganova, E V

    2013-01-01

    According to the results of the physic-chemical research the composition of new isotonic rehydrating beverage has been presented and its nutritional and energy value has been calculated. As opposed to other sport drinks of this kind, a part of water in the new product is substituted by whey. From the physic-chemical standpoint whey is a complicated dispersed system in which hydrated proteins are in the form of colloidal solution, lipids are finely emulsified lipoprotein particles, carbohydrate and mineral components are close to the composition in the whole milk. Natural milk whey complex of macro- and trace elements (phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron, iodine, zinc, copper, selenium, etc.), most of which are in chelated form, have high biological value and bioavailability for humans. The content of vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids of whey increases the nutritional value of the beverage. Natural sugar syrups--containing of lingonberry, cranberry and rosehip were used to flavor the drink. The new beverage osmolarity is in the limits of 280-350 mmole/l, which allows classifying it as an isotonic sport drink. Natural ingredients and moderate carbohydrate, lipid content, and relatively low energy value enable to recommend this beverage to the athletes of any specialization without any restrictions.

  14. Problems and countermeasures in domestic human bioequivalence studies for the oral preparations containing omeprazole or its salt%国内奥美拉唑(盐)口服制剂人体生物等效性试验的问题和对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓琳; 刘会臣

    2011-01-01

    Omeprazole is a representative drug of the proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), and has been applied widely in clinical therapy. Here, we summarized 26 domestic references of human bioequivalence researches for the oral preparations containing omeprazole or its salt. The problems and countermeasures referred to experiment contents, reference preparations, subjects, collection and analysis of biological samples, pharmacokinetic parameters, and post-marketing bioequivalence re-evaluation or monitoring were described and discussed. The goal is to provide useful reference information for human bioequivalence research and clinical application of omeprazole or its salt. Based on the current research situation, it is advisable to carry out food-effect bioequivalence studies, exclude poor metabolizers from subjects in bioequivalence studies, choose corresponding original drugs as reference preparations, standardize bioanalytical method validation, and perform post-marketing bioequivalence re-evaluation or monitoring.%奥美拉唑是质子泵抑制剂类代表药物,临床上应用广泛.文中通过对国内26篇奥美拉唑(盐)12服制剂人体生物等效性试验文献进行分析,探讨了试验内容、参比制剂、受试者、生物样品采集及分析、药动学参数、上市后生物等效性再评价或监测等方面的问题和对策,以期为奥美拉唑(盐)口服制剂人体生物等效性研究和临床应用提供参考信息,并基于现有研究状况提出以下建议:开展食物影响研究、在受试者筛选时排除弱代谢者、参比制剂选择相同剂型的原创药、规范分析测定方法的确证并开展和加强奥美拉唑(盐)口服制剂的上市后生物等效性再评价或监测.

  15. Salt treatment Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Stefan [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The Task of NUKEM Technologies GmbH is to develop a technical solution for the treatment of salt containing effluents at Fukushima Daiichi. The target of the treatment is a solidified product suitable for the safe storage on site. Therefore, NUKEM investigated several technologies (direct cementation, drying and storage, drying and subsequent cementation) in order to find a fit for purpose solution. The following tasks have been considered: (a) Mechanical strength and homogeneity of the product; (b) Cost efficient solution (cost for the drying system vs. reduced amount of storage containers); (c) Proven technology; (d) On site storage. NUKEM made some practical test in parallel with different recipes. The aim was to embed as much as possible salt quantity into the cement matrix, but still meet the requested mechanical strength and required homogeneity. As a result NUKEM recommended to apply the following technologies (a) a drying system, to produce a dry salt product (b) a cementation facility, to generate a homogeneous salt/cement matrix (c) a filling station with attached CMS (Container measuring station) to fill the resulting cement/salt matrix into containers suitable for the storage at Fukushima Daiichi. (orig.)

  16. Mechanism for salt scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  17. Oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options.

  18. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treville Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency.

  19. Photoluminescence of urine salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordun, O.; Drobchak, O.

    2008-02-01

    Photoexcitation and luminescence spectra of dried urine sample under laser excitation were studied. Luminescence spectra of urine are determined by luminescence of urea which is the main component of urine. The presence of pathological salts in urine leads to the long-wave shifting of maxima of luminescence and to the decreasing of luminescence intensity.

  20. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  1. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Missouri. She won the 3rd place 2013 Addiction Science Award . Read More » 0 Comments Bath Salts: An Emerging Danger February 05, 2013 / Sara Bellum ... copy Listen Drug Facts ... Nicotine, & E-Cigarettes Brain and Addiction Drug Overdoses in Youth HIV/AIDS and Drug ...

  2. Oral calcitonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy RC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald C Hamdy,1,2 Dane N Daley11Osteoporosis Center, College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, 2Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Johnson City, TN, USAAbstract: Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through β-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ. Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis failed to

  3. Carpinteria Salt Marsh Habitat Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We identified five common habitat types in Carpinteria Salt Marsh: channels, pans (flats), marsh, salt flat and upland. We then drew polygons around each habitat...

  4. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  5. Lowering Salt in Your Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sodium, per serving. back to top Q. Are salt substitutes safe? A. Many salt substitutes contain potassium chloride and can be used by ... heart disease. Check with your doctor before using salt substitutes. back to top Q. What is FDA's role ...

  6. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

  7. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

  8. Efectos de la deshidratación y rehidratación sobre la farmacocinética de la norfloxacina en terneros Effect of dehydration and rehydration on norfloxacin pharmacokinetics in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Ambros

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar el efecto de la deshidratación y posterior rehidratación sobre la farmacocinética de la norfloxacina, luego de la administración de una dosis de 10 mg/ kg por vía endovenosa y oral a terneros. Se utilizaron 23 animales, 11 sanos y 12 a los que se los deshidrató mediante privación de sustituto lácteo y agua durante 26 horas previas a la administración de la droga lográndose un porcentaje de deshidratación promedio del 9.12 % del peso corporal. A las 3.5 horas post-administración de la droga todos los animales recibieron sustituto lácteo. El perfil farmacocinético de la norfloxacina cuando se administró por vía endovenosa mostró diferencias significativas en el volumen del compartimiento central. Tras la administración oral la absorción de la droga en los terneros deshidratados mostró importantes variaciones, siendo más rápida pero significativamente menor que en los animales sanos. Nuestros resultados indicarían que la administración oral de 10 mg/kg cada 24 horas sería útil para el tratamiento de bacterias con CIM de hasta 0.2 mg/ml en terneros sanos, mientras que este mismo esquema sólo sería efectivo para bacterias con CIM de hasta 0.09 mg/ml en el caso de que la droga sea administrada a terneros deshidratados.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of dehydration and rehydration on norfloxacin pharmacokinetics after a single dose (10 mg/kg administration to calves by the intravenous and oral routes. Of the 23 animals used in this study, 12 were dehydrated by deprivation of milk-replacer and water for 26 h before drug administration, achieving a mean dehydration percentage of 9.12 of the body weight. At 3.5 h after drug administration, all animals received milk-replacer. The pharmacokinetic profile of norfloxacin after its intravenous administration showed significant differences for the central compartment volume. After oral administration, drug absorption in

  9. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions......, In this study we compare results of analogue and numerical models of diapirs with two natural salt diapris (Klodawa and Gorleben diapirs) to explain their salt supply and asymmetric evolution. In a NW-SE section, the Gorleben salt diapir possesses an asymmetric external geometry represented by a large...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...

  10. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions......, In this study we compare results of analogue and numerical models of diapirs with two natural salt diapris (Klodawa and Gorleben diapirs) to explain their salt supply and asymmetric evolution. In a NW-SE section, the Gorleben salt diapir possesses an asymmetric external geometry represented by a large...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...

  11. 牡蛎冷冻干燥后复水特性及微观结构的研究%Rehydration characteristics and microstructure of freeze-dried oyster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董秀萍; 朱蓓薇; 金文刚; 吴海涛; 孙黎明; 陈雪娇

    2011-01-01

    To study the effect of drying methods on rehydration properties of the dried oyster, the fresh oysters were divided into three groups, direct freeze drying (Fresh + FD>. Freeze drying after boiling pretreatment (Boiled + FD) and natural drying group( Fresh + ND), respectively. Drying ratio, rehydration ratio, rehydration percentage and microstructural differences were investigated. The results showed that the water content of the two freeze-dried groups was far lower than the Fresh+ND oysters. And the two freeze-dried oyster groups both had a higher rehydration ratio and rehydration velocity than the Fresh+ND oyster in water bath at room temperature and 100 ℃ .suggesting that freeze drying facilitated the oysters for waterremoval and rehydration. The effect of drying method on the adduct muscle's structure was in a superior to inferior order: Fresh+FD> Boiled + FD>Fresh+ND. The adduct muscle fibre of Fresh + FD was slender, and stretched with well-distributed interfibrillar gaps, whereas the tissue of Fresh + ND group was compacted with aggregated muscle fibres. After rehydration at room temperature for 80 min, rehydration coefficient and rehydration percentage of the two freeze-dried oyster were higher than that of naturally dried oyster.%研究牡蛎冷冻干燥后的复水特性,将新鲜牡蛎分为直接冻干组(Fresh+ FD组)、预煮处理后冻干组(Boiled+ FD组)和自然干燥组(Fresh+ ND组),考察干燥后牡蛎的干燥比,复水比、复水率和微观结构的差异.结果表明:两冻干组牡蛎的含水量远低于自然干燥组,在常温和沸水中的复水比和复水速率均大于自然干燥组,冷冻干燥更有利于牡蛎中水分的去除和复水;干燥后牡蛎闭壳肌微观形态优劣程度依次为Fresh+FD组>Boiled+ FD组>Fresh+ ND组,其中Fresh+FD组闭壳肌纤维细长、舒展,间隙均匀,Fresh+ ND组闭壳肌纤维束堆叠,组织致密:常温复水80 min,两冻干组牡蛎的复重系教和复水率均高于自然干燥组.

  12. Oral dirofilariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R S Desai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilaria is parasitic nematodes of domestic and wild animals that can infect humans accidentally via vectors. Its occurrence in the oral cavity is extremely rare. The most frequent presentation of human dirofilariasis is a single submucosal nodule without signs of inflammation. We hereby, report a case of human dirofilariasis affecting the buccal mucosa in a 32-year-old farmer caused by D. repens.

  13. Oral leiomyomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, D D; Neville, B W

    1979-04-01

    Oral leiomyomas are considered to be rare neoplasms, but they may be encountered more frequently than generally believed. Three types of leiomyomas are commonly described: solid leiomyomas, angiomyomas, and epithelioid leiomyomas. Three cases of solid leiomyoma are presented, all of which occurred in the anterior mandibular mucobuccal fold. Leiomyomas can be easily confused with other spindle-cell tumors. The necessity of using special stains, especially Mallory's phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin, is discussed.

  14. Remodeling of leaf cellular glycerolipid composition under drought and re-hydration conditions in grasses from the Lolium-Festuca complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Perlikowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought tolerant plant genotypes are able to maintain stability and integrity of cellular membranes in unfavorable conditions, and to regenerate damaged membranes after stress cessation. The profiling of cellular glycerolipids during drought stress performed on model species such as Arabidopsis thaliana does not fully cover the picture of lipidome in monocots, including grasses. Herein, two closely related introgression genotypes of Lolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass × Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue were used as a model for other grass species to describe lipid rearrangements during drought and re-hydration. The genotypes differed in their level of photosynthetic capacity during drought, and in their capacity for membrane regeneration after stress cessation. A total of 120 lipids, comprising the classes of monogalactosyldiacyloglycerol, digalactosyldiacyloglycerol, sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, diacylglicerol and triacylglicerol, were analyzed. The results clearly showed that water deficit had a significant impact on lipid metabolism in studied forage grasses. It was revealed that structural and metabolic lipid species changed their abundance during drought and re-watering periods and some crucial genotype-dependent differences were also observed. The introgression genotype characterized by an ability to regenerate membranes after re-hydration demonstrated a higher accumulation level of most chloroplast and numerous extra-chloroplast membrane lipid species at the beginning of drought. Furthermore, this genotype also revealed a significant reduction in the accumulation of most chloroplast lipids after re-hydration, compared with the other introgression genotype without the capacity for membrane regeneration. The potential influence of observed lipidomic alterations on a cellular membrane stability and photosynthetic capacity, are

  15. Frost formation with salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J.; Mongruel, A.; González-Viñas, W.; Beysens, D.

    2015-06-01

    The formation of frost in presence of salt (NaCl) crystal is experimentally investigated on a hydrophobic surface. It presents several remarkable features due to the interplay of salty-water saturation pressure evolution, initially lower than the saturation pressure of ice and water, and the percolating propagation of ice dendrites from defects throughout the supercooled water droplet pattern. In particular, it is remarkable that nucleation of supercooled water and/or ice is prevented around the salty drop in a region of inhibited condensation where the substrate remains dry. As condensation proceeds, salt concentration decreases to eventually become lower than ice's, allowing ice dendrites to hit the salty drop. Salty water then melts ice but eventually freezes as an effect of dilution.

  16. Mixed salt crystallisation fouling

    CERN Document Server

    Helalizadeh, A

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation was to study the mechanisms of mixed salt crystallisation fouling on heat transfer surfaces during convective heat transfer and sub-cooled flow boiling conditions. To-date no investigations on the effects of operating parameters on the deposition of mixtures of calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate, which are the most common constituents of scales formed on heat transfer surfaces, have been reported. As part of this research project, a substantial number of experiments were performed to determine the mechanisms controlling deposition. Fluid velocity, heat flux, surface and bulk temperatures, concentration of the solution, ionic strength, pressure and heat transfer surface material were varied systematically. After clarification of the effect of these parameters on the deposition process, the results of these experiments were used to develop a mechanistic model for prediction of fouling resistances, caused by crystallisation of mixed salts, under convective heat transfer...

  17. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs DM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  18. Frost formation with salt

    OpenAIRE

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J.; Mongruel, A; González-Viñas, W; Beysens, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of frost in presence of salt (NaCl) crystal is experimentally investigated on a hydrophobic surface. It presents several remarkable features due to the interplay of salty-water saturation pressure evolution, initially lower than the saturation pressure of ice and water, and the percolating propagation of ice dendrites from defects throughout the supercooled water droplet pattern. In particular, it is remarkable that nucleation of supercooled water and/or ice is prevented around ...

  19. Dehydration and Rehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    and hyponatremic states, Kidney Int 10:104-116, 1976. 9. Armstrong LE, Maresh CM, Castellani JW, et al: Urinary indices of hydration status, Int J...127, 2005. 32. Castellani JW, Muza SM, Cheuvront SN, et al: Effect of hypohydra- tion and altitude exposure on aerobic exercise performance and...acute mountain sickness, J Appl Physiol 2010. 33. Cheuvront SN, Carter R, Castellani JW, et al: Hypohydration impairs endurance exercise performance in

  20. Oral vaccines for preventing cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, David; Abba, Katharine; Zaman, K; Qadri, Firdausi; Graves, Patricia M

    2011-03-16

    based on data from older trials is unlikely to last beyond three years.The safety data available on killed whole cell vaccines have not demonstrated any clinically significant increase in adverse events compared to placebo.Only one live attenuated vaccine has reached Phase III clinical evaluation and was not effective (one trial, 67508 participants). Two new candidate live attenuated vaccines have demonstrated clinical effectiveness in small artificial challenge studies, but are still in development. The currently available oral killed whole cell vaccines can prevent 50 to 60% of cholera episodes during the first two years after the primary vaccination schedule. The impact and cost-effectiveness of adopting oral cholera vaccines into the routine vaccination schedule of endemic countries will depend on the prevalence of cholera, the frequency of epidemics, and access to basic services providing rapid rehydration therapy.

