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Sample records for oral rabies vaccination

  1. Spatio-temporal Use of Oral Rabies Vaccines in Fox Rabies Elimination Programmes in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Müller

    Full Text Available In Europe, the elimination of wildlife rabies using oral rabies vaccination [ORV] of foxes for more than 30 years has been a success story. Since a comprehensive review on the scope of the different oral rabies vaccine baits distributed across Europe has not been available yet, we evaluated the use of different vaccine baits over the entire period of ORV [1978-2014]. Our findings provide valuable insights into the complexity of ORV programs in terms of vaccine related issues. More than 10 oral vaccines against rabies were used over the past four decades. Depending on many factors, the extent to which oral rabies virus vaccines were used varied considerably resulting in huge differences in the number of vaccine doses disseminated in ORV campaigns as well as in large spatial and temporal overlaps. Although vaccine virus strains derived from the SAD rabies virus isolate were the most widely used, the success of ORV campaigns in Europe cannot be assigned to a single oral rabies virus vaccine alone. Rather, the successful elimination of fox rabies is the result of an interaction of different key components of ORV campaigns, i.e. vaccine strain, vaccine bait and strategy of distribution.

  2. Rabies Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... high risk of exposure to rabies, such as veterinarians, animal handlers, rabies laboratory workers, spelunkers, and rabies biologics production workers should be offered rabies vaccine. The vaccine should also be considered for: (1) ...

  3. Oral rabies vaccination in north america: opportunities, complexities, and challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Slate

    Full Text Available Steps to facilitate inter-jurisdictional collaboration nationally and continentally have been critical for implementing and conducting coordinated wildlife rabies management programs that rely heavily on oral rabies vaccination (ORV. Formation of a national rabies management team has been pivotal for coordinated ORV programs in the United States of America. The signing of the North American Rabies Management Plan extended a collaborative framework for coordination of surveillance, control, and research in border areas among Canada, Mexico, and the US. Advances in enhanced surveillance have facilitated sampling of greater scope and intensity near ORV zones for improved rabies management decision-making in real time. The value of enhanced surveillance as a complement to public health surveillance was best illustrated in Ohio during 2007, where 19 rabies cases were detected that were critical for the formulation of focused contingency actions for controlling rabies in this strategically key area. Diverse complexities and challenges are commonplace when applying ORV to control rabies in wild meso-carnivores. Nevertheless, intervention has resulted in notable successes, including the elimination of an arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus rabies virus variant in most of southern Ontario, Canada, with ancillary benefits of elimination extending into Quebec and the northeastern US. Progress continues with ORV toward preventing the spread and working toward elimination of a unique variant of gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus rabies in west central Texas. Elimination of rabies in coyotes (Canis latrans through ORV contributed to the US being declared free of canine rabies in 2007. Raccoon (Procyon lotor rabies control continues to present the greatest challenges among meso-carnivore rabies reservoirs, yet to date intervention has prevented this variant from gaining a broad geographic foothold beyond ORV zones designed to prevent its spread from the eastern US

  4. Oral vaccination of raccoons (Procyon lotor) with genetically modified rabies virus vaccines

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    Blanton, Jesse D.; Self, Joshua; Niezgoda, Michael; Faber, Marie-Luise; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Rupprecht, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Oral vaccination is an important tool currently in use to control the spread of rabies in wildlife populations in various programs around the world. Oral rabies vaccination (ORV) of raccoons represents the largest targeted program to control wildlife rabies in the United States. Currently, the vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant virus vaccine (V-RG) is the only licensed oral rabies vaccine in the US. In the current study, captive raccoons were used to evaluate two previously described constructs of a rabies virus vaccine developed by reverse genetics (SPBNGAS and SPBNGAS-GAS) for immunogenicity and efficacy compared to the V-RG vaccine. Four of five control animals succumbed to rabies virus after severe challenge, while three of five animals vaccinated orally with SPBNGAS succumbed. No mortality was observed for animals administered SPBNGAS-GAS or the V-RG vaccine. The results of this preliminary study suggest that SPBNGAS-GAS provides comparable efficacy to V-RG. Additional studies will be needed to determine the duration of immunity and optimal dosage of SPBNGAS-GAS and to examine its efficacy in other reservoir species. PMID:17826874

  5. In-Depth Characterization of Live Vaccines Used in Europe for Oral Rabies Vaccination of Wildlife

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    Cliquet, Florence; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Mojzis, Miroslav; Dirbakova, Zuzana; Muizniece, Zita; Jaceviciene, Ingrida; Mutinelli, Franco; Matulova, Marta; Frolichova, Jitka; Rychlik, Ivan; Celer, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Although rabies incidence has fallen sharply over the past decades in Europe, the disease is still present in Eastern Europe. Oral rabies immunization of wild animal rabies has been shown to be the most effective method for the control and elimination of rabies. All rabies vaccines used in Europe are modified live virus vaccines based on the Street Alabama Dufferin (SAD) strain isolated from a naturally-infected dog in 1935. Because of the potential safety risk of a live virus which could revert to virulence, the genetic composition of three commercial attenuated live rabies vaccines was investigated in two independent laboratories using next genome sequencing. This study is the first one reporting on the diversity of variants in oral rabies vaccines as well as the presence of a mix of at least two different variants in all tested batches. The results demonstrate the need for vaccine producers to use new robust methodologies in the context of their routine vaccine quality controls prior to market release. PMID:26509266

  6. In-Depth Characterization of Live Vaccines Used in Europe for Oral Rabies Vaccination of Wildlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Cliquet

    Full Text Available Although rabies incidence has fallen sharply over the past decades in Europe, the disease is still present in Eastern Europe. Oral rabies immunization of wild animal rabies has been shown to be the most effective method for the control and elimination of rabies. All rabies vaccines used in Europe are modified live virus vaccines based on the Street Alabama Dufferin (SAD strain isolated from a naturally-infected dog in 1935. Because of the potential safety risk of a live virus which could revert to virulence, the genetic composition of three commercial attenuated live rabies vaccines was investigated in two independent laboratories using next genome sequencing. This study is the first one reporting on the diversity of variants in oral rabies vaccines as well as the presence of a mix of at least two different variants in all tested batches. The results demonstrate the need for vaccine producers to use new robust methodologies in the context of their routine vaccine quality controls prior to market release.

