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Sample records for oral ranitidine improves

  1. Single dose oral ranitidine improves MRCP image quality: a double-blind study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowes, M.T.; Martin, D.F.; Melling, A.; Roberts, D.; Laasch, H.-U.; Sukumar, S.; Morris, J.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the possibility of whether a single 300 mg dose of ranitidine given orally 2-3 h before magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) could reduce the signal from the stomach and duodenum, and thus increase the conspicuousness of the biliary tree. Materials and methods: Thirty-five volunteers (22 female, 13 male), (age range 21-50) were underwent MRCP in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover trial on a Philips Intera 1.5 T machine using a phased array surface coil. Imaging was carried out in the coronal oblique plane. Six 40 mm sections were acquired at varying angles to delineate the biliary tree and pancreatic duct. The 70 examinations were blindly scored by three consultants experienced in cholangiography. Results: After ranitidine administration there was a significant decrease in signal from the stomach (mean = 17.7, p = 0.0005, CI 10, 25.3) and duodenum (mean = 18.4, p = 0.0005, 95%CI 9.6, 27.1) with a significant increase in conspicuousness of the distal common duct (mean = 7.7, p = 0.033, 95%CI 0.7, 14.7) and proximal common duct (mean = 8.7, p = 0.010 CI 2.2, 15.2). There were no adverse effects. Conclusion: Oral ranitidine is a cheap and effective agent to decrease signal from the upper gastrointestinal tract and to improve visibility of the biliary tree

  2. Ranitidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranitidine is also used sometimes to treat upper gastrointestinal bleeding and to prevent stress ulcers, stomach damage from use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and aspiration of stomach acid during anesthesia. Talk ...

  3. Ranitidine improves certain cellular immune responses in asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsøn, H J; Svenningsen, A; Moesgaard, F

    1991-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is characterized by a progressive impairment in immunocompetence leading to severe opportunistic infections and malignancies. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the potential impact of immunomodulation by oral ranitidine, 600 mg daily, for 28...... days was studied in 18 HIV-positive patients (CDC group II). All were without clinical signs of infections and were not treated with other known immunomodulating agents. Several immunological parameters related to HIV infection were studied and confirmed to be impaired early in HIV infection...... shown in this study is small, the present result indicates the need for further trials with immunomodulation by ranitidine in HIV-infected individuals....

  4. Ranitidine improves postoperative suppression of antibody response to preoperative vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H; Moesgaard, F

    1992-01-01

    The effect of the histamine-2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (100 mg intravenously every 12 hours for 72 hours) on postoperative serum antibody responses to preoperative immunization with six limit of flocculation tetanus toxoid and six limit of flocculation diphtheria toxoid was assessed...... in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study in 26 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. The preoperative antitetanus antibody level was less than 0.1 IU/ml in all patients, and they were inoculated with both antigens 48 hours before surgery. Serum samples for analysis of antitetanus toxoid...... and antidiphtheria toxoid were drawn before skin incision and on postoperative days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28. Ranitidine significantly increased the postoperative antibody response to tetanus toxoid, (p less than 0.01) and insignificantly increased that to diphtheria toxoid vaccination (p less than 0...

  5. Optimization and Evaluation of Gastroretentive Ranitidine HCl Microspheres by Using Factorial Design with Improved Bioavailability and Mucosal Integrity in Ulcer Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Abeer; Zaki, Nashwah

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to develop and optimize the drug entrapment efficiency and bioadhesion properties of mucoadhesive chitosan microspheres containing ranitidine HCl prepared by an ionotropic gelation method as a gastroretentive delivery system; thus, we improved their protective and therapeutic gastric effects in an ulcer model. A 3 × 2 2 full factorial design was adopted to study the effect of three different factors, i.e., the type of polymer at three levels (chitosan, chitosan/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, and chitosan/methylcellulose), the type of solvent at two levels (acetic acid and lactic acid), and the type of chitosan at two levels (low molecular weight (LMW) and high molecular weight (HMW)). The studied responses were particle size, swelling index, drug entrapment efficiency, bioadhesion (as determined by wash-off and rinsing tests), and T 80% of drug release. Studies of the in vivo mucoadhesion and in vivo protective and healing effects of the optimized formula against gastric ulcers were carried out using albino rats (with induced gastric ulceration) and were compared to the effects of free ranitidine powder. A pharmacokinetic study in rabbits showed a significant, 2.1-fold increase in theAUC 0-24 of the ranitidine microspheres compared to free ranitidine after oral administration. The optimized formula showed higher drug entrapment efficiency and mucoadhesion properties and had more protective and healing effects on induced gastric ulcers in rats than ranitidine powder. In conclusion, the prolonged gastrointestinal residence time and the stability of the mucoadhesive microspheres of ranitidine as well as the synergistic healing effect of chitosan could contribute to increasing the potential of its anti-gastric ulcer activity.

  6. The prototypical ranitidine analog JWS-USC-75-IX improves information processing and cognitive function in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Alvin V; Buccafusco, Jerry J; Herman, Elizabeth J; Callahan, Patrick M; Beck, Wayne D; Warner, Samantha; Vandenhuerk, Leah; Bouchard, Kristy; Schwarz, Gary M; Gao, Jie; Chapman, James M

    2011-03-01

    This study was designed to evaluate further a prototypical ranitidine analog, JWS-USC-75-IX, [(3-[[[2-[[(5-dimethylaminomethyl)-2-furanyl]methyl]thio]ethyl]amino]-4-nitropyridazine, JWS], for neuropharmacologic properties that would theoretically be useful for treating cognitive and noncognitive behavioral symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders. JWS was previously found to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, serve as a potent ligand at muscarinic M₂ acetylcholine receptors, and elicit positive effects on spatial learning, passive avoidance, and working memory in rodents. In the current study, JWS was evaluated for binding activity at more than 60 neurotransmitter receptors, transporters, and ion channels, as well as for inhibitory activity at AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The results indicate that JWS inhibits AChE and BChE at low (micromolar) concentrations and that it is a functional antagonist at M₂ receptors (K(B) = 320 nM). JWS was subsequently evaluated orally across additional behavioral assays in rodents (dose range, 0.03-10.0 mg/kg) as well as nonhuman primates (dose range, 0.05-2.0 mg/kg). In rats, JWS improved prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response in nonimpaired rats and attenuated PPI deficits in three pharmacologic impairment models. JWS also attenuated scopolamine and (-)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801)-related impairments in a spontaneous novel object recognition task and a five-choice serial reaction time task, respectively. In monkeys, JWS elicited dose-dependent improvements of a delayed match-to-sample task as well as an attention-related version of the task where randomly presented (task-relevant) distractors were presented. Thus, JWS (potentially via effects at several drug targets) improves information processing, attention, and memory in animal models and could potentially treat the cognitive and behavioral symptoms of some neuropsychiatric illnesses.

  7. Assessment of the Variation Associated with Repeated Measurement of Gastrointestinal Transit Times and Assessment of the Effect of Oral Ranitidine on Gastrointestinal Transit Times Using a Wireless Motility Capsule System in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. Lidbury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the variation associated with repeated measurement of gastrointestinal (GI transit times and the effect of oral ranitidine on GI transit times in healthy dogs using a wireless motility capsule (WMC system. Eight privately owned healthy adult dogs were enrolled, and one developed diarrhea and was removed from the study. For the first 3 repetitions, each dog was fed a standard meal followed by oral administration of a WMC. For the 4th repetition, each dog was given ranitidine hydrochloride (75 mg PO every 12 hours prior to and during assessment of GI transit times. Mean between-subject coefficients of variation for gastric emptying time (GET, small and large bowel transit time (SLBTT, and total transit time (TTT were 26.9%, 32.3%, and 19.6%, respectively. Mean within-subject coefficients of variation for GET, SLBTT, and TTT were 9.3%, 19.6%, and 15.9%, respectively. Median GET, SLBTT, and TTT without ranitidine were 719, 1,636, and 2,735 minutes, respectively. Median GET, SLBTT, and TTT with ranitidine were 757, 1,227, and 2,083 minutes, respectively. No significant differences in GI transit times were found between any of the 4 repetitions. Under these experimental conditions, no significant effects of oral ranitidine on GI transit times were observed.

  8. Ranitidine has no influence on tubular creatinine secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, J. G.; Koopman, M. G.; Arisz, L.

    1996-01-01

    Oral cimetidine competitively inhibits tubular secretion of creatinine. We investigated the potential of oral ranitidine, a comparable H2-receptor antagonist, to block tubular creatinine secretion. In 10 healthy subjects, clearances of inulin and endogenous creatinine were simultaneously measured

  9. The effect of ranitidine on cellular immunity in patients with multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Nielsen, H; Moesgaard, F

    1990-01-01

    .19-2.25 nmol/min) (P less than 0.005 between groups). Among ranitidine-treated patients spontaneous NK cell activity was unchanged, while in vitro interleukin-2- and interferon-alpha-stimulated NK cell activity decreased (P less than 0.03, respectively). As production of oxygen radicals constitutes...... after previous cytotoxic therapy were in a stable phase of their disease. All were without clinical signs of infections and at that time had not been treated with other immunomodulating agents. The patients were randomized to oral ranitidine 300 mg twice a day for 21 days or placebo, and several...... immunological parameters related to multiple myeloma were studied. The blood monocyte chemotactic response was improved in patients treated with ranitidine, and superoxide anion production increased from 2.02 nmol/min to 3.86 nmol/min (median values), while it was unchanged in patients given placebo (2...

  10. Compound list: ranitidine [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ranitidine RAN 00086 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/i...n_vitro/ranitidine.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vi...tro/ranitidine.Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liv...er/Single/ranitidine.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/arch

  11. Sorption and Transport of Ranitidine in Natural Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, A. J.; Vulava, V. M.

    2013-12-01

    Increasing levels of pharmaceuticals and their degradants are being discovered in natural water systems all over the world. These chemicals are reported to be discharged from wastewater treatment plants, sewage overflow, and leaking septic tanks. Ranitidine is an example of one such pharmaceutical chemical found in municipal drinking water, streams, and streambed sediments. It is a histamine H2-receptor antagonist, which inhibits the production of stomach acid and is commonly used to treat peptic ulcers and gastro esophageal reflux disease. Ranitidine is a complex organic compound; it is acidic, highly polar, and has two pKa values of approximately 8.2 and 2.7 because of the amine functional groups. When administered orally 25 - 30% of unchanged ranitidine has been shown to expel through urine. The objective of this research is to establish sorption and transport patterns of ranitidine in natural soils and to determine which soil properties influence these patterns the most. Laboratory experiments were preformed on A-horizon and B-horizon soil samples collected from the relatively undisturbed Francis Marion National Forest, a managed forest near Charleston, SC. The soils were characterized for chemical and physical properties: ranges of clay content = 6-20%, total organic content = 1-8%, and pH = 3.6-4.9. Kinetic reaction rates and equilibrium sorption isotherms were measured using batch experiments, whereas column experiments were used to quantify transport behavior. The reaction rates were -0.22/day and -0.33/day for organic-rich and clay-rich soils, respectively. The kinetic reaction rates were used to determine equilibration times for further equilibrium batch reactor experiments, which have soil solutions spiked with concentrations of ranitidine ranging from 0.1 mg/L to 100 mg/L. The concentration remaining in solution (C, mg/L) was plotted against the concentration in the soil (q, mg/kg) to create sorption isotherms. Ranitidine was more strongly sorbed to B

  12. Differential effects of misoprostol and ranitidine on the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac and gastrointestinal symptoms.

    OpenAIRE

    Dammann, H G; Simon-Schultz, J; Steinhoff, I; Damaschke, A; Schmoldt, A; Sallowsky, E

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of oral misoprostol (800 microg day(-1)) and ranitidine (300 mg day(-1)) on the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac (100 mg) were assessed in a three-way randomized crossover study in 18 healthy male subjects. 2. Subjects were studied over three 8 day periods, during which they received twice-daily placebo, misoprostol, or ranitidine. A single dose of diclofenac was given orally on days 1 and 8, and plasma diclofenac concentrations were measured by h.p.l.c. over 24 h. 3. Misoprostol...

  13. Formulation, Characterization and Physicochemical Evaluation of Ranitidine Effervescent Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to design, formulate and physicochemically evaluate effervescent ranitidine hydrochloride (HCl tablets since they are easily administered while the elderly and children sometimes have difficulties in swallowing oral dosage forms. Methods: Effervescent ranitidine HCl tablets were prepared in a dosage of 300 mg by fusion and direct compression methods. The powder blend and granule mixture were evaluated for various pre-compression characteristics, such as angle of repose, compressibility index, mean particle size and Hausner's ratio. The tablets were evaluated for post-compression features including weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content, dissolution time, carbon dioxide content, effervescence time, pH, content uniformity and water content. Effervescent systems with appropriate pre and post-compression qualities dissolved rapidly in water were selected as the best formulations. Results: The results showed that the flowability of fusion method is more than that of direct compression and the F5 and F6 formulations of 300 mg tablets were selected as the best formulations because of their physicochemical characteristics. Conclusion: In this study, citric acid, sodium bicarbonate and sweeteners (including mannitol, sucrose and aspartame were selected. Aspartame, mint and orange flavors were more effective for masking the bitter taste of ranitidine. The fusion method is the best alternative in terms of physicochemical and physical properties.

  14. Ranitidine reduced levodopa-induced dyskinesia in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui G

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Guiyun Cui,1,* Xinxin Yang,1,* Xiaoying Wang,2,* Zunsheng Zhang,1 Xuanye Yue,1 Hongjuan Shi,1 Xia Shen11Department of Neurology, 2Department of Ultrasound, the Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Chronic administration of levodopa in Parkinson’s disease leads to debilitating involuntary movements, termed levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID. The pathogenesis of LID is poorly understood. Previous research has shown that histamine H2 receptors are highly expressed in the input (striatum and output (globus pallidus, substantia nigra regions of the basal ganglia, particularly in the GABAergic striatopallidal and striatonigral pathways. Therefore, a histamine H2 receptor antagonist could be used to reduce LID. In the present work, we investigated whether ranitidine has the potential to diminish LID in rats with dyskinesia and explored the underlying mechanisms involved.Methods: A rat model of PD was induced by 6-hydroxydopamine. Valid PD rats were then treated with levodopa (25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally and benserazide (12.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally for 21 days to induce a rat model of LID. The acute and chronic effects of administration of ranitidine at different doses (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg on abnormal involuntary movements, levodopa-induced rotations, and the forelimb adjusting steps test were investigated in LID rats. The chronic effect of ranitidine (10 mg/kg on the expression of Arc and proenkephalin was also evaluated.Results: Levodopa elicited increased dyskinesia in PD rats. Acute ranitidine treatment had no effect on LID, but chronic ranitidine administration (10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg reduced LID in rats with dyskinesia. Importantly, levodopa-induced rotations were not affected by chronic treatment with ranitidine. In addition, chronic ranitidine (10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg significantly improved stepping of the lesioned forepaw. Real

  15. Improving the oral health of older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2005-01-01

    changing burden of chronic diseases in old age. Chronic disease and most oral diseases share common risk factors. Globally, poor oral health amongst older people has been particularly evident in high levels of tooth loss, dental caries experience, and the prevalence rates of periodontal disease, xerostomia...... and oral precancer/cancer. The negative impact of poor oral conditions on the quality of life of older adults is an important public health issue, which must be addressed by policy-makers. The means for strengthening oral health programme implementation are available; the major challenge is therefore...... to translate knowledge into action programmes for the oral health of older people. The World Health Organization recommends that countries adopt certain strategies for improving the oral health of the elderly. National health authorities should develop policies and measurable goals and targets for oral health...

  16. NDMA formation by chloramination of ranitidine: Kinetics and mechanism

    KAUST Repository

    Le Roux, Julien

    2012-10-16

    The kinetics of decomposition of the pharmaceutical ranitidine (a major precursor of NDMA) during chloramination was investigated and some decomposition byproducts were identified by using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The reaction between monochloramine and ranitidine followed second order kinetics and was acid-catalyzed. Decomposition of ranitidine formed different byproducts depending on the applied monochloramine concentration. Most identified products were chlorinated and hydroxylated analogues of ranitidine. In excess of monochloramine, nucleophilic substitution between ranitidine and monochloramine led to byproducts that are critical intermediates involved in the formation of NDMA, for example, a carbocation formed from the decomposition of the methylfuran moiety of ranitidine. A complete mechanism is proposed to explain the high formation yield of NDMA from chloramination of ranitidine. These results are of great importance to understand the formation of NDMA by chloramination of tertiary amines. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  17. Effect of magnesium stearate concentration on dissolution properties of ranitidine hydrochloride coated tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunović, Alija; Vranić, Edina

    2007-08-01

    Most pharmaceutical formulations also include a certain amount of lubricant to improve their flowability and prevent their adhesion to the surfaces of processing equipment. Magnesium stearate is an additive that is most frequently used as a lubricant. Magnesium stearate is capable of forming films on other tablet excipients during prolonged mixing, leading to a prolonged drug liberation time, a decrease in hardness, and an increase in disintegration time. It is hydrophobic, and there are many reports in the literature concerning its adverse effect on dissolution rates. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two different concentrations of magnesium stearate on dissolution properties of ranitidine hydrochloride coated tablet formulations labeled to contain 150 mg. The uniformity content was also checked. During the drug formulation development, several samples were designed for choice of the formulation. For this study, two formulations containing 0,77 and 1,1% of magnesium stearate added in the manufacture of cores were chosen. Fraction of ranitidine hydrochloride released in dissolution medium was calculated from calibration curves. The data were analyzed using pharmacopeial test for similarity of dissolution profiles ( f2 equation), previously proposed by Moore and Flanner. Application of f2 equation showed differences in time-course of ranitidine hydrochloride dissolution properties. The obtained values indicate differences in drug release from analyzed ranitidine hydrochloride formulations and could cause differences in therapeutic response.

  18. Effect of Magnesium Stearate Concentration on Dissolution Properties of Ranitidine Hydrochloride Coated Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alija Uzunović

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Most pharmaceutical formulations also include a certain amount of lubricant to improve their flowability and prevent their adhesion to the surfaces of processing equipment. Magnesium stearate is an additive that is most frequently used as a lubricant. Magnesium stearate is capable of forming films on other tablet excipients during prolonged mixing, leading to a prolonged drug liberation time, a decrease in hardness, and an increase in disintegration time. It is hydrophobic, and there are many reports in the literature concerning its adverse effect on dissolution rates.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two different concentrations of magnesium stearate on dissolution properties of ranitidine hydrochloride coated tablet formulations labeled to contain 150 mg. The uniformity content was also checked.During the drug formulation development, several samples were designed for choice of the formulation. For this study, two formulations containing 0,77 and 1,1% of magnesium stearate added in the manufacture of cores were chosen. Fraction of ranitidine hydrochloride released in dissolution medium was calculated from calibration curves. The data were analyzed using pharmaco-peial test for similarity of dissolution profiles (f2 equation, previously proposed by Moore and Flanner.Application of f2 equation showed differences in time-course of ranitidine hydrochloride dissolution properties. The obtained values indicate differences in drug release from analyzed ranitidine hydrochloride formulations and could cause differences in therapeutic response.

  19. Ranitidine as adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results from short-term studies of histamine type 2 (H2) receptor antagonists on survival of patients with solid tumours are debatable. In this study the efficacy of the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on long-term survival of patients with colorectal cancer was evaluated. METHODS...... infectious complications (n = 170; HR 0.6 (95 per cent c.i. 0.4 to 0.9), P = 0.01). In multivariate analysis of patients who had a curative resection, including Dukes' stage, age, gender, tumour location, blood transfusion, postoperative infectious complications and treatment, ranitidine still had...... curative resection of colorectal cancer and who do not receive perioperative blood transfusion and do not develop postoperative infectious complications....

  20. Ranitidine as adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results from short-term studies of histamine type 2 (H2) receptor antagonists on survival of patients with solid tumours are debatable. In this study the efficacy of the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on long-term survival of patients with colorectal cancer was evaluated. METHODS...... curative resection of colorectal cancer and who do not receive perioperative blood transfusion and do not develop postoperative infectious complications....

  1. Disposition of the anti-ulcer medications ranitidine, cimetidine, and omeprazole following administration of multiple doses to exercised Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knych, H K; Stanley, S D; Arthur, R M; McKemie, D S

    2017-01-01

    The use of anti-ulcer medications, such as cimetidine, ranitidine, and omeprazole, is common in performance horses. The use of these drugs is regulated in performance horses, and as such a withdrawal time is necessary prior to competition to avoid a medication violation. To the authors' knowledge, there are no reports in the literature describing repeated oral administrations of these drugs in the horse to determine a regulatory threshold and related withdrawal time recommendations. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to describe the disposition and elimination pharmacokinetics of these anti-ulcer medications following oral administration to provide data upon which appropriate regulatory recommendations can be established. Nine exercised Thoroughbred horses were administered 20 mg/kg BID of cimetidine or 8 mg/kg BID of ranitidine, both for seven doses or 2.28 g of omeprazole SID for four doses. Blood samples were collected, serum drug concentrations were determined, and elimination pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. The serum elimination half-life was 7.05 ± 1.02, 7.43 ± 0.851 and 3.94 ± 1.04 h for cimetidine, ranitidine, and omeprazole, respectively. Serum cimetidine and ranitidine concentrations were above the LOQ and omeprazole and omeprazole sulfide below the LOQ in all horses studied upon termination of sample collection. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effectiveness of ranitidine bismuth citrate and proton pump inhibitor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effectiveness of ranitidine bismuth citrate and proton pump inhibitor based triple therapies of Helicobacter pylori in Turkey. ... Results: When we look at the eradication rates of the treatment groups, only two groups (ranitidine bismuth citrate and rabeprazole groups) had eradication rates greater than 80%, both at intention to ...

  3. An oral hygiene protocol improves oral health for patients in inpatient stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joanne; Scholten, Ingrid

    2018-03-01

    To determine whether a simple oral hygiene protocol improves the oral health of inpatients in stroke rehabilitation. Poor oral health can lead to serious complications, such as pneumonia. The comorbidities associated with stroke, such as dysphagia, hemiparesis and cognitive impairment, can further impede independent oral care. International stroke guidelines recommend routine oral care but stop short of detailing specific regimes. The oral health assessment tool (OHAT) was conducted by speech-language pathologists with 100 patients with and without dysphagia in three metropolitan inpatient stroke rehabilitation facilities. A simple nurse-led oral hygiene regime was then implemented with all participants, which included twice daily tooth brushing and mouth rinsing after lunch, and oral health was measured again one week later. Initially, dysphagia was negatively associated with OHAT scores, and independence for oral hygiene was positively associated with oral health. After one week of a simple oral hygiene regime, the OHAT scores available for 89 participants indicated an improvement on average for all participants. In particular, 59% of participants with dysphagia had an improvement of 1 or more points. None of the participants developed pneumonia. A simple, inexpensive oral hygiene regime resulted in positive outcomes for patients with and without dysphagia in inpatient stroke rehabilitation settings. Oral health assessments and oral hygiene regimes that are simple to implement by the interdisciplinary team can be incorporated into standard stroke care with positive effect. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. 'Nudging' your patients toward improved oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarbecz, Mark

    2012-08-01

    Behavioral economics combines research from the fields of psychology, neurology and economics to help people understand how people make choices in complex social and economic environments. The principles of behavioral economics increasingly are being applied in health care. The author describes how dental team members can use behavioral economics principles to improve patients' oral health. Dental patients must make complex choices about care, and dental team members must provide information to patients to help them make choices. Patients are subject to predictable biases and are prone to making errors. Dental team members can use this information to "nudge" patients in healthy directions by providing an appropriate mix of incentives, default options and feedback. Practice Implications. The suggestions the author presents may help dental team members choose strategies that maximize both patient welfare and the success of their practices, while preserving patient autonomy.

  5. NDMA formation by chloramination of ranitidine: Kinetics and mechanism

    KAUST Repository

    Le Roux, Julien; Gallard, Hervé ; Croue, Jean-Philippe; Papot, Sé bastien; Deborde, Marie

    2012-01-01

    The kinetics of decomposition of the pharmaceutical ranitidine (a major precursor of NDMA) during chloramination was investigated and some decomposition byproducts were identified by using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass

  6. Candesartan cilexetil loaded nanodelivery systems for improved oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudhipala, Narendar; Veerabrahma, Kishan

    2017-02-01

    Candesartan cilexetil (CC), an antihypertensive drug, has low oral bioavailability due to poor solubility and hepatic first-pass metabolism. These are major limitations in oral delivery of CC. Several approaches are known to reduce the problems of solubility and improve the bioavailability of CC. Among various approaches, nanotechnology-based delivery of CC has potential to overcome the challenges associated with the oral administration. This review focuses on various nano-based delivery systems available and tried for improving the aqueous solubility, dissolution and consequently bioavailability of CC upon oral administration. Of all, solid lipid nanoparticles appear to be promising delivery system, based on current reported results, for delivery of CC, as this system improved the oral bioavailability and possessed prolonged pharmacodynamic effect.

  7. Polymeric microcontainers improve oral bioavailability of furosemide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line Hagner; Melero, Ana; Keller, Stephan Sylvest

    2016-01-01

    Microcontainers with an inner diameter of 223μm are fabricated using the polymer SU-8, and evaluated in vitro, in situ and in vivo for their application as an advanced oral drug delivery system for the poorly water soluble drug furosemide. An amorphous sodium salt of furosemide (ASSF) is filled...... into the microcontainers followed by applying a lid using Eudragit L100. It is possible to control the drug release in vitro, and in vitro absorption studies show that the microcontainers are not a hindrance for absorption of ASSF. In situ perfusion studies in rats are performed with ASSF-filled microcontainers coated...

  8. Improving children's oral health: an interdisciplinary research framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casamassimo, P S; Lee, J Y; Marazita, M L; Milgrom, P; Chi, D L; Divaris, K

    2014-10-01

    Despite the concerted efforts of research and professional and advocacy stakeholders, recent evidence suggests that improvements in the oral health of young children in the United States has not followed the prevailing trend of oral health improvement in other age groups. In fact, oral health disparities in the youngest children may be widening, yet efforts to translate advances in science and technology into meaningful improvements in populations' health have had limited success. Nevertheless, the great strides in genomics, biological, behavioral, social, and health services research in the past decade have strengthened the evidence base available to support initiatives and translational efforts. Concerted actions to accelerate this translation and implementation process are warranted; at the same time, policies that can help tackle the upstream determinants of oral health disparities are imperative. This article summarizes the proceedings from the symposium on the interdisciplinary continuum of pediatric oral health that was held during the 43rd annual meeting of the American Association for Dental Research, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. This report showcases the latest contributions across the interdisciplinary continuum of pediatric oral health research and provides insights into future research priorities and necessary intersectoral synergies. Issues are discussed as related to the overwhelming dominance of social determinants on oral disease and the difficulty of translating science into action. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  9. Ranitidine Loaded Biopolymer Floats: Designing, Characterization, and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Karim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The float formulation is a strategy to improve the bioavailability of drugs by gastroretentive drug delivery system (GRDDS. A drug delivery model based on swellable and reswellable low density biopolymers has been designed to evaluate its drug release profile using ranitidine (RNT as a model drug and formulations have been prepared utilizing 32 factorial designs. The drug release (DR data has been subjected to various kinetic models to investigate the DR mechanism. A reduction in rate has been observed by expanding the amounts of PSG and LSG parts, while an expansion has been noted by increasing the concentration of tragacanth (TG and citric acid (CA with an increment in floating time. The stearic acid (SA has been used to decrease the lag time because a decrease in density of system was observed. The kinetic analysis showed that the optimized formulation (S4F3 followed zero-order kinetics and power law was found to be best fitted due to its minimum lag time and maximum floating ability. The resemblance of observed and predicted values indicated the validity of derived equations for evaluating the effect of independent variables while kinetic study demonstrated that the applied models are feasible for evaluating and developing float for RNT.

  10. ABT-773: pharmacokinetics and interactions with ranitidine and sucralfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletz, M W; Preechachatchaval, V; Bulitta, J; Allewelt, M; Burkhardt, O; Lode, H

    2003-03-01

    We assessed the pharmacokinetics and interaction of ABT-773 in 12 volunteers receiving ABT-773 alone or concomitantly with ranitidine or sucralfate. Data for 150 mg of ABT-773 were as follows: the maximum concentration of the drug in plasma (C(max)) was 318 ng/ml, its half-life was 5.66 h, and its area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUC(0- infinity )) was 1,662 ng. h/ml. Coadministration of ranitidine, reduced the C(max) (-25.7%) and AUC(0- infinity ) (-15.8%) significantly. Sucralfate had no impact on the bioavailability of ABT-773.

  11. Workforce strategies to improve children's oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Kristine

    2014-12-01

    (1) Tooth decay is the most common chronic disease for children. (2) As millions receive dental coverage under the Affordable Care Act, the demand for dental services is expected to strain the current workforce's ability to meet their needs. (3) States have adopted various workforce approaches to improve access to dental care for underserved populations.

  12. Ranitidine prevents postoperative transfusion-induced depression of delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H; Moesgaard, F

    1989-01-01

    The influence of perioperative blood transfusion on postoperative depression of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and the effect of ranitidine on transfusion-induced changes in postoperative CMI were investigated. CMI was assessed preoperatively and postoperatively by skin testing with seven common...

  13. The Effect of Ranitidine on Olanzapine-Induced Weight Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ranjbar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Induced weight gain is a disturbing side effect of Olanzapine that affects the quality of life in psychotic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of Ranitidine in attenuating or preventing Olanzapine-induced weight gain. A parallel 2-arm clinical trial was done on 52 patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective and schizophreniform disorders who received Olanzapine for the first time. All these were first-episode admitted patients. They were randomly allocated to receive either Ranitidine or placebo. The trend of body mass index (BMI was compared between groups over 16-week course of treatment. Mean weight was 62.3 (SD: 9.6 kg at baseline. Thirty-three subjects (63.5% had positive family history of obesity. The average BMI increment was 1.1 for Ranitidine group and 2.4 for the placebo group. The multivariate analysis showed this effect to be independent of sex, family history of obesity, and baseline BMI value. The longitudinal modeling after controlling for baseline values failed to show the whole trend slope to be different. Although the slight change in trend’s slope puts forward a hypothesis that combined use of Ranitidine and Olanzapine may attenuate the weight gain long run, this needs to be retested in future larger scale long-term studies. This trial is registered with IRCT.ir 201009112181N5.

  14. [An oral function improvement program utilizing health behavior theories ameliorates oral functions and oral hygienic conditions of pre-frail elderly persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Hideo

    2014-06-01

    Oral function improvement programs utilizing health behavior theories are considered to be effective in preventing the need for long-term social care. In the present study, an oral function improvement program based upon health behavior theories was designed, and its utility was assessed in 102 pre-frail elderly persons (33 males, 69 females, mean age: 76.9 +/- 5.7) considered to be in potential need of long-term social care and attending a long-term care prevention class in Sayama City, Saitama Prefecture, Japan. The degree of improvement in oral functions (7 items) and oral hygienic conditions (3 items) was assessed by comparing oral health before and after participation in the program. The results showed statistically significant improvements in the following oral functions: (1) lip functions (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllable "Pa"), (2) tongue functions, (3) tongue root motor skills (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllables "Ta" and "Ka"), (4) tongue extension/retraction, (5) side-to-side tongue movement functions, (6) cheek motor skills, and (7) repetitive saliva swallowing test (RSST). The following measures of oral hygiene also showed a statistically significant improvement: (1) debris on dentures or teeth, (2) coated tongue, and (3) frequency of oral cleaning. These findings demonstrated that an improvement program informed by health behavior theories is useful in improving oral functions and oral hygiene conditions.

  15. Quality of oral surgery referrals and how to improve them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorkeborn M

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mikael Björkeborn,1 Henrik Nilsson,2 Jonas Anderud1 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Halmstad Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden; 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Växjö Hospital, Växjö, Sweden Aim: To assess the quality of routine oral surgery referrals received at Halmstad Hospital and Växjö Hospital and to emphasize areas for improvement. Method: A retrospective study was performed on all routine oral surgery referrals received between 2014 and 2015 at both Halmstad Hospital and Växjö Hospital. A total of 1,891 referral letters were assessed for their quality against a predetermined checklist of basic requirements of a satisfactory referral. The referrals were also categorized according to if it was sent by a male, female, private dental service, or the Swedish Public Dental Health service. Results: A diagnosis was missing in 30% of all referrals. Radiographs and information about previous radiographic examinations were not included in 10% of the referrals. Of those referrals that included radiographs, only around half were deemed adequate for diagnostic purposes. The presenting complaint was missing in 40% of all referrals. Current medical history was absent in 40% and current medication was omitted in 60% of the referrals. Information about tobacco use was only included in 10% of all referrals. Overall, female referrers performed better than male colleagues. Private referrals more regularly included information about diagnosis, previous treatment, and current medication. On the other hand, referrals from the public dental health service more frequently included radiographs, tobacco use, and current medical history. Conclusion: There is plenty of room for improving the standards of oral surgery referrals. We suggest that future electronic referral systems should only allow for submission once all of the essential information has been considered. Keywords: clinical audit, referral quality, oral surgery referrals

  16. Effects of itopride hydrochloride and ranitidine in patients with functional dyspepsia: comparison between prokinetic and acid suppression therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Toshimi; Tokunaga, Yumi; Ikeda, Keisei; Takagi, Ryo; Chishima, Raita; Terui, Torahiko; Kudara, Norihiko; Endo, Masaki; Inomata, Masaaki; Orii, Seishi; Suzuki, Kazuyuki

    2007-09-01

    The effect of itopride hydrochloride or ranitidine on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of functional dyspepsia is not well known. Our aim was to assess the HRQoL before and after administration of itopride hydrochloride or ranitidine in patients with functional dyspepsia. A total of 18 functional dyspepsia patients (12 women, 6 men; mean age 52.5 y.o.) were enrolled. We determined the HRQoL using two different inquiry systems: the 36 item short form of the Medical Outcome Study Questionnaire (SF-36) and the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS). The HRQoL was determined before administration of drug, and two, four, and eight weeks after administration of drug. After administration of itopride hydrochloride, the SF-36 mental health scale and GSRS indigestion syndrome score and constipation syndrome score were significantly improved compared to before administration (p Itopride hydrochloride would be useful for the treatment of dysmotility-type functional dyspepsia, whereas ranitidine would be beneficial for ulcer-type functional dyspepsia.

  17. Improved oral bioavailability of probucol by dry media-milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Yang, Yan; Zhao, Meihui; Xu, Hui; Ma, Junyuan; Wang, Shaoning

    2017-09-01

    The polymer/probucol co-milled mixtures were prepared to improve drug dissolution rate and oral bioavailability. Probucol, a BCS II drug, was co-milled together with Copovidone (Kollidon VA64, VA64), Soluplus, or MCC using the dry media-milling process with planetary ball-milling equipment. The properties of the milled mixtures including morphology, crystal form, vitro drug dissolution and in vivo oral bioavailability in rats were evaluated. Probucol existed as an amorphous in the matrix of the co-milled mixtures containing VA64, which helped to enhance drug dissolution. The ternary mixture composed of VA64, RH40, and probucol showed increased dissolution rates in both sink and non-sink conditions. It also had a higher oral bioavailability compared to the reference formulation. Dry-media milling of binary or ternary mixtures composed of drug, polymer and surfactant possibly have wide applications to improve dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of water-insoluble drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ranitidine Can Potentiate The Prokinetic Effect Of Itopride At Low Doses- An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Aroosa Ishtiaq; Khan, Bushra Tayyaba; Khan, Asma; Khan, Qamar-Uz-Zaman

    2017-01-01

    Gastroparesis and GERD occur concomitantly in 40 percent of the cases. Prokinetic drugs and acid blockers are employed as the main treatment modality. Ranitidine is an acid blocker with additional prokinetic activity and Itopride is a known prokinetic drug. This study was designed to observe the synergistic potentiating prokinetic effect of Ranitidine on itopride on isolated duodenum of rabbits. Ranitidine (10-5-10-3) and itopride (10-6-10-5) were added in increasing concentrations to isolated duodenum of rabbits and contractions were recorded on PowerLab Data acquisition unit AHK/214. Cumulative dose response curves were constructed. The potentiating prokinetic effect of Ranitidine on itopride was seen by using a fixed dose of ranitidine and cumulatively enhancing doses of itopride on iWorx. Ranitidine and itopride produced a dose dependent reversible contraction of the isolated tissue of rabbits with ranitidine showing a max response of 0.124mV and itopride showing a maximum response of 0.131mV. Ranitidine was able to potentiate the prokinetic effect of itopride at low doses but at high dose the effect began to wane off. Ranitidine and itopride produce a statistically significant synergistic potentiating prokinetic effect at low doses in vitro.

  19. Community oral health literacy: improving use of oral-health care guarantee in children aged 6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cornejo-Ovalle

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of comprehensive oral health care for children aged 6 (GES-6years showed low utilization of this guarantee, with lower use for children from municipal public schools. The empowerment and health literacy of parents improve their role as oral-health promoters for their children. Objective: To implement and to assess a strategy of empowerment and health literacy of the community about their guaranteed health rights to increase the use of GES-6years. Methods: A mixed design. Using qualitative methodology we will design a communication tool, culturally and socially appropriate to be sent to the beneficiary community of this guarantee. Using a nonrandomized community trial, this instrument designed to empower and improve oral health literacy on GES-6 guarantee, will be sent as personalized letter (intervention signed by the mayor of the municipality with a message aimed to children beneficiaries for GES -6years and another addressed to their parents/guardians. Schools would be selected from clusters (communes of the two regions selected for convenience. Communes will be randomly selected amog those whose authorities agree to participate, and will be selected as for intervention or control. Data analysis will assess the differences in the prevalence of use of this guarantee among children from municipal schools belonging to the intervention or control arm.

  20. Review and action plan for oral health improvement in Sheffield special schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, D J; Jones, K; Harris, J C; Charlesworth, J; Marshman, Z

    2018-03-01

    A description of the process of a review of oral health improvement in special schools in Sheffield and the implementation of an action plan for these activities. Public health competencies encompassed: assessing the evidence on oral health and dental interventions, programmes and services; strategic leadership and collaborative working for health; oral health improvement. Copyright© 2018 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  1. World Health Organization global policy for improvement of oral health--World Health Assembly 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2008-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Oral Health Programme has worked hard over the past five years to increase the awareness of oral health worldwide as an important component of general health and quality of life. Meanwhile, oral disease is still a major public health problem in high income...... countries and the burden of oral disease is growing in many low- and middle income countries. In the World Oral Health Report 2003, the WHO Global Oral Health Programme formulated the policies and the necessary actions for the improvement of oral health. The strategy is that oral disease prevention...... and the promotion of oral health needs to be integrated with chronic disease prevention and general health promotion as the risks to health are linked. The World Health Assembly (WHA) and the Executive Board (EB) are supreme governance bodies of WHO and for the first time in 25 years oral health was subject...

  2. Characterization of N-nitrosodimethylamine formation from the ozonation of ranitidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Juan; Wang, Lin; Li, Yongmei

    2017-08-01

    N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is an emerging disinfection by-product which is formed during water disinfection in the presence of amine-based precursors. Ranitidine, as one kind of amine-based pharmaceuticals, has been identified as NDMA precursor with high NDMA molar conversion during chloramination. This study focused on the characterization of NDMA formation during ozonation of ranitidine. Influences of operational variables (ozone dose, pH value) and water matrix on NDMA generation as well as ranitidine degradation were evaluated. The results indicate high reactivity of ranitidine with ozone. Dimethylamine (DMA) and NDMA were generated due to ranitidine oxidation. High pH value caused more NDMA accumulation. NDMA formation was inhibited under acid conditions (pH≤5) mainly due to the protonation of amines. Water matrix such as HCO 3 - and humic acid impacted NDMA generation due to OH scavenging. Compared with OH, ozone molecules dominated the productions of DMA and NDMA. However, OH was a critical factor in NDMA degradation. Transformation products of ranitidine during ozonation were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among these products, just DMA and N,N-dimethylformamide could contribute to NDMA formation due to the DMA group in the molecular structures. The NDMA formation pathway from ranitidine ozonation was also proposed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Ginger Orally Disintegrating Tablets to Improve Swallowing in Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Ayumu; Funato, Hiroki; Nakai, Megumi; Iizuka, Michiro; Abe, Noriaki; Yagi, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Hisashi; Jobu, Kohei; Yokota, Junko; Hirose, Kahori; Hyodo, Masamitsu; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We previously prepared and pharmaceutically evaluated ginger orally disintegrating (OD) tablets, optimized the base formulation, and carried out a clinical trial in healthy adults in their 20 s and 50s to measure their effect on salivary substance P (SP) level and improved swallowing function. In this study, we conducted clinical trials using the ginger OD tablets in older people to clinically evaluate the improvements in swallowing function resulting from the functional components of the tablet. The ginger OD tablets were prepared by mixing the excipients with the same amount of mannitol and sucrose to a concentration of 1% ginger. Eighteen healthy older adult volunteers aged 63 to 90 were included in the swallowing function test. Saliva was collected before and 15 min after administration of the placebo and ginger OD tablets. Swallowing endoscopy was performed by an otolaryngologist before administration and 15 min after administration of the ginger OD tablets. A scoring method was used to evaluate the endoscopic swallowing. Fifteen minutes after taking the ginger OD tablets, the salivary SP amount was significantly higher than prior to ingestion or after taking the placebo (pginger OD tablets. Our findings showed that the ginger OD tablets increased the salivary SP amount and improved swallowing function in older people with appreciably reduced swallowing function.

  4. Ranitidine vooral werkzaam bij functionele dyspepsie met klachten passend bij refluxziekten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jebbink, H. J.; Smout, A. J.; van Berge Henegouwen, G. P.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of ranitidine in patients with functional dyspepsia according to different subgroups. SETTING: University Hospital Utrecht, department of gastroenterology. DESIGN: Prospective double blind cross-over study. METHOD: Thirty patients with chronic upper abdominal

  5. Six sigma: process of understanding the control and capability of ranitidine hydrochloride tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabukswar, Ar; Jagdale, Sc; Kuchekar, Bs; Joshi, Vd; Deshmukh, Gr; Kothawade, Hs; Kuckekar, Ab; Lokhande, Pd

    2011-01-01

    The process of understanding the control and capability (PUCC) is an iterative closed loop process for continuous improvement. It covers the DMAIC toolkit in its three phases. PUCC is an iterative approach that rotates between the three pillars of the process of understanding, process control, and process capability, with each iteration resulting in a more capable and robust process. It is rightly said that being at the top is a marathon and not a sprint. The objective of the six sigma study of Ranitidine hydrochloride tablets is to achieve perfection in tablet manufacturing by reviewing the present robust manufacturing process, to find out ways to improve and modify the process, which will yield tablets that are defect-free and will give more customer satisfaction. The application of six sigma led to an improved process capability, due to the improved sigma level of the process from 1.5 to 4, a higher yield, due to reduced variation and reduction of thick tablets, reduction in packing line stoppages, reduction in re-work by 50%, a more standardized process, with smooth flow and change in coating suspension reconstitution level (8%w/w), a huge cost reduction of approximately Rs.90 to 95 lakhs per annum, an improved overall efficiency by 30% approximately, and improved overall quality of the product.

  6. [Effects on salivation, xerostomia and halitosis in elders after oral function improvement exercises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Jin; Park, Kyung Min

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of Oral Function Improvement Exercises on salivation, xerostomia and halitosis in elderly people. The participants in the study were 48 female community-dwelling elders in D city. The Oral Function Improvement Exercises were given 3 times a week, for a total of 24 times from August to October 2011. Spitting method, Visual Analogue Scale, and halimeter (mBA-21) were used to evaluate the effects of Oral Function Improvement Exercises on salivation, xerostomia, and halitosis. The data were analyzed using χ²-test and t-test with the SPSS program. The experimental group had significantly better salivation, and less xerostomia and halitosis than the control group. The results indicate that Oral Function Improvement Exercises were effective for salivation, xerostomia and halitosis in the elders. Therefore, it was suggested that Oral Function Improvement Exercise are applicable in a community nursing intervention program to improve the quality of life for elders.

  7. Evaluation of Student Reflection as a Route to Improve Oral Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineart, Kenneth P.; Cooper, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the use of guided self-reflection and peer feedback activities to improve student oral communication in a large ChE class (n ~ 100) setting. Student performance tracked throughout an experimental semester indicated both reflection activities accelerated improvement in oral communication over control; student perception of the…

  8. An improved technique for oral administration of solutions of test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicut intravenous cannula as an improvised oral cannula to administer solutions of drugs and test substances to experimental rats. Techniques of handling and manipulating the rat with the goal of having the eosophagus as straight as possible ...

  9. Improving oral bioavailability of cyclic peptides by N-methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räder, Andreas F B; Reichart, Florian; Weinmüller, Michael; Kessler, Horst

    2018-06-01

    The renaissance of peptides in pharmaceutical industry results from their importance in many biological functions. However, low metabolic stability and the lack of oral availability of most peptides is a certain limitation. Whereas metabolic instability may be often overcome by development of small cyclic peptides containing d-amino acids, the very low oral availability of most peptides is a serious limitation for some medicinal applications. The situation is complicated because a twofold optimization - biological activity and oral availability - is required to overcome this problem. Moreover, most simple "rules" for achieving oral availability are not general and are applicable only to limited cases. Many structural modifications for increasing biological activities and metabolic stabilities of cyclic peptides have been described, of which N-alkylation is probably the most common. This mini-review focuses on the effects of N-methylation of cyclic peptides in strategies to optimize bioavailabilities. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Oral hygiene caregivers' educational programme improves oral health conditions in institutionalised independent and functional elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portella, Fernando F; Rocha, Aline W; Haddad, Daniel C; Fortes, Carmem B B; Hugo, Fernando N; Padilha, Dalva M P; Samuel, Susana M W

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the impact of an oral hygiene education programme for caregivers on the oral health of institutionalised elderly and to examine the effect of disability and low muscle strength on programme outcomes. The subjects of this study were geriatric patients (n = 80) from a nursing home. Katz Index for activities of daily living, handgrip strength and mucosal-plaque score (MPS) was evaluated at baseline and 1 year after intervention. The intervention consisted of an educational programme and specific guidelines for caregivers (to perform oral hygiene for dependent elderly and to supervise the independent elderly during oral hygiene practices). Differences on MPS were evaluated using a paired-sample t-test. A stratified analysis was carried out to identify differences in response to the programme according to the Katz Index and handgrip strength of elderly. The MPS was significantly reduced (p = 0.001) at follow-up; however, a separate analysis showed that only the independent elderly (p = 0.002) and those with normal muscle strength (p = 0.006) showed a reduction in MPS during the follow-up examination. The oral hygiene education programme for caregivers resulted in a positive impact on oral hygiene of the independent and functional elderly. © 2013 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Global policy for improvement of oral health in the 21st century--implications to oral health research of World Health Assembly 2007, World Health Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Oral Health Programme has worked hard over the past 5 years to increase the awareness of oral health worldwide as oral health is important component of general health and quality of life. Meanwhile, oral disease is still a major public health problem...... in high income countries and the burden of oral disease is growing in many low- and middle income countries. In the World Oral Health Report 2003, the WHO Global Oral Health Programme formulated the policies and necessary actions to the continuous improvement of oral health. The strategy is that oral...... disease prevention and the promotion of oral health needs to be integrated with chronic disease prevention and general health promotion as the risks to health are linked. The World Health Assembly (WHA) and the Executive Board (EB) are supreme governance bodies of WHO and for the first time in 25 years...

  12. Effectiveness of an oral health program in improving the knowledge and competencies of head start staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Courtney Hugh

    2011-01-01

    Head Start and Early Head Start (HS/EHS) programs have partnered with the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry to promote oral health and increase access to dental homes. Preparing HS/EHS staff for issues related to pediatric oral health promises to improve effectiveness of this collaboration. This paper's purpose was to describe the Columbia Head Start Oral Health Program (C-HSOHP) and changes in HS/EHS staff pediatric oral health knowledge and competencies after participating in C-HSOHP. Four HS/EHS grantees in New York City engaged in the 2008-09 C-HSOHP. A convenience sample of 61 staff completed pre- and postself assessments of knowledge and competencies. Significant paired mean improvements were found for staff-reported level of preparation to explain dental issues during pregnancy, the tooth decay process, and preparing parents for their child's first dental visit. Significant improvements were found in staff confidence in teaching parents about children's oral health issues, referring for pediatric dental services, and talking to a dentist about a concern. The Columbia Head Start Oral Health Program was effective in improving Head Start/Early Head Start staff self-confidence and self-perceived preparedness in teaching parents about oral health, applying oral health knowledge to HS/EHS programs, communicating with dental professionals, and improving access to pediatric dental services.

  13. School-Based Educational Intervention to Improve Children's Oral Health-Related Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Holly; Dawett, Bhupinder; Leighton, Paul; Rose-Brady, Laura; Deery, Chris

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate a brief oral health promotion intervention delivered in schools by a primary care dental practice, aimed at changing oral health care knowledge and oral health-related behaviors in children. Cohort study with pretest-posttest design. Three primary schools. One hundred and fifty children (aged 9-12 years). Children received a 60-minute theory-driven classroom-based interactive educational session delivered by a dental care professional and received take-home literature on oral health. All children completed a questionnaire on oral health-related knowledge and self-reported oral health-related behaviors before, immediately after, and 6 weeks following the intervention. Children's dental knowledge significantly improved following the intervention, with improvement evident at immediate follow-up and maintained 6 weeks later. Significantly more children reported using dental floss 6 weeks after the intervention compared with baseline. No significant differences were detected in toothbrushing or dietary behaviors. School-based preventative oral health education delivered by primary care dental practices can generate short-term improvements in children's knowledge of oral health and some aspects of oral hygiene behavior. Future research should engage parents/carers and include objective clinical and behavioral outcomes in controlled study designs. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  14. Understanding Resolvin Signaling Pathways to Improve Oral Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Oleo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of resolvins has been a major breakthrough for understanding the processes involved in resolution of inflammation. Resolvins belong to a family of novel lipid mediators that possess dual anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution actions. Specifically, they protect healthy tissue during immune-inflammatory responses to infection or injury, thereby aiding inflammation resolution and promoting tissue healing. One of the major concerns in modern medicine is the management and treatment of oral diseases, as they are related to systemic outcomes impacting the quality of life of many patients. This review summarizes known signaling pathways utilized by resolvins to regulate inflammatory responses associated with the oral cavity.

  15. Improvement of oral cholecystography and cholangiography with Ceruletid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, G.; Pirschel, J.; Grehn, S.

    1979-01-01

    Following oral cholecystography in 100 patients, the conventional 'fatty meal' was replaced by an intramuscular injection of Ceruletid in a dose of 0.4 μg/kg body weight. The synthetic decapetide Ceruletid is a substance with a hormone-like effect on the gastro-intestinal tract. It contracts smooth muscle in the gut and stimulates secretion in the stomach and the exocrine pancreas. Compared with other substances producing contraction which are given orally, Ceruletid acts more quickly and more powerfully in producing contraction of the gall bladder muscle. In 86% of positive cholecystograms, this resulted in satisfactory demonstration of the bile duct, 66% better than for oral substances. Many abnormalities, particularly localised adenomyomatosis, can only be diagnosed after good contraction of the gall bladder. Side effects, such as nausea, dizziness and a feeling of heat were transitory. In three patients it led to vomiting. The rapid and certain effect of Ceruletid during oral cholecystography requires reassessment of the role of intravenous cholangiography in diagnosis. Particularly amongst outpatients, with a high proportion of normal gall bladders, it is possible to complete the examination in one stage by demonstrating the bile duct with Ceruletid. (orig.) [de

  16. Teachers Engaging Parents as Tutors to Improve Oral Reading Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupzyk, Sara S.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the application of evidence-based tutoring for oral reading fluency (ORF) to a natural setting, using teachers as parent trainers. Measures used to determine the impact of parent tutoring included treatment integrity, student reading outcomes, attitudes towards involvement and reading, and social validity. Six teachers…

  17. Electrochemical sensor for ranitidine determination based on carbon paste electrode modified with oxovanadium (IV) salen complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymundo-Pereira, Paulo A; Teixeira, Marcos F S; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando; Dockal, Edward R; Bonifácio, Viviane Gomes; Marcolino, Luiz H

    2013-10-01

    The preparation and electrochemical characterization of a carbon paste electrode modified with the N,N-ethylene-bis(salicyllideneiminato)oxovanadium (IV) complex ([VO(salen)]) as well as its application for ranitidine determination are described. The electrochemical behavior of the modified electrode for the electroreduction of ranitidine was investigated using cyclic voltammetry, and analytical curves were obtained for ranitidine using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) under optimized conditions. The best voltammetric response was obtained for an electrode composition of 20% (m/m) [VO(salen)] in the paste, 0.10 mol L(-1) of KCl solution (pH 5.5 adjusted with HCl) as supporting electrolyte and scan rate of 25 mV s(-1). A sensitive linear voltammetric response for ranitidine was obtained in the concentration range from 9.9×10(-5) to 1.0×10(-3) mol L(-1), with a detection limit of 6.6×10(-5) mol L(-1) using linear sweep voltammetry. These results demonstrated the viability of this modified electrode as a sensor for determination, quality control and routine analysis of ranitidine in pharmaceutical formulations. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The safety and efficacy of ranitidine bismuth citrate in combination with antibiotics for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyeth, J. W.; Pounder, R. E.; Duggan, A. E.; O'Morain, C. A.; Schaufelberger, H. D.; de Koster, E. H.; Rauws, E. A.; Bardhan, K. D.; Gilvarry, J.; Buckley, M. J.; Gummett, P. A.; Logan, R. P.

    1996-01-01

    Ranitidine bismuth citrate is a novel salt of ranitidine and a bismuth citrate complex. It has intrinsic antisecretory and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity, but monotherapy rarely eradicates H. pylori infection in man. A pilot study to investigate rates of H. pylori eradication achieved by

  19. The influence of metronidazole resistance on the efficacy of ranitidine bismuth citrate triple therapy regimens for Helicobacter pylori infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wouden, EJ; Thijs, JC; Van Zwet, AA; Kooy, A; Kleibeuker, JH

    Aim: To assess the influence of metronidazole resistance on the efficacy of ranitidine bismuth citrate-based triple therapy regimens in two consecutive studies. Methods: In the first study, patients with a culture-proven Helicobacter pylori infection were treated with ranitidine bismuth citrate 400

  20. Effectiveness of motivational interviewing at improving oral health: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Morales Cascaes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To analyze the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI at improving oral health behaviors (oral hygiene habits, sugar consumption, dental services utilization or use of fluoride and dental clinical outcomes (dental plaque, dental caries and periodontal status. METHODS : A systematic search of PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, PsyINFO, Cochrane and Google Scholar bibliographic databases was conducted looking for intervention studies that investigated MI as the main approach to improving the oral health outcomes investigated. RESULTS : Of the 78 articles found, ten met the inclusion criteria, all based on randomized controlled trials. Most studies (n = 8 assessed multiple outcomes. Five interventions assessed the impact of MI on oral health behaviors and nine on clinical outcomes (three on dental caries, six on dental plaque, four on gingivitis and three on periodontal pockets. Better quality of evidence was provided by studies that investigated dental caries, which also had the largest population samples. The evidence of the effect of MI on improving oral health outcomes is conflicting. Four studies reported positive effects of MI on oral health outcomes whereas another four showed null effect. In two interventions, the actual difference between groups was not reported or able to be recalculated. CONCLUSIONS : We found inconclusive effectiveness for most oral health outcomes. We need more and better designed and reported interventions to fully assess the impact of MI on oral health and understand the appropriate dosage for the counseling interventions.

  1. Improving maraviroc oral bioavailability by formation of solid drug nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Alison C; Tatham, Lee M; Siccardi, Marco; Scott, Trevor; Vourvahis, Manoli; Clark, Andrew; Rannard, Steve P; Owen, Andrew

    2018-05-17

    Oral drug administration remains the preferred approach for treatment of HIV in most patients. Maraviroc (MVC) is the first in class co-receptor antagonist, which blocks HIV entry into host cells. MVC has an oral bioavailability of approximately 33%, which is limited by poor permeability as well as affinity for CYP3A and several drug transporters. While once-daily doses are now the favoured option for HIV therapy, dose-limiting postural hypotension has been of theoretical concern when administering doses high enough to achieve this for MVC (particularly during coadministration of enzyme inhibitors). To overcome low bioavailability and modify the pharmacokinetic profile, a series of 70 wt% MVC solid drug nanoparticle (SDN) formulations (containing 30 wt% of various polymer/surfactant excipients) were generated using emulsion templated freeze-drying. The lead formulation contained PVA and AOT excipients ( MVC SDN PVA/AOT ), and was demonstrated to be fully water-dispersible to release drug nanoparticles with z-average diameter of 728 nm and polydispersity index of 0.3. In vitro and in vivo studies of MVC SDN PVA/AOT showed increased apparent permeability of MVC, compared to a conventional MVC preparation, with in vivo studies in rats showing a 2.5-fold increase in AUC (145.33 vs. 58.71 ng h ml -1 ). MVC tissue distribution was similar or slightly increased in tissues examined compared to the conventional MVC preparation, with the exception of the liver, spleen and kidneys, which showed statistically significant increases in MVC for MVC SDN PVA/AOT . These data support a novel oral format with the potential for dose reduction while maintaining therapeutic MVC exposure and potentially enabling a once-daily fixed dose combination product. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Effects of long-term acid suppressants with ranitidine and omeprazole on gastric mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P C Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Proton pump inhibitors are used widely for gastroesophageal reflux disease and ulcer type dyspepsia. Majority of the patients require long term medication. H2 receptor antagonist are also used for relief of symptoms. Though tachyphylaxis has been reported, symptom response is seen with long term use. The aim of the present study was to study the effects of long-term acid suppressants on gastric antral histology. Methods: Patients who received long-term acid suppressants such as ranitidine and omeprazole for gastroesophageal reflux disease or dyspepsia were included. All of them had an antral biopsy for histology and H. pylori status at baseline, at 6 months and 12 months. Patients on acid suppressants for less than a year or on long-term non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs were excluded from the study. The grading of gastritis was classified as chronic active gastritis, atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia. Results: Thirty patients received ranitidine and 28 omeprazole. In H. pylori positive group, the median duration of ranitidine and omeprazole were 3 years (1.5 to 8 years and 4 years (1 to 10 years respectively. Two thirds of patients had chronic active gastritis (ranitidine: 35.5%; omeprazole:26.6%; 10 had gastric atrophy (ranitidine: 6.6%; omeprazole:15.5% and 7 had intestinal metaplasia (ranitidine4.4%; omeprazole11.1%. Four of the 10 patients on omeprazole showed progression of histology as against only one of the 13 patients on ranitidine at one year of follow up. In omeprazole pylori negative patients, the median duration of ranitidine and omeprazole was 2.5 years (range 1 to 6 years and 3 years (range 2 to 7 years respectively. Irrespective of the acid suppressants, the baseline histology was either chronic active gastritis (78.5% or gastric atrophy (21.5%. None had intestinal metaplasia. Also there was no progression in histology staging during the follow up. Conclusions: Long-term acid

  3. A randomized placebo controlled trial of ranitidine versus sucralfate in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage for prevention of gastric hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, U K; Kalita, J; Pandey, S; Mandal, S K; Srivastava, M

    2005-12-15

    Due of paucity of studies on stress ulcer prophylaxis in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), we have evaluated the usefulness of ranitidine and sucralfate in preventing gastric hemorrhage (GH) in patients with ICH. In a hospital-based randomized placebo-controlled study, patients with CT-proven ICH within 7 days of ictus were randomized into ranitidine 50 mg i.v. eight hourly, sucralfate 1 g six hourly and placebo groups. Patients were conservatively managed. Primary endpoint was occurrence of GH within 15 days of ictus and secondary endpoint 1-month mortality. The mean age of the patients was 57.2 (range 25-90) years and 40 were females. There were 45 patients in ranitidine, 49 in sucralfate and 47 in placebo group. Demographic, clinical and radiological features were not significantly different in 3 groups. GH occurred in 11 (23.4%) patients in placebo, 5 (11.1%) in ranitidine and 7 (14.3%) in sucralfate group, which was not significant. Only one female had GH. There were 13 (27.7%) deaths in placebo, 5 (11.1%) in ranitidine and 12 (24.5%) in sucralfate group. Pneumonia occurred in placebo group in 5 (10.6%), ranitidine in 2 (4.4%) and sucralfate in 5 (10.2%) patients, which was not significantly different. Ranitidine and sucralfate do not seem to significantly prevent GH or reduce 1-month mortality.

  4. Oral L-Arginine Stimulates GLP-1 Secretion to Improve Glucose Tolerance in Male Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Christoffer; Smajilovic, Sanela; Smith, Eric P

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological and surgical interventions that increase glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) action are effective to improve glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetes mellitus. In light of this, nutritional strategies to enhance postprandial GLP-1 secretion, particularly in the context of diet......-induced obesity, may provide an alternative therapeutic approach. Importantly, recent evidence suggests the amino acid l-arginine, a well-known insulin secretagogue, can also stimulate release of GLP-1 from isolated rat intestine. Here we tested the hypothesis that oral l-arginine acts as a GLP-1 secretagogue...... in vivo, to augment postprandial insulin secretion and improve glucose tolerance. To test this, we administered l-arginine or vehicle by oral gavage, immediately prior to an oral glucose tolerance test in lean and diet-induced obese mice. In both lean and obese mice oral l-arginine increased plasma GLP-1...

  5. Combination therapy of sucralfate and ranitidine, compared with sucralfate monotherapy, in patients with peptic reflux esophagitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeijden, J. R.; Tytgat, G. N.; Schotborgh, R. H.; Dekker, W.; vd Boomgaard, D. M.; van Olffen, G. H.; Schrijver, M.; Vosmaer, G. D.; Dekkers, C. P.

    1992-01-01

    A double-blind, multicenter, randomized study was performed in 75 patients with endoscopically documented reflux esophagitis. Patients were randomly given 1 g sucralfate four times a day or the combination of sucralfate three times a day and 300 mg ranitidine after dinnertime. Endoscopy was

  6. Nosocomial Pneumonia in Mechanically Ventilated Patients Receiving Ranitidine or Sucralfate as Stress Ulcer Prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Prakash

    2008-01-01

    We concluded that stress ulcer prophylaxis with ranitidine increases the risk for late- onset pneumonia in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients by favoring gastric colonization by gram- negative bacilli compared with sucralfate. In patients receiving mechanical ventilation, the use of sucralfate may be preferable to H 2 blockers.

  7. Excipient Nanoemulsions for Improving Oral Bioavailability of Bioactives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Salvia-Trujillo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral bioavailability of many hydrophobic bioactive compounds found in natural food products (such as vitamins and nutraceuticals in fruits and vegetables is relatively low due to their low bioaccessibility, chemical instability, or poor absorption. Most previous research has therefore focused on the design of delivery systems to incorporate isolated bioactive compounds into food products. However, a more sustainable and cost-effect approach to enhancing the functionality of bioactive compounds is to leave them within their natural environment, but specifically design excipient foods that enhance their bioavailability. Excipient foods typically do not have functionality themselves but they have the capacity to enhance the functionality of nutrients present in natural foods by altering their bioaccessibility, absorption, and/or chemical transformation. In this review article we present the use of excipient nanoemulsions for increasing the bioavailability of bioactive components from fruits and vegetables. Nanoemulsions present several advantages over other food systems for this application, such as the ability to incorporate hydrophilic, amphiphilic, and lipophilic excipient ingredients, high physical stability, and rapid gastrointestinal digestibility. The design, fabrication, and application of nanoemulsions as excipient foods will therefore be described in this article.

  8. Attenuation of stress-induced gastric lesions by lansoprazole, PD-136450 and ranitidine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandranath, S I; Bastaki, S M A; D'Souza, A; Adem, A; Singh, J

    2011-03-01

    Combining restraint with cold temperature (4°C) consistently induces gastric ulceration in rats after 3.5 h. The cold restraint-stress (CRS) method provides a suitable model for acute ulcer investigations. This study compares the antiulcer activities of lansoprazole (a proton pump inhibitor), PD-136450 (CCK(2)/gastrin receptor antagonist) and ranitidine (histamine H(2) receptor antagonist) on CRS-induced gastric ulcers in rats. The results have shown that lansoprazole, which is a potent anti-secretory agent, provides complete protection in this model of ulcer formation. The use of indomethacin pretreatment to inhibit the prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and N(G)-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) pretreatment to inhibit nitric oxide synthase did not alter the lansoprazole-induced inhibition of ulcer index obtained in the untreated Wistar rats indicating that these two systems were not involved in the activation of lansoprazole. PD-136450, an effective anti-secretory agent against gastrin- but not dimaprit-induced stimulation, evoked a dose-dependent inhibition of CRS-induced gastric ulcers. The results show that both PG and nitric oxide pathways can influence the inhibitory effect of PD-136450 against CRS-induced gastric ulcer. The antiulcer activities of both lansoprazole and PD-136450 were compared to that of ranitidine. The results showed that ranitidine was more potent than lansoprazole and PD-136450 in inhibiting CRS-induced gastric ulcers and its effect was shown to be influenced by PG as well as nitric oxide synthase. The results of this study have demonstrated that although lansoprazole, PD-136450 and ranitidine were protective against CRS-induced gastric ulcers, the antiulcer activities of PD-136450 and ranitidine involved both PG and nitric oxide pathways, while lansoprazole acted independently of these two systems during CRS.

  9. On Strategies of Improving Junior High School Students' Oral English Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗茜

    2015-01-01

    With the increasingly frequent international exchanges,English,as an international language,has been attached greater importance.The oral English ability of junior high school students plays an indispensable role in their everyday study and social interaction,and it is the present junior school study that can lay a solid foundation for their future study and life. Therefore,to comprehensively improve their oral English ability is in urgent need and of paramount significance.This paper focuses on analyzing the external and internal factors influencing the cultivation of junior high school students' oral English ability,and put forwards the corresponding cultivating strategies of the oral English ability of junior high school students.

  10. On Strategies of Improving Junior High School Students’ Oral English Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗茜

    2015-01-01

    With the increasingly frequent international exchanges,English,as an international language,has been attached greater importance.The oral English ability of junior high school students plays an indispensable role in their everyday study and social interaction,and it is the present junior school study that can lay a solid foundation for their future study and life.Therefore,to comprehensively improve their oral English ability is in urgent need and of paramount significance.This paper focuses on analyzing the external and internal factors influencing the cultivation of junior high school students’oral English ability,and put forwards the corresponding cultivating strategies of the oral English ability of junior high school students.