  1. Oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclennan, A H

    1987-12-01

    Over 60 million women use highly efficient and safe modern combined oral contraceptives (OCs) every day. A women who takes the oral contraceptive for 5 years before the age of 30 will actually live 12 days longer, although a woman taking the pill for the 1st time for 5 years after the age of 30 will have her life span reduced on the average by 80 days. OC related morbidity and mortality mostly occur in women over 35 who smoke. Combined low dose OCs are safe for women who do not smoke, at least to 45 years of age and probably to the menopause. The prescription of OCs is also safe to the young adolescent. The pill does not interfere with maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary ovarian axis and does not increase the incidence of amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea or infertility in later life. Patients with contraindications to estrogen therapy are excluded from OC use (history of thromboembolism, major heart disease, liver disease, breast cancer). Low-dose (30-35 mcg estrogen-containing monophasic or triphasic) pills are recommended. Combined oral contraceptives contain either ethinyl estradiol (1.7 to 2 times more potent) or mestranol. After absorption the progestagens, norethisterone acetate, ethynodiol diacetate and lynoestrenol are all metabolized to norethisterone. The progestagen-only pill has about a 2% failure rate and poorer cycle control than the combined pill, but it lacks estrogenic, progestagenic and androgenic side effects. This pill is suitable for the lactating mother, for smokers over 35, for hypertensive patients, and for those with a history of thrombosis. The efficacy of the progestagen-only pill is restored in 3 days of pill taking. Postcoital contraception is an alternative: treatment can be given for at least 72 hours after intercourse. The Yuzpe method calls for the patient to take 2 combined oral contraceptive tablets containing levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol (Eugynon or Ovral) followed by a further 2 tablets 12 hours later. This regimen

  2. Rheology of rock salt for salt tectonics modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yuan Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerical modeling of salt tectonics is a rapidly evolving field; however, the constitutive equations to model long-term rock salt rheology in nature still remain controversial. Firstly, we built a database about the strain rate versus the differential stress through collecting the data from salt creep experiments at a range of temperatures (20–200 °C in laboratories. The aim is to collect data about salt deformation in nature, and the flow properties can be extracted from the data in laboratory experiments. Moreover, as an important preparation for salt tectonics modeling, a numerical model based on creep experiments of rock salt was developed in order to verify the specific model using the Abaqus package. Finally, under the condition of low differential stresses, the deformation mechanism would be extrapolated and discussed according to microstructure research. Since the studies of salt deformation in nature are the reliable extrapolation of laboratory data, we simplified the rock salt rheology to dislocation creep corresponding to power law creep (n = 5 with the appropriate material parameters in the salt tectonic modeling.

  3. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-11-11

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  4. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-10-14

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  5. Electrochromic salts, solutions, and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky,7,064,212 T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-06-20

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  6. Pathophysiology of salt sensitivity hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Toshiro

    2012-06-01

    Dietary salt intake is the most important factor contributing to hypertension, but the salt susceptibility of blood pressure (BP) is different in individual subjects. Although the pathogenesis of salt-sensitive hypertension is heterogeneous, it is mainly attributable to an impaired renal capacity to excrete sodium (Na(+) ). We recently identified two novel mechanisms that impair renal Na(+) -excreting function and result in an increase in BP. First, mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation in the kidney, which facilitates distal Na(+) reabsorption through epithelial Na(+) channel activation, causes salt-sensitive hypertension. This mechanism exists not only in models of high-aldosterone hypertension as seen in conditions of obesity or metabolic syndrome, but also in normal- or low-aldosterone type of salt-sensitive hypertension. In the latter, Rac1 activation by salt excess causes MR stimulation. Second, renospecific sympathoactivation may cause an increase in BP under conditions of salt excess. Renal beta2 adrenoceptor stimulation in the kidney leads to decreased transcription of the gene encoding WNK4, a negative regulator of Na(+) reabsorption through Na(+) -Cl (-) cotransporter in the distal convoluted tubules, resulting in salt-dependent hypertension. Abnormalities identified in these two pathways of Na(+) reabsorption in the distal nephron may present therapeutic targets for the treatment of salt-sensitive hypertension.

  7. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Amino Acids-Based Trimethoprim Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzal R. Mohammed

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Trimethoprim (TMP is a dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR inhibitor which prevents the conversion of dihydrofolic acid into tetrahydrofolic acid, resulting in the depletion of the latter and leading to bacterial death. Oral bioavailability of TMP is hindered by both its low solubility and low permeability. This study aims to prepare novel salts of TMP using anionic amino acids; aspartic and glutamic acid as counter ions in order to improve solubility and dissolution. TMP salts were prepared by lyophilisation and characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Both the amino acids formed salts with TMP in a 1:1 molar ratio and showed a 280 fold improvement in solubility. Investigation of the microbiological activity of the prepared salts against TMP sensitive Escherichia coli showed that the new salts not only retained antibacterial activity but also exhibited higher zone of inhibition which was attributed to improved physicochemical characters such as higher solubility and dissolution. The results are an important finding that could potentially impact on faster onset of antibacterial activity and reduced therapeutic dose when administered to patients. Studies are underway investigating the effect of ion-pairing TMP with amino acids on the permeability profile of the drug.

  9. Oral dirofilariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahija Janardhanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis affecting animals can rarely cause infections in human beings through the accidental bite of potential vectors. The resulting infection in man, known as zoonotic filariasis occur worldwide. Human dirofilariasis, the most common zoonotic filariasis, is caused by the filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Dirofilarial worms, which are recognized as pathogenic in man can cause nodular lesions in the lung, subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity or eyes. Oral dirofilariasis is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. We report an interesting case of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens involving buccal mucosa in a patient who presented with a facial swelling. The clinical features, diagnostic issues and treatment aspects are discussed. This paper stresses the importance of considering dirofilariasis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous swelling of the face, especially in areas where it is endemic.

  10. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, J.L.H.C.; Tournier, C.; Knoop, J.E.; Kooyman, G.; Smit, G.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various

  11. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini Rajiv

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.

  12. Oral amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Lima Arrais Ribeiro

    Full Text Available A amiloidose é uma doença complexa rara de difícil diagnóstico que ocorre devido à deposição de substância amilóide no meio extracelular. Ao ser diagnosticado na cavidade bucal, deve-se monitorar o paciente a fim de avaliar possíveis complicações sistêmicas da doença. Diante disso, o objetivo do presente estudo é relatar um caso de amiloidose oral em uma paciente do gênero feminino de 72 anos de idade. Baseado nos sinais clínicos observados, a hipótese diagnóstica foi de fibroma traumático. Após realização de biópsia e exame histopatológico, o diagnóstico foi de amiloidose oral, o que foi confirmado com a coloração do espécime com o reagente vermelho congo. Depósitos de amilóide foram encontrados no tecido conjuntivo, na avaliação através da luz polarizada, que apresentou birrefringência. Tal achado foi preocupante, já que a amiloidose geralmente acomete diversos tecidos levando a comprometimentos sistêmicos. Por essa razão a paciente foi encaminhada a procurar atendimento médico. No entanto, houve abandono do tratamento e a mesma veio a óbito 6 meses após o diagnóstico da doença. Lesões orais aparentemente simples podem revelar doenças raras e de difícil tratamento. O diagnóstico preciso e acompanhamentos médicos são fundamentais na sobrevida do paciente.

  13. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, signs and symptoms of oral cancer, and the importance of detecting the disease in its early ...

  14. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – ... detection and treatment of oral cancers. Note: For materials specific to African American men, please see: Oral ...

  15. Oral Lichen Planus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral lichen planus Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Oral lichen planus (LIE-kun PLAY-nus) is an ongoing (chronic) ... that affects mucous membranes inside your mouth. Oral lichen planus may appear as white, lacy patches; red, ...

  16. Oral Health Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Children's Oral Health Mouth Breathing Can Cause Major Health Problems Over ... news feeds delivered directly to your desktop! more... Oral Health Glossary Article Chapters Oral Health Glossary print full ...

  17. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, signs and symptoms of oral cancer, and the importance of detecting the disease in its early ...

  18. Caenorhabditis elegans response to salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.O. Umuerri (Oluwatoroti Omowayewa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes my work, where I used genetic methods to identify new genes involved in salt taste in C. elegans. In addition, I used calcium imaging to characterize the cellular response of C. elegans to salt. The thesis is divided into five sections and each section is summarized

  19. Caenorhabditis elegans response to salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.O. Umuerri (Oluwatoroti Omowayewa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes my work, where I used genetic methods to identify new genes involved in salt taste in C. elegans. In addition, I used calcium imaging to characterize the cellular response of C. elegans to salt. The thesis is divided into five sections and each section is summarized

  20. Research of Physiology Mechanism of the Elderly People's Sports Rehydration%老年运动补液的生理学机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梓蘅; 杨光

    2016-01-01

    Purpose:In order to understand the mechanism of supplement fluids during exercise for the elderly people and highlight the major function of the rehydration. Method: this article sums up analyses the past research through using the literature. Result and conclusion:that the plain boiled water was the best basing on the economic, safe and effective principles, while the honey water was the second choice. However, under the precondition of economic condition and reception concept, additional effect is the best sports drinks. But the elderly should be used with caution in sports drinks. In addition, the elderly sports rehydration should follow the“all three principles”,that is on the basis of the principle of a small number of times,For different periods of exercise, in accordance with three principles of “add before exercise”, “fill up before thirsty”,“stop immediately to add”,taking scientific and reasonable rehydration,achieve the ultimate goal of reducing the risk of sports,and improve the effect of exercise.%研究目的:为了解老年运动补液的生理学机制,强调补液在老年运动中所起的重要作用。研究方法:利用文献资料、逻辑分析等研究方法对以往研究进行归纳、演绎与分析。研究结果和结论:以经济、安全、有效为原则的最优补液是白开水,其次为蜂蜜水;而在经济条件和观念接受程度允许的前提下,运动饮料的补充效果最佳,并建议老年人慎用能量饮料;同时,老年运动补液要遵循“一总三分”原则,即要在“少量多次”总原则的基础上,针对运动前、中、后的不同时段分别按照,“未动即补”、“未渴及补”和“止动继补”的3个分原则进行科学合理的补液,以达到降低运动风险,提高锻炼效果的最终目的。

  1. Salt Action on Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    CaCOH) 2 + CaCO 3 + H 2P (3) Na 2SO 4 + Ca(OH) 2 + CaSO 4 + 2NaOH (4) N&2S0 4 + CaC12 + CaS0,, + 2NaCl (5) MgCD 3 + CaOH) 2 * 14g(Ofl) 2 + C aCO 3 (6...or Na2 SO present in small amounts in seawater, or possibly in the field as a trace component of ground- water or crude NaCI deicer, or arising from...particularly evi- dent and recognized for salts that form several hydrates at common tempera- 0 tures, e.g. Na2SO4, MgS04, CaSO 4, CaCl2. Use is made of

  2. Salt resistant crop plants

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, Stuart J.

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker- assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement.

  3. Salt Lake in Chaidamu Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良华

    2007-01-01

    Chaidamu Basin(柴达木盆地) is in the west of China. It covers an area(地区) of 220,000 square kilometres(平方公里). The number of salt lakes(盐湖) is more than twenty in it. Chaerhan(察尔汗) Salt Lake is the largest in this area. If you get here, you will find that in the lake there is no water but a thick layer(层) of salt. You can walk in it without difficulty, and cars can come and go across it. The thickest layer of salt in this basin is about fifty metres thick. People tried their best to use the salt to build house...

  4. Genesis of Tuzla salt basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sušić, Amir; Baraković, Amir; Komatina, Snezana

    2017-04-01

    Salt is condition for the survival of the human race, and holds a special place in the exploitation of mineral resources. It is the only mineral raw material used in direct feeding, and therefore has its own specialty. Salt is a crystalline mineral that is found in seawater, as well as in underground areas where it is formed by deposition of salt sediments. Occurrences of salt water near Tuzla and Gornja Tuzla have been known since the time of the Romans as "ad salinas". The name itself connects Bosnia with its richness in salt, because the word barefoot, which is preserved in a north-Albanian dialect, means a place where boiling salted water are obtained. At the time of the Bosnian kings, these regions are named Soli, which is in connection with occurences of saline sources. Geological studies of rock salt in the area of Tuzla basin are practically began after the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in the period from 1878 to 1918. Geological field work was conducted K. Paul, H. Hefer, E. Tietze and F. Katzer. Monomineral deposit of rock salt Tetima is made of halite and anhydrite mixed with marl belt, while the bay of salt in Tuzla is polymineral and contains a considerable amount of thenardite (Na2SO4) and rare minerals: nortupit, nahkolit, bradleit, probertit, glauberite and others. Both salt deposits were created as a product of chemical sedimentation in the lower Miocene Badenian sediments. The main objective of this paper is to show the genesis of the deposits and the spatial and genetic connection. In addition, genesis of geological research in the areas of Tuzla basin will be presented.

  5. Molten Salt Promoting Effect in Double Salt CO2 Absorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Keling; Li, Xiaohong S.; Chen, Haobo; Singh, Prabhakar; King, David L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the concept of molten salts as catalysts for CO2 absorption by MgO, and extend these observations to the MgO-containing double salt oxides. We will show that the phenomena involved with CO2 absorption by MgO and MgO-based double salts are similar and general, but with some important differences. This paper focuses on the following key concepts: i) identification of conditions that favor or disfavor participation of isolated MgO during double salt absorption, and investigation of methods to increase the absorption capacity of double salt systems by including MgO participation; ii) examination of the relationship between CO2 uptake and melting point of the promoter salt, leading to the recognition of the role of pre-melting (surface melting) in these systems; and iii) extension of the reaction pathway model developed for the MgO-NaNO3 system to the double salt systems. This information advances our understanding of MgO-based CO2 absorption systems for application with pre-combustion gas streams.

  6. NOVEL SALTS OF GRAPHITE AND A BORON NITRIDE SALT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, Neil; Biagioni, R.N.; McQuillan, B.W.; Robertson, A.S.; Thompson, A.C

    1977-12-01

    Graphite is oxidized by O{sub 2}{sup +} AsF{sub 6}{sup -} and by OsF{sub 6} to give first-stage graphite salts C{sub 8}{sup +} MF{sub 6}{sup -} and S{sub 2}O{sub 6}F{sub 2} oxidizes both graphite and boron nitride to yield the salts C{sub 12}{sup +} SO{sub 3}F{sup -} and (BN){sub 4}{sup +} SO{sub 3}F{sup -}, the latter being the first example of a first-stage boron nitride salt.

  7. IMMEDIATE RE-HYDRATION POST-EXERCISE IS NOT COINCIDENT WITH RAISED MEAN ARTERIAL PRESSURE OVER A 30-MINUTE OBSERVATION PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartholomew Kay

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation assessed the effects of immediate or delayed re-hydration post-exercise, on mean arterial blood pressure (MAP and on blood plasma volume (PV expansion post-exercise. It was hypothesised that fluid ingestion would raise MAP and attenuate PV expansion. On two occasions separated by seven days, eight males (age 20.4 ± 1.7 years, mass 79 ± 5 kg [means ± SD]; VO2max 48 ± 11 mL·kg-1·minute-1, [mean ± SE] cycled in the heat (35oC, 50% relative humidity at a power output associated with 50% VO2max, until 1.0kg body mass was lost. 1L water was given either immediately thereafter, or two hours post-exercise by random assignment. On both occasions, MAP was calculated every five minutes for a period of 30-minutes post-exercise, and change in PV was calculated 24-hours post-exercise. Repeated measures ANOVA for MAP results suggested a low probability of a treatment effect (p = 0.655, a high probability of a time effect (p = 0.006, and a moderately high probability of a time x treatment interaction (p = 0.076; MAP tended to be lower when fluid had been consumed. PV expansions 24-hours post-exercise were not significant changes with respect to zero, and were not significantly different by treatment condition. In conclusion: (a The exercise was not sufficient to elicit significant PV expansions; thus, we were unable to determine the effects of the timing of post-exercise re-hydration on PV expansion. (b The hypothesis regarding MAP in response to drinking was not supported, rather there was a 92% probability that the inverse affect occurs

  8. Characterization of reference genes for RT-qPCR in the desert moss Syntrichia caninervis in response to abiotic stress and desiccation/rehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshuang eLi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Syntrichia caninervis is the dominant bryophyte of the biological soil crusts found in the Gurbantunggut desert. The extreme desert environment is characterized by prolonged drought, temperature extremes, high radiation and frequent cycles of hydration and dehydration. S. caninervis is an ideal organism for the identification and characterization of genes related to abiotic stress tolerance. RT-qPCR expression analysis is a powerful analytical technique that requires the use of stable reference genes. Using available S. caninervis transcriptome data, we selected 15 candidate reference genes and analyzed their relative expression stabilities in S. caninervis gametophores exposed to a range of abiotic stresses or a hydration-desiccation-rehydration cycle. The programs geNorm, NormFinder, and RefFinder were used to assess and rank the expression stability of the 15 candidate genes. The stability ranking results of reference genes under each specific experimental condition showed high consistency using different algorithms. For abiotic stress treatments, the combination of two genes (α-TUB2 and CDPK were sufficient for accurate normalization. For the hydration-desiccation-rehydration process, the combination of two genes (α-TUB1 and CDPK were sufficient for accurate normalization. 18S was among the least stable genes in all of the experimental sets and was unsuitable as reference gene in S. caninervis. This is the first systematic investigation and comparison of reference gene selection for RT-qPCR work in S. caninervis. This research will facilitate gene expression studies in S. caninervis, related moss species from the Syntrichia complex and other mosses.

