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Sample records for oral ranitidine improves

  1. Single dose oral ranitidine improves MRCP image quality: a double-blind study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowes, M.T. [South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Wythenshawe, Manchester (United Kingdom); Martin, D.F. [South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Wythenshawe, Manchester (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: derrick.martin@smtr.nhs.uk; Melling, A. [South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Wythenshawe, Manchester (United Kingdom); Roberts, D. [South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Wythenshawe, Manchester (United Kingdom); Laasch, H.-U. [South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Wythenshawe, Manchester (United Kingdom); Sukumar, S. [South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Wythenshawe, Manchester (United Kingdom); Morris, J. [South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Wythenshawe, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    Aim: To investigate the possibility of whether a single 300 mg dose of ranitidine given orally 2-3 h before magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) could reduce the signal from the stomach and duodenum, and thus increase the conspicuousness of the biliary tree. Materials and methods: Thirty-five volunteers (22 female, 13 male), (age range 21-50) were underwent MRCP in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover trial on a Philips Intera 1.5 T machine using a phased array surface coil. Imaging was carried out in the coronal oblique plane. Six 40 mm sections were acquired at varying angles to delineate the biliary tree and pancreatic duct. The 70 examinations were blindly scored by three consultants experienced in cholangiography. Results: After ranitidine administration there was a significant decrease in signal from the stomach (mean = 17.7, p = 0.0005, CI 10, 25.3) and duodenum (mean = 18.4, p = 0.0005, 95%CI 9.6, 27.1) with a significant increase in conspicuousness of the distal common duct (mean = 7.7, p = 0.033, 95%CI 0.7, 14.7) and proximal common duct (mean = 8.7, p = 0.010 CI 2.2, 15.2). There were no adverse effects. Conclusion: Oral ranitidine is a cheap and effective agent to decrease signal from the upper gastrointestinal tract and to improve visibility of the biliary tree.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of oral ranitidine in Mexicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Hernández, G; Flores-Murrieta, F J; Granados-Soto, V; Herrera-Abarca, A; Pérez-Urizar, J; Herrera, J E; Hong, E

    1996-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of oral ranitidine were studied in 24 Mexican male healthy volunteers. Subjects received a tablet containing 150 mg of ranitidine (Azantac, Glaxo de México, Mexico City) after an overnight fast and blood samples were drawn at several times for a period of 24 h. Ranitidine concentration in plasma was measured by high performance liquid chromatography and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by non-compartmental analysis. Ranitidine plasma concentration increased with time, reaching a maximum of (mean +/- SEM) 484 +/- 34 ng/ml in 2.7 +/- 0.2 h. Plasma levels then decayed with a terminal half-life of 4.8 +/- 0.3 h. The area under the plasma concentration against time curve was 2440 +/- 126 ngh/ml. Oral ranitidine pharmacokinetic parameters in Mexicans appeared to be similar to those previously reported for Caucasians.

  3. Ranitidine improves postoperative monocyte and neutrophil function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Nielsen, H; Jensen, S;

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The histamine H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine hydrochloride has been shown to improve trauma-, blood transfusion-, and sepsis-induced immunosuppression. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of ranitidine on postoperative impairment in monocyte and neutrophil function. METHODS: Twenty...... difference (P detected. There were no infectious complications in ranitidine-treated patients. CONCLUSION: These results support previous studies...

  4. Ranitidine improves postoperative monocyte and neutrophil function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Nielsen, H; Jensen, S

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The histamine H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine hydrochloride has been shown to improve trauma-, blood transfusion-, and sepsis-induced immunosuppression. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of ranitidine on postoperative impairment in monocyte and neutrophil function. METHODS: Twenty...... difference (P detected. There were no infectious complications in ranitidine-treated patients. CONCLUSION: These results support previous studies...

  5. Ranitidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranitidine is also used sometimes to treat upper gastrointestinal bleeding and to prevent stress ulcers, stomach damage from use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and aspiration of stomach acid during anesthesia. Talk ...

  6. Pharmacodynamic effects of 3-day intravenous treatment with pantoprazole or ranitidine after 10 days of oral ranitidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, L M; Becker, A; Lühmann, R; Sander, P; Lücker, P W

    2005-01-01

    Tachyphylaxis (drug tolerance) is an undesirable condition in drug therapy with histamine-2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs). The concept of overcoming tachyphylaxsis via intravenous (i.v.) administration of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) or H2RAs is of significant interest to physicians. In the present study, 32 healthy Helicobacter pylori negative male volunteers were evaluated for the ability of i.v. pantoprazole or i.v. ranitidine to overcome oral ranitidine tachyphylaxis. After 10 days of oral treatment with enteric-coated 300-mg ranitidine tablets once daily in the evening, two groups of 16 volunteers each were randomized to receive either i.v. pantoprazole or i.v. ranitidine for up to 72 h. The primary variable was defined as the increase in 24-h gastric pH median after 1 day of i.v. treatment; the secondary variable was median percentage of time that 24-h gastric pH was ranitidine treatment, tachyphylaxis was present in all volunteers. Within 1 day of continuous i.v. pantoprazole or i.v. ranitidine administration, 24-h median gastric pH increased from pH 1.45 to pH 3.50 (241%) and from pH 1.50 to pH 2.35 (157%), respectively. I.v. pantoprazole was found to be significantly more effective (pranitidine in increasing the 24-h gastric pH after oral ranitidine tachyphylaxis.

  7. A novel in situ gel formulation of ranitidine for oral sustained delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haoping; Shi, Min; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Jinling; Ma, Tao

    2014-02-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop a novel, in situ gel system for sustained delivery of ranitidine hydrochloride. Ranitidine in situ gels at 0.2%, 0.5%, and 1.0% gellan gum concentration (w/v) were prepared, respectively, and characterized in terms of preparation, viscosity and in vitro release. The viscosity of the gellan gum formulations in solution increased with increasing concentrations of gellan gum. In vitro study showed that the release of ranitidine from these gels was characterized by an initial phase of high release (burst effect) and translated to the second phase of moderate release. Single photon emission computing tomography technique was used to evaluate the stomach residence time of gel containing (99m)Tc tracer. The animal experiment suggested in situ gel had feasibility of forming gels in stomach and sustained the ranitidine release from the gels over the period of at least 8 h. In conclusion, the in situ gel system is a promising approach for the oral delivery of ranitidine for the therapeutic effects improvement.

  8. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: ranitidine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortejärvi, H; Yliperttula, M; Dressman, J B; Junginger, H E; Midha, K K; Shah, V P; Barends, D M

    2005-08-01

    Literature and experimental data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence testing for the approval of immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing ranitidine hydrochloride are reviewed. According to the current Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), ranitidine hydrochloride should be assigned to Class III. However, based on its therapeutic and therapeutic index, pharmacokinetic properties and data related to the possibility of excipient interactions, a biowaiver can be recommended for IR solid oral dosage forms that are rapidly dissolving and contain only those excipients as reported in this study.

  9. Strong cation exchange resin for improving physicochemical properties and sustaining release of ranitidine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study strong cation exchange resin (Amberlite IRP69 was used to improve the physicochemical properties of ranitidine hydrochloride such as taste and bulk properties and to sustain dissolution rate. Drug-resin complexes were prepared using batch method. Drug loading was done under different processing conditions such as temperature, pH, drug-resin ratio, and drug concentration to get the optimum condition for resinate preparation. Resinate prepared under optimized condition was tested for taste, bulk properties and release rate. Degree of bitterness of ranitidine was found to reduce to zero after complexation with resin. Improvement in flow properties was also observed. Angle of repose for resinate was found to be 33.21 o as compared to 42.27 o for ranitidine HCl. Effect of dissolution medium and particle size on in vitro release of drug from resinate was also investigated. Resinate with drug to resin ratio of 2:3 and particle size> 90 µm showed about 90% of drug release within 12 h. The orodispersible tablet formulated from the resinate containing 10% croscarmellose sodium disintegrated within 35 sec in oral cavity and showed similar dissolution profile as the resinate. Tablets were found stable after stability studies with no change in dissolution profile.

  10. Ranitidine improves postoperative suppression of antibody response to preoperative vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H; Moesgaard, F

    1992-01-01

    The effect of the histamine-2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (100 mg intravenously every 12 hours for 72 hours) on postoperative serum antibody responses to preoperative immunization with six limit of flocculation tetanus toxoid and six limit of flocculation diphtheria toxoid was assessed...... and antidiphtheria toxoid were drawn before skin incision and on postoperative days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28. Ranitidine significantly increased the postoperative antibody response to tetanus toxoid, (p less than 0.01) and insignificantly increased that to diphtheria toxoid vaccination (p less than 0...

  11. Ranitidine improves postoperative suppression of antibody response to preoperative vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H; Moesgaard, F;

    1992-01-01

    The effect of the histamine-2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (100 mg intravenously every 12 hours for 72 hours) on postoperative serum antibody responses to preoperative immunization with six limit of flocculation tetanus toxoid and six limit of flocculation diphtheria toxoid was assessed...

  12. Ranitidine improves postoperative suppression of antibody response to preoperative vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H; Moesgaard, F;

    1992-01-01

    The effect of the histamine-2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (100 mg intravenously every 12 hours for 72 hours) on postoperative serum antibody responses to preoperative immunization with six limit of flocculation tetanus toxoid and six limit of flocculation diphtheria toxoid was assessed...... in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study in 26 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. The preoperative antitetanus antibody level was less than 0.1 IU/ml in all patients, and they were inoculated with both antigens 48 hours before surgery. Serum samples for analysis of antitetanus toxoid...... and antidiphtheria toxoid were drawn before skin incision and on postoperative days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28. Ranitidine significantly increased the postoperative antibody response to tetanus toxoid, (p less than 0.01) and insignificantly increased that to diphtheria toxoid vaccination (p less than 0...

  13. Improving the filterability and solid density of ranitidine hydrochloride Form 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmehrabi, Mahmoud; Rohani, Sohrab; Murthy, K S Keshava; Radatus, Bruno

    2004-07-01

    Ranitidine hydrochloride Form 1 produced by the original method (Price et al., 1978 US patent) has poor filtration and drying characteristics, which make it less desirable commercially in comparison with Form 2. This article shows that the operating parameters have significant influence on the final properties of Form 1. In terms of filterability and solid bulk density, it was found that at a higher temperature (approximately 48 degrees C), the viscosity of the slurry decreased and improved product quality as compared with operating at room temperature (approximately 25 degrees C). It was found that the rapid addition of acid to the ranitidine base increased product density but led to higher residual solvent inclusion. The presence of excess ranitidine base in the solution and also the manner of reactant addition had a significant influence on the onset of nucleation and the rate of crystallization. The best results in terms of filterability and bulk solid density were obtained using an initial pH of 5.3 and then increasing it to 6.3-6.4 after the onset of nucleation.

  14. A Novel In Situ Gel Formulation of Ranitidine for Oral Sustained Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Haoping; Shi, Min; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Jinling; Ma, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop a novel, in situ gel system for sustained delivery of ranitidine hydrochloride. Ranitidine in situ gels at 0.2%, 0.5%, and 1.0% gellan gum concentration (w/v) were prepared, respectively, and characterized in terms of preparation, viscosity and in vitro release. The viscosity of the gellan gum formulations in solution increased with increasing concentrations of gellan gum. In vitro study showed that the release of ranitidine from these gels was ch...

  15. A novel gradient HPLC method for simultaneous determination of ranitidine, methylparaben and propylparaben in oral liquid pharmaceutical formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokoletsi, Magdalene Xenou; Kafkala, Stella; Tsiaganis, Michael

    2005-07-15

    A selective and accurate high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of ranitidine, methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP) in oral liquids. Samples were purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a copolymeric [poly(divinylbenzene-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone)] sorbent. The chromatographic separation was achieved by HPLC using a mixture of ammonium acetate solution (0.5 M), acetonitrile and methanol as the mobile phase with gradient elution, a Nucleosil C18 column and UV detection at 254 nm. The method was validated with respect to linearity, precision, accuracy, selectivity, and robustness. All the parameters examined met the current recommendations for bioanalytical method validation. The method was found to be applicable to routine analysis (assays and stability tests) of active compound (ranitidine) and preservatives (MP and PP).

  16. Ranitidine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranitidine injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be mixed with another fluid and injected intravenously (into a vein) over 5 to 20 minutes. Ranitidine may also be injected into a muscle. It is usually given every 6 to 8 hours, but may also be given ...

  17. Ranitidine for improvement of delayed hypersensitivity response in patients with sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Witt, K; Moesgaard, F;

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-five patients admitted to intensive or high-dependency surgical care units were randomized to receive ranitidine intravenously 50 mg every 6 hours for 8 days or no ranitidine. All had septicemia or intra-abdominal sepsis, with body temperature greater than or equal to 38.5 degrees C for more...

  18. Ranitidine for improvement of delayed hypersensitivity response in patients with sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Witt, K; Moesgaard, F

    1989-01-01

    than 48 hours despite comprehensive medical and/or surgical treatment. Cell-mediated immunity was assessed by skin testing with seven common delayed type hypersensitivity antigens applied on days 1, 4 and 7 and all tests were read at 48 hours, i.e. on days 3, 6 and 9. The ranitidine...

  19. Concentration uniformity of extemporaneously prepared ranitidine suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnes, H T; Harris, S R; Garnett, W R; March, C

    1989-02-01

    The concentration uniformity of an extemporaneously prepared ranitidine suspension was studied. To prepare the ranitidine suspension, 36 150-mg tablets were pulverized and suspended in 180 mL of distilled water. This mixture was diluted with simple syrup to a total volume of 360 mL, resulting in a final ranitidine concentration of 150 mg/10 mL. Samples from each of three bottles that had been filled with 60 mL of the suspension were assayed for ranitidine content by high-performance liquid chromatography. The sedimentation of suspended ranitidine tablet particles was studied by visual observation of the setting process in 10-mL samples from the same batch. The overall mean concentrations (in milligrams per milliliter) of ranitidine were 14.53, 15.25, 13.92, 12.67, and 12.72 at 0, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days, respectively. Compared with baseline, the difference in the ranitidine concentration was not significant over days 0-7. The ranitidine concentration was significantly reduced during the following time intervals: days 0-14, days 0-21, and days 7-21. In the settling experiments, the mean time (+/- S.D.) for sediment to first appear on the test tube bottom was 14.67 +/- 5.35 seconds. Approximately 40-50% (mean level = 3.2 mm) of the total sedimentation level (mean level = 7.3 mm) was observed one minute after shaking. The uniformity of ranitidine suspensions compounded according to procedures described in this report possibly could be improved with sonication. The ranitidine suspension should be well shaken, the dosage should be measured immediately after shaking, and the suspension should be used within seven days of compounding.

  20. [Bioequivalence and bioavailability after single administration of effervescent ranitidine tablets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, B; Schmieder, G; Tetzloff, W; Töberich, H

    1992-08-01

    An open two-way cross-over study in 12 healthy male volunteers was performed in order to determine the relative bioavailability of a 150 mg ranitidine (Zantic, CAS 66357-35-5) effervescent tablet sweetened with saccharine in comparison to the 150 mg standard ranitidine dispersible tablet (Trinkette). On two occasions separated by a wash-out period of 1 week volunteers received a single oral dose of both formulations. On each administration day blood samples were collected at predetermined time points in order to investigate the pharmacokinetic parameters. Single oral doses of ranitidine were very well tolerated by healthy male volunteers. The non-parametric 95% confidence intervals for AUC and Cmax were 87 to 116% and 84 to 107%, respectively. The relative bioavailability of the ranitidine effervescent tablet was 99% compared to the dispersible tablet. The mean of the Cmax ratio was 95%. The ranitidine effervescent tablet could thus be claimed to be bioequivalent to the dispersible tablet.

  1. Improving your oral English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kylafree

    2005-01-01

    The most common question my students ask is ""How can I improve my oral English?"" My answer is always the same: practice. There is no quick way to learn another language. You cannot magically learn new words and have perfect pronunciation. The only way to improve is with practice and patience.

  2. Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics Evaluation of Ranitidine Microemulsion on Experimental Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajal Kumar Jha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ranitidine microemulsion was investigated for its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic evaluation to find out the suitability of microemulsion as a potential drug delivery system in the treatment of ulcer. The bioavailability of ranitidine after oral administration is about 50% and is absorbed via the small intestine; this may be due to low intestinal permeability. Hence the aim of present investigation was to maximize the therapeutic efficacy of ranitidine by developing microemulsion to increase the intestinal permeability as well as bioavailability. A ground nut oil based microemulsion formulation with Tween-80 as surfactant and PEG-400 as cosurfactant was developed for oral delivery of ranitidine and characterized for physicochemical parameters. In pharmacodynamic studies, significant (P<0.05 variation in parameters estimated was found between the treated and control groups. Ranitidine microemulsion exhibited higher absorption and Cmax (863.20 ng·h/mL than the standard (442.20 ng/mL. It was found that AUC0–24 hr obtained from the optimized ranitidine test formulation (5426.5 ng·h/mL was significantly higher than the standard ranitidine (3920.4 ng·h/mL. The bioavailability of optimized formulation was about 1.4-fold higher than that of standard drug. This enhanced bioavailability of ranitidine microemulsion may be used as an effective and alternative drug delivery system for the antiulcer therapy.

  3. Ranitidine as adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F;

    2002-01-01

    by oral ranitidine 150 mg or placebo twice daily for 5 years. Adjuvant cytotoxic or radiation therapy was not given. An observer-blinded interim analysis performed after 40 months showed that there was no effect of ranitidine on overall survival, and the study was discontinued in accordance......BACKGROUND: Results from short-term studies of histamine type 2 (H2) receptor antagonists on survival of patients with solid tumours are debatable. In this study the efficacy of the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on long-term survival of patients with colorectal cancer was evaluated. METHODS...... curative resection of colorectal cancer and who do not receive perioperative blood transfusion and do not develop postoperative infectious complications....

  4. Comparison of pirenzepine, ranitidine, and pirenzepine-ranitidine combination for reducing preoperative gastric fluid acidity and volume in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, N; Nishina, K; Mikawa, K; Shiga, M; Obara, H

    1998-01-01

    We conducted a two-part controlled study to evaluate the efficacy of preoperative oral pirenzepine (muscarinic receptor antagonist known to inhibit gastric secretion), ranitidine, and the combination pirenzepine-ranitidine in controlling gastric fluid pH and volume in 210 ASA I children, aged 2-14 yr, undergoing elective surgery. In the first part of the study (n = 90), the proportion of children considered at risk for aspiration pneumonitis was reduced with pirenzepine 25 mg (P pirenzepine 25 mg with placebo; ranitidine 75 mg with placebo; pirenzepine 25 mg with ranitidine 75 mg; and placebo and placebo. These medications were administered 1 h before anaesthesia. After tracheal intubation, volume and pH of the gastric fluid aspiration via a multiorifice orogastric tube were measured. Pirenzepine 25 mg decreased gastric fluid volume (P pirenzepine-ranitidine combination reduced gastric fluid acidity and volume (P < 0.05).

  5. Bioequivalency of ranitidine tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaysi, H N; Salem, M A; Gharaibeh, A M; el-Sayed, Y M; Ali-Gharaibeh, K I; Badwan, A A

    1989-04-01

    The bioavailability of two brands of ranitidine tablets was studied in 10 healthy volunteers. Formulation factors were compared by performing disintegration, dissolution and content uniformity tests. Plasma concentrations of ranitidine were measured using a sensitive and precise high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) procedure. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined for both formulations and included: Cmax, AUCt, AUC infinity, tmax, t1/2 and the terminal rate of elimination (k). Statistical analysis revealed that differences between the brands were not significant. The two formulations can be considered to be bioequivalent.

  6. Effect of ranitidine on soluble interleukin 2 receptors and CD8 molecules in surgical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Mynster, T; Jensen, S

    1994-01-01

    The effect of perioperative immunomodulation with the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on postoperative changes in soluble interleukin (IL) 2 receptor and soluble CD8 levels was assessed in 24 patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery. Eleven patients were randomized to receive...... intravenous ranitidine 100 mg twice daily for 4 days from skin incision, followed by oral ranitidine 150 mg twice daily for a further 5 days; 13 control patients received no ranitidine. Routine blood analysis, clinical data, duration of surgery, anaesthesia, antibiotic prophylaxis and perioperative blood...

  7. Preparation and Physical Characterization of a Diclofenac-Ranitidine Co-precipitate for Improving the Dissolution of Diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitano, Robertino O; Calvo, Natalia L; Narda, Griselda E; Kaufman, Teodoro S; Maggio, Rubén M; Brusau, Elena V

    2016-03-01

    Mixing aqueous solutions of sodium diclofenac (DIC-Na) and ranitidine hydrochloride (RAN·HCl) afforded an off-white solid (DIC-RAN) that was investigated from the microscopic, thermal, diffractometric, spectroscopic, and functional (chemometrics-assisted dissolution) points of view. The solid has a 2:1 (DIC:RAN) molar ratio according to (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. It is thermally stable, displaying a broad endothermic signal centered at 105°C in the thermogram, and its characteristic reflections in the powder X-ray diffractogram remained unchanged after a 3-month aging period. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs uncovered its morphology, whereas the spectral data suggested an interaction between the carboxylic acid of DIC and the alkyldimethylamino moiety of RAN. The dissolution of DIC-RAN was monitored at different pH values by an ultraviolet/chemometrics procedure, being complete within 5 min at pH 6.8. This compares favorably with the dissolution of a DIC-Na sample of the same particle size.

  8. Ranitidine versus cimetidine prior to emergency obstetric anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, H

    1995-06-01

    Twenty parturients in labour received emergency obstetric anesthesia were randomly divided into two equal groups. Group "R" received 150 mg oral ranitidine tablet on admission, followed by 50 mg infusion in 250 ml dextrose 5% over 30 minutes prior to anesthetic induction. Group "Ce" received 400 mg cimetidine oral tablet and 100 mg infusion in 250 ml dextrose 5% over 30 minutes. Ten parturients were considered as control. Ranitidine significantly reduced the maternal gastric volume with marked alkalinization of gastric pH. No significant changes were detected in the height, frequency or amplitude of uterine contraction or neonatal assessment.

  9. Ranitidine increases the bioavailability of imbibed alcohol by accelerating gastric emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, I; Anwar, N; Baraona, E; Lieber, C S

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of the increase in alcohol bioavailability by ranitidine, we determined by nuclear scan the changes in gastric emptying of a 10% ethanol solution (containing 0.3 g ethanol/kg body weight and 300 microCi of technetium-labeled diethylene triamine pentacetic acid) in 8 normal men, before and after treatment with 300 mg ranitidine orally each evening for 1 week. We compared these changes with those of ethanol bioavailability, calculated by integration of the Michaelis-Menten function over the entire alcohol curves after random i.v. and, on a separate day, oral administration of the same ethanol dose, pre- and post-ranitidine. With ranitidine, we found an acceleration of gastric emptying in 7 of 8 subjects, with 20% shortening of the time to 50% emptying (51.8 +/- 4.1 min vs 64.3 +/- 3.4, without ranitidine; P ranitidine (P ranitidine increased blood alcohol concentrations (29 +/- 4 mg/dl vs 22 +/- 3, without ranitidine; P < .02), with a corresponding decrease in first pass metabolism of ethanol from 107 +/- 16 mg/kg to 47 +/- 16 (P < .01).

  10. Ranitidine: single dose pharmacokinetics and absolute bioavailability in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hecken, A M; Tjandramaga, T B; Mullie, A; Verbesselt, R; de Schepper, P J

    1982-08-01

    1 Ranitidine single dose pharmacokinetics and absolute bioavailability have been studied in five healthy male volunteers. Following an overnight fast, 150 mg was given intravenously as a bolus injection or orally as a tablet formulation to each subject on separate occasions. 2 Following intravenous administration, plasma levels declined biexponentially. The mean (+/- s.d.) distribution half-life (t 1/2 alpha) was 6.6 +/- 1.6 min; plasma half-life (t 1/2 beta) was 1.7 +/- 0.2 h; the volume of distribution (V) was 96 +/- 9 1; total body clearance (CL) was 647 +/- 94 ml/min and renal clearance (CLR) 520 +/- 123 ml/min. 3 Following oral administration plasma levels showed a bimodal pattern with a first peak at 1.1 +/- 0.4 h and a second peak at 3 +/- 0 h. The absolute availability was 60 +/- 17%. The plasma half-life (t 1/2) of 2.3 +/- 0.4 h was significantly longer (P less than 0.05) after oral than after i.v. administration. 4 Renal excretion of unchanged ranitidine accounted for 79 +/- 9% of the dose after i.v. administration and for 27 +/- 7% after oral administration. 5 Our results suggest a more extensive biotransformation of ranitidine and biliary excretion of metabolites after oral administration while i.v. administration ranitidine is preferentially excreted unchanged in the urine.

  11. Effect of sodium acid pyrophosphate on ranitidine bioavailability and gastrointestinal transit time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, K M; Parr, A F; Tomlinson, J J; Sandefer, E P; Digenis, G A; Donn, K H; Powell, J R

    1993-07-01

    During development of a ranitidine effervescent oral solution dosage form, a marked decrease was observed in the extent of ranitidine absorption relative to the conventional oral tablet. Two studies were conducted in healthy volunteers to confirm the involvement of an excipient, SAPP (sodium acid pyrophosphate), and the mechanism of interaction, altered gastrointestinal transit. The first study (n = 12) involved single-dose crossover comparisons of (A) 150 mg ranitidine with 1132 mg SAPP versus (B) 150 mg ranitidine and (C) 150 mg ranitidine with all the effervescent tablet excipients except SAPP versus (D) a 150-mg ranitidine effervescent tablet, all administered as oral solutions. Serum ranitidine AUC, Cmax, and tmax were compared using two one-sided t test 90% confidence intervals (CI). Comparing treatments A to B and D to C, all 90% CI were below the 80-120% range, indicating significantly less extensive ranitidine absorption (54% based on AUC) from the oral solutions containing SAPP. The second study (n = 12) was a single-dose crossover comparing 50 microCi 111 InCl solutions with and without 1132 mg SAPP. Gastrointestinal transit times, determined by scintigraphic imaging, were compared between treatments. Gastric emptying time was unchanged, but small intestinal transit time was decreased to 56% in the presence of SAPP. More rapid small intestinal transit associated with an excipient of a solution dosage form apparently resulted in a decreased extent of ranitidine absorption. This observation contradicts the conventional wisdom that oral solutions are unlikely to fall short of bioequivalence relative to solid oral formulations.

  12. Compound list: ranitidine [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ranitidine RAN 00086 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/ranitidin...e.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/ranitidin...e.Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/ranitidin...ive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/ranitidine.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  13. Effects of ranitidine for exercise induced gastric mucosal changes and bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suck Jun Choi; Suck Chei Choi; Yong Sung Kim; Jeong Ryong Chae; Hong Kwan Cho; Tae Hyeon Kim; Young Woo Sohn; Yong Leol Oh; Geom Seog Seo; Yong-Ho Nah

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of ranitidine on gastric mucosal changes and on GI bleeding in long distance runners.METHODS: Twenty-four long distance runners (M: 16,F: 8, age: 18.2± 1.5 years) participated in this study. A symptom questionnaire, stool hemoccult test, and upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy were performed on the subjects prior to the study. The subjects took oral ranitidine (150 mg, b.i.d.) for two weeks. The upper GI endoscopy and stool Hemoccult tests were repeated after the treatment.RESULTS: Twenty-two of the 24 runners had at least one upper GI mucosal lesion before the medication. The Endoscopic improvements were seen in eleven of the 14 cases of erosive gastritis and four of the 5 cases of esophagitis. Six subjects were Heme occult positive prior to the study, but only one was positive after the medication.CONCLUSION: Gastric mucosal lesions and GI bleeding in long distance runners seem to be associated to acidrelated factors mediated by the high level of regular running. Ranitidine seems to be and effective prophylaxis to prevent gastric mucosal lesions and GI bleeding.

  14. Effect of ranitidine on soluble interleukin 2 receptors and CD8 molecules in surgical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Mynster, T; Jensen, S;

    1994-01-01

    The effect of perioperative immunomodulation with the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on postoperative changes in soluble interleukin (IL) 2 receptor and soluble CD8 levels was assessed in 24 patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery. Eleven patients were randomized to receive...... intravenous ranitidine 100 mg twice daily for 4 days from skin incision, followed by oral ranitidine 150 mg twice daily for a further 5 days; 13 control patients received no ranitidine. Routine blood analysis, clinical data, duration of surgery, anaesthesia, antibiotic prophylaxis and perioperative blood...... transfusion were similar in the two groups. Serum concentrations of soluble IL-2 receptor and CD8 were measured before operation (day 0) and in the morning of postoperative days 1, 3 and 9 using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. In patients treated with ranitidine, the serum level of soluble...

  15. Theophylline-ranitidine interaction in elderly COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukier, A; Vargas, F S; Santos, S R; Donzella, H; Terra-Filho, M; Teixeira, L R; Light, R W

    1995-08-01

    Most controlled studies in humans indicate that ranitidine does not alter theophylline metabolism, even at high doses. However, there have been several case reports published recently which demonstrate the development of theophylline toxicity mostly in older patients receiving stable oral doses of this drug when ranitidine was administered simultaneously. We studied eleven elderly (mean age, 69.0 +/- 6.2 years) patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). During one week the patients took slow-release theophylline, 200 mg every 12 h, followed by one week intake of the same dose of theophylline plus ranitidine tablets, 150 mg every 12 h. At the end of each period, blood samples were obtained 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 12 h after the morning dose for the determination of serum theophylline levels. The peak theophylline concentration (Tmax) was achieved after 4.1 +/- 0.9 h while the patients were taking theophylline, and after 2.9 +/- 1.4 h with the combined regimen. This difference was statistically significant (P ranitidine cannot be ascribed to slower theophylline metabolism in the geriatric patients with COPD who is also given ranitidine.

  16. Ways to Improve Oral English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婧婧

    2015-01-01

    Speaking has been the bottom of the list in college English teaching since last few decades. This dissertation focus on this topic and it is mainly divided into following parts:Firstly, it analyses why college students make no significant progress in oral English. Secondly, it argues how to reform college English teaching to change this situation. It is concluded that teachers should em⁃phasize the importance of oral English in commercial lives and incent students to make great effort to improve speaking. Finally, ways to improve students' English speaking skill both in and outside the classroom are suggested.

  17. [OMEPRAZOL VS RANITIDINE IN UPPER DIGESTIVE BLEEDING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis R, Regina; Bisso A, Aland; Rebaza, Segundo

    1999-01-01

    Pectic ulcer is the most frequent cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. The homeostatic mechanism of bleeding, and coagulation, does not happen with values of pH less than 5,0. Therefore neutralization of gastric acidity (pH more than 5,0) is a recourse of control, improve the evolution and healing of peptic ulcer and to avoid a new bleeding. The aim of this study was to compare the results of treatment with omeprazole and ranitidine, in 57 patients admitted at emergency room of the Hospital Central de la Polic a Nacional del Per with endoscopic diagnosis of peptic ulcer, using Forrest classification. Patients received omeprazole 40 mg in bolus IV, followed by continuos infusion of 8 mg/hour for 72 hours (group A) or ranitidine 50 mg IV each 8 hours for 72 hours (group B). A new endoscopy was made 72 hours after admission demostrated a succesful therapy in both group. Bleeding stopped in 26/27 patients in group A (96,2%) and in 23/30 patients in group B (76,6%) (pomeprazole IV is more effective than ranitidine IV in the control of UGB because of peptic ulcer and provides a faster healing.

  18. Sorption and Transport of Ranitidine in Natural Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, A. J.; Vulava, V. M.

    2013-12-01

    Increasing levels of pharmaceuticals and their degradants are being discovered in natural water systems all over the world. These chemicals are reported to be discharged from wastewater treatment plants, sewage overflow, and leaking septic tanks. Ranitidine is an example of one such pharmaceutical chemical found in municipal drinking water, streams, and streambed sediments. It is a histamine H2-receptor antagonist, which inhibits the production of stomach acid and is commonly used to treat peptic ulcers and gastro esophageal reflux disease. Ranitidine is a complex organic compound; it is acidic, highly polar, and has two pKa values of approximately 8.2 and 2.7 because of the amine functional groups. When administered orally 25 - 30% of unchanged ranitidine has been shown to expel through urine. The objective of this research is to establish sorption and transport patterns of ranitidine in natural soils and to determine which soil properties influence these patterns the most. Laboratory experiments were preformed on A-horizon and B-horizon soil samples collected from the relatively undisturbed Francis Marion National Forest, a managed forest near Charleston, SC. The soils were characterized for chemical and physical properties: ranges of clay content = 6-20%, total organic content = 1-8%, and pH = 3.6-4.9. Kinetic reaction rates and equilibrium sorption isotherms were measured using batch experiments, whereas column experiments were used to quantify transport behavior. The reaction rates were -0.22/day and -0.33/day for organic-rich and clay-rich soils, respectively. The kinetic reaction rates were used to determine equilibration times for further equilibrium batch reactor experiments, which have soil solutions spiked with concentrations of ranitidine ranging from 0.1 mg/L to 100 mg/L. The concentration remaining in solution (C, mg/L) was plotted against the concentration in the soil (q, mg/kg) to create sorption isotherms. Ranitidine was more strongly sorbed to B

  19. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ranitidine and famotidine in healthy elderly subjects: a double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, C; St-Laurent, M; Michaud, J T; LeBel, M

    1993-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ranitidine and famotidine were studied in 13 healthy elderly volunteers. On 3 mornings separated by a 1-week wash-out period, each subject received a single oral dose of ranitidine 300 mg, famotidine 40 mg, and placebo in a crossover, randomized fashion with double-dummy administration. Plasma and urine concentrations of ranitidine and famotidine were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Intragastric pH was measured for 24-hours with an antimony probe. Famotidine's plasma half-life (4.42 hrs) was significantly longer than ranitidine's (3.14 hrs, p 4) was similar for ranitidine and famotidine, 10.3 and 9.9 hours, respectively (p = 0.713, paired Student's t test). Thus both agents exhibited a similar duration of 24-hour antisecretory response under these study conditions.

  20. Improving oral hygiene for patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Debbie; Hampson, Victoria; Queen, Kerry; Kirk, Donna; Clarkson, Jan; Young, Linda

    2015-01-13

    Systematic reviews and patient safety initiatives recommend that oral hygiene should be part of routine patient care. However, evidence suggests it is often neglected in hospitals and care homes. Research recommends encouraging beliefs that support oral hygiene, and teaching nurses appropriate skills, as necessary prerequisites to implementing best practice in hospital wards. This article describes a pilot study of an educational workshop on oral hygiene. Results from the pilot study suggest that this workshop is a feasible intervention for a service-wide trial. The literature suggests that other interventions are required to complement this approach if nurses are to make oral hygiene a priority in daily patient care.

  1. Stability of ranitidine hydrochloride at dilute concentration in intravenous infusion fluids at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galante, L J; Stewart, J T; Warren, F W; Johnson, S M; Duncan, R

    1990-07-01

    The stability of ranitidine at low concentration (0.05 mg/mL) in five intravenous infusion solutions (0.9% sodium chloride, 5% dextrose, 10% dextrose, 5% dextrose with 0.45% sodium chloride, and 5% dextrose with lactated Ringer's injections) was studied. Admixtures were stored for seven days at room temperature in 150-mL and 1-L polyvinyl chloride infusion bags. Ranitidine stability in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and in 5% dextrose injection was also examined for up to 28 days, and these data were compared with data obtained at higher ranitidine concentrations (0.5-2.0 mg/mL). At intervals during the storage periods, color, clarity, and solution pH were examined and ranitidine content was determined by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic assay. Ranitidine content remained greater than 90% of the initial concentration for more than 48 hours in all infusion fluids except 5% dextrose with lactated Ringer's injection. No visual changes or appreciable changes in pH were observed for any of the solutions. At the dilute concentration, ranitidine was markedly more stable after eight hours in 0.9% sodium chloride injection than in 5% dextrose injection. In 0.9% sodium chloride injection, ranitidine concentrations remained above 95% for up to 28 days, but drug concentrations in 5% dextrose injection fell below 90% after seven days. Stability in 5% dextrose injection improved as ranitidine concentrations increased from 0.05 to 2.0 mg/mL. Ranitidine (0.05 mg/mL) is stable for at least 48 hours at room temperature in all infusion fluids tested except 5% dextrose with lactated Ringer's injection.

  2. Effect of ranitidine on the absorption of food cobalamins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamborg, B.; Kittang, E.; Schjoensby, H.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of histamine H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on the absorption of food cobalamins was investigated in 20 healthy volunteers randomized to treatment with ranitidine or placebo for one week. Liver homogenates containing cobalamins labelled in vivo with cobalt-57 was obtained by repeated injections of VXCo-labelled cyanocobalamin in rabbits. Test doses (0.37nmol) of the VXCo-labelled liver cobalamins were administered orally together with V CrCl3 and carmine red, and the absorption of VXCo-labelled cobalamins was assessed from the ratio of the two isotopes in the stool collection that had been coloured by the carmine red. There was no significant difference in the mean absorption before (47.4%) and after (50.7%) the treatment.

  3. Improving the oral health of older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2005-01-01

    changing burden of chronic diseases in old age. Chronic disease and most oral diseases share common risk factors. Globally, poor oral health amongst older people has been particularly evident in high levels of tooth loss, dental caries experience, and the prevalence rates of periodontal disease, xerostomia...... and oral precancer/cancer. The negative impact of poor oral conditions on the quality of life of older adults is an important public health issue, which must be addressed by policy-makers. The means for strengthening oral health programme implementation are available; the major challenge is therefore...... to translate knowledge into action programmes for the oral health of older people. The World Health Organization recommends that countries adopt certain strategies for improving the oral health of the elderly. National health authorities should develop policies and measurable goals and targets for oral health...

  4. Ranitidine hydrochloride X-ray assay using a neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, S; Wu, V; Rades, T; Saville, D; Tucker, I G

    2000-07-01

    A simple X-ray powder diffractometric (XRD) method with artificial neural networks (ANNs) for data modelling was developed to recognize and quantify two crystal modifications of ranitidine HCl in mixtures and thus, provide information about the solid state of the bulk drug. The method was also used to quantify ranitidine HCl from tablets in the presence of other components. An ANN consisting of three layers of neurons was trained by using a back-propagation learning rule. A sigmoid output function was used in the hidden layer to facilitate non-linear fitting. Unlike other techniques the ANN method described here employed pattern recognition on the entire XRD pattern. Correct classification was mainly influenced by the XRD pattern resolution. It was shown that data transformations improved the quantitative performance when the XRD patterns were not contaminated by other components. Only smoothed X-ray diffractograms were required to distinguish between the two crystalline forms in a mixture. In the case of ranitidine-HCl quantification from tablets, where significant interference with tablet excipients was present, better results were obtained without data transformations. The trained ANN perfectly quantified ranitidine HCI polymorphic forms from mixtures (mean sum of squared error was less than 0.02%) and ranitidine HCl form 1 from tablets (recovery = 98.65). Excellent quantification performance of the ANN analysis. demonstrated in this study, serves as an indication of the broad potential of neural networks in pattern analysis. While the system described has been developed to interpret XRD patterns, peak detection has implications in every chemical application where the recognition of peak-shaped signals in analytical data is important.

  5. Formulation, Characterization and Physicochemical Evaluation of Ranitidine Effervescent Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to design, formulate and physicochemically evaluate effervescent ranitidine hydrochloride (HCl tablets since they are easily administered while the elderly and children sometimes have difficulties in swallowing oral dosage forms. Methods: Effervescent ranitidine HCl tablets were prepared in a dosage of 300 mg by fusion and direct compression methods. The powder blend and granule mixture were evaluated for various pre-compression characteristics, such as angle of repose, compressibility index, mean particle size and Hausner's ratio. The tablets were evaluated for post-compression features including weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content, dissolution time, carbon dioxide content, effervescence time, pH, content uniformity and water content. Effervescent systems with appropriate pre and post-compression qualities dissolved rapidly in water were selected as the best formulations. Results: The results showed that the flowability of fusion method is more than that of direct compression and the F5 and F6 formulations of 300 mg tablets were selected as the best formulations because of their physicochemical characteristics. Conclusion: In this study, citric acid, sodium bicarbonate and sweeteners (including mannitol, sucrose and aspartame were selected. Aspartame, mint and orange flavors were more effective for masking the bitter taste of ranitidine. The fusion method is the best alternative in terms of physicochemical and physical properties.

  6. Embryo toxicitic effects of Ranitidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrallah Zadeh B

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we tried to know something more about the embryotoxicity effects of the doses of 50, 200, 400 mg/kg/day of ranitidine of (H2 antihistaminic agent by intraperitoneal administration on mice. The studies were performed on albino mice kept under specific conditions and a constant dark-light cycle at 24+1C and 55+5% relative humidity. Generally, the animals were acclimatized for four weeks before mating. Two female mice at 12-14 weeks of age were placed overnight with a male of proven fertility. The day on which a vaginal plug was found, was taken as day one of pregnancy. Also the vaginal smear was prepared for further proof. Treatment of pregnant females was started from day 7 and continued up to the 15th day of gestation and then on day 18 they were necropsied for routine teratological observations. The live fetuses were weighed and inspected for gross external abnormalities under a dissecting microscope. Resorption plus dead fetuses less than 6mm of length were designated early death and dead fetuses of more than 6mm of length were consequently called late death. The statistical study was done by student t-test. One-third of the fetuses were fixed in bouin's fluid to detect visceral malformations by the rasor- section technique. There was no significant difference in the frequency of late death between the control groups and the groups given ranitidine. Differences were observed in the number of implantation sites except for 400 mg/kg/day. Data pooled from all experimental groups clearly show that pig tail, deformed cranium, low body weight and skeleton, unshaped external ear and jaw and polydactyly are the most common external abnormalities. Results of this study show the hazards o the ranitidine used during early pregnancy.

  7. Ranitidine reduced levodopa-induced dyskinesia in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui G

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Guiyun Cui,1,* Xinxin Yang,1,* Xiaoying Wang,2,* Zunsheng Zhang,1 Xuanye Yue,1 Hongjuan Shi,1 Xia Shen11Department of Neurology, 2Department of Ultrasound, the Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Chronic administration of levodopa in Parkinson’s disease leads to debilitating involuntary movements, termed levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID. The pathogenesis of LID is poorly understood. Previous research has shown that histamine H2 receptors are highly expressed in the input (striatum and output (globus pallidus, substantia nigra regions of the basal ganglia, particularly in the GABAergic striatopallidal and striatonigral pathways. Therefore, a histamine H2 receptor antagonist could be used to reduce LID. In the present work, we investigated whether ranitidine has the potential to diminish LID in rats with dyskinesia and explored the underlying mechanisms involved.Methods: A rat model of PD was induced by 6-hydroxydopamine. Valid PD rats were then treated with levodopa (25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally and benserazide (12.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally for 21 days to induce a rat model of LID. The acute and chronic effects of administration of ranitidine at different doses (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg on abnormal involuntary movements, levodopa-induced rotations, and the forelimb adjusting steps test were investigated in LID rats. The chronic effect of ranitidine (10 mg/kg on the expression of Arc and proenkephalin was also evaluated.Results: Levodopa elicited increased dyskinesia in PD rats. Acute ranitidine treatment had no effect on LID, but chronic ranitidine administration (10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg reduced LID in rats with dyskinesia. Importantly, levodopa-induced rotations were not affected by chronic treatment with ranitidine. In addition, chronic ranitidine (10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg significantly improved stepping of the lesioned forepaw. Real

  8. Ranitidine bismuth citrate: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Chiba

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of the relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and the development of gastroduodenal disease has increased greatly in recent years. To avoid complications of H pylori infection, such as the development of recurrent duodenal and gastric ulcers, effective therapies are required for eradication of the infection. This article reviews ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC, a novel complex of ranitidine, bismuth and citrate, which was developed specifically for the purpose of eradicating H pylori. Dual therapy with RBC in combination with clarithromycin for 14 days yields eradication rates of 76%. Triple therapy bid for one week with a proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin and either amoxicillin or a nitroimidazole (tinidazole or metronidazole is advocated as the treatment of choice for H pylori eradication. Analogous regimens with RBC in place of proton pump inhibitors show effective eradication rates in comparative studies and with pooled data. RBC, used alone or in combination with other antibiotics, appears to be a safe and effective drug for the treatment of H pylori infection. Bismuth levels do not appear to rise to toxic levels.

  9. Effect of food, an antacid, and the H2 antagonist ranitidine on the absorption of BAY 59-7939 (rivaroxaban), an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor, in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubitza, Dagmar; Becka, Michael; Zuehlsdorf, Michael; Mueck, Wolfgang

    2006-05-01

    To investigate the influence of food and administration of an antacid (aluminum-magnesium hydroxide) or ranitidine on the absorption of BAY 59-7939 (rivaroxaban), 4 randomized studies were performed in healthy male subjects. In 2 food interaction studies, subjects received BAY 59-7939, either as two 5-mg tablets (fasted and fed), four 5-mg tablets (fasted), or one 20-mg tablet (fasted and fed). In 2 drug interaction studies, BAY 59-7939 (six 5-mg tablets) was given alone or with ranitidine (150 mg twice daily, preceded by a 3-day pretreatment phase) or antacid (10 mL). Plasma samples were obtained to assess pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of BAY 59-7939. In the presence of food, time to maximum concentration (t(max)) was delayed by 1.25 hours; maximum concentration (C(max)) and area under the curve (AUC) were increased, with reduced interindividual variability at higher doses of BAY 59-7939. Compared with baseline, BAY 59-7939 resulted in a relative increase in maximum prothrombin time (PT) prolongation of 44% (10 mg) and 53% (20 mg) in the fasted state, compared with 53% and 83% after food. Time to maximum PT prolongation was delayed by 0.5 to 1.5 hours after food, with no relevant influence of food type. No significant difference in C(max) and AUC was observed with coadministration of BAY 59-7939 and ranitidine or antacid.

  10. Oral messages improve visual search

    CERN Document Server

    Kieffer, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    Input multimodality combining speech and hand gestures has motivated numerous usability studies. Contrastingly, issues relating to the design and ergonomic evaluation of multimodal output messages combining speech with visual modalities have not yet been addressed extensively. The experimental study presented here addresses one of these issues. Its aim is to assess the actual efficiency and usability of oral system messages including brief spatial information for helping users to locate objects on crowded displays rapidly. Target presentation mode, scene spatial structure and task difficulty were chosen as independent variables. Two conditions were defined: the visual target presentation mode (VP condition) and the multimodal target presentation mode (MP condition). Each participant carried out two blocks of visual search tasks (120 tasks per block, and one block per condition). Scene target presentation mode, scene structure and task difficulty were found to be significant factors. Multimodal target presenta...

  11. Pharmacokinetic interaction study between ranitidine and metoclopramide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leucuţa, Adrian; Vlase, Laurian; Farcău, Dorin; Nanulescu, Mircea

    2004-09-01

    The pharmacokinetics of metoclopramide in healthy volunteers was evaluated to determine if previously repeated doses of ranitidine inhibit the metabolism of the gastrointestinal prokinetic drug. Metoclopramide 20 mg (tablets) in combination with ranitidine 150 mg (tablets) were administered to 14 healthy human volunteers in a two treatment study design, separated by 5 days in which the ranitidine alone was administrated in single p.o. doses twice daily. Plasma concentrations of metoclopramide were determined during a 24 hour period following drug administration. Metoclopramide plasma concentrations were determined by a validated RP-HPLC method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with compartmental and non-compartmental analysis. In the two periods of treatments, the mean peak plasma concentrations Cmax were 44 ng/ml (metoclopramide alone) and 49.2 ng/ml (metoclopramide and ranitidine). The time taken to reach the peak, Tmax, was 1.15 hrs, and 1.21 hrs, respectively. The total areas under the curve (AUC) was 314.3 ng.hr/ml and 354.06 ng.hr/ml, respectively. The half-life (T 1/2) was 5.6 hr and 6.7 hr. A statistically significant difference was observed for both AUC and half-life of metoclopramide when administered alone or after 5 days of treatment with ranitidine. The experimental data proved the pharmacokinetic interaction between ranitidine of metoclopramide, and suggest monitoring adverse effects in patients.

  12. Comparison of roxatidine acetate and ranitidine in the treatment of reflux esophagitis. The Roxatidine Esophagitis Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The 408 patients with symptomatic and endoscopic evidence of reflux esophagitis were enrolled in a double-blind, multi-center study. For 6 weeks, 201 patients (median age, 51 years; 59 women) were randomly assigned to receive 75 mg of roxatidine acetate twice daily and 207 (median age, 51 years; 62 women) received 150 mg of ranitidine twice daily. Baseline and final endoscopic findings were available for 158 of the roxatidine group and 156 of the ranitidine group who completed the study. After treatment, completely healed or residual erythema of the mucosa (conventional healing rate) was found in 68% of the roxatidine group and in 69% of the ranitidine group, complete healing of the mucosa, in 32% and 38%, and improvement in 83% and 84%. According to a reflux symptom index, at 6 weeks, 28% of 161 evaluable roxatidine-treated patients and 36% of 158 evaluable ranitidine-treated patients were asymptomatic during both the day and night. The conventional healing rates in this study were similar to those in nine previous studies of ranitidine; 3 roxatidine-treated patients and 4 ranitidine-treated patients dropped out of the study because of side effects. It is concluded that 75 mg of roxatidine acetate twice daily is as safe and effective as 150 mg of ranitidine twice daily in the treatment of reflux esophagitis.

  13. The protective effects of sucralfate and ranitidine in foals experimentally intoxicated with phenylbutazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geor, R J; Petrie, L; Papich, M G; Rousseaux, C

    1989-04-01

    The effects of sucralfate and ranitidine on the gastrointestinal manifestations of phenylbutazone (PBZ) toxicity in horse foals were determined by complete blood count, serum chemistry profile, and gross and histological necropsy examinations. Twenty-eight, three to four month old Belgian-cross foals were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Phenylbutazone was administered at a dosage of 10 mg/kg of bodyweight (BW) per day, intravenously (IV), in equally divided doses to three of the groups. In addition to PBZ, ranitidine was administered at 2 mg/kg BW, IV, twice daily, to one group of seven foals (PBZ/ranitidine group), and sucralfate was administered at 4 g, orally, twice daily to another group of seven foals (PBZ/sucralfate group). A fourth group received normal saline IV and corn syrup orally, twice daily, as placebos (control group). Treatments were administered for ten days. Clinical signs included oral ulceration (in all PBZ-treated foals) and diarrhea (5/7 and 2/7 foals from the PBZ and PBZ/ranitidine groups, respectively). A reduction in total protein and albumin was greatest in the PBZ group and least in the PBZ/ranitidine and PBZ/sucralfate groups when compared to the control group. The PBZ group lost weight during the treatment period. At necropsy, the PBZ group had the greatest area of oral ulceration compared to the other treatment groups. All foals treated with PBZ had gastric ulcers; however, the PBZ group had the most severe gastric epithelial necrosis compared to the other three treatment groups. Duodenal villous atrophy, epithelial necrosis and mucosal inflammation, and a reduction in epithelial mitotic figures were seen in all PBZ-treated foals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Ranitidine and placebo in the treatment of reflux oesophagitis. A double-blind randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goy, J A; Maynard, J H; McNaughton, W M; O'Shea, A

    1983-11-26

    A study was carried out to assess the effectiveness of ranitidine in the short-term treatment of reflux oesophagitis. In a double-blind randomized trial of 37 outpatients with symptomatic, endoscopically proven, moderate or severe reflux oesophagitis, 18 patients received ranitidine (150 mg twice a day) and 19 patients received identical-looking placebo tablets for a period of six weeks. Clinical, laboratory, and endoscopic assessments were made initially, and at the end of six weeks. Two patients withdrew during the trial. Endoscopic evidence of improvement was found in 15 of 17 ranitidine-treated and in five of 18 placebo-treated patients. This difference was significant (P less than 0.01). Antacid consumption was significantly lower in the ranitidine-treated group (P less than 0.01). Improvement in histological findings, and the relief of retrosternal pain, regurgitation, dysphagia, and epigastric pain did not achieve levels of statistical significance. No adverse clinical or laboratory changes occurred in patients in either group. It is concluded that, as judged by endoscopic evidence, ranitidine is an effective drug for the short-term treatment of reflux oesophagitis.

  15. Ranitidine as adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results from short-term studies of histamine type 2 (H2) receptor antagonists on survival of patients with solid tumours are debatable. In this study the efficacy of the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on long-term survival of patients with colorectal cancer was evaluated. METHODS......: Patients scheduled for elective resection of primary tumours were consecutively included in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical study designed to evaluate the effect of ranitidine on survival. Before skin incision ranitidine 100 mg or placebo was given intravenously twice daily followed...... with the protocol. The patient cohort has been followed continuously without loss of any patient, and a final statistical analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis after more than 5 years; this included a subgroup analysis of perioperative blood transfusion and postoperative infectious complications...

  16. Stability of ranitidine in injectable solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehabovic, Midhat; Hadzovic, Sabira; Stambolic, Fatima; Hadzic, Amina; Vranjes, Elvedina; Haracic, Ediba

    2003-04-30

    Injectable solutions of ranitidine were prepared by dissolving ranitidine hydrochloride in water for injections. The following buffering system has been used: disodium phosphate (anhydrous), potassium dihydrogen phosphate, and phenol as a preservative. Inert gas (nitrogen) was used to displace oxygen from a solution and reduce the possibility of oxidative changes in the formulation. The solution was poured into 2-ml brown glass ampoules in asceptic condition. Ampoules samples have been stored at three different temperatures. They have been stored at 55 and 40 degrees C for 6 months, and at 25 degrees C for 12 months. TLC technique has been used for monitoring related substances, and HPLC technique for monitoring phenol and ranitidine content. It has been shown that only those samples that were stored at 25 degrees C were actually stable.

  17. Bioadhesive ranitidine hydrochloride for gastroretention with controlled microenvironmental pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Anuradha; Vavia, Pradeep R

    2008-08-01

    Ranitidine hydrochloride is a H(2) receptor blocker used in the treatment of gastric ulcers. Pharmacological factors, in addition to the dosage regimen, favor development of a sustained-release system for ranitidine especially in the therapeutic condition of erosive esophagitis. This investigation delves into the development of bioadhesive type of gastroretentive formulation (tablets) of ranitidine. The effect of mucoadhesive polymers such as Carbopol, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, and dextrose were studied. Mucoadhesion, in vitro drug release profile, water uptake, and swelling of the tablet were evaluated. Alkalizing agents were incorporated in an attempt to maintain an alkaline microenvironment within the tablet and improve the stability of the drug in acidic medium. The stability was evaluated using dye test and degradation studies. The drug release profiles were fit into various kinetic models.

  18. Elevated plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 decrease during improvement of psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Svendsen, M N;

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: An evaluation of angiogenesis related molecules during open treatment of psoriasis. MATERIALS AND SUBJECTS: Plasma samples and skin biopsies from 16 patients with psoriasis and plasma samples from 13 healthy controls. TREATMENT: Ranitidine 300 mg orally twice daily for 6 mon...... improvement of the disease suggest that the two molecules may play a role in pathogenesis of psoriasis.......OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: An evaluation of angiogenesis related molecules during open treatment of psoriasis. MATERIALS AND SUBJECTS: Plasma samples and skin biopsies from 16 patients with psoriasis and plasma samples from 13 healthy controls. TREATMENT: Ranitidine 300 mg orally twice daily for 6...

  19. NDMA formation by chloramination of ranitidine: Kinetics and mechanism

    KAUST Repository

    Le Roux, Julien

    2012-10-16

    The kinetics of decomposition of the pharmaceutical ranitidine (a major precursor of NDMA) during chloramination was investigated and some decomposition byproducts were identified by using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The reaction between monochloramine and ranitidine followed second order kinetics and was acid-catalyzed. Decomposition of ranitidine formed different byproducts depending on the applied monochloramine concentration. Most identified products were chlorinated and hydroxylated analogues of ranitidine. In excess of monochloramine, nucleophilic substitution between ranitidine and monochloramine led to byproducts that are critical intermediates involved in the formation of NDMA, for example, a carbocation formed from the decomposition of the methylfuran moiety of ranitidine. A complete mechanism is proposed to explain the high formation yield of NDMA from chloramination of ranitidine. These results are of great importance to understand the formation of NDMA by chloramination of tertiary amines. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  20. Pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of ranitidine and bismuth derived from two compound preparations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan Zhou; Zou-Rong Ruan; Hong Yuan; Bo Jiang; Dong-Hang Xu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the bioequivalence of ranitidine and bismuth derived from two compound preparations.METHODS: The bioavailability was measured in 20healthy male Chinese volunteers following a single oral dose (equivalent to 200 mg of ranitidine and 220 mg of bismuth) of the test or reference products in the fasting state. Then blood samples were collected for 24 h.Plasma concentrations of ranitidine and bismuth were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICPMS), respectively. The non-compartmental method was used for pharmacokinetic analysis. Log-transformed Cmax,AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-∞) were tested for bioequivalence using ANOVA and Schuirmann two-one sided t-test. Tmax was analyzed by Wilcoxon's test.RESULTS: Various pharmacokinetic parameters of ranitidine derived from the two compound preparations,including Cmax, AUC(0-t), AUC(0-∞), Tmax and T1/2, were nearly consistent with previous observations. These parameters derived from test and reference drug were as follows: Cmax(0.67 ± 0.21 vs 0.68 ± 0.22mg/L), AUC(0-t)(3.1 ± 0.6 vs 3.0 ± 0.7 mg/L per hour),AUC(0-∞)(3.3 ± 0.6 vs 3.2 ± 0.8 mg/L per hour),Tmax (2.3 ± 0.9 vs 2.1 ± 0.9 h) and T1/2 (2.8 ± 0.3 vs 3.1± 0.4 h). In addition, double-peak absorption profiles of ranitidine were found in some Chinese volunteers.For bismuth, those parameters derived from test and reference drug were as follows: Cmax (11.80 ± 7.36 vs 11.40 ± 6.55 μg/L),AUC(0-t) (46.65 ± 16.97 vs 47.03 ±21.49 μg/L per hour), Tmax (0.50 ± 0.20 vs 0.50 ± 0.20 h)and T1/2 (10.2 ± 2.3 vs 13.0 ± 6.9 h). Ninety percent of confidence intervals for the test/reference ratio of Cmax,AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-∞) derived from both ranitidine and bismuth were found within the bioequivalence acceptable range of 80%-125%. No significant difference was found in Tmax derived from both ranitidine and bismuth.CONCLUSION: The two compound preparations are bioequivalent and may be prescribed

  1. Audit of ranitidine administration in parenteral nutrient solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, A G; Rosen, G H; Foster, M D; Johnson, D S; Martir-Herrero, M L; Krieger, J; Oh, S M

    1991-01-01

    An audit of the use of ranitidine administered in parenteral nutrient (PN) solutions is reported. Pharmacists at a 747-bed teaching institution developed criteria addressing justification of the use of ranitidine in PN solutions, process indicators for monitoring, and outcome measures. All patients who received ranitidine in their PN solutions between October 29 and November 22, 1989, were included in the study. Data were collected on a standardized form. A total of 23 evaluable patients received ranitidine in PN solutions during the study period. No inappropriate uses of ranitidine were identified. Patients with renal impairment tended to be underdosed. There were no duplicate administrations of ranitidine by the i.v. minibag and PN solution routes. However, on four occasions the PN solution was interrupted for more than six hours; additional ranitidine by i.v. minibag was ordered for only one of these patients. Testing of nasogastric aspirates for pH was not performed in 17 of the 22 patients who needed this test. Gastrointestinal bleeding was observed in two patients, both of whom were not monitored for gastric pH and were underdosed. A program is being developed to promote the safe and effective use of ranitidine administered in PN solutions. An audit of the administration of ranitidine in PN solutions showed that the drug is usually used appropriately at the institution and that most of the patients had positive clinical outcomes.

  2. Stability of ranitidine and thiamine in parenteral nutrition solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, T G; Henderson, G N; Fox, J; Gondi, U

    1997-06-01

    Our objectives were to ascertain the stability of thiamine HCl (3 mg/L) and ranitidine HCl (150 mg/L) at room and refrigeration temperatures in a central vein formula of parenteral nutrition (PN) solution (containing 6% amino acid, 25% carbohydrate, macro- and microminerals, and multivitamins) and to determine the effect of ranitidine on the stability of thiamine. Stability of thiamine and ranitidine in PN solutions was also compared with PN-salt solutions, which contained no amino acids or carbohydrates, to indirectly ascertain the impact of these macronutrients on the stability of these moieties. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were developed to measure thiamine and ranitidine in the PN mixture. Stability studies were conducted in triplicate and each sample was assayed in duplicate using newly developed HPLC methods. Refrigeration provided stability for both ranitidine and thiamine for extended periods of time. At room temperature, ranitidine was also shown to be stable for about 188 h; there was, however, significant degradation of thiamine at 24 h with, and without, addition of ranitidine. The time required for 10% of thiamine to degrade was calculated to be 12.9 h for the PN mixture containing multivitamins and ranitidine; 11.1 h for the PN mixture containing multivitamins alone; and 33.4 h for the PN mixture containing only thiamine HCl. This work suggests that the concentration of thiamine in this central vein PN formula, with or without ranitidine, falls below the 90% acceptable stability within 24 h.

  3. Effect of magnesium stearate concentration on dissolution properties of ranitidine hydrochloride coated tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunović, Alija; Vranić, Edina

    2007-08-01

    Most pharmaceutical formulations also include a certain amount of lubricant to improve their flowability and prevent their adhesion to the surfaces of processing equipment. Magnesium stearate is an additive that is most frequently used as a lubricant. Magnesium stearate is capable of forming films on other tablet excipients during prolonged mixing, leading to a prolonged drug liberation time, a decrease in hardness, and an increase in disintegration time. It is hydrophobic, and there are many reports in the literature concerning its adverse effect on dissolution rates. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two different concentrations of magnesium stearate on dissolution properties of ranitidine hydrochloride coated tablet formulations labeled to contain 150 mg. The uniformity content was also checked. During the drug formulation development, several samples were designed for choice of the formulation. For this study, two formulations containing 0,77 and 1,1% of magnesium stearate added in the manufacture of cores were chosen. Fraction of ranitidine hydrochloride released in dissolution medium was calculated from calibration curves. The data were analyzed using pharmacopeial test for similarity of dissolution profiles ( f2 equation), previously proposed by Moore and Flanner. Application of f2 equation showed differences in time-course of ranitidine hydrochloride dissolution properties. The obtained values indicate differences in drug release from analyzed ranitidine hydrochloride formulations and could cause differences in therapeutic response.

  4. Ranitidine as adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results from short-term studies of histamine type 2 (H2) receptor antagonists on survival of patients with solid tumours are debatable. In this study the efficacy of the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on long-term survival of patients with colorectal cancer was evaluated. METHODS...... curative resection of colorectal cancer and who do not receive perioperative blood transfusion and do not develop postoperative infectious complications....

  5. Stability of ranitidine hydrochloride in total parenteral nutrient solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S E; Bayliff, C D

    1985-03-01

    The stability of ranitidine hydrochloride was studied in a standard total parenteral nutrition (TPN) solution. The Canadian formulation of ranitidine hydrochloride (25 mg/mL) was added in 100-, 200-, and 300-mg doses to approximately 1200 mL of a TPN solution and allowed to stand at room temperature (23 degrees C) for seven days. During this time, samples were drawn at least once a day, and the ranitidine concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The ranitidine concentration declined at roughly the same rate regardless of the initial concentration. During the study period, each of the three different concentrations declined to less than 70% of the initial concentration. Approximately 10% of the initial concentration was lost in 48 hours. Ranitidine hydrochloride admixtures were stable for up to 48 hours at room temperature in this standard TPN solution.

  6. Ranitidine prevents postoperative transfusion-induced depression of delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H; Moesgaard, F;

    1989-01-01

    The influence of perioperative blood transfusion on postoperative depression of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and the effect of ranitidine on transfusion-induced changes in postoperative CMI were investigated. CMI was assessed preoperatively and postoperatively by skin testing with seven common...... delayed-type antigens in 83 consecutive patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery. Sixty-six of these patients were randomly divided into ranitidine or no-ranitidine-treatment groups, and the remaining 17 patients were operated on without ranitidine. Thus, 50 patients were operated on without.......0001). It is concluded that perioperative transfusion with whole blood amplifies the postoperative impairment in delayed hypersensitivity and that transfusion-induced postoperative impairment in delayed hypersensitivity may be prevented by perioperative ranitidine treatment....

  7. Ranitidine prevents postoperative transfusion-induced depression of delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H; Moesgaard, F;

    1989-01-01

    The influence of perioperative blood transfusion on postoperative depression of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and the effect of ranitidine on transfusion-induced changes in postoperative CMI were investigated. CMI was assessed preoperatively and postoperatively by skin testing with seven common...... ranitidine, 50 mg intravenously every 6 hours for 72 hours, received perioperative blood transfusion. Eleven of these patients could be matched to 11 transfused patients not receiving perioperative ranitidine. Ranitidine prevented postoperative reduction in skin test response (+6% vs -55%, p less than 0.......0001). It is concluded that perioperative transfusion with whole blood amplifies the postoperative impairment in delayed hypersensitivity and that transfusion-induced postoperative impairment in delayed hypersensitivity may be prevented by perioperative ranitidine treatment....

  8. Sensitive determination of ranitidine in rabbit plasma by HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedr, Alaa

    2008-02-01

    A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of ranitidine (RAN) in rabbit plasma is described. The method is based on liquid-liquid extraction, labeling with dansyl chloride and monitoring with fluorescence detector at 338nm (ex)/523nm (em). Plasma samples were extracted with diethyl ether alkalinized with 1M sodium hydroxide. Ephedrine HCl (EPH-HCl) was used as internal standard. Both, RAN and EPH were completely derivatized after heating at 60 degrees C for 10min in sodium bicarbonate solution (pH 9.5). The derivatized samples were analyzed by HPLC using Agilent Zorbax Extended C18 column (150mmx4.6mm i.d.) and mobile phase consists of 48% acetonitrile and 52% sodium acetate solution (0.02M, pH 4.6). The linearity of the method was in the range of 0.025-10microg/ml. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 7.5+/-0.18 and 22.5+/-0.12ng/ml, respectively. Ranitidine recovery was 97.5+/-1.1% (n=6; R.S.D.=1.8%). The method was applied on plasma collected from rabbits at different time intervals after oral administration of 5mg/kg ranitidine HCl.

  9. Improving Oral Performance through Interactions Flashcards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquijo, Jasson

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an action research project that addressed the issue of low oral performance in English among third grade learners at a public girls' school in Bogota, Colombia. The issue was identified via content analysis of ten field logs compiled over the third and fourth quarter of the second semester, 2010. To address the problem of…

  10. Improving the quality of oral anticoagulant therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadisseur, Alain Peter Anton

    2006-01-01

    Oral anticoagulant therapy has changed little since the development of the coumarin drugs after the Second World War. The basic nature of the therapy, i.e. the balancing between thrombosis and haemorrhage, makes it a therapy difficult to manage. Add to this the many influences from co-morbidity,

  11. Improving the quality of oral anticoagulant therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadisseur, Alain Peter Anton

    2006-01-01

    Oral anticoagulant therapy has changed little since the development of the coumarin drugs after the Second World War. The basic nature of the therapy, i.e. the balancing between thrombosis and haemorrhage, makes it a therapy difficult to manage. Add to this the many influences from co-morbidity, c

  12. Improving the quality of oral anticoagulant therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadisseur, Alain Peter Anton

    2006-01-01

    Oral anticoagulant therapy has changed little since the development of the coumarin drugs after the Second World War. The basic nature of the therapy, i.e. the balancing between thrombosis and haemorrhage, makes it a therapy difficult to manage. Add to this the many influences from co-morbidity, c

  13. Sounding natural: improving oral presentation skills

    OpenAIRE

    Grazia Busà, María

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses how multimodal resources can be used to teach oral communication strategies, as exemplified in a course taught at the University of Padua, Italy. The course focused on lexicon and language structures in use, pronunciation and intonation, body language and cultural awareness. A variety of multimedia resources were used, including: pictures and illustrations; digital slides; audio files for pronunciation exercises and for audio-video feedback with the speech analysis softwa...

  14. Efficacy of Urine Samples in Biioavailability Study of Ranitidine

    OpenAIRE

    Sima Sadray; Hosnieh Tajerzedeh; Afshin Mohajer; Ahmad Mirfazaelian Mohammad Reza Rouini

    2003-01-01

    Urinary excretion of ranitidine is known to be almost 70% of the intact drug , therefore this drug would be a good candidate for bioavailability studies using urine samples. In this study the bioequivalency of two marketed formulations using both urine and plasma samples were investigated. 'Ranitidine' 150 mg tablets (generic) and 'Zantac' 150 mg tablets were compared in a double blind crossover study using eight healthy male volunteers. A simple and rapid HPLC method was ...

  15. Polymeric microcontainers improve oral bioavailability of furosemide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line Hagner; Melero, Ana; Keller, Stephan Sylvest

    2016-01-01

    with Eudragit and compared to a furosemide solution. The absorption rate constant of ASSF confined in microcontainers is found to be significantly different from the solution, and by light microscopy, it is observed that the microcontainers are engulfed by the intestinal mucus. An oral bioavailability study...... in rats is performed with ASSF confined in microcontainers coated with Eudragit and a control group with ASSF in Eudragit-coated capsules. A relative bioavailability of 220% for the ASSF in microcontainers compared to ASSF in capsules is found. These studies indicate that the microcontainers could serve...