  7. 78 FR 33798 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of a Supplemental Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... rabies from sources in Mexico, the successful control of gray fox rabies virus variant in western Texas... and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0046] Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of a Supplemental Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

  8. Oral immunization of raccoons and skunks with a canine adenovirus recombinant rabies vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Heather; Jackson, Felix; Bean, Kayla; Panasuk, Brian; Niezgoda, Michael; Slate, Dennis; Li, Jianwei; Dietzschold, Bernard; Mattis, Jeff; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2009-11-27

    Oral vaccination is an important part of wildlife rabies control programs. Currently, the vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant virus is the only oral rabies vaccine licensed in the United States, and it is not effective in skunks. In the current study, captive raccoons and skunks were used to evaluate a vaccine developed by incorporating the rabies virus glycoprotein gene into a canine adenovirus serotype 2 vector (CAV2-RVG). Seven of 7 raccoons orally vaccinated with CAV2-RVG developed virus neutralizing antibodies and survived lethal challenge. Five of 5 and 6 of 6 skunks in 2 experimental groups receiving 10-fold different dilutions of CAV2-RVG developed neutralizing antibodies and survived challenge. The results of this preliminary study suggest that CAV2-RVG stimulates protective immunity against rabies in raccoons and skunks.

  9. Influence of oral rabies vaccine bait density on rabies seroprevalence in wild raccoons.

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    Sattler, Andrew C; Krogwold, Roger A; Wittum, Thomas E; Rupprecht, Charles E; Algeo, Timothy P; Slate, Dennis; Smith, Kathleen A; Hale, Robert L; Nohrenberg, Gary A; Lovell, Charles D; Niezgoda, Mike; Montoney, Andrew J; Slemons, Richard D

    2009-11-27

    The effect of different oral rabies vaccine (ORV) bait densities (75, 150, and 300 baits/km(2)) on the seroprevalence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNAs) in raccoons (Procyon lotor) was assessed at a 15% seroprevalence difference threshold in rural areas of northeast Ohio. Results (n=588 raccoons) indicated that seropositivity for RVNAs was associated with both bait density and bait campaign frequency. Associations were not detected for raccoon gender, age, or macro-habitat. The odds of being seropositive were greater for raccoons originating from 300 bait/km(2) treatment areas relative to those coming from the 75 bait/km(2) areas (odds ratio [OR]=4.4, probability [P]raccoons between sequential, semi-annual campaigns, yet cumulative ORV campaigns were associated with gradual increases in seroprevalence.

  10. Oral rabies vaccination variation in tetracycline biomarking among Ohio raccoons.

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    Algeo, Timothy P; Norhenberg, Gary; Hale, Robert; Montoney, Andrew; Chipman, Richard B; Slate, Dennis

    2013-04-01

    Oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programs have traditionally relied on tetracycline marking as an index to bait uptake. Whether tetracycline serves well in this capacity depends on its deposition affinity and ability to be detected consistently among tissues selected for analysis from target species. We evaluated samples from 760 hunter-harvested raccoons (Procyon lotor) from areas in Ohio where ORV had been conducted during 1998, 1999, and 2001. Tetracycline marking was evaluated within and among first premolar (PM1), second premolar (PM2), and canine (CN) teeth, and mandibular bone (MB) by side (left versus right); and by tissue type. Tetracycline detection ranged from 6.5% in PM1 in 1998 to 56.3% in right-side MB in 2001. PM1 teeth were less frequently marked (21.7%) than PM2 (27.7%), CN (33.0%), or MB (42.0%). Tetracycline detection was similar in left and right PM1, PM2, and CN teeth, but differed in MB. Tetracycline marking was significantly different among all tissue types.

  11. Field trial with oral vaccination of dogs against rabies in the Philippines

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    De Leon Renato

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential role of oral vaccination of dogs against rabies in the Philippines was investigated in terms of safety and efficacy. Methods Prior to the vaccination campaign, a house-to-house survey was carried out to collect data on the dog population in the study area, the coastal village of Mindoro. During the vaccination campaign all households were visited again, and all dogs encountered (>2 months old were, if possible, vaccinated. Furthermore, 14 dogs vaccinated were bled on different occasions. Results During the survey, a total of 216 dogs were counted, and none of these animals had previously been vaccinated against rabies. Only 17 dogs could be restrained and subsequently vaccinated directly by the vaccinators. Another 126 dogs were offered a local-made boiled intestine bait, containing a capsule filled with 3.0 ml SAD B19 (107.9 FFU/ml. The bait acceptance rate of dogs offered a bait was 96.1%. The vaccination coverage of the dog population (> 2 months old estimated by the number of animals vaccinated directly and the number of dogs that accepted a bait and subsequently punctured the vaccine container was 76%. Fifteen and 29 days after the vaccination campaign 6 and 10 dogs (n = 14 had rabies virus neutralizing antibody titres of ≥ 0.5 IU/ml, respectively. No unintentional contacts of nontarget species, including humans, with the vaccine virus were reported. Conclusions The results of the campaign show that oral vaccination of dogs against rabies is a promising supplementary method in dog rabies control in the Philippines.

  12. In memoriam: George Martin Baer, DVM, MPH, 1936-2009. The father of oral rabies vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunenwald, Paul E

    2009-01-01

    George Martin Baer, known for his development of the oral rabies vaccine instrumental in rabies control in Europe, died on 2 June 2009 at the age of 73 in Mexico City, Mexico. He was born on 12 January 1936 in London, England, to German immigrants who had fled Nazi Germany. His family emigrated to the United States in 1940 where he grew up in New Rochelle, New York. George had a love of animals, particularly horses, which may have influenced his career path. He earned an undergraduate degree in agricultural sciences in 1954 from Cornell University followed by a degree in veterinary medicine in 1959. He then went on to earn a master's degree in public health in 1960 from the University of Michigan. During some time in Mexico, George met and fell in love with his wife, Maria Olga Lara. Thanks to James H. Steele, his long-time friend and mentor, he started his public health career with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and was assigned to the New York State Health Department where he learned epidemiology and virology. He went on to work on bat rabies at the CDC's Southwest Rabies Investigations Laboratory in New Mexico. From 1966 to 1969, he worked with the National Institute for Livestock Research (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Pecuarias: INIP) in Mexico and helped develop the Plan Derriengue to control paralytic bovine rabies which became the early work in the development of Mexico's rabies control programmes. He returned to Atlanta in 1969 to direct the CDC Rabies Laboratory. There, he led a team of researchers in developing an oral rabies vaccine for wildlife, earning him the title 'The Father of Oral Rabies Vaccination'. His text, The Natural History of Rabies, first published in 1975 and again in 1991, continues to be a definitive international reference for rabies control. After his retirement, George returned to Mexico and continued his research and training, working to develop not only public health programmes, but new researchers as well. At the

  13. George Martin Baer, DVM, MPH, 1936-2009. The father of oral rabies vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Grunenwald, DVM, MSc