  9. Will salt repositories be dry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, John D.

    The National Academy of Science committee that considered geologic disposal of nuclear waste in the mid-1950s recommended salt as a repository medium, partly because of its high thermal conductivity and because it was believed to be “dry” (perhaps the appropriate thought is “impermeable”). Certainly, the fact that Paleozoic salt deposits exist in many parts of t h e world is evidence for very low rates of dissolution by moving groundwater. The fact that the dissolution rates were so small led many scientists to the conclusion that the salt beds were nearly impermeable. The major source of brine within the salt beds was thought to be fluid inclusions within salt crystals, which could migrate through differential solution toward a source of high heat. The idea that salt was uniformly “dry” was revised when exploratory drilling in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico encountered brines within the Castile Formation, an evaporite deposit below the Salado Formation. The brine reservoirs were thought to be isolated pockets of brine in an otherwise “impermeable” salt section.

  10. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Capelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a promising future nuclear fission reactor technology with excellent performance in terms of safety and reliability, sustainability, proliferation resistance and economics. For the design and safety assessment of this concept, it is extremely important to have a thorough knowledge of the physico-chemical properties of molten fluorides salts, which are one of the best options for the reactor fuel. This dissertation presents the thermodynamic description of the ...

  11. CONTRIBUTION FROM DEICING SALT TO CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SALT SUPPLYED TO AREA UNDER THE BRIDGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebe, Masamichi; Ohya, Makoto; Hirose, Nozomu; Ochibe, Keishi; Aso, Toshihiko

    Salt is known to accelerate the corrosion of weathering steel bridges. The origin of salt around girders is valuable information in terms of the maintenance for anti-corrosion of steel bridges. Salt around girders generally originates from sea-salt and deicing salt. Since salt of both origin increases in winter, contribution of deicing salt is hard to be estimated only from fluctuation of total abundance of salt around the bridge. In this study, abundance of Mg2+ as well as that of Cl- in salt sampled under bridges is analyzed. As a result, this study revealed that the supply of deicing salt declines Mg2+/Cl- ratio of salt on the girder. In addition, examination of Mg2+/Cl- ratio of salt sampled under the examined bridge near sea revealed that the fluctuation of quantity of air-born salt under the bridge is ascribed to the fluctuation of supply of sea salt.

  12. Rock salt constitutive modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.E.

    1980-03-18

    The Serata model is the best operational model available today because it incorporates: (1) a yield function to demarcate between viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior of rock salt; (2) a pressure and temperature dependence for yield stresses; and (3) a standard linear solid, which can be readily extended into the non-linear regime, to represent creep behavior. Its only deficiencies appear to be the lack of secondary creep behavior (a free dashpot) and some unsettling arbitrariness about the Poisson's ratio (..nu.. ..-->.. 0.5) argument for viscoplasticity. The Sandia/WIPP model will have good primary and secondary creep capability, but lacks the viscoplastic behavior. In some cases, estimated inelastic strains may be underpredicted. If a creep acceleration mechanism associated with brine inclusions is observed, this model may require extensive revision. Most of the other models available (SAI, RE-SPEC, etc.) are only useful for short-term calculations, because they employ temporal power law (t/sup n/) primary creep representations. These models are unsatisfactory because they cannot represent dual mechanisms with differing characteristic times. An approach based upon combined creep and plasticity is recommended in order to remove the remaining deficiency in the Serata model. DOE/Sandia/WIPP should be encouraged to move aggressively in this regard.

  13. Young Stars with SALT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Adric R.; Alam, Munazza K.; Rice, Emily L.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Henry, Todd J.

    2017-05-01

    We present a spectroscopic and kinematic analysis of 79 nearby M dwarfs in 77 systems. All of these dwarfs are low-proper-motion southern hemisphere objects and were identified in a nearby star survey with a demonstrated sensitivity to young stars. Using low-resolution optical spectroscopy from the Red Side Spectrograph on the South African Large Telescope, we have determined radial velocities, H-alpha, lithium 6708 Å, and potassium 7699 Å equivalent widths linked to age and activity, and spectral types for all of our targets. Combined with astrometric information from literature sources, we identify 44 young stars. Eighteen are previously known members of moving groups within 100 pc of the Sun. Twelve are new members, including one member of the TW Hydra moving group, one member of the 32 Orionis moving group, 9 members of Tucana-Horologium, one member of Argus, and two new members of AB Doradus. We also find 14 young star systems that are not members of any known groups. The remaining 33 star systems do not appear to be young. This appears to be evidence of a new population of nearby young stars not related to the known nearby young moving groups. Based on observations made with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT).

  14. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshal Dholke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is on the rise, especially in today′s fast-paced world. TBI requires not only neurosurgical expertise but also neurointensivist involvement for a better outcome. Disturbances of sodium balance are common in patients with brain injury, as the central nervous system plays a major role in sodium regulation. Hyponatraemia, defined as serum sodium <135 meq/L is commonly seen and is especially deleterious as it can contribute to cerebral oedema in these patients. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH, is the most well-known cause of hyponatraemia in this subset of patients. Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome (CSWS, leading to renal sodium loss is an important cause of hyponatraemia in patients with TBI. Although incompletely studied, decreased renal sympathetic responses and cerebral natriuretic factors play a role in the pathogenesis of CSWS. Maintaining a positive sodium balance and adequate hydration can help in the treatment. It is important to differentiate between SIADH and CSWS when trying to ascertain a case for patients with acute brain injury, as the treatment of the two are diametrically opposite.

  15. Young Stars with SALT

    CERN Document Server

    Riedel, Adric R; Rice, Emily L; Cruz, Kelle L; Henry, Todd J

    2016-01-01

    We present a spectroscopic and kinematic analysis of 79 nearby M dwarfs in 77 systems. All are low-proper-motion southern hemisphere objects and were identified in a nearby star survey with a demonstrated sensitivity to young stars. Using low-resolution optical spectroscopy from the Red Side Spectrograph (RSS) on the South African Large Telescope (SALT), we have determined radial velocities, H-alpha, Lithium 6708\\AA, and Potassium 7699\\AA~equivalent widths linked to age and activity, and spectral types for all our targets. Combined with astrometric information from literature sources, we identify 44 young stars. Eighteen are previously known members of moving groups within 100 parsecs of the Sun. Twelve are new members, including one member of the TW Hydra moving group, one member of the 32 Orionis moving group, nine members of Tucana-Horologium, one member of Argus, and two new members of AB Doradus. We also find fourteen young star systems that are not members of any known groups. The remaining 33 star syst...

  16. Salt intake, plasma sodium, and worldwide salt reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng J; Macgregor, Graham A

    2012-06-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that a reduction in salt intake from the current level of approximately 9-12 g/d in most countries of the world to the recommended level of 5-6 g/d lowers blood pressure (BP) in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals. A further reduction to 3-4 g/d has a greater effect. Prospective studies and outcome trials have demonstrated that a lower salt intake is related to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Cost-effectiveness analyses have documented that salt reduction is more or at the very least just as cost-effective as tobacco control in reducing cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The mechanisms whereby salt raises blood pressure and increases cardiovascular risk are not fully understood. The existing concepts focus on the tendency for an increase in extracellular fluid volume. Increasing evidence suggests that small increases in plasma sodium may have a direct effect on BP and the cardiovascular system, independent of extracellular volume. All countries should adopt a coherent and workable strategy to reduce salt intake in the whole population. Even a modest reduction in population salt intake will have major beneficial effects on health, along with major cost savings.

  17. Controlling endemic cholera with oral vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira M Longini

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although advances in rehydration therapy have made cholera a treatable disease with low case-fatality in settings with appropriate medical care, cholera continues to impose considerable mortality in the world's most impoverished populations. Internationally licensed, killed whole-cell based oral cholera vaccines (OCVs have been available for over a decade, but have not been used for the control of cholera. Recently, these vaccines were shown to confer significant levels of herd protection, suggesting that the protective potential of these vaccines has been underestimated and that these vaccines may be highly effective in cholera control when deployed in mass immunization programs. We used a large-scale stochastic simulation model to investigate the possibility of controlling endemic cholera with OCVs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We construct a large-scale, stochastic cholera transmission model of Matlab, Bangladesh. We find that cholera transmission could be controlled in endemic areas with 50% coverage with OCVs. At this level of coverage, the model predicts that there would be an 89% (95% confidence interval [CI] 72%-98% reduction in cholera cases among the unvaccinated, and a 93% (95% CI 82%-99% reduction overall in the entire population. Even a more modest coverage of 30% would result in a 76% (95% CI 44%-95% reduction in cholera incidence for the population area covered. For populations that have less natural immunity than the population of Matlab, 70% coverage would probably be necessary for cholera control, i.e., an annual incidence rate of < or = 1 case per 1,000 people in the population. CONCLUSIONS: Endemic cholera could be reduced to an annual incidence rate of < or = 1 case per 1,000 people in endemic areas with biennial vaccination with OCVs if coverage could reach 50%-70% depending on the level of prior immunity in the population. These vaccination efforts could be targeted with careful use of ecological data.

  18. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  19. Liking, salt taste perception and use of table salt when consuming reduced-salt chicken stews in light of South Africa's new salt regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kock, H L; Zandstra, E H; Sayed, N; Wentzel-Viljoen, E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of salt reduction on liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt when consuming chicken stew in light of South Africa's new salt recommendations. In total, 432 South-African consumers (aged 35.2 ± 12.3 years) consumed a full portion of a chicken stew meal once at a central location. Four stock cube powders varying in salt content were used to prepare chicken stews: 1) no reduction - 2013 Na level; regular salt level as currently available on the South African market (24473 mg Na/100 g), 2) salt reduction smaller than 2016 level, i.e. 10%-reduced (22025 mg Na/100 g), 3) 2016 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (18000 mg Na/100 g), 4) 2019 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (13000 mg Na/100 g). Consumers were randomly allocated to consume one of the four meals. Liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt and pepper were measured. Chicken stews prepared with reduced-salt stock powders were equally well-liked as chicken stews with the current salt level. Moreover, a gradual reduction of the salt in the chicken stews resulted in a reduced salt intake, up to an average of 19% for the total group compared to the benchmark 2013 Na level stew. However, 19% of consumers compensated by adding salt back to full compensation in some cases. More salt was added with increased reductions of salt in the meals, even to the point of full compensation. Further investigation into the impacts of nutrition communication and education about salt reduction on salt taste perception and use is needed. This research provides new consumer insights on salt use and emphasises the need for consumer-focused behaviour change approaches, in addition to reformulation of products.

  20. Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Salih Sevdi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A serum sodium (Na value below 135 mEq/L is evaluated as hyponatremia. Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality observed in hospitalized patients in particular. Hypovolemic hypoosmolar hyponatremia is the most frequent clinical table. One of the reasons of this is cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS. CSWS is a rare condition progressing with low plasma osmolality, urine osmolality above 100-150 mOsm/kg and urine- Na concentration above 20 mEq/L. In the blood and urine sample analysis performed upon sudden loss of consciousness on the 15th day of the intensive care unit follow-up of 79-year-old female patients due to falling from stairs, blood biochemistry Na value was 120 mEq/L, plasma osmolality was 250 mOsm/kg, urine Na value was 180 mEq/L, urine osmolality was 1200 mOsm/kg, urine diuresis was >3 mL/kg/hour. The central venous pressure was 2 mmHg. The patient, considered to be diagnosed with CSWS, was treated with 9% NaCl and 3% hypertonic saline solution. Her clinical course was improved on the 18th day. She died on the 81st day secondary to septicemia in the subsequent follow-up. In this article, it was aimed to report a patient with CSWS which progresses with low percentage in intensive care unit patients with head trauma, is frequently confused with inappropriate antidiuretic hormone syndrome and progresses mortally when not diagnosed distinctively well.

  1. A closer look at salt loaded microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, M.R. de

    2006-01-01

    Many walls of ancient buildings are covered with plaster layers. Amongst the most recurrent causes of damage of plasters and substrates are moisture and salt decay processes. To combat these salt problems, special salt resistant plasters have been developed for application on salt loaded substrates.

  2. A closer look at salt loaded microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, M.R. de

    2006-01-01

    Many walls of ancient buildings are covered with plaster layers. Amongst the most recurrent causes of damage of plasters and substrates are moisture and salt decay processes. To combat these salt problems, special salt resistant plasters have been developed for application on salt loaded substrates.

  3. Acceptability of Salt Fluoridation in a Rural Latino Community in the United States: An Ethnographic Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith C Barker

    Full Text Available Compared to other population groups in the United States, caries (tooth decay is a disproportionately prevalent disease among Latino populations, especially among low-income and rural sub-groups and children under five years of age. Fluoride is a primary preventive for caries. While water fluoridation is a major and effective public health means for delivering fluoride on a mass scale, it does not reach many rural areas or population groups such as Latinos who eschew drinking water from municipal sources. This study examines the acceptability to such groups of salt fluoridation, an alternate means of delivering fluoride long used on a global scale. An ethnographic study in California's rural Central Valley was performed. Thirty individual interviews and 5 focus groups (N = 61 were conducted in Spanish to investigate low-income Latino migrant caregivers' experiences, views and understandings of domestic salt, oral health, caries prevention and fluoride. Audio data were transcribed, translated, coded and thematically analyzed. Table salt was readily available and frequently consumed. Both adult and child daily sodium consumption was high. Despite a general feeling that it was good, and present in dentifrices or dietary supplements, most participants had little knowledge about fluoride. Concerns were raised about cardio-vascular and other possibly deleterious effects if an increase in salt consumption occurred because fluoridated salt was viewed as having 'extra' benefits. Once informed about fluoride's safety and role in caries prevention, most participants expressed willingness to use fluoridated salt, especially if it benefitted children. Reassurance about its safety and benefits, and demonstration of its taste, were important aspects of acceptance. Taste was paramount. Participants would not consume more fluoridated salt than their current salt as that would result in unpleasant changes in food flavor and taste. While salt fluoridation is

  4. Acceptability of Salt Fluoridation in a Rural Latino Community in the United States: An Ethnographic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Judith C.; Hoeft, Kristin S.

    2016-01-01

    Compared to other population groups in the United States, caries (tooth decay) is a disproportionately prevalent disease among Latino populations, especially among low-income and rural sub-groups and children under five years of age. Fluoride is a primary preventive for caries. While water fluoridation is a major and effective public health means for delivering fluoride on a mass scale, it does not reach many rural areas or population groups such as Latinos who eschew drinking water from municipal sources. This study examines the acceptability to such groups of salt fluoridation, an alternate means of delivering fluoride long used on a global scale. An ethnographic study in California’s rural Central Valley was performed. Thirty individual interviews and 5 focus groups (N = 61) were conducted in Spanish to investigate low-income Latino migrant caregivers’ experiences, views and understandings of domestic salt, oral health, caries prevention and fluoride. Audio data were transcribed, translated, coded and thematically analyzed. Table salt was readily available and frequently consumed. Both adult and child daily sodium consumption was high. Despite a general feeling that it was good, and present in dentifrices or dietary supplements, most participants had little knowledge about fluoride. Concerns were raised about cardio-vascular and other possibly deleterious effects if an increase in salt consumption occurred because fluoridated salt was viewed as having ‘extra’ benefits. Once informed about fluoride’s safety and role in caries prevention, most participants expressed willingness to use fluoridated salt, especially if it benefitted children. Reassurance about its safety and benefits, and demonstration of its taste, were important aspects of acceptance. Taste was paramount. Participants would not consume more fluoridated salt than their current salt as that would result in unpleasant changes in food flavor and taste. While salt fluoridation is acceptable

  5. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Deadlines Grant Application Forms Application Receipt Dates Electronic Submission of Applications Grants 101 (How to Write ... detection and treatment of oral cancers. Note: For materials specific to African American men, please see: Oral ...