  11. ORAL DRILLS AND WRITING IMPROVEMENT IN THE FOURTH GRADE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILLER, BARBARA D.; NEY, JAMES W.

    BELIEVING FORMAL WRITTEN ENGLISH TO BE A "FOREIGN LANGUAGE" TO MOST AMERICAN PUBLIC SCHOOL STUDENTS, RESEARCHERS USED THE AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION TO PROMOTE WRITING IMPROVEMENT IN FOURTH-GRADERS. TWO RANDOMLY-SELECTED CLASSES OF STUDENTS OF AVERAGE ABILITY COMPOSED THE STUDY POPULATION--ONE CLASS FOR THE EXPERIMENT,…

  12. Improving Adherence to Oral Iron Supplementation During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Bilimale

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was in a rural setting in which there was a high prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women (97.1%. The team report data that deploying a direct observer to monitor compliance improves the adherence to iron tablets. The mean haemoglobin was statistically significant in the study group at the last visit.

  13. Identifying factors to improve oral cancer screening uptake: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Vida Zohoori

    Full Text Available To engage with high risk groups to identify knowledge and awareness of oral cancer signs and symptoms and the factors likely to contribute to improved screening uptake.Focus group discussions were undertaken with 18 males; 40+ years of age; smokers and/or drinkers (15+ cigarettes per day and/or 15+ units of alcohol per week, irregular dental attenders living in economically deprived areas of Teesside.There was a striking reported lack of knowledge and awareness of oral cancer and its signs and symptoms among the participants. When oral/mouth cancer leaflets produced by Cancer Research UK were presented to the participants, they claimed that they would seek help on noticing such a condition. There was a preference to seek help from their general practitioner rather than their dentist due to perceptions that a dentist is 'inaccessible' on a physical and psychological level, costly, a 'tooth specialist' not a 'mouth specialist', and also not able to prescribe medication and make referrals to specialists. Interestingly, none of the 18 participants who were offered a free oral cancer examination at a dental practice took up this offer.The uptake of oral cancer screening may be improved by increasing knowledge of the existence and signs and symptoms of oral cancer. Other factors that may increase uptake are increased awareness of the role of dentists in diagnosing oral cancer, promotion of oral cancer screening by health professionals during routine health checks, and the use of a "health" screening setting as opposed to a "dental" setting for such checks.

  14. Brief Report: Remotely Delivered Video Modeling for Improving Oral Hygiene in Children with ASD: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popple, Ben; Wall, Carla; Flink, Lilli; Powell, Kelly; Discepolo, Keri; Keck, Douglas; Mademtzi, Marilena; Volkmar, Fred; Shic, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Children with autism have heightened risk of developing oral health problems. Interventions targeting at-home oral hygiene habits may be the most effective means of improving oral hygiene outcomes in this population. This randomized control trial examined the effectiveness of a 3-week video-modeling brushing intervention delivered to patients over…

  15. Costello Syndrome with Severe Nodulocystic Acne: Unexpected Significant Improvement of Acanthosis Nigricans after Oral Isotretinoin Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelawadee Sriboonnark

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of 17-year-old female diagnosed with Costello syndrome. Genetic testing provided a proof with G12S mutation in the HRAS gene since 3 years of age with a presentation of severe nodulocystic acne on her face. After 2 months of oral isotretinoin treatment, improvement in her acne was observed. Interestingly, an unexpected significant improvement of acanthosis nigricans on her neck and dorsum of her hands was found as well. We present this case as a successful treatment option by using oral isotretinoin for the treatment of acanthosis nigricans in Costello syndrome patients.

  16. Multi-modal intervention improved oral intake in hospitalized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, M; Beermann, T; Mortensen, M N

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Good nutritional practice (GNP) includes screening, nutrition plan and monitoring, and is mandatory for targeted treatment of malnourished patients in hospital. AIMS: To optimize energy- and protein-intake in patients at nutritional risk and to improve GNP in a hospital setting. METHODS......: A 12-months observational multi-modal intervention study was done, using the top-down and bottom-up principle. All hospitalized patients (>3 days) were included. Setting: A university hospital with 758 beds and all specialities. Measurements: Record audit of GNP, energy- and protein-intake by 24-h...... recall, patient interviews and staff questionnaire before and after the intervention. Interventions: Based on pre-measurements, nutrition support teams in each department made targeted action plans, supervised by an expert team. Education, diagnose-specific nutrition plans, improved menus and eating...

  17. Effects of the H(2)-receptor antagonist ranitidine on gastric motor function after a liquid meal in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Graff, J

    2008-01-01

    , on gastric volume and gastric emptying after a liquid meal in healthy humans. Material and methods. Twelve healthy volunteers participated in a randomized crossover study with 50 mg ranitidine as a bolus intravenously versus no medication. Gastric volume at baseline was determined with single photon emission...... computed tomography (SPECT) after intravenous injection of 99(m)Tc-pertechnetate. After ingestion of a 600-mL liquid meal radiolabelled with (111)In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, dual-isotope technique with SPECT and planar imaging assessed gastric volume as well as gastric emptying. Results....... Ranitidine did not change gastric volume before the meal, nor at 0 h or 1 h after it. Furthermore, ranitidine did not influence gastric retention of meal components after 0.5 h and 1 h. Conclusions. Intravenous bolus injection of 50 mg ranitidine does not modify gastric volume or gastric emptying after a 600...

  18. Designing a digital pedagogical pattern for improving foreign language learners’ oral proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Grobler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available South African undergraduate foreign language students need more opportunity to practise their oral language skills. Not only do appeals to focus more on oral productive skills feature in scholarly literature (Delena-le Roux 2010, it is also one of the main conclusions from a survey among beginner students of French at the Potchefstroom Campus of North-West University (South Africa. It was therefore necessary to design a teaching and learning intervention, specifically aimed at improving beginner students’ oral communication skills in French. Laurillard’s (2012 Conversational Framework inspired the design of a digital pedagogical pattern (DPP, consisting of context and pedagogy descriptors for the development of foreign language learners’ oral communication skills. The Conversational Framework analyses formal learning and challenges the use of new technologies in learning. The implementation process of a DPP for the development of students’ (French oral skills involved three cycles, each with specific outcomes and three groups of participants: the control group and two experimental groups. Field-testing the proposed DPP provided important insights which should be integrated in the design of subsequent digital pedagogical patterns in the specific context: limiting the participant groups to two; decreasing the number of interventions to be implemented in the limited teaching time of a semester; ensuring that each step adheres to the requirements of the Conversational Framework. Student results from the learning interventions in future studies should reveal which intervention better promotes oral communication skills.

  19. Transformation of ranitidine during water chlorination and ozonation: Moiety-specific reaction kinetics and elimination efficiency of NDMA formation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Dahee; Kim, Jisoo; Shin, Jaedon; Hidayat, Zahra Ramadhany; Na, Soyoung; Lee, Yunho

    2016-11-15

    Ranitidine can produce high yields of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) upon chloramination and its presence in water resources is a concern for water utilities using chloramine disinfection. This study assessed the efficiency of water chlorination and ozonation in transforming ranitidine and eliminating its NDMA formation potential (NDMA-FP) by determining moiety-specific reaction kinetics, stoichiometric factors, and elimination levels in real water matrices. Despite the fact that chlorine reacts rapidly with the acetamidine and thioether moieties of ranitidine (k>10(8)M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7), the NDMA-FP decreases significantly only when chlorine reacts with the less reactive tertiary amine (k=3×10(3)M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7) or furan moiety (k=81M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7). Ozone reacts rapidly with all four moieties of ranitidine (k=1.5×10(5)-1.6×10(6)M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7) and its reaction with the tertiary amine or furan moiety leads to complete elimination of the NDMA-FP. Treatments of ranitidine-spiked real water samples have shown that ozonation can efficiently deactivate ranitidine in water and wastewater treatment, while chlorination can be efficient for water containing low concentration of ammonia. This result can be applied to the other structurally similar, potent NDMA precursors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Interprofessional Oral Health Education Improves Knowledge, Confidence, and Practice for Pediatric Healthcare Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devon Cooper

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is the most prevalent chronic childhood disease in the United States. Dental caries affects the health of 60–90% of school-aged children worldwide. The prevalence of untreated early childhood dental caries is 19% for children 2–5 years of age in the U.S. Some factors that contribute to the progression of dental caries include socioeconomic status, access to dental care, and lack of anticipatory guidance. The prevalence of dental caries remains highest for children from specific ethnic or racial groups, especially those living in underserved areas where there may be limited access to a dentist. Although researchers have acknowledged the various links between oral health and overall systemic health, oral health care is not usually a component of pediatric primary health care. To address this public health crisis and oral health disparity in children, new collaborative efforts among health professionals is critical for dental disease prevention and optimal oral health. This evaluation study focused on a 10-week interprofessional practice and education (IPE course on children’s oral health involving dental, osteopathic medical, and nurse practitioner students at the University of California, San Francisco. This study’s objective was to evaluate changes in knowledge, confidence, attitude, and clinical practice in children’s oral health of the students completed the course. Thirty-one students participated in the IPE and completed demographic questionnaires and four questionnaires before and after the IPE course: (1 course content knowledge, (2 confidence, (3 attitudes, and (4 clinical practice. Results showed a statistically significant improvement in the overall knowledge of children’s oral health topics, confidence in their ability to provide oral health services, and clinical practice. There was no statistically significant difference in attitude, but there was an upward trend toward positivity. To conclude, this IPE

  1. Peer tutoring pilot program for the improvement of oral health behavior in underprivileged and immigrant children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Claus H; Löpker, Nadine; Noack, Michael J; Klein, Klaus; Rosen, Evelyne

    2009-01-01

    Caries prevalence in underprivileged children is particularly high and, even though many efforts have been made, adherence to dental preventive programs is low. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a tutoring program can improve oral health behavior in underprivileged and/or immigrant children. Thirty fourth-grade children (mean age = 9.6), over 50 percent of immigrant background, participated in this longitudinal pilot study. The fourth graders were invited to develop on oral health program for their first-grade peers. For this purpose, the fourth graders learned oral health practices and developed the peer tutoring program. Prior to the intervention and after having instructed their first-grade peers, all fourth graders were interviewed about their oral health habits and their tooth-brushing was recorded on video. Toothbrushing time, performance of circular tooth-brushing movements, and systematic cleaning of all dental surfaces were analyzed before and after the intervention. After peer teaching, there was a significant increase concerning tooth-brushing time (P = .004), performance of circular tooth-brushing movements (P tutoring program yielded a significant improvement in relevant oral care behavior. This approach provided an environment which, in contrast to traditional approaches, facilitates empowerment.

  2. Usefulness of an app in improving oral hygiene compliance in adolescent orthodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotti, Francesca; Dalessandri, Domenico; Salgarello, Stefano; Piancino, Mariagrazia; Bonetti, Stefano; Visconti, Luca; Paganelli, Corrado

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of an app-based approach in a protocol for domestic oral hygiene maintenance in a group of adolescent patients wearing fixed multibracket appliances. Eighty adolescent patients scheduled to start an orthodontic multibracket treatment were randomly divided into two groups of 40. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), white spots (WS), and caries presence were recorded in all patients, and they were instructed regarding domestic oral hygiene maintenance on the day of braces application (t0) and every 3 months (t1, t2, t3, t4) during the first year of treatment. Study group (SG) patients were enrolled in a WhatsApp chat room-based competition and instructed to share monthly with the other participants two self-photographs (selfies) showing their oral hygiene status. SG patient participation in the chat room was regular and active throughout the observation period. At t2, t3, and t4, SG patients had significantly lower values of both PI and GI and a lower incidence of new WS and caries, compared with the control group. Integration of new "social" technologies in a standard oral hygiene motivation protocol is effective in improving compliance of adolescent patients and in improving their oral health status during orthodontic multibracket treatment.

  3. Improving the Awareness of Personal and Oral Hygiene in Second Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleskie-Lippert, Kathleen

    The practicum reported here involved the design of a hygiene awareness unit to help 30 second-grade students in an inner-city school become aware of and improve their personal and oral hygiene, and to provide necessary knowledge concerning pediculosis. Surveys of students and faculty prior to the program demonstrated the need for such a program as…

  4. Formulation of cyclodextrin inclusion complex-based orally disintegrating tablet of eslicarbazepine acetate for improved oral bioavailability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Samixa; Poddar, Aditi; Sawant, Krutika

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed towards developing a beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) solid dispersion (SD) based orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), for improving the dissolution and providing fast onset of anti-epileptic action. Optimum ratio of ESL and β-CD was determined by Job's plot. Thereafter, solid dispersions were prepared by solvent evaporation method and evaluated for yield, assay, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and in vitro dissolution. Optimized SD was compressed into ODT by direct compression using super disintegrants and evaluated for wetting time, drug content, in vitro drug release and in vivo studies. The results of DSC, FTIR and XRD analysis supported the formation of inclusion complex. An improved dissolution with 99.95 ± 2.80% drug release in 60 min was observed in comparison to 24.85 ± 2.96% release from a plain drug suspension. Tablets with crosspovidone as a super disintegrant showed the least disintegration time of 24.66 ± 1.52 s and higher in vitro drug release against marketed tablets. In vivo studies indicated that the formulated tablets had 2 times higher bioavailability than marketed tablets. Thus, the developed β-CD–ESL SD-ODT could provide faster onset of action and higher bioavailability, which would be beneficial in case of epileptic seizures. - Highlights: • β-cyclodextrin–eslicarbazepine acetate complex developed with enhanced solubility. • Formulated Orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) disintegrated within 30 s. • Bioavailability from ODT was 2 times higher than marketed tablets. • Onset of action for ODT was also faster than marketed tablets. • Formulated ODT would aid epileptic patients incapable of swallowing tablets.

  5. Formulation of cyclodextrin inclusion complex-based orally disintegrating tablet of eslicarbazepine acetate for improved oral bioavailability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Samixa; Poddar, Aditi; Sawant, Krutika, E-mail: dr_krutikasawant@yahoo.co.in

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed towards developing a beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) solid dispersion (SD) based orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), for improving the dissolution and providing fast onset of anti-epileptic action. Optimum ratio of ESL and β-CD was determined by Job's plot. Thereafter, solid dispersions were prepared by solvent evaporation method and evaluated for yield, assay, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and in vitro dissolution. Optimized SD was compressed into ODT by direct compression using super disintegrants and evaluated for wetting time, drug content, in vitro drug release and in vivo studies. The results of DSC, FTIR and XRD analysis supported the formation of inclusion complex. An improved dissolution with 99.95 ± 2.80% drug release in 60 min was observed in comparison to 24.85 ± 2.96% release from a plain drug suspension. Tablets with crosspovidone as a super disintegrant showed the least disintegration time of 24.66 ± 1.52 s and higher in vitro drug release against marketed tablets. In vivo studies indicated that the formulated tablets had 2 times higher bioavailability than marketed tablets. Thus, the developed β-CD–ESL SD-ODT could provide faster onset of action and higher bioavailability, which would be beneficial in case of epileptic seizures. - Highlights: • β-cyclodextrin–eslicarbazepine acetate complex developed with enhanced solubility. • Formulated Orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) disintegrated within 30 s. • Bioavailability from ODT was 2 times higher than marketed tablets. • Onset of action for ODT was also faster than marketed tablets. • Formulated ODT would aid epileptic patients incapable of swallowing tablets.

  6. Comparative evaluation of audio and audio - tactile methods to improve oral hygiene status of visually impaired school children

    OpenAIRE

    R Krishnakumar; Swarna Swathi Silla; Sugumaran K Durai; Mohan Govindarajan; Syed Shaheed Ahamed; Logeshwari Mathivanan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Visually impaired children are unable to maintain good oral hygiene, as their tactile abilities are often underdeveloped owing to their visual disturbances. Conventional brushing techniques are often poorly comprehended by these children and hence, it was decided to evaluate the effectiveness of audio and audio-tactile methods in improving the oral hygiene of these children. Objective: To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of audio and audio-tactile methods in improving oral h...

  7. Administração oral de peptídios e proteínas: I. Estratégias gerais para aumento da biodisponibilidade oral Oral delivery system for peptides and proteins: I. Approaches to improve oral bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Silva

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Existem, atualmente, centenas de peptídios e proteínas com ação terapêutica. Os obstáculos inerentes à sua administração oral têm impulsionado a investigação de estratégias capazes de os ultrapassar. Nesta revisão são abordados estes dois aspectos. A microencapsulação, pela sua versatilidade, sobressai entre as demais estratégias, afirmando-se como escolha potencial na administração oral de fármacos peptídicos.There are hundreds of peptides and proteins clinically relevant. The difficulties associated with their oral administration have been responsible for the major efforts in developing ways to improve oral bioavailability. Both these subjects are described in this review. The potentiality of microencapsulation presents this technique as a privileged approach for the oral delivery of peptide and protein drugs.

  8. Functionally engineered nanosized particles in pharmaceutics: improved oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Tetsuya; Tagami, Tatsuaki

    2013-01-01

    The development of drug nanoparticles has attracted substantial attention because of their potential to improve the dissolution rate and oral availability of poorly water-soluble drugs. This review summarizes the recent articles that discussed nanoparticle-based oral drug delivery systems. The preparation methods were categorized as top-down and bottom-up methods, which are common methods for preparing drug nanoparticles. In addition, methods of handling drug nanoparticles (e.g., one-step preparation of nanocomposites which are microparticles containing drug nanoparticles) were introduced for the effective preservation of drug nanoparticles. The carrier-based preparation of drug nanoparticles was also introduced as a potentially promising oral drug delivery system.

  9. N,N'-dihydroxyamidines: a new prodrug principle to improve the oral bioavailability of amidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeh, Christiane; Wundt, Judith; Clement, Bernd

    2007-12-27

    N, N'-dihydroxybenzamdine represents a model compound for a new prodrug principle to improve the oral bioavailability of drugs containing amidine functions. The activation of the prodrug could be demonstrated in vitro by porcine and human subcellular enzyme fractions, the mitochondrial benzamidoxime reducing system, and porcine hepatocytes. In vivo, the bioavailability of benzamidine after oral application of N, N'-dihydroxybenzamidine was about 91% and exceeded that of benzamidine after oral application of benzamidoxime, being about 74% (Liu, L.; Ling, Y.; Havel, C.; Bashnick, L.; Young, W.; Rai, R.; Vijaykumar, D.; Riggs, J. R.; Ton, T.; Shaghafi, M.; Graupe, D.; Mordenti, J.; Sukbuntherng, J. Species comparison of in vitro and in vivo conversion of five N-hydroxyamidine prodrugs of fVIIA inhibitors to their corresponding active amidines. Presented at the 13th North America ISSX Meeting, Maui, HI, 2005).

  10. Optical Molecular Imaging of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Expression to Improve Detection of Oral Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Nitin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development of noninvasive molecular imaging approaches has the potential to improve management of cancer. Methods: In this study, we demonstrate the potential of noninvasive topical delivery of an epidermal growth factor-Alexa 647 (EGF-Alexa 647 conjugate to image changes in epidermal growth factor receptor expression associated with oral neoplasia. We report a series of preclinical analyses to evaluate the optical contrast achieved after topical delivery of EGF-Alexa 647 in a variety of model systems, including cells, three-dimensional tissue cultures, and intact human tissue specimens using wide-field and high-resolution fluorescence imaging. Data were collected from 17 different oral cancer patients: eight pairs of normal and abnormal biopsies and nine resected tumors were examined. Results: The EGF-dye conjugate can be uniformly delivered throughout the oral epithelium with a penetration depth exceeding 500 µm and incubation time of less than 30 minutes. After EGF-Alexa 647 incubation, the presence of oral neoplasia is associated with a 1.5- to 6.9-fold increase in fluorescence contrast compared with grossly normal mucosa from the same patient with both wide-field and high-resolution fluorescence imaging. Conclusions: Results illustrate the potential of EGF-targeted fluorescent agents for in vivo molecular imaging, a technique that may aid in the diagnosis and characterization of oral neoplasia and allow real-time detection of tumor margins.

  11. Improving dissolution and oral bioavailability of pranlukast hemihydrate by particle surface modification with surfactants and homogenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha ES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Eun-Sol Ha,1 In-hwan Baek,2 Jin-Wook Yoo,1 Yunjin Jung,1 Min-Soo Kim1 1College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, 2College of Pharmacy, Kyungsung University, Busan, Republic of Korea Abstract: The present study was carried out to develop an oral formulation of pranlukast hemihydrate with improved dissolution and oral bioavailability using a surface-modified microparticle. Based on solubility measurements, surface-modified pranlukast hemihydrate microparticles were manufactured using the spray-drying method with hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, sucrose laurate, and water and without the use of an organic solvent. The hydrophilicity of the surface-modified pranlukast hemihydrate microparticle increased, leading to enhanced dissolution and oral bioavailability of pranlukast hemihydrate without a change in crystallinity. The surface-modified microparticles with an hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose/sucrose laurate ratio of 1:2 showed rapid dissolution of up to 85% within 30 minutes in dissolution medium (pH 6.8 and oral bioavailability higher than that of the commercial product, with approximately 2.5-fold and 3.9-fold increases in area under the curve (AUC0→12 h and peak plasma concentration, respectively. Therefore, the surface-modified microparticle is an effective oral drug delivery system for the poorly water-soluble therapeutic pranlukast hemihydrate. Keywords: solubility, wettability, sucrose laurate, cellulose

  12. Oral insulin improves metabolic parameters in high fat diet fed rats

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    LEANDRO C. LIPINSKI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction/Aim: The gut has shown to have a pivotal role on the pathophysiology of metabolic disease. Food stimulation of distal intestinal segments promotes enterohormones secretion influencing insulin metabolism. In diabetic rats, oral insulin has potential to change intestinal epithelium behavior. This macromolecule promotes positive effects on laboratorial metabolic parameters and decreases diabetic intestinal hypertrophy. This study aims to test if oral insulin can influence metabolic parameters and intestinal weight in obese non-diabetic rats. Methods: Twelve weeks old Wistar rats were divided in 3 groups: control (CTRL standard chow group; high fat diet low carbohydrates group (HFD and HFD plus daily oral 20U insulin gavage (HFD+INS. Weight and food consumption were weekly obtained. After eight weeks, fasting blood samples were collected for laboratorial analysis. After euthanasia gut samples were isolated. Results: Rat oral insulin treatment decreased body weight gain (p<0,001, fasting glucose and triglycerides serum levels (p<0,05 an increased intestinal weight of distal ileum (P<0,05. Animal submitted to high fat diet presented higher levels of HOMA-IR although significant difference to CT was not achieved. HOMA-beta were significantly higher (p<0.05 in HFD+INS. Visceral fat was 10% lower in HFD+INS but the difference was not significant. Conclusions: In non-diabetic obese rats, oral insulin improves metabolic malfunction associated to rescue of beta-cell activity.

  13. Reduction of N-nitrosodimethylamine formation from ranitidine by ozonation preceding chloramination: influencing factors and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Rusen; Liao, Xiaobin; Zhao, Lei; Yuan, Baoling

    2018-05-01

    Formation of toxic N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) by chloramination of ranitidine, a drug to block histamine, was still an ongoing issue and posed a risk to human health. In this study, the effect of ozonation prior to chloramination on NDMA formation and the transformation pathway were determined. Influencing factors, including ozone dosages, pH, hydroxyl radical scavenger, bromide, and NOM, were studied. The results demonstrated that small ozone dosage (0.5 mg/L) could effectively control NDMA formation from subsequent chloramination (from 40 to 0.8%). The NDMA molar conversion was not only influenced by pH but also by ozone dosages at various pre-ozonation pH (reached the highest value of 5% at pH 8 with 0.5 mg/L O 3 but decreased with the increasing pH with 1 mg/L O 3 ). The NDMA molar yield by chloramination of ranitidine without pre-ozonation was reduced by the presence of bromide ion due to the decomposition of disinfectant. However, due to the formation of brominated intermediate substances (i.e., dimethylamine (DMA), dimethyl-aminomethyl furfuryl alcohol (DFUR)) with higher NDMA molar yield than their parent substances, more NDMA was formed than that without bromide ion upon ozonation. Natural organic matter (NOM) and hydroxyl radical scavenger (tert-butyl alcohol, tBA) enhanced NDMA generation because of the competition of ozone and more ranitidine left. The NDMA reduction mechanism by pre-ozonation during chloramination of ranitidine may be due to the production of oxidation products with less NDMA yield (such as DMA) than parent compound. Based on the result of Q-TOF and GC-MS/MS analysis, three possible transformation pathways were proposed. Different influences of oxidation conditions and water quality parameters suggest that strategies to reduce NDMA formation should vary with drinking water sources and choose optimal ozone dosage.

  14. Management of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Due to NSAID Gastropathy That is Unresponsive to Ranitidine

    OpenAIRE

    Erawati, Lusy; Ridho, Sayid; Nainggolan, Ginova; Syam, Ari Fahrial; Manan, Chudahman

    2003-01-01

    Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) are now commonly used in clinical practice. On the other hands, this drug could result severe complication such as bleeding and perforation. In such condition, proton pump inhibitor can be used to stop bleeding than H2 antagonists. We reported one cases of upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to NSAID gastropathy that was unresponsive to Ranitidine. The treatment was suitable to proton pump inhibitor that could overcome upper gastrointestinal blee...

  15. Short-term impact of oral hygiene training package to Anganwadi workers on improving oral hygiene of preschool children in North Indian City

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Globally, dental caries is categorized in the list of public health problems in preschool children. In India, lack of availability and affordability of oral health enhances the cost of treatment and care. Empowering community workers like anganwadi workers (AWWs) in oral health, and providing basic oral health awareness to the mothers through them can be feasible model. So, the present study was conducted to evaluate the short-term impact of Oral Hygiene Training Package (OHTP) to AWWs on improving oral hygiene of preschool children. Methods This before and after comparison field trial was done in Anganwadi centres (AWCs) of Chandigarh city, India. 534 children aged 36-72 months attending 21 AWCs were examined before and after imparting trainings to AWWs. OHTP was administered to AWWs, which consisted of power-point presentation and demonstrated the skills like proper brushing technique, plaque disclosure, flossing technique, gum massaging etc. The AWWs later imparted training to mothers in their respective AWCs. Post intervention data was collected after three months. Outcome measures were improvement in oral health status (plaque, debris, gingival health), oral habits (brushing, rinsing) and decrease in caries activity (Snyder test). Results Prevalence of dental caries was found to be 48.3%. Only 4.1% of the population reported brushing twice which increased significantly to 9.9% post-intervention (p = 0.000). There was a significant decrease in debris (78.3% to 54.1%), and stage-1 plaque (75.5 to 66.5%) in the oral cavity. Caries activity by Snyder’s test decreased from 48.2% to 31.2% (p = 0.01) post-intervention. Conclusions Controlled trials of using AWWs to improve oral hygiene appear to be justified. Trial registration CTRI/2012/07/002786 PMID:24279468

  16. Usefulness of panoramic radiograph for the improvement of periodic oral examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, MinJung; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and utility of panoramic radiograph for the improvement of the periodic oral examinations. Clinical examinations and panoramic examinations were done for the 242 subjects of oral examinations. The results of panoramic radiograph interpretation were compared with the clinical findings. Two questionnaires were created. One was carried out before the panoramic examination and the other done afterwards, to find out the subjects cognition and satisfaction for the clinical and panoramic examinations. Results : 1. Panoramic findings showed a higher detection rate of 31.9% for periodontal diseases, and 23.1% for dental caries than clinical findings. 2. The additional abnormalities detected through panoramic examinations were impacted tooth in 81 subjects (33.6%), maxillary sinus abnormalities in 28 subjects (11.6%), condylar abnormalities in 5 subjects (2.1%), congenital and acquired dental anormalies in 59 subjects (24.5%), and other miscellaneous abnormalities in 34 subjects (14.1%). 3. 164 subjects (67.8%) were satisfied with the current periodic oral examination, and 75 subjects (31.1%) hoped for better accuracy. 4. In the first and second questionnaire, 154 subjects (67.0%) and 163 subjects (70.6%) responded respectively that panoramic examination was necessary, and 193 subjects (83.2%) responded that it actually helped. The panoramic examination was revealed to improve the effectiveness of the periodic oral examination and to increase the satisfaction of the subjects of examination.

  17. A pacifier-activated music player with mother's voice improves oral feeding in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorna, Olena D; Slaughter, James C; Wang, Lulu; Stark, Ann R; Maitre, Nathalie L

    2014-03-01

    We conducted a randomized trial to test the hypothesis that mother's voice played through a pacifier-activated music player (PAM) during nonnutritive sucking would improve the development of sucking ability and promote more effective oral feeding in preterm infants. Preterm infants between 34 0/7 and 35 6/7 weeks' postmenstrual age, including those with brain injury, who were taking at least half their feedings enterally and less than half orally, were randomly assigned to receive 5 daily 15-minute sessions of either PAM with mother's recorded voice or no PAM, along with routine nonnutritive sucking and maternal care in both groups. Assignment was masked to the clinical team. Ninety-four infants (46 and 48 in the PAM intervention and control groups, respectively) completed the study. The intervention group had significantly increased oral feeding rate (2.0 vs. 0.9 mL/min, P improves oral feeding skills in preterm infants without adverse effects on hormonal stress or growth.

  18. Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system for improved oral bioavailability of dipyridamole: preparation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Zhong, Haijun; He, Jing; Xie, Baogang; Liu, Fen; Xu, Helin; Liu, Minmin; Xu, Chunlian

    2011-07-01

    Dipyridamole shows poor and variable bioavailability after oral administration due to pHdependent solubility, low biomembrane permeability as well as being a substrate of P-glycoprotein. In order to improve the oral absorption of dipyridamole, a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) for dipyridamole was prepared and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The optimum formulation was 18% oleic acid, 12% Labrafac lipophile WL 1349, 42% Solutol HS 15 and 28% isopropyl alcohol. It was found that the performance of self-microemulsification with the combination of oleic acid and Labrafac lipophile WL 1349 increased compared with just one oil. The results obtained from an in vitro dissolution assay indicated that dipyridamole in SMEDDS dissolved rapidly and completely in pH 6.8 aqueous media, while the commercial drug tablet was less soluble. An oral bioavailability study in rats showed that dipyridamole in the SMEDDS formulation had a 2.06-fold increased absorption compared with the simple drug suspension. It was evident that SMEDDS may be an effective approach to improve the oral absorption for drugs having pH-dependent solubility.

  19. One-step self-assembled nanomicelles for improving the oral bioavailability of nimodipine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing-Wen; Zhang, Zhi-Rong; Gong, Tao; Fu, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Our study aimed to develop a self-assembled nanomicelle for oral administration of nimodipine (NIM) with poor water solubility. Using Solutol(®) HS15, the NIM-loaded self-assembled nanomicelles displayed a near-spherical morphology with a narrow size distribution of 12.57 ± 0.21 nm (polydispersity index =0.071 ± 0.011). Compared with Nimotop(®) (NIM tablets), the intestinal absorption of NIM from NIM nanomicelle in rats was improved by 3.13- and 2.25-fold in duodenum and jejunum at 1 hour after oral administration. The cellular transport of NIM nanomicelle in Caco-2 cell monolayers was significantly enhanced compared to that of Nimotop(®). Regarding the transport pathways, clathrin, lipid raft/caveolae, and macropinocytosis mediated the cell uptake of NIM nanomicelles, while P-glycoprotein and endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi complex (ER/Golgi) pathways were involved in exocytosis. Pharmacokinetic studies in our research laboratory have showed that the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞) of NIM nanomicelles was 3.72-fold that of Nimotop(®) via oral administration in rats. Moreover, the NIM concentration in the brain from NIM nanomicelles was dramatically improved. Therefore, Solutol(®) HS15-based self-assembled nanomicelles represent a promising delivery system to enhance the oral bioavailability of NIM.

  20. Improved oral bioavailability for lutein by nanocrystal technology: formulation development, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Daoxiao; Ma, Yanni; Cao, Guoyu; Wang, Jianhuan; Zhang, Xia; Feng, Jun; Wang, Wenping

    2018-08-01

    Lutein is a kind of natural carotenoids possessing many pharmacological effects. The application of lutein was limited mainly due to its low oral bioavailability caused by poor aqueous solubility. Nanocrystal formulation of lutein was developed to improve the oral bioavailability in this study. The nanosuspension was prepared by the anti-solvent precipitation-ultrasonication method and optimized by Box-Behnken design, followed by freeze-drying to obtain lutein nanocrystals. The nanocrystals were characterized on their physical properties, in vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption performance. Lutein nanocrystals showed as tiny spheres with an average particle size of 110.7 nm. The result of diffractograms indicated that the percent crystallinity of lutein was 89.4% in coarse powder and then declined in nanocrystal formulation. The saturated solubility of lutein in water increased from 7.3 μg/ml for coarse powder up to 215.7 μg/ml for lutein nanocrystals. The dissolution rate of lutein nanocrystals was significantly higher than that of coarse powder or the physical mixture. The C max and AUC 0-24 h of lutein nanocrystals after oral administration in rats was 3.24 and 2.28 times higher than those of lutein suspension, respectively. These results indicated that the nanocrystal formulation could significantly enhance the dissolution and absorption of lutein and might be a promising approach for improving its oral bioavailability.

  1. Improved Starch Digestion of Sucrase-deficient Shrews Treated With Oral Glucoamylase Enzyme Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Buford L; Avery, Stephen E; Quezada-Calvillo, Roberto; Kilani, Shadi B; Lin, Amy Hui-Mei; Burrin, Douglas G; Hodges, Benjamin E; Chacko, Shaji K; Opekun, Antone R; Hindawy, Marwa El; Hamaker, Bruce R; Oda, Sen-Ichi

    2017-08-01

    Although named because of its sucrose hydrolytic activity, this mucosal enzyme plays a leading role in starch digestion because of its maltase and glucoamylase activities. Sucrase-deficient mutant shrews, Suncus murinus, were used as a model to investigate starch digestion in patients with congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency.Starch digestion is much more complex than sucrose digestion. Six enzyme activities, 2 α-amylases (Amy), and 4 mucosal α-glucosidases (maltases), including maltase-glucoamylase (Mgam) and sucrase-isomaltase (Si) subunit activities, are needed to digest starch to absorbable free glucose. Amy breaks down insoluble starch to soluble dextrins; mucosal Mgam and Si can either directly digest starch to glucose or convert the post-α-amylolytic dextrins to glucose. Starch digestion is reduced because of sucrase deficiency and oral glucoamylase enzyme supplement can correct the starch maldigestion. The aim of the present study was to measure glucogenesis in suc/suc shrews after feeding of starch and improvement of glucogenesis by oral glucoamylase supplements. Sucrase mutant (suc/suc) and heterozygous (+/suc) shrews were fed with C-enriched starch diets. Glucogenesis derived from starch was measured as blood C-glucose enrichment and oral recombinant C-terminal Mgam glucoamylase (M20) was supplemented to improve starch digestion. After feedings, suc/suc and +/suc shrews had different starch digestions as shown by blood glucose enrichment and the suc/suc had lower total glucose concentrations. Oral supplements of glucoamylase increased suc/suc total blood glucose and quantitative starch digestion to glucose. Sucrase deficiency, in this model of congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency, reduces blood glucose response to starch feeding. Supplementing the diet with oral recombinant glucoamylase significantly improved starch digestion in the sucrase-deficient shrew.

  2. Can school-based oral health education and a sugar-free chewing gum program improve oral health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Bin; Petersen, Poul Erik; Bian, Zhuan

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the outcome of school-based oral health education (OHE) and a sugar-free chewing gum program on the oral health status of children in terms of reduced caries increment and gingival bleeding over a period of 2 years. Nine primary schools randomly chosen from......'s oral hygiene; in certain circumstances children may benefit from using polyol-containing chewing gum in terms of reduced dental caries....

  3. [Improving the teaching quality by multiple tools and technology in oral histopathology experimental course].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen; Wang, Li-Zhen; Hu, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Chun-Ye; Li, Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Oral histopathology is a course which needs to be combined with theory and practice closely. Experimental course plays an important role in teaching oral histopathology. Here, we aim to explore a series of effective measures to improve the teaching quality of experimental course and tried to train observation, thinking, analysis and problem solving skills of dental students. We re-edited and updated the experimental textbook "guidelines of experimental course of oral histopathology", and published the reference book for experimental course--"color pocket atlas of oral histopathology: experiment and diadactic teaching". The number of clinicopathological cases for presentation and class discussion was increased, and high-quality teaching slides were added and replaced the poor-quality or worn out slides. We established a variety of teaching methods based on the internet, which provided an environment of self-directed learning for dental students. Instead of simple slice-reading examination, a new evaluation system based on computer was established. The questionnaire survey showed that the students spoke positively on the teaching reform for experimental course. They thought that the reform played a significant role in enriching the teaching content, motivating learning interest and promoting self-study. Compared with traditional examination, computer-based examination showed a great advantage on mastering professional knowledge systematically and comprehensively. The measures adopted in our teaching reform not only effectively improve the teaching quality of experimental course of oral histopathology, but also help the students to have a clear, logical thinking when facing complicated diseases and have the ability to apply theoretical knowledge into clinical practice.

  4. One-step self-assembled nanomicelles for improving the oral bioavailability of nimodipine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo JW

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Jing-Wen Luo, Zhi-Rong Zhang, Tao Gong, Yao Fu Key Laboratory of Drug Targeting and Drug Delivery Systems, Ministry of Education, West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Our study aimed to develop a self-assembled nanomicelle for oral administration of nimodipine (NIM with poor water solubility. Using Solutol® HS15, the NIM-loaded self-assembled nanomicelles displayed a near-spherical morphology with a narrow size distribution of 12.57±0.21 nm (polydispersity index =0.071±0.011. Compared with Nimotop® (NIM tablets, the intestinal absorption of NIM from NIM nanomicelle in rats was improved by 3.13- and 2.25-fold in duodenum and jejunum at 1 hour after oral administration. The cellular transport of NIM nanomicelle in Caco-2 cell monolayers was significantly enhanced compared to that of Nimotop®. Regarding the transport pathways, clathrin, lipid raft/caveolae, and macropinocytosis mediated the cell uptake of NIM nanomicelles, while P-glycoprotein and endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi complex (ER/Golgi pathways were involved in exocytosis. Pharmacokinetic studies in our research laboratory have showed that the area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC0–∞ of NIM nanomicelles was 3.72-fold that of Nimotop® via oral administration in rats. Moreover, the NIM concentration in the brain from NIM nanomicelles was dramatically improved. Therefore, Solutol® HS15-based self-assembled nanomicelles represent a promising delivery system to enhance the oral bioavailability of NIM. Keywords: nanomicelles, stability, nimodipine, oral bioavailability, transport mechanism 

  5. Improved Dissolution and Oral Bioavailability of Celecoxib by a Dry Elixir System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kwan Hyung; Jee, Jun-Pil; Yang, Da A; Kim, Sung Tae; Kang, Dongjin; Kim, Dae-Young; Sim, Taeyong; Park, Sang Yeob; Kim, Kyeongsoon; Jang, Dong-Jin

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a dry elixir (DE) system for enhancing the dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of celecoxib. DE system has been used for improving solubility, oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. The encapsulated drugs or solubilized drugs in the matrix are rapidly dissolved due to the co-solvent effect, resting in both an enhanced dissolution and bioavailability. DEs containing celecoxib were prepared by spray-drying method and characterized by morphology, drug/ethanol content, drug crystallinity, dissolution rate and oral bioavailability. The ethanol content and drug content in DE system could be easily altered by controlling the spraydrying conditions. The dissolution profile of celecoxib from DE proved to be much higher than that of celecoxib powder due to the nano-structured matrix, amorphous state and encapsulated ethanol. The bioavailability of celecoxib from DEs was compared with celecoxib powder alone and commercial product (Celebrex®) in rats. In particular, blood concentrations of celecoxib form DE formulation were much greater than those of native celecoxib and market product. The data demonstrate that the DE system could provide an useful solid dosage form to enhance the solubility, dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of celecoxib.

  6. Production, Characterization and Evaluation of Kaempferol Nanosuspension for Improving Oral Bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yew S; Ramamurthy, Srinivasan; Candasamy, Mayuren; Shadab, Md; Kumar, Ravindran H; Meka, Venkata S

    2016-01-01

    Kaempferol has a large particle size and poor water solubility, leading to poor oral bioavailability. The present work aimed to develop a kaempferol nanosuspension (KNS) to improve pharmacokinetics and absolute bioavailability. A nanosuspension was prepared using high pressure homogenization (HPH) techniques. The physico-chemical properties of the kaempferol nanosuspension (KNS) were characterized using photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray diffractometry (XRD). A reversephase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the analysis of the drug in rat plasma was developed and validated as per ICH guidelines. In vivo pharmacokinetic parameters of oral pure kaempferol solution, oral kaempferol nanosuspension and intravenous pure kaempferol were assessed in rats. The kaempferol nanosuspension had a greatly reduced particle size (426.3 ± 5.8 nm), compared to that of pure kaempferol (1737 ± 129 nm). The nanosuspension was stable under refrigerated conditions. No changes in physico-chemical characteristics were observed. In comparison to pure kaempferol, kaempferol nanosuspension exhibited a significantly (Pkaempferol. These results demonstrate enhanced oral bioavailability of kaempferol when formulated as a nanosuspension.

  7. [Oral health hygiene education programme for nursing personnel to improve oral health of residents in long-term care facilities 2010 in Frankfurt/Main, Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarkowski, G; Allroggen, S; Köster-Schmidt, A; Bausback-Schomakers, S; Frank, M; Heudorf, U

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown the urgent need for improving oral health hygiene in nursing home residents. Deficits in the knowledge of the personnel about dental and oral hygiene are often cited as one of the causes. Therefore, an oral health education programme was provided to the personnel of 20 nursing homes in Frankfurt/Main. Here the results of the assessment of the impact of the education programme on knowledge and attitudes of the personnel as well as on oral health of the residents are presented. In May/June 2010, 471 nurses in 20 nursing homes in the Frankfurt/Main, Germany, received a two-hour education programme on oral health. The lessons were held by dentists with special education in geriatric dentistry. The personnel were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding knowledge and attitudes on oral health care before the education programme and 4-6 months afterwards. The oral health status of 313 residents (i. e., about 10% of the total residents) was examined by two dentists. Before and 4-6 months after education of the caregivers, the following data were recorded in the residents: number of teeth, caries, plaque index (PI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN) and denture hygiene index (DHI). By attending the lessons, good improvements in knowledge of the caregivers could be obtained. The education programme was rated as very good/good by 85% of the nurses, having reduced their fear of oral care in the seniors and having gained more competence in practical oral hygiene procedures. Mean age of the residents was 80±13 years. About 32% of the residents were edentulous. Teeth were carious in 53% of the residents. Initially, one half of the residents exhibited plaque index>2, in 29% of the residents a severe and in 59% of them a very severe parodontitis was found (CPITN 3 or, respectively, 4). At 4-6 months after the education programme, an improvement in oral and dental hygiene of the residents could be

  8. A Comparison of Case Study and Traditional Teaching Methods for Improvement of Oral Communication and Critical-Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblitt, Lynnette; Vance, Diane E.; Smith, Michelle L. DePoy

    2010-01-01

    This study compares a traditional paper presentation approach and a case study method for the development and improvement of oral communication skills and critical-thinking skills in a class of junior forensic science majors. A rubric for rating performance in these skills was designed on the basis of the oral communication competencies developed…

  9. Creatinine-based non-phospholipid vesicular carrier for improved oral bioavailability of Azithromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Shafi; Shah, Muhammad Raza; Shoaib, Mohammad; Imran, Muhammad; Shah, Syed Wadood Ali; Ali, Imdad; Ahmed, Farid

    2017-06-01

    Novel, safe, efficient and cost effective nano-carriers from renewable resources have got greater interest for enhancing solubility and bioavailability of hydrophobic dugs. This study reports the synthesis of a novel biocompatible non-phospholipid human metabolite "Creatinine" based niosomal delivery system for Azithromycin improved oral bioavailability. Synthesized surfactant was characterized through spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques and then the potential for niosomal vesicle formation was evaluated using Azithromycin as model drug. Drug loaded vesicles were characterized for size, polydispersity index (PDI), shape, drug encapsulation efficiency (EE), in vitro release and drug-excipient interaction using zetasizer, atomic force microscope (AFM), LC-MS/MS and FTIR. The biocompatibility of surfactant was investigated through cells cytotoxicity, blood hemolysis and acute toxicity. Azithromycin encapsulated in niosomes was investigated for in vivo bioavailability in rabbits. The vesicles were spherical with 247 ± 4.67 nm diameter hosting 73.29 ± 3.51% of the drug. Surfactant was nontoxic against cell cultures and caused 5.80 ± 0.51% hemolysis at 1000 µg/mL. It was also found safe in mice up to 2.5 g/kg body weight. Synthesized surfactant based niosomal vesicles revealed enhanced oral bioavailability of Azithromycin in rabbits. The results of the present study confirm that the novel surfactant is highly biocompatible and the niosomal vesicles can be efficiently used for improving the oral bioavailability of poor water soluble drugs.

  10. A nanostructured liquid crystalline formulation of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol with improved oral absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Li, Song-Lin; Sun, E; Tan, Xiao-Bin; Song, Jie; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-01-01

    As with many other anti-cancer agents, 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) has a low oral absorption. In this study, in order to improve the oral bioavailability of PPD, the cubic nanoparticles that it contains were used to enhance absorption. Therefore, the cubic nanoparticle loaded PPD were prepared through the fragmentation of the glyceryl monoolein (GMO)/poloxamer 407 bulk cubic gel and were verified by transmission electron microscope, small angle X-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry. The in vitro release of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol from these nanoparticles was less than 5% at 12h. And then Caco-2 cell monolayer model was used to evaluate the absorption of PPD in vitro. Meanwhile the rat intestinal perfusion model and bioavailability were also estimated in vivo. The results showed that, in the Caco-2 cell model, the PPD-cubosome could increase the permeability values from the apical (AP) to the basolateral (BL) of PPD at 53%. The result showed that the four-site rat intestinal perfusion model was consistent with the Caco-2 cell model. And the result of a pharmacokinetic study in rats showed that the relative bioavailability of the PPD-cubosome (AUC(0-∞)) compared with the raw PPD (AUC(0-∞)) was 169%. All the results showed that the PPD-cubosome enhanced bioavailability was likely due to the increased absorption by the cubic nanoparticles rather than by the improved release. Hence, the cubic nanoparticles may be a promising oral carrier for the drugs that have a poor oral absorption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effectiveness evaluation of Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program for improving Spanish-speaking parents' preventive oral health knowledge and behaviors for their young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeft, K S; Barker, J C; Shiboski, S; Pantoja-Guzman, E; Hiatt, R A

    2016-12-01

    To determine the effectiveness of the Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program (CCOHEP) for improving low-income, Spanish-speaking parents' oral health knowledge and behaviors for their young children. Mexican American children in the United States suffer disproportionately high prevalence and severity of early childhood caries, yet few evaluated, theory-based behavioral interventions exist for this population. CCOHEP is a theory-based curriculum consisting of four 2-h interactive classes designed for and by Spanish speakers and led by designated community health educators (promotoras). Topics included children's oral hygiene, caries etiology, dental procedures, nutrition, child behavior management, and parent skill-building activities. Low-income Spanish-speaking parents/caregivers of children aged 0-5 years were recruited through community services in an agricultural city in California. Survey questions from the Oral Health Basic Research Facts Questionnaire measuring oral health-related behaviors and knowledge were verbally administered before, immediately after, and 3 months after attendance at CCOHEP. Five questions measured aspects of parental toothbrushing for their children (frequency, using fluoridated toothpaste, brushing before bed, not drinking or eating after nighttime brushing, adult assistance), three questions measured other oral health behaviors, and 16 questions measured oral health-related knowledge. Analyses of within-person changes between pre- and post-tests and again between post-test and 3-month follow-up consisted of McNemar's test for binary outcomes and sign tests for ordinal outcomes. Overall, 105 caregivers participated in CCOHEP (n = 105 pretest, n = 95 post-test, n = 79 second post-test). At baseline, all parents self-reported doing at least one aspect of toothbrushing correctly, but only 13% reported performing all five aspects according to professional guidelines. At post-test, 44% of parents reported completing all aspects of

  12. Intravenous Bolus versus Continuous Infusion of Famotidine or Ranitidine on 24 H Intragastric Acidity in Fasting Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABR Thomson

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Infusions of H2-receptor antagonists may be clinically indicated to maintain intragastric pH above 4 to reduce acute gastric mucosal lesions or to treat patients with bleeding peptic ulcers. Eight fasting healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive ranitidine infusion alone (150 mg/day, ranitidine infusion plus 50 mg bolus injection of ranitidine (total of 200 mg/day, famotidine infusion alone (40 mg/day or famotidine infusion plus 40 mg bolus injection of famotidine (total of 80 mg/day. Gastric fluid contents were aspirated for 24 h and collected as half-hourly samples in which pH measurements were made. Measures analyzed were mean and median pH, percentage pH at or below 3, 4 or 5 for the 24 h period, daytime, evening and nighttime. The data for each of the variables were analyzed as a Latin square crossover design of variance therapy; base pH before treatment administration in each crossover phase was employed as the covariant. Significant differential treatment means were tested by Newman-Keul’s multiple range test at the 5% level of significance. The mean and median evening pH were higher after famotidine than after ranitidine infusion, but all other pH readings were similar when using these doses. The addition of an initial loading bolus of 50 mg ranitidine to the ranitidine infusion did not result in any added differences in pH, whereas the addition of an initial loading bolus of 40 mg famotidine to the famotidine infusion resulted in a higher 24 h median pH, as well as a lower percentage of pH values of 4 or below, 16.6% versus 28.5%, P<0.05. However, the loading doses of ranitidine and famotidine were not equivalent in potency, and studies are needed to compare the potency of equivalent doses of ranitidine and famotidine when given by bolus plus infusion. Also the clinical relevance of these findings needs to be explored further in the type of individuals potentially requiring intravenous H2-receptor antagonists.

  13. Comparison of Omeprazole with Ranitidine for Treatment of Symptoms Associated with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Uncomplicated Duodenal Ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre P Archambault

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This randomized, single-blind, parallel group study was conducted to compare omeprazole with ranitidine for the treatment of symptoms associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, uncomplicated duodenal ulcer (DU or both. After baseline assessments, patients were randomized to receive daily treatment with either 20 mg omeprazole or 300 mg ranitidine for four weeks. In total, 1481 patients (1001 omeprazole, 480 ranitidine with a diagnosis of GERD (n=904 and/or DU (n=577, confirmed by endoscopy or barium meal and reporting moderate to severe symptoms, were included in the analyses. The seventy of overall daytime symptoms reported by the omeprazole group at clinic visits was lower than that reported by the ranitidine group at week 2 for the entire patient group (P=0.0002 and at both weeks 2 and 4 for the subgroup of patients with GERD (P=0.0001 and P=0.001, respectively. The severity of overall night-time symptoms reported by the omeprazole group was lower than that reported by the ranitidine group at week 4 for all patients as a whole (P=0.042 and at both weeks 2 and 4 for the subgroup of patients with GERD (P=0.035 and P=0.010, respectively. There were no significant differences in reports of adverse events. In the omeprazole group, 19% of patients at week 2 and 15% of patients at week 4 reported adverse events, while the corresponding results from the ranitidine group were 21% and 11%. In conclusion, patients with GERD, DU or both treated with omeprazole 20 mg daily for four weeks showed statistically significant reductions in symptoms compared with patients treated with ranitidine 300 mg daily for the same period of time. The percentage of patients with any remaining daytime symptoms was 12% lower in the omeprazole group compared with the ranitidine group at week 2, and 7% lower at week 4. Five per cent fewer patients in the omeprazole group experienced night-time symptoms at either week 2 or week 4.

  14. Improved stability and antidiabetic potential of insulin containing folic acid functionalized polymer stabilized multilayered liposomes following oral administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrawal, Ashish Kumar; Harde, Harshad; Thanki, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the folic acid (FA) functionalized insulin loaded stable liposomes with improved bioavailability following oral administration. Liposomes were stabilized by alternating coating of negatively charged poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and positively charged poly(allyl amine...

  15. Improved oral bioavailability of glyburide by a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongzhuo; Shang, Kuimao; Liu, Weina; Leng, Donglei; Li, Ran; Kong, Ying; Zhang, Tianhong

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at the development and characterisation of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly soluble glyburide. The solubility of glyburide was determined in various oils, surfactants and co-surfactants which were grouped into two different combinations to construct ternary phase diagrams. The formulations were evaluated for emulsification time, droplet size, zeta-potential, electrical conductivity and stability of nanoemulsions. The optimised SNEDDS loading with 5 mg/g glyburide comprised 55% Cremophor® RH 40, 15% propanediol and 30% Miglyol® 812, which rapidly formed fine oil-in-water nanoemulsions with 46 ± 4 nm particle size. Compared with the commercial micronised tablets (Glynase®PresTab®), enhanced in vitro release profiles of SNEDDS were observed, resulting in the 1.5-fold increase of AUC following oral administration of SNEDDS in fasting beagle dogs. These results indicated that SNEDDS is a promising drug delivery system for increasing the oral bioavailability of glyburide.

  16. Does the Texas First Dental Home Program Improve Parental Oral Care Knowledge and Practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Charmaine L; McCann, Ann L; Schneiderman, Emet D

    2017-03-15

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Texas Medicaid First Dental Home (FDH) by comparing the oral health knowledge, practices, and opinions of participating vs. non-participating parents. A 29-question survey (English & Spanish) was developed and administered to 165 parents of children under three years old (FDH=49, Non-FDH=116) who visited qualifying Medicaid clinics in Texas. Mann Whitney U tests showed that FDH parents scored higher on overall knowledge (P=0.001) and practice scores (Pparents responded correctly more often than non-FDH about the recommended amount of toothpaste for toddlers (Pparents knew tap water was a potential source of fluoride (Pparents scored marginally higher about when a child should have the first dental visit (P=0.051). More Non-FDH parents let their child go to sleep with a bottle, sippy cup or pacifier (Pparents by increasing their oral healthcare knowledge and practices. This is the first step towards improving the oral health of children.

  17. Effect of ranitidine on postoperative suppression of natural killer cell activity and delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Pedersen, B K; Moesgaard, F

    1989-01-01

    hypersensitivity (DTH) antigens, and blood drawn immediately before and 24 hours after skin incision was analyzed for spontaneous and in vitro stimulated (IL-2, IFN-alpha or indomethacin) natural killer (NK) cell activity and PHA and PPD-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. Lymphocyte subsets (helper......-cell activity (p less than 0.02). Postoperative decrease in helper/inducer-T cell numbers was not significantly lessened (p = 0.07), and ranitidine did not influence the levels of suppressor-T cells. PHA and PPD responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were unaltered. The results may suggest potential...

  18. Development of olmesartan medoxomil optimized nanosuspension using the Box-Behnken design to improve oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, K; Narendar, D; Kishan, V

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to enhance the oral bioavailability of olmesartan medoxomil by improving its solubility and dissolution rate by preparing nanosuspension (OM-NS), using the Box-Behnken design. In this, four factors were evaluated at three levels. Independent variables include: concentration of drug (X 1 ), concentration of surfactant (X 2 ), concentration of polymer (X 3 ) and number of homogenization cycles (X 4 ). Based on preliminary studies, the size (Y 1 ), zeta potential (ZP) (Y 2 ) and % drug release at 5 min (Y 3 ) were chosen as dependent responses. OM-NS was prepared by high pressure homogenization method. The size, PDI, ZP, assay, in vitro release and morphology of OM-NS were characterized. Further, the pharmacokinetic (PK) behavior of OM-NS was evaluated in male wistar rats. Statistically optimized OM-NS formulation exhibited mean particle size of 492 nm, ZP of -27.9 mV and 99.29% release in 5 min. OM-NS showed more than four times increase in its solubility than pure OM. DSC and XRD analyses indicated that the drug incorporated into OM-NS was in amorphous form. The morphology of OM-NS was found to be nearly spherical with high dispersity by scanning electron microscopic studies. The PK results showed that OM lyophilized nanosuspension (NS) exhibited improved PK properties compared to coarse powder suspension and marketed tablet powder suspension (TS). Oral bioavailability of lyophilized NS was increased by 2.45 and 2.25 folds when compared to marketed TS and coarse powder suspension, respectively. Results of this study lead to conclusion that NS approach was effective in preparing OM formulations with enhanced dissolution and improved oral bioavailability.

  19. Nanoemulsion improves the oral bioavailability of baicalin in rats: in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao L

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ling Zhao,1,2 Yumeng Wei,1,2 Yu Huang,1 Bing He,2 Yang Zhou,1 Junjiang Fu31Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou City, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China; 2Drug and Functional Food Research Center, Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou City, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China; 3The Research Center for Preclinical Medicine, Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou City, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Baicalin is one of the main bioactive flavone glucuronides derived as a medicinal herb from the dried roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, and it is widely used for the treatment of fever, inflammation, and other conditions. Due to baicalin's poor solubility in water, its absolute bioavailability after oral administration is only 2.2%. The objective of this study was to develop a novel baicalin-loaded nanoemulsion to improve the oral bioavailability of baicalin. Based on the result of pseudoternary phase diagram, the nanoemulsion formulation consisting of soy-lecithin, tween-80, polyethylene glycol 400, isopropyl myristate, and water (1:2:1.5:3.75:8.25, w/w was selected for further study. Baicalin-loaded nanoemulsions (BAN-1 and BAN-2 were prepared by internal or external drug addition and in vivo and in vitro evaluations were performed. The results showed that the mean droplet size, polydispersity index, and drug content of BAN-1 and BAN-2 were 91.2 ± 2.36 nm and 89.7 ± 3.05 nm, 0.313 ± 0.002 and 0.265 ± 0.001, and 98.56% ± 0.79% and 99.40% ± 0.51%, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy revealed spherical globules and confirmed droplet size analysis. After dilution 30-fold with water, the solubilization capacity of BAN-1 and BAN-2 did not change. In vitro release results showed sustained-release characteristics. BAN-1 formulation was stable for at least 6 months and was more stable than BAN-2. In rats, the area under the plasma drug concentration

  20. Improved oral bioavailability in rats of SR13668, a novel anti-cancer agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Carol E; Swezey, Robert; Bakke, James; Shinn, Walter; Furimsky, Anna; Bejugam, Naveen; Shankar, Gita N; Jong, Ling; Kapetanovic, Izet M

    2011-05-01

    SR13668, a bis-indole with potent activity in vitro and in vivo against various cancers and promising cancer chemopreventive activity, was found to have very low oral bioavailability, <1%, in rats during pilot pharmacokinetic studies. The objective of these studies was to better understand the source of low oral exposure and to develop a formulation that could be used in preclinical development studies. An automated screening system for determining solubility in lipid-based vehicles, singly and in combination, was used to identify formulations that might enhance absorption by improving solubility of SR13668, and these results were confirmed in vivo using Sprague-Dawley rats. Pharmacokinetics of SR13668 was then determined in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats administered 1 mg/kg iv, 1, 10, and 30 mg/kg po formulated in PEG400:Labrasol (1:1 v/v). Blood was collected at time points through 24 h and the concentration of SR13668 determined using HPLC with UV and fluorescence detection. SR13668 was found to be resistant to plasma esterases in vitro and relatively stable to rat and human liver microsomal metabolism. SR13668 concentrates in tissues as indicated by significantly higher levels in lung compared to blood, blood concentrations ~2.5-fold higher than plasma levels, and apparent volume of distribution (V) of ~5 l/kg. A marked sex difference was observed in exposure to SR13668 with area under the curve (AUC) significantly higher and clearance (CL) lower for female compared to male rats, after both iv and oral administration. The oral bioavailability (F) of SR13668 was 25.4 ± 3.8 and 27.7 ± 3.9% (30 mg/kg), for males and females, respectively. A putative metabolite (M1), molecular weight of 445 in the negative ion mode (i.e., SR13668 + 16), was identified in blood samples from both the iv and po routes, as well as in vitro microsomal samples. In summary, while SR13668 does undergo metabolism, probably by the liver, the oral bioavailability of SR13668 in rats

  1. Effectiveness evaluation of Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program for improving Spanish-speaking parents’ preventive oral health knowledge and behaviors for their young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeft, Kristin S.; Barker, Judith C.; Shiboski, Stephen; Guzman, Estela Pantoja; Hiatt, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effectiveness of the Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program (CCOHEP) for improving low-income, Spanish-speaking parents’ oral health knowledge and behaviors for their young children. Mexican American children in the United States suffer disproportionately high prevalence and severity of early childhood caries, yet few evaluated, theory-based behavioral interventions exist for this population. CCOHEP is a theory-based curriculum consisting of four 2-hour interactive classes designed for and by Spanish speakers and led by designated community health educators (promotoras). Topics included children’s oral hygiene, caries etiology, dental procedures, nutrition, child behavior management and parent skill-building activities. Methods Low-income Spanish-speaking parents/caregivers of children aged 0–5 years were recruited through community services in an agricultural city in California. Survey questions from the Oral Health Basic Research Facts Questionnaire measuring oral health related behaviors and knowledge were verbally administered before, immediately after, and 3 months after attendance at CCOHEP. Five questions measured aspects of parental tooth brushing for their children (frequency, using fluoridated toothpaste, brushing before bed, not drinking or eating after nighttime brushing, adult assistance), three questions measured other oral health behaviors, and 16 questions measured oral health-related knowledge. Analyses of within-person changes between pre- and posttests, and again between post-test and three month follow up consisted of McNemar’s test for binary outcomes and sign tests for ordinal outcomes. Results Overall, 105 caregivers participated in CCOHEP (n= 105 pretest, n=95 posttest, n=79 second posttest). At baseline, all parents self-reported doing at least one aspect of toothbrushing correctly, but only 13% reported performing all five aspects according to professional guidelines. At posttest, 44% of parents

  2. Text2Floss: the feasibility and acceptability of a text messaging intervention to improve oral health behavior and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, Tony S; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Baker, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Text messaging is useful for promoting numerous health-related behaviors. The Text2Floss Study examines the feasibility and utility of a 7-day text messaging intervention to improve oral health knowledge and behavior in mothers of young children. Mothers were recruited from a private practice and a community clinic. Of 156 mothers enrolled, 129 randomized into text (n = 60) and control groups (n = 69) completed the trial. Participants in the text group received text messages for 7 days, asking about flossing and presenting oral health information. Oral health behaviors and knowledge were surveyed pre- and post-intervention. At baseline, there were no differences between text and control group mothers in knowledge and behaviors (P > 0.10). Post-intervention, text group mothers flossed more (P = 0.01), had higher total (P = 0.0006) and specific (P Text messages were accepted and perceived as useful. Mothers receiving text messages improved their own oral health behaviors and knowledge as well as their behaviors regarding their children's oral health. Text messaging represents a viable method to improve oral health behaviors and knowledge. Its high acceptance may make it useful for preventing oral disease. © 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  3. Long-term improvements in oral communication skills and quality of peer relations in children with cochlear implants: parental testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bat-Chava, Y; Martin, D; Imperatore, L

    2014-11-01

    Few research studies have examined longitudinal improvements in oral communication skills and quality of peer relationships of children with implants. Moreover, although the emerging literature suggests that improvement in social functioning follows improvement in oral communication, it is still unknown what factors enhance or impede the relations between these constructs. Based on parent interviews, the current study examined the long-term improvements in speech and oral language skills and relationships with hearing peers in 19 implanted children. Results demonstrate that on average, children continue to improve in oral communication skills and quality of peer relationships even years after implantation, especially those with initial poorer skills. While oral communication ability and quality of peer relationships are strongly associated at each time point, gains in these two variables are associated only for some of the children. Other factors, including self-confidence and peer acceptance, seem to moderate this relationship. Qualitative data are presented to illustrate these relations among variables and to assist in theory building. The results highlight the need for more specific examination of various developmental periods in combination with the progress of oral communication and peer relationships among children with implants. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Novel Lipid-Free Nanoformulation for Improving Oral Bioavailability of Coenzyme Q10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huafeng Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the bioavailability of orally administered lipophilic coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, we formulated a novel lipid-free nano-CoQ10 system stabilized by various surfactants. Nano-CoQ10s, composed of 2.5% (w/w CoQ10, 1.67% (w/w surfactant, and 41.67% (w/w glycerol, were prepared by hot high-pressure homogenization. The resulting formulations were characterized by particle size, zeta potential, differential scanning calorimetry, and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. We found that the mean particle size of all nano-CoQ10s ranged from 66.3±1.5 nm to 92.7±1.5 nm and the zeta potential ranged from -12.8±1.4 mV to -41.6±1.4 mV. The CoQ10 in nano-CoQ10s likely existed in a supercooled state, and nano-CoQ10s stored in a brown sealed bottle were stable for 180 days at 25°C. The bioavailability of CoQ10 was evaluated following oral administration of CoQ10 formulations in Sprague-Dawley rats. Compared to the values observed following administration of CoQ10-Suspension, nano-CoQ10 modified with various surfactants significantly increased the maximum plasma concentration and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve. Thus, the lipid-free system of a nano-CoQ10 stabilized with a surfactant may be an effective vehicle for improving oral bioavailability of CoQ10.