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available George Martin Baer, known for his development of the oral rabies vaccine instrumental in rabies control in Europe, died on 2 June 2009 at the age of 73 in Mexico City, Mexico. He was born on 12 January 1936 in London, England, to German immigrants who had fled Nazi Germany. His family emigrated to the United States in 1940 where he grew up in New Rochelle, New York.George had a love of animals, particularly horses, which may have influenced his career path. He earned an undergraduate degree in agricultural sciences in 1954 from Cornell University followed by a degree in veterinary medicine in 1959. He then went on to earn a master’s degree in public health in 1960 from the University of Michigan. During some time in Mexico, George met and fell in love with his wife, Maria Olga Lara. Thanks to James H. Steele, his long-time friend and mentor, he started his public health career with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC and was assigned to the New York State Health Department where he learned epidemiology and virology. He went on to work on bat rabies at the CDC’s Southwest Rabies Investigations Laboratory in New Mexico. From 1966 to 1969, he worked with the National Institute for Livestock Research (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Pecuarias: INIP in Mexico and helped develop the Plan Derriengue to control paralytic bovine rabies which became the early work in the development of Mexico’s rabies control programmes. He returned to Atlanta in 1969 to direct the CDC Rabies Laboratory. There, he led a team of researchers in developing an oral rabies vaccine for wildlife, earning him the title ‘The Father of Oral Rabies Vaccination’. His text, The Natural History of Rabies, first published in 1975 and again in 1991, continues to be a definitive international reference for rabies control.After his retirement, George returned to Mexico and continued his research and training, working to develop not only public health programmes, but new

  14. Implementation and monitoring of oral rabies vaccination of foxes in Kosovo between 2010 and 2013--an international and intersectorial effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakobson, Boris; Goga, Izedin; Freuling, Conrad M; Fooks, Anthony R; Gjinovci, Valdet; Hulaj, Beqe; Horton, Daniel; Johnson, Nicholas; Muhaxhiri, Jeton; Recica, Ilir; David, Dan; O'Flaherty, Richard; Taylor, Nick; Wilsmore, Tony; Müller, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    The European Union has used instrument for pre-accession (IPA) funds to provide technical assistance and supplies for the eradication, monitoring and control of rabies in several pre-accession countries. As a result, since 2010, multi-annual oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programmes for eliminating fox rabies have been launched in six Western Balkan countries. Here the implementation of the ORV programme in Kosovo, the smallest of the West Balkan countries, is described. Associated challenges under difficult political conditions, potential biases, and the results of rabies surveillance and monitoring of ORV campaigns (bait uptake and immunisation rates) since 2010 are reported. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Oral rabies vaccination of raccoons and striped skunks with ONRAB® baits: multiple factors influence field immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainguy, Julien; Rees, Erin E; Canac-Marquis, Pierre; Bélanger, Denise; Fehlner-Gardiner, Christine; Séguin, Guylaine; Larrat, Sylvain; Lair, Stéphane; Landry, François; Côté, Nathalie

    2012-10-01

    Multiple control methods have been used in North America to manage the spread of rabies caused by the raccoon (Procyon lotor) rabies virus variant (RRVV). Recently, oral vaccination with ONRAB(®) vaccine baits, which contain an adenovirus rabies glycoprotein recombinant, has been made available as an additional tool for rabies control. Our objectives were to estimate rabies antibody prevalence in wild-caught raccoons and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and identify factors influencing the probability of being antibody positive at the individual level in these species, following oral rabies vaccination (ORV) campaigns in which ONRAB was distributed aerially in 2007-2009 in southern Québec, Canada. Following the aerial distribution of 43-155 ONRAB baits/km(2), the annual percentages of antibody-positive raccoons and skunks varied between 35% and 56% and 11% and 17%, respectively. In raccoons, the probability of being antibody positive was positively associated with age and density of ONRAB distributed, and influenced by the number of previous ORV campaigns conducted. Conversely, this probability was negatively associated with estimated abundance of raccoons in the trapping cell and proportion of residential areas near the raccoon capture location. None of the variables examined explained variation in the probability of being antibody positive in skunks. Our results indicate that the ONRAB density applied during ORV campaigns should be adjusted to account for variations in raccoon population density and presence of residential areas to increase the likelihood of creating an effective immunological barrier against RRVV. The high percentage of juvenile raccoons (annual mean =45 ± 3 [SE]%) and skunks (66 ± 2%) captured during post-ORV monitoring suggests that ORV campaigns should be conducted at least annually to account for the recruitment of naïve individuals into the populations. In Québec, the increasing use of ONRAB coincided with the elimination of rabies

  16. A retrospective economic analysis of the Ontario red fox oral rabies vaccination programme.

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    Shwiff, S A; Nunan, C P; Kirkpatrick, K N; Shwiff, S S

    2011-05-01

    Ontario initiated a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programme in 1989. This study utilized a benefit-cost analysis to determine if this ORV programme was economically worthwhile. Between 1979 and 1989, prior to ORV baiting, the average annual human post-exposure treatments, positive red fox rabies diagnostic tests and indemnity payments for livestock lost to rabies were 2248, 1861 and $246,809, respectively. After baiting, from 1990 to 2000, a 35%, 66% and 41% decrease in post-exposure treatments, animal rabies tests and indemnity payments was observed, respectively. These reductions were viewed as benefits of the ORV programme, whereas total costs were those associated with ORV baiting. Multiple techniques were used to estimate four different benefit streams and the total estimated benefits ranged from $35,486,316 to $98,413,217. The annual mean ORV programme cost was $6,447,720, with total programme costs of $77,372,637. The average benefit-cost ratios over the analysis period were .49, 1.06, 1.27 and 1.36, indicating overall programme efficiency in three of the four conservative scenarios.

  17. Control of terrestrial animal rabies in Anne Arundel County, Maryland, after oral vaccination of raccoons (1998-2007).

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    Horman, Joseph T; Shannon, Kyle V; Simpson, E Marie; Burja, Thomas M; Fey, Robert H; Smith, Jeremy J; Phillips, Frances B

    2012-09-15

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an oral rabies vaccination (ORV) project conducted from 1998 through 2007 in Anne Arundel County, Md, for the control of rabies in terrestrial animals. Retrospective analysis of surveillance data (1997 through 2007). Free-ranging raccoons (Procyon lotor) and other terrestrial mammals. Vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant virus oral rabies vaccine-bait units were distributed annually by aircraft and ground teams targeting free-ranging raccoons. Approximately 2 to 4 weeks following the vaccine-bait placement, raccoons were live trapped, sedated, processed, and then released. Serologic samples were tested for the presence of rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies (RVNAs). Bait acceptance was estimated by analysis of tetracycline biomarking of sampled teeth. Rabies incidence was determined by the passive identification of rabid terrestrial animals. The incidence of rabies in terrestrial animals decreased 92% between 1997 (the year prior to the start of the ORV project) and 2007. The mean RVNA prevalence across all years was 33% among trapped raccoons in areas baited with a fish meal polymer bait type, whereas the mean bait acceptance was 30%. Adult raccoons had a seropositivity rate twice that of juvenile raccoons, whereas the bait acceptance rate between adults and juveniles did not differ significantly. For areas baited with a coated sachet bait, adults and juveniles had the same seroprevalence. Juveniles had better seroprevalence when the annual campaign started in September and October, compared with August. The ORV project contributed to a significant decrease in annual incidence of terrestrial animal rabies in Anne Arundel County, Md, during the 10-year project period. For fish meal polymer baits, juvenile raccoons accessed bait at the same rate as adult raccoons but had a significantly lower prevalence of RVNAs. For coated sachet baits, seroprevalence was the same in both age groups. The time of year the bait distribution

  18. Rabies Vaccine: What You Need to Know

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    ... high risk of exposure to rabies, such as veterinarians, animal handlers, rabies laboratory workers, spelunkers, and rabies biologics production workers should be offered rabies vaccine. • The vaccine should also be considered for: - People ...