  16. No effect of short term ranitidine intake on diclofenac pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leucuţa, Adrian; Vlase, Laurian; Farcau, Dorin; Nanulescu, Mircea

    2004-12-01

    The pharmacokinetics of diclofenac sodium in healthy volunteers was evaluated to determine if previously repeated doses of ranitidine inhibited the metabolism of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Diclofenac sodium 50 mg (tablets) in combination with ranitidine 150 mg (tablets) were administered to 14 healthy human volunteers in a two treatment study design, separated by 5 days in which the ranitidine alone was administrated in single p.o. doses twice daily. Plasma concentrations of diclofenac were determined during a 12 hour period following drug administration. Diclofenac plasma concentrations were determined by a validated RP-HPLC method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with compartmental and non-compartmental analysis. In the two periods of treatments, the mean peak plasma concentrations Cmax were 1503.9 ng/ml (diclofenac alone) and 1742.5 ng/ml (diclofenac and ranitidine). The time taken to reach the peak, Tmax, was 0.85 hrs, and 0.82 hrs, respectively. The areas under the curve (AUC0-6) were 1479.9 ng x hr/ml and 1650.3 ng x hr/ml, respectively. Statistically insignificant difference was observed in these pharmaco-kinetic parameters of diclofenac sodium when administered alone or after 5 days of treatment with ranitidine. The experimental data did not suggest any consistent effects of ranitidine upon the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac sodium.

  17. Transdermal iontophoresis of ranitidine: an opportunity in paediatric drug therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djabri, Asma; Guy, Richard H; Delgado-Charro, M Begoña

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the use of transdermal iontophoresis for the delivery of ranitidine hydrochloride in children. Constant, direct current, anodal iontophoresis of ranitidine was performed in vitro across dermatomed pig skin. The effect of donor vehicle, current intensity, and drug concentration were first examined using aqueous solutions. It was found that drug delivery was higher at pH 7 (donor: 5mM Tris) than pH 5.6 (donor: water). In the presence of low levels of competing background electrolyte, ranitidine delivery increased linearly with applied current but was independent of the donor drug concentration. The second part of the study evaluated two Pluronic(®) F-127 gels as potential vehicles for ranitidine delivery. The formulations were characterised in terms of apparent viscosity, conductivity and passive permeation measurements. Iontophoretic delivery of ranitidine was only slightly affected when delivered from the gels relative to aqueous solutions. Overall the results demonstrated that therapeutic paediatric doses of ranitidine (neonates: 0.09-0.17 μmol/kg h; 1 month to 12 years: 0.36-0.71 μmol/kg h) could be easily achieved by transdermal iontophoresis with simple gel patches of practical surface area (0.2-1.5 cm(2)/kg).

  18. The effect of ranitidine (as effervescent tablets) on the quality of life of GORD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, J H; Miocevich, M L; Sacks, G E

    1996-06-01

    Patients diagnosed as suffering from symptomatic reflux disease were entered into this comparative, multicentre study based in UK general practice. The study was designed to investigate the symptomatic response and quality of life of these GORD sufferers as they received ranitidine (Zantac effervescent tablets) over a four-week period. All patients initially received ranitidine 150 mg bd for two weeks. Subsequent treatment was allocated according to symptomatic response: responders remained on the initial dose for the remaining two weeks of the study, non-responders had their dosage increased to qds. Quality of life was assessed using the short-form 36 questionnaire (SF-36) both before and two and four weeks after treatment. The GORD sufferers had a significantly worse quality of life than a representative sample of the general population before treatment. After just four weeks of treatment with ranitidine, however, substantial improvements were observed in all domains of the SF-36, to the extent that the quality of life profile of the GORD sufferers became very similar to that of the general population and no significant differences were observed between the groups.

  19. Efficacy of ebrotidine and ranitidine in the treatment of benign gastric ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedliczka, O; Bobrzynski, A; Rembiasz, K; Fillat, O; Torres, J; Herrero, E; Márquez, M; Camps, F; Ortiz, J A

    1997-04-01

    This is a phase III, randomized, double-blind, clinical trial with two parallel groups of 50 patients to assess the efficacy of ebrotidine (N-[(E)-[[2-[[[2-[(diaminomethylene)amino]-4-thiazolyl]methyl]thio]ethyl ] amino]methylene]-4-bromo-benzenesulfonamide, CAS 100981-43-9, FI-3542) 800 mg and ranitidine 300 mg as a single evening dose in the treatment of benign gastric peptic ulcer. Prior to treatment, an endoscopy was performed to detect ulcer lesions and to discard malignancies. Clinical and endoscopic examinations were performed at 6, 9 and 12 weeks. Healing rates were significant for both treatments at week 6, while at week 12 there was statistical significance for ebrotidine as compared to ranitidine (96% vs 88% in the intention-to-treat analysis and 98% vs 87.5% in the per protocol analysis). Decrease in ulcer diameter was significant for both treatments at week 6, and for ebrotidine versus ranitidine at weeks 9 and 12. The overall improvement of symptoms was higher with ebrotidine, which was already significant at week 6. Safety was considered to be excellent, since no significant adverse events were reported for the patients included in the study.

  20. Strategies for Improving Oral English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金光中

    2009-01-01

    With deepening of the secondary English teaching reform,oral English teaching becomes more and more important.Therefore,the goal of secondary school English teaching is not just to pass a series of examinations,but,What's more,to cultivate students'communicative competence.Nogvadays,though most students can read some English articles,even can Write some simple articales in English, they can not make any communication in life except for only getting good marks in examinations.The author believes that oral English teaching is the weak link in secondary English teaching.Many factors have led to the current dumb English phenomenon.To solve this problem,teachers should take effective teaching methods to help students develop interest in oral English,to get rid of psychological barriers and to establish silfconfidence;furthermore,teachers should pay more attention to outside class practice 80 as to ireprove studenta'oral English.This paper makes a preliminary study on effective English teaching methods to solve the problems in oral English teaching.%随着中学英语教学改革的不断深入,英语口语教学的地位日显突出,这就使得中学英语教学的目标不仅仅是通过一系列考试,更重要的是培养学生运用语言交际的能力.目前的教学现状是大部分学生虽然能够读懂英语文章,甚至能够进行简单的英语写作,但他们除了能在考试中获得好成绩外,在生活中几乎无法进行交流.作者认为口语教学是现阶段中学英语教学中的薄弱环节,升学及应试的压力,学生口语能力差导致课堂焦虑自信心缺乏,学习动机不明确,加上教师教学方法传统等诸多因素导致了目前的哑巴英语现象.因此,教师应该采取行之有效的教学方法,培养学生对口语的兴趣,帮助学生消除心理障碍树立自信,同时不忽视课后实践,从而提高学生的口语水平.这篇文章立足于目前的教学现状,分析口语教学中存在的问题,

  1. Effect of zinc acexamate and ranitidine on chronic gastric lesions in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, C; Escolar, G; Bravo, M L; Jiménez, E; Bulbena, O

    1990-01-01

    Using the rat as an experimental model we have studied the healing of chronic gastric lesions and the modifications of these lesions by antiulcer agents. Gastric injuries were induced by submucosal injection of 0.05 ml of 5% acetic acid. Placebo, ranitidine (RNT) or zinc acexamate (ZAC) were administered orally. The evolution of gastric injuries was macro- and microscopically evaluated at 6, 12 and 21 days after acetic acid injection. The administration of either RNT (30 mg/kg) or ZAC (200 mg/kg) was followed by a marked improvement of the healing process with respect to control groups. The size of experimental ulcers at 21 days was 3.1 +/- 0.8 mm2 for the control group, 1.8 +/- 1.1 mm2 for RNT-treated animals and 0.3 +/- 0.6 mm2 for ZAC-treated rats (p less than 0.05, vs. control). A similar tendency was observed when lesions were microscopically analyzed. Indices of microscopical lesions (0-6) at 21 days were 3.8 +/- 0.8 for the control group, 3.0 +/- 0.8 for rats receiving RNT and 2.3 +/- 0.4 for rats receiving ZAC (p less than 0.05, vs. control). The statistical analysis of the distribution of microscopical indices of lesions showed significant differences in favour of ZAC at days 6 (p less than 0.01) and 21 (p less than 0.05). Our study indicates that the evolution of gastric damage induced by acid acetic injection was consistently better in rats treated with ZAC than in those receiving RNT. Data obtained in our experiments suggest that the blockade of H2 receptors does not guarantee the optimal healing of chronic gastric lesions induced in rats.

  2. Comparative investigation of the influence of nizatidine, ranitidine, and cimetidine on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of theophylline in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, K; Sullivan, T J; Mauro, L S; Martin, M; Jauregui, L; Levine, L

    1992-05-01

    The influence of usual regimens of the H2 blocking drugs, cimetidine, ranitidine, and nizatidine on the steady-state plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetic characteristics of theophylline was studied in seventeen patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients were dosed to steady-state with an oral, sustained-release formulation of theophylline given in therapeutic doses twice daily for 2 weeks. Over the next 4 weeks, each patient received a week-long regimen of each H2 blocker concomitantly with theophylline, and a week-long regimen of theophylline alone (control). At the end of each of the latter 4 weeks the steady-state pharmacokinetics of theophylline were assessed. Neither ranitidine nor nizatidine treatment altered the steady-state pharmacokinetics of theophylline relative to the control phase (i.e. no H2 blocker treatment). Values for theophylline C(ave), Cssmax, AUC0-12, and CLoral were significantly different during cimetidine treatment compared with all other treatments (ranitidine, nizatidine, and control). Cimetidine increased theophylline Cssmax, AUC0-12 and Cave by approximately 32%, and decreased theophylline oral clearance by approximately 23%. The authors conclude that cimetidine alters the steady-state pharmacokinetics of theophylline in COPD patients, whereas ranitidine and nizatidine are without effect.

  3. Stability of polymorphic forms of ranitidine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, V; Rades, T; Saville, D J

    2000-07-01

    Ranitidine-HCl can exist in two different polymorphic forms: form I (m.p. 134-140 degrees C) and form II (m.p. 140-144 degrees C). In the present study the stability of form I of ranitidine-HCl to a selection of powder pretreatments, to reflect conditions which might occur in manufacturing procedures, and also to a limited range of storage conditions was investigated. The original samples of form I and form II used were characterised by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), hot stage microscopy (HSM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A quantitative XRPD method for determining the fraction of form II in the presence of form I was used. XRPD data were analysed using regression techniques and artificial neural networks (ANN). The quantitative XRPD technique was then used to monitor the relative proportion of form II in each treated sample. Pretreatments of form I included (i) mixing with form II or with common excipients (ii) compression and grinding (iii) contact with solvents (followed by drying) before storage. Storage conditions involved three temperatures (20 degrees C, 30 degrees C, 42 degrees C) and three relative humidities (45% RH; 55% RH; 75% RH). Samples were stored for a period of 6 months. A limited factorial design was used. No increase in the form II:form I ratio was observed in the following pretreatment processes: introduction of form II nuclei into form I; introduction of excipients to form I; compression of form I powder at 5 and 15 tons; normal mixing and grinding processes; addition of isopropanol (IPA) or water/IPA mix followed by drying. In the pretreatment process where water was added to form I powder (with most or all of the powder dissolving), drying of the liquefied mass led to a mix of form I and form II. On storage at room temperature (20-30 degrees C), low relative humidity (45-55% RH), and in an air-tight container there was no increase in the form II:form I ratio. Storage of form I/form II mixes, particularly at high humidity

  4. Workforce strategies to improve children's oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Kristine

    2014-12-01

    (1) Tooth decay is the most common chronic disease for children. (2) As millions receive dental coverage under the Affordable Care Act, the demand for dental services is expected to strain the current workforce's ability to meet their needs. (3) States have adopted various workforce approaches to improve access to dental care for underserved populations.

  5. Probiotics: can they be used to improve oral health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, O E; Kirzioglu, Z; Kivanc, M

    2015-01-01

    The role of probiotic bacteria in improving human health has been an attractive subject for researchers since the beginning of the 20(th) century. They have been used to control gastro-intestinal infections, to promote immunity and to prevent various diseases (allergies, urogenital infections, etc.). However, the use of beneficial bacteria in the field of dentistry has only recently gained interest. Investigation of the effects of probiotic bacteria on oral health has become an important research subject. These studies are still in the early stages, however results show that probiotic bacteria are effective against tooth caries, periodontal disease, oral mucosal lesions and oral malodour. This review provides information on the effects of probiotics--well-known for their effects on general health, and therefore more widely used in healthcare--on oral and dental health, in order to promote their use/prescription by physicians and patients.

  6. Effekten af ranitidin på den postoperative monocyt- og neutrofile granulocytfunktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Nielsen, H I; Jensen, S.;

    1995-01-01

    The histamine H-2-receptor antagonist ranitidine hydrochloride has been shown to alleviate trauma-, blood transfusion- and sepsis-induced immunosuppression. We evaluated the effect of ranitidine on the postoperative impairment of monocyte and neutrophil function in 24 patients undergoing major....... A significant difference (P detected. There were no infectious complications in ranitidine-treated patients. These results support previous...

  7. Effekten af ranitidin på den postoperative monocyt- og neutrofile granulocytfunktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Nielsen, H I; Jensen, S.

    1995-01-01

    The histamine H-2-receptor antagonist ranitidine hydrochloride has been shown to alleviate trauma-, blood transfusion- and sepsis-induced immunosuppression. We evaluated the effect of ranitidine on the postoperative impairment of monocyte and neutrophil function in 24 patients undergoing major....... A significant difference (P detected. There were no infectious complications in ranitidine-treated patients. These results support previous...

  8. A better dissolution method for ranitidine tablets USP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappola, M L

    2001-01-01

    Ranitidine tablets USP showed variable intra- and inter-lab dissolution results. In order to ascertain the reason for this behavior, ranitidine tablets USP produced by (BIPI) Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Inc., Ridgefield, CT, and Zantac Tablets (brand of ranitidine USP), Glaxo Inc., Research Triangle, NC, were subjected to the compendia (USP) dissolution testing using paddle and basket apparatus. Two potencies of tablets 150 mg and 300 mg were tested. Comparison of BIPI tablets and matching Zantac tablets indicated that both brands of ranitidine tablets USP had similar dissolution behavior. When the basket apparatus was substituted for the paddle apparatus the overall rate and extent of tablet dissolution increased, while the individual tablet variability decreased. BIPI 150 mg tablets using the basket apparatus, but at reduced rotational speed of 30 rpm, showed increase in rate and extent of drug dissolved, with less individual tablet variability compared to the paddle apparatus at 50 rpm. The 300 mg tablet (30 rpm/basket apparatus) had an initial slower rate, but then rapidly equaled the paddle apparatus dissolution results, and had less individual tablet variability. Paddle apparatus tablet sinkers were used to prevent tablets from sticking to the bottom of the dissolution vessel. Overall dissolution for all tablets with sinkers showed a trend which was more rapid and complete than tablets without sinkers. Results showed that dissolution artifacts for ranitidine tablets could be reduced by the use of baskets or tablet sinkers.

  9. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS OF RANITIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE USING DIFFERENT SUPERDISINTEGRANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Dharmendra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ranitidine HCl is an H2 anhistaminic drug mainly used for treatment of peptic ulcers and is absorbed 50% orally. The drug undergoes hepatic metabolism, so the attempt has been made to administer it as fast dissolving tablet to increases its oral bioavailability. The tablets were prepared by using sublimation method using ammonium bicarbonate as sublimating agent. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, wetting time, dispersion time, disintegrating time. The other tablets prepared by using sodium starch glycolate and cross carmellose sodium as superdisintegrant. It was concluded that the tablets prepared by super disintergrant addition have better disintegrating properties and release profile when compared to the tablets prepared by sublimation method.

  10. Stability of ranitidine hydrochloride and amino acids in parenteral nutrient solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, L; Parks, R B; Lampasona, V; Mullins, R E

    1985-12-01

    The stability of ranitidine hydrochloride in parenteral nutrient (PN) solutions and the effect of ranitidine hydrochloride on the amino acids in the PN solutions were studied. Six PN solutions (three each with amino acid contents of 2.125 and 4.25%) were prepared. Each PN solution also contained dextrose 25%, electrolytes, trace elements, vitamins, and heparin sodium. Ranitidine hydrochloride injection was added to four of the PN samples. Of the final samples, two contained no ranitidine, two contained ranitidine hydrochloride 50 micrograms/mL, and two contained ranitidine hydrochloride 100 micrograms/mL. Admixtures of ranitidine hydrochloride at the two concentrations in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were also prepared. Samples were observed for color change and tested for pH during storage at room temperature. Concentrations of amino acids were measured after 24 hours in samples without ranitidine and in samples containing ranitidine hydrochloride 100 micrograms/mL. Ranitidine hydrochloride content was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography at 12, 24, and 48 hours. No visual changes or pH changes occurred by 24 hours. All PN solutions became darker by 48 hours. The presence of ranitidine hydrochloride did not substantially affect amino acid concentrations. At 24 hours, at least 90% of the initial ranitidine concentrations remained in all samples. In three of the four PN samples at 48 hours, less than 90% of initial ranitidine concentrations remained. Ranitidine hydrochloride in concentrations of 50 and 100 micrograms/mL in parenteral nutrient solutions containing 4.25 and 2.125% crystalline amino acids is stable for 24 hours at room temperature. Under these conditions, concentrations of the amino acids contained in the PN solutions were not affected by the addition of ranitidine hydrochloride.

  11. Simultaneous estimation of ranitidine and domperidone in combined dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charde M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Vireodt′s method for simultaneous estimation of ranitidine and domperidone involves absorbance measurement at 326 nm and 287 nm corresponding to the respective absorption maxima. Both the drugs obey Beer Lambert′s law in the range of 3.0-50 µg/ml for ranitidine and 0.2-3.5 µg/ml for domperidone. The tablet formulation (Random, Mankind was evaluated for the percent content of both the drugs at the selected wavelengths. The method developed was validated to determine its accuracy, precision, specificity and ruggedness. The recovery study was carried out by standard addition method. The average percent recovery was found to be 99.65±0.47 for ranitidine and 100.06±0.18 for domperidone.

  12. Improving Oral Health Status of Children in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad D. Baghdadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This comprehensive community health intervention aimed to improve the oral health and reduce the incidence of dental caries in Tabuk schoolchildren. The program supports the public health pyramid that provides a framework to improve health and included creating and evaluating a school oral health surveillance system, applying fluoride varnish and dental sealants on high- and medium-caries risk children, and providing treatment for existing diseases. In a pilot phase, 48 children (26 males 22 females; mean age 6.42; dmft 9.33, Decayed, Missing, or Filled Primary and Permanent Teeth (DMFT 3.27 received the dental services, both treatment and prevention. Three hundred seventy-eight composite resin or resin-modified light-cured glass ionomer restorations were placed. One-hundred and eighteen teeth received pulp therapy (pulpotomy or pulpectomy, ten of which received stainless steel crowns. A total of 72 teeth were extracted due to caries. To understand the effects of dental disease on children, as perceived by parents, an oral health-related quality of life survey was completed and analyzed. Results found an underestimation of the role the teeth play, particularly primary teeth, in the general health and wellbeing of the child. The program’s main evaluation effort focused on the process and outcome objectives, including the number of children received care, number of teeth received restorations and sealants, and number of children received fluoride varnish, etc. Analyzing the effect of the program on oral hygiene revealed an improvement in oral health, as a direct result of oral health educational sessions and one-to-one counseling. There is an urgent need to expand the program to include all primary schools.

  13. [An oral function improvement program utilizing health behavior theories ameliorates oral functions and oral hygienic conditions of pre-frail elderly persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Hideo

    2014-06-01

    Oral function improvement programs utilizing health behavior theories are considered to be effective in preventing the need for long-term social care. In the present study, an oral function improvement program based upon health behavior theories was designed, and its utility was assessed in 102 pre-frail elderly persons (33 males, 69 females, mean age: 76.9 +/- 5.7) considered to be in potential need of long-term social care and attending a long-term care prevention class in Sayama City, Saitama Prefecture, Japan. The degree of improvement in oral functions (7 items) and oral hygienic conditions (3 items) was assessed by comparing oral health before and after participation in the program. The results showed statistically significant improvements in the following oral functions: (1) lip functions (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllable "Pa"), (2) tongue functions, (3) tongue root motor skills (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllables "Ta" and "Ka"), (4) tongue extension/retraction, (5) side-to-side tongue movement functions, (6) cheek motor skills, and (7) repetitive saliva swallowing test (RSST). The following measures of oral hygiene also showed a statistically significant improvement: (1) debris on dentures or teeth, (2) coated tongue, and (3) frequency of oral cleaning. These findings demonstrated that an improvement program informed by health behavior theories is useful in improving oral functions and oral hygiene conditions.

  14. Sex differences in excipient effects: Enhancement in ranitidine bioavailability in the presence of polyethylene glycol in male, but not female, rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso-Pereira, Francisco; Murdan, Sudaxshina; Sousa, Joao; Veiga, Francisco; Basit, Abdul W

    2016-06-15

    Males and females respond differently to drugs: indeed, sex plays a crucial role in determining drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Excipients have also been shown to enhance the biovailability of drugs differently in men and women. The aim of this work was to investigate whether rodents are a good model in which to study sex-specific effects of polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) on the bioavailability of ranitidine. Ranitidine (50mg/kg) was dissolved in water with different amounts of PEG 400-0 (control), 13, 26, 51, 77, 103, and 154mg/kg; these solutions were dosed orally by gavage to male and female Wistar rats. Blood samples were withdrawn over 480min and assayed via HPLC-UV. Individual ranitidine plasma profiles were constructed for each rat, and standard pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. In the male rats, the change in the area under the plasma ranitidine curve (AUC0-480) compared to the control group, was +18%; +49% (pranitidine in male, but not female, rats. These findings are in agreement with previously published human data, therefore confirming the validity of the rodent model, and highlight the unusual and clinically significant phenomenon that an excipient can influence drug bioavailability in one gender and not the other.

  15. Comparative study of the safety and efficacy of ebrotidine versus ranitidine and placebo in the prevention of piroxicam-induced gastroduodenal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puscas, I; Puscas, C; Coltau, M; Pasca, R; Torres, J; Márquez, M; Herrero, E; Fillat, O; Ortiz, J A

    1997-04-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of ebrotidine (N-[(E)-[[2-[[[2-[(diaminomethylene)amino]-4-thiazolyl] methyl]thio]ethyl]amino]methylene]-4-bromo-benzenesulfonamide, CAS 100981-43-9, FI-3542) versus ranitidine and placebo in preventing gastroduodenal lesions induced by piroxicam. Thirty patients with rheumatic disease, who were divided into 5 groups, received an oral treatment of piroxicam 20 mg once daily for 6 days plus ebrotidine 400 mg/day (Group I); ebrotidine 800 mg/day (Group II); ranitidine 150 mg/day (Group III); ranitidine 300 mg/day (Group IV); or placebo (Group V). Patients were endoscopically examined before and after treatment. Lanza's score was also determined, and laboratory tests were performed. The results of this study showed that the most powerful protective effect against mucosal gastric lesions induced by piroxicam was achieved with 800 mg/day of ebrotidine. Ranitidine at doses of 150 mg/day did not protect gastric mucosa, and the 300 mg/day dose exerted a poor gastroprotective effect.

  16. Improving Pediatric Outcomes through Intravenous and Oral Medication Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Mark W.; Cash, Jared; Farr, Fred; Holley, Marc; Jones, Kevin; Boehme, Sabrina

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Standardization is an invaluable tool to promote safety, improve care, and decrease costs, which ultimately improves outcomes. However, a pediatric setting presents unique challenges with its wide variety of weights, medications, and needs that are distinctly different. Our goal was to develop and implement standards in complex high risk areas that show improved outcomes and safety. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION A computerized prescriber order entry program with decision support for pediatrics was developed for parenteral nutrition prescribing. The program included dosing, calculations, calcium phosphate compatibility checks, automated IV compounder interface, osmolarity route calculation, end product testing verification, aluminum exposure and many other quality improvements. This same electronic order program, interface to sterile compounders, and end product testing was used to standardize and make common non-manufactured intravenous solutions. The drip compounding process was reengineered to include standard concentrations, label changes, and beta-testing of a smart syringe pump with dosing ranges for pediatrics. Common standard oral doses were developed along with standard oral formulations. CONCLUSIONS Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) error rates decreased from 7% to less than 1% and compatibility issues decreased from 36 to 1 per year. Neonatal osteopenia rates decreased from 15% to 2%. Results from end product testing of TPN solutions were within USP standards showing statistical correlation (pdrug concentration and smart pump standardization and decreased drip errors by 73% from 3.1 to 0.8 per 1000 doses. Compounding errors decreased from 0.66 to 0.16 per 1000 doses and ten-fold errors decreased from 0.41 to 0.08 per 1000 doses. Eleven oral liquids, including 329 different doses, were standardized, decreasing the number of doses to 59 (83% change). This decreased workload 15%, wastage 90%, improved turnaround time 32%, and saved $15,000/year. One hundred

  17. The Effect of Ranitidine on Olanzapine-Induced Weight Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ranjbar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Induced weight gain is a disturbing side effect of Olanzapine that affects the quality of life in psychotic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of Ranitidine in attenuating or preventing Olanzapine-induced weight gain. A parallel 2-arm clinical trial was done on 52 patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective and schizophreniform disorders who received Olanzapine for the first time. All these were first-episode admitted patients. They were randomly allocated to receive either Ranitidine or placebo. The trend of body mass index (BMI was compared between groups over 16-week course of treatment. Mean weight was 62.3 (SD: 9.6 kg at baseline. Thirty-three subjects (63.5% had positive family history of obesity. The average BMI increment was 1.1 for Ranitidine group and 2.4 for the placebo group. The multivariate analysis showed this effect to be independent of sex, family history of obesity, and baseline BMI value. The longitudinal modeling after controlling for baseline values failed to show the whole trend slope to be different. Although the slight change in trend’s slope puts forward a hypothesis that combined use of Ranitidine and Olanzapine may attenuate the weight gain long run, this needs to be retested in future larger scale long-term studies. This trial is registered with IRCT.ir 201009112181N5.

  18. Photochemical fate of pharmaceuticals in the environment: cimetidine and ranitidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latch, Douglas E; Stender, Brian L; Packer, Jennifer L; Arnold, William A; McNeill, Kristopher

    2003-08-01

    The photochemical fates of the histamine H2-receptor antagonists cimetidine and ranitidine were studied. Each of the two environmentally relevant pharmaceuticals displayed high rates of reaction with both singlet oxygen (1O2, O2(1delta(g))) and hydroxyl radical (*OH), two transient oxidants formed in sunlit natural waters. For cimetidine, the bimolecular rate constant for reaction with *OH in water is 6.5 +/- 0.5 x 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). Over the pH range 4-10, cimetidine reacts with 1O2 with bimolecular rate constants ranging from 3.3 +/- 0.3 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) at low pH to 2.5 +/- 0.2 x 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) in alkaline solutions. The bimolecular rate constants for ranitidine reacting with 1O2 in water ranges from 1.6 +/- 0.2 x 10(7) M(-1) s(-1) at pH 6-6.4 +/- 0.2 x 10(7) M(-1) s(-1) at pH 10. Reaction of ranitidine hydrochloride with *OH proceeds with a rate constant of 1.5 +/- 0.2 x 10(10) M(-1) s(-1). Ranitidine was also degraded in direct photolysis experiments with a half-life of 35 min under noon summertime sunlight at 45 degrees latitude, while cimetidine was shown to be resistant to direct photolysis. The results of these experiments, combined with the expected steady-state near surface concentrations of 1O2 and *OH, indicate that photooxidation mediated by 1O2 is the likely degradation pathway for cimetidine in most natural waters, and photodegradation by direct photolysis is expected to be the major pathway for ranitidine, with some degradation caused by 1O2. These predictions were verified in studies using Mississippi River water. Model compounds were analyzed by laser flash photolysis experiments to assess which functionalities within ranitidine and cimetidine are most susceptible to singlet-oxygenation and direct photolysis. The heterocyclic moieties of the pharmaceuticals were clearly implicated as the sites of reaction with 1O2, as evidenced by the high relative rate constants of the furan and imidazole models. The nitroacetamidine portion of ranitidine

  19. Oral Iloprost Improves Endobronchial Dysplasia in Former Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Robert L.; Blatchford, Patrick J.; Kittelson, John; Minna, John D.; Kelly, Karen; Massion, Pierre P.; Franklin, Wilbur A.; Mao, Jenny; Wilson, David O.; Merrick, Daniel T.; Hirsch, Fred R.; Kennedy, Timothy C.; Bunn, Paul A.; Geraci, Mark W.; Miller, York E.

    2011-01-01

    There are no established chemopreventive agents for lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Prostacyclin levels are low in lung cancer and supplementation prevents lung cancer in preclinical models. We carried out a multicenter double-blind, randomized, phase II placebo-controlled trial of oral iloprost in current or former smokers with sputum cytologic atypia or endobronchial dysplasia. Bronchoscopy was performed at study entry and after completion of six months of therapy. Within each subject, the results were calculated by using the average score of all biopsies (Avg), the worst biopsy score (Max), and the dysplasia index (DI). Change in Avg was the primary end point, evaluated in all subjects, as well as in current and former smokers. The accrual goal of 152 subjects was reached and 125 completed both bronchoscopies (60/75 iloprost, 65/77 placebo). Treatment groups were well matched for age, tobacco exposure, and baseline histology. Baseline histology was significantly worse for current smokers (Avg 3.0) than former smokers (Avg 2.1). When compared with placebo, former smokers receiving oral iloprost exhibited a significantly greater improvement in Avg (0.41 units better, P = 0.010), in Max (1.10 units better, P = 0.002), and in DI (12.45%, P = 0.006). No histologic improvement occurred in current smokers. Oral iloprost significantly improves endobronchial histology in former smokers and deserves further study to determine if it can prevent the development of lung cancer. PMID:21636546

  20. Challenges of improving oral health for adults in care homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Victoria

    2017-08-31

    In 2016 the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) published a guideline on oral health for adults in care homes in England. The author was a co-opted member of the NICE oral health for adults in care homes public health advisory committee. This article reviews the NICE guideline as it applies to care homes, and relates it to the results of a survey of oral care practice undertaken in a large care home organisation and the available research literature from the past 20 years. The literature and survey results suggest that, if translated into practice, the NICE guideline could do much to improve oral health for adults in care homes. The survey highlighted that 85% of residents required support from carers to undertake mouth care. It also found that care homes experienced significant difficulties in accessing dental services for residents. The author concludes that providers need to equip staff with the necessary knowledge and skills to undertake mouth care and to give this area of personal care greater priority. Finally, the author suggests that the Care Quality Commission could ensure that the NICE guideline is translated into practice in care homes.

  1. Improving oral absorption of Salmon calcitonin by trimyristin lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, S; Silva, A C; Ferreira, D C; Souto, E B

    2009-02-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) composed of trimyristin (solid lipid) and poloxamer 407 (surfactant) were prepared by a w/o/w emulsion technique for the incorporation of Salmon calcitonin, and further explored as protein carriers for oral delivery. Trimyristin SLN showed a mean size diameter of 200 nm with an association efficiency for calcitonin of approx. 86%. The morphology of SLN was investigated by cryo-SEM and by AFM, revealing spheroid shape SLN with a smooth surface. The in vitro release of calcitonin occurred for a period of 8 h, under both gastric and intestinal simulated pH conditions, predicting suitable properties for oral administration. The pharmacological activity of the protein was evaluated following oral dosage of calcitonin-loaded SLN in rats. SLN lowered the basal blood calcium levels by up to 20% with 500 IU/kg dose sustaining hypocalcaemia over 8 h. The results indicate that incorporation of Salmon calcitonin into trimyristin SLN is a key factor for the improvement of the efficiency of such carriers for oral delivery of proteins.

  2. The effect of ranitidine on symptom relief and quality of life of patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chal, K L; Stacey, J H; Sacks, G E

    1995-01-01

    A 4-week study involving 354 patients with the symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease was conducted to assess the effect of ranitidine (as effervescent tablets) on their relief and quality of life. All patients received 150 mg bd for 2 weeks, with those responding to treatment continuing on the same dosage for a further 2-week period and 'non-responders' having the dosage increased to 150 mg qds for a further 2 weeks. Quality of life and symptom assessments were carried out at 0, 2 and 4 weeks. Two weeks' treatment with ranitidine 150 mg bd was effective at controlling the GORD symptoms in 78% of patients. A 4-week treatment with either 150 mg bd or qds controlled the symptoms in 85% of patients. All patients had significant improvements in all dimensions of their quality of life over the study period.

  3. Community oral health literacy: improving use of oral-health care guarantee in children aged 6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cornejo-Ovalle

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of comprehensive oral health care for children aged 6 (GES-6years showed low utilization of this guarantee, with lower use for children from municipal public schools. The empowerment and health literacy of parents improve their role as oral-health promoters for their children. Objective: To implement and to assess a strategy of empowerment and health literacy of the community about their guaranteed health rights to increase the use of GES-6years. Methods: A mixed design. Using qualitative methodology we will design a communication tool, culturally and socially appropriate to be sent to the beneficiary community of this guarantee. Using a nonrandomized community trial, this instrument designed to empower and improve oral health literacy on GES-6 guarantee, will be sent as personalized letter (intervention signed by the mayor of the municipality with a message aimed to children beneficiaries for GES -6years and another addressed to their parents/guardians. Schools would be selected from clusters (communes of the two regions selected for convenience. Communes will be randomly selected amog those whose authorities agree to participate, and will be selected as for intervention or control. Data analysis will assess the differences in the prevalence of use of this guarantee among children from municipal schools belonging to the intervention or control arm.

  4. Current prodrug strategies for improving oral absorption of nucleoside analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youxi Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nucleoside analogues are first line chemotherapy in various severe diseases: AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome, cytomegalovirus infections, cancer, etc. However, many nucleoside analogues exhibit poor oral bioavailability because of their high polarity and low intestinal permeability. In order to get around this drawback, prodrugs have been utilized to improve lipophilicity by chemical modification of the parent drug. Alternatively, prodrugs targeting transporters present in the intestine have been applied to promote the transport of the nucleoside analogues. Valacyclovir and valganciclovir are two classic valine ester prodrugs transported by oligopeptide transporter 1. The ideal prodrug achieves delivery of a parent drug by attaching a non-toxic moiety that is stable during transport, but is readily degraded to the parent drug once at the target. This article presents advances of prodrug approaches for enhancing oral absorption of nucleoside analogues.

  5. Experimental study of the rat for the assessment of barium coating on the gastric mucosa: efficacy of ranitidine and acetylcysteine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugino, Yoshinori; Semmler, Wolfhard

    2004-01-01

    In order to improve the preparation method for barium examination of the stomach by ranitidine and acetylcysteine use, the effect on the rat gastric mucosa caused by the administration of ranitidine and acetylcysteine was studied. Rat stomach that had been treated with ranitidine or acetylcysteine at different intervals and examined in vivo was excised and coated with a barium suspension. A radiograph was subsequently taken and evaluated in regard to the removal of gastric mucus and imaging of the areae gastricae (AG). The removal of mucus was assessed by six blind observers. The imaging of AG was estimated as a percentage of the imaged AG area per total gastric corpus. No change was seen on the radiograph with ranitidine preparation, while the mucus was distinctly removed and AG well-imaged in the group studied 15 minutes after the peroral administration of acetylcysteine. Proper preparation for barium study of the stomach should involve treatment with a mucolytic agent about 15 minutes before the examination. H2-blockers must be used supplementally in the short term.

  6. Efficacy of Urine Samples in Biioavailability Study of Ranitidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Sadray

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Urinary excretion of ranitidine is known to be almost 70% of the intact drug , therefore this drug would be a good candidate for bioavailability studies using urine samples. In this study the bioequivalency of two marketed formulations using both urine and plasma samples were investigated. 'Ranitidine' 150 mg tablets (generic and 'Zantac' 150 mg tablets were compared in a double blind crossover study using eight healthy male volunteers. A simple and rapid HPLC method was also developed to analyze the drug concentration in both urine and plasma. Double peak phenomenon, observed in plasma samples, was omitted when the urine samples were used. Bioavailability of the two formulations calculated from urinary data were not significantly different, whereas the plasma data were considerably different (based on Cmax & Tmax but not AUC. Pharmacokinetic parameters resulted from urine regarding the rate of the absorption (Tmax-ud, (dDu/dtmax, Ka-ud did not correlate well with their respective plasma parameters (Tmax, Cmax, Ka, whereas those of absorption extent and elimination rates (plasma AUC, K and urinary Du  were well correlated. It is concluded that the urine sampling which has advantages of easy sample collection and extraction could be used for determination of the extent of absorption and rate of the elimination of ranitidine, since similar parameters can be obtained with easier sample collection and extraction, whereas for determination of absorption rate, Cmax & Tmax plasma data are preferred. Key words: Ranitidine, Bioavailability, HPLC, Plasma, Urine.

  7. Ranitidine preparations on the Belgian market: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saevels, J; De Braekeleer, K; Corthout, J

    2004-01-01

    Ranitidine preparations formulated as tablets and granules were evaluated with different tests including in vitro dissolution and assay. Previously the analytical methods of these tests were validated according to the guidelines of the European network of Official Medicines Control Laboratories (OMCLs). All examined products complied to the requirements as described in the European, the British and the US Pharmacopoeia and consequently they can be considered as pharmaceutically equivalent.

  8. California's state oral health infrastructure: opportunities for improvement and funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diringer, Joel; Phipps, Kathy R

    2012-01-01

    California has virtually no statewide dental public health infrastructure leaving the state without leadership, a surveillance program, an oral health plan, oral health promotion and disease prevention programs, and federal funding. Based on a literature review and interviews with 15 oral health officials nationally, the paper recommends hiring a state dental director with public health experience, developing a state oral health plan, and seeking federal and private funding to support an office of oral health.

  9. Improving Oral Communication Skills of Students in Food Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitmeier, C. A.; Svendsen, L. K.; Vrchota, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    Communication activities about food evaluation were incorporated into food preparation courses. Oral reports replaced quizzes and an oral presentation replaced the final exam. A rubric was developed to help students evaluate ingredient functions, procedures, techniques, temperatures, and sensory evaluation. Oral report scores, self-evaluations,…

  10. Compatibility and stability of ranitidine hydrochloride with six cephalosporins during simulated y-site administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, K; Kambara, M; Mizuno, M; Okuda, J; Gill, M A; Nishida, M

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine the visual compatibility and stability of ranitidine hydrochloride in admixtures during simulated Y-site administration with six individual cephalosporins: ceftizoxime sodium, cefuzonam sodium, cefoperazone sodium, cefmenoxime hydrochloride, moxalactam disodium and flomoxef sodium. Dilutions of ranitidine hydrochloride 1 mg (as the free base)/mL were prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Two milliliters of the ranitidine solution (1mg/mL) was mixed with 2mL of each cephalosporin (20 mg/ml) in 10 mL glass test tubes. Concentrations of each drug were determined by stability-indicationg high-performance liquid chromatographic assay methods following zero, one, two, and four hours after mixing. All six cephalosporins retained greater than 95% of their original concentrations for four hours in the admixture with ranitidine. Ranitidine retained greater than 95% of its original concentration for four hours in the admixture with four of the tested cephalosporins and apporximately 90% with moxalactam and flomoxef. Solutions containing ranitidine may be coadministered with solutions either ceftizoxime, cefuzonam, cefoperazone or cefmenoxime via Y-injection site over four hours. While the ranitidine concentration may be reduced to near 90% after four hours with moxalactam and flomoxef, the tested antibiotics were not affected in the presence of ranitidine over four hours.

  11. Simple determination of ranitidine in dosage forms by in-phase selective AC polarography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squella, J A; Zuñiga, L A; Lemus, I; Nuñez-Vergara, L J

    1988-01-01

    A new AC polarographic method for the determination of pharmaceutical forms of ranitidine is proposed, based on the electroactivity of the ranitidine nitro group. Individual and composite assays as well as recovery studies are described. Results show adequate precision and accuracy. Sample preparation is easy and no excipient separation is required.

  12. Oral zinc supplementation may improve cognitive function in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, José Edson; de Moura, Edna Nubia Oliveira; Alves, Camila Xavier; Vale, Sancha Helena de Lima; Dantas, Márcia Marília Gomes; Silva, Alfredo de Araújo; Almeida, Maria das Graças; Leite, Lúcia Dantas; Brandão-Neto, José

    2013-10-01

    Zinc is an important micronutrient for humans, and zinc deficiency among schoolchildren is deleterious to growth and development, immune competence, and cognitive function. However, the effect of zinc supplementation on cognitive function remains poorly understood. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral zinc supplementation (5 mg Zn/day for 3 months) on the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ), Verbal Intelligence Quotient (VIQ), and Performance Intelligence Quotient (PIQ) using a Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III). We studied 36 schoolchildren aged 6 to 9 years (7.8 ± 1.1) using a nonprobability sampling method. The baseline serum zinc concentrations increased significantly after zinc supplementation (p under basal conditions before and after zinc supplementation, and there was no difference in FSIQ according to gender or age. The results demonstrated that zinc improved the VIQ only in the Information Subtest (p = 0.009), although the supplementation effects were more significant in relation to the PIQ, as these scores improved for the Picture Completion, Picture Arrangement, Block Design, and Object Assembly Subtests (p = 0.0001, for all subtests). In conclusion, zinc supplementation improved specific cognitive abilities, thereby positively influencing the academic performance of schoolchildren, even those without marginal zinc deficiency.

  13. Ginger Orally Disintegrating Tablets to Improve Swallowing in Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Ayumu; Funato, Hiroki; Nakai, Megumi; Iizuka, Michiro; Abe, Noriaki; Yagi, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Hisashi; Jobu, Kohei; Yokota, Junko; Hirose, Kahori; Hyodo, Masamitsu; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We previously prepared and pharmaceutically evaluated ginger orally disintegrating (OD) tablets, optimized the base formulation, and carried out a clinical trial in healthy adults in their 20 s and 50s to measure their effect on salivary substance P (SP) level and improved swallowing function. In this study, we conducted clinical trials using the ginger OD tablets in older people to clinically evaluate the improvements in swallowing function resulting from the functional components of the tablet. The ginger OD tablets were prepared by mixing the excipients with the same amount of mannitol and sucrose to a concentration of 1% ginger. Eighteen healthy older adult volunteers aged 63 to 90 were included in the swallowing function test. Saliva was collected before and 15 min after administration of the placebo and ginger OD tablets. Swallowing endoscopy was performed by an otolaryngologist before administration and 15 min after administration of the ginger OD tablets. A scoring method was used to evaluate the endoscopic swallowing. Fifteen minutes after taking the ginger OD tablets, the salivary SP amount was significantly higher than prior to ingestion or after taking the placebo (pginger OD tablets. Our findings showed that the ginger OD tablets increased the salivary SP amount and improved swallowing function in older people with appreciably reduced swallowing function.

  14. Improving oral health in women: nurses' call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmens, Donna A; Kerr, A Ross

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the most significant oral health and related problems experienced by women, and to provide a Nurse's Plan of Action to respond to these largely preventable diseases. Oral health is integral to women's overall health and well-being, with poor oral health being associated with cancer, heart disease, diabetes, depression, and the birth of preterm, low-birthweight babies. Poor nutrition and lifestyle, principally tobacco and heavy alcohol use, can further increase the risk for oral diseases. Disparities are evident in women's reported poor access of regular dental care related to lack of dental insurance and low income. These facts are disturbing because most oral diseases are preventable. The Surgeon General's report on oral health in America (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000) and, more recently, the "National Call to Action to Promote Oral Health" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003) emphasized the need for partnerships of key stakeholders, including nurses, to get involved in oral disease prevention. Nurses are in an ideal position to provide health promotion education and screening across the multitude of settings in which they work regarding oral health and risk factors for oral disease. Nursing interventions aimed at promoting healthy outcomes and preventing disease should include a focus on oral health.

  15. Complete inhibition of food-stimulated gastric acid secretion by combined application of pirenzepine and ranitidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londong, W; Londong, V; Ruthe, C; Weizert, P

    1981-01-01

    In a double-blind, placebo controlled and randomised secretory study the effectiveness of pirenzepine, ranitidine, and their combination was compared intraindividually in eight healthy subjects receiving intravenous bolus injections. Pirenzepine (0.15 mg/kg) plus ranitidine (0.6 mg/kg) suppressed peptone-stimulated gastric acid secretion from 69 +/- 11 to 2 +/- 0.4 mmol H+/3 h; the mean percentage inhibition was 97%. Postprandial gastrin was unaffected. There were only minor side-effects in a few experiments (reduction of salivation, brief blurring of vision), but no prolactin stimulation after ranitidine or ranitidine plus pirenzepine. The combined application of ranitidine and pirenzepine inhibited meal-stimulated acid secretion more effectively and produced fewer side-effects than the combination of cimetidine plus pirenzepine studied previously. PMID:6114900

  16. Enhancement of Oral Language in LEA: Improving the Narrative Form of Children with Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaderavek, Joan N.; Mandlebaum, Linda Higbee

    1993-01-01

    This article explores ways to enhance oral discussions to increase the written language abilities of students with learning disabilities. It discusses oral and written language differences, and offers specific strategies for improving oral narrative skills within the Language Experience Approach (LEA), such as using semantic maps and teaching…

  17. PEDIATRIC FORMULATION OF RANITIDINE USING FROM COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE TABLETS IN ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briseida Dosti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ranitidine Hydrochloride is H2 – receptor antagonist indicated for duodenal ulcer. It is used for the treatment of gastric/duodenal ulcer and GERD for both neonates and children, in respective dosage 1.5- 2mg/kg/24h, q12h and 1-5mg/kg/24h, q6-8h. For use in children is needed cutting into smaller parts to obtain appropriate units, since are missing more appropriate pharmaceuticals forms, such as liquid formulations. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of splitting ranitidine hydrochloride 150 mg tablets, in dosage for children. Prepare extemporaneous Ranitidine syrup from commercially available tablets and determine it stability. Methods: This study was conducted with three different types of ranitidine tablets, chosen based on the presence or not of the score line. For the preparation of Ranitidine syrup were pulverized tablets of Ranitidine 150 mg and suspended in base solution distilled water and simple syrup. This mixture was diluted to a total volume of 120 ml; resulting in a final ranitidine concentration of 15 mg/ml. A UV-VIS spectrophotometer (Cary 100, Varian was used to determine ranitidine concentration at wavelength 315 nm. Results: Cutting Ranitidine TBL into halves and quarters lead to large deviations. These deviations were related to the presence or not of the score line. It was shown that prepared formulations retain minimum 98% of initial Ranitidine concentration after 7 days of storage at 25°C and 4°C.

  18. Improving the safety of oral immunotherapy for food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Ortiz, Marta; Turner, Paul J

    2016-03-01

    Food allergy is a major public health problem in children, impacting upon the affected individual, their families and others charged with their care, for example educational establishments, and the food industry. In contrast to most other paediatric diseases, there is no established cure: current management is based upon dietary avoidance and the provision of rescue medication in the event of accidental reactions, which are common. This strategy has significant limitations and impacts adversely on health-related quality of life. In the last decade, research into disease-modifying treatments for food allergy has emerged, predominantly for peanut, egg and cow's milk. Most studies have used the oral route (oral immunotherapy, OIT), in which increasing amounts of allergen are given over weeks-months. OIT has proven effective to induce immune modulation and 'desensitization' - that is, an increase in the amount of food allergen that can be consumed, so long as regular (typically daily) doses are continued. However, its ability to induce permanent tolerance once ongoing exposure has stopped seems limited. Additionally, the short- and long-term safety of OIT is often poorly reported, raising concerns about its implementation in routine practice. Most patients experience allergic reactions and, although generally mild, severe reactions have occurred. Long-term adherence is unclear, which rises concerns given the low rates of long-term tolerance induction. Current research focuses on improving current limitations, especially safety. Strategies include alternative routes (sublingual, epicutaneous), modified hypoallergenic products and adjuvants (anti-IgE, pre-/probiotics). Biomarkers of safe/successful OIT are also under investigation.

  19. Omeprazole versus ranitidine in the medical treatment of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding: assessment by early repeat endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasseas, P; Leybishkis, B; Rocca, G

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of acid suppression in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding using early repeat endoscopy. Ninety-two patients with the diagnosis of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (endoscopically verified), entered a single-blind, randomised study comparing two treatment groups: omeprazole (40 mg orally daily) to ranitidine (50 mg intravenously four times daily). The lesions considered were gastric ulcers, duodenal ulcers and erosive gastritis. All patients were candidates for medical treatment. The parameters assessed included: 1) stabilisation of the lesion by repeat endoscopy at 7.0 +/- 3.0 days, 2) bleeding recurrence, 3) duration of stay in the intermediate medical care unit. For erosive gastritis only parameters 2 and 3 were considered. The study was limited to the hospitalisation period. Endoscopic stabilisation rate at 7.0 +/- 3.0 days for duodenal lesions was higher in the omeprazole group (71% vs 37%, p=0.03), but there was no significant difference for gastric lesions (50% vs 54%, NS). The overall bleeding recurrence rate (0% vs 17%, p=0.013) and the duration of stay (3.9 vs 6.4 days, p<0.01) were significantly lower in the omeprazole group. Our study suggests that omeprazole is more effective than ranitidine in the pharmacological treatment of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

  20. Absence of tolerance in duodenal ulcer patients treated for 28 days with a bedtime dose of roxatidine or ranitidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savarino, V; Mela, G S; Zentilin, P; Cutela, P; Vigneri, S; Termini, R; Di Mario, F; Ferrana, M; Malesci, A; Belicchi, M; Celle, G

    1996-01-01

    There is much experimental work on the occurrence of tolerance to the antisecretory effect of H2-receptor antagonists in healthy subjects, while data on its development in patients with duodenal ulcer are poor and conflicting. Moreover, this phenomenon has not been studied previously with 24 h gastric pH-metry in patients with active duodenal ulcer. For these reasons, we carried out a prospective pharmacodynamic investigation in 48 patients with endoscopically proven duodenal ulcer using the well-established once daily dosing schedule of H2 blockers. They were studied by means of 24 h continuous endoluminal pH-metry which was performed before, on d1 and d28 after receiving an oral bedtime dose (2200 hours) of either roxatidine 150 mg or ranitidine 300 mg, given in randomized and single-blind fashion. Eight patients did not complete the study for various reasons and 82% of ulcers healed after 4 weeks of therapy. Gastric pH was higher (P roxatidine and ranitidine. There was also no difference in pharmacodynamic data between the two active treatments. We conclude that tolerance does not develop after 1 month's treatment with a bedtime dose of H2 antagonist in patients with active duodenal ulcer and therefore data gathered on this phenomenon in healthy subjects are not applicable to ulcer patients.

  1. Improving Oral English in Break Time in Junior High School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小丹

    2013-01-01

      Teachers have been paying more attention to oral English teaching in junior high school than ever before. Generally, teachers focus on teaching oral English in class, where they give preeminence to creating an environment in the classroom which approximates to the“real-life”communicative use of language (Yang Chaochun&Cheng Lian 2005). However, there are some limits teaching oral English in class. This essay puts forwards to provide input during the break time for students to acquire oral English unconsciously in junior high school to make up for the insufficiency.

  2. [Antisecretory effect of the H2-histamine receptor antagonist ranitidine in water-soluble tablets and film-coated tablets. Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, L; Röhmel, J

    1990-04-01

    This clinico-pharmacological trial aimed to prove equivalence between the known film-coated tablets of ranitidine (Sostril Filmtabletten) and the novel dispersible tablets for the preparation of a drinkable solution (Sostril Aquatabs) on a pharmacodynamic level. Therefore, the influence of single oral doses of the two ranitidine preparations (2 X 150 mg p.e.m. each) and placebo on the gastric hydrogen ion concentration was studied in 12 healthy volunteers using a randomized cross-over design. pH-values of the gastric juice were measured and recorded continuously for 24 h. Median pH-values for the entire study period were 2.20, 2.15 and 1.40 for dispersible tablets, filmcoated tablets and placebo, respectively. During the night-time median pH-values of 3.45 for both ranitidine preparations and 1.40 for placebo were calculated. From these results it can be concluded that the novel dispersible tablets are equivalent to the ranitidine filmcoated tablets with regard to their pharmacodynamic potency.

  3. Effects of sucralfate and ranitidine on aluminum concentrations in elderly volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J G; Coburn, J W; Sanders, M C; McSorley, D J; Sirgo, M A

    1995-01-01

    Elevated aluminum concentrations have been implicated in several disease states in the elderly. We examined the effects of sucralfate, a basic aluminum salt of sucrose sulfate, and ranitidine, administered individually and in combination, on plasma and urine aluminum concentrations in the elderly in a prospective, randomized, three-arm crossover study. Subjects were 20 healthy volunteers over age 65 years, with no clinically significant comorbidities or recent use of aluminum-containing drugs or histamine (H)2-antagonists. The three regimens were ranitidine 300 mg at bedtime, sucralfate 1 g 4 times/day, and ranitidine 300 mg at bedtime plus sucralfate 1 g 4 times/day, administered for 4 weeks, with a washout period of at least 1 week between regimens. Plasma and urine aluminum concentrations were measured on days 0, 1, 7, 14, and 28 of each regimen. After 28 days, mean plasma aluminum concentrations were significantly higher in subjects receiving sucralfate alone (8.5 +/- 1.8 micrograms/L) and sucralfate plus ranitidine (5.1 +/- 1.3 micrograms/L) compared with those receiving ranitidine alone (2.4 +/- 0.7 micrograms/L). Urine aluminum concentrations were significantly higher in subjects receiving sucralfate alone (133.2 +/- 32.8 micrograms/g creatinine) and sucralfate plus ranitidine (148.1 +/- 51.9 micrograms/g creatinine) compared with those receiving ranitidine alone (11.0 +/- 3.7 micrograms/g creatinine). There was no significant difference in plasma or urine aluminum concentrations between subjects who received sucralfate alone versus those who received sucralfate plus ranitidine. Sucralfate 4 g/day in elderly subjects produces a significant increase in both plasma and urine aluminum concentrations, compared with ranitidine 300 mg/day. This increase most likely is secondary to gastrointestinal absorption of aluminum in the sucralfate formulation. The clinical relevance of this increase requires further evaluation.

  4. Evaluation of Student Reflection as a Route to Improve Oral Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineart, Kenneth P.; Cooper, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the use of guided self-reflection and peer feedback activities to improve student oral communication in a large ChE class (n ~ 100) setting. Student performance tracked throughout an experimental semester indicated both reflection activities accelerated improvement in oral communication over control; student perception of the…

  5. Improving Students with Rubric-Based Self-Assessment and Oral Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, S.; Khurum, M.; Petersen, K.; Unterkalmsteiner, M.; Jabangwe, R.

    2012-01-01

    Rubrics and oral feedback are approaches to help students improve performance and meet learning outcomes. However, their effect on the actual improvement achieved is inconclusive. This paper evaluates the effect of rubrics and oral feedback on student learning outcomes. An experiment was conducted in a software engineering course on requirements…

  6. An improved technique for oral administration of solutions of test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... The oral administration of solution of drugs or test substances to experimental rats is often necessary in various pharmacological, toxicological and other biomedical ... procedure to avoid damage to it from the animal's bite.

  7. Optimized zein nanospheres for improved oral bioavailability of atorvastatin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hashem, Fahima M; Al-Sawahli, Majid M; Nasr, Mohamed; Ahmed, Osama A A

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on the development of atorvastatin utilizing zein, a natural, safe, and biocompatible polymer, as a nanosized formulation in order to overcome the poor oral bioavailability (12%) of the drug...

  8. Oral hygiene caregivers' educational programme improves oral health conditions in institutionalised independent and functional elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portella, Fernando F; Rocha, Aline W; Haddad, Daniel C; Fortes, Carmem B B; Hugo, Fernando N; Padilha, Dalva M P; Samuel, Susana M W

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the impact of an oral hygiene education programme for caregivers on the oral health of institutionalised elderly and to examine the effect of disability and low muscle strength on programme outcomes. The subjects of this study were geriatric patients (n = 80) from a nursing home. Katz Index for activities of daily living, handgrip strength and mucosal-plaque score (MPS) was evaluated at baseline and 1 year after intervention. The intervention consisted of an educational programme and specific guidelines for caregivers (to perform oral hygiene for dependent elderly and to supervise the independent elderly during oral hygiene practices). Differences on MPS were evaluated using a paired-sample t-test. A stratified analysis was carried out to identify differences in response to the programme according to the Katz Index and handgrip strength of elderly. The MPS was significantly reduced (p = 0.001) at follow-up; however, a separate analysis showed that only the independent elderly (p = 0.002) and those with normal muscle strength (p = 0.006) showed a reduction in MPS during the follow-up examination. The oral hygiene education programme for caregivers resulted in a positive impact on oral hygiene of the independent and functional elderly. © 2013 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Development of a sensitive high-performance thin-layer chromatography method for estimation of ranitidine in urine and its application for bioequivalence decision for ranitidine tablet formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shailesh A; Rathod, Ishwarsinh S; Savale, Shrinivas S; Patel, Bipin D

    2002-02-05

    A sensitive and simple HPTLC method was developed for estimation of ranitidine in human urine. The drug was extracted from urine after basification using dichloromethane. Dichloromethane extract was spotted on silica gel 60 F254 TLC plate and was developed in a mixture of ethyl acetate-methanol-ammonia (35:10:5 v/v) as the mobile phase and scanned at 320 nm. The RF value obtained for the drug was 0.67 +/- 0.03. The method was validated in terms of linearity (50-400 ng/spot), precision and accuracy. The average recovery of ranitidine from urine was 89.35%. The proposed method was applied to evaluate bioequivalence of two marketed ranitidine tablet formulations (150 mg, Formulation I and Formulation 2) using a crossover design by comparing urinary excretion data for unchanged ranitidine in six healthy volunteers. Various pharmacokinetic parameters like peak excretion rate [(dAU/dt)max], time for peak excretion rate (tmax), AUC0-24, AUC0-infinity, cumulative amount excreted were calculated for both formulations and subjected to statistical analysis. The relative bioavailability of Formulation 2 with respect to Formulation 1 was 93.76 and 95.31% on the basis of AUC0-24 and cumulative amount excreted, respectively. Statistical comparison of various pharmacokinetic parameters indicated that the two ranitidine tablet formulations are bioequivalent.

  10. Effects of cisapride on ulcer formation and gastric secretion in rats: comparison with ranitidine and omeprazol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón de la Lastra, C; Martin, M J; La Casa, M; López, A; Motilva, V

    1996-12-01

    1. The antiulcerogenic effects of cisapride, a potent benzamide-stimulating gastrointestinal motility agent, were studied on cold-resistant and pylorus-ligated gastric ulcers. Acidity, composition of gastric secretion, and quantitative and qualitative changes on mucus glycoprotein content were also determined. These effects were compared with those of ranitidine (50 mg/kg) and omeprazol (10 mg/kg). 2. Oral cisapride (10-100 mg/kg) dose-relatedly and significantly (P < 0.01, P < 0.05) decreased the severity of the lesions induced by cold-resistant stress. In stressed rats, cisapride increased the amount of mucus secretion and markedly enhanced the glycoprotein content. Morphometric evaluation of mucus secretion revealed a significant increase in both the PAS area (neutral glycoproteins) and Alcian blue area (sulfated glycoproteins). 3. In 4 h pyloric-ligated animals, cisapride (10-100 mg/kg) showed a significant reduction in the number and severity of ulcers (P < 0.01) and histamine concentration (P < 0.01, P < 0.001). In addition, at the highest doses (50-100 mg/kg), cisapride produced a significant decreases in acidity; however, it did not alter the gastric volume secretion or pepsin concentrations. 4. These results suggest that cisapride shows antiulcerogenic effects which could possibly be explained through antisecretory and cytoprotective mechanisms involving an enhancement of cuality and production of gastric mucus.

  11. Six sigma: process of understanding the control and capability of ranitidine hydrochloride tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabukswar, Ar; Jagdale, Sc; Kuchekar, Bs; Joshi, Vd; Deshmukh, Gr; Kothawade, Hs; Kuckekar, Ab; Lokhande, Pd

    2011-01-01

    The process of understanding the control and capability (PUCC) is an iterative closed loop process for continuous improvement. It covers the DMAIC toolkit in its three phases. PUCC is an iterative approach that rotates between the three pillars of the process of understanding, process control, and process capability, with each iteration resulting in a more capable and robust process. It is rightly said that being at the top is a marathon and not a sprint. The objective of the six sigma study of Ranitidine hydrochloride tablets is to achieve perfection in tablet manufacturing by reviewing the present robust manufacturing process, to find out ways to improve and modify the process, which will yield tablets that are defect-free and will give more customer satisfaction. The application of six sigma led to an improved process capability, due to the improved sigma level of the process from 1.5 to 4, a higher yield, due to reduced variation and reduction of thick tablets, reduction in packing line stoppages, reduction in re-work by 50%, a more standardized process, with smooth flow and change in coating suspension reconstitution level (8%w/w), a huge cost reduction of approximately Rs.90 to 95 lakhs per annum, an improved overall efficiency by 30% approximately, and improved overall quality of the product.

  12. Effects of temperature and relative humidity on the solid-state chemical stability of ranitidine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraoka, R; Otsuka, M; Matsuda, Y

    1993-06-01

    The chemical stability of ranitidine HCl in solution and in the solid state at various temperatures was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Ranitidine HCl was unstable in lower pH buffer solutions, and the percent degradation after 72 h increased as the pH of the buffer solution was reduced. The percent degradation in the unbuffered solution increased dose dependently. The critical relative humidity (CRH) of the ranitidine HCl bulk powder was approximately 67% relative humidity (RH). The amount of water adsorbed onto the sample above the CRH was proportional to the RH level. The percent degradation of the powder below 50% RH was almost negligible because, at this level, it was a solid. The percent degradation at 60-70% RH was higher than that above 70% RH. Ranitidine HCl powder was unstable around the CRH.

  13. Improving oral health in Pakistan using dental hygienists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, M A; Darby, M L; Bauman, D B

    2011-02-01

    This paper reviews the healthcare system, available dental care, and oral health status of people in Pakistan. Considering the enormous unmet oral health needs, the insufficient supply of dental professionals and the current unstructured dental hygiene curriculum in Pakistan, a mission, vision, and goals for professional dental hygiene in Pakistan is recommended. The authors offer recommendations for competency-based dental hygiene education and practice, professional credentialing, a practice act, and a dental hygiene scope of practice to promote the health, welfare, and quality of life of the Pakistani people. Specifically, the authors recommend increasing the number of quality dental hygiene programs, establishing the dental hygienist as a primary care provider of oral health services, enhancing current dental hygiene curriculum, and establishing a dental hygiene council with responsibility for educational requirements and regulation of dental hygienists in Pakistan.

  14. Understanding Resolvin Signaling Pathways to Improve Oral Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Oleo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of resolvins has been a major breakthrough for understanding the processes involved in resolution of inflammation. Resolvins belong to a family of novel lipid mediators that possess dual anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution actions. Specifically, they protect healthy tissue during immune-inflammatory responses to infection or injury, thereby aiding inflammation resolution and promoting tissue healing. One of the major concerns in modern medicine is the management and treatment of oral diseases, as they are related to systemic outcomes impacting the quality of life of many patients. This review summarizes known signaling pathways utilized by resolvins to regulate inflammatory responses associated with the oral cavity.

  15. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FLOATING MATRIX TABLET OF RANITIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu D. Ravat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ranitidine HCl is used for the H2 receptor antagonist. It is an absorption window limited drug, whosesolubility decreases with increase in the pH and has a short half life of 2-3 h. Therefore the presentinvestigation is concerned with the development of the floating matrix tablets, which after oraladministration were designed to prolong the gastric residence time and thus to increase thebioavailability of the drug and its half life. Ranitidine HCl showed maximum absorption at wavelength324 nm in 0.1N HCl. Drug-polymer compatibility studies by DSC give conformation about their purityand showed no interaction between drug and selected polymers. Various formulations were developedby using release rate controlling and gel forming polymers like HPMC K4 M, and Polyethylene oxideWSR 303 in single by direct compression method with the incorporation of sodium bicarbonate as gasgenerating agent. All the formulations had floating lag time below 4 minutes and constantly floated ondissolution medium for more than 12 h. Swelling studies indicated significant water uptake andcontributed in drug release. From all the developed formulations, batch F5 and F6 prolonged the drugrelease for longer period of time, they were nominated as best formulations. The best formulationsfollowed power law kinetics while the drug release mechanism was found to be diffusion through andpolymer relaxation. The best formulations were found to be stable during stability studies for one month.Thus, best formulations satisfied physico-chemical parameters, floating time, swelling index and in vitrodrug release profile requirements for a floating drug delivery system.

  16. Strategies Instruction to Improve the Preparation for English Oral Exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, José Vicente; Alzate, Paula Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of an inter-institutional research study that assessed the impact of strategies instruction on students' preparation for and performance in oral exams. Two teacher-researchers at different universities trained 26 students in their respective B1-English-level courses in using language learning strategies. The study…

  17. On-demand therapy in gastroesophageal reflux disease: a comparison of the early effects of single doses of fast-dissolving famotidine wafers and ranitidine tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, T; Kristensen, P

    1997-01-01

    In this double-masked, double-dummy, randomized, single crossover study, we compared single doses of a fast-dissolving wafer formulation of famotidine with a conventional tablet formulation of ranitidine in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Patient preference time until symptomatic relief, and predictive characteristics of early responders were assessed. Eligible patients had a clinical diagnosis of GERD and symptoms of GERD of sufficient severity to require relief. The study treatment was one dose of famotidine (20-mg wafer) and one dose of ranitidine (150-mg tablet), which were given in a randomized order and taken as needed. The patients were instructed to measure the symptomatic effects on a seven-point categorical scale (1 = worse to 7 = free of symptoms) at 15, 30, 45, 60, 120, and 180 minutes. After the clinical phase of the trial, the patients indicated their global assessment of efficacy and their preference for the wafer or the tablet. Of the 829 patients who completed the study, significantly more preferred the wafer to the tablet. While there was no significant difference in the global assessment of efficacy, the famotidine wafer provided significantly better relief than the ranitidine tablet during the first hour after dosing. However, at 120 and 180 minutes, the degree of relief was similar for the two drugs. The time until a clinically significant effect was also similar for the two drugs, and approximately one half of the patients experienced such improvement within 3 hours. Multivariate analyses disclosed no predictive characteristics of early symptomatic effect.

  18. Patient Perspectives on Improving Oral Health-Care Practices Among People Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabiun, Serena; Fox, Jane E.; McCluskey, Amanda; Guevara, Ernesto; Verdecias, Niko; Jeanty, Yves; DeMayo, Michael; Mofidi, Mahyar

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the impact on oral health-care knowledge, attitudes, and practices among 39 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) participating in a national initiative aimed at increasing access to oral health care. Personal values and childhood dental experiences, beliefs about the importance of oral health in relation to HIV health, and concerns for appearance and self-esteem were found to be determinants of oral health knowledge and practice. Program participation resulted in better hygiene practices, improved self-esteem and appearance, relief of pain, and better physical and emotional health. In-depth exploration of the causes for these changes revealed a desire to continue with dental care due to the dental staff and environmental setting, and a desire to maintain overall HIV health, including oral health. Our findings emphasize the importance of addressing both personal values and contextual factors in providing oral health-care services to PLWHA. PMID:22547879

  19. Effectiveness of motivational interviewing at improving oral health: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Morales Cascaes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To analyze the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI at improving oral health behaviors (oral hygiene habits, sugar consumption, dental services utilization or use of fluoride and dental clinical outcomes (dental plaque, dental caries and periodontal status. METHODS : A systematic search of PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, PsyINFO, Cochrane and Google Scholar bibliographic databases was conducted looking for intervention studies that investigated MI as the main approach to improving the oral health outcomes investigated. RESULTS : Of the 78 articles found, ten met the inclusion criteria, all based on randomized controlled trials. Most studies (n = 8 assessed multiple outcomes. Five interventions assessed the impact of MI on oral health behaviors and nine on clinical outcomes (three on dental caries, six on dental plaque, four on gingivitis and three on periodontal pockets. Better quality of evidence was provided by studies that investigated dental caries, which also had the largest population samples. The evidence of the effect of MI on improving oral health outcomes is conflicting. Four studies reported positive effects of MI on oral health outcomes whereas another four showed null effect. In two interventions, the actual difference between groups was not reported or able to be recalculated. CONCLUSIONS : We found inconclusive effectiveness for most oral health outcomes. We need more and better designed and reported interventions to fully assess the impact of MI on oral health and understand the appropriate dosage for the counseling interventions.