  5. Plants and other natural products used in the management of oral infections and improvement of oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C

    2016-02-01

    Challenges of resistance to synthetic antimicrobials have opened new vistas in the search for natural products. This article rigorously reviews plants and other natural products used in oral health: Punica granatum L. (pomegranate), Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile), Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea), chewing sticks made from Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst. ex A.D.C., Diospyros lycioides Desf., and Salvadora persica L. (miswak), honey and propolis from the manuka tree (Leptospermum scoparium J.R. Forst. & G. Forst.), rhein from Rheum rhabarbarum L. (rhubarb), dried fruits of Vitis vinifera L. (raisins), essential oils, probiotics and mushrooms. Further, the review highlights plants from Africa, Asia, Brazil, Mexico, Europe, and the Middle East. Some of the plants' antimicrobial properties and chemical principles have been elucidated. While the use of natural products for oral health is prominent in resource-poor settings, antimicrobial testing is mainly conducted in the following countries (in decreasing order of magnitude): India, South Africa, Brazil, Japan, France, Egypt, Iran, Mexico, Kenya, Switzerland, Nigeria, Australia, Uganda, and the United Kingdom. While the review exposes a dire gap for more studies on clinical efficacy and toxicity, the following emerging trend was noted: basic research on plants for oral health is mainly done in Brazil, Europe and Australia. Brazil, China, India and New Zealand generally conduct value addition of natural products for fortification of toothpastes. African countries focus on bioprospecting and primary production of raw plants and other natural products with antimicrobial efficacies. The Middle East and Egypt predominantly research on plants used as chewing sticks. More research and funding are needed in the field of natural products for oral health, especially in Africa where oral diseases are fuelled by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  6. Improvement of skin condition by oral administration of collagen hydrolysates in chronologically aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenbin; Wang, Qing; Wang, Lin; Xu, Weidong; He, Yuanqing; Li, Yunliang; He, Song; Ma, Haile

    2017-07-01

    Collagen hydrolysates (CHs) have been demonstrated to have positive effects on skin photoaging by topical application or oral ingestion. However, there has been little research on their influence on skin chronological aging. In this study, 9-month-old female ICR mice were given normal AIN-93M diets containing CHs (2.5, 5 and 10% w/w) from Nile tilapia scale. After 6 months, the collagen content and antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) activities increased significantly (P skin did not change (P > 0.05). The color, luster and quantity of hair were obviously ameliorated. Moreover, the structure of epidermis and dermis, the density and distribution of collagen fibers and the ratio of type I to type III collagen were improved in a dose-dependent manner as shown by histochemical staining. Oral ingestion of CHs increased the collagen content and antioxidant enzyme activities and improved the appearance and structure of skin. These results suggest the potential of CHs as an anti-skin-aging ingredient in nutraceuticals or functional foods. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Improved oral bioavailability of valsartan using proliposomes: design, characterization and in vivo pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekkanti, Vijaykumar; Venkatesan, Natarajan; Wang, Zhijun; Betageri, Guru V

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our investigational work was to develop a proliposomal formulation to improve the oral bioavailability of valsartan. Proliposomes were formulated by thin film hydration technique using different ratios of phospholipids:drug:cholesterol. The prepared proliposomes were evaluated for vesicle size, encapsulation efficiency, morphological properties, in vitro drug release, in vitro permeability and in vivo pharmacokinetics. In vitro drug-release studies were performed in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) and purified water using dialysis bag method. In vitro drug permeation was studied using parallel artificial membrane permeation assay (PAMPA), Caco-2 monolayer and everted rat intestinal perfusion techniques. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Among the proliposomal formulations, F-V was found to have the highest encapsulation efficiency of 95.6 ± 2.9% with a vesicle size of 364.1 ± 14.9 nm. The in vitro dissolution studies indicated an improved drug release from proliposomal formulation, F-V in comparison to pure drug suspension in both, purified water and pH 1.2 dissolution media after 12 h. Permeability across PAMPA, Caco-2 cell and everted rat intestinal perfusion studies were higher with F-V formulation as compared to pure drug. Following single oral administration of F-V formulation, a relative bioavailability of 202.36% was achieved as compared to pure valsartan.

  8. Statistical analysis of textural features for improved classification of oral histopathological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu Rama Krishnan, M; Shah, Pratik; Chakraborty, Chandan; Ray, Ajoy K

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an improved technique, which can assist oncopathologists in correct screening of oral precancerous conditions specially oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) with significant accuracy on the basis of collagen fibres in the sub-epithelial connective tissue. The proposed scheme is composed of collagen fibres segmentation, its textural feature extraction and selection, screening perfomance enhancement under Gaussian transformation and finally classification. In this study, collagen fibres are segmented on R,G,B color channels using back-probagation neural network from 60 normal and 59 OSF histological images followed by histogram specification for reducing the stain intensity variation. Henceforth, textural features of collgen area are extracted using fractal approaches viz., differential box counting and brownian motion curve . Feature selection is done using Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence criterion and the screening performance is evaluated based on various statistical tests to conform Gaussian nature. Here, the screening performance is enhanced under Gaussian transformation of the non-Gaussian features using hybrid distribution. Moreover, the routine screening is designed based on two statistical classifiers viz., Bayesian classification and support vector machines (SVM) to classify normal and OSF. It is observed that SVM with linear kernel function provides better classification accuracy (91.64%) as compared to Bayesian classifier. The addition of fractal features of collagen under Gaussian transformation improves Bayesian classifier's performance from 80.69% to 90.75%. Results are here studied and discussed.

  9. Characterization of a low cost Lagenaria vulgaris based carbon for ranitidine removal from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Bojić

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Practical aspects of Lagenaria vulgaris shell conversion to activated carbon were examined along with its use in ranitidine adsorption. Kinetics and isotherms of adsorption onto Lagenaria vulgaris carbon (LVC were correlated to several theoretical adsorption models. The best fit was found in the case of Langmuir and pseudo-second-order model indicating monolayer adsorption. The influence of pH under kinetic study showed slightly hindered adsorption below pH 4. The optimal adsorbent dosage was set to 1 g/L. LVC was characterized by several complementary techniques, including wet chemical techniques such as Boehm’s titrations and determination of pHPZC and pH of LVC, which revealed neutral nature of the adsorbent. N2 sorptometry determined specific surface area of 665 m2/g and significant ratio of micropores in the sample with maximum wall’s diameter of 2.2 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR confirmed the role of lignin and cellulose in the formation of the final LVC structure. Porous structure of the material was proved by using scanning electron microscopy. Preparation of LVC material drew attention as an easy and low-cost process for production of a highly efficient adsorbent which exhibited fast kinetics of ranitidine removal in the first minutes of contacting and large adsorption capacity (315.5 mg/g at equilibrium.

  10. Improved oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble glimepiride by utilizing microemulsion technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li HY

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Haiying Li,1 Tingting Pan,1 Ying Cui,1 Xiaxia Li,1 Jiefang Gao,1 Wenzhi Yang,1 Shigang Shen2 1Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Quality Control of Hebei Province, College of Pharmacy, 2Key Laboratory of Analytical Science and Technology of Hebei Province, College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Baoding, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The objective of this work was to prepare an oil/water glimepiride (GM microemulsion (ME for oral administration to improve its solubility and enhance its bioavailability. Based on a solubility study, pseudoternary phase diagrams, and Box–Behnken design, the oil/water GMME formulation was optimized and prepared. GMME was characterized by dynamic laser light scattering, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy, and viscosity. The in vitro drug release, storage stability, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of GMME were investigated. The optimized GMME was composed of Capryol 90 (oil, ­Cremophor RH40 (surfactant, and Transcutol (cosurfactant, and increased GM solubility up to 544.6±4.91 µg/mL. The GMME was spherical in shape. The particle size and its polydispersity index were 38.9±17.46 nm and 0.266±0.057, respectively. Meanwhile, the GMME was physicochemically stable at 4°C for at least 3 months. The short-term efficacy in diabetic mice provided the proof that blood glucose had a consistent and significant reduction at a dose of 375 µg/kg whether via IP injection or IG administration of GMME. Compared with the glimepiride suspensions or glimepiride-meglumine complex solution, the pharmacokinetics of GMME in Wistar rats via IG administration exhibited higher plasma drug concentration, larger area under the curve, and more enhanced oral bioavailability. There was a good correlation of GMME between the in vitro release values and the in vivo oral absorption. ME could be an effective oral drug delivery system to improve bioavailability of GM. Keywords: glimepiride

  11. Oral Health Care in the Future: Expansion of the Scope of Dental Practice to Improve Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamster, Ira B; Myers-Wright, Noreen

    2017-09-01

    The health care environment in the U.S. is changing. The population is aging, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing, edentulism is decreasing, and periodontal infection/inflammation has been identified as a risk factor for NCDs. These trends offer an opportunity for oral health care providers to broaden the scope of traditional dental practice, specifically becoming more involved in the management of the general health of patients. This new practice paradigm will promote a closer integration with the larger health care system. This change is based on the realization that a healthy mouth is essential for a healthy life, including proper mastication, communication, esthetics, and comfort. Two types of primary care are proposed: screenings for medical conditions that are directly affected by oral disease (and may modify the provision of dental care), and a broader emphasis on prevention that focuses on lifestyle behaviors. Included in the former category are screenings for NCDs (e.g., the risk of cardiovascular disease and identification of patients with undiagnosed dysglycemia or poorly managed diabetes mellitus), as well as identification of infectious diseases, such as HIV or hepatitis C. Reducing the risk of disease can be accomplished by an emphasis on smoking cessation and dietary intake and the prevention of obesity. These activities will promote interprofessional health care education and practice. While change is always challenging, this new practice paradigm could improve both oral health and health outcomes of patients seen in the dental office. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."

  12. Radioprotective effects of histamine H2 receptor antagonists famotidine and ranitidine on gamma ray induced chromosome damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, N.K.

    2013-01-01

    Histamine H2 receptor antagonist such as Cimetidine, Famotidine and Ranitidine are used in the clinical treatment of peptic ulcer. In vitro metaphase analysis and micronucleus assay were used to test the effects of famotidine and ranitidine on Cobalt 60 γ-ray induced clastogenic effects. Heparinised whole blood was obtained from healthy non-smoker volunteers. Blood samples were irradiated at a dose of 3Gy and incubated at 37 deg C for 1h. Lymphocyte cultures were initiated for metaphase chromosomes and cytochalasin B blocked micronucleus analysis. Aqueous solution of Famotidine (150 g/ml) and Ranitidine (500 g/ml) was added to the whole blood cultures at 0h and 24h. Cultures were harvested and processed at 48h and 72h for chromosome aberrations and micronucleus analysis respectively. Cultures treated with Famotidine at 0h and 24h after 3Gy γ-ray irradiation induce 60.90% and 56.52% inhibition in dicentrics, 48.70% and 43.61% inhibition in total aberrations. Ranitidine at 0h and 24h after 3Gy γ-ray irradiation induce 52.17% and 43.47% inhibition in dicentrics, 33.60% and 46.15% inhibition in total aberrations, when compared with 3Gy γ-ray irradiation alone. 43-54% inhibition in Binucleated cells with micronuclei and 47.72% inhibition in micronuclei at 0h treatment respectively. In conclusion radioprotective effects of Histamine H2 receptor antagonists famotidine and ranitidine on γ-ray induced chromosome damage is observed and the drugs effectively reduced the frequency of radiation induced chromosome aberrations and micronucleus. Famotidine was found to be more effective. The mechanism in which these drugs reduce clastogenic effect of γ-radiation is not fully understood. It might be due to their antioxidant and free radical-scavenging properties. (author)

  13. Development and characterization of an atorvastatin solid dispersion formulation using skimmed milk for improved oral bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush Choudhary

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Atorvastatin has low aqueous solubility resulting in low oral bioavailability (12% and thus presents a challenge in formulating a suitable dosage form. To improve the aqueous solubility, a solid dispersion formulation of atorvastatin was prepared by lyophilization utilising skimmed milk as a carrier. Six different formulations were prepared with varying ratios of drug and carrier and the corresponding physical mixtures were also prepared. The formation of a solid dispersion formulation was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction studies. The optimum drug-to-carrier ratio of 1:9 enhanced solubility nearly 33-fold as compared to pure drug. In vitro drug release studies exhibited a cumulative release of 83.69% as compared to 22.7% for the pure drug. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy studies suggested the conversion of crystalline atorvastatin to an amorphous form. In a Triton-induced hyperlipidemia model, a 3-fold increase in the lipid lowering potential was obtained with the reformulated drug as compared to pure drug. These results suggest that solid dispersion of atorvastatin using skimmed milk as carrier is a promising approach for oral delivery of atorvastatin.

  14. Nanoemulsion as a strategy for improving the oral bioavailability and anti-inflammatory activity of andrographolide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen CC

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ching-Chi Yen,1 Yi-Chen Chen,1 Ming-Tsang Wu,2 Chia-Chi Wang,1,3 Yu-Tse Wu1,4 1School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 2Chinese Medicine Department, Ditmanson Medical Foundation, Chiayi Christian Hospital, Chiayi City, Taiwan; 3PhD Program in Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 4Department of Medical Research, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Background: Andrographolide (AG, a compound with low water solubility, possesses various pharmacological activities, particularly anti-inflammatory activity. However, its low oral bioavailability is a major obstacle to its potential use. This study developed and optimized an AG-loaded nanoemulsion (AG-NE formulation to improve AG oral bioavailability and its protective effects against inflammatory bowel disease. Methods: A high-pressure homogenization technique was used to prepare the AG-NE and solubility, viscosity, and droplet size tests were conducted to develop the optimized AG-NE composed of α-tocopherol, ethanol, Cremophor EL, and water. The permeability was assessed using everted rat gut sac method and in vivo absorption and anti-inflammatory effect in rats was also evaluated. The plasma concentration of AG was determined using our validated high performance liquid chromatography method, which was used to generate a linear calibration curve over the concentration range of 0.1–25 µg/mL in rat plasma (R2>0.999.Results: The optimized AG-NE had a droplet size of 122±11 nm confirmed using transmission electron microscopy and a viscosity of 28 centipoise (cps. It was stable at 4 and 25°C for 90 days. An ex vitro intestinal permeability study indicated that the jejunum was the optimal site for AG absorption from the optimized AG-NE, which was 8.21 and 1.40 times higher than that from an AG suspension and AG ethanol solution, respectively. The pharmacokinetic results indicate that

  15. Improved oral absorption of cilostazol via sulfonate salt formation with mesylate and besylate

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    Seo JH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jae Hong Seo, Jung Bae Park, Woong-Kee Choi, Sunhwa Park, Yun Jin Sung, Euichaul Oh, Soo Kyung Bae College of Pharmacy and Integrated Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, South Korea Objective: Cilostazol is a Biopharmaceutical Classification System class II drug with low solubility and high permeability, so its oral absorption is variable and incomplete. The aim of this study was to prepare two sulfonate salts of cilostazol to increase the dissolution and hence the oral bioavailability of cilostazol.Methods: Cilostazol mesylate and cilostazol besylate were synthesized from cilostazol by acid addition reaction with methane sulfonic acid and benzene sulfonic acid, respectively. The salt preparations were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The water contents, hygroscopicity, stress stability, and photostability of the two cilostazol salts were also determined. The dissolution profiles in various pH conditions and pharmacokinetic studies in rats were compared with those of cilostazol-free base.Results: The two cilostazol salts exhibited good physicochemical properties, such as nonhygroscopicity, stress stability, and photostability, which make it suitable for the preparation of pharmaceutical formulations. Both cilostazol mesylate and cilostazol besylate showed significantly improved dissolution rate and extent of drug release in the pH range 1.2–6.8 compared to the cilostazol-free base. In addition, after oral administration to rats, cilostazol mesylate and cilostazol besylate showed increases in Cmax and AUCt of approximately 3.65- and 2.87-fold and 3.88- and 2.94-fold, respectively, compared to cilostazol-free base.Conclusion: This study showed that two novel salts of cilostazol, such as cilostazol mesylate and cilostazol besylate, could be used to enhance its oral absorption. The findings warrant further preclinical and clinical studies on cilostazol mesylate and

  16. The Importance of Oral Communication Skills and a Graduate Course to Help Improve These Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Garth L.

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the importance of oral communication and many of its fundamental underlying principles. Emphasis is placed on oral presentations, particularly those used in science and engineering. Following this, the author provides a brief outline of an elective graduate level oral communications course that was developed and utilized to…

  17. Site-specific mouth rinsing can improve oral odor by altering bacterial counts. Blind crossover clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqumber, Mohammed A; Arafa, Khaled A

    2014-11-01

    To determine whether site-specific mouth rinsing with oral disinfectants can improve oral odor beyond the traditional panoral mouth disinfection with mouth rinses by targeting specifically oral malodor implicated anaerobic bacteria. Twenty healthy fasting subjects volunteered for a blinded prospective, descriptive correlational crossover cross-section clinical trial conducted during the month of Ramadan between July and August 2013 in Albaha province in Saudi Arabia involving the application of Listerine Cool Mint mouth rinse by either the traditional panoral rinsing method, or a site-specific disinfection method targeting the subgingival and supragingival plaque and the posterior third of the tongue dorsum, while avoiding the remaining locations within the oral cavity. The viable anaerobic and aerobic bacterial counts, volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) levels, organoleptic assessment of oral odor, and the tongue-coating index were compared at baseline, one, 5, and 9 hours after the treatment. The site-specific disinfection method reduced the VSCs and anaerobic bacterial loads while keeping the aerobic bacterial numbers higher than the traditional panoral rinsing method. Site-specific disinfection can more effectively maintain a healthy oral cavity by predominantly disinfecting the niches of anaerobic bacteria within the oral cavity.

  18. Zantac® 150 y ranitidina de producción nacional: liberación in vitro ZantacÒ150 and ranitidine of national production: in vitro release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette Martínez Miranda

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Dentro del proceso global de la liberación de un fármaco, la disolución constituye el paso más importante pues se encuentra íntimamente relacionada con los procesos de absorción, determinantes en la biodisponibilidad de un medicamento administrado por vía oral. En el presente trabajo se realizaron los perfiles de disolución de 3 lotes de Zantac® (GlaxoWellcome, medicamento líder del principio activo ranitidina (DCI y de 3 lotes de ranitidina 150 mg de producción nacional. Para el estudio de disolución se utilizó el método descrito en la USP 23. Los datos de porcentaje de principio activo liberado contra tiempo fueron sometidos a un estudio de ajuste a 4 modelos comunes a perfiles de disolución mediante el programa CurveExpert. Todos los lotes estudiados cumplen con los criterios de la Food and Drug Administration (FDA para los estudios de bioequivalencia in vitro.Dissolution is the most important step in the global release process of a drug , since it is closely related to the absorption processes, which are determinant in the bioavailability of a drug administered by oral route. The dissolution profiles of 3 batches of Zantac® (Glaxo Wellcome, a leading drug of the ranitidine active principle (DCI, and of 3 batches of ranitidine 150 mg of national production were performed. The method described in the USP 23 was used for the dissolution test. The percentage data of the active principle released against time were subjected to a study of adjustment of 4 models to common disssolution profiles by the CurveExpert program. All the studied batches fulfilled the criteria of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the in vitro bioequivalence studies.

  19. The Impact of Improved Oral Health on the Utilization of Dental Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Stephen A

    2017-08-01

    Since the mid-20th century, there has been a remarkable decline in dental caries in the United States. The effects of that caries decline have now been demonstrated well into the adult population. These improvements in oral health are resulting in substantial declines in the reparative and restorative dental services being provided to the affected individuals, who comprise a growing part of the population. Because of fewer compromised teeth, extractions and their sequelae also are declining. Much of the recall and periodontal maintenance care can be provided by allied dental personnel. As the older age cohorts, who were children before the caries decline occurred, become an ever-smaller part of the population, the number of patients an individual dentist can treat in a year is likely to increase. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."

  20. Mouth self-examination to improve oral cancer awareness and early detection in a high-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, Kalavathy Jayapal; Anandkrishnan, Nitin; Suresh, Amritha; Iyer, Subramania K; Ramaiyer, Sundaram Karimassery; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham

    2011-07-01

    Oral cancer is a potentially preventable disease due to its association with well-known risk factors and easy detectability. There is a significant deficiency in the awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors among the public. Raising public awareness could effectively contribute to achieving a significant reduction in the incidence of oral cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mouth self-examination (MSE) in improving the awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors as well as test its feasibility as an oral cancer-screening tool. The study was carried out in a high-risk population of 57,704 from India, of which, 34,766 individuals who have met the eligibility criteria formed the study population. MSE brochures and trained health workers were employed for the purpose of health education and cancer screening. The present study compared their efficacy to detect oral lesions. Subjects with suspicious lesions were referred to the trained oral cancer specialist for confirmation. A questionnaire to assess the awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors was developed and validated. SPSS (v.11.0) was used for data analysis. The program identified 216 cases of potentially malignant lesions as well as three cases of oral cancer. The findings of MSE and health workers showed 72% concordance, while that of health workers and oral cancer specialist showed 100% concordance. MSE had a low sensitivity of 18%, while the specificity was 99.9%. Though the technique identified high-risk lesions such as red patches (66.7%) and non-healing ulcers (42.9%), the detection rate of white patches was low (12.7%). Overall awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors after introduction of MSE program was over 80%; but the compliance to seek treatment was poor (32%). Mouth self-examination may be used as an effective tool to improve the awareness of oral cancer and for the early detection of lesions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. FDI-Unilever Brush Day & Night partnership: 12 years of improving behaviour for better oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Kathryn; Aymerich, Marie-Anne; Horn, Virginie

    2018-05-01

    Twelve years ago, FDI World Dental Federation and Unilever Oral Care began a partnership to raise awareness of oral health globally. This aim reflects FDI's mission to "lead the world to optimal oral health", and one of the goals set by the Unilever Sustainable Living Plan "to improve health and well-being for more than 1 billion" by 2020. This partnership has developed a series of public health programmes to improve the brushing habits of targeted populations through health promotion and educational campaigns worldwide. Building on the success of the first two phases of the partnership, the third phase (Phase III), named Brush Day & Night, aimed to educate children in brushing twice-daily with fluoride toothpaste via a 21 Day school programme. This article reports the main outcomes of the past 12 years of this partnership, in particular the key outreach and figures of Phase III evaluation. School programmes were implemented in 10 countries, where local teams collected data from children aged between 2 and 12 years to monitor their oral health behaviours using specific indicators. In addition to the school programme, the World Oral Health Day was used as a vehicle to convey oral health awareness to influential governing bodies and the public. As a result, over 4 million people were directly reached by the programme in 2016. © 2018 FDI World Dental Federation.

  2. Periodontal surgery improves oral health-related quality of life in chronic periodontitis patients in Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yu-Hsiang; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Kuo, Hsiao-Ching; Ho, Kun-Yen; Wang, Wen-Chen; Hu, Kai-Fang

    2017-10-01

    The effect of periodontal surgery on patients' quality of life was investigated. Sixty patients received regenerative surgery or resective osseous surgery. Oral health-related quality of life and health-related quality of life instruments were used to assess the participants' quality of life before surgery and 4 weeks after surgery. Periodontal surgery can improve patients' quality of life by alleviating the physical pain and psychological discomfort. The scores were lower (more favorable) in the regenerative surgery group, and the functional limitations of the regenerative surgery group improved substantially compared with those of the resective osseous surgery group (P = 0.0421). The patients' oral health-related quality of life scores improved significantly after periodontal surgery. Clinicians can take advantage of the positive functional oral health-related quality of life impacts of regenerative surgery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  3. [Application of diversified teaching methods to improve the teaching effects in the course of oral histology and pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen; Li, Lei; Wang, Li-zhen; Hu, Yu-hua; Zhang, Chun-ye; Li, Jiang

    2016-02-01

    Oral histology and pathology is one of the most important courses in stomatological education which works as a bridge between basic medical courses and clinical courses of oral science. The knowledge of oral histopathology may help the students to correctly understand the histogenesis and development of oral diseases and provide the information for correct treatment and prevention. In order to make the students grasp the necessary basic theories, increase the interest in learning, and improve the teaching effect, we explored a diversified teaching system which included diverse teaching modes, online courses and courseware construction. The application of this system offered the interaction between students and teachers and combination of classes with the internet, and made the boring pathological knowledge be associated with clinical practice. These diversified teaching methods had been used in practice and obtained good teaching results.

  4. Improved Adherence Rates and Clinical Outcomes of an Integrated, Closed-Loop, Pharmacist-Led Oral Chemotherapy Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluneh, Benyam; Schneider, Molly; Faso, Aimee; Amerine, Lindsey; Daniels, Rowell; Crisp, Brett; Valgus, John; Savage, Scott

    2018-06-01

    To address the growing use of oral anticancer therapy, an integrated, closed-loop, pharmacist-led oral chemotherapy management program was created within an academic medical center. An integrated, closed-loop, pharmacy-led oral chemotherapy management program was established. From September 2014 until June 2015, demographic information, rates of adherence, patient understanding of treatment, pharmacist interventions, patient and provider satisfaction, and molecular response rates in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) were collected. After full implementation, 107 patients were enrolled in our oral chemotherapy management program from September 2014 until June 2015. All patients were educated before starting oral chemotherapy, and using pre- and postassessment tests, comprehension of oral chemotherapy treatment increased from 43% to 95%. Patient-reported adherence was 86% and 94.7% for the GI/breast and malignant hematology patient populations, respectively, and these were validated with medication possession ratio, revealing adherence rates of 85% and 93.9% for the GI/breast and malignant hematology patient populations, respectively. A total of 350 encounters with a clinical pharmacist and 318 adverse effects were reported, which led to 235 interventions. This program led to a higher major molecular response rate (83%) in our CML population compared with published clinical trials (average major molecular response rates, 40% and 60% with 1- and 2-year follow-up, respectively). An innovative model was developed and resulted in improved patient knowledge regarding oral chemotherapy, improved adherence rates that exceeded nationally established thresholds, and superior major molecular response outcomes for patients with CML compared with published literature. As a result, this model has produced the gold standard in managing patients receiving oral chemotherapy.

  5. Papel da ranitidina como meio de aprimorar a qualidade do exame de colangiopancreatografia por ressonância magnética The role of ranitidine in the enhancement of imaging quality in magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Rios Torres

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto da ranitidina por via oral na qualidade do exame de colangiopancreatografia por ressonância magnética (CPRM. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Trinta e dois pacientes realizaram CPRM com aquisições 3D e 2D, com três estratégias de supressão do sinal líquido gastrintestinal: a apenas em jejum; b 12 horas após ingerir 300 mg de ranitidina; c após a ingestão de solução de gadolínio. Três observadores avaliaram os estudos, atentos para o grau de visualização da árvore biliopancreática. Foi medida a concordância interobservador com o teste kappa. A diferença entre técnicas e formas de aquisição foi avaliada pela média da soma dos escores de graduação. RESULTADOS: As três estratégias de supressão do sinal líquido gastrintestinal apresentaram elevada reprodutibilidade. A supressão do sinal líquido gastrintestinal com a ranitidina foi semelhante ao jejum e ambas foram piores do que a solução de gadolínio. As aquisições 3D superaram a 2D apenas na visualização do ducto cístico e da vesícula biliar, sendo inferior ou equivalente nos demais segmentos ductais biliopancreáticos. CONCLUSÃO: O uso da ranitidina não parece justificado para aprimorar a avaliação da árvore biliopancreática em exames de CPRM. A CPRM 2D apenas em jejum permite a visualização ductal com elevada qualidade e reprodutibilidade na maioria dos casos.OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of oral ranitidine on the imaging quality in magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two patients underwent MRCP with 3D and 2D acquisitions, and three strategies for suppression of the gastrointestinal fluid signal: a only at fasting; b 12 hours after ingestion of 300 mg ranitidine; c after oral administration of gadolinium solution. Three observers reviewed the images with a focus on the degree of visualization of the biliopancreatic tree. The interobserver agreement was evaluated with the kappa test

  6. Improving oral hygiene in the long-term care of the elderly--a RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenthöfer, Andreas; Dieke, Reinhard; Dieke, Anke; Wege, Karl-Christian; Rammelsberg, Peter; Hassel, Alexander J

    2013-06-01

    Oral hygiene and health of the institutionalized elderly are frequently described as inadequate. This randomized and single-blinded (outcome evaluation) study compared three types of intervention for improving oral hygiene with a control. The purpose was to investigate whether there were any significant differences between the intervention and control groups. One hundred and six participants living in long-term care homes in South-West Germany were recruited and randomly divided into four groups-three therapy groups and one control group. For all three therapy groups, teeth and dentures were cleaned professionally and individual instruction was given. One of these groups was also re-instructed and remotivated by a dentist (n = 27). One also received help from, and was remotivation by, staff educated in dental hygiene (n = 26). The third therapy group was not remotivated after professional cleaning of teeth and dentures (n = 26). For the control group, there was no intervention (n = 23). The main target clinical data were mean plaque (plaque-control record, O'Leary), gingival bleeding (Ainamo/Bay), and denture hygiene indices. For assessment of the difference between being in an intervention group and in a control group, mixed-model analysis for repeated measurements was performed for each main target variable. In addition, target clinical data were evaluated in long-term follow-up after 3 years. Compared with controls, denture hygiene, plaque, and gingival bleeding indices were significantly lower in the intervention groups over a twelve-week period (mixed model for repeated measurements; P hygiene. However, the effect decreases over time and renewal of the intervention is necessary. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Non-dental primary care providers' views on challenges in providing oral health services and strategies to improve oral health in Australian rural and remote communities: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Tony; Hoang, Ha; Stuart, Jackie; Crocombe, Len

    2015-10-29

    To investigate the challenges of providing oral health advice/treatment as experienced by non-dental primary care providers in rural and remote areas with no resident dentist, and their views on ways in which oral health and oral health services could be improved for their communities. Qualitative study with semistructured interviews and thematic analysis. Four remote communities in outback Queensland, Australia. 35 primary care providers who had experience in providing oral health advice to patients and four dental care providers who had provided oral health services to patients from the four communities. In the absence of a resident dentist, rural and remote residents did present to non-dental primary care providers with oral health problems such as toothache, abscess, oral/gum infection and sore mouth for treatment and advice. Themes emerged from the interview data around communication challenges and strategies to improve oral health. Although, non-dental care providers commonly advised patients to see a dentist, they rarely communicated with the dentist in the nearest regional town. Participants proposed that oral health could be improved by: enabling access to dental practitioners, educating communities on preventive oral healthcare, and building the skills and knowledge base of non-dental primary care providers in the field of oral health. Prevention is a cornerstone to better oral health in rural and remote communities as well as in more urbanised communities. Strategies to improve the provision of dental services by either visiting or resident dental practitioners should include scope to provide community-based oral health promotion activities, and to engage more closely with other primary care service providers in these small communities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Non-dental primary care providers’ views on challenges in providing oral health services and strategies to improve oral health in Australian rural and remote communities: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Tony; Hoang, Ha; Stuart, Jackie; Crocombe, Len

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the challenges of providing oral health advice/treatment as experienced by non-dental primary care providers in rural and remote areas with no resident dentist, and their views on ways in which oral health and oral health services could be improved for their communities. Design Qualitative study with semistructured interviews and thematic analysis. Setting Four remote communities in outback Queensland, Australia. Participants 35 primary care providers who had experience in providing oral health advice to patients and four dental care providers who had provided oral health services to patients from the four communities. Results In the absence of a resident dentist, rural and remote residents did present to non-dental primary care providers with oral health problems such as toothache, abscess, oral/gum infection and sore mouth for treatment and advice. Themes emerged from the interview data around communication challenges and strategies to improve oral health. Although, non-dental care providers commonly advised patients to see a dentist, they rarely communicated with the dentist in the nearest regional town. Participants proposed that oral health could be improved by: enabling access to dental practitioners, educating communities on preventive oral healthcare, and building the skills and knowledge base of non-dental primary care providers in the field of oral health. Conclusions Prevention is a cornerstone to better oral health in rural and remote communities as well as in more urbanised communities. Strategies to improve the provision of dental services by either visiting or resident dental practitioners should include scope to provide community-based oral health promotion activities, and to engage more closely with other primary care service providers in these small communities. PMID:26515687

  9. Improvement in survival of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: An international collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Moran; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Liao, Chun-Ta; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Agarwal, Jai Prakash; Kowalski, Luiz P; Ebrahimi, Ardalan; Clark, Jonathan R; Kreppel, Matthias; Zöller, Joachim; Fridman, Eran; Bolzoni, Villaret A; Shah, Jatin P; Binenbaum, Yoav; Patel, Snehal G; Gil, Ziv

    2013-12-15

    An association between the survival of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) and advancements in diagnosis and therapy has not been established. This was a retrospective, longitudinal, international, population-based study of 2738 patients who underwent resection of OCSCC during 2 different decades. Characteristics of patients from 7 international cancer centers who received treatment between 1990 and 2000 (group A; n = 735) were compared with patients who received treatment between 2001 and 2011 (group B; n = 2003). Patients in group B had more advanced tumors and tended to develop distant metastases more frequently than patients in group A (P = .005). More group B patients underwent selective neck dissection and received adjuvant radiotherapy (P < .001). Outcome analysis revealed a significant improvement in 5-year overall survival, from 59% for group A to 70% for group B (P < .001). There was also a significant improvement in disease-specific survival associated with operations performed before and after 2000 (from 69% to 81%, respectively; P < .001). Surgery after 2000, negative margins, adjuvant treatment, and early stage disease were independent predictors of a better outcome in multivariate analysis. The decade of treatment was an independent prognostic factor for cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio, 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.3-0.6). The survival rate of patients with OCSCC improved significantly during the past 2 decades despite older age, more advanced disease stage, and a higher rate of distant metastases. The current results suggest that the prognosis for patients with OCSCC has improved over time, presumably because of advances in imaging and therapy. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  10. Oral Dalfampridine Improves Standing Balance Detected at Static Posturography in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Prosperini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 14-week post-marketing experience on 20 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS who started prolonged-release (PR oral dalfampridine 10 mg twice daily according to European Medicine Agency criteria. They underwent serial static posturography assessments and the dizziness handicap inventory (DHI to investigate whether PR dalfampridine could impact standing balance and self-reported perception of balance. The incidence of accidental falls per person per month was also recorded throughout the study. Eight (40% patients, who had a relevant improvement in walking speed, were defined as treatment responders. They showed a significant improvement of standing balance (with respect to pretreatment assessment when contrasted with 12 (60% nonresponders (F[4,15] = 3.959, P=0.027. No significant changes in DHI score, as well as in its functional, physical, and emotional subscales, were found in both responders and nonresponders at the end of study (all P values are ≥0.2. Treatment response did not affect the incidence of accidental falls. Future studies based on larger sample sizes, and with longer followup, are required to confirm the beneficial effect of PR dalfampridine on standing balance.

  11. Investigating Engineered Ribonucleoprotein Particles to Improve Oral RNAi Delivery in Crop Insect Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Xavier Gillet

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetically modified (GM crops producing double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs are being investigated largely as an RNA interference (RNAi-based resistance strategy against crop insect pests. However, limitations of this strategy include the sensitivity of dsRNA to insect gut nucleases and its poor insect cell membrane penetration. Working with the insect pest cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis, we showed that the chimeric protein PTD-DRBD (peptide transduction domain—dsRNA binding domain combined with dsRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP that improves the effectiveness of the RNAi mechanism in the insect. The RNP slows down nuclease activity, probably by masking the dsRNA. Furthermore, PTD-mediated internalization in insect gut cells is achieved within minutes after plasma membrane contact, limiting the exposure time of the RNPs to gut nucleases. Therefore, the RNP provides an approximately 2-fold increase in the efficiency of insect gene silencing upon oral delivery when compared to naked dsRNA. Taken together, these data demonstrate the role of engineered RNPs in improving dsRNA stability and cellular entry, representing a path toward the design of enhanced RNAi strategies in GM plants against crop insect pests.

  12. Investigating Engineered Ribonucleoprotein Particles to Improve Oral RNAi Delivery in Crop Insect Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, François-Xavier; Garcia, Rayssa A; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Albuquerque, Erika V S; Silva, Maria C M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2017-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops producing double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) are being investigated largely as an RNA interference (RNAi)-based resistance strategy against crop insect pests. However, limitations of this strategy include the sensitivity of dsRNA to insect gut nucleases and its poor insect cell membrane penetration. Working with the insect pest cotton boll weevil ( Anthonomus grandis ), we showed that the chimeric protein PTD-DRBD (peptide transduction domain-dsRNA binding domain) combined with dsRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP) that improves the effectiveness of the RNAi mechanism in the insect. The RNP slows down nuclease activity, probably by masking the dsRNA. Furthermore, PTD-mediated internalization in insect gut cells is achieved within minutes after plasma membrane contact, limiting the exposure time of the RNPs to gut nucleases. Therefore, the RNP provides an approximately 2-fold increase in the efficiency of insect gene silencing upon oral delivery when compared to naked dsRNA. Taken together, these data demonstrate the role of engineered RNPs in improving dsRNA stability and cellular entry, representing a path toward the design of enhanced RNAi strategies in GM plants against crop insect pests.

  13. The Improvement of Sleep by Oral Intake of GABA and Apocynum venetum Leaf Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamatsu, Atsushi; Yamashita, Yusuke; Maru, Isafumi; Yang, Jinwei; Tatsuzaki, Jin; Kim, Mujo

    2015-01-01

    The effects of two food materials, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) produced by natural fermentation and Apocynum venetum leaf extract (AVLE), on the improvement of sleep were investigated in humans. The electroencephalogram (EEG) test revealed that oral administration of GABA (100 mg) and AVLE (50 mg) had beneficial effects on sleep. GABA shortened sleep latency by 5.3 min and AVLE increased non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep time by 7.6%. Simultaneous intake of GABA and AVLE shortened sleep latency by 4.3 min and increased non-REM sleep time by 5.1%. The result of questionnaires showed that GABA and AVLE enabled subjects to realize the effects on sleep. These results mean that GABA can help people to fall asleep quickly, AVLE induces deep sleep, and they function complementarily with simultaneous intake. Since both GABA and AVLE are materials of foods and have been ingested for a long time, they can be regarded as safe and appropriate for daily intake in order to improve the quality of sleep.

  14. Design and development of microemulsion drug delivery system of acyclovir for improvement of oral bioavailability

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Pradip Kumar; Majithiya, Rita J.; Umrethia, Manish L.; Murthy, Rayasa S. R.

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of this work was to develop an oral microemulsion formulation for enhancing the bioavailability of acyclovir. A Labrafac-based microemulsion formulation with Labrasol as surfactant and Plurol Oleique as cosurfactant was developed for oral delivery of acyclovir. Phase behavior and solubilization capacity of the microemulsion system were characterized, and in vivo oral absorption of acyclovir from the microemulsion was investigated in rats. A single isotropic region, which was ...

  15. Carboxylated mesoporous carbon microparticles as new approach to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble carvedilol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanzhuo; Zhi, Zhizhuang; Li, Xue; Gao, Jian; Song, Yaling

    2013-09-15

    The main objective of this study was to develop carboxylated ordered mesoporous carbon microparticles (c-MCMs) loaded with a poorly water-soluble drug, intended to be orally administered, able to enhance the drug loading capacity and improve the oral bioavailability. A model drug, carvedilol (CAR), was loaded onto c-MCMs via a procedure involving a combination of adsorption equilibrium and solvent evaporation. The physicochemical properties of the drug-loaded composites were systematically studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and HPLC. It was found that c-MCM has a high drug loading level up to 41.6%, and higher than that of the mesoporous silica template. Incorporation of CAR in both drug carriers enhanced the solubility and dissolution rate of the drug, compared to the pure crystalline drug. After loading CAR into c-MCMs, its oral bioavailability was compared with the marketed product in dogs. The results showed that the bioavailability of CAR was improved 179.3% compared with that of the commercial product when c-MCM was used as the drug carrier. We believe that the present study will help in the design of oral drug delivery systems for enhanced oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of the H(2)-receptor antagonist ranitidine on gastric motor function after a liquid meal in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Graff, J

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Studies on animals have shown that histamine may be involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal smooth muscle tone. However, the role of histamine in the regulation of human gastric motor function is not clear. This study examined the effect of ranitidine, an H(2)-receptor antagonist......, on gastric volume and gastric emptying after a liquid meal in healthy humans. Material and methods. Twelve healthy volunteers participated in a randomized crossover study with 50 mg ranitidine as a bolus intravenously versus no medication. Gastric volume at baseline was determined with single photon emission...... computed tomography (SPECT) after intravenous injection of 99(m)Tc-pertechnetate. After ingestion of a 600-mL liquid meal radiolabelled with (111)In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, dual-isotope technique with SPECT and planar imaging assessed gastric volume as well as gastric emptying. Results...

  17. Effects of the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on gastric motor function after a liquid meal in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J.L.; Graff, J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Studies on animals have shown that histamine may be involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal smooth muscle tone. However, the role of histamine in the regulation of human gastric motor function is not clear. This study examined the effect of ranitidine, an H(2)-receptor antagonist......, on gastric volume and gastric emptying after a liquid meal in healthy humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers participated in a randomized crossover study with 50 mg ranitidine as a bolus intravenously versus no medication. Gastric volume at baseline was determined with single photon emission...... computed tomography (SPECT) after intravenous injection of 99(m)Tc-pertechnetate. After ingestion of a 600-mL liquid meal radiolabelled with (111)In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, dual-isotope technique with SPECT and planar imaging assessed gastric volume as well as gastric emptying. RESULTS...

  18. Improved Safety, Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetics of Zidovudine through Lactoferrin Nanoparticles during Oral Administration in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Kumar

    Full Text Available Zidovudine (AZT is one of the most referred antiretroviral drug. In spite of its higher bioavailability (50-75% the most important reason of its cessation are bone marrow suppression, anemia, neutropenia and various organs related toxicities. This study aims at the improvement of oral delivery of AZT through its encapsulation in lactoferrin nanoparticles (AZT-lactonano. The nanoparticles (NPs are of 50-60 nm in size and exhibit 67% encapsulation of the AZT. They are stable in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. Anti-HIV-1 activity of AZT remains unaltered in nanoformulation in acute infection. The bioavailability and tissue distribution of AZT is higher in blood followed by liver and kidney. AZT-lactonano causes the improvement of pharmacokinetic profile as compared to soluble AZT; a more than 4 fold increase in AUC and AUMC in male and female rats. The serum Cmax for AZT-lactonano was increased by 30%. Similarly there was nearly 2-fold increase in Tmax and t1/2. Our in vitro study confirms that, the endosomal pH is ideal for drug release from NPs and shows constant release from up to 96h. Bone marrow micronucleus assay show that nanoformulation exhibits approximately 2fold lower toxicity than soluble form. Histopathological and biochemical analysis further confirms that less or no significant organ toxicities when nanoparticles were used. AZT-lactonano has shown its higher efficacy, low organs related toxicities, improved pharmacokinetics parameter while keeping the antiviral activity intact. Thus, the nanoformulation are safe for the target specific drug delivery.

  19. Improvement of oral health in Africa in the 21st century - the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These lifestyle factors also significantly impact oral health, and oral diseases qualify as major public health problems owing to their high prevalence and incidence in all regions of the world. Like all diseases, they affect primarily the disadvantaged and socially marginalized populations, causing severe pain and suffering, ...

  20. Evidence-Based Health Promotion in Nursing Homes: A Pilot Intervention to Improve Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadet, Tamara J.; Berrett-Abebe, Julie; Burke, Shanna L.; Bakk, Louanne; Kalenderian, Elsbeth; Maramaldi, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Nursing home residents over the age of 65 years are at high risk for poor oral health and related complications such as pneumonia and adverse diabetes outcomes. A preliminary study found that Massachusetts' nursing homes generally lack the training and resources needed to provide adequate oral health care to residents. In this study, an…

  1. Tumor blood vessel "normalization" improves the therapeutic efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in experimental oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. W. Nigg

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the efficacy of BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) to treat tumors in a hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer with no normal tissue radiotoxicity and moderate, albeit reversible, mucositis in precancerous tissue around treated tumors. It is known that boron targeting of the largest possible proportion of tumor cells contributes to the success of BNCT and that tumor blood vessel normalization improves drug delivery to the tumor. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of blood vessel normalization on the therapeutic efficacy and potential radiotoxicity of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer.

  2. Tumor blood vessel 'normalization' improves the therapeutic efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in experimental oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigg, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the efficacy of BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) to treat tumors in a hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer with no normal tissue radiotoxicity and moderate, albeit reversible, mucositis in precancerous tissue around treated tumors. It is known that boron targeting of the largest possible proportion of tumor cells contributes to the success of BNCT and that tumor blood vessel normalization improves drug delivery to the tumor. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of blood vessel normalization on the therapeutic efficacy and potential radiotoxicity of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer.

  3. Oral antioxidant treatment partly improves integrity of human sperm DNA in infertile grade I varicocele patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gual-Frau, Josep; Abad, Carlos; Amengual, María J; Hannaoui, Naim; Checa, Miguel A; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Lozano, Iris; Nikolaou, Alexandros; Benet, Jordi; García-Peiró, Agustín; Prats, Juan

    2015-09-01

    Infertile males with varicocele have the highest percentage of sperm cells with damaged DNA, compared to other infertile groups. Antioxidant treatment is known to enhance the integrity of sperm DNA; however, there are no data on the effects in varicocele patients. We thus investigated the potential benefits of antioxidant treatment specifically in grade I varicocele males. Twenty infertile patients with grade I varicocele were given multivitamins (1500 mg L-Carnitine, 60 mg vitamin C, 20 mg coenzyme Q10, 10 mg vitamin E, 200 μg vitamin B9, 1 μg vitamin B12, 10 mg zinc, 50 μg selenium) daily for three months. Semen parameters including total sperm count, concentration, progressive motility, vitality, and morphology were determined before and after treatment. In addition, sperm DNA fragmentation and the amount of highly degraded sperm cells were analyzed by Sperm Chromatin Dispersion. After treatment, patients showed an average relative reduction of 22.1% in sperm DNA fragmentation (p = 0.02) and had 31.3% fewer highly degraded sperm cells (p = 0.07). Total numbers of sperm cells were increased (p = 0.04), but other semen parameters were unaffected. These data suggest that sperm DNA integrity in grade I varicocele patients may be improved by oral antioxidant treatment.

  4. Improved water and sodium absorption from oral rehydration solutions based on rice syrup in a rat model of osmotic diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapnir, R A; Litov, R E; Zdanowicz, M M; Lifshitz, F

    1991-04-01

    Rice syrup solids, rice protein, and casein hydrolysate were added to experimental oral rehydration solutions in various combinations and tested in a rat intestinal perfusion system. Chronic osmotic diarrhea was induced in juvenile rats by supplying the cathartic agents, magnesium citrate and phenolphthalein, in their drinking water for 1 week. The experimental oral rehydration solutions were compared with standard oral rehydration solutions containing 20 gm/L or 30 gm/L of glucose and with each other to determine if there were significant differences in net water, sodium, or potassium absorption. An oral rehydration solution containing 30 gm/L of rice syrup solids had a net water absorption rate significantly higher than that of the standard 20 gm/L glucose-based oral rehydration solution (2.1 +/- 0.62 versus 1.5 +/- 0.48 microliters/[min x cm], p less than 0.05). Casein hydrolysate did not significantly affect net water absorption. However, combinations of 30 gm/L rice syrup solids and 5 gm/L casein hydrolysate significantly increased (p less than 0.05) net sodium and potassium absorption compared with the 20 gm/L glucose-based oral rehydration solution but not versus rice syrup solids alone. Oral rehydration solutions containing 30 gm/L rice syrup solids plus 5 gm/L rice protein, and 30 gm/L rice syrup solids plus 5 gm/L casein hydrolysate, had net water absorption rates significantly higher than the rate of a 30 gm/L glucose-based oral rehydration solution (2.5 +/- 0.36 and 2.4 +/- 0.38, respectively, versus 0.87 +/- 0.40 microliters/[min x cm], p less than 0.05). Rice protein and casein hydrolysate, however, did not significantly affect net water, sodium, or potassium absorption when added to rice protein glucose-based oral rehydration solutions. An inverse correlation between osmolality and net water absorption was observed (r = -0.653, p less than 0.02). The data suggest that substitution of rice syrup solids for glucose in oral rehydration solutions will

  5. Skeletal improvement in patients with Gaucher disease type 1: a phase 2 trial of oral eliglustat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, Ravi S.; Lukina, Elena; Watman, Nora; Dragosky, Marta; Pastores, Gregory M.; Arreguin, Elsa Avila; Rosenbaum, Hanna; Zimran, Ari; Aguzzi, Rasha; Puga, Ana Cristina; Norfleet, Andrea M.; Peterschmitt, M.J.; Rosenthal, Daniel I.

    2014-01-01

    Eliglustat is an investigational oral substrate reduction therapy for Gaucher disease type 1 (GD1). Its skeletal effects were evaluated by prospective monitoring of bone mineral density (BMD), fractures, marrow infiltration by Gaucher cells, focal bone lesions, and infarcts during an open-label, multi-site, single-arm phase 2 trial (NCT00358150). Institutional review board approval and patient informed consent were obtained. Eliglustat (50 or 100 mg) was self-administered by mouth twice daily; 19 patients completed 4 years of treatment. All were skeletally mature (age range, 18-55 years). DXA and MRI assessments were conducted at baseline and annually thereafter. X-rays were obtained annually until month 24, and then every other year. Lumbar spine BMD increased significantly (p = 0.02; n = 15) by a mean (SD) of 9.9 % (14.2 %) from baseline to year 4; corresponding T-scores increased significantly (p = 0.01) from a mean (SD) of -1.6 (1.1) to -0.9 (1.3). Mean femur T-score remained normal through 4 years. Femur MRI showed that 10/18 (56 %) patients had decreased Gaucher cell infiltration compared to baseline; one patient with early improvement had transient worsening at year 4. There were no lumbar spine or femoral fractures and no reported bone crises during the study. At baseline, 8/19 (42 %) patients had focal bone lesions, which remained stable, and 7/19 (37 %) patients had bone infarctions, which improved in one patient by year 2. At year 4, one new asymptomatic, indeterminate bone lesion was discovered that subsequently resolved. Eliglustat may be a therapeutic option for treating the skeletal manifestations of GD1. (orig.)

  6. Skeletal improvement in patients with Gaucher disease type 1: a phase 2 trial of oral eliglustat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, Ravi S. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Fairfax Radiological Consultants, Fairfax, VA (United States); Lukina, Elena [Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Watman, Nora [Hospital Ramos Mejia, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dragosky, Marta [Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social Hospital de Especialidades, Col. La Raza (Mexico); Pastores, Gregory M. [New York University, New York (United States); Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Arreguin, Elsa Avila [Instituto Argentino de Diagnostico y Tratamiento, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rosenbaum, Hanna [Rambam Medical Center, Haifa (Israel); Zimran, Ari [Sha' are Zedek Hebrew University and Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Aguzzi, Rasha [Genzyme, a Sanofi company, Cambridge, MA (United States); Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge, MA (United States); Puga, Ana Cristina; Norfleet, Andrea M.; Peterschmitt, M.J. [Genzyme, a Sanofi company, Cambridge, MA (United States); Rosenthal, Daniel I. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Eliglustat is an investigational oral substrate reduction therapy for Gaucher disease type 1 (GD1). Its skeletal effects were evaluated by prospective monitoring of bone mineral density (BMD), fractures, marrow infiltration by Gaucher cells, focal bone lesions, and infarcts during an open-label, multi-site, single-arm phase 2 trial (NCT00358150). Institutional review board approval and patient informed consent were obtained. Eliglustat (50 or 100 mg) was self-administered by mouth twice daily; 19 patients completed 4 years of treatment. All were skeletally mature (age range, 18-55 years). DXA and MRI assessments were conducted at baseline and annually thereafter. X-rays were obtained annually until month 24, and then every other year. Lumbar spine BMD increased significantly (p = 0.02; n = 15) by a mean (SD) of 9.9 % (14.2 %) from baseline to year 4; corresponding T-scores increased significantly (p = 0.01) from a mean (SD) of -1.6 (1.1) to -0.9 (1.3). Mean femur T-score remained normal through 4 years. Femur MRI showed that 10/18 (56 %) patients had decreased Gaucher cell infiltration compared to baseline; one patient with early improvement had transient worsening at year 4. There were no lumbar spine or femoral fractures and no reported bone crises during the study. At baseline, 8/19 (42 %) patients had focal bone lesions, which remained stable, and 7/19 (37 %) patients had bone infarctions, which improved in one patient by year 2. At year 4, one new asymptomatic, indeterminate bone lesion was discovered that subsequently resolved. Eliglustat may be a therapeutic option for treating the skeletal manifestations of GD1. (orig.)

  7. Evaluation of intestinal phosphate binding to improve the safety profile of oral sodium phosphate bowel cleansing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef Robijn

    Full Text Available Prior to colonoscopy, bowel cleansing is performed for which frequently oral sodium phosphate (OSP is used. OSP results in significant hyperphosphatemia and cases of acute kidney injury (AKI referred to as acute phosphate nephropathy (APN; characterized by nephrocalcinosis are reported after OSP use, which led to a US-FDA warning. To improve the safety profile of OSP, it was evaluated whether the side-effects of OSP could be prevented with intestinal phosphate binders. Hereto a Wistar rat model of APN was developed. OSP administration (2 times 1.2 g phosphate by gavage with a 12h time interval induced bowel cleansing (severe diarrhea and significant hyperphosphatemia (21.79 ± 5.07 mg/dl 6h after the second OSP dose versus 8.44 ± 0.97 mg/dl at baseline. Concomitantly, serum PTH levels increased fivefold and FGF-23 levels showed a threefold increase, while serum calcium levels significantly decreased from 11.29 ± 0.53 mg/dl at baseline to 8.68 ± 0.79 mg/dl after OSP. OSP administration induced weaker NaPi-2a staining along the apical proximal tubular membrane. APN was induced: serum creatinine increased (1.5 times baseline and nephrocalcinosis developed (increased renal calcium and phosphate content and calcium phosphate deposits on Von Kossa stained kidney sections. Intestinal phosphate binding (lanthanum carbonate or aluminum hydroxide was not able to attenuate the OSP induced side-effects. In conclusion, a clinically relevant rat model of APN was developed. Animals showed increased serum phosphate levels similar to those reported in humans and developed APN. No evidence was found for an improved safety profile of OSP by using intestinal phosphate binders.

  8. Comparative study of protoporphyrin IX fluorescence image enhancement methods to improve an optical imaging system for oral cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ching-Fen; Wang, Chih-Yu; Chiang, Chun-Ping

    2011-07-01

    Optoelectronics techniques to induce protoporphyrin IX fluorescence with topically applied 5-aminolevulinic acid on the oral mucosa have been developed to noninvasively detect oral cancer. Fluorescence imaging enables wide-area screening for oral premalignancy, but the lack of an adequate fluorescence enhancement method restricts the clinical imaging application of these techniques. This study aimed to develop a reliable fluorescence enhancement method to improve PpIX fluorescence imaging systems for oral cancer detection. Three contrast features, red-green-blue reflectance difference, R/B ratio, and R/G ratio, were developed first based on the optical properties of the fluorescence images. A comparative study was then carried out with one negative control and four biopsy confirmed clinical cases to validate the optimal image processing method for the detection of the distribution of malignancy. The results showed the superiority of the R/G ratio in terms of yielding a better contrast between normal and neoplastic tissue, and this method was less prone to errors in detection. Quantitative comparison with the clinical diagnoses in the four neoplastic cases showed that the regions of premalignancy obtained using the proposed method accorded with the expert's determination, suggesting the potential clinical application of this method for the detection of oral cancer.

  9. Improved Oral Bioavailability Using a Solid Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System Containing a Multicomponent Mixture Extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Bi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The active ingredients of salvia (dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza include both lipophilic (e.g., tanshinone IIA, tanshinone I, cryptotanshinone and dihydrotanshinone I and hydrophilic (e.g., danshensu and salvianolic acid B constituents. The low oral bioavailability of these constituents may limit their efficacy. A solid self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (S-SMEDDS was developed to load the various active constituents of salvia into a single drug delivery system and improve their oral bioavailability. A prototype SMEDDS was designed using solubility studies and phase diagram construction, and characterized by self-emulsification performance, stability, morphology, droplet size, polydispersity index and zeta potential. Furthermore, the S-SMEDDS was prepared by dispersing liquid SMEDDS containing liposoluble extract into a solution containing aqueous extract and hydrophilic polymer, and then freeze-drying. In vitro release of tanshinone IIA, salvianolic acid B, cryptotanshinone and danshensu from the S-SMEDDS was examined, showing approximately 60%–80% of each active component was released from the S-SMEDDS in vitro within 20 min. In vivo bioavailability of these four constituents indicated that the S-SMEDDS showed superior in vivo oral absorption to a drug suspension after oral administration in rats. It can be concluded that the novel S-SMEDDS developed in this study increased the dissolution rate and improved the oral bioavailability of both lipophilic and hydrophilic constituents of salvia. Thus, the S-SMEDDS can be regarded as a promising new method by which to deliver salvia extract, and potentially other multicomponent drugs, by the oral route.

  10. Improved oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble indirubin by a supersaturatable self-microemulsifying drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen ZQ

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Zhi-Qiang Chen, Ying Liu, Ji-Hui Zhao, Lan Wang, Nian-Ping FengSchool of Pharmacy, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: Indirubin, isolated from the leaves of the Chinese herb Isatis tinctoria L, is a protein kinase inhibitor and promising antitumor agent. However, the poor water solubility of indirubin has limited its application. In this study, a supersaturatable self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (S-SMEDDS was developed to improve the oral bioavailability of indirubin.Methods: A prototype S-SMEDDS was designed using solubility studies and phase diagram construction. Precipitation inhibitors were selected from hydrophilic polymers according to their crystallization-inhibiting capacity through in vitro precipitation tests. In vitro release of indirubin from S-SMEDDS was examined to investigate its likely release behavior in vivo. The in vivo bioavailability of indirubin from S-SMEDDS and from SMEDDS was compared in rats.Results: The prototype formulation of S-SMEDDS comprised Maisine™ 35-1:Cremophor® EL:Transcutol® P (15:40:45, w/w/w. Polyvinylpyrrolidone K17, a hydrophilic polymer, was used as a precipitation inhibitor based on its better crystallization-inhibiting capacity compared with polyethylene glycol 4000 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. In vitro release analysis showed more rapid drug release from S-SMEDDS than from SMEDDS. In vivo bioavailability analysis in rats indicated that improved oral absorption was achieved and that the relative bioavailability of S-SMEDDS was 129.5% compared with SMEDDS.Conclusion: The novel S-SMEDDS developed in this study increased the dissolution rate and improved the oral bioavailability of indirubin in rats. The results suggest that S-SMEDDS is a superior means of oral delivery of indirubin.Keywords: supersaturatable self-microemulsifying drug delivery system, indirubin, bioavailability, oral drug delivery, hydrophilic polymer

  11. Oral Administration of Vanillin Improves Imiquimod-Induced Psoriatic Skin Inflammation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui-Man; Chen, Feng-Yuan; Li, Chia-Cheng; Lo, Hsin-Yi; Liao, Yi-Fang; Ho, Tin-Yun; Hsiang, Chien-Yun

    2017-11-29

    Vanillin is one of the most widely used flavoring products worldwide. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder. The interleukin-23 (IL-23)/interleukin-17 (IL-17) axis plays a critical role in psoriasis. Here, we analyzed the effect of vanillin on imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriatic skin inflammation in mice. Mice were treated topically with IMQ on the back skin and orally with various amounts of vanillin for 7 consecutive days. Vanillin significantly improved IMQ-induced histopathological changes of skin in a dose-dependent manner. The thickness and number of cell layers of epidermis were reduced by 29 ± 14.4 and 27.8 ± 11%, respectively, in mice given 100 mg/kg of vanillin. A microarray showed that a total of 9042 IMQ-upregulated genes were downregulated by vanillin, and the biological pathways involved in the immune system and metabolism were significantly altered by vanillin. The upregulated expressions of IL-23, IL-17A, and IL-17F genes were suppressed by vanillin, with fold changes of -3.07 ± 0.08, -2.06 ± 0.21, and -1.62 ± 0.21, respectively. Moreover, vanillin significantly decreased both the amounts of IL-17A and IL-23 and the infiltration of immune cells in the skin tissues of IMQ-treated mice. In conclusion, our findings suggested that vanillin was an effective bioactive compound against psoriatic skin inflammation. Moreover, the downregulation of IL-23 and IL-17 expression suggested that vanillin was a novel regulator of the IL-23/IL-17 axis.

  12. Characterization of intermediate products of solar photocatalytic degradation of ranitidine at pilot-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radjenović, Jelena; Sirtori, Carla; Petrović, Mira; Barceló, Damià; Malato, Sixto

    2010-04-01

    In the present study the mechanisms of solar photodegradation of H(2)-receptor antagonist ranitidine (RNTD) were studied in a well-defined system of a pilot plant scale Compound Parabolic Collector (CPC) reactor. Two types of heterogeneous photocatalytic experiments were performed: catalysed by titanium-dioxide (TiO(2)) semiconductor and by Fenton reagent (Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)), each one with distilled water and synthetic wastewater effluent matrix. Complete disappearance of the parent compounds and discreet mineralization were attained in all experiments. Furthermore, kinetic parameters, main intermediate products, release of heteroatoms and formation of carboxylic acids are discussed. The main intermediate products of photocatalytic degradation of RNTD have been structurally elucidated by tandem mass spectrometry (MS(2)) experiments performed at quadrupole-time of flight (QqToF) mass analyzer coupled to ultra-performance liquid chromatograph (UPLC). RNTD displayed high reactivity towards OH radicals, although a product of conduction band electrons reduction was also present in the experiment with TiO(2). In the absence of standards, quantification of intermediates was not possible and only qualitative profiles of their evolution could be determined. The proposed TiO(2) and photo-Fenton degradation routes of RNTD are reported for the first time. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nitrite ion mitigates the formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) during chloramination of ranitidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Mingizem Gashaw; Cho, Kangwoo; Lee, Changha; Park, Hyun-Mee; Hong, Seok Won

    2018-08-15

    Ranitidine (RNT) has been an important tertiary amine precursor of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in chlorine-based water treatment, due to reaction with monochloramine (NH 2 Cl) with exceptionally high molar yields up to 90%. This study examined the effects of nitrite ions (NO 2 - ) on the kinetics of NDMA formation during the chloramination of RNT under variable concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO, 0.7-7.5mg/L), RNT (5-30μM), NH 2 Cl (5-20mM), NO 2 - or NO 3 - (0-2mM) and pH (5.6-8.6). In the absence of the NO 2 - , the ultimate molar yield of NDMA after 6h of reaction was primarily influenced by [DO] and pH, while marginally affected by initial [RNT] and [NH 2 Cl]. A kinetic model, prepared in accordance with the reaction sequence of NDMA formation, suggested that the rate determining step was accelerated with increasing [NH 2 Cl] 0 , [DO], and pH. A Kinetic study together with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-Q-TOF MS) and gas chromatography (GC)/TOF MS analyses in parallel demonstrated that the nitrite ion inhibited the nucleophilic substitution of the terminal amine on NH 2 Cl, and reduced the pseudo-steady state concentration of N-peroxyl radicals, significantly decreasing the ultimate yields of NDMA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Formation of NDMA from ranitidine and sumatriptan: the role of pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ruqiao; Andrews, Susan A

    2013-02-01

    N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is an emerging disinfection by-product (DBP) which can be formed via the chloramination of amine-based precursors. The formation of NDMA is mainly determined by the speciation of chloramines and the precursor amine groups, both of which are highly dependent on pH. The impact of pH on NDMA formation has been studied for the model precursor dimethylamine (DMA) and natural organic matter (NOM), but little is known for amine-based pharmaceuticals which have been newly identified as a group of potential NDMA precursors, especially in waters impacted by treated wastewater effluents. This study investigates the role of pH in the formation of NDMA from two amine-based pharmaceuticals, ranitidine and sumatriptan, under drinking water relevant conditions. The results indicate that pH affects both the ultimate NDMA formation as well as the reaction kinetics. The maximum NDMA formation typically occurs in the pH range of 7-8. At lower pH, the reaction is limited due to the lack of non-protonated amines. At higher pH, although the initial reaction is enhanced by the increasing amount of non-protonated amines, the ultimate NDMA formation is limited because of the lack of dichloramine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabonomic evaluation of idiosyncrasy-like liver injury in rats cotreated with ranitidine and lipopolysaccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddox, Jane F.; Luyendyk, James P.; Cosma, Gregory N.; Breau, Alan P.; Bible, Roy H.; Harrigan, George G.; Goodacre, Royston; Ganey, Patricia E.; Cantor, Glenn H.; Cockerell, Gary L.; Roth, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Idiosyncratic liver injury occurs in a small fraction of people on certain drug regimens. The cause of idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity is not known; however, it has been proposed that environmental factors such as concurrent inflammation initiated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increase an individual's susceptibility to drug toxicity. Ranitidine (RAN), a histamine-2 receptor antagonist, causes idiosyncratic liver injury in humans. In a previous report, idiosyncrasy-like liver toxicity was created in rats by cotreating them with LPS and RAN. In the present study, the ability of metabonomic techniques to distinguish animals cotreated with LPS and RAN from those treated with each agent individually was investigated. Rats were treated with LPS or its vehicle and with RAN or its vehicle, and urine was collected for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)- and mass spectroscopy-based metabonomic analyses. Blood and liver samples were also collected to compare metabonomic results with clinical chemistry and histopathology. NMR metabonomic analysis indicated changes in the pattern of metabolites consistent with liver damage that occurred only in the LPS/RAN cotreated group. Principal component analysis of urine spectra by either NMR or mass spectroscopy produced a clear separation of the rats treated with LPS/RAN from the other three groups. Clinical chemistry (serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities) and histopathology corroborated these results. These findings support the potential use of a noninvasive metabonomic approach to identify drug candidates with potential to cause idiosyncratic liver toxicity with inflammagen coexposure

  16. Comparison of Intravenous Ranitidine with Pantoprazole in Decreasing Gastric Fluid Acidity in Emergency Cesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alipour M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Peri-operative aspiration of gastric contents is a problem that causes certain respiratory problems including ARDS. Prophylaxis against aspiration of gastric contents is performed routinely in elective surgeries, but there is rare evidence on the efficacy of this method in emergency cesarean section. Materials and Methods: This is a randomized, controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. 60 parturients undergoing emergency cesarean section were randomly assigned into three groups of 20 each. They were allocated into two study and one placebo groups. The study group one and two received intravenous ranitidine (IV 50 mg or IV pantoprazole 40 mg, half an hour before induction of GA, respectively. The placebo group was administered just 5 ml of isotonic saline half an hour before GA induction. After intubation and confirmation of endotracheal tube insertion, the gastric contents were aspirated through a nasogastric tube for evaluation of acidity and volume. Results: A statistical difference between group one and two with the control group was observed in the acidity of gastric contents, but there was no difference in volume. Also, the PH level of gastric contents in patients receiving pantoprazole was significantly higher than the isotonic saline (p

  17. Formation mechanism of NDMA from ranitidine, trimethylamine, and other tertiary amines during chloramination: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong Dong; Selbes, Meric; Zeng, Chengchu; Zhong, Rugang; Karanfil, Tanju

    2014-01-01

    Chloramination of drinking waters has been associated with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation as a disinfection byproduct. NDMA is classified as a probable carcinogen and thus its formation during chloramination has recently become the focus of considerable research interest. In this study, the formation mechanisms of NDMA from ranitidine and trimethylamine (TMA), as models of tertiary amines, during chloramination were investigated by using density functional theory (DFT). A new four-step formation pathway of NDMA was proposed involving nucleophilic substitution by chloramine, oxidation, and dehydration followed by nitrosation. The results suggested that nitrosation reaction is the rate-limiting step and determines the NDMA yield for tertiary amines. When 45 other tertiary amines were examined, the proposed mechanism was found to be more applicable to aromatic tertiary amines, and there may be still some additional factors or pathways that need to be considered for aliphatic tertiary amines. The heterolytic ONN(Me)2-R(+) bond dissociation energy to release NDMA and carbocation R(+) was found to be a criterion for evaluating the reactivity of aromatic tertiary amines. A structure-activity study indicates that tertiary amines with benzyl, aromatic heterocyclic ring, and diene-substituted methenyl adjacent to the DMA moiety are potentially significant NDMA precursors. The findings of this study are helpful for understanding NDMA formation mechanism and predicting NDMA yield of a precursor.