  19. 77 FR 40322 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of an Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... distribution of baits containing vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein (V-RG) vaccine to stop the spread of specific... Areas. The proposed field trial is a collaborative effort among APHIS-WS; the Centers for Disease... ADDRESSES above for instructions for accessing Regulations.gov and information on the location and hours of...

  20. First international collaborative study to evaluate rabies antibody detection method for use in monitoring the effectiveness of oral vaccination programmes in fox and raccoon dog in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasniewski, M; Almeida, I; Baur, A

    2016-01-01

    The most effective and sustainable method to control and eliminate rabies in wildlife is the oral rabies vaccination (ORV) of target species, namely foxes and raccoon dogs in Europe. According to WHO and OIE, the effectiveness of oral vaccination campaigns should be regularly assessed via disease.......7%, and the coefficients of concordance obtained for fox and raccoon dog samples were 97.2% and 97.5%, respectively. The overall agreement values obtained for the four marketed oral vaccines used in Europe were all equal to or greater than 95%. The coefficients of concordance obtained by laboratories ranged from 87...

  1. Comparing ONRAB® AND RABORAL V-RG® oral rabies vaccine field performance in raccoons and striped skunks, New Brunswick, Canada, and Maine, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlner-Gardiner, Christine; Rudd, Robert; Donovan, Dennis; Slate, Dennis; Kempf, Libby; Badcock, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Control of rabies in mesocarnivore reservoirs through oral rabies vaccination (ORV) requires an effective vaccine bait. Oral rabies vaccine performance in the field may be affected by a variety of factors, including vaccine bait density and distribution pattern, habitat, target species population density, and the availability of competing foods. A field study in which these covariates were restricted as much as possible was conducted along the international border of the state of Maine (ME), USA, and the province of New Brunswick (NB), Canada, to compare the performance of two oral rabies vaccines in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). RABORAL V-RG(®) (vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant oral vaccine in fishmeal-coated sachet) or ONRAB(®) (adenovirus-rabies glycoprotein recombinant oral vaccine in Ultralite bait matrix) were distributed in ME and NB, respectively, by fixed-wing aircraft at a density of 75 baits/km(2) along parallel flight lines spaced 1.0 km apart. Sera were collected from live-trapped raccoons and skunks 5-7 wk post-ORV and assayed to determine antibody prevalence in each area. Duplicate serum samples were provided blind to two different laboratories for analyses by rabies virus serum neutralization assays (at both laboratories) and a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (at one laboratory). There was no significant difference in the proportion of antibody-positive animals determined by the three serologic methods, nor was there a significant difference between ONRAB and RABORAL V-RG in the proportion of antibody-positive striped skunks observed post-ORV. In contrast, the proportion of antibody-positive raccoons was significantly higher in the ONRAB- versus the RABORAL V-RG-baited areas (74% vs. 30%; χ(2)=89.977, df=5, Praccoon rabies control.

  2. Expression of rabies glycoprotein and ricin toxin B chain (RGP-RTB) fusion protein in tomato hairy roots: a step towards oral vaccination for rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ankit; Srivastava, Subhi; Chouksey, Ankita; Panwar, Bhupendra Singh; Verma, Praveen C; Roy, Sribash; Singh, Pradhyumna K; Saxena, Gauri; Tuli, Rakesh

    2015-04-01

    Transgenic hairy roots of Solanum lycopersicum were engineered to express a recombinant protein containing a fusion of rabies glycoprotein and ricin toxin B chain (rgp-rtxB) antigen under the control of constitutive CaMV35S promoter. Asialofetuin-mediated direct ELISA of transgenic hairy root extracts was performed using polyclonal anti-rabies antibodies (Ab1) and epitope-specific peptidal anti-RGP (Ab2) antibodies which confirmed the expression of functionally viable RGP-RTB fusion protein. Direct ELISA based on asialofetuin-binding activity was used to screen crude protein extracts from five transgenic hairy root lines. Expressions of RGP-RTB fusion protein in different tomato hairy root lines varied between 1.4 and 8 µg in per gram of tissue. Immunoblotting assay of RGP-RTB fusion protein from these lines showed a protein band on monomeric size of ~84 kDa after denaturation. Tomato hairy root line H03 showed highest level of RGP-RTB protein expression (1.14 %) and was used further in bench-top bioreactor for the optimization of scale-up process to produce large quantity of recombinant protein. Partially purified RGP-RTB fusion protein was able to induce the immune response in BALB/c mice after intra-mucosal immunization. In the present investigation, we have not only successfully scaled up the hairy root culture but also established the utility of this system to produce vaccine antigen which subsequently will reduce the total production cost for implementing rabies vaccination programs in developing nations. This study in a way aims to provide consolidated base for low-cost preparation of improved oral vaccine against rabies.

  3. The role of risk communication planning in the release of the oral rabies vaccine in New Jersey: An evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflugh, K.K. [New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Communicating health risk information is a complicated task. Citizen reaction to such information is difficult to predict, which makes it hard to plan an appropriate response. Research indicates that the way citizens respond to risk information often depends on whether the risk is familiar or unfamiliar, whether it is seen as imposed on them, whether it is man made or natural, or whether they have control over the risk. Potentially controversial cases that deal with delivering risk information have a special need for a well planned communication effort. Natural resource issues with an impact on public health are no exception. In New Jersey, a proposal to release an experimental bioengineered oral rabies vaccine for raccoons to test the effectiveness of the vaccine in halting the spread of rabies into an as yet unaffected area met with widespread public support and approval due in large part to the use of a unique risk communication planning process. This paper will describe the risk communication planning process used to gain public support and approval for release of oral rabies raccoon vaccine while focusing on the evaluation component of the process. The seven step process includes setting goals, profiling the issue or information gathering, audience identification and assessment, message development, method selection, implementation of the strategy and evaluation and follow-up. The goal of the evaluation component was to determine the effectiveness of the public information campaign on citizen`s knowledge of the field trial nearly three years after the initial announcement. In addition, it sought to learn citizen interest in maintaining the rabies free barrier that was created by the field trial using funds from local taxes. This evaluation includes the results of a mailed survey to 280 citizens, local officials and professional organizations. Finally, this paper will discuss the implications for future outreach efforts dealing complicated technical issues.