  20. Effectiveness of motivational interviewing at improving oral health: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascaes, Andreia Morales; Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Clark, Valerie Lyn; Barros, Aluísio J D

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) at improving oral health behaviors (oral hygiene habits, sugar consumption, dental services utilization or use of fluoride) and dental clinical outcomes (dental plaque, dental caries and periodontal status). METHODS A systematic search of PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, PsyINFO, Cochrane and Google Scholar bibliographic databases was conducted looking for intervention studies that investigated MI as the main approach to improving the oral health outcomes investigated. RESULTS Of the 78 articles found, ten met the inclusion criteria, all based on randomized controlled trials. Most studies (n = 8) assessed multiple outcomes. Five interventions assessed the impact of MI on oral health behaviors and nine on clinical outcomes (three on dental caries, six on dental plaque, four on gingivitis and three on periodontal pockets). Better quality of evidence was provided by studies that investigated dental caries, which also had the largest population samples. The evidence of the effect of MI on improving oral health outcomes is conflicting. Four studies reported positive effects of MI on oral health outcomes whereas another four showed null effect. In two interventions, the actual difference between groups was not reported or able to be recalculated. CONCLUSIONS We found inconclusive effectiveness for most oral health outcomes. We need more and better designed and reported interventions to fully assess the impact of MI on oral health and understand the appropriate dosage for the counseling interventions. PMID:24789647

  1. Oral salmon calcitonin improves fasting and postprandial glycemic control in lean healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigh, M; Nielsen, R H; Hansen, C; Henriksen, K; Christiansen, C; Karsdal, M A

    2012-02-01

    A novel oral form of salmon calcitonin (sCT) was recently demonstrated to improve both fasting and postprandial glycemic control and induce weight loss in diet-induced obese and insulin-resistant rats. To further explore the glucoregulatory efficacy of oral sCT, irrespective of obesity and metabolic dysfunction, the present study investigated the effect of chronic oral sCT treatment on fasting and postprandial glycemic control in male lean healthy rats. 20 male rats were divided equally into a control group receiving oral vehicle or an oral sCT (2 mg/kg) group. All rats were treated twice daily for 5 weeks. Body weight and food intake were monitored during the study period and fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin and insulin sensitivity were determined and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) performed at study end. Compared with the vehicle group, rats receiving oral sCT had improved fasting glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance, as measured by homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), with no change in body weight or fasting plasma insulin. In addition, the rats receiving oral sCT had markedly reduced glycemia and insulinemia during OGTT. This is the first report showing that chronic oral sCT treatment exerts a glucoregulatory action in lean healthy rats, irrespective of influencing body weight. Importantly, oral sCT seems to exert a dual treatment effect by improving fasting and postprandial glycemic control and insulin sensitivity. This and previous studies suggest oral sCT is a promising agent for the treatment of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

  2. The Effect of Task-based Teaching Method on the Improvement of Students'Oral English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠丽

    2016-01-01

    Task-based teaching method have play a very important role in Chinese foreign language teaching.This passage is mainly talking about the influence of task -based teaching menthod on the improvement of Students'oral English.

  3. How to improve college students'oral ability in the present intensive reading classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昕; 郝利钢; 郭娟

    2006-01-01

    Now improving college students' oral proficiency has been placed on the agenda for the first time in EFL classroom in China., because the development of society and economic.However, improving students oral proficiency is not a simple question, on the contrary is a complex question.There are many factors in it.One of the main factors is the intensive reading classroom, so the article is mainly talking about how to develop college students' oral ability in the present state, how to implement speaking skill in intensive reading classroom.

  4. In vitro evaluation of the stability of ranitidine hydrochloride in total parenteral nutrient mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M F; Hak, L J; Dukes, G

    1990-07-01

    The stability of ranitidine hydrochloride in various total parenteral nutrient (TPN) solutions was studied, as well as the effect of ranitidine on the stability of lipid emulsion and amino acids in these solutions. Ranitidine hydrochloride 25 mg/mL was added to each of the following mixtures to make final concentrations of approximately 50 and 100 mg/L: (1) TPN solution containing 4.5% amino acids, 22.7% dextrose, and electrolytes; (2) 10% lipid emulsion; (3) TPN solution containing 3.7% amino acids, 18.5% dextrose, 3.7% lipid emulsion, and electrolytes (all-in-one mixture); and (4) 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Mixtures were tested at room temperature and at 4 degrees C and were either protected from or exposed to fluorescent light. Sampling was done at 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours, and the ranitidine concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Samples were also analyzed for lipid particle size distribution and for amino acid content. At 48 hours, the all-in-one mixtures retained 86.0% to 91.4% of the initial ranitidine concentration. With one exception (ranitidine 50 mg/L in 0.9% sodium chloride injection, stored at room temperature and not protected from light), all other solutions retained at least 90% of the initial concentration at 48 hours. No visible changes in color and minimal changes in pH values were noted. There were no important changes in lipid particle-size distribution; 96% of all particles counted from any mixture were smaller than 1.44 microns in diameter at 48 hours. Ranitidine did not have an effect on amino acid concentrations in these mixtures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Gastroretentive Ranitidine Hydrochloride Tablets with Combined Floating and Bioadhesive Properties: Factorial Design Analysis, In Vitro Evaluation and In Vivo Abdominal X-Ray Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduljabbar, Hana N; Badr-Eldin, Shaimaa M; Aldawsari, Hibah M

    2015-01-01

    Ranitidine HCl is an H2-antagonist that suffers from low oral bioavailability of 50%. The site-specific absorption from the upper part of the small intestine and the colonic metabolism of the drug could partially contribute to its reduced bioavailability. To surmount these drawbacks, this work aimed at the formulation of Ranitidine HCl gastroretentive floating-biaodhesive tablets. A 3(2) factorial design was applied to assess the effects of matrix former (HPMC K100M): drug ratio, and the release retardant (Carbopol 971) amount on the characteristics of the tablets prepared using direct compression technique. The prepared tablets were thoroughly evaluated for physical properties, floating, swelling, bioadhesive and in vitro release behaviors. Statistical analysis of the results revealed significant effects for both formulation variables on the swelling index, maximum detachment force and cumulative percent drug released after 6 hours. In addition, the matrix- former: drug ratio showed a statistically significant effect on the floating lag time. Kinetic analysis of the release data indicated Higuchi diffusion kinetics and anomalous transport mechanism for all formulations. Scanning electron micrographs of the selected tablet formulation; F8, revealed intact surface without any perforations or channels in the dry state, while polymer expansion (relaxation) with some perforated areas were observed on the surface of the tablets after 12 hours dissolution in 0.1 N HCl. Furthermore, in vivo abdominal x-ray imaging showed good floating behavior of the selected formulation; F8, for up to 6 hours with appropriate bioadhesive property. In conclusion, the selected ranitidine HCl floating-bioadhesive tablets could be regarded as a promising gastroretentive drug delivery system that could deliver the drug at a controlled rate.

  6. Further improvement of orally disintegrating tablets using micronized ethylcellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Yutaka; Irisawa, Yosuke; Okimoto, Kazuto; Osawa, Takashi; Yamashita, Shinji

    2012-02-28

    The aim of this study is to design a new orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) containing micronized ethylcellulose (MEC). The new ODT was prepared by physical mixing of rapidly disintegrating granules (RDGs) with MEC. To obtain RDGs, mannitol was spray-coated with a suspension of corn starch and crospovidone (9:1, w/w ratio) using a fluidized-bed granulator (suspension spray-coating method). The new ODTs were evaluated for their hardness, friability, thickness, internal structure (X-ray-CT scanning), in vivo disintegration time, and water absorption rate. Since MEC increases tablet hardness by increasing the contact frequency between the granules, the new ODTs could obtain high hardness (>50 N) and low friability (disintegration in vivo (film coating, matrix, and microcapsule).

  7. Improving oral bioavailability of acyclovir using nanoparticulates of thiolated xyloglucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madgulkar, Ashwini; Bhalekar, Mangesh R; Dikpati, Amrita A

    2016-08-01

    Acyclovir a BCS class III drug exhibits poor bioavailability due to limited permeability. The intention of this research work was to formulate and characterize thiolated xyloglucan polysaccharide nanoparticles (TH-NPs) of acyclovir with the purpose of increasing its oral bioavailability. Acyclovir-loaded TH-NPs were prepared using a cross-linking agent. Interactions of formulation excipients were reconnoitered using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The formulated nanoparticles were lyophilised by the addition of a cryoprotectant and characterized for its particle size, morphology and stability and optimized using Box Behnken Design.The optimized TH-NP formulation exhibited particle size of 474.4±2.01 and an entrapment efficiency of 81.57%. A marked enhancement in the mucoadhesion was also observed. In-vivo study in a rat model proved that relative bioavailability of acyclovir TH-NPs is ∼2.575 fold greater than that of the marketed acyclovir drug suspension.

  8. Stability of ranitidine tablets subjected to stress and environmental conditions, by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volonté, M G; Yuln, G; Mandrile, A; Longo, R; Cingolani, A

    2001-01-01

    High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) method was applied in this study to comparatively evaluate the stability of tablets in their original package which 150 mg of Ranitidine from six different pharmaceutical laboratories in the market, according to ICH conditions for accelerated testing: 40 degrees C, 75% RH with and without light for six months. The stability at environmental conditions was evaluated for a twelve-month period, with and without light, with the same purpose. Ranitidine is widely used to treat peptic ulcer diseases. Ranitidine is susceptible to degradation under the influence of light, humidity and temperature. The chromatographic conditions were: RP-18 column of 250 mm yen 4 mm ID and a particle size of 5 mm; mobile phase of Acetonitrile-Ammonium acetate solution (0.2 M) (70:30; v/v) (pH*6) adjusted with glacial acetic acid; flow rate of 1 ml min-1; 25 degrees C of temperature; detection at 322 nm; injection volume of 20 ml, using height peak as the integration parameter. The results obtained at six months indicate that the stability of Ranitidine depends on the correct formulation and the primary container. The remaining content of Ranitidine, dissolved percentage in vitro and total impurity percentage were determined by HPLC. Organoleptic characteristics were visually examined. The proposed analytical method was validated and linearity, precision and selectivity were determined. Degradation products were detected.

  9. Electrochemical sensor for ranitidine determination based on carbon paste electrode modified with oxovanadium (IV) salen complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymundo-Pereira, Paulo A; Teixeira, Marcos F S; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando; Dockal, Edward R; Bonifácio, Viviane Gomes; Marcolino, Luiz H

    2013-10-01

    The preparation and electrochemical characterization of a carbon paste electrode modified with the N,N-ethylene-bis(salicyllideneiminato)oxovanadium (IV) complex ([VO(salen)]) as well as its application for ranitidine determination are described. The electrochemical behavior of the modified electrode for the electroreduction of ranitidine was investigated using cyclic voltammetry, and analytical curves were obtained for ranitidine using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) under optimized conditions. The best voltammetric response was obtained for an electrode composition of 20% (m/m) [VO(salen)] in the paste, 0.10 mol L(-1) of KCl solution (pH 5.5 adjusted with HCl) as supporting electrolyte and scan rate of 25 mV s(-1). A sensitive linear voltammetric response for ranitidine was obtained in the concentration range from 9.9×10(-5) to 1.0×10(-3) mol L(-1), with a detection limit of 6.6×10(-5) mol L(-1) using linear sweep voltammetry. These results demonstrated the viability of this modified electrode as a sensor for determination, quality control and routine analysis of ranitidine in pharmaceutical formulations.

  10. A comparison of roxatidine and ranitidine for the acute treatment of duodenal ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walt, R P; Logan, R F; Hawkey, C J; Daneshmend, T K; Long, R G; Cooper, B T; Langman, M J; Collins, M; Street, R

    1991-06-01

    Roxatidine acetate is a new histamine H2-antagonist of about twice the potency of ranitidine on a weight-for-weight basis. Two hundred and thirty-two patients participated in a double-blind randomized trial of duodenal ulcer healing comparing 300 mg ranitidine nocte with 150 mg roxatidine nocte. Endoscopy was repeated fortnightly to 4 weeks in each of four participating centres. Usual exclusion criteria applied but NSAID users were allowed. There were no important demographic differences between treatment recipients. Three analyses were used: protocol (dropouts and violators not included), intention-to-treat I (dropouts considered failures), and intention-to-treat II (dropouts considered failures, but violators outcome included). Healing rates differed markedly (but not significantly) with each analysis. After 2 weeks of treatment ulcers had healed in 51% versus 45% using the intention to treat I analysis with roxatidine and ranitidine, respectively; by the protocol analysis the healing proportions were 60% and 55%. These differences between treatments were not significant. After 4 weeks of treatment healing rates ranged from 71% to 83% on roxatidine and between 69% and 84% on ranitidine depending on the analysis. Differential healing proportions of smokers and non-smokers were non-significant (83% vs. 79%). Both drugs were well tolerated and adverse events were similar with each agent. Roxatidine should prove as effective as ranitidine for acute duodenal ulcer treatment.

  11. Oral L-Arginine Stimulates GLP-1 Secretion to Improve Glucose Tolerance in Male Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Christoffer; Smajilovic, Sanela; Smith, Eric P

    2013-01-01

    -induced obesity, may provide an alternative therapeutic approach. Importantly, recent evidence suggests the amino acid l-arginine, a well-known insulin secretagogue, can also stimulate release of GLP-1 from isolated rat intestine. Here we tested the hypothesis that oral l-arginine acts as a GLP-1 secretagogue...... in vivo, to augment postprandial insulin secretion and improve glucose tolerance. To test this, we administered l-arginine or vehicle by oral gavage, immediately prior to an oral glucose tolerance test in lean and diet-induced obese mice. In both lean and obese mice oral l-arginine increased plasma GLP-1...... possibility that l-arginine-based nutritional and/or pharmaceutical therapies may benefit glucose tolerance by improving the postprandial GLP-1 response in obese individuals....

  12. Drug-drug interaction between diclofenac, cetirizine and ranitidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenawi, Ihsan M; Barsoum, Barsoum N; Youssef, Maha A

    2005-04-01

    The interactions between diclofenac (1), cetirizine (2) and ranitidine (3) were investigated by thermal analyses and UV, IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopic studies. In aqueous solution interaction occurred only between 1 and 2, yielding a high molecular weight (1:1), water insoluble ionic salt. Weak charge transfer (CT) interaction exists between the doubly charged piperazine moiety in 2, acting as an electron acceptor and (1). This CT interaction originates from the aromatic groups in 1. The CT band observed at approximately 315 nm exhibits very low absorbance as a result of the partial neutralization of the two positive charges present in the ionic salt. The IR bands of the mixture have wave numbers at nu 3323.1, 1695.3, and delta 1321.1-1210 cm(-1) indicating the presence of the NH group and the neutralized carbonyl group of 1, as well as the carboxylic group of 2. The 1,2,3-substitutions in the benzene ring of 1 in the mixture appear at 1161.1 cm(-1). The (1)H NMR of the mixed drugs shows singlet, triplet and multiplet proton signals due to the same effect.

  13. [Improvement of oral health at institutionalized patients. Choice and validation of an adapted oral hygiene kit in long-term care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoste-Ferré, Marie-Hélène; Gendre, Charlotte; Rapp, Lucie; Gautrault, Sabrina; Hermabessière, Sophie; Rolland, Yves

    2014-09-01

    The initiatives to improve the quality are widely developed in the healthcare sector. So, an evaluation of the professional practices (EPP) concerning oral diseases in elderly was organized in the long term care unit of the teaching hospital of Toulouse. In the dynamic of this EPP, a pilot study consisted in estimating a new kit of oral hygiene. This hygiene kit was chosen according to defined criteria adapted to the elderly. The results show a clear improvement of the oral health measured with a specific index (Oral health assessment tool).

  14. Application of near-infrared reflectance spectrometry to the analytical control of pharmaceuticals: ranitidine hydrochloride tablet production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreassi, E; Ceramelli, G; Corti, P; Perruccio, P L; Lonardi, S

    1996-02-01

    The possibility of applying near-infrared reflectance spectrometry to the control of the production cycle of ranitidine hydrochloride tablets was investigated. The results were good for the identification of ranitidine hydrochloride drug substance, mixtures for tablets, cores and coated tablets. The determination of the compound and of its water content also gave satisfactory results.

  15. Roxatidine versus ranitidine in the treatment of duodenal ulcers: a randomized double-blind controlled multicentre study in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fock, K M; Kang, J Y; Ng, H S; Ng, T M; Gwee, K A; Lim, C C

    1995-01-01

    Roxatidine acetate, a new H2 receptor antagonist, was compared with ranitidine in the treatment of duodenal ulcers in a double-blind multicentre study. Eighty-four patients with endoscopically proven duodenal ulcer were randomized to receive 150 mg roxatidine acetate or 300 mg ranitidine at bedtime. Repeat endoscopy was performed after 4 weeks (25-33 days) and if the ulcer had not healed, another endoscopy was performed after a further 4 weeks of treatment. Using per protocol analysis 73.6% of ulcers treated with roxatidine healed at 4 weeks compared to 72.2% of ulcers treated with ranitidine (P = NS). The healing rates at 8 weeks were 92% with roxatidine and 83.3% with ranitidine (P = NS). Using equivalence tests, the healing rate of roxatidine was found to be equivalent to that of ranitidine within a 20% region. Roxatidine users took significantly less antacids than ranitidine users (P roxatidine or ranitidine. Roxatidine is a safe effective drug in the treatment of duodenal ulcers with a healing rate comparable to that of ranitidine.

  16. The influence of metronidazole resistance on the efficacy of ranitidine bismuth citrate triple therapy regimens for Helicobacter pylori infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wouden, EJ; Thijs, JC; Van Zwet, AA; Kooy, A; Kleibeuker, JH

    Aim: To assess the influence of metronidazole resistance on the efficacy of ranitidine bismuth citrate-based triple therapy regimens in two consecutive studies. Methods: In the first study, patients with a culture-proven Helicobacter pylori infection were treated with ranitidine bismuth citrate 400

  17. Excipient Nanoemulsions for Improving Oral Bioavailability of Bioactives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Salvia-Trujillo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral bioavailability of many hydrophobic bioactive compounds found in natural food products (such as vitamins and nutraceuticals in fruits and vegetables is relatively low due to their low bioaccessibility, chemical instability, or poor absorption. Most previous research has therefore focused on the design of delivery systems to incorporate isolated bioactive compounds into food products. However, a more sustainable and cost-effect approach to enhancing the functionality of bioactive compounds is to leave them within their natural environment, but specifically design excipient foods that enhance their bioavailability. Excipient foods typically do not have functionality themselves but they have the capacity to enhance the functionality of nutrients present in natural foods by altering their bioaccessibility, absorption, and/or chemical transformation. In this review article we present the use of excipient nanoemulsions for increasing the bioavailability of bioactive components from fruits and vegetables. Nanoemulsions present several advantages over other food systems for this application, such as the ability to incorporate hydrophilic, amphiphilic, and lipophilic excipient ingredients, high physical stability, and rapid gastrointestinal digestibility. The design, fabrication, and application of nanoemulsions as excipient foods will therefore be described in this article.

  18. Spectrophotometric simultaneous estimation of ranitidine hydrochloride and ondansetron hydrochloride from tablet formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillai S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Three simple, accurate, economical and reproducible UV spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous estimation of two component drug mixture of ranitidine hydrochloride and ondansetron hydrochloride from combined tablet dosage form have been developed. First developed method involves formation and solving of simultaneous equations at 267.2 nm and 314.4 nm. Second method was developed making use of first order derivative spectroscopy using 340.8 nm and 276.0 nm as zero crossing points for estimation of ranitidine hydrochloride and ondansetron hydrochloride respectively. Third method is based on two wavelength calculation, wavelengths selected for estimation of ranitidine hydrochloride were 266.1 nm and 301.8 nm and for ondansetron hydrochloride 305.7 nm and 319.2 nm. The results of analysis have been validated statistically and by recovery studies.

  19. A sensitive spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of ranitidine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu, Sevgi Tatar; Çakar, Mahmut Bülent

    2012-08-01

    A simple, precise and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method was developed and validated for the determination of ranitidine in pharmaceutical preparations. The method is based on derivatization of ranitidine with 4-fluoro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD-F). The method was successfully validated in accordance to ICH guidelines. The validation characteristics included linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision, specificity and robustness. The method is linear over the range of 40-1200 ng/mL. The recoveries were ranged from 98.97 to 99.43%. The proposed method was applied for the determination of ranitidine in commercially available tablets. The results were compared with those obtained by reference method using t and F-tests.

  20. Detection of some volatile degradation products released during photoexposition of ranitidine in a solid state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrógiewicz, Marzena; Wielgomas, Bartosz

    2013-03-25

    Ranitidine (RAN) is on top of the list of prescribed drugs, due to its popularity as a selective H2-receptor antagonist, which efficiently decreases the amount of acid produced in the stomach. RAN is not stable both in a solid state and in a solution, which creates manufacturing problems, requires appropriate storage conditions, and results in a short drug shelf-life. The aim of this work was to study the emission of volatile degradation products generated during photoexposition of ranitidine hydrochloride in a solid state. Significant changes in volatile profile of irradiated RAN were detected using HS-SPME-GC-MS. Sixteen major peaks were noticed on the chromatograms of irradiated ranitidine and the structures of some compounds were elucidated, while the presence of acetaldoxime, thiazole, dimethylformamide, dimethylacetamide and 5-methylfurfural was confirmed by means of the analysis of the authentic standards.

  1. Effect of ranitidine on postoperative suppression of natural killer cell activity and delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Pedersen, B K; Moesgaard, F

    1989-01-01

    hypersensitivity (DTH) antigens, and blood drawn immediately before and 24 hours after skin incision was analyzed for spontaneous and in vitro stimulated (IL-2, IFN-alpha or indomethacin) natural killer (NK) cell activity and PHA and PPD-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. Lymphocyte subsets (helper......In a randomized study of patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery, 12 received i.v. ranitidine (50 mg every 6 hours for 72 hours from the skin incision) and 12 had no ranitidine. Cell-mediated immunity was assessed pre- and postoperatively by skin testing with seven common delayed type....../inducer-T cells, suppressor/cytotoxic-T cells, Pan-T cells and NK-cells) were counted by flow-cytometry. Perioperative ranitidine diminished the expected postoperative reduction in DTH responses (p less than 0.0001), as well as in spontaneous NK-cell activity (p less than 0.03) and in vitro IL-2 stimulated NK-cell...

  2. Stability of paclitaxel with ondansetron hydrochloride or ranitidine hydrochloride during simulated Y-site administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burm, J P; Jhee, S S; Chin, A; Moon, Y S; Jeong, E; Nii, L; Fox, J L; Gill, M A

    1994-05-01

    The stability of paclitaxel with either ondansetron hydrochloride or ranitidine hydrochloride during simulated Y-site injection at room temperature was studied. Triplicate test solutions of paclitaxel 0.3 and 1.2 mg/mL were admixed 1:1 with ondansetron 0.03 and 0.3 mg/mL (as the hydrochloride salt) or ranitidine 0.5 and 2.0 mg/mL (as the hydrochloride salt). Also, paclitaxel 1.2 mg/mL was admixed 1:1:1 with ondansetron 0.3 mg/mL and ranitidine 2.0 mg/mL. The solutions were stored in glass containers at room temperature, and samples were removed at zero, one, two, and four hours for immediate assay. At the time of the assay and before any dilution, each sample was visually inspected for clarity, color, and precipitation, and the pH was determined. Drug concentrations were measured by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic procedures. Throughout the study, more than 90% of the initial concentrations of paclitaxel, ondansetron, and ranitidine remained in the solutions. No precipitates, color changes, or haziness was seen. The changes in pH were minor. Paclitaxel in concentrations of 0.3 and 1.2 mg/mL was stable when mixed with either ondansetron (0.03 or 0.3 mg/mL, as the hydrochloride salt) or ranitidine (0.5 or 2.0 mg/mL, as the hydrochloride salt) and stored in glass containers for four hours. Paclitaxel 1.2 mg/mL was also stable when mixed with both ondansetron 0.3 mg/mL and ranitidine 2.0 mg/mL and stored in glass containers for four hours.

  3. Chemical compatibility of cefmetazole sodium with ranitidine hydrochloride during simulated Y-site administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, K; Gill, M A; Okamoto, M P; Takagi, J

    1993-01-01

    The stability of cefmetazole sodium and ranitidine hydrochloride was studied under conditions simulating administration via a Y-injection site into a primary infusion line. Cefmetazole sodium was reconstituted with both 0.9% sodium chloride injection (50 mL or 100 mL) and 5% dextrose injection (50 mL) to produce premixing concentrations of cefmetazole 10 and 20 mg/mL. Ranitidine hydrochloride injection was diluted with 50 mL 0.9% sodium chloride injection to give premixing concentrations of ranitidine 1 mg/mL. To simulate Y-site administration, 2 mL of cefmetazole was mixed with 2 mL of ranitidine in a 10-mL glass test tube. All study mixtures were prepared in triplicate and stored at room temperature (22-23 degrees C) under normal fluorescent room lighting. Samples of these admixtures were inspected for visual changes and tested for pH. The concentrations of two drugs were immediately determined by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic assay methods after mixing and at 1, 2, and 4 hours. No visual changes were observed. The pH in the admixtures was influenced by concentrations of the two drugs. The pH of each single-drug solution did not change during the study period. On the other hand, the pH of any admixtures of cefmetazole and ranitidine solutions prepared with 0.9% sodium chloride or 5% dextrose injection, decreased. Cefmetazole in any of the admixtures with ranitidine retained greater than 95% of its original concentration for 4 hours.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. On Strategies of Improving Junior High School Students' Oral English Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗茜

    2015-01-01

    With the increasingly frequent international exchanges,English,as an international language,has been attached greater importance.The oral English ability of junior high school students plays an indispensable role in their everyday study and social interaction,and it is the present junior school study that can lay a solid foundation for their future study and life. Therefore,to comprehensively improve their oral English ability is in urgent need and of paramount significance.This paper focuses on analyzing the external and internal factors influencing the cultivation of junior high school students' oral English ability,and put forwards the corresponding cultivating strategies of the oral English ability of junior high school students.

  5. On Strategies of Improving Junior High School Students’ Oral English Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗茜

    2015-01-01

    With the increasingly frequent international exchanges,English,as an international language,has been attached greater importance.The oral English ability of junior high school students plays an indispensable role in their everyday study and social interaction,and it is the present junior school study that can lay a solid foundation for their future study and life.Therefore,to comprehensively improve their oral English ability is in urgent need and of paramount significance.This paper focuses on analyzing the external and internal factors influencing the cultivation of junior high school students’oral English ability,and put forwards the corresponding cultivating strategies of the oral English ability of junior high school students.

  6. UV-spectrophotometric estimation of ranitidine and domperidone in tablet formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charde M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, fast, precise multicomponent mode analysis method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of ranitidine and domperidone in tablet formulation. The sampling wavelengths selected for both the drugs were 229 nm, 245 nm, 270 nm, 285 nm, 294 nm on trial-and-error basis using methanol as solvent. The linearity for both the drugs at all the selected wavelengths lies between 3.0 and 50 µg/ml for ranitidine and 0.2 and 3.5 µg/ml for domperidone. The concentrations of both the drugs were evaluated in laboratory mixture and marketed formulation. The recovery study was carried out by standard addition method.

  7. Ranitidine treatment inducing methemoglobinemia in male Wistar rats Metemoglobinemia induzida pela ranitidina em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Roberto Malfará; Ana Maria de Souza; Regina Helena Costa Queiroz

    2005-01-01

    Drug idiosyncrasy is an adverse event of unknown etiology that occurs in a small fraction of people taking a drug. The histamine-2 (H2)-receptor antagonist ranitidine causes idiosyncratic reactions in patients. To investigate the hypothesis that ranitidine could induce hematological toxic effects, the drug was administered intraperitoneally (ip) to two of six groups of 200-220 g male Wistar rats (n=6). Group I received as single dose of saline solution (NaCl, 200 µL) Group II received 2...

  8. Strategies for English Oral Skill Improvement Employed by Medical College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻蓉

    2011-01-01

    Research in language learning strategies has addressed the necessity of improving oral skills in second language acquisition.This study attempts to explore the strategies employed by 19 medical students at Qiannan Medical College for Nationalities to improve their oral skills.Semi-structured interview and open-ended questionnaire were used as the instruments for the data collection.The data was then analyzed qualitatively for the purpose of the study.The findings of the study showed that the strategies employed by the students mainly indude the strategies to improve speaking skills and the strategies to improve listening skills.The strategies to improve speaking skills include two main categories:fluency-focused strategies and accuracy-focused strategies.The strategies to improve listening skills also include two main categories:direct strategies and indirect strategies.

  9. Improving Patient Outcomes With Oral Heart Failure Medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, Melissa M; Cheek, Dennis J; Seale, Ashlie

    2016-05-01

    Hospitals are under immense pressure to reduce heart failure readmissions that occur within 30 days of discharge, and to improve the quality of care for these patients. Penalties mandated by the Affordable Care Act decrease hospital reimbursement and ultimately the overall cost of caring for these patients increases if they are not well managed. Approximately 25% of patients hospitalized for heart failure are at high risk for readmission and these rates have not changed over the past decade. As a result of an aging population, the incidence of heart failure is expected to increase to one in five Americans over the age of 65. Pharmacologic management can reduce the risk of death and help prevent unnecessary hospitalizations. Healthcare providers who have knowledge of heart failure medications and drug interactions and share this information with their patients contribute to improved long-term survival and physical functioning as well as fewer hospitalizations and a delay of progressive worsening of heart failure.

  10. Identifying factors to improve oral cancer screening uptake: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Vida Zohoori

    Full Text Available AIMS: To engage with high risk groups to identify knowledge and awareness of oral cancer signs and symptoms and the factors likely to contribute to improved screening uptake. METHODS: Focus group discussions were undertaken with 18 males; 40+ years of age; smokers and/or drinkers (15+ cigarettes per day and/or 15+ units of alcohol per week, irregular dental attenders living in economically deprived areas of Teesside. RESULTS: There was a striking reported lack of knowledge and awareness of oral cancer and its signs and symptoms among the participants. When oral/mouth cancer leaflets produced by Cancer Research UK were presented to the participants, they claimed that they would seek help on noticing such a condition. There was a preference to seek help from their general practitioner rather than their dentist due to perceptions that a dentist is 'inaccessible' on a physical and psychological level, costly, a 'tooth specialist' not a 'mouth specialist', and also not able to prescribe medication and make referrals to specialists. Interestingly, none of the 18 participants who were offered a free oral cancer examination at a dental practice took up this offer. CONCLUSIONS: The uptake of oral cancer screening may be improved by increasing knowledge of the existence and signs and symptoms of oral cancer. Other factors that may increase uptake are increased awareness of the role of dentists in diagnosing oral cancer, promotion of oral cancer screening by health professionals during routine health checks, and the use of a "health" screening setting as opposed to a "dental" setting for such checks.

  11. Brief Report: Remotely Delivered Video Modeling for Improving Oral Hygiene in Children with ASD: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popple, Ben; Wall, Carla; Flink, Lilli; Powell, Kelly; Discepolo, Keri; Keck, Douglas; Mademtzi, Marilena; Volkmar, Fred; Shic, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Children with autism have heightened risk of developing oral health problems. Interventions targeting at-home oral hygiene habits may be the most effective means of improving oral hygiene outcomes in this population. This randomized control trial examined the effectiveness of a 3-week video-modeling brushing intervention delivered to patients over…

  12. How to improve students ’oral English ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈忠泽

    2016-01-01

    With the opening-up of China, English teaching has been getting more and more attention, Now, A Standard English course is being used to replace the former teaching outline. The new standard adopts the international system. This has changed the old style of teaching, which attaches importance to grammar and vocabulary. The new method will place less stress on“reading and writing”, in favor of“listening”and“speaking”. So now, speaking is getting more and more important in middle school English teaching. This paper discuss how to improve students’speaking ability .

  13. Multi-modal intervention improved oral intake in hospitalized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, M; Beermann, T; Mortensen, M N

    2015-01-01

    : A 12-months observational multi-modal intervention study was done, using the top-down and bottom-up principle. All hospitalized patients (>3 days) were included. Setting: A university hospital with 758 beds and all specialities. Measurements: Record audit of GNP, energy- and protein-intake by 24-h......BACKGROUND: Good nutritional practice (GNP) includes screening, nutrition plan and monitoring, and is mandatory for targeted treatment of malnourished patients in hospital. AIMS: To optimize energy- and protein-intake in patients at nutritional risk and to improve GNP in a hospital setting. METHODS...

  14. Improving Oral English Teaching in Higher Vocational College by Reducing Non-English Majors' Language Anxiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    战飞

    2012-01-01

    Many Non-English majors of vocational college experience language anxiety when they speak English in the class. Many scholars have investigated language anxiety for years, which means that this prob- lem has attracted more and more attention. However, most of the investigations are carried on among university undergraduates while little re- search has been done about vocational college students. So, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the current situations of oral English teaching in vocational colleges and combine the features of English and characteristics of vocational college students to find out the causes of vocational college non-English majors' language anxiety and help students to reduce anxiety so as to improve their oral proficiency and ultimately improving oral English teaching in higher vocational college.

  15. The most effective and essential way of improving the oral health status education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Chachra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. Two major oral diseases, dental caries and periodontal diseases, are both ancient and widespread. The oral health situation analysis demands that the preventive program be implemented in both the developing and developed countries. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of delivering the primary preventive strategies through non dental and dental personnel. Aims and Objectives: To develops the preventive package for improving the oral health status of children utilizing the different communication approaches. To find out the most feasible and effective communication approach for delivering the preventive package. To evaluate the changes produced in terms of various soft and hard core parameters after 6 months of implementation of the oral-health preventive package in the school children of different study groups as compared to control. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on total of 972 children in the age group of 5-16 years who were randomly selected from four schools of Chandigarh and Panchkula to evaluate and compare the prevalence of dental caries and knowledge, attitude, and practice about oral health. Results and Conclusions: The results of various parameters indicate that direct communication through the dentist proved to be the most effective communication approach as compared to the other two indirect communication approaches.

  16. Patient safety oriented to improve patient retention in oral health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Erri Astoeti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health service systems should be designed to promote patient health, protection, and must be in compliance with Indonesian laws that help protect patients from misuse of personal information. Patient safety is a new healthcare discipline that emphasizes the reporting, analysis, and prevention of medical or dental error that often lead to adverse healthcare events. Purpose: To describe correlation that patient safety would improve patent retention in oral health. Patient safety is an essential component of quality oral health care and dentist is encouraged to consider thoughtfully the environment in which they deliver dental care, while at the same time services and to implement practices that decrease a patient’s risk of injury or harm during the delivery of care. Reviews: Designing oral health care systems that focus on preventing errors is critical to assure patient safety. Some possible sources of error in oral health services are miscommunication, failure to review the patient’s medical history, and lack of standardized records, abbreviations, and processes. Conclusion: Patient safety would support patient satisfaction; therefore oral health services can increase patient retention.

  17. Oral bisoprolol improves surgical field during functional endoscopic sinus surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitha Mary Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The success of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS depends on visual clarity of the surgical field, through the endoscope. The objective of this double-blind, randomized, controlled study was to determine if a pre-operative dose of bisoprolol (2.5 mg would reduce the bleeding during FESS and improve the visualization of the operative field. Materials and Methods: Thirty American Society of Anesthesiologists I or II patients, scheduled for FESS were randomized to receive either a placebo (Group A or 2.5 mg of bisoprolol (Group B 90 min prior to the surgery. All the patients received standard anesthesia and monitoring. The aim was to maintain the mean arterial pressure (MAP of 60-70 mmHg, by titrating dose of isoflurane and fentanyl. The concentration of isoflurane used was recorded every 15 min. At the end of the surgery, the volume of blood loss was measured and the surgeon was asked to grade the operative field as per the Fromme-Boezaart Scale. Result: The blood loss was significantly (P < 0.0001 more in the control group (398.67 ± 228.79 ml as compared with that in the bisoprolol group (110.67 ± 45.35 ml. The surgical field was graded better in those who received bisoprolol as compared with those in the control group ( P − 0.0001. The volume percent of isoflurane and the dose of fentanyl used was significantly lower in those who received bisoprolol. During the operative period, the MAPs were 70.0 ± 2.7 (Group A and 62.6 ± 3.6 mmHg (Group B and the heart rate was 99.8 ± 5.0/min (Group A and 69.2 ± 4.4/min (Group B. These differences were statistically significant ( P − 0.001. Conclusion: This clinical trial has demonstrated that administration of a single pre-operative dose of bisoprolol (2.5 mg can significantly reduce the blood loss during FESS and improve the visualization of the operating field.

  18. Gastro retentive microencapsulated Cefpodoxime Proxetil to improve oral bioavailability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deepa Karthikeyan; Karthikeyan M

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The objective of the present study was to develop floating microspheres of Cefpodoxime Proxetil in order to achieve an extended retention in the upper GIT,which may result in enhanced absorption and there by improved bioavailability.Methods:The microspheres were prepared by non -aqueous solvent evaporation method using polymers such as Hydroxyl Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC K15M),Ethyl Cellulose (EC)in different ratios,and Cefpodoxime Proxetil contain in each formulation.In vitro drug release were performed by USP apparatus type I andthe microspheres were characterized by calculating percentage yield,particle size a-nalysis,buoyancy percentage,drug entrapment efficiencyand in vitro drug release studies.Results:The result showed microspheres yield were 50.50 %-72.21 %,particle size were distributed between75-600 μm,drug entrapment efficiency were 14.1 %-28.2 %,buoyancy percentage were 70.10 %-88.25 %.Conclusion:Cefpodoxime Proxetil floating microspheres,at the lower polymer to drug ratio,there was a significant drug re-lease.The better drug release profile was seen with FA2 with ratio of drug polymer (1∶2).

  19. Comparison of tri-potassium di-citrato bismuthate tablets with ranitidine in healing and relapse of duodenal ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F I; Samloff, I M; Hardman, M

    1985-06-08

    120 patients were randomly allocated to receive ranitidine 150 mg twice daily or a tri-potassium di-citrato bismuthate (TDB) tablet four times a day in a trial comparing the effects of these drugs in the short-term healing and post-healing relapse rates of duodenal ulceration. At 4 weeks 81% of those on ranitidine and 90% of those on TDB had healed ulcer craters. At 8 weeks 97% of those on ranitidine and 97% of those on TDB had healed. These differences are not significant. After ulcer healing, the cumulative rates of relapse, as determined endoscopically, for symptomatic and symptomless ulcers were 74% for ranitidine and 41% for TDB at 4 months (p less than 0.001), 87% for ranitidine and 55% for TDB at 8 months (p less than 0.001), and 89% for ranitidine and 62% for TDB at 12 months (p less than 0.001). Females had significantly lower relapse rates than males. In the ranitidine group smokers had a higher rate of early relapse and failure to remain healed at 12 months than did non-smokers; no such difference occurred in the TDB-treated group.

  20. Interprofessional Oral Health Education Improves Knowledge, Confidence, and Practice for Pediatric Healthcare Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devon Cooper

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is the most prevalent chronic childhood disease in the United States. Dental caries affects the health of 60–90% of school-aged children worldwide. The prevalence of untreated early childhood dental caries is 19% for children 2–5 years of age in the U.S. Some factors that contribute to the progression of dental caries include socioeconomic status, access to dental care, and lack of anticipatory guidance. The prevalence of dental caries remains highest for children from specific ethnic or racial groups, especially those living in underserved areas where there may be limited access to a dentist. Although researchers have acknowledged the various links between oral health and overall systemic health, oral health care is not usually a component of pediatric primary health care. To address this public health crisis and oral health disparity in children, new collaborative efforts among health professionals is critical for dental disease prevention and optimal oral health. This evaluation study focused on a 10-week interprofessional practice and education (IPE course on children’s oral health involving dental, osteopathic medical, and nurse practitioner students at the University of California, San Francisco. This study’s objective was to evaluate changes in knowledge, confidence, attitude, and clinical practice in children’s oral health of the students completed the course. Thirty-one students participated in the IPE and completed demographic questionnaires and four questionnaires before and after the IPE course: (1 course content knowledge, (2 confidence, (3 attitudes, and (4 clinical practice. Results showed a statistically significant improvement in the overall knowledge of children’s oral health topics, confidence in their ability to provide oral health services, and clinical practice. There was no statistically significant difference in attitude, but there was an upward trend toward positivity. To conclude, this IPE

  1. Ideas on How to Help the Students Improve Their Oral English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Lin; Li Ying

    2001-01-01

    In order to help students improve their oral English,the teacher should analyze the students' psychological problems,help the students form a good habit of listening and speaking,play different roles to arouse students interest,deal with student errors effectively and be adaptable and flexible in choosing teaching methods.

  2. Improved control of oral anticoagulant dosing : A randomized controlled trial comparing two computer algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Y; Rombouts, E K; Kruithof, C J; van der Meer, F J M; Rosendaal, F R

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Efforts to improve dosing quality in oral anticoagulant control include the use of computer algorithms. As current algorithms are simplistic and give dosage proposals in a small fraction of patients, we developed an algorithm based on principles of system and control engineering that giv

  3. Improving the Awareness of Personal and Oral Hygiene in Second Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleskie-Lippert, Kathleen

    The practicum reported here involved the design of a hygiene awareness unit to help 30 second-grade students in an inner-city school become aware of and improve their personal and oral hygiene, and to provide necessary knowledge concerning pediculosis. Surveys of students and faculty prior to the program demonstrated the need for such a program as…

  4. An environmentally friendly reflectometric method for ranitidine determination in pharmaceuticals and human urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Liliane Spazzapam; Weinert, Patrícia Los; Lemos, Sahra Cavalcante; Sequinel, Rodrigo; Pezza, Helena Redigolo; Pezza, Leonardo

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an environmentally friendly method for quantitative determination of ranitidine using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. This method is based on the reflectance measurements of the colored product produced from the spot test reaction between ranitidine and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde ( p-DAC), in acid medium, using filter paper as solid support. Experimental design methodologies were used to optimize the optimal conditions. All reflectance measurements were carried out at 590 nm and the linear range was from 1.42 × 10 -3 to 3.42 × 10 -2 mol L -1, with a correlation coefficient of 0.997. The limit of detection was estimated to be 1.09 × 10 -3 mol L -1 (R.S.D. = 1.9%). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of ranitidine in commercial brands of pharmaceuticals and no interferences were observed from the common excipients in formulations. The results obtained by the proposed method were favorably compared with those obtained by an official procedure at 95% confidence level. Additionally, the method was also applied to the determination of ranitidine in human urine showing excellent recoveries (99.6-100.3%).

  5. Effect of gastric emptying and entero-hepatic circulation on bioequivalence assessment of ranitidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrenova, J; Durisova, M; Mircioiu, C; Dedik, L

    2010-01-01

    The aim of study was to compare the bioavailability of ranitidine obtained from either Ranitidine (300 mg tablet; LPH® S.C. LaborMed Pharma S.A. Romania: the test formulation) and Zantac® (300 mg tablet; GlaxoSmithKline, Austria: the reference formulation). Twelve, Romanian, healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. An open-label, two-period, crossover, randomized design was used. Plasma levels of ranitidine were determined using the validated, high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The physiologically motivated time-delayed model was used for the data evaluation and a paired Student's t-test and Schuirmann's two one-sided tests were carried out to compare parameters. Nonmodeling parameters (AUC(t), AUC, C(max), T(max)) were tested by the paired Student's t-test and the 90 confidence intervals of the geometric mean ratios were determined by Schuirmann's tests. Paired Student's t-test showed no significant differences between nonmodeling and modeling parameters. The results of the Schuirmann's tests however indicated significant statistical differences with reference to AUC(t), AUC, C(max), T(max) and other modeling parameters, especially MT(c) and τ(c). Schuirmann's tests revealed significant bioequivalence between ranitidine formulations using the modeling parameters MRT and n. The presented model can be useful as an additional tool to assess drug bioequivalence, by screening for disruptive parameters.

  6. Floating granules of ranitidine hydrochloride-gelucire 43/01: formulation optimization using factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dasharath M; Patel, Natavarlal M; Patel, Viral F; Bhatt, Darshini A

    2007-04-13

    The purpose of this research was to develop and optimize a controlled-release multiunit floating system of a highly water soluble drug, ranitidine HCl, using Compritol, Gelucire 50/13, and Gelucire 43/01 as lipid carriers. Ranitidine HCl-lipid granules were prepared by the melt granulation technique and evaluated for in vitro floating and drug release. Ethyl cellulose, methylcellulose, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose were evaluated as release rate modifiers. A 3(2) full factorial design was used for optimization by taking the amounts of Gelucire 43/01 (X (1)) and ethyl cellulose (X (2)) as independent variables, and the percentage drug released in 1(Q(1)), 5(Q(5)), and 10 (Q(10)) hours as dependent variables. The results revealed that the moderate amount of Gelucire 43/01 and ethyl cellulose provides desired release of ranitidine hydrochloride from a floating system. Batch F4 was considered optimum since it contained less Gelucire and was more similar to the theoretically predicted dissolution profile (f(2) = 62.43). The temperature sensitivity studies for the prepared formulations at 40 degrees C/75% relative humidity for 3 months showed no significant change in in vitro drug release pattern. These studies indicate that the hydrophobic lipid Gelucire 43/01 can be considered an effective carrier for design of a multiunit floating drug delivery system for highly water soluble drugs such as ranitidine HCl.

  7. Formulation of ranitidine pellets by extrusion-spheronization with little or no microcrystalline cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, A W; Newton, J M; Lacey, L F

    1999-01-01

    The present study was concerned with the feasibility of formulating ranitidine into pellets with a range of alternative excipients in place of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). Eight ranitidine formulations employing two or more of the excipients lactose, barium sulfate, glyceryl monostearate, and MCC were processed by extrusion-spheronization, and characterized according to a series of physico-mechanical and dissolution criteria. Formulations containing lactose produced unsatisfactory pellets of wide size distribution and irregular shape, whereas formulations incorporating barium sulfate and glyceryl monostearate with or without MCC resulted in relatively spherical pellets of narrow size distribution and good mechanical properties. Ranitidine release was found to be rapid and virtually complete within 15 min, regardless of the pellet formulation. A direct relationship was observed between the concentration of MCC in the formulation and the properties of the pellets. In general, the higher the concentration of MCC, the rounder, stronger, and less friable the pellets. However, even pellets without MCC were also successfully prepared with a superior size distribution and shape over those with MCC. Overall, these results confirm that ranitidine can be formulated into pellet dosage forms with little or no MCC by the extrusion-spheronization process.

  8. Kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of ranitidine and nizatidine in pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walash, Mohamed I; Belal, Fathalla; Ibrahim, Fawzia; Hefnawy, Mohamed; Eid, Manai

    2002-01-01

    An accurate and simple kinetic method is described for the determination of ranitidine and nizatidine in pure form and in pharmaceuticals. The method is based on the reaction of the compounds with 7-chloro-4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole in pH 7.4 borate buffer at 60 degrees C for a fixed time of 25 min for both compounds. The absorbance of the reaction product is measured at 495 nm for ranitidine and nizatidine. Calibration graphs were linear over the concentration range of 2-20 microg/mL, with limits of detection of 0.13 (3.7 x 10(-7) M) and 0.25 microg/mL (7.5 x 10(-7) M) for ranitidine and nizatidine, respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully to the determination of ranitidine in tablets and ampoules with average recoveries of 100.26+/-0.69 and 100.29+/-0.59%, respectively, and to the determination of nizatidine in capsules with an average recovery of 104.26+/-0.44%. The results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained by the other methods used for comparison. A proposal of the reaction pathway is also presented.

  9. Solubility, dissolution rate and phase transition studies of ranitidine hydrochloride tautomeric forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmehrabi, M; Rohani, S; Murthy, K S K; Radatus, B

    2004-09-10

    Understanding the polymorphic behavior of pharmaceutical solids during the crystallization process and further in post-processing units is crucial to meet medical and legal requirements. In this study, an analytical technique was developed for determining the composition of two solid forms of ranitidine hydrochloride using two peaks of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra without the need to grind the samples. Solubility studies of ranitidine hydrochloride showed that Form 2 has a higher solubility than Form 1. Solution-mediated transformation is very slow and occurs from Form 2 to Form 1 and not the reverse. No solid-solid transformation was observed due to grinding or compressing the pure samples of either forms and of a 50/50 wt.% mixture. Grinding was found to be a proper technique for increasing the bulk solid density of the ranitidine hydrochloride without the risk of solid-solid transformation. Dissolution rate found to be equally fast for both forms. The solubility data were modeled using the group contribution parameters and UNIversal QUAsi-Chemical (UNIQUAC) theory. There was a good agreement between the experimental solubility data of ranitidine hydrochloride and the results of UNIQUAC equation.

  10. Determination of ranitidine in urine by capillary electrophoresis-electrochemiluminescent detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ying; Tian, Yiling; Sun, Xiuhua; Yin, Xue-Bo; Xiang, Qian; Ma, Ge; Wang, Erkang

    2006-03-07

    The fast analysis of ranitidine is of clinical importance in understanding its efficiency and a patient's treatment history. In this paper, a novel determination method for ranitidine based on capillary electrophoresis-electrochemiluminescence detection is described. The conditions affecting separation and detection were investigated in detail. End-column detection of ranitidine in 5 mM Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) solution at applied voltage of 1.20 V was performed. Favorable ECL intensity with higher column efficiency was achieved by electrokinetic injection for 10s at 10 kV. The R.S.D. values of ECL intensity and migration time were 6.38 and 1.84% for 10(-4) M and 6.01 and 0.60% for 10(-5) M, respectively. A detection limit of 7 x 10(-8) M (S/N=3) was achieved. The proposed method was applied satisfactorily to the determination of ranitidine in urine in 6 min.

  11. Effect of ranitidine on soluble interleukin 2 receptors and CD8 molecules in surgical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Mynster, T; Jensen, S

    1994-01-01

    The effect of perioperative immunomodulation with the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on postoperative changes in soluble interleukin (IL) 2 receptor and soluble CD8 levels was assessed in 24 patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery. Eleven patients were randomized to receive...

  12. A comparison of roxatidine acetate and ranitidine in gastric ulcer healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judmaier, G

    1988-01-01

    A randomised multicentre double-blind study was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of roxatidine acetate 75 mg twice daily and ranitidine 150 mg twice daily in 295 patients with endoscopically confirmed gastric ulcers. Substantial reductions in ulcer diameters and healing rates of 85.6 and 88.2% for roxatidine acetate and ranitidine, respectively, were obtained after 8 weeks of treatment. There was no difference in healing rates between smokers and non-smokers in either group. The relief of day and night-time epigastric pain was comparable for both treatment groups, as was antacid tablet consumption, with the majority of patients pain-free at the end of the study. The incidence of side effects was low, with 3 patients treated with roxatidine acetate, compared with 4 ranitidine-treated patients, reporting adverse reactions. There were no clinically significant changes in laboratory values. The present study suggests that 8 weeks of treatment with roxatidine acetate 75 mg twice a day produces effective and safe acute management of gastric ulcers which is comparable to that seen with ranitidine.

  13. A comparison of roxatidine acetate and ranitidine in duodenal ulcer healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüttemann, W

    1988-01-01

    A randomised double-blind study was conducted to compare the efficacy of roxatidine acetate 75 mg twice daily with ranitidine 150 mg twice daily in 308 patients with endoscopically confirmed uncomplicated duodenal ulcers. After 6 weeks of treatment ulcer healing was found in 93.5% of the roxatidine acetate group and 89.2% of the ranitidine group, with no significant differences between treatment groups. The relief of day and night-time epigastric pain assessed at clinic visits or on diary cards by patients was comparable for both treatment groups, as was the consumption of antacid tablets for relief of symptoms of dyspepsia. There were no significant differences in the healing rates of smokers and non-smokers for either roxatidine acetate or ranitidine treatment, and no clinically significant alterations in laboratory values. Eight patients in the roxatidine acetate group and 1 in the ranitidine group complained of mild side effects, which included diarrhoea, constipation and headache. One patient on roxatidine acetate withdrew from treatment because of a mild skin rash. The results confirm that roxatidine acetate is a safe and effective treatment for duodenal ulcer disease.

  14. Symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema due to ranitidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikoth Payyanadan Binitha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE is an adverse drug reaction which has been reported to be caused by various drugs. In this report, we describe a case induced by ranitidine, a drug which has not been previously reported to cause SDRIFE.

  15. The effect of ranitidine on cellular immunity in patients with multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Nielsen, H; Moesgaard, F;

    1990-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is characterized by an increased susceptibility to infections and to other malignancies. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study the potential impact of immunomodulation by ranitidine was studied in 20 patients with multiple myeloma. Three patients were untreated, while 17 af...

  16. Hypothermia Improves Oral and Gastric Mucosal Microvascular Oxygenation during Hemorrhagic Shock in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Vollmer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothermia is known to improve tissue function in different organs during physiological and pathological conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hypothermia on oral and gastric mucosal microvascular oxygenation (μHbO2 and perfusion (μflow under physiological and hemorrhagic conditions. Five dogs were repeatedly anesthetized. All animals underwent each experimental protocol (randomized cross-over design: hypothermia (34°C, hypothermia during hemorrhage, normothermia, and normothermia during hemorrhage. Microcirculatory and hemodynamic variables were recorded. Systemic (DO2 and oral mucosal (μDO2 oxygen delivery were calculated. Hypothermia increased oral μHbO2 with no effect on gastric μHbO2. Hemorrhage reduced oral and gastric μHbO2 during normothermia (−36 ± 4% and −27 ± 7%; however, this effect was attenuated during additional hypothermia (−15 ± 5% and −11 ± 5%. The improved μHbO2 might be based on an attenuated reduction in μflow during hemorrhage and additional hypothermia (−51 ± 21 aU compared to hemorrhage and normothermia (−106 ± 19 aU. μDO2 was accordingly attenuated under hypothermia during hemorrhage whereas DO2 did not change. Thus, in this study hypothermia alone improves oral μHbO2 and attenuates the effects of hemorrhage on oral and gastric μHbO2. This effect seems to be mediated by an increased μDO2 on the basis of increased μflow.

  17. Oratoria Online: The Use of Technology Enhaced Learning to Improve Students' Oral Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornaleteche, Jon

    New ITCs have proven to be useful tools for implementing innovating didactic and pedagogical formula oriented to enhance students' en teachers' creativity. The up-and-coming massive e-learning and blended learning projects are clear examples of such a phenomenon. The teaching of oral communication offers a perfect scenario to experiment with these formulas. Since the traditional face to face approach for teaching 'Speech techniques' does not keep up with the new digital environment that surround students, it is necessary to move towards an 'Online oratory' model focused on using TEL to improve oral skills.

  18. Formulation of cyclodextrin inclusion complex-based orally disintegrating tablet of eslicarbazepine acetate for improved oral bioavailability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Samixa; Poddar, Aditi; Sawant, Krutika, E-mail: dr_krutikasawant@yahoo.co.in

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed towards developing a beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) solid dispersion (SD) based orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), for improving the dissolution and providing fast onset of anti-epileptic action. Optimum ratio of ESL and β-CD was determined by Job's plot. Thereafter, solid dispersions were prepared by solvent evaporation method and evaluated for yield, assay, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and in vitro dissolution. Optimized SD was compressed into ODT by direct compression using super disintegrants and evaluated for wetting time, drug content, in vitro drug release and in vivo studies. The results of DSC, FTIR and XRD analysis supported the formation of inclusion complex. An improved dissolution with 99.95 ± 2.80% drug release in 60 min was observed in comparison to 24.85 ± 2.96% release from a plain drug suspension. Tablets with crosspovidone as a super disintegrant showed the least disintegration time of 24.66 ± 1.52 s and higher in vitro drug release against marketed tablets. In vivo studies indicated that the formulated tablets had 2 times higher bioavailability than marketed tablets. Thus, the developed β-CD–ESL SD-ODT could provide faster onset of action and higher bioavailability, which would be beneficial in case of epileptic seizures. - Highlights: • β-cyclodextrin–eslicarbazepine acetate complex developed with enhanced solubility. • Formulated Orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) disintegrated within 30 s. • Bioavailability from ODT was 2 times higher than marketed tablets. • Onset of action for ODT was also faster than marketed tablets. • Formulated ODT would aid epileptic patients incapable of swallowing tablets.

  19. Ranitidine (150 mg daily) inhibits wheal, flare, and itching reactions in skin-prick tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczyk, Maciej; Kupryś, Izabela; Bocheńska-Marciniak, Małgorzata; Górski, Paweł; Kuna, Piotr

    2007-01-01

    H(1)-receptor antagonists are known to suppress reactions in skin-prick tests (SPTs); however, the effect of H(2)-receptor antagonists, which are widely used in our everyday practice, remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of ranitidine on wheal, flare, and itching sensation in SPTs. Twenty-one atopic patients (5 women and 16 men) with an average age of 28.04 years (SD, +/-8.24) were tested with histamine, codeine, negative control solution, and standard allergen extracts. Ranitidine (150 mg daily), loratadine (10 mg daily), or placebo were given to the volunteers for 5 days in a double-blind manner with 14 days of washout period. SPTs were applied to the volar surface of a forearm. There was no difference in wheal, flare, and itching between SPTs performed after placebo and washout period. The analysis revealed a statistically significant suppression of wheal and flare by ranitidine and loratadine (p = 0.013 and solutions tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum test). We found a significant suppression of itching induced by ranitidine (reduction of 26.85%; p = 0.005) and loratadine (29.6%; p = 0.005) as compared with placebo (p = 0.068 versus washout). Our data show a suppressive effect of ranitidine on the wheal, flare, and itching sensation in SPT. Because the sensitivity and specificity of skin testing requires withholding medication that could change the skin reactivity, it seems important to take into account the possible influence of H(2)-receptor antagonists on allergy diagnosis and therapy.

  20. Attenuation of stress-induced gastric lesions by lansoprazole, PD-136450 and ranitidine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandranath, S I; Bastaki, S M A; D'Souza, A; Adem, A; Singh, J

    2011-03-01

    Combining restraint with cold temperature (4°C) consistently induces gastric ulceration in rats after 3.5 h. The cold restraint-stress (CRS) method provides a suitable model for acute ulcer investigations. This study compares the antiulcer activities of lansoprazole (a proton pump inhibitor), PD-136450 (CCK(2)/gastrin receptor antagonist) and ranitidine (histamine H(2) receptor antagonist) on CRS-induced gastric ulcers in rats. The results have shown that lansoprazole, which is a potent anti-secretory agent, provides complete protection in this model of ulcer formation. The use of indomethacin pretreatment to inhibit the prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and N(G)-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) pretreatment to inhibit nitric oxide synthase did not alter the lansoprazole-induced inhibition of ulcer index obtained in the untreated Wistar rats indicating that these two systems were not involved in the activation of lansoprazole. PD-136450, an effective anti-secretory agent against gastrin- but not dimaprit-induced stimulation, evoked a dose-dependent inhibition of CRS-induced gastric ulcers. The results show that both PG and nitric oxide pathways can influence the inhibitory effect of PD-136450 against CRS-induced gastric ulcer. The antiulcer activities of both lansoprazole and PD-136450 were compared to that of ranitidine. The results showed that ranitidine was more potent than lansoprazole and PD-136450 in inhibiting CRS-induced gastric ulcers and its effect was shown to be influenced by PG as well as nitric oxide synthase. The results of this study have demonstrated that although lansoprazole, PD-136450 and ranitidine were protective against CRS-induced gastric ulcers, the antiulcer activities of PD-136450 and ranitidine involved both PG and nitric oxide pathways, while lansoprazole acted independently of these two systems during CRS.

  1. Improved oral absorption of exenatide using an original nanoencapsulation and microencapsulation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudry-Kochavi, Liat; Naraykin, Natalya; Nassar, Taher; Benita, Simon

    2015-11-10

    Oral delivery is the most convenient and favorable route for chronic administration of peptides and proteins to patients. However, many obstacles are faced when developing such a delivery route. Nanoparticles (NPs) are among the leading innovative solutions for delivery of these drugs. Exenatide is a peptidic drug administered subcutaneously (SC) twice a day chronically as an add-on therapy for the worldwide pandemic disease, diabetes. Many attempts to develop oral nanocarriers for this drug have been unsuccessful due to the inability to retain this hydrophilic macromolecule under sink conditions or to find a suitable cross-linker which does not harm the chemical integrity of the peptide. In this study, we report about an original oral delivery solution based on a mixture of albumin and dextran NPs cross-linked using sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP). Moreover, we suggest a second defense line of gastro-resistant microparticles (MPs) composed of an appropriate ratio of Eudragit® L100-55 (Eudragit L) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), for additional protection to these NPs presumably allowing them to be absorbed in the intestine intact. Our results demonstrate that such a system indeed improves the relative oral bioavailability of exenatide to a level of about 77% compared to subcutaneous injection due to the presence of dextran in the coating wall of the NPs which apparently promotes the lymphatic uptake in the enterocytes. This technology may be a milestone on the way to deliver other peptides and proteins orally.

  2. Improving dissolution and oral bioavailability of pranlukast hemihydrate by particle surface modification with surfactants and homogenization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Eun-Sol; Baek, In-hwan; Yoo, Jin-Wook; Jung, Yunjin; Kim, Min-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to develop an oral formulation of pranlukast hemihydrate with improved dissolution and oral bioavailability using a surface-modified microparticle. Based on solubility measurements, surface-modified pranlukast hemihydrate microparticles were manufactured using the spray-drying method with hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, sucrose laurate, and water and without the use of an organic solvent. The hydrophilicity of the surface-modified pranlukast hemihydrate microparticle increased, leading to enhanced dissolution and oral bioavailability of pranlukast hemihydrate without a change in crystallinity. The surface-modified microparticles with an hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose/sucrose laurate ratio of 1:2 showed rapid dissolution of up to 85% within 30 minutes in dissolution medium (pH 6.8) and oral bioavailability higher than that of the commercial product, with approximately 2.5-fold and 3.9-fold increases in area under the curve (AUC0→12 h) and peak plasma concentration, respectively. Therefore, the surface-modified microparticle is an effective oral drug delivery system for the poorly water-soluble therapeutic pranlukast hemihydrate. PMID:26150699

  3. Improving dissolution and oral bioavailability of pranlukast hemihydrate by particle surface modification with surfactants and homogenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha ES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Eun-Sol Ha,1 In-hwan Baek,2 Jin-Wook Yoo,1 Yunjin Jung,1 Min-Soo Kim1 1College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, 2College of Pharmacy, Kyungsung University, Busan, Republic of Korea Abstract: The present study was carried out to develop an oral formulation of pranlukast hemihydrate with improved dissolution and oral bioavailability using a surface-modified microparticle. Based on solubility measurements, surface-modified pranlukast hemihydrate microparticles were manufactured using the spray-drying method with hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, sucrose laurate, and water and without the use of an organic solvent. The hydrophilicity of the surface-modified pranlukast hemihydrate microparticle increased, leading to enhanced dissolution and oral bioavailability of pranlukast hemihydrate without a change in crystallinity. The surface-modified microparticles with an hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose/sucrose laurate ratio of 1:2 showed rapid dissolution of up to 85% within 30 minutes in dissolution medium (pH 6.8 and oral bioavailability higher than that of the commercial product, with approximately 2.5-fold and 3.9-fold increases in area under the curve (AUC0→12 h and peak plasma concentration, respectively. Therefore, the surface-modified microparticle is an effective oral drug delivery system for the poorly water-soluble therapeutic pranlukast hemihydrate. Keywords: solubility, wettability, sucrose laurate, cellulose

  4. The role of cytology in oral lesions: a review of recent improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Historically, sensitivity and specificity of oral cytology is poor. Using conventional oral cytology for the diagnosis of cancer and its precursors has not had the success that cytologists had hoped for; however, with improved methodology, oral cytology has enjoyed a resurgence of interest. This renewed interest is partly due to the introduction of a specialized brush that collects a full-thickness epithelial sample and not just superficially sloughed cells, as well as analysis of that sample with computer assistance; in addition, a variety of adjunctive techniques have been introduced to potentially enhance the diagnosis of the cytologic specimens including DNA analysis, immunocytochemistry, molecular analysis, and liquid-based preparations. An increase in sensitivity (>96%) and specificity (>90%) of the oral brush biopsy with computer-assisted diagnosis has been reported for identification of malignant and premalignant lesions. Brush cytology is valuable to prevent misdiagnosing doubtful oral lesions, i.e., those lesions without a definitive etiology, diagnosing large lesions where excision of the entire tissue is not possible or practicable, evaluating patients with recurrent malignancies, and monitoring premalignant lesions.

  5. Administração oral de peptídios e proteínas: I. Estratégias gerais para aumento da biodisponibilidade oral Oral delivery system for peptides and proteins: I. Approaches to improve oral bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Silva

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Existem, atualmente, centenas de peptídios e proteínas com ação terapêutica. Os obstáculos inerentes à sua administração oral têm impulsionado a investigação de estratégias capazes de os ultrapassar. Nesta revisão são abordados estes dois aspectos. A microencapsulação, pela sua versatilidade, sobressai entre as demais estratégias, afirmando-se como escolha potencial na administração oral de fármacos peptídicos.There are hundreds of peptides and proteins clinically relevant. The difficulties associated with their oral administration have been responsible for the major efforts in developing ways to improve oral bioavailability. Both these subjects are described in this review. The potentiality of microencapsulation presents this technique as a privileged approach for the oral delivery of peptide and protein drugs.

  6. Improving adherence with oral antiemetic agents in patients with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Carolyn B

    2015-05-01

    In this small breast cancer-dedicated solo practice, a retrospective medical record review disclosed the following: significant rate of chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting and discordance between patient-reported compliance with prescribed antiemetics and medical record documentation of compliance. As part of the curriculum for the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Quality Training Program, a quality improvement project was developed to improve adherence to oral antiemetics in our patients with breast cancer receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. The following steps were undertaken in plan-do-study-act cycles to improve adherence: enhanced patient education at time of chemotherapy consent, implementation of standardized in-person or e-mail contact with our patients receiving chemotherapy, and improvement of our electronic health record documentation of adherence to oral antiemetics. A run chart was generated to analyze our data. After our interventions, the percentage of patients who took their antiemetics as prescribed rose from a baseline of 49% to 79%. Significant improvement in adherence to oral antiemetics among patients with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy was achieved and sustained in this small-practice setting using the framework provided by participation in the ASCO Quality Training Program. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  7. DOES INCREASING DENTAL EDUCATION IMPROVE THE ORAL HYGIENE STATUS OF DENTAL STUDENTS?

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    Purnima V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of increased knowledge acquired by the dental student in preventive aspects of dental education during his curriculum on his own health attitude, oral hygiene and gingival status. METHODS: A total of 240 students pursuing the undergraduate course (B.D.S at t he New Horizon Dental College and Research Institute, Bilaspur (Chhattisgarh were recruited for the study and divided into 4 groups based on the year of study. All participants answered a self - administered questionnaire and then this reported oral health behavior was compared to the actual clinical situation using the clinical parameters of Plaque Index, Gingival Index and Oral Hygiene Index simplified. RESULTS: The dental attitude became more positive and improved with each advancing year of education. Th ere was a statistically significant decrease in the CPI score (P=0.04 and OHI - S score (P=0.01 with each advancing year of education but plaque score was insignificant (P=0.06. Females showed better dental care than their male counterparts. CONCLUSION: T he oral health attitude and behavior of the dental students improved with increasing level of dental education. Preventive courses providing apt information on proper techniques of plaque control must be included in the first and second year curriculum of the dental students.

  8. Usefulness of panoramic radiograph for the improvement of periodic oral examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, MinJung; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and utility of panoramic radiograph for the improvement of the periodic oral examinations. Clinical examinations and panoramic examinations were done for the 242 subjects of oral examinations. The results of panoramic radiograph interpretation were compared with the clinical findings. Two questionnaires were created. One was carried out before the panoramic examination and the other done afterwards, to find out the subjects cognition and satisfaction for the clinical and panoramic examinations. Results : 1. Panoramic findings showed a higher detection rate of 31.9% for periodontal diseases, and 23.1% for dental caries than clinical findings. 2. The additional abnormalities detected through panoramic examinations were impacted tooth in 81 subjects (33.6%), maxillary sinus abnormalities in 28 subjects (11.6%), condylar abnormalities in 5 subjects (2.1%), congenital and acquired dental anormalies in 59 subjects (24.5%), and other miscellaneous abnormalities in 34 subjects (14.1%). 3. 164 subjects (67.8%) were satisfied with the current periodic oral examination, and 75 subjects (31.1%) hoped for better accuracy. 4. In the first and second questionnaire, 154 subjects (67.0%) and 163 subjects (70.6%) responded respectively that panoramic examination was necessary, and 193 subjects (83.2%) responded that it actually helped. The panoramic examination was revealed to improve the effectiveness of the periodic oral examination and to increase the satisfaction of the subjects of examination.