  18. Oral Liquid Formulation of Levothyroxine Is Stable in Breakfast Beverages and May Improve Thyroid Patient Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Bernareggi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients on treatment with levothyroxine (T4 are informed to take this drug in the morning, at least 30 min before having breakfast. A significant decrease of T4 absorption was reported, in fact, when T4 solid formulations are taken with food or coffee. According to preliminary clinical study reports, administration of T4 oral solution appears to be less sensitive to the effect of breakfast beverages on oral bioavailability. In the present study, stability of T4 oral solution added to breakfast beverages was investigated. A 1 mL ampoule of single-dose Tirosint® oral solution (IBSA Farmaceutici Italia, Lodi, Italy was poured into defined volumes of milk, tea, coffee, and coffee with milk warmed at 50 °C, as well as in orange juice at room temperature. Samples were sequentially collected up to 20 min and analyzed by validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS methods. The results of the study demonstrated that T4 is stable in all beverages after 20 min incubation. Demonstration of T4 stability is a prerequisite for a thorough evaluation of the effect of breakfast beverages on the bioavailability of T4 given as oral solution and for a better understanding of the reasons underlying a decreased T4 bioavailability administered as solid formulations.

  19. Oral gadopentetate dimeglumine administration as a negative gastrointestinal contrast agent to improve image quality of MR cholangiopancreatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yi; Xu Yikai; Zhao Yuhui; Wang Guisheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To choose optimal concentration and volume of Gd-DTPA solution as a oral gastrointestinal negative contrast agent for MRCP. To evaluate the role of Gd-DTPA solution in improving image quality of MRCP. Methods: In vitro experiment: Gd-DTPA solution was made with different concentrations. T 1 WI, T 2 WI, two-dimensional single slice fast spin echo sequence and three-dimensional half-fourier acquisition single-shot fast spin echo sequence were performed to measure the signal intensity of these contrast agents respectively, so Gd-DTPA solution with the optimal concentration can be decided as oral negative gastrointestinal contrast agent on MRCP. Clinical study: The Gd-DTPA solution with optimal concentration and volume was regarded as an oral negative gastrointestinal contrast agent of MRCP. Twenty- four' patients were performed with MRCP before and after (5-10 minutes and 10-15 minutes) administration of oral negative gastrointestinal contrast agent and image quality was analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance with SPSS 10.0. Results: When the concentration of Gd-DTPA solution was ≤0.01 mol/L, the contrast agent was hyperintense on T 1 WI. On T 2 WI, when the concentration was ≥0.015 mol/L, it was as hypointense as basic ground; On 2D FSE MRCP images, controls were hyperintense and the contrast agent with concentration ranging from 0.0025 mol/L to 0.03 mol/L was hypointense. On 3D HEAST MRCP image, controls were hyperintense and when the concentration of Gd-DTPA was ≥0.01 mol, the contrast agent was hypointense. The Gd-DTPA solution with the concentration of 0.01 mol/L and the volume of 100 ml was chosen as MRCP oral negative gastrointestinal contrast agent. On MRCP images after oral administration of the contrast agent, in 10-15 minutes, the average grade scores within 24 patients of the intrahepatic bile duct, the common hepatic bile duct, the gall bladder, the common bile duct and pancreatic duct (the average grade

  20. Oral Hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Marie Toftdahl; Villadsen, Dorte Buxbom

    The aim of the study was to explore how adults with schizo- phrenia describe their lived experiences with oral hygiene. 23 adults with schizophrenia were interviewed within a period of four months in late 2015. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using the Reflective Lifeworld Research...... health care professionals and adults with schizophrenia in order to improve oral health, well-being and recovery....

  1. Oral Hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Dorte Buxbom; Sørensen, Marie Toftdahl

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore how adults with schizophrenia describe their lived experiences with oral hygiene. 23 adults with schizophrenia were interviewed within a period of four months in late 2015. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using the Reflective Lifeworld Research ph...... health care professionals and adults with schizophrenia in order to improve oral health, well-being and recovery....

  2. Does oral carbohydrate supplementation improve labour outcome? A systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, G L; Bugg, G J; Thornton, J; Taylor, M A; Grauwen, N; Devlieger, R; Kardel, K R; Kubli, M; Tranmer, J E; Jones, N W

    2016-03-01

    Labour is a period of significant physical activity. The importance of carbohydrate intake to improve outcome has been recognised in sports medicine and general surgery. To assess the effect of oral carbohydrate supplementation on labour outcomes. MEDLINE (1966-2014), Embase, the Cochrane Library and clinical trial registries. Randomised controlled trials (RCT) of women randomised to receive oral carbohydrate in labour (inclusion criteria. Six authors responded, four supplied data (n = 691). Three studies used isotonic drinks (one placebo-controlled, two compared with standard care), and one an advice booklet regarding carbohydrate intake. The mean difference in energy intake between the intervention and control groups was small [three studies, 195 kilocalories (kcal), 95% CI 118-273]. There was no difference in the risk of caesarean section (RR 1.15, 95% CI 0.83- 1.61), instrumental birth (RR 1.26, 95% CI 0.96-1.66) or syntocinon augmentation (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.86-1.13). Length of labour was similar (mean difference -3.15 minutes, 95% CI -35.14 to 41.95). Restricting the analysis to primigravid women did not affect the result. Oral carbohydrates did not increase the risk of vomiting (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.78-1.52) or 1-minute Apgar score labour outcome. Oral carbohydrate does not affect labour. But the difference between intervention and control equals 10 teaspoons sugar. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  3. Improved anticoagulant effect of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate orally administered as gastro-resistant tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Roberto J C; Sucupira, Isabela D; Oliveira, Stephan Nicollas M C G; Santos, Gustavo R C; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2017-04-03

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS) is a potent anticoagulant polysaccharide extracted from sea cucumber. Its anticoagulant activity is attributed to the presence of unique branches of sulfated fucose. Although this glycosaminoglycan exerts an antithrombotic effect following oral administration, high doses are necessary to achieve the maximum effect. The diminished activity of FucCS following oral administration is likely due to its degradation in the gastrointestinal tract and its limited ability to cross the intestinal cell membranes. The latter aspect is particularly difficult to overcome. However, gastro-resistant tablet formulation may help limit the degradation of FucCS in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present work, we found that the oral administration of FucCS as gastro-resistant tablets produces a more potent and prolonged anticoagulant effect compared with its administration as an aqueous solution, with no significant changes in the bleeding tendency or arterial blood pressure. Experiments using animal models of arterial thrombosis initiated by endothelial injury demonstrated that FucCS delivered as gastro-protective tablets produced a potent antithrombotic effect, whereas its aqueous solution was ineffective. However, there was no significant difference between the effects of FucCS delivered as gastro-resistant tablets or as aqueous solution in a venous thrombosis model, likely due to the high dose of thromboplastin used. New oral anticoagulants tested in these experimental models for comparison showed significantly increased bleeding tendencies. Our study provides a framework for developing effective oral anticoagulants based on sulfated polysaccharides from marine organisms. The present results suggest that FucCS is a promising oral anticoagulant.

  4. Improving professionalism in the engineering curriculum through a novel use of oral presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berjano, Enrique; Sales-Nebot, Laura; Lozano-Nieto, Albert

    2013-05-01

    This hypothesis is based on the fact that oral presentations in the context of engineering education could be used not only to develop oral communication skills but also to augment the professionalism in the curriculum. The methodological innovation is first described, which allows encouraging the capacity of summarising ideas, teamwork, assertiveness, listening skills and constructive criticism. Second, the preliminary results from two pilot groups of students during two academic years are analysed. Finally, the paper reflects on the possibilities of expanding this method to pre-university studies.

  5. Improving Community Coverage of Oral Cholera Mass Vaccination Campaigns: Lessons Learned in Zanzibar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaetti, Christian; Ali, Said M.; Chaignat, Claire-Lise; Khatib, Ahmed M.; Hutubessy, Raymond; Weiss, Mitchell G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent research in two cholera-endemic communities of Zanzibar has shown that a majority (∼94%) of the adult population was willing to receive free oral cholera vaccines (OCVs). Since OCV uptake in the 2009 campaign reached only ∼50% in these communities, an evaluation of social and cultural factors and of barriers was conducted to understand this difference for future cholera control planning. Methodology/Principal Findings A random sample of 367 adult peri-urban and rural community residents (46.6% immunized vs. 53.4% unimmunized) was studied with a semi-structured interview that inquired about social and cultural features of cholera depicted in a vignette and barriers to OCV uptake. Symptoms (rectal pain, loose skin only in rural community) and perceived causes (uncovered food, contact with contaminated water) specific for severe diarrhea were associated with uptake. Purchasing drugs from pharmacies to stop diarrhea and vomiting was negatively associated with uptake. Increasing household size, age and previous enteric illness episode were positively related to uptake, the latter only at the rural site. The most prominent barrier to uptake was competing obligations or priorities (reported by 74.5%, identified as most important barrier by 49.5%). Next most prominent barriers were lacking information about the campaign (29.6%, 12.2%), sickness (14.3%, 13.3%) and fear of possible vaccine side effects (15.3%, 5.6%). The majority of unvaccinated respondents requested repetition of the vaccination with free OCVs. Conclusions/Significance Factors associated with uptake indicated a positive impact of the vaccination campaign and of sensitization activities on vaccine acceptance behavior. Unlike communities opposed to cholera control or settings where public confidence in vaccines is lacking, identified barriers to uptake indicated a good campaign implementation and trust in the health system. Despite prospects and demand for repeating the vaccination

  6. Simulated rat intestinal fluid improves oral exposure prediction for poorly soluble compounds over a wide dose range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Berghausen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Solubility can be the absorption limiting factor for drug candidates and is therefore a very important input parameter for oral exposure prediction of compounds with limited solubility. Biorelevant media of the fasted and fed state have been published for humans, as well as for dogs in the fasted state. In a drug discovery environment, rodents are the most common animal model to assess the oral exposure of drug candidates. In this study a rat simulated intestinal fluid (rSIF is proposed as a more physiologically relevant media to describe drug solubility in rats. Equilibrium solubility in this medium was tested as input parameter for physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK simulations of oral pharmacokinetics in the rat. Simulations were compared to those obtained using other solubility values as input parameters, like buffer at pH 6.8, human simulated intestinal fluid and a comprehensive dissolution assay based on rSIF. Our study on nine different compounds demonstrates that the incorporation of rSIF equilibrium solubility values into PBPK models of oral drug exposure can significantly improve the reliability of simulations in rats for doses up to 300 mg/kg compared to other media. The comprehensive dissolution assay may help to improve further simulation outcome, but the greater experimental effort as compared to equilibrium solubility may limit its use in a drug discovery environment. Overall, PBPK simulations based on solubility in the proposed rSIF medium can improve prioritizing compounds in drug discovery as well as planning dose escalation studies, e.g. during toxicological investigations.

  7. Improved oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble indirubin by a supersaturatable self-microemulsifying drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Ji-Hui; Wang, Lan; Feng, Nian-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Indirubin, isolated from the leaves of the Chinese herb Isatis tinctoria L, is a protein kinase inhibitor and promising antitumor agent. However, the poor water solubility of indirubin has limited its application. In this study, a supersaturatable self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (S-SMEDDS) was developed to improve the oral bioavailability of indirubin. A prototype S-SMEDDS was designed using solubility studies and phase diagram construction. Precipitation inhibitors were selected from hydrophilic polymers according to their crystallization-inhibiting capacity through in vitro precipitation tests. In vitro release of indirubin from S-SMEDDS was examined to investigate its likely release behavior in vivo. The in vivo bioavailability of indirubin from S-SMEDDS and from SMEDDS was compared in rats. The prototype formulation of S-SMEDDS comprised Maisine™ 35-1:Cremophor(®) EL:Transcutol(®) P (15:40:45, w/w/w). Polyvinylpyrrolidone K17, a hydrophilic polymer, was used as a precipitation inhibitor based on its better crystallization-inhibiting capacity compared with polyethylene glycol 4000 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. In vitro release analysis showed more rapid drug release from S-SMEDDS than from SMEDDS. In vivo bioavailability analysis in rats indicated that improved oral absorption was achieved and that the relative bioavailability of S-SMEDDS was 129.5% compared with SMEDDS. The novel S-SMEDDS developed in this study increased the dissolution rate and improved the oral bioavailability of indirubin in rats. The results suggest that S-SMEDDS is a superior means of oral delivery of indirubin.

  8. Evaluation of community-based oral health promotion and oral disease prevention--WHO recommendations for improved evidence in public health practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Kwan, Stella

    2004-01-01

    Systematic evaluation is an integral part of the organisation and delivery of community oral health care programmes, ensuring the effectiveness of these community-based interventions. As for general health promotion programmes the common problems from effectiveness reviews of oral health...... a challenge to oral health professionals to integrate community oral health programmes into a wider health agenda. Public health research focusing on the development of evaluation methodologies has identified a variety of issues including the importance of using pluralistic evaluation approaches (quantitative...... of the evaluation of oral health promotion and oral disease prevention programmes. The aims of the workshop were to: (1) identify common problems and challenges in evaluating community-based oral health interventions; (2) explore developments in the evaluation approaches in public health; (3) share experiences...

  9. Intraoperative 3-D imaging improves sentinel lymph node biopsy in oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemel, Christina; Herrmann, Ken; Buck, Andreas K.; Lapa, Constantin; Kuebler, Alexander; Hartmann, Stefan; Linz, Christian; Mueller-Richter, Urs; Geissinger, Eva; Wild, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the feasibility and potential advantages of freehand single-photon emission computed tomography (fhSPECT) compared with conventional intraoperative localization techniques for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in oral cancer. Between November 2012 and February 2014, 23 consecutive patients with clinical T1/T2 oral squamous cell carcinoma and a cN0 neck were recruited. All patients underwent SLNB followed by elective neck dissection (END). All patients received preoperative lymphoscintigraphy. To detect the SLNs intraoperatively, fhSPECT with a combination of conventional acoustic SLN localization and 3-D visual navigation was used. All but one of the SLNs detected by preoperative imaging were successfully mapped intraoperatively by fhSPECT (detection rate 98 %), including those in six patients with a tumour in the floor of the mouth. A histopathology analysis revealed positive SLNs in 22 % of patients. No further metastases were found in LNs resected during END. SLNB correctly predicted the final LN stage in all patients (accuracy 100 %). Additional radioactive LNs, which were not present on preoperative lymphoscintigraphy, were observed in three patients. FhSPECT is a feasible technology that allows the accurate identification of SLNs in oral cancer. FhSPECT overcomes the shine-through phenomenon, one of the most important limitations of SLNB, thereby confirming the importance of SLNB in patients with cN0 oral cancer. (orig.)

  10. Answer Me These Questions Three: Using Online Training to Improve Students' Oral Source Citations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerkle, C. Wesley; Gearhart, Christopher C.

    2017-01-01

    This experimental study examines an online module designed to increase student competence in oral citation behavior using a mastery training strategy. Students in the experimental condition provided complete citations at a higher rate and provided more citation information for traditional and web-based sources compared with a control group without…

  11. Sustained benefits of a community dietetics intervention designed to improve oral nutritional supplement prescribing practices.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennelly, S

    2011-10-01

    Healthcare professionals working in the community do not always prescribe oral nutritional supplements (ONS) according to best practice guidelines for the management of malnutrition. The present study aimed to determine the impact of a community dietetics intervention on ONS prescribing practices and expenditure 1 year later.

  12. Using Audio Description to Improve FLL Students' Oral Competence in MALL: Methodological Preliminaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez Moreno, Ana; Vermeulen, Anna; Jordano, Maria

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades of the 20th century, audiovisual products began to be audio described in order to make them accessible to blind and visually impaired people (Benecke, 2004). This means that visual information is orally described in the gaps between dialogues. In order to meet the wishes of the so-called On Demand (OD) generation that wants…

  13. Dental implants and improvement of oral health-related quality of life

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kříž, P.; Seydlová, M.; Dostálová, T.; Valenta, Zdeněk; Chleborád, K.; Zvárová, Jana; Feberová, J.; Hippmann, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 40, Suppl. 1 (2012), s. 65-70 ISSN 0301-5661 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : dental implant * oral health-related quality of life Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 1.797, year: 2012

  14. Intraoperative 3-D imaging improves sentinel lymph node biopsy in oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemel, Christina; Herrmann, Ken; Buck, Andreas K.; Lapa, Constantin [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Kuebler, Alexander; Hartmann, Stefan; Linz, Christian; Mueller-Richter, Urs [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Plastic Surgery, Wuerzburg (Germany); Geissinger, Eva; Wild, Vanessa [University Wuerzburg, Institute of Pathology, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the feasibility and potential advantages of freehand single-photon emission computed tomography (fhSPECT) compared with conventional intraoperative localization techniques for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in oral cancer. Between November 2012 and February 2014, 23 consecutive patients with clinical T1/T2 oral squamous cell carcinoma and a cN0 neck were recruited. All patients underwent SLNB followed by elective neck dissection (END). All patients received preoperative lymphoscintigraphy. To detect the SLNs intraoperatively, fhSPECT with a combination of conventional acoustic SLN localization and 3-D visual navigation was used. All but one of the SLNs detected by preoperative imaging were successfully mapped intraoperatively by fhSPECT (detection rate 98 %), including those in six patients with a tumour in the floor of the mouth. A histopathology analysis revealed positive SLNs in 22 % of patients. No further metastases were found in LNs resected during END. SLNB correctly predicted the final LN stage in all patients (accuracy 100 %). Additional radioactive LNs, which were not present on preoperative lymphoscintigraphy, were observed in three patients. FhSPECT is a feasible technology that allows the accurate identification of SLNs in oral cancer. FhSPECT overcomes the shine-through phenomenon, one of the most important limitations of SLNB, thereby confirming the importance of SLNB in patients with cN0 oral cancer. (orig.)

  15. Assessing the Feasibility and Effectiveness of an App in Improving Knowledge on Oral Cancer-an Interventional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Prajna Pramod; Nayak, Sushma S; Sathiyabalan, Deepicca; Aditya, N K; Das, Priyanjana

    2017-06-13

    Although current oral health care initiatives have proved to be quite successful, a great number of individuals are unaware of how their choice of daily activities compromises their oral health. That is why newer technologies like WhatsApp can definitely serve as a platform to communicate dental advice, thereby strengthening the bridge between health and technology. The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of WhatsApp as a tool for providing health education on tobacco and oral cancer as compared to the conventional health education via PowerPoint. The study was a cluster randomized controlled trial, single-center study. The students of 18-24 years of age with WhatsApp application active in their mobile phones were included. Four classes with 182 students were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. Control group received health education on oral cancer using a PowerPoint presentation weekly, for a total of 4 weeks. Intervention group received health education through WhatsApp messaging thrice a week for 4 weeks. Pre- and post-health education knowledge scores were assessed using a questionnaire and compared using unpaired and paired two-sample t tests. Statistically significant increase in knowledge scores was seen in both groups, with highly significant improvement in the intervention group (p value = 0.00). Intergroup comparison showed no significant difference in knowledge scores at baseline, but a significant difference in post intervention knowledge scores (t = -15.05 pWhatsApp can be a more effective tool for providing dental education on tobacco and oral cancer as compared to conventional audio-visual aids.

  16. Controlled and targeted release of antigens by intelligent shell for improving applicability of oral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zeng, Zhanzhuang; Hu, Chaohua; Bellis, Susan L; Yang, Wendi; Su, Yintao; Zhang, Xinyan; Wu, Yunkun

    2016-01-01

    Conventional oral vaccines with simple architecture face barriers with regard to stimulating effective immunity. Here we describe oral vaccines with an intelligent phase-transitional shielding layer, poly[(methyl methacrylate)-co-(methyl acrylate)-co-(methacrylic acid)]-poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PMMMA-PLGA), which can protect antigens in the gastro-intestinal tract and achieve targeted vaccination in the large intestine. With the surface immunogenic protein (SIP) from group B Streptococcus (GBS) entrapped as the antigen, oral administration with PMMMA-PLGA (PTRBL)/Trx-SIP nanoparticles stimulated robust immunity in tilapia, an animal with a relatively simple immune system. The vaccine succeeded in protecting against Streptococcus agalactiae, a pathogen of worldwide importance that threatens human health and is transmitted in water with infected fish. After oral vaccination with PTRBL/Trx-SIP, tilapia produced enhanced levels of SIP specific antibodies and displayed durability of immune protection. 100% of the vaccinated tilapia were protected from GBS infection, whereas the control groups without vaccines or vaccinated with Trx-SIP only exhibited respective infection rates of 100% or >60% within the initial 5 months after primary vaccination. Experiments in vivo demonstrated that the recombinant antigen Trx-SIP labeled with FITC was localized in colon, spleen and kidney, which are critical sites for mounting an immune response. Our results revealed that, rather than the size of the nanoparticles, it is more likely that the negative charge repulsion produced by ionization of the carboxyl groups in PMMMA shielded the nanoparticles from uptake by small intestinal epithelial cells. This system resolves challenges arising from gastrointestinal damage to antigens, and more importantly, offers a new approach applicable for oral vaccination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Virtual Environment to Improve the Detection of Oral-Facial Malfunction in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Ruiz, María-Luisa; Máximo-Bocanegra, Nuria; Luna-Oliva, Laura

    2016-03-26

    The importance of an early rehabilitation process in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is widely recognized. On the one hand, new and useful treatment tools such as rehabilitation systems based on interactive technologies have appeared for rehabilitation of gross motor movements. On the other hand, from the therapeutic point of view, performing rehabilitation exercises with the facial muscles can improve the swallowing process, the facial expression through the management of muscles in the face, and even the speech of children with cerebral palsy. However, it is difficult to find interactive games to improve the detection and evaluation of oral-facial musculature dysfunctions in children with CP. This paper describes a framework based on strategies developed for interactive serious games that is created both for typically developed children and children with disabilities. Four interactive games are the core of a Virtual Environment called SONRIE. This paper demonstrates the benefits of SONRIE to monitor children's oral-facial difficulties. The next steps will focus on the validation of SONRIE to carry out the rehabilitation process of oral-facial musculature in children with cerebral palsy.

  18. A Virtual Environment to Improve the Detection of Oral-Facial Malfunction in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Luisa Martín-Ruiz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of an early rehabilitation process in children with cerebral palsy (CP is widely recognized. On the one hand, new and useful treatment tools such as rehabilitation systems based on interactive technologies have appeared for rehabilitation of gross motor movements. On the other hand, from the therapeutic point of view, performing rehabilitation exercises with the facial muscles can improve the swallowing process, the facial expression through the management of muscles in the face, and even the speech of children with cerebral palsy. However, it is difficult to find interactive games to improve the detection and evaluation of oral-facial musculature dysfunctions in children with CP. This paper describes a framework based on strategies developed for interactive serious games that is created both for typically developed children and children with disabilities. Four interactive games are the core of a Virtual Environment called SONRIE. This paper demonstrates the benefits of SONRIE to monitor children’s oral-facial difficulties. The next steps will focus on the validation of SONRIE to carry out the rehabilitation process of oral-facial musculature in children with cerebral palsy.

  19. Improved oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of dabigatran etexilate via Soluplus-TPGS binary mixed micelles system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mei; Zhang, Jinjie; Ding, Rui; Fu, Yao; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhirong

    2017-04-01

    The clinical use of dabigatran etexilate (DABE) is limited by its poor absorption and relatively low bioavailability. Our study aimed to explore the potential of a mixed micelle system composed of Soluplus ® and D-alpha tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) to improve the oral absorption and bioavailability of DBAE. DBAE was first encapsulated into Soluplus/TPGS mixed micelles by a simple thin film hydration method. The DBAE loaded micelles displayed an average size distribution of around 83.13 nm. The cellular uptake of DBAE loaded micelles in Caco-2 cell monolayer was significantly enhanced by 2-2.6 fold over time as compared with DBAE suspension. Both lipid raft/caveolae and macropinocytosis-mediated the cell uptake of DBAE loaded micelles through P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-independent pathway. Compared with the DBAE suspension, the intestinal absorption of DBAE from DBAE mixed micelles in rats was significantly improved by 8 and 5-fold in ileum at 2 h and 4 h, respectively. Moreover, DBAE mixed micelles were absorbed into systemic circulation via both portal vein and lymphatic pathway. The oral bioavailability of DBAE mixed micelles in rats was 3.37 fold higher than that of DBAE suspension. DBAE mixed micelles exhibited a comparable anti-thrombolytic activity with a thrombosis inhibition rate of 63.18% compared with DBAE suspension in vivo. Thus, our study provides a promising drug delivery system to enhance the oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of DBAE.

  20. Bleeding and pneumonia in intensive care patients given ranitidine and sucralfate for prevention of stress ulcer: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messori, A; Trippoli, S; Vaiani, M; Gorini, M; Corrado, A

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effectiveness of ranitidine and sucralfate in the prevention of stress ulcer in critical patients and to assess if these treatments affect the risk of nosocomial pneumonia. Design Published studies retrieved through Medline and other databases. Five meta-analyses evaluated effectiveness in terms of bleeding rates (A: ranitidine v placebo; B: sucralfate v placebo) and infectious complications in terms of incidence of nosocomial pneumonia (C: ranitidine v placebo; D: sucralfate v placebo; E: ranitidine v sucralfate). Trial quality was determined with an empirical ad hoc procedure. Main outcome measures Rates of clinically important gastrointestinal bleeding and nosocomial pneumonia (compared between the two study arms and expressed with odds ratios specific for individual studies and meta-analytic summary odds ratios). Results Meta-analysis A (five studies) comprised 398 patients; meta-analysis C (three studies) comprised 311 patients; meta-analysis D (two studies) comprised 226 patients: and meta-analysis E (eight studies) comprised 1825 patients. Meta-analysis B was not carried out as the literature search selected only one clinical trial. In meta-analysis A ranitidine was found to have the same effectiveness as placebo (odds ratio of bleeding 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.30 to 1.70, P=0.46). In placebo controlled studies (meta-analyses C and D) ranitidine and sucralfate had no influence on the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia. In comparison with sucralfate, ranitidine significantly increased the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia (meta-analysis E: 1.35, 1.07 to 1.70, P=0.012). The mean quality score in the four analyses (on a 0 to 10 scale) ranged from 5.6 in meta-analysis E to 6.6 in meta-analysis A. Conclusions Ranitidine is ineffective in the prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients in intensive care and might increase the risk of pneumonia. Studies on sucralfate do not provide conclusive results. These findings are

  1. Among Patients Undergoing Ablative Treatment for Oral Cancer, Does the Provision of Oral Rehabilitation Improve the Quality of Life? A Review of the Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosyan, Vahe; Ball, Dimity; Harrison, Rebecca; Ameerally, Phillip

    2016-05-01

    The impact of oral cancer and its treatment is well documented; therefore, oral rehabilitation (OH; eg, with prosthetics, osseointegrated implants, etc) can be indicated to restore some level of form, function, and well-being. The purpose of this study was to review the current literature and evaluate the impact of OH on quality of life (QoL) after ablative surgery. A systematic literature search was conducted using EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsychINFO. The study population was composed of all articles published from 2000 to 2015. To be included, studies had to use validated, specific head and neck QoL measurements (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QoL Head and Neck Module or University of Washington QoL Questionnaire). Only 8 articles met these inclusion criteria. In this review, OH was the primary predictor variable and QoL was the primary outcome variable. The 8 articles reviewed used a range of designs, including 1 randomized controlled trial, 3 prospective cohort studies, 3 case series, and 1 single-measurement cross-sectional descriptive study. Sample sizes were small (n = 26 to 102), and there was limited randomization and control of intervention and comparator groups. The overall level of evidence was weak. All studies showed a link between OH and QoL, but the results varied in significance (P < .01 to P = .95). Overall, there appears to be improvement in QoL to varying degrees after OH. However, a more systematic use of QoL measurements is needed before any definitive conclusions can be drawn. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. H_2-receptor Antagonist Therapy : With Special Reference to Ranitidine(Current Medical Therapy for Upper Gastrointestinal Ulcer Disease)

    OpenAIRE

    渡辺, 裕; 村山, 久夫; Watanabe, Yutaka; Murayama, Hisao

    1988-01-01

    The cure rate for endoscopic therapy was determined in 61 patients with a gastroduodenal ulcer who received Ranitidine at a dose of 150 mg twice daily, in the morning and evening. The ulcer patients were classified into initial-, recurrent-and intractable-ulcer groups, and the cumulative cure rate was compared among the three types of ulcers. The cure rate was 93% for the initial ulcer, 78% for recurrent and 50% for intractable. Uncured ulcers accounted for about 10% of the patients, and the ...

  3. Improved Oral Bioavailability and Brain Transport of Saquinavir Upon Administration in Novel Nanoemulsion Formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Vyas, Tushar K.; Shahiwala, Aliasgar; Amiji, Mansoor M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to develop novel oil-in-water (o/w) nanoemulsions containing saquinavir (SQV), an anti-HIV protease inhibitor, for enhanced oral bioavailability and brain disposition. SQV was dissolved in different types of edible oils rich in essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to constitute the internal oil phase of the nanoemulsions. The external phase consisted of surfactants Lipoid®-80 and deoxycholic acid dissolved in water. The nanoemulsions with an average o...

  4. Lipid nanoparticles of zaleplon for improved oral delivery by Box-Behnken design: optimization, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudhipala, Narendar; Janga, Karthik Yadav

    2017-07-01

    Zaleplon (ZL) is a hypnotic drug prescribed for the management of insomnia and convulsions. The oral bioavailability of ZL was low (∼30%) owing to poor water solubility and hepatic first-pass metabolism. The cornerstone of this investigation is to develop and optimize solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of ZL with the aid of Box-Behnken design (BBD) to improve the oral bioavailability. A design space with three formulation variables at three levels were evaluated in BBD. Amount of lipid (A 1 ), amount of surfactant (A 2 ) and concentration of co-surfactant (%) (A 3 ) were selected as independent variables, whereas, particle size (B 1 ), entrapment efficiency (B 2 ) and zeta potential (ZP, B 3 ) as responses. ZL-SLNs were prepared by hot homogenization with ultrasonication method and evaluated for responses to obtain optimized formulation. Morphology of nanoparticles was observed under SEM. DSC and XRD studies were examined to understand the native crystalline behavior of drug in SLN formulations. Further, in vivo studies were performed in Wistar rats. The optimized formulation with 132.89 mg of lipid, 106.7 mg of surfactant and 0.2% w/v of co-surfactant ensued in the nanoparticles with 219.9 ± 3.7 nm of size, -25.66 ± 2.83 mV surface charge and 86.83 ± 2.65% of entrapment efficiency. SEM studies confirmed the spherical shape of SLN formulations. The DSC and XRD studies revealed the transformation of crystalline drug to amorphous form in SLN formulation. In conclusion, in vivo studies in male Wistar rats demonstrated an improvement in the oral bioavailability of ZL from SLN over control ZL suspension. The enhancement in the oral bioavailability of ZL from SLNs, developed with the aid of BBD, explicated the potential of lipid-based nanoparticles as a potential carrier in improving the oral delivery of this poorly soluble drug.

  5. Self-Micro Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems: a Strategy to Improve Oral Bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K. Sharma

    Full Text Available Aim: Oral route has always been the favorite route of drug administration in many diseases and till today it is the first way investigated in the development of new dosage forms. The major problem in oral drug formulations is low and erratic bioavailability, which mainly results from poor aqueous solubility, thereby pose problems in their formulation. For the therapeutic delivery of lipophilic active moieties (BCS class II drugs, lipid based formulations are inviting increasing attention. Methods: To that aim, from the web sites of PubMed, HCAplus, Thomson, and Registry were used as the main sources to perform the search for the most significant research articles published on the subject. The information was then carefully analyzed, highlighting the most important results in the formulation and development of self-micro emulsifying drug delivery systems as well as its therapeutic activity. Results: Self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS has gained more attention due to enhanced oral bio-availability enabling reduction in dose, more consistent temporal profiles of drug absorption, selective targeting of drug(s toward specific absorption window in GIT, and protection of drug(s from the unreceptive environment in gut. Conclusions: This article gives a complete overview of SMEDDS as a promising approach to effectively deal with the problem of poorly soluble molecules.

  6. Consortium for oral health-related informatics: improving dental research, education, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Paul C; Kalenderian, Elsbeth; White, Joel M; Walji, Muhammad F; Stewart, Denice C L; Kimmes, Nicole; Meng, Thomas R; Willis, George P; DeVries, Ted; Chapman, Robert J

    2010-10-01

    Advances in informatics, particularly the implementation of electronic health records (EHR), in dentistry have facilitated the exchange of information. The majority of dental schools in North America use the same EHR system, providing an unprecedented opportunity to integrate these data into a repository that can be used for oral health education and research. In 2007, fourteen dental schools formed the Consortium for Oral Health-Related Informatics (COHRI). Since its inception, COHRI has established structural and operational processes, governance and bylaws, and a number of work groups organized in two divisions: one focused on research (data standardization, integration, and analysis), and one focused on education (performance evaluations, virtual standardized patients, and objective structured clinical examinations). To date, COHRI (which now includes twenty dental schools) has been successful in developing a data repository, pilot-testing data integration, and sharing EHR enhancements among the group. This consortium has collaborated on standardizing medical and dental histories, developing diagnostic terminology, and promoting the utilization of informatics in dental education. The consortium is in the process of assembling the largest oral health database ever created. This will be an invaluable resource for research and provide a foundation for evidence-based dentistry for years to come.

  7. [Improving myocardial mechanics parameters of severe burn rabbits with oral fluid resuscitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jing; Zhang, Bing-qian; Wang, Guang; Luo, Zhong-hua; Zheng, Qing-yi; Zheng, Jian-sheng; Huang, Yue-sheng; Xiao, Rong

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the protective effect of oral fluid resuscitation on cardiac function in severe burn rabbits. One hundred and fifty rabbits were randomly divided into normal control group (NC group, n = 6, without treatment), burn group (B group, n = 42, without fluid therapy), immediate oral fluid resuscitation group (C group, n = 42), delayed oral fluid resuscitation group (D group, n = 30) and delayed and rapid oral fluid resuscitation group (E group, n = 30). The rabbits in B, C, D, E groups were subjected to 40% TBSA full-thickness burn, then were treated with fluid therapy immediately after burn (C group), at 6 hour after burn (D, E groups). The myocardial mechanics parameters including mean arterial pressure (MAP), left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP), LV +/- dp/dt max were observed at 2, 6, 8, 12, 24, 36 and 48 post burn hour (PBH). Urine output was also examined. The level of LVSP, LV +/- dp/dt max in B roup were significantly lower than those in NC group. The level of LVSP, LV +/- dp/dt max in the C and E group were singnificantly increased during 24 hour after burn. The level of LV + dp/dt max and LV-dp/dt max in C group peaked at 8 PBH (892 +/- 116 kPa/s) and at 6PBH (724 +/- 149 kPa/s) respectively. The levels of LV +/- dp/dt max, LVSP in D group at each time point were similar to B group (P > 0.05). Both the levels of LV +/- dp/dt max in E group peaked at 8 PBH. The level of LVEDP was no obvious difference between B and other groups at each time point (P > 0.05). The changes of MAP and urine output on 24 PBH in each group were similar to above indices. Effective oral fluid therapy in severe burn rabbits during 24 hours after burn can ameliorate myocardial mechanics parameters. The amount of fluid resuscitation can be estimated according to relevant formula for delayed fluid resuscitation in burn rabbits.

  8. Improving reptile ecological risk assessment: oral and dermal toxicity of pesticides to a common lizard species (Sceloporus occidentalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Scott M; Yu, Shuangying; Talent, Larry G; Maul, Jonathan D; Anderson, Todd A; Salice, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    Reptiles have been understudied in ecotoxicology, which limits consideration in ecological risk assessments. The goals of the present study were 3-fold: to improve oral and dermal dosing methodologies for reptiles, to generate reptile toxicity data for pesticides, and to correlate reptile and avian toxicity. The authors first assessed the toxicity of different dosing vehicles: 100 μL of water, propylene glycol, and acetone were not toxic. The authors then assessed the oral and dermal toxicity of 4 pesticides following the up-and-down procedure. Neither brodifacoum nor chlorothalonil caused mortality at doses ≤ 1750 μg/g. Under the "neat pesticide" oral exposure, endosulfan (median lethal dose [LD50] = 9.8 μg/g) was more toxic than λ-cyhalothrin (LD50 = 916.5 μg/g). Neither chemical was toxic via dermal exposure. An acetone dosing vehicle increased λ-cyhalothrin toxicity (oral LD50 = 9.8 μg/g; dermal LD50 = 17.5 μg/g), but not endosulfan. Finally, changes in dosing method and husbandry significantly increased dermal λ-cyhalothrin LD50s, which highlights the importance of standardized methods. The authors combined data from the present study with other reptile LD50s to correlate with available avian data. When only definitive LD50s were used in the analysis, a strong correlation was found between avian and reptile toxicity. The results suggest it is possible to build predictive relationships between avian and reptile LD50s. More research is needed, however, to understand trends associated with chemical classes and modes of action. © 2015 SETAC.

  9. Challenges to improvement of oral health in the 21st century--the approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2004-01-01

    Chronic diseases and injuries are overtaking communicable diseases as the leading health problems in all but a few parts of the world. This rapidly changing global disease pattern is closely linked to changing lifestyles, which include diets rich in sugars, widespread use of tobacco and increased...... consumption of alcohol. These lifestyle factors also significantly impact on oral health, and oral diseases qualify as major public health problems owing to their high prevalence and incidence in all regions of the world. Like all diseases, they affect primarily the disadvantaged and socially marginalised...... of noncommunicable diseases and the 'common risk factor approach' offer new ways of managing the prevention and control of oral diseases. This document outlines the current oral health situation and development trends at global level as well as WHO strategies and approaches for better oral health in the 21 st...

  10. Approaches to improve the oral bioavailability and effects of novel anticancer drugs berberine and betulinic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandraiah Godugu

    Full Text Available The poor bioavailability of Berberine (BBR and Betulinic acid (BA limits the development of these promising anticancer agents for clinical use. In the current study, BBR and BA in spray dried (SD mucoadhesive microparticle formulations were prepared.A patented dual channel spray gun technology established in our laboratory was used for both formulations. Gastrointestinal (GI permeability studies were carried out using Caco-2 cell monolayer grown in in-vitro system. The oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profile of SD formulations were studied in Sprague Dawley rats. A549 orthotopic and H1650 metastatic NSCLC models were utilized for the anticancer evaluations.Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that BBR and BA SD formulations resulted in 3.46 and 3.90 fold respectively, significant increase in plasma Cmax concentrations. AUC levels were increased by 6.98 and 7.41 fold in BBR and BA SD formulations, respectively. Compared to untreated controls groups, 49.8 & 53.4% decrease in the tumor volumes was observed in SD formulation groups of BBR and BA, respectively. Molecular studies done on excised tumor (A549 tissue suggested that BBR in SD form resulted in a significant decrease in the survivin, Bcl-2, cyclin D1, MMP-9, HIF-1α, VEGF and CD31 expressions. Cleaved caspase 3, p53 and TUNEL expressions were increased in SD formulations. The RT-PCR analysis on H1650 tumor tissue suggested that p38, Phospho-JNK, Bax, BAD, cleaved caspase 3&8 mRNA expressions were significantly increased in BA SD formulations. Chronic administration of BBR and BA SD formulations did not show any toxicity.Due to significant increase in oral bioavailability and superior anticancer effects, our results suggest that spray drying is a superior alternative formulation approach for oral delivery of BBR and BA.

  11. Improving the prediction of the brain disposition for orally administered drugs using BDDCS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broccatelli, Fabio; Larregieu, Caroline A.; Cruciani, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    outcome. Passive permeability and P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1) efflux have been successfully recognized to impact xenobiotic extrusion from the brain, as Pgp is known to play a role in limiting the BBB penetration of oral drugs in humans. However, these two properties alone fail to explain the BBB...... penetration for a significant number of marketed central nervous system (CNS) agents. The Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) has proved useful in predicting drug disposition in the human body, particularly in the liver and intestine. Here we discuss the value of using BDDCS...

  12. Effectiveness differences of ranitidine and omeprazole in prevention of stress ulcer and its effect on pneumonia occurrence and outcome of acute stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, C. A.; Ritarwan, K.; Rambe, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    Stress ulcer is one ofacute stroke complications. Giving ranitidine or omeprazole may prevent stress ulcer, but may increase the occurrence of pneumonia. Thus, it will affect the outcome of acute stroke. The method was experimental with a randomized control-group pretest - posttest design. This study divided the subjects into two groups, ranitidine 300mg and omeprazole 20mg group.We observed the patients whether stress ulcer or pneumonia occurred during hospitalization. Then, we measured the outcome by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scaleand modified Rankin Scale. There were 32 subjects in this study. Only 1 (3.1%) subject suffered stress ulcer, and 3 (3.1%) suffered pneumonia in ranitidine group. Moreover, 2 (6.2%) subjects suffered pneumonia in omeprazole group. The differences were not significant between the two groups (p = 0.31 and p = 0.54). There was no significant effect and difference effect on the administration of both medications to the outcome at day 14. These results indicate that ranitidine and omeprazole have anequal effectiveness in the prevention of stress ulcer and also have equal effect on the occurrence of pneumonia, and both have no effect on the outcome of acute stroke patients.

  13. Modified Au nanoparticles-imprinted sol-gel, multiwall carbon nanotubes pencil graphite electrode used as a sensor for ranitidine determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, B; Lotfi-Forushani, H; Ensafi, A A

    2014-04-01

    A new, simple, and disposable molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor for the determination of ranitidine was developed on pencil graphite electrode (PGE) via cyclic voltammetry (CV). The PGEs were coated with MWCNTs containing the carboxylic functional group (f-MWCNTs), imprinted with sol-gel and Au nanoparticle (AuNPs) layers (AuNP/MIP-sol-gel/f-MWCNT/PGE), respectively, to enhance the electrode's electrical transmission and sensitivity. The thin film of molecularly imprinted sol-gel polymers with specific binding sites for ranitidine was cast on modified PGE by electrochemical deposition. The AuNP/MIP-sol-gel/f-MWCNT/PGE thus developed was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and CV. The interaction between the imprinted sensor and the target molecule was also observed on the electrode by measuring the current response of 5.0mMK3[Fe(CN)6] solution as an electrochemical probe. The pick currents of ranitidine increased linearly with concentration in the ranges of 0.05 to 2.0μM, with a detection limit of (S/N=3) 0.02μM. Finally, the modified electrode was successfully employed to determine ranitidine in human urine samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation and characterization of docetaxel self-nanoemulsifying powders (SNEPs): A strategy for improved oral delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunkavalli, Sharath; Eedara, Basanth Babu; Janga, Karthik Yadav; Velpula, Ashok; Jukanti, Raju; Bandari, Suresh [St. Peter' s Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Warangal (India)

    2016-03-15

    Liquid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (L-SNEDDS) of docetaxel were prepared using varying ratios of Capmul PG 8 NF (oil), Cremophor EL (surfactant) and Transcutol-P (co-surfactant). The optimized L-SNEDDS (L{sub 11}) was transformed into self-nanoemulsifying powder (SNEP) by physical adsorption on to Neusilin US2 and evaluated for dissolution behavior, in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo oral bioavailability. Optimized L-SNEDDS (L{sub 11}) composed of 50% of oil, 41.7% of surfactant and 8.3% co-surfactant produced stable emulsion with smaller globules (43±3 nm). In vitro dissolution studies showed the rapid drug release within 5min (95.42±1%) from SNEP{sub N}. In vitro cytotoxicity assessed by the MTT assay using MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines revealed that L-SNEDDS significantly reduced the IC{sub 50} value and was 2.3 times lower than the pure docetaxel. Further, the oral bioavailability studies in male Wistar rats showed higher C{sub max} values following treatment with SNEP{sub N} (0.98±0.13 μg/mL) and L-SNEDDS (1.09± 0.06 μg/mL) compared to pure docetaxel (0.37±0.04 μg/mL).

  15. Improved oral absorption of tacrolimus by a solid dispersion with hypromellose and sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyuck Jun; Ahn, Hye In; Park, Ji Yeon; Ho, Myoung Jin; Lee, Dae Ro; Cho, Ha Ra; Park, Jun Seo; Choi, Yong Seok; Kang, Myung Joo

    2016-02-01

    A novel surfactant-incorporated hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) solid dispersion (SD) system was constructed in order to facilitate the release rate and oral absorption of tacrolimus (FK506), a poorly water-soluble immunosuppressant. Several emulsifiers including sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), as drug release promotors, were employed with HPMC to fabricate SD using the solvent wetting method. The solid state characteristics using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction, revealed that FK506 was molecularly distributed within all dispersions in amorphous form. The dissolution rates of FK506 in SLS-incorporated SDs were much higher than those in SDs prepared with HPMC alone, and even with stearoyl polyoxyl-32 glycerides or tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate. In particular, the greatest dissolution enhancement was obtained from the SD consisting of the drug, HPMC, and SLS in a weight ratio of 1:1:3, providing a 50-fold higher drug concentration within 15 min, compared with HPMC SD. In vivo absorption study in rats demonstrates that the optimized formula remarkably increased the oral absorption of FK506, providing about 4.0-fold greater bioavailability (p<0.05) compared with the marketed product (Prograf®, Astellas Pharma). These data suggest that a novel SLS/HPMC SD may be an advantageous dosage form of FK506, boosting the dissolution and absorption in gastrointestinal tract. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. WhatsApp: a telemedicine platform for facilitating remote oral medicine consultation and improving clinical examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzi, Massimo; De Benedittis, Michele

    2016-03-01

    Increased use of smartphone and related software applications has created a new era in clinical data exchange among patients and clinicians. This study describes use of the smartphone-based application WhatsApp to share clinical oral medicine information. Clinical images and related questions were submitted by general dentists, physicians, dental hygienists, and patients to the authors via WhatsApp. For each submission, a clinical impression was made and categorized as traumatic, infective, neoplastic, autoimmune, or unclassified. Submissions were summarized by sender type, number of photographs per sender, and category of question. Patients were invited to undergo a clinical examination with biopsy, when indicated. The telemedicine impression was compared to the clinicopathologic diagnosis. Three hundred and thirty-nine images were received for 96 patients; 92 (95.8%) patients underwent clinicopathologic examination, and 45 (49%) received a biopsy. General dentists (62%) and dental hygienists (26%) were the most frequent senders. The most common question was related to diagnosis (56%). The telemedicine impression agreed with the clinicopathologic assessment for 82% of cases. Telemedicine applications, such as WhatsApp, can support communication about oral conditions among clinicians and patients. Telemedicine consultation reduced geographic barriers to initial clinical consultation and encouraged the significant majority of patients to pursue expert clinical examination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Improving antimicrobial prescribing: implementation of an antimicrobial i.v.-to-oral switch policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, A D; Sutherland, R K; Mackintosh, C L

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship programmes reduce the risk of hospital associated infections (HAI) and antimicrobial resistance, and include early intravenous-to-oral switch (IVOS) as a key stewardship measure. We audited the number of patients on intravenous antimicrobials suitable for oral switch, assessed whether prescribing guidelines were followed and reviewed prescribing documentation in three clinical areas in the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, in late 2012. Following this, the first cycle results and local guidelines were presented at a local level and at the hospital grand rounds, posters with recommendations were distributed, joint infection consult and antimicrobial rounds commenced and an alert antimicrobial policy was introduced before re-auditing in early 2013. We demonstrate suboptimal prescribing of intravenous antimicrobials, with 43.9% (43/98) of patients eligible for IVOS at the time of auditing. Only 56.1% (55/98) followed empiric prescribing recommendations. Documentation of antimicrobial prescribing was poor with stop dates recorded in 14.3%, indication on prescription charts in 18.4% and in the notes in 90.8%. The commonest reason for deferring IVOS was deteriorating clinical condition or severe sepsis. Further work to encourage prudent antimicrobial prescribing and earlier consideration of IVOS is required.

  18. A dual strategy to improve psychotic patients’ compliance using sustained release quetiapine oral disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refaat Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quetiapine (QT is a short acting atypical antipsychotic drug effective in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This study aims at designing a novel dosage form of sustained release taste-masked QT orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs based on solid lipid micro-pellets (SLMPs. QT SLMPs were prepared using the hot melt extrusion technique and utilizing three lipid carriers: Compritol, Precirol and white beeswax either alone or in mixtures. They showed sustained QT release and a taste masking effect. The selected QT SLMP was further blended with an aqueous solution containing polyvinylpyrollidone (2.5 %, croscarmellose sodium (2 % and mannitol (50 %; it was then lyophilized into ODT in a mass ratio of 1:2, respectively. ODTs containing QT SLMPs showed: average wetting time (40.92 s, average oral disintegration time (21.49 s, average hardness (16.85 N and also imparted suitable viscosity to suspend pellets during the lyophilization process. In conclusion, lyophilization is a promising technique for the formulation of multiparticulate systems into ODTs.

  19. An Enantiomer of an Oral Small-Molecule TSH Receptor Agonist Exhibits Improved Pharmacologic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Susanne; Padia, Umesh; Cullen, Mary Jane; Eliseeva, Elena; Nir, Eshel A; Place, Robert F; Morgan, Sarah J; Gershengorn, Marvin C

    2016-01-01

    We are developing an orally available small-molecule, allosteric TSH receptor (TSHR) agonist for follow-up diagnostics of patients with thyroid cancer. The agonist C2 (NCGC00161870) that we have studied so far is a racemic mixture containing equal amounts of two enantiomers, E1 and E2. As enantiomers of many drugs exhibit different pharmacologic properties, we assessed the properties of E1 and E2. We separated the two enantiomers by chiral chromatography and determined E2 as the (S)-(+) isomer via crystal structure analysis. E1 and E2 were shown to bind differently to a homology model of the transmembrane domain of TSHR in which E2 was calculated to exhibit lower binding energy than E1 and was, therefore, predicted to be more potent than E1. In HEK293 cells expressing human TSHRs, C2, E1, and E2 were equally efficacious in stimulating cAMP production, but their potencies were different. E2 was more potent (EC50 = 18 nM) than C2 (EC50 = 46 nM), which was more potent than E1 (EC50 = 217 nM). In primary cultures of human thyrocytes, C2, E1, and E2 stimulated increases in thyroperoxidase mRNA of 92-, 55-, and 137-fold and in sodium-iodide symporter mRNA of 20-, 4-, and 121-fold above basal levels, respectively. In mice, C2 stimulated an increase in radioactive iodine uptake of 1.5-fold and E2 of 2.8-fold above basal level, whereas E1 did not have an effect. C2 stimulated an increase in serum T4 of 2.4-fold, E1 of 1.9-fold, and E2 of 5.6-fold above basal levels, and a 5-day oral dosing regimen of E2 increased serum T4 levels comparable to recombinant human TSH (rhTSH, Thyrogen(®)). Thus, E2 is more effective than either C2 or E1 in stimulating thyroid function and as efficacious as rhTSH in vivo. E2 represents the next step toward developing an oral drug for patients with thyroid cancer.

  20. An Enantiomer of an Oral Small Molecule TSH Receptor Agonist Exhibits Improved Pharmacologic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Neumann

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We are developing an orally available small molecule, allosteric TSH receptor (TSHR agonist for follow up diagnostics of patients with thyroid cancer. The agonist C2 (NCGC00161870 that we have studied so far is a racemic mixture containing equal amounts of two enantiomers, E1 and E2. As enantiomers of many drugs exhibit different pharmacologic properties, we assessed the properties of E1 and E2. We separated the two enantiomers by chiral chromatography and determined E2 as the (S-(+ isomer via crystal structure analysis. E1 and E2 were shown to bind differently to a homology model of the transmembrane domain of TSHR in which E2 was calculated to exhibit lower binding energy than E1 and was therefore predicted to be more potent than E1. In HEK293 cells expressing human TSHRs, C2, E1, and E2 were equally efficacious in stimulating cAMP production, but their potencies were different. E2 was more potent (EC50 = 18 nM than C2 (EC50 = 46 nM which was more potent than E1 (EC50 = 217 nM. In primary cultures of human thyrocytes, C2, E1, and E2 stimulated increases in thyroperoxidase mRNA of 92-, 55-, and 137-fold and in sodium-iodide symporter mRNA of 20-fold, 4-fold and 121-fold above basal levels, respectively. In mice, C2 stimulated an increase in radioactive iodine uptake of 1.5-fold and E2 of 2.8-fold above basal level, whereas E1 did not have an effect. C2 stimulated an increase in serum T4 of 2.4-fold, E1 of 1.9-fold, and E2 of 5.6-fold above basal levels, and a 5 day oral dosing regimen of E2 increased serum T4 levels comparable to recombinant human TSH (rhTSH, Thyrogen®. Thus, E2 is more effective than either C2 or E1 in stimulating thyroid function and as efficacious as rhTSH in vivo. E2 represents the next step toward developing an oral drug for patients with thyroid cancer.

  1. A multicenter, randomized, prospective study of 14-day ranitidine bismuth citrate- vs. lansoprazole-based triple therapy for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in dyspeptic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avşar, Erol; Tiftikçi, Arzu; Poturoğlu, Sule; Erzin, Yusuf; Kocakaya, Ozan; Dinçer, Dinç; Yıldırım, Bulut; Güliter, Sefa; Türkay, Cansel; Yılmaz, Uğur; Onuk, Mehmet Derya; Bölükbaş, Cengiz; Ellidokuz, Ender; Bektaş, Ahmet; Taşan, Güralp; Aytuğ, Necip; Ateş, Yüksel; Kaymakoğlu, Sabahattin

    2013-01-01

    Proton-pump inhibitor and ranitidine bismuth citrate-based triple regimens are the two recommended first line treatments for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori. We aimed to compare the effectiveness and tolerability of these two treatments in a prospective, multicentric, randomized study. Patients with dyspeptic complaints were recruited from 15 study centers. Presence of Helicobacter pylori was investigated by both histology and rapid urease test. The patients were randomized to either ranitidine bismuth citrate 400 mg bid plus amoxicillin 1 g bid plus clarithromycin 500 mg bid (n=149) or lansoprazole 30 mg bid plus amoxicillin 1 g bid plus clarithromycin 500 mg bid (n=130) treatment arm for 14 days. Adverse events have been recorded during the treatment phase. A 13 C urea breath test was performed 6 weeks after termination of treatment to assess the efficacy of the therapy. Eradication rate was calculated by intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis. Two hundred seventy-nine patients (123 male, 156 female) were eligible for randomization. In per-protocol analysis (n=247), Helicobacter pylori was eradicated with ranitidine bismuth citrate- and lansoprazole-based regimens in 74,6% and 69,2% of cases, respectively (p>0,05). Intention-to-treat analysis (n=279) revealed that eradication rates were 65,1% and 63,6% in ranitidine bismuth citrate and in lansoprazole-based regimens, respectively (p>0,05). Both regimes were well-tolerated, and no serious adverse event was observed during the study. Ranitidine bismuth citrate-based regimen is at least as effective and tolerable as the classical proton-pump inhibitor-based regimen, but none of the therapies could achieve the recommendable eradication rate.

  2. Change to Either a Nonandrogenic or Androgenic Progestin-Containing Oral Contraceptive Preparation is Associated with Improved Sexual Function in Women with Oral Contraceptive-Associated Sexual Dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Susan R; Bitzer, Johannes; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2013-01-01

    It is a commonly held belief that combined oral contraceptive (COC) pills containing an androgenic progestin may be less likely to impair sexual function than COCs containing an anti-androgenic progestin.......It is a commonly held belief that combined oral contraceptive (COC) pills containing an androgenic progestin may be less likely to impair sexual function than COCs containing an anti-androgenic progestin....

  3. Effectiveness of supervised toothbrushing and oral health education in improving oral hygiene status and practices of urban and rural school children: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Satyawan G; Patil, Anil; Jain, Saru; Damle, Dhanashree; Chopal, Nilika

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate and compare the oral health status and the impact of supervised toothbrushing and oral health education among school children of urban and rural areas of Maharashtra, India. A total of 200 school children in the age group 12-15 years were selected by stratified random sampling technique from two schools and were further divided into two groups: Group A (urban school) and Group B (rural school). Both the groups were again subdivided into control group and study group. Supervised toothbrushing was recommended for both the groups. The toothbrushing teaching program included session on oral health education, individual toothbrushing instructions, and supervised toothbrushing. Dental caries increment, plaque scores, and gingival status were assessed as per the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (1997), Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman modification of the Quigley Hein Plaque Index, and Loe-Silness Gingival Index (1963), respectively. Cronbach's alpha, Chi-square test, paired t-test, and unpaired t-test were utilized for data analysis. The mean plaque and gingival score reduction was significantly higher in the study groups as compared to the control groups. An increase in the mean of Decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) and Decayed, missing, filled teeth and surfaces (DMFS) scores throughout the study period was seen in children who participated in study. Oral health education was effective in establishing good oral health habits among school children and also in enhancing the knowledge of their parents about good oral health.

  4. Body composition is improved during 12 months' treatment with metformin alone or combined with oral contraceptives compared with treatment with oral contraceptives in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Altinok, Magda Lambaa; Mumm, Hanne; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Ravn, Pernille; Andersen, Marianne

    2014-07-01

    Central obesity in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased inflammatory markers and increased risk for type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was to evaluate whether treatment with metformin (M) or M combined with oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) resulted in a more advantageous body composition than treatment with OCP alone. The study was conducted at an outpatient clinic. This was a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Ninety patients with PCOS were randomized to 12 months' treatment with M (2 g/d), M + OCP (150 mg desogestrel+30 μg ethinylestradiol), or OCP. Whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans and clinical and hormonal evaluations were performed before and after the intervention period. A total of 65 of 90 patients completed the study. Changes in weight at 6 and 12 months and changes in regional fat mass estimates at 12 months were measured. Dropout rates between intervention groups were not significantly different. Treatment with M and M+OCP were superior to OCP regarding weight and regional fat mass. The median (quartiles) weight changes during 12 months of M, M+OCP, and OCP treatment were -3.0 (-10.3; 0.6), -1.9 (-4.9; 0.1), and 1.2 (-0.8; 3.0) kg, respectively, P weight loss and improved body composition compared with OCP, whereas free T levels decreased during M+OCP or OCP. Combined treatment with M+OCP should be considered as an alternative to treatment with OCP alone to avoid weight gain in PCOS.

  5. Pluronic-Functionalized Silica-Lipid Hybrid Microparticles: Improving the Oral Delivery of Poorly Water-Soluble Weak Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shasha; Richter, Katharina; Nguyen, Tri-Hung; Boyd, Ben J; Porter, Christopher J H; Tan, Angel; Prestidge, Clive A

    2015-12-07

    A Pluronic-functionalized silica-lipid hybrid (Plu-SLH) microparticle system for the oral delivery of poorly water-soluble, weak base drugs is reported for the first time. A highly effective Plu-SLH microparticle system was composed of Labrasol as the lipid phase, Pluronic F127 as the polymeric precipitation inhibitor (PPI), and silica nanoparticles as the solid carrier. For the model drug cinnarizine (CIN), the Plu-SLH delivery system was shown to offer significant biopharmaceutical advantages in comparison with unformulated drug and drug in the silica-lipid hybrid (SLH) system. In vitro two-phase dissolution studies illustrated significantly reduced pH provoked CIN precipitation and an 8- to 14-fold improvement in the extent of dissolution in intestinal conditions. In addition, under simulated intestinal digesting conditions, the Plu-SLH provided approximately three times more drug solubilization than the SLH. Oral administration in rats resulted in superior bioavailability for Plu-SLH microparticles, i.e., 1.6- and 2.1-fold greater than the SLH and the unformulated CIN, respectively. A physical mixture of Pluronic and SLH (Plu&SLH), having the same composition as Plu-SLH, was also evaluated, but showed no significant increase in CIN absorption when compared to unmodified CIN or SLH. This work represents the first study where different methods of incorporating PPI to formulate solid-state lipid-based formulations were compared for the impact on the biopharmaceutical performance. The data suggest that the novel physicochemical properties and structure of the fabricated Plu-SLH microparticle delivery system play an important role in facilitating the synergistic advantage of Labrasol and Pluronic F127 in preventing drug precipitation, and the Plu-SLH provides efficient oral delivery of poorly water-soluble weak bases.

  6. Oral Supplementation with Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate, Arginine, and Glutamine Improves Lean Body Mass in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Amy C; Hunter, Gary R; Goss, Amy M; Gower, Barbara A

    2018-04-19

    Oral intake of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), arginine, and glutamine may ameliorate muscle loss by stimulating protein synthesis and decreasing protein degradation while simultaneously decreasing inflammation. Previous studies provide evidence for improvement in body composition with dietary supplementation of these ingredients among patients with muscle-wasting diseases. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of this amino acid mixture on lean body mass, muscle volume, and physical function among healthy older adults. Thirty-one community-dwelling men and women, aged 65-89 years, were randomized to either two oral doses of the amino acid supplement (totaling 3 g HMB, 14 g arginine, 14 g glutamine) or placebo daily for six months. At baseline and month six, lean body mass was measured by air displacement plethysmography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and four-compartment model. Muscle volume of quadriceps was quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and participants performed a battery of tests to assess physical function. As compared to the placebo group, the treatment group exhibited improvement in a timed stair climb (p =.016) as well as significant increases in lean body mass by all methods of assessment (p lean mass in the supplement group only (p =.035). However, no change was observed in MRI-derived quadriceps volume. Dietary supplementation with HMB, arginine, and glutamine improved total body lean mass among a small sample of healthy older adults. Further research is indicated to elucidate mechanisms of action and to determine whether supplementation may benefit frail elders. Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov identifier no. NCT01057082.

  7. The novel oral imatinib microemulsions: physical properties, cytotoxicity activities and improved Caco-2 cell permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Evren; Karasulu, Hatice Yesim; Koksal, Cinel; Karasulu, Ercüment

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to formulate imatinib (IM) loaded to water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsions as an alternative formulation for cancer therapy and to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of microemulsions Caco-2 and MCF-7. Moreover, permeability studies were also performed with Caco-2 cells. W/o microemulsion systems were developed by using pseudo-ternary phase diagram. According to cytotoxicity studies, all formulations did not exert a cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, all formulations had a significant cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 cells and the cytotoxic effect of M3IM was significantly more than that of other microemulsions and IM solution (p < 0.05). The permeability studies of IM across Caco-2 cells showed that permeability value from apical to basolateral was higher than permeability value of other formulations. In conclusion, the microemulsion formulations as a drug carrier, especially M3IM formulation, may be used as an effective alternative breast cancer therapy for oral delivery of IM.

  8. Improving oral bioavailability of resveratrol by a UDP-glucuronosyltransferase inhibitory excipient-based self-microemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei-Fei; Zhou, Jing; Hu, Xiao; Cong, Zhao-Qing; Liu, Chun-Yu; Pan, Rui-Le; Chang, Qi; Liu, Xin-Min; Liao, Yong-Hong

    2018-03-01

    Self-microemulsifying (SME) drug delivery system has been developed to increase oral bioavailabilities, and inhibitory excipients are capable of improving oral bioavailability by inhibiting enzyme mediated intestinal metabolism. However, the potential of enzyme inhibitory excipients containing SME in boosting resveratrol bioavailability remains largely uninvestigated. In this study, we set out to prepare SME-1 with UGT inhibitory excipients (excipients without inhibitory activities named SME-2 as control) to increase the bioavailability of RES by inhibiting intestinal metabolism. Results demonstrated that similar physicochemical properties such as size, polydistribution index and in vitro release, cellular uptake and permeability in Caco-2 cells as well as in vivo lymphatic distribution between inhibitory SME-1 and non-inhibitory SME-2 were observed. In vivo study demonstrated that the molar ratios of RES-G/RES were 7.25±0.48 and 5.06±2.42 for free drug and SME-2, respectively, and the molar ratio decreased to 0.36±0.10 in SME-1 group. Pharmacokinetic study confirmed that the inhibitory excipients containing SME demonstrated potential in increasing bioavailability of RES from 6.5% for the free RES and 12.9% for SME-2 to 76.1% in SME-1 through modulating the glucuronidation by UGT inhibitory excipients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An Overview of Analytical Determination of Diltiazem, Cimetidine, Ranitidine, and Famotidine by UV Spectrophotometry and HPLC Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nighat Shafi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review article recapitulates the analytical methods for the quantitative determinations of diltiazem and three H2 receptor antagonists (cimetidine, ranitidine, and famotidine by one of the spectroscopic technique (UV spectrophotometery and separation technique such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The clinical and pharmaceutical analysis of these drugs requires effective analytical procedures for quality control, pharmaceutical dosage formulations, and biological fluids. An extensive survey of the literature published in various analytical and pharmaceutical chemistry-related journals has been compiled in its review. A synopsis of reported spectrophotometric and high-performance liquid chromatographic methods for individual drug is integrated. This appraisal illustrates that majority of the HPLC methods reviewed are based on the quantitative analysis of drugs in biological fluids, and they are appropriate for therapeutic drug monitoring purpose.