  4. Immune response after rabies oral immunization in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Sloboda Pacheco da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to formulate an anti-rabies oral vaccine from the cell culture vaccine PV TECPAR to elicit the production of antibodies against the rabies in mice. A vaccine was developed using 10(7.5 DL50/0.03 ml viral antigens homogenised in lanovaseline to facilitate oral administration. Mice were vaccinated two times for seroconversion. Sera of the vaccinated mice showed a higher level of antibody production than the control group. These results could be used to direct the development of an anti-rabies oral vaccine.

  5. Landscape genetics of raccoons (Procyon lotor) associated with ridges and valleys of Pennsylvania: implications for oral rabies vaccination programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, J Jeffrey; Puskas, Robert B; Fischer, Justin W; Swope, Craig B; Neubaum, Melissa A; Reeder, Serena A; Piaggio, Antoinette J

    2009-12-01

    Raccoons are the reservoir for the raccoon rabies virus variant in the United States. To combat this threat, oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programs are conducted in many eastern states. To aid in these efforts, the genetic structure of raccoons (Procyon lotor) was assessed in southwestern Pennsylvania to determine if select geographic features (i.e., ridges and valleys) serve as corridors or hindrances to raccoon gene flow (e.g., movement) and, therefore, rabies virus trafficking in this physiographic region. Raccoon DNA samples (n = 185) were collected from one ridge site and two adjacent valleys in southwestern Pennsylvania (Westmoreland, Cambria, Fayette, and Somerset counties). Raccoon genetic structure within and among these study sites was characterized at nine microsatellite loci. Results indicated that there was little population subdivision among any sites sampled. Furthermore, analyses using a model-based clustering approach indicated one essentially panmictic population was present among all the raccoons sampled over a reasonably broad geographic area (e.g., sites up to 36 km apart). However, a signature of isolation by distance was detected, suggesting that widths of ORV zones are critical for success. Combined, these data indicate that geographic features within this landscape influence raccoon gene flow only to a limited extent, suggesting that ridges of this physiographic system will not provide substantial long-term natural barriers to rabies virus trafficking. These results may be of value for future ORV efforts in Pennsylvania and other eastern states with similar landscapes.

  6. Oral rabies vaccination in raccoons: comparison of ONRAB® and RABORAL V-RG® vaccine-bait field performance in Québec, Canada and Vermont, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainguy, Julien; Fehlner-Gardiner, Christine; Slate, Dennis; Rudd, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The control of rabies in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in North America has been conducted mainly through aerial distribution of oral vaccine-baits. The effectiveness of the vaccine-bait used is therefore of prime importance for disease eradication. In a previous field comparison between the ONRAB(®) bait in the province of New Brunswick, Canada, and RABORAL V-RG(®) bait in the state of Maine, USA, the ONRAB bait produced a higher percentage of antibody-positive raccoons under nearly identical bait distribution for the two vaccines. The main objective of the present study was to conduct a similar cross-border comparison of these two vaccine-baits using raccoon sera collected during post-oral rabies vaccination monitoring in Québec, Canada, and Vermont, USA, where ONRAB and V-RG, respectively, were distributed aerially at a targeted density of 150 baits/km(2). A comparison of the equivalency of two serologic tests used in Canada and the USA was also conducted using sera from raccoons and striped skunks. Rabies virus neutralization assay (USA) yielded similar results to the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Canada), with agreement between the two tests of 92% for raccoon sera and 96% for skunk sera. With both assays, the percentage of antibody-positive raccoons was greater with ONRAB (51%, n=265) than with V-RG (38%, n=66). These new results support the conclusion from the previous study, that ONRAB vaccine-baits may be more effective for the control of rabies in raccoons.

  7. Rabies vaccination for international travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautret, Philippe; Parola, Philippe

    2012-01-05

    Rabies prevention in travelers is a controversial issue. According to experts, the decision to vaccinate results from an individual risk assessment based on the duration of stay, the likelihood of engagement in at-risk activities, the age of the traveler, the rabies endemicity and access to appropriate medical care in the country of destination. However, no detailed information is available regarding the last two determinants in many regions. Twenty-two cases of rabies were reported in tourists, expatriates and migrant travelers over the last decade, including three cases following short-term travel of no more than two weeks. Studies on rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in travelers show that overall, 0.4% (range 0.01-2.3%) of travelers have experienced an at-risk bite per month of stay in a rabies-endemic country, while 31% of expatriates and 12% of tourists were vaccinated against rabies before traveling. The main reason cited by travelers for not being vaccinated is the cost of the vaccine. The majority of patients who sustained a high risk injury was not vaccinated against rabies before traveling and were not properly treated abroad. From available studies, the following risk factors for injuries sustained from potentially rabid animals may be identified: traveling to South-East Asia, India or North Africa, young age, and traveling for tourism. The duration of travel does not appear to be a risk factor. It should be noted that "at-risk activities" have not been addressed in these studies. Detailed rabies distribution maps and information on the availability of rabies biologics are urgently needed in order to identify those travelers who need pre-travel vaccination. Meanwhile, cost-minimization of rabies pre-exposure vaccination may be achieved in several ways, notably by using the intra-dermal method of vaccination.

  8. Novel vaccines to human rabies.

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    Hildegund C J Ertl

    Full Text Available Rabies, the most fatal of all infectious diseases, remains a major public health problem in developing countries, claiming the lives of an estimated 55,000 people each year. Most fatal rabies cases, with more than half of them in children, result from dog bites and occur among low-income families in Southeast Asia and Africa. Safe and efficacious vaccines are available to prevent rabies. However, they have to be given repeatedly, three times for pre-exposure vaccination and four to five times for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP. In cases of severe exposure, a regimen of vaccine combined with a rabies immunoglobulin (RIG preparation is required. The high incidence of fatal rabies is linked to a lack of knowledge on the appropriate treatment of bite wounds, lack of access to costly PEP, and failure to follow up with repeat immunizations. New, more immunogenic but less costly rabies virus vaccines are needed to reduce the toll of rabies on human lives. A preventative vaccine used for the immunization of children, especially those in high incidence countries, would be expected to lower fatality rates. Such a vaccine would have to be inexpensive, safe, and provide sustained protection, preferably after a single dose. Novel regimens are also needed for PEP to reduce the need for the already scarce and costly RIG and to reduce the number of vaccine doses to one or two. In this review, the pipeline of new rabies vaccines that are in pre-clinical testing is provided and an opinion on those that might be best suited as potential replacements for the currently used vaccines is offered.

  9. 9 CFR 113.312 - Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus. 113.312... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.312 Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus. Rabies Vaccine shall be prepared from...