  6. Oral Appliances Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your sleep doctor may schedule you for a sleep study to verify treatment success. Follow-Up Visits Follow-up visits with your dentist will be needed to ensure the optimal fit of the oral appliance. Effective oral appliances ...

  7. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See ... this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected ...

  8. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the exam can detect oral cancer early—when it can be treated more successfully. Publications​ For Health ... and the importance of detecting the disease in its early stages. The Oral Cancer Exam Step-by- ...

  9. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See All Order ... Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, ...

  10. Oral Cancer Exam

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    Full Text Available ... signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, ... not collect any actual information. External Web Site Policy This graphic notice ( ) means that you are leaving ...

  11. Oral Cancer Exam

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    Full Text Available ... diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected medical terms and resource information. Oral ... of Dental and Craniofacial Research National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD 20892-2190 301-496-4261 NIH… ...

  12. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See ... this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected ...

  13. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings ... of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected medical terms and resource information. Oral Cancer A fact ...

  14. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that ... any actual information. External Web Site Policy This graphic notice ( ) means that you are leaving ...

  15. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the exam can detect oral cancer early—when it can be treated more successfully. Publications​ For Health ... and the importance of detecting the disease in its early stages. The Oral Cancer Exam Step-by- ...

  16. Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1999-03-01

    In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in

  17. HAD Oral History Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.

  18. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment.

  19. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See All Order Publications ...

  20. Oral Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of ... years. He spoke with NIH MedlinePlus magazine about oral health issues common in older adults. What has been ...

  1. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A– ... Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral ...

  2. A novel hydrogen-bonded cyclic dibromide in an organic diammonium salt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bikshandarkoil R srinivasan; Sunder N Dhuri; Jyoti V Sawant; Christian Näther; Wolfgang Bensch

    2006-03-01

    The organic diammonium salt N,N'-dibenzyl-N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediammonium dibromide dihydrate, (dbtmen)Br2.2H2O (1), was prepared by the reaction of N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (tmen) with benzyl bromide. 1 crystallizes in the triclinic space group 1 with the following unit cell dimensions for C20H34Br2N2O2 (M = 494.31): = 8.6672(6) Å, = 11.7046(8) Å, = 11.7731(8) Å, = 76.988(8)°, = 88.978(8)°, = 76.198(8)° R, = 1129.26(13) Å3, = 2. Three components, namely the (dbtmen)2+ dication, two bromide anions and two crystal water molecules constitute the structural arrangement of 1. H2O molecules are linked to bromide anions via O-H$\\cdots$Br hydrogen bonding interactions resulting in the formation of a four-membered {O2Br2} cyclic dibromide. The {O2Br2} units and the dications are arranged as alternating layers extending in the crystallographic plane. The arrangement of anions and cations may be viewed as a typical lamellar structure. The crystal water molecules can be removed by heating 1 at 140°C and the anhydrous dibromide thus formed can be fully rehydrated as evidenced by IR spectra and X-ray powder patterns.

  3. Oral Health in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Oral Health in Rural Communities Adequate access to oral healthcare ... about oral health programs in my area? What oral health disparities are present in rural America? According to ...

  4. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures.

  5. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical...... this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations...... to the EME system reduced this recovery loss, such as changing the SLM solvent from NPOE to 6-undecanone, or by using a different EME setup with more favorable volume ratios. This was in line with the ion pairing hypothesis and the mathematical model. This thorough investigation of how salts affect EME...

  6. Protein aggregation in salt solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelic, Miha; Kalyuzhnyi, Yurij V.; Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A.; Vlachy, Vojko

    2015-01-01

    Protein aggregation is broadly important in diseases and in formulations of biological drugs. Here, we develop a theoretical model for reversible protein–protein aggregation in salt solutions. We treat proteins as hard spheres having square-well-energy binding sites, using Wertheim’s thermodynamic perturbation theory. The necessary condition required for such modeling to be realistic is that proteins in solution during the experiment remain in their compact form. Within this limitation our model gives accurate liquid–liquid coexistence curves for lysozyme and γ IIIa-crystallin solutions in respective buffers. It provides good fits to the cloud-point curves of lysozyme in buffer–salt mixtures as a function of the type and concentration of salt. It than predicts full coexistence curves, osmotic compressibilities, and second virial coefficients under such conditions. This treatment may also be relevant to protein crystallization. PMID:25964322

  7. Oxidation properties of "Solar Salt"

    OpenAIRE

    BENAISSA, Wassila; Carson, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Solar Salt is a name sometimes given to a molten salt mixture made up of about 60% of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and 40% of potassium nitrate (KNO3). This composition is near the eutectic point and is thermally stable until 600°C. It is popular in Industrial Solar Energy Projects and is used for storing energy in the form of heat to smooth out the peaks in electricity production. However for some technologies, combustible substances, like a thermal fluid for example, may c...

  8. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà-Esteve, M; Cuadrado-Godia, E; Chillaron, J J; Pont-Sunyer, C; Cucurella, G; Fernández, M; Goday, A; Cano-Pérez, J F; Rodríguez-Campello, A; Roquer, J

    2008-06-01

    Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte disorder in critically neurological patients. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW) is defined as a renal loss of sodium during intracranial disease leading to hyponatremia and a decrease in extracellular fluid volume. The pathogenesis of this disorder is still not completely understood. Sympathetic responses as well as some natriuretic factors play a role in this syndrome. Distinction between SIADH and CSW might be difficult. The essential point is the volemic state. It is necessary to rule out other intermediate causes. Treatment requires volume replacement and maintenance of a positive salt balance. Mineral corticoids may be useful in complicated cases.

  9. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... as the name of salt for human food use to which iodide has been added in the form of cuprous iodide or potassium iodide permitted by §§ 184.1265 and 184.1634 of this chapter. In the labeling of such... supplies iodide, a necessary nutrient” shall appear on the label immediately following the name and...

  10. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a promising future nuclear fission reactor technology with excellent performance in terms of safety and reliability, sustainability, proliferation resistance and economics. For the design and safety assessment of this concept, it is extremely important to have a thor

  11. Infant oral health and oral habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, A J; Warren, J J

    2000-10-01

    Many oral diseases and conditions, including dental caries (cavities) and malocclusions, have their origins early in life. Prudent anticipatory guidance by the medical and dental professions can help prevent many of the more common oral health problems. This article provides information on the rationale for early dental examination and instructions for pediatric and family practitioners in scheduling and conducting an early oral intervention appointment. In addition, feeding practices, non-nutritive sucking, mouth breathing, and bruxing are discussed, including their effects on orofacial growth and development.

  12. Oral steroid contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sech, Laura A; Mishell, Daniel R

    2015-11-01

    Oral steroid contraception is a popular method of family planning worldwide. Over the past several decades, this method of contraception has changed significantly by decreasing the estrogen dose, changing the progestin component, and reducing the hormone free interval. Despite the popularity of oral steroid contraception, there has been much criticism regarding the associated risks of venous thromboembolism and stroke. Despite these established, yet uncommon risks, oral steroid contraception has many important health benefits. This review highlights the available formulations of oral contraceptives along with their evidence-based associated risks and benefits. Highlights regarding future directions for development of novel oral contraceptives are also addressed.

  13. Neuropeptide FF, but not prolactin-releasing peptide, mRNA is differentially regulated in the hypothalamic and medullary neurons after salt loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliomäki, M-L; Panula, P

    2004-01-01

    Hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei are involved in the body fluid homeostasis. Especially vasopressin peptide and mRNA levels are regulated by hypo- and hyperosmolar stimuli. Other neuropeptides such as dynorphin, galanin and neuropeptide FF are coregulated with vasopressin. In this study neuropeptide FF and another RF-amide peptide, the prolactin-releasing peptide mRNA levels were studied by quantitative in situ hybridization after chronic salt loading, a laboratory model of chronic dehydration. The neuropeptide FF mRNA expressing cells virtually disappeared from the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei after salt loading, suggesting that hyperosmolar stress downregulated the NPFF gene transcription. The neuropeptide FF mRNA signal levels were returned to control levels after the rehydration period of 7 days. No changes were observed in those medullary nuclei that express neuropeptide FF mRNA. No significant changes were observed in the hypothalamic or medullary prolactin-releasing peptide mRNA levels. Neuropeptide FF mRNA is drastically downregulated in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurons after salt loading. Other neuropeptides studied in this model are concomitantly coregulated with vasopressin: i.e. their peptide levels are downregulated and mRNA levels are upregulated which is in contrast to neuropeptide FF regulation. It can thus be concluded that neuropeptide FF is not regulated through the vasopressin regulatory system but via an independent pathway. The detailed mechanisms underlying the downregulation of neuropeptide FF mRNA in neurons remain to be clarified.

  14. Why does salt start to move?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltham, David

    1997-12-01

    This paper concerns mechanisms of salt (and ductile shale) movement. It investigates salt flow due to differential loading, folding of the overburden during compression and drag by a moving overburden. The approach is to compare the salt flux caused by these processes to that generated by buoyancy. It is demonstrated that overburden folding and drag by the overburden can, under commonly encountered conditions, result in greater amounts of salt movement than that produced by buoyancy or differential loading. These conclusions apply during the early stages of salt anticline, salt pillow and salt roller formation but not during the later stages of salt diapir and salt wall growth when buoyancy dominates. The quantitative significance of these alternatives to buoyancy is determined by considering an elastic plate overlying a viscous fluid. This is the simplest mathematical model that can reproduce the processes considered. The model shows that: (1) Under certain conditions, these mechanisms produce more salt movement than buoyancy. Differential loading dominates when the surface slopes become more than a small fraction of the slope of the salt top. Overburden buckling dominates if the in-plane stress exceeds a critical value. Drag dominates when the salt layer is thinner than a few hundred metres. (2) The strength of the overburden inhibits formation of salt diapirs, even those due to buoyancy, on wavelengths less than about 12 km.

  15. Oral biopsy: Oral pathologist′s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K L Kumaraswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many oral lesions may need to be diagnosed by removing a sample of tissue from the oral cavity. Biopsy is widely used in the medical field, but the practice is not quite widespread in dental practice. As oral pathologists, we have found many artifacts in the tissue specimen because of poor biopsy technique or handling, which has led to diagnostic pitfalls and misery to both the patient and the clinician. This article aims at alerting the clinicians about the clinical faults arising preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively while dealing with oral biopsy that may affect the histological assessment of the tissue and, therefore, the diagnosis. It also reviews the different techniques, precautions and special considerations necessary for specific lesions.

  16. Salt decay of Morley limestone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Van Hees, R.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Salt weathering is one of the main causes of decay of natural stone, and by consequence a major problem to the conservation of cultural heritage. In the present case, the performance of Morley limestone from the Département Meuse, France, as a replacement stone under saltloaded conditions is evaluat

  17. Americans Buying Less Salt-Laden Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of how much salt you consume. Dr. David Katz is president of the American College of Lifestyle ... reduced intake could be very beneficial to health," Katz said. Because most of the salt people eat ...

  18. Processing method for molten salt waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Shuichi; Sawa, Toshio; Hoshikawa, Tadahiro; Suzuoki, Akira

    1999-01-06

    The present invention concerns a processing method for selectively adsorbing and removing radioactive metal ingredients contained in high temperature molten salts by an inorganic ion exchanger and separating radioactive metal ingredients from the molten salts as high level radioactive wastes upon reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels by using molten salts. The molten salts occluded in the inorganic ion exchanger are desorbed with highly purified water. Successively, saturation adsorbed radioactive metal ingredients are desorbed by an aqueous solution of alkali metal salt or an aqueous solution of alkaline earth metal salt. The desorbed molten salts and radioactive metal ingredients are formed into at least two kinds of radioactive waste solidification materials depending on each of radioactivity level. As the inorganic ion exchanger, at least one of aluminosilicate and hydroxides is used. Then, molten salt wastes generated upon a dry-type reprocessing can be processed as a stable borosilicate glass solidification material or as a similar homogeneous solid material. (T.M.)

  19. Chlorine Salts at the Phoenix Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, J.; Horgan, B.

    2016-09-01

    Although chlorine salts (perchlorates, chlorides) are known to exist at the Phoenix landing site, their distribution and type have not been positively identified yet. We look for these salts through a novel NIR remote sensing technique.

  20. Public health impact of salt reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.

    2015-01-01

    The health and economic burden related to cardiovascular diseases is substantial and prevention of these diseases remains a challenge. There is convincing evidence that high salt intake affects blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. As salt intake is far above the recommended maximum level of intake, salt reduction may help to reduce cardiovascular disease incidence. However, the effect of salt reduction initiatives on intake levels and long-term health is largely unknown. Th...

  1. Reconsolidated Salt as a Geotechnical Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gadbury, Casey [USDOE Carlsbad Field Office, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Salt as a geologic medium has several attributes favorable to long-term isolation of waste placed in mined openings. Salt formations are largely impermeable and induced fractures heal as stress returns to equilibrium. Permanent isolation also depends upon the ability to construct geotechnical barriers that achieve nearly the same high-performance characteristics attributed to the native salt formation. Salt repository seal concepts often include elements of reconstituted granular salt. As a specific case in point, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant recently received regulatory approval to change the disposal panel closure design from an engineered barrier constructed of a salt-based concrete to one that employs simple run-of-mine salt and temporary bulkheads for isolation from ventilation. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a radioactive waste disposal repository for defense-related transuranic elements mined from the Permian evaporite salt beds in southeast New Mexico. Its approved shaft seal design incorporates barrier components comprising salt-based concrete, bentonite, and substantial depths of crushed salt compacted to enhance reconsolidation. This paper will focus on crushed salt behavior when applied as drift closures to isolate disposal rooms during operations. Scientific aspects of salt reconsolidation have been studied extensively. The technical basis for geotechnical barrier performance has been strengthened by recent experimental findings and analogue comparisons. The panel closure change was accompanied by recognition that granular salt will return to a physical state similar to the halite surrounding it. Use of run-of-mine salt ensures physical and chemical compatibility with the repository environment and simplifies ongoing disposal operations. Our current knowledge and expected outcome of research can be assimilated with lessons learned to put forward designs and operational concepts for the next generation of salt repositories. Mined salt

  2. Determination of potassium iodide in table salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The samples of table salt bought in Belgrade supermarkets are analysed in this paper. The method of indirect iodometry was used in the process of the analysis, and received results were converted into the content of KI in mg/kg of salt. Beside the content of KI, the content of NaCl was also determined, counted to dry meter and water content, and received results were compared with the requests determined by Regulations of Table Salt Quality Meant for Human Diet and by manufacturers' declaration. Received results show that the volumetric method of indirect iodometry, applied in this analysis, is very reliable for determination of potassium iodine in table salt, because of its high precision and reproducibility of the analysis results. All received results show that the samples of table salt which can be bought in supermarkets are according to the demands given by Regulations. Only one sample (evaporated salt has significantly less mass of KI than it is determined by Regulations, but also by manufacturer's declaration. Measured humidity in the samples of table salt received from sea salt (sample 1 is higher than humidity in the samples received from rock salt as the result of magnesium presence in sea salt, which is hygroscopic material. Although samples 5 and 6 also originate from sea salt, their smaller humidity is the result of additional heating and salt processing. .