  10. Improved stability and oral bioavailability of Ganneng dropping pills following transforming lignans of herpetospermum caudigerum into nanosuspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan-Juan; Cheng, Ling; Shen, Gang; Qiu, Ling; Shen, Cheng-Ying; Zheng, Juan; Xu, Rong; Yuan, Hai-Long

    2018-01-01

    The present study was designed to improve storage stability and oral bioavailability of Ganneng dropping pills (GNDP) by transforming lignans of Herpetospermum caudigerum (HL) composed of herpetrione (HPE) and herpetin (HPN) into nanosuspension (HL-NS), the main active ingredient of GNDP, HL-NS was prepared by high pressure homogenization and lyophilized to transform into solid nanoparticles (HL nanoparticles), and then the formulated HL nanoparticles were perfused into matrix to obtain NS-GNDP by melting method. For a period of 3 months, the content uniformity, storage stability and pharmacokinetics test in vivo of NS-GNDP were evaluated and compared with regular GNDP at room temperature. The results demonstrated that uniformity of dosage units of NS-GNDP was acceptable according to the criteria of Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2015J. Physical stability of NS-GNDP was investigated systemically using photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), zeta potential measurement, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There was a slight increase in particles and PI of HL-NS re-dispersed from NS-GNDP after storage for 3 months, compared with new formulated NS-GNDP, which indicated a good redispersibility of the NS-GNDP containing HL-NS after storage. Besides, chemical stability of NS-GNDP was studied and the results revealed that HPE and HPN degradation was less when compared with that of GNDP, providing more than 99% of drug residue after storage for 3 months. In the dissolution test in vitro, NS-GNDP remarkably exhibited an increased dissolution velocity compared with GNDP and no distinct dissolution difference existed within 3 months. The pharmacokinetic study showed that HPE and HPN in NS-GNDP exhibited a significant increase in AUC 0-t , C max and decrease in T max when compared with regular GNDP. These results indicated that NS-GNDP possessed superiority with improved storage stability and increased dissolution rate and oral bioavailability. Copyright © 2018 China Pharmaceutical

  11. Occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in mechanically ventilated pediatric intensive care patients during stress ulcer prophylaxis with sucralfate, ranitidine, and omeprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildizdas, Dincer; Yapicioglu, Hacer; Yilmaz, Hayri Levent

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of sucralfate, ranitidine, and omeprazole use on incidence of ventilatory-associated pneumonia (VAP) and mortality in ventilated pediatric critical care patients. This prospective study was conducted at the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) between August 2000 and February 2002. A total of 160 patients who needed mechanical ventilation were randomized into 4 groups according to the computer-generated random number table: group (S), (n = 38) received sucralfate suspension 60 mg/kg/d in 4 doses via the nasogastric tube that was flushed with 10 mL of sterile water; group (R), (n = 42) received ranitidine 2 mg/kg/d intravenously in 4 doses; group (O), (n = 38) received omeprazole 1 mg/kg/d intravenously in 2 doses; and group (P), (n = 42) did not receive any medication for stress ulcer prophylaxis. Treatment was begun within 6 hours of PICU admission. Seventy patients (44%) developed VAP. VAP rate was 42% (16 of 38) in the sucralfate group, 48% (20 of 42) in the ranitidine group, 45% (17 of 38) in the omeprazole group, and 41% (17 of 42) in the nontreated group. Overall mortality rate was 22% (35 of 160); it was 21% (8 of 38) in the sucralfate group, 23% (10 of 42) in the ranitidine group, 21% (8 of 38) in the omeprazole group, and 21% (9 of 42) in the nontreated group. Our results did not show any difference in the incidence of VAP and mortality in mechanically ventilated PICU patients treated with ranitidine, omeprazole, or sucralfate, or nontreated subjects (P =.963, confidence interval [CI] = 0.958-0.968; P =.988, CI = 0.985-0.991, respectively). Nine patients (5.6%) had macroscopic bleeding. There was no statistically significant difference in macroscopic bleeding between groups. Our results did not show any difference in the incidence of VAP, macroscopic stress ulcer bleeding, and mortality in the mechanically ventilated PICU patients treated with ranitidine, omeprazole, or sucralfate, or nontreated subjects

  12. Solid state characterization and crystal structure from X-ray powder diffraction of two polymorphic forms of ranitidine base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Armas, Héctor Novoa; Peeters, Oswald M; Blaton, Norbert; Van Gyseghem, Elke; Martens, Johan; Van Haele, Gerrit; Van Den Mooter, Guy

    2009-01-01

    Ranitidine hydrochloride (RAN-HCl), a known anti-ulcer drug, is the product of reaction between HCl and ranitidine base (RAN-B). RAN-HCl has been extensively studied; however this is not the case of the RAN-B. The solid state characterization of RAN-B polymorphs has been carried out using different analytical techniques (microscopy, thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry in the attenuated total reflection mode, (13)C-CPMAS-NMR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction). The crystal structures of RAN-B form I and form II have been determined using conventional X-ray powder diffraction in combination with simulated annealing and whole profile pattern matching, and refined using rigid-body Rietveld refinement. RAN-B form I is a monoclinic polymorph with cell parameters: a = 7.317(2), b = 9.021(2), c = 25.098(6) A, beta = 95.690(1) degrees and space group P2(1)/c. The form II is orthorhombic: a = 31.252(4), b = 13.052(2), c = 8.0892(11) A with space group Pbca. In RAN-B polymorphs, the nitro group is involved in a strong intramolecular hydrogen bond responsible for the existence of a Z configuration in the enamine portion of the molecules. A tail to tail packing motif can be denoted via intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The crystal structures of RAN-B forms are compared to those of RAN-HCl polymorphs. RAN-B polymorphs are monotropic polymorphic pairs. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  13. Current and evolving approaches for improving the oral permeability of BCS Class III or analogous molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Vivek S; Gupta, Deepak; Yu, Monica; Nguyen, Phuong; Varghese Gupta, Sheeba

    2017-02-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) classifies pharmaceutical compounds based on their aqueous solubility and intestinal permeability. The BCS Class III compounds are hydrophilic molecules (high aqueous solubility) with low permeability across the biological membranes. While these compounds are pharmacologically effective, poor absorption due to low permeability becomes the rate-limiting step in achieving adequate bioavailability. Several approaches have been explored and utilized for improving the permeability profiles of these compounds. The approaches include traditional methods such as prodrugs, permeation enhancers, ion-pairing, etc., as well as relatively modern approaches such as nanoencapsulation and nanosizing. The most recent approaches include a combination/hybridization of one or more traditional approaches to improve drug permeability. While some of these approaches have been extremely successful, i.e. drug products utilizing the approach have progressed through the USFDA approval for marketing; others require further investigation to be applicable. This article discusses the commonly studied approaches for improving the permeability of BCS Class III compounds.

  14. Oral administration of methysticin improves cognitive deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios Fragoulis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is increasing evidence for the involvement of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 is an anti-inflammatory transcription factor that regulates the oxidative stress defense. Our previous experiments demonstrated that kavalactones protect neuronal cells against Amyloid β (Aβ-induced oxidative stress in vitro by Nrf2 pathway activation. Here, we tested an in vivo kavalactone treatment in a mouse model of AD. Methods: The kavalactone methysticin was administered once a week for a period of 6 months to 6 month old transgenic APP/Psen1 mice by oral gavage. Nrf2 pathway activation was measured by methysticin treatment of ARE-luciferase mice, by qPCR of Nrf2-target genes and immunohistochemical detection of Nrf2. Aβ burden was analyzed by CongoRed staining, immunofluorescent detection and ELISA. Neuroinflammation was assessed by immunohistochemical stainings for microglia and astrocytes. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus was determined by Luminex multi-plex assays. The hippocampal oxidative damage was detected by oxyblot technique and immunohistochemical staining against DT3 and 4-HNE. The cognitive ability of mice was evaluated using Morris water maze. Results: Methysticin treatment activated the Nrf2 pathway in the hippocampus and cortex of mice. The Aβ deposition in brains of methysticin-treated APP/Psen1 mice was not altered compared to untreated mice. However, methysticin treatment significantly reduced microgliosis, astrogliosis and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-17A. In addition, the oxidative damage of hippocampi from APP/Psen1 mice was reduced by methysticin treatment. Most importantly, methysticin treatment significantly attenuated the long-term memory decline of APP/Psen1 mice. Conclusion: In summary, these findings show that methysticin administration activates the Nrf2 pathway

  15. Long-Term Quality of Life Improvement in Subjects with Healed Erosive Esophagitis: Treatment with Lansoprazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freston, James W.; Haber, Marian M.; Atkinson, Stuart; Hunt, Barbara; Peura, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic symptomatic condition and may be associated with erosive esophagitis (EE). Considerable data on the long-term maintenance of healing of EE are available, but data on long-term GERD symptom prevention and patient quality of life (QOL) are limited. Aims To investigate QOL in subjects with healed EE who received 12 months of double-blind maintenance treatment with lansoprazole or ranitidine, followed by long-term open-label lansoprazole therapy to prevent recurrence of EE. Methods Subjects with healed EE received 12 months of double-blind maintenance treatment with lansoprazole 15 mg once daily or ranitidine 150 mg twice daily, followed by dose-titrated, open-label lansoprazole therapy for up to 82 months. Results During double-blind treatment (n = 206), lansoprazole-treated patients showed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater improvements than ranitidine-treated patients in the frequency, severity, and ‘bothersomeness’ of heartburn, the symptom index, problems of activity limitation, eating and drinking problems, symptom problems, health distress, and social functioning. During dose-titrated, open-label treatment (n = 195), all disease-specific QOL scales except sleep improved significantly (P lansoprazole for 12 months in healed EE subjects produced significantly greater improvements in QOL indicators than ranitidine. These improvements were sustained during dose-titrated, open-label lansoprazole treatment. PMID:19582579

  16. Improvement in Quality of Life Questionnaire Measures (PCOSQ) in Obese Adolescent Females with PCOS treated with Lifestyle Changes and Oral Contraceptives, with or without Metformin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Glocker, Miranda; Davidson, Kristin; Kochman, Lynda; Guzick, David; Hoeger, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effect of metformin or placebo in a lifestyle modification program (LSM) combined with oral contraceptives (OC) on quality of life parameters measured by the PCOS questionnaire (PCOSQ) in obese adolescent women with validated PCOS. The quality of life indicators were measured at baseline and conclusion for 5 domains on the PCOSQ, with equal improvement in scores in both placebo and Metformin groups, suggesting metformin addition does not add improvement to quality of life measures above those observed with lifestyle modification and oral contraceptive treatment. PMID:19781696

  17. Oral health: equity and social determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwan, Stella; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2010-01-01

    This book chapter discusses the social determinants of oral health, and identifies interventions that have been, or can be, used in addressing oral health inequities (e.g. oral health promotion, education programmes, improving access to oral health care)....

  18. Association of oral contraceptive and metformin did not improve insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Chiharu Iwata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: Objective: to compare clinical and laboratory parameters in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS using metformin or combined oral contraceptive (COC after 6 months. Methods: retrospective study analyzing records of patients with PCOS using the Androgen Excess and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (AE-PCOS Society criteria. The groups were: I-COC (21 tablets, pause of 7 days; n=16; II-metformin (850mg 12/12h, n=16; III-COC plus metformin (n=9. Body mass index (BMI, acne (% of improvement, modified Ferriman-Gallway index and menstrual cycle index (MCI, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, total testosterone (TT, androstenedione (A and homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index were assessed Results: isolated use of COC compared to metformin was better regarding to acne, Ferriman index, MCI, LH, TT and A levels. On the other hand, metformin was better in the HOMA-IR index (4.44 and 1.67 respectively, p=0.0007. The association COC plus metformin, compared to metformin alone shows the maintenance of improvement of acne, Ferriman index, MCI, and testosterone levels. The HOMA-IR index remained lower in the metformin alone group (4.19 and 1.67, respectively; p=0,046. The comparison between COC plus metformin and COC alone, in turn, shows no difference in the improvement of acne, Ferriman index, MCI, LH, TT and A levels, indicating that the inclusion of metformin did not lead to additional benefits in these parameters. Still, the HOMA-IR index was similar in both groups (4.19 and 4.44 respectively; p=0.75, showing that the use of metformin associated with COC may not improve insulin resistance as much as it does if used alone. Conclusion: our data suggest that the combination of metformin and contraceptive does not improve insulin resistance as observed with metformin alone.

  19. Sequential Participation in a Multi-Institutional Mock Oral Examination Is Associated With Improved American Board of Surgery Certifying Examination First-Time Pass Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingeret, Abbey L; Arnell, Tracey; McNelis, John; Statter, Mindy; Dresner, Lisa; Widmann, Warren

    residents at risk for failure of the ABSCE. Sequential participation in mock oral examinations is associated with improved ABSCE first-time pass rate. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Highly luminescent S,N co-doped carbon quantum dots-sensitized chemiluminescence on luminol-H2 O2 system for the determination of ranitidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianqiu; Shu, Juan; Chen, Jiao; Cao, Zhiran; Xiao, An; Yan, Zhengyu

    2017-05-01

    S,N co-doped carbon quantum dots (N,S-CQDs) with super high quantum yield (79%) were prepared by the hydrothermal method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence, UV-Vis spectroscopy and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. N,S-CQDs can enhance the chemiluminescence intensity of a luminol-H 2 O 2 system. The possible mechanism of the luminol-H 2 O 2 -(N,S-CQDs) was illustrated by using chemiluminescence, photoluminescence and ultraviolet analysis. Ranitidine can quench the chemiluminescence intensity of a luminol-H 2 O 2 -N,S-CQDs system. So, a novel flow-injection chemiluminescence method was designed to determine ranitidine within a linear range of 0.5-50 μg ml -1 and a detection limit of 0.12 μg ml -1 . The method shows promising application prospects. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Melt dispersion granules: formulation and evaluation to improve oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs - a case study with valsartan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chella, Naveen; Tadikonda, Ramarao

    2015-06-01

    Solid dispersion (SD) technique is a promising strategy to improve the solubility and dissolution of BCS class II drugs. However, only few products are marketed till today based on SD technology due to poor flow properties and stability. The present work was intended to solve these problems by using combination approach, melt dispersion and surface adsorption technologies. The main aim of the present work is to improve the absorption in the stomach (at lower pH) where the absorption window exists for the drug by improving the dissolution, resulting in the enhancement of oral bioavailability of poorly soluble, weakly acidic drug with pH dependant solubility, i.e. valsartan. Melt dispersion granules were prepared in different ratios using different carriers (Gelucire 50/13, PEG 8000 and Pluronic F-68) and lactose as an adsorbent. Similarly, physical mixtures were also prepared at corresponding ratios. The prepared dispersion granules and physical mixtures were characterized by FTIR, DSC and in vitro dissolution studies. DSC studies revealed reduction in the crystallinity with a possibility of presence of amorphous character of drug in the dispersion granules. From dissolution studies, valsartan Gelucire dispersion (GSD4; 1:4 ratio) showed complete drug release in 30 min against the plain drug which showed only 11.31% of drug release in 30 min. Pharmacokinetic studies of optimized formulation in male Wistar rats showed 2.65-fold higher bioavailability and 1.47-fold higher Cmax compared to pure drug. The melt dispersion technology has the potential to improve dissolution and the bioavailability of BCS class II drugs.

  2. Experimental study on oral sulfhydryl as an adjuvant for improving nitrate ester tolerance in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Jiang, J-Q; Zhang, Y; Feng, H

    2018-03-01

    As an initial step in exploring the feasibility of oral sulfhydryl as an adjuvant for improving nitrate ester tolerance, this study was designed to experimentally test the adjuvant therapy in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis (AS). New Zealand white rabbits with induced AS were randomly divided into four groups: AS group, AS + nitrate ester group, AS + nitrate ester tolerance group, and AS + drug combination group. Additionally, four equivalent groups with healthy New Zealand white rabbits without AS were also conformed. After feeding the animals for 5 days, the concentrations of superoxide anion (•O2-), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in blood and the relaxation response of the aortic ring were determined in each subject. The vascular plaques in different treatment groups were assessed by Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining to investigate the therapeutic value of sulfhydryl as coadjuvant for improving nitrate ester tolerance, and changes in blood vessels in different treatment groups were studied by immunohistochemical assays. Our results showed no significant differences through time in the concentrations of •O2-, SOD, MDA, NO, ET-1 between the healthy control and the nitrate ester groups (p > 0.05). The levels of SOD and MDA in the nitrate ester tolerance group increased with time, however, the levels of •O2-, NO and ET-1 decreased gradually (p tolerance groups were significantly decreased, but SOD and MDA were significantly increased (p tolerance, and this strategy was safe and looks promising for humans.

  3. Better Together: Co-Location of Dental and Primary Care Provides Opportunities to Improve Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourat, Nadereh; Martinez, Ana E; Crall, James J

    2015-09-01

    Community Health Centers (CHCs) are one of the principal safety-net providers of health care for low-income and uninsured populations. Co-locating dental services in primary care settings provides an opportunity to improve access to dental care. Yet this study of California CHCs that provide primary care services shows that only about one-third of them co-located primary and dental care services on-site. An additional one-third were members of multisite organizations in which at least one other site provided dental care. The remaining one-third of CHC sites had no dental care capacity. Policy options to promote co-location include requiring on-site availability of dental services, providing infrastructure funding to build and equip dental facilities, and offering financial incentives to provide dental care and recruit dental providers.

  4. [Study on dosage form design for improving oral bioavailability of traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hai-Jian; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Yao, Dong-Dong; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-09-01

    Both chemical drugs and traditional Chinese medicines have the problem of low bioavailability. However, as traditional Chinese medicines are a multi-component complex, their dosage forms are required to be designed in line with their characteristics, in order to improve the bioavailability of traditional Chinese medicines. Traditional Chinese medicines are mostly prepared into pill, powder, paste, elixir and decoction, but with such drawbacks as high administration dose and poor efficacy. With the process of modernization of traditional Chinese medicines, new-type preparations have be developed and made outstanding achievements. However, they fail to make an organic integration between traditional Chinese medicine theories and modern preparation theories. Characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines are required to be taken into account during the development of traditional Chinese medicines. In the article, multi-component preparation technology was adopted to establish a multi-component drug release system of traditional Chinese medicines on the basis of multiple components of traditional Chinese medicines.

  5. The development of argument and improvement of semantic and pragmatic aspects of oral language by investigative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa H. Pickina Silva Suzuki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Language is the mechanism that allows us to share all the knowledge acquired in the learning and teaching process. Through it the scientific knowledge is arranged. The language’s communicative property is the most meaningful ability which allows man to report, to reason or to refute an idea. The teaching strategies which aim to develop scientific enculturation, bring science closer to the school routine, introducing distinguished conceptions that favour problematic teaching. The investigative methodologies lead the student to develop communication abilities, specially reasoning, in scientific speech perspective. Knowing about this difficulty that the students, specifically the ones of the seventh grade of the primary school of brazil’s state school, have in understanding certain parts of the contents in the subject of Science, most of the times lacking in a concrete referential idea, the theme of microorganisms was chosen to substantiate the investigative activities proposed. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to identify and to analyse the communicative abilities of language, regarding argumentation and its development, as the improvement of semantic and pragmatic aspects of language. To organize this activity of investigation, the approach of the National Research Council was used, as well as the assumption idealized by S. Toulmin, regarding the argument structure. The pragmatic and semantic abilities were referred through the theory of the Speech Acts. Analyzing the obtained data, it was possible to ascertain that some students were benefited with this methodology and were able to absorb concepts that substantiated and contributed to the structural quality of the argument. Besides that, it was realized that the improvement of the semantic and pragmatic aspects framed an efficient communication.

  6. A bi-level intervention to improve oral hygiene of older and disabled adults in low-income housing: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisine, S; Schensul, J J; Goldblatt, R; Radda, K; Foster-Bey, C; Acosta-Glynn, C; Miron-Carcamo, L; Ioannidou, E

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the results of a bi-level intervention, using a cognitive-behavioral theoretical approach, to improve the oral hygiene of older adults and the disabled in community-based low income senior housing. The bi-level pilot intervention consisted of an on-site tailored adapted motivational interviewing (AMI) session and two oral health fairs, supported by a resident campaign committee, to change community norms. All materials were available in English and Spanish. Participants completed a survey consisting of 12 domains that provided the basis for tailoring the AMI and shaping the campaigns. The domains were activities of daily living (ADLs), access to oral health information, oral hygiene status, dental knowledge, hygiene behaviors, importance of oral hygiene, self-efficacy/locus of control, diet, intentions, self-management worries/fears, perceived risk and dry mouth. Each participant received clinical assessments consisting of full-mouth plaque score (PS) and gingival index (GI) before the intervention and at three months. Twenty-seven residents with at least one tooth completed all phases of the study. The mean number of domains requiring attention was 4.5 (SD 1.6) with a range of one to seven. Mean baseline PS was 83% (SD 16%) which improved significantly to 58% (SD 31%); mean baseline GI was 1.15 (SD 0.61) and improved significantly to 0.49 (SD 0.46). This pilot study supports the feasibility and acceptability of a tailored oral hygiene intervention among older and disabled adults living in low income senior housing. Although a small sample, the study demonstrated significant improvements in both plaque and gingival scores three months after the bi-level intervention.

  7. Therapeutic efficacy of ranitidine bismuth citrate with clarithromycin for seven days in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in Brazilian peptic ulcer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Natan Eisig

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The curative treatment of peptic ulcer is made available nowadays through the eradication of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, which is associated with it, but the best therapeutic regimen is yet to be determined. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of a therapeutic regimen with 400 mg ranitidine bismuth citrate associated with 500 mg clarithromycin given twice a day for seven days in a cohort of Brazilian patients with peptic ulcer. TYPE OF STUDY: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Tertiary-care hospital. PATIENTS: One hundred and twenty nine outpatients, with active or healed peptic ulcers infected by Helicobacter pylori, diagnosed via endoscopy with confirmation via the urease test and histological examination, who had never undergone a regimen for the eradication of the bacterium. PROCEDURE: Administration of 400 mg ranitidine-bismuth and 500 mg clarithromycin twice a day, for seven days. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Efficacy of the treatment, with a check on the cure done via another endoscopy eight weeks after drug administration. The eradication of the bacterium was determined via the urease test and histological examination. Patients who were negative for both were considered to be cured. RESULTS: Eight patients failed to complete the study. The eradication rate according to intention to treat was 81% (104/129 and per protocol was 86% (104/121. CONCLUSION: The bismuth ranitidine compound associated with clarithromycin used for one week was shown to be a simple, effective and well-tolerated therapeutic regimen for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

  8. Lifestyle Change Plus Dental Care (LCDC) program improves knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) toward oral health and diabetes mellitus among the elderly with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengtipbovorn, Saruta; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

    2015-03-01

    Currently, there is an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus among the elderly. Chronic inflammation from diabetes mellitus effects glycemic control and increases risk of diabetes complications. To assess the effectiveness of a Lifestyle Change plus Dental Care (LCDC) program by improved knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) toward oral health and diabetes mellitus among the elderly with type 2 diabetes. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in two Health Centers (HC 54 intervention and HC 59 control) between October 2013 and April 2014. Sixty-six diabetic patients per health center were recruited. At baseline, the intervention group attended a 20-minute lifestyle and oral health education program, individual lifestyle counseling using motivational interviewing, application of self-regulation manual, and individual oral hygiene instruction. At 3-month follow-up, the intervention group received individual lifestyle counseling and oral hygiene instruction. The intervention group received booster education every visit by viewing a 15-minute educational video. The control group received the routine program. Participants were assessed at baseline, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up for knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) toward oral health and diabetes mellitus. Data was analyzed by using descriptive statistic, Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and repeated measure ANOVA. After the 6-month follow-up, repeated measure ANOVA analysis showed that participants in the intervention group had significantly higher knowledge and attitude toward oral health and diabetes mellitus. The participants in the intervention group were more likely to exercise, modify diet, have foot examinations, always wear covered shoes, participate in self-feet screening, use dental floss, and use inter-proximal brush than the control group with statistically significant differences. The combination of lifestyle change and dental care in one program improved knowledge, attitude

  9. Oral formulation strategies to improve solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek; Worku, Zelalem Ayenew; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2011-10-01

    In the past two decades, there has been a spiraling increase in the complexity and specificity of drug-receptor targets. It is possible to design drugs for these diverse targets with advances in combinatorial chemistry and high throughput screening. Unfortunately, but not entirely unexpectedly, these advances have been accompanied by an increase in the structural complexity and a decrease in the solubility of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Therefore, the importance of formulation strategies to improve the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs is inevitable, thus making it crucial to understand and explore the recent trends. Drug delivery systems (DDS), such as solid dispersions, soluble complexes, self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS), nanocrystals and mesoporous inorganic carriers, are discussed briefly in this review, along with examples of marketed products. This article provides the reader with a concise overview of currently relevant formulation strategies and proposes anticipated future trends. Today, the pharmaceutical industry has at its disposal a series of reliable and scalable formulation strategies for poorly soluble drugs. However, due to a lack of understanding of the basic physical chemistry behind these strategies, formulation development is still driven by trial and error.

  10. Orally administered Chrysin improves post-thawed sperm quality and fertility of rooster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhandi, M; Ansari, M; Roknabadi, P; Zare Shahneh, A; Sharafi, M

    2017-12-01

    Chrysin is a bioflavonoid compound found in passion flower, chamomile, propolis and honey at high levels. Post-thawed sperm quality and fertility of Chrysin-fed roosters were assessed in this study. Twenty 40-week-old male broiler breeders were randomly divided into four groups and fed basal diet supplemented with different levels of Chrysin including 0 (Ch-0), 25 (Ch-25), 50 (Ch-50) or 75 (Ch-75) mg/day for 12 consecutive weeks. Semen samples were weekly collected from 6th to 9th week of experiment to evaluate some sperm quality parameters including total and progressive motility, plasma membrane integrity and functionality (in fresh and post-thawed samples) and mitochondrial activity (only in post-thawed samples). Also, collected semen samples from 10th, 11th and 12th week of experiment were frozen and then artificially inseminated to test fertility rate. According to the results, an improvement in both fresh and post-thawed sperm quality including total [fresh: 88.00 ± 0.58 and 87.25 ± 0.67 (p roosters could ameliorate cryopreservation-induced impairment of sperm quality and fertility rate. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Phenolic Esters of O-Desmethylvenlafaxine with Improved Oral Bioavailability and Brain Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O-Desmethylvenlafaxine (desvenlafaxine, ODV is a recently approved antidepressant which in some clinical studies failed to meet a satisfactory end-point. The aim of this study was to prepare a series of phenolic esters of ODV and evaluate their potential as ODV prodrugs with improved brain uptake. Fifteen phenolic esters (compounds 1a–o were synthesized and their pharmacokinetic profiles evaluated in rat. The four compounds producing the highest relative bioavailability of ODV in rat (compounds 1c, 1e, 1n, 1o were then studied to evaluate their brain uptake. Of these four compounds, compound 1n (the piperonylic acid ester of ODV demonstrated the highest Cmax of ODV both in the rat hypothalamus and total brain. Finally the pharmacokinetics of 1n were evaluated in beagle dog where the increase in relative bioavailability of ODV was found to be as great as in rat. This high relative bioavailability of ODV coupled with its good brain penetration make 1n the most promising candidate for development as an ODV prodrug.

  12. Polymer blends used to develop felodipine-loaded hollow microspheres for improved oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Chao; Feng, Ting; Liang, Jing; Liu, Hao; Huang, Dongmei; Zhan, Chenglin; Yuan, Jiyuan; Lee, Robert J; Zhao, Ling; Wei, Yumeng

    2018-06-01

    Felodipine (FD) has been widely used in anti-hypertensive treatment. However, it has extremely low aqueous solubility and poor bioavailability. To address these problems, FD hollow microspheres as multiple-unit dosage forms were synthesized by a solvent diffusion evaporation method. Particle size of the hollow microspheres, types of ethylcellulose (EC), amounts of EC, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and FD were investigated based on an orthogonal experiment of three factors and three levels. In addition, the release kinetics in vitro and pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs of the optimized FD hollow microspheres was investigated and compared with Plendil (commercial FD sustained-release tablets) as a single-unit dosage form. Results showed that the optimal formulation was composed of EC 10 cp :PVP:FD (0.9:0.16:0.36, w/w). The FD hollow microspheres were globular with a hollow structure and have high drug loading (17.69±0.44%) and floating rate (93.82±4.05%) in simulated human gastric fluid after 24h. Pharmacokinetic data showed that FD hollow microspheres exhibited sustained-release behavior and significantly improved relative bioavailability of FD compared with the control. Pharmacodynamic study showed that the FD hollow microspheres could effectively lower blood pressure. Therefore, these findings demonstrated that the hollow microspheres were an effective sustained-release delivery system for FD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Classroom Promotion of Oral Language (CPOL): protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial of a school-based intervention to improve children’s literacy outcomes at grade 3, oral language and mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfeld, Sharon; Snow, Pamela; Eadie, Patricia; Munro, John; Gold, Lisa; Le, Ha N D; Orsini, Francesca; Shingles, Beth; Lee, Katherine; Connell, Judy; Watts, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Oral language and literacy competence are major influences on children’s developmental pathways and life success. Children who do not develop the necessary language and literacy skills in the early years of school then go on to face long-term difficulties. Improving teacher effectiveness may be a critical step in lifting oral language and literacy outcomes. The Classroom Promotion of Oral Language trial aims to determine whether a specifically designed teacher professional learning programme focusing on promoting oral language can lead to improved teacher knowledge and practice, and advance outcomes in oral language and literacy for early years school children, compared with usual practice. Methods and analysis This is a two-arm cluster multisite randomised controlled trial conducted within Catholic and Government primary schools across Victoria, Australia. The intervention comprises 4 days of face-to-face professional learning for teachers and ongoing implementation support via a specific worker. The primary outcome is reading ability of the students at grade 3, and the secondary outcomes are teacher knowledge and practice, student mental health, reading comprehension and language ability at grade 1; and literacy, writing and numeracy at grade 3. Economic evaluation will compare the incremental costs of the intervention to the measured primary and secondary outcomes. Ethics and dissemination This trial was approved by the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee #CF13/2634-2013001403 and later transferred to the University of Melbourne #1545540. The investigators (including Government and Catholic partners) will communicate trial results to stakeholders, collaborators and participating schools and teachers via appropriate presentations and publications. Trial registration number ISRCTN77681972; Pre-results. PMID:29162571

  14. Classroom Promotion of Oral Language (CPOL): protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial of a school-based intervention to improve children's literacy outcomes at grade 3, oral language and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfeld, Sharon; Snow, Pamela; Eadie, Patricia; Munro, John; Gold, Lisa; Le, Ha N D; Orsini, Francesca; Shingles, Beth; Lee, Katherine; Connell, Judy; Watts, Amy

    2017-11-20

    Oral language and literacy competence are major influences on children's developmental pathways and life success. Children who do not develop the necessary language and literacy skills in the early years of school then go on to face long-term difficulties. Improving teacher effectiveness may be a critical step in lifting oral language and literacy outcomes. The Classroom Promotion of Oral Language trial aims to determine whether a specifically designed teacher professional learning programme focusing on promoting oral language can lead to improved teacher knowledge and practice, and advance outcomes in oral language and literacy for early years school children, compared with usual practice. This is a two-arm cluster multisite randomised controlled trial conducted within Catholic and Government primary schools across Victoria, Australia. The intervention comprises 4 days of face-to-face professional learning for teachers and ongoing implementation support via a specific worker. The primary outcome is reading ability of the students at grade 3, and the secondary outcomes are teacher knowledge and practice, student mental health, reading comprehension and language ability at grade 1; and literacy, writing and numeracy at grade 3. Economic evaluation will compare the incremental costs of the intervention to the measured primary and secondary outcomes. This trial was approved by the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee #CF13/2634-2013001403 and later transferred to the University of Melbourne #1545540. The investigators (including Government and Catholic partners) will communicate trial results to stakeholders, collaborators and participating schools and teachers via appropriate presentations and publications. ISRCTN77681972; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. A solid phospholipid-bile salts-mixed micelles based on the fast dissolving oral films to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qing-yuan; Li, Xian-yi; Shen, Bao-de; Dai, Ling; Xu, He; Shen, Cheng-ying; Yuan, Hai-long; Han, Jin

    2014-06-01

    The phospholipid-bile salts-mixed micelles (PL-BS-MMs) are potent carriers used for oral absorption of drugs that are poorly soluble in water; however, there are many limitations associated with liquid formulations. In the current study, the feasibility of preparing the fast dissolving oral films (FDOFs) containing PL-BS-MMs was examined. FDOFs incorporated with Cucurbitacin B (Cu B)-loaded PL-sodium deoxycholate (SDC)-MMs have been developed and characterized. To prepare the MMs and to serve as the micellar carrier, a weight ratio of 1:0.8 and total concentration of 54 mg/mL was selected for the PL/SDC based on the size, size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, and morphology. The concentration of Cu B was determined to be 5 mg/mL. Results showed that a narrow size distributed nanomicelles with a mean particle size of 86.21 ± 6.11 nm and a zeta potential of -31.21 ± 1.17 mV was obtained in our optimized Cu B-PL/SDC-MMs formulation. FDOFs were produced by solvent casting method and the formulation with 50 mg/mL of pullulan and 40 mg/mL of PEG 400 were deemed based on the physico-mechanical properties. The FDOFs containing Cu B-PL/SDC-MMs were easily reconstituted in a transparent and clear solution giving back a colloidal system with spherical micelles in the submicron range. In the in vitro dissolution test, the FDOFs containing Cu B-PL/SDC-MMs showed an increased dissolution velocity markedly. The pharmacokinetics study showed that the FDOFs containing PL-SDC-MMs not only kept the absorption properties as same as the PL-SDC-MMs, but also significantly increased the oral bioavailability of Cu B compared to the Cu B suspension ( p < 0.05). This study showed that the FDOFs containing Cu B-PL/SDC-MMs could represent a novel platform for the delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs via oral administration. Furthermore, the integration with the FDOFs could also provide a simple and cost-effective manner for the solidification of PL-SDC-MMs.

  16. Joint Dictionary Learning-Based Non-Negative Matrix Factorization for Voice Conversion to Improve Speech Intelligibility After Oral Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Szu-Wei; Li, Pei-Chun; Lai, Ying-Hui; Yang, Cheng-Chien; Hsieh, Li-Chun; Tsao, Yu

    2017-11-01

    Objective: This paper focuses on machine learning based voice conversion (VC) techniques for improving the speech intelligibility of surgical patients who have had parts of their articulators removed. Because of the removal of parts of the articulator, a patient's speech may be distorted and difficult to understand. To overcome this problem, VC methods can be applied to convert the distorted speech such that it is clear and more intelligible. To design an effective VC method, two key points must be considered: 1) the amount of training data may be limited (because speaking for a long time is usually difficult for postoperative patients); 2) rapid conversion is desirable (for better communication). Methods: We propose a novel joint dictionary learning based non-negative matrix factorization (JD-NMF) algorithm. Compared to conventional VC techniques, JD-NMF can perform VC efficiently and effectively with only a small amount of training data. Results: The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed JD-NMF method not only achieves notably higher short-time objective intelligibility (STOI) scores (a standardized objective intelligibility evaluation metric) than those obtained using the original unconverted speech but is also significantly more efficient and effective than a conventional exemplar-based NMF VC method. Conclusion: The proposed JD-NMF method may outperform the state-of-the-art exemplar-based NMF VC method in terms of STOI scores under the desired scenario. Significance: We confirmed the advantages of the proposed joint training criterion for the NMF-based VC. Moreover, we verified that the proposed JD-NMF can effectively improve the speech intelligibility scores of oral surgery patients. Objective: This paper focuses on machine learning based voice conversion (VC) techniques for improving the speech intelligibility of surgical patients who have had parts of their articulators removed. Because of the removal of parts of the articulator, a patient

  17. Carrier-Mediated Prodrug Uptake to Improve the Oral Bioavailability of Polar Drugs: An Application to an Oseltamivir Analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incecayir, Tuba; Sun, Jing; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Xu, Hao; Gose, Tomoka; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi; Hilfinger, John; Lipka, Elke; Amidon, Gordon L

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this study was to improve the intestinal mucosal cell membrane permeability of the poorly absorbed guanidino analogue of a neuraminidase inhibitor, oseltamivir carboxylate (GOC) using a carrier-mediated strategy. Valyl amino acid prodrug of GOC with isopropyl-methylene-dioxy linker (GOC-ISP-Val) was evaluated as the potential substrate for intestinal oligopeptide transporter, hPEPT1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes heterologously expressing hPEPT1, and an intestinal mouse perfusion system. The diastereomers of GOC-ISP-Val were assessed for chemical and metabolic stability. Permeability of GOC-ISP-Val was determined in Caco-2 cells and mice. Diastereomer 2 was about 2 times more stable than diastereomer 1 in simulated intestinal fluid and rapidly hydrolyzed to the parent drug in cell homogenates. The prodrug had a 9 times-enhanced apparent permeability (P(app)) in Caco-2 cells compared with the parent drug. Both diastereomer exhibited high effective permeability (P(eff)) in mice, 6.32 ± 3.12 and 5.20 ± 2.81 × 10(-5) cm/s for diastereomer 1 and 2, respectively. GOC-ISP-Val was found to be a substrate of hPEPT1. Overall, this study indicates that the prodrug, GOC-ISP-Val, seems to be a promising oral anti-influenza agent that has sufficient stability at physiologically relevant pHs before absorption, significantly improved permeability via hPEPT1 and potentially rapid activation in the intestinal cells. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Oral administration of French maritime pine bark extract (Flavangenol® improves clinical symptoms in photoaged facial skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furumura M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Minao Furumura,1,2 Noriko Sato,1 Nobutaka Kusaba,3 Kinya Takagaki,3 Juichiro Nakayama11Department of Dermatology, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, Fukuoka, 2Department of Dermatology, Kurume University School of Medicine and Kurume University Institute of Cutaneous Cell Biology, Fukuoka, 3Toyo Shinyaku Co Ltd, Tosu City, Saga, JapanBackground: French maritime pine bark extract (PBE has gained popularity as a dietary supplement in the treatment of various diseases due to its polyphenol-rich ingredients. Oligometric proanthocyanidins (OPCs, a class of bioflavonoid complexes, are enriched in French maritime PBE and have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Previous studies have suggested that French maritime PBE helps reduce ultraviolet radiation damage to the skin and may protect human facial skin from symptoms of photoaging. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of French maritime PBE in the improvement of photodamaged facial skin, we conducted a randomized trial of oral supplementation with PBE.Methods: One hundred and twelve women with mild to moderate photoaging of the skin were randomized to either a 12-week open trial regimen of 100 mg PBE supplementation once daily or to a parallel-group trial regimen of 40 mg PBE supplementation once daily.Results: A significant decrease in clinical grading of skin photoaging scores was observed in both time courses of 100 mg daily and 40 mg daily PBE supplementation regimens. A significant reduction in the pigmentation of age spots was also demonstrated utilizing skin color measurements.Conclusion: Clinically significant improvement in photodamaged skin could be achieved with PBE. Our findings confirm the efficacy and safety of PBE.Keywords: polyphenols, pine bark extract, skin photoaging, antioxidants, antiaging

  19. Short-term improvement in oral self-care of adolescents with social-cognitive theory-guided intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Scullin, Emma P

    2015-12-01

    Cluster randomised controlled trial. Clusters of adolescents (classrooms of 15- to 16-year-olds) in each school were allocated either into a control group or into an intervention group. The interventions consisted of peer cooperation (peer support) and peer interactive learning (observational learning) facilitated through feedback from a dentist (professional support). Three intervention sessions with preselected pairs of adolescents were delivered in the first three weeks. Gender, family socio-economic status (baseline) and different social-cognitive domain variables (baseline, six, and 12 months) were assessed using a questionnaire. Dental plaque levels were the primary outcome measure and they were measured at baseline, after the intervention measured only in the social-cognitive theory-guided group, at six and 12 months. At the six-month follow-up there was a statistically significant difference in means ± SD between the social-cognitive intervention group (27.4 ± 19.4) and the control group (35.1 ± 20.0). At the 12-month follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference in means ± SD between the social-cognitive intervention group (27.4 ± 18.5) and the control group (31.9 ± 17.8). Variations in dental plaque levels at different time periods were explained by the following predictors: family's socio-economic status, social-cognitive domain variables, group affiliation and baseline plaque levels. Social-cognitive theory-guided interventions improved oral self-care of adolescents in the short term. This improvement lasted only for five months after the intervention was discontinued.

  20. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to find out more. Facial Cosmetic ... mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to find out more. Facial Cosmetic ...

  1. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissues of the face, mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to ... tissues of the face, mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to ...

  2. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to find out more. Facial Cosmetic ... and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to find out more. Facial Cosmetic ...

  3. Immediate acid-suppressing effects of ranitidine hydrochloride and rabeprazole sodium following initial administration and reintroduction: A randomized, cross-over study using wireless pH monitoring capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Shouko; Kato, Mototsugu; Ono, Yuji; Imai, Aki; Yoshida, Takeshi; Shimizu, Yuichi; Asaka, Masahiro

    2009-04-01

    Histamine 2 receptor antagonists and proton-pump inhibitors, drugs that are widely used for the treatment of acid-related diseases, have different clinical characteristics. The objective of this study was to compare the acid-suppressing effects of ranitidine hydrochloride and those of rabeprazole sodium at the first administration and re-administration after withdrawal. The study was designed as an open-label, randomized, two-way cross-over trial. Seven Helicobacter pylori-negative healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. Ranitidine hydrochloride (300 mg/day) or rabeprazole sodium (20 mg/day) was administered from days 1 to 7 and from days 11 to 13. The percentage of time with gastric pH sodium maintained a potent and stable effect from days 2 to 7 (ranitidine vs rabeprazole: P hydrochloride was attenuated after day 4. In addition, the effect of ranitidine hydrochloride at re-administration was attenuated (days 11, 12, and 13 vs pre-administration: not significant). In view of our observations, we expect symptoms associated with gastric acidity to be more adequately controlled with rabeprazole sodium in the short term when compared to ranitidine hydrochloride.

  4. An oral Na(V)1.8 blocker improves motor function in mice completely deficient of myelin protein P-0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosberg, Mette R.; Alvarez Herrero, Susana; Krarup, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Mice deficient of myelin protein P0 are established models of demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. Dysmyelination in these mice is associated with an ectopic expression of the sensory neuron specific sodium channel isoform NaV1.8 on motor axons. We reported that in P0+/−, a model of CMT......1B, the membrane dysfunction could be acutely improved by a novel oral NaV1.8 blocker referred to as Compound 31 (C31, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2010, 20, 6812; AbbVie Inc.). The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which C31 treatment could also improve the motor axon function in P0......-of-concept that treatment with oral subtype-selective NaV1.8 blockers could be used to improve the motor function in severe forms of demyelinating CMT....

  5. Fabrication and Optimization of Self-Microemulsions to Improve the Oral Bioavailability of Total Flavones of Hippophaë rhamnoides L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ruixue; Guo, Xinbo; Hu, Xiaodan; Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Zhou, Lin; Li, Tong; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to improve the oral bioavailability of a poorly soluble functional food ingredient, the total flavones of Hippophaë rhamnoides L. (TFH). A self-microemulsion drug delivery system (SMEDDS) was developed to overcome the problems of poor absorption of TFH in vivo. The optimal SMEDDS significantly enhanced the solubility of TFH up to 530 times compared to that in water. The mean droplet size was 61.76 nm with uniform distribution. And the loaded system was stable at 25 °C for 3 mo with transparent appearance. The in vitro release of TFH from SMEDDS was faster and more complete than that from suspension. After oral administration of TFH-SMEDDS in rats, the relative bioavailability of TFH was dramatically improved for 3.09 times compared with the unencapsulated form. The investigation indicated the potential application of SMEDDS as a vehicle to improve the oral bioavailability of TFH. The lipid-based nanotechnology, namely self-microemulsion drug delivery system (SMEDDS) was used to improve the bioavailability and oral delivery of total flavones of Hippophaë rhamnoides L. (TFH). The relevant bioavailability of TFH could be remarkably 3-fold improved by the optimized SMEDDS. The SMEDDS produced via a simple one-step process for poorly soluble TFH to achieve a significant improvement in the bioavailability, may endorse the promising utilization of TFH in functional foods as well as pharmaceutical fields with an enhanced absorption in vivo. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Hybridization of polyvinylpyrrolidone to a binary composite of curcumin/α-glucosyl stevia improves both oral absorption and photochemical stability of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Kazunori; Okamoto, Daiki; Sato, Hideyuki; Onoue, Satomi; Otsu, Shigeyuki; Tozuka, Yuichi

    2016-12-15

    The tri-component system curcumin/α-glucosyl stevia (Stevia-G)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was developed to improve the oral bioavailability and physicochemical properties of curcumin (CUR). The tri-component CUR formulation with Stevia-G and PVP was prepared with freeze-drying. The tri-component CUR system exhibited 13,000-fold higher solubility of CUR than the equilibrium solubility of CUR for 24h, indicating a stable tri-composite structure involving CUR. CUR could be converted into an amorphous form in the presence of Stevia-G and PVP by freeze-drying. The photo-degradation of CUR in the tri-component system was negligible even under an amorphous state of CUR. After oral administration in rats, the oral absorption of the tri-component CUR formulation (20mgCUR/kg) was 6.7-fold higher than that of crystalline CUR. The tri-component CUR formulation would therefore be a promising option to improve physicochemical properties and oral absorption of CUR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effectiveness of braille and audio-tactile performance technique for improving oral hygiene status of visually impaired adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sushmita; Rajpurohit, Ladusingh; Kokka, Vivian Varghese

    2017-01-01

    Visually impaired people encounter numerous challenges in their daily life which makes it a cumbersome task to pay special attention to oral health needs. Furthermore, there is little knowledge about oral health practices among caretakers and visually impaired individuals, due to which oral health is often neglected when compared to the general health. Hence, there was a need to educate visually challenged individuals about oral hygiene practices in a customized format so that the comprehension of brushing techniques could be conveyed at its best. The present study was a randomized control trial of sixty visually impaired adolescents who were divided into three groups of 20 each. In Group 1, Braille was used, whereas in Group 2, audio-tactile performance (ATP) technique and in Group 3, a combination of both the methods were used to teach tooth brushing as a part of oral health education. Pre- and post-plaque index score using Silness and Loe (1967) after health education were calculated and tabulated for statistical analysis. The postintervention mean plaque index score increased in Group 1 from 29.45 to 42.98, whereas the mean plaque score decreased in Groups 2 and 3 from 30.83-29.9 to 30.23-18.73, respectively. Intergroup comparison of postplaque index score using Kruskal-Wallis and ANOVA analysis showed significant difference among all three study groups. The combination of Braille and ATP technique of health education served as the most effective medium to teach oral hygiene methods to visually impaired adolescents.

  8. Essentials of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators.

  9. Does novel oral anticoagulant improve anticoagulation for non-valvular atrial fibrillation associated stroke: An inpatient registration study in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Di Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts: Objective: To summarize the use rate, safety, efficacy of antithrombotics in stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA prevention, and reasons for not using dabigatran etexilate (DE in Shanghai, China. Methods: Non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF-associated stroke patients were prospectively registered as an electronic database. Use rate of antithrombotics and reasons for not using DE were extracted during follow-up. Patients' baseline characteristics, recurrent ischemic stroke/TIA events and bleeding complications were analyzed. Patients: From April 2012 to August 2014, 110 inpatients with NVAF-associated stroke were studied in our hospital. NVAF was diagnosed by 12-lead electrocardiogram, 24 h Holter and echocardiography. Results: Before introduction of DE (April 2013, use rates of warfarin and antiplatelets were 28.9% (11/38 and 60.5% (23/38 respectively; after that, use rates of warfarin, DE, and antiplatelets were 20.8% (15/72, 12.5% (9/72, and 43.1% (31/72. The DE did not improve use of anticoagulants (P = 0.639. There were 19 (17.3% recurrent ischemic stroke events up to October 2015; two (9.5% in the non-user group, 10 (18.5% in the antiplatelet group, and seven (20.0% in the anticoagulants group (P = 0.570. Furthermore, recurrence rates were similar between the DE group (20.0% and the Warfarin group (20.0%, P = 1.000. The most common reason for not using DE was financial concerns (61.0%, followed by inconvenience to purchase (14.0% and hemorrhage concerns (11.0%. Two patients using warfarin found fecal occult blood so they stopped warfarin and began to use antiplatelet drugs. No bleeding event occurred in the other groups. Only one patient had side effects (dyspepsia and gastroesophageal reflux from DE. Conclusion: The use rate of either DE or warfarin in Shanghai was low; DE had not improved anticoagulation therapy for NVAF patients in Shanghai mainly because DE had not been covered by health insurance. Keywords

  10. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in a pubescent boy of short stature was improved with an orthodontic mandibular advancement oral appliance: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shin; Otake, Hironao; Tsuiki, Satoru; Miyao, Etsuko; Noda, Akiko

    2015-01-15

    We report a 16-year-old pubescent pediatric patient with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and short stature whose apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was significantly reduced following the use of an orthodontic oral appliance that advances the mandible ventrally. The mandible was advanced 64% of the maximal mandibular protrusive position with use of the appliance over a 3-year period. The patient's AHI without the appliance in place decreased from 101.6/h at baseline to 11/h after treatment. Moreover, the patient's height increased 14 cm during treatment, resulting in height close to the average height for his age. Cephalometric analysis revealed an improvement in his retrognathic mandible and proclination of the upper front teeth. In conclusion, an orthodontic mandibular advancement oral appliance played an important role not only in improving the patient's OSAS but also in normalizing his physical growth during puberty. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  11. Oral treatment with γ-aminobutyric acid improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity by inhibiting inflammation in high fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jide Tian

    Full Text Available Adipocyte and β-cell dysfunction and macrophage-related chronic inflammation are critical for the development of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which can be negatively regulated by Tregs. Our previous studies and those of others have shown that activation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA receptors inhibits inflammation in mice. However, whether GABA could modulate high fat diet (HFD-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance has not been explored. Here, we show that although oral treatment with GABA does not affect water and food consumption it inhibits the HFD-induced gain in body weights in C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, oral treatment with GABA significantly reduced the concentrations of fasting blood glucose, and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in the HFD-fed mice. More importantly, after the onset of obesity and T2DM, oral treatment with GABA inhibited the continual HFD-induced gain in body weights, reduced the concentrations of fasting blood glucose and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in mice. In addition, oral treatment with GABA reduced the epididymal fat mass, adipocyte size, and the frequency of macrophage infiltrates in the adipose tissues of HFD-fed mice. Notably, oral treatment with GABA significantly increased the frequency of CD4(+Foxp3(+ Tregs in mice. Collectively, our data indicated that activation of peripheral GABA receptors inhibited the HFD-induced glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and obesity by inhibiting obesity-related inflammation and up-regulating Treg responses in vivo. Given that GABA is safe for human consumption, activators of GABA receptors may be valuable for the prevention of obesity and intervention of T2DM in the clinic.

  12. Respiratory and oral vaccination improves protection conferred by the live vaccine strain against pneumonic tularemia in the rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Elizabeth; Smith, Le'Kneitah P; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Barry, Eileen M; Reed, Douglas S

    2016-10-01

    Tularemia is a severe, zoonotic disease caused by a gram-negative bacterium, Francisella tularensis We have previously shown that rabbits are a good model of human pneumonic tularemia when exposed to aerosols containing a virulent, type A strain, SCHU S4. We further demonstrated that the live vaccine strain (LVS), an attenuated type B strain, extended time to death when given by scarification. Oral or aerosol vaccination has been previously shown in humans to offer superior protection to parenteral vaccination against respiratory tularemia challenge. Both oral and aerosol vaccination with LVS were well tolerated in the rabbit with only minimal fever and no weight loss after inoculation. Plasma antibody titers against F. tularensis were higher in rabbits that were vaccinated by either oral or aerosol routes compared to scarification. Thirty days after vaccination, all rabbits were challenged with aerosolized SCHU S4. LVS given by scarification extended time to death compared to mock-vaccinated controls. One orally vaccinated rabbit did survive aerosol challenge, however, only aerosol vaccination extended time to death significantly compared to scarification. These results further demonstrate the utility of the rabbit model of pneumonic tularemia in replicating what has been reported in humans and macaques as well as demonstrating the utility of vaccination by oral and respiratory routes against an aerosol tularemia challenge. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. pH-sensitive polymeric nanoparticles to improve oral bioavailability of peptide/protein drugs and poorly water-soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Qiang

    2012-10-01

    pH-sensitive polymeric nanoparticles are promising for oral drug delivery, especially for peptide/protein drugs and poorly water-soluble medicines. This review describes current status of pH-sensitive polymeric nanoparticles for oral drug delivery and introduces the mechanisms of drug release from them as well as possible reasons for absorption improvement, with emphasis on our contribution to this field. pH-sensitive polymeric nanoparticles are prepared mainly with polyanions, polycations, their mixtures or cross-linked polymers. The mechanisms of drug release are the result of carriers' dissolution, swelling or both of them at specific pH. The possible reasons for improvement of oral bioavailability include the following: improve drug stability, enhance mucoadhesion, prolong resident time in GI tract, ameliorate intestinal permeability and increase saturation solubility and dissolution rate for poorly water-soluble drugs. As for the advantages of pH-sensitive nanoparticles over conventional nanoparticles, we conclude that (1) most carriers used are enteric-coating materials and their safety has been approved. (2) The rapid dissolution or swelling of carriers at specific pH results in quick drug release and high drug concentration gradient, which is helpful for absorption. (3) At the specific pH carriers dissolve or swell, and the bioadhesion of carriers to mucosa becomes high because nanoparticles turn from solid to gel, which can facilitate drug absorption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Microemulsions containing long-chain oil ethyl oleate improve the oral bioavailability of piroxicam by increasing drug solubility and lymphatic transportation simultaneously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Qiao; Song, Jia; You, Xiuhua; Xu, Dongling; Wang, Kexin; Song, Jiaqi; Guo, Qin; Li, Pengyu; Wu, Chuanbin; Hu, Haiyan

    2016-09-25

    Drug solubility and lymphatic transport enhancements are two main pathways to improve drug oral bioavailability for microemulsions. However, it is not easy to have both achieved simultaneously because excipients used for improving lymphatic transport were usually insufficient in forming microemulsions and solubilizing drugs. Our research is to explore whether ethyl oleate, an oil effective in developing microemulsions with desired solubilizing capability, could increase bioavailability to a higher extent by enhancing lymphatic transport. As a long-chain oil, ethyl oleate won larger microemulsion area than short-chain tributyrin and medium-chain GTCC. In contrast, long-chain soybean oil failed to prepare microemulsions. The solubility of piroxicam in ethyl oleate microemulsions (ME-C) increased by about 30 times than in water. ME-C also won significantly higher AUC0-t compared with tributyrin microemulsions (ME-A) and GTCC microemulsions (ME-B). Oral bioavailability in ME-C decreased by 38% after lymphatic transport was blocked by cycloheximide, severer than those in ME-A and ME-B (8% and 34%). These results suggest that improving lymphatic transport and solubility simultaneously might be a novel strategy to increase drug oral bioavailability to a higher extent than increasing solubility only. Ethyl oleate is a preferred oil candidate due to its integrated advantages of high solubilizing capability, large microemulsion area and effective lymphatic transport. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Oral care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Effectiveness of braille and audio-tactile performance technique for improving oral hygiene status of visually impaired adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmita Deshpande

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visually impaired people encounter numerous challenges in their daily life which makes it a cumbersome task to pay special attention to oral health needs. Furthermore, there is little knowledge about oral health practices among caretakers and visually impaired individuals, due to which oral health is often neglected when compared to the general health. Hence, there was a need to educate visually challenged individuals about oral hygiene practices in a customized format so that the comprehension of brushing techniques could be conveyed at its best. Materials and Methods: The present study was a randomized control trial of sixty visually impaired adolescents who were divided into three groups of 20 each. In Group 1, Braille was used, whereas in Group 2, audio-tactile performance (ATP technique and in Group 3, a combination of both the methods were used to teach tooth brushing as a part of oral health education. Pre- and post-plaque index score using Silness and Loe (1967 after health education were calculated and tabulated for statistical analysis. Results: The postintervention mean plaque index score increased in Group 1 from 29.45 to 42.98, whereas the mean plaque score decreased in Groups 2 and 3 from 30.83–29.9 to 30.23–18.73, respectively. Intergroup comparison of postplaque index score using Kruskal–Wallis and ANOVA analysis showed significant difference among all three study groups. Conclusion: The combination of Braille and ATP technique of health education served as the most effective medium to teach oral hygiene methods to visually impaired adolescents.

  17. Oral calcitonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy RC

    2012-09-01

    meet key end points, and in December 2011, Novartis Pharma AG announced that it would not pursue further clinical development of oral calcitonin for postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteoarthritis. A unique feature of calcitonin is that it is able to uncouple bone turnover, reducing bone resorption without affecting bone formation and therefore increasing bone mass and improving bone quality. This effect, however, may be dose-dependent, with higher doses inhibiting both resorption and formation. Because so many factors affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcitonin, especially orally administered calcitonin, much work remains to be done to explore the full pharmacologic spectrum and potential of calcitonin and determine the optimum dose and timing of administration, as well as water and food intake.Keywords: oral calcitonin, osteoporosis, fractures, arthritis, pain

  18. The effect of ranitidine on postoperative infectious complications following emergency colorectal surgery: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard, F; Jensen, L S; Christiansen, P M

    1998-01-01

    AND TREATMENT: One hundred and ninety-four consecutive patients undergoing acute colorectal surgery for perforated and/or obstructed large bowel were randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive ranitidine 100 mg i.v. twice a day commencing at induction of anesthesia and continued for five days (group I...... patients were withdrawn from the study (for reasons such as other diagnosis, refused to continue, medication not given as prescribed). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients were observed for signs of infectious complications; such as wound infection, intra-abdominal abscess, septicemia, and pneumonia. RESULTS...

  19. Curcumin-carboxymethyl chitosan (CNC) conjugate and CNC/LHR mixed polymeric micelles as new approaches to improve the oral absorption of P-gp substrate drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jiang; Tian, Fengchun; Dahmani, Fatima Zohra; Yang, Hui; Yue, Deren; He, Shuwang; Zhou, Jianping; Yao, Jing

    2016-11-01

    The low oral bioavailability of numerous drugs has been mostly attributed to the significant effect of P-gp-mediated efflux on intestinal drug transport. Herein, we developed mixed polymeric micelles (MPMs) comprised of curcumin-carboxymethyl chitosan (CNC) conjugate, as a potential inhibitor of P-gp-mediated efflux and gastrointestinal absorption enhancer, and low-molecular-weight heparin-all-trans-retinoid acid (LHR) conjugate, as loading material, with the aim to improve the oral absorption of P-gp substrate drugs. CNC conjugate was synthesized by chemical bonding of curcumin (Cur) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) taking advantage of the inhibition of intestinal P-gp-mediated secretion by Cur and the intestinal absorption enhancement by CMCS. The chemical structure of CNC conjugate was characterized by 1 H NMR with a degree of substitution of Cur of 4.52-10.20%. More importantly, CNC conjugate markedly improved the stability of Cur in physiological pH. Cyclosporine A-loaded CNC/LHR MPMs (CsA-CNC/LHR MPMs) were prepared by dialysis method, with high drug loading 25.45% and nanoscaled particle size (∼200 nm). In situ single-pass perfusion studies in rats showed that both CsA + CNC mixture and CsA-CNC/LHR MPMs achieved significantly higher K a and P eff than CsA suspension in the duodenum and jejunum segments (p CNC mixture and CsA-CNC/LHR MPMs significantly increased the oral bioavailability of CsA as compared to CsA suspension. These results suggest that CNC conjugate might be considered as a promising gastrointestinal absorption enhancer, while CNC/LHR MPMs had the potential to improve the oral absorption of P-gp substrate drugs.

  20. An Intervention to Improve the Oral Health of Residents in an Aged Care Facility Led by Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinkhorn, F. A.; Weingarten, L.; Boivin, L.; Plain, J.; Kay, M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The growing population of elderly people is impacting on overstretched dental services in many countries, as many individuals are retaining natural teeth and may have dentures or implants, all of which influence the way in which the oral cavity must be cared for. A major difficulty for older residents is their decreasing level of…

  1. Improvement in Oral Health-related Quality of Life by Periodontal Treatment: A Case Report on Elderly Patient with Chronic Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Eiichi; Aoki, Hideo; Tomita, Sachiyo; Saito, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of an elderly patient with chronic periodontitis requiring periodontal surgery. An 86-year-old man presented to Tokyo Dental College Suidobashi Hospital with the chief complaint of tooth fracture in the anterior region and occlusal pain in the posterior region. Clinical examination revealed 47% of sites with a probing depth (PD) of ≥4 mm and 47% of sites with bleeding on probing. Radiographic examination revealed generalized moderate horizontal bone loss with localized vertical defects. A clinical diagnosis of moderate chronic periodontitis was made. The patient's oral health-related quality of life (QoL) was also assessed at the time of each periodontal assessment. Initial periodontal therapy was provided followed by periodontal surgery. Open flap debridement was performed at sites with a PD of ≥5 mm (teeth #15-17). Surgical crown lengthening with an apically positioned flap was performed on #11 and 13 to gain an adequate biological width for the subsequent crown restoration. After confirming the stability of the periodontal tissue, provisional restorations were replaced with final restorations. No further deterioration was observed in the periodontal condition during the subsequent 1-year period of supportive periodontal therapy. Oral health-related QoL was markedly improved by the periodontal therapy. This suggests that periodontal therapy plays an important role in improving and maintaining oral health-related QoL in elderly people.

  2. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...

  3. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral and maxillofacial surgeons. The experts in face, mouth and jaw surgery.™ What We Do Who We ... surgically treat the soft tissues of the face, mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral ...

  4. Assessing Oral Hygiene in Hospitalized Older Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Poor oral health for all older adults can result in higher risk for heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and oral cancer. Findings from this study indicated older veterans needed to improve their oral hygiene habits but barriers to oral hygiene performance prevented them from receiving and performing oral hygiene measures.

  5. Ingestion of an Oral Hyaluronan Solution Improves Skin Hydration, Wrinkle Reduction, Elasticity, and Skin Roughness: Results of a Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göllner, Imke; Voss, Werner; von Hehn, Ulrike; Kammerer, Susanne

    2017-10-01

    Intake of oral supplements with the aim of a cutaneous antiaging effect are increasingly common. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a promising candidate, as it is the key factor for preserving tissue hydration. In our practice study, we evaluated the effect of an oral HA preparation diluted in a cascade-fermented organic whole food concentrate supplemented with biotin, vitamin C, copper, and zinc (Regulatpro Hyaluron) on skin moisture content, elasticity, skin roughness, and wrinkle depths. Twenty female subjects with healthy skin in the age group of 45 to 60 years took the product once daily for 40 days. Different skin parameters were objectively assessed before the first intake, after 20 and after 40 days. Intake of the HA solution led to a significant increase in skin elasticity, skin hydration, and to a significant decrease in skin roughness and wrinkle depths. The supplement was well tolerated; no side effects were noted throughout the study.

  6. Combined use of phospholipid complexes and self-emulsifying microemulsions for improving the oral absorption of a BCS class IV compound, baicalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyi Wu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a formulation to improve the oral absorption of baicalin (BA by combining a phospholipid complex (PC and self-emulsifying microemulsion drug delivery system (SMEDDS, termed BA–PC–SMEDDS. BA–PC was prepared by a solvent evaporation method and evaluated by complexation percentage (CP. The physicochemical properties of BA–PC were determined. The synergistic effect of PC and SMEDDS on permeation of BA was studied in vitro with Caco-2 cells and in situ with a single pass intestinal perfusion model. The improved bioavailability of BA in BA–PC–SMEDDS was confirmed in an in vivo rat model. The CP of BA–PC reached 100% when the molar ratio of drug to phospholipid (PP was ≥1:1. The solubility of BA–PC increased in both water and octanol, and the log Po/w of BA–PC was increased significantly. BA–PC–SMEDDS could be dispersed more evenly in water, compared to BA and BA–PC. Both the Caco-2 cell uptake and single-pass intestinal perfusion models illustrated that transport of BA in BA–PC was lower than that of free BA, while improved significantly in BA–PC–SMEDDS. The relative bioavailability of BA–PC(1:2–SMEDDS was 220.37%. The combination system of PC and SMEDDS had a synergistic effect on improving the oral absorption of BA.

  7. Nanosuspension of Phyllanthus amarus extract for improving oral bioavailability and prevention of paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in Sprague–Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Shanti Bhushan; Pandey, Himanshu; Pandey, Avinash C

    2013-01-01

    Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) is commonly used for traditional Indian medicine and as dietary adjuncts for the treatment of numerous physiological disorders including hepatic disorders. Due to the poor water solubility of its major constituents such as lignans and flavonoids, its absorption upon oral administration could be limited. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare the hepatoprotective effects of the ethanolic extract of P. amarus (PAE) and its nanoparticles (PAN) on paracetamol induced acute liver toxicity in Sprague–Dawley rats. An oral dose of PAE at 125 and 250 mg kg −1 and PAN at 25 and 50 mg kg −1 showed a significant hepatoprotective effect relatively to the same extent (P −1 PAN was effectively better than 125 mg kg −1 PAE (P < 0.001), and an oral dose of PAN that is five times less than PAE could exhibit similar levels of outcomes. In conclusion, we suggest that the nanoparticles system can be applied to overcome other poorly water soluble herbal medicines and furthermore to decrease the treatment dosage. (paper)

  8. Effects of the creatine oral supplement in handball players to improve jump EFECTO DEL SUPLEMENTO ORAL DE CREATINA A JUGADORES DE BALONMANO PARA LA MEJORA DEL SALTO

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    P. Padial

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The knowledge of the efficiency creatine supplements for the improvement of the performanceis the main motive that it has carried us to accomplish this study. There is a huge controversy in this regard. To prove its efficiency have been used N = 10 (20 ± 2y (82Kg.± 5Kg. trained subjects, Team Handbal players (1st National Division. The protocol has been the following: They have been divided the subjects in two groups G1 = 5 and G2= 5 in a random way. To the G1 have been administered 4 x 5 g per day of creatine monohydratate (CRH2O during five days. To the G2 (control group has been administered glucose. A pretest and a posttest were done after ending the feed. In the tests were controlled the following parameters: SJ and CMJ in a platform of pressure and the corporal weight in kgs. Al the subjects accomplished the same training (6 days of training: 3 of them destined to improve strength. Once completed t Student for independent samples, the results did not show meaningful improvements in the variables analyzed. These results demonstrate that an increase in the capacity of the fosfogenolitic route by exogenous way it is not possible in explosive movements in Team handbal players.
    KEY WORDS: Handbal, Supplements Creatine, Training, Explosive Power.