  10. Geographical information systems in the management of the 2009-2010 emergency oral anti-rabies vaccination of foxes in north-eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Mulatti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Emergency oral fox vaccination campaigns, targeting a recent rabies epidemic in wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes in north-eastern Italy, were implemented twice, first in the winter of 2009 and then in the spring of 2010. Following on an unsuccessful manual bait distribution campaign, vaccine baits were aerially distributed by helicopters using a satellite-navigated, computer-supported, automatic bait drop system. The flight paths were traced with distance of 500-1,000 m from one another to optimise helicopter missions and guarantee homogeneous coverage of the vaccination area. The vaccine distribution was evaluated by superimposing a 1 km-step grid and weighing the number of baits per cell. The implementation of a geographical information system for the management of vaccine distribution proved to be useful, both for the planning and execution phases, of the campaigns. It supported effective management of the flights and allowed near real-time monitoring of the campaigns. In addition, it facilitated the identification of areas with suboptimal bait density that would require additional flights or supplementary, manual distribution.

  11. Heterogeneity of Rabies Vaccination Recommendations across Asia

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    Philippe Buchy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Asian countries bear the greatest burden of the disease, with a majority (59% of rabies-related deaths occurring in Asia. In order to promote best practices, we summarized national human vaccination guidelines across this region, to highlight differences and similarities and to discuss the aspects that would benefit from updates. National management guidelines for rabies were retrieved from various sources to extract information on rabies pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP, and PEP, booster vaccination, and route of administration. Rabies guidelines recommendations for wound management and PrEP across Asia are broadly aligned to the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines. For PEP, the 5-dose Essen, and the 4-dose Zagreb are the regimens of choice for intramuscular (IM, and the Thai Red Cross regimen for intradermal (ID, administration. Several national guidelines have yet to endorse ID vaccine administration. Most guidelines recommend rabies immunoglobulin in category III exposures. Booster recommendations are not included in all guidelines, with limited clarity on booster requirement across the spectrum of risk of rabies exposure. In conclusion, national recommendations across Asian countries differ and while some guidelines are closely aligned to the WHO recommendations, resource-saving ID administration and use of rational abbreviated schedules have yet to be endorsed.

  12. Rabies Outbreaks and Vaccination in Domestic Camels and Cattle in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Zhang, He-Ping; Zhang, Shou-Feng; Wang, Jin-Xiang; Zhou, Hai-Ning; Zhang, Fei; Wang, Yu-Mei; Ma, Long; Li, Nan; Hu, Rong-Liang

    2016-09-01

    In contrast to many countries where rabies has been well controlled in humans and livestock, even in wildlife, rabies is still endemic in almost regions of China. In Northwest China, rabies transmitted by stray dogs and wild foxes has caused heavy economic losses to local herdsmen, as well as causing numbers of human cases. In this study, as part of an investigation of ways to prevent rabies epidemics in livestock, we report an analysis of domestic cattle and camel rabies cases in Ningxia Hui (NHAR) and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR) and the immune efficacy of canine inactivated rabies vaccines in these animals. We found that rabies viruses from these animals are closely related to dog-hosted China I and fox-associated China III lineages, respectively, indicating that the infections originated from two different sources (dogs and wild foxes). As well as the previously reported Arctic and Arctic-related China IV lineage in IMAR, at least three separate phylogenetic groups of rabies virus consistently exist and spread throughout Northwest China. Since there is no licensed oral vaccine for wild foxes and no inactivated vaccine for large livestock, local canine inactivated vaccine products were used for emergency immunization of beef and milk cattle and bactrian (two-humped) camels in local farms. Compared with a single injection with one (low-efficacy) or three doses (high-cost), a single injection of a double dose of canine vaccine provided low-price and convenience for local veterinarians while inducing levels of virus neutralizing antibodies indicative of protection against rabies for at least 1 year in the cattle and camels. However, licensed vaccines for wildlife and large domestic animals are still needed in China.

  13. Applications of nanoparticles for DNA based rabies vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Muhammad Ali A; Khan, Sajid Umar; Ali, Zeeshan; Yang, Haowen; Liu, Keke; Mao, Lanlan

    2014-01-01

    Rabies is a fatal encephalomyelitis. Most cases occur in developing countries and are transmitted by dogs. The cell culture vaccines as associated with high cost; therefore, have not replaced the unsafe brain-derived vaccines. In the developing countries these brain-derived rabies vaccines still can be seen in action. Moreover, there will be a need for vaccines against rabies-related viruses against which classical vaccines are not always effective. The worldwide incidence of rabies and the inability of currently used vaccination strategies to provide highly potent and cost-effective therapy indicate the need for alternate control strategies. DNA vaccines have emerged as the safest vaccines and best remedy for complicated diseases like hepatitis, HIV, and rabies. A number of recombinant DNA vaccines are now being developed against several diseases such as AIDS and malaria. Therefore, it can be a valuable alternative for the production of cheaper rabies vaccines against its larger spectrum of viruses. In this review we report published data on DNA-based immunization with sequences encoding rabies with special reference to nanotechnology.

  14. Immunogenicity and efficacy of two rabies vaccines in wild-caught, captive raccoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L J; Rosatte, R C; Fehlner-Gardiner, C; Knowles, M K; Bachmann, P; Davies, J C; Wandeler, A; Sobey, K; Donovan, D

    2011-01-01

    The immunogenicity and efficacy of two rabies vaccines in wild-caught, captive raccoons (Procyon lotor) were investigated. Raccoons were fed Ontario Slim (OS) baits containing a recombinant vaccinia virus-rabies glycoprotein (VRG) oral rabies vaccine, or they were given an intramuscular (IM) injection of IMRAB(®) 3 rabies vaccine. Blood samples collected before treatment and from weeks 1 to 16 posttreatment were assessed for the presence of rabies virus antibody (RVA). There were significantly more positive responders in the group that received an IM injection of IMRAB 3 (18/27) than in the group that consumed VRG in OS baits (VRG-OS; 4/ 26). There were no significant associations among age, sex, and seroconversion. Of those animals that mounted a humoral immune response to vaccination, RVA was first detected between weeks 1 and 5, with the majority of initial seroconversions detectable at week 2. A subsample of 50 raccoons (19 VRG-OS, 18 IMRAB 3, and 13 controls) from the longitudinal serology study was challenged with live raccoon variant rabies virus 442 days after initial treatment. There were significantly more survivors in the group that received IMRAB 3 (13/18) than in the VRG-OS (5/19) or control (2/13) groups. All 15 raccoons that demonstrated a serologic response survived challenge regardless of treatment. Of the 35 raccoons with no detectable serologic response, 30 (86%) succumbed to rabies virus infection (14/15 VRG-OS, 5/7 IMRAB 3, and 11/13 controls).

  15. Sudden onset unilateral sensorineural hearing loss after rabies vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhovat, Saleh; Fox, Richard; Magill, Jennifer; Narula, Antony

    2015-12-15

    A 33-year-old man developed profound sudden onset right-sided hearing loss with tinnitus and vertigo, within 24 h of pretravel rabies vaccination. There was no history of upper respiratory tract infection, systemic illness, ototoxic medication or trauma, and normal otoscopic examination. Pure tone audiograms (PTA) demonstrated right-sided sensorineural hearing loss (thresholds 90-100 dB) and normal left-sided hearing. MRI internal acoustic meatus, viral serology (hepatitis B, C, HIV and cytomegalovirus) and syphilis screen were normal. Positive Epstein-Barr virus IgG, viral capsid IgG and anticochlear antibodies (anti-HSP-70) were noted. Initial treatment involved a course of high-dose oral prednisolone and acyclovir. Repeat PTAs after 12 days of treatment showed a small improvement in hearing thresholds. Salvage intratympanic steroid injections were attempted but failed to improve hearing further. Sudden onset sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is an uncommon but frightening experience for patients. This is the first report of SSNHL following rabies immunisation in an adult.