  9. Soluplus micelles for improving the oral bioavailability of scopoletin and their hypouricemic effect in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ying-chun; Li, Sha; Liu, Chang; Gong, Tao; Sun, Xun; Fu, Yao; Zhang, Zhi-rong

    2017-01-01

    Scopoletin is an active coumarin possessing a variety of pharmacological activities, including anti-hyperuricemic effect, but with poor solubility. To improve its oral bioavailability, we attempted to encapsulate scopoletin into Soluplus micelles (Soluplus-based scopoletin micelles, Sco-Ms) and evaluated the hypouricemic action of Sco-Ms. Sco-Ms were prepared using a thin-film hydration method. Sco-Ms displayed near spherical shapes with an average size of 59.4±2.4 nm (PDI=0.08±0.02). The encapsulation efficiency of scopoletin was 87.3%±1.5% with a loading capacity of 5.5%±0.1%. Sco-Ms were further characterized using transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared techniques and scanning electron microscopy. After oral administration in rats, Sco-Ms exhibited significantly improved absorption in each intestinal segment compared to free scopoletin, with the duodenum and jejunum being the main absorption regions. In rats administered Sco-Ms (at an equivalent dose of free scopoletin of 100 mg/kg, po), the AUC0–∞ and Cmax of Sco-Ms were 4.38- and 8.43-fold, respectively, as large as those obtained following administration of free scopoletin. After oral administration in rats, Sco-Ms did not alter the tissue distributions of scopoletin, but significantly increased the scopoletin levels in the liver. In potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice, oral administration of Sco-Ms (at an equivalent dose of free scopoletin of 300 mg/kg) reduced the serum uric acid concentration to the normal level. The results suggest that Soluplus-based micelle system greatly improves the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs, such as scopoletin, and represents a promising strategy for their oral delivery. PMID:28112183

  10. A home-based training programme improves family caregivers' oral care practices with stroke survivors: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Y-W; Yen, M; Fetzer, S; Chiang, L-C; Shyu, Y-Il; Lee, T-H; Ma, H-I

    2016-05-01

    Stroke survivors experience poor oral health when discharged from the hospital to the community. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based oral care training programme on knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy and practice behaviour of family caregivers. A randomized controlled trial was conducted. The experimental group consisted of 48 family caregivers who received the home-based oral care training programme, and the control group consisted of 46 family caregivers who received routine oral care education. The outcomes were measured by the Knowledge of Oral Care, Attitude towards Oral Care, Self-Efficacy of Oral Care and Behaviour of Oral Care before the training programme, and at one and two months afterwards. The data were analysed using mixed model anova to determine differences in the outcomes between the two groups. The findings demonstrated that the intervention group had more knowledge (t = 8.80, P caregivers' behaviour of oral care at one and two months of the intervention for both groups. Our individualized home-based oral care education can achieve significant improvements in oral care knowledge and self-efficacy among family caregivers of stroke survivors, and it can sufficiently empower them to modify their oral care practices in a home-based healthcare environment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Roxatidine versus ranitidine in the treatment of patients with duodenal ulcer: a randomized, double-masked, multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuberi, S J; Khan, A Q; Irshad-ul-Haque, I; Hussain, A; Hasnain, S S; Shah, S; Sadick, A; Yusuf, M Z; Reuter, M

    1996-01-01

    The comparative efficacy of roxatidine and ranitidine in the treatment of patients with acute duodenal ulcer was assessed at 4 and 6 weeks in this multicenter study. Ninety-four of 192 patients were given roxatidine in a single nightly dose of 150 mg, and 98 patients were given ranitidine in a single nightly dose of 300 mg. All the patients had endoscopically proven duodenal ulcer. Of the 171 assessable patients, ulcers were healed in 88% of the roxatidine group (73 of 83) and in 84% of the ranitidine group (74 of 88). No serious adverse events were reported in either group. We conclude that roxatidine 150 mg once daily is as effective and safe for the treatment of acute duodenal ulcer as ranitidine 300 mg once daily.

  12. Nao-Xue-Shu Oral Liquid Improves Aphasia of Mixed Stroke

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    Yuping Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective is to observe whether the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM Nao-Xue-Shu oral liquid improves aphasia of mixed stroke. Methods. A total of 102 patients with aphasia of mixed stroke were divided into two groups by a single blind random method. The patients treated by standard Western medicine plus Nao-Xue-Shu oral liquid (n=58 were assigned to the treatment group while the remaining patients treated only by standard Western medicine (n=58 constituted the control group. Changes in the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB, Modified Rankin Scale (mRS, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS, and hemorheology parameters were assessed to evaluate the effects of the treatments. Results. Excluding the patients who dropped out, 54 patients in the treatment group and 51 patients in the control group were used to evaluate the effects. Significant and persistent improvements in the WAB score, specifically comprehension, repetition, naming, and calculating, were found in the treatment group when the effects were evaluated at the end of week 2 and week 4, respectively, compared with baseline. The naming and writing scores were also improved at the end of week 4 in this group. The comprehension and reading scores were improved at the end of week 4 in the control group compared with the baseline, but the improvements were smaller than those in the treatment group. The percentages of patients at the 0-1 range of mRS were increased at the end of week 2 and week 4 in both groups, but the improvements in the treatment group were much larger than those in the control group. Greater improvements in the NIHSS scores and the hemorheology parameters in the treatment group were also observed compared with the control group at the end of week 2 and week 4. Conclusion. Nao-Xue-Shu oral liquid formulation improved aphasia in mixed stroke patients and thus might be a potentially effective drug for treating stroke aphasia.

  13. COMPARISON OF RANITIDINE AND PANTOPRAZOLE FOR STRESS ULCER BLEEDING PROPHYLAXIS IN CRITICALLY ILL PATIENTS REQUIRING MECHANICAL VENTILATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of Ranitidine and Pantoprazole for the prevention of haemorrhage from stress ulcer among critical care patients. Methods A total of 121 critically ill patients were included in this retrospective study. The choice of pharmacologic stress ulcer prophylaxis were either Ranitidine or Pantoprazole. The primary outcome was the incidence of stress-related significant upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and the secondary outcome was the incidence of hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP)....

  14. Stability of Ranitidine Hydrochloride with Cefazolin Sodium, Cefbuperazone Sodium, Cefoxitin Sodium and Cephalothin Sodium during Simulated Y-Site Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, K; Miyamoto, Y; Kurata, N; Nakane, S; Gill, M A; Nishida, M

    2000-01-01

    The compatibility and stability of ranitidine hydrochloride when comixed with four cephalosporins (cefazolin sodium, cefoxitin sodium, cephalothin sodium and cefbuperazone sodium) during simulated Y-site injection were studied. The mixtures were prepared by mixing equal volumes (2 mL) of ranitidine hydrochloride (1mg/mL) and each tested cephalosporin (20 mg/mL) in a 10 mL glass test tube. All study mixtures were prepared in triplicate and stored at room temperature under normal fluorescent room lighting. The physical appearaance and pH of each mixture were recorded; the chemical stability of each drug was immediatedly determined by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography from samples stored for up to four hours after mixing. Stability was defined as the retention of more than 90% of the initial concentration of each drug. Visual inspection revealed no color or clarity change and the pH changes were less than 0.2 pH units in the tested mixtures for cefazolin and cefoxitin: however, there were significant pH changes for cefbuperazone and cephalothin after four hours of storage. Ranitidine retained greater than 90% of its original concentration within the tested period in the mixture with 20 mg/mL of each tested cephalosporin, except for cephalothin (86.6% of control). In the presence of 10 mg/mL cephalothin, however, ranitidine retained greater than 90% for four hours. Meanwhile, all four cephalosporins retained greater than 90% of their original concentrations for up to four hours in the mixture with ranitidine. From the results obtained, it is clear that ranitidine solution may be coadministered with a solution of either cefazolin, cefoxitin or cefbuperazone during Y-site administration for up to four hours after mxining. On the other hand, since ranitidine with cephalothin (20 mg/mL) fell below 90%, the amount of cephalothin should not exceed 10 mg/mL when coadminstered with ranitidine solution.

  15. One-step self-assembled nanomicelles for improving the oral bioavailability of nimodipine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo JW

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Jing-Wen Luo, Zhi-Rong Zhang, Tao Gong, Yao Fu Key Laboratory of Drug Targeting and Drug Delivery Systems, Ministry of Education, West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Our study aimed to develop a self-assembled nanomicelle for oral administration of nimodipine (NIM with poor water solubility. Using Solutol® HS15, the NIM-loaded self-assembled nanomicelles displayed a near-spherical morphology with a narrow size distribution of 12.57±0.21 nm (polydispersity index =0.071±0.011. Compared with Nimotop® (NIM tablets, the intestinal absorption of NIM from NIM nanomicelle in rats was improved by 3.13- and 2.25-fold in duodenum and jejunum at 1 hour after oral administration. The cellular transport of NIM nanomicelle in Caco-2 cell monolayers was significantly enhanced compared to that of Nimotop®. Regarding the transport pathways, clathrin, lipid raft/caveolae, and macropinocytosis mediated the cell uptake of NIM nanomicelles, while P-glycoprotein and endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi complex (ER/Golgi pathways were involved in exocytosis. Pharmacokinetic studies in our research laboratory have showed that the area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC0–∞ of NIM nanomicelles was 3.72-fold that of Nimotop® via oral administration in rats. Moreover, the NIM concentration in the brain from NIM nanomicelles was dramatically improved. Therefore, Solutol® HS15-based self-assembled nanomicelles represent a promising delivery system to enhance the oral bioavailability of NIM. Keywords: nanomicelles, stability, nimodipine, oral bioavailability, transport mechanism 

  16. IMPROVEMENT OF ORAL HYGIENE STATUS IN CHILDREN INFLUENCED BY MOTIVATION PROGRAMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrinka M. Damyanova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Providing and maintaining proper oral hygiene is related with the control of initiation and progression of dental caries and periodontal diseases. Objective: To accentuate on the application and effectiveness of standardized motivational program for oral hygiene in children with assessment of OHI-S Green-Vermillion. Methods: The study includes 200 children from 3 to 6 years of age. Comparison and evaluation of effectiveness of toothpastes with different fluoride concentrations regarding proper hygiene status in children. Application of OHI-S by Green-Vermillion. Examined children are divided into two groups. The first group consists of 100 children divided into two subgroups. The subgroup of children aged from 3 to 5 years washed their teeth with toothpaste containing 500 ppm F. The subgroup of children at the age of 6 used toothpaste containing 1000 ppm F. Concerning the second, control group of 100 children no specific motivation activities were provided. Results: Among children being influenced by standardized motivation program combined with application of toothpaste with 500 ppm F, 45% show better oral hygiene level. Among children influenced by standardized motivation program and toothpaste of 1000 ppm F, 20% of them are with improved oral hygiene status. Reduction of the OHI-S values in children from 3 to 5 years is established from 1.92 to 1.16. In children at the age of 6 OHI-S is reduced from 1.67 to 1.14. Conclusion: 1. All children improve their oral hygiene status after a period of training and motivation. 2. In children at high decay risk standardized motivation program should be combined with additional prophylactic approaches.

  17. Improved transoral surgical tool design by CT measurements of the oral cavity and pharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Emily; Ghasemloonia, Ahmad; Nakoneshny, Steven C; Zareinia, Kourosh; Hudon, Mark; Lysack, John T; Sutherland, Garnette R; Dort, Joseph C

    2016-09-23

    The majority of head and neck cancers arise from the oral cavity and oropharynx. Many of these lesions will be amenable to surgical resection using transoral approaches including transoral robotic surgery (TORS). To develop and control TORS tools, precise dimensions of the oral cavity and pharynx are desirable. CT angiograms of 76 patients were analyzed. For the oral cavity, only the maximum length and width were measured, while for the pharynx, the width, length, and areas of the airway were all measured and the volume calculated. A prototype TORS tool was developed and tested based on the findings and dimensions. The design modification of the tool is in progress. The mean male oral cavity width and length were 93.3 ± 4.3 and 77.0 ± 7.2 mm, respectively, and the mean male pharyngeal width, length, area, and volume were 26.5 ± 7.2 mm, 16.2 ± 8.8 mm, 325 ± 149 mm(2), and 28,440 ± 14,100 mm(3), respectively, while the mean female oral cavity width and length were 84.5 ± 12.9 and 71.0 ± 6.3 mm, respectively, and the mean female pharyngeal width, length, area, and volume were 24.8 ± 5.6 mm, 13.7 ± 3.2 mm, 258 ± 98 mm(2), and 17,660 ± 7700 mm(3), respectively. The developed TORS tool was tested inside the oral cavity of an intubation mannequin. These data will also be used to develop an electronic no-go cone-shape tunnel to improve the safety of the surgical field. Reporting the oral cavity and pharyngeal dimensions is important for design of TORS tools and creating control zones for the workspace of the tool inside the oral cavity.

  18. Chitosan-coated mesoporous MIL-100(Fe) nanoparticles as improved bio-compatible oral nanocarriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, T.; Giménez-Marqués, M.; Bellido, E.; Avila, J.; Asensio, M. C.; Salles, F.; Lozano, M. V.; Guillevic, M.; Simón-Vázquez, R.; González-Fernández, A.; Serre, C.; Alonso, M. J.; Horcajada, P.

    2017-03-01

    Nanometric biocompatible Metal-Organic Frameworks (nanoMOFs) are promising candidates for drug delivery. Up to now, most studies have targeted the intravenous route, related to pain and severe complications; whereas nanoMOFs for oral administration, a commonly used non-invasive and simpler route, remains however unexplored. We propose here the biofriendly preparation of a suitable oral nanocarrier based on the benchmarked biocompatible mesoporous iron(III) trimesate nanoparticles coated with the bioadhesive polysaccharide chitosan (CS). This method does not hamper the textural/structural properties and the sorption/release abilities of the nanoMOFs upon surface engineering. The interaction between the CS and the nanoparticles has been characterized through a combination of high resolution soft X-ray absorption and computing simulation, while the positive impact of the coating on the colloidal and chemical stability under oral simulated conditions is here demonstrated. Finally, the intestinal barrier bypass capability and biocompatibility of CS-coated nanoMOF have been assessed in vitro, leading to an increased intestinal permeability with respect to the non-coated material, maintaining an optimal biocompatibility. In conclusion, the preservation of the interesting physicochemical features of the CS-coated nanoMOF and their adapted colloidal stability and progressive biodegradation, together with their improved intestinal barrier bypass, make these nanoparticles a promising oral nanocarrier.

  19. Improving the oral bioavailability of curcumin using novel organogel-based nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hailong; Huang, Qingrong

    2012-05-30

    Curcumin is a natural bioactive compound with many health-promoting benefits. Its low oral bioavailability limits its application in functional foods. In the present study, novel organogel-based nanoemulsions have been developed for oral delivery of curcumin and improvement of its bioavailability. Recently developed curcumin organogel was used as the oil phase in the curcumin nanoemulsion formulation. Tween 20 was selected as the emulsifier on the basis of maximum in vitro bioaccessibility of curcumin in the nanoemulsion. In vitro lipolysis profile revealed that the digestion of nanoemulsion was significantly faster and more complete than the organogel. Permeation experiments on Caco-2 cell monolayers suggested that digestion-diffusion was the major absorption mechanism for curcumin in the nanoemulsion. Furthermore, in vivo pharmacokinetics analysis on mice confirmed that the oral bioavailability of curcumin in the nanoemulsion was increased by 9-fold compared with unformulated curcumin. This novel formulation approach may also be used for oral delivery of other poorly soluble nutraceuticals with high loading capacity, which has significant impact in functional foods, dietary supplements and pharmaceutical industries.

  20. Chitosan-coated mesoporous MIL-100(Fe) nanoparticles as improved bio-compatible oral nanocarriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, T.; Giménez-Marqués, M.; Bellido, E.; Avila, J.; Asensio, M. C.; Salles, F.; Lozano, M. V.; Guillevic, M.; Simón-Vázquez, R.; González-Fernández, A.; Serre, C.; Alonso, M. J.; Horcajada, P.

    2017-01-01

    Nanometric biocompatible Metal-Organic Frameworks (nanoMOFs) are promising candidates for drug delivery. Up to now, most studies have targeted the intravenous route, related to pain and severe complications; whereas nanoMOFs for oral administration, a commonly used non-invasive and simpler route, remains however unexplored. We propose here the biofriendly preparation of a suitable oral nanocarrier based on the benchmarked biocompatible mesoporous iron(III) trimesate nanoparticles coated with the bioadhesive polysaccharide chitosan (CS). This method does not hamper the textural/structural properties and the sorption/release abilities of the nanoMOFs upon surface engineering. The interaction between the CS and the nanoparticles has been characterized through a combination of high resolution soft X-ray absorption and computing simulation, while the positive impact of the coating on the colloidal and chemical stability under oral simulated conditions is here demonstrated. Finally, the intestinal barrier bypass capability and biocompatibility of CS-coated nanoMOF have been assessed in vitro, leading to an increased intestinal permeability with respect to the non-coated material, maintaining an optimal biocompatibility. In conclusion, the preservation of the interesting physicochemical features of the CS-coated nanoMOF and their adapted colloidal stability and progressive biodegradation, together with their improved intestinal barrier bypass, make these nanoparticles a promising oral nanocarrier. PMID:28256600

  1. Preparation and characterization of vinpocetine loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) for improved oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Chun-Yang; Li, Ning; Wang, Mi; Zhang, Xiao-Ning; Pan, Wei-San; Peng, Jun-Jie; Pan, Yu-Sheng; Tang, Xin

    2010-07-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop an optimized nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) formulation for vinpocetine (VIN), and to estimate the potential of NLC as oral delivery system for poorly water-soluble drug. In this work, VIN-loaded NLC (VIN-NLC) was prepared by a high pressure homogenization method. The VIN-NLC showed spherical morphology with smooth surface under transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis. The average encapsulation efficiency was 94.9+/-0.4%. The crystallization of drug in NLC was investigated by powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The drug was in an amorphous state in the NLC matrix. In the in vitro release study, VIN-NLC showed a sustained release profile of VIN and no obviously burst release was observed. The oral bioavailability study of VIN was carried out using Wistar rats. The relative bioavailability of VIN-NLC was 322% compared with VIN suspension. In conclusion, the NLC formulation remarkably improved the oral bioavailability of VIN and demonstrated a promising perspective for oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Oral health hygiene education programme for nursing personnel to improve oral health of residents in long-term care facilities 2010 in Frankfurt/Main, Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarkowski, G; Allroggen, S; Köster-Schmidt, A; Bausback-Schomakers, S; Frank, M; Heudorf, U

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown the urgent need for improving oral health hygiene in nursing home residents. Deficits in the knowledge of the personnel about dental and oral hygiene are often cited as one of the causes. Therefore, an oral health education programme was provided to the personnel of 20 nursing homes in Frankfurt/Main. Here the results of the assessment of the impact of the education programme on knowledge and attitudes of the personnel as well as on oral health of the residents are presented. In May/June 2010, 471 nurses in 20 nursing homes in the Frankfurt/Main, Germany, received a two-hour education programme on oral health. The lessons were held by dentists with special education in geriatric dentistry. The personnel were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding knowledge and attitudes on oral health care before the education programme and 4-6 months afterwards. The oral health status of 313 residents (i. e., about 10% of the total residents) was examined by two dentists. Before and 4-6 months after education of the caregivers, the following data were recorded in the residents: number of teeth, caries, plaque index (PI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN) and denture hygiene index (DHI). By attending the lessons, good improvements in knowledge of the caregivers could be obtained. The education programme was rated as very good/good by 85% of the nurses, having reduced their fear of oral care in the seniors and having gained more competence in practical oral hygiene procedures. Mean age of the residents was 80±13 years. About 32% of the residents were edentulous. Teeth were carious in 53% of the residents. Initially, one half of the residents exhibited plaque index>2, in 29% of the residents a severe and in 59% of them a very severe parodontitis was found (CPITN 3 or, respectively, 4). At 4-6 months after the education programme, an improvement in oral and dental hygiene of the residents could be

  3. A Comparison of Case Study and Traditional Teaching Methods for Improvement of Oral Communication and Critical-Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblitt, Lynnette; Vance, Diane E.; Smith, Michelle L. DePoy

    2010-01-01

    This study compares a traditional paper presentation approach and a case study method for the development and improvement of oral communication skills and critical-thinking skills in a class of junior forensic science majors. A rubric for rating performance in these skills was designed on the basis of the oral communication competencies developed…

  4. A Comparison of Case Study and Traditional Teaching Methods for Improvement of Oral Communication and Critical-Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblitt, Lynnette; Vance, Diane E.; Smith, Michelle L. DePoy

    2010-01-01

    This study compares a traditional paper presentation approach and a case study method for the development and improvement of oral communication skills and critical-thinking skills in a class of junior forensic science majors. A rubric for rating performance in these skills was designed on the basis of the oral communication competencies developed…

  5. Alginate microspheres obtained by the spray drying technique as mucoadhesive carriers of ranitidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekalska, Marta; Amelian, Aleksandra; Winnicka, Katarzyna

    2015-03-01

    The present study is aimed at formulation of alginate (ALG) microspheres with ranitidine (RNT) by the spray drying method. Obtained microspheres were characterized for particle size, surface morphology, entrapment efficiency, drug loading, in vitro drug release and zeta potential. Mucoadhesive properties were examined by a texture analyser and three types of adhesive layers--gelatine discs, mucin gel and porcine stomach mucosa. Microspheres showed a smooth surface with narrow particle size distribution and RNT loading of up to 70.9%. All formulations possessed mucoadhesive properties and exhibited prolonged drug release according to the first-order kinetics. DSC reports showed that there was no interaction between RNT and ALG. Designed microspheres can be considered potential carriers of ranitidine with prolonged residence time in the stomach.

  6. Alginate microspheres obtained by the spray drying technique as mucoadhesive carriers of ranitidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szekalska Marta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed at formulation of alginate (ALG microspheres with ranitidine (RNT by the spray drying method. Obtained microspheres were characterized for particle size, surface morphology, entrapment efficiency, drug loading, in vitro drug release and zeta potential. Mucoadhesive properties were examined by a texture analyser and three types of adhesive layers - gelatine discs, mucin gel and porcine stomach mucosa. Microspheres showed a smooth surface with narrow particle size distribution and RNT loading of up to 70.9 %. All formulations possessed mucoadhesive properties and exhibited prolonged drug release according to the first-order kinetics. DSC reports showed that there was no interaction between RNT and ALG. Designed microspheres can be considered potential carriers of ranitidine with prolonged residence time in the stomach

  7. Preparation, Characterization and Evaluation of Quetiapine Fumarate Solid Lipid Nanoparticles to Improve the Oral Bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Narala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quetiapine fumarate is an antipsychotic drug with poor oral bioavailability (9% due to first-pass metabolism. Present work is an attempt to improve oral bioavailability of quetiapine fumarate by incorporating in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN. Six quetiapine fumarate SLN formulations were developed using three different lipids by hot homogenisation followed by ultrasonication. The drug excipient compatibility was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Stable quetiapine fumarate SLNs having a mean particle size of 200–250 nm with entrapment efficiency varying in between 80% and 92% were developed. The physical stability of optimized formulation F3 was checked at room temperature for 2 months. Comparative bioavailability studies were conducted in male Wistar rats after oral administration of quetiapine fumarate suspension and SLN formulation. The relative bioavailability of quetiapine fumarate from optimized SLN preparation was increased by 3.71 times when compared with the reference quetiapine fumarate suspension. The obtained results are indicative of SLNs as potential lipid carriers for improving the bioavailability of quetiapine fumarate by minimizing first-pass metabolism.

  8. Formulation of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol nanocrystals to improve oral bioavailability and brain delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Wang, Lisha; Cao, Fangrui; Miao, Xiaoqing; Chen, Tongkai; Chang, Qi; Zheng, Ying

    2016-01-30

    The aim of this study was to fabricate 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) nanocrystals to improve PPD's oral bioavailability and brain delivery. PPD nanocrystals were fabricated using an anti-solvent precipitation approach where d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was optimized as the stabilizer. The fabricated nanocrystals were nearly spherical with a particle size and drug loading of 90.44 ± 1.45 nm and 76.92%, respectively. They are in the crystalline state and stable at 4°C for at least 1 month. More than 90% of the PPD could be rapidly released from the nanocrystals, which was much faster than the physical mixture and PPD powder. PPD nanocrystals demonstrated comparable permeability to solution at 2.52 ± 0.44×10(-5)cm/s on MDCK monolayers. After oral administration of PPD nanocrystals to rats, PPD was absorbed quickly into the plasma and brain with significantly higher Cmax and AUC0-t compared to those of the physical mixture. However, no brain targeting was observed, as the ratios of the plasma AUC0-t to brain AUC0-t for the two groups were similar. In summary, PPD nanocrystals are a potential oral delivery system to improve PPD's poor bioavailability and its delivery into the brain for neurodegenerative disease and intracranial tumor therapies in the future.

  9. Lipids-based nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for improved oral bioavailability of sirolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qin; Hu, Xiongwei; Ma, Yuhua; Xie, Yunchang; Lu, Yi; Qi, Jianping; Xiang, Li; Li, Fengqian; Wu, Wei

    2016-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to improve the oral bioavailability of sirolimus (SRL), a poorly water-soluble immunosuppressant, by encapsulating into lipids-based nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). SRL-loaded NLCs (SRL-NLCs) were prepared by a high-pressure homogenization method with glycerol distearates (PRECIROL ATO-5) as the solid lipid, oleic acid as the liquid lipids, and Tween 80 as the emulsifier. The SRL-NLCs prepared under optimum conditions was spherical in shape with a mean particle size of about 108.3 nm and an entrapment efficiency of 99.81%. In vitro release of SRL-NLCs was very slow, about 2.15% at 12 h, while in vitro lipolysis test showed fast digestion of the NLCs within 1 h. Relative oral bioavailability of SRL-NLCs in Beagle dogs was 1.81-folds that of the commercial nanocrystalline sirolimus tablets Rapamune®. In conclusion, the NLCs show potential to improve the oral bioavailability of SRL.

  10. Metabolic profile and ruminal and abomasal pH in sheep subjected to intravenous ranitidine

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Alberti Morgado; Giovanna Rocha Nunes; André Storti Martins; Stefano Carlo Filippo Hagen; Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues; Maria Claudia Araripe Sucupira

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: Brazilian sheep production has intensified, predisposing sheep to an increased incidence of digestive disorders, such as abomasal ulcers. Ranitidine is used to prevent and treat this disease; however, there is little information on the parenteral use of this drug in adult ruminants. Few data exist on the concomitant metabolic changes and the behavior of the digestive system associated with its use. For this study, five healthy male sheep with ruminal and abomasal cannulas were used. A...

  11. Metabolic profile and ruminal and abomasal pH in sheep subjected to intravenous ranitidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Alberti Morgado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Brazilian sheep production has intensified, predisposing sheep to an increased incidence of digestive disorders, such as abomasal ulcers. Ranitidine is used to prevent and treat this disease; however, there is little information on the parenteral use of this drug in adult ruminants. Few data exist on the concomitant metabolic changes and the behavior of the digestive system associated with its use. For this study, five healthy male sheep with ruminal and abomasal cannulas were used. A 5x5 Latin square experiment with a 2x2+1 factorial arrangement of the treatments was performed. Sheep treated with drug doses of 1 or 2mg/kg ranitidine administered intravenously every 8 or 12 hours were compared with the control group, was treated intravenously with 1 mL of physiological solution per 25 kg every 12 hours. Higher total protein concentrations, hemoglobin levels, as well as increased aspartate aminotransferase activity and increased abomasal pH for up to 150 min following drug administration were observed in all animals that received the drug, regardless of dose and frequency. The animals treated every 12 hours showed a decrease in leukocyte number compared with the control group and with the animals treated every 8 hours. Increased serum creatinine concentrations were observed in the animals treated every 8 hours. Treatments of 1mg/kg every 8 hours and 2mg/kg every 12 hours increased the red blood cell count and decreased the serum pepsinogen. All protocols studied were safe for healthy sheep, but 1mg/kg ranitidine every 8 hours and 2mg/kg ranitidine every 12 hours were the most effective protocols for gastric protection.

  12. Complexation of Z-ligustilide with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin to improve stability and oral bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yapeng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To improve the stability and oral bioavailability of Z-ligustilide (LIG, the inclusion complex of LIG with hydroxypropyl- β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD was prepared by the kneading method and characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis (DTA and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. LIG is capable of forming an inclusion complex with HP-b-CD and the stoichiometry of the complex was 1:1. Stability of the inclusion complex against temperature and light was greatly enhanced compared to that of free LIG. Further, oral bioavailability of LIG and the inclusion complex in rats were studied and the plasma drug concentration-time curves fitted well with the non-compartment model to estimate the absolute bioavailability, which was 7.5 and 35.9 %, respectively. In conclusion, these results show that LIG/HP-β-CD complexation can be of great use for increasing the stability and biological efficacy of LIG

  13. Nanoemulsion strategy for olmesartan medoxomil improves oral absorption and extended antihypertensive activity in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorain, Bapi; Choudhury, Hira; Kundu, Amit; Sarkar, Lipi; Karmakar, Sanmoy; Jaisankar, P; Pal, Tapan Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Olmesartan medoxomil (OM) is hydrolyzed to its active metabolite olmesartan by the action of aryl esterase to exert its antihypertensive actions by selectively blocking angiotensin II-AT1 receptor. Poor aqueous solubility and uncontrolled enzymatic conversion of OM to its poorly permeable olmesartan limits its oral bioavailability. The aim of the current study was to formulate a novel nanoemulsion of OM to improve its pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy. The oil-in-water (o/w) nanoemulsion of OM was developed using lipoid purified soybean oil 700, sefsol 218 and solutol HS 15. We have characterized the nanoemulsions by considering their thermodynamic stability, morphology, droplet size, zeta potential and viscosity and in vitro drug release characteristics in fasting state simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) and intestinal fluid (pH 6.5). The thermodynamically stable nanoemulsions comprises of spherical nanometer sized droplets (olmesartan in rat plasma following oral absorption study was determined by our validated LC-MS/MS method. The result of the pharmacokinetic study showed 2.8-fold increased in area under the curve (AUC0-27) of olmesartan upon oral administration of OM nanoemulsion and sustained release profile. Subsequent, in vivo studies with nanoemulsion demonstrated better and prolonged control of experimentally induced hypertension with 3-fold reduction in conventional dose. By analysing the findings of the present investigations based on stability study, Caco-2 permeability, pharmacokinetic profile and pharmacodynamic evaluation indicated that the nanoemulsion of OM (OMF6) could significantly enhance the oral bioavailability of relatively insoluble OM contributing to improved clinical application. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of ranitidine on healing of experimentally induced gastric ulcers in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAllister, C G; Sangiah, S

    1993-07-01

    Thirty young ponies were examined endoscopically for evidence of gastric ulceration. Seven ponies had noninduced gastric ulcers present at the initial examination and were eliminated from the study. In an attempt to induce gastric ulcers experimentally, flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg of body weight, IM, q 8 h) was administered for 7 days to the 23 ponies with endoscopically normal gastric mucosa. During the 7 days of flunixin administration, 11 ponies developed gastric ulcers that were appropriate for study. The 11 ponies were randomly allotted to 2 groups. Group-A (n = 5) and group-B (n = 6) ponies received ranitidine (4.4 mg/kg, PO, q 8 h) and corn syrup, respectively, until ulcers healed or for a maximum of 40 days. General anesthesia was induced every 3 to 5 days for visual evaluation of ulcer healing by use of a video endoscope. The earliest complete healing of gastric lesions observed in a corn syrup-treated pony was at 17 days. At 40 days, 3 of 5 and 3 of 6 ponies of the ranitidine and corn syrup-treated groups, respectively, had healed ulcers. Results of this study indicate that: noninduced gastric ulcers may be common in young ponies, flunixin meglumine may be effective in inducing gastric ulcers for gastric healing studies in young ponies, and ranitidine (4.4 mg/kg, q 8 h) is not significantly effective in accelerating healing of experimentally induced gastric ulcers in ponies under conditions of this study.

  15. Cucurbit[7]uril host-guest complexes of the histamine H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruibing; Macartney, Donal H

    2008-06-07

    The macrocyclic host cucurbit[7]uril forms very stable complexes with the diprotonated (K(CB[7])(1) = 1.8 x 10(8) dm(3) mol(-1)), monoprotonated (K(CB[7])(2) = 1.0 x 10(7) dm(3) mol(-1)), and neutral (K(CB[7])(3) = 1.2 x 10(3) dm(3) mol(-1)) forms of the histamine H(2)-receptor antagonist ranitidine in aqueous solution. The complexation behaviour was investigated using (1)H NMR and UV-visible spectroscopy as a function of pH and the pK(a) values of the guest were observed to increase (DeltapK(a1) = 1.5 and DeltapK(a2) = 1.6) upon host-guest complex formation. The energy-minimized structures of the host-guest complexes with the cationic guests were determined and provide agreement with the NMR results indicating the location of the CB[7] over the central portion of the guest. The inclusion of the monoprotonated form of ranitidine slows the normally rapid (E)-(Z) exchange process and generates a preference for the (Z) isomer. The formation of the CB[7] host-guest complex greatly increases the thermal stability of ranitidine in acidic aqueous solution at 50 degrees C, but has no effect on its photochemical reactivity.

  16. Simvastatin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles for improved oral bioavailability and sustained release: Effect of formulation variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Soni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to prepare a nanoparticulate formulation of simvastatin (SV for improving oral bioavailability and sustaining the drug release while investigating the effect of various formulation parameters on characteristics of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles containing SV were prepared by a modified emulsification solvent evaporation technique using a biodegradable polymer, poly(d,l-lactide-coglycolide (PLGA as a sustained release carrier. The effect of various formulation parameters such as drug polymer ratios (SV:PLGA, 1:4 to 1:1, organic solvents (methanol/dichloromethane, and surfactants (PVA/polysorbate-80 in a fixed concentration (0.5%, w/v were studied for particle size, drug loading, and entrapment efficiency. Nanoparticles were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and their shapes were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. An aqueous solubility study indicated that the dissolution rates were remarkably increased for nanoparticles compared with the drug alone. The in vitro drug release study of the nanoparticles showed a biphasic release pattern: one initial burst release of 40.56% in the first 4 h which can be helpful to improve the penetration of drug followed by a second slow-release phase (extended release consistent with a Higuchi diffusion mechanism. The hypolipidemic activity of nanoparticles was determined in comparison with SV in male Wistar rats for changes in total cholesterol (CH and triglyceride (TG levels in blood. Nanoparticles showed a significantly better in vivo performance than SV in reducing total CH and TG levels which is primarily attributed to the improved solubility and dissolution of nanoparticles. Together, these results indicate that nanoparticulate formulations are ideal carriers for oral administration of SV having great potential to improve the oral bioavailability and sustain the drug release, thereby minimizing the dose-dependent adverse effects and maximizing

  17. Improved stability and antidiabetic potential of insulin containing folic acid functionalized polymer stabilized multilayered liposomes following oral administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrawal, Ashish Kumar; Harde, Harshad; Thanki, Kaushik;

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the folic acid (FA) functionalized insulin loaded stable liposomes with improved bioavailability following oral administration. Liposomes were stabilized by alternating coating of negatively charged poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and positively charged poly(allyl amine...

  18. Development of olmesartan medoxomil optimized nanosuspension using the Box-Behnken design to improve oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, K; Narendar, D; Kishan, V

    2017-03-27

    The aim of the present investigation was to enhance the oral bioavailability of olmesartan medoxomil by improving its solubility and dissolution rate by preparing nanosuspension (OM-NS), using the Box-Behnken design. In this, four factors were evaluated at three levels. Independent variables include: concentration of drug (X1), concentration of surfactant (X2), concentration of polymer (X3) and number of homogenization cycles (X4). Based on preliminary studies, the size (Y1), zeta potential (ZP) (Y2) and % drug release at 5 min (Y3) were chosen as dependent responses. OM-NS was prepared by high pressure homogenization method. The size, PDI, ZP, assay, in vitro release and morphology of OM-NS were characterized. Further, the pharmacokinetic (PK) behavior of OM-NS was evaluated in male wistar rats. Statistically optimized OM-NS formulation exhibited mean particle size of 492 nm, ZP of -27.9 mV and 99.29% release in 5 min. OM-NS showed more than four times increase in its solubility than pure OM. DSC and XRD analyses indicated that the drug incorporated into OM-NS was in amorphous form. The morphology of OM-NS was found to be nearly spherical with high dispersity by scanning electron microscopic studies. The PK results showed that OM lyophilized nanosuspension (NS) exhibited improved PK properties compared to coarse powder suspension and marketed tablet powder suspension (TS). Oral bioavailability of lyophilized NS was increased by 2.45 and 2.25 folds when compared to marketed TS and coarse powder suspension, respectively. Results of this study lead to conclusion that NS approach was effective in preparing OM formulations with enhanced dissolution and improved oral bioavailability.

  19. Binary lipids-based nanostructured lipid carriers for improved oral bioavailability of silymarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Mingzhu; Lu, Yi; Qi, Jianping; Han, Jin; Tian, Zhiqiang; Xie, Yunchang; Hu, Fuqiang; Yuan, Hailong; Wu, Wei

    2014-02-01

    The main purpose of this study was to prepare binary lipids-based nanostructured lipid carriers to improve the oral bioavailability of silymarin, a poorly water-soluble liver protectant. Silymarin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers were prepared by the method of high-pressure homogenization with glycerol distearates (Precirol ATO-5) and oleic acid as the solid and liquid lipids, respectively, and lecithin (Lipoid E 100) and Tween-80 as the emulsifiers. The silymarin-nanostructured lipid carrier prepared under optimum conditions was spherical in shape with mean particle size of ∼78.87 nm, entrapment efficiency of 87.55%, loading capacity of 8.32%, and zeta potential of -65.3 mV, respectively. In vitro release of silymarin-nanostructured lipid carriers was very limited even after 12 h, while in vitro lipolysis showed fast digestion of nanostructured lipid carriers within 1 h. Relative oral bioavailability of silymarin-nanostructured lipid carriers in Beagle dogs was 2.54- and 3.10-fold that of marketed Legalon® and silymarin solid dispersion pellets, respectively. It was concluded that nanostructured lipid carriers were potential drug delivery systems to improve the bioavailability of silymarin. Other than improved dissolution, alternative mechanisms such as facilitated absorption as well as lymphatic transport may contribute to bioavailability enhancement.

  20. Oral Antibiotic Use for Otitis Media with Effusion: Ongoing Opportunities for Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roditi, Rachel E; Liu, C Carrie; Bellmunt, Angela M; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Shin, Jennifer J

    2016-05-01

    (1) To evaluate the probability of antibiotic administration associated with ICD-9 diagnosis of otitis media with effusion (OME) in the absence of acute otitis media, (2) to determine whether usage varies according to visit setting, and (3) to ascertain if practice gaps are such that future practice changes might be measured. Cross-sectional analysis of an administrative database. Ambulatory visits in the United States. National Ambulatory and Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys, 2005-2010; univariate, multivariate, and stratified analyses of antibiotic usage were performed. The study population was restricted to children without acute or unspecified otitis media. The primary outcome was the probability of oral antibiotic administration when OME was diagnosed. The impact of the location of service and subspecialty care was also analyzed. Data from 1,390,404,196 pediatric visits demonstrated that oral antibiotics were administered for 32% of visits with an OME diagnosis, even in the absence of acute otitis media (odds ratio, 4.31; 95% confidence interval: 2.88-6.44; P < .001). The highest antibiotic administration was seen in the emergency department (risk difference, 37.1%; number needed to harm, 3). No significant increased risk of antibiotic usage was seen during otolaryngology visits. Diagnoses of infections at nonotologic sites were associated with a 1.98 to 26.60 increase in odds of oral antibiotic administration. Oral antibiotics continue to be administered in children with OME in the absence of acute infection, with risk varying by location of service. There is a potential opportunity for quality improvement through reducing antibiotic administration for pediatric OME. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  1. Adding dental therapists to the health care team to improve access to oral health care for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, David A

    2009-01-01

    Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General, and the subsequent National Call to Action to Promote Oral Health, contributed significantly to raising awareness regarding the lack of access to oral health care by many Americans, especially minority and low-income populations, with resulting disparities in oral health. The problem is particularly acute among children. The current dental workforce in the United States is inadequate to meet the oral health care needs of children. It is inadequate in terms of numbers of dentists, as well as their geographic distribution, ethnicity, education, and practice orientation. Dental therapists, paraprofessionals trained in a 2 academic-year program of postsecondary education, have been employed internationally to improve access to oral health care for children. Research has documented that utilizing dental therapists is a cost-effective method of providing quality oral health care for children. Dental therapists have recently been introduced in Alaska by the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium. Dental therapists could potentially care for children in dental offices, public health clinics, and school systems, as well as in the offices of pediatricians and family physicians. Adding dental therapists to the health care team would be a significant strategy for improving access to care for children and reducing oral health disparities.

  2. Suboptimal Use of Oral Anticoagulants in Atrial Fibrillation: Has the Introduction of Direct Oral Anticoagulants Improved Prescribing Practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamneh, Endalkachew A; Chalmers, Leanne; Bereznicki, Luke R

    2016-06-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) and the associated risk of stroke are emerging epidemics throughout the world. Suboptimal use of oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention has been widely reported from observational studies. In recent years, direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have been introduced for thromboprophylaxis. We conducted a systematic literature review to evaluate current practices of anticoagulation in AF, pharmacologic features and adoption patterns of DOACs, their impacts on proportion of eligible patients with AF who receive oral anticoagulants, persisting challenges and future prospects for optimal anticoagulation. In conducting this review, we considered the results of relevant prospective and retrospective observational studies from real-world practice settings. PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus (RIS), Google Scholar, EMBASE and Web of Science were used to source relevant literature. There were no date limitations, while language was limited to English. Selection was limited to articles from peer reviewed journals and related to our topic. Most studies identified in this review indicated suboptimal use of anticoagulants is a persisting challenge despite the availability of DOACs. Underuse of oral anticoagulants is apparent particularly in patients with a high risk of stroke. DOAC adoption trends are quite variable, with slow integration into clinical practice reported in most countries; there has been limited impact to date on prescribing practice. Available data from clinical practice suggest that suboptimal oral anticoagulant use in patients with AF and poor compliance with guidelines still remain commonplace despite transition to a new era of anticoagulation featuring DOACs.

  3. Oral iodinated activated charcoal improves lung function in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogvall, Staffan; Erjefält, Jonas S; Olin, Anders I; Ankerst, Jaro; Bjermer, Leif

    2014-06-01

    The effect of 8 weeks treatment with oral iodinated activated charcoal (IAC) on lung function of patients with moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was examined in a double blind randomized placebo controlled parallel group study with 40 patients. In the IAC group, patients showed a statistically significant improvement of FEV1 baseline by 130 ml compared to placebo, corresponding to 8.2% improvement (p = 0.031*). Correlation statistics revealed that the improvement of FEV1 baseline was significantly correlated both to FEV1 post-bronchodilator (p = 0.0020**) and FEV1 post-exercise (0.033*) values. This demonstrates that the improved baseline lung function by IAC did not inhibit a further beta2-adrenoceptor relaxation, and thus that patients did not reach a limit for maximal improvement of the lung function after IAC treatment. Eight patients in the IAC group developed abnormal thyroid hormone levels transiently during the treatment. This side effect was not correlated to improvement of lung function (p = 0.82). No serious adverse effects directly related to the treatment were recorded. In summary, this study demonstrates that iodinated activated charcoal surprisingly and significantly improved lung function of patients with moderate COPD. The underlying mechanism of action is unclear, but is likely to be different from the drugs used today. The immediate conclusion is that further studies are now justified in order to determine clinical efficacy of IAC in COPD and explore possible mechanisms of action.

  4. Long-term improvements in oral communication skills and quality of peer relations in children with cochlear implants: parental testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bat-Chava, Y; Martin, D; Imperatore, L

    2014-11-01

    Few research studies have examined longitudinal improvements in oral communication skills and quality of peer relationships of children with implants. Moreover, although the emerging literature suggests that improvement in social functioning follows improvement in oral communication, it is still unknown what factors enhance or impede the relations between these constructs. Based on parent interviews, the current study examined the long-term improvements in speech and oral language skills and relationships with hearing peers in 19 implanted children. Results demonstrate that on average, children continue to improve in oral communication skills and quality of peer relationships even years after implantation, especially those with initial poorer skills. While oral communication ability and quality of peer relationships are strongly associated at each time point, gains in these two variables are associated only for some of the children. Other factors, including self-confidence and peer acceptance, seem to moderate this relationship. Qualitative data are presented to illustrate these relations among variables and to assist in theory building. The results highlight the need for more specific examination of various developmental periods in combination with the progress of oral communication and peer relationships among children with implants. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Improving Oral Hygiene in Institutionalised Elderly by Educating Their Caretakers in Bangalore City, India: a Randomised Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanagar, Sanjeev; Naganandini, S.; Tuteja, Jaspreet Singh; Naik, Sachin; Satish, G.; Divya, K.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background The population of older people, as well as the number of dependent older people, is steadily increasing; those unable to live independently at home are being cared for in a range of settings. Practical training for nurses and auxiliary care staff has frequently been recommended as a way of improving oral health care for functionally dependent elderly. The aim was improve oral hygiene in institutionalized elderly in Bangalore city by educating their caregivers. Methods The study is a cluster randomized intervention trial with an elderly home as unit of randomization in which 7 out of 65 elderly homes were selected. Oral health knowledge of caregivers was assessed using a pre-tested pro forma and later oral-health education was provided to the caregivers of the study group. Oral hygiene status of elderly residents was assessed by levels of debris, plaque of dentate and denture plaque, and denture stomatitis of denture wearing residents, respectively. Oral-health education to the caregivers of control group was given at the end of six months Results There was significant improvement in oral-health knowledge of caregivers from the baseline and also a significant reduction of plaque score from baseline score of 3.17 ± 0.40 to 1.57 ± 0.35 post-intervention (p denture plaque score 3.15 ± 0.47 to 1.21 ± 0.27 (p denture stomatitis score 1.43 ± 0.68 to 0.29 ± 0.53 (p < .001). Conclusions The result of the present study showed that there was a significant improvement in the oral-health knowledge among the caregivers and oral-hygiene status of the elderly residents. PMID:26495047

  6. Lecithin-based novel cationic nanocarriers (Leciplex) II: improving therapeutic efficacy of quercetin on oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Abhijit A; Nagarsenker, Mangal S; Patere, Shilpa; Dhawan, Vivek; Gude, R P; Hassan, P A; Aswal, V; Steiniger, Frank; Thamm, Jana; Fahr, Alfred

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate ability of the novel self-assembled phospholipid- based cationic nanocarriers (LeciPlex) in improving the therapeutic efficacy of a poorly water-soluble natural polyphenolic agent, quercetin (QR), on oral administration. Quercetin loaded LeciPlex (QR-LeciPlex) were successfully fabricated using a biocompatible solvent Transcutol HP. The QR-LeciPlex were characterized for particle size, encapsulation efficiency, zeta potential, and particle morphology by cryo-TEM. UV and fluorescence spectral characterization was carried out to find out the association of QR with LeciPlex. Small angle neutron scattering studies (SANS) were carried out to understand the internal structure of Leciplex and to evaluate the influence of the incorporation of QR in the LeciPlex. Anti-inflammatory and antitumorigenic activity of QR-LeciPlex was determined in comparison to QR suspension to evaluate the potential of LeciPlex in improving oral delivery of QR. QR-LeciPlex exhibited a particle size of ∼400 nm and had excellent colloidal stability. The QR-LeciPlex had a zeta potential greater than +30 mV and exhibited very high encapsulation efficiency of QR (>90%). UV and fluorescence spectral characterization indicated the interaction/association of QR with LeciPlex components. Cryo-TEM studies showed that LeciPlex and QR-LeciPlex have a unilamellar structure. SANS confirmed the unilamellar structure of LeciPlex and indicated that the incorporation of QR does not have any effect on the internal structure of the LeciPlex. QR-LeciPlex exhibited significantly higher anti-inflammatory and antitumorigenic activity (p < 0.01) as compared to that of QR suspension on oral administration.

  7. Nao-Xue-Shu Oral Liquid Protects and Improves Secondary Brain Insults of Hypertensive Cerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongning Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine one traditional Chinese medicine (TCM Nao-Xue-Shu oral liquid which protects and improves secondary brain insults (SBI in hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage (HCH. Methods. 158 patients with HCH were divided into routine clinical medicine plus Nao-Xue-Shu oral liquid (n=78 as treatment group, and routine clinical medicine (n=80 only served as the control group. The incidence of SBI and the classification of a favorable prognosis and a bad prognosis using the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS were assessed to evaluate the clinical effects. The changes of IL-6 and TNF-α levels were determined to study the mechanism of the effects for the TCM. Results. The incidence of SBI at the end of week 2 was 8.97% in the treatment group and 23.75% in the control group, and the difference was significant (P<0.001. The incidence of a favorable prognosis was 48.72% in the treatment group and 32.72% in the control group, and the difference was significant (P<0.01 at the end of week 2. These findings indicate clear differences for IL-6 and TNF-α at the end of week 1 and week 2 compared with before treatment for the treatment group and a marked difference at the end of week 2 between the two groups. It also shows a significant difference between the end of week 2 and before treatment for IL-6 and TNF-α for the control group, although the difference was much smaller than the treatment group. Conclusion. Nao-Xue-Shu oral liquid could protect against the occurrence of SBI and improve HCH and SBI patients. It may also decrease the damage and the mass effects of the hematoma by reducing IL-6 and TNF-α to obtain the effects, and thus it is a potentially suitable drug for HCH and SBI.

  8. Improvement of the systemic prime/oral boost strategy for systemic and local responses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauterslager, T.G.M.; Stok, W.; Hilgers, L.A.T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes oral boost immunisations of primed animals as an alternative oral vaccination strategy. Mice were primed orally (PO), intranasally (IN), subcutaneously (SC), or intraperitoneally (IP) with ovalbumin (OVA) with or without adjuvant. Boost immunisations were given orally with or wi

  9. Development of solid lipid nanoparticles as carriers for improving oral bioavailability of glibenclamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, L M D; Maestrelli, F; Di Cesare Mannelli, L; Ghelardini, C; Almeida, A J; Mura, P

    2016-05-01

    A solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) formulation was developed with the aim of improving the oral bioavailability and the therapeutic effectiveness of glibenclamide (GLI), a poorly water-soluble drug used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The SLN was prepared using different lipid components (Precirol® and Compritol®) and preparation procedures. Precirol-based SLN, obtained with the emulsion of solvent evaporation technique gave the best results and was selected for drug loading. Addition of lecithin to the SLN core or PEG coating was effective in increasing the nanoparticles stability in simulated gastric solution. Both such formulations were stable after one month storage at 5±3°C, exhibited the absence of in vitro cytotoxicity, and presented a similar in vitro prolonged-release, reaching 100% release after 24h. The lecithin-containing GLI-loaded SLN formulation, selected for in vivo studies in virtue of its higher EE% than the PEG-coated formulation (70.3% vs 19.6%), showed a significantly stronger hypoglycemic effect with respect to the drug alone, in terms of both shorter onset time and longer duration of the effect. These positive results indicated that the proposed SLN approach was successful in improving GLI oral bioavailability, confirming its potential as an effective delivery system for a suitable therapy of diabetes.

  10. Genetically manipulated phages with improved pH resistance for oral administration in veterinary medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobrega, Franklin L.; Costa, Ana Rita; Santos, José F.; Siliakus, Melvin F.; van Lent, Jan W. M.; Kengen, Servé W. M.; Azeredo, Joana; Kluskens, Leon D.

    2016-01-01

    Orally administered phages to control zoonotic pathogens face important challenges, mainly related to the hostile conditions found in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). These include temperature, salinity and primarily pH, which is exceptionally low in certain compartments. Phage survival under these conditions can be jeopardized and undermine treatment. Strategies like encapsulation have been attempted with relative success, but are typically complex and require several optimization steps. Here we report a simple and efficient alternative, consisting in the genetic engineering of phages to display lipids on their surfaces. Escherichia coli phage T7 was used as a model and the E. coli PhoE signal peptide was genetically fused to its major capsid protein (10 A), enabling phospholipid attachment to the phage capsid. The presence of phospholipids on the mutant phages was confirmed by High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography, Dynamic Light Scattering and phospholipase assays. The stability of phages was analysed in simulated GIT conditions, demonstrating improved stability of the mutant phages with survival rates 102–107 pfu.mL−1 higher than wild-type phages. Our work demonstrates that phage engineering can be a good strategy to improve phage tolerance to GIT conditions, having promising application for oral administration in veterinary medicine. PMID:27976713

  11. Statistical analysis of textural features for improved classification of oral histopathological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu Rama Krishnan, M; Shah, Pratik; Chakraborty, Chandan; Ray, Ajoy K

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an improved technique, which can assist oncopathologists in correct screening of oral precancerous conditions specially oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) with significant accuracy on the basis of collagen fibres in the sub-epithelial connective tissue. The proposed scheme is composed of collagen fibres segmentation, its textural feature extraction and selection, screening perfomance enhancement under Gaussian transformation and finally classification. In this study, collagen fibres are segmented on R,G,B color channels using back-probagation neural network from 60 normal and 59 OSF histological images followed by histogram specification for reducing the stain intensity variation. Henceforth, textural features of collgen area are extracted using fractal approaches viz., differential box counting and brownian motion curve . Feature selection is done using Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence criterion and the screening performance is evaluated based on various statistical tests to conform Gaussian nature. Here, the screening performance is enhanced under Gaussian transformation of the non-Gaussian features using hybrid distribution. Moreover, the routine screening is designed based on two statistical classifiers viz., Bayesian classification and support vector machines (SVM) to classify normal and OSF. It is observed that SVM with linear kernel function provides better classification accuracy (91.64%) as compared to Bayesian classifier. The addition of fractal features of collagen under Gaussian transformation improves Bayesian classifier's performance from 80.69% to 90.75%. Results are here studied and discussed.

  12. Eudragit EPO nanoparticles: application in improving therapeutic efficacy and reducing ulcerogenicity of meloxicam on oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachane, Parag; Date, Abhijit A; Nagarsenker, Mangal S

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the potential of Eudragit EPO nanoparticles (EPO NP) in improving therapeutic efficacy of meloxicam (MLX). MLX loaded EPO NP were prepared by nanoprecipitation method and were characterized for particle size, encapsulation efficiency and for morphology. The in vitro dissolution profile of MLX loaded EPO NP and MLX suspension was evaluated. MLX loaded EPO NP had particle size of approximately 100 nm and the encapsulation efficiency of MLX was approximately 90%. The EPO NP significantly improved anti-inflammatory activity of MLX (P EPO NP Oral administration of MLX loaded EPO NP also resulted in lesser ulcerogenicity as compared to that of MLX suspension indicating that nanoparticles can also decrease the adverse effects associated with MLX treatment.

  13. The evolution of combined oral contraception: improving the risk-to-benefit ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkman, Ronald; Bell, Carrie; Serfaty, David

    2011-07-01

    Since its introduction in 1960, the combined oral contraceptive (COC) pill has become one of the most widely and frequently used methods of contraception worldwide. Although highly effective, early COC formulations were associated with significant adverse effects and unacceptable cardiovascular risk. Improvements in tolerability and safety have been achieved, without compromises in effectiveness, primarily via hormone dosage reductions and the development of several new progestins. Multiphasic COCs and extended-/continuous-cycle COCs have also been introduced, although the clinical advantages of these formulations vs. traditional COCs have yet to be established. Inclusion of natural estrogens such as estradiol valerate and 17β-estradiol with selective progestins in new combinations that maintain good cycle control is the most recent evolutionary step designed to improve COC tolerability and safety. Vigorous research needs to continue to help guarantee that the unmet need for safe and effective contraception is satisfied in future generations.

  14. Plants and other natural products used in the management of oral infections and improvement of oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C

    2016-02-01

    Challenges of resistance to synthetic antimicrobials have opened new vistas in the search for natural products. This article rigorously reviews plants and other natural products used in oral health: Punica granatum L. (pomegranate), Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile), Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea), chewing sticks made from Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst. ex A.D.C., Diospyros lycioides Desf., and Salvadora persica L. (miswak), honey and propolis from the manuka tree (Leptospermum scoparium J.R. Forst. & G. Forst.), rhein from Rheum rhabarbarum L. (rhubarb), dried fruits of Vitis vinifera L. (raisins), essential oils, probiotics and mushrooms. Further, the review highlights plants from Africa, Asia, Brazil, Mexico, Europe, and the Middle East. Some of the plants' antimicrobial properties and chemical principles have been elucidated. While the use of natural products for oral health is prominent in resource-poor settings, antimicrobial testing is mainly conducted in the following countries (in decreasing order of magnitude): India, South Africa, Brazil, Japan, France, Egypt, Iran, Mexico, Kenya, Switzerland, Nigeria, Australia, Uganda, and the United Kingdom. While the review exposes a dire gap for more studies on clinical efficacy and toxicity, the following emerging trend was noted: basic research on plants for oral health is mainly done in Brazil, Europe and Australia. Brazil, China, India and New Zealand generally conduct value addition of natural products for fortification of toothpastes. African countries focus on bioprospecting and primary production of raw plants and other natural products with antimicrobial efficacies. The Middle East and Egypt predominantly research on plants used as chewing sticks. More research and funding are needed in the field of natural products for oral health, especially in Africa where oral diseases are fuelled by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS).

  15. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind comparison of roxatidine with ranitidine in the treatment of patients with uncomplicated benign gastric ulcer disease. The Multicenter Roxatidine Cooperative Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstätter, G; Marks, I N; Lanza, F; Kogut, D; Cobert, B; Savitsky, J P; Bender, W; Labs, R; Wurzer, H

    1995-01-01

    Roxatidine (150 mg, 312 patients) was compared with ranitidine (300 mg, 308 patients) in a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, 6-week therapeutic study for the treatment of patients with uncomplicated, benign gastric ulcer disease. The study end points (verified by using endoscopy results) were fully healed ulcers at 4 or 6 weeks. The results of roxatidine therapy were comparable to those of ranitidine therapy: healing rates of 52% and 54% at week 4 and 77% and 76% at week 6 were recorded for roxatidine and ranitidine, respectively. The drugs produced comparable reductions in ulcer diameters and decreases in abdominal pain. Adverse events associated with both roxatidine (27%) and ranitidine (28%) were headache, diarrhea, and dizziness; rash was associated in 6 of 8 cases and in only 1 case with roxatidine. In this trial, roxatidine 150 mg once daily was as efficacious and safe as ranitidine 300 mg once daily for treatment of patients with uncomplicated, benign gastric ulcer disease.

  16. An oral nutraceutical containing antioxidants, minerals and glycosaminoglycans improves skin roughness and fine wrinkles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udompataikul, M; Sripiroj, P; Palungwachira, P

    2009-12-01

    Various nutraceuticals (dietary supplements) are claimed to have cutaneous antiageing properties, however, there are a limited number of research studies supporting these claims. The objective of this research was to study the effectiveness of an oral nutraceutical containing antioxidants, minerals and glycosaminoglycans on cutaneous ageing. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 60 women aged 35-60 years were randomized to receive oral dietary supplement (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30), once daily for 12 weeks. The depth of skin roughness and fine wrinkles were measured using surface evaluation of skin parameters for living skin (Visioscan) at baseline, and at the 4, 8 and 12 weeks of treatment. Surface evaluation using a replica film (Visiometer) at baseline and at the 12th week of treatment was also carried out. Statistical differences in objective skin improvement were assessed by the independent t-test. The volunteers' satisfaction was tested using the chi-squared test. The baseline depth of skin roughness and fine wrinkles in the treatment group and the placebo group were 100.5 and 100 mum, respectively. At the end of the study, the depth of skin roughness and fine wrinkles in the treatment group showed a 21.2% improvement, whereas improvement in the control group was 1.7%. This difference was statistically significant (P skin colour, however, a statistically significant reduction in pore size and depth of skin roughness and fine wrinkles were observed (P antioxidants, minerals and glycosaminoglycans improved skin roughness and fine wrinkles but did not affect skin colour change in female volunteers.

  17. Improved oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble glimepiride by utilizing microemulsion technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li HY

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Haiying Li,1 Tingting Pan,1 Ying Cui,1 Xiaxia Li,1 Jiefang Gao,1 Wenzhi Yang,1 Shigang Shen2 1Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Quality Control of Hebei Province, College of Pharmacy, 2Key Laboratory of Analytical Science and Technology of Hebei Province, College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Baoding, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The objective of this work was to prepare an oil/water glimepiride (GM microemulsion (ME for oral administration to improve its solubility and enhance its bioavailability. Based on a solubility study, pseudoternary phase diagrams, and Box–Behnken design, the oil/water GMME formulation was optimized and prepared. GMME was characterized by dynamic laser light scattering, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy, and viscosity. The in vitro drug release, storage stability, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of GMME were investigated. The optimized GMME was composed of Capryol 90 (oil, ­Cremophor RH40 (surfactant, and Transcutol (cosurfactant, and increased GM solubility up to 544.6±4.91 µg/mL. The GMME was spherical in shape. The particle size and its polydispersity index were 38.9±17.46 nm and 0.266±0.057, respectively. Meanwhile, the GMME was physicochemically stable at 4°C for at least 3 months. The short-term efficacy in diabetic mice provided the proof that blood glucose had a consistent and significant reduction at a dose of 375 µg/kg whether via IP injection or IG administration of GMME. Compared with the glimepiride suspensions or glimepiride-meglumine complex solution, the pharmacokinetics of GMME in Wistar rats via IG administration exhibited higher plasma drug concentration, larger area under the curve, and more enhanced oral bioavailability. There was a good correlation of GMME between the in vitro release values and the in vivo oral absorption. ME could be an effective oral drug delivery system to improve bioavailability of GM. Keywords: glimepiride

  18. Double-blind randomized multicenter study comparing Maalox TC tablets and ranitidine in healing of duodenal ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, J O; Walker, R J; Crowe, J; Gillies, R R; Gillies, K R; Gough, K R; Lorber, S

    1991-07-01

    The efficacy of ranitidine 150 mg twice daily and Maalox TC three tablets four times daily were compared in patients with endoscopically confirmed duodenal ulcer. Seventy-nine patients were randomly allocated to double-blind, double-dummy treatment, stratified for smokers. Endoscopy was repeated after four weeks. Those unhealed continued treatment for a further two weeks before final endoscopy. Per protocol analysis in 53 patients showed ulcer healing rates at week 4 and at weeks 4 and 6 combined of 78 and 89% on Maalox TC, and of 81 and 91% on ranitidine, respectively. The same analysis gave overall healing rates of 81% in smokers and 100% in nonsmokers, irrespective of treatment. Both treatments provided early ulcer pain relief. Diarrhea was a commoner side effect in patients on Maalox TC. The study showed Maalox TC and ranitidine were equally effective in healing duodenal ulceration.

  19. Improving oral presentation skills with a clinical reasoning curriculum: a prospective controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Jeff; Varosy, Paul; Tierney, Lawrence

    2002-02-15

    The oral case presentation is an essential part of clinical medicine, but teaching medical students to present clinical data remains difficult. Presentation skills depend on the ability to obtain, process, and organize patient data. Clinical reasoning is fundamental to the development of these skills. We compared a clinical reasoning curriculum with standard ward instruction for improving presentation skills and clinical performance. Between October 1998 and May 1999, 62 third-year medical students at three hospitals were assigned to a 4-week clinical reasoning curriculum (n = 27) or a control group (n = 35) that underwent routine instruction. The curriculum consisted of four 1-hour group sessions and 1 hour of individual videotaped instruction, and taught students to use the principles of clinical reasoning, such as generation and refinement of diagnostic hypothesis, interpretation of diagnostic tests, and causal reasoning, to determine data for inclusion in the oral presentation. We videotaped students presenting two standardized case histories; one at baseline and a second 4 weeks later. Two independent evaluators who were blinded to the group assignments reviewed the videotapes and scored them for presentation quality and efficiency, and general speaking ability. Mean (+/- SD) presentation times at baseline were similar in the two groups (intervention group: 8 +/- 2 minutes; control group: 8 +/- 2 minutes; P = 0.74). Presentation time in students who were taught clinical reasoning decreased by 3 +/- 2 minutes, but increased by 2 +/- 2 minutes in control students. The difference in the changes between the groups was statistically significant (mean difference = 4 minutes; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3 to 5 minutes; P Presentation quality scores at baseline were similar in both groups (intervention group: 17 +/- 8 points; control group: 20 +/- 7 points; P = 0.11). Students who were taught the clinical reasoning curriculum had an improvement of 9 +/- 6 points in

  20. Can school-based oral health education and a sugar-free chewing gum program improve oral health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Bin; Petersen, Poul Erik; Bian, Zhuan

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the outcome of school-based oral health education (OHE) and a sugar-free chewing gum program on the oral health status of children in terms of reduced caries increment and gingival bleeding over a period of 2 years. Nine primary schools randomly chosen from......-up. The overall drop-out rate was about 15%. Data on dental caries and gingival bleeding were collected by clinical examination. The results showed that the mean increment of DMFS in Group G was 42% lower than in groups E and C (P ... (P gingival bleeding scores were statistically significant among the three groups. Compared to Group C, the mean increment in bleeding scores of Group G was 71% lower (P

  1. Ranitidine treatment inducing methemoglobinemia in male Wistar rats Metemoglobinemia induzida pela ranitidina em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Roberto Malfará

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Drug idiosyncrasy is an adverse event of unknown etiology that occurs in a small fraction of people taking a drug. The histamine-2 (H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine causes idiosyncratic reactions in patients. To investigate the hypothesis that ranitidine could induce hematological toxic effects, the drug was administered intraperitoneally (ip to two of six groups of 200-220 g male Wistar rats (n=6. Group I received as single dose of saline solution (NaCl, 200 µL Group II received 200 µL of NaCl, ip, at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h, Group III (controls of the vehicle received as single dose of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, 200µL, ip, Group IV (controls of the vehicle received 200 µL of DMSO, ip, at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h, Group V received a single dose of 100 mg/kg of ranitidine in 200 µL of DMSO ip, Group VI received 50 mg/kg of ranitidine, in 200 µL of DMSO, ip, at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. Erythrograms, leucograms were measured; percent methemoglobin content of the blood was analyzed spectophotometrically. Methemoglobinemia increased to a significant extent following ranitidine treatment, in both study groups. White blood cell and neutrophil counts showed a discrete reduction following either regime of treatment. A marginal mobilization of the neutrophil pool probably occured. Following the multiple dose regime, leukocyte counts increased, but their distribution maintenance profile remained the same. The administration of ranitidine to rats induces methemoglobinemia in the administered doses, suggesting that from a certain concentration and dosage scheme the substance can be methemeglobinemia inductor.A idiossincrasia a fármacos é um evento adverso de origem desconhecida, que acontece em poucas pessoas. É conhecido que a ranitidina, um antagonista de receptores H2, causa reações idiossincrásicas. Para investigar uma possível indução da ranitidina em relação a hemotoxicidade, o fármaco foi administrado intraperitonealmente (i.p. em dois de seis

  2. Gastroretentive drug delivery system of ranitidine hydrochloride: formulation and in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Brijesh S; Amin, Avani F; Patel, Madhabhai M

    2004-04-08

    The purpose of this research was to prepare a gastroretentive drug delivery system of ranitidine hydrochloride. Guar gum, xanthan gum, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose were evaluated for gel-forming properties. Sodium bicarbonate was incorporated as a gas-generating agent. The effects of citric acid and stearic acid on drug release profile and floating properties were investigated. The addition of stearic acid reduces the drug dissolution due to its hydrophobic nature. A 3(2) full factorial design was applied to systemically optimize the drug release profile. The amounts of citric acid anhydrous (X1) and stearic acid (X2) were selected as independent variables. The times required for 50% (t50) and 80% drug dissolution (t80), and the similarity factor f2 were selected as dependent variables. The results of the full factorial design indicated that a low amount of citric acid and a high amount of stearic acid favors sustained release of ranitidine hydrochloride from a gastroretentive formulation. A theoretical dissolution profile was generated using pharmacokinetic parameters of ranitidine hydrochloride. The similarity factor f2 was applied between the factorial design batches and the theoretical dissolution profile. No significant difference was observed between the desired release profile and batches F2, F3, F6, and F9. Batch F9 showed the highest f2 (f2 = 75) among all the batches, and this similarity is also reflected in t50 (approximately 214 minutes) and t80 (approximately 537 minutes) values. These studies indicate that the proper balance between a release rate enhancer and a release rate retardant can produce a drug dissolution profile similar to a theoretical dissolution profile.

  3. Pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence study of ranitidine film tablets in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwend, Michael H; Guserle, Richard; Erenmemişoglu, Aydin; Martin, Wolfgang; Tamur, Uygur; Kanzik, Ilker; Hincal, A Atilla

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of ranitidine (CAS 66357-35-5) from two different ranitidine hydrochloride (CAS 66357-59-3) film tablets (Ranitab 150 mg film tablets as test preparation and 150 mg film tablets of the originator product as reference preparation). The study was conducted according to an open-label, randomised two-period cross-over design with a wash-out phase of 9 days. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic profiling were taken up to 24 h post-dose, and ranitidine plasma concentrations were determined with a validated HPLC method with UV-detection. Maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of 461.8 ng/ml (test) and 450.6 ng/ ml (reference) were achieved. Areas under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC (0-infinity) of 2,488.6 ng . h/ml (test) and 2,528.8 ng . h/ml (reference) were calculated. The median tmax was 2.83 h (test) and 3.04 h (reference). Plasma elimination half-lives (t1/2) of 2.78 h (test) and 2.89 h (reference) were determined. Both primary target parameters AUC(0-infinity) and Cmax were tested parametrically by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the 90% confidence intervals were between 91.93 %-106.98 % (AUC (0-infinity) and 92.34%-118.85% (Cmax). Bioequivalence between test and reference preparation was demonstrated since for both parameters AUC and Cmax the 90 % confidence intervals of the T/R ratios of logarithmically transformed data were in the generally accepted range of 80 %-125 %.