     

    El conocimiento de la efectividad de los suplementos de creatina para la mejora del rendimiento es el principal motivo que nos ha llevado a realizar este estudio. La controversia existente al respecto es grande. Para comprobar su eficacia se han utilizado N = 10 (20 ± 2 a. (82 Kg. ± 5 kgr. sujetos entrenados, jugadores de balonmano (1ª División Nacional. El protocolo seg uido ha sido el siguiente: Se han dividido los sujetos en dos grupos G1 = 5 y G2= 5 de forma aleatoria. Al G1 se le han administrado 4 x 5 g./día de creatina monohidratada (CRH20 durante cinco d

  9. Soft-Template-Synthesized Mesoporous Carbon for Oral Drug Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Dipendu [ORNL; Warren, Kaitlyn E [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Template-synthesized mesoporous carbons were successfully used in in vitro investigations of controlled delivery of three model drugs, captopril, furosemide, and ranitidine hydrochloride. Captopril and furosemide exhibited desorption kinetics over 30 40 h, and ranitidine HCl had a complete release time of 5 10 h. As evident from the slow release kinetics, we contend that our mesoporous carbon is an improved drug-delivery medium compared to state-of-the-art porous silica-based substrates. The mesoporous carbons, synthesized from phloroglucinol and lignin, a synthetic and a sustainable precursor, respectively, exhibit BET surface area of 200 400 m2 g-1 and pore volume of 0.2 0.6 cm3 g-1. The phloroglucinol-based carbon has narrower pore widths and higher pore volume than the lignin-derived counterpart and maintains a longer release time. Numerical modeling of the release kinetics data reveals that the diffusivities of all the drugs from lignin-based carbon media are of equivalent magnitude (10-22 to 10-24 m2 s-1). However, a tailored reduction of pore width in the sorbent reduces the diffusivity of smaller drug molecules (captopril) by an order of magnitude. Thus, engineered pore morphology in our synthesized carbon sorbent, along with its potential to tailor the chemistry of its interaction with sorbet, can be exploited for optimal delivery system of a preferred drug within its therapeutic level and below the level of toxicity.

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of mesoporous carbon/lipid bilayer nanocomposites for improved oral delivery of the poorly water-soluble drug, nimodipine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanzhuo; Zhao, Qinfu; Zhu, Wufu; Zhang, Lihua; Han, Jin; Lin, Qisi; Ai, Fengwei

    2015-07-01

    A novel mesoporous carbon/lipid bilayer nanocomposite (MCLN) with a core-shell structure was synthesized and characterized as an oral drug delivery system for poorly water-soluble drugs. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of MCLN-based formulation to modulate the in vitro release and in vivo absorption of a model drug, nimodipine (NIM). NIM-loaded MCLN was prepared by a procedure involving a combination of thin-film hydration and lyophilization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), specific surface area analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to characterize the NIM-loaded MCLN formulation. The effect of MCLN on cell viability was assessed using the MTT assay. In addition, the oral bioavailability of NIM-loaded MCLN in beagle dogs was compared with that of the immediate-release formulation, Nimotop®. Our results demonstrate that the NIM-loaded MCLN formulation exhibited a typical sustained release pattern. The NIM-loaded MCLN formulation achieved a greater degree of absorption and longer lasting plasma drug levels compared with the commercial formulation. The relative bioavailability of NIM for NIM-loaded MCLN was 214%. MCLN exhibited negligible toxicity. The data reported herein suggest that the MCLN matrix is a promising carrier for controlling the drug release rate and improving the oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  11. Interferential current sensory stimulation, through the neck skin, improves airway defense and oral nutrition intake in patients with dysphagia: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Keisuke; Koga, Takayuki; Akagi, Junji

    2017-01-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation with muscle contraction, administered through the skin of the neck, improves a patient's swallowing ability. However, the beneficial effects of transcutaneous electrical sensory stimulation (TESS), without muscle contraction, are controversial. We investigated the effect of TESS, using interferential current, in patients undergoing dysphagia rehabilitation. This double-blind, randomized controlled trial involved 43 patients who were prescribed in-hospital dysphagia rehabilitation for ≥3 weeks. Patients were randomly assigned to the sensory stimulation (SS) or sham groups; all received usual rehabilitative care plus 2 weeks of SS or sham intervention. Outcome measures included cough latency times against a 1% citric acid mist, functional oral intake scale (FOIS) scores, and oral nutritional intake - each determined after the second and third week following treatment initiation. Mean patient age was 84.3±7.5 years; 58% were women. The SS and sham groups had similar baseline characteristics. Changes in cough latency time at 2 weeks (-14.1±14.0 vs -5.2±14.2 s, p =0.047) and oral nutrition intake at 3 weeks (437±575 vs 138±315 kcal/day, p =0.042) improved more in the SS group than in the sham group. Changes in cough frequency and FOIS scores indicated better outcomes in the SS group, based on substantial effect sizes. TESS, using interferential current through the neck, improved airway defense and nutrition in patients suffering from dysphagia. Further large-scale studies are needed to confirm the technique's effect on swallowing ability.

  12. Improvement of effect of water-in-oil microemulsion as an oral delivery system for fexofenadine: in vitro and in vivo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, E; Alvarez, I Gonzalez; Karasulu, E

    2011-01-01

    Fexofenadine (FEX) has high solubility and low permeability (BCS, Class III). In this work, novel FEX loaded water in oil microemulsion (w/o) was designed to improve bioavailability and compared with Fexofen® syrup in in vitro and in vivo studies. In addition, pharmacokinetic parameters in permeability studies were estimated by using WinNonLin software program. w/o microemulsion system was optimized using a pseudoternary phase diagram, composed of span 80/lutrol F 68 (9.5:0.5 w/w), oleic acide, isopropyl alcohol and water as surfactant mixture; oil and cosurfactant was developed for oral drug delivery. w/o microemulsion systems were characterized by phase behavior, particle size, viscosity and solubilization capacity. In vitro studies were studied using Caco-2 cell monolayer. Pharmacokinetic parameters of w/o microemulsion were investigated in rabbits and compared to Fexofen® syrup. Fexofen® syrup and microemulsion were administered by oral gavage at 6 mg/kg of the same concentration. The experimental results indicated that microemulsion (HLB = 5.53) formed nanometer sized droplets (33.29 ± 1.76) and had good physical stability. This microemulsion increased the oral bioavailability of FEX which was highly water-soluble but fairly impermeable. The relative bioavailability of FEX microemulsion was about 376.76% compared with commercial syrup in rabbits. In vitro experiments were further employed for the enhanced effect of the microemulsion for FEX. These results suggest that novel w/o microemulsion plays an important role in enhancing oral bioavailability of low permeability drugs. PMID:21904453

  13. Improved oral bioavailability of cyclosporin A in male Wistar rats. Comparison of a Solutol HS 15 containing self-dispersing formulation and a microsuspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo González, Roberto Carlos; Huwyler, Jörg; Walter, Isabelle; Mountfield, Richard; Bittner, Beate

    2002-10-01

    Oral bioavailability of the highly lipophilic and poorly water-soluble immunosuppressive agent cyclosporin A (CyA) in two different formulations was investigated in male Wistar rats. An aqueous microsuspension and a self-dispersing formulation composed of the surface-active ingredients Solutol HS 15:Labrafil M2125CS:oleic acid=7:2:1 (v/v/v) were administered to the animals at a dose level of 20 mg/kg. In order to calculate the absolute oral bioavailability, CyA was additionally administered intravenously at 10 mg/kg as microsuspension. It was found that the oral bioavailability of CyA in the Solutol HS 15-based formulation was twofold higher as compared to the microsuspension (69.9+/-2.8 vs. 35.7+/-3.3%, P=0.001). By contrast, the time to reach maximum plasma concentration (t(max)) and the terminal half-life (t(1/2)) did not differ significantly with the different formulations (t(max): 7.0+/-1.0 vs. 6.3+/-1.7 h; t(1/2): 20.5+/-2.9 vs. 16.7+/-4.7 h). In vitro solubility experiments demonstrated a marked increase in the aqueous solubility of CyA in the presence of the self-dispersing formulation as compared to the micronized powder alone (solubility after 120 min at 37 degrees C: 136 vs. 23.2 microg/ml in human gastric juice; 133 vs. 10.8 microg/ml in simulated intestinal juice). Most likely, the enhanced systemic exposure of CyA in the self-dispersing formulation was caused by improved solubility of CyA in the gastrointestinal fluids in the presence of the surface-active ingredients. Additional factors that may have contributed to increased oral bioavailability are inhibition of metabolism and/or transport processes as well as permeability enhancement by the co-administered excipients.

  14. Improved oral bioavailability and anticancer efficacy on breast cancer of paclitaxel via Novel Soluplus(®)-Solutol(®) HS15 binary mixed micelles system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jian; Sun, E; Sun, Congyong; Wang, Jing; Yang, Lei; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Zhen-Hai

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel drug delivery system using two biocompatible copolymers of Solutol(®)HS15 and Soluplus(®) to improve solubility, oral bioavailability and anticancer activity of paclitaxel (PTX). The PTX-loaded mixed micelles (PTX-M) were prepared by ethanol thin-film hydration method. The optimal PTX-M were provided with small size (164.8±2.0nm) and spherical shape at ratio of 1: 3 (Solutol(®)HS15: Soluplus(®)), thus increasing the solubility to 15.76±0.15mg/mL in water. The entrapment efficiency and drug loading of PTX-M were 98.48±0.91% and 10.59±0.09% respectively. In vitro release study indicated a sustained release of PTX-M. Transcellular transport study showed that the efflux ratio were decreased by 89.72% dramatically in Caco-2 cell transport models, and the pharmacokinetics study of PTX-M compared with PTX, showed a 3.68-fold increase in relative oral bioavailability, indicating the mixed micelles may promote absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, the MTT assay demonstrated that the IC50 value of PTX-M was reduced by 40.21% (PTX-M: 22.6±2.1μg/mL, PTX: 37.8±1.4μg/mL), and in vivo anti-tumor study (15days' therapy) showed PTX-M achieved higher anti-tumor efficacy (57.66%) compared with PTX (41.13%). Furthermore, a gastrointestinal safety assay also provided the reliability and safety of PTX-M. Collectively, these findings present an oral micelle formulation with increased solubility, oral bioavailability and anticancer activity of PTX. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Oral administration of formalin killed Vibrio anguillarum cells improves growth and protection against challenge with Vibrio harveyi in banana shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, P K; Gopal, C; Panigrahi, A; Rajababu, D; Pillai, S M

    2014-03-01

    Larval rearing in hatcheries and highly intensive grow-out culture practices followed in shrimp production systems favour the growth of potential pathogenic bacterial loads. This study reports the efficacy of formalin-killed vibrio bacterin on growth, survival and protection to challenge with virulent Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio anguillarum in juveniles of banana shrimp Fenneropenaeus merguiensis. Postlarvae 15 (0·24 ± 0·01 g) were administered orally in different concentrations of bacterial preparation (0, 10(6) , 10(8) , 10(10) and 10(12 ) CFU kg(-1) feed) for a period of 6 weeks. Physicochemical and microbial quality of water in larval rearing tanks, and growth and survival of the postlarvae were monitored at regular intervals, and body composition was estimated at the end of the experiment. Shrimps were challenged with V. harveyi and V. anguillarum, and cumulative mortality was calculated. The group receiving 10(8)  CFU kg(-1) feed showed highest average weight gain (162·66 ± 22·94 mg) and survival (90·33 ± 4·5%) and lowest cumulative mortality following the challenge with V. anguillarum (26%) and V. harveyi (36·67%). The results of the study suggest that formalized vibrio administered orally to F. merguiensis postlarvae could induce both homologous and heterologous protection against V. anguillarum and V. harveyi. 'Vaccination' of shrimp postlarvae at hatcheries would help in preventing the losses due to vibriosis and the most susceptible stages of shrimp development. The study demonstrates the cross-protection offered by the oral feeding of formalin-killed Vibrio anguillarum against pathogenic V. harveyi challenge at the early developmental stages of banana shrimp, Fenneropenaeus merguiensis. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Solid dispersion of dutasteride using the solvent evaporation method: Approaches to improve dissolution rate and oral bioavailability in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Seok; Lee, Sang-Eun; Jang, Woo Suk; Byeon, Jong Chan; Park, Jeong-Sook

    2018-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a dutasteride (DUT) solid dispersion (SD) using hydrophilic substances to enhance its dissolution (%) and oral bioavailability in rats. DUT-SD formulations were prepared with various co-polymers using a solvent evaporation method. The physical properties of DUT-SD formulations were confirmed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectroscopy. The toxicity and oral bioavailability of DUT-SD formulations were evaluated. Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol-1000-succinate (TPGS) was chosen as the solubilizer; and methylene chloride, and Aerosil® 200 or microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were chosen as the solvent and carrier, respectively, based on a solubility test and pre-dissolution study. The dissolution levels of DUT-SD formulations were 86.3 ± 2.3% (F15) and 95.1 ± 1.9% (F16) after 1 h, which were higher than those of the commercial product, i.e., Avodart® (75.8 ± 1.5%) in 0.1 N HCl containing 1% (w/v) sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). The F16 formulation was found to be stable, after assessing its dissolution (%) and drug content (%) for 6 months. The DUT-SD formulations resulted in relative bioavailability (BA) values of 126.4% (F15) and 132.1% (F16), which were enhanced compared to that of Avodart®. Dissolution (%) and relative BA values were both increased by hydrogen interaction between TPGS and DUT. This study might contribute to a new formulation (powder) whose oral bioavailability is greater than that of Avodart® (soft capsule), which could facilitate to the use of the SD system during the production process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Oral fast-dissolving films containing lutein nanocrystals for improved bioavailability: formulation development, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Chang, Daoxiao; Zhang, Xinhui; Sui, Hong; Kong, Yindi; Zhu, Rongyue; Wang, Wenping

    2017-11-01

    Lutein is widely used as diet supplement for prevention of age-related macular degeneration. However, the application and efficacy of lutein in food and nutritional products has been hampered due to its poor solubility and low oral bioavailability. This study aimed to develop and evaluate the formulation of oral fast-dissolving film (OFDF) containing lutein nanocrystals for enhanced bioavailability and compliance. Lutein nanocrystals were prepared by anti-solvent precipitation method and then encapsulated into the films by solvent casting method. The formulation of OFDF was optimized by Box-Behnken Design (BBD) as follows: HPMC 2.05% (w/v), PEG 400 1.03% (w/v), Cremophor EL 0.43% (w/v). The obtained films exhibited uniform thickness of 35.64 ± 1.64 μm and drug content of 0.230 ± 0.003 mg/cm 2 and disintegrated rapidly in 29 ± 8 s. The nanocrystal-loaded films with reconstituted particle size of 377.9 nm showed better folding endurance and faster release rate in vitro than the conventional OFDFs with raw lutein. The microscope images, thermograms, and diffractograms indicated that lutein nanocrystals were highly dispersed into the films. After administrated to SD rats, t max was decreased from 3 h for oral solution formulation to less than 0.8 h for OFDF formulations, and C max increased from 150 ng/mL for solution to 350 ng/mL for conventional OFDF or 830 ng/mL for nanocrystal OFDF. The AUC 0-24h of conventional or nanocrystal OFDF was 1.37 or 2.08-fold higher than that of the oral solution, respectively. These results suggested that drug nanocrystal-loaded OFDF can be applied as a promising approach for enhanced bioavailability of poor soluble drugs like lutein.

  18. Improved intestinal absorption of a poorly water-soluble oral drug using mannitol microparticles containing a nanosolid drug dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Yukiko; Kubota, Aya; Kanazawa, Takanori; Takashima, Yuuki; Ozeki, Tetsuya; Okada, Hiroaki

    2012-11-01

    A nozzle for a spray dryer that can prepare microparticles of water-soluble carriers containing various nanoparticles in a single step was previously developed in our laboratory. To enhance the solubility and intestinal absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs, we used probucol (PBL) as a poorly water-soluble drug, mannitol (MAN) as a water-soluble carrier for the microparticles, and EUDRAGIT (EUD) as a polymer vehicle for the solid dispersion. PBL-EUD-acetone-methanol and aqueous MAN solutions were simultaneously supplied through different liquid passages of the spray nozzle and dried together. PBL-EUD solid dispersion was nanoprecipitated in the MAN solution using an antisolvent mechanism and rapidly dried by surrounding it with MAN. PBL in the dispersion vehicle was amorphous and had higher physical stability according to powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The bioavailability of PBL in PBL-EUD S-100-MAN microparticles after oral administration in rats was markedly higher (14- and 6.2-fold, respectively) than that of the original PBL powder and PBL-MAN microparticles. These results demonstrate that the composite microparticles containing a nanosized solid dispersion of a poorly water-soluble drug prepared using the spray nozzle developed by us should be useful to increase the solubility and bioavailability of drugs after oral administration. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Health Literacy Approaches to Improving Communication between Dental Hygienists and Patients for HPV-Related Oral Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Erika L; Daley, Ellen M; Vamos, Cheryl A; Horowitz, Alice M; Catalanotto, Frank A; DeBate, Rita D; Merrell, Laura K; Griner, Stacey B; Vazquez-Otero, Coralia; Kline, Nolan S

    2017-08-01

    Purpose: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as a causal agent for oropharyngeal cancers, suggesting a new role for dental hygienists in HPV-related cancer prevention strategies. Health literacy assessment is an approach that can be used to understand providers' informational assets and needs for educating and discussing HPV prevention with patients. This study aimed to understand dental hygienists' level of health literacy regarding HPV-related oropharyngeal cancers. Methods: Four focus group sessions with dental hygienists (n=48) were conducted at a national conference. The constant comparison method, with a priori codes for health literacy competencies (i.e., access/understand/appraise/apply), was utilized for this qualitative study. Results: Participants mentioned a variety of modes (e.g., magazines, journals) for accessing HPV-information; however, descriptions of understanding HPV and its relationship to oropharyngeal cancer varied. Participants considered patients' personal characteristics, the dental practice environment, and professional factors to appraise HPV-related information. Additionally, participants self-described themselves as being "prevention specialists." These factors influenced how dental hygienists applied primary and secondary prevention of HPV-related care issues with their patients (e.g., education and oral-cancer screenings). Conclusions: Dental hygienists recognized the importance of HPV and oropharyngeal cancer prevention efforts, including oral-cancer screenings and promotion of the HPV vaccine. The study findings identified opportunities for intervention focusing on primary prevention. Copyright © 2017 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  20. Liquid and solid self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems for improving the oral bioavailability of andrographolide from a crude extract of Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermkaew, Namfa; Ketjinda, Wichan; Boonme, Prapaporn; Phadoongsombut, Narubodee; Wiwattanapatapee, Ruedeekorn

    2013-11-20

    The purpose of this study was to develop self-microemulsifying formulations of an Andrographis paniculata extract in liquid and pellet forms for an improved oral delivery of andrographolide. The optimized liquid self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) was composed of A. paniculata extract (11.1%), Capryol 90 (40%), Cremophor RH 40 (40%) and Labrasol (8.9%). This liquid SMEDDS was further adsorbed onto colloidal silicon dioxide and microcrystalline cellulose, and converted to SMEDDS pellets by the extrusion/spheronization technique. The microemulsion droplet sizes of the liquid and pellet formulations after dilution with water were in the range of 23.4 and 30.3 nm. The in vitro release of andrographolide from the liquid SMEDDS and SMEDDS pellets was 97.64% (SD 1.97%) and 97.74% (SD 3.36%) within 15 min, respectively while the release from the initial extract was only 10%. The oral absorption of andrographolide was determined in rabbits. The C(max) value of andrographolide from the A. paniculata extract liquid SMEDDS and SMEDDS pellet formulations (equivalent to 17.5mg/kg of andrographolide) was 6-fold and 5-fold greater than the value from the initial extract in aqueous suspension (equivalent to 35 mg/kg of andrographolide), respectively. In addition, the AUC(0-12h) was increased 15-fold by the liquid SMEDDS and 13-fold by the SMEDDS pellets compared to the extract in aqueous suspension, respectively. The results clearly indicated that the liquid and solid SMEDDS could be effectively used to improve the dissolution and oral bioavailability that would also enable a reduction in the dose of the poorly water soluble A. paniculata extract. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Improvement of oral health-related quality-of-life by use of different kinds of double-crown-retained removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stober, Thomas; Danner, Daniel; Bömicke, Wolfgang; Hassel, Alexander J

    2016-01-01

    To verify the hypotheses that treatment with double-crown-retained removable partial dentures (RPDs) improves oral health-related quality-of life (OHRQoL) over a 36-month period and that the performance of RPDs retained by use of electroplated double crowns (EP-RPDs) was different to that of RPDs retained by use of cast double crowns (C-RPDs). Fifty-four patients (mean age = 64 years, 63% men) were recruited and randomly assigned to C-RPD or EP-RPD. OHRQoL was assessed pre-treatment, post-treatment and 6, 12, 24 and 36 months after insertion, by use of the oral health impact profile (OHIP). An unweighted total score was calculated (OHIP-SUM). A two-level hierarchical model was used for statistical analysis. First-level units were the measurements on the six occasions; second-level units were the patients. Improvement of OHRQoL was observed in both groups after treatment (t = 7.27, p < 0.001). Whereas a treatment-material interaction indicated that treatment with EP-RPDs resulted in greater immediate improvement of OHRQoL, a time-material interaction indicated that long-term improvement was greater for C-RPDs. Treatment with EP-RPDs and C-RPDs improved OHRQoL initially. Over a period of 36 months the effect was significant. The treatment is, therefore, a promising therapeutic option. The cast conical design seems to have advantages with regard to long-term OHRQoL.

  2. A comparative evaluation of the in vitro penetration performance of the improved Crest Complete toothbrush versus the Colgate Total toothbrush and the Oral-B Advantage toothbrush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpenhein, D W; Hartman, W L

    1996-01-01

    Removal of plaque and debris from interproximal surfaces during toothbrushing has generally been difficult to achieve, in large part because traditional flat-bristled toothbrushes do not offer good interproximal penetration. As a result, a number of varying bristle designs have been developed, with the rippled-design brush shown to be particularly effective at removing interproximal plaque. Recently, an existing rippled brush, the original Crest Complete, was modified to offer longer rippled outer tufts to clean along the gumline more effectively. Therefore, this study evaluated the overall and gumline interproximal penetration of three bristle designs: rippled, raised pattern (Improved Crest Complete); and two multi-level patterns (Colgate Total and Oral-B Advantage). The study used a previously reported in vitro model for determining interproximal penetration of manual toothbrushes (J Clin Dent 5:27-33, 1994). In order to effectively mimic the in-use characteristics of toothbrushing, this model is based on analysis of videotaped consumer brushing habits, tooth morphology, and in vivo plaque tenacity characteristics, and uses the three most predominantly used brushing techniques (circular, up-and-down, and back-and-forth with the brush held at both 45 degrees and 90 degrees to the tooth surface). In addition, the model's brush stroke length, brush force, and brush speed are likewise based on an analysis of consumer brushing patterns. The results of this study indicate that the Improved Crest Complete with longer rippled outer bristles provided significantly superior (p Colgate Total and Oral-B Advantage brushes.

  3. Improving the Medical Curriculum in Predoctoral Dental Education: Recommendations From the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons Committee on Predoctoral Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Matthew J; Bennett, Jeffrey D; DeLuke, Dean M; Evans, Erik W; Hudson, John W; Nattestad, Anders; Ness, Gregory M; Yeung, Allison

    2017-02-01

    Dental procedures are often performed on patients who present with some level of medical fragility. In many dental schools, the exercise of taking a medical history is all too often a transcription of information to the dental chart, with little emphasis on the presurgical risk assessment and the development of a treatment plan appropriate to the medical status of the dental patient. Changes in dentistry, driven by an increasingly medically complex population of dental patients, combined with treatment advances rooted in the biomedical sciences necessitate the adaptation of our dental education to include a stronger background in systemic health. Many predoctoral educators in the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) have expressed concern about the medical preparedness of our dental students; therefore, the AAOMS and its Committee on Predoctoral Education and Training have provided recommendations for improving the medical curriculum in predoctoral dental education, including a strengthening of training in clinical medicine and biomedical sciences, with specific recommendations for improved training of our dental students and dental faculty. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalaimalai Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy.

  5. Improved physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for oral exposures to chromium in mice, rats, and humans to address temporal variation and sensitive populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirman, C R; Suh, M; Proctor, D M; Hays, S M

    2017-06-15

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in mice, rats, and humans developed previously (Kirman et al., 2012, 2013), was updated to reflect an improved understanding of the toxicokinetics of the gastrointestinal tract following oral exposures. Improvements were made to: (1) the reduction model, which describes the pH-dependent reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in the gastrointestinal tract under both fasted and fed states; (2) drinking water pattern simulations, to better describe dosimetry in rodents under the conditions of the NTP cancer bioassay; and (3) parameterize the model to characterize potentially sensitive human populations. Important species differences, sources of non-linear toxicokinetics, and human variation are identified and discussed within the context of human health risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Studies on the effectiveness of oral pellet vaccine in improving egg production and egg quality in desi chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lurthu Reetha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of Newcastle disease (ND oral pellet vaccine in egg production and egg quality in desi chicken. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Veterinary University Training and Research Centre, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu. A total of 48-day-old desi chicks obtained from a private hatchery in Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, were maintained under cage system of rearing up to 52 weeks of age as per standard management practices. All the 48 chicks were divided into six groups having eight chicks in each group were subjected to different treatment regimes. All the birds were challenged at 52 weeks of age with 0.5 ml dose of 104.0 egg infectious dose 50 virulent ND field virus. 10 eggs from each group were randomly collected during the last 3 days of 8 weeks interval period from 28 to 52 weeks of age and were used to measure the egg quality parameters. The production performance of each group was assessed at 4 weeks interval period from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Results: In all the six treatment groups with respect to egg production, no significant difference (p≥0.05 was noticed from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Similarly, in egg weight, egg shape index and specific gravity, no significant difference (p≥0.05 was noticed from 28 to 52 weeks of age. Conclusion: From this study, it is concluded that the administration of ND oral pellet vaccine to desi chicken does not affect the egg production performance, egg weight, egg shape index, and specific gravity of egg.

  7. Studies on the effectiveness of oral pellet vaccine in improving egg production and egg quality in desi chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reetha, T Lurthu; Rajeswar, J Johnson; Harikrishnan, T J; Sukumar, K; Srinivasan, P; Kirubakaran, J John

    2016-08-01

    To study the effect of Newcastle disease (ND) oral pellet vaccine in egg production and egg quality in desi chicken. The study was conducted at Veterinary University Training and Research Centre, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu. A total of 48-day-old desi chicks obtained from a private hatchery in Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, were maintained under cage system of rearing up to 52 weeks of age as per standard management practices. All the 48 chicks were divided into six groups having eight chicks in each group were subjected to different treatment regimes. All the birds were challenged at 52 weeks of age with 0.5 ml dose of 10(4.0) egg infectious dose 50 virulent ND field virus. 10 eggs from each group were randomly collected during the last 3 days of 8 weeks interval period from 28 to 52 weeks of age and were used to measure the egg quality parameters. The production performance of each group was assessed at 4 weeks interval period from 25 to 52 weeks of age. In all the six treatment groups with respect to egg production, no significant difference (p≥0.05) was noticed from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Similarly, in egg weight, egg shape index and specific gravity, no significant difference (p≥0.05) was noticed from 28 to 52 weeks of age. From this study, it is concluded that the administration of ND oral pellet vaccine to desi chicken does not affect the egg production performance, egg weight, egg shape index, and specific gravity of egg.

  8. Global Oral Health Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, I.; Tabak, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be “at the table” with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions. PMID:21490232

  9. Comparison of the caries-protective effect of fluoride varnish with treatment as usual in nursery school attendees receiving preventive oral health support through the Childsmile oral health improvement programme - the Protecting Teeth@3 Study: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, William; Turner, Stephen; Anopa, Yulia; McIntosh, Emma; Wu, Olivia; Conway, David I; Macpherson, Lorna M D; McMahon, Alex D

    2015-12-18

    The Scottish Government set out its policy on addressing the poor oral health of Scottish children in 2005. This led to the establishment of Childsmile, a national programme designed to improve the oral health of children in Scotland. One element of the programme promotes daily tooth brushing in all nurseries in Scotland (Childsmile Core). A second targeted component (Childsmile Nursery) offers twice-yearly application of fluoride varnish to children attending nurseries in deprived areas. Studies suggest that fluoride varnish application can reduce caries in both adult and child populations. This trial aims to explore the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of additional preventive value fluoride varnish application compared to Childsmile Core. The Protecting Teeth@3 Study is an ongoing 2 year parallel group randomised treatment as usual controlled trial. Three-year-old children attending the ante pre-school year are randomised (1:1) to the intervention arm (fluoride varnish & treatment as usual) or the control arm (treatment as usual). Children in the intervention arm will have Duraphat® fluoride varnish painted on the primary tooth surfaces and will continue to receive treatment as usual: the core Childsmile Nursery intervention. Children in the treatment as usual arm will receive the same series of contacts, without the application of varnish and will also continue with the Childsmile Core intervention. Interventions are undertaken by Childsmile trained extended duty dental nurses at six-monthly intervals. Participants receive a baseline dental inspection in nursery and an endpoint inspection in Primary 1 at the age of 5 years old. We will use primary and secondary outcome measures to compare the effectiveness of Duraphat® fluoride varnish plus treatment as usual with treatment as usual only in preventing any further dental decay. We will also undertake a full economic evaluation of the trial. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov. Number: NCT

  10. Oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... National Cancer Institute. PDQ lip and oral cavity cancer ... September 25, 2015. www.cancer.gov/types/head-and-neck/hp/lip- ...

  11. Oral Ketamine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral Ketamine: A Four-years Experience in ... Key words: Oral Ketamine, Premedication and Oncology. .... form of a letter published in 19835. .... Acta. Anaesthesiol Scandinavica, 1998; 42: 750-758. 4. Murray P. Substitution of another opioid ...

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF ENALAPRIL AND RANITIDINE CHLORINATION BY-PRODUCTS BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY/HIGH-RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY AND THEIR TOXICITY EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Jehár Oliveira Quintão

    Full Text Available Due to its low cost, its capability for disinfection and oxidation, chlorination using gaseous chlorine or hypochlorite salts, has also been commonly applied in water treatment plants for oxidation and disinfection purposes. Little is known about the identity and toxicity of by-products resulting from the chlorination of pharmaceutical micropollutants, such as enalapril (ENA and ranitidine (RAN. ENA and RAN chlorination by-products were characterized in this study by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC/HRMS and their toxicity were assessed by MTT assay. Chlorination experiments with ENA and RAN solutions (10 mg L-1 indicate degradation efficiencies of 100% for both compounds after only 5 min of exposure to chlorine at concentration of 9.53 mg Cl2 L-1. On the other hand mineralization rates were lower than 3%, thereby indicating there was accumulation of degradation by-products in all experiments. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed, at all times of reaction after the addition of hypochlorite, the presence of 1-(2-((4-(chlorophenyl-1-ethoxy-1-oxobutan-2-ylaminopropanoylpyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (enalapril by-product and N-chloro-N-(2-(((chloro-5-((dimethylaminomethylfuran-2-ylmethylsulfinylethyl-N-methyl-2-nitroethene 1,1-diamine (ranitidine by-product. Despite the formation of oxidized chlorinated by-products in all chlorination assays, the treated solutions were nontoxic to HepG2 cells by the MTT assay. It has been observed that chlorination (10 mg L-1, 5 min of ENA and RAN solutions exhibited high degradation efficiencies of the target compounds and low mineralization rates. Based on the mass spectrometry data, the routes for ENA and RAN successive oxidation by chlorine has been proposed.

  13. Transdermal estrogen gel and oral aspirin combination therapy improves fertility prognosis via the promotion of endometrial receptivity in moderate to severe intrauterine adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yugang; He, Ping; Lei, Li; Lan, Yi; Hu, Jianguo; Meng, Ying; Hu, Lina

    2018-01-01

    Intrauterine adhesion (IUA) is one of the most common gynecological diseases in women of reproductive age. IUA, particularlyin moderate to severe forms, accounts for a large percentage of infertility cases. Clinically, the first-line treatment strategy for IUA is transcervical resection of adhesion (TCRA), followed by adjuvant postoperative treatment. Estrogen is one of the classic chemotherapies used following TCRA and contributes to preventing re-adhesion following surgery. However, estrogen has limited effects in promoting pregnancy, which is the ultimate goal for IUA management. In the present study, a transdermal estrogen gel and oral aspirin combination therapy was used in patients with IUA following TCRA. Compared with in the control group (transdermal estrogen only therapy), the combination therapy significantly increased endometrial receptivity marker (αvβ٣ and laminin) expression in endometrium tissues. Additionally, ultrasonic examination revealed the pulsatility index and resistant index of the uterine artery were lower in the combination therapy group. Combination therapy promoted angiogenesis and prevented fibrosis following TCRA more effectively than estrogen-only therapy. Collectively, the evaluation indices, including American Fertility Society score, endometrial parameters and pregnancy rate, indicated that patients with combination therapy had better prognoses in endometrial repair and pregnancy. In conclusion, postoperative combination therapy with transdermal estrogen gel and oral aspirin may be more efficacious in enhancing endometrial receptivity by increasing uterine blood and angiogenesis, contributing to improved fertility prognosis. The findings of the present study may provide novel guidance to the clinical treatment of IUA. PMID:29512784

  14. Evaluation of the orthodontic treatment need in a paediatric sample from Southern Italy and its importance among paediatricians for improving oral health in pediatric dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ierardo, Gaetano; Corridore, Denise; Di Carlo, Gabriele; Di Giorgio, Gianni; Leonardi, Emanuele; Campus, Guglielmo-Giuseppe; Vozza, Iole; Polimeni, Antonella; Bossù, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Background Data from epidemiological studies investigating the prevalence and severity of malocclusions in children are of great relevance to public health programs aimed at orthodontic prevention. Previous epidemiological studies focused mainly on the adolescence age group and reported a prevalence of malocclusion with a high variability, going from 32% to 93%. Aim of our study was to assess the need for orthodontic treatment in a paediatric sample from Southern Italy in order to improve awareness among paediatricians about oral health preventive strategies in pediatric dentistry. Material and Methods The study used the IOTN-DHC index to evaluate the need for orthodontic treatment for several malocclusions (overjet, reverse overjet, overbite, openbite, crossbite) in a sample of 579 children in the 2-9 years age range. Results The most frequently altered occlusal parameter was the overbite (prevalence: 24.5%), while the occlusal anomaly that most frequently presented a need for orthodontic treatment was the crossbite (8.8%). The overall prevalence of need for orthodontic treatment was of 19.3%, while 49% of the sample showed one or more altered occlusal parameters. No statistically significant difference was found between males and females. Conclusions Results from this study support the idea that the establishment of a malocclusion is a gradual process starting at an early age. Effective orthodontic prevention programs should therefore include preschool children being aware paediatricians of the importance of early first dental visit. Key words:Orthodontic treatment, malocclusion, oral health, pediatric dentistry. PMID:28936290

  15. Can You Teach a Teen New Tricks? Problem Solving Skills Training Improves Oral Medication Adherence in Pediatric Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Participating in a Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenley, Rachel N; Gumidyala, Amitha P; Nguyen, Eve; Plevinsky, Jill M; Poulopoulos, Natasha; Thomason, Molly M; Walter, Jennifer G; Wojtowicz, Andrea A; Blank, Ellen; Gokhale, Ranjana; Kirschner, Barbara S; Miranda, Adrian; Noe, Joshua D; Stephens, Michael C; Werlin, Steven; Kahn, Stacy A

    2015-11-01

    Medication nonadherence is associated with higher disease activity, greater health care utilization, and lower health-related quality of life in pediatric inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Problem solving skills training (PSST) is a useful tool to improve adherence in patients with chronic diseases but has not been fully investigated in IBD. This study assessed feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of PSST in pediatric IBD. Recruitment occurred during outpatient clinic appointments. After completion of baseline questionnaires, families were randomized to a treatment group or wait-list comparison group. The treatment group received either 2 or 4 PSST sessions. Youth health-related quality of life was assessed at 3 time points, and electronic monitoring of oral medication adherence occurred for the study duration. Seventy-six youth (ages 11-18 years) on an oral IBD maintenance medication participated. High retention (86%) and treatment fidelity rates (95%) supported feasibility. High satisfaction ratings (mean values ≥4.2 on 1-5 scale) supported intervention acceptability. Modest increases in adherence occurred after 2 PSST sessions among those with imperfect baseline adherence (d = 0.41, P 0.05). Phone-delivered PSST was feasible and acceptable. Efficacy estimates were similar to those of lengthier interventions conducted in other chronic illness populations. Older adolescents benefited more from the intervention than their younger counterparts.

  16. Interferential current sensory stimulation, through the neck skin, improves airway defense and oral nutrition intake in patients with dysphagia: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeda K

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Keisuke Maeda,1,2 Takayuki Koga,3 Junji Akagi4 1Department of Nutrition and Dysphagia Rehabilitation, Tamana Regional Health Medical Center, Kumamoto, 2Palliative Care Center, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, 3Department of Swallowing and Nutritional Therapy, 4Department of Surgery, Tamana Regional Health Medical Center, Tamana, Tamana City, Kumamoto, Japan Background: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation with muscle contraction, administered through the skin of the neck, improves a patient’s swallowing ability. However, the beneficial effects of transcutaneous electrical sensory stimulation (TESS, without muscle contraction, are controversial. We investigated the effect of TESS, using interferential current, in patients undergoing dysphagia rehabilitation. Methods: This double-blind, randomized controlled trial involved 43 patients who were prescribed in-hospital dysphagia rehabilitation for ≥3 weeks. Patients were randomly assigned to the sensory stimulation (SS or sham groups; all received usual rehabilitative care plus 2 weeks of SS or sham intervention. Outcome measures included cough latency times against a 1% citric acid mist, functional oral intake scale (FOIS scores, and oral nutritional intake – each determined after the second and third week following treatment initiation. Results: Mean patient age was 84.3±7.5 years; 58% were women. The SS and sham groups had similar baseline characteristics. Changes in cough latency time at 2 weeks (-14.1±14.0 vs -5.2±14.2 s, p=0.047 and oral nutrition intake at 3 weeks (437±575 vs 138±315 kcal/day, p=0.042 improved more in the SS group than in the sham group. Changes in cough frequency and FOIS scores indicated better outcomes in the SS group, based on substantial effect sizes. Conclusion: TESS, using interferential current through the neck, improved airway defense and nutrition in patients suffering from dysphagia. Further large-scale studies are needed to confirm the technique

  17. Shaping dental contract reform: a clinical and cost-effective analysis of incentive-driven commissioning for improved oral health in primary dental care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, C; Robinson, P G; Saloniki, E C; Vinall-Collier, K; Baxter, P D; Douglas, G; Gibson, B; Godson, J H; Meads, D; Pavitt, S H

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a new blended dental contract incentivising improved oral health compared with a traditional dental contract based on units of dental activity (UDAs). Design Non-randomised controlled study. Setting Six UK primary care dental practices, three working under a new blended dental contract; three matched practices under a traditional contract. Participants 550 new adult patients. Interventions A new blended/incentive-driven primary care dentistry contract and service delivery model versus the traditional contract based on UDAs. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was as follows: percentage of sites with gingival bleeding on probing. Secondary outcomes were as follows: extracted and filled teeth (%), caries (International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS)), oral health-related quality of life (Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14)). Incremental cost-effective ratios used OHIP-14 and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) derived from the EQ-5D-3L. Results At 24 months, 291/550 (53%) patients returned for final assessment; those lost to follow-up attended 6.46 appointments on average (SD 4.80). The primary outcome favoured patients in the blended contract group. Extractions and fillings were more frequent in this group. Blended contracts were financially attractive for the dental provider but carried a higher cost for the service commissioner. Differences in generic health-related quality of life were negligible. Positive changes over time in oral health-related quality of life in both groups were statistically significant. Conclusions This is the first UK study to assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a blended contract in primary care dentistry. Although the primary outcome favoured the blended contract, the results are limited because 47% patients did not attend at 24 months. This is consistent with 39% of adults not being regular attenders and 27% only visiting their dentist when

  18. Improvement of effect of water-in-oil microemulsion as an oral delivery system for fexofenadine: in vitro and in vivo studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundogdu E

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available E Gundogdu1,2, I Gonzalez Alvarez3, E Karasulu1,21Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics, 2Center For Drug Research and Development and Pharmacokinetic Applications, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey; 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Engineering, Pharmaceutical Technical Section, Research Group on Drug Absorption, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Alicante, SpainAbstract: Fexofenadine (FEX has high solubility and low permeability (BCS, Class III. In this work, novel FEX loaded water in oil microemulsion (w/o was designed to improve bioavailability and compared with Fexofen® syrup in in vitro and in vivo studies. In addition, pharmacokinetic parameters in permeability studies were estimated by using WinNonLin software program. w/o microemulsion system was optimized using a pseudoternary phase diagram, composed of span 80/lutrol F 68 (9.5:0.5 w/w, oleic acide, isopropyl alcohol and water as surfactant mixture; oil and cosurfactant was developed for oral drug delivery. w/o microemulsion systems were characterized by phase behavior, particle size, viscosity and solubilization capacity. In vitro studies were studied using Caco-2 cell monolayer. Pharmacokinetic parameters of w/o microemulsion were investigated in rabbits and compared to Fexofen® syrup. Fexofen® syrup and microemulsion were administered by oral gavage at 6 mg/kg of the same concentration. The experimental results indicated that microemulsion (HLB = 5.53 formed nanometer sized droplets (33.29 ± 1.76 and had good physical stability. This microemulsion increased the oral bioavailability of FEX which was highly water-soluble but fairly impermeable. The relative bioavailability of FEX microemulsion was about 376.76% compared with commercial syrup in rabbits. In vitro experiments were further employed for the enhanced effect of the microemulsion for FEX. These results suggest that novel w/o microemulsion plays an important role in enhancing oral

  19. Al-hijamah and oral honey for treating thalassemia, conditions of iron overload, and hyperferremia: toward improving the therapeutic outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Sayed SM

    2014-10-01

    liver and the kidneys. Interestingly, WCT was reported to decrease serum ferritin (circulating iron stores significantly by about 22.25% in healthy subjects (in one session and to decrease serum iron significantly to the level of causing iron deficiency (in multiple sessions. WCT was reported to clear blood significantly of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, uric acid, inflammatory mediators, and immunoglobulin antibodies (rheumatoid factor. Moreover, WCT was reported to enhance the natural immunity, potentiate pharmacological treatments, and to treat many different disease conditions. There are two distinct methods of WCT: traditional WCT and Al-hijamah (WCT of prophetic medicine. Both start and end with skin sterilization. In traditional WCT, there are two steps, skin scarification followed by suction using plastic cups (double S technique; Al-hijamah is a three-step procedure that includes skin suction using cups, scarification (shartat mihjam in Arabic, and second skin suction (triple S technique. Al-hijamah is a more comprehensive technique and does better than traditional WCT, as Al-hijamah includes two pressure-dependent filtration steps versus one step in traditional WCT. Whenever blood plasma is to be cleared of an excess pathological substance, Al-hijamah is indicated. We will discuss here some reported hematological and therapeutic benefits of Al-hijamah, its medical bases, methodologies, precautions, side effects, contraindications, quantitative evaluation, malpractice, combination with oral honey treatment, and to what extent it may be helpful when treating thalassemia and other conditions of iron overload and hyperferremia.Keywords: Al-hijamah, prophetic medicine, cupping therapy, phlebotomy, iron chelation therapy, oral honey

  20. Preoperative oral use of Ibuprofen or dexamethasone may improve the anesthetic efficacy of an inferior alveolar nerve block in patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusstein, John M

    2013-09-01

    Effect of premedication with ibuprofen and dexamethasone on success rate of inferior alveolar nerve block for teeth with asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis: a randomized clinical trial. Shahi S, Moktari H, Rahimi S, Yavari HR, Narimani S, Abdolrahmi M, Nezafati S. J Endod 2013;39(2):160-2. John M. Nusstein, DDS, MS PURPOSE/QUESTION: To determine whether preoperative oral administration of ibuprofen (400 mg), dexamethasone (0.5 mg), or placebo (lactose) would improve the anesthetic success rate of an inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with molars diagnosed with asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis University: Dental and Periodontal Research Center of Tabriz, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran Randomized controlled trial Level 2: Limited-quality, patient-oriented evidence Not applicable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A novel matrix dispersion based on phospholipid complex for improving oral bioavailability of baicalein: preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Dong, Wujun; Ye, Jun; Hao, Huazhen; Zhou, Junzhuo; Wang, Renyun; Liu, Yuling

    2017-11-01

    Phospholipid complex is one of the most successful approaches for enhancing oral bioavailability of poorly absorbed plant constituents. But the sticky property of phospholipids results in an unsatisfactory dissolution of drugs. In this study, a matrix dispersion of baicalein based on phospholipid complex (BaPC-MD) was first prepared by a discontinuous solvent evaporation method, in which polyvinylpyrrolidone-K30 (PVP-K30) was employed for improving the dispersibility of baicalein phospholipid complex (BaPC) and increasing dissolution of baicalein. The combination ratio of baicalein and phospholipids in BaPC-MD was 99.39% and baicalein was still in a complete complex state with phospholipid in BaPC-MD. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analyzes demonstrated that baicalein was fully transformed to an amorphous state in BaPC-MD and phospholipid complex formed. The water-solubility and n-octanol solubility of baicalein in BaPC-MD significantly increased compared with those of pure baicalein. Compared with baicalein and BaPC, the cumulative dissolution of BaPC-MD at 120 min increased 2.77- and 1.23-fold, respectively. In vitro permeability study in Caco-2 cells indicated that the permeability of BaPC-MD was remarkably higher than those of baicalein and BaPC. Pharmacokinetic study showed that the average C max of BaPC-MD was significantly increased compared to baicalein and BaPC. AUC 0-14 h of BaPC-MD was 5.01- and 1.91-fold of baicalein and BaPC, respectively. The novel BaPC-MD significantly enhanced the oral bioavailability of baicalein by improving the dissolution and permeability of baicalein without destroying the complexation state of baicalein and phospholipids. The current drug delivery system provided an optimal strategy to significantly enhance oral bioavailability for poorly water-soluble drugs.

  2. Al-hijamah and oral honey for treating thalassemia, conditions of iron overload, and hyperferremia: toward improving the therapeutic outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Salah Mohamed; Baghdadi, Hussam; Abou-Taleb, Ashraf; Mahmoud, Hany Salah; Maria, Reham A; Ahmed, Nagwa S; Helmy Nabo, Manal Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    -step procedure that includes skin suction using cups, scarification (shartat mihjam in Arabic), and second skin suction (triple S technique). Al-hijamah is a more comprehensive technique and does better than traditional WCT, as Al-hijamah includes two pressure-dependent filtration steps versus one step in traditional WCT. Whenever blood plasma is to be cleared of an excess pathological substance, Al-hijamah is indicated. We will discuss here some reported hematological and therapeutic benefits of Al-hijamah, its medical bases, methodologies, precautions, side effects, contraindications, quantitative evaluation, malpractice, combination with oral honey treatment, and to what extent it may be helpful when treating thalassemia and other conditions of iron overload and hyperferremia. PMID:25382989

  3. A Protocol for a Feasibility and Acceptability Study of a Participatory, Multi-Level, Dynamic Intervention in Urban Outreach Centers to Improve the Oral Health of Low-Income Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northridge, Mary E; Metcalf, Sara S; Yi, Stella; Zhang, Qiuyi; Gu, Xiaoxi; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2018-01-01

    While the US health care system has the capability to provide amazing treatment of a wide array of conditions, this care is not uniformly available to all population groups. Oral health care is one of the dimensions of the US health care delivery system in which striking disparities exist. More than half of the population does not visit a dentist each year. Improving access to oral health care is a critical and necessary first step to improving oral health outcomes and reducing disparities. Fluoride has contributed profoundly to the improved dental health of populations worldwide and is needed regularly throughout the life course to protect teeth against dental caries. To ensure additional gains in oral health, fluoride toothpaste should be used routinely at all ages. Evidence-based guidelines for annual dental visits and brushing teeth with fluoride toothpaste form the basis of this implementation science project that is intended to bridge the care gap for underserved Asian American populations by improving access to quality oral health care and enhancing effective oral health promotion strategies. The ultimate goal of this study is to provide information for the design and implementation of a randomized controlled trial of a participatory, multi-level, partnered (i.e., with community stakeholders) intervention to improve the oral and general health of low-income Chinese American adults. This study will evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of implementing a partnered intervention using remote data entry into an electronic health record (EHR) to improve access to oral health care and promote oral health. The research staff will survey a sample of Chinese American patients (planned n  = 90) screened at three outreach centers about their satisfaction with the partnered intervention. Providers (dentists and community health workers), research staff, administrators, site directors, and community advisory board members will participate in structured interviews

  4. A Protocol for a Feasibility and Acceptability Study of a Participatory, Multi-Level, Dynamic Intervention in Urban Outreach Centers to Improve the Oral Health of Low-Income Chinese Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Northridge

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionWhile the US health care system has the capability to provide amazing treatment of a wide array of conditions, this care is not uniformly available to all population groups. Oral health care is one of the dimensions of the US health care delivery system in which striking disparities exist. More than half of the population does not visit a dentist each year. Improving access to oral health care is a critical and necessary first step to improving oral health outcomes and reducing disparities. Fluoride has contributed profoundly to the improved dental health of populations worldwide and is needed regularly throughout the life course to protect teeth against dental caries. To ensure additional gains in oral health, fluoride toothpaste should be used routinely at all ages. Evidence-based guidelines for annual dental visits and brushing teeth with fluoride toothpaste form the basis of this implementation science project that is intended to bridge the care gap for underserved Asian American populations by improving access to quality oral health care and enhancing effective oral health promotion strategies. The ultimate goal of this study is to provide information for the design and implementation of a randomized controlled trial of a participatory, multi-level, partnered (i.e., with community stakeholders intervention to improve the oral and general health of low-income Chinese American adults.MethodsThis study will evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of implementing a partnered intervention using remote data entry into an electronic health record (EHR to improve access to oral health care and promote oral health. The research staff will survey a sample of Chinese American patients (planned n = 90 screened at three outreach centers about their satisfaction with the partnered intervention. Providers (dentists and community health workers, research staff, administrators, site directors, and community advisory board members will

  5. Improved physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for oral exposures to chromium in mice, rats, and humans to address temporal variation and sensitive populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirman, C.R., E-mail: ckirman@summittoxicology.com [Summit Toxicology, PO Box 3209, Bozeman, MT 59715 (United States); Suh, M.; Proctor, D.M. [ToxStrategies, Mission Viejo, CA (United States); Hays, S.M. [Summit Toxicology, PO Box 3209, Bozeman, MT 59715 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in mice, rats, and humans developed previously (Kirman et al., 2012, 2013), was updated to reflect an improved understanding of the toxicokinetics of the gastrointestinal tract following oral exposures. Improvements were made to: (1) the reduction model, which describes the pH-dependent reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in the gastrointestinal tract under both fasted and fed states; (2) drinking water pattern simulations, to better describe dosimetry in rodents under the conditions of the NTP cancer bioassay; and (3) parameterize the model to characterize potentially sensitive human populations. Important species differences, sources of non-linear toxicokinetics, and human variation are identified and discussed within the context of human health risk assessment. - Highlights: • An improved version of the PBPK model for Cr(VI) toxicokinetics was developed. • The model incorporates data collected to fill important data gaps. • Model predictions for specific age groups and sensitive subpopulations are provided. • Implications to human health risk assessment are discussed.

  6. Standart üçlü tedavi ile eradikasyon sağlanamayan Helicobacter pylori enfeksiyonunda lansoprazol, ranitidin bizmut sitrat, tetrasiklin ve metronidazolden oluşan dörtlü tedavinin etkinliği

    OpenAIRE

    AYDEMİR, Selim; BAYRAKTAROĞLU, Taner; ÜSTÜNDAĞ, Yücel; BORAZAN, Ali; SEKİTMEZ, Nedret; AKTUNÇ, Erol; NUMANOĞLU, Gamze

    2015-01-01

    Background/aim: Successful eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection after failure of standard triple therapy is difficult. There are no guidelines on second-line therapies for H. pylori eradication failures. In the present study we investigated the efficacy of a 14-day quadruple regimen combining lansoprazole, ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC), tetracycline and metronidazole as rescue treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection after failure of standard triple therapy com...

  7. A Virtual Environment to Improve the Detection of Oral-Facial Malfunction in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    María-Luisa Martín-Ruiz; Nuria Máximo-Bocanegra; Laura Luna-Oliva

    2016-01-01

    The importance of an early rehabilitation process in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is widely recognized. On the one hand, new and useful treatment tools such as rehabilitation systems based on interactive technologies have appeared for rehabilitation of gross motor movements. On the other hand, from the therapeutic point of view, performing rehabilitation exercises with the facial muscles can improve the swallowing process, the facial expression through the management of muscles in the fa...

  8. Hydroxypropyl-sulfobutyl-β-cyclodextrin improves the oral bioavailability of edaravone by modulating drug efflux pump of enterocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Wen-Ting; Lu, Ya-Peng; Tao, Qing; Guo, Miao; Lu, Yu; Ren, Yong; Yu, Shu-Qin

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of hydroxypropyl-sulfobutyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-SBE-βCD) on the bioavailability and intestinal absorption of edaravone, and identify its mechanism of action. We devised HP-SBE-βCD as a carrier and modulator of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) efflux pump, and edaravone as a model drug, and prepared edaravone/HP-SBE-βCD inclusion complex. HP-SBE-βCD improved the water solubility and enhanced the bioavailability of edaravone by 10.3-fold in rats. Then, in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion showed that HP-SBE-βCD had an effect of improving the permeability and inhibiting the efflux of edaravone. Furthermore, the effects of HP-SBE-βCD on Pgp were achieved through interfering with the lipid raft and depleting the cholesterol of enterocytes membrane. From the results, we presented the novel mechanisms. First, edaravone/HP-SBE-βCD had a lower release from the inclusion compound to protect edaravone from the low pH of the stomach. Then, HP-SBE-βCD modulated the membrane microenvironment of intestinal absorption epithelial cells. At last, the result was that HP-SBE-βCD enhanced the absorption of edaravone by interfering with Pgp. In conclusion, HP-SBE-βCD improves the bioavailability of drug not only because of its enhancing water solubility of the drug, but also because it modulates the Pgp-mediated efflux from enterocytes. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  9. Characteristics of Oral Problems and Effects of Oral Care in Terminally Ill Patients With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Nobuhisa

    2017-06-01

    Various distresses appear in the terminal stage of cancer. Oral problems including dry mouth, stomatitis and candidiasis are one of the important problems which should be resolved. The purpose of this study was to investigate oral problems in this stage and improvement of dry mouth by oral care. The study subjects were consecutive terminally ill cancer patients admitted over the past 2 years. Patients were divided based on the status of oral food intake into good oral food intake group (≥30%) and poor oral food intake group. The following 3 items were retrospectively investigated: 1) The incidences of these oral problems, 2) Severity of dry mouth and complication with other oral problems, 3) Improvement of dry mouth using standard oral care by nursing staff and specialist oral care including dentists as needed. There were 115 and 158 patients in good and poor oral intake groups, respectively. 1) The incidences of dry mouth, stomatitis, and candidiasis were significantly higher in poor oral intake group ( p oral intake groups, respectively ( p oral intake group ( p = 0.0002). 3) The rate of dry mouth improvement by oral care was 100% in Grade-1, 86% in Grade-2 and 81% in Grade-3. Oral problems occur in many of terminally ill cancer patients. Accurate diagnosis of oral problems and corresponding appropriate interventions are important for improving quality of end-of-life care.

  10. A randomized trial comparing in person and electronic interventions for improving adherence to oral medications in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velligan, Dawn; Mintz, Jim; Maples, Natalie; Xueying, Li; Gajewski, Stephanie; Carr, Heather; Sierra, Cynthia

    2013-09-01

    Poor adherence to medication leads to symptom exacerbation and interferes with the recovery process for patients with schizophrenia. Following baseline assessment, 142 patients in medication maintenance at a community mental health center were randomized to one of 3 treatments for 9 months: (1) PharmCAT, supports including pill containers, signs, alarms, checklists and the organization of belongings established in weekly home visits from a PharmCAT therapist; (2) Med-eMonitor (MM), an electronic medication monitor that prompts use of medication, cues the taking of medication, warns patients when they are taking the wrong medication or taking it at the wrong time, record complaints, and, through modem hookup, alerts treatment staff of failures to take medication as prescribed; (3) Treatment as Usual (TAU). All patients received the Med-eMonitor device to record medication adherence. The device was programmed for intervention only in the MM group. Data on symptoms, global functioning, and contact with emergency services and police were obtained every 3 months. Repeated measures analyses of variance for mixed models indicated that adherence to medication was significantly better in both active conditions than in TAU (both p<0.0001). Adherence in active treatments ranged from 90-92% compared to 73% in TAU based on electronic monitoring. In-person and electronic interventions significantly improved adherence to medication, but that did not translate to improved clinical outcomes. Implications for treatment and health care costs are discussed.

  11. Development of an abiraterone acetate formulation with improved oral bioavailability guided by absorption modeling based on in vitro dissolution and permeability measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solymosi, Tamás; Ötvös, Zsolt; Angi, Réka; Ordasi, Betti; Jordán, Tamás; Semsey, Sándor; Molnár, László; Ránky, Soma; Filipcsei, Genovéva; Heltovics, Gábor; Glavinas, Hristos

    2017-10-30

    Particle size reduction of drug crystals in the presence of surfactants (often called "top-down" production methods) is a standard approach used in the pharmaceutical industry to improve bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. Based on the mathematical model used to predict the fraction dose absorbed this formulation approach is successful when dissolution rate is the main rate limiting factor of oral absorption. In case compound solubility is also a major factor this approach might not result in an adequate improvement in bioavailability. Abiraterone acetate is poorly water soluble which is believed to be responsible for its very low bioavailability in the fasted state and its significant positive food effect. In this work, we have successfully used in vitro dissolution, solubility and permeability measurements in biorelevant media to describe the dissolution characteristics of different abiraterone acetate formulations. Mathematical modeling of fraction dose absorbed indicated that reducing the particle size of the drug cannot be expected to result in significant improvement in bioavailability in the fasted state. In the fed state, the same formulation approach can result in a nearly complete absorption of the dose; thereby, further increasing the food effect. Using a "bottom-up" formulation method we improved both the dissolution rate and the apparent solubility of the compound. In beagle dog studies, this resulted in a ≫>10-fold increase in bioavailability in the fasted state when compared to the marketed drug and the elimination of the food effect. Calculated values of fraction dose absorbed were in agreement with the observed relative bioavailability values in beagle dogs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles with Brij78 and TPGS improved in vivo oral bioavailability and in situ intestinal absorption of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hongyu; Tang, Jingling; Li, Mengting; Ren, Jinmei; Zheng, Nannan; Wu, Linhua

    2016-01-01

    The present study was to formulate curcumin solid lipid nanoparticles (Cur-SLNs) with P-gp modulator excipients, TPGS and Brij78, to enhance the solubility and bioavailability of curcumin. The formulation was optimized by Plackett-Burman screening design and Box-Behnken experiment design. Then physiochemical properties, entrapment efficiency and in vitro release of Cur-SLNs were characterized. In vivo pharmacokinetics study and in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion were performed to investigate the effects of Cur-SLNs on the bioavailability and intestinal absorption of curcumin. The optimized formulations showed an average size of 135.3 ± 1.5 nm with a zeta potential value of -24.7 ± 2.1 mV and 91.09% ± 1.23% drug entrapment efficiency, meanwhile displayed a sustained release profile. In vivo pharmacokinetic study showed AUC0→t for Cur-SLNs was 12.27-folds greater than curcumin suspension and the relative bioavailability of Cur-SLNs was 942.53%. Meanwhile, Tmax and t(1/2) of curcumin for Cur-SLNs were both delayed comparing to the suspensions (p curcumin for SLNs was significantly improved (p curcumin solution. Cur-SLNs with TPGS and Brij78 could improve the oral bioavailability and intestinal absorption of curcumin effectively.

  13. Estradiol and Antagonist Pretreatment Prior to Microdose Leuprolide in in Vitro Fertilization. Does It Improve IVF Outcomes in Poor Responders as Compared to Oral Contraceptive Pill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elassar, Alyaa; Nulsen, John; Engmann, Lawrence; Benadiva, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    To compare in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes in low responders stimulated with microdose leuprolide protocol (ML) following pretreatment with either oral contraceptive pill (OCP) or luteal estradiol (E2) + GnRH antagonist (E2 + antag) for follicular synchronization prior to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH). This was a retrospective study of 130 women, who were poor responders, undergoing IVF with either OCP/ML or E2+ antag/ML protocols. The main outcome measures were ongoing pregnancy rates, number of oocytes retrieved, and cancellation rate. Both groups were similar in baseline characteristics. There were no significant differences in gonadotropin requirement, cancellation rate, and number of embryos transferred. Ongoing pregnancy rates (40% vs. 15%) were significantly higher in the OCP/ML group. Trends toward greater number of oocytes retrieved (7.7 ± 3.4 vs. 5.9 ± 4.2) and improved implantation rates (20% vs. 12%) were also noted, but these did not reach statistical significance. E2+antag pretreatment does not appear to improve IVF outcomes in ML protocol when compared to the standard OCP in poor responders. Randomized trials with adequate power to study the optimal method of steroid pretreatments appear justified.

  14. CO-DELIVERY OF NATURAL METABOLIC INHIBITORS IN A SELF-MICROEMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR IMPROVED ORAL BIOAVAILABILITY OF CURCUMIN

    OpenAIRE

    Grill, Alex E.; Koniar, Brenda; Panyam, Jayanth

    2014-01-01

    In spite of its well-documented anticancer chemopreventive and therapeutic activity, the clinical development of curcumin has been limited by its poor oral bioavailability. Curcumin has low aqueous solubility and undergoes extensive first pass metabolism following oral dosing. We hypothesized that oral bioavailability of curcumin can be enhanced by increasing its absorption and decreasing its metabolic clearance simultaneously. To test this hypothesis, we formulated curcumin with naturally oc...

  15. Novel in situ self-assembly nanoparticles for formulating a poorly water-soluble drug in oral solid granules, improving stability, palatability, and bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo S

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Shujie Guo,1 Kevin Pham,2 Diana Li,2 Scott R Penzak,3 Xiaowei Dong2 1State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3Department of Pharmacotherapy, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a novel lipid-based nanotechnology to formulate poorly water-soluble drugs in oral solid granules to improve stability, palatability, and bioavailability. Materials and methods: In one method, we prepared ritonavir (RTV nanoparticles (NPs by a microemulsion-precursor method and then converted the RTV NPs to solid granules by wet granulation to produce RTV NP-containing granules. In the other innovative method, we did not use water in the formulation preparation, and discovered novel in situ self-assembly nanoparticles (ISNPs. We prepared RTV ISNP granules that did not initially contain NPs, but spontaneously produced RTV ISNPs when the granules were introduced to water with gentle agitation. We fully characterized these RTV nanoformulations. We also used rats to test the bioavailability of RTV ISNP granules. Finally, an Astree electronic tongue was used to assess the taste of the RTV ISNP granules. Results: RTV NP-containing granules only had about 1% drug loading of RTV in the solid granules. In contrast, RTV ISNP granules achieved over 16% drug loading and were stable at room temperature over 24 weeks. RTV ISNPs had particle size between 160 nm and 300 nm with narrow size distribution. RTV ISNPs were stable in simulated gastric fluid for 2 hours and in simulated intestinal fluid for another 6 hours. The data from the electronic tongue showed that the RTV ISNP granules were similar in taste to blank ISNP granules, but were much different from RTV solution. RTV ISNP granules increased RTV bioavailability

  16. Improvement of post-thawed sperm quality and fertility of Arian rooster by oral administration of d-aspartic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mahdi; Zhandi, Mahdi; Kohram, Hamid; Zaghari, Mojtaba; Sadeghi, Mostafa; Sharafi, Mohsen

    2017-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of d-Aspartic acid (D-Asp) on post-thawed sperm quality, fertility and hatchability outcomes in male broiler breeders. Twenty 55-week-old roosters were selected and equally split into four groups (n = 5 rooster/group). Different daily D-Asp doses including 0 (D-0), 100 (D-100), 200 (D-200) or 300 (D-300) mg/kg BW were capsulated and individually administered for 12 weeks to roosters in each group. Semen samples were weekly collected from 7th to 12th week of experiment. Sperm quality from 7th to 11th week was evaluated in both fresh (total and forward motility and plasma membrane functionality) and post-thawed (total and forward motility, plasma membrane functionality, apoptosis status and mitochondrial activity) conditions. Also, collected semen samples on the 12th week were frozen and artificially inseminated to evaluate fertility and hatchability. The results from fresh condition showed that total and forward motility and plasma membrane functionality were significantly higher in D-200 compared to other groups. Also, interaction effect of time and treatment was not significant for all assessed parameters in fresh condition. In post-thawed condition, D-200 showed significantly higher total and forward motility, fertility and hatchability compared to other groups. The higher value for plasma membrane functionality and mitochondrial activity was observed in D-200 compared to D-0 and D300 groups. However, the percentage of live, early apoptotic and dead spermatozoa were not significantly affected by applied treatment in the current study. No significant difference for time and treat interaction effect was observed for all assessed parameters except forward motility. In conclusion, it seems that D-Asp administration could improve fresh and post-thawed sperm quality and post-thawed sperm fertility in male broiler breeders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. To assess the self-reported oral health practices, behaviour and oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-03

    Oct 3, 2017 ... in order to improve referral of pregnant women, oral health awareness and dental service utilization among pregnant women in the region. Keywords: oral health practices, oral health status, pregnant women, traditional birth attendant clinics, Nigerian rural community. 17. African Journal of Oral Health.