  3. Molecular biology of cyanobacterial salt acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    High and changing salt concentrations represent major abiotic factors limiting the growth of microorganisms. During their long evolution, cyanobacteria have adapted to aquatic habitats with various salt concentrations. High salt concentrations in the medium challenge the cell with reduced water availability and high contents of inorganic ions. The basic mechanism of salt acclimation involves the active extrusion of toxic inorganic ions and the accumulation of compatible solutes, including sucrose, trehalose, glucosylglycerol, and glycine betaine. The kinetics of these physiological processes has been exceptionally well studied in the model Synechocystis 6803, leading to the definition of five subsequent phases in reaching a new salt acclimation steady state. Recent '-omics' technologies using the advanced model Synechocystis 6803 have revealed a comprehensive picture of the dynamic process of salt acclimation involving the differential expression of hundreds of genes. However, the mechanisms involved in sensing specific salt stress signals are not well resolved. In the future, analysis of cyanobacterial salt acclimation will be directed toward defining the functions of the many unknown proteins upregulated in salt-stressed cells, identifying specific salt-sensing mechanisms, using salt-resistant strains of cyanobacteria for the production of bioenergy, and applying cyanobacterial stress genes to improve the salt tolerance of sensitive organisms.

  4. 40 CFR 721.7655 - Alkylsulfonium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylsulfonium salt. 721.7655 Section... Substances § 721.7655 Alkylsulfonium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylsulfonium salt (PMN P-93-1166) is...

  5. 7 CFR 58.328 - Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salt. 58.328 Section 58.328 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....328 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet the...

  6. 7 CFR 58.721 - Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salt. 58.721 Section 58.721 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....721 Salt. Salt shall be free flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements of...

  7. 7 CFR 58.437 - Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salt. 58.437 Section 58.437 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....437 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet the...

  8. Radiation induced oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Satheesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene

  9. How far cardio metabolic and psychological factors affect salt sensitivity in normotensive adult population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Pourmoghaddas, Masoud; Behnamfar, Omid; Pourmoghaddas, Zahra; Heidari, Ebrahim; Mahjoor, Zahra; Mousavi, Mehdi; Bahonar, Ahmad; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the prevalence of salt sensitivity and the impact of cardiometabolic and psychological characteristics on salt sensitivity in normotensive population. METHODS Of all participants, anthropometric measurements and fasting venous blood samples were collected, and study questionnaires were completed. Salt Sensitivity was defined based on the difference in mean arterial pressure with infusion of 2 L of normal saline followed by a low sodium diet and administration of three doses of oral furosemide the day after. RESULTS Of 131 participants, 56 (42.7%) were diagnosed with salt sensitivity. Crude and age and sex adjusted regression analysis showed that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and depression were positively associated with salt sensitivity (OR = 1.02, 95%CI: 1.01-1.04 and OR = 1.15, 95%CI: 1.00-1.34, respectively). CONCLUSION The high prevalence of salt sensitivity and its significant relation with prevalent risk factors necessitates considering its reduction actions at the population level and the need for further research. PMID:28163836

  10. Gastroenteritis: A Grass Root Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dure-Samin, Akram; Mubina, Agboatwalla

    1992-01-01

    In Karachi, Pakistan, 4 resource personnel disseminated information about sanitation and breastfeeding in the prevention of gastroenteritis to 100 households. Compared to 100 that did not receive health information, the intervention group had less incidence of diarrhea and better use of oral rehydration salt. (SK)

  11. Home management of childhood diarrhoea: Need to intensify ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-01

    Feb 1, 2011 ... including their knowledge and use of oral rehydration salts with or without anti diarrheal ... maternal education in this area since we now have a new generation of mothers who were ... groups are important because they can induce antibody ... clearance was obtained from the Health Research and Ethics.

  12. 14, 2016 1 Level of zinc in maize seeds and maize growing soils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    deficiency is an important soil constraint to crop production, food quality and human health. The aim of this ... Melkassa-4. Chemical analysis of composite soil samples indicated that inherent zinc level was on the borderline ..... However, it is important to stress that in ..... tation (Lemelem plus oral rehydration salt provi-.

  13. Bimaxillary Oral Focal Mucinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sunil; Malik, Sunita; Mittal, Hitesh Chander; Singh, Gurdarshan; Kamra, Hemlata

    2016-10-01

    Oral focal mucinosis is considered as oral counterpart of cutaneous focal mucinosis. The preoperative diagnosis of mucinosis is almost impossible because of its rarity and clinical similarity to other lesions of various etiologies. The histological diagnosis of oral mucinosis is important to better understand the etiopathogenesis, treatment modalities, and any recurrence of the lesion besides differentiating from the other soft tissue lesions.The purpose of this paper is to report the first case of bimaxillary involvement with dome-shaped elevated, rounded, asymptomatic, normally colored swelling in left posterior palatal mucosa and left mandibular posterior region in a 25-year old woman who was diagnosed as oral focal mucinosis histopathologically.

  14. Chrysomya Bezziana oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G S Vijay Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is an opportunistic infestation of human and vertebrate animals with dipterous larvae. Oral myiasis is a rare condition associated with poor oral hygiene, mental disability, halitosis and other conditions. We present a case report of an adult mentally challenged woman with extensive necrotic oral lesion burrowing into the hard palate through which three live maggots (larvae were seen emerging out. The larvae were removed using forceps and the patient was treated with oral ivermectin. The maggots were identified as larvae of the Chrysomya bezziana fly.

  15. Oral microbiota and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka H. Meurman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several oral micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor oral health and the prevalence of oral and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in oral microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control oral microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion.

  16. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Receipt Dates Electronic Submission of Applications Grants 101 (How to Write a Grant) ... Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – ...

  17. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Writing Tips Careers & Training Fellowships and Internships ... Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, ...

  18. Towards understanding oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations.

  19. Differential accumulation of flavonoids and phytohormones resulting from the canopy/rootstock interaction of citrus plants subjected to dehydration/rehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ivanildes C Dos; Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado de; Pirovani, Carlos P; Costa, Márcio Gilberto Cardoso; Silva, Maria Fatima das Graças Fernandes da; Bellete, Barbara Sayuri; Freschi, Luciano; Soares Filho, Walter; Coelho Filho, Maurício Antônio; Gesteira, Abelmon da Silva

    2017-10-01

    Water scarcity can elicit drastic changes in plant metabolic and hormonal regulation, which may be of fundamental importance to stress tolerance. The study of plant the metabolic alterations in response to water deficit, especially the effects of the rootstocks level, is important to elucidate the mechanisms associated to drought tolerance. To verify the influence of rootstock and grafting on the tolerance to drought in citrus plants, we analyzed the growth, phytohormone levels and flavonoid profiles in grafted and ungrafted citrus plants subjected to different soil water regimes on plant status (well-watered, moderate drought and severe drought and rehydrated) under field conditions. The experiments were conducted under field conditions in the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA), Cruz das Almas, BA, Brazil. Water deficit reduced the total leaf area per plant in all canopy/rootstock combinations. Self-grafting reduce root volume, area and length when compared to ungrafted plants. Drought-induced increases in salicylic acid and abscisic acid associated with concomitant reductions in indoleacetic acid were observed in most canopy/rootstock combinations. However, plants with 'Sunki Maravilha' rootstocks exhibited the most pronounced changes in hormonal levels upon drought stress. Associated to these hormonal changes, drought also significantly affected flavonoid content and profile in both leaves and roots of the distinct citrus combinations. Glycosylated (GFs) and polimethoxylated flavonoids were predominantly found in leaves, whereas prenylated coumarins were found in the roots. Leaf levels of GFs (vicenin, F11, rutin and rhoifolin) were particularly modulated by drought in plants with 'Rangpur Santa Cruz' lime rootstock, whereas root levels of prenylated coumarins were most regulated by drought in plants with the 'Sunki Maravilha' root system. Taken together, these data indicate that the impacts of water deficit restriction on growth, hormonal

  20. Awareness of salt restriction is not reflected in the actual salt intake in Japanese hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Tanabe, Kazuaki; Adachi, Tomoko; Nakashima, Ryuma; Sugamori, Takashi; Endo, Akihiro; Ito, Takafumi; Yoshitomi, Hiroyuki; Ishibashi, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese guidelines for hypertension management recommend reducing salt intake to awareness of the recommended reduced salt diet correlates with their actual intake. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between actual salt intake of Japanese hypertensive patients and their awareness of the recommended guidelines for reduced dietary salt intake. In total, 236 outpatients (146 males and 90 females) with a mean age 69.7 ± 12.5 years were included in this study. Daily dietary salt intake was estimated using sodium and creatinine concentrations detected in spot urine samples. The patients filled out a questionnaire regarding their awareness of recommended salt restriction for hypertension management. The questionnaire distinguished the patients' awareness of recommended salt restriction in four levels (low, moderate, high and very high). The mean estimated salt intake was 9.72 ± 2.43 g/day. Patients' awareness regarding salt intake in all levels provided in the questionnaire did not correlate with actual salt intake (p = 0.731). Our results demonstrated that Japanese hypertensive outpatients consumed higher levels of salt than the target value recommended by Japanese guidelines. There was no correlation between actual salt intake and patients' awareness of the recommended reduction in salt. These results suggest that monitoring salt intake and informing patients of their actual salt intake are necessary for effective hypertension management.

  1. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Urquhart, Alexander [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300°C, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  2. Rice's Salt Tolerance Gene Cloned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In cooperation with US colleagues, CAS researchers have made significant progress in their studies into functional genes for key agronomic traits by cloning SKC1, a salt-tolerant functional gene of rice and making clear its biological functions and mechanisms. This pioneering work,which was reported in the Oct. issue of Nature Genetics (37:1141-1146), is believed to hold promise to increase the output of the crop plant in this country.

  3. On Biochemical Formation of Salt Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A water/salt system in an evaporative environment is both a physicochemical region and a biological one. All the parameters of the system, such as the salinity, temperature and CO2 partial pressure, are affected by halophilic bacteria. The system controls salt deposition but is modified by an accompanying ecological system; therefore it should be called a water/salt/biological system. Salt minerals result from accumulation of the remains of bacteria/algae, namely, bacteria/algae formation; whereas biological, biophysical and biochemical processes provide full evidence for organic involvement. Consequently, salt deposits should not be called purely chemical but biological/chemical ones. This new argument supplements and develops the traditional idea and helps perfect the mineralization theory of salts and even general deposits, thus giving guidance to prospecting for salt deposits.

  4. Sarcoidosis: Oral and extra-oral manifestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease, which is usually associated with the formation of noncaseating granulomas in affected tissues and organs. It is mostly present with bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, pulmonary infiltration, ocular, and cutaneous lesions. Oral manifestations of this disease are relatively rare. The present case report shows a 40-year-old male with lesions in the soft tissue of oral cavity (buccal mucosa, gingiva, and palate and a diagnosis of sarcoidosis was established following hematological, biochemical and pulmonary function tests, chest radiograph, and histopathological investigation.

  5. Shared Oral Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Børge; Elmelund Poulsen,, Johan; Christophersen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Shared Oral Care - Forebyggelse af orale sygdomme på plejecentre Introduktion og formål: Mangelfuld mundhygiejne hos plejekrævende ældre er et alment og veldokumenteret sundhedsproblem, der kan føre til massiv udvikling af tandsygdomme, og som yderligere kan være medvirkende årsag til alvorlige...

  6. Visual overview, oral detail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    and with the coordinating nurse, who is the main keeper of the whiteboard. On the basis of observations, we find that coordination is accomplished through a highly intertwined process of technologically mediated visual overview combined with orally communicated details. The oral details serve to clarify and elaborate...

  7. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See ... this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected medical terms and ...

  8. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section...

  9. Epilepsy and oral care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Janice; Boyle, Carole

    2002-05-01

    Epilepsy is a common symptom of an underlying neurological disorder. The seizures can take a variety of forms. Both the condition and its medical management can affect oral health. Prevention of oral disease and carefully planned dental treatment are essential to the well-being of people with epilepsy.

  10. Oral environment and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Yasusei; Tada, Hidesuke; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Tada, Yoshiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Miyake, Yoichiro; Ishimaru, Naozumi

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is now the leading cause of death in Japan. A rapid increase in cancer mortality is expected as Japan is facing a super-aged society. Many causes of cancer are known to be closely linked to life style factors, such as smoking, drinking, and diet. The oral environment is known to be involved in the pathogenesis and development of various diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, diabetes, heart disease, and dementia. Because the oral cavity acts as the bodily entrance for air and food, it is constantly exposed to foreign substances, including bacteria and viruses. A large number of bacteria are endemic to the oral cavity, and indigenous oral flora act to prevent the settlement of foreign bacteria. The oral environment is influenced by local factors, including dental plaque, tartar, teeth alignment, occlusion, an incompatible prosthesis, and bad lifestyle habits, and systemic factors, including smoking, consumption of alcohol, irregular lifestyle and eating habits, obesity, stress, hormones, and heredity. It has recently been revealed that the oral environment is associated with cancer. In particular, commensal bacteria in the oral cavity are involved in the development of cancer. Moreover, Candida, human papilloma virus and Epstein-Barr virus as well as commensal bacteria have been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of cancer. In this review, we introduce recent findings of the correlation between the oral environment and cancer.

  11. Physiological and Molecular Features of Puccinellia tenuiflora Tolerating Salt and Alkaline-Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Zhang; Liqin Wei; Zizhang Wang; Tai Wang

    2013-01-01

    Saline-alkali soil seriously threatens agriculture productivity; therefore,understanding the mechanism of plant tolerance to alkaline-salt stress has become a major challenge.Halophytic Puccinellia tenuiflora can tolerate salt and alkaline-salt stress,and is thus an ideal plant for studying this tolerance mechanism.In this study,we examined the salt and alkaline-salt stress tolerance of P.tenuiflora,and analyzed gene expression profiles under these stresses.Physiological experiments revealed that P.tenuiflora can grow normally with maximum stress under 600 mmol/L NaCl and 150 mmol/L Na2CO3 (pH 11.0)for 6 d.We identified 4,982 unigenes closely homologous to rice and barley.Furthermore,1,105 genes showed differentially expressed profiles under salt and alkaline-salt treatments.Differentially expressed genes were overrepresented in functions of photosynthesis,oxidation reduction,signal transduction,and transcription regulation.Almost all genes downregulated under salt and alkaline-salt stress were related to cell structure,photosynthesis,and protein synthesis.Comparing with salt stress,alkaline-salt stress triggered more differentially expressed genes and significantly upregulated genes related to H+ transport and citric acid synthesis.These data indicate common and diverse features of salt and alkalinesalt stress tolerance,and give novel insights into the molecular and physiological mechanisms of plant salt and alkaline-salt tolerance.

  12. Genomics of oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Margaret J

    2003-01-01

    Advances in bacterial genetics came with the discovery of the genetic code, followed by the development of recombinant DNA technologies. Now the field is undergoing a new revolution because of investigators' ability to sequence and assemble complete bacterial genomes. Over 200 genome projects have been completed or are in progress, and the oral microbiology research community has benefited through projects for oral bacteria and their non-oral-pathogen relatives. This review describes features of several oral bacterial genomes, and emphasizes the themes of species relationships, comparative genomics, and lateral gene transfer. Genomics is having a broad impact on basic research in microbial pathogenesis, and will lead to new approaches in clinical research and therapeutics. The oral microbiota is a unique community especially suited for new challenges to sequence the metagenomes of microbial consortia, and the genomes of uncultivable bacteria.

  13. Oral syringe use survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, J N; Wedemeyer, H F

    1980-09-01

    Use of oral syringes at children's and ASHP-accredited residency hospitals in the United States was surveyed. Questionnaires were mailed to 131 hospitals; 117 (89.3%) were returned. Of the responding hospitals, 54.5% of children's hospitals and 67.1% of residency hospitals used oral syringes. There was no definite preference for a particular brand or type (glass vs. plastic) of syringe. Patients who often required liquid dosage forms, including pediatric and geriatric patients and patients with nasogastric tubes, were most frequently included in oral syringe distribution systems. Twenty-six of the 73 hospitals utilizing oral syringes used them for most unit dose liquids in all drug distribution systems. The remainder reported use for specific medications or circumstances. Expiration dating policies varied from 24 hours to one year to the manufacturer's expiration dating. The survey indicates widespread use of oral syringes and identifies a need for evaluation of medication stability in these devices.