  4. Spectrophotometric determination of nizatidine and ranitidine through charge transfer complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walash, M; Sharaf-El Din, M; Metwalli, M E-S; RedaShabana, M

    2004-07-01

    Two Spectrophotometric procedures are presented for the determination of two commonly used H2-receptor antagonists, nizatidine (I) and ranitidine hydrochloride (II). The methods are based mainly on charge transfer complexation reaction of these drugs with either p-chloranilic acid (rho-CA) or 2, 3 dichloro-5, 6-dicyanoquinone (DDQ). The produced colored products are quantified spectrophotometrically at 515 and 467 nm in chloranilic acid and DDQ methods, respectively. The molar ratios for the reaction products and the optimum assay conditions were studied. The methods determine the cited drugs in concentration ranges of 20-200 and 20-160 microg/mL for nizatidine and ranges of 20-240 and 20-140 microg/mL for ranitidine with chloranilic acid and DDQ methods, respectively. A more detailed investigation of the complexes formed was made with respect to their composition, association constant, molar absorptivity and free energy change. The proposed procedures were successfully utilized in the determination of the drugs in pharmaceutical preparations. The standard addition method was applied by adding nizatidine and ranitidine to the previously analyzed tablets or capsules. The recovery of each drug was calculated by comparing the concentration obtained from the spiked mixtures with those of the pure drug. The results of analysis of commercial tablets and the recovery study (standard addition method) of the cited drugs suggested that there is no interference from any excipients, which are present in tablets or capsules. Statistical comparison of the results was performed with regard to accuracy and precision using student's t-test and F-ratio at 95% confidence level. There is no significant difference between the reported and proposed methods with regard to accuracy and precision.

  5. Development and characterization of an atorvastatin solid dispersion formulation using skimmed milk for improved oral bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush Choudhary

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Atorvastatin has low aqueous solubility resulting in low oral bioavailability (12% and thus presents a challenge in formulating a suitable dosage form. To improve the aqueous solubility, a solid dispersion formulation of atorvastatin was prepared by lyophilization utilising skimmed milk as a carrier. Six different formulations were prepared with varying ratios of drug and carrier and the corresponding physical mixtures were also prepared. The formation of a solid dispersion formulation was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction studies. The optimum drug-to-carrier ratio of 1:9 enhanced solubility nearly 33-fold as compared to pure drug. In vitro drug release studies exhibited a cumulative release of 83.69% as compared to 22.7% for the pure drug. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy studies suggested the conversion of crystalline atorvastatin to an amorphous form. In a Triton-induced hyperlipidemia model, a 3-fold increase in the lipid lowering potential was obtained with the reformulated drug as compared to pure drug. These results suggest that solid dispersion of atorvastatin using skimmed milk as carrier is a promising approach for oral delivery of atorvastatin.

  6. Targeting Receptors, Transporters and Site of Absorption to Improve Oral Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Hamman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the oral route of drug administration is the most acceptable way of self-medication with a high degree of patient compliance, the intestinal absorption of many drugs is severely hampered by different biological barriers. These barriers comprise of biochemical and physical components. The biochemical barrier includes enzymatic degradation in the gastrointestinal lumen, brush border and in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells as well as efflux transporters that pump drug molecules from inside the epithelial cell back to the gastrointestinal lumen. The physical barrier consists of the epithelial cell membranes, tight junctions and mucus layer. Different strategies have been applied to improve the absorption of drugs after oral administration, which range from chemical modification of drug molecules and formulation technologies to the targeting of receptors, transporters and specialized cells such as the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. This review focuses specifically on the targeting of receptor-mediated endocytosis, transporters and the absorption-site as methods of optimizing intestinal drug absorption. Intestinal epithelial cells express several nutrient transporters that can be targeted by modifying the drug molecule in such a way that it is recognized as a substrate. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is a transport mechanism that can be targeted for instance by linking a receptor substrate to the drug molecule of interest. Many formulation strategies exist for enhancing drug absorption of which one is to deliver drugs at a specific site in the gastrointestinal tract where optimum drug absorption takes place.

  7. Targeting receptors, transporters and site of absorption to improve oral drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamman, J H; Demana, P H; Olivier, E I

    2007-01-01

    Although the oral route of drug administration is the most acceptable way of self-medication with a high degree of patient compliance, the intestinal absorption of many drugs is severely hampered by different biological barriers. These barriers comprise of biochemical and physical components. The biochemical barrier includes enzymatic degradation in the gastrointestinal lumen, brush border and in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells as well as efflux transporters that pump drug molecules from inside the epithelial cell back to the gastrointestinal lumen. The physical barrier consists of the epithelial cell membranes, tight junctions and mucus layer. Different strategies have been applied to improve the absorption of drugs after oral administration, which range from chemical modification of drug molecules and formulation technologies to the targeting of receptors, transporters and specialized cells such as the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. This review focuses specifically on the targeting of receptor-mediated endocytosis, transporters and the absorption-site as methods of optimizing intestinal drug absorption. Intestinal epithelial cells express several nutrient transporters that can be targeted by modifying the drug molecule in such a way that it is recognized as a substrate. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is a transport mechanism that can be targeted for instance by linking a receptor substrate to the drug molecule of interest. Many formulation strategies exist for enhancing drug absorption of which one is to deliver drugs at a specific site in the gastrointestinal tract where optimum drug absorption takes place.

  8. Oral cyclophosphamide improves pulmonary function in scleroderma patients with fibrosing alveolitis: experience in one centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Lorenzo; Caronni, Monica; Raimondi, Massimo; Ponti, Alessandra; Viscuso, Tiziana; Origgi, Laura; Scorza, Raffaella

    2007-02-01

    Lung involvement constitutes nowadays the major cause of morbidity and mortality in scleroderma patients. Pulmonary fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc) is thought to be the consequence of interstitial inflammation. Early diagnosis and treatment of active alveolitis is essential to prevent the deterioration of pulmonary function, improving outcome in SSc patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of 1-year treatment with oral cyclophosphamide (CYC) on the evolution of interstitial lung disease in scleroderma patients with a diagnosis of active alveolitis. An open-label one-arm monocenteric study was conducted on 33 scleroderma patients with active alveolitis--defined as the presence of areas of 'ground-glass attenuation' on high-resolution computed tomography and a recent deterioration in lung function-treated with oral CYC 2 mg kg-1 day-1 for 1 year and medium-low dose steroids (prednisone 25 mg for 3 months and then tapered to 5 mg/day). Results showed that diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco) values remained stable after 6 months of treatment and significantly increased after 12 months (2.06+/-1.38, 2.21+/-1.62 and 2.39+/-1.64 mmol/min/kPa, at baseline/6/12 months, respectively; palveolitis, with beneficial effects lasting up to 1 year after interruption. The higher efficacy in those patients with an early pulmonary disease stage and a lower radiological grade underlies the importance of an early diagnosis and intervention.

  9. Lipid nanoparticles with no surfactant improve oral absorption rate of poorly water-soluble drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakoshi, Yuka; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2013-07-15

    A pharmacokinetic study was performed in rats to evaluate the oral absorption ratios of nanoparticle suspensions containing the poorly water-soluble compound nifedipine (NI) and two different types of lipids, including hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol. NI-lipid nanoparticle (LN) suspensions with a mean particle size of 48.0 nm and a zeta potential of -57.2 mV were prepared by co-grinding combined with a high-pressure homogenization process. The oral administration of NI-LN suspensions to rats led to a significant increase in the NI plasma concentration, and the area under the curve (AUC) value was found to be 108 min μg mL⁻¹, indicating a 4-fold increase relative to the NI suspensions. A comparison of the pharmacokinetic parameters of the NI-LN suspensions with those of the NI solution prepared using only the surfactant polysorbate 80 revealed that although the AUC and bioavailability (59%) values were almost identical, a rapid absorption rate was still observed in the NI-LN suspensions. These results therefore indicated that lipid nanoparticles prepared using only two types of phospholipid with a mean particle size of less than 50 nm could improve the absorption of the poorly water-soluble drug. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Intravenous Bolus versus Continuous Infusion of Famotidine or Ranitidine on 24 H Intragastric Acidity in Fasting Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABR Thomson

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Infusions of H2-receptor antagonists may be clinically indicated to maintain intragastric pH above 4 to reduce acute gastric mucosal lesions or to treat patients with bleeding peptic ulcers. Eight fasting healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive ranitidine infusion alone (150 mg/day, ranitidine infusion plus 50 mg bolus injection of ranitidine (total of 200 mg/day, famotidine infusion alone (40 mg/day or famotidine infusion plus 40 mg bolus injection of famotidine (total of 80 mg/day. Gastric fluid contents were aspirated for 24 h and collected as half-hourly samples in which pH measurements were made. Measures analyzed were mean and median pH, percentage pH at or below 3, 4 or 5 for the 24 h period, daytime, evening and nighttime. The data for each of the variables were analyzed as a Latin square crossover design of variance therapy; base pH before treatment administration in each crossover phase was employed as the covariant. Significant differential treatment means were tested by Newman-Keul’s multiple range test at the 5% level of significance. The mean and median evening pH were higher after famotidine than after ranitidine infusion, but all other pH readings were similar when using these doses. The addition of an initial loading bolus of 50 mg ranitidine to the ranitidine infusion did not result in any added differences in pH, whereas the addition of an initial loading bolus of 40 mg famotidine to the famotidine infusion resulted in a higher 24 h median pH, as well as a lower percentage of pH values of 4 or below, 16.6% versus 28.5%, P<0.05. However, the loading doses of ranitidine and famotidine were not equivalent in potency, and studies are needed to compare the potency of equivalent doses of ranitidine and famotidine when given by bolus plus infusion. Also the clinical relevance of these findings needs to be explored further in the type of individuals potentially requiring intravenous H2-receptor antagonists.

  11. Comparison of Omeprazole with Ranitidine for Treatment of Symptoms Associated with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Uncomplicated Duodenal Ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre P Archambault

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This randomized, single-blind, parallel group study was conducted to compare omeprazole with ranitidine for the treatment of symptoms associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, uncomplicated duodenal ulcer (DU or both. After baseline assessments, patients were randomized to receive daily treatment with either 20 mg omeprazole or 300 mg ranitidine for four weeks. In total, 1481 patients (1001 omeprazole, 480 ranitidine with a diagnosis of GERD (n=904 and/or DU (n=577, confirmed by endoscopy or barium meal and reporting moderate to severe symptoms, were included in the analyses. The seventy of overall daytime symptoms reported by the omeprazole group at clinic visits was lower than that reported by the ranitidine group at week 2 for the entire patient group (P=0.0002 and at both weeks 2 and 4 for the subgroup of patients with GERD (P=0.0001 and P=0.001, respectively. The severity of overall night-time symptoms reported by the omeprazole group was lower than that reported by the ranitidine group at week 4 for all patients as a whole (P=0.042 and at both weeks 2 and 4 for the subgroup of patients with GERD (P=0.035 and P=0.010, respectively. There were no significant differences in reports of adverse events. In the omeprazole group, 19% of patients at week 2 and 15% of patients at week 4 reported adverse events, while the corresponding results from the ranitidine group were 21% and 11%. In conclusion, patients with GERD, DU or both treated with omeprazole 20 mg daily for four weeks showed statistically significant reductions in symptoms compared with patients treated with ranitidine 300 mg daily for the same period of time. The percentage of patients with any remaining daytime symptoms was 12% lower in the omeprazole group compared with the ranitidine group at week 2, and 7% lower at week 4. Five per cent fewer patients in the omeprazole group experienced night-time symptoms at either week 2 or week 4.

  12. Improving Oral Bioavailability of Sorafenib by Optimizing the "Spring" and "Parachute" Based on Molecular Interaction Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyu; Chen, Zhen; Chen, Yuejie; Lu, Jia; Li, Yuan; Wang, Shujing; Wu, Guoliang; Qian, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Sorafenib is a clinically important oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor for the treatment of various cancers. However, the oral bioavailability of sorafenib tablet (Nexavar) is merely 38-49% relative to the oral solution, due to the low aqueous solubility of sorafenib and its relatively high daily dose. It is desirable to improve the oral bioavailability of sorafenib to expand the therapeutic window, reduce the drug resistance, and enhance patient compliance. In this study, we observed that the solubility of sorafenib could be increased ∼50-fold in the coexistence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone-vinyl acetate) (PVP-VA) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), due to the formation of PVP-VA/SLS complexes at a lower critical aggregation concentration. The enhanced solubility provided a faster initial sorafenib dissolution rate, analogous to a forceful "spring" to release drug into solution, from tablets containing both PVP-VA and SLS. However, SLS appears to impair the ability of PVP-VA to act as an efficient "parachute" to keep the drug in solution and maintain drug supersaturation. Using 2D (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and FT-IR analysis, we concluded that the solubility enhancement and supersaturation of sorafenib were achieved by PVP-VA/SLS complexes and PVP-VA/sorafenib interaction, respectively, both through molecular interactions hinged on the PVP-VA VA groups. Therefore, a balance between "spring" and "parachute" must be carefully considered in formulation design. To confirm the in vivo relevance of these molecular interaction mechanisms, we prepared three tablet formulations containing PVP-VA alone, SLS alone, and PVP-VA/SLS in combination. The USP II in vitro dissolution and dog pharmacokinetic in vivo evaluation showed clear differentiation between these three formulations, and also good in vitro-in vivo correlation. The formulation containing PVP-VA alone demonstrated the best bioavailability with 1.85-fold and 1.79-fold increases in Cmax and AUC, respectively, compared with the

  13. Improved oral absorption of cilostazol via sulfonate salt formation with mesylate and besylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo JH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jae Hong Seo, Jung Bae Park, Woong-Kee Choi, Sunhwa Park, Yun Jin Sung, Euichaul Oh, Soo Kyung Bae College of Pharmacy and Integrated Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, South Korea Objective: Cilostazol is a Biopharmaceutical Classification System class II drug with low solubility and high permeability, so its oral absorption is variable and incomplete. The aim of this study was to prepare two sulfonate salts of cilostazol to increase the dissolution and hence the oral bioavailability of cilostazol.Methods: Cilostazol mesylate and cilostazol besylate were synthesized from cilostazol by acid addition reaction with methane sulfonic acid and benzene sulfonic acid, respectively. The salt preparations were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The water contents, hygroscopicity, stress stability, and photostability of the two cilostazol salts were also determined. The dissolution profiles in various pH conditions and pharmacokinetic studies in rats were compared with those of cilostazol-free base.Results: The two cilostazol salts exhibited good physicochemical properties, such as nonhygroscopicity, stress stability, and photostability, which make it suitable for the preparation of pharmaceutical formulations. Both cilostazol mesylate and cilostazol besylate showed significantly improved dissolution rate and extent of drug release in the pH range 1.2–6.8 compared to the cilostazol-free base. In addition, after oral administration to rats, cilostazol mesylate and cilostazol besylate showed increases in Cmax and AUCt of approximately 3.65- and 2.87-fold and 3.88- and 2.94-fold, respectively, compared to cilostazol-free base.Conclusion: This study showed that two novel salts of cilostazol, such as cilostazol mesylate and cilostazol besylate, could be used to enhance its oral absorption. The findings warrant further preclinical and clinical studies on cilostazol mesylate and

  14. Improving the Safety of Oral Chemotherapy at an Academic Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Erica; Capozzi, Donna; McGettigan, Suzanne; Gangadhar, Tara C.; Schuchter, Lynn; Myers, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Over the last decade, the use of oral chemotherapy (OC) for the treatment of cancer has dramatically increased. Despite their route of administration, OCs pose many of the same risks as intravenous agents. In this quality improvement project, we sought to examine our current process for the prescription of OC at the Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania and to improve on its safety. Methods: A multidisciplinary team that included oncologists, advanced-practice providers, and pharmacists was formed to analyze the current state of our OC practice. Using Lean Six Sigma quality improvement tools, we identified a lack of pharmacist review of the OC prescription as an area for improvement. To address these deficiencies, we used our electronic medical system to route OC orders placed by treating providers to an oncology-specific outpatient pharmacist at the Abramson Cancer Center for review. Results: Over 7 months, 63 orders for OC were placed for 45 individual patients. Of the 63 orders, all were reviewed by pharmacists, and, as a result, 22 interventions were made (35%). Types of interventions included dosage adjustment (one of 22), identification of an interacting drug (nine of 22), and recommendations for additional drug monitoring (12 of 22). Conclusion: OC poses many of the same risks as intravenous chemotherapy and should be prescribed and reviewed with the same oversight. At our institution, involvement of an oncology-trained pharmacist in the review of OC led to meaningful interventions in one third of the orders. PMID:26733627

  15. Effects of Ranitidine on Insulin and Lime - Induced Gastric Secretion in Albinowistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    E.O. Nwaichi; Gwotmut, M. D; Ossai, J

    2013-01-01

    Purpose:To study the possible effect (s) of a relative H2-receptor blocker, ranitidine on lime and insulin-induced gastric secretion in male and female albino rats. Methods: The rats were divided into 3 groups of lime juice, insulin and control in triplicates after 24hr starvation to empty the stomachand were canulated (oesophageal, tracheal and gastric) using Gosh and Schild method. Using N saline, the acid content of the effluentwas recorded. The 1st group of rats was perf...

  16. A RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of ondansetron and ranitidine in pharmaceutical formulation

    OpenAIRE

    S N Meyyanathan; D. Nagasamy Venkatesh; Krishnaveni, N.; B Babu; M R Jeyaprakash; Rajanikanth B Raja; E Hemnath; Suresh, B

    2012-01-01

    A simple, selective, rapid, precise and economical reverse phase HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of ondansetron and ranitidine from pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method was carried out using a Phenomenex column C 18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, i.d 5 μ) with a mobile phase consisting of 50 mM potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate: acetonitrile (pH 6, ratio 60:40 v/v) at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min. Detection was carried out at 222 nm. Pantoprazole was used as an internal st...

  17. Effect of ranitidine on postoperative suppression of natural killer cell activity and delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Pedersen, B K; Moesgaard, F

    1989-01-01

    hypersensitivity (DTH) antigens, and blood drawn immediately before and 24 hours after skin incision was analyzed for spontaneous and in vitro stimulated (IL-2, IFN-alpha or indomethacin) natural killer (NK) cell activity and PHA and PPD-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. Lymphocyte subsets (helper......-cell activity (p less than 0.02). Postoperative decrease in helper/inducer-T cell numbers was not significantly lessened (p = 0.07), and ranitidine did not influence the levels of suppressor-T cells. PHA and PPD responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were unaltered. The results may suggest potential...

  18. PEDIATRIC FORMULATION OF RANITIDINE USING FROM COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE TABLETS IN ALBANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Briseida Dosti; Ledjan Malaj

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ranitidine Hydrochloride is H2 – receptor antagonist indicated for duodenal ulcer. It is used for the treatment of gastric/duodenal ulcer and GERD for both neonates and children, in respective dosage 1.5- 2mg/kg/24h, q12h and 1-5mg/kg/24h, q6-8h. For use in children is needed cutting into smaller parts to obtain appropriate units, since are missing more appropriate pharmaceuticals forms, such as liquid formulations. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accurac...

  19. Effect of ranitidine on postoperative suppression of natural killer cell activity and delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Pedersen, B K; Moesgaard, F;

    1989-01-01

    hypersensitivity (DTH) antigens, and blood drawn immediately before and 24 hours after skin incision was analyzed for spontaneous and in vitro stimulated (IL-2, IFN-alpha or indomethacin) natural killer (NK) cell activity and PHA and PPD-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. Lymphocyte subsets (helper......-cell activity (p less than 0.02). Postoperative decrease in helper/inducer-T cell numbers was not significantly lessened (p = 0.07), and ranitidine did not influence the levels of suppressor-T cells. PHA and PPD responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were unaltered. The results may suggest potential...

  20. The Impact of Improved Oral Health on the Utilization of Dental Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Stephen A

    2017-08-01

    Since the mid-20th century, there has been a remarkable decline in dental caries in the United States. The effects of that caries decline have now been demonstrated well into the adult population. These improvements in oral health are resulting in substantial declines in the reparative and restorative dental services being provided to the affected individuals, who comprise a growing part of the population. Because of fewer compromised teeth, extractions and their sequelae also are declining. Much of the recall and periodontal maintenance care can be provided by allied dental personnel. As the older age cohorts, who were children before the caries decline occurred, become an ever-smaller part of the population, the number of patients an individual dentist can treat in a year is likely to increase. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21(st) Century."

  1. Improved therapeutic safety of oral anticoagulant therapy in Germany: the Saarland model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörsdorf, S; Leipnitz, G; Pindur, G; Schenk, J F; Erdlenbruch, W; Krischek, B; Wenzel, E

    1999-01-01

    In contrast to other European countries, in Germany more than 90% of oral anticoagulated patients are controlled by general practitioners. The International Normalized Ratio (INR) system in laboratory control is not in widespread use, often leading to misinterpretations of prothrombin time (PT) measurements. To improve the management of anticoagulated patients, a model was developed, consisting of different questionnaires and on the base of the INR system. Since 1993, 60 patients in our Department's outpatient anticoagulant clinic and since 1996 16 patients in the office of a general practitioner were followed for 146.32 patient years. There were no thromboembolic events and no major bleedings during follow-up. A total of 126 minor bleedings occurred in 30 patients. There were no significant differences in INR values and stable phases between the two centers; however, significantly shorter stable phases in patients with bleeding episodes were noted. Thus, this model seems to be useful also in general practitioners' hands.

  2. The Importance of Oral Communication Skills and a Graduate Course to Help Improve These Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Garth L.

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the importance of oral communication and many of its fundamental underlying principles. Emphasis is placed on oral presentations, particularly those used in science and engineering. Following this, the author provides a brief outline of an elective graduate level oral communications course that was developed and utilized to…

  3. The Importance of Oral Communication Skills and a Graduate Course to Help Improve These Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Garth L.

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the importance of oral communication and many of its fundamental underlying principles. Emphasis is placed on oral presentations, particularly those used in science and engineering. Following this, the author provides a brief outline of an elective graduate level oral communications course that was developed and utilized to…

  4. Intestinal-borne dermatoses significantly improved by oral application of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzhalii, Elina; Hornuss, Daniel; Stremmel, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of oral Escherichia coli (E. coli) Nissle application on the outcome of intestinal-borne dermatoses. METHODS: In a randomized, controlled, non-blinded prospective clinical trial 82 patients with intestinal-borne facial dermatoses characterized by an erythematous papular-pustular rash were screened. At the initiation visit 37 patients entered the experimental arm and 20 patients constituted the control arm. All 57 patients were treated with a vegetarian diet and conventional topical therapy of the dermatoses with ointments containing tetracycline, steroids and retinoids. In the experimental arm patients received a one month therapy with oral E. coli Nissle at a maintenance dose of 2 capsules daily. The experimental group was compared to a non-treatment group only receiving the diet and topical therapy. The primary outcome parameter was improvement of the dermatoses, secondary parameters included life quality and adverse events. In addition the immunological reaction profile (IgA, interleucin-8 and interferon-α) was determined. Furthermore the changes of stool consistency and the microbiota composition over the time of intervention were recorded. RESULTS: Eighty-nine percent of the patients with acne, papular-pustular rosacea and seborrhoic dermatitis responded to E. coli Nissle therapy with significant amelioration or complete recovery in contrast to 56% in the control arm (P 107 CFU/g stool) was observed in 79% and 63% of the patients, respectively (P 0.05). Accordingly, stool consistency, color and smell normalized in the E. coli Nissle treated patients. CONCLUSION: E. coli Nissle protects the mucus barrier by overgrowth of a favorable gut microbiota with less immunoreactive potential which finally leads to clinical improvement of intestinal borne dermatoses. PMID:27340358

  5. [Application of diversified teaching methods to improve the teaching effects in the course of oral histology and pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen; Li, Lei; Wang, Li-zhen; Hu, Yu-hua; Zhang, Chun-ye; Li, Jiang

    2016-02-01

    Oral histology and pathology is one of the most important courses in stomatological education which works as a bridge between basic medical courses and clinical courses of oral science. The knowledge of oral histopathology may help the students to correctly understand the histogenesis and development of oral diseases and provide the information for correct treatment and prevention. In order to make the students grasp the necessary basic theories, increase the interest in learning, and improve the teaching effect, we explored a diversified teaching system which included diverse teaching modes, online courses and courseware construction. The application of this system offered the interaction between students and teachers and combination of classes with the internet, and made the boring pathological knowledge be associated with clinical practice. These diversified teaching methods had been used in practice and obtained good teaching results.

  6. World Health Organization global policy for improvement of oral health--World Health Assembly 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2008-01-01

    and the promotion of oral health needs to be integrated with chronic disease prevention and general health promotion as the risks to health are linked. The World Health Assembly (WHA) and the Executive Board (EB) are supreme governance bodies of WHO and for the first time in 25 years oral health was subject...... to discussion by those bodies in 2007. At the EB120 and WHA60, the Member States agreed on an action plan for oral health and integrated disease prevention, thereby confirming the approach of the Oral Health Programme. The policy forms the basis for future development or adjustment of oral health programmes...

  7. 加强口语教学 提升口语水平%Strengthening Oral English Teaching and Improving Oral English Competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余祁高

    2012-01-01

    As a subject imparting language, English teaching is of special methods and requirements. Relative to native language, ioreign language learning also has special difficulty, especially lacking language environment for communication exchange. Oral English teaching is a short board and an important bottleneck of hindering students' interest of loving English and speaking English. Based on the discussion on the analysis of curriculum standard, the characteristics of textbook arrangement, classroom teaching practice, oral English teaching development, this paper raises ways to strengthen oral English teaching and clearing steps of improving oral English competence, which is of positive meaning in oral English teaching.%英语教学作为一门讲授语言的学科,有其特殊的方法和要求。相对于母语来说,外来语种的学习亦有特殊的难度,尤其是缺乏沟通交流的语言环境。英语口语教学一直是一个短板,成为制约学生爱学英语、会说口语的重要瓶颈。本文通过对课程标准的分析、教材编排的特点、课堂教学的实践、口语教学的拓展等方面进行了系统的探讨,提出了加强口语教学的方法,明确了提升口语水平的步骤,对于英语口语教学的研究有着积极的意义。

  8. Comparative bioavailability of two tablet formulations of ranitidine hydrochloride in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawazir, S A; Gouda, M W; El-Sayed, Y M; Al-Khamis, K I; Al-Yamani, M J; Niazy, E M; Al-Rashood, K A

    1998-05-01

    This investigation was carried out to evaluate the bioavailability of a new tablet formulation of ranitidine HCl (300 mg), Ranid, relative to the reference product, Zantac, (300 mg) tablets. The bioavailability was carried out on 24 healthy male volunteers who received a single dose (300 mg) of the test (T) and the reference (R) products in the fasting state, in a randomized balanced 2-way crossover design. After dosing, serial blood samples were collected for a period of 16 hours. Plasma harvested from blood was analyzed for ranitidine by a sensitive and validated high-performance liquid chromatographic assay. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), area under the plasma concentration time curve up to the last measurable concentration (AUC0-t), and to infinity (AUC0-infinity) and the absorption rate (Cmax/AUC0-infinity) were analyzed statistically under the assumption of a multiplicative model. The time to maximum concentration (Tmax) was analyzed assuming an additive model. The parametric confidence intervals (90%) of the mean values of the pharmacokinetic characteristics (AUC0-t, AUC0-infinity), Cmax and Cmax/AUC0-infinity) for T/R ratio were in each case well within the bioequivalence acceptable range of 80-125%. The test formulation was found bioequivalent to the reference formulation by the Schuirmann's two one-sided t-tests and by Wilcoxon Mann Whitney two one-sided tests procedure. Therefore, the 2 formulations were considered to be bioequivalent.

  9. Development of a floating dosage form of ranitidine hydrochloride by statistical optimization technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S; Srinath, Ms; Narendra, C; Reddy, Sn; Sindhu, A

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of formulation variables on the release properties, floating lag time, and hardness, when developing floating tablets of Ranitidine hydrochloride, by the statistical optimization technique. The formulations were prepared based on 3(2) factorial design, with polymer ratio (HPMC 100 KM: Xanthan gum) and the amount of aerosil, as two independent formulation variables. The four dependent (response) variables considered were: percentage of drug release at the first hour, T(50%) (time taken to release 50% of the drug), floating lag time, and hardness of the tablet. The release profile data was subjected to a curve fitting analysis, to describe the release mechanism of the drug from the floating tablet. An increase in drug release was observed with an increase in the polymer ratio, and as the amount of aerosil increased, the hardness of the tablet also increased, without causing any change in the floating lag time. The desirability function was used to optimize the response variables, each having a different target, and the observed responses were in accordance with the experimental values. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the model in the development of floating tablets containing Ranitidine hydrochloride.

  10. Statistical optimization of ranitidine HCl floating pulsatile delivery system for chronotherapy of nocturnal acid breakthrough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Pallab; Shahiwala, Aliasgar

    2009-06-28

    Present work conceptualizes a specific technology, based on combining floating and pulsatile principles to develop drug delivery system, intended for chronotherapy in nocturnal acid breakthrough. This approach will be achieved by using a programmed delivery of ranitidine hydrochloride from a floating tablet with time-lagged coating. In this study, investigation of the functionality of the outer polymer coating to predict lag time and drug release was statistically analyzed using the response surface methodology (RSM). RSM was employed for designing of the experiment, generation of mathematical models and optimization study. The chosen independent variables, i.e. percentage weight ratios of ethyl cellulose to hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose in the coating formulation and coating level (% weight gain) were optimized with a 3(2) full factorial design. Lag time prior to drug release and cumulative percentage drug release in 7h were selected as responses. Results revealed that both, the coating composition and coating level, are significant factors affecting drug release profile. A second-order polynomial equation fitted to the data was used to predict the responses in the optimal region. The optimized formulation prepared according to computer-determined levels provided a release profile, which was close to the predicted values. The proposed mathematical model is found to be robust and accurate for optimization of time-lagged coating formulations for programmable pulsatile release of ranitidine hydrochloride, consistent with the demands of nocturnal acid breakthrough.

  11. A RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of ondansetron and ranitidine in pharmaceutical formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S N Meyyanathan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, selective, rapid, precise and economical reverse phase HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of ondansetron and ranitidine from pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method was carried out using a Phenomenex column C 18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, i.d 5 μ with a mobile phase consisting of 50 mM potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate: acetonitrile (pH 6, ratio 60:40 v/v at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min. Detection was carried out at 222 nm. Pantoprazole was used as an internal standard. The retention time of ondansetron, ranitidine, and pantoprazole were found to be 6.4, 3.0 and 11.0 min, respectively. The developed method was validated in terms of its accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and solution stability. The proposed method can be used for the estimation of these drugs in a combined dosage form.

  12. Extraction of ranitidine and nizatidine with using imidazolium ionic liquids prior spectrophotometric and chromatographic detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiszkiel, Ilona; Starczewska, Barbara; Leśniewska, Barbara; Późniak, Patrycja

    2015-03-15

    A new extraction medium was proposed for liquid-liquid extraction of the histamine H2 receptor antagonists ranitidine (RNT) and nizatidine (NZT). The ionic liquids with low vapor pressure and favorable solvating properties for a range of compounds such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C4mim][PF6] and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [C4mim][Tf2N] were tested for isolation of analytes. The extraction parameters of RNT and NZT, namely, amount of ionic liquid, pH of sample solution, shaking and centrifugation time were optimized. The isolation processes were performed with 1 mL of the ionic liquids. The extracted samples (pH values near 4) were shaken at 1750 rpm. The influence of interfering substances on the efficiency of extraction process was also studied. Methods for the histamine H2 receptor antagonists (ranitidine and nizatidine) determination after their separation using imidazolium ionic liquids by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with UV spectrophotometry were developed. The application of ionic liquids in extraction step allows for selective isolation of analytes from aqueous matrices and their preconcentration. The above methods were applied to the determination of RNT and NZT in environmental samples (river water and wastewater after treatment).

  13. HCO3- secretion in rat duodenum after treatment with omeprazole and ranitidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, L; Flemström, G; Gustavsson, S; Jedstedt, G; Lönnerholm, G

    1987-01-01

    The bicarbonate secretion by the duodenal mucosa, which is stimulated by luminal acid, is very probably important in mucosal protection against the acid. It was of interest to investigate whether long-term deprivation of the mucosa of this acid stimulus affected the alkali secretion. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 4-6 weeks with either omeprazole, 14 mg/kg body weight twice daily, or ranitidine, 300 mg/kg twice daily, by means of gastric intubation. The rate of bicarbonate secretion by the duodenal mucosa was determined in situ by continuous titration. Neither the basal secretion nor the increase in secretion in response to stimulation by prostaglandin E2 or luminal acid (pH 2.0 for 5 or 60 min) differed in treated animals from that in controls that had received placebo (p greater than 0.05). Thus, 4-6 weeks of treatment with omeprazole or ranitidine did not reduce duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in the rat, nor did these drugs diminish the ability of this mucosa to respond to prolonged luminal acidification or luminally administered prostaglandin E2.

  14. Acute oral Bryostatin-1 administration improves learning deficits in the APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrott, L M; Jackson, K; Yi, P; Dietz, F; Johnson, G S; Basting, T F; Purdum, G; Tyler, T; Rios, J D; Castor, T P; Alexander, J S

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies showed that Bryostatin-1, a potent PKC modulator and alphasecretase activator, can improve cognition in models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with chronic (>10 weeks), intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of the drug. We compared learning and spatial memory in the APPswe, PSEN1dE985Dbo (APP/PS1) mouse model of AD and studied the ability of acute intraperitoneal and oral Bryostatin-1 to reverse cognitive deficits in this model. Compared to wild-type (WT) mice, APP/PS1 mice showed significant delays in learning the location of a submerged platform in the Morris water maze. Bryostatin-1 was administered over a 2-week course prior to and during water maze testing. Acute i.p. Bryostatin-1 administration did not improve latency to escape but oral Bryostatin-1 significantly improved memory (measured by a reduction in latency to escape). This benefit of oral Bryostatin-1 administration was most apparent during the first 3 days of testing. These findings show that: 1) Bryostatin-1 is orally active in models of learning and memory, 2) this effect can be produced in less than 2 weeks and 3) this effect is not seen with i.p. administration. We conclude that oral Bryostatin-1 represents a novel, potent and long-acting memory enhancer with future clinical applications in the treatment of human AD.

  15. Long-term oral sodium bicarbonate supplementation does not improve serum albumin levels in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossola, Maurizio; Giungi, Stefania; Tazza, Luigi; Luciani, Giovanna

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis, a frequent event in hemodialysis patients, has been implicated as a potential cause of protein-energy malnutrition. Unfortunately, correction of metabolic acidosis by means of high bicarbonate concentration in the dialysate does not seem to lead to significant changes in nutritional parameters. The project was a single-arm, open-label, 12-month pilot study at a university-based tertiary care center aimed at evaluating whether correction of metabolic acidosis through long-term oral sodium bicarbonate supplementation improves serum albumin levels and other nutritional parameters in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Twenty highly acidotic hemodialysis patients patients were invited to consume an oral supplementation of sodium bicarbonate (1 g, thrice daily), for 12 months. Patients were followed at baseline and every month, until month 12. At each follow-up visit, dry body weight, BMI, blood pressure, presence of edema, venous bicarbonate, and serum albumin were measured. Total lymphocyte count, fasting total cholesterol and C-reactive protein were assessed every 2 months. At baseline and at 12 months, the subjective global assessment of nutritional status and the protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance normalized to actual body weight were determined. Plasma bicarbonate level rose from 18.1 +/- 2.7 to 22.1 +/- 4.5 mmol/l after 10 months (p = 0.001). Mean serum albumin levels were 3.8 +/- 0.2 mg/dl at baseline and 3.9 +/- 0.2 at the end of the study. Repeated measure ANOVA showed that there was no significant effect of bicarbonate treatment on serum albumin levels (p = 0.29), dry weight (p = 0.1), serum total cholesterol (p = 0.97), total lymphocyte count (p = 0.69), or C-reactive protein (p = 0.85). Mean subjective global assessment score was 4.53 +/- 0.37 at baseline and 4.58 +/- 0.54 at 12 months (p = 0.1). Mean nPNA (g/kg/day) was 0.86 +/- 0.05 at baseline and 0.85 +/- 0.08 at month 12. The present study demonstrates that long

  16. Early removing gastrointestinal decompression and early oral feeding improve patients' rehabilitation after colorectostomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Zhou; Xiao-Ting Wu; Ye-Jiang Zhou; Xiong Huang; Wei Fan; Yue-chun Li

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and tolerance of early removing gastrointestinal decompression and early oral feeding in the patients undergoing surgery for colorectal carcinoma.METHODS: Three hundred and sixteen patients submitted to operations associated with colorectostomy from January 2004 to September 2005 were randomized to two groups: In experimental group (n = 161), the nasogastric tube was removed after the operation from 12 to 24 hours and was promised immediately oral feeding; In control group (n = 155), the nasogastric tube was maintained until the passage of flatus per rectum.Variables assessed included the time to first passage of flatus, the time to first passage of stool, the time elapsedpostoperative stay, and postoperative complications such as anastomotic leakage, acute dilation of stomach,wound infection and dehiscense, fever, pulmonary infection and pharyngolaryngitis.RESULTS: The median and average days to the first passage of flatus (3.0±0.9 vs 3.6± 1.2, P<0.001), the first passage of stool (4.1± 1.1 vs 4.8± 1.4 P<0.001)and the length of postoperative stay (8.4± 3.4 vs 9.6±5.0, P<0.05) were shorter in the experimental group than in the control group. The postoperative complications such as anastomotic leakage (1.24% vs 2.58%), acute dilation of stomach (1.86% vs 0.06%)and wound complications (2.48% vs1.94%) were similar in the groups, but fever (3.73% vs 9.68%, P<0.05),pulmonary infection (0.62% vs 4.52%, P<0.05) and pharyngolaryngitis (3.11% vs 23.23%, P<0.001) were much more in the control group than in the experimental group.CONCLUSION: The present study shows that application of gastrointestinal decompression after colorectostomy can not effectively reduce postoperative complications.On the contrary, it may increase the incidence rate of fever, pharyngolaryngitis and pulmonary infection.These strategies of early removing gastrointestinal decompression and early oral feeding in the patients undergoing

  17. Modified-chitosan nanoparticles: Novel drug delivery systems improve oral bioavailability of doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khdair, Ayman; Hamad, Islam; Alkhatib, Hatim; Bustanji, Yasser; Mohammad, Mohammad; Tayem, Rabab; Aiedeh, Khaled

    2016-10-10

    The efficacy of most anticancer drugs is highly limited in vivo due mainly to poor pharmacokinetics behavior including poor bioavailability after extravascular administration. We have developed novel chitosan-modified polymeric nanoparticles for oral as well as i.v. administration. Nanoparticles were developed utilizing the double emulsion solvent evaporation technique for sustained delivery of various anticancer drugs. Chitosan diacetate (CDA) and chitosan triacetate (CTA) polymers were previously modified in our laboratory and used as novel matrix. Nanoparticles, loaded with various anticancer drugs, were characterized for particle size using dynamic light scattering as well as transmission electron microscopy and net surface charge using dynamic light scattering. Particles size was below 100nm in diameter and zeta potential ranged - (25-30). Encapsulation efficiency of anticancer drugs varied considerably and was dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the encapsulated drug. However, chitosan triacetate nanoparticles showed relatively higher encapsulation efficiency than chitosan diacetate nanoparticles. In vitro release of encapsulated drugs was sustained over a period of 14days. Nanoparticles enhanced cellular accumulation of encapsulated drugs, compared to the free drugs, in vitro in MCF-7 and Caco-II tumor cell lines. In conclusion, diacetate and triacetate chitosan are novel polymers that can be used to formulate nanoparticles which efficiently encapsulated anticancer drugs, and sustained the release and enhanced tumor cellular uptake of these drugs. Further, chitosan triacetate nanoparticles enhanced oral bioavailability of doxorubicin. CDA and CTA nanoparticles can be used to efficiently deliver anticancer drugs and improve their in vivo profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [The effect of pretreatment with ranitidine on the pharmacokinetics and gastrointestinal transit of a sustained-release theophylline preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C G; Washington, N; Greaves, J L; Blackshaw, P E; Perkins, A C; Barkworth, M F; Rehm, K D

    1998-05-01

    A scintigraphic and pharmacokinetic study of the behavior of Bronchoretard forte (theophylline, CAS 58-55-9) was carried out in 8 healthy male volunteers to evaluate the sensitivity of the preparation to changes in gastric pH. The volunteers were pretreated with ranitidine (CAS 66357-35-5) (150 mg b.i.d.) or placebo for three days prior to and on the study day to reduce gastric acidity. The effect of the pretreatment with ranitidine on gastric pH was measured on the day before study begin and the mean pH was significantly increased compared to the placebo (ranitidine pH 2.2 +/- 2.4; placebo pH 1.6 +/- 2.0, p formulation. No significant differences were found in the gastrointestinal transit of the labelled microparticulates between the data obtained from the group treated with ranitidine and that from the placebo group. Plasma theophylline concentration profiles were identical for the two treatments. These data indicate that the theophylline sustained release formulation is not sensitive to the effects of major changes in gastric H+ concentration.

  19. An analysis of potential and real cost savings by the addition of ranitidine to total parenteral nutrition solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, V E; King, L M

    1992-07-01

    The results of two analyses that assessed the potential savings and the actual savings derived from the addition of ranitidine to total parenteral nutrition solutions are discussed. A clinical pharmacist determined on a daily basis the number of patients receiving concurrent total parenteral nutrition solutions and intermittent intravenous ranitidine in a critical care unit. The cost of each mode of administration was determined and the savings were calculated to be over +16,000/year. Once the practice of adding ranitidine to total parenteral nutrition solutions became routine, total parenteral nutrition solution orders for April-June 1991 were collected and the number of patient days were counted and the accrued savings were determined to be slightly more than +10,000 each year. Differences are explained by discrepancies in expected and true number of patient days. The authors conclude that there are savings to be realized by adding ranitidine, or any H2 antagonist, to total parenteral nutrition TPN solutions and avoiding intermittent infusions.

  20. The effects of roxatidine acetate on 24-hour intragastric acidity. Investigations in healthy volunteers and comparison with ranitidine and placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merki, H S; Witzel, L; Kaufmann, D; Kempf, M; Neumann, J; Scheurle, E; Röhmel, J; Walt, R P

    1988-01-01

    In a series of double-blind randomised studies in normal volunteers with continuous intragastric pH monitoring, the effects of different dosage regimens of roxatidine acetate, a new H2-receptor antagonist, were compared with placebo and ranitidine. Roxatidine acetate 75 mg twice daily decreased median 24-hour gastric acidity from pH 1.6 to 3.2 and median nocturnal acidity from 1.5 to 3.0. Roxatidine acetate 150 mg at bedtime raised median 24-hour pH in the same 17 subjects to 2.4 and nocturnal pH to 5.9. In the second experiment, in 14 volunteers, roxatidine acetate 150 mg at bedtime was as effective as ranitidine 300 mg at night, raising median nocturnal pH from 1.4 to 6.65 compared to 6.7 for ranitidine. However, when drugs were taken after the evening meal (post cenam nocte; PCN) roxatidine acetate 150 mg was less potent than ranitidine 300 mg, with median night-time pH rising from 1.3 to 3.2 and 4.0, respectively, in 28 volunteers. Roxatidine acetate 300 mg PCN produced the greatest rise of pH, to 4.9, suggesting that the true potency ratio of the 2 drugs is between 1 and 2.

  1. The effects of roxatidine acetate (HOE-760) on 24-hour intragastric acidity in healthy volunteers: comparison with ranitidine and placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merki, H S; Witzel, L; Kaufmann, D; Kempf, M; Müssig, V; Neumann, J; Scheurle, E; Röhmel, J; Walt, R P

    1988-02-01

    In a series of double-blind randomized studies in normal volunteers using continuous intragastric pH monitoring, the effects of different dosage regimens of roxatidine, a new H2-receptor antagonist, were compared with placebo and ranitidine. Roxatidine acetate, 75 mg twice daily, decreased median 24 h gastric acidity from pH 1.6 to 3.2 and median nocturnal acidity from 1.5 to 3.0. Roxatidine acetate, 150 mg at bedtime, raised median 24 pH of the same 17 subjects to 2.4 and nocturnal pH to 5.9. In another series of experiments, 150 mg roxatidine acetate at bedtime was as effective as ranitidine 300 mg nocte raising median nocturnal pH (14 volunteers) from 1.4 to 6.65 compared to 6.7, respectively. However, when drugs were taken after the evening meal (post cenam nocte, pcn) roxatidine acetate 150 mg was less potent than ranitidine 300 mg with median night-time pH rising from 1.3 to 3.2 and 4.0, respectively, in 28 volunteers. Roxatidine acetate 300 mg pcn raised the pH to 4.9 suggesting that roxatidine is 1-2 times as potent as ranitidine, on a milligram-for-milligram basis.

  2. Sustained benefits of a community dietetics intervention designed to improve oral nutritional supplement prescribing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennelly, S; Kennedy, N P; Corish, C A; Flanagan-Rughoobur, G; Glennon-Slattery, C; Sugrue, S

    2011-10-01

    Healthcare professionals working in the community do not always prescribe oral nutritional supplements (ONS) according to best practice guidelines for the management of malnutrition. The present study aimed to determine the impact of a community dietetics intervention on ONS prescribing practices and expenditure 1 year later. The intervention involved general practitioners (GPs), practice nurses, nurses in local nursing homes and community nurses. It comprised an education programme together with the provision of a new community dietetics service. Changes in health care professionals' nutrition care practices were determined by examining community dietetics records. ONS prescribing volume and expenditure on ONS were assessed using data from the Primary Care Reimbursement Service of the Irish Health Service Executive. Seven out of 10 principal GPs participated in the nutrition education programme. One year later, screening for malnutrition risk was better, dietary advice was provided more often, referral to the community dietetics service improved and ONS were prescribed for a greater proportion of patients at 'high risk' of malnutrition than before (88% versus 37%; P dietetics intervention improved ONS prescribing practices by GPs and nurses, in accordance with best practice guidelines, without increasing expenditure on ONS during the year after intervention. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  3. Oral Dalfampridine Improves Standing Balance Detected at Static Posturography in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Prosperini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 14-week post-marketing experience on 20 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS who started prolonged-release (PR oral dalfampridine 10 mg twice daily according to European Medicine Agency criteria. They underwent serial static posturography assessments and the dizziness handicap inventory (DHI to investigate whether PR dalfampridine could impact standing balance and self-reported perception of balance. The incidence of accidental falls per person per month was also recorded throughout the study. Eight (40% patients, who had a relevant improvement in walking speed, were defined as treatment responders. They showed a significant improvement of standing balance (with respect to pretreatment assessment when contrasted with 12 (60% nonresponders (F[4,15] = 3.959, P=0.027. No significant changes in DHI score, as well as in its functional, physical, and emotional subscales, were found in both responders and nonresponders at the end of study (all P values are ≥0.2. Treatment response did not affect the incidence of accidental falls. Future studies based on larger sample sizes, and with longer followup, are required to confirm the beneficial effect of PR dalfampridine on standing balance.

  4. Feasibility study of the use of a daily electronic mail reminder to improve oral contraceptive compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Michelle C; Creinin, Mitchell D; Murthy, Amitasrigowri S; Harwood, Bryna; Reid, Lynn M

    2003-11-01

    Women who ingest their oral contraceptive pill (OCP) as part of a daily routine are more likely use their OCPs correctly. This trial examines the feasibility of an electronic-mail (e-mail) reminder system to improve OCP compliance. An e-mail reminder was sent to 50 new OCP users daily for 3 months. Subjects sent an e-mail reply to confirm receipt. OCP compliance was recorded on diaries. Four subjects were discontinued for not checking their e-mail. Active participants missed a median of 18% of the e-mail reminders (range: 0-65%). A follow-up visit was scheduled after completion of three OCP cycles. Of the 40 subjects returning completed diaries, 50% missed no active pills at all and 20% missed at least one in each cycle. Most found the daily e-mail somewhat (65%) or very helpful (19%) for OCP compliance. Of those continuing OCPs, 64% wanted to continue receiving e-mail reminders at the completion of the study. Because inconsistent OCP use is a significant cause of unplanned conception, the use of e-mail to improve OCP compliance has the potential to decrease unintended pregnancies.

  5. Needs and barriers to improve the collaboration in oral anticoagulant therapy: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drewes Hanneke W

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT involves many health care disciplines. Even though collaboration between care professionals is assumed to improve the quality of OAT, very little research has been done into the practice of OAT management to arrange and manage the collaboration. This study aims to identify the problems in collaboration experienced by the care professionals involved, the solutions they proposed to improve collaboration, and the barriers they encountered to the implementation of these solutions. Methods In the Netherlands, intensive follow-up of OAT is provided by specialized anticoagulant clinics (ACs. Sixty-eight semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 103 professionals working at an AC. These semi-structured interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed inductively. Wagner's chronic care model (CCM and Cabana's framework for improvement were used to categorize the results. Results AC professionals experienced three main bottlenecks in collaboration: lack of knowledge (mostly of other professionals, lack of consensus on OAT, and limited information exchange between professionals. They mentioned several solutions to improve collaboration, especially solutions of CCM's decision support component (i.e. education, regular meetings, and agreements and protocols. Education is considered a prerequisite for the successful implementation of other proposed solutions such as developing a multidisciplinary protocol and changing the allocation of tasks. The potential of the health care organization to improve collaboration seemed to be underestimated by professionals. They experienced several barriers to the successful implementation of the proposed solutions. Most important barriers were the lack motivation of non-AC professionals and lack of time to establish collaboration. Conclusions This study revealed that the collaboration in OAT is limited by a lack of knowledge, a lack of consensus, and a

  6. Physicochemical Properties of Solid Phospholipid Particles as a Drug Delivery Platform for Improving Oral Absorption of Poorly Soluble Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Kohsaku; Miyazaki, Aoi; Fukushima, Mayuko; Sato, Keiko; Yamamura, Yuko; Mohri, Kohta; Sakuma, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    A novel drug delivery platform, mesoporous phospholipid particle (MPP), is introduced. Its physicochemical properties and ability as a carrier for enhancing oral absorption of poorly soluble drugs are discussed. MPP was prepared through freeze-drying a cyclohexane/t-butyl alcohol solution of phosphatidylcholine. Its basic properties were revealed using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, hygroscopicity measurement, and so on. Fenofibrate was loaded to MPP as a poorly soluble model drug, and effect of MPP on the oral absorption behavior was observed. MPP is spherical in shape with a diameter typically in the range of 10-15 μm and a wide surface area that exceeds 10 m(2)/g. It has a bilayer structure that may accommodate hydrophobic drugs in the acyl chain region. When fenofibrate was loaded in MPP as a model drug, it existed partially in a crystalline state and improvement in the dissolution behavior was achieved in the presence of a surfactant, because of the formation of mixed micelles composed of phospholipids and surfactants in the dissolution media. MPP greatly improved the oral absorption of fenofibrate compared to that of the crystalline drug and its efficacy was almost equivalent to that of an amorphous drug dispersion. MPP is a promising option for improving the oral absorption of poorly soluble drugs based on the novel mechanism of dissolution improvement.

  7. Improved Safety, Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetics of Zidovudine through Lactoferrin Nanoparticles during Oral Administration in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Kumar

    Full Text Available Zidovudine (AZT is one of the most referred antiretroviral drug. In spite of its higher bioavailability (50-75% the most important reason of its cessation are bone marrow suppression, anemia, neutropenia and various organs related toxicities. This study aims at the improvement of oral delivery of AZT through its encapsulation in lactoferrin nanoparticles (AZT-lactonano. The nanoparticles (NPs are of 50-60 nm in size and exhibit 67% encapsulation of the AZT. They are stable in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. Anti-HIV-1 activity of AZT remains unaltered in nanoformulation in acute infection. The bioavailability and tissue distribution of AZT is higher in blood followed by liver and kidney. AZT-lactonano causes the improvement of pharmacokinetic profile as compared to soluble AZT; a more than 4 fold increase in AUC and AUMC in male and female rats. The serum Cmax for AZT-lactonano was increased by 30%. Similarly there was nearly 2-fold increase in Tmax and t1/2. Our in vitro study confirms that, the endosomal pH is ideal for drug release from NPs and shows constant release from up to 96h. Bone marrow micronucleus assay show that nanoformulation exhibits approximately 2fold lower toxicity than soluble form. Histopathological and biochemical analysis further confirms that less or no significant organ toxicities when nanoparticles were used. AZT-lactonano has shown its higher efficacy, low organs related toxicities, improved pharmacokinetics parameter while keeping the antiviral activity intact. Thus, the nanoformulation are safe for the target specific drug delivery.

  8. Non-dental primary care providers’ views on challenges in providing oral health services and strategies to improve oral health in Australian rural and remote communities: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, Tony; Hoang, Ha; Stuart, Jackie; Crocombe, Len

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the challenges of providing oral health advice/treatment as experienced by non-dental primary care providers in rural and remote areas with no resident dentist, and their views on ways in which oral health and oral health services could be improved for their communities. Design Qualitative study with semistructured interviews and thematic analysis. Setting Four remote communities in outback Queensland, Australia. Participants 35 primary care providers who had experie...

  9. Improving Professionalism in the Engineering Curriculum through a Novel Use of Oral Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berjano, Enrique; Sales-Nebot, Laura; Lozano-Nieto, Albert

    2013-01-01

    This hypothesis is based on the fact that oral presentations in the context of engineering education could be used not only to develop oral communication skills but also to augment the professionalism in the curriculum. The methodological innovation is first described, which allows encouraging the capacity of summarising ideas, teamwork,…

  10. Improving Professionalism in the Engineering Curriculum through a Novel Use of Oral Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berjano, Enrique; Sales-Nebot, Laura; Lozano-Nieto, Albert

    2013-01-01

    This hypothesis is based on the fact that oral presentations in the context of engineering education could be used not only to develop oral communication skills but also to augment the professionalism in the curriculum. The methodological innovation is first described, which allows encouraging the capacity of summarising ideas, teamwork,…

  11. Evidence-Based Health Promotion in Nursing Homes: A Pilot Intervention to Improve Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadet, Tamara J.; Berrett-Abebe, Julie; Burke, Shanna L.; Bakk, Louanne; Kalenderian, Elsbeth; Maramaldi, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Nursing home residents over the age of 65 years are at high risk for poor oral health and related complications such as pneumonia and adverse diabetes outcomes. A preliminary study found that Massachusetts' nursing homes generally lack the training and resources needed to provide adequate oral health care to residents. In this study, an…

  12. Oral administration of an immunostimulatory DNA sequence from Bifidobacterium longum improves Th1/Th2 balance in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Noritoshi; Kitazawa, Haruki; Iwabuchi, Noriyuki; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Miyaji, Kazuhiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Saito, Tadao

    2006-08-01

    We have reported the antiallergic activities of the immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) BL07S, identified from genomic DNA of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 from in vitro and in vivo studies. The present study evaluated the efficiency of ODN BL07S in preventing allergic responses by oral administration. Oral administration of BL07S suppressed serum ovalbumin (OVA)-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels and improved the OVA-specific IgG2a/IgG1 ratio. ODN BL07S increased Th1 cytokine and decreased Th2 cytokine production in splenocytes. These results suggest that immunostimulatory ODNs are potentially associated with the antiallergic effects of probiotics.

  13. Oral hygiene improvement: a pragmatic approach based upon risk and motivation levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sgan-Cohen Harold D

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Good oral hygiene has always been the cornerstone of public and private dental health promotion. However, this has often been based upon incorrect assumptions. The public is not always willing and does not always need to change its oral health behavior to the same extent as that expected by the dental profession. The present commentary emphasizes the need to modify oral hygiene instruction according to specific risk and motivation levels. Dentistry needs to be flexible in accepting new evidence-based modalities of oral health promotion. Dentists, dental hygienists and the entire health care team need to accept that the traditional methods of oral health education are not always effective.

  14. An initiative to improve oral and written skills of Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Baeza-Romero

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe some activities that have been developed to written and oral skills in students of Degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering in the School of Industrial Engineering in Toledo. Among these activities, we have designed a workshop, included in welcome activities of the school for first year students and two learning activities included in chemistry module. In the workshop, we explained the key points to consider when an oral or written presentation is prepared. Moreover, we tried to make conscious to our students of the importance of the development of written and oral skills. In addition, we have designed an assessment method for oral skills and other skills like critical thinking in the chemistry module, though an exercise that combines conventional evaluation with peer evaluation. As part of this work, an assessment rubric has been developed to mark oral presentations.

  15. Oral antioxidant treatment partly improves integrity of human sperm DNA in infertile grade I varicocele patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gual-Frau, Josep; Abad, Carlos; Amengual, María J; Hannaoui, Naim; Checa, Miguel A; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Lozano, Iris; Nikolaou, Alexandros; Benet, Jordi; García-Peiró, Agustín; Prats, Juan

    2015-09-01

    Infertile males with varicocele have the highest percentage of sperm cells with damaged DNA, compared to other infertile groups. Antioxidant treatment is known to enhance the integrity of sperm DNA; however, there are no data on the effects in varicocele patients. We thus investigated the potential benefits of antioxidant treatment specifically in grade I varicocele males. Twenty infertile patients with grade I varicocele were given multivitamins (1500 mg L-Carnitine, 60 mg vitamin C, 20 mg coenzyme Q10, 10 mg vitamin E, 200 μg vitamin B9, 1 μg vitamin B12, 10 mg zinc, 50 μg selenium) daily for three months. Semen parameters including total sperm count, concentration, progressive motility, vitality, and morphology were determined before and after treatment. In addition, sperm DNA fragmentation and the amount of highly degraded sperm cells were analyzed by Sperm Chromatin Dispersion. After treatment, patients showed an average relative reduction of 22.1% in sperm DNA fragmentation (p = 0.02) and had 31.3% fewer highly degraded sperm cells (p = 0.07). Total numbers of sperm cells were increased (p = 0.04), but other semen parameters were unaffected. These data suggest that sperm DNA integrity in grade I varicocele patients may be improved by oral antioxidant treatment.

  16. Evaluation of Three Amorphous Drug Delivery Technologies to Improve the Oral Absorption of Flubendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialpando, Monica; Smulders, Stefanie; Bone, Scott; Jager, Casey; Vodak, David; Van Speybroeck, Michiel; Verheyen, Loes; Backx, Katrien; Boeykens, Peter; Brewster, Marcus E; Ceulemans, Jens; Novoa de Armas, Hector; Van Geel, Katrien; Kesselaers, Emma; Hillewaert, Vera; Lachau-Durand, Sophie; Meurs, Greet; Psathas, Petros; Van Hove, Ben; Verreck, Geert; Voets, Marieke; Weuts, Ilse; Mackie, Claire

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates 3 amorphous technologies to improve the dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of flubendazole (FLU). The selected approaches are (1) a standard spray-dried dispersion with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) E5 or polyvinylpyrrolidone-vinyl acetate 64, both with Vitamin E d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate; (2) a modified process spray-dried dispersion (MPSDD) with either HPMC E3 or hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS-M); and (3) confining FLU in ordered mesoporous silica (OMS). The physicochemical stability and in vitro release of optimized formulations were evaluated following 2 weeks of open conditions at 25°C/60% relative humidity (RH) and 40°C/75% RH. All formulations remained amorphous at 25°C/60% RH. Only the MPSDD formulation containing HPMCAS-M and 3/7 (wt./wt.) FLU/OMS did not crystallize following 40°C/75% RH exposure. The OMS and MPSDD formulations contained the lowest and highest amount of hydrolyzed degradant, respectively. All formulations were dosed to rats at 20 mg/kg in suspension. One FLU/OMS formulation was also dosed as a capsule blend. Plasma concentration profiles were determined following a single dose. In vivo findings show that the OMS capsule and suspension resulted in the overall highest area under the curve and Cmax values, respectively. These results cross-evaluate various amorphous formulations and provide a link to enhanced biopharmaceutical performance.

  17. Modeling the theory of planned behavior for intention to improve oral health behaviors: the impact of attitudes, knowledge, and current behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Alexandrina L; Wagle, Madhu; Dogaru, Beatrice C; Manolescu, Bogdan

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the efficiency of an extended model of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting intention to improve oral health behaviors. The participants in this cross-sectional study were 153 first-year medical students (mean age 20.16, 50 males and 103 females) who completed a questionnaire assessing intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, oral health knowledge, and current oral hygiene behaviors. Attitudes toward oral health behaviors and perceived behavioral control contributed to the model for predicting intention, whereas subjective norms did not. Attitudes toward oral health behaviors were slightly more important than perceived behavioral control in predicting intention. Oral health knowledge significantly affected affective and cognitive attitudes, while current behavior was not a significant predictor of intention to improve oral health behavior. The model had a slightly better fit among females than among males, but was similar for home and professional dental health care. Our findings revealed that attitude, perceived behavioral control, and oral health knowledge are predictors of intention to improve oral health behaviors. These findings may help both dentists and dental hygienists in educating patients in oral health and changing patients' oral hygiene habits.

  18. Zantac® 150 y ranitidina de producción nacional: liberación in vitro ZantacÒ150 and ranitidine of national production: in vitro release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette Martínez Miranda

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Dentro del proceso global de la liberación de un fármaco, la disolución constituye el paso más importante pues se encuentra íntimamente relacionada con los procesos de absorción, determinantes en la biodisponibilidad de un medicamento administrado por vía oral. En el presente trabajo se realizaron los perfiles de disolución de 3 lotes de Zantac® (GlaxoWellcome, medicamento líder del principio activo ranitidina (DCI y de 3 lotes de ranitidina 150 mg de producción nacional. Para el estudio de disolución se utilizó el método descrito en la USP 23. Los datos de porcentaje de principio activo liberado contra tiempo fueron sometidos a un estudio de ajuste a 4 modelos comunes a perfiles de disolución mediante el programa CurveExpert. Todos los lotes estudiados cumplen con los criterios de la Food and Drug Administration (FDA para los estudios de bioequivalencia in vitro.Dissolution is the most important step in the global release process of a drug , since it is closely related to the absorption processes, which are determinant in the bioavailability of a drug administered by oral route. The dissolution profiles of 3 batches of Zantac® (Glaxo Wellcome, a leading drug of the ranitidine active principle (DCI, and of 3 batches of ranitidine 150 mg of national production were performed. The method described in the USP 23 was used for the dissolution test. The percentage data of the active principle released against time were subjected to a study of adjustment of 4 models to common disssolution profiles by the CurveExpert program. All the studied batches fulfilled the criteria of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the in vitro bioequivalence studies.

  19. Improving oral hygiene skills among children undergoing treatment at the haemato-oncology department - an interventional programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Liran; Bilder, Leon; Borisov, Oxana

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this interventional programme was to educate children undergoing treatment at the haemato-oncology department in how to improve their oral hygiene skills. Children (and their parents) treated at the haemato-oncology department for haematological malignancies and disorders were educated and instructed in how to improve their dental oral hygiene skills. Instructions, demonstration and practice of toothbrushing techniques, as well as interproximal cleaning, were carried out in three separate sessions. In each session, toothbrushing skills were evaluated using the Ashkenazi index to assess improvement in oral hygiene skills over time. Four assessments were performed and recorded for each participant: before the initial explanation; immediately following the explanation; and 3 and 6 weeks following the first visit. Overall, 52 children were enrolled in the programme. The first toothbrushing performance skill evaluation revealed a low score of 10.44 out of a total of 40; this was significantly increased, following the instruction session, to 33.02 (P oral health and prevent future disease in this population. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  20. Skeletal improvement in patients with Gaucher disease type 1: a phase 2 trial of oral eliglustat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, Ravi S. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Fairfax Radiological Consultants, Fairfax, VA (United States); Lukina, Elena [Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Watman, Nora [Hospital Ramos Mejia, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dragosky, Marta [Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social Hospital de Especialidades, Col. La Raza (Mexico); Pastores, Gregory M. [New York University, New York (United States); Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Arreguin, Elsa Avila [Instituto Argentino de Diagnostico y Tratamiento, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rosenbaum, Hanna [Rambam Medical Center, Haifa (Israel); Zimran, Ari [Sha' are Zedek Hebrew University and Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Aguzzi, Rasha [Genzyme, a Sanofi company, Cambridge, MA (United States); Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge, MA (United States); Puga, Ana Cristina; Norfleet, Andrea M.; Peterschmitt, M.J. [Genzyme, a Sanofi company, Cambridge, MA (United States); Rosenthal, Daniel I. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Eliglustat is an investigational oral substrate reduction therapy for Gaucher disease type 1 (GD1). Its skeletal effects were evaluated by prospective monitoring of bone mineral density (BMD), fractures, marrow infiltration by Gaucher cells, focal bone lesions, and infarcts during an open-label, multi-site, single-arm phase 2 trial (NCT00358150). Institutional review board approval and patient informed consent were obtained. Eliglustat (50 or 100 mg) was self-administered by mouth twice daily; 19 patients completed 4 years of treatment. All were skeletally mature (age range, 18-55 years). DXA and MRI assessments were conducted at baseline and annually thereafter. X-rays were obtained annually until month 24, and then every other year. Lumbar spine BMD increased significantly (p = 0.02; n = 15) by a mean (SD) of 9.9 % (14.2 %) from baseline to year 4; corresponding T-scores increased significantly (p = 0.01) from a mean (SD) of -1.6 (1.1) to -0.9 (1.3). Mean femur T-score remained normal through 4 years. Femur MRI showed that 10/18 (56 %) patients had decreased Gaucher cell infiltration compared to baseline; one patient with early improvement had transient worsening at year 4. There were no lumbar spine or femoral fractures and no reported bone crises during the study. At baseline, 8/19 (42 %) patients had focal bone lesions, which remained stable, and 7/19 (37 %) patients had bone infarctions, which improved in one patient by year 2. At year 4, one new asymptomatic, indeterminate bone lesion was discovered that subsequently resolved. Eliglustat may be a therapeutic option for treating the skeletal manifestations of GD1. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of intestinal phosphate binding to improve the safety profile of oral sodium phosphate bowel cleansing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef Robijn

    Full Text Available Prior to colonoscopy, bowel cleansing is performed for which frequently oral sodium phosphate (OSP is used. OSP results in significant hyperphosphatemia and cases of acute kidney injury (AKI referred to as acute phosphate nephropathy (APN; characterized by nephrocalcinosis are reported after OSP use, which led to a US-FDA warning. To improve the safety profile of OSP, it was evaluated whether the side-effects of OSP could be prevented with intestinal phosphate binders. Hereto a Wistar rat model of APN was developed. OSP administration (2 times 1.2 g phosphate by gavage with a 12h time interval induced bowel cleansing (severe diarrhea and significant hyperphosphatemia (21.79 ± 5.07 mg/dl 6h after the second OSP dose versus 8.44 ± 0.97 mg/dl at baseline. Concomitantly, serum PTH levels increased fivefold and FGF-23 levels showed a threefold increase, while serum calcium levels significantly decreased from 11.29 ± 0.53 mg/dl at baseline to 8.68 ± 0.79 mg/dl after OSP. OSP administration induced weaker NaPi-2a staining along the apical proximal tubular membrane. APN was induced: serum creatinine increased (1.5 times baseline and nephrocalcinosis developed (increased renal calcium and phosphate content and calcium phosphate deposits on Von Kossa stained kidney sections. Intestinal phosphate binding (lanthanum carbonate or aluminum hydroxide was not able to attenuate the OSP induced side-effects. In conclusion, a clinically relevant rat model of APN was developed. Animals showed increased serum phosphate levels similar to those reported in humans and developed APN. No evidence was found for an improved safety profile of OSP by using intestinal phosphate binders.

  2. Improving the Standard of Operative Notes within an Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, using an Operative Note Proforma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Karl; Jones, Keith; Dickenson, Andrew

    2011-09-01

    The operative note needs to be an accurate and legible account of events occurring in the surgeon's theatre. We set out to discover if operative notes within a British District General Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery department adhered to Royal College of Surgeons (England) guidelines. We audited 100 consecutive Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery operations performed within general theatres. As an intervention we designed and piloted a paper based Operative Note Proforma and re-audit was undertaken. Initial audit showed results lacking in certain areas. At re-audit all audit criteria showed improvement. The mean percentage of data point inclusion rose from 76.1 to 98.3% (0.001 Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.

  3. Improved Oral Bioavailability Using a Solid Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System Containing a Multicomponent Mixture Extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Bi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The active ingredients of salvia (dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza include both lipophilic (e.g., tanshinone IIA, tanshinone I, cryptotanshinone and dihydrotanshinone I and hydrophilic (e.g., danshensu and salvianolic acid B constituents. The low oral bioavailability of these constituents may limit their efficacy. A solid self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (S-SMEDDS was developed to load the various active constituents of salvia into a single drug delivery system and improve their oral bioavailability. A prototype SMEDDS was designed using solubility studies and phase diagram construction, and characterized by self-emulsification performance, stability, morphology, droplet size, polydispersity index and zeta potential. Furthermore, the S-SMEDDS was prepared by dispersing liquid SMEDDS containing liposoluble extract into a solution containing aqueous extract and hydrophilic polymer, and then freeze-drying. In vitro release of tanshinone IIA, salvianolic acid B, cryptotanshinone and danshensu from the S-SMEDDS was examined, showing approximately 60%–80% of each active component was released from the S-SMEDDS in vitro within 20 min. In vivo bioavailability of these four constituents indicated that the S-SMEDDS showed superior in vivo oral absorption to a drug suspension after oral administration in rats. It can be concluded that the novel S-SMEDDS developed in this study increased the dissolution rate and improved the oral bioavailability of both lipophilic and hydrophilic constituents of salvia. Thus, the S-SMEDDS can be regarded as a promising new method by which to deliver salvia extract, and potentially other multicomponent drugs, by the oral route.