  16. 76 FR 50221 - International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine Testing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine... ``International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine Testing: State of the... approaches that may reduce, refine, or replace animal use in human and veterinary rabies vaccine...

  17. Emergency vaccination of rabies under limited resources – combating or containing?

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    Selhorst Thomas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabies is the most important viral zoonosis from a global perspective. Worldwide efforts to combat the disease by oral vaccination of reservoirs have managed to eradicate wildlife rabies in large areas of central Europe and North-America. Thus, repeated vaccination has been discontinued recently on a geographical scale. However, as rabies has not yet been eradicated globally, a serious risk of re-introduction remains. What is the best spatial design for an emergency vaccination program – particularly if resources are limited? Either, we treat a circular area around the detected case and run the risk of infected hosts leaving the limited control area, because a sufficient immunisation level has not yet been built up. Or, initially concentrate the SAME resources in order to establish a protective ring which is more distant from the infected local area, and which then holds out against the challenge of the approaching epidemic. Methods We developed a simulation model to contrast the two strategies for emergency vaccination. The spatial-explicit model is based on fox group home-ranges, which facilitates the simulation of rabies spread to larger areas relevant to management. We used individual-based fox groups to follow up the effects of vaccination in a detailed manner. Thus, regionally – bait distribution orientates itself to standard schemes of oral immunisation programs and locally – baits are assigned to individual foxes. Results Surprisingly, putting the controlled area ring-like around the outbreak does not outperform the circular area of the same size centred on the outbreak. Only during the very first baitings, does the ring area result in fewer breakouts. But then as rabies is eliminated within the circle area, the respective ring area fails, due to the non-controlled inner part. We attempt to take advantage of the initially fewer breakouts beyond the ring when applying a mixed strategy. Therefore, after a certain

  18. Raccoon dog rabies surveillance and post-vaccination monitoring in Lithuania 2006 to 2010

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    Zienius Dainius

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral rabies vaccination (ORV in rabies infected regions should target the primary rabies vector species, which in Lithuania includes raccoon dogs as well as red foxes. Specific investigations on ORV in raccoon dogs are needed e.g. evaluation of vaccine effectiveness under field conditions. The objective of the current study was to investigate the efficacy of the ORV programme 2006-2010 in Lithuania by examining the number of rabies cases and estimating the prevalences of a tetracycline biomarker (TTC and rabies virus antibodies in raccoon dogs. Methods From 2006 to 2010, 12.5 million rabies vaccine-baits were distributed by aircraft. Baiting occurred twice per year (spring and autumn, targeting raccoon dogs and red foxes in a 63,000 km2 area of Lithuania. The mandibles of raccoon dogs found dead or killed in the vaccination area were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy for the presence of the TTC. Rabies virus sera neutralizing anti-glycoprotein antibody titres were determined using an indirect ELISA method and seroconversion (> 0.5 EU/ml rates were estimated. Results During the study period, 51.5% of raccoon dog mandibles were positive for TTC. 1688 of 3260 tested adults and 69 of 175 tested cubs were TTC positive. Forty-seven percent of raccoon dog serum samples were positive for rabies virus antibodies. 302 of 621 investigated adults and 33 of 95 investigated cubs were seropositive. In the same time 302 of 684 and 43 of 124 tested samples were TTC and ELISA positive in spring; whereas 1455 of 2751 and 292 of 592 tested samples were TTC and ELISA positive in autumn. There was a positive correlation between the number of TTC and antibody positive animals for both adult and cub groups. Conclusions ORV was effective in reducing the prevalence of rabies in the raccoon dog population in Lithuania. The prevalence of rabies cases in raccoon dogs in Lithuania decreased from 60.7% in 2006-2007 to 6.5% in 2009-2010.

  19. Barriers to dog rabies vaccination during an urban rabies outbreak: Qualitative findings from Arequipa, Peru.

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    Ricardo Castillo-Neyra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Canine rabies was reintroduced to the city of Arequipa, Peru in March 2015. The Ministry of Health has conducted a series of mass dog vaccination campaigns to contain the outbreak, but canine rabies virus transmission continues in Arequipa's complex urban environment, putting the city's 1 million inhabitants at risk of infection. The proximate driver of canine rabies in Arequipa is low dog vaccination coverage. Our objectives were to qualitatively assess barriers to and facilitators of rabies vaccination during mass campaigns, and to explore strategies to increase participation in future efforts.We conducted 8 focus groups (FG in urban and peri-urban communities of Mariano Melgar district; each FG included both sexes, and campaign participants and non-participants. All FG were transcribed and then coded independently by two coders. Results were summarized using the Social Ecological Model. At the individual level, participants described not knowing enough about rabies and vaccination campaigns, mistrusting the campaign, and being unable to handle their dogs, particularly in peri-urban vs. urban areas. At the interpersonal level, we detected some social pressure to vaccinate dogs, as well as some disparaging of those who invest time and money in pet dogs. At the organizational level, participants found the campaign information to be insufficient and ill-timed, and campaign locations and personnel inadequate. At the community level, the influence of landscape and topography on accessibility to vaccination points was reported differently between participants from the urban and peri-urban areas. Poor security and impermanent housing materials in the peri-urban areas also drives higher prevalence of guard dog ownership for home protection; these dogs usually roam freely on the streets and are more difficult to handle and bring to the vaccination points.A well-designed communication campaign could improve knowledge about canine rabies. Timely messages

  20. Barriers to dog rabies vaccination during an urban rabies outbreak: Qualitative findings from Arequipa, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Brown, Joanna; Borrini, Katty; Arevalo, Claudia; Levy, Michael Z; Buttenheim, Alison; Hunter, Gabrielle C; Becerra, Victor; Behrman, Jere; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A