  18. Oral administration of the 5-HT6 receptor antagonists SB-357134 and SB-399885 improves memory formation in an autoshaping learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-García, Georgina; Meneses, Alfredo

    2005-07-01

    In this work we aimed to re-examine the 5-HT6 receptor role, by testing the selective antagonists SB-357134 (1-30 mg/kg p.o.) and SB-399885 (1-30 mg/kg p.o.) during memory consolidation of conditioned responses (CR%), in an autoshaping Pavlovian/instrumental learning task. Bioavailability, half-life and minimum effective dose to induce inappetence for SB-357134 were 65%, 3.4 h, and 30 mg/kg p.o., and for SB-399885 were 52%, 2.2 h, and 50 mg/kg p.o., respectively. Oral acute and chronic administration of either SB-357134 or SB-399885 improved memory consolidation compared to control groups. Acute administration of SB-357134, at 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg, produced a CR% inverted-U curve, eliciting the latter dose a 7-fold increase relative to saline group. Acute injection of SB-399885 produced significant CR% increments, being 1 mg/kg the most effective dose. Repeated administration (7 days) of either SB-357134 (10 mg/kg) or SB-399885 (1 mg/kg) elicited the most significant CR% increments. Moreover, modeling the potential therapeutic benefits of 5-HT6 receptor blockade, acute or repeated administration of SB-399885, at 10 mg/kg reversed memory deficits produced by scopolamine or dizocilpine, and SB-357134 (3 and 10 mg/kg) prevented amnesia and even improved performance. These data support the notion that endogenously 5-HT acting, via 5-HT6 receptor, improves memory consolidation.

  19. Oral leukoplakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The idea of identifying oral lesions with a precancerous nature, i.e. in the sense of pertaining to a pathologic process with an increased risk for future malignant development, of course is to prevent frank malignancy to occur in the affected area. The most common oral lesion with a precancerous...... nature is oral leukoplakia, and for decades it has been discussed how to treat these lesions. Various treatment modalities, such as systemic therapies and surgical removal, have been suggested. The systemic therapies tested so far include retinoids, extracts of green tea, inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2...

  20. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder symptom cluster improvement by cycle with the combined oral contraceptive ethinylestradiol 20 mcg plus drospirenone 3 mg administered in a 24/4 regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Joachim; Niknian, Minoo; Shulman, Lee P; Lynen, Richard

    2011-07-01

    A combined oral contraceptive comprising ethinylestradiol (EE) 20 mcg/drospirenone 3 mg in a 24/4 regimen has been clinically shown to alleviate the symptoms associated with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). However, previous studies did not report data according to cycle-by-cycle improvement. This was a subanalysis of a Phase III, double-blind, multicenter, United States-based study. Women with confirmed PMDD were randomized to EE 20 mcg/drospirenone 3 mg 24/4 or placebo for three treatment cycles. Ten of the 21 emotional and physical items on the Daily Record of Severity of Problems scale were grouped to define three symptom clusters: (a) negative emotions, (b) food cravings and (c) water retention-related symptoms. The change from baseline at each treatment cycle was compared between groups using a weighted analysis of covariance model. The full analysis set comprised 449 women. Daily Record of Severity of Problems scores for each symptom cluster were significantly reduced from baseline with both EE 20 mcg/drospirenone 3 mg 24/4 and placebo (pemotions, food cravings and water retention-related symptoms to a significantly greater extent than placebo during all three cycles of treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Feasibility of a patient-centred nutrition intervention to improve oral intakes of patients at risk of pressure ulcer: a pilot randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Shelley; Desbrow, Ben; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2016-06-01

    Nutrition is important for pressure ulcer prevention. This randomised control pilot study assessed the feasibility of conducting a larger trial to test the effectiveness of a patient-centred intervention for improving the dietary intakes of patients at risk of pressure ulcer in hospital. A 3-day intervention targeting patients at risk of pressure ulcer was developed, based on three main foundations: patient education, patient participation and guided goal setting. The intervention was piloted in three wards in a metropolitan hospital in Queensland, Australia. Participants were randomised into control or intervention groups and had their oral intakes monitored. A subset of intervention patients was interviewed on their perceptions of the intervention. Feasibility was tested against three criteria: ≥75% recruitment; ≥80% retention; and ≥80% intervention fidelity. Secondary outcomes related to effects on energy and protein intakes. Eighty patients participated in the study and 66 were included in final analysis. The recruitment rate was 82%, retention rate was 88%, and 100% of intervention patients received the intervention. Patients viewed the intervention as motivating and met significantly more of their estimated energy and protein requirements over time. This pilot study indicates that the intervention is feasible and acceptable by patients at risk of pressure ulcer. A larger trial is needed to confirm the effectiveness of the intervention in the clinical setting. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  2. Oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, S J

    1990-01-01

    In the U.S. oral cancer accounts for 2.1% of all cancers and 1% of cancer deaths. Two to three times as many males as females are affected. Blacks have more intra-oral cancer than whites, and their incidence and mortality rates have increased in recent years. The etiologic process very likely involves several factors. The major etiologic agents are tobacco (all types) and alcoholic beverages. Herpes simplex virus, human papilloma virus, and Candida have been implicated. Host factors include poor state of dentition, nutritional aberrations, cirrhosis of liver, lichen planus, and immunologic impairmant. Cellular changes include amplification of some oncogenes, alterations in antigen expression, production of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and disturbance of keratin and involucrin production. Experimentally, cancer is readily produced on the hamster cheek pouch and rat oral mucosa. Unlike oral cancer in humans, most experimental lesions are exophytic, and they rarely metastasize.

  3. An innovative brioche enriched in protein and energy improves the nutritional status of malnourished nursing home residents compared to oral nutritional supplement and usual breakfast: FARINE+ project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wymelbeke, Virginie; Brondel, Laurent; Bon, Francis; Martin-Pfitzenmeyer, Isabelle; Manckoundia, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    To compare the effects of a 12-week nutritional intervention, in which an innovative protein-and-energy-enriched brioche, an oral nutritional supplement or a usual breakfast were eaten, on food intake and nutritional status in nursing home residents. Three-armed, multicentre, controlled trial. Eight nursing homes in Burgundy, France. Sixty-eight malnourished participants aged between 70 and 99 years old. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups according to the breakfast provided: brioche group, one portion of 65 g brioche enriched in protein and energy (12.8 g and 180 kcal) added to usual breakfast; supplement group, 200-ml of a ready-to-use, energy-dense liquid (14 g protein and 200 kcal) added to usual breakfast or control group, a usual breakfast only. Total energy intakes were assessed for three days at different periods of the study (day 0, day 30 and day 90); blood parameters, nutritional status (mini nutritional assessment, weight) and functional capacities (grip strength and activity level) were measured at the beginning and at the end of the nutritional intervention study (day 0 and day 90). The participants of the brioche group had higher total energy intakes at day 30 (p value 0.004) and at day 90 (p value 0.018) compared with the supplement group and the control group. At the end of the interventional study, 72% of the participants in the brioche group had reached the recommended minimum level of protein of 0.8 g/kg/day, compared with 53% in the supplement group and 36% in the control group (p value 0.036). In addition, between day 0 and day 90 in the brioche group, blood levels of vitamins B 9 , B 2 , D (all p value <0.001), B 6 (p value 0.026) and B 12 (p value 0.036) had increased and plasma homocysteine had decreased (p value 0.024). The protein-and-energy-enriched brioche effectively increased energy and protein intakes and improved the nutritional status of elderly people living in nursing homes. It could be a good

  4. Dopaminergic-like neurons derived from oral mucosa stem cells by developmental cues improve symptoms in the hemi-parkinsonian rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ganz

    Full Text Available Achieving safe and readily accessible sources for cell replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD is still a challenging unresolved issue. Recently, a primitive neural crest stem cell population (hOMSC was isolated from the adult human oral mucosa and characterized in vitro and in vivo. In this study we assessed hOMSC ability to differentiate into dopamine-secreting cells with a neuronal-dopaminergic phenotype in vitro in response to dopaminergic developmental cues and tested their therapeutic potential in the hemi-Parkinsonian rat model. We found that hOMSC express constitutively a repertoire of neuronal and dopaminergic markers and pivotal transcription factors. Soluble developmental factors induced a reproducible neuronal-like morphology in the majority of hOMSC, downregulated stem cells markers, upregulated the expression of the neuronal and dopaminergic markers that resulted in dopamine release capabilities. Transplantation of these dopaminergic-induced hOMSC into the striatum of hemi-Parkinsonian rats improved their behavioral deficits as determined by amphetamine-induced rotational behavior, motor asymmetry and motor coordination tests. Human TH expressing cells and increased levels of dopamine in the transplanted hemispheres were observed 10 weeks after transplantation. These results demonstrate for the first time that soluble factors involved in the development of DA neurons, induced a DA phenotype in hOMSC in vitro that significantly improved the motor function of hemiparkinsonian rats. Based on their neural-related origin, their niche accessibility by minimal-invasive procedures and their propensity for DA differentiation, hOMSC emerge as an attractive tool for autologous cell replacement therapy in PD.

  5. Overall skin tone and skin-lightening-improving effects with oral supplementation of lutein and zeaxanthin isomers: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juturu V

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vijaya Juturu,1 James P Bowman,2 Jayant Deshpande1 1Department of Scientific and Clinical Affairs, OmniActive Health Technologies Inc., Morristown, NJ, 2James P Bowman & Associates LLC, Loveland, OH, USA Purpose: Carotenoids, especially lutein and zeaxanthin isomers (L/Zi, filter blue light and protect skin from environmental factors including high-energy sources. These carotenoids may be able to block the formation of melanin pathways, decrease cytokines, and increase antioxidants.Subjects and methods: This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial over a 12-week supplementation period. Fifty healthy people (50 healthy subjects were recruited and 46 subjects completed the study (males and females, age: 18–45 years with mild-to-moderate dry skin were included in this study. Skin type of the subjects was classified as Fitzpatrick skin type II–IV scale. Subjects were administered with either an oral dietary supplement containing 10 mg lutein (L and 2 mg zeaxanthin isomers (Zi (L/Zi: RR-zeaxanthin and RS (meso-zeaxanthin or a placebo daily for 12 weeks. The minimal erythemal dose and skin lightening (L* were measured via the Chromameter®. The individual typological angle was calculated. Subjective assessments were also recorded.Results: Overall skin tone was significantly improved in the L/Zi group compared to placebo (P<0.0237, and luminance (L* values were significantly increased in the L/Zi group. Mean minimal erythemal dose was increased with L/Zi supplementation after 12 weeks of supplementation. L/Zi supplementation significantly increased the individual typological angle.Conclusion: L/Zi supplementation lightens and improves skin conditions. Keywords: lutein, zeaxanthin isomers, skin lightening, minimal erythemal dose, individual typological angle, overall skin tone

  6. Oral sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-05

    The Gay and Lesbian Medical Association urges HIV prevention specialists to regard male-to-male oral-genital sex as a low-risk activity and concentrate instead on the danger of unprotected anal intercourse. According to the association, the confusion and mixed messages surrounding oral sex are harming efforts to encourage gay men to make rational choices about truly risky behavior. The recommendations appear in the association's position paper issued March 19, 1996.

  7. Oral Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decrease the risk of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. Oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer are diseases in ... and treatment of oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer: Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention Lip and Oral ...

  8. Improvement in Quality of Life Questionnaire Measures (PCOSQ) in Obese Adolescent Females with PCOS treated with Lifestyle Changes and Oral Contraceptives, with or without Metformin

    OpenAIRE

    Harris-Glocker, Miranda; Davidson, Kristin; Kochman, Lynda; Guzick, David; Hoeger, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of metformin or placebo in a lifestyle modification program (LSM) combined with oral contraceptives (OC) on quality of life parameters measured by the PCOS questionnaire (PCOSQ) in obese adolescent women with validated PCOS.

  9. Improving access to oral health care services among underserved populations in the U.S.: is there a role for mid-level dental providers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaefer, H Luke; Miller, Matthew

    2011-08-01

    Nearly one-third of U.S. citizens lack access to basic preventive and primary oral health care services, which is primarily the result of the high costs of care and the uneven geographic distribution of dental providers. This article examines the case for and against one possible solution to address these barriers to oral health care: the introduction of a mid-level dental provider (MDP) position within the dental field.

  10. [Directions for use of corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors against generalized myasthenia gravis: therapeutic strategies that can lead to early improvements and veer away from high-dose oral corticosteroids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsugisawa, Kimiaki; Nagane, Yuriko; Suzuki, Shigeaki; Suzuki, Norihiro

    2012-01-01

    The advent of effective immune treatment has meant that myasthenia gravis (MG) is most often not lethal. However, many MG patients still find it difficult to maintain daily activities due to chronic residual fatigability and long-term side effects of medication, since full remission without immune treatment is not common. Our analysis demonstrated that disease severity, dose of oral corticosteroids, and depressive state are the major independent factors negatively associated with self-reported QOL (MG-QOL15-J score). It is noteworthy that oral corticosteroid, the first-line agent for MG, is negatively associated with patients' QOL. When the analysis took into account MGFA postintervention status and dose of oral prednisolne (PSL), the MG-QOL15-J score of MM status patients taking ≤ 5 mg PSL per day is identically low (i.e., just as good QOL) as that seen in CSR and is a target of treatment. In order to veer away from high-dose oral corticosteroids and to achieve early MM or better status with PSL ≤ 5 mg/day, we advocate the early aggressive treatment strategy that can achieve early improvement by performing an aggressive therapy using combined treatment with plasmapheresis and high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone and then maintain an improved clinical status using low-dose oral corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors (cyclosporine microemulsion and tacrolimus). The early stages of MG are susceptible to treatment with calcineurin inhibitors. When using cyclosporine microemulsion for MG, blood concentrations 2 h after administration (C2) correlate with clinical improvement and immediately before administration (C0) with side effects (increased serum creatinine and/or hypertension). Monitoring of C2 and C0 levels is useful to estimate efficacy and safety of the drug.

  11. An individually tailored treatment programme for improved oral hygiene: introduction of a new course of action in health education for patients with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, B; Ohrn, K; Oscarson, N; Lindberg, P

    2009-08-01

    To describe and evaluate an individually tailored treatment programme based on a behavioural medicine approach to oral hygiene self-care for patients with chronic periodontitis. Two experimental single-case studies with multiple-baseline design across different self-administered oral hygiene behaviours were conducted. Cognitive Behavioural techniques were used to organize the strategies for the intervention and the approach to counselling was inspired by and structured in accordance with Motivational Interviewing. The central features in the programme were the individual analysis of knowledge and oral hygiene habits, individually set goals for oral hygiene behaviour, practice of manual dexterity for oral hygiene aids, continuous self-monitoring of the behaviour and prevention of relapse. Both participants reached the predecided criteria for clinical significance in reducing plaque and bleeding on probing. Reductions of periodontal probing depth were achieved as well. The positive results remained stable throughout the 2-year study period. The successful application of this educational model suggests that it could be used as a method for tailoring interventions targeted to oral hygiene for patients with periodontal conditions. The programme will now be tested in a larger randomized controlled trial.

  12. Peer interaction does not always improve children's mental state talk production in oral narratives. A study in six- to ten-year-old Italian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Pinto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Joint narratives are a mean through which children develop and practice their Theory of Mind, thus they represent an ideal means to explore children’s use and development of mental state talk. However, creating a learning environment for storytelling based on peer interaction, does not necessarily mean that students will automatically exploit it by engaging in productive collaboration, thus it is important to explore under what conditions peer interaction promotes children’s ToM. This study extends our understanding of social aspects of ToM, focusing on the effect of joint narratives on school-age children’s mental state talk. Fifty-six Italian primary school children participated in the study (19 females and 37 males. Children created a story in two different experimental conditions (individually and with a partner randomly assigned. Each story told by the children, as well as their dialogues were recorded and transcribed. Transcriptions of narratives were coded in terms of text quality and mental state talk, whereas transcriptions of dialogues were coded in terms of quality of interaction. The results from this study confirmed that peer interaction does not always improve children’s mental state talk performances in oral narratives, but certain conditions need to be satisfied. Peer interaction was more effective on mental state talk with lower individual levels and productive interactions, particularly in terms of capacity to regulate the interactions. When children were able to focus on the interaction, as well as the product, they were also exposed to each other’s reasoning behind their viewpoint. This level of intersubjectivity, in turn, allowed them to take more in consideration the contribution of mental states to the narrative.

  13. Mechanisms of chitosan-coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles for improving oral absorption of 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Miao; Rong, Wen-Ting; Hou, Jie; Wang, Dong-Fang; Lu, Yu; Wang, Ying; Yu, Shu-Qin; Xu, Qian

    2013-06-01

    Chitosan-modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (CHI/PLGA NPs) loaded with 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), named CHI/PLGA/SN-38 NPs, were successfully prepared using an oil-in-water (O/W) solvent evaporation method. The physicochemical properties of the novel NPs were characterized by DLS, Zeta potential, SEM, DSC, XRD, and FTIR. The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading content were 71.83 (±2.77)% and 6.79 (±0.26)%, respectively. In vitro drug release in the simulated gastric juice was lower than that in the intestinal juice. In situ single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) studies indicated a dramatic improvement of drug absorption as a result of the synergistic effect between CHI and PLGA on P-glycoprotein (Pgp) inhibition. CHI/PLGA NPs showed high cellular uptake and low efflux for drugs in Caco-2 cells. The cytotoxicity studies revealed that CHI/PLGA NPs had a transient effect on the membrane integrity, but did not have an influence on cell viability. Based on the in vitro release studies, SPIP, and intracellular drug accumulation and transport investigations, we speculate rationally that CHI/PLGA NPs were mainly internalized in the form of intact NPs, thus escaping the recognition of enterocyte Pgp and avoiding efflux into the apical part of the enterocytes. After partial release of drugs inside the enterocytes, CHI/PLGA interfered with the microenvironment of Pgp and further weakened the Pgp-mediated efflux. Then, the drug-loaded NPs exited via the exocytose effect from the basal part of the enterocytes and entered the blood circulation. These results showed that CHI/PLGA NPs would be smart oral delivery carriers for antineoplastic agents that are also Pgp substrates.

  14. Oral supplement enriched in HMB combined with pulmonary rehabilitation improves body composition and health related quality of life in patients with bronchiectasis (Prospective, Randomised Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olveira, Gabriel; Olveira, Casilda; Doña, Esperanza; Palenque, Francisco Javier; Porras, Nuria; Dorado, Antonio; Godoy, Ana M; Rubio-Martínez, Elehazara; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Martín-Valero, Rocío

    2016-10-01

    Pulmonary Rehabilitation (PR) is recommended for bronchiectasis but there is no data about its effect on body composition. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of Pulmonary Rehabilitation (PR) for 12 weeks in normally-nourished non-cystic-fibrosis bronchiectasis patients compared with the effect of PR plus a hyperproteic oral nutritional supplement enriched with beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on body composition, muscle strength, quality of life and serum biomarkers. single center randomized controlled trial, parallel treatment design: Participants were randomly assigned to receive PR for 12 weeks or PR plus ONS (PRONS) (one can per day). Outcome assessments were performed at baseline, 12 weeks and 24 weeks: body composition (Dual-energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), phase angle by Bio-impedance), health related quality of life (Spanish QOL-B-V3.0, Physical Functioning Scale), handgrip strength, diet questionnaire, and plasma levels of prealbumin, myostatin and somatomedin-c. Thirty patients were randomized (15 per group) without differences in clinical and respiratory variables. In the PRONS group bone mineral density (BMD), mean and maximum handgrip dynamometry, MAMC, QOLB and prealbumin were significantly increased from baseline at 12 and 24 weeks and Fat free Mass (FFM) and FFM index, at 12 weeks. In the PR group only mean handgrip dynamometry and prealbumin were significantly increased at 12 and 24 weeks. In both groups plasma myostatin was reduced at 12 weeks (without significant differences). The addition of a hyperproteic ONS enriched with HMB to Pulmonary Rehabilitation could improve body composition, BMD, muscle strength and health related quality of life in bronchiectasis patients. Clinical Trials Number NCT02048397. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. Oral administration of an HSP90 inhibitor, 17-DMAG, intervenes tumor-cell infiltration into multiple organs and improves survival period for ATL model mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikebe, E; Kawaguchi, A; Tezuka, K; Taguchi, S; Hirose, S; Matsumoto, T; Mitsui, T; Senba, K; Nishizono, A; Hori, M; Hasegawa, H; Yamada, Y; Ueno, T; Tanaka, Y; Sawa, H; Hall, W; Minami, Y; Jeang, K T; Ogata, M; Morishita, K; Hasegawa, H; Fujisawa, J; Iha, H

    2013-01-01

    In the peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) from the carriers of the human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) or the patients with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB)-mediated antiapoptotic signals are constitutively activated primarily by the HTLV-1-encoded oncoprotein Tax. Tax interacts with the I κB kinase regulatory subunit NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator) to activate NF-κB, and this interaction is maintained in part by a molecular chaperone, heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90), and its co-chaperone cell division cycle 37 (CDC37). The antibiotic geldanamycin (GA) inhibits HSP90's ATP binding for its proper interaction with client proteins. Administration of a novel water-soluble and less toxic GA derivative, 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin hydrochloride (17-DMAG), to Tax-expressing ATL-transformed cell lines, C8166 and MT4, induced significant degradation of Tax. 17-DMAG also facilitated growth arrest and cellular apoptosis to C8166 and MT4 and other ATL cell lines, although this treatment has no apparent effects on normal PBLs. 17-DMAG also downregulated Tax-mediated intracellular signals including the activation of NF-κB, activator protein 1 or HTLV-1 long terminal repeat in Tax-transfected HEK293 cells. Oral administration of 17-DMAG to ATL model mice xenografted with lymphomatous transgenic Lck-Tax (Lck proximal promoter-driven Tax transgene) cells or HTLV-1-producing tumor cells dramatically attenuated aggressive infiltration into multiple organs, inhibited de novo viral production and improved survival period. These observations identified 17-DMAG as a promising candidate for the prevention of ATL progression

  16. Clinical and Preclinical Cognitive Function Improvement after Oral Treatment of a Botanical Composition Composed of Extracts from Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Yimam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia and cognitive impairment have become the major concerns worldwide due to a significantly aging population, increasing life span and lack of effective pharmacotherapy. In light of limited pharmaceutical drug choices and the socioeconomic implications of these conditions, the search for safe and effective alternatives from natural sources has gained many attractions within the medical food and dietary supplement industry. Two polyphenol extracts derived from roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and heartwoods of Acacia catechu containing free-B-ring flavonoids and flavans, respectively, were combined into a proprietary blend called UP326. A similar bioflavonoid composition, UP446, has been reported with modulation of pathways related to systemic inflammation. To test the effect of UP326 on memory and learning, a radial arm water maze (RAWM and contextual fear conditioning (CF were utilized in aged F344 rats fed with UP326 at doses of 3, 7, and 34 mg/kg for 11 weeks. The 7 and 34 mg/kg dosage groups had significantly fewer errors than aged vehicle control animals and their performance was equivalent to young animal controls. In a separate human clinical trial, test subjects orally given 300 mg of UP326 BID for 30 days showed marked improvement in speed and accuracy of processing complex information in computer tasks and reduced their standard deviation of performance compared to baseline and the placebo group. This data suggest that UP326 may help maintain memory, sustain speed of processing, and reduce the number or memory errors as we age.

  17. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the face, mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to find ... the need for harmony between facial appearance and function. As a result, OMSs are uniqely qualified to ...

  18. Improving oral hygiene skills by computer-based training: a randomized controlled comparison of the modified Bass and the Fones techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Harnacke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gingivitis and other plaque-associated diseases have a high prevalence in western communities even though the majority of adults report daily oral hygiene. This indicates a lack of oral hygiene skills. Currently, there is no clear evidence as to which brushing technique would bring about the best oral hygiene skills. While the modified Bass technique is often recommended by dentists and in textbooks, the Fones technique is often recommended in patient brochures. Still, standardized comparisons of the effectiveness of teaching these techniques are lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a final sample of n = 56 students, this multidisciplinary, randomized, examiner-blinded, controlled study compared the effects of parallel and standardized interactive computer presentations teaching either the Fones or the modified Bass technique. A control group was taught the basics of tooth brushing alone. Oral hygiene skills (remaining plaque after thorough oral hygiene and gingivitis were assessed at baseline and 6, 12, and 28 weeks after the intervention. We found a significant group×time interaction for gingivitis (F(4/102 = 3.267; p = 0.016; ε = 0.957; η(2 = 0.114 and a significant main effect of group for oral hygiene skills (F(2/51 = 7.088; p = 0.002; η(2 = 0.218. Fones was superior to Bass; Bass did not differ from the control group. Group differences were most prominent after 6 and 12 weeks. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present trial indicates an advantage of teaching the Fones as compared to the modified Bass technique with respect to oral hygiene skills and gingivitis. Future studies are needed to analyze whether the disadvantage of teaching the Bass technique observed here is restricted to the teaching method employed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00003488.

  19. Oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Oral myiasis

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    Treville Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency.

  1. Cognitive Improvement of Attention and Inhibition in the Late Afternoon in Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Treated With Osmotic-Release Oral System Methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Hichem; Fery, Patrick; Verheulpen, Denis; Vanzeveren, Nathalie; Van Bogaert, Patrick

    2015-07-01

    Long-acting medications have been developed and approved for use in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These compounds are intended to optimize and maintain symptoms control throughout the day. We tested prolonged effects of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate on both attention and inhibition, in the late afternoon. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 36 boys (7-12 years) with ADHD and 40 typically developing children. The ADHD children received an individualized dose of placebo or osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate. They were tested about 8 hours after taking with 2 continuous performance tests (continuous performance test-X [CPT-X] and continuous performance test-AX [CPT-AX]) and a counting Stroop. A positive effect of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate was present in CPT-AX with faster and less variable reaction times under osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate than under placebo, and no difference with typically developing children. In the counting Stroop, we found a decreased interference with osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate but no difference between children with ADHD under placebo and typically developing children. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Floating Microparticulate Oral Diltiazem Hydrochloride Delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Delivery System for Improved Delivery to Heart ... Conclusion: Microparticulate floating (gastroretentive) oral drug delivery system of diltiazem prepared ..... treatment of cardiac disease. ... hydrochloride-loaded mucoadhesive microspheres.

  3. The relationship between oral hygiene and oral colonisation with Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzurovic, Selma; Babajic, Emina; Masic, Tarik; Smajic, Rubina; Selmanagic, Aida

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine relationship between oral hygiene and colonisation of Candia species in oral cavity. Maintenance oral hygiene is reducing pathological agents in the mouth and preventing violation of oral health. Study included 140 patients. For oral hygiene assessement were used the dental plaque index, oral hygiene index and dental calculus index. Ph test strips were used to determine pH of saliva. For isolation of Candida species oral swabs were taken to all patients. It was found out that pH of oral cavity does not varies notably, no matter of oral hygiene level. Candida species were identified in 28.6% respondents. The most present were Candida albicans, in 85% cases. The presence of plaque, tartar and high index oral hygiene (IOH) in patients with Candida is statistically significant. It was found that 83.4% of patients with Candida poorly maintained oral hygiene. Poor oral hygiene is associated with a significantly higher score in the presence of tartar, plaque and high IOH. In total patient's population 67% has amalgam fillings. Presence of amalgam fillings in patients with identified Candida was statistically significant. This study indicates low level of oral hygiene. Correlation between presence of Candida species and poor oral hygiene was proved. Also Candida was more present among patients with amalgam fillings. Improvement of oral hygiene is necessery for oral health and health in general, as well.

  4. Poly(vinyl methyl ether/maleic anhydride)-Doped PEG-PLA Nanoparticles for Oral Paclitaxel Delivery To Improve Bioadhesive Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Li, Chan; Ren, Tianyang; Chen, Shizhu; Ye, Xiaoxia; Guo, Hongbo; He, Haibing; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Tian; Liang, Xing-Jie; Tang, Xing

    2017-10-02

    Bioadhesive nanoparticles based on poly(vinyl methyl ether/maleic anhydride) (PVMMA) and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether-b-poly(d,l-lactic acid) (mPEG-b-PLA) were produced by the emulsification solvent evaporation method. Paclitaxel was utilized as the model drug, with an encapsulation efficiency of up to 90.2 ± 4.0%. The nanoparticles were uniform and spherical in shape and exhibited a sustained drug release compared with Taxol. m-NPs also exhibited favorable bioadhesive efficiency at the same time. Coumarin 6 or DiR-loaded nanoparticles with/without PVMMA (C6-m-NPs/DiR-m-NPs or C6-p-NPs/DiR-p-NPs) were used for cellular uptake and intestinal adhesion experiments, respectively. C6-m-NPs were shown to enhance cellular uptake, and caveolae/lipid raft mediated endocytosis was the primary route for the uptake of the nanoparticles. Favorable bioadhesive efficiency led to prolonged retention in the intestine reflected by the fluorescence in isolated intestines ex vivo. In a ligated intestinal loops model, C6-m-NPs showed a clear advantage for transporting NPs across the mucus layer over C6-p-NPs and free C6. The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of PTX-m-NPs through Caco-2/HT29 monolayers was 1.3- and 1.6-fold higher than PTX-p-NPs and Taxol, respectively, which was consistent with the AUC 0-t of different PTX formulations after oral administration in rats. PTX-m-NPs also exhibited a more effective anticancer efficacy, with an IC 50 of 0.2 ± 1.4 μg/mL for A549 cell lines, further demonstrating the advantage of bioadhesive nanoparticles. The bioadhesive nanoparticles m-NPs demonstrated both mucus permeation and epithelial absorption, and thus, this bioadhesive drug delivery system has the potential to improve the bioavailability of drugs that are insoluble in the gastrointestinal environment.

  5. A novel solid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (S-SNEDDS) for improved stability and oral bioavailability of an oily drug, 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Soo; Yang, Eun Su; Kim, Dong Shik; Kim, Dong Wuk; Yoo, Hye Hyun; Yong, Chul Soon; Youn, Yu Seok; Oh, Kyung Taek; Jee, Jun-Pil; Kim, Jong Oh; Jin, Sung Giu; Choi, Han Gon

    2017-11-01

    To develop a novel solid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (S-SNEDDS) for a water-insoluble oily drug, 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol (PLAG) with improved stability and oral bioavailability, numerous S-SNEDDS were prepared with surfactant, hydrophilic polymer, antioxidant, and calcium silicate (porous carrier) using the spray-drying method. Their physicochemical properties were evaluated using emulsion droplet size analysis, SEM and PXRD. Moreover, the solubility, dissolution, stability, and pharmacokinetics of the selected S-SNEDDS were assessed compared with the drug and a commercial soft capsule. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) with the highest drug solubility were selected as surfactant and hydrophilic polymer, respectively. Among the antioxidants tested, only butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) could completely protect the drug from oxidative degradation. The S-SNEDDS composed of PLAG/SLS/HPMC/BHA/calcium silicate at a weight ratio of 1: 0.25: 0.1: 0.0002: 0.5 provided an emulsion droplet size of less than 300 nm. In this S-SNEDDS, the drug and other ingredients might exist in the pores of carrier and attach onto its surface. It considerably improved the drug stability (about 100 vs. 70%, 60 °C for 5 d) and dissolution (about 80 vs. 20% in 60 min) compared to the commercial soft capsule. Moreover, the S-SNEDDS gave higher AUC, C max , and T max values than the commercial soft capsule; in particular, the former improved the oral bioavailability of PLAG by about 3-fold. Our results suggested that this S-SNEDDS provided excellent stability and oral bioavailability of PLAG. Thus, this S-SNEDDS would be recommended as a powerful oral drug delivery system for an oily drug, PLAG.

  6. Oral Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  7. Conversion from intravenous to oral medications: assessment of a computerized intervention for hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Michael A; Solomon, Daniel H; Teich, Jonathan M; Avorn, Jerry

    2003-11-24

    Many hospitalized patients continue to receive intravenous medications longer than necessary. Earlier conversion from the intravenous to the oral route could increase patient safety and comfort, reduce costs, and facilitate earlier discharge from the hospital without compromising clinical care. We examined the effect of a computer-based intervention to prompt physicians to switch appropriate patients from intravenous to oral medications. This study was performed at Brigham and Women's Hospital, an academic tertiary care hospital at which all medications are ordered online. We targeted 5 medications with equal oral and intravenous bioavailability: fluconazole, levofloxacin, metronidazole, ranitidine, and amiodarone. We used the hospital's computerized order entry system to prompt physicians to convert appropriate intravenous medications to the oral route. We measured the total use of the targeted medications via each route in the 4 months before and after the implementation of the intervention. We also measured the rate at which physicians responded to the intervention when prompted. The average intravenous defined daily dose declined by 11.1% (P =.002) from the preintervention to the postintervention period, while the average oral defined daily dose increased by 3.7% (P =.002). Length of stay, case-mix index, and total drug use at the hospital increased during the study period. The average total monthly use of the intravenous preparation of all of the targeted medications declined in the 4 months after the intervention began, compared with the 4 months before. In 35.6% of 1045 orders for which a prompt was generated, the physician either made a conversion from the intravenous to the oral version or canceled the order altogether. Computer-generated reminders can produce a substantial reduction in excessive use of targeted intravenous medications. As online prescribing becomes more common, this approach can be used to reduce excess use of intravenous medications

  8. Leukemic Oral Manifestations and their Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisconi, Carolina Favaro; Caldas, Rogerio Jardim; Oliveira Martins, Lazara Joyce; Fischer Rubira, Cassia Maria; da Silva Santos, Paulo Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Leukemia is the most common neoplastic disease of the white blood cells which is important as a pediatric malignancy. Oral manifestations occur frequently in leukemic patients and may present as initial evidence of the disease or its relapse. The symptoms include gingival enlargement and bleeding, oral ulceration, petechia, mucosal pallor, noma, trismus and oral infections. Oral lesions arise in both acute and chronic forms of all types of leukemia. These oral manifestations either may be the result of direct infiltration of leukemic cells (primary) or secondary to underlying thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, or impaired granulocyte function. Despite the fact that leukemia has long been known to be associated with oral lesions, the available literature on this topic consists mostly of case reports, without data summarizing the main oral changes for each type of leukemia. Therefore, the present review aimed at describing oral manifestations of all leukemia types and their dental management. This might be useful in early diagnosis, improving patient outcomes.

  9. Improvement of endocytoscopic findings after per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM in esophageal achalasia; does POEM reduce the risk of developing esophageal carcinoma? Per oral endoscopic myotomy, endocytoscopy and carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minami Hitomi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM has been reported to be a new therapeutic option for esophageal achalasia. The possibility that POEM could reduce the risk of developing esophageal squamous cell carcinoma was evaluated. Methods This was a single-centre, retrospective study. Fifteen consecutive patients with esophageal achalasia who underwent POEM in our institution between August 2010 and January 2012 were enrolled. Ultra-high magnification with endocytoscopy was performed, and both histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluations for Ki-67 and p53 were assessed before and 3 months after POEM. Results POEM was successfully performed and effectively released the dysphagia symptom in all patients without severe complications. Subjective symptoms (mean Ekcardt score, before 7.4 vs. after 0.5, p Conclusions POEM appears to be an effective and less invasive treatment of choice against achalasia and may reduce the risk of esophageal carcinogenesis. Endocytoscopy can be useful for the assessment of esophageal cellular proliferation.

  10. Improvement of endocytoscopic findings after per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) in esophageal achalasia; does POEM reduce the risk of developing esophageal carcinoma? Per oral endoscopic myotomy, endocytoscopy and carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Hitomi; Yamaguchi, Naoyuki; Matsushima, Kayoko; Akazawa, Yuko; Ohnita, Ken; Takeshima, Fuminao; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Inoue, Haruhiro; Nakao, Kazuhiko; Isomoto, Hajime

    2013-01-30

    Per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been reported to be a new therapeutic option for esophageal achalasia. The possibility that POEM could reduce the risk of developing esophageal squamous cell carcinoma was evaluated. This was a single-centre, retrospective study. Fifteen consecutive patients with esophageal achalasia who underwent POEM in our institution between August 2010 and January 2012 were enrolled. Ultra-high magnification with endocytoscopy was performed, and both histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluations for Ki-67 and p53 were assessed before and 3 months after POEM. POEM was successfully performed and effectively released the dysphagia symptom in all patients without severe complications. Subjective symptoms (mean Ekcardt score, before 7.4 vs. after 0.5, ptreatment of choice against achalasia and may reduce the risk of esophageal carcinogenesis. Endocytoscopy can be useful for the assessment of esophageal cellular proliferation.

  11. Assessment of clinical effects and safety of an oral supplement based on marine protein, vitamin C, grape seed extract, zinc, and tomato extract in the improvement of visible signs of skin aging in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adilson Costa,1,2 Elisangela Samartin Pegas Pereira,1 Elvira Cancio Assumpção,1 Felipe Borba Calixto dos Santos,1 Fernanda Sayuri Ota,1 Margareth de Oliveira Pereira,1 Maria Carolina Fidelis,1 Raquel Fávaro,1 Stephanie Selma Barros Langen,1 Lúcia Helena Favaro de Arruda,1 Eva Nydal Abildgaard3 1Department of Dermatology, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; 2KOLderma Clinical Trials Institute, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Pfizer Consumer Healthcare, Nutritional Sciences, Copenhagen, Denmark Background: Skin aging is a natural process that may be aggravated by environmental factors. Topical products are the conventional means to combat aging; however, the use of oral supplements is on the rise to assist in the management of aged skin.Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects and safety of an oral supplement containing (per tablet marine protein (105 mg, vitamin C (27 mg, grape seed extract (13.75 mg, zinc (2 mg, and tomato extract (14.38 mg in the improvement of skin aging in men.Methods: This single-center, open-label, quasi-experimental clinical study enrolled 47 male subjects, aged 30–45 years, with phototypes I–IV on the Fitzpatrick scale. Subjects received two tablets of the oral supplement for 180 consecutive days. Each subject served as their own control. Clinical assessments were made by medical personnel and by the subjects, respectively. Objective assessments were carried out through pH measurements, sebumetry, corneometry, ultrasound scanning, skin biopsies, and photographic images.Results: Forty-one subjects (87% completed the study. Clinical improvements on both investigator- and subject-rated outcomes were found for the following parameters: erythema, hydration, radiance, and overall appearance (P<0.05. The objective measurements in the facial skin showed significant improvements from baseline in skin hydration (P<0.05, dermal ultrasound density (P<0.001, and

  12. Synthesized Peptides from Yam Dioscorin Hydrolysis in Silico Exhibit Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitory Activities and Oral Glucose Tolerance Improvements in Normal Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yin-Shiou; Han, Chuan-Hsiao; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2016-08-24

    RRDY, RL, and DPF were the top 3 of 21 peptides for inhibitions against dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) from the pepsin hydrolysis of yam dioscorin in silico and were further investigated in a proof-of-concept study in normal ICR mice for regulating glucose metabolism by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The sample or sitagliptin (positive control) was orally administered by a feeding gauge; 30 min later, the glucose loads (2.5 g/kg) were performed. RRDY, yam dioscorin, or sitagliptin preload, but not DPF, lowered the area under the curve (AUC0-120) of blood glucose and DPP-IV activity and elevated the AUC0-120 of blood insulin, which showed significant differences compared to control (P dioscorin might be beneficial in glycemic control in normal mice and need further investigations in diabetic animal models.

  13. A fenbendazole oral drench in addition to an ivermectin pour-on reduces parasite burden and improves feedlot and carcass performance of finishing heifers compared with endectocides alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, C D; Hutcheson, J P; Nichols, W T

    2006-08-01

    Two studies utilizing 1,862 yearling heifers were conducted to determine the effects of a fenbendazole oral drench in addition to an ivermectin pour-on (SG+IVPO), compared with an ivermectin pour-on (IVPO) or a doramectin injectable (DMX) alone, on parasite burden, feedlot performance, and carcass merit of feedlot cattle. In the first study, heifers receiving the SG+IVPO had fewer (P = 0.02) cattle retreated for disease and 73% fewer (P = 0.06) worm eggs per fecal sample 98 d after treatment than heifers treated with IVPO. Heifers treated with SG+IVPO consumed more DM, had greater ADG, were heavier at slaughter, and had heavier carcasses than IVPO-treated heifers (P fenbendazole oral drench and an ivermectin pour-on reduced parasite burden and increased feed intake, ADG, and carcass weight in feedlot heifers compared with treatment with an endectocide alone.

  14. Development and optimization of sulforaphane-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers by the Box-Behnken design for improved oral efficacy against cancer: in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Kriti; Rizwanullah, Md; Kohli, Kanchan

    2017-11-28

    In the present study, sulforaphane (SFN)-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) were developed and optimized for improved oral efficacy against cancer. The SFN-loaded NLC formulation was developed by melt emulsification ultrasonication technique and optimized by Box-Behnken statistical design. The optimized SFN-loaded NLC formulation composed of precirol ® ATO 5 (solid lipid) and vitamin E (liquid lipid) as lipid phase (3% w/v), poloxamer 188 (1%) and Tween 80 (1%) as surfactant. The mean particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency (%) and drug loading (%) of optimized SFN-loaded NLC formulation was observed to be 145.38 ± 4.46 nm, 0.181 ± 0.023, -25.12 ± 2.36 mV, 84.94 ± 3.82% and 14.82 ± 3.46%, respectively. In vitro drug release studies showed that the release of SFN from optimized NLC formulation was significantly higher (86.52 ± 5.48%) compared to SFN suspension (38.47 ± 5.52%) up to 24 h. Ex vivo gut permeation studies revealed a very good enhancement in permeation of drug present in the NLC compared to plain SFN solution and were further confirmed by CLSM. MTT assay in different cancer cell lines showed that the optimized SFN-loaded NLC formulation exhibited significantly improved (p < .05) cytotoxicity compared to free SFN solution. SFN-loaded NLC formulation showed significantly improved antioxidant activity compared to free SFN solution. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic study on albino Wistar rats showed 5.04-fold increase in relative oral bioavailability with NLC (p < .05) compared to SFN suspension. Therefore, NLC represents a great potential for improved efficacy of SFN after oral administration.

  15. The membrane-associated MUC1 improves adhesion of salivary MUC5B on buccal cells. Application to development of an in vitro cellular model of oral epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ployon, Sarah; Belloir, Christine; Bonnotte, Aline; Lherminier, Jeannine; Canon, Francis; Morzel, Martine

    2016-01-01

    The mucosal pellicle is a thin layer of salivary proteins, mostly MUC5B mucins, anchored to epithelial oral cells. This pellicle is involved in protection of oral mucosae against abrasion, pathogenic microorganisms or chemical xenobiotics. The present study aimed at studying the involvement of MUC1 in mucosal pellicle formation and more specifically in salivary MUC5B binding using a cell-based model of oral epithelium. MUC1 mRNAs were not detected in TR146 cells, and therefore a stable cell line named TR146/MUC1 expressing this protein was developed by transfection. TR146 and TR146/MUC1 were incubated with human saliva in order to evaluate retention of MUC5B by epithelial cells. The cell surface of both TR146 and TR146/MUC1 was typical of a squamous non-keratinized epithelium, with the presence of numerous microplicae. After incubation for 2h with saliva diluted in culture medium (1:1) and two washes with PBS, saliva deposits on cells appeared as a loose filamentous thin network. MUC5B fluorescent immunostaining evidenced a heterogeneous lining of confluent cell cultures by this salivary mucin but with higher fluorescence on TR146/MUC1 cells. Semi-quantification of MUC5B bound to cells confirmed a better retention by TR146/MUC1, evaluated by Dot Blot (+34.1%, p<0.05) or by immunocytochemistry (+44%, p<0.001). The membrane-bound mucin MUC1 is a factor enhancing the formation of the mucosal pellicle by increasing the binding of salivary MUC5B to oral epithelial cells. An in vitro model suitable to study specifically the function and properties of the mucosal pellicle is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Surface modification of solid lipid nanoparticles for oral delivery of curcumin: Improvement of bioavailability through enhanced cellular uptake, and lymphatic uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jong-Suep; Cho, Cheong-Weon

    2017-08-01

    Curcumin has been reported to exhibit potent anticancer effects. However, poor solubility, bioavailability and stability of curcumin limit its in vivo efficacy for the cancer treatment. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are a promising delivery system for the enhancement of bioavailability of hydrophobic drugs. However, burst release of drug from SLN in acidic environment limits its usage as oral delivery system. Hence, we prepared N-carboxymethyl chitosan (NCC) coated curcumin-loaded SLN (NCC-SLN) to inhibit the rapid release of curcumin in acidic environment and enhance the bioavailability. The NCC-SLN exhibited suppressed burst release in simulated gastric fluid while sustained release was observed in simulated intestinal fluid. Furthermore, NCC-SLN exhibited increased cytotoxicity and cellular uptake on MCF-7 cells. The lymphatic uptake and oral bioavailability of NCC-SLN were found to be 6.3-fold and 9.5-fold higher than that of curcumin solution, respectively. These results suggest that NCC-SLN could be an efficient oral delivery system for curcumin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Oral health disparities in older adults: oral bacteria, inflammation, and aspiration pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannapieco, Frank A; Shay, Kenneth

    2014-10-01

    Poor oral hygiene has been suggested to be a risk factor for aspiration pneumonia in the institutionalized and disabled elderly. Control of oral biofilm formation in these populations reduces the numbers of potential respiratory pathogens in the oral secretions, which in turn reduces the risk for pneumonia. Together with other preventive measures, improved oral hygiene helps to control lower respiratory infections in frail elderly hospital and nursing home patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cancer of the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Pablo H; Patel, Snehal G

    2015-07-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Although early diagnosis is relatively easy, presentation with advanced disease is not uncommon. The standard of care is primary surgical resection with or without postoperative adjuvant therapy. Improvements in surgical techniques combined with the routine use of postoperative radiation or chemoradiation therapy have resulted in improved survival. Successful treatment is predicated on multidisciplinary treatment strategies to maximize oncologic control and minimize impact of therapy on form and function. Prevention of oral cancer requires better education about lifestyle-related risk factors, and improved awareness and tools for early diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Improving Eleventh Graders’ Oral Production in English Class through Cooperative Learning Strategies Mejora de la producción oral de estudiantes de grado undécimo en clase de inglés, a través de estrategias de aprendizaje cooperativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Yanive Prieto Castillo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to report on research carried out with eleventh graders at Colegio de Bachillerato Patria in Bogotá. The main objective of the research was to establish strategies to help students to improve their oral production in English. Instruments used to collect the data were: field notes, students’ and teachers’ surveys, students’ interviews and audiotapes recordings. Considering the data gathered, this research prompted a more cooperative environment among students in the oral process. Finally it was a way to motivate other teachers in the school to work with these kinds of strategies.El propósito de este artículo es presentar una investigación que se llevó a cabo con estudiantes de grado undécimo del Colegio de bachillerato Patria en Bogotá. El principal objetivo consistió en establecer estrategias que ayudaran a los estudiantes a mejorar su producción oral en inglés. Los instrumentos utilizados para recolectar información fueron diarios de campo, encuestas a estudiantes y profesores, entrevistas a estudiantes, grabaciones de audio y video. Considerando la información recolectada, este estudio promovió un ambiente de más cooperación entre los estudiantes. Finalmente fue una manera de motivar a otros docentes en el colegio a trabajar con este tipo de estrategias.

  20. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Oral and maxillofacial surgeons surgically treat the soft ... Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Oral and maxillofacial surgeons surgically treat the soft ...

  1. Promotion of oral health by community nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garry, Brendan; Boran, Sue

    2017-10-02

    To explore the enablers and barriers perceived by community nurses in the promotion of oral health in an adult community trust directorate. Oral health care promotion in community care settings is being neglected. England and Wales have witnessed marked improvements in periodontal disease; however, no improvements have been seen in older people. A qualitative methodology was employed, where eight nurses from Band 5 to 7 were interviewed using a semi-structured approach. The data was analysed thematically. Data analysis was organised into four themes: professional self-concept and the development of knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary in the promotion of oral health; the impact an organisation has on the promotion of oral health and an exploration of the enablers and barriers identified by the community nurses while delivering care; the relationships between the nurse and patient and the potential impact on oral health promotion; the concept of self-regard in relation to the promotion of oral health and its overall impact. A commitment to improving oral health and requests for additional educational input were apparent. Organisational enablers and barriers were identified, alongside the crucial role a positive self-regard for oral health care may play in the promotion of oral health. Nurses need relevant education, organisational support, adequate resources and support from a multidisciplinary team to deliver optimal oral health promotion.

  2. Towards understanding oral health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaura, E.; ten Cate, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term ‘oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain

  3. Idiopathic Facial Aseptic Granuloma in a 13-Year-Old Boy Dramatically Improved with Oral Doxycycline and Topical Metronidazole: Evidence for a Link with Childhood Rosacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Orion

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic facial aseptic granuloma (IFAG is a rare, benign pediatric dermatological lesion that occurs in children between 8 months and 13 years of age. The pathogenesis of IFAG is still unclear but it is likely to be associated with granulomatous rosacea in childhood. Here we describe a case of IFAG in a 13-year-old boy who showed a dramatic response to oral doxycycline and topical metronidazole, which supports the hypothesis that IFAG may belong to the spectrum of rosacea.

  4. Metabolic intervention in surgical patients. An assessment of the effect of somatostatin, ranitidine, naloxone, diclophenac, dipyridamole, or salbutamol infusion on energy and protein kinetics in surgical patients using stable and radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, J.H.; Wolfe, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    We have assessed the effect of a variety of forms of metabolic intervention on both energy and protein metabolism in 44 severely ill surgical patients. The patients were studied either in the basal state or while receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN), and the metabolic effects were assessed using the primed-constant infusion of a combination of stable isotopes and radioisotopes. Somatostatin infusion, either in the basal state or in the TPN, did not change glucose kinetics, but there was a significant decrease in the rate of net protein catabolism (NPC). In the basal studies the rate of NPC decreased from 3.4 +/- 0.7 g/kg/d to 2.9 +/- 0.7 g/kg/d (p less than 0.002), while in the TPN patients the corresponding values were 1.48 +/- 0.61 g/kg/d and 1.10 +/- 0.50 g/kg/d, respectively (p less than 0.005). Histamine type 2 blockade with ranitidine did not significantly alter glucose kinetics, but in both the TPN patients and in the basal state ranitidine was associated with a significant decrease in the rate of NPC. In the basal state rate of NPC was 2.44 +/- 0.53 g/kg/d and during ranitidine infusion the value was 2.08 +/- 0.42 g/kg/d (p less than 0.04). Naloxone infusion did not alter glucose kinetics, but there was a significant decrease in the rate of NPC from a basal value of 2.6 +/- 0.6 g/kg/d to 2.3 +/- 0.5 g/kg/d (p less than 0.04). The infusion of the prostaglandin antagonists diclofenac or dipyridamole resulted in increases in the plasma insulin level, and as a result glucose turnover decreased in both groups. In the diclofenac group the rate of glucose turnover decreased from 14.4 +/- 1.7 mumol/kg/min to 12.6 +/- 1.3 mumol/kg/min (p less than 0.02). Neither prostaglandin antagonist resulted in any significant change in the rate of NPC

  5. Fluoride and Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S; Lennon, M A; Petersen, P E; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Whelton, H; Whitford, G M

    2016-06-01

    The discovery during the first half of the 20th century of the link between natural fluoride, adjusted fluoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fluoride in improving oral health. Epidemiological studies of fluoridation programmes have confirmed their safety and their effectiveness in controlling dental caries. Major advances in our knowledge of how fluoride impacts the caries process have led to the development, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of other fluoride vehicles including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fluorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fields of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fluorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fluoride strategies has come from many sources including government health departments as well as international and national grant agencies. In addition, the unique role which industry has played in the development, formulation, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of the various fluoride vehicles and strategies is noteworthy. This updated version of 'Fluoride and Oral Health' has adopted an evidence-based approach to its commentary on the different fluoride vehicles and strategies and also to its recommendations. In this regard, full account is taken of the many recent systematic reviews published in peer reviewed literature.

  6. Oral dirofilariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahija Janardhanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis affecting animals can rarely cause infections in human beings through the accidental bite of potential vectors. The resulting infection in man, known as zoonotic filariasis occur worldwide. Human dirofilariasis, the most common zoonotic filariasis, is caused by the filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Dirofilarial worms, which are recognized as pathogenic in man can cause nodular lesions in the lung, subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity or eyes. Oral dirofilariasis is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. We report an interesting case of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens involving buccal mucosa in a patient who presented with a facial swelling. The clinical features, diagnostic issues and treatment aspects are discussed. This paper stresses the importance of considering dirofilariasis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous swelling of the face, especially in areas where it is endemic.

  7. Oral dirofilariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Mahija; Rakesh, S; Savithri, Vindhya

    2014-01-01

    Filariasis affecting animals can rarely cause infections in human beings through the accidental bite of potential vectors. The resulting infection in man, known as zoonotic filariasis occur worldwide. Human dirofilariasis, the most common zoonotic filariasis, is caused by the filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Dirofilarial worms, which are recognized as pathogenic in man can cause nodular lesions in the lung, subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity or eyes. Oral dirofilariasis is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. We report an interesting case of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens involving buccal mucosa in a patient who presented with a facial swelling. The clinical features, diagnostic issues and treatment aspects are discussed. This paper stresses the importance of considering dirofilariasis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous swelling of the face, especially in areas where it is endemic.

  8. Oral delivery of anticancer drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thanki, Kaushik; Gangwal, Rahul P; Sangamwar, Abhay T

    2013-01-01

    The present report focuses on the various aspects of oral delivery of anticancer drugs. The significance of oral delivery in cancer therapeutics has been highlighted which principally includes improvement in quality of life of patients and reduced health care costs. Subsequently, the challenges...... incurred in the oral delivery of anticancer agents have been especially emphasized. Sincere efforts have been made to compile the various physicochemical properties of anticancer drugs from either literature or predicted in silico via GastroPlus™. The later section of the paper reviews various emerging...... trends to tackle the challenges associated with oral delivery of anticancer drugs. These invariably include efflux transporter based-, functional excipient- and nanocarrier based-approaches. The role of drug nanocrystals and various others such as polymer based- and lipid based...

  9. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Saini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.

  10. A potent, selective, and orally bioavailable inhibitor of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B improves insulin and leptin signaling in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Navasona; Konidaris, Konstantis F; Gasser, Gilles; Tonks, Nicholas K

    2018-02-02

    The protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is a negative regulator of insulin and leptin signaling and a highly validated therapeutic target for diabetes and obesity. Conventional approaches to drug development have produced potent and specific PTP1B inhibitors, but these inhibitors lack oral bioavailability, which limits their potential for drug development. Here, we report that DPM-1001, an analog of the specific PTP1B inhibitor trodusquemine (MSI-1436), is a potent, specific, and orally bioavailable inhibitor of PTP1B. DPM-1001 also chelates copper, which enhanced its potency as a PTP1B inhibitor. DPM-1001 displayed anti-diabetic properties that were associated with enhanced signaling through insulin and leptin receptors in animal models of diet-induced obesity. Therefore, DPM-1001 represents a proof of concept for a new approach to therapeutic intervention in diabetes and obesity. Although the PTPs have been considered undruggable, the findings of this study suggest that allosteric PTP inhibitors may help reinvigorate drug development efforts that focus on this important family of signal-transducing enzymes. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Zein-Based Nanoparticles Improve the Oral Bioavailability of Resveratrol and Its Anti-inflammatory Effects in a Mouse Model of Endotoxic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penalva, Rebeca; Esparza, Irene; Larraneta, Eneko; González-Navarro, Carlos J; Gamazo, Carlos; Irache, Juan M

    2015-06-17

    Resveratrol offers pleiotropic health benefits including a reported ability to inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine production. The aim of this work was to prepare, characterize, and evaluate a resveratrol nanoparticulate formulation based on zein. For this purpose, the oral bioavailability of the encapsulated polyphenol as well as its anti-inflammatory effects in a mouse model of endotoxic shock was studied. The resveratrol-loaded nanoparticles displayed a mean size of 307 ± 3 nm, with a negative zeta potential (-51.1 ± 1.55 mV), and a polyphenol loading of 80.2 ± 3.26 μg/mg. In vitro, the release of resveratrol from the nanoparticles was found to be pH independent and adjusted well to the Peppas-Sahlin kinetic model, suggesting a mechanism based on the combination of diffusion and erosion of the nanoparticle matrix. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that zein-based nanoparticles provided high and prolonged plasma levels of the polyphenol for at least 48 h. The oral bioavailability of resveratrol when administered in these nanoparticles increased up to 50% (19.2-fold higher than for the control solution of the polyphenol). Furthermore, nanoparticles administered daily for 7 days at 15 mg/kg were able to diminish the endotoxic symptoms induced in mice by the intraperitoneal administration of LPS (i.e., hypothermia, piloerection, and stillness). In addition, serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels were slightly lower (approximately 15%) than those observed in the control.

  12. [Oral microbiota: a promising predictor of human oral and systemic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xu; Junzhi, He; Xuedong, Zhou

    2015-12-01

    A human oral microbiota is the ecological community of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms found in human oral cavity. Oral microbiota exists mostly in the form of a biofilm and maintains a dynamic ecological equilibrium with the host body. However, the disturbance of this ecological balance inevitably causes oral infectious diseases, such as dental caries, apical periodontitis, periodontal diseases, pericoronitis, and craniofacial bone osteomyelitis. Oral microbiota is also correlated with many systemic diseases, including cancer, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, and preterm birth. Hence, oral microbiota has been considered as a potential biomarker of human diseases. The "Human Microbiome Project" and other metagenomic projects worldwide have advanced our knowledge of the human oral microbiota. The integration of these metadata has been the frontier of oral microbiology to improve clinical translation. By reviewing recent progress on studies involving oral microbiota-related oral and systemic diseases, we aimed to propose the essential role of oral microbiota in the prediction of the onset, progression, and prognosis of oral and systemic diseases. An oral microbiota-based prediction model helps develop a new paradigm of personalized medicine and benefits the human health in the post-metagenomics era.

  13. National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State Offices Search the Organizations Database Center for Oral Health Systems Integration and Improvement (COHSII) COHSII is a ... needs of the MCH population. Brush Up on Oral Health This monthly newsletter provides Head Start staff with ...

  14. ASTDD Synopses of State Oral Health Programs - Selected indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011-2017. The ASTDD Synopses of State Oral Health Programs contain information useful in tracking states’ efforts to improve oral health and contributions to...

  15. ASTDD Synopses of State Oral Health Programs - Selected indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011-2017. The ASTDD Synopses of State Oral Health Programs contain information useful in tracking states’ efforts to improve oral health and contributions to...

  16. [Oral and dental health and oral and dental support of home patients--role of dental hygienist in the home service nursing station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, T; Kimura, M; Tamura, N; Hirata, S; Yabunaka, T; Kamimura, Y

    1999-12-01

    Home patients have few chances for going out, so communication with their family means a lot. Talking and eating are particular pleasures. Therefore, oral and dental health and oral and dental support are very important for home patients. A dental hygienist from our clinic visits and offers oral and dental health (oral care) and oral and dental support (oral rehabilitation) to home patients as part of a care plan with home care nurses. Moreover, as general conditions are closely related with oral function, maintaining oral and dental health and regular oral and dental support are very important in order to improve the quality of life (QOL) of home patients.

  17. Treatment of recalcitrant erosive oral lichen planus and desquamative gingivitis with oral apremilast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuHilal, Mohn'd; Walsh, Scott; Shear, Neil

    2016-11-30

    Erosive oral lichen planus and desquamative gingivitis are uncommon but severe debilitating variants of oral lichen planus. Treatment of these presentations is difficult and challenging. A 44-year-old woman was referred to the dermatology clinic with chronic painful lichen planus-related gingivitis and buccal erosions. She has failed multiple treatments including topical clobetasol and tacrolimus, intralesional corticosteroids and several systemic and immunosuppressive agents. Following completion of three months of treatment with oral apremilast at a dose of 30 mg twice daily, significant improvement was noted in her disease activity. Oral apremilast may be a safe and effective treatment for erosive oral lichen planus.

  18. [New oral anticoagulant drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovits, Alejandro; Aizman, Andrés; Zúñiga, Pamela; Pereira, Jaime; Mezzano, Diego

    2011-10-01

    Thromboembolic disease (TED) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The hallmark of oral long-term anticoagulant therapy has been the use of vitamin K antagonists, whose anticoagulant effect is exerted inhibiting vitamin K epoxide reductase. Warfarin and acenocoumarol are the most commonly used. In the last five years several new drugs for long term anticoagulation have been developed, which can inhibit single clotting factors with the purpose of improving drug therapeutic range and, ideally, minimizing bleeding risks. This review addresses the state of the art on the clinical use of inhibitors of activated factor X and thrombin.

  19. A comparative evaluation of the in vitro penetration performance of the improved Crest complete toothbrush versus the Current Crest complete toothbrush, the Colgate Precision toothbrush and the Oral-B P40 toothbrush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpenhein, D W; Handel, S E; Hughes, T J; Wild, J

    1996-01-01

    Removal of plaque and debris from interproximal surfaces during toothbrushing has generally been difficult to achieve, in large part because traditional flat-bristled toothbrushes do not offer good interproximal penetration. As a result, a number of varying bristle designs have been developed, with the rippled-design brush shown to be particularly effective at removing interproximal plaque. Recently, an existing brush, the original Crest Complete, was modified to offer a more deeply rippled version. This study evaluated the interproximal penetration of four bristle designs: rippled pattern (original Crest Complete), deeper rippled pattern (improved Crest Complete), multi-level (Colgate Precision), and flat-tufted (Oral-B P40). The study used a previously reported in vitro model for determining interproximal penetration of manual toothbrushes (J Clin Dent 5:27-33, 1994). In order to effectively mimic the in-use characteristics of toothbrushing, this model is based on analysis of videotaped consumer brushing habits, tooth morphology, and in vivo plaque tenacity characteristics and uses the three most predominantly used brushing techniques (circular, up-and-down, and back-and-forth, with the brush held at both 45 and 90 degrees to the tooth surface). In addition, the model's brush stroke length, brush force, and brush speed are likewise based on analysis of consumer brushing patterns. The results of the study indicate that the new Crest Complete with deeper rippled bristles provided significantly superior (p Colgate Precision and Oral-B brushes overall and for three of the four brush strokes tested. In addition, the new Crest Complete was found to provide significantly superior interproximal penetration to the original Crest Complete overall and in circular and up-and-down strokes, and the original Crest Complete provided superior overall interproximal penetration to the Colgate and Oral-B brushes.

  20. [Removable partial dentures. Oral functions and types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creugers, N.H.J.; Baat, C. de

    2009-01-01

    A removable partial denture enables the restoration or improvement of 4 oral functions: aesthetics, mandibular stability, mastication, and speech. However, wearing a removable partial denture should not cause oral comfort to deteriorate. There are 3 types of removable partial dentures: acrylic

  1. Improvement of Antioxidant Defences and Mood Status by Oral GABA Tea Administration in a Mouse Model of Post-Stroke Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Daglia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Green GABA (GGABA and Oolong GABA (OGABA teas are relatively new varieties of tea, whose chemical composition and functional properties are largely under-studied, despite their promising health capacities. Post stroke depression (PSD is a complication of stroke with high clinical relevance, yielding increasing mortality and morbidity rates, and a lower response to common therapies and rehabilitation. Methods: Two chemically characterized commercial samples of GGABA and OGABA were investigated for effects on mood following oral administration using a mouse model of PSD, through common validated tests including the Despair Swimming Test and Tail Suspension Test. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of GGABA and OGABA was evaluated by determining the levels of lipid peroxidation products and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the mouse brain in vivo. Results: GGABA and OGABA attenuated depressed mood by influencing behavioral parameters linked to depression. GGABA was more active than OGABA in this study, and this effect may be likely due to a higher content of polyphenolic substances and amino acids in GGABA compared to OGABA. GGABA also exerted a greater antioxidant activity. Conclusions: Our data suggests that GABA tea is a promising candidate that can be used as an adjuvant in the management of PSD.

  2. Oral contraceptive pretreatment does not improve outcome in microdose gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist protocol among poor responder intracytoplasmic sperm injection patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvan, Candan Iltemir; Berker, Bulent; Turhan, Nilgun Ozturk; Satiroglu, Hakan

    2008-01-01

    To compare oral contraceptive (OC) pretreatment plus microdose GnRH-a in flare-up protocol and non-OC microdose GnRH-a in flare-up protocol among poor responder ICSI patients. A retrospective analysis of poor responder ICSI patients. Patients were divided into two groups according to used microdose protocol. Precycle treatment with OC followed by follicular phase administration of 40 microg s.c. leuprolide acetate (LA) every 12 h beginning on after 2 day pill-free period and rFSH administration was begun on the third day of LA administration (OC-Group, n=26). Alternatively on day 2 after menses, patients were administered similar stimulation regime (non-OC Group, n=27). There were no significant differences between groups in the number of oocytes, peak estradiol levels, endometrial thickness, fertilization rates and embryo quality. Implantations and pregnancy rates per embryo transfer were similar. OC pretreatment plus microdose GnRHa in flare-up protocol does not offer advantages over non-OC microdose GnRHa in flare-up protocol among poor responder ICSI patients.

  3. The World Oral Health Report 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2003-01-01

    of alcohol. In addition to socio-environmental determinants, oral disease is highly related to these lifestyle factors, which are risks to most chronic diseases as well as protective factors such as appropriate exposure to fluoride and good oral hygiene. Oral diseases qualify as major public health problems......Chronic diseases and injuries are the leading health problems in all but a few parts of the world. The rapidly changing disease patterns throughout the world are closely linked to changing lifestyles, which include diets rich in sugars, widespread use of tobacco, and increased consumption...... is a new strategy for managing prevention and control of oral diseases. The WHO Oral Health Programme has also strengthened its work for improved oral health globally through links with other technical programmes within the Department for Noncommunicable Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. The current...

  4. ORAL MANIFESTATIONS AMONG ROMANIAN HIV PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela ARBUNE

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate the oral health problems on HIV youth patients from Galati. Materials and method. A cross-sectional study assessed 102 patients with mean age 22. The most frequent oral manifestations on HIV infected youth under ART are erythema marginatum, periodontitis, candidosis and hypertrophia gingivalis. Results and discussion. Dental decay-missing-filled index on HIV patients is high. Viral HIV replication, long time pediatric exposure on HIV, male sex, smoking, and oral inflamation are related to dental poor condition. Exodontic therapy is comon among HIV youth. However, persistence of some associated oral infections is related to individual or behavioral risk factors, but also to some newly found mechanisms, such as disfunctional immune reconstruction. Seeing to antiretroviral treatment, the severity and frequency of oral manifestations decreased among HIV patients on antiretroviral treatment. Conclusions. Developing medical, social and educational programs is imperative for improving the oral health of HIV youth of Galati.