  4. Improved Oral Bioavailability Using a Solid Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System Containing a Multicomponent Mixture Extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaolin; Liu, Xuan; Di, Liuqing; Zu, Qiang

    2016-04-08

    The active ingredients of salvia (dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza) include both lipophilic (e.g., tanshinone IIA, tanshinone I, cryptotanshinone and dihydrotanshinone I) and hydrophilic (e.g., danshensu and salvianolic acid B) constituents. The low oral bioavailability of these constituents may limit their efficacy. A solid self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (S-SMEDDS) was developed to load the various active constituents of salvia into a single drug delivery system and improve their oral bioavailability. A prototype SMEDDS was designed using solubility studies and phase diagram construction, and characterized by self-emulsification performance, stability, morphology, droplet size, polydispersity index and zeta potential. Furthermore, the S-SMEDDS was prepared by dispersing liquid SMEDDS containing liposoluble extract into a solution containing aqueous extract and hydrophilic polymer, and then freeze-drying. In vitro release of tanshinone IIA, salvianolic acid B, cryptotanshinone and danshensu from the S-SMEDDS was examined, showing approximately 60%-80% of each active component was released from the S-SMEDDS in vitro within 20 min. In vivo bioavailability of these four constituents indicated that the S-SMEDDS showed superior in vivo oral absorption to a drug suspension after oral administration in rats. It can be concluded that the novel S-SMEDDS developed in this study increased the dissolution rate and improved the oral bioavailability of both lipophilic and hydrophilic constituents of salvia. Thus, the S-SMEDDS can be regarded as a promising new method by which to deliver salvia extract, and potentially other multicomponent drugs, by the oral route.

  5. Improved oral bioavailability of capsaicin via liposomal nanoformulation: preparation, in vitro drug release and pharmacokinetics in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuan; Wang, Miaomiao; Zhang, Jiajia; Peng, Wei; Firempong, Caleb Kesse; Deng, Wenwen; Wang, Qilong; Wang, Shicheng; Shi, Feng; Yu, Jiangnan; Xu, Ximing; Zhang, Weiming

    2015-04-01

    This study innovatively prepared an effective capsaicin-loaded liposome, a nanoformulation with fewer irritants, for oral administration. The in vitro and in vivo properties of the liposomal encapsulation were investigated and the potential possibility of oral administration evaluated. The liposomal agent composed of phospholipid, cholesterol, sodium cholate and isopropyl myristate was prepared using film-dispersion method. A level A in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) was established for the first time, which demonstrated an excellent IVIVC of both formulated and free capsaicin in oral administration. Physicochemical characterizations including mean particle size, zeta (ζ) potential and average encapsulation efficiency of capsaicin-loaded liposome were found to be 52.2 ± 1.3 nm, -41.5 ± 2.71 mv and 81.9 ± 2.43 %, respectively. In vivo, liposomal encapsulation allowed a 3.34-fold increase in relative bioavailability compared to free capsaicin. The gastric mucosa irritation studies indicated that the liposomal system was a safe carrier for oral administration. These results support the fact that capsaicin, an effective drug for the treatment of neuropathic pain, could be encapsulated in liposome for improved oral bioavailability. The excellent IVIVC of capsaicin-loaded liposome could also be a promising tool in liposomal formulation development with an added advantage of reduced animal testing.

  6. Improving oral bioavailability of metformin hydrochloride using water-in-oil microemulsions and analysis of phase behavior after dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Song, Jiaqi; Tian, Ning; Cai, Jie; Huang, Meihong; Xing, Qiao; Wang, Yalong; Wu, Chuanbin; Hu, Haiyan

    2014-10-01

    Microemulsions show significant promise for enhancing the oral bioavailability of biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) class II drugs, but how about class III drugs remains unclear. Here we employed metformin hydrochloride (MET) as the model drug and prepared drug-loaded water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsions selecting different hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) surfactant systems, using HLB 8 as a cut-off. We examined the phase behaviors of microemulsions after dilution and attempted to correlate these behaviors to drug oral bioavailability. ME-A, including a lower content of surfactants (35%), underwent a transition of W/O emulsion and then became a stable O/W emulsion in a light milky appearance; ME-B, in contrast, introducing a higher content of surfactants (45%), still remained transparent or semitransparent upon dilution. Unexpectedly, ME-A showed significantly higher oral bioavailability, which can be reduced by blocking the lymphatic absorption pathway. Comparatively, the AUC of ME-B is lower, close to MET solution. Both microemulsions behaved similarly in intestinal perfusion test because of the dilution before perfusion, lacking of the important phase transition of W/O emulsion. These findings suggest that W/O microemulsions improve oral bioavailability of BCS class III drug by promoting lymphatic absorption. Analyzing the phase behavior of microemulsions after dilution may help predict the drug oral bioavailability and optimize formulations.

  7. Simultaneous determination of cimetidine, famotidine, nizatidine, and ranitidine in tablets by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S M; Ho, Y H; Wu, H L; Chen, S H; Ko, H S

    2001-08-01

    A simple capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method is described for the simultaneous determination of cimetidine (CIM), famotidine (FAM), nizatidine (NIZ), and ranitidine (RAN). The analysis of these drugs was performed in a 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 3.5. Several parameters were studied, including wavelength for detection, concentration and pH of phosphate buffer, and separation voltage. The quantitative ranges were 100-1,000 microM for each analyte. The intra- and interday relative standard deviations (n = 5) were all less than 4%. The detection limits were found to be about 10 microM for CIM, 20 microM for RAN, 20 microM for NIZ, and 10 microM for FAM (S/N = 3, injection 1 s) at 214 nm. All recoveries were greater than 92%. Applications of the method to the assay of these drugs in tablets proved to be feasible.

  8. Subtleties in crystal structure solution from powder diffraction data using simulated annealing: ranitidine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, Ashfia; Stephens, P W

    2003-02-01

    Recent advances in crystallographic computing and availability of high-resolution diffraction data have made it relatively easy to solve crystal structures from powders that would have traditionally required single crystal samples. The success of direct space methods depends heavily on starting with an accurate molecular model. In this paper we address the applicability of using these methods in finding subtleties such as disorder in the molecular conformation that might not be known a priori. We use ranitidine HCl as our test sample as it is known to have a conformational disorder from single crystal structural work. We redetermine the structure from powder data using simulated annealing and show that the conformational disorder is clearly revealed by this method.

  9. Leaky enteric coating on ranitidine hydrochloride beads: dissolution and prediction of plasma data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendas, Ehab R; Ayres, James W

    2008-08-01

    The present research is based on the hypothesis that leaky enteric-coated pellets formulations are able to provide sustained input for drugs that have an absorption window, such as ranitidine hydrochloride, without jeopardizing their bioavailability. Leaky enteric-coated pellets formulations are defined as enteric-coated pellets that allow some of the drug to be released from the formulation in gastric fluid. Different approaches to making leaky enteric-coated pellets were investigated using extrusion-spheronization followed by spray coating. Leaky enteric coats were formulated using a commonly used enteric polymer, Eudragit L 30 D-55, combined with soluble compounds including lactose, PEG 8000 and surfactants (Span 60 (hydrophobic) or Tween 80 (hydrophilic)). The rate of drug release from the formulations in simulated gastric fluid can be tailored by varying the additive's amount or type. All leaky enteric-coated formulations studied completely released the drugs within 30 min after changing dissolution medium to phosphate buffer, pH 6. Predictions of plasma concentration-time profiles of the model drug ranitidine hydrochloride from leaky enteric-coated pellets in fasted conditions and from immediate-release formulations were performed using computer simulations. Simulation results are consistent with a hypothesis that leaky enteric-coated pellets formulations provide sustained input for drugs shown to have an absorption window without decreasing bioavailability. The sustained input results from the combined effects of the formulation and GI transit effects on pellets. The present research demonstrates a new application of knowledge about gastrointestinal transit effects on drug formulations. It also shows that enteric-coating polymers have new applications in areas other than the usual enteric-coated formulations. The hypothesis that a leaky enteric-coated pellets formulation may maintain or increase the bioavailability of drugs that have a window of absorption

  10. Papel da ranitidina como meio de aprimorar a qualidade do exame de colangiopancreatografia por ressonância magnética The role of ranitidine in the enhancement of imaging quality in magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Rios Torres

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto da ranitidina por via oral na qualidade do exame de colangiopancreatografia por ressonância magnética (CPRM. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Trinta e dois pacientes realizaram CPRM com aquisições 3D e 2D, com três estratégias de supressão do sinal líquido gastrintestinal: a apenas em jejum; b 12 horas após ingerir 300 mg de ranitidina; c após a ingestão de solução de gadolínio. Três observadores avaliaram os estudos, atentos para o grau de visualização da árvore biliopancreática. Foi medida a concordância interobservador com o teste kappa. A diferença entre técnicas e formas de aquisição foi avaliada pela média da soma dos escores de graduação. RESULTADOS: As três estratégias de supressão do sinal líquido gastrintestinal apresentaram elevada reprodutibilidade. A supressão do sinal líquido gastrintestinal com a ranitidina foi semelhante ao jejum e ambas foram piores do que a solução de gadolínio. As aquisições 3D superaram a 2D apenas na visualização do ducto cístico e da vesícula biliar, sendo inferior ou equivalente nos demais segmentos ductais biliopancreáticos. CONCLUSÃO: O uso da ranitidina não parece justificado para aprimorar a avaliação da árvore biliopancreática em exames de CPRM. A CPRM 2D apenas em jejum permite a visualização ductal com elevada qualidade e reprodutibilidade na maioria dos casos.OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of oral ranitidine on the imaging quality in magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two patients underwent MRCP with 3D and 2D acquisitions, and three strategies for suppression of the gastrointestinal fluid signal: a only at fasting; b 12 hours after ingestion of 300 mg ranitidine; c after oral administration of gadolinium solution. Three observers reviewed the images with a focus on the degree of visualization of the biliopancreatic tree. The interobserver agreement was evaluated with the kappa test

  11. An initiative to improve oral and written skills of Engineering Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baeza-Romero, Maria Teresa; Andrés Abellán, Fuensanta

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe some activities that have been developed to written and oral skills in students of Degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering in the School of Industrial Engineering in Toledo...

  12. A novel nanomatrix system consisted of colloidal silica and pH-sensitive polymethylacrylate improves the oral bioavailability of fenofibrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zengrong; Lin, Ping; Xiang, Yu; Wang, Xueqing; Wang, Jiancheng; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Qiang

    2011-09-01

    A novel solid particle system with a nanomatrix structure and without surfactant for the oral delivery of insoluble drugs was prepared. This used a combination of pH-sensitive polymethylacrylate and nano-porous silica, in order to improve the drug absorption using only pharmaceutical excipients and a relative simple process. The in vitro drug dissolution and in vivo oral bioavailability of this formulation, using fenofibrate as the model drug, were compared with other reference formulations such as a suspension, micronized formulation or self microemulsion drug delivery system (SMEDDS). The supersaturation stabilizing effect of different polymers was evaluated and the physicochemical characterization of the optimal formulation was conducted by SEM, TEM, surface area analysis, DSC, and XRD. The optimized formulation prepared with polymethylacrylate (Eudragit®L100-55) and silica (Sylysia®350) markedly improved the drug dissolution compared with other reference preparations and displayed a comparative oral bioavailability to the SMEDDS. Fenofibrate existed in a molecular or amorphous state in the nanomatrix, and this state was maintained for up to 1year, without obvious changes in drug release and absorption. In conclusion, the nanomatrix formulation described here is a promising system to enhance the oral bioavailability of water-insoluble drugs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An initiative to improve oral and written skills of Engineering Students

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Teresa Baeza-Romero; Fuensanta Andrés Abellán

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe some activities that have been developed to written and oral skills in students of Degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering in the School of Industrial Engineering in Toledo. Among these activities, we have designed a workshop, included in welcome activities of the school for first year students and two learning activities included in chemistry module. In the workshop, we explained the key points to consider when an oral or written presentation is prepared. ...

  14. Improvement of oral bioavailability of lovastatin by using nanostructured lipid carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou J

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Jun Zhou,1,2 Daxin Zhou3 1Department of Medicine, Clinical Medical College of Soochow University, 2Department of Medicine, Tongren Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 3Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs have been one of the systems of choice for improving the oral bioavailability of drugs with poor water solubility. In the present study, lovastatin (LVT-loaded NLCs (LVT-NLCs were successfully prepared by hot high-pressure homogenization method with high entrapment efficiency, drug loading, and satisfactory particle size distribution. The particles had almost spherical and uniform shapes and were well dispersed with a particle size of <50 nm (23.5±1.6 nm and a low polydispersity index (0.17±0.05 mV. The result of stability showed that the LVT-NLCs dispersion maintained excellent stability without exhibiting any aggregation, precipitation, or phase separation at 4°C for 6 months of storage. The LVT release data from all developed solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs and NLCs were best fitted to a Ritger–Peppas kinetic model (0.9832 and 0.9783 for NLCs and SLNs, respectively. This indicated that the release of LVT from the SLNs and NLCs was due to a combination of drug diffusion and erosion from the lipid matrix. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic results show that LVT-NLCs were better compared to free drug, which could be attributed to an increase in bioavailability. Keywords: nanostructured lipid carriers, lovastatin, in vitro release, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic

  15. Pharmacokinetics study of arteether loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: an improved oral bioavailability in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Pankaj; Khatik, Renuka; Khandelwal, Kiran; Taneja, Isha; Raju, Kanumuri Siva Rama; Wahajuddin; Paliwal, Sarvesh Kumar; Dwivedi, Anil Kumar; Mishra, Prabhat Ranjan

    2014-05-15

    Arteether (ART), an artemisinin derivative, is a life saving drug for multiple drug resistant malaria. It has a deliverance effect in Falciparum malaria and cerebral malaria. We have prepared solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) by high pressure homogenization (HPH) technique. ART-loaded SLN (ART-SLN) has been produced reproducibly with homogeneous particle size. ART-SLN was characterized for their size measured by Zetasizer Nano-ZS, Malvern, UK and by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and which was found to be 100 ± 11.2 nm. The maximum percentage entrapment efficiency (%EE) determined with the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been found to be 69 ± 4.2% in ART-SLN-3. The release pattern from ART-SLN revealed that the release of ART is slow but time-dependent manner, which is desirable as it will help to protect the acid degradation of ART in stomach. The percentage cytotoxicity of blank SLN has been found within the acceptable range. The pharmacokinetics results indicated that ART-SLN-3 absorption has been significantly enhanced in comparison to ART in aqueous suspension and ART in ground nut oil (GNO) in rats. The % relative bioavailability (RB%) of ART-SLN to the ART in GNO and ART in aqueous suspension in rats was 169.99% and 7461%, respectively which was found to be significantly high in both the cases. From the results, it can be concluded that ART-SLN offers a new approach to improve the oral bioavailability of ART.

  16. Flavonoids and polymer derivatives as CYP3A4 inhibitors for improved oral drug bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasinu, Pius; Choonara, Yahya E; Khan, Riaz A; Du Toit, Lisa C; Kumar, Pradeep; Ndesendo, Valence M K; Pillay, Viness

    2013-02-01

    Molecular modeling computations were utilized to generate pharmaceutical grade CYP3A4-enzyme inhibitors. In vitro metabolism of felodipine in human intestinal and liver microsomes (HLM and HIM) was optimized yielding a Michaelis-Menten plot from where the K(m) and V(max) values were estimated by nonlinear regression. The flavonoids, naringin, naringenin, and quercetin, were subsequently incubated with felodipine at the determined K(m) value in HLM. Comparing results obtained from a known CYP3A4 inhibitor, verapamil, the flavonoids inhibited felodipine metabolism. In-depth computational analysis of these flavonoids in terms of CYP3A4 binding, sequencing, and affinity, computational biomimetism was employed to validate the potential CYP3A4 inhibitors. The modeled compounds were comparatively evaluated by incubation with felodipine in both HLM and HIM. Results showed that the polymers 8-arm-PEG, o-(2-aminoethyl)-o-methyl-PEG, 4-arm-PEG (molecular weight = 10,000 g/mol and 20,000 g/mol, respectively), and poly(l-lysine) were able to inhibit the felodipine metabolism with the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values ranging from 7.22 to 30.0 μM (HLM) and 5.78 to 41.03 μM (HIM). Molecular docking confirmed drug-enzyme interactions by computing the free energies of binding (ΔE) and inhibition constants (K(i)) of the docked compounds utilizing a Lamarckian Genetic Algorithm. Comparative correlations between the computed and experimental K(i) values were obtained. Computational modeling of CYP3A4 inhibitors provided a suitable strategy to screen pharmaceutical grade compounds that may potentially inhibit presystemic CYP3A4-dependent drug metabolism with the prospect of improving oral drug bioavailability. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Rationalizing the selection of oral lipid based drug delivery systems by an in vitro dynamic lipolysis model for improved oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Arik; Hoffman, Amnon

    2008-07-02

    As a consequence of modern drug discovery techniques, there has been a consistent increase in the number of new pharmacologically active lipophilic compounds that are poorly water soluble. A great challenge facing the pharmaceutical scientist is making these molecules into orally administered medications with sufficient bioavailability. One of the most popular approaches to improve the oral bioavailability of these molecules is the utilization of a lipid based drug delivery system. Unfortunately, current development strategies in the area of lipid based delivery systems are mostly empirical. Hence, there is a need for a simplified in vitro method to guide the selection of a suitable lipidic vehicle composition and to rationalize the delivery system design. To address this need, a dynamic in vitro lipolysis model, which provides a very good simulation of the in vivo lipid digestion process, has been developed over the past few years. This model has been extensively used for in vitro assessment of different lipid based delivery systems, leading to enhanced understanding of the suitability of different lipids and surfactants as a delivery system for a given poorly water soluble drug candidate. A key goal in the development of the dynamic in vitro lipolysis model has been correlating the in vitro data of various drug-lipidic delivery system combinations to the resultant in vivo drug profile. In this paper, we discuss and review the need for this model, its underlying theory, practice and limitations, and the available data accumulated in the literature. Overall, the dynamic in vitro lipolysis model seems to provide highly useful initial guidelines in the development process of oral lipid based drug delivery systems for poorly water soluble drugs, and it predicts phenomena that occur in the pre-enterocyte stages of the intestinal absorption cascade.

  18. One-week triple therapy with ranitidine bismuth citrate, clarithromycin and metronidazole versus two-week dual therapy with ranitidine bismuth citrate and clarithromycin for Helicobacter pylori infection : A randomized, clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wouden, EJ; Thijs, JC; van Zwet, AA; Kooy, A; Kleibeuker, JH

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and side effects of l-wk triple therapy with ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC) 400 mg b.i.d., clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d., and metronidazole 500 mg b.i.d., to 2-wk dual therapy with RBC 400 mg b.i.d. and clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d. for H.

  19. [The effect of ranitidine and famotidine on the intragastric pH profile of healthy subjects. Randomized cross-over trial with ranitidine effervescent tablets (300 mg) versus famotidine film tablets (40 mg) ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löser, C; Burlage, M; Fölsch, U R

    1994-05-01

    Influence of Ranitidine and Famotidine on the Intragastric pH-profile in Healthy Volunteers/Randomised cross-over study of ranitidine effervescent tablets (300 mg) versus famotidine film coated tablets (40 mg). A controlled cross-over trial was carried out to compare the duration of time until the onset of action and its intensity following administration of ranitidine (R, Sostril, CAS 76824-35-6) effervescent tablets (300 mg) and famotidine (F, CAS 76824-35-6) film coated tablets (40 mg). Twelve volunteers (4 female, 8 male) participated in the study. The efficacy of the test medications was assessed by pH-metry during 12 h. The evaluation of the measurements showed that a pH-value 3.5 was reached 100 s after administration of R and 3,392 s (56.5 min) after F (p < 0.01). The median pH-values were significantly higher after R during the first 2 h. The AUC-values (area under the curve; pH-time) for 1, 2 and 4 h were calculated by the trapezoid rule. The intake of R resulted in significantly higher areas than that of F. After reaching the pH-value of 3.5 this value remained stable during the complete period of measurement (R = 12 h, F = 11 h). The faster onset of pH-value elevation could correspond clinically with a faster onset of pain relief.

  20. Oral Liquid Formulation of Levothyroxine Is Stable in Breakfast Beverages and May Improve Thyroid Patient Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Bernareggi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients on treatment with levothyroxine (T4 are informed to take this drug in the morning, at least 30 min before having breakfast. A significant decrease of T4 absorption was reported, in fact, when T4 solid formulations are taken with food or coffee. According to preliminary clinical study reports, administration of T4 oral solution appears to be less sensitive to the effect of breakfast beverages on oral bioavailability. In the present study, stability of T4 oral solution added to breakfast beverages was investigated. A 1 mL ampoule of single-dose Tirosint® oral solution (IBSA Farmaceutici Italia, Lodi, Italy was poured into defined volumes of milk, tea, coffee, and coffee with milk warmed at 50 °C, as well as in orange juice at room temperature. Samples were sequentially collected up to 20 min and analyzed by validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS methods. The results of the study demonstrated that T4 is stable in all beverages after 20 min incubation. Demonstration of T4 stability is a prerequisite for a thorough evaluation of the effect of breakfast beverages on the bioavailability of T4 given as oral solution and for a better understanding of the reasons underlying a decreased T4 bioavailability administered as solid formulations.

  1. Miconazole-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) for local delivery to the oral mucosa: improving antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, A I; Silva, A C; Catita, J A M; Cerqueira, F; Gabriel, C; Lopes, C M

    2013-11-01

    Miconazole is a widely used antifungal agent with poor aqueous solubility, which requires the development of drug delivery systems able to improve its therapeutic activity. For this purpose, a miconazole-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) dispersion was prepared and characterized. Further, the dispersion was used to prepare a NLC-based hydrogel formulation proposed as an alternative system to improve the local delivery of miconazole to the oral mucosa. NLC dispersion showed particles in the nanometer range (≈ 200 nm) with low polidispersity index (87%). A controlled miconazole release was observed from NLC and NLC-based hydrogel formulations, in contrast to a commercial oral gel formulation, which demonstrated a faster release. Additionally, it was observed that the encapsulation of miconazole in the NLC improved its antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Therefore, it was demonstrated that the encapsulation of miconazole in NLC allows for obtaining the same therapeutic effect of a commercial oral gel formulation, using a 17-fold lower dose of miconazole. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation and improvement of the properties of the novel cystine-knot microprotein McoEeTI for oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werle, M; Kafedjiiski, K; Kolmar, H; Bernkop-Schnürch, A

    2007-03-06

    Cystine-knot microproteins exhibit several properties that make them highly interesting as scaffolds for oral peptide drug delivery. It was therefore the aim of the study to evaluate the novel clinically relevant cystine-knot microprotein McoEeTI regarding its potential for oral delivery. Additionally, based on the gained results, important features of McoEeTI were improved. Enzymatic degradation was caused by chymotrypsin, trypsin and porcine small intestinal juice whereas McoEeTI was stable towards elastase, membrane bound proteases, pepsin and porcine gastric juice. Only minor McoEeTI degradation was observed during a 24h incubation period in rat plasma. In the presence of various physiological ions about 50% of McoEeTI formed di- and/or trimers. P(app) value of McoEeTI was determined to be (7.4+/-0.4)x10(-6)cm/s. Sodium caprate and polycarbophil-cysteine (PCP-Cys) had no beneficial effect on McoEeTI permeation, whereas the utilization of a chitosan-thiobutylamidine (Chito-TBA) system improved McoEeTI permeation 3-fold. Enzymatic stability could be strongly improved by the utilization of Bowman-Birk-Inhibitor (BBI) as well as PCP-Cys. In conclusion, this study indicates that McoEeTI represents a promising candidate as a novel scaffold for oral peptide drug delivery.

  3. Effect of pretreatment with ranitidine on the pharmacokinetics and gastrointestinal transit of a sustained release theophylline preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C G; Washington, N; Greaves, J L; Blackshaw, P E; Perkins, A C; Barkworth, M F; Rehm, K D

    1991-11-01

    A scintigraphic and pharmacokinetic study of the behaviour of (Bronchoretard forte, CAS 58-55-9) was carried out in 8 healthy male volunteers to evaluate the sensitivity of the preparation to changes in gastric pH. Volunteers were pretreated with ranitidine (CAS 66357-35-5) (150 mg b.d.) or placebo for three days prior to and on the study day to reduce gastric acidity. The effect of the pretreatment with ranitidine on gastric pH was measured on the prestudy day and the mean pH was significantly reduced compared to the placebo (ranitidine pH 2.2 +/- 2.4; placebo pH 1.6 +/- 2.0, p less than 0.01 Wilcoxon Signed Rank test). All subjects were pretreated with theophylline for 3 days (500 mg b.d.) to achieve steady-state. On the study day the volunteers swallowed two theophylline sustained release capsules radiolabelled by inclusion of indium-111 micronised Amberlite resin and the gastrointestinal transit followed continuously for 14 h using gamma scintigraphy with a further image at 24 h. Blood samples were taken from each subject throughout the study to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of theophylline when presented in the sustained release formulation. No significant differences were found in the gastrointestinal transit of the labelled microparticulates between the data obtained from the group when treated with ranitidine or placebo. Plasma theophylline concentration profiles were identical for the two treatments. These data indicate that the theophylline sustained release formulation is not sensitive to the effects of major changes in gastric H+ concentration.

  4. Ebrotidine versus ranitidine in the treatment of acute duodenal ulcer. A multicentre, randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matov, V; Metchkov, G; Krastev, Z; Tchernev, K; Mitova, R; Márquez, M; Torres, J; Herrero, E; Fillat, O; Ortiz, J A

    1997-04-01

    A total of 478 patients with endoscopically confirmed duodenal ulcer entered this randomized, parallel, double-blind trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive ebrotidine (N-[(E)-[[2-[[[2-[(diaminomethylene)amino]- 4-thiazolyl]methyl]thio]ethyl]amino]methylene]-4-bromo-benzenesulfona mid e, CAS 100981-43-9, FI-3542) 400 mg or ranitidine 300 mg tablets (4:1) respectively, administered in single evening doses. Endoscopy, clinical examination and symptom assessment were performed at baseline and at weeks 4 and 8. Safety evaluations including laboratory tests, treatment compliance and antacid consumption checks were conducted at the beginning and/or at the 4 and 8 week visits. Patients whose ulcer showed endoscopic healing at the 4-week control left the study. Both groups were matched in all parameters studied. The healing rates at 4 weeks were 76.4% and 75.3% for ebrotidine and ranitidine respectively, while at 8 weeks the final rates were 95% and 91.8% respectively. Accompanying symptoms disappeared rapidly and the patients returned to normal. Smoking proved to be a highly significant negative risk factor, since healing rates were 83.4% and 71.2% at 4 weeks and 97.4% and 92.3% at 8 weeks in non-smokers and smokers respectively (p = 0.0046). Smokers treated with ranitidine showed significantly lower final healing rates than non-smokers (86% vs 100%; p = 0.0358), while the healing rates among patients treated with ebrotidine were similar regardless of whether they were smokers or not (93.9% and 96.7% N.S.). Ebrotidine (94%) proved to be more effective than ranitidine (86%) in smokers with higher healing rates (p < 0.05). Alcohol intake showed no significant relationship with the healing rates. Both drugs demonstrated an excellent safety. There were no changes in blood parameters, and no significant adverse events were reported.

  5. Ion-selective electrodes for potentiometric determination of ranitidine hydrochloride, applying batch and flow injection analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Yousry M; Badawy, Sayed S; Mutair, Ali A

    2005-12-01

    New ranitidine hydrochloride (RaCl)-selective electrodes of the conventional polymer membrane type are described. They are based on incorporation of ranitidine-tetraphenylborate (Ra-TPB) ion-pair or ranitidine-phosphotungstate (RaPT) ion-associate in a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane plasticized with dioctylphthalate (DOP) or dibutylphthalate (DBP). The electrodes are fully characterized in terms of the membrane composition, solution temperature, and pH. The sensors showed fast and stable responses. Nernstian response was found over the concentration range of 2.0 x 10(-5) M to 1.0 x 10(-2) M and 1.0 x 10(-5) M to 1.0 x 10(-2) M in the case of Ra-TPB electrode and over the range of 1.03 x 10(-5) M to 1.00 x 10(-2) M and 1.0 x 10(-5) M to 1.0 x 10(-2) M in the case of Ra-PT electrode for batch and FIA systems, respectively. The electrodes exhibit good selectivity for RaCl with respect to a large number of common ions, sugars, amino acids, and components other than ranitidine hydrochloride of the investigated mixed drugs. The electrodes have been applied to the potentiometric determination of RaCl in pure solutions and in pharmaceutical preparations under batch and flow injection conditions with a lower detection limit of 1.26 x 10(-5) M and 5.62 x 10(-6) M at 25 +/- 1 degrees C. An average recovery of 100.91% and 100.42% with a relative standard deviation of 0.72% and 0.53% has been achieved.

  6. Body composition is improved during 12 months' treatment with metformin alone or combined with oral contraceptives compared with treatment with oral contraceptives in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Altinok, Magda Lambaa; Mumm, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    inclusion. OCP and M+OCP were superior to M regarding reduction in free T levels. Conclusions: M treatment alone or in combination with OCP was associated with weight loss and improved body composition compared with OCP, whereas free T levels decreased during M+OCP or OCP. Combined treatment with M......Context: Central obesity in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased inflammatory markers and increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate whether treatment with metformin (M) or M combined with oral contraceptive pills (OCPs...... (150 mg desogestrel+30 μg ethinylestradiol), or OCP. Whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans and clinical and hormonal evaluations were performed before and after the intervention period. A total of 65 of 90 patients completed the study. Main Outcome Measures: Changes in weight at 6 and 12...

  7. Improving professionalism in the engineering curriculum through a novel use of oral presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berjano, Enrique; Sales-Nebot, Laura; Lozano-Nieto, Albert

    2013-05-01

    This hypothesis is based on the fact that oral presentations in the context of engineering education could be used not only to develop oral communication skills but also to augment the professionalism in the curriculum. The methodological innovation is first described, which allows encouraging the capacity of summarising ideas, teamwork, assertiveness, listening skills and constructive criticism. Second, the preliminary results from two pilot groups of students during two academic years are analysed. Finally, the paper reflects on the possibilities of expanding this method to pre-university studies.

  8. Optimisation, validation and application of a capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of ranitidine hydrochloride and related substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M A; Altria, K D; Grace, C; Clark, B J

    1998-03-06

    Ranitidine hydrochloride is an H2-antagonist which is widely prescribed for the treatment of peptic ulcers. The drug is marketed in a variety of dosage forms including tablets, syrups and injection solutions. A range of synthetic and degradative impurities of ranitidine are known and currently, these impurities are routinely determined using thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Alternatively a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has also been employed in the assay of the pharmaceutical preparation. Unlike TLC, capillary electrophoresis (CE) offers the capability to quantify simultaneously both the active drug content and the levels of the related substances. The advantages of simplicity, selectivity, versatility and ease of use of CE offers a complementary separation technique to the established methods of HPLC and TLC in the determination of ranitidine and its related substances. This work represents a comprehensive evaluation of the performance of a developed CE method in the determination of drug-related impurities in both drug substance and various pharmaceutical formulations. The data obtained clearly shows that the performance of an optimised CE method can be equivalent in terms of sensitivity and precision to that of a HPLC method employed for a similar purpose and offers better selectivity against TLC and HPLC.

  9. Improving Community Coverage of Oral Cholera Mass Vaccination Campaigns: Lessons Learned in Zanzibar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaetti, Christian; Ali, Said M.; Chaignat, Claire-Lise; Khatib, Ahmed M.; Hutubessy, Raymond; Weiss, Mitchell G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent research in two cholera-endemic communities of Zanzibar has shown that a majority (∼94%) of the adult population was willing to receive free oral cholera vaccines (OCVs). Since OCV uptake in the 2009 campaign reached only ∼50% in these communities, an evaluation of social and cultural factors and of barriers was conducted to understand this difference for future cholera control planning. Methodology/Principal Findings A random sample of 367 adult peri-urban and rural community residents (46.6% immunized vs. 53.4% unimmunized) was studied with a semi-structured interview that inquired about social and cultural features of cholera depicted in a vignette and barriers to OCV uptake. Symptoms (rectal pain, loose skin only in rural community) and perceived causes (uncovered food, contact with contaminated water) specific for severe diarrhea were associated with uptake. Purchasing drugs from pharmacies to stop diarrhea and vomiting was negatively associated with uptake. Increasing household size, age and previous enteric illness episode were positively related to uptake, the latter only at the rural site. The most prominent barrier to uptake was competing obligations or priorities (reported by 74.5%, identified as most important barrier by 49.5%). Next most prominent barriers were lacking information about the campaign (29.6%, 12.2%), sickness (14.3%, 13.3%) and fear of possible vaccine side effects (15.3%, 5.6%). The majority of unvaccinated respondents requested repetition of the vaccination with free OCVs. Conclusions/Significance Factors associated with uptake indicated a positive impact of the vaccination campaign and of sensitization activities on vaccine acceptance behavior. Unlike communities opposed to cholera control or settings where public confidence in vaccines is lacking, identified barriers to uptake indicated a good campaign implementation and trust in the health system. Despite prospects and demand for repeating the vaccination

  10. Improving community coverage of oral cholera mass vaccination campaigns: lessons learned in Zanzibar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schaetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent research in two cholera-endemic communities of Zanzibar has shown that a majority (∼94% of the adult population was willing to receive free oral cholera vaccines (OCVs. Since OCV uptake in the 2009 campaign reached only ∼50% in these communities, an evaluation of social and cultural factors and of barriers was conducted to understand this difference for future cholera control planning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A random sample of 367 adult peri-urban and rural community residents (46.6% immunized vs. 53.4% unimmunized was studied with a semi-structured interview that inquired about social and cultural features of cholera depicted in a vignette and barriers to OCV uptake. Symptoms (rectal pain, loose skin only in rural community and perceived causes (uncovered food, contact with contaminated water specific for severe diarrhea were associated with uptake. Purchasing drugs from pharmacies to stop diarrhea and vomiting was negatively associated with uptake. Increasing household size, age and previous enteric illness episode were positively related to uptake, the latter only at the rural site. The most prominent barrier to uptake was competing obligations or priorities (reported by 74.5%, identified as most important barrier by 49.5%. Next most prominent barriers were lacking information about the campaign (29.6%, 12.2%, sickness (14.3%, 13.3% and fear of possible vaccine side effects (15.3%, 5.6%. The majority of unvaccinated respondents requested repetition of the vaccination with free OCVs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Factors associated with uptake indicated a positive impact of the vaccination campaign and of sensitization activities on vaccine acceptance behavior. Unlike communities opposed to cholera control or settings where public confidence in vaccines is lacking, identified barriers to uptake indicated a good campaign implementation and trust in the health system. Despite prospects and demand for repeating the

  11. TPGS-chitosome as an effective oral delivery system for improving the bioavailability of Coenzyme Q10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yating; Yang, Liang; Han, Hyo-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to design the chitosan coated TPGS liposome to enhance the bioavailability of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). Optimization of formulation variables for the preparation of the liposome was performed and then three liposomal formulations (TPGS-liposome, TPGS-chitosome, chitosome) were prepared with narrow size distribution and high encapsulation efficiency. All of three liposomal formulations were stable at pH 1.2 and 7.0 for 24h without any significant drug leakage. Furthermore, chitosan-coated liposomes showed the strong mucoadhesive properties. All the tested liposomal formulations significantly enhanced the cellular uptake of CoQ10 as compared to the untreated drug. Particularly, TPGS-chitosome appeared to be most effective in improving the cellular uptake of CoQ10 in Caco-2 cells (about 30-folds greater than the untreated powder formulation). In oral pharmacokinetic studies, TPGS-chitosome enhanced the systemic exposure of CoQ10 by 3.4 folds as compared to the untreated powder and also displayed the extended drug release profile for up to 24h in rats. Compared to the untreated powder CoQ10, TPGS-chitosome significantly improved the antioxidant effect of CoQ10 and reduced the intracellular ROS level. In conclusion, TPGS-chitosome significantly enhanced the oral bioavailability of CoQ10 and prolonged drug release profile in rats, suggesting that TPGS-chitosome could be an effective oral delivery platform to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly absorbable drugs.

  12. Intraoperative 3-D imaging improves sentinel lymph node biopsy in oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemel, Christina; Herrmann, Ken; Buck, Andreas K.; Lapa, Constantin [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Kuebler, Alexander; Hartmann, Stefan; Linz, Christian; Mueller-Richter, Urs [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Plastic Surgery, Wuerzburg (Germany); Geissinger, Eva; Wild, Vanessa [University Wuerzburg, Institute of Pathology, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the feasibility and potential advantages of freehand single-photon emission computed tomography (fhSPECT) compared with conventional intraoperative localization techniques for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in oral cancer. Between November 2012 and February 2014, 23 consecutive patients with clinical T1/T2 oral squamous cell carcinoma and a cN0 neck were recruited. All patients underwent SLNB followed by elective neck dissection (END). All patients received preoperative lymphoscintigraphy. To detect the SLNs intraoperatively, fhSPECT with a combination of conventional acoustic SLN localization and 3-D visual navigation was used. All but one of the SLNs detected by preoperative imaging were successfully mapped intraoperatively by fhSPECT (detection rate 98 %), including those in six patients with a tumour in the floor of the mouth. A histopathology analysis revealed positive SLNs in 22 % of patients. No further metastases were found in LNs resected during END. SLNB correctly predicted the final LN stage in all patients (accuracy 100 %). Additional radioactive LNs, which were not present on preoperative lymphoscintigraphy, were observed in three patients. FhSPECT is a feasible technology that allows the accurate identification of SLNs in oral cancer. FhSPECT overcomes the shine-through phenomenon, one of the most important limitations of SLNB, thereby confirming the importance of SLNB in patients with cN0 oral cancer. (orig.)

  13. 口服给药流程的改进%The improvment of oral administration process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄燕萍; 罗永梅; 王攀峰

    2014-01-01

    The traditional process of oral administration has some disadvantages, easily resulting in medication errors. This paper described a new process of oral administration based on wireless network, mobile nurses work station, PDA and automatic oral drug dispensing system. This automated and informational process increased the quality and efifciency of oral administration and promoted medication safety.%传统口服给药流程存在一些弊端,容易导致给药差错的发生。本文介绍了依托医院无线网络、移动护士工作站、PDA以及口服摆药机建立起来的以患者为中心的新型口服给药流程。该流程实现了口服给药的信息化与自动化,优化了护理工作流程,提高了口服给药的质量与效率,保障了口服给药的安全性与时效性,促进了护理质量持续改进,值得推广。

  14. A Synthesis of Interventions for Improving Oral Reading Fluency of Elementary Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Kyung; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Bryant, Brian R.; Park, Yujeong

    2017-01-01

    A synthesis of the research literature was conducted from 2004 to 2014 on interventions designed to build oral reading fluency for elementary students with learning disabilities (LD). An extensive search yielded a total of 12 intervention studies. Among the 12 studies, the majority (n = 9) implemented repeated reading with or without a model.…

  15. Sustained benefits of a community dietetics intervention designed to improve oral nutritional supplement prescribing practices.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennelly, S

    2011-10-01

    Healthcare professionals working in the community do not always prescribe oral nutritional supplements (ONS) according to best practice guidelines for the management of malnutrition. The present study aimed to determine the impact of a community dietetics intervention on ONS prescribing practices and expenditure 1 year later.

  16. Evaluation of community-based oral health promotion and oral disease prevention--WHO recommendations for improved evidence in public health practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Kwan, Stella

    2004-01-01

    of the evaluation of oral health promotion and oral disease prevention programmes. The aims of the workshop were to: (1) identify common problems and challenges in evaluating community-based oral health interventions; (2) explore developments in the evaluation approaches in public health; (3) share experiences......, and especially the evaluation, of community oral disease prevention programmes and oral health promotion programmes should be developed and updated regularly. WHO Collaborating Centres could have a role in promoting good practice, training and collaboration between teams throughout the world. Centres undertaking......Systematic evaluation is an integral part of the organisation and delivery of community oral health care programmes, ensuring the effectiveness of these community-based interventions. As for general health promotion programmes the common problems from effectiveness reviews of oral health...

  17. A Virtual Environment to Improve the Detection of Oral-Facial Malfunction in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Ruiz, María-Luisa; Máximo-Bocanegra, Nuria; Luna-Oliva, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The importance of an early rehabilitation process in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is widely recognized. On the one hand, new and useful treatment tools such as rehabilitation systems based on interactive technologies have appeared for rehabilitation of gross motor movements. On the other hand, from the therapeutic point of view, performing rehabilitation exercises with the facial muscles can improve the swallowing process, the facial expression through the management of muscles in the face, and even the speech of children with cerebral palsy. However, it is difficult to find interactive games to improve the detection and evaluation of oral-facial musculature dysfunctions in children with CP. This paper describes a framework based on strategies developed for interactive serious games that is created both for typically developed children and children with disabilities. Four interactive games are the core of a Virtual Environment called SONRIE. This paper demonstrates the benefits of SONRIE to monitor children’s oral-facial difficulties. The next steps will focus on the validation of SONRIE to carry out the rehabilitation process of oral-facial musculature in children with cerebral palsy. PMID:27023561

  18. A Virtual Environment to Improve the Detection of Oral-Facial Malfunction in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Ruiz, María-Luisa; Máximo-Bocanegra, Nuria; Luna-Oliva, Laura

    2016-03-26

    The importance of an early rehabilitation process in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is widely recognized. On the one hand, new and useful treatment tools such as rehabilitation systems based on interactive technologies have appeared for rehabilitation of gross motor movements. On the other hand, from the therapeutic point of view, performing rehabilitation exercises with the facial muscles can improve the swallowing process, the facial expression through the management of muscles in the face, and even the speech of children with cerebral palsy. However, it is difficult to find interactive games to improve the detection and evaluation of oral-facial musculature dysfunctions in children with CP. This paper describes a framework based on strategies developed for interactive serious games that is created both for typically developed children and children with disabilities. Four interactive games are the core of a Virtual Environment called SONRIE. This paper demonstrates the benefits of SONRIE to monitor children's oral-facial difficulties. The next steps will focus on the validation of SONRIE to carry out the rehabilitation process of oral-facial musculature in children with cerebral palsy.

  19. A Virtual Environment to Improve the Detection of Oral-Facial Malfunction in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Luisa Martín-Ruiz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of an early rehabilitation process in children with cerebral palsy (CP is widely recognized. On the one hand, new and useful treatment tools such as rehabilitation systems based on interactive technologies have appeared for rehabilitation of gross motor movements. On the other hand, from the therapeutic point of view, performing rehabilitation exercises with the facial muscles can improve the swallowing process, the facial expression through the management of muscles in the face, and even the speech of children with cerebral palsy. However, it is difficult to find interactive games to improve the detection and evaluation of oral-facial musculature dysfunctions in children with CP. This paper describes a framework based on strategies developed for interactive serious games that is created both for typically developed children and children with disabilities. Four interactive games are the core of a Virtual Environment called SONRIE. This paper demonstrates the benefits of SONRIE to monitor children’s oral-facial difficulties. The next steps will focus on the validation of SONRIE to carry out the rehabilitation process of oral-facial musculature in children with cerebral palsy.

  20. Controlled and targeted release of antigens by intelligent shell for improving applicability of oral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zeng, Zhanzhuang; Hu, Chaohua; Bellis, Susan L; Yang, Wendi; Su, Yintao; Zhang, Xinyan; Wu, Yunkun

    2016-01-01

    Conventional oral vaccines with simple architecture face barriers with regard to stimulating effective immunity. Here we describe oral vaccines with an intelligent phase-transitional shielding layer, poly[(methyl methacrylate)-co-(methyl acrylate)-co-(methacrylic acid)]-poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PMMMA-PLGA), which can protect antigens in the gastro-intestinal tract and achieve targeted vaccination in the large intestine. With the surface immunogenic protein (SIP) from group B Streptococcus (GBS) entrapped as the antigen, oral administration with PMMMA-PLGA (PTRBL)/Trx-SIP nanoparticles stimulated robust immunity in tilapia, an animal with a relatively simple immune system. The vaccine succeeded in protecting against Streptococcus agalactiae, a pathogen of worldwide importance that threatens human health and is transmitted in water with infected fish. After oral vaccination with PTRBL/Trx-SIP, tilapia produced enhanced levels of SIP specific antibodies and displayed durability of immune protection. 100% of the vaccinated tilapia were protected from GBS infection, whereas the control groups without vaccines or vaccinated with Trx-SIP only exhibited respective infection rates of 100% or >60% within the initial 5 months after primary vaccination. Experiments in vivo demonstrated that the recombinant antigen Trx-SIP labeled with FITC was localized in colon, spleen and kidney, which are critical sites for mounting an immune response. Our results revealed that, rather than the size of the nanoparticles, it is more likely that the negative charge repulsion produced by ionization of the carboxyl groups in PMMMA shielded the nanoparticles from uptake by small intestinal epithelial cells. This system resolves challenges arising from gastrointestinal damage to antigens, and more importantly, offers a new approach applicable for oral vaccination.

  1. Improved smell function with increased nasal mucus sonic hedgehog in hyposmic patients after treatment with oral theophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, Robert I; Hosein, Suzanna; Stateman, William A; Knöppel, Alexandra B; Abdelmeguid, Mona

    We previously demonstrated the presence of sonic hedgehog (Shh) in nasal mucus in normal subjects and in patients with smell loss (hyposmia). Nasal mucus Shh levels were found significantly diminished in untreated hyposmic patients of multiple etiologies. Since treatment with oral theophylline has been previously associated with improvement in smell function we wished to study if such treatment increased nasal mucus Shh as well as improved smell function in patients with hyposmia. Forty-four patients with hyposmia of several etiologies were evaluated for changes in hyposmia by subjective measurements of smell, taste and flavor perception and by olfactometry. Measurements of nasal mucus Shh were made in relationship to each set of sensory measurements. Patients were treated with oral theophylline at doses of 200-800mg for periods of 2-10months with sensory function, nasal mucus Shh and serum theophylline levels evaluated at these time intervals. Nasal mucus Shh measurements were made with a sensitive spectrophotometric ELISA assay and theophylline with a fluorometric assay. There was consistent, significant improvement in subjective responses in smell, taste and flavor perception and in olfactometry associated with increased nasal mucus Shh and serum theophylline after theophylline treatment. Improvement in smell function and in nasal mucus Shh was positively correlated in a dose-response relationship after treatment with oral theophylline. Results are consistent with a successful role for theophylline in improvement of smell function in hyposmic patients of multiple etiologies associated with increased nasal mucus Shh which can act as a biochemical marker for smell function. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Identification of Risk Factors for Poor Feeding in Infants with Congenital Heart Disease and a Novel Approach to Improve Oral Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indramohan, Gitanjali; Pedigo, Tiffany P; Rostoker, Nicole; Cambare, Mae; Grogan, Tristan; Federman, Myke D

    2017-02-03

    Many infants with complex congenital heart disease (CHD) do not develop the skills to feed orally and are discharged home on gastrostomy tube or nasogastric feeds. We aimed to identify risk factors for failure to achieve full oral feeding and evaluate the efficacy of oral motor intervention for increasing the rate of discharge on full oral feeds by performing a prospective study in the neonatal and cardiac intensive care units of a tertiary children's hospital. 23 neonates born at ≥37weeks gestation and diagnosed with single-ventricle physiology requiring a surgical shunt were prospectively enrolled and received oral motor intervention therapy. 40 historical controls were identified. Mean length of stay was 53.7days for the control group and 40.9days for the study group (p=0.668). 13/23 patients who received oral motor intervention therapy (56.5%) and 18/40 (45.0%) controls were on full oral feeds at discharge, a difference of 11.5% (95% CI -13.9% to 37.0%, p=0.378). Diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome, longer intubation and duration of withholding enteral feeds, and presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease were predictors of poor oral feeding on univariate analysis. Although we did not detect a statistically significant impact of oral motor intervention, we found clinically meaningful differences in hospital length of stay and feeding tube requirement. Further research should be undertaken to evaluate methods for improving oral feeding in these at-risk infants.

  3. Improved stability and immunological potential of tetanus toxoid containing surface engineered bilosomes following oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sanyog; Harde, Harshad; Indulkar, Anura; Agrawal, Ashish Kumar

    2014-02-01

    The present study was designed with the objective to investigate the stability and potential of glucomannan-modified bilosomes (GM-bilosomes) in eliciting immune response following oral administration. GM-bilosomes exhibited desired quality attributes simultaneously maintaining the chemical and conformation stability of the tetanus toxoid (TT) entrapped in to freeze dried formulations. The GM-bilosomes exhibited excellent stability in different simulated biological fluids and sustained release profile up to 24 h. GM-bilosomes elicited significantly higher (Ptetanus toxoid in the experiments. These GM-bilosomes not only elicited significantly higher systemic immune response as compared to bilosomes, niosomes and alum adsorbed orally administered TT, but also demonstrated mucosal immune response induction as well as cell mediated immune responses, which were not induced by the conventional route of immunization. © 2014.

  4. Empowering Head Start to improve access to good oral health for children from low income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Peter; Weinstein, Philip; Huebner, Colleen; Graves, Janessa; Tut, Ohnmar

    2011-10-01

    Surveys over 20 years have documented worsening in the dental health of preschoolers. Healthy People 2010 Midcourse Review reports the country moving away from oral health goals for young children; the slip is 57%. Exacerbating this is the inability of Medicaid to provide for those in need. Most children receive examinations only: few receive comprehensive care. We urge Head Start grantees to adopt a new approach to oral health goals and in this paper offer: (1) a review of the problem and premises preventing a solution; (2) a proposal that Head Start adopt a public health perspective; and (3) specific roles staff and dental personnel can take to mount aggressive strategies to arrest tooth decay at the grantee site.

  5. Genetically manipulated phages with improved pH resistance for oral administration in veterinary medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Nobrega, Franklin L.; Ana Rita Costa; Santos,José F.; Siliakus, Melvin F.; van Lent, Jan W. M.; Kengen, Servé W. M.; Joana Azeredo; Kluskens, Leon D.

    2016-01-01

    Orally administered phages to control zoonotic pathogens face important challenges, mainly related to the hostile conditions found in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). These include temperature, salinity and primarily pH, which is exceptionally low in certain compartments. Phage survival under these conditions can be jeopardized and undermine treatment. Strategies like encapsulation have been attempted with relative success, but are typically complex and require several optimization steps. He...

  6. Strategies to improve compliance among oral contraceptive pill users: a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Choi A; Dempsey A

    2014-01-01

    Angela Choi, Angela DempseyDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USAAbstract: Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) remain the most commonly used reversible birth control method. Failure to adhere to daily pill taking and gaps in use are common and contribute to the risk of unintended pregnancy among OCP users. OCP compliance is influenced by a complex interplay of cognitive, behavioral, logistic, clinical, and social factors. This review out...

  7. Challenges in global improvement of oral cancer outcomes: findings from rural Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dangi Jyoti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, 72% of the population resides in rural areas and 30-40% of cancers are found in the oral cavity. The majority of Haryana residents live in villages where inadequate medical facilities, no proper primary care infrastructure or cancer screening tools and high levels of illiteracy all contribute to poor oral cancer (OC outcomes. In this challenging environment, the objective of this study was to assess the association between various risk factors for OC among referrals for suscipious lesions and to design and pilot test a collaborative community-based effort to identify suspicious lesions for OC. Methods Setting: Community-based cross sectional OC screening. Participants: With help from the Department of Health (DOH, Haryana and the local communities, we visited three villages and recruited 761 participants of ages 45-95 years. Participants received a visual oral cancer examination and were interviewed about their dental/medical history and personal habits. Pregnant women, children and males/females below 45 years old with history of OC were excluded. Main outcome: Presence of a suspicious oral lesion. Results Out of 761 participants, 42 (5.5% were referred to a local dentist for follow-up of suspicious lesions. Males were referred more than females. The referral group had more bidi and hookah smokers than non smokers as compared to non referral group. The logistic regression analysis revealed that smoking bidi and hookah (OR = 3.06 and 4.42 were statistically significant predictors for suspicious lesions. Conclusions Tobacco use of various forms in rural, northern India was found to be quite high and a main risk factor for suspicious lesions. The influence of both the DOH and community participation was crucial in motivating people to seek care for OC.

  8. Self-Micro Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems: a Strategy to Improve Oral Bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K. Sharma

    Full Text Available Aim: Oral route has always been the favorite route of drug administration in many diseases and till today it is the first way investigated in the development of new dosage forms. The major problem in oral drug formulations is low and erratic bioavailability, which mainly results from poor aqueous solubility, thereby pose problems in their formulation. For the therapeutic delivery of lipophilic active moieties (BCS class II drugs, lipid based formulations are inviting increasing attention. Methods: To that aim, from the web sites of PubMed, HCAplus, Thomson, and Registry were used as the main sources to perform the search for the most significant research articles published on the subject. The information was then carefully analyzed, highlighting the most important results in the formulation and development of self-micro emulsifying drug delivery systems as well as its therapeutic activity. Results: Self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS has gained more attention due to enhanced oral bio-availability enabling reduction in dose, more consistent temporal profiles of drug absorption, selective targeting of drug(s toward specific absorption window in GIT, and protection of drug(s from the unreceptive environment in gut. Conclusions: This article gives a complete overview of SMEDDS as a promising approach to effectively deal with the problem of poorly soluble molecules.

  9. Evaluation of community-based oral health promotion and oral disease prevention--WHO recommendations for improved evidence in public health practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Kwan, Stella

    2004-01-01

    of the evaluation of oral health promotion and oral disease prevention programmes. The aims of the workshop were to: (1) identify common problems and challenges in evaluating community-based oral health interventions; (2) explore developments in the evaluation approaches in public health; (3) share experiences....... The first day was devoted to presentations of oral health promotion and oral disease prevention programmes from around the world. During the second day, WHO staff at Headquarters in Geneva discussed aspects of evaluation of public health programmes. Two working groups were formed to discuss agreed topics......, and the reports from their deliberations, together with the general discussion, resulted in the presentation of emerging key issues and recommendations. In summary, it was agreed that evaluation of oral health promotion and disease prevention programmes should integrate, whenever possible, with general health...

  10. Comparison of the caries-protective effect of fluoride varnish with treatment as usual in nursery school attendees receiving preventive oral health support through the Childsmile oral health improvement programme. The Protecting Teeth@3 Study: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, William; Turner, Stephen; Anopa, Yulia; McIntosh, Emma; Wu, Olivia; Conway, David I.; Macpherson, Lorna M. D.; Alex D McMahon

    2015-01-01

    Background The Scottish Government set out its policy on addressing the poor oral health of Scottish children in 2005. This led to the establishment of Childsmile, a national programme designed to improve the oral health of children in Scotland. One element of the programme promotes daily tooth brushing in all nurseries in Scotland (Childsmile Core). A second targeted component (Childsmile Nursery) offers twice-yearly application of fluoride varnish to children attending nurseries in deprived...

  11. Comparison of the effects of ranitidine effervescent tablets and magnesium hydroxide-aluminium oxide on intragastric acidity. A single-centre, randomised, open cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propst, A; Propst, T; Judmaier, G

    1996-06-01

    In previous studies measuring intragastric pH in healthy volunteers it was shown that there was a faster onset of action with ranitidine (CAS 66357-35-5) 300 mg effervescent tablets (Zantac) compared to standard tablets. In a single-centre, randomised, open cross-over study the pH-values obtained over 6 h following the administration of one ranitidine 150 mg effervescent tablet were compared with those after aluminium oxide-magnesium hydroxide (algeldrate, CAS 1330-44-5, Al-Mg-hydroxide) 10 ml and placebo in healthy volunteers. 24 healthy male subjects between 19 and 32 years of age entered the study, 19 subjects were available for all three measurements. After an overnight fast, intragastric pH was monitored for 7 h using a glass electrode and a digital data recorder. The time in % during which the pH was > or = 3.5 and the area under the curve of the obtained pH-curves were compared. There was a highly statistically significant difference between ranitidine effervescent tablets versus Al-Mg-hydroxide and placebo whereas there was no such difference between Al-Mg-hydroxide and placebo. The onset of action of ranitidine effervescent tablets was almost immediate. It is concluded that there was a clear superiority of ranitidine effervescent tablets in healthy volunteers and it is suggested that pH-metry in patients with acidity-related diseases should be investigated for a better understanding of the function of effervescent tablets.

  12. Once-Daily Bedtime Dose of Roxatidine and Ranitidine in Acute Duodenal Ulcer: A Combined Assessment of Acid Inhibitory Activity and Healing Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savarino, Vincenzo; Mela, Giuseppe Sandro; Zentilin, Patrizia; Mele, Maria Raffaella; Vigneri, Sergio; Termini, Rosanna; Di Mario, Francesco; Ferrana, Marina; Malesci, Alberto; Belicchi, Monica

    1995-12-01

    This study was carried out in order to compare the antisecretory effect of a single bedtime dose of roxatidine 150 mg and ranitidine 300 mg and to assess the relationship between the degree and the duration of acid suppression and the healing rates obtained in duodenal ulcer patients treated with the above regimens. Sixty-three patients with endoscopically proven ulcer underwent 24-h gastric pH-metry on day 0, day 1, and day 28 of treatment with both roxatidine and ranitidine. Ulcer healing was checked endoscopically after 4 weeks of therapy. RESULTS: Eight patients did not complete the study, leaving 55 patients eligible for final analysis, 28 in the roxatidine group and 27 in the ranitidine group. Duodenal ulcers were healed in 24--28 (85%) patients of the former and in 22--27 (81%) patients of the latter group (p minus sign NS). Gastric pH was significantly higher (p roxatidine and ranitidine. There was also do difference between the two active treatments. The pattern of gastric acidity significantly differed (p roxatidine 150 mg and ranitidine 300 mg was able to heal more than 80% of duodenal ulcers within 4 weeks of treatment. The lack of tolerance to H2-blockers in duodenal ulcer patients contributes to this good result. The antisecretory effect of H2-antagonists is reduced in nonresponder patients with respect to responder patients and this is mainly due to an impaired control of nocturnal acidity.

  13. [Improving myocardial mechanics parameters of severe burn rabbits with oral fluid resuscitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jing; Zhang, Bing-qian; Wang, Guang; Luo, Zhong-hua; Zheng, Qing-yi; Zheng, Jian-sheng; Huang, Yue-sheng; Xiao, Rong

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the protective effect of oral fluid resuscitation on cardiac function in severe burn rabbits. One hundred and fifty rabbits were randomly divided into normal control group (NC group, n = 6, without treatment), burn group (B group, n = 42, without fluid therapy), immediate oral fluid resuscitation group (C group, n = 42), delayed oral fluid resuscitation group (D group, n = 30) and delayed and rapid oral fluid resuscitation group (E group, n = 30). The rabbits in B, C, D, E groups were subjected to 40% TBSA full-thickness burn, then were treated with fluid therapy immediately after burn (C group), at 6 hour after burn (D, E groups). The myocardial mechanics parameters including mean arterial pressure (MAP), left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP), LV +/- dp/dt max were observed at 2, 6, 8, 12, 24, 36 and 48 post burn hour (PBH). Urine output was also examined. The level of LVSP, LV +/- dp/dt max in B roup were significantly lower than those in NC group. The level of LVSP, LV +/- dp/dt max in the C and E group were singnificantly increased during 24 hour after burn. The level of LV + dp/dt max and LV-dp/dt max in C group peaked at 8 PBH (892 +/- 116 kPa/s) and at 6PBH (724 +/- 149 kPa/s) respectively. The levels of LV +/- dp/dt max, LVSP in D group at each time point were similar to B group (P > 0.05). Both the levels of LV +/- dp/dt max in E group peaked at 8 PBH. The level of LVEDP was no obvious difference between B and other groups at each time point (P > 0.05). The changes of MAP and urine output on 24 PBH in each group were similar to above indices. Effective oral fluid therapy in severe burn rabbits during 24 hours after burn can ameliorate myocardial mechanics parameters. The amount of fluid resuscitation can be estimated according to relevant formula for delayed fluid resuscitation in burn rabbits.

  14. Global policy for improvement of oral health in the 21st century--implications to oral health research of World Health Assembly 2007, World Health Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2009-01-01

    disease prevention and the promotion of oral health needs to be integrated with chronic disease prevention and general health promotion as the risks to health are linked. The World Health Assembly (WHA) and the Executive Board (EB) are supreme governance bodies of WHO and for the first time in 25 years...... oral health was subject to discussion by those bodies in 2007. At the EB120 and WHA60, the Member States agreed on an action plan for oral health and integrated disease prevention, thereby confirming the approach of the Oral Health Programme. The policy forms the basis for future development...

  15. Optimization and evaluation of gastroretentive ranitidine HCl microspheres by using design expert software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooda, Aashima; Nanda, Arun; Jain, Manish; Kumar, Vikash; Rathee, Permender

    2012-12-01

    The current study involves the development and optimization of their drug entrapment and ex vivo bioadhesion of multiunit chitosan based floating system containing Ranitidine HCl by ionotropic gelation method for gastroretentive delivery. Chitosan being cationic, non-toxic, biocompatible, biodegradable and bioadhesive is frequently used as a material for drug delivery systems and used to transport a drug to an acidic environment where it enhances the transport of polar drugs across epithelial surfaces. The effect of various process variables like drug polymer ratio, concentration of sodium tripolyphosphate and stirring speed on various physiochemical properties like drug entrapment efficiency, particle size and bioadhesion was optimized using central composite design and analyzed using response surface methodology. The observed responses were coincided well with the predicted values given by the optimization technique. The optimized microspheres showed drug entrapment efficiency of 74.73%, particle size 707.26 μm and bioadhesion 71.68% in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) after 8 h with floating lag time 40s. The average size of all the dried microspheres ranged from 608.24 to 720.80 μm. The drug entrapment efficiency of microspheres ranged from 41.67% to 87.58% and bioadhesion ranged from 62% to 86%. Accelerated stability study was performed on optimized formulation as per ICH guidelines and no significant change was found in drug content on storage.

  16. Controlled release calcium silicate based floating granular delivery system of ranitidine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashish K; Jain, Sunil K; Yadav, Awesh; Agrawal, Govind P

    2006-10-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to prepare and evaluate floating granular delivery system consisting of (i) calcium silicate (CS) as porous carrier; (ii) ranitidine hydrochloride (RH), an anti-ulcer agent; and (iii) hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M (HPMC) and ethylcellulose (EC) as matrix forming polymers. The effect of various formulation and process variables on the particle morphology, particle size, micromeritic properties, percent drug content, in vitro floating behavior, and in vitro drug release from the floating granules was studied. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of granules revealed that that more pores of CS in secondary coated granules (SCG) were covered by the polymer film than those in primary coated granules (PCG). The formulation demonstrated favorable in vitro floating and drug release characteristics. The in vivo evaluation for the determination of pharmacokinetic parameters was performed in albino rats. Higher plasma concentration was maintained throughout the study period from the floating granules of RH. The enhanced bioavailability and elimination half-life observed in the present study may be due to the floating nature of the dosage form. The results suggested that CS is a useful carrier for the development of floating and sustained release preparations.

  17. Determination of ranitidine, nizatidine, and cimetidine by a sensitive fluorescent probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yin-Xia; Qiu, Yue-Qin; Du, Li-Ming; Li, Chang-Feng; Guo, Min

    2011-10-21

    A validated, simple, and sensitive fluorescence quenching method for the determination of ranitidine, nizatidine, and cimetidine in tablets and biological fluids is presented. This is the first single fluorescence method reported for the analysis of all three H(2) antagonists. The competitive reaction between the investigated drug and the palmatine probe for the occupancy of the cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) cavity was studied using spectrofluorometry. CB[7] was found to react with the probe to form a stable complex. The fluorescence intensity of the complex was also enhanced greatly. However, the addition of the drug dramatically quenched the fluorescence intensity of the complex. Accordingly, a new fluorescence quenching method for the determination of the studied drugs was established. The different experimental parameters affecting the fluorescence quenching intensity were studied carefully. At optimum reaction conditions, the rectilinear calibration graphs between the fluorescence quenching values (ΔF) and the medicament concentration were obtained in the concentration range of 0.04-1.9 μg mL(-1) for the investigated drugs. The limits of detection ranged from 0.013 to 0.030 μg mL(-1) at 495 nm using an excitation wavelength of 343 nm. The proposed method can be used for the determination of the three H(2) antagonists in raw materials, dosage forms and biological fluids.

  18. Quantitative analysis of polymorphic mixtures of ranitidine hydrochloride by Raman spectroscopy and principal components analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, Destari; Fawcett, J Paul; Gordon, Keith C; Rades, Thomas

    2002-11-01

    Ranitidine hydrochloride exists as two polymorphs, forms I and II, both of which are used to manufacture commercial tablets. Raman spectroscopy can be used to differentiate the two forms but univariate methods of quantitative analysis of one polymorph as an impurity in the other lack sensitivity. We have applied principal components analysis (PCA) of Raman spectra to binary mixtures of the two polymorphs and to binary mixtures prepared by adding one polymorph to powdered tablets of the other. Based on absorption measurements of seven spectral regions, it was found that >97% of the spectral variation was accounted for by three principal components. Quantitative calibration models generated by multiple linear regression predicted a detection limit and quantitation limit for either forms I or II in mixtures of the two of 0.6 and 1.8%, respectively. This study demonstrates that PCA of Raman spectroscopic data provides a sensitive method for the quantitative analysis of polymorphic impurities of drugs in commercial tablets with a quantitation limit of less than 2%.

  19. Comparison of Intravenous Ranitidine with Pantoprazole in Decreasing Gastric Fluid Acidity in Emergency Cesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alipour M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Peri-operative aspiration of gastric contents is a problem that causes certain respiratory problems including ARDS. Prophylaxis against aspiration of gastric contents is performed routinely in elective surgeries, but there is rare evidence on the efficacy of this method in emergency cesarean section. Materials and Methods: This is a randomized, controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. 60 parturients undergoing emergency cesarean section were randomly assigned into three groups of 20 each. They were allocated into two study and one placebo groups. The study group one and two received intravenous ranitidine (IV 50 mg or IV pantoprazole 40 mg, half an hour before induction of GA, respectively. The placebo group was administered just 5 ml of isotonic saline half an hour before GA induction. After intubation and confirmation of endotracheal tube insertion, the gastric contents were aspirated through a nasogastric tube for evaluation of acidity and volume. Results: A statistical difference between group one and two with the control group was observed in the acidity of gastric contents, but there was no difference in volume. Also, the PH level of gastric contents in patients receiving pantoprazole was significantly higher than the isotonic saline (p

  20. Characterization of intermediate products of solar photocatalytic degradation of ranitidine at pilot-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radjenović, Jelena; Sirtori, Carla; Petrović, Mira; Barceló, Damià; Malato, Sixto

    2010-04-01

    In the present study the mechanisms of solar photodegradation of H(2)-receptor antagonist ranitidine (RNTD) were studied in a well-defined system of a pilot plant scale Compound Parabolic Collector (CPC) reactor. Two types of heterogeneous photocatalytic experiments were performed: catalysed by titanium-dioxide (TiO(2)) semiconductor and by Fenton reagent (Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)), each one with distilled water and synthetic wastewater effluent matrix. Complete disappearance of the parent compounds and discreet mineralization were attained in all experiments. Furthermore, kinetic parameters, main intermediate products, release of heteroatoms and formation of carboxylic acids are discussed. The main intermediate products of photocatalytic degradation of RNTD have been structurally elucidated by tandem mass spectrometry (MS(2)) experiments performed at quadrupole-time of flight (QqToF) mass analyzer coupled to ultra-performance liquid chromatograph (UPLC). RNTD displayed high reactivity towards OH radicals, although a product of conduction band electrons reduction was also present in the experiment with TiO(2). In the absence of standards, quantification of intermediates was not possible and only qualitative profiles of their evolution could be determined. The proposed TiO(2) and photo-Fenton degradation routes of RNTD are reported for the first time.

  1. A coupled Bio-EF process for mineralization of the pharmaceuticals furosemide and ranitidine: Feasibility assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera-Vargas, Hugo; Oturan, Nihal; Buisson, Didier; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2016-07-01

    A coupled Bio-EF treatment has been applied as a reliable process for the degradation of the pharmaceuticals furosemide (FRSM) and ranitidine (RNTD) in aqueous medium, in order to reduce the high energy consumption related to electrochemical technology. In the first stage of this study, electrochemical degradation of the drugs was assessed by the electro-Fenton process (EF) using a BDD/carbon-felt cell. Biodegradability of the drugs solutions was enhanced reaching BOD5/COD ratios close to the biodegradability threshold of 0.4, evidencing the formation of bio-compatible by-products (mainly short-chain carboxylic acids) which are suitable for biological post-treatment. Moreover, toxicity evaluation by the Microtox(®) method revealed that EF pre-treatment was able of detoxifying both, FRSM and RNTD solutions, constituting another indicator of biodegradability of EF treated solutions. In the second stage, electrolyzed solutions were treated by means of an aerobic biological process. A significant part of the short-chain carboxylic acids formed during the electrochemical phase was satisfactorily removed by the used selected microorganisms. The results obtained demonstrate the efficiency and feasibility of the integrated Bio-EF process.

  2. Interference of 1:1 and 2:1 layered phyllosilicates as excipients with ranitidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaohui; Fitzgerald, Nicole M; Albert, Zachary; Jiang, Wei-Teh

    2016-04-01

    As natural ingredients and excipients, kaolinite and talc were frequently studied for their interactions with drugs in pharmaceutical formulations. In this study, the uptake of ranitidine (RT) on these two minerals was studied under different physic-chemical conditions and the mechanism of RT uptake on these two minerals contrasted. Although the thermodynamic and kinetic RT uptake on these two minerals was similar and the RT uptake on both minerals were limited to the external surfaces only, drastic difference in RT uptake was found under different equilibrium solution pH and ionic strength conditions. As cation exchange process was strongly affected by solution pH and ionic strength, the RT uptake on kaolinite was dominated by cation exchange and electrostatic interactions, while the RT uptake on talc was more controlled by inter- and intra- molecular hydrogen bonding interactions. For kaolinite, the limiting factor for RT uptake was the specific surface area due to monolayer RT adsorption. In contract, multilayer RT uptake was found on talc surfaces. No matter which mechanism dominated RT uptake on these minerals, the interaction should not be neglected in pharmaceutical formulations should these minerals be used as additives and/or excipients.