  14. [Oral fluid bacteriocidal activity in complex diagnostics of oral disbiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, O F; Abramova, E S

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of examination of oral fluid bacteriocidal activity in complex diagnostics of oral mucosa disbiosis was evaluated. Thirty-seven patients were included in complex clinical and laboratory studies. The patients were divided in two groups: main group (30 patients exhibiting various grades of oral mucosa disbiosis) and control group (7 patients with no signs of oral disbiosis). The oral fluid bacteriocidal activity was examined by means of laser flow cytometry. Study results proved oral fluid bacteriocidal activity increase to correlate with the grade of oral mucosa disbiosis thus confirming the usefulness of the method in complex diagnostics of oral disbiosis.

  15. American Academy of Oral Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statements Newsletters AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands. We ...

  16. Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Dave

    As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17…

  17. Salt bridges: geometrically specific, designable interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Jason E; Kulp, Daniel W; DeGrado, William F

    2011-03-01

    Salt bridges occur frequently in proteins, providing conformational specificity and contributing to molecular recognition and catalysis. We present a comprehensive analysis of these interactions in protein structures by surveying a large database of protein structures. Salt bridges between Asp or Glu and His, Arg, or Lys display extremely well-defined geometric preferences. Several previously observed preferences are confirmed, and others that were previously unrecognized are discovered. Salt bridges are explored for their preferences for different separations in sequence and in space, geometric preferences within proteins and at protein-protein interfaces, co-operativity in networked salt bridges, inclusion within metal-binding sites, preference for acidic electrons, apparent conformational side chain entropy reduction on formation, and degree of burial. Salt bridges occur far more frequently between residues at close than distant sequence separations, but, at close distances, there remain strong preferences for salt bridges at specific separations. Specific types of complex salt bridges, involving three or more members, are also discovered. As we observe a strong relationship between the propensity to form a salt bridge and the placement of salt-bridging residues in protein sequences, we discuss the role that salt bridges might play in kinetically influencing protein folding and thermodynamically stabilizing the native conformation. We also develop a quantitative method to select appropriate crystal structure resolution and B-factor cutoffs. Detailed knowledge of these geometric and sequence dependences should aid de novo design and prediction algorithms.

  18. Archaeal lipids in oral delivery of therapeutic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ann-Christin; Jensen, Sara M; Fricker, Gert;

    2017-01-01

    tetraether lipids. The inherent chemical stability and unique membrane-spanning characteristics of tetraether lipids render them interesting for oral drug delivery purposes. Archaeal lipids form liposomes spontaneously (archaeosomes) and may be incorporated in conventional liposomes (mixed vesicles). Both...... types of liposomes are promising to protect their drug cargo, such as therapeutic peptides, against the acidic environment of the stomach and proteolytic degradation in the intestine. They appear to withstand lipolytic enzymes and bile salts and may thus deliver orally administered therapeutic peptides...... to distant sections of the intestine or to the colon, where they may be absorbed, eventually by the help of absorption enhancers. Archaeal lipids and their semisynthetic derivatives may thus serve as biological source for the next generation oral drug delivery systems. The aim of this review is to present...

  19. Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2013-09-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers.

  20. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  1. Carpinteria salt marsh habitat polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Dunham, Eleca J.; Mancini, Frank T.; Stewart, Tara E.; Hechinger, Ryan F.

    2017-01-01

    We identified five common habitat types in Carpinteria Salt Marsh: channels, pans (flats), marsh, salt flat and upland.  We then drew polygons around each habitat type identified from a registered and orthorectified aerial photograph and created a GIS shapefile. Polygons were ground-truthed in the field. From these habitat polygons, one can use GIS applications to estimate the area of each habitat type in this estuary. These data support the following publications: Kuris, Armand M., et al. "Ecosystem energetic implications of parasite and free-living biomass in three estuaries." Nature 454.7203 (2008): 515-518.Hechinger, Ryan F., Kevin D. Lafferty, Andy P. Dobson, James H. Brown, and Armand M. Kuris. "A common scaling rule for abundance, energetics, and production of parasitic and free-living species." Science 333, no. 6041 (2011): 445-448.Hechinger, Ryan F., Kevin D. Lafferty, John P. McLaughlin, Brian L. Fredensborg, Todd C. Huspeni, Julio Lorda, Parwant K. Sandhu et al. "Food webs including parasites, biomass, body sizes, and life stages for three California/Baja California estuaries." Ecology 92, no. 3 (2011): 791-791.Buck, J.C., Hechinger, R.F., Wood, A.C., Stewart, T.E., Kuris, A.M., and Lafferty, K.D., "Host density increases parasite recruitment but decreases host risk in a snail-trematode system." Manuscript submitted for publication. Lafferty, K.D., Stewart, T.E., and Hechinger, R.F. (in press). Bird distribution surveys at Carpinteria Salt Marsh, California USA, January 2012 to March 2013: U.S. Geological Survey data release, http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7F47M95. 

  2. Oral health and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, G W

    1994-03-01

    The relationships between oral health conditions, dietary practices and nutritional status, and general health status in the older American are complex, with many interrelating factors. Just as inadequate nutrition can affect oral health, poor oral health status affects food choices and, thus, nutritional status. It is clearly essential that the primary care practitioner and/or screening health professionals always include an evaluation of oral status in assessment of an elderly person. Effective care for the elderly dental patient requires knowledge about the disease of aging and the impact of those diseases on oral health and nutrition, pharmacology and drug interactions and their impact on oral health status, the biology of aging including sensory changes, the relationship of general medicine and systemic diseases, and psychology and sociology. The attitudes of empathy and understanding, caring and compassion, respect and a positive attitude toward the older patient, and flexibility in treatment planning are also critical elements. The interdisciplinary team of physicians, nurses, nutrition professionals, dentists, and social service professionals must all work together to ensure that good oral health status and adequate nutrition are maintained in older Americans. Recognizing and treating oral health and nutrition problems are important in improving the health and quality of life for the elderly population. Research that can provide more answers to health care problems in this growing group; educating professionals with respect to the relationships between oral health and nutrition; and public policy changes with regard to provision and funding of nutrition services, especially when provided by registered and/or licensed nutrition professionals, contribute to improving the health and quality of life for elders.

  3. [Study on Salt Tolerance of Echinacea purpurea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Jia, Xiao-dong; Liu, Yong-zhi; Xuan, Ji-ping; Guo, Zhong-ren; Qiao, Yu-shan

    2015-12-01

    To explore the salt tolerance of Echiancea purpurea and its mechanism. Echiancea purpurea was used as test material in this study and six salinity levels (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 mmol/L NaCl) were set. Effects on seed germination and salt tolerance relevant physiological and biochemical indexes of Echiancea purpurea were studied. Salt stress suppressed the germination of Echiancea purpurea seeds, induced osmotic adjustment substances proline, soluble sugar and K+ to increase, and activities of POD and SOD to rise, and meanwhile resulted in accumulation of Na+ and decrease of K+/Na+. Echiancea purpurea can tolerant salt stress to a certain degree, but in case of high salt concentrations, severe salt injury would remarkably suppress the growth of Echinacea purpurea.

  4. Etiology of oral habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayardo, R E; Mejia, J J; Orozco, S; Montoya, K

    1996-01-01

    The pedodontic admission histories of 1600 Mexican children were analyzed, to determine general epidemiologic factors or oral habits, as well as their relationship with identifiable biopsychosociologic factors. Fifty-six percent of the children gave evidence of an oral habit, with significant predisposition among female patients, single children, subjects in poor physical health (particularly from allergies), as well as children with histories of chronic health problems. Oral habits should be considered a major health hazard because of their high incidence. Successful treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach to the basic cause of the problem.

  5. Microbioma oral humano

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Joana Pinto Oliveira e

    2016-01-01

    O microbioma oral humano é constituído por um vasto conjunto de microrganismos presentes na cavidade oral. Analisando a cavidade oral podemos verificar que nela existem mais de 700 espécies de bactérias responsáveis pelo domínio de parte do microbioma humano, tornando-a um importante local de estudo. É um dos habitats com maior diversidade no corpo humano onde esses microrganismos se apresentam de forma organizada e estruturada. Estes habitats estão intimamente relacionados ...

  6. Chronic oral lactate supplementation does not affect lactate disappearance from blood after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouns, F; Fogelholm, M; Van Hall, Gerrit

    1995-01-01

    they drank an oral lactate or a maltodextrin (placebo) supplement twice a day. The lactate drink contained 10 g of lactate as calcium, sodium, and potassium salts. Blood lactate concentrations were studied before, during, and immediately after three exercise tests, both pre- and posttreatment. Peak lactate...... during the long (30- to 45-min) recovery periods amounted to / 10 mmol/L. Blood lactate changes were highly reproducible. However, a 3-week oral lactate supplementation did not result in differences in lactate disappearance. This study does not support the hypothesis that regular oral lactate intake...

  7. Synthesis of Chitosan Quaternary Ammonium Salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A series of N-alkyl or N-aryl chitosan quaternary ammonium salts were prepared via Schiffs base intermediates. Quaternization of N-substituted chitosan derivatives was carried out using methyl iodide to produce water-soluble cationic chitosan quaternary ammonium salt. The products were characterized by IR, 1HNMR and elemental analysis. The degree of substitution of chitosan quaternary ammonium salt was calculated by elemental analysis.

  8. Monitoring Change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Carling, Gregory

    2013-08-01

    Great Salt Lake is the largest hypersaline lake in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (Figure 1). The open water and adjacent wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere [Aldrich and Paul, 2002]. In addition, the area is of important economic value: Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) residing in Great Salt Lake support an aquaculture shrimp cyst industry with annual revenues as high as $60 million.

  9. Evaluation of salt content in school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Alexandra Colaço Lourenço Viegas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals served in school canteens and consumers' perceptions about salt. METHODS: Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by a portable salt meter. For food perception we constructed a questionnaire that was administered to high school students. RESULTS: A total of 798 food samples were analysed. Bread had the highest salt content with a mean of 1.35 g/100 g (SD=0.12. Salt in soups ranged from 0.72 g/100 g to 0.80 g/100 g (p=0.05 and, in main courses, from 0.71 g/100 to 0.97 g/100g (p=0.05. The salt content of school meals is high with a mean value of 2.83 to 3.82 g of salt per meal. Moreover, a high percentage of students consider meals neither salty nor bland, which shows they are used to the intensity/amount of salt consumed. CONCLUSION: The salt content of school meals is high, ranging from 2 to 5 times more than the Recommended Dietary Allowances for children, clearly exceeding the needs for this population, which may pose a health risk. Healthy choices are only possible in environments where such choices are possible. Therefore, salt reduction strategies aimed at the food industry and catering services should be implemented, with children and young people targeted as a major priority.

  10. Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Methodology in Molten Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    similar conditions. A manuscript based on this work has been published in the Journal of the Electrochemical Society (34). 2) Melt and co-solvent As...Temperature Molten Salt," In "Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Molten Salts," 3. Braunstein, Ed., published by The Electrochemical Society , in...Jones and L. G. Boxall, "Electrochemical Studies in Molten Chloroaluminates," Symposium on Fused Salt Tech- nology, Electrochemical Society Meeting

  11. Granular Salt Summary: Reconsolidation Principles and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Frank; Popp, Till; Wieczorek, Klaus; Stuehrenberg, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    The purposes of this paper are to review the vast amount of knowledge concerning crushed salt reconsolidation and its attendant hydraulic properties (i.e., its capability for fluid or gas transport) and to provide a sufficient basis to understand reconsolidation and healing rates under repository conditions. Topics covered include: deformation mechanisms and hydro-mechanical interactions during reconsolidation; the experimental data base pertaining to crushed salt reconsolidation; transport properties of consolidating granulated salt and provides quantitative substantiation of its evolution to characteristics emulating undisturbed rock salt; and extension of microscopic and laboratory observations and data to the applicable field scale.

  12. Fried Bamboo Shoots with Salted Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Ingredients: 250 grams of canned bamboo shoots; 75 grams of salted potherb mustard leaves; 5 grams of cooking wine, 1 gram of salt and 500 grams of vegetable oil (15 grams will be consumed). MSG to taste. Directions: 1. Chop the bamboo shoots into rectangles 4 centimeters by 1.65 centimeters. Marinate the bamboo shoots in salt and cooking wine. Clean the salted potherb mustard leaves (or any other kind of vegetable leaves) with hot water and chop into 3.5-centimeter segments.

  13. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  14. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Charles Austen; Xu, Wu

    2008-01-01

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  15. Salt reduction initiatives around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jacqueline L; Dunford, Elizabeth K; Hawkes, Corinna; Neal, Bruce C

    2011-06-01

    To provide an overview of national salt reduction initiatives around the world, describe core characteristics and develop a framework for future strategy development. National strategies were identified from existing reviews and from searches of the literature and relevant websites. Standardized information was extracted about governance and strategy development, baseline assessments and monitoring and implementation. Thirty-two country salt reduction initiatives were identified. The majority of activity was in Europe (19 countries). Most countries (27) had maximum population salt intake targets, ranging from 5 to 8 g/person per day. Twenty-six of the 32 strategies were led by government, five by nongovernment organizations and one by industry. Twenty-eight countries had some baseline data on salt consumption and 18 had data on sodium levels in foods. Twenty-eight countries were working with the food industry to reduce salt in foods, 10 had front-of-pack labelling schemes and 28 had consumer awareness or behaviour change programs. Five countries had demonstrated an impact, either on population salt consumption, salt levels in foods or consumer awareness. These strategies were led by government and were multifaceted including food reformulation, consumer awareness initiatives and labelling actions. This is the first review to concisely summarize the most important elements of the many existing salt reduction programmes and highlight the characteristics most likely to be important to programme efficacy. For most countries, implementing a national salt reduction programme is likely to be one of simplest and most cost-effective ways of improving public health.

  16. Strategies for salt reduction in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toldrá, Fidel; Barat, José M

    2012-04-01

    The amounts of sodium chloride in the formulation of a variety of foods like bakery, meats and dairy foods, ready meals, sauces and snacks, are relatively large and thus, have a strong contribution on the salt dietary intake. There is a clear demand by the consumers and medical associations to reduce the salt content in foods. Different strategies have been proposed and most of them consist of the replacement of sodium chloride by other salts and the addition of other substances for an acceptable sensory quality. The recent patents for salt reduction and their applications in foods are reviewed in this manuscript.

  17. Anion- interactions in layered structures of salts of 5-(hydroxyimino) quinolin-8-one and related salts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prithiviraj Khakhlary; Jubaraj B Baruah

    2015-01-01

    Relevance of anion- interactions in chloride, bromide, nitrate and perchlorate salts of 5-(hydroxyimino)quinolin-8-one are discussed. Structures of nitrate salt of 5-aminoquinoline as well as nitrate salt of 4-hydroxyquinazoline are compared with the structure of nitrate salt of 5-(hydroxyimino)quinolin-8-one. From such a comparison, two different arrangements of nitrate ions with respect to the respective cations are discerned. Nitrate ions are sandwiched between aromatic planes of cations in nitrate salts of 5-(hydroxyimino)quinolin-8-one or 4-hydroxyquinazoline; whereas, nitrate ions are in oblique positions with respect to aromatic planes of counter cations in nitrate salt of 5-aminoquinoline. Binding constants of different nitrate salts in solution are determined by UV-visible spectroscopic titrations. Solution study shows formation of ion-pairs of these salts in solution.

  18. Proposed nomenclature for salt intake and for reductions in dietary salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norm R C; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Webster, Jacqui; Lackland, Daniel T; Neal, Bruce; MacGregor, Graham A

    2015-04-01

    There is considerable confusion about what ranges of dietary salt(a) could be considered low, normal, or high and also what ranges of reduction in dietary salt are small or large. The World Hypertension League with other organizations involved in dietary salt reduction have proposed a standardized nomenclature based on normal ancestral levels of salt intake and also on ranges of reduction in salt intake in clinical and population interventions. Low daily salt (sodium) intake where harm due to deficiency would be expected to occur is recommended to remain undefined because of inadequate research but likely 10 to 15 g (4000-6000 mg), and extremely high >15 g (6000 mg). Reductions in daily salt (sodium) intake are recommended to be called small if 5.0 g (2000 mg). Use of this nomenclature is likely to result in less confusion about salt intake and interventions to reduce dietary sodium.