  5. A salutogenic perspective to oral health:sense of coherence as a determinant of oral and general health behaviours, and oral health-related quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Savolainen, J. (Jarno)

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Dental diseases such as dental caries and periodontal disease could well be seen as being behaviour-related. The high prevalence of periodontal disease in the Finnish adult population mirrors the need for improving oral health behaviours in a comprehensive manner. Thus far, scant attention has been drawn to the underlying psycho-social factors that could, in part, explain oral health and oral health behaviours. Deficiencies in oral health behaviour may also be indicative of an ind...

  6. Oral treatment with Cu(II)(atsm) increases mutant SOD1 in vivo but protects motor neurons and improves the phenotype of a transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Blaine R; Lim, Nastasia K H; McAllum, Erin J; Donnelly, Paul S; Hare, Dominic J; Doble, Philip A; Turner, Bradley J; Price, Katherine A; Lim, Sin Chun; Paterson, Brett M; Hickey, James L; Rhoads, Timothy W; Williams, Jared R; Kanninen, Katja M; Hung, Lin W; Liddell, Jeffrey R; Grubman, Alexandra; Monty, Jean-Francois; Llanos, Roxana M; Kramer, David R; Mercer, Julian F B; Bush, Ashley I; Masters, Colin L; Duce, James A; Li, Qiao-Xin; Beckman, Joseph S; Barnham, Kevin J; White, Anthony R; Crouch, Peter J

    2014-06-04

    Mutations in the metallo-protein Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in humans and an expression level-dependent phenotype in transgenic rodents. We show that oral treatment with the therapeutic agent diacetyl-bis(4-methylthiosemicarbazonato)copper(II) [Cu(II)(atsm)] increased the concentration of mutant SOD1 (SOD1G37R) in ALS model mice, but paradoxically improved locomotor function and survival of the mice. To determine why the mice with increased levels of mutant SOD1 had an improved phenotype, we analyzed tissues by mass spectrometry. These analyses revealed most SOD1 in the spinal cord tissue of the SOD1G37R mice was Cu deficient. Treating with Cu(II)(atsm) decreased the pool of Cu-deficient SOD1 and increased the pool of fully metallated (holo) SOD1. Tracking isotopically enriched (65)Cu(II)(atsm) confirmed the increase in holo-SOD1 involved transfer of Cu from Cu(II)(atsm) to SOD1, suggesting the improved locomotor function and survival of the Cu(II)(atsm)-treated SOD1G37R mice involved, at least in part, the ability of the compound to improve the Cu content of the mutant SOD1. This was supported by improved survival of SOD1G37R mice that expressed the human gene for the Cu uptake protein CTR1. Improving the metal content of mutant SOD1 in vivo with Cu(II)(atsm) did not decrease levels of misfolded SOD1. These outcomes indicate the metal content of SOD1 may be a greater determinant of the toxicity of the protein in mutant SOD1-associated forms of ALS than the mutations themselves. Improving the metal content of SOD1 therefore represents a valid therapeutic strategy for treating ALS caused by SOD1. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/348021-11$15.00/0.

  7. Independent older adults perspectives on oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabra, K K; Compton, S M; Keenan, L P

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore oral health experiences from the perspective of older adults' living in community dwellings. The two objectives of this study were to identify facilitators and barriers to oral health care, and to determine how utilization of oral health services compares to utilization of other healthcare services. An interpretive descriptive methodology was employed with a purposive sample of 12 adults, aged 70 years or older. The inclusion criterion was English-speaking seniors residing in community dwellings. Community dwellings were defined as any housing outside of long-term care or other supportive living facilities. Semi-structured interviews were 30-80 min, audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three researchers participated in the comparative analysis process to develop codes, generate categories, interpret patterns and construct themes. Three central themes surfacing from the data were as follows: life course influences on oral health, transparency in delivery of oral health services and interrelationships between oral health and overall health. Older adults in this study emphasized the value of establishing collaborative and trusting relationships between oral health practitioners and older adults. Oral health practitioners should be clear and transparent when communicating information about oral health costs and be cognizant of different circumstances from childhood to older adulthood that inhibit or promote routine utilization of oral health services. Including oral health services as part of interdisciplinary care teams could help promote understandings of the reciprocal relationship between oral health and general health and improve oral health status for older adults. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Does Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Improve Outcomes In pT1-3N0 Oral Cavity Cancer With Tumor-Free Margins and Perineural Invasion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, C.-T.; Chang, J.T.-C.; Wang, H.-M.; Ng, S.-H.; Hsueh Chuen; Lee, L.-Y.; Lin, C.-H.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The criteria for administration of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain controversial, and it is unclear whether patients with pT1-3N0 disease benefit from adjuvant radiation in the presence of free margins and perineural invasion. The goal of this report was to determine whether this group would benefit from adjuvant radiation therapy in terms of 5-year local control rate and overall survival rate. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed our case records from January 1996 to May 2005. In all, 460 pT1-3N0 OSCC patients had tumor-free margins, of whom 68 had perineural invasion. Postoperative adjuvant RT was performed in patients with pT4 tumors, positive lymph nodes, or close margins (≤4 mm). In addition, selected OSCC patients with large pT3 tumors or perineural invasion received postoperative adjuvant RT. Local control and overall survival rates were plotted by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: There were no significant differences in 5-year local control (p 0.1936) and overall survival (p = 0.5580) rates between patients with perineural invasion compared with those without. Among patients with perineural invasion, the addition of adjuvant radiotherapy did not significantly alter the 5-year local control rate (p = 0.3170) or the overall survival rate (p = 0.0935). Conclusion: Altogether, these data seem to indicate that radical surgical resection alone should be considered a sufficient treatment for OSCC patients with pT1-3N0 disease, even in the presence of perineural invasion

  9. Red wine intake but not other alcoholic beverages increases total antioxidant capacity and improves pro-inflammatory profile after an oral fat diet in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A; Cachofeiro, V; Millán, J; Lahera, V; Nieto, M L; Martín, R; Bello, E; Alvarez-Sala, L A

    2015-12-01

    Different alcoholic beverages exert different effects on inflammation and oxidative stress but these results are controversial and scanty in some aspects. We analyze the effect of different alcoholic beverages after a fat-enriched diet on lipid profile, inflammatory factors and oxidative stress in healthy people in a controlled environment. We have performed a cross-over design in five different weeks. Sixteen healthy volunteers have received the same oral fat-enriched diet (1486kcal/m(2)) and a daily total amount of 16g/m(2) of alcohol, of different beverages (red wine, vodka, brandy or rum) and equivalent caloric intakes as sugar with water in the control group. We have measured the levels of serum lipids, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL-6), soluble phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Red wine intake was associated with decreased of mean concentrations of hsCRP, TNFα and IL-6 induced by fat-enriched diet (p<0.05); nevertheless, sPLA2 concentrations were not significantly modified. After a fat-enriched diet added with red wine, TAC increased as compared to the same diet supplemented with rum, brandy, vodka or the control (water with sugar) (p<0.05). Moderate red wine intake, but not other alcoholic beverages, decreased pro-inflammatory factors and increased total antioxidant capacity despite a fat-enriched diet intake in healthy young volunteers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  10. Staging N0 oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Grupe, Peter

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare sentinel lymph node biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Doppler ultrasonography, and palpation as staging tools in patients with T1/T2 N0 cancer of the oral cavity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty consecutive patients were enrolled (17 F and 23 M, aged 32-90 years), 24 T1......%, but the sensitivity of MRI 36% was low. The specificities were 100%, 85%, and 93%, respectively. By combined sentinel lymph node biopsy and ultrasonography the overall sensitivity could have been 100%. CONCLUSION: Sentinel lymph node biopsy improved staging of patients with small N0 oral cancers. Combined sentinel...

  11. Blood cells transcriptomics as source of potential biomarkers of articular health improvement: effects of oral intake of a rooster combs extract rich in hyaluronic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez, J.; Bonet, M.L.; Keijer, J.; Schothorst, van E.M.; Moller, I.; Chetrit, C.; Martinez-Puig, D.; Palou, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore peripheral blood gene expression as a source of biomarkers of joint health improvement related to glycosaminoglycan (GAG) intake in humans. Healthy individuals with joint discomfort were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study

  12. Oral cyclosporine therapy for refractory severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil S Gokhale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the success of oral cyclosporine therapy in a patient with severe vision-threatening vernal keratoconjunctivitis. A child presented with severe allergy which was not controlled with topical steroids, cyclosporine and mast cell stabilizers. Oral steroids were required repeatedly to suppress inflammation. Child showed a dramatic improvement and stabilization with oral cyclosporine therapy. Oral cyclosporine therapy can be tried in severe vision-threatening allergy refractory to conventional therapy.

  13. Oral Cancer Knowledge and Diagnostic Ability Among Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassona, Y; Scully, C; Abu Tarboush, N; Baqain, Z; Ismail, F; Hawamdeh, S; Sawair, F

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine factors that influence the diagnostic ability of dental students with regards to oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders. Dental students at different levels of study were directly interviewed to examine their oral cancer knowledge and diagnostic ability using a validated and pre-tested survey instrument containing validated clinical images of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders. An oral cancer knowledge scale (0 to 31) was generated from correct responses on oral cancer general knowledge, and a diagnostic ability scale (0 to 100) was generated from correct selections of suspicious oral lesions. Knowledge scores ranged from 0 to 27 (mean 10.1 ± 6.0); mean knowledge scores increased with year of study; 5th year students had the highest mean knowledge score (19.1 ± 4.0), while 1st year students had the lowest (5.6 ± 3.5). Diagnostic ability scores increased with year of study and ranged from 0 to 88.5 % (mean 41.8 % ± 15.6). The ability to recognize suspicious oral lesions was significantly correlated with knowledge about oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders (r = 0.28; P oral cancer education curricula; increasing students' contact with patients who have oral lesions including oral cancer will help to improve their future diagnostic ability and early detection practices.

  14. Oral contraceptives induced hepatotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    B. Akshaya Srikanth; V. Manisree

    2013-01-01

    Oral Contraceptives are the pharmacological agents used to prevent pregnancy. These are divided as the combined and progestogen methods and are administered orally, transdermally, systemically and via vaginal route. All these methods contain both oestrogen and progestogen. Vigorous usage of oral contraceptives and anabolic steroids as associated with cholestasis, vascular lesions and hepatic neoplasm. Benign hepatic neoplasms are clearly associated with oral contraceptives. In this article we...

  15. Oral vaccination of fish

    OpenAIRE

    Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen breakdown in the harsh gastric environment, but also to the high tolerogenic gut environment and to inadequate vaccine design. In this review we discuss current approaches used to develop oral vaccines fo...

  16. Oral vaccination of fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen

  17. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to detect oral cancer during your routine dental examinations. Don't risk it. Perform an oral cancer ... oral cancer self-exam each month. An oral examination is performed using a bright light and a ...

  18. Blood cells transcriptomics as source of potential biomarkers of articular health improvement: effects of oral intake of a rooster combs extract rich in hyaluronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Juana; Bonet, M Luisa; Keijer, Jaap; van Schothorst, Evert M; Mölller, Ingrid; Chetrit, Carles; Martinez-Puig, Daniel; Palou, Andreu

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to explore peripheral blood gene expression as a source of biomarkers of joint health improvement related to glycosaminoglycan (GAG) intake in humans. Healthy individuals with joint discomfort were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study in humans. Subjects ate control yoghurt or yoghurt supplemented with a recently authorized novel food in Europe containing hyaluronic acid (65 %) from rooster comb (Mobilee™ as commercial name) for 90 days. Effects on functional quality-of-life parameters related to joint health were assessed. Whole-genome microarray analysis of peripheral blood samples from a subset of 20 subjects (10 placebo and 10 supplemented) collected pre- and post-intervention was performed. Mobilee™ supplementation reduced articular pain intensity and synovial effusion and improved knee muscular strength indicators as compared to placebo. About 157 coding genes were differentially expressed in blood cells between supplemented and placebo groups post-intervention, but not pre-intervention (p < 0.05; fold change ≥1.2). Among them, a reduced gene expression of glucuronidase-beta (GUSB), matrix metallopeptidase 23B (MMP23B), xylosyltransferase II (XYLT2), and heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase 1 (HS6ST1) was found in the supplemented group. Correlation analysis indicated a direct relationship between blood cell gene expression of MMP23B, involved in the breakdown of the extracellular matrix, and pain intensity, and an inverse relationship between blood cell gene expression of HS6ST1, responsible for 6-O-sulfation of heparan sulfate, and indicators of knee muscular strength. Expression levels of specific genes in blood cells, in particular genes related to GAG metabolism and extracellular matrix dynamics, are potential biomarkers of beneficial effects on articular health.

  19. Feasibility of using global system for mobile communication (GSM)-based tracking for vaccinators to improve oral poliomyelitis vaccine campaign coverage in rural Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandir, Subhash; Dharma, Vijay Kumar; Siddiqi, Danya Arif; Khan, Aamir Javed

    2017-09-05

    Despite multiple rounds of immunization campaigns, it has not been possible to achieve optimum immunization coverage for poliovirus in Pakistan. Supplementary activities to improve coverage of immunization, such as door-to-door campaigns are constrained by several factors including inaccurate hand-drawn maps and a lack of means to objectively monitor field teams in real time, resulting in suboptimal vaccine coverage during campaigns. Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) - based tracking of mobile subscriber identity modules (SIMs) of vaccinators provides a low-cost solution to identify missed areas and ensure effective immunization coverage. We conducted a pilot study to investigate the feasibility of using GSM technology to track vaccinators through observing indicators including acceptability, ease of implementation, costs and scalability as well as the likelihood of ownership by District Health Officials. The real-time location of the field teams was displayed on a GSM tracking web dashboard accessible by supervisors and managers for effective monitoring of workforce attendance including 'time in-time out', and discerning if all target areas - specifically remote and high-risk locations - had been reached. Direct access to this information by supervisors eliminated the possibility of data fudging and inaccurate reporting by workers regarding their mobility. The tracking cost per vaccinator was USD 0.26/month. Our study shows that GSM-based tracking is potentially a cost-efficient approach, results in better monitoring and accountability, is scalable and provides the potential for improved geographic coverage of health services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Interactions between sleep disorders and oral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, N T; Emami, E; Helman, J I; Chervin, R D

    2014-04-01

    Dental sleep medicine is a rapidly growing field that is in close and direct interaction with sleep medicine and comprises many aspects of human health. As a result, dentists who encounter sleep health and sleep disorders may work with clinicians from many other disciplines and specialties. The main sleep and oral health issues that are covered in this review are obstructive sleep apnea, chronic mouth breathing, sleep-related gastroesophageal reflux, and sleep bruxism. In addition, edentulism and its impact on sleep disorders are discussed. Improving sleep quality and sleep characteristics, oral health, and oral function involves both pathophysiology and disease management. The multiple interactions between oral health and sleep underscore the need for an interdisciplinary clinical team to manage oral health-related sleep disorders that are commonly seen in dental practice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Therapeutic strategies with oral fluoropyrimidine anticancer agent, S-1 against oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Koji; Ferdous, Tarannum; Ueyama, Yoshiya

    2017-08-01

    Oral cancer has been recognized as a tumor with low sensitivity to anticancer agents. However, introduction of S-1, an oral cancer agent is improving treatment outcome for patients with oral cancer. In addition, S-1, as a main drug for oral cancer treatment in Japan can be easily available for outpatients. In fact, S-1 exerts high therapeutic effects with acceptable side effects. Moreover, combined chemotherapy with S-1 shows higher efficacy than S-1 alone, and combined chemo-radiotherapy with S-1 exerts remarkable therapeutic effects. Furthermore, we should consider the combined therapy of S-1 and molecular targeting agents right now as these combinations were reportedly useful for oral cancer treatment. Here, we describe our findings related to S-1 that were obtained experimentally and clinically, and favorable therapeutic strategies with S-1 against oral cancer with bibliographic considerations.

  2. Oral complications of cancer therapies. Oral complications in the pediatric population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggott, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    A number of acute oral complications may be associated with cancer therapy in children, but the extent and duration of these complications, and the most effective management techniques. have not been well described. The few studies differ in design, making comparisons difficult. Well-controlled, prospective clinical studies are needed to define the most effective strategies for the management of acute oral complications in children. However, it is clear that dental intervention prior to cancer therapy is an important factor in the optimal preparation of the patient. During cancer therapy, intensive supervised oral preventive protocols appear to be of benefit to the child's oral health, overall comfort, and well-being. Furthermore, the prevention of oral infection may significantly reduce the morbidity associated with cancer therapy. Long-term preventive oral care may help prevent dental disease and infection in medically compromised children and contribute to improving the quality of life. 41 references

  3. [Frequency of oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral epithelial dysplasia in oral and oropharyngeal mucosa in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carolina; Hernández, Marcela; Martínez, Benjamín; Adorno, Daniela

    2016-02-01

    Oral cancer in Chile corresponds approximately to 1.6% of all cancer cases. There are few studies about oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma in the Chilean population. To determine the frequency of hyperkeratosis, mild, moderate and severe oral epithelial dysplasia, in situ carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral and oropharyngeal mucosa in a registry of the Oral Pathology Reference Institute of the Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de Chile, in a ten years period. Review of clinical records and pathological plates of 389 patients, obtained between 1990 and 2009. Cases were selected according to their pathological diagnosis, including hyperkeratosis, oral epithelial dysplasia, in situ carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma. Forty four percent of cases were squamous cell carcinoma, followed by hyperkeratosis in 37% and mild epithelial dysplasia in 11%. Squamous cell carcinoma was more common in men aged over 50 years. Most of the potentially malignant disorders presented clinically as leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma were clinically recognized as cancer. In this study, men aged over 50 years are the highest risk group for oral cancer. Early diagnosis is deficient since most of these lesions were diagnosed when squamous cell carcinoma became invasive. Leukoplakia diagnosis is mostly associated with hyperkeratosis and epithelial dysplasia, therefore biopsy of these lesions is mandatory to improve early diagnosis.

  4. Oral intake of Boesenbergia pandurata extract improves skin hydration, gloss, and wrinkling: A randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Un; Chung, Hee Chul; Kim, Changhee; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2017-12-01

    Photoaging is a severe skin damage that occurs as a result of exposure to external elements, primarily ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Chronically, UV-irradiated skin exhibits the signs of sunburn and hyperpigmentation with the destruction of connective tissues. Previously, Boesenbergia pandurata (B. pandurata) and its active compound panduratin A showed antiphotoaging activities in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of B. pandurata intake on skin hydration, gloss, wrinkling, and elasticity. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to clinically evaluate the effect of B. pandurata ethanol extract (BPE) containing 8% of panduratin A on human skin hydration, gloss, wrinkling, and elasticity. Ninety-two subjects were randomly assigned to receive tablets containing either BPE or placebo for 12 weeks. The test group had significantly increased skin hydration and gloss and decreased wrinkling compared to the placebo group at 12 weeks. There was no significant difference in skin elasticity between the two groups; however, the increment rate in the test group was higher than that in the placebo group at 12 weeks. None of the subjects developed adverse symptoms during the study period. These results suggest that BPE can be used as a nutraceutical or nutricosmetic material for improving human skin hydration, gloss, and wrinkling. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Screening for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitender, Solanki; Sarika, Gupta; Varada, Hiremath R; Omprakash, Yadav; Mohsin, Khan

    2016-11-01

    Oral cancer is considered as a serious health problem resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Early detection and prevention play a key role in controlling the burden of oral cancer worldwide. The five-year survival rate of oral cancer still remains low and delayed diagnosis is considered as one of the major reasons. This increases the demand for oral screening. Currently, screening of oral cancer is largely based on visual examination. Various evidence strongly suggest the validity of visual inspection in reducing mortality in patients at risk for oral cancer. Simple visual examination is accompanied with adjunctive techniques for subjective interpretation of dysplastic changes. These include toluidine blue staining, brush biopsy, chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence. This review highlights the efficacy of various diagnostic methods in screening of oral cancer. © 2016 Old City Publishing, Inc.

  6. Oral health literacy and oral health outcomes in an adult population in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Marília Jesus; Lawrence, Herenia Procopio; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de

    2017-07-26

    To investigate the association between critical and communicative oral health literacy (OHL) and oral health outcomes (status, oral health-related quality of life and practices) in adults. This cross-sectional study examined a household probability sample of 248 adults, representing 149,635 residents (20-64 years old) in Piracicaba-SP, Brazil. Clinical oral health and socioeconomic and demographic data, as well as data on oral health-related quality of life (OHIP-14) and health practices were collected. The oral examinations were carried out in the participants' homes, using the World Health Organization criteria for oral diseases. The critical and communicative OHL instrument was the primary independent variable, and it was measured using five Likert items that were dichotomized as 'high' ('agree' and 'strongly agree' responses for the 5 items) and 'low' OHL. Binary and multinomial logistic regressions were performed on each outcome (oral health status and practices), controlling for age, sex and socioeconomic status (SES). Approximately 71.5% presented low OHL. When adjusted for age and sex (first model) low OHL was associated with untreated caries (Odds Ratio = 1.92, 95% Confidence Interval = 1.07-3.45), tooth brushing oral health impact on quality of life (OR = 2.06, 1.15-3.69). Adjusting for age, sex and SES, OHL is related to a risk factor (biofilm) and a consequence of poor oral health (emergency dental visits) and can interfere with the impact of oral diseases on quality of life. As low OHL can be modified, the results support oral health promotion strategies directed at improving critical and communicative oral health literacy in adult populations.

  7. Implementation of oral health education to orphan children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, N.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the knowledge and oral hygiene status of orphange children in apune and a changes in them after health education. Study Design: Interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Centers for Orphan Children in Pune, India, from April to June 2014. Methodology: A specially designed questionnaire was used to assess the dental problems and existing oral hygiene maintenance practice among children between 5 - 12 years of age (n=100) in an orphanage center. Pre- and post interventional intra-oral examination was carried out to check their oral hygiene status which included DMFS (Decayed Missing Filled Tooth Surfaces index (for permanent teeth)), OHIS (Simplified Oral Hygiene Index) and gingival indices. Intervention was in the form of oral health education, demonstration of correct brushing technique, diet counselling and maintenance of overall oral hygiene. Results: Present study shows that the orphans had multiple dental problems along with improper oral hygiene practices and careless attitude towards oral health. Pre- and post-interventional DMFS was compared using Wilcoxon sign rank test, which was not significant; while OHIS and gingival indices were compared by using repeat measures ANOVA(p < 0.001) which was significant for each, respectively. Conclusion: There was considerable improvement in the oral hygiene status of orphans due to educational intervention. Oral health education at right age can help to cultivate healthy oral hygiene practices in orphans which will benefit them for lifelong. Caretakers should be educated and trained about oral hygiene practices so that they can implement it and supervise the orphan children. (author)

  8. Building oral health research infrastructure: the first national oral health survey of Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John P; Isyagi, Moses; Ntaganira, Joseph; Gatarayiha, Agnes; Pagni, Sarah E; Roomian, Tamar C; Finkelman, Matthew; Steffensen, Jane E M; Barrow, Jane R; Mumena, Chrispinus H; Hackley, Donna M

    2018-01-01

    Oral health affects quality of life and is linked to overall health. Enhanced oral health research is needed in low- and middle-income countries to develop strategies that reduce the burden of oral disease, improve oral health and inform oral health workforce and infrastructure development decisions. To implement the first National Oral Health Survey of Rwanda to assess the oral disease burden and inform oral health promotion strategies. In this cross-sectional study, sample size and site selection were based on the World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Surveys Pathfinder stratified cluster methodologies. Randomly selected 15 sites included 2 in the capital city, 2 other urban centers and 11 rural locations representing all provinces and rural/urban population distribution. A minimum of 125 individuals from each of 5 age groups were included at each site. A Computer Assisted Personal Instrument (CAPI) was developed to administer the study instrument. Nearly two-thirds (64.9%) of the 2097 participants had caries experience and 54.3% had untreated caries. Among adults 20 years of age and older, 32.4% had substantial oral debris and 60.0% had calculus. A majority (70.6%) had never visited an oral health provider. Quality-of-life challenges due to oral diseases/conditions including pain, difficulty chewing, self-consciousness, and difficulty participating in usual activities was reported at 63.9%, 42.2% 36.2%, 35.4% respectively. The first National Oral Health Survey of Rwanda was a collaboration of the Ministry of Health of Rwanda, the University of Rwanda Schools of Dentistry and Public Health, the Rwanda Dental Surgeons and Dental (Therapists) Associations, and Tufts University and Harvard University Schools of Dental Medicine. The international effort contributed to building oral health research capacity and resulted in a national oral health database of oral disease burden. This information is essential for developing oral disease prevention and management

  9. Oral biopsy: Oral pathologist′s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K L Kumaraswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many oral lesions may need to be diagnosed by removing a sample of tissue from the oral cavity. Biopsy is widely used in the medical field, but the practice is not quite widespread in dental practice. As oral pathologists, we have found many artifacts in the tissue specimen because of poor biopsy technique or handling, which has led to diagnostic pitfalls and misery to both the patient and the clinician. This article aims at alerting the clinicians about the clinical faults arising preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively while dealing with oral biopsy that may affect the histological assessment of the tissue and, therefore, the diagnosis. It also reviews the different techniques, precautions and special considerations necessary for specific lesions.

  10. Raman exfoliative cytology for oral precancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi; Gera, Poonam; Pai, Venkatesh; Dubey, Abhishek; Tyagi, Gunjan; Waghmare, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Mahimkar, Manoj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2017-11-01

    Oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) such as leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and oral submucous fibrosis, often precede oral cancer. Screening and management of these premalignant conditions can improve prognosis. Raman spectroscopy has previously demonstrated potential in the diagnosis of oral premalignant conditions (in vivo), detected viral infection, and identified cancer in both oral and cervical exfoliated cells (ex vivo). The potential of Raman exfoliative cytology (REC) in identifying premalignant conditions was investigated. Oral exfoliated samples were collected from healthy volunteers (n=20), healthy volunteers with tobacco habits (n=20), and oral premalignant conditions (n=27, OPL) using Cytobrush. Spectra were acquired using Raman microprobe. Spectral acquisition parameters were: λex: 785 nm, laser power: 40 mW, acquisition time: 15 s, and average: 3. Postspectral acquisition, cell pellet was subjected to Pap staining. Multivariate analysis was carried out using principal component analysis and principal component-linear discriminant analysis using both spectra- and patient-wise approaches in three- and two-group models. OPLs could be identified with ˜77% (spectra-wise) and ˜70% (patient-wise) sensitivity in the three-group model while with 86% (spectra-wise) and 83% (patient-wise) in the two-group model. Use of histopathologically confirmed premalignant cases and better sampling devices may help in development of improved standard models and also enhance the sensitivity of the method. Future longitudinal studies can help validate potential of REC in screening and monitoring high-risk populations and prognosis prediction of premalignant lesions.

  11. Relevance of psychosocial factors to quality of life in oral cancer and oral lichen planus: a prospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Madiha; Kanatas, Anastasios; Herzberg, Philipp Y; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Rana, Majeed

    2015-09-01

    We can improve our understanding of how patients cope with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) by making a comparison with their processes of coping and those used in other conditions. We have therefore compared quality of life (QoL), severity of symptoms, coping strategies, and factors that influence coping between patients with oral SCC and those with oral lichen planus. We asked 104 patients with oral SCC and 51 with oral lichen planus to complete questionnaires about their coping strategies, social support, locus of control, spirituality, QoL, and severity of symptoms. The outcome was that patients with oral SCC were far more likely to resort to coping strategies such as depressive coping, distraction, and self-motivation. The groups also differed regarding QoL and severity of symptoms. Patients with oral SCC had a poorer QoL and higher depression scores, whereas patients with oral lichen planus had better scores in the social support and spirituality categories. Patients with oral SCC generally had more distress than those with oral lichen planus. Not only did the former resort to depressive coping strategies, but they also had poorer QoL and higher values for depression. For the patients with oral lichen planus, social support and spirituality were protective, whereas they were associated with distress by patients with oral SCC. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Oral manifestations of lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, S; O'Shea, F; Galvin, S; Wynne, B

    2018-02-01

    Mucosal involvement is commonly seen in patients with lupus; however, oral examination is often forgotten. Squamous cell carcinoma arising within oral lupoid plaques has been described, emphasizing the importance of identifying and treating oral lupus. We undertook a retrospective single-centre study looking at oral findings in patients attending our multidisciplinary lupus clinic between January 2015 and April 2016. A total of 42 patients were included. The majority of patients were female (88%) and had a diagnosis of discoid lupus erythematosus (62%). Half of the patients had positive oral findings, 26% had no oral examination documented, and 24% had documented normal oral examinations. Our findings suggest that oral pathology is common in this cohort of patients. Regular oral examination is warranted to identify oral lupus and provide treatment. Associated diseases such as Sjogren's syndrome may also be identified. Patients should be encouraged to see their general dental practitioners on a regular basis for mucosal review. Any persistent ulcer that fails to respond to treatment or hard lump needs urgent histopathological evaluation to exclude malignant transformation to squamous cell carcinoma.

  13. Study on Biopharmaceutics Classification and Oral Bioavailability of a Novel Multikinase Inhibitor NCE for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Specific biopharmaceutics classification investigation and study on phamacokinetic profile of a novel drug candidate (2-methylcarbamoyl-4-{4-[3- (trifluoromethyl benzamido] phenoxy} pyridinium 4-methylbenzenesulfonate monohydrate, NCE were carried out. Equilibrium solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR of NCE were estimated in different phosphate buffers. Effective intestinal permeability (Peff of NCE was determined using single-pass intestinal perfusion technique in rat duodenum, jejunum and ileum at three concentrations. Theophylline (high permeability and ranitidine (low permeability were also applied to access the permeability of NCE as reference compounds. The bioavailability after intragastrical and intravenous administration was measured in beagle dogs. The solubility of NCE in tested phosphate buffers was quite low with the maximum solubility of 81.73 μg/mL at pH 1.0. The intrinsic dissolution ratio of NCE was 1 × 10−4 mg·min−1·cm−2. The Peff value of NCE in all intestinal segments was more proximate to the high-permeability reference theophylline. Therefore, NCE was classified as class II drug according to Biopharmaceutics Classification System due to its low solubility and high intestinal permeability. In addition, concentration-dependent permeability was not observed in all the segments, indicating that there might be passive transportation for NCE. The absolute oral bioavailability of NCE in beagle dogs was 26.75%. Therefore, dissolution promotion will be crucial for oral formulation development and intravenous administration route will also be suggested for further NCE formulation development. All the data would provide a reference for biopharmaceutics classification research of other novel drug candidates.

  14. Study on biopharmaceutics classification and oral bioavailability of a novel multikinase inhibitor NCE for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Fan, Chun-Mei; He, Xuan; Ren, Ke; Zhang, Jin-Kun; He, Ying-Ju; Yu, Luo-Ting; Zhao, Ying-Lan; Gong, Chang-Yang; Zheng, Yu; Song, Xiang-Rong; Zeng, Jun

    2014-04-25

    Specific biopharmaceutics classification investigation and study on phamacokinetic profile of a novel drug candidate (2-methylcarbamoyl-4-{4-[3- (trifluoromethyl) benzamido] phenoxy} pyridinium 4-methylbenzenesulfonate monohydrate, NCE) were carried out. Equilibrium solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) of NCE were estimated in different phosphate buffers. Effective intestinal permeability (P(eff)) of NCE was determined using single-pass intestinal perfusion technique in rat duodenum, jejunum and ileum at three concentrations. Theophylline (high permeability) and ranitidine (low permeability) were also applied to access the permeability of NCE as reference compounds. The bioavailability after intragastrical and intravenous administration was measured in beagle dogs. The solubility of NCE in tested phosphate buffers was quite low with the maximum solubility of 81.73 μg/mL at pH 1.0. The intrinsic dissolution ratio of NCE was 1 × 10⁻⁴ mg·min⁻¹·cm⁻². The P(eff) value of NCE in all intestinal segments was more proximate to the high-permeability reference theophylline. Therefore, NCE was classified as class II drug according to Biopharmaceutics Classification System due to its low solubility and high intestinal permeability. In addition, concentration-dependent permeability was not observed in all the segments, indicating that there might be passive transportation for NCE. The absolute oral bioavailability of NCE in beagle dogs was 26.75%. Therefore, dissolution promotion will be crucial for oral formulation development and intravenous administration route will also be suggested for further NCE formulation development. All the data would provide a reference for biopharmaceutics classification research of other novel drug candidates.

  15. [Removable partial dentures. Oral functions and types

    OpenAIRE

    Creugers, N.H.J.; Baat, C. de

    2009-01-01

    A removable partial denture enables the restoration or improvement of 4 oral functions: aesthetics, mandibular stability, mastication, and speech. However, wearing a removable partial denture should not cause oral comfort to deteriorate. There are 3 types of removable partial dentures: acrylic tissue-supported dentures, dentures with cast metal frameworks en dentures with cast metal frameworks and (semi)precision attachments. Interrupted tooth arches,free-ending tooth arches, and a combinatio...

  16. Molecular buckets: cyclodextrins for oral cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Calleja, P. (Patricia); Huarte, J. (Judit); Agüeros, M. (Maite); Ruiz-Gaton, L. (Luisa); Espuelas, S. (Socorro); Irache, J.M. (Juan Manuel)

    2012-01-01

    The oral route is preferred by patients for drug administration due to its convenience, resulting in improved compliance. Unfortunately, for a number of drugs (e.g., anticancer drugs), this route of administration remains a challenge. Oral chemotherapy may be an attractive option and especially appropriate for chronic treatment of cancer. However, this route of administration is particularly complicated for the administration of anticancer drugs ascribed to Class IV of the Biopharmaceutical C...

  17. The Oral Microbiome of Children: Development, Disease, and Implications Beyond Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andres; Nelson, Karen E

    2017-02-01

    In the era of applied meta-omics and personalized medicine, the oral microbiome is a valuable asset. From biomarker discovery to being a powerful source of therapeutic targets and to presenting an opportunity for developing non-invasive approaches to health care, it has become clear that oral microbes may hold the answer for understanding disease, even beyond the oral cavity. Although our understanding of oral microbiome diversity has come a long way in the past 50 years, there are still many areas that need to be fine-tuned for better risk assessment and diagnosis, especially in early developmental stages of human life. Here, we discuss the factors that impact development of the oral microbiome and explore oral markers of disease, with a focus on the early oral cavity. Our ultimate goal is to put different experimental and methodological views into perspective for better assessment of early oral and systemic disease at an early age and discuss how oral microbiomes-at the community level-could provide improved assessment in individuals and populations at risk.

  18. Radiation induced oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Satheesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene

  19. Desensitization to a whole egg by rush oral immunotherapy improves the quality of life of guardians: A multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, delayed-start design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh-Nagato, Naoka; Inoue, Yuzaburo; Nagao, Mizuho; Fujisawa, Takao; Shimojo, Naoki; Iwata, Tsutomu

    2018-04-01

    Patients with food allergies and their families have a significantly reduced health-related quality of life (QOL). We performed a multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, delayed-start design study to clarify the efficacy and safety of rush oral immunotherapy (rOIT) and its impact on the participants' daily life and their guardians (UMIN000003943). Forty-five participants were randomly divided into an early-start group and a late-start group. The early-start group received rOIT for 3 months, while the late-start group continued the egg elimination diet (control). In the next stage, both groups received OIT until all participants had finished 12 months of maintenance OIT. The ratio of the participants in whom an increase of the TD was achieved in the first stage was significantly higher in the early-start group (87.0%), than in the late-start group (22.7%). The QOL of the guardians in the early-start group significantly improved after the first stage (65.2%), in comparison to the late-start group (31.8%). During 12 months of rOIT, the serum ovomucoid-specific IgE levels, the percentage of CD203c + basophils upon stimulation with egg white, and the wheal size to egg white were decreased, while the serum ovomucoid-specific IgG4 levels were increased. However, approximately 80% of the participants in the early-start group showed an allergic reaction during the first stage of the study, whereas none of the patients in the late-start group experienced an allergic reaction. rOIT induced desensitization to egg and thus improved the QOL of guardians; however, the participants experienced frequent allergic reactions due to the treatment. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Oral microbiota and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Meurman, Jukka H.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the...

  1. Towards understanding oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Oral microbiota and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka H. Meurman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several oral micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor oral health and the prevalence of oral and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in oral microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control oral microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion.

  3. African Journal of Oral Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Oral Health Sciences is devoted to research into oral diseases and encourages a multidisciplinary approach. Emphasis is on oral pathology, oral microbiology, oral medicine, oral physiology and biochemistry and related clinical sciences.

  4. Oral candidosis in relation to oral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Chandran, R; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2014-09-01

    Symptomatic oral infection with Candida albicans is characterized by invasion of the oral epithelium by virulent hyphae that cause tissue damage releasing the inflammatory mediators that initiate and sustain local inflammation. Candida albicans triggers pattern-recognition receptors of keratinocytes, macrophages, monocytes and dendritic cells, stimulating the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23. These cytokines induce the differentiation of Th17 cells and the generation of IL-17- and/or IL-22-mediated antifungal protective immuno-inflammatory responses in infected mucosa. Some immune cells including NKT cells, γδ T cells and lymphoid cells that are innate to the oral mucosa have the capacity to produce large quantities of IL-17 in response to C. albicans, sufficient to mediate effective protective immunity against C. albicans. On the other hand, molecular structures of commensal C. albicans blastoconidia, although detected by pattern-recognition receptors, are avirulent, do not invade the oral epithelium, do not elicit inflammatory responses in a healthy host, but induce regulatory immune responses that maintain tissue tolerance to the commensal fungi. The type, specificity and sensitivity of the protective immune response towards C. albicans is determined by the outcome of the integrated interactions between the intracellular signalling pathways of specific combinations of activated pattern-recognition receptors (TLR2, TLR4, Dectin-1 and Dectin-2). IL-17-mediated protective immune response is essential for oral mucosal immunity to C. albicans infection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Medieval orality, mothers, and bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Scott C

    2004-01-01

    The role of women in the Middle Ages was vilification, veneration, and exclusion. Due to the high rates of maternal and infant mortality bonding shifted from the mother-child dyad to one in which the Church, Holy Family, and king acted as pseudo-parents. In art this is suggested by the virtual absence of eye contact between the Virgin and Christ-child. Frustration of early oral needs consequent to lack of adequate mother-child bonding prompted a reactive emphasis on orality in art and legend. A decrease in infant mortality and a reciprocal improvement in mother child bonding contributed to cultural shifts in how self-realization would be accomplished during the Renaissance and in the later emergence of secular humanism.

  6. Sarcoidosis: Oral and extra-oral manifestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease, which is usually associated with the formation of noncaseating granulomas in affected tissues and organs. It is mostly present with bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, pulmonary infiltration, ocular, and cutaneous lesions. Oral manifestations of this disease are relatively rare. The present case report shows a 40-year-old male with lesions in the soft tissue of oral cavity (buccal mucosa, gingiva, and palate and a diagnosis of sarcoidosis was established following hematological, biochemical and pulmonary function tests, chest radiograph, and histopathological investigation.

  7. IQuaD dental trial; improving the quality of dentistry: a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing oral hygiene advice and periodontal instrumentation for the prevention and management of periodontal disease in dentate adults attending dental primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Clarkson, Jan E; Ramsay, Craig R; Averley, Paul; Bonetti, Debbie; Boyers, Dwayne; Campbell, Louise; Chadwick, Graham R; Duncan, Anne; Elders, Andrew; Gouick, Jill; Hall, Andrew F; Heasman, Lynne; Heasman, Peter A; Hodge, Penny J; Jones, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Background:\\ud Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease affecting adults, and although it is largely preventable it remains the major cause of poor oral health worldwide. Accumulation of microbial dental plaque is the primary aetiological factor for both periodontal disease and caries. Effective self-care (tooth brushing and interdental aids) for plaque control and removal of risk factors such as calculus, which can only be removed by periodontal instrumentation (PI), are considere...

  8. Oral cavity and jaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solntsev, A.M.; Koval', G.Yu.

    1984-01-01

    Radioanatome of oral cavity and jaw is described. Diseases of the teeth, jaw, large salivary glands, temporo-mandibular articulation are considered. Roentgenograms of oral cacity and jaw of healthy people are presented and analyzed as well as roentgenograms in the above-mentioned diseases

  9. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section...

  10. Brachytherapy for oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzen, Yoshio; Ajimu, Akira; Morikawa, Minoru; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Shintarou; Ashizawa, Kazuto; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Ikenaga, Kouji; Sakamoto, Ichirou.

    1988-01-01

    13 cases with oral cancer were treated using brachytherapy at the Department of Radiology, Nagasaki University Hospital from September 1985 to February 1988. Among 11 cases of tongue cancer, T1 and T2 cases were well controlled by radiation therapy using 226 Ra needles. Cancer of oral floor and buccal mucosa were controlled by the use of 192 Au grains. (author)

  11. Oral health promotion for institutionalised elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L; Wight, C; Clemson, N

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop and evaluate educational approaches specifically for improvement of oral hygiene behaviour amongst institutionalised elderly. A sample of 201 residents, 48-99 yr of age (mean age 82 yr), was selected from four different institutions in Lothian......; 2) active involvement of residents only; 3) active involvement of both residents and staff. The programme comprised three 1-h sessions at monthly intervals in groups of five to six residents or members of staff. The analysis of the results showed poor oral health and oral hygiene, high objective...... need for oral care but low perceived need. The programme had little impact on most of the included variables and only about half of the participants remembered the programme 2 months after its termination. The implications of the study are that groups of elderly need to be differentiated further so...

  12. [Removable partial dentures. Oral functions and types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creugers, N H J; de Baat, C

    2009-11-01

    A removable partial denture enables the restoration or improvement of 4 oral functions: aesthetics, mandibular stability, mastication, and speech. However, wearing a removable partial denture should not cause oral comfort to deteriorate. There are 3 types of removable partial dentures: acrylic tissue-supported dentures, dentures with cast metal frameworks en dentures with cast metal frameworks and (semi)precision attachments. Interrupted tooth arches,free-ending tooth arches, and a combination of interrupted as well as free-ending tooth arches can be restored using these dentures. Well-known disadvantages of removable partial dentures are problematic oral hygiene, negative influence on the remaining dentition and limited oral comfort. Due to the advanced possibilities of fixed tooth- or implant-supported partial dentures, whether or not free-ending, or tooth- as well as implant-supported partial dentures, the indication of removable partial dentures is restricted. Nevertheless, for the time being the demand for removable partial dentures is expected to continue.

  13. Oral health in patients with liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard Grønkjær, Lea; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    frequently (P=0.001), more rarely brushed teeth (P=0.001) and had problems with oral dryness (68 vs. 14%, P=0.0001). The patients’ mean OHIP score was 5.21±7.2, with the most commonly reported problems being related to taste and food intake. An association was observed between the OHIP score and the patients...... Services Research report on the Danish population’s dental status. Results: One hundred and seven patients participated. Their oral care habits and self-perceived oral health were poorer than the Danish population; the patients had fewer teeth (on average 19 vs. 26, P=0.0001), attended the dentist less...... importance. Our results emphasize the need for measures to protect and improve the oral health of cirrhosis patients....

  14. AVN-322 is a Safe Orally Bio-Available Potent and Highly Selective Antagonist of 5-HT6R with Demonstrated Ability to Improve Impaired Memory in Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivachtchenko, Alexandre V; Ivanenkov, Yan A; Veselov, Mark S; Okun, I M

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, 5-hydroxytryptamine subtype 6 receptor (5-HT6 receptor, 5- HT6R) has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of neuropathological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and schizophrenia. 5-HT6 receptors were hypothesized to be implicated in the processes of learning, memory, and cognition with 5-HT6R antagonists being effective in animal models of cognition and memory impairment. Several selective 5-HT6R ligands are currently undergoing clinical trials for treatment of AD. We describe results of preclinical development of a novel and highly selective and potent 5- HT6R antagonist, AVN-322, as a clinical candidate for the treatment of AD to improve concurrent debilitation of memory and cognition in the AD patients, and schizophrenia as a substance with antipsychotic effect. In the manuscript, we present its in vitro and vivo efficacy, ADME, pharmacokinetics in animals and in humans, and toxicity. While having high binding affinity in medium picomolar range, the lead compound demonstrates substantially better selectivity index then the reference drug candidates currently being tested in clinical studies. AVN-322 showed high oral bioavailability and favorable blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration. In vivo testing revealed its clear cognition enhancing effect. AVN-322 significantly restored both scopolamine- and MK-801-induced cognitive dysfunction and demonstrated antipsychotic potential. Taking into account its good safety profile and favorable pharmacokinetics, AVN-322 can be reasonably considered as a novel drug candidate for the treatment of neurological disorders such as AD and/or schizophrenia. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Surgeries Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Injury / Trauma Surgery Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Oral, Head and Neck Pathology TMJ and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are ...

  16. American Academy of Oral Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statements Newsletters AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands. We ...

  17. What Is an Oral Piercing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your desktop! more... What Is an Oral Piercing? Article Chapters What Is an Oral Piercing? print full article print this chapter email this article Oral piercing can cause pain, swelling, infection, drooling, taste loss, ...

  18. Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Dave

    As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17…

  19. Evaluation of oral microbiology lab curriculum reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Min; Gao, Zhen Y; Wu, Xin Y; Jiang, Chen X; Du, Jia H

    2015-12-07

    According to the updated concept of oral microbiology, the School of Stomatology, Wuhan University, has carried out oral microbiology teaching reforms during the last 5 years. There was no lab curriculum before 2009 except for a theory course of oral microbiology. The school has implemented an innovative curriculum with oral medicine characteristics to strengthen understanding of knowledge, cultivate students' scientific interest and develop their potential, to cultivate the comprehensive ability of students. This study was designed to evaluate the oral microbiology lab curriculum by analyzing student performance and perceptions regarding the curriculum from 2009 to 2013. The lab curriculum adopted modalities for cooperative learning. Students collected dental plaque from each other and isolated the cariogenic bacteria with selective medium plates. Then they purified the enrichment culture medium and identified the cariogenic strains by Gram stain and biochemical tests. Both quantitative and qualitative data for 5 years were analysed in this study. Part One of the current study assessed student performance in the lab from 2009 to 2013. Part Two used qualitative means to assess students' perceptions by an open questionnaire. The 271 study students' grades on oral microbiology improved during the lab curriculum: "A" grades rose from 60.5 to 81.2 %, and "C" grades fell from 28.4 to 6.3 %. All students considered the lab curriculum to be interesting and helpful. Quantitative and qualitative data converge to suggest that the lab curriculum has strengthened students' grasp of important microbiology-related theory, cultivated their scientific interest, and developed their potential and comprehensive abilities. Our student performance and perception data support the continued use of the innovative teaching system. As an extension and complement of the theory course, the oral microbiology lab curriculum appears to improve the quality of oral medicine education and help to

  20. Hospitalisation impacts on oral hygiene: an audit of oral hygiene in a metropolitan health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danckert, Rachael; Ryan, Anna; Plummer, Virginia; Williams, Cylie

    2016-03-01

    Poor oral health has been associated with systemic diseases, morbidity and mortality. Many patients in hospital environments are physically compromised and rely upon awareness and assistance from health professionals for the maintenance or improvement of their oral health. This study aimed to identify whether common individual and environment factors associated with hospitalisation impacted on oral hygiene. Data were collected during point prevalence audits of patients in the acute and rehabilitation environments on three separate occasions. Data included demographic information, plaque score, presence of dental hygiene products, independence level and whether nurse assistance was documented in the health record. Data were collected for 199 patients. A higher plaque score was associated with not having a toothbrush (p = 0.002), being male (p = 0.007), being acutely unwell (p = 0.025) and requiring nursing assistance for oral hygiene (p = 0.002). There was fair agreement between the documentation of requiring assistance for oral care and the patient independently able to perform oral hygiene (ICC = 0.22). Oral hygiene was impacted by factors arising from hospitalisation, for those without a toothbrush and male patients of acute wards. Establishment of practices that increase awareness and promote good oral health should be prioritised. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  1. Impact of oral rehabilitation on patients with head and neck cancer: A study using the Liverpool Oral Rehabilitation Questionnaire and the Oral Health Impact Profile-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholam, Kanchan P; Dugad, Jinesh A; Sadashiva, Karthik M

    2017-04-01

    The treatment of oral cancers affects oral functions and quality of life (QOL). Dental rehabilitation is a major step toward enhancing quality of life after controlling the disease. The effects of the disease, treatment, and rehabilitation need to be evaluated to assess oral health-related QOL. The Liverpool Oral Rehabilitation Questionnaire version 3 (LORQv3) and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) are specific assessment questionnaires of oral rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of oral rehabilitation on patients with head and neck cancer by using the LORQv3 and OHIP-14 questionnaires and to discover and document specific patient-derived problems related to the issues of oral rehabilitation. The LORQv3 and OHIP-14 questionnaires were administered to 60 participants with oral cancer, who were in need of oral rehabilitation. They were asked to rate their dental problems on a Likert scale before fabrication of their prostheses (baseline) and at the 3-month follow-up visit after prosthetic rehabilitation. Paired comparison was done using the Wilcoxon signed rank test according to the distribution, and Cronbach alpha was used to assess internal consistency. Subscale scores were determined by mean value (α=.05). For the LORQv3 questionnaire, a 10% to 27% improvement was found in the domain of oral function, and a 20% improvement in orofacial appearance, with improvement in patient satisfaction with the prosthesis. Using the OHIP-14 questionnaire, a 45% to 67% improvement was generally seen in all domains. After assessment using the LORQv3 and OHIP-14 questionnaires, prosthetic rehabilitation was seen to contribute to the betterment of patients with head and neck cancer. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Short-term effect of two education methods on oral health among hearing impairment children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Pouradeli

    2016-12-01

    CONCLUSION: Both video and dental model effectively improve the oral health of children with HI in short term. Continuous school-based oral health education programs, particularly for HI children, need to be considered.

  3. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral and maxillofacial surgeons surgically treat the soft tissues of the face, mouth ... involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and maxillofacial ...

  4. Implementing Evidenced Based Oral Care for Critically Ill Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-28

    practice . In G. LoBiondo-Wood & J Haber (Eds.), Nursing Research (5th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book , Inc. 5. Titler, M., & Everett, L. (2001...determined if an evidence-based oral care program resulted in increased nurses’ knowledge and improved oral care practices compliance. Design: The project...process, and project specific oral care evidence-based practice instruction. Knowledge evaluations were conducted at three time points: before, immediately

  5. Quality of oral anticoagulation with phenprocoumon in regular medical care and its potential for improvement in a telemedicine-based coagulation service--results from the prospective, multi-center, observational cohort study thrombEVAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Jürgen H; Göbel, Sebastian; Keller, Karsten; Coldewey, Meike; Ullmann, Alexander; Lamparter, Heidrun; Jünger, Claus; Al-Bayati, Zaid; Baer, Christina; Walter, Ulrich; Bickel, Christoph; ten Cate, Hugo; Münzel, Thomas; Wild, Philipp S

    2015-01-23

    The majority of studies on quality of oral anticoagulation (OAC) therapy with vitamin K-antagonists are performed with short-acting warfarin. Data on long-acting phenprocoumon, which is frequently used in Europe for OAC therapy and is considered to enable more stable therapy adjustment, are scarce. In this study, we aimed to assess quality of OAC therapy with phenprocoumon in regular medical care and to evaluate its potential for optimization in a telemedicine-based coagulation service. In the prospective observational cohort study program thrombEVAL we investigated 2,011 patients from regular medical care in a multi-center cohort study and 760 patients from a telemedicine-based coagulation service in a single-center cohort study. Data were obtained from self-reported data, computer-assisted personal interviews, and laboratory measurements according to standard operating procedures with detailed quality control. Time in therapeutic range (TTR) was calculated by linear interpolation method to assess quality of OAC therapy. Study monitoring was carried out by an independent institution. Overall, 15,377 treatment years and 48,955 international normalized ratio (INR) measurements were analyzed. Quality of anticoagulation, as measured by median TTR, was 66.3% (interquartile range (IQR) 47.8/81.9) in regular medical care and 75.5% (IQR 64.2/84.4) in the coagulation service (P service with TTR at 76.2% [(IQR 65.6/84.7); P = 0.001)]. Prospective follow-up of coagulation service patients with pretreatment in regular medical care showed an improvement of the TTR from 66.2% (IQR 49.0/83.6) to 74.5% (IQR 62.9/84.2; P service. Treatment in the coagulation service contributed to an optimization of the profile of time outside therapeutic range, a 2.2-fold increase of stabile INR adjustment and a significant decrease in TTR variability by 36% (P Quality of anticoagulation with phenprocoumon was comparably high in this real-world sample of regular medical care. Treatment in a

  6. Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2013-09-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers.

  7. [Oral treatments in multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meca-Lallana, José Eustasio; Hernández-Clares, Rocío; Carreón-Guarnizo, Ester

    2014-12-01

    The development of new disease-modifying drugs (DMD) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), which share the common denominator of oral administration, considerably improves patient expectations in terms of effectiveness, tolerability and treatment adherence compared with currently available drugs. However, the common route of administration of these drugs does not mean that they are equivalent, since the heading of "oral route" encompasses drugs with distinct indications and mechanisms of action, as well as heterogeneous results in terms of efficacy and safety, allowing treatment to be personalized according to the each patient' s characteristics. Currently, four oral DMD are available or in an advanced stage of clinical development: fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate and laquinimod. In pivotal trials versus placebo, these molecules reduced the annualized rate of exacerbations versus placebo by 54%, 31%, 53% and 23%, respectively, the risk of progression of disability by 31%, 30%, 38% and 36%, and the number of active lesions showing contrast uptake on magnetic resonance imaging by 82%, 80%, 90% and 37%, respectively. Based on the risk/benefit ratio, fingolimod is indicated in patients with suboptimal response to initial DMD or in severe rapidly progressing RRMS, while the remaining drugs can be used as first-line options. Clinical experience with these treatments will provide new data on safety and effectiveness, which will be determinant when establishing therapeutic algorithms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Oral health-related quality of life after prosthetic rehabilitation in patients with oral cancer: A longitudinal study with the Liverpool Oral Rehabilitation Questionnaire version 3 and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholam, K P; Chouksey, G C; Dugad, J

    2016-01-01

    Prosthodontic rehabilitation helps to improve the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL). The Liverpool Oral Rehabilitation Questionnaire (LORQ) and Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) are specific tools that measure OHRQOL. The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of oral rehabilitation on patients' OHRQOL following treatment for cancer of oral cavity using LORQ version 3 (LORQv3) and OHIP-14 questionnaire. Secondary objectives were to identify issues specific to oral rehabilitation, patients compliance to prosthetic rehabilitation, the effect of radiation treatment on prosthetic rehabilitation, to achieve meaningful differences over a time before & after prosthetic intervention, to carryout and document specific patient-deprived problem. Seventy-five oral cancer patients were studied. Patients were asked to rate their experience of dental problems before fabrication of prosthesis and after 1 year using LORQv3 and OHIP-14. The responses were compared on Likert scale. Patients reported with extreme problems before rehabilitation. After 1 year of prosthetic rehabilitation, there was improvement noticed in all the domain of LORQv3 and OHIP-14. Complete compliance to the use of prosthetic appliances for 1 year study period was noted. In response to the question no. 40 (LORQv3), only 15 patients who belonged to the obturator group, brought to notice the problems which were not addressed in the LORQv3 questionnaire. The study showed that the oral cancer patients coped well and adapted to near normal oral status after prosthetic rehabilitation. This contributed to the improved overall health-related quality of life.

  9. Mouse Models for Studying Oral Cancer: Impact in the Era of Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J J; Young, C D; Zhou, H M; Wang, X J

    2018-04-01

    Model systems for oral cancer research have progressed from tumor epithelial cell cultures to in vivo systems that mimic oral cancer genetics, pathological characteristics, and tumor-stroma interactions of oral cancer patients. In the era of cancer immunotherapy, it is imperative to use model systems to test oral cancer prevention and therapeutic interventions in the presence of an immune system and to discover mechanisms of stromal contributions to oral cancer carcinogenesis. Here, we review in vivo mouse model systems commonly used for studying oral cancer and discuss the impact these models are having in advancing basic mechanisms, chemoprevention, and therapeutic intervention of oral cancer while highlighting recent discoveries concerning the role of immune cells in oral cancer. Improvements to in vivo model systems that highly recapitulate human oral cancer hold the key to identifying features of oral cancer initiation, progression, and invasion as well as molecular and cellular targets for prevention, therapeutic response, and immunotherapy development.

  10. Prevention of gingival trauma : Oral hygiene devices and oral piercings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenderdos, N.L.

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining healthy teeth and soft oral tissues for life is important. Oral hygiene devices and oral piercings can damage the soft oral tissues. This thesis investigates the safety of manual toothbrushes, interdental brushes and rubber bristles interdental cleaners by analysing the gingival abrasion

  11. Cromolyn Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor.Cromolyn oral inhalation helps to prevent asthma attacks (sudden episodes of shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing) but will not stop an asthma attack that has already started. Your doctor will prescribe ...

  12. Intravenous versus oral etoposide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Abir Salwa; Grönberg, Malin; Langer, Seppo W.

    2018-01-01

    High-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs, G3) are aggressive cancers of the digestive system with poor prognosis and survival. Platinum-based chemotherapy (cisplatin/carboplatin + etoposide) is considered the first-line palliative treatment. Etoposide is frequently...... administered intravenously; however, oral etoposide may be used as an alternative. Concerns for oral etoposide include decreased bioavailability, inter- and intra-patient variability and patient compliance. We aimed to evaluate possible differences in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS......) in patients treated with oral etoposide compared to etoposide given as infusion. Patients (n = 236) from the Nordic NEC study were divided into three groups receiving etoposide as a long infusion (24 h, n = 170), short infusion (≤ 5 h, n = 33) or oral etoposide (n = 33) according to hospital tradition. PFS...

  13. Fostering oral presentation performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van Stan; Gulikers, Judith; Biemans, Harm; Mulder, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Previous research revealed significant differences in the effectiveness of various feedback sources for encouraging students’ oral presentation performance. While former studies emphasised the superiority of teacher feedback, it remains unclear whether the quality of feedback actually differs

  14. Oral Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get involved Understanding Dental Research People Resources About Understanding Events Get involved Dental Research Resources Contact Sitemap The Oral Cancer Foundation admin 2017-11-12T16:49:25+ ...

  15. Maintaining women's oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, A L; Bonci, L

    2001-07-01

    Women must adopt health-promoting strategies for both general health and the oral cavity, because the health of a woman's body and oral cavity are bidirectional. For general health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should actively advise women to minimize alcohol use, abstain from or cease smoking, stay physically active, and choose the right foods to nourish both the body and mind. For oral health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should advise women on how to prevent or control oral infections, particularly dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specifically, women need to know how to remove plaque from the teeth mechanically, use appropriate chemotherapeutic agents and dentifrices, use oral irrigation, and control halitosis. Dental practitioners also need to stress the importance of regular maintenance visits for disease prevention. Adolescent women are more prone to gingivitis and aphthous ulcers when they begin their menstrual cycles and need advice about cessation of tobacco use, mouth protection during athletic activities, cleaning orthodontic appliances, developing good dietary habits, and avoiding eating disorders. Women in early to middle adulthood may be pregnant or using oral contraceptives with concomitant changes in oral tissues. Dental practitioners need to advise them how to take care of the oral cavity during these changes and how to promote the health of their infants, including good nutrition. Older women experience the onset of menopause and increased vulnerability to osteoporosis. They may also experience xerostomia and burning mouth syndrome. Dental practitioners need to help women alleviate these symptoms and encourage them to continue good infection control and diet practices.

  16. ON ORAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Svetitsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes a rise in the incidence of oral cancer in the Rostov Region since the 1990s. The study has indicated that this rise is associated with regional population growth due to the forced migrants after the collapse of the USSR. Financial problems, unbalanced nutrition, poor oral hygiene, and depression in this group of patients have contributed to the higher incidence of precancers and cancers.

  17. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  18. Immunologically mediated oral diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Jimson, Sudha; Balachader, N.; Anita, N.; Babu, R.

    2015-01-01

    Immune mediated diseases of oral cavity are uncommon. The lesions may be self-limiting and undergo remission spontaneously. Among the immune mediated oral lesions the most important are lichen planus, pemphigus, erythema multiformi, epidermolysis bullosa, systemic lupus erythematosis. Cellular and humoral mediated immunity play a major role directed against epithelial and connective tissue in chronic and recurrent patterns. Confirmatory diagnosis can be made by biopsy, direct and indirect imm...

  19. Oral azithromycin for treatment of posterior blepharitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igami, Thais Zamudio; Holzchuh, Ricardo; Osaki, Tammy Hentona; Santo, Ruth Miyuki; Kara-Jose, Newton; Hida, Richard Y

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of oral azithromycin in patients with posterior blepharitis. Twenty-six eyes of 13 patients with posterior blepharitis diagnosed by a qualified ophthalmologist were enrolled in this study. Patients were instructed to use oral azithromycin 500 mg per day for 3 days in 3 cycles with 7-day intervals. Subjective clinical outcomes were graded and scored 1 day before and 30 days after the end of the treatment (53 days after initiating the treatment) based on severity scores of: (1) eyelid debris; (2) eyelid telangiectasia; (3) swelling of the eyelid margin; (4) redness of the eyelid margin; and (5) ocular mucus secretion. For the assessment of global efficacy, patients were asked by the investigator to rate the subjective symptoms (eyelid itching, ocular itching, eyelid hyperemia, ocular hyperemia, ocular mucus secretion, photophobia, foreign body sensation, and dry eye sensation) on a scale of 0 (no symptoms) to 5 (severe symptoms). Break-up time, Schirmer I test, corneal fluorescein staining score, and rose bengal staining score were also performed in all patients. All clinical outcomes scoring showed statistically significant improvement after oral azithromycin, except for eyelid swelling. Average subjective symptom grading improved statistically after treatment with oral azithromycin, except for eyelid hyperemia, photophobia, and foreign body sensation. Average tear film break-up time values showed statistically significant improvement after the treatment with oral azithromycin. No statistically significant improvement was observed on average values of Schirmer I test, corneal fluorescein staining score, and rose bengal staining score. The combination of multiple clinical parameters shown in this study supports the clinical efficacy of pulsed oral azithromycin therapy for the management of posterior blepharitis.

  20. Determinants of Oral Health: Does Oral Health Literacy Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Naghibi Sistani, Mohammad Mehdi; Yazdani, Reza; Virtanen, Jorma; Pakdaman, Afsaneh; Murtomaa, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate oral health literacy, independent of other oral health determinants, as a risk indicator for self-reported oral health. Methods. A cross-sectional population-based survey conducted in Tehran, Iran. Multiple logistic regression analysis served to estimate the predictive effect of oral health literacy on self-reported oral health status (good versus poor) controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors and tooth-brushing behavior. Results. In all, among 1031 partici...

  1. Oral Carcinogenesis and Oral Cancer Chemoprevention: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Takuji; Tanaka, Mayu; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important adv...

  2. Oral microbiome and oral and gastrointestinal cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Chen, Calvin Y.; Hayes, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of evidence implicates human oral bacteria in the etiology of oral and gastrointestinal cancers. Epidemiological studies consistently report increased risks of these cancers in men and women with periodontal disease or tooth loss, conditions caused by oral bacteria. More than 700 bacterial species inhabit the oral cavity, including at least 11 bacterial phyla and 70 genera. Oral bacteria may activate alcohol and smoking-related carcinogens locally or act systemically, through c...

  3. Promoting oral hygiene behavior in recruits in the Dutch army.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk-Werkhoven, Yvonne A. B.; Dijkstra, Arie; van der Wal, Henk; Basic, Nina; Loomans, Steven A.; van der Schans, Cees P.; van der Meer, Brig-Gen Rob

    Objectives: To make practical recommendations for improving oral hygiene behavior (OHB) potential predictors based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) were assessed. Measurements of oral health knowledge (OHK) and the expected social effect for having healthy teeth were included. Methods: 216

  4. Function after oral oncological intervention, reconstruction and rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the incidence of oral cancer is increasing. Progress in (reconstructive) surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, however, has improved survival and loco-regional control while trying to preserve or restore oral function and quality of life. Despite the progress in treatment,

  5. Oral Health Promotion in Schools: Rationale and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizito, Alex; Caitlin, Meredith; Wang, Yili; Kasangaki, Arabat; Macnab, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explain the rationale and potential for the WHO health promoting schools (HPS) to improve children's oral health, and describe validated quantitative methodologies and qualitative approaches to measure program impact. Design/Methodology/Approach: Critical discussion of the impact of poor oral health and…

  6. Clinical pharmacology of novel anticancer agents : Focus on oral formulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Weger, V.A.

    2017-01-01

    The taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel have a low oral bioavailability, as a result of poor water solubility and high first-pass effect. The water-solubility could be improved by the development of solid dispersion formulations for oral use. In this thesis it is shown that the combination of the solid

  7. ORAL-THERAPY FOR SMALL-CELL LUNG-CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    POSTMUS, PE; SMIT, EF

    After a remarkable improvement of the very poor prognosis of small cell lung cancer with very simple therapy such as iv and oral cyclophosphamide the role of oral therapy has become minimal. However, since more than a decade results of combination chemotherapy are at a plateau and it is necessary to

  8. Developing Oral Language Skills in Middle School English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2018-01-01

    Oral language development can help English learners develop academic proficiency with the English language. In this investigation, at one middle school, teachers focused on improving oral language skills. Using a formative experiment process, the teachers developed an intervention to accomplish their pedagogical goal and then tracked data to see…

  9. Severe recurrent oral ulceration secondary to erosive lichen planus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, A.; Khan, S.; Satti, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    A case of recurrent progressively severe ulceration secondary to erosive lichen planus is reported. The patient developed marked malnutrition as a result of extensive involvement of the oral cavity. In addition to the oral ulcerations, she also had violaceous spots present over her forearm. Treatment administered in view of histopathological report and clinical presentation, resulted in marked improvement in symptoms and weight gain. (author)

  10. Ethnicity and oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, C; Bedi, R

    2000-09-01

    Oral squamous-cell carcinoma, the main type of oral cancer, is among the ten most common cancers in the world. The aims of this paper were first, to consider whether there was evidence of marked ethnic va