  3. Enteric-coated tablet of risedronate sodium in combination with phytic acid, a natural chelating agent, for improved oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong S; Jang, Sun W; Son, Miwon; Kim, Byoung M; Kang, Myung J

    2016-01-20

    The oral bioavailability (BA) of risedronate sodium (RS), an antiresorptive agent, is less than 1% due to its low membrane permeability as well as the formation of non-absorbable complexes with multivalent cations such as calcium ion (Ca(2+)) in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, to increase oral BA of the bisphosphonate, a novel enteric-coated tablet (ECT) dosage form of RS in combination with phytic acid (IP6), a natural chelating agent recognized as safe, was formulated. The chelating behavior of IP6 against Ca(2+), including a stability constant for complex formulation was characterized using the continuous variation method. Subsequently, in vitro dissolution profile and in vivo pharmacokinetic profile of the novel ECT were evaluated comparatively with that of the marketed product (Altevia, Sanofi, US), an ECT containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a chelating agent, in beagle dogs. The logarithm of stability constant for Ca(2+)-IP6 complex, an equilibrium constant approximating the strength of the interaction between two chemicals to form complex, was 19.05, which was 3.9-fold (pIP6-containing ECT were approximately 7.9- (pIP6 for an oral therapy with the bisphosphonate for improved BA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Oral administration of putrescine and proline during the suckling period improves epithelial restitution after early weaning in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Li, G R; Tan, B E; Xiong, X; Kong, X F; Xiao, D F; Xu, L W; Wu, M M; Huang, B; Kim, S W; Yin, Y L

    2015-04-01

    Polyamines are necessary for normal integrity and the restitution after injury of the gastrointestinal epithelium. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of oral administration of putrescine and proline during the suckling period on epithelial restitution after early weaning in piglets. Eighteen neonatal piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Large Yorkshire) from 3 litters (6 piglets per litter) were assigned to 3 groups, representing oral administration with an equal volume of saline (control), putrescine (5 mg/kg BW), and proline (25 mg/kg BW) twice daily from d 1 to weaning at 14 d of age. Plasma and intestinal samples were obtained 3 d after weaning. The results showed that oral administration of putrescine or proline increased the final BW and ADG of piglets compared with the control (P putrescine- and proline-treated piglets compared with those of control piglets. The voltage-gated K+ channel (Kv) 1.1 protein expression in the jejunum of piglets administrated with putrescine and the Kv1.5 mRNA and Kv1.1 protein levels in the ileum of piglets administrated with proline were greater than those in control piglets (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that polyamine or its precursor could improve mucosal proliferation, intestinal morphology, as well as tight junction and potassium channel protein expressions in early-weaned piglets, with implications for epithelial restitution and barrier function after stress injury.

  5. Improvement of distension and mural visualization of bowel loops using neutral oral contrasts in abdominal computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jahanbakhsh; Hashemi; Yasmin; Davoudi; Mina; Taghavi; Masoud; Pezeshki; Rad; Amien; Mahajeri; Moghadam

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess and compare the image quality of 4% sorbitol and diluted iodine 2%(positive oral contrast agent) in abdomino-pelvic multi-detector computed tomography.METHODS: Two-hundred patients, referred to the Radiology Department of a central educational hospital for multi-detector row abdominal-pelvic computed tomography, were randomly divided into two groups: the first group received 1500 m L of 4% sorbitol solution as a neutral contrast agent, while in the second group 1500 m L of meglumin solution as a positive contrast agent was administered in a one-way randomized prospective study. The results were independently reviewed by two radiologists. Luminal distension and mural thickness and mucosal enhancement were compared between the two groups. Statistical analysis of the results was performed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 16 and the Mann-Whitney test at a confidence level of 95%. RESULTS: Use of neutral oral contrast agent significantly improved visualization of the small bowel wall thickness and mural appearance in comparison with administration of positive contrast agent(P < 0.01). In patients who received sorbitol, the small bowel showed better distention compared with those who received iodine solution as a positive contrast agent(P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results of the study demonstrated that oral administration of sorbitol solution allows better luminal distention and visualization of mural features than iodine solution as a positive contrast agent.

  6. A group of Midwestern university students needs to improve their oral hygiene and sugar/pop consumption habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebke, Tami E; Driskell, Judy A

    2010-01-01

    Poor oral hygiene and sugar/pop consumption practices are detrimental to one's overall health. College women were hypothesized to have better oral hygiene habits and to consume less sugar/pop than men and that the students' habits would be different from those the students had before college. These habits of students at a Midwestern university were evaluated by sex. The volunteers included 105 men and 91 women. Three quarters of the students reported brushing their teeth at least the recommended twice daily, with women brushing their teeth more often. About a third of the students flossed at least the recommended once daily. Not quite a third of the students reported brushing and flossing their teeth more often than they did before college. More than a third reported using mouth rinses 4 or more times weekly, with 13% reporting using a fluoride-containing mouth rinse. More than 60% reported using fluoride-containing toothpaste. Slightly more than a third reported drinking fluoridated water in their younger years. A larger percentage of women than men reported that diet pop was their pop of choice. More than two thirds of the students that drank pop indicated that regular pop was their favorite. Most of the students reported consuming sugary foods more than once daily, but they indicated that most of these sugars were not sticky. Few differences were observed in oral hygiene and sugar/pop consumption habits of these college students by sex. Nutritionists and other health professionals should work cooperatively in helping individuals improve their oral hygiene and sugar/pop consumption habits. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving reptile ecological risk assessment: oral and dermal toxicity of pesticides to a common lizard species (Sceloporus occidentalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Scott M; Yu, Shuangying; Talent, Larry G; Maul, Jonathan D; Anderson, Todd A; Salice, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    Reptiles have been understudied in ecotoxicology, which limits consideration in ecological risk assessments. The goals of the present study were 3-fold: to improve oral and dermal dosing methodologies for reptiles, to generate reptile toxicity data for pesticides, and to correlate reptile and avian toxicity. The authors first assessed the toxicity of different dosing vehicles: 100 μL of water, propylene glycol, and acetone were not toxic. The authors then assessed the oral and dermal toxicity of 4 pesticides following the up-and-down procedure. Neither brodifacoum nor chlorothalonil caused mortality at doses ≤ 1750 μg/g. Under the "neat pesticide" oral exposure, endosulfan (median lethal dose [LD50] = 9.8 μg/g) was more toxic than λ-cyhalothrin (LD50 = 916.5 μg/g). Neither chemical was toxic via dermal exposure. An acetone dosing vehicle increased λ-cyhalothrin toxicity (oral LD50 = 9.8 μg/g; dermal LD50 = 17.5 μg/g), but not endosulfan. Finally, changes in dosing method and husbandry significantly increased dermal λ-cyhalothrin LD50s, which highlights the importance of standardized methods. The authors combined data from the present study with other reptile LD50s to correlate with available avian data. When only definitive LD50s were used in the analysis, a strong correlation was found between avian and reptile toxicity. The results suggest it is possible to build predictive relationships between avian and reptile LD50s. More research is needed, however, to understand trends associated with chemical classes and modes of action.

  8. Approaches to improve the oral bioavailability and effects of novel anticancer drugs berberine and betulinic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandraiah Godugu

    Full Text Available The poor bioavailability of Berberine (BBR and Betulinic acid (BA limits the development of these promising anticancer agents for clinical use. In the current study, BBR and BA in spray dried (SD mucoadhesive microparticle formulations were prepared.A patented dual channel spray gun technology established in our laboratory was used for both formulations. Gastrointestinal (GI permeability studies were carried out using Caco-2 cell monolayer grown in in-vitro system. The oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profile of SD formulations were studied in Sprague Dawley rats. A549 orthotopic and H1650 metastatic NSCLC models were utilized for the anticancer evaluations.Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that BBR and BA SD formulations resulted in 3.46 and 3.90 fold respectively, significant increase in plasma Cmax concentrations. AUC levels were increased by 6.98 and 7.41 fold in BBR and BA SD formulations, respectively. Compared to untreated controls groups, 49.8 & 53.4% decrease in the tumor volumes was observed in SD formulation groups of BBR and BA, respectively. Molecular studies done on excised tumor (A549 tissue suggested that BBR in SD form resulted in a significant decrease in the survivin, Bcl-2, cyclin D1, MMP-9, HIF-1α, VEGF and CD31 expressions. Cleaved caspase 3, p53 and TUNEL expressions were increased in SD formulations. The RT-PCR analysis on H1650 tumor tissue suggested that p38, Phospho-JNK, Bax, BAD, cleaved caspase 3&8 mRNA expressions were significantly increased in BA SD formulations. Chronic administration of BBR and BA SD formulations did not show any toxicity.Due to significant increase in oral bioavailability and superior anticancer effects, our results suggest that spray drying is a superior alternative formulation approach for oral delivery of BBR and BA.

  9. Overcoming the exacerbating effects of ranitidine on NSAID-induced small intestinal toxicity with quercetin: Providing a complete GI solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devendra Pratap; Borse, Swapnil P; Nivsarkar, Manish

    2017-06-25

    There is a need to find/discover novel leads to treat complex and/or multi-factorial-pathogenic disease(s) like Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID)-induced gastroenteropathy or gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity as it has emerged as an important medical and socioeconomic problem. There is no approved therapeutic strategy to prevent NSAID-induced enteropathic damage and highly effective gastro-protective drugs such as ranitidine hydrochloride (RAN) exacerbate it. In this purview, the multi target drug discovery approach (MTDD), combination approach and hit to lead strategies based on the foundation of ethnopharmacology and/or reverse pharmacology holds strong potential. Hence, the primary objectives of the current study were to explore the mechanism behind the preventative/curative effects of quercetin (QCT) on RAN exacerbated diclofenac sodium (DIC)-induced enteropathic damage and to assess the effects of co-administration of QCT and RAN on DIC-induced gastropathic damage in rats. Rats were treated twice daily with QCT (35, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) PO) and/or RAN (15 mg kg(-1) PO) or vehicle for a total of 10 days. In some experiments, DIC (9 mg kg(-1)) was administered orally twice daily for the final 5 days of RAN/QCT + RAN/vehicle administration. Rats in all the groups were fasted after the last dose on 9th day (free access to water). 12 h after the last dose on 10th day, rats were euthanized and their GI tracts were assessed for haemorrhagic damage, alteration in xanthine oxidase (XO) activity, lipid peroxidation, intestinal permeability and GI luminal pH alterations along with haematological and biochemical estimations. The macroscopic, haematological, biochemical and histological evidences suggested that, though, RAN prevented the DIC-induced gastric injury, it exacerbated enteropathic damage. However, QCT not only significantly attenuated the RAN-induced exacerbation of enteropathic damage caused by DIC at the doses of 50 and 100 mg kg(-1), but

  10. Strategies to improve compliance among oral contraceptive pill users: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Angela Choi, Angela DempseyDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USAAbstract: Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs remain the most commonly used reversible birth control method. Failure to adhere to daily pill taking and gaps in use are common and contribute to the risk of unintended pregnancy among OCP users. OCP compliance is influenced by a complex interplay of cognitive, behavioral, logistic, clinical, and social factors. This review outlines the evidence base for strategies that have been studied for their impact on OCP compliance.Keywords: adherence, continuation, unintended pregnancy, reminder system

  11. Titrated oral misoprostol for augmenting labour to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Joshua P; West, Helen M; Dowswell, Therese

    2013-09-23

    Labour dystocia is associated with a number of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Augmentation of labour is a commonly used intervention in cases of labour dystocia. Misoprostol is an inexpensive and stable prostaglandin E1 analogue that can be administered orally, vaginally, sublingually or rectally. Misoprostol has proven to be effective at stimulating uterine contractions although it can have serious, and even life-threatening side-effects. Titration refers to the process of adjusting the dose, frequency, or both, of a medication on the basis of frequent review to achieve optimal outcomes. Studies have reported on a range of misoprostol titration regimens used for labour induction and titrated misoprostol may potentially be effective and safe for augmentation of labour. To examine the effects and safety of titrated oral misoprostol compared with placebo, oxytocin, other interventions, or no active treatment, in women with labour dystocia. The Trials Search Co-ordinator of the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register; date of search: 29 May 2013. We also searched the reference lists of retrieved studies Randomised trials (including quasi-randomised and cluster-randomised trials) comparing titrated oral misoprostol with placebo, other interventions (e.g. oxytocin, other prostaglandins), or no treatment in women requiring augmentation of labour were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed eligibility for inclusion, carried out data extraction and assessed risk of bias in included studies. Data were entered by one author and checked for accuracy. We included two randomised trials with a total of 581 women each comparing different regimens of titrated oral misoprostol with intravenous oxytocin. One study compared 20 mcg doses of misoprostol dissolved in water (repeated every hour up to four hours, after which the dose was increased to 40 mcg per hour up to a maximum

  12. A dual strategy to improve psychotic patients’ compliance using sustained release quetiapine oral disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refaat Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quetiapine (QT is a short acting atypical antipsychotic drug effective in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This study aims at designing a novel dosage form of sustained release taste-masked QT orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs based on solid lipid micro-pellets (SLMPs. QT SLMPs were prepared using the hot melt extrusion technique and utilizing three lipid carriers: Compritol, Precirol and white beeswax either alone or in mixtures. They showed sustained QT release and a taste masking effect. The selected QT SLMP was further blended with an aqueous solution containing polyvinylpyrollidone (2.5 %, croscarmellose sodium (2 % and mannitol (50 %; it was then lyophilized into ODT in a mass ratio of 1:2, respectively. ODTs containing QT SLMPs showed: average wetting time (40.92 s, average oral disintegration time (21.49 s, average hardness (16.85 N and also imparted suitable viscosity to suspend pellets during the lyophilization process. In conclusion, lyophilization is a promising technique for the formulation of multiparticulate systems into ODTs.

  13. Improving antimicrobial prescribing: implementation of an antimicrobial i.v.-to-oral switch policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, A D; Sutherland, R K; Mackintosh, C L

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship programmes reduce the risk of hospital associated infections (HAI) and antimicrobial resistance, and include early intravenous-to-oral switch (IVOS) as a key stewardship measure. We audited the number of patients on intravenous antimicrobials suitable for oral switch, assessed whether prescribing guidelines were followed and reviewed prescribing documentation in three clinical areas in the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, in late 2012. Following this, the first cycle results and local guidelines were presented at a local level and at the hospital grand rounds, posters with recommendations were distributed, joint infection consult and antimicrobial rounds commenced and an alert antimicrobial policy was introduced before re-auditing in early 2013. We demonstrate suboptimal prescribing of intravenous antimicrobials, with 43.9% (43/98) of patients eligible for IVOS at the time of auditing. Only 56.1% (55/98) followed empiric prescribing recommendations. Documentation of antimicrobial prescribing was poor with stop dates recorded in 14.3%, indication on prescription charts in 18.4% and in the notes in 90.8%. The commonest reason for deferring IVOS was deteriorating clinical condition or severe sepsis. Further work to encourage prudent antimicrobial prescribing and earlier consideration of IVOS is required.

  14. Improved oral therapeutic potential of nanoencapsulated cryptdin formulation against Salmonella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishi, Praveen; Bhogal, Akanksha; Arora, Sumeha; Pandey, Satish K; Verma, Indu; Kaur, Indu Pal

    2015-05-25

    An encapsulated system for cryptdin-2 (a Paneth cell antimicrobial peptide) was developed, with a view to help it sustain adverse gut conditions and to ensure its bioavailability on oral administration. The formulation was characterized on the basis of particle size, zeta potential and polydispersity index. Cryptdin-2 loaded nanoparticles of size 105±7 nm, formulated by ionotropic gelation method using chitosan: tripolyphosphate (5:2), revealed 60% drug entrapment efficiency with 65% in vitro release in 4.5 h. Developed system was evaluated for its therapeutic application against Salmonella Typhimurium infection in mice, on the basis of survivability of animals, bacterial load in tissues, histo-architecture and oxidative damage markers. Infected mice when treated with the encapsulated peptide showed 83% survivability and approximately 2 log unit reductions in the bacterial load in the tissues versus 100% mortality observed with the free peptide. The encapsulated cryptdin-2 also achieved a decrease in the level of oxidants, particularly nitrite by 3.25 folds and increased the level of antioxidant catalase by 2 folds when compared to the levels exhibited by the free peptide. The bacteriological and biochemical alterations illustrated by encapsulated peptide co-related well with the histo-architectural studies. The study is a first pre-clinical report on the oral effectiveness of cryptdin-2 by its suitable encapsulation and has potential for future clinical applications.

  15. Acute improvement of endothelial functions after oral ingestion of isohumulones, bitter components of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Junko; Mochizuki, Seiichi; Fujimoto, Sohachi; Kashihara, Naoki; Akasaka, Takashi; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Yoshida, Kiyoshi

    2017-03-18

    Isohumulones, principal components of the bitter taste of beers, have antioxidant capacity. We studied i) the effects of oral ingestion of isomerized hop extract (IHE) on the endothelial functions in smokers as well as non-smokers and ii) the effects of IHE on cultured endothelial cells in high oxidative stress state. Twelve cigarette smokers and eleven non-smokers ingested IHE and placebo in a randomized crossover design. Flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) was measured using ultrasonography. We also studied the effects of isohumulones on i) the cell viability under hypoxia and ii) the levels of angiotensin II (AT-II)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). At baseline, the FMDs of the smokers were significantly lower than those of the non-smokers. The FMDs increased significantly after 30 min and 120 min of IHE ingestion in both the smokers and the non-smokers. IHE protected the HAECs from hypoxia-induced cell death as assessed by cell viability. IHE also reduced the AT-II-induced intracellular ROS level. Oral ingestion of IHE appears to exert acute beneficial effects on the endothelial functions in both the smokers and non-smokers, and the in vitro experiments using HAECs suggested that the effect be through reducing intracellular oxidative stress.

  16. Preparation and characterization of docetaxel self-nanoemulsifying powders (SNEPs): A strategy for improved oral delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunkavalli, Sharath; Eedara, Basanth Babu; Janga, Karthik Yadav; Velpula, Ashok; Jukanti, Raju; Bandari, Suresh [St. Peter' s Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Warangal (India)

    2016-03-15

    Liquid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (L-SNEDDS) of docetaxel were prepared using varying ratios of Capmul PG 8 NF (oil), Cremophor EL (surfactant) and Transcutol-P (co-surfactant). The optimized L-SNEDDS (L{sub 11}) was transformed into self-nanoemulsifying powder (SNEP) by physical adsorption on to Neusilin US2 and evaluated for dissolution behavior, in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo oral bioavailability. Optimized L-SNEDDS (L{sub 11}) composed of 50% of oil, 41.7% of surfactant and 8.3% co-surfactant produced stable emulsion with smaller globules (43±3 nm). In vitro dissolution studies showed the rapid drug release within 5min (95.42±1%) from SNEP{sub N}. In vitro cytotoxicity assessed by the MTT assay using MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines revealed that L-SNEDDS significantly reduced the IC{sub 50} value and was 2.3 times lower than the pure docetaxel. Further, the oral bioavailability studies in male Wistar rats showed higher C{sub max} values following treatment with SNEP{sub N} (0.98±0.13 μg/mL) and L-SNEDDS (1.09± 0.06 μg/mL) compared to pure docetaxel (0.37±0.04 μg/mL).

  17. Topical Olive Leaf Extract Improves Healing of Oral Mucositis in Golden Hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Showraki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Oral mucositis (OM is a common side effect of anti-cancer drugs and needs significant attention for its prevention. Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the healing effects of olive leaf extract on 5-fluorouracil-induced OM in golden hamster. Materials and Method: OM was induced in 63 male golden hamsters by the combination of 5-fluorouracil injections (days 0, 5 and 10 and the abrasion of the cheek pouch (days 3 and 4. On day 12, hamsters were received topical olive leaf extract ointment, base of ointment, or no treatment (control for 5 days. Histopathology evaluations, blood examinations, and tissue malondialdehyde level measurement were performed 1, 3 and 5 days after treatments. Results: Histopathology score and tissue malondialdehyde level were significantly lower in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (p= 0.000. Significant decreases in white blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit , and mean corpuscular volume and an increase in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were observed in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (p< 0.05. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated that daily application of olive leaf extract ointment had healing effect on 5-fluorouracil induced OM in hamsters. Moreover, the beneficial effect of olive leaf extract on OM might be due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Keywords ● 5- fluorouracil ● Anti-inflammatory ● Antioxidant ● Olive Leaf ● Oral Mucositis

  18. An Enantiomer of an Oral Small Molecule TSH Receptor Agonist Exhibits Improved Pharmacologic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Neumann

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We are developing an orally available small molecule, allosteric TSH receptor (TSHR agonist for follow up diagnostics of patients with thyroid cancer. The agonist C2 (NCGC00161870 that we have studied so far is a racemic mixture containing equal amounts of two enantiomers, E1 and E2. As enantiomers of many drugs exhibit different pharmacologic properties, we assessed the properties of E1 and E2. We separated the two enantiomers by chiral chromatography and determined E2 as the (S-(+ isomer via crystal structure analysis. E1 and E2 were shown to bind differently to a homology model of the transmembrane domain of TSHR in which E2 was calculated to exhibit lower binding energy than E1 and was therefore predicted to be more potent than E1. In HEK293 cells expressing human TSHRs, C2, E1, and E2 were equally efficacious in stimulating cAMP production, but their potencies were different. E2 was more potent (EC50 = 18 nM than C2 (EC50 = 46 nM which was more potent than E1 (EC50 = 217 nM. In primary cultures of human thyrocytes, C2, E1, and E2 stimulated increases in thyroperoxidase mRNA of 92-, 55-, and 137-fold and in sodium-iodide symporter mRNA of 20-fold, 4-fold and 121-fold above basal levels, respectively. In mice, C2 stimulated an increase in radioactive iodine uptake of 1.5-fold and E2 of 2.8-fold above basal level, whereas E1 did not have an effect. C2 stimulated an increase in serum T4 of 2.4-fold, E1 of 1.9-fold, and E2 of 5.6-fold above basal levels, and a 5 day oral dosing regimen of E2 increased serum T4 levels comparable to recombinant human TSH (rhTSH, Thyrogen®. Thus, E2 is more effective than either C2 or E1 in stimulating thyroid function and as efficacious as rhTSH in vivo. E2 represents the next step toward developing an oral drug for patients with thyroid cancer.

  19. Peru-15, an improved live attenuated oral vaccine candidate for Vibrio cholerae O1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, J R; Coster, T S; Taylor, D N; Trofa, A F; Barrera-Oro, M; Hyman, T; Adams, J M; Beattie, D T; Killeen, K P; Spriggs, D R

    1995-10-01

    Cholera vaccine candidate Peru-15 was derived from a Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Inaba strain by deleting the cholera toxin genetic element, introducing the gene encoding cholera toxin B subunit into recA, and screening for nonmotility. In a controlled study, Peru-15 (2 x 10(8) cfu) was administered to 11 volunteers. No vaccinee developed diarrhea, and 10 of 11 had > 4-fold rises in vibriocidal antibody titers. One month later, 5 vaccinees and 5 control volunteers were challenged with wild type V. cholerae O1. Four of 5 controls developed diarrhea (mean, 1.9 L). Two Peru-15 vaccinees developed diarrhea, 1 with volunteer had not developed a significant vibriocidal immune response to vaccination. Peru-15 shows promise as a single-dose, oral cholera vaccine that is safe, immunogenic, and protective.

  20. Improved supersaturation and oral absorption of dutasteride by amorphous solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beak, In-Hwan; Kim, Min-Soo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, amorphous solid dispersions containing dutasteride and various excipients, manufactured by spray-drying processes, were characterized to determine the effects on their ability to form supersaturated solutions and to identify the effects of supersaturation on increasing the bioavailability of dutasteride. The excipients included Eudragit E, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD), hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K30). A solid dispersion with Eudragit E displayed a high maximum supersaturation with extended supersaturation, compared with a water-soluble polymer. The maximum concentration and the degree of supersaturation increased in the following order: PVP K30supersaturation concentration. These results suggest that amorphous solid dispersions containing Eudragit E, formed by a spray-drying process, offer enhanced supersaturation characteristics, leading to increased oral absorption of dutasteride.

  1. QbD based development of proliposome of lopinavir for improved oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Grishma M; Shelat, Pragna K; Lalwani, Anita N

    2016-08-30

    Aim of present work was to apply quality by design (QbD) principles for the development of proliposome of poorly soluble lopinavir (LPV). The patient-centric quality target product profile (QTPP) was defined and critical quality attributes (CQAs) earmarked. Risk assessment studies were carried out to identify the probable risks affecting the CQAs of the product. On the basis of preliminary study, lipid:drug ratio and amount of carrier were selected as critical material attributes (CMAs) and were optimized by face centered central composite design. Liposome vesicle size, drug entrapment efficiency and % drug release after 60min were selected as CQAs and mathematical relationship between CQAs and CMAs was derived using multiple linear regression analysis. Optimum composition of CMAs, identified using numerical optimization and desirability function, demonstrated excellent entrapment efficiency (>90%), drug release characteristics (>95% in 60min) and had vesicle size of 659.7±23.1nm. Solid state characterization studies (Differential Scanning Calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction) were performed for optimized proliposome, suggested transformation of crystalline to amorphous form. Oral bioavailability study in Wistar rats revealed that LPV proliposome exhibited 2.24 and 1.16 fold higher bioavailability than pure LPV and available commercial formulation of LPV/RTV (lopinavir+ritonavir), respectively. Stability study of the optimized LPV loaded proliposome was performed as per ICH guideline and was found to be stable for period of 6months. Overall results of the study indicate that the proliposome offers advantages of enhanced oral bioavailability for poorly soluble LPV.

  2. Evaluation of community-based oral health promotion and oral disease prevention--WHO recommendations for improved evidence in public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Kwan, Stella

    2004-12-01

    Systematic evaluation is an integral part of the organisation and delivery of community oral health care programmes, ensuring the effectiveness of these community-based interventions. As for general health promotion programmes the common problems from effectiveness reviews of oral health interventions relate to the quality and validity of programme evaluations. Problems identified mostly refer to the quality of outcome measures, short-term timescales to assess change, inadequate evaluation methodologies and inappropriate evaluation of programme implementation and processes. It remains a challenge to oral health professionals to integrate community oral health programmes into a wider health agenda. Public health research focusing on the development of evaluation methodologies has identified a variety of issues including the importance of using pluralistic evaluation approaches (quantitative and/or qualitative), limitations of the randomised controlled trial (RCT) design for evaluation of public health interventions, the need to match evaluation methods with the nature of intervention, development of outcome measures appropriate for the nature of intervention, importance of developing workforce capacity in evaluation techniques, and the need for development of partnerships between health practitioners and academics in conducting evaluations. In June 2003, the WHO Oral Health Programme at Headquarters organised a two-day workshop to take forward the development and documentation of the evaluation of oral health promotion and oral disease prevention programmes. The aims of the workshop were to: (1) identify common problems and challenges in evaluating community-based oral health interventions; (2) explore developments in the evaluation approaches in public health; (3) share experiences in evaluating oral health intervention programmes implemented at national or community levels in developing and developed countries and (4) develop guidelines for quality evaluation of

  3. Effects of the H(2)-receptor antagonist ranitidine on gastric motor function after a liquid meal in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Graff, J

    2008-01-01

    computed tomography (SPECT) after intravenous injection of 99(m)Tc-pertechnetate. After ingestion of a 600-mL liquid meal radiolabelled with (111)In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, dual-isotope technique with SPECT and planar imaging assessed gastric volume as well as gastric emptying. Results......, on gastric volume and gastric emptying after a liquid meal in healthy humans. Material and methods. Twelve healthy volunteers participated in a randomized crossover study with 50 mg ranitidine as a bolus intravenously versus no medication. Gastric volume at baseline was determined with single photon emission...

  4. Effects of the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on gastric motor function after a liquid meal in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J.L.; Graff, J.

    2008-01-01

    computed tomography (SPECT) after intravenous injection of 99(m)Tc-pertechnetate. After ingestion of a 600-mL liquid meal radiolabelled with (111)In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, dual-isotope technique with SPECT and planar imaging assessed gastric volume as well as gastric emptying. RESULTS......, on gastric volume and gastric emptying after a liquid meal in healthy humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers participated in a randomized crossover study with 50 mg ranitidine as a bolus intravenously versus no medication. Gastric volume at baseline was determined with single photon emission...

  5. Discovery of potent imidazole and cyanophenyl containing farnesyltransferase inhibitors with improved oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yunsong; Lin, Nan-Horng; Wang, Le; Hasvold, Lisa; Wang, Weibo; Leonard, Nicholas; Li, Tongmei; Li, Qun; Cohen, Jerry; Gu, Wen-Zhen; Zhang, Haiying; Stoll, Vincent; Bauch, Joy; Marsh, Kennan; Rosenberg, Saul H; Sham, Hing L

    2003-05-05

    A pyridyl moiety was introduced into a previously developed series of farnesyltransferase inhibitors containing imidazole and cyanophenyl (such as 4), resulting in potent inhibitors with improved pharmacokinetics.

  6. Optimization and Validation of Modulated Release Formulation of Ranitidine HCl by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijay Kumar Sahoo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was, 1 to systematically device a model of factors that would yield an optimized sustained release dosage form of model drug (Ranitidine HCl, 2 to validate the models using R2 values, 3 to optimize the formulation by response surface methodology (RSM. A three - factor, three - level Box-Behnken design was used for the optimization procedure, with the amounts of HPMC K100M (X1, MCC (X2 and Compression Force (X3 as independent variables. Three dependent variables were considered: percentage of drug release at 1 h, 12 h and T50%. The regression equation obtained from experiment i. e Y2 = 92.41 + 3.18X1+ 2.05 X2 + 2.14X3 + 2.41X1X2 + 0.24 X1X3 + 0.11 X2X3 -3.82X12 - 2.59X22 -0.46X32 , explained the main and interaction effects of factors that influenced the drug release. Optimization was performed by maximizing the drug release in 12 hrs and placing constraints on Y1, Y2 and Y3. Validation of optimization by carrying out by performing 8 experimental runs showed high degree of prognostic ability of response surface methodology. The results showed that the optimized formulation provided a dissolution pattern similar to the predicted curve, which indicated that the optimal formulation could be obtained using RSM. A simple high performance liquid chromatography method was developed and the dissolution samples were analysed by this procedure.

  7. Gastroretentive drug delivery system of Ranitidine hydrochloride based on osmotic technology: development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P; Singh, S; Mishra, B

    2008-10-01

    Gastroretentive drug delivery systems (GRDDS) of Ranitidine hydrochloride (RHC) has been designed based on the osmotic technology, with the floating and swelling features in order to prolong the gastric retention time. The developed system consisted of osmotic core (containing drug, osmotic agent and hydrophilic polymers), coated with semipermeable membrane (SPM) which is then further coated with compression coating of gelling agent (HPMC K4M) containing gas generating agent (citric acid). All the developed formulations were evaluated for floating lag time, duration of floating, drug content and in-vitro drug release profile. Formulation variables like levels of hydrophilic polymer (0-18.26%w/w), type of plasticizer (PEG-400, Dibutyl phthalate), coat thickness of SPM (60-100 microm), were found to affect the drug release from the developed formulations. Drug release was directly proportional to hydrophilic nature of plasticizer but inversely proportional to the levels of hydrophilic polymer and coat thickness of SPM. Drug release from developed formulations was independent of level of gas generating agent in compression coat, pH and agitation intensities of release media but dependent on osmotic pressure of the release media. All the developed formulation showed floating lag time of less than 2 min (desired) and were floated for more than 12 hr. Floating lag time was inversely related to level of citric acid in compression coat and directly related to the density of the developed formulations. The manufacturing procedure was found to be reproducible and formulations were stable after 3 months accelerated stability study. Prediction of steady state levels showed the plasma concentrations of RHC to be within desired range.

  8. pH-Metric log K calculations of famotidine, naproxen, nizatidine, ranitidine and salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degim, T; Zaimoglu, V; Akay, C; Degim, Z

    2001-09-01

    The octanol/water partition coefficient (log K) is one of the most commonly used parameters in structure-activity relationships in many areas such as drug design (including pesticides), pharmacokinetics, anesthesiology, environmental sciences, toxicology, bioaccumulation and predicting skin permeability as a predictive parameter. log K is generally determined using shake flask method, but the possibility of calculating log K using pH-metric titrations and half neutralization points is demonstrated in this study. The potentiometric pH titration technique has been developed as an automatic technique for log K determination but it can be achieved by manual titrations. This technique uses the pKa of the substance. The pKa of the substance shifts pK'a when the titration is repeated in the presence of octanol. log K value of the substance can be determined using pKa, pK'a values and relevant equation. The aim of the study was to determine the log K values of a series of compounds using pH-metric titrations and to compare pH-metric log K determination results with the other methods. The log K values of famotidine, naproxen, nizatidine, ranitidine and salicylic acid were determined using both shake flask method and potentiometric titrations. Their log K values were also calculated theoretically using computer program and all results were compared. The pH-metric log K values were found to be close to the shake flask method results. This method was found to be useful for the determination of log K values as it provides a high degree of accuracy even in the presence of titratable impurities in the solution.

  9. Electrochemical advanced oxidation for cold incineration of the pharmaceutical ranitidine: mineralization pathway and toxicity evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera-Vargas, Hugo; Oturan, Nihal; Brillas, Enric; Buisson, Didier; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2014-12-01

    Ranitidine (RNTD) is a widely prescribed histamine H2-receptor antagonist whose unambiguous presence in water sources appointed it as an emerging pollutant. Here, the degradation of 0.1 mM of this drug in aqueous medium was studied by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) like anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 and electro-Fenton using Pt/carbon-felt, BDD/carbon-felt and DSA-Ti/RuO2–IrO2/carbon-felt cells. The higher oxidation power of the electro-Fenton process using a BDD anode was demonstrated. The oxidative degradation of RNTD by the electrochemically generated OH radicals obeyed a pseudo-first order kinetics. The absolute rate constant for its hydroxylation reaction was 3.39 × 109 M−1 s−1 as determined by the competition kinetics method. Almost complete mineralization of the RNTN solution was reached by using a BDD anode in both anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 and electro-Fenton processes. Up to 11 cyclic intermediates with furan moiety were detected from the degradation of RNTD, which were afterwards oxidized to short-chain carboxylic acids before their mineralization to CO2 and inorganic ions such as NH4+, NO3− and SO42−. Based on identified products, a plausible reaction pathway was proposed for RNTD mineralization. Toxicity assessment by the Microtox® method revealed that some cyclic intermediates are more toxic than the parent molecule. Toxicity was quickly removed following the almost total mineralization of the treated solution. Overall results confirm the effectiveness of EAOPs for the efficient removal of RNTD and its oxidation by-products from water.

  10. Challenges to improvement of oral health in the 21st century--the approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2004-01-01

    populations, causing severe pain and suffering, impairing function and impacting on quality of life. Traditional treatment of oral diseases is extremely costly even in industrialised countries and is unaffordable in most low and middle-income countries. The WHO global strategy for prevention and control......Chronic diseases and injuries are overtaking communicable diseases as the leading health problems in all but a few parts of the world. This rapidly changing global disease pattern is closely linked to changing lifestyles, which include diets rich in sugars, widespread use of tobacco and increased...... of noncommunicable diseases and the 'common risk factor approach' offer new ways of managing the prevention and control of oral diseases. This document outlines the current oral health situation and development trends at global level as well as WHO strategies and approaches for better oral health in the 21 st...

  11. Change to Either a Nonandrogenic or Androgenic Progestin-Containing Oral Contraceptive Preparation is Associated with Improved Sexual Function in Women with Oral Contraceptive-Associated Sexual Dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Susan R; Bitzer, Johannes; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2013-01-01

    It is a commonly held belief that combined oral contraceptive (COC) pills containing an androgenic progestin may be less likely to impair sexual function than COCs containing an anti-androgenic progestin.......It is a commonly held belief that combined oral contraceptive (COC) pills containing an androgenic progestin may be less likely to impair sexual function than COCs containing an anti-androgenic progestin....

  12. Improving early language and literacy skills: differential effects of an oral language versus a phonology with reading intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Snowling, Margaret J; Duff, Fiona J; Fieldsend, Elizabeth; Carroll, Julia M; Miles, Jeremy; Götz, Kristina; Hulme, Charles

    2008-04-01

    This study compares the efficacy of two school-based intervention programmes (Phonology with Reading (P + R) and Oral Language (OL)) for children with poor oral language at school entry. Following screening of 960 children, 152 children (mean age 4;09) were selected from 19 schools on the basis of poor vocabulary and verbal reasoning skills and randomly allocated to either the P + R programme or the OL programme. Both groups of children received 20 weeks of daily intervention alternating between small group and individual sessions, delivered by trained teaching assistants. Children in the P + R group received training in letter-sound knowledge, phonological awareness and book level reading skills. Children in the OL group received instruction in vocabulary, comprehension, inference generation and narrative skills. The children's progress was monitored at four time points: pre-, mid- and post-intervention, and after a 5-month delay, using measures of literacy, language and phonological awareness. The data are clustered (children within schools) and robust confidence intervals are reported. At the end of the 20-week intervention programme, children in the P + R group showed an advantage over the OL group on literacy and phonological measures, while children in the OL group showed an advantage over the P + R group on measures of vocabulary and grammatical skills. These gains were maintained over a 5-month period. Intervention programmes designed to develop oral language skills can be delivered successfully by trained teaching assistants to children at school entry. Training using P + R fostered decoding ability whereas the OL programme improved vocabulary and grammatical skills that are foundations for reading comprehension. However, at the end of the intervention, more than 50% of at-risk children remain in need of literacy support.

  13. Nanosuspensions of a new compound, ER-β005, for enhanced oral bioavailability and improved analgesic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ling; Miao, Mingxing; Li, Suning; Hao, Kun

    2017-08-25

    Estrogen receptor-β005 (ER-β005) is a novel compound developed by our group; however, its application has been greatly hindered due to its low solubility. A nanosuspension of insoluble drugs is a nanoscale colloidal dispersion that has extremely higher drug-loading compared with other nanomedicines. In this study, nanosuspensions of ER-β005 (Nano-ER-β005) stabilized by a food protein, β-casein (β-CN), were prepared via an antisolvent-precipitation method to improve oral absorption and thus promote therapeutic efficacy. Nano-ER-β005, which has a diameter of 110nm and drug-loading of 50%, was developed. Analyses of fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectra demonstrated a strong interaction between β-CN and drug particles in Nano-ER-β005, indicating that β-CN is a potent nanosuspension stabilizer. The oral bioavailability of Nano-ER-β005 was 1.6-fold greater than that of raw drug particles. Additionally, ER-β005 was confirmed to have a strong therapeutic effect against pain reactions in animal models, and inhibition of this effect was significantly increased with Nano-ER-β005 treatment. In conclusion, by using β-CN as a stabilizer, nanosuspensions of ER-β005 were developed and oral absorption was enhanced. Moreover, ER-β005 is a powerful drug that inhibits pain reactions, and its therapeutic efficacy was markedly increased in the Nano-ER-β005. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Should we educate care staff to improve the oral health and oral hygiene of people with intellectual disability in residential care? Real world lessons from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Giolla Phadraig, Caoimhin; Guerin, Suzanne; Nunn, June

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of a multitiered oral health educational program on the oral health and oral hygiene of people with intellectual disabilities (ID). In a controlled pretest, posttest trial, with cluster randomization, a pyramidal training program was delivered to residential staff who cared for a randomly allocated, purposively stratified intervention group of people with ID living in community care homes. A control group lived in centers where staff received no training. Clinical measures were carried out pre- and posttest. Difference in Modified Gingival Index (MGI) and Plaque Index (PI) was measured posttest using ANCOVA. Seventy-six participants took part, representing 49.0% of the invited sample (n = 155). Fourteen did not receive clinical examination. There was one dropout 6-9 months later. A 10.5% and 8.5% reduction in mean MGI and PI was evident at posttest but did not show statistically significant difference, when controlling for baseline covariates (p > 0.05, ANCOVA). Mean MGI and PI scores were not significantly different among people with ID whose care staff had and had not received oral health training. Limitations are discussed. The results indicate that this program failed to significantly improve oral health or oral hygiene, despite the intervention being "educationally" successful. More research is needed.

  15. Oral Administration of Linoleic Acid Induces New Vessel Formation and Improves Skin Wound Healing in Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Hosana G.; Vinolo, Marco A. R.; Sato, Fabio T.; Magdalon, Juliana; Kuhl, Carolina M. C.; Yamagata, Ana S.; Pessoa, Ana Flávia M.; Malheiros, Gabriella; dos Santos, Marinilce F.; Lima, Camila; Farsky, Sandra H.; Camara, Niels O. S.; Williner, Maria R.; Bernal, Claudio A.; Calder, Philip C.; Curi, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Impaired wound healing has been widely reported in diabetes. Linoleic acid (LA) accelerates the skin wound healing process in non-diabetic rats. However, LA has not been tested in diabetic animals. Objectives We investigated whether oral administration of pure LA improves wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods Dorsal wounds were induced in streptozotocin-induced type-1 diabetic rats treated or not with LA (0.22 g/kg b.w.) for 10 days. Wound closure was daily assessed for two weeks. Wound tissues were collected at specific time-points and used to measure fatty acid composition, and contents of cytokines, growth factors and eicosanoids. Histological and qPCR analyses were employed to examine the dynamics of cell migration during the healing process. Results LA reduced the wound area 14 days after wound induction. LA also increased the concentrations of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemotaxis (CINC-2αβ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and reduced the expression of macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1). These results together with the histological analysis, which showed accumulation of leukocytes in the wound early in the healing process, indicate that LA brought forward the inflammatory phase and improved wound healing in diabetic rats. Angiogenesis was induced by LA through elevation in tissue content of key mediators of this process: vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT-2). Conclusions Oral administration of LA hastened wound closure in diabetic rats by improving the inflammatory phase and angiogenesis. PMID:27764229

  16. Improving the prediction of the brain disposition for orally administered drugs using BDDCS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broccatelli, Fabio; Larregieu, Caroline A.; Cruciani, Gabriele;

    2012-01-01

    In modeling blood–brain barrier (BBB) passage, in silico models have yielded ~80% prediction accuracy, and are currently used in early drug discovery. Being derived from molecular structural information only, these models do not take into account the biological factors responsible for the in vivo...... were found to markedly distribute throughout the brain; this includes a number of BDDCS class 1 drugs shown to be Pgp substrates. This new perspective provides a further interpretation of how Pgp influences the sedative effects of H1-histamine receptor antagonists.......In modeling blood–brain barrier (BBB) passage, in silico models have yielded ~80% prediction accuracy, and are currently used in early drug discovery. Being derived from molecular structural information only, these models do not take into account the biological factors responsible for the in vivo...... outcome. Passive permeability and P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1) efflux have been successfully recognized to impact xenobiotic extrusion from the brain, as Pgp is known to play a role in limiting the BBB penetration of oral drugs in humans. However, these two properties alone fail to explain the BBB...

  17. Improvement of Oral Bioavailability of Curcumin upon Microencapsulation with Methacrylic Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Donatella; Vero, Ada; Cosco, Donato; Pecora, Tiziana M. G.; Cianciolo, Simona; Fresta, Massimo; Pignatello, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloymethane; CUR) is a yellow pigment used in traditional medicine throughout history for its anti-inflammatory activity. In the last years, the scientific research has demonstrated that CUR effects are related to the modulation of crucial molecular targets, related to several pathologies including cancer, arthritis, diabetes, Crohn’s disease. In this paper, two formulations of microencapsulated CUR obtained by coevaporation with polymethacrylate polymers (Eudragit® Retard) were investigated in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo, and results were compared by laser confocal microscopy analysis. The permeation of microencapsulated CUR through CaCo-2 monolayers was evaluated in vitro. The mucoadhesion and bioadhesion of the CUR-loaded microparticles were evaluated in vitro, using E12 and CaCo-2 human intestinal cells, and ex vivo, by means of excised rat intestinal mucosa. After oral administration to rats, microencapsulated CUR showed a sevenfold increase of bioavailability in respect to the neat drug, with a concomitant reduction of the Tmax and a five-fold plasma concentration peak increase. PMID:28066239

  18. Topical Olive Leaf Extract Improves Healing of Oral Mucositis in Golden Hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showraki, Najmeh; Mardani, Maryam; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Andishe-Tadbir, Azadeh; Aram, Alireza; Mehriar, Peiman; Omidi, Mahmoud; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Tanideh, Nader

    2016-12-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a common side effect of anti-cancer drugs and needs significant attention for its prevention. This study aimed to evaluate the healing effects of olive leaf extract on 5-fluorouracil-induced OM in golden hamster. OM was induced in 63 male golden hamsters by the combination of 5-fluorouracil injections (days 0, 5 and 10) and the abrasion of the cheek pouch (days 3 and 4). On day 12, hamsters were received topical olive leaf extract ointment, base of ointment, or no treatment (control) for 5 days. Histopathology evaluations, blood examinations, and tissue malondialdehyde level measurement were performed 1, 3 and 5 days after treatments. Histopathology score and tissue malondialdehyde level were significantly lower in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (p= 0.000). Significant decreases in white blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit , and mean corpuscular volume and an increase in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were observed in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (p< 0.05). Our findings demonstrated that daily application of olive leaf extract ointment had healing effect on 5-fluorouracil induced OM in hamsters. Moreover, the beneficial effect of olive leaf extract on OM might be due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  19. Topical Olive Leaf Extract Improves Healing of Oral Mucositis in Golden Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showraki, Najmeh; Mardani, Maryam; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Andishe-Tadbir, Azadeh; Aram, Alireza; Mehriar, Peiman; Omidi, Mahmoud; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Tanideh, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Oral mucositis (OM) is a common side effect of anti-cancer drugs and needs significant attention for its prevention. Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the healing effects of olive leaf extract on 5-fluorouracil-induced OM in golden hamster. Materials and Method: OM was induced in 63 male golden hamsters by the combination of 5-fluorouracil injections (days 0, 5 and 10) and the abrasion of the cheek pouch (days 3 and 4). On day 12, hamsters were received topical olive leaf extract ointment, base of ointment, or no treatment (control) for 5 days. Histopathology evaluations, blood examinations, and tissue malondialdehyde level measurement were performed 1, 3 and 5 days after treatments. Results: Histopathology score and tissue malondialdehyde level were significantly lower in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (p= 0.000). Significant decreases in white blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit , and mean corpuscular volume and an increase in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were observed in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (phamsters. Moreover, the beneficial effect of olive leaf extract on OM might be due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:27942549

  20. SELF EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A CONVENTIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE APPPROACH TO IMPROVE ORAL BIOAVAILABILITY OF LIPOPHILIC DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desai Tushar R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Out of newly discovered drugs most of the drugs are found to be lipophilic and out of which up to 40 % of pharmacologically active new molecules failed to reach to market only due to little or no water solubility; a serious challenge for the successful development and commercialization of new drugs in the pharmaceutica lindustry. Therefore various formulation strategies have been investigated to improve the solubility and the rate of dissolut ion to enhance the oral bioavailability of lipophilic drugs. Amongst various approach self emulsifying drug delivery system has gained more attention due to enhanced oral bio-availability enabling reduction in dose, more consistent temporal profiles of drug absorption, selective targeting of drug(s toward specific absorption window in GIT, and protection of drug(s from the hostile environment in gut. The present review discussed the mechanisam of self emulsification, composition, formulation approaches, different techniques, evaluation, factors affecting SEDDS, advantages, draw backs, applications and future trends in SEDDS.

  1. Solid lipid nanoparticles for oral drug delivery: chitosan coating improves stability, controlled delivery, mucoadhesion and cellular uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yangchao; Teng, Zi; Li, Ying; Wang, Qin

    2015-05-20

    The poor stability of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) under acidic condition resulted in large aggregation in gastric environment, limiting their application as oral delivery systems. In this study, a series of SLN was prepared to investigate the effects of surfactant/cosurfactant and chitosan coating on their physicochemical properties as well as cellular uptake. SLN was prepared from Compritol 888 ATO using a low-energy method combining the solvent-diffusion and hot homogenization technique. Poloxamer 188 and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were effective emulsifiers to produce SLN with better physicochemical properties than SLN control. Chitosan-coated SLN exhibited the best stability under acidic condition by forming a thick layer around the lipid core, as clearly observed by transmission electron microscope. The intermolecular interactions in different formulations were monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Chitosan coating also significantly improved the mucoadhesive property of SLN as determined by Quartz Crystal Microbalance. In vitro drug delivery assays, cytotoxicity, and cellular uptake of SLN were studied by incorporating coumarin 6 as a fluorescence probe. Overall, chitosan-coated SLN was superior to other formulations and held promising features for its application as a potential oral drug delivery system for hydrophobic drugs.

  2. Pluronic-poly (acrylic acid)-cysteine/Pluronic L121 mixed micelles improve the oral bioavailability of paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanli; Li, Yanli; Ge, Jianjun; Li, Na; Li, Ling-Bing

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study is to synthesize a thiolated Pluronic copolymer, Pluronic-poly (acrylic acid)-cysteine copolymer, to construct a mixed micelle system with the Pluronic-poly (acrylic acid)-cysteine copolymer and Pluronic L121 (PL121) and to evaluate the potential of these mixed micelles as an oral drug delivery system for paclitaxel. Compared with Pluronic-poly (acrylic acid)-cysteine micelles, drug-loading capacity of Pluronic-poly (acrylic acid)-cysteine/PL121 mixed micelles was increased from 0.4 to 2.87%. In vitro release test indicated that Pluronic-poly (acrylic acid)-cysteine/PL121 mixed micelles exhibited a pH sensitivity. The permeability of drug-loaded micelles in the intestinal tract was studied with an in situ perfusion method in rats. The presence of verapamil and Pluronic both improved the intestinal permeability of paclitaxel, which further certified the inhibition effect of thiolated Pluronic on P-gp. In pharmacokinetic study, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0→∞) of paclitaxel-loaded mixed micelles was four times greater than that of the paclitaxel solution (p cysteine/PL121 micelles were proven to be a potential oral drug delivery system for paclitaxel.

  3. Non-thermal Atmospheric Plasma Treatment for Deactivation of Oral Bacteria and Improvement of Dental Composite Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qing Song; Li, H.; Ritts, A. C.; Yang, B.; Chen, M.; Hong, L.; Xu, C.; Yao, X.; Wang, Y.

    This paper reviews our recent research results of using non-thermal ­atmospheric plasmas for oral bacterial deactivation and for composite restoration improvement. Oral bacteria of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) with an initial bacterial population density between 1.0 × 108 and 5.0 × 108 cfu/ml were seeded on various media and their survivability with plasma exposure was examined. The plasma exposure time for a 99.9999% cell reduction was less than 15 s for S. mutans and within 5 min for L. acidophilus. To evaluate the dentin/composite interfacial bonding, extracted unerupted human third molars were used by removing the crowns and etching the exposed dentin surfaces with 35% phosphoric acid gel. After dental composite application and light curing, the teeth were then sectioned into micro-bars as the specimens for microtensile test. Student Newman Keuls (SNK) tests showed that the bonding strength of the composite restoration to peripheral dentin was significantly increased (by 64%) after 30 s plasma treatment of the dentin surfaces. These findings indicated that non-thermal atmospheric plasma technology is very promising for dental clinical applications.

  4. HPLC determination of ranitidine in ranitidine bismuth citrate and its tablets%HPLC法测定枸橼酸铋雷尼替丁及其片剂中雷尼替丁的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严全鸿; 罗卓雅

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立HPLC测定枸橼酸铋雷尼替丁及其片剂中雷尼替丁含量的方法.方法:色谱柱为Inertsil@ ODS -3(4.6mm×150 mm,5μm);磷酸盐缓冲液(取磷酸6.8 mL置1900 mL水中,加入50%氢氧化钠溶液8.6mL,加水至2000 mL,用磷酸或50%氢氧化钠溶液调节pH至7.10±0.05)-乙腈(98∶2)及磷酸盐缓冲液-乙腈(78∶ 22)分别为流动相A、B,梯度洗脱;流速为1.2 mL·min-1,检测波长为230 nm,柱温为35 °C;外标法.结果:本方法在2.5 ~200.4 μg·mL-1范围内线性良好(r=0.9998),定量限为5 ng(以雷尼替丁计).结论:本方法简便、灵敏、专属性好、结果准确,适用于枸橼酸铋雷尼替丁及其片剂中雷尼替丁含量的测定.%Objective:To establish an HPLC method for the determination of ranitidine in ranitidine bismuth citrate and its tablets. Methods:Inertsil? ODS -3 column (4. 6 mm x 150 mm,5μm) was adopted with gradient elution, phosphate buffer ( accurately add phosphoric acid 6. 8 mL and 50% sodium hydroxide solution 8. 6 mL into approximately 1900 mL of water, and mix. Dilute with water to 2000 mL. Adjust pH 7. 10 ±0. 05 with 50% sodium hydroxide solution or phosphoric acid) - acetonitrile ( 98:2) as the mobile phase A and phosphate buffer - acetonitrile (78:22) as the mobile phase B at the flow rate of 1. 2 mL ? Min-1 ,the detective wavelength was 230 nm and the temperature of column was 35℃. Results; The linear range of ranitidine was 2.5 -200.4 μg·mL-1 (r = 0. 9998 ). The limit of quantification was 5 ng. Conclusion; The method is simple, sensitive, selective, accurate and can be used for the determination of ranitidine in ranitidine bismuth citrate and its tablets.

  5. Development and validation of a dried blood spot LC-MS/MS assay to quantify ranitidine in paediatric samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakkundi, Shirish; Millership, Jeff; Collier, Paul; Shields, Michael D; McElnay, James

    2011-12-15

    A novel approach has been developed to determine ranitidine in paediatric samples using dried blood spots (DBS) on Guthrie cards (Whatman 903). A selective and sensitive HPLC-MS/MS assay has been developed and validated using small volumes of blood (30 μl). A 6 mm disc was punched from each DBS and extracted with methanolic solution of the internal standard (IS) nizatidine. This was further subjected to solid phase extraction (SPE), followed by reversed phase HPLC separation, using a XBridge™ C18 column and mobile phase 10 mM ammonium acetate/methanol (98:2 v/v) with a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. This was combined with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass detection using electrospray ionisation (ESI). The calibration curve for ranitidine was found linear over the range 10-500 ng/mL (r=0.996). The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was validated at 10 ng/mL. Accuracy and precision values for within and between days were <20% at the LOQ and <15% at all other concentrations. The validated DBS method was successfully applied to a clinical study employing 81 samples from 36 paediatric patients.

  6. Mathematical modelling of the transport of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes of ranitidine hydrochloride and furosemide loaded chitosan nanoparticles across a Caco-2 cell monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadighi, Armin; Ostad, S N; Rezayat, S M; Foroutan, M; Faramarzi, M A; Dorkoosh, F A

    2012-01-17

    Chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs) have been used to enhance the permeability of furosemide and ranitidine hydrochloride (ranitidine HCl) which were selected as candidates for two different biopharmaceutical drug classes having low permeability across Caco-2 cell monolayers. Drugs loaded CS-NPs were prepared by ionic gelation of CS and pentasodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) which added to the drugs inclusion complexes with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-βCD). The stability constants for furosemide/HP-βCD and ranitidine HCl/HP-βCD were calculated as 335 M(-1) and 410 M(-1), whereas the association efficiencies (AE%) of the drugs/HP-βCD inclusion complexes with CS-NPs were determined to be 23.0 and 19.5%, respectively. Zetasizer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterise drugs/HP-βCD-NPs size and morphology. Transport of both nano and non-nano formulations of drugs/HP-βCD complexes across a Caco-2 cell monolayer was assessed and fitted to mathematical models. Furosemide/HP-βCD-NPs demonstrated transport kinetics best suited for the Higuchi model, whereas other drug formulations demonstrated power law transportation behaviour. Permeability experiments revealed that furosemide/HP-βCD and ranitidine HCl/HP-βCD nano formulations greatly induce the opening of tight junctions and enhance drug transition through Caco-2 monolayers.

  7. Modified Au nanoparticles-imprinted sol-gel, multiwall carbon nanotubes pencil graphite electrode used as a sensor for ranitidine determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, B; Lotfi-Forushani, H; Ensafi, A A

    2014-04-01

    A new, simple, and disposable molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor for the determination of ranitidine was developed on pencil graphite electrode (PGE) via cyclic voltammetry (CV). The PGEs were coated with MWCNTs containing the carboxylic functional group (f-MWCNTs), imprinted with sol-gel and Au nanoparticle (AuNPs) layers (AuNP/MIP-sol-gel/f-MWCNT/PGE), respectively, to enhance the electrode's electrical transmission and sensitivity. The thin film of molecularly imprinted sol-gel polymers with specific binding sites for ranitidine was cast on modified PGE by electrochemical deposition. The AuNP/MIP-sol-gel/f-MWCNT/PGE thus developed was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and CV. The interaction between the imprinted sensor and the target molecule was also observed on the electrode by measuring the current response of 5.0mMK3[Fe(CN)6] solution as an electrochemical probe. The pick currents of ranitidine increased linearly with concentration in the ranges of 0.05 to 2.0μM, with a detection limit of (S/N=3) 0.02μM. Finally, the modified electrode was successfully employed to determine ranitidine in human urine samples.

  8. Improve Oral Training: The Method of Innovation Assessment on English Speaking Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Jyu; Chang, Hung-Fan

    2011-01-01

    The advantages of portfolios come from observing the student learning process and recording feedback. Students utilized their own learning portfolios to do learning assessment and self-correction. The research that has been done in Taiwan has shown that using a portfolio is effective in improving English speaking performances (ESP). The purpose of…

  9. Improve Oral Training: The Method of Innovation Assessment on English Speaking Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Jyu; Chang, Hung-Fan

    2011-01-01

    The advantages of portfolios come from observing the student learning process and recording feedback. Students utilized their own learning portfolios to do learning assessment and self-correction. The research that has been done in Taiwan has shown that using a portfolio is effective in improving English speaking performances (ESP). The purpose of…

  10. Improvization of conventional cytology by centrifuged liquid-based cytology in oral exfoliative cytology specimen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nambiar, Shwetha; Hegde, Veda; Yadav, Nikhil; Hallikeri, Kaveri

    2016-01-01

    ...-based cytology (LBC) was initially developed for cervical uterine cancer screening. As compared to conventional smears, this technique reduces the number of unsatisfactory and false positive results with significant improvement in cytodiagnostic accuracy. [4] Most LBC preparations showed a good quality of preparation including cytoplasmic and...

  11. Improving Reading Prosody and Oral Retell Fluency: A Comparison of Three Intervention Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noltemeyer, Amity; Joseph, Laurice M.; Watson, Mackenzie

    2014-01-01

    Phrase drill, listening passage preview, and repeated reading are instructional methods that have been effective in improving reading accuracy and fluency. However, little research has examined these techniques' effects on prosody and retell. This study did so using a modified alternating treatments design. Four students who recently completed…

  12. Formulation design of ranitidine hydrochloride to reduce its moisture absorption characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shagufta; Giradkar, Praful; Yeole, Pramod

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examined the effect of a ranitidine hydrocholoride (RHCl)-ion exchange resin complexation on the drug's moisture uptake behavior. Drug resin complexes (DRCs) were prepared using the batch method with (i) two weak cation exchange resins, Polacrilex with exchangeable H+ and Polacrillin potassium; and (ii) a strong cation exchange resin;Sodium polystyrene sulfonate. RHCl, simple resins, and DRCs were subjected to storage stability under 40 +/- 2 degrees C and 75 +/- 5% relative humidity (RH) for 16 h, and the resulting percent increase in weight was calculated. DRCs gained less moisture than the simple drug and free resins. Out of the three complexes tested, DRC containing Polacrilex resin showed the most promising effect in protecting RHCl against moisture uptake with an increase in weight of 10.22 +/- 17% (free RHCl gained 28.11%) and was thereby selected for tablet formulation. Tablets were prepared using simple RHCl with Starch 1500 (F1); low moisture-grade Starch 1500 LM (F2); RHCl as DRC with Starch 1500 (F3); and, Starch 1500 LM (F4). Tablets were tested for equilibrium moisture content (EMC) under different humidity conditions and hygroscopicity in the presence and absence of light. In addition, stability studies were run over the duration of 6 months in conditions under 40 +/- 2 degrees C and 75 +/- 5% RH. The EMC of tablets at 80% RH decreased in the following order: F1 > F2 > marketed coated tablet > F3 > F4. The results of hygroscopicity testing revealed that both rate and extent of moisture gain in the presence or absence of light by F3 and F4 were significantly less than F1, F2, and marketed coated tablet (P < 0.05). Stability studies showed insignificant changes in weight, breaking force, friability, and disintegration time for tablets containing resin, while significant changes in these properties were found in tablets without resin. Thus, Polacrilex resin with exchangeable H+ was found to be the best for protecting RHCl against

  13. Phenolic Esters of O-Desmethylvenlafaxine with Improved Oral Bioavailability and Brain Uptake

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    O-Desmethylvenlafaxine (desvenlafaxine, ODV) is a recently approved antidepressant which in some clinical studies failed to meet a satisfactory end-point. The aim of this study was to prepare a series of phenolic esters of ODV and evaluate their potential as ODV prodrugs with improved brain uptake. Fifteen phenolic esters (compounds 1a–o) were synthesized and their pharmacokinetic profiles evaluated in rat. The four compounds producing the highest relative bioavailability of ODV in rat (comp...

  14. Amorphous ternary cyclodextrin nanocomposites of telmisartan for oral drug delivery: improved solubility and reduced pharmacokinetic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwai, Mayur; Vavia, Pradeep

    2013-09-10

    Despite of advancements in dosage form design and use of multifunctional excipients, improvement in dissolution characteristics of molecules like Telmisartan (TEL) having exceedingly pH dependent and poor solubility profile is still challenging. The present research work explores an innovative particle engineering approach which synergistically coalesce two principally different solubility enhancement strategies namely ternary β-cyclodextrin complexation and top-down nanonization in a unit process. The research was aimed to improve solubility and reduce in vivo variability in pharmacokinetic parameters of TEL irrespective to physiological pH conditions. Ternary β-cyclodextrin nanocomposites of TEL were prepared with high pressure homogenization using meglumine as ternary component. TEL nanocomposites were thoroughly characterized for particle size, surface topology, surface charge, inclusion complexation, crystalinity, dissolution and in vivo pharmacokinetic performance in male wistar rats at fed and fasted state. TEL nanocomposites exhibited average particle size of 698 ± 23 nm. Remarkable improvement in in vitro dissolution characteristics in multimedia and biorelevant media was observed in comparison with plain drug and marketed formulation. Results of in vivo pharmacokinetic studies revealed that, nanocomposites effectively bypass variation in pharmacokinetic parameters at fed and fasted states with 346%, 315%, 301% and 321% increase in relative bioavailability compared to marketed formulation and pure TEL in fed and fasted conditions respectively.

  15. Improved dissolution of Kaempferia parviflora extract for oral administration by preparing solid dispersion via solvent evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotsanan Weerapol

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Kaempferia parviflora, a plant in the family Zingiberaceae, has been used in Thai traditional medicines for treating hypertension and promoting longevity with good health and well-being. However, its limited aqueous solubility and low dissolution restrict its bioavailability. The aim of the study was therefore to improve the dissolution rate of K. parviflora extracted with dichloromethane (KPD by solid dispersions. Different water-soluble polymers were applied to improve dissolution of KPD. The solid dispersions in different ratios were prepared by solvent evaporation method. Only hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC and polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol grafted copolymer (PVA-co-PEG could be used to produce homogeneous, powdered solid dispersions. Physical characterization by scanning electron microscopy, hot stage microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffractometry, in comparison with corresponding physical mixtures, showed the changes in solid state during the formation of solid dispersions. Dissolution of a selected marker, 5,7,4′-trimethoxyflavone (TMF, from KPD/HPMC and KPD/PVA-co-PEG solid dispersions was significantly improved, compared with pure KPD. The dissolution enhancement by solid dispersion was influenced by both type and content of polymers. The stability of KPD/HPMC and KPD/PVA-co-PEG solid dispersions was also good after 6-month storage in both long-term and accelerated conditions. These results identified that the KPD/HPMC and KPD/PVA-co-PEG solid dispersions were an effective new approach for pharmaceutical application of K. parviflora.

  16. Association of oral contraceptive and metformin did not improve insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Chiharu Iwata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: Objective: to compare clinical and laboratory parameters in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS using metformin or combined oral contraceptive (COC after 6 months. Methods: retrospective study analyzing records of patients with PCOS using the Androgen Excess and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (AE-PCOS Society criteria. The groups were: I-COC (21 tablets, pause of 7 days; n=16; II-metformin (850mg 12/12h, n=16; III-COC plus metformin (n=9. Body mass index (BMI, acne (% of improvement, modified Ferriman-Gallway index and menstrual cycle index (MCI, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, total testosterone (TT, androstenedione (A and homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index were assessed Results: isolated use of COC compared to metformin was better regarding to acne, Ferriman index, MCI, LH, TT and A levels. On the other hand, metformin was better in the HOMA-IR index (4.44 and 1.67 respectively, p=0.0007. The association COC plus metformin, compared to metformin alone shows the maintenance of improvement of acne, Ferriman index, MCI, and testosterone levels. The HOMA-IR index remained lower in the metformin alone group (4.19 and 1.67, respectively; p=0,046. The comparison between COC plus metformin and COC alone, in turn, shows no difference in the improvement of acne, Ferriman index, MCI, LH, TT and A levels, indicating that the inclusion of metformin did not lead to additional benefits in these parameters. Still, the HOMA-IR index was similar in both groups (4.19 and 4.44 respectively; p=0.75, showing that the use of metformin associated with COC may not improve insulin resistance as much as it does if used alone. Conclusion: our data suggest that the combination of metformin and contraceptive does not improve insulin resistance as observed with metformin alone.

  17. Stability of piperacillin sodium-tazobactam sodium and ranitidine hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride injection during simulated Y-site administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J S; Burm, J P; Jhee, S S; Chin, A; Ulrich, R W; Gill, M A

    1994-09-15

    The stability of piperacillin sodium plus tazobactam sodium and ranitidine hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride injection during simulated Y-site administration was studied. Triplicate test solutions of piperacillin 40 mg/mL plus tazobactam 5 mg/mL (as the sodium salts) or piperacillin 80 mg/mL plus tazobactam 10 mg/mL (as the sodium salts) were mixed 1:1 with ranitidine 0.5 and 2.0 mg/mL (as the hydrochloride salt). The solutions were stored at 23 degrees C, and samples were removed at zero, one, two, and four hours for measurement of drug concentration by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. At the time of sampling and before any dilution, each sample was visually inspected for color and precipitation, and pH was determined. At all sampling times, the concentrations of piperacillin, tazobactam, and ranitidine were > 90% of initial concentrations. There were no substantial changes in pH or color. Tazobactam 5 mg/mL (as the sodium salt) and ranitidine 0.5 and 2 mg/mL (as the hydrochloride salt) in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were stable for up to four hours during simulated Y-site administration. Piperacillin 80 mg/mL plus tazobactam 10 mg/mL (as the sodium salts) and ranitidine 0.5 and 2 mg/mL (as the hydrochloride salt) were stable for up to four hours during simulated Y-site administration.

  18. Development of an Acid-Resistant Salmonella Typhi Ty21a Attenuated Vector For Improved Oral Vaccine Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuille, Catherine M.; Starke, Carly Elizabeth C.; Bhagwat, Arvind A.; Stibitz, Scott; Kopecko, Dennis J.

    2016-01-01

    The licensed oral, live-attenuated bacterial vaccine for typhoid fever, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty21a, has also been utilized as a vaccine delivery platform for expression of diverse foreign antigens that stimulate protection against shigellosis, anthrax, plague, or human papilloma virus. However, Ty21a is acid-labile and, for effective oral immunization, stomach acidity has to be either neutralized with buffer or by-passed with Ty21a in an enteric-coated capsule (ECC). Several studies have shown that efficacy is reduced when Ty21a is administered in an ECC versus as a buffered liquid formulation, the former limiting exposure to GI tract lymphoid tissues. However, the ECC was selected as a more practical delivery format for both packaging/shipping and vaccine administration ease. We have sought to increase Ty21a acid-resistance to allow for removal from the ECC and immune enhancement. To improve Ty21a acid-resistance, glutamate-dependent acid resistance genes (GAD; responsible for Shigella spp. survival at very low pH) were cloned on a multi-copy plasmid (pGad) under a controllable arabinose-inducible promoter. pGad enhanced acid survival of Ty21a by 5 logs after 3 hours at pH 2.5, when cells were pre-grown in arabinose and under conditions that promote an acid-tolerance response (ATR). For genetically 100% stable expression, we inserted the gad genes into the Ty21a chromosome, using a method that allowed for subsequent removal of a selectable antibiotic resistance marker. Further, both bacterial growth curves and survival assays in cultured human monocytes/macrophages suggest that neither the genetic methods employed nor the resulting acid-resistance conferred by expression of the Gad proteins in Ty21a had any effect on the existing attenuation of this vaccine strain. PMID:27673328

  19. Self-microemulsifying drug-delivery system for improved oral bioavailability of pranlukast hemihydrate: preparation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Myoung-Ki; Lee, Jong-Hwa; Cho, Young-Ho; Kim, Hak-Hyung; Lee, Gye-Won

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to develop and evaluate a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) for improving the oral absorption of a pranlukast hemihydrate (PLH), a very poorly water-soluble drug. An efficient self-microemulsifying vehicle for PLH was selected and optimized using solubility testing and phase diagram construction. The formulations were characterized by assessing self-emulsification performance, droplet size analysis, in vitro drug release characteristics and formulation stability studies. Optimized formulations for in vitro dissolution and bioavailability assessment were Triethylcitrate (TEC; 10%), Tween 20 (50%), Span 20 (25%), triethanolamine (5%), and benzyl alcohol (10%). The SMEDDS readily released the lipid phase to form a fine oil-in-water microemulsion with a narrow distribution size. Saturated solubilities of PLH from SMEDDS in water, pH 4.0 and 6.8, were over 150 times greater than that of plain PLH. The release of 100% PLH from SMEDDS was considerably greater compared to only 1.12% in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 6.8) from plain PLH after 2 hours. The PLH suspension with 0.5% sodium carboxymethylcellulose or 3% PLH-loaded SMEDDS was administrated at a dose of 40 mg/kg as PLH to fasted rats. The absorption of PLH from SMEDDS resulted in about a threefold increase in bioavailability compared with plain PLH aqueous suspension. Our studies illustrated that the potential use of the new SMEDDS can be used as a possible alternative to oral delivery of a poorly water-soluble drug such as PLH.