  19. Metal salts of alkyl catechol dithiophosphoric acids and oil compositions containing the salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, E.S.; Liston, T.V.

    1988-03-08

    Metal salts of alkyl catechol esters of dithiophosphoric acid suitable as additives in oil compositions are disclosed in this patent. Oil compositions containing the salts of such esters show improved extreme pressure/anti-wear and anit-oxidant properties.

  20. Crystal growth in salt efflorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Konrad; Arnold, Andreas

    1989-09-01

    Salt efflorescences strongly affect wall paintings and other monuments. The external factors governing the crystal habits and aggregate forms are studied phenomenologically in laboratory experiments. As salt contaminated materials dry, slats crystallize forming distinct sequences of crystal habits and aggregate forms on and underneath the surfaces. Four phases may be distinguished: (1) Large individual crystals with equilibrium forms grow immersed in a thick solution film; (2) granular crusts of small isometric crystals grow covered by a thin solution film; (3) fibrous crusts of columnar crystals grow from a coherent but thin solution film so that the crystals are in contact with solution only at their base; (4) whiskers grow from isolated spots of very thin solution films into the air. The main factor governing these morphologies is the humidity of the substrate. A porous material cracks while granular crystals (approaching their equilibrium forms) grow within the large pores. As the fissures widen, the habits pass into columnar crystals and then into whiskers. Because this succession corresponds to the crystallization sequence on the substrate surface it can be traced back to the same growth conditions.

  1. Electronic Spectra of Chevreul's Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Luciana A. da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The isomorphic series of double sulfites with empirical formula Cu2SO3.MSO3.2H 2O (where M is Cu, Fe, Mn, or Cd have been prepared from the Cu(II replacement by transition metal ions such as Mn(II, Fe(II and Cd(II ions in Chevreul's salt, Cu2SO3.CuSO3.2H 2O. As a consequence, the isomorphic species present distinct colors. Molecular modeling calculations were carried out for the dimeric [CuI2(SO3 2(SO32]6- center. The electronic spectra of the Chevreul's salt consist of a charge-transfer band around 425 nm associated with the [CuI2(SO3 2(SO32]6- chromophore and two ligand field transitions at 785 and 1000 nm involving the Jahn-Teller splitting of the Cu(II levels. An additional intervalence-transfer band, responsible for its characteristic red color, can be found at 500 nm. The replacement of the Cu(II ions for Fe(II, Mn(II and Cd(II does not eliminate the absorption band at 425 nm, supporting its assignment as a charge-transfer transition centered on the Cu(I sites; while the original band at 500 nm disappears, in agreement with its intervalence transfer nature.

  2. Exercise, Intestinal Absorption, and Rehydration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ KEYPOINTS 1. The proximal small intestine (duodenum & jejunum) is the primary site of fluid absorption. It absorbs about 50% to 60% of any given fluid load. The colon or large intestine absorbs approximately 80 to 90% of the fluid it receives, but accounts for only about 15% of the total fluid load.

  3. Amiloidosis oral nodular Oral nodular amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martos Díaz

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La amiloidosis constituye una entidad marcada por el depósito de amiloide en diferentes tejidos. En la cavidad oral se manifiesta habitualmente en forma de macroglosia, y más raramente, como nódulos dispuestos en la superficie. Caso clínico. Varón afecto de Mieloma Múltiple, que comienza con lesiones nodulares en labio inferior y lengua. A raíz de estas lesiones, mediante estudio histológico, es diagnosticado de Amiloidosis Sistémica. Discusión. Los nódulos amiloideos en la cavidad oral, constituyen una manifestación rara de la amiloidosis sistémica. Su aparición conlleva la necesidad de realizar un diagnostico diferencial con otras entidades y el diagnostico de certeza se obtiene mediante el análisis histológico.Introduction. Amyloidosis is a condition characterized by the deposit of amyloid in different tissues. In the oral cavity it is usually manifested as macroglossia and, more rarely, as nodules on the surface. Clinical case. A man had multiple myeloma that began with nodular lesions of the lower lip and tongue. As a result of these lesions, the patient was diagnosed of systemic amyloidosis by histological study. Discussion. Amyloid nodules in the oral cavity are a rare manifestation of systemic amyloidosis. Its appearance entails the necessity to make I diagnose differential with other organizations and I diagnose of certainty is obtained by means of the histological analysis.

  4. Oral mucosal immunization using glucomannosylated bilosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sanyog; Indulkar, Anura; Harde, Harshad; Agrawal, Ashish K

    2014-06-01

    The present study embarks on the feasibility of GM-bilosomes as a rationally designed vehicle for oral mucosal immunization. Bilosomes containing BSA as a model antigen were found to have vesicle size of 157 +/- 3 nm, PDI of 0.287 +/- 0.045, zeta potential of -21.8 +/- 2.01 mV and entrapment efficiency of 71.3 +/- 4.3%. Bilosomal formulations were freeze dried and entrapped BSA in freeze dried formulations was found to retain its structural and conformational stability as evident by SDS-PAGE and CD analysis. The GM-bilosomes were also found stable in different simulated biological fluids and bile salt solutions of different concentrations. In-vitro drug release revealed that GM-bilosomes were able to sustain drug release up to 24 h. In-vitro cell uptake in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells demonstrated significantly higher uptake of GM-bilosomes in comparison with bilosomes and free antigen. Intestinal uptake studies on excised rat intestinal sections further demonstrated higher uptake of vesicular systems throughout the intestinal region in comparison with free antigen. Significantly higher (p alum adsorbed BSA (BSA-AL) following oral administration. The immune response observed in case of GM-bilosomes was comparable to BSA-AL administered through im route without any significant difference (p > 0.05). More importantly, GM-bilosomes were found capable of inducing mucosal immune response as well as cell mediated immune response which was not induced by im BSA-AL. In conclusion, GM-bilosomes could be considered as promising carrier and adjuvant system for oral mucosal immunization and productively exploited for oral delivery of other candidate antigens.

  5. Salt-Restriction-Spoon Improved the Salt Intake among Residents in China

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Chen; Ye Tian; Yixing Liao; Shuaishuai Yang; Zhuoting Li; Chao He; Dahong Tu; Xinying Sun

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of an improved salt-restriction spoon on the attitude of salt-restriction, the using rate of salt-restriction-spoon, the actual salt intake, and 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (24HUNa). DESIGN: A community intervention study. SETTING: Two villages in Beijing. PARTICIPANTS: 403 local adult residents being responsible for home cooking. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention group or the control group. Those in the intervention g...

  6. Oral sex and oral health: An enigma in itself

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active couples of various age groups, including male-female and same-gender adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus, and analingus. Oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital infections from one site in body to the other. Oral health has a direct correlation on the transmission of infection; a cut in the mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of life-threatening infections. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues, and oral hygiene and dental issues. The ulcerations or unhealthy periodontium in mouth accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus, consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.

  7. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Z Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ ... site’s privacy policy when you follow the link. Home Contact Us Viewers and Players Site Map FOIA ...

  8. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See All Order Publications English and Spanish brochures available free ...

  9. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it can be treated more successfully. Publications​ For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health Care Professionals A step-by-step, illustrated guide ...

  10. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Submission of Applications Grants 101 (How to Write a Grant) Questions and Answers Grant Writing Tips Careers & ... successfully. Publications​ For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health Care Professionals A step-by- ...

  11. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Programs (Extramural Research) NIDCR Laboratories (Intramural Research) Science News in Brief Study Takes First Comprehensive Look ... Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – ...

  12. Oral Hypersensitivity Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... food, food additives, drugs, oral hygiene products, and dental materials. Q: Are there any specific foods that are ... dental treatment trigger a hypersensitivity reaction? A: Some dental materials used by the dentist can cause a hypersensitivity ...

  13. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Skip to Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral ... High School and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities ...

  14. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it can be treated more successfully. Publications​ For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health Care Professionals A step-by-step, illustrated guide ...

  15. Leucoplasia oral: Conceptos actuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Escribano-Bermejo

    Full Text Available La leucoplasia es la lesión premaligna más frecuente de la cavidad oral. La Organización Mundial de la Salud la define clínicamente como una lesión predominantemente blanca de la mucosa oral que no puede caracterizarse como ninguna otra lesión conocida y con una elevada tendencia a convertirse en un cáncer oral. El objetivo de esta revisión es hacer un repaso al conocimiento actual acerca de la leucoplasia oral prestando especial atención a su nomenclatura, su etiología, su potencial maligno y su tratamiento.

  16. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes ... Browse Studies by Topic NIDCR-Sponsored Clinical Trials Research NIDCR Strategic Plan Research Results Tools for Researchers ...

  17. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – ...

  18. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See All Order Publications English and Spanish brochures available free of charge. ... early—when it can be treated more successfully. Publications​ For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide ...

  19. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Submission of Applications Grants 101 (How to Write a Grant) Questions and Answers Grant Writing Tips Careers & ... successfully. Publications​ For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health Care Professionals A step-by- ...

  20. Fostering oral presentation performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van Stan; Gulikers, Judith; Biemans, Harm; Mulder, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research revealed significant differences in the effectiveness of various feedback sources for encouraging students’ oral presentation performance. While former studies emphasised the superiority of teacher feedback, it remains unclear whether the quality of feedback actually differs bet

  1. Oral Cancer Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shown to participate in their development. These include lichen planus, an inflammatory disease of the oral soft ... at an uncontrolled rate, is unable to repair DNA damage within itself, or refuses to self destruct ...

  2. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Answers Grant Writing Tips Careers & Training Fellowships and Internships for... High School and College Students Recent College ... signs and symptoms of oral cancer, and the importance of detecting the disease in its early stages. ...

  3. Oral Cancer Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Answers Grant Writing Tips Careers & Training Fellowships and Internships for... High School and College Students Recent College ... signs and symptoms of oral cancer, and the importance of detecting the disease in its early stages. ...

  4. Anaglyph, Salt Lake City, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This anaglyph image provides a stereoscopic map view of north central Utah that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling and the nearby Snowbasin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City ski resort hosts the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed

  5. Probiotics and oral health

    OpenAIRE

    Rastogi, Pavitra; Saini, Himani; Dixit, Jaya; Singhal, Rameshwari

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics utilize the naturally occurring bacteria to confer health benefits. Traditionally, probiotics have been associated with gut health, and are being mainly utilized for prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal infections and disease; however, recently, several studies have suggested the use of probiotics for oral health purposes. The aim of this review is to understand the potential mechanism of action of probiotic bacteria in the oral cavity and summarize their observed effects wi...

  6. Oral Somatosensory Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    De Boer, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    Oral somatosensory awareness refers to the somatic sensations arising within the mouth, and to the information these sensations provide about the state and structure of the mouth itself, and objects in the mouth. Because the oral tissues have a strong somatosensory innervation, they are the locus of some of our most intense and vivid bodily experiences. The salient pain of toothache, or the habit of running one's tongue over one's teeth when someone mentions "dentist", provide two very differ...

  7. Oral and esophageal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyer, C M; Simon, D

    1997-06-01

    This article focused on the approach to oral and esophageal disorders in patients with AIDS. Most of these disorders respond to various therapeutic regimens. Some of the oral complications can be prevented with dental prophylaxis, whereas recurrent esophageal disease in some patients may require long-term suppressive therapy. As patients with AIDS live longer with lower CD4 counts, gastroenterologists need to become familiar with the approach to and management of the more common lesions of the mouth and esophagus.

  8. Oral pigmentation: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeja, C; Ramakrishnan, K; Vijayalakshmi, D; Devi, M; Aesha, I; Vijayabanu, B

    2015-08-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations.

  9. ON ORAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Svetitsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes a rise in the incidence of oral cancer in the Rostov Region since the 1990s. The study has indicated that this rise is associated with regional population growth due to the forced migrants after the collapse of the USSR. Financial problems, unbalanced nutrition, poor oral hygiene, and depression in this group of patients have contributed to the higher incidence of precancers and cancers.

  10. Maintaining women's oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, A L; Bonci, L

    2001-07-01

    Women must adopt health-promoting strategies for both general health and the oral cavity, because the health of a woman's body and oral cavity are bidirectional. For general health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should actively advise women to minimize alcohol use, abstain from or cease smoking, stay physically active, and choose the right foods to nourish both the body and mind. For oral health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should advise women on how to prevent or control oral infections, particularly dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specifically, women need to know how to remove plaque from the teeth mechanically, use appropriate chemotherapeutic agents and dentifrices, use oral irrigation, and control halitosis. Dental practitioners also need to stress the importance of regular maintenance visits for disease prevention. Adolescent women are more prone to gingivitis and aphthous ulcers when they begin their menstrual cycles and need advice about cessation of tobacco use, mouth protection during athletic activities, cleaning orthodontic appliances, developing good dietary habits, and avoiding eating disorders. Women in early to middle adulthood may be pregnant or using oral contraceptives with concomitant changes in oral tissues. Dental practitioners need to advise them how to take care of the oral cavity during these changes and how to promote the health of their infants, including good nutrition. Older women experience the onset of menopause and increased vulnerability to osteoporosis. They may also experience xerostomia and burning mouth syndrome. Dental practitioners need to help women alleviate these symptoms and encourage them to continue good infection control and diet practices.

  11. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  12. Oral and systemic photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L; Halliday, Gary M

    2014-01-01

    Photoprotection can be provided not only by ultraviolet (UV) blockers but also by oral substances. Epidemiologically identified associations between foods and skin cancer and interventional experiments have discovered mechanisms of UV skin damage. These approaches have identified oral substances that are photoprotective in humans. UV inhibits adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production causing an energy crisis, which prevents optimal skin immunity and DNA repair. Enhancing ATP production with oral nicotinamide protects from UV immunosuppression, enhances DNA repair and reduces skin cancer in humans. Reactive oxygen species also contribute to photodamage. Nontoxic substances consumed in the diet, or available as oral supplements, can protect the skin by multiple potential mechanisms. These substances include polyphenols in fruit, vegetables, wine, tea and caffeine-containing foods. UV-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) contributes to photodamage. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and food substances reduce production of this lipid mediator. Fish oils are photoprotective, at least partially by reducing PGE2 . Orally consumed substances, either in the diet or as supplements, can influence cutaneous responses to UV. A current research goal is to develop an oral supplement that could be used in conjunction with other sun protective strategies in order to provide improved protection from sunlight.

  13. Melatonin and oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Murat İnanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-01-01

    While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers.

  14. Melatonin and Oral Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat İnanç Cengiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers.

  15. Personality and oral health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Broadbent, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated age-26 personality characteristics and age-32 oral health in a prospective study of a complete birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand. Personality was measured using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Oral health was measured using the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), a global measure, and dental examinations. Personality profiles were constructed for 916 individuals (50.8% men) using standardized MPQ scores, and multivariate analyses examined their association with oral health. Those reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts had higher Negative Emotionality scores (and lower Constraint and Positive Emotionality MPQ superfactor scores) than those who did not. After controlling for gender, clinical status, and the other two MPQ superfactors, those scoring higher on Negative Emotionality had a greater risk of reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts, as well as 3+ OHIP-14 impacts and worse-than-average oral health. They also had a greater risk of having lost at least one tooth from caries and of having 3+ decayed surfaces. Personality characteristics appear to shape self-reports of oral health. Personality is also a risk factor for clinical disease status, at least with respect to dental caries and its sequelae. Because the attitudes and values tapped into by personality tests can be altered by brief cognitive interventions, those might be useful in preventive dentistry. PMID:21896053

  16. HPV-associated oral warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Wood, N H; Marnewick, J C; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J

    2011-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is strictly epitheliotropic, infecting stratified squamous cutaneous and mucosal epithelial cells. Oral HPV infection may be subclinical or putatively associated with benign or malignant oral neoplasms. The benign HPV-associated oral lesions, focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease), oral squamous cell papilloma, oral verruca vulgaris (common wart) and oral condyloma acuminatum, are collectively referred to as oral warts. Oral warts are usually asymptomatic, may be persistent or uncommonly, may regress spontaneously. HPV-associated oral warts have a prevalence of 0.5% in the general population, occur in up to 5% of HIV-seropositive subjects, and in up to 23% of HIV-seropositive subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy. This paper is a clinico-pathological review of HPV-associated oral warts.