  20. Improvement of regional cerebral blood flow after oral intake of branched-chain amino acids in patients with cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mika Yamamoto; Motoh Iwasa; Kaname Matsumura; Yuri Nakagawa; Naoki Fujita; Yoshinao Kobayashi; Masahiko Kaito; Kan Takeda; Yukihiko Adachi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of oral intake of branchedchain amino acids (BCAA) on brain perfusion in patients with liver cirrhosis.METHODS: Single photon emission computed tomography scans were performed in 43 patients with cirrhosis and in 15 age-matched healthy subjects.Twenty-nine out of forty-three patients were randomly treated with either BCAA granules or placebo, and single photon emission computed tomography was performed before and after the treatment. We measured the regional cerebral blood flow values using a threedimensional stereotaxic region of interest template.RESULTS: Cirrhotic patients had regions of significant hypoperfusion in the bilateral central (right P=0.039,P<0.05; left P = 0.006 P<0.01), parietal (right P=0.018, P<0.05;left P=0.009, P<0.01), angular (right P=0.039, P<0.05;left P = 0.008, P<0.01), and left pericallosal segments (P= 0.038 P<0.05) as compared with healthy subjects. A significant increase in cerebral perfusion was observed 70 min after the oral intake of BCAA in the angular (right P=0.012,P<0.05;left P=0.049, P<0.05), temporal (right P=0.012, P<0.05; left P=0.038, P<0.05), pericallosal segments (right P = 0.025,P<0.05; left P = 0.049, P<0.05) and left precentral (P=0.044, P<0.05), parietal (P=0.040, P<0.05) and thalamus (P=0.033, P<0.05). No significant change in perfusion was observed in the placebo group.CONCLUSION: Administration of BCAA rapidly improves cerebral perfusion.

  1. Atazanavir-loaded Eudragit RL 100 nanoparticles to improve oral bioavailability: optimization and in vitro/in vivo appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurinder; Pai, Roopa S

    2016-01-01

    Atazanavir (ATV) is a HIV protease inhibitor. Due to its intense lipophilicity, the oral delivery of ATV encounters several problems such as poor aqueous solubility, pH-dependent dissolution, rapid first-pass metabolism in liver by CYP3A5, which result in low bioavailability. To overcome afore mentioned limitations, ATV-loaded Eudragit RL100 nanoparticles (ATV NPs) were prepared to enhance oral bioavailability. ATV NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method. The ATV NPs were systematically optimized (OPT) using 3(2) central composite design (CCD) and the OPT formulation located using overlay plot. The pharmacokinetic study of OPT formulation was investigated in male Wistar rats, and in-vitro/in-vivo correlation level was established. Intestinal permeability of OPT formulation was determined using in situ single pass perfusion (SPIP) technique. Transmission electron microscopy studies on OPT formulation demonstrated uniform shape and size of particles. Augmentation in the values of Ka (2.35-fold) and AUC0-24 (2.91-fold) indicated significant enhancement in the rate and extent of bioavailability by the OPT formulation compared to pure drug. Successful establishment of in vitro/in vivo correlation (IVIVC) Level A substantiated the judicious choice of the in vitro dissolution milieu for simulating the in vivo conditions. In situ SPIP studies ascribed the significant enhancement in absorptivity and permeability parameters of OPT formulation transport through the Peyer's patches. The studies, therefore, indicate the successful formulation development of NPs with distinctly improved bioavailability potential and can be used as drug carrier for sustained or prolonged drug release.

  2. Better Together: Co-Location of Dental and Primary Care Provides Opportunities to Improve Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourat, Nadereh; Martinez, Ana E; Crall, James J

    2015-09-01

    Community Health Centers (CHCs) are one of the principal safety-net providers of health care for low-income and uninsured populations. Co-locating dental services in primary care settings provides an opportunity to improve access to dental care. Yet this study of California CHCs that provide primary care services shows that only about one-third of them co-located primary and dental care services on-site. An additional one-third were members of multisite organizations in which at least one other site provided dental care. The remaining one-third of CHC sites had no dental care capacity. Policy options to promote co-location include requiring on-site availability of dental services, providing infrastructure funding to build and equip dental facilities, and offering financial incentives to provide dental care and recruit dental providers.

  3. [Study on dosage form design for improving oral bioavailability of traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hai-Jian; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Yao, Dong-Dong; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-09-01

    Both chemical drugs and traditional Chinese medicines have the problem of low bioavailability. However, as traditional Chinese medicines are a multi-component complex, their dosage forms are required to be designed in line with their characteristics, in order to improve the bioavailability of traditional Chinese medicines. Traditional Chinese medicines are mostly prepared into pill, powder, paste, elixir and decoction, but with such drawbacks as high administration dose and poor efficacy. With the process of modernization of traditional Chinese medicines, new-type preparations have be developed and made outstanding achievements. However, they fail to make an organic integration between traditional Chinese medicine theories and modern preparation theories. Characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines are required to be taken into account during the development of traditional Chinese medicines. In the article, multi-component preparation technology was adopted to establish a multi-component drug release system of traditional Chinese medicines on the basis of multiple components of traditional Chinese medicines.

  4. Vascular endothelial function is improved by oral glycine treatment in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Zamudio, Jaime H; García-Macedo, Rebeca; Lázaro-Suárez, Martha; Ibarra-Barajas, Maximiliano; Kumate, Jesús; Cruz, Miguel

    2015-06-01

    Glycine has been used to reduce oxidative stress and proinflammatory mediators in some metabolic disorders; however, its effect on the vasculature has been poorly studied. The aim of this work was to explore the effect of glycine on endothelial dysfunction in aged rats. Aortic rings with intact or denuded endothelium were obtained from untreated or glycine-treated male Sprague-Dawley rats at 5 and 15 months of age. Concentration-response curves to phenylephrine (PHE) were obtained from aortic rings incubated with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), superoxide dismutase (SOD), indomethacin, SC-560, and NS-398. Aortic mRNA expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX-4), cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin-1 β was measured by real time RT-PCR. The endothelial modulation of the contraction by PHE was decreased in aortic rings from aged rats. Glycine treatment improved this modulator effect and increased relaxation to acetylcholine. Glycine augmented the sensitivity for PHE in the presence of l-NAME and SOD. It also reduced the contraction by incubation with indomethacin, SC-560, and NS-398. Glycine increased the mRNA expression of eNOS and decreased the expression of COX-2 and TNF-α. Glycine improved the endothelium function in aged rats possibly by enhancing eNOS expression and reducing the role of superoxide anion and contractile prostanoids that increase the nitric oxide bioavailability.

  5. Phenolic Esters of O-Desmethylvenlafaxine with Improved Oral Bioavailability and Brain Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O-Desmethylvenlafaxine (desvenlafaxine, ODV is a recently approved antidepressant which in some clinical studies failed to meet a satisfactory end-point. The aim of this study was to prepare a series of phenolic esters of ODV and evaluate their potential as ODV prodrugs with improved brain uptake. Fifteen phenolic esters (compounds 1a–o were synthesized and their pharmacokinetic profiles evaluated in rat. The four compounds producing the highest relative bioavailability of ODV in rat (compounds 1c, 1e, 1n, 1o were then studied to evaluate their brain uptake. Of these four compounds, compound 1n (the piperonylic acid ester of ODV demonstrated the highest Cmax of ODV both in the rat hypothalamus and total brain. Finally the pharmacokinetics of 1n were evaluated in beagle dog where the increase in relative bioavailability of ODV was found to be as great as in rat. This high relative bioavailability of ODV coupled with its good brain penetration make 1n the most promising candidate for development as an ODV prodrug.

  6. Electrospinning of diosmin from aqueous solutions for improved dissolution and oral absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrbata, Petr; Berka, Pavel; Stránská, Denisa; Doležal, Pavel; Lázníček, Milan

    2014-10-01

    A nanofibrous membrane carrier for nearly water insoluble drug diosmin was formulated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the drug release and dissolution properties in an aqueous buffer of pH 7.8, and to compare the suitability of the drug carrier with the available drug forms and screen diosmin absorption extent. The membranes were produced from HPC/PVA/PEO-drug water solutions and then evaluated by SEM and DSC measurements. The results showed that diosmin was incorporated within the nanofibers in an amorphous state, and/or as a solid dispersion. The results of in vitro release experiments excerpt a very fast release of the drug, followed by the formation of an over saturated solution and partial precipitation of the drug (a "spring" effect). The enormous increases in dissolution of the drug from a nanofibrous carrier, compared to a micronized and crystalline form, was achieved. The in vivo bioavailability study carried out on rats showed higher initial drug plasma levels and higher AUC values after administration of the nanofibrous drug formulation, compared to the micronized form. The results of the study demonstrated that the improvement of the diosmin in vitro dissolution also brought the enhanced in vivo absorption extent of the drug.

  7. Lifestyle Change Plus Dental Care (LCDC) program improves knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) toward oral health and diabetes mellitus among the elderly with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengtipbovorn, Saruta; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

    2015-03-01

    Currently, there is an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus among the elderly. Chronic inflammation from diabetes mellitus effects glycemic control and increases risk of diabetes complications. To assess the effectiveness of a Lifestyle Change plus Dental Care (LCDC) program by improved knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) toward oral health and diabetes mellitus among the elderly with type 2 diabetes. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in two Health Centers (HC 54 intervention and HC 59 control) between October 2013 and April 2014. Sixty-six diabetic patients per health center were recruited. At baseline, the intervention group attended a 20-minute lifestyle and oral health education program, individual lifestyle counseling using motivational interviewing, application of self-regulation manual, and individual oral hygiene instruction. At 3-month follow-up, the intervention group received individual lifestyle counseling and oral hygiene instruction. The intervention group received booster education every visit by viewing a 15-minute educational video. The control group received the routine program. Participants were assessed at baseline, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up for knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) toward oral health and diabetes mellitus. Data was analyzed by using descriptive statistic, Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and repeated measure ANOVA. After the 6-month follow-up, repeated measure ANOVA analysis showed that participants in the intervention group had significantly higher knowledge and attitude toward oral health and diabetes mellitus. The participants in the intervention group were more likely to exercise, modify diet, have foot examinations, always wear covered shoes, participate in self-feet screening, use dental floss, and use inter-proximal brush than the control group with statistically significant differences. The combination of lifestyle change and dental care in one program improved knowledge, attitude

  8. Gains in oral health and improved quality of life of 12-13-year-old Nepali schoolchildren: outcomes of an advocacy project to fluoridate toothpaste.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yee, R.; McDonald, N.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To report on gains in oral health and improved quality of life of 12-13-year-old Nepali schoolchildren five and six years after the introduction of fluoride toothpaste in 1999. DESIGN: Cross sectional baseline surveys in 1999 and 2001, and follow up surveys in 2004 and 2005 were multi-st

  9. Gains in oral health and improved quality of life of 12-13-year-old Nepali schoolchildren: outcomes of an advocacy project to fluoridate toothpaste.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yee, R.; McDonald, N.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To report on gains in oral health and improved quality of life of 12-13-year-old Nepali schoolchildren five and six years after the introduction of fluoride toothpaste in 1999. DESIGN: Cross sectional baseline surveys in 1999 and 2001, and follow up surveys in 2004 and 2005 were

  10. High-performance liquid chromatographic methods for the determination of ranitidine and related substances in raw materials and tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, N; Lacroix, P M; Sears, R W; Lovering, E G

    1988-10-01

    High-performance liquid chromatographic methods have been developed for the determination of ranitidine and related compounds in drug raw material and tablets. The method has been shown to resolve at least nine related compounds from the drug. The sensitivity of the method to related compounds is better than 0.01%. Eight raw material samples and 11 tablet samples were examined for related compounds. Total impurities found ranged from 0.31 to 0.79% in raw materials and from 0.40 to 1.75% in tablets. Drug raw materials and tablets were assayed by HPLC; results for raw materials were between 98.2 and 101.1%, and those for tablets were between 96.1 and 102.2%, with a relative standard deviation for the assay of less than 1%. Raw material assay results were confirmed by nonaqueous titration.

  11. An Overview of Analytical Determination of Diltiazem, Cimetidine, Ranitidine, and Famotidine by UV Spectrophotometry and HPLC Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nighat Shafi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review article recapitulates the analytical methods for the quantitative determinations of diltiazem and three H2 receptor antagonists (cimetidine, ranitidine, and famotidine by one of the spectroscopic technique (UV spectrophotometery and separation technique such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The clinical and pharmaceutical analysis of these drugs requires effective analytical procedures for quality control, pharmaceutical dosage formulations, and biological fluids. An extensive survey of the literature published in various analytical and pharmaceutical chemistry-related journals has been compiled in its review. A synopsis of reported spectrophotometric and high-performance liquid chromatographic methods for individual drug is integrated. This appraisal illustrates that majority of the HPLC methods reviewed are based on the quantitative analysis of drugs in biological fluids, and they are appropriate for therapeutic drug monitoring purpose.

  12. Solid state characterization and crystal structure from X-ray powder diffraction of two polymorphic forms of ranitidine base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Armas, Héctor Novoa; Peeters, Oswald M; Blaton, Norbert; Van Gyseghem, Elke; Martens, Johan; Van Haele, Gerrit; Van Den Mooter, Guy

    2009-01-01

    Ranitidine hydrochloride (RAN-HCl), a known anti-ulcer drug, is the product of reaction between HCl and ranitidine base (RAN-B). RAN-HCl has been extensively studied; however this is not the case of the RAN-B. The solid state characterization of RAN-B polymorphs has been carried out using different analytical techniques (microscopy, thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry in the attenuated total reflection mode, (13)C-CPMAS-NMR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction). The crystal structures of RAN-B form I and form II have been determined using conventional X-ray powder diffraction in combination with simulated annealing and whole profile pattern matching, and refined using rigid-body Rietveld refinement. RAN-B form I is a monoclinic polymorph with cell parameters: a = 7.317(2), b = 9.021(2), c = 25.098(6) A, beta = 95.690(1) degrees and space group P2(1)/c. The form II is orthorhombic: a = 31.252(4), b = 13.052(2), c = 8.0892(11) A with space group Pbca. In RAN-B polymorphs, the nitro group is involved in a strong intramolecular hydrogen bond responsible for the existence of a Z configuration in the enamine portion of the molecules. A tail to tail packing motif can be denoted via intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The crystal structures of RAN-B forms are compared to those of RAN-HCl polymorphs. RAN-B polymorphs are monotropic polymorphic pairs.

  13. Unsaturated Oral Fat Load Test Improves Glycemia, Insulinemia and Oxidative Stress Status in Nondiabetic Subjects with Abdominal Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Navarro, Inmaculada; Real, Jose T.; Artero, Ana; Peiro, Marta; Gonzalez-Navarro, Herminia; Carmena, Rafael; Ascaso, Juan F.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the changes in glycemia, insulinemia, and oxidative stress markers during an oral fat load test in nondiabetic subjects with abdominal obesity and to analyze the association between postprandial oxidative stress markers and postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Methods We included 20 subjects with abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women) and 20 healthy lean controls (waist circumference < 102 cm for men and < 88 cm for women). After 12 hours of fasting we performed a standardized fat load test (0–8 hours) with supracal® (50 g/m2). We determined metabolic parameters, oxidized and reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde. Results In both groups, insulin, HOMA, oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, and malondialdehyde significantly decreased in the postprandial state after the OFLT. All these parameters were significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group at baseline and during all the postprandial points, but the reduction from the baseline levels was significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group. Conclusion Unsaturated fat improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress status. It is possible that a consumption of unsaturated fat could be beneficial even in subjects with abdominal obesity in postprandial state. PMID:27537847

  14. Improving multiple-choice questions to better assess dental student knowledge: distractor utilization in oral and maxillofacial pathology course examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, C Alex; Pinckard, R Neal; Prihoda, Thomas J; Hendricson, William D; Jones, Anne Cale

    2013-12-01

    How many incorrect response options (known as distractors) to use in multiple-choice questions has been the source of considerable debate in the assessment literature, especially relative to influence on the likelihood of students' guessing the correct answer. This study compared distractor use by second-year dental students in three successive oral and maxillofacial pathology classes that had three different examination question formats and scoring resulting in different levels of academic performance. One class was given all multiple-choice questions; the two other were given half multiple-choice questions, with and without formula scoring, and half un-cued short-answer questions. Use by at least 1 percent of the students was found to better identify functioning distractors than higher cutoffs. The average number of functioning distractors differed among the three classes and did not always correspond to differences in class scores. Increased numbers of functioning distractors were associated with higher question discrimination and greater question difficulty. Fewer functioning distractors fostered more effective student guessing and overestimation of academic achievement. Appropriate identification of functioning distractors is essential for improving examination quality and better estimating actual student knowledge through retrospective use of formula scoring, where the amount subtracted for incorrect answers is based on the harmonic mean number of functioning distractors.

  15. Clinical improvement in feline herpesvirus 1 infected cats by oral low dose of interleukin-12 plus interferon-gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorito, Filomena; Cantiello, Antonietta; Granato, Giovanna Elvira; Navas, Luigi; Diffidenti, Carmine; De Martino, Luisa; Maharajan, Veeramani; Olivieri, Fabio; Pagnini, Ugo; Iovane, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    Feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) is a widespread cat pathogen inducing rhinitis, conjunctivitis and corneal ulcers. To alleviate acute FHV-1-induced disease, antiviral agents are used often with antibiotics. But sometimes, these treatments, as well as conventional doses of cytokines have moderate efficacy and/or collateral effects. Herein we have investigated the effects of low dose interleukin (IL)-12 plus interferon (IFN)-gamma, prepared by Sequential Kinetic Activated (SKA), on the treatment of FHV-1 infection. Twenty-five, unvaccinated FHV-1-positive cats were recruited into a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. Fifteen cats were treated for 6 months with oral low doses of SKA IL-12 plus IFN-gamma and 10 cats were treated with placebo. At 1, 6 and 12 months (follow-up) after the beginning of treatment, clinical assessment, PCR assay and blood count were carried out. At follow-up, in treated group, we observed significant (pcats (80%). In placebo, 10/10 cats were PCR-positive, with improvements (30%) or worsening (70%) in clinical signs. Blood values were normal in both groups. Our results show that the low dose therapy, based on activated solutions of IL-12 plus IFN-gamma, represents a novel approach to treat FHV-1 infection in cats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Improvement in diurnal oral ingestion in the malnourished newborn infant induced by the administration of nocturnal enteral nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Chagoyán, O C; López-Ayllón, R M; Ríos-Espinosa, E; Arteaga-Noriega, M M; Camacho-Gutiérrez, J

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was evaluate the impact of nocturnal nasogastric tube feeding on diurnal caloric intake in children with severe energy protein-calorie malnutrition. Sixteen infants admitted to the Pediatric Nutrition Department with severe malnutrition were randomly assigned into groups: eight children in group A and eight in group B. Infants in both groups received 100% of their caloric requirements by oral feeding ad libitum. An additional 30% caloric charge was given to patients in group A by nocturnal nasogastric tube feeding. At admission and at their 7th day, weight, height, arm circumference, triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were recorded. Weight for age, weight for height, height for age and upper arm muscle circumference were estimated. Every meal was weighted and measured before and after being eaten in order to calculate the child caloric intake using food composition tables. There were no statistically differences in all parameters between groups at admission. At discharge significant differences on caloric intake were found (179.7 +/- 75.34 kcal vs. 98.38 +/- 37.73 kcal; p 0.02). This findings suggest that nocturnal support with an extra caloric supply over the normal requirements for age improve the diurnal caloric intake of children with severe protein energy malnutrition.

  17. Short-term improvement in oral self-care of adolescents with social-cognitive theory-guided intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Scullin, Emma P

    2015-12-01

    Cluster randomised controlled trial. Clusters of adolescents (classrooms of 15- to 16-year-olds) in each school were allocated either into a control group or into an intervention group. The interventions consisted of peer cooperation (peer support) and peer interactive learning (observational learning) facilitated through feedback from a dentist (professional support). Three intervention sessions with preselected pairs of adolescents were delivered in the first three weeks. Gender, family socio-economic status (baseline) and different social-cognitive domain variables (baseline, six, and 12 months) were assessed using a questionnaire. Dental plaque levels were the primary outcome measure and they were measured at baseline, after the intervention measured only in the social-cognitive theory-guided group, at six and 12 months. At the six-month follow-up there was a statistically significant difference in means ± SD between the social-cognitive intervention group (27.4 ± 19.4) and the control group (35.1 ± 20.0). At the 12-month follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference in means ± SD between the social-cognitive intervention group (27.4 ± 18.5) and the control group (31.9 ± 17.8). Variations in dental plaque levels at different time periods were explained by the following predictors: family's socio-economic status, social-cognitive domain variables, group affiliation and baseline plaque levels. Social-cognitive theory-guided interventions improved oral self-care of adolescents in the short term. This improvement lasted only for five months after the intervention was discontinued.

  18. Oral administration of French maritime pine bark extract (Flavangenol® improves clinical symptoms in photoaged facial skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furumura M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Minao Furumura,1,2 Noriko Sato,1 Nobutaka Kusaba,3 Kinya Takagaki,3 Juichiro Nakayama11Department of Dermatology, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, Fukuoka, 2Department of Dermatology, Kurume University School of Medicine and Kurume University Institute of Cutaneous Cell Biology, Fukuoka, 3Toyo Shinyaku Co Ltd, Tosu City, Saga, JapanBackground: French maritime pine bark extract (PBE has gained popularity as a dietary supplement in the treatment of various diseases due to its polyphenol-rich ingredients. Oligometric proanthocyanidins (OPCs, a class of bioflavonoid complexes, are enriched in French maritime PBE and have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Previous studies have suggested that French maritime PBE helps reduce ultraviolet radiation damage to the skin and may protect human facial skin from symptoms of photoaging. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of French maritime PBE in the improvement of photodamaged facial skin, we conducted a randomized trial of oral supplementation with PBE.Methods: One hundred and twelve women with mild to moderate photoaging of the skin were randomized to either a 12-week open trial regimen of 100 mg PBE supplementation once daily or to a parallel-group trial regimen of 40 mg PBE supplementation once daily.Results: A significant decrease in clinical grading of skin photoaging scores was observed in both time courses of 100 mg daily and 40 mg daily PBE supplementation regimens. A significant reduction in the pigmentation of age spots was also demonstrated utilizing skin color measurements.Conclusion: Clinically significant improvement in photodamaged skin could be achieved with PBE. Our findings confirm the efficacy and safety of PBE.Keywords: polyphenols, pine bark extract, skin photoaging, antioxidants, antiaging

  19. Self-microemulsifying drug-delivery system for improved oral bioavailability of pranlukast hemihydrate: preparation and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baek MK

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Myoung-Ki Baek,1,* Jong-Hwa Lee,2,* Young-Ho Cho,3 Hak-Hyung Kim,4 Gye-Won Lee3 1Life Science R&D Park, SK Biopharmaceuticals Co, LTD, Daejeon, Republic of Korea; 2Toxicology Center, Korea Institute of Toxicology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Konyang University, Nonsan, Republic of Korea; 4R&D Center, Pharvis Korea Pharm, Ansan, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The purpose of the present investigation was to develop and evaluate a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS for improving the oral absorption of a pranlukast hemihydrate (PLH, a very poorly water-soluble drug. An efficient self-microemulsifying vehicle for PLH was selected and optimized using solubility testing and phase diagram construction. The formulations were characterized by assessing self-emulsification performance, droplet size analysis, in vitro drug release characteristics and formulation stability studies. Optimized formulations for in vitro dissolution and bioavailability assessment were Triethylcitrate (TEC; 10%, Tween 20 (50%, Span 20 (25%, triethanolamine (5%, and benzyl alcohol (10%. The SMEDDS readily released the lipid phase to form a fine oil-in-water microemulsion with a narrow distribution size. Saturated solubilities of PLH from SMEDDS in water, pH 4.0 and 6.8, were over 150 times greater than that of plain PLH. The release of 100% PLH from SMEDDS was considerably greater compared to only 1.12% in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 6.8 from plain PLH after 2 hours. The PLH suspension with 0.5% sodium carboxymethylcellulose or 3% PLH-loaded SMEDDS was administrated at a dose of 40 mg/kg as PLH to fasted rats. The absorption of PLH from SMEDDS resulted in about a threefold increase in bioavailability compared with plain PLH aqueous suspension. Our studies illustrated that the potential use of the new SMEDDS can be used as a possible alternative to oral delivery of a poorly

  20. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A– ... Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral ...

  1. Managing oral hygiene as a risk factor for periodontal disease: a systematic review of psychological approaches to behaviour change for improved plaque control in periodontal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, J Timothy; Asimakopoulou, Koula

    2015-04-01

    Plaque control in patients with periodontal disease is critically dependent upon self-care through specific oral hygiene-related behaviours. To determine the relationship between adherence to oral hygiene instructions in adult periodontal patients and psychological constructs. To determine the effect of interventions based on psychological constructs on oral health-related behaviour in adult periodontal patients. The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO. Studies were grouped according to the study design, and appraised using an appropriate methodology, either the Newcastle-Ottawa assessment for observational studies, or the Cochrane criteria for trials. Fifteen reports of studies were identified. There was a low risk of bias identified for the observational studies. Older trials suffered from high risk of bias, but more recent trials had low risk of bias. However, the specification of the psychological intervention was generally poor. The use of goal setting, self-monitoring and planning are effective interventions for improving oral hygiene-related behaviour in patients with periodontal disease. Understanding the benefits of behaviour change and the seriousness of periodontal disease are important predictors of the likelihood of behaviour change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Hybridization of polyvinylpyrrolidone to a binary composite of curcumin/α-glucosyl stevia improves both oral absorption and photochemical stability of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Kazunori; Okamoto, Daiki; Sato, Hideyuki; Onoue, Satomi; Otsu, Shigeyuki; Tozuka, Yuichi

    2016-12-15

    The tri-component system curcumin/α-glucosyl stevia (Stevia-G)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was developed to improve the oral bioavailability and physicochemical properties of curcumin (CUR). The tri-component CUR formulation with Stevia-G and PVP was prepared with freeze-drying. The tri-component CUR system exhibited 13,000-fold higher solubility of CUR than the equilibrium solubility of CUR for 24h, indicating a stable tri-composite structure involving CUR. CUR could be converted into an amorphous form in the presence of Stevia-G and PVP by freeze-drying. The photo-degradation of CUR in the tri-component system was negligible even under an amorphous state of CUR. After oral administration in rats, the oral absorption of the tri-component CUR formulation (20mgCUR/kg) was 6.7-fold higher than that of crystalline CUR. The tri-component CUR formulation would therefore be a promising option to improve physicochemical properties and oral absorption of CUR.

  3. Improved Oral Bioavailability of Lacidipine Using Nanosuspension Technology: Inferior in vitro Dissolution and Superior in vivo Drug Absorption versus Lacipil®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Juanhang; Luo, Lei; Fu, Qiang; Guo, Bei; Li, Yun; Geng, Yajie; Wang, Junfeng; Zhang, Tianhong

    2016-01-01

    Improved dissolution is a better way of increasing the oral absorption of lacidipine (LCDP) because it is a BCS II class drug. The purpose of this study is to improve the oral bioavailability of LCDP by applying nanosuspension technology. LCDP nanosuspensions were prepared by a hybrid method of microprecipitation and high pressure homogenization. The effects of the production parameters (shearing rate and time, the stabilizers and their concentrations, homogenization pressure and number of cycles) were investigated to optimize the preparation process. In vitro characterizations (X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy and dissolution measurement) were carried out and an oral pharmacokinetic study was performed in beagle dogs. LCDP was transformed into an amorphous state during the preparation process, and the mean particle size was about 714.0 ± 12.7 nm. The dissolution rate of LCDP nanosuspensions was faster than that of physical mixtures, but slower than that of Lacipil® (the commercial tablet). Regarding the in vivo pharmacokinetics, the key pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax and AUC0-∞) of the nanosuspensions were statistically significantly higher than those of both the commercial tablet and physical mixtures. So, this is an efficient drug delivery strategy to facilitate the oral administration of LCDP by using nanosuspension technology, and should be generally applicable to many poorly water-soluble drugs with dissolution rate-limited absorption.

  4. Effects of a histamine H2-receptor antagonist, ranitidine on the vasopressin and oxytocin responses to novelty stress in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, K

    1994-06-01

    Effects of an intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered histamine H2-receptor antagonist, ranitidine, on plasma levels of vasopressin and oxytocin were studied in male rats under unstressed or stressed conditions. In the rats injected i.p. with the vehicle (saline) solution, plasma vasopressin level was significantly lower and plasma oxytocin level was significantly higher after weak electric foot shocks (10 ms pulses of 0.8 mA, 50 Hz and 1 s duration, repeated at 30 s intervals for a period of 5 min) than those levels in the unshocked control rats. Ranitidine injected i.p. at a dose of 100 mg per kg body weight blocked the suppressive vasopressin but not the facilitatory oxytocin response to the shocks. Novel environmental stimuli were applied to rats in such a way that the animals were transferred to an experimental room, placed in a white-painted plastic pail and administered an intermittent 2 kHz and 70 dB pure tone of 2 s duration that was repeated at 10 s intervals for 2 min. In the rats injected i.p. with the vehicle solution, plasma vasopressin level was lower and oxytocin level was higher after the novel stimuli than in the unstimulated control rats. Ranitidine injected i.p. at a dose of 100 mg per kg body weight blocked the suppressive vasopressin but not the facilitatory oxytocin response to the novel stimuli. Ranitidine administered i.p. at doses of 10, 20, 50 and 100 mg per kg body weight was tested for the suppressive vasopressin response to the novel stimuli given for periods of 2 or 5 min.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. The efficacy of oral melatonin in improving sleep in cancer patients with insomnia: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri S Kurdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The natural hormone melatonin has sleep inducing properties. Insomnia in cancer patients is common. So far, melatonin has been seldom tried for the improvement of sleep in patients with malignancies. Keeping this in mind, we planned and conducted a double-blind study to test the efficacy of melatonin in promoting sleep in patients with malignancies suffering from insomnia. Objective: To assess the hypnotic efficacy of oral melatonin in cancer patients with insomnia. Materials and Methods: After Ethical Committee approval, 50 patients (age range 20-65 years from our pain clinic "NIVARANE" who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4 th edition criteria for primary insomnia were randomized to receive melatonin 3 mg or placebo at 7 pm orally every day for 14 days from our pharmacist. After 1, 7, 14 days, the patients were reviewed with the Athens insomnia scale oral questionnaire to document the subjective sleep quality. The patients and we, the investigators were blinded to the study drug. Results: There were 2 drop outs (one from each group as they failed to complete visit on day 14. Significant differences in favor of melatonin treatment were found in clinically relevant improvements in insomnia (46.53%; P = 0.00001 vs. 11.30%; P = 0.1026 There was improvement in sleep from 1 to 7 days (19.91%; P = 0.00001 vs. 0.98%; P = 0.2563. More significant improvements were seen between 7 and 14 days (33.24%; P = 0.00001 vs. 10.42%; P = 0.1469. Conclusion: We conclude that daily intake of oral melatonin 2 h before bedtime improves sleep induction and quality in cancer patients with insomnia.

  6. One-week dual therapy with ranitidine bismuth citrate and clarithromycin for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in Brazilian patients with peptic ulcer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Aparecida Mesquita; S(o)nia Letícia Silva Lorena; Jazon Romilson Souza Almeida; Ciro Garcia Montes; Fábio Guerrazzi; Luciana T Campos; José Murilo Rubiota Zeitune

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of ranitidine bismuth citrate plus clarithromycin given for 1 wk in Brazilian patients with peptic ulcer.METHODS: One hundred and twenty patients with peptic ulcer were randomized in two treatment groups: (1) 1-wk regimen consisting of ranitidine bismuth citrate 400 mg b.i.d. with clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d. or (2) 2-wk regimen of the same treatment. Eradication of the infection was considered when both the histologic examination and the urease test were negative for the infection 3 mo after treatment.RESULTS: By intention to treat analysis, Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) was eradicated in 73% and 76% of patients, respectively treated for 1 or 2 wk (P>0.05). By per protocol analysis, the eradication rates were 80% and 83%,respectively, in patients treated for 1 or 2 wk (P>0.05). Nine patients (8.2%) reported minor side effects. CONCLUSION: One-week therapy with ranitidine bismuth citrate and clarithromycin is safe, well tolerated and effective for treatment of H pylori infection, andappears to be comparable to the 2-wk regimen in terms of efficacy.

  7. Improvement of oral rinse for patients after orthognathic surgery%正颌术后患者口腔冲洗方法的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玲; 徐佑兰; 陈中会; 雷雨; 郭青; 谭亚荣

    2011-01-01

    Objective To improve the effects of oral rinse. Methods Forty-seven patients with dental-maxillofacial deformities undergoing orthognathic surgery were randomly divided into two groups. The observation group (24 cases) was subjected to a modified method of oral rinse, by which a suction tube was placed at the lower position of their mouth, then rinsed oral cavity with 1.5 %hydrogen peroxide and saline; meanwhile, teeth surface and oral mucosa were cleaned with cotton swabs from top to bottom and back to front. Twenty-three cases in the control group received traditional method of oral rinse. Results The dental plaque index in the observation group was significantly less than that in the control group (P<0.01). Conclusion The effect of the modified oral rinse method for patients receiving orthognathic surgery is better than the traditional one.%目的 提高口腔冲洗效果.方法 将47例牙颌面畸形正颌术后患者随机分为两组,观察组24例采用改良法行口腔冲洗,即将吸唾管放置口角低位处,用1.5%过氧化氢溶液和生理盐水进行口腔冲洗,同时用棉签按先上后下、由后向前擦拭牙面及口腔黏膜.对照组23例行常规口腔冲洗.结果观察组冲洗后牙菌斑指数显著少于对照组(P<0.01).结论 对正颌术后患者采用改良口腔冲洗法护理效果显著优于常规方法.

  8. The Efficacy of Oral Melatonin in Improving Sleep in Cancer Patients with Insomnia: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kurdi, Madhuri S; Sindhu Priya Muthukalai

    2016-01-01

    Background: The natural hormone melatonin has sleep inducing properties. Insomnia in cancer patients is common. So far, melatonin has been seldom tried for the improvement of sleep in patients with malignancies. Keeping this in mind, we planned and conducted a double-blind study to test the efficacy of melatonin in promoting sleep in patients with malignancies suffering from insomnia. Objective: To assess the hypnotic efficacy of oral melatonin in cancer patients with insomnia. Materi...

  9. Respiratory and oral vaccination improves protection conferred by the live vaccine strain against pneumonic tularemia in the rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Elizabeth; Smith, Le'Kneitah P; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Barry, Eileen M; Reed, Douglas S

    2016-10-01

    Tularemia is a severe, zoonotic disease caused by a gram-negative bacterium, Francisella tularensis We have previously shown that rabbits are a good model of human pneumonic tularemia when exposed to aerosols containing a virulent, type A strain, SCHU S4. We further demonstrated that the live vaccine strain (LVS), an attenuated type B strain, extended time to death when given by scarification. Oral or aerosol vaccination has been previously shown in humans to offer superior protection to parenteral vaccination against respiratory tularemia challenge. Both oral and aerosol vaccination with LVS were well tolerated in the rabbit with only minimal fever and no weight loss after inoculation. Plasma antibody titers against F. tularensis were higher in rabbits that were vaccinated by either oral or aerosol routes compared to scarification. Thirty days after vaccination, all rabbits were challenged with aerosolized SCHU S4. LVS given by scarification extended time to death compared to mock-vaccinated controls. One orally vaccinated rabbit did survive aerosol challenge, however, only aerosol vaccination extended time to death significantly compared to scarification. These results further demonstrate the utility of the rabbit model of pneumonic tularemia in replicating what has been reported in humans and macaques as well as demonstrating the utility of vaccination by oral and respiratory routes against an aerosol tularemia challenge.

  10. A Eu3+/Gd3+-EDTA-doped structurally controllable hollow mesoporous carbon for improving the oral bioavailability of insoluble drugs and in vivo tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Zhao, Yating; Cui, Yu; Yue, Yang; Gao, Yikun; Zhao, Qinfu; Liu, Jie; Wang, Siling

    2016-08-01

    A structurally controllable fluorescence-labeled hollow mesoporous carbon (HMC) was simply prepared to improve the oral bioavailability of insoluble drugs and further trace their delivery process in vivo. The hollow structure was derived from an inverse replica process using mesoporous silica as a template and the fluorescent label was prepared by doping the carboxylated HMC with a confinement of Eu3+/Gd3+-EDTA. The physicochemical properties of the composites were systematically characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectra tests prior to studying their effects on drug-release behavior and biodistribution. As a result, the thickness of the carrier’s shell was adjusted from 70 nm to 130 nm and the maximum drug loading was up to 73.6%. The model drug carvedilol (CAR) showed sustained release behavior compared to CAR commercial capsules, and the dissolution rate slowed down as the shells got thicker. AUC0-48h and Tmax were enlarged 2.2 and 6.5 fold, respectively, which demonstrated that oral bioavailability was successfully improved. Bioimaging tests showed that the novel carbon vehicle had a long residence time in the gastrointestinal tract. In short, the newly designed HMC is a promising drug carrier for both oral bioavailability improvement and in vivo tracing.

  11. An oral chitosan DNA vaccine against nodavirus improves transcription of cell-mediated cytotoxicity and interferon genes in the European sea bass juveniles gut and survival upon infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Yulema; Awad, Elham; Buonocore, Francesco; Arizcun, Marta; Esteban, M Ángeles; Meseguer, José; Chaves-Pozo, Elena; Cuesta, Alberto

    2016-12-01

    Vaccines for fish need to be improved for the aquaculture sector, with DNA vaccines and the oral administration route providing the most promising improvements. In this study, we have created an oral chitosan-encapsulated DNA vaccine (CP-pNNV) for the nodavirus (NNV) in order to protect the very susceptible European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Our data show that the oral CP-pNNV vaccine failed to induce serum circulating or neutralizing specific antibodies (immunoglobulin M) or to up-regulate their gene expression in the posterior gut. However, the vaccine up-regulated the expression of genes related to the cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC; tcrb and cd8a) and the interferon pathway (IFN; ifn, mx and ifng). In addition, 3 months after vaccination, challenged fish showed a retarded onset of fish death and lower cumulative mortality with a relative survival of 45%. Thus, we created a chitosan-encapsulated DNA vaccine against NNV that is partly protective to European sea bass juveniles and up-regulates the transcription of genes related to CMC and IFN. However, further studies are needed to improve the anti-NNV vaccine and to understand its mechanisms.

  12. Application of improving the oral nursing liquid temperature in oral nursing%提高口腔护理液的温度在口腔护理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小琴; 贺廷蓉

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the comfort requirements of patients for the oral nursing liquid temperature.Methods:40 cases were selected from January to May2013.They were divided into the control group and the experiment group.Oral care was used physiological saline.The control group were given normal temperature saline, and the experimental group selected 0.45% saline about40 ℃ .They were all in the process of oral care operations.Compare the comfort of two groups.Results:Through the comparison between the control group and the experiment group,the difference in comfort was statistically significant(P<0.05). Conclusion:Appropriate oral nursing liquid temperature is beneficial to improve the comfort of patients.%目的:探讨患者对口腔护理液温度的舒适度要求。方法:2013年1月-5月收治患者40例,分为对照组和试验组。口腔护理液选用生理盐水,对照组选用常温生理盐水,试验组选用40℃左右的0.45%的盐水,按口腔护理的操作流程进行操作。比较两组舒适度。结果:通过对照组和试验组的比较分析,舒适度的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:合适的口腔护理液的温度有利于提高患者的舒适度。

  13. Design and evaluation of polymer coated carvedilol loaded solid lipid nanoparticles to improve the oral bioavailability: a novel strategy to avoid intraduodenal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venishetty, Vinay Kumar; Chede, Raghavendra; Komuravelli, Rojarani; Adepu, Laxminarayana; Sistla, Ramakrishna; Diwan, Prakash V

    2012-06-15

    Solid lipid nanoparticles are most promising delivery systems for the enhancement of bioavailability of highly lipophilic drugs those prone to the first pass metabolism. But burst release of drug from solid lipid nanoparticles in acidic environment such as gastric milieu precludes its usage as oral delivery system. Studies on SLN revealed intraduodenal administration as an alternative route for SLN administration. But clinically it is an inappropriate route for repeated administration of drugs to patients. Hence, we prepared N-carboxymethyl chitosan (MCC) coated carvedilol loaded SLN to protect the rapid release of carvedilol in acidic environment. Positively charged carvedilol loaded SLN were developed using monoglyceride as lipid and soya lecithin and poloxamer 188 as surfactants and stearylamine as charge modifier. These SLN were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, crystallinity and stability studies. Further these SLN were coated with N-carboxymethyl chitosan and confirmed by change in zetapotential and X-ray Photon Spectroscopic analysis. Effect of polymer coating on drug release profiles were studied simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. Effect of polymer coating on oral bioavailability of carvedilol loaded SLN were studied in rats after oral administration. MCC coated SLN improved the bioavailability of carvedilol compared uncoated SLN after oral administration. Insignificant difference in bioavailability was observed compared to intraduodenal administration of SLN. Hence, MCC coated SLN is a novel strategy to avoid intrduodenal administration.

  14. Comparison of two reading feedback strategies in improving the oral and written language performance of children with language-learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Linda K

    2003-02-01

    Twelve school-age children with language-learning disabilities (LLD) participated in a study comparing the effects of two reading feedback strategies for improving their oral and written language performance. Children were matched for age, disability, gender, and general reading performance. Participants were assigned to one of three study groups, Treatment 1 (T1), Treatment 2 (T2), or Control (C). Children were pre- and posttested on standardized tests of reading and oral vocabulary. T1 and T2 participated in 6 weeks of reading intervention. T1 used traditional decoding-based feedback strategies, and T2 used meaning-based feedback strategies, termed Communicative Reading Strategies (CRS). Significant differences across groups were found for reading comprehension, oral reading, and expressive vocabulary measures. Pairwise comparisons indicated that T2 performed significantly better than T1 and C on reading comprehension at posttest. Though not reaching levels of significance, T2 made greater gains than T1 and C on oral reading and expressive vocabulary measures. Results are discussed with implications for using CRS (T2) with school-age poor readers.

  15. Development of an acid-resistant Salmonella Typhi Ty21a attenuated vector for improved oral vaccine delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The licensed oral, live-attenuated bacterial vaccine for typhoid fever, Salmonella Typhi strain Ty21a, has also been utilized as a vaccine delivery platform for expression of diverse foreign antigens that stimulate protection against shigellosis, anthrax, plague, or human papilloma virus. However, T...

  16. A novel oral form of salmon calcitonin improves glucose homeostasis and reduces body weight in diet-induced obese rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feigh, M; Henriksen, K; Andreassen, K V

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of acute and chronic administration of a novel oral formulation of salmon calcitonin (sCT) on glycaemic control, glucose homeostasis and body weight regulation in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats-an animal model of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes....

  17. Improving Oral Reading Fluency through Response Opportunities: A Comparison of Phrase Drill Error Correction with Repeated Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeny, John C.; Daly, Edward J., III; Valleley, Rachel J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two oral reading fluency treatments (repeated readings and phrase drill error correction) which differ in the way they prompt student responding. Repeated readings (RR) and phrase drill (PD) error correction were alternated with a baseline and a reward condition within an alternating treatments design with…

  18. An Intervention to Improve the Oral Health of Residents in an Aged Care Facility Led by Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinkhorn, F. A.; Weingarten, L.; Boivin, L.; Plain, J.; Kay, M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The growing population of elderly people is impacting on overstretched dental services in many countries, as many individuals are retaining natural teeth and may have dentures or implants, all of which influence the way in which the oral cavity must be cared for. A major difficulty for older residents is their decreasing level of…

  19. Liposomes containing glycocholate as potential oral insulin delivery systems: preparation, in vitro characterization, and improved protection against enzymatic degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mengmeng Niu1, Yi Lu1, Lars Hovgaard2, Wei Wu11School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2Oral Formulation Development, Novo Nordisk A/S, Maalov, DenmarkBackground: Oral delivery of insulin is challenging and must overcome the barriers of gastric and enzymatic degradation as well as low permeation across the intestinal epithelium. The present study aimed to develop a liposomal delivery system containing glycocholate as an enzyme inhibitor and permeation enhancer for oral insulin delivery.Methods: Liposomes containing sodium glycocholate were prepared by a reversed-phase evaporation method followed by homogenization. The particle size and entrapment efficiency of recombinant human insulin (rhINS-loaded sodium glycocholate liposomes can be easily adjusted by tuning the homogenization parameters, phospholipid:sodium glycocholate ratio, insulin:phospholipid ratio, water:ether volume ratio, interior water phase pH, and the hydration buffer pH.Results: The optimal formulation showed an insulin entrapment efficiency of 30% ± 2% and a particle size of 154 ± 18 nm. A conformational study by circular dichroism spectroscopy and a bioactivity study confirmed the preserved integrity of rhINS against preparative stress. Transmission electron micrographs revealed a nearly spherical and deformed structure with discernable lamella for sodium glycocholate liposomes. Sodium glycocholate liposomes showed better protection of insulin against enzymatic degradation by pepsin, trypsin, and a-chymotrypsin than liposomes containing the bile salt counterparts of sodium taurocholate and sodium deoxycholate.Conclusion: Sodium glycocholate liposomes showed promising in vitro characteristics and have the potential to be able to deliver insulin orally.Keywords: liposomes, glycocholate, insulin, enzymatic degradation, oral

  20. [Determination of dichloromethane and trichloromethane residues in ranitidine hydrochloride by headspace liquid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shuchang; Yun, Dan; Li, Fei

    2009-11-01

    A method for the determination of residual dichloromethane and trichloromethane in ranitidine hydrochloride by headspace liquid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography (GC) was developed. A homemade device was used to protect the organic drop. The effects of the nature of extraction solvent, extraction time, extraction temperature and microdrop volume on the extraction efficiency were investigated separately. The optimal experimental conditions were as follows: 2 microL of n-tridecane as extraction solvent, 30 min of extraction time, 60 degrees C of extraction temperature. The correlation coefficients of linear calibration curve were 0.9733 and 0.9724 within the concentration ranges of dichloromethane (1-10 microg/g) and trichloromethane (1-10 microg/g), respectively. The detection limits of dichlormethane and trichloromethane were 0.0273 microg/g and 0.0410 microg/g, respectively, the relative standard deviations were lower than 4.36% and 5.89%, and the recoveries of the method were 93.6%-102% and 98.1% respectively. The method is simple and reliable.

  1. Validation of four different spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of Domperidone and Ranitidine in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghany, Maha F.; Abdel-Aziz, Omar; Mohammed, Yomna Y.

    2015-10-01

    Four simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for simultaneous determination of Domperidone (DP) and Ranitidine Hydrochloride (RT) in bulk powder and pharmaceutical formulation. The first method was simultaneous ratio subtraction (SRS), the second was ratio subtraction (RS) coupled with zero order spectrophotometry (D0), the third was first derivative of the ratio spectra (1DD) and the fourth method was mean centering of ratio spectra (MCR). The calibration curve is linear over the concentration range of 0.5-5 and 1-45 μg mL-1 for DP and RT, respectively. The proposed spectrophotometric methods can analyze both drugs without any prior separation steps. The selectivity of the adopted methods was tested by analyzing synthetic mixtures of the investigated drugs, also in their pharmaceutical formulation. The suggested methods were validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and the results revealed that; they were precise and reproducible. All the obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported method, where there was no significant difference.

  2. Simultaneous determination of ranitidine and metronidazole in pharmaceutical formulations at poly(chromotrope 2B modified activated glassy carbon electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple and sensitive electrochemical method for the simultaneous and quantitative detection of ranitidine (RT and metronidazole (MT was developed, based on a poly(chromotrope 2B modified activated glassy carbon electrode (PCHAGCE. The PCHAGCE showed excellent electrocatalytic activity toward the reduction of both RT and MT in 0.1 mol/L phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.0. The peak-to-peak separations for the simultaneous detection of RT and MT between the two reduction waves in cyclic voltammetry were increased significantly from ∼0.1 V at activated GCE, to ∼0.55 V at PCHAGCE. By differential pulse voltammetry techniques, the reduction peak currents of RT and MT were both linear over the range of 1.0 × 10−5–4.0×10−4 mol/L. The detection limits (S/N = 3 were 5.4 × 10−7 mol/L and 3.3 × 10−7 mol/L for RT and MT, respectively. The modified electrode was successfully applied to the determination of RT and MT in pharmaceutical preparations and human serum as real samples with stable and reliable recovery data.

  3. Phase behavior of ranitidine HCl in the presence of degradants and atmospheric moisture--impact on chemical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, Peter P; Smith, Daniel T; Taylor, Lynne S

    2008-04-15

    For hydrophilic organic solids, it is well recognized that degradation is often promoted by exposure to humid conditions. Although this is an important issue for certain classes of materials, in particular pharmaceuticals, the factors which dictate the sensitivity of a given compound to moisture are not well understood. The goal of this work was to elucidate the synergistic influence of self-originating impurities and water vapor on the degradation kinetics of the histamine H2 receptor antagonist, ranitidine HCl. Physical mixtures of the drug and each of three major degradation products were subjected to conditions of elevated temperature and relative humidities. Pure samples showed a sigmoidal-shaped degradation profile for all storage conditions studied. During the lag time, the pure drug gained minimal quantities of moisture. Once degradation commenced, the samples started to absorb moisture. When mixed with the degradant, the lag period was eliminated for all storage conditions, even at low partial pressures of water. The extent of moisture gain by samples containing impurities could not be attributed to the presence of the impurity alone. It was found that the presence of impurities in contact with the surface of the drug, in combination with water vapor, promoted a phase transition of the crystalline material to the solution phase. A ternary phase diagram was constructed to visualize the proportion of the drug in the solid and solution phases as a function of impurity and moisture content. The increased mobility of molecules in solution presumably leads to enhanced reactivity relative to the crystalline material.

  4. Modification of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with nebivolol hydrochloride for improvement of oral bioavailability in treatment of hypertension: polyethylene glycol versus chitosan oligosaccharide lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstündağ-Okur, Neslihan; Yurdasiper, Aysu; Gündoğdu, Evren; Gökçe, Evren Homan

    2016-02-01

    Nebivolol (NB)-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were prepared and modified with chitosan oligosaccharide lactate (COL) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) stearate for improvement of its oral bioavailability. Compritol, poloxamer and lecithin were used for the preparation of SLNs by homogenisation method. After in vitro characterisation effect of lipase, pepsin, or pancreatin on degradation and release rate were investigated. Cytotoxicity and permeation were studied on Caco-2 cells. As COL concentration increased in SLNs, size and zeta potential increased. PEG concentration was reversely proportional to particle size with no change in zeta potential. Encapsulation efficiencies (EEs) were determined as 84-98%. DSC confirmed solubilisation of NB in lipid matrix. A sustained release with no burst effect was determined. The presence of enzymes affected the release. SLNs did not reveal cytotoxicity and highest permeability was obtained with PEG modification. PEG-modified SLNs could be offered as a promising strategy for oral delivery of NB.

  5. Oral calcitonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy RC

    2012-09-01

    meet key end points, and in December 2011, Novartis Pharma AG announced that it would not pursue further clinical development of oral calcitonin for postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteoarthritis. A unique feature of calcitonin is that it is able to uncouple bone turnover, reducing bone resorption without affecting bone formation and therefore increasing bone mass and improving bone quality. This effect, however, may be dose-dependent, with higher doses inhibiting both resorption and formation. Because so many factors affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcitonin, especially orally administered calcitonin, much work remains to be done to explore the full pharmacologic spectrum and potential of calcitonin and determine the optimum dose and timing of administration, as well as water and food intake.Keywords: oral calcitonin, osteoporosis, fractures, arthritis, pain

  6. Combined use of phospholipid complexes and self-emulsifying microemulsions for improving the oral absorption of a BCS class IV compound, baicalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyi Wu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a formulation to improve the oral absorption of baicalin (BA by combining a phospholipid complex (PC and self-emulsifying microemulsion drug delivery system (SMEDDS, termed BA–PC–SMEDDS. BA–PC was prepared by a solvent evaporation method and evaluated by complexation percentage (CP. The physicochemical properties of BA–PC were determined. The synergistic effect of PC and SMEDDS on permeation of BA was studied in vitro with Caco-2 cells and in situ with a single pass intestinal perfusion model. The improved bioavailability of BA in BA–PC–SMEDDS was confirmed in an in vivo rat model. The CP of BA–PC reached 100% when the molar ratio of drug to phospholipid (PP was ≥1:1. The solubility of BA–PC increased in both water and octanol, and the log Po/w of BA–PC was increased significantly. BA–PC–SMEDDS could be dispersed more evenly in water, compared to BA and BA–PC. Both the Caco-2 cell uptake and single-pass intestinal perfusion models illustrated that transport of BA in BA–PC was lower than that of free BA, while improved significantly in BA–PC–SMEDDS. The relative bioavailability of BA–PC(1:2–SMEDDS was 220.37%. The combination system of PC and SMEDDS had a synergistic effect on improving the oral absorption of BA.

  7. Nanosuspension of Phyllanthus amarus extract for improving oral bioavailability and prevention of paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan Mishra, Shanti; Pandey, Himanshu; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2013-09-01

    Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) is commonly used for traditional Indian medicine and as dietary adjuncts for the treatment of numerous physiological disorders including hepatic disorders. Due to the poor water solubility of its major constituents such as lignans and flavonoids, its absorption upon oral administration could be limited. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare the hepatoprotective effects of the ethanolic extract of P. amarus (PAE) and its nanoparticles (PAN) on paracetamol induced acute liver toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats. An oral dose of PAE at 125 and 250 mg kg-1 and PAN at 25 and 50 mg kg-1 showed a significant hepatoprotective effect relatively to the same extent (P nanoparticles system can be applied to overcome other poorly water soluble herbal medicines and furthermore to decrease the treatment dosage.

  8. Using a gluten oral food challenge protocol to improve diagnosis of wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockow, Knut; Kneissl, Daniel; Valentini, Luzia; Zelger, Otto; Grosber, Martine; Kugler, Claudia; Werich, Martina; Darsow, Ulf; Matsuo, Hiroaki; Morita, Eishin; Ring, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Oral wheat plus cofactors challenge tests in patients with wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) produce unreliable results. We sought to confirm WDEIA diagnosis by using oral gluten flour plus cofactors challenge, to determine the amount of gluten required to elicit symptoms, and to correlate these results with plasma gliadin levels, gastrointestinal permeability, and allergologic parameters. Sixteen of 34 patients with a history of WDEIA and ω5-gliadin IgE underwent prospective oral challenge tests with gluten with or without cofactors until objective symptoms developed. Gluten reaction threshold levels, plasma gliadin concentrations, gastrointestinal permeability, sensitivities and specificities for skin prick tests, and specific IgE levels were ascertained in patients and 38 control subjects. In 16 of 16 patients (8 female and 8 male patients; age, 23-76 years), WDEIA was confirmed by challenges with gluten alone (n = 4) or gluten plus cofactors (n = 12), including 4 patients with previous negative wheat challenge results. Higher gluten doses or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) plus alcohol instead of physical exercise were cofactors in 2 retested patients. The cofactors ASA plus alcohol and exercise increased plasma gliadin levels (P gluten skin prick tests was 100% and 96%, respectively. Oral challenge with gluten alone or along with ASA and alcohol is a sensitive and specific test for the diagnosis of WDEIA. Exercise is not an essential trigger for the onset of symptoms in patients with WDEIA. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Rae, Caroline; Digney, Alison L; McEwan, Sally R; Bates, Timothy C.

    2003-01-01

    Creatine supplementation is in widespread use to enhance sports-fitness performance, and has been trialled successfully in the treatment of neurological, neuromuscular and atherosclerotic disease. Creatine plays a pivotal role in brain energy homeostasis, being a temporal and spatial buffer for cytosolic and mitochondrial pools of the cellular energy currency, adenosine triphosphate and its regulator, adenosine diphosphate. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that oral creatine supplementa...

  10. Dietary glutamine and oral antibiotics each improve indexes of gut barrier function in rat short bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Junqiang; Hao, Li; Chandra, Prakash; Jones, Dean P; Willams, Ifor R; Gewirtz, Andrew T; Ziegler, Thomas R

    2009-02-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is associated with gut barrier dysfunction. We examined effects of dietary glutamine (GLN) or oral antibiotics (ABX) on indexes of gut barrier function in a rat model of SBS. Adult rats underwent a 60% distal small bowel + proximal colonic resection (RX) or bowel transection (TX; control). Rats were pair fed diets with or without l-GLN for 20 days after operation. Oral ABX (neomycin, metronidazole, and polymyxin B) were given in some RX rats fed control diet. Stool secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) was measured serially. On day 21, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were cultured for gram-negative bacteria. IgA-positive plasma cells in jejunum, stool levels of flagellin- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific sIgA, and serum total, anti-flagellin- and anti-LPS IgG levels were determined. RX caused gram-negative bacterial translocation to MLN, increased serum total and anti-LPS IgG and increased stool total sIgA. After RX, dietary GLN tended to blunt bacterial translocation to MLN (-29%, P = NS) and significantly decreased anti-LPS IgG levels in serum, increased both stool and jejunal mucosal sIgA and increased stool anti-LPS-specific IgA. Oral ABX eliminated RX-induced bacterial translocation, significantly decreased total and anti-LPS IgG levels in serum, significantly decreased stool total IgA and increased stool LPS-specific IgA. Partial small bowel-colonic resection in rats is associated with gram-negative bacterial translocation from the gut and a concomitant adaptive immune response to LPS. These indexes of gut barrier dysfunction are ameliorated or blunted by administration of dietary GLN or oral ABX, respectively. Dietary GLN upregulates small bowel sIgA in this model.

  11. Liposomes containing glycocholate as potential oral insulin delivery systems: preparation, in vitro characterization, and improved protection against enzymatic degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Mengmeng; Lu, Yi; Hovgaard, Lars; Wu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Background: Oral delivery of insulin is challenging and must overcome the barriers of gastric and enzymatic degradation as well as low permeation across the intestinal epithelium. The present study aimed to develop a liposomal delivery system containing glycocholate as an enzyme inhibitor and permeation enhancer for oral insulin delivery. Methods: Liposomes containing sodium glycocholate were prepared by a reversed-phase evaporation method followed by homogenization. The particle size and entrapment efficiency of recombinant human insulin (rhINS)-loaded sodium glycocholate liposomes can be easily adjusted by tuning the homogenization parameters, phospholipid:sodium glycocholate ratio, insulin:phospholipid ratio, water:ether volume ratio, interior water phase pH, and the hydration buffer pH. Results: The optimal formulation showed an insulin entrapment efficiency of 30% ± 2% and a particle size of 154 ± 18 nm. A conformational study by circular dichroism spectroscopy and a bioactivity study confirmed the preserved integrity of rhINS against preparative stress. Transmission electron micrographs revealed a nearly spherical and deformed structure with discernable lamella for sodium glycocholate liposomes. Sodium glycocholate liposomes showed better protection of insulin against enzymatic degradation by pepsin, trypsin, and α-chymotrypsin than liposomes containing the bile salt counterparts of sodium taurocholate and sodium deoxycholate. Conclusion: Sodium glycocholate liposomes showed promising in vitro characteristics and have the potential to be able to deliver insulin orally. PMID:21822379

  12. Effects of the creatine oral supplement in handball players to improve jump EFECTO DEL SUPLEMENTO ORAL DE CREATINA A JUGADORES DE BALONMANO PARA LA MEJORA DEL SALTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Padial

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The knowledge of the efficiency creatine supplements for the improvement of the performanceis the main motive that it has carried us to accomplish this study. There is a huge controversy in this regard. To prove its efficiency have been used N = 10 (20 ± 2y (82Kg.± 5Kg. trained subjects, Team Handbal players (1st National Division. The protocol has been the following: They have been divided the subjects in two groups G1 = 5 and G2= 5 in a random way. To the G1 have been administered 4 x 5 g per day of creatine monohydratate (CRH2O during five days. To the G2 (control group has been administered glucose. A pretest and a posttest were done after ending the feed. In the tests were controlled the following parameters: SJ and CMJ in a platform of pressure and the corporal weight in kgs. Al the subjects accomplished the same training (6 days of training: 3 of them destined to improve strength. Once completed t Student for independent samples, the results did not show meaningful improvements in the variables analyzed. These results demonstrate that an increase in the capacity of the fosfogenolitic route by exogenous way it is not possible in explosive movements in Team handbal players.
    KEY WORDS: Handbal, Supplements Creatine, Training, Explosive Power.

     

    El conocimiento de la efectividad de los suplementos de creatina para la mejora del rendimiento es el principal motivo que nos ha llevado a realizar este estudio. La controversia existente al respecto es grande. Para comprobar su eficacia se han utilizado N = 10 (20 ± 2 a. (82 Kg. ± 5 kgr. sujetos entrenados, jugadores de balonmano (1ª División Nacional. El protocolo seg uido ha sido el siguiente: Se han dividido los sujetos en dos grupos G1 = 5 y G2= 5 de forma aleatoria. Al G1 se le han administrado 4 x 5 g./día de creatina monohidratada (CRH20 durante cinco d

  13. Oral Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Oral Medication The first treatment for type 2 diabetes blood ... new — even over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money ...

  14. Oral myiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Thalaimalai Saravanan; Mathan A Mohan; Meera Thinakaran; Saneem Ahammed

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability ...

  15. Curcumin-carboxymethyl chitosan (CNC) conjugate and CNC/LHR mixed polymeric micelles as new approaches to improve the oral absorption of P-gp substrate drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jiang; Tian, Fengchun; Dahmani, Fatima Zohra; Yang, Hui; Yue, Deren; He, Shuwang; Zhou, Jianping; Yao, Jing

    2016-11-01

    The low oral bioavailability of numerous drugs has been mostly attributed to the significant effect of P-gp-mediated efflux on intestinal drug transport. Herein, we developed mixed polymeric micelles (MPMs) comprised of curcumin-carboxymethyl chitosan (CNC) conjugate, as a potential inhibitor of P-gp-mediated efflux and gastrointestinal absorption enhancer, and low-molecular-weight heparin-all-trans-retinoid acid (LHR) conjugate, as loading material, with the aim to improve the oral absorption of P-gp substrate drugs. CNC conjugate was synthesized by chemical bonding of curcumin (Cur) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) taking advantage of the inhibition of intestinal P-gp-mediated secretion by Cur and the intestinal absorption enhancement by CMCS. The chemical structure of CNC conjugate was characterized by (1)H NMR with a degree of substitution of Cur of 4.52-10.20%. More importantly, CNC conjugate markedly improved the stability of Cur in physiological pH. Cyclosporine A-loaded CNC/LHR MPMs (CsA-CNC/LHR MPMs) were prepared by dialysis method, with high drug loading 25.45% and nanoscaled particle size (∼200 nm). In situ single-pass perfusion studies in rats showed that both CsA + CNC mixture and CsA-CNC/LHR MPMs achieved significantly higher Ka and Peff than CsA suspension in the duodenum and jejunum segments (p absorption enhancer, while CNC/LHR MPMs had the potential to improve the oral absorption of P-gp substrate drugs.

  16. Assessing Oral Hygiene in Hospitalized Older Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Poor oral health for all older adults can result in higher risk for heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and oral cancer. Findings from this study indicated older veterans needed to improve their oral hygiene habits but barriers to oral hygiene performance prevented them from receiving and performing oral hygiene measures.

  17. Assessing the need for improved strategies and medication-related education to increase adherence for oral anticancer medications in the young adult oncology population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakaruni, Anupama; Saylor, Elizabeth; Duffy, Alison P

    2017-01-01

    Rationale Oral anticancer medication adherence is a critical factor in optimizing cancer treatment outcomes and minimizing toxicity. Although potential adherence barriers exist, it is not well understood how these factors impact adherence. Methods This is a prospective, single-center, patient survey-based study conducted at the University of Maryland Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center including 18- to 39-year-old patients who have been actively taking an oral anticancer medication for at least one month from 1 April 2013 to 1 April 2016. The primary objective of this study is to describe institutional practices for medication education and adherence monitoring practices as perceived by young adult patients at the University of Maryland Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center and to describe practice consistency with recommendations from the American Society of Clinical Oncology/Oncology Nursing Society Chemotherapy Administration Safety Standards. The secondary objectives include patient-reported facilitators and barriers to oral anticancer medication adherence. Results Seventeen patients completed the survey; 24% ( n = 4) of patients denied receiving information about what to do in case of a missed dose. The most common facilitators of adherence include understanding of disease and treatment (88%, n = 15), perceived severity of illness (82%, n = 14), and use of oral anticancer medications (82%, n = 14). The most common barriers to adherence are side effects (59% n = 10), forgetfulness (47%, n = 8), and depressive symptoms (35%, n = 6). Conclusion Based on patient-reported guideline adherence, improvement is needed in including family, caregivers, and others in the education process as well as providing education about plan for missed doses and drug-drug and drug-food interactions. The strengths of the current medication education and adherence monitoring practices as perceived by the young adult patient population include education

  18. Oral glutamine supplementation improves intestinal permeability dysfunction in a murine acute graft-vs.-host disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noth, Rainer; Häsler, Robert; Stüber, Eckhard; Ellrichmann, Mark; Schäfer, Heiner; Geismann, Claudia; Hampe, Jochen; Bewig, Burkhard; Wedel, Thilo; Böttner, Martina; Schreiber, Stefan; Rosenstiel, Philip; Arlt, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Although a profound barrier dysfunction has been reported, little is known about the pathophysiological mechanism evoking gastrointestinal graft-vs.-host disease (GI-GvHD) and apparent therapeutic options. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of oral glutamine on the course of GI-GvHD in an acute semiallogenic graft-vs.-host disease (GvHD) in irradiated B6D2F1 mice. An acute semiallogenic GvHD was induced by intraperitoneal injection of lymphocytes from C57BL/6 mice to irradiated B6D2F1 mice. Half of the GvHD animals received oral glutamine supplementation for 6 days started at the time of lymphocyte transfer. Six days after induction of the semiallogenic GvHD, jejunum specimens were prepared. The expression of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α and the tight junction protein occludin was investigated by PCR. Histological changes along with the apoptotic response were evaluated and intestinal permeability was assessed. Animals with GvHD showed a strong increase in paracellular permeability as a sign of the disturbed barrier function. TNF-α expression was significantly increased and the expression of the tight junction protein occludin decreased. GvHD led to mucosal atrophy, crypt hyperplasia, crypt apoptosis, and a disintegration of the tight junctions. Glutamine-treated mice showed reduced expression of TNF-α, increased occludin expression, fewer histological changes in the jejunum, smaller number of apoptotic cells in the crypt, and reduced gastrointestinal permeability. In conclusion, oral glutamine seems to have beneficial effects on the severity of inflammatory changes in the course of GvHD and might be a therapeutic option.

  19. Development and validation of a method for active drug identification and content determination of ranitidine in pharmaceutical products using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy: a parametric release approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Sílvia S; Barata, Pedro A; Martins, José M; Menezes, José C

    2008-05-15

    In this paper we describe the strategy used in the development and validation of a near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method for identification and quantification of ranitidine in pharmaceutical products (granulates, cores and coated tablets) at-line, with a fiber optic probe. This method was developed in a pharmaceutical industry for routine application, to replace reference methods and was submitted and approved to the National Medicine Regulatory Agency (Infarmed). We consider that this is the first step of a broader parametric release approach to pharmaceutical products.

  20. The effect of ranitidine on postoperative infectious complications following emergency colorectal surgery: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard, F; Jensen, L S; Christiansen, P M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To study the potential effect of ranitidine on postoperative infectious complications following emergency colorectal surgery. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was carried out in three university clinics and two county hospitals in Denmark. PATIENTS......) or i.v. placebo (group II). All patients were given 1.5 g metronidazole plus 3.0 g cefuroxime at the time of surgery. Patients with perforation of the colon or rectum were given metronidazole and cefuroxime for further 3 days. All patients were assessed daily until discharge from the hospital. Thirty...