  17. Strengthening of oral health systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    Around the globe many people are suffering from oral pain and other problems of the mouth or teeth. This public health problem is growing rapidly in developing countries where oral health services are limited. Significant proportions of people are underserved; insufficient oral health care...... is either due to low availability and accessibility of oral health care or because oral health care is costly. In all countries, the poor and disadvantaged population groups are heavily affected by a high burden of oral disease compared to well-off people. Promotion of oral health and prevention of oral...... diseases must be provided through financially fair primary health care and public health intervention. Integrated approaches are the most cost-effective and realistic way to close the gap in oral health between rich and poor. The World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Programme will work...

  18. Acyclic telluroiminium salts: isolation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutoh, Yuichiro; Murai, Toshiaki; Yamago, Shigeru

    2004-12-29

    The isolation, structure, and reactions of acyclic telluroiminium salts were disclosed. The delocalization of electrons on the tellurium atom and the partial double-bond character of C-Te bonds in the salts are discussed on the basis of X-ray molecular structure analysis, 13C and 125Te NMR spectroscopy, and molecular orbital calculation.

  19. Nitrate Salt Surrogate Blending Scoping Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-13

    Test blending equipment identified in the “Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing”. Determine if the equipment will provide adequate mixing of zeolite and surrogate salt/Swheat stream; optimize equipment type and operational sequencing; impact of baffles and inserts on mixing performance; and means of validating mixing performance

  20. Morning sickness: impact on offspring salt preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, S R; Bernstein, I L

    1995-12-01

    These studies examined the relationship between salt preference of adult offspring and their mothers' symptoms of morning sickness during pregnancy. College students who could provide information about their mothers' symptoms of morning sickness completed a survey about their dietary salt intake (study 1; n = 169) or rated and consumed ten snack foods (study 2; n = 66). In study 1 a salt-use score was calculated based on responses to the Salt Intake Questionnaire; offspring of women with moderate or severe vomiting reported a significantly higher level of salt use (p < 0.01) than those whose mothers report little or no symptoms. In study 2 saltiness and pleasantness ratings of high-salt foods, intake of those foods and total sodium intake were the focus of analysis. Offspring of women reporting moderate or severe vomiting showed a significantly greater preference for the snack food subjects rated as saltiest than those whose mothers reported no or mild vomiting. They also ate more of that food and consumed more total sodium during the test session. Effects were stronger in Caucasian than Asian subjects. These studies suggest that moderate to severe vomiting during pregnancy can be associated with significantly higher salt intake in offspring. Thus, a gestational event may be an important determinant of salt intake and preference in adulthood.

  1. Metal Production by Molten Salt Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grjotheim, K.; Kvande, H.; Qingfeng, Li

    Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed.......Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed....

  2. Electrokinetic removal of salt from brick masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2006-01-01

    A method to effectively remove salts from masonry is lacking. The present study aims at determining the removal efficiency of salts from bricks in an applied low current electric DC field. At first an investigation on removal of NaCl and Na(NO3)2 from spiked bricks in laboratory scale was conducted...

  3. Nonlinear Analysis of Cavities in Rock Salt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, N. S.; Krenk, Steen

    1979-01-01

    The paper covers some material and computational aspects of the rock mechanics of leached cavities in salt. A material model is presented in which the instantaneous stiffness of the salt is obtained by interpolation between the unloaded state and a relevant failure state. The model enables predic...

  4. Public health impact of salt reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.

    2015-01-01

    The health and economic burden related to cardiovascular diseases is substantial and prevention of these diseases remains a challenge. There is convincing evidence that high salt intake affects blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. As salt intake is far above the recommended maximu

  5. Asymmetric Hydrogenation of 3-Substituted Pyridinium Salts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renom-Carrasco, Marc; Gajewski, Piotr; Pignataro, Luca; de Vries, Johannes G.; Piarulli, Umberto; Gennari, Cesare; Lefort, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    The use of an equivalent amount of an organic base leads to high enantiomeric excess in the asymmetric hydrogenation of N-benzylated 3-substituted pyridinium salts into the corresponding piperidines. Indeed, in the presence of Et3N, a Rh-JosiPhos catalyst reduced a range of pyridinium salts with ee

  6. Metal Production by Molten Salt Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grjotheim, K.; Kvande, H.; Qingfeng, Li

    Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed.......Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed....

  7. Electrokinetic removal of salt from brick masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2006-01-01

    A method to effectively remove salts from masonry is lacking. The present study aims at determining the removal efficiency of salts from bricks in an applied low current electric DC field. At first an investigation on removal of NaCl and Na(NO3)2 from spiked bricks in laboratory scale was conducted...

  8. Metal salt catalysts for enhancing hydrogen spillover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ralph T; Wang, Yuhe

    2013-04-23

    A composition for hydrogen storage includes a receptor, a hydrogen dissociating metal doped on the receptor, and a metal salt doped on the receptor. The hydrogen dissociating metal is configured to spill over hydrogen to the receptor, and the metal salt is configured to increase a rate of the spill over of the hydrogen to the receptor.

  9. Skin Sensitizing Potency of Halogenated Platinum Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between occupational exposure to halogenated platinum (Pt) salts and Pt-specific allergic sensitization is well-established. Although human case reports and clinical studies demonstrate that Pt salts are potent skin sensitizers, no studies have been published tha...

  10. Public health impact of salt reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.

    2015-01-01

    The health and economic burden related to cardiovascular diseases is substantial and prevention of these diseases remains a challenge. There is convincing evidence that high salt intake affects blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. As salt intake is far above the recommended

  11. Morphology of colloidal metal pyrophosphate salts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Y.M.; Velikov, K.; Kegel, W.K.

    2012-01-01

    We report the preparation and characterization of colloidal particles of several pyrophosphate metal salts, including, for the first time, salts containing multiple metals. These materials are compared in order to determine the influence of the composition and experimental conditions on particle

  12. Salt Diapirs in the Gulf Coast [gcdiapirg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Locations and shapes of salt diapirs were modified after the New Orleans Geological Society map, Salt tectonism of the U.S. Gulf Coast Basin (compiled by J.A. Lopez,...

  13. The effect of the salt viscosity on future evolution of the Gorleben salt diapir, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemia, Zurab; Schmeling, H.; Koyi, H.

    2009-01-01

    for various salt rheologies. It is shown that the rheology of the salt plays a significant role in how and at which rate the anhydrite blocks sink within the diapir. The mobility of anhydrite blocks depends on the effective viscosity of salt which has to be lower than threshold value of around 1018–1019 Pa s....... Decreasing salt viscosity allows the previously “stationary” anhydrite blocks to sink. If the effective viscosity of salt in post-depositional stage of the Gorleben diapir falls below this threshold value, induced internal flow due to the present anhydrite layer might disturb any repository within the diapir....

  14. The effect of the salt viscosity on future evolution of the Gorleben salt diapir, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemia, Zurab; Schmeling, H.; Koyi, H.

    2009-01-01

    for various salt rheologies. It is shown that the rheology of the salt plays a significant role in how and at which rate the anhydrite blocks sink within the diapir. The mobility of anhydrite blocks depends on the effective viscosity of salt which has to be lower than threshold value of around 1018–1019 Pa s....... Decreasing salt viscosity allows the previously “stationary” anhydrite blocks to sink. If the effective viscosity of salt in post-depositional stage of the Gorleben diapir falls below this threshold value, induced internal flow due to the present anhydrite layer might disturb any repository within the diapir....

  15. Four salt phases of theophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Amanda R; Kennedy, Alan R; Manzie, Craig

    2014-02-01

    The structures of two anhydrous salt phases of theophylline, namely 1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-7H-purin-9-ium tetrafluoroborate, C7H9N4O2(+)·BF4(-), and 1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-7H-purin-9-ium chloride, C7H9N4O2(+)·Cl(-), are reported together with the structures of two monohydrate salt forms, namely 1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-7H-purin-9-ium chloride monohydrate, C7H9N4O2(+)·Cl(-)·H2O, and 1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-7H-purin-9-ium bromide monohydrate, C7H9N4O2(+)·Br(-)·H2O. The monohydrate structures are mutually isostructural, with the cations and anions lying on crystallographic mirror planes (Z' = ½). The main intermolecular interaction motif is a hydrogen-bonding network in the same mirror plane. The tetrafluoroborate structure is based on planar hydrogen-bonded theopylline cation dimers; the anions interact with the dimers in a pendant fashion. The anhydrous chloride structure has Z' = 2 and in contrast to the other species it does not form planar hydrogen-bonded constructs, instead one-dimensional chains of cations and anions propagate parallel to the crystallographic c direction. An earlier report claiming to describe an anhydrous structure of theophylline hydrochloride is re-examined in light of these results. It is concluded that the earlier structure has been reported in the wrong space group and that it has been chemically misidentified.

  16. ORAL MYIASIS CONVERTING TO ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oral Myiasis, a condition of infestation of the body by fly larvae (maggots is a rare pathology in humans. It is associated with poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, suppurating lesions, severe halitosis. It is seen frequently in tropical countries and hot climatic regions. The reported cases in literature of oral Myiasis associated with oral cancer are few. The treatment is a mechanical removal of the maggots but a systemic treatment with Ivermectin, a semi - synthetic macrolide antibiotic, has been used successfully for treatment for oral m yiasis. We present a case of 55 yr old male alcoholic patient with oral myiasis with extensive proliferative growth of oral cavity. Our patient was managed with manual debridement and administration of systemic ivermect in along with antibiotic coverage. Incisional biopsy of the proliferative lesion showed well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Thus our patient showed presence of oral myiasis in association with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  17. Paracoccidioidomicosis en cavidad oral Oral cavity paracoccidioidomycosis

    OpenAIRE

    D. Antunes Freitas; C.I. Vergara Hernández; A. Díaz Caballero; G. Moreira

    2012-01-01

    La paracoccidioidomicosis (PCM) o blastomicosis suramericana es la micosis sistémica más importante de América latina que es relativamente común en Brasil, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador y Argentina. Los casos esporádicos también pueden verse en algunos otros países, la cual es progresiva y con un infrecuente desenlace fatal si no es tratada a tiempo. Se considera como una enfermedad multifocal, con lesiones orales como la característica prominente. Es causada por un hongo dimórfico, Paracoccid...

  18. Osmolyte regulation by TonEBP/NFAT5 during anoxia-recovery and dehydration–rehydration stresses in the freeze-tolerant wood frog (Rana sylvatica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-attar, Rasha; Zhang, Yichi

    2017-01-01

    Background The wood frog, Rana sylvatica, tolerates freezing as a means of winter survival. Freezing is considered to be an ischemic/anoxic event in which oxygen delivery is significantly impaired. In addition, cellular dehydration occurs during freezing because water is lost to extracellular compartments in order to promote freezing. In order to prevent severe cell shrinkage and cell death, it is important for the wood frog to have adaptive mechanisms for osmoregulation. One important mechanism of cellular osmoregulation occurs through the cellular uptake/production of organic osmolytes like sorbitol, betaine, and myo-inositol. Betaine and myo-inositol are transported by the proteins BGT-1 and SMIT, respectively. Sorbitol on the other hand, is synthesized inside the cell by the enzyme aldose reductase. These three proteins are regulated at the transcriptional level by the transcription factor, NFAT5/TonEBP. Therefore, the objective of this study was to elucidate the role of NFAT5/TonEBP in regulating BGT-1, SMIT, and aldose reductase, during dehydration and anoxia in the wood frog muscle, liver, and kidney tissues. Methods Wood frogs were subjected to 24 h anoxia-4 h recovery and 40% dehydration-full rehydration experiments. Protein levels of NFAT5, BGT-1, SMIT, and aldose reductase were studied using immunoblotting in muscle, liver, and kidney tissues. Results Immunoblotting results demonstrated downregulations in NFAT5 protein levels in both liver and kidney tissues during anoxia (decreases by 41% and 44% relative to control for liver and kidney, respectively). Aldose reductase protein levels also decreased in both muscle and kidney tissues during anoxia (by 37% and 30% for muscle and kidney, respectively). On the other hand, BGT-1 levels increased during anoxia in muscle (0.9-fold compared to control) and kidney (1.1-fold). Under 40% dehydration, NFAT5 levels decreased in liver by 53%. Aldose reductase levels also decreased by 42% in dehydrated muscle, and by

  19. Osmolyte regulation by TonEBP/NFAT5 during anoxia-recovery and dehydration–rehydration stresses in the freeze-tolerant wood frog (Rana sylvatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Al-attar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The wood frog, Rana sylvatica, tolerates freezing as a means of winter survival. Freezing is considered to be an ischemic/anoxic event in which oxygen delivery is significantly impaired. In addition, cellular dehydration occurs during freezing because water is lost to extracellular compartments in order to promote freezing. In order to prevent severe cell shrinkage and cell death, it is important for the wood frog to have adaptive mechanisms for osmoregulation. One important mechanism of cellular osmoregulation occurs through the cellular uptake/production of organic osmolytes like sorbitol, betaine, and myo-inositol. Betaine and myo-inositol are transported by the proteins BGT-1 and SMIT, respectively. Sorbitol on the other hand, is synthesized inside the cell by the enzyme aldose reductase. These three proteins are regulated at the transcriptional level by the transcription factor, NFAT5/TonEBP. Therefore, the objective of this study was to elucidate the role of NFAT5/TonEBP in regulating BGT-1, SMIT, and aldose reductase, during dehydration and anoxia in the wood frog muscle, liver, and kidney tissues. Methods Wood frogs were subjected to 24 h anoxia-4 h recovery and 40% dehydration-full rehydration experiments. Protein levels of NFAT5, BGT-1, SMIT, and aldose reductase were studied using immunoblotting in muscle, liver, and kidney tissues. Results Immunoblotting results demonstrated downregulations in NFAT5 protein levels in both liver and kidney tissues during anoxia (decreases by 41% and 44% relative to control for liver and kidney, respectively. Aldose reductase protein levels also decreased in both muscle and kidney tissues during anoxia (by 37% and 30% for muscle and kidney, respectively. On the other hand, BGT-1 levels increased during anoxia in muscle (0.9-fold compared to control and kidney (1.1-fold. Under 40% dehydration, NFAT5 levels decreased in liver by 53%. Aldose reductase levels also decreased by 42% in

  20. Expression of LeNHX isoforms in response to salt stress in salt sensitive and salt tolerant tomato species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Francisco Javier; Baghour, Mourad; Hao, Gangping; Cagnac, Olivier; Rodríguez-Rosales, María Pilar; Venema, Kees

    2012-02-01

    In general, wild tomato species are more salt tolerant than cultivated species, a trait that is related to enhanced Na(+) accumulation in aerial parts in the wild species, but the molecular basis for these differences is not known. Plant NHX proteins have been suggested to be important for salt tolerance by promoting accumulation of Na(+) or K(+) inside vacuoles. Therefore, differences in expression or activity of NHX proteins in tomato could be at the basis of the enhanced salt tolerance in wild tomato species. To test this hypothesis, we studied the expression level of four NHX genes in the salt sensitive cultivated species Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Volgogradskij and the salt tolerant wild species Solanum pimpinelifolium L in response to salt stress. First, we determined that in the absence of salt stress, the RNA abundance of LeNHX2, 3 and 4 was comparable in both species, while more LeNHX1 RNA was detected in the tolerant species. LeNHX2 and LeNHX3 showed comparable expression levels and were present in all tissues, while LeNHX4 was expressed above all in stem and fruit tissues. Next, we confirmed that the wild species was more tolerant and accumulated more Na(+) in aerial parts of the plant. This correlated with the observation that salt stress induced especially the LeNHX3 and LeNHX4 isoforms in the tolerant species. These results support a role of NHX genes as determinants of salt tolerance in tomato, inducing enhanced Na(+) accumulation observed in the wild species when grown in the presence of NaCl.