    2017-03-01

    Canine rabies was reintroduced to the city of Arequipa, Peru in March 2015. The Ministry of Health has conducted a series of mass dog vaccination campaigns to contain the outbreak, but canine rabies virus transmission continues in Arequipa's complex urban environment, putting the city's 1 million inhabitants at risk of infection. The proximate driver of canine rabies in Arequipa is low dog vaccination coverage. Our objectives were to qualitatively assess barriers to and facilitators of rabies vaccination during mass campaigns, and to explore strategies to increase participation in future efforts. We conducted 8 focus groups (FG) in urban and peri-urban communities of Mariano Melgar district; each FG included both sexes, and campaign participants and non-participants. All FG were transcribed and then coded independently by two coders. Results were summarized using the Social Ecological Model. At the individual level, participants described not knowing enough about rabies and vaccination campaigns, mistrusting the campaign, and being unable to handle their dogs, particularly in peri-urban vs. urban areas. At the interpersonal level, we detected some social pressure to vaccinate dogs, as well as some disparaging of those who invest time and money in pet dogs. At the organizational level, participants found the campaign information to be insufficient and ill-timed, and campaign locations and personnel inadequate. At the community level, the influence of landscape and topography on accessibility to vaccination points was reported differently between participants from the urban and peri-urban areas. Poor security and impermanent housing materials in the peri-urban areas also drives higher prevalence of guard dog ownership for home protection; these dogs usually roam freely on the streets and are more difficult to handle and bring to the vaccination points. A well-designed communication campaign could improve knowledge about canine rabies. Timely messages on where and

  1. Barriers to dog rabies vaccination during an urban rabies outbreak: Qualitative findings from Arequipa, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joanna; Borrini, Katty; Arevalo, Claudia; Levy, Michael Z.; Buttenheim, Alison; Hunter, Gabrielle C.; Becerra, Victor; Behrman, Jere; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Canine rabies was reintroduced to the city of Arequipa, Peru in March 2015. The Ministry of Health has conducted a series of mass dog vaccination campaigns to contain the outbreak, but canine rabies virus transmission continues in Arequipa’s complex urban environment, putting the city’s 1 million inhabitants at risk of infection. The proximate driver of canine rabies in Arequipa is low dog vaccination coverage. Our objectives were to qualitatively assess barriers to and facilitators of rabies vaccination during mass campaigns, and to explore strategies to increase participation in future efforts. Methodology/Principal findings We conducted 8 focus groups (FG) in urban and peri-urban communities of Mariano Melgar district; each FG included both sexes, and campaign participants and non-participants. All FG were transcribed and then coded independently by two coders. Results were summarized using the Social Ecological Model. At the individual level, participants described not knowing enough about rabies and vaccination campaigns, mistrusting the campaign, and being unable to handle their dogs, particularly in peri-urban vs. urban areas. At the interpersonal level, we detected some social pressure to vaccinate dogs, as well as some disparaging of those who invest time and money in pet dogs. At the organizational level, participants found the campaign information to be insufficient and ill-timed, and campaign locations and personnel inadequate. At the community level, the influence of landscape and topography on accessibility to vaccination points was reported differently between participants from the urban and peri-urban areas. Poor security and impermanent housing materials in the peri-urban areas also drives higher prevalence of guard dog ownership for home protection; these dogs usually roam freely on the streets and are more difficult to handle and bring to the vaccination points. Conclusions A well-designed communication campaign could improve

  2. A comparative approach between heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategy and DNA vaccinations for rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhani, Kiandokht; Ajorloo, Mehdi; Bamdad, Taravat; Mozhgani, Sayed Hamid Reza; Ghaderi, Mostafa; Gholami, Ali Reza

    2015-04-01

    Rabies is a widespread neurological zoonotic disease causing significant mortality rates, especially in developing countries. Although a vaccine for rabies is available, its production and scheduling are costly in such countries. Advances in recombinant DNA technology have made it a good candidate for an affordable vaccine. Among the proteins of rabies virus, the Glycoprotein (RVG) has been the major target for new vaccine development which plays the principal role in providing complete protection against RV challenge. The aim of this study is to produce recombinant RVG which could be a DNA vaccine candidate and to evaluate the efficiency of this construct in a prime-boost vaccination regimen, compared to commercial vaccine. Cloning to pcDNA3.1(+) and expression of rabies virus glycoprotein gene in BSR cell  line were performed followed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis of the expressed glycoprotein. The resulting genetic construct was used as a DNA vaccine by injecting 80 µg of the plasmid to MNRI mice twice. Prime-Boost vaccination strategy was performed using 80 µg plasmid construct as prime dose and the second dose of an inactivated rabies virus vaccine. Production of rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) titers of the serum samples were determined by RFFIT. In comparisons between heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategy and DNA vaccinations, the potency of group D that received Prime-Boost vaccine with the second dose of pcDNA3.1(+)-Gp was enhanced significantly compared to the group C which had received pcDNA3.1(+)-Gp as first injection. In this study, RVGP expressing construct was used in a comparative approach between Prime-Boost vaccination strategy and DNA vaccination and compared with the standard method of rabies vaccination. It was concluded that this strategy could lead to induction of acceptable humoral immunity.

  3. Clinical and serological response of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus to vaccination against canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and rabies

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    J. Van Heerden

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Wild dogs Lycaon pictus (n = 8 were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8 (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8 over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use in domestic dogs, were used. None of the vaccinated dogs showed any untoward clinical signs. The inactivated canine distemper vaccine did not result in seroconversion whereas the attenuated live vaccine resulted in seroconversion in all wild dogs. Presumably protective concentrations of antibodies to canine distemper virus were present in all wild dogs for at least 451 days. Canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres were present in all wild dogs prior to the administration of vaccine and protective concentrations persisted for at least 451 days. Vaccination against parvovirus infection resulted in a temporary increase in canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres in most dogs. Administration of both inactivated parenteral and live oral rabies vaccine initially resulted in seroconversion in 7 of 8 dogs. These titres, however, dropped to very low concentrations within 100 days. Booster administrations resulted in increased antibody concentrations in all dogs. It was concluded that the vaccines were safe to use in healthy subadult wild dogs and that a vaccination protocol in free-ranging wild dogs should at least incorporate booster vaccinations against rabies 3-6 months after the first inoculation.

  4. Molecular characterization of China rabies virus vaccine strain

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    Jiao Wenqiang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabies virus (RV, the agent of rabies, can cause a severe encephalomyelitis in several species of mammals, including humans. As a human rabies vaccine strain employed in China, the genetic knowledge of the aG strain has not been fully studied. The main goal of the present study is to amplify the whole genome of aG strain, and genetic relationships between other vaccine strains and wild strains were analyzed. Results The entire genome of human rabies virus vaccine strain aG employed in China was sequenced; this is the second rabies virus vaccine strain from China to be fully characterized. The overall organization and the length of the genome were similar to that of other lyssaviruses. The length of aG strain was 11925nt, comprising a leader sequence of 58nt, nucleoprotein (N gene of 1353nt, phosphoprotein (P gene of 894 nt, matrix protein (M gene of 609nt, glycoprotein (G gene of 1575nt, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp,L gene of 6384nt, and a trailer region of 70 nt. There was TGAAAAAAA (TGA7 consensus sequence in the end of each gene, except AGA7 at the end of G gene. There was AACAYYYCT consensus start signal at the beginning of each gene. Conclusions In this report, we analyzed the full genome of China human rabies vaccine strain aG. Our studies indicated that the genome of aG retained the basic characteristics of RV. At gene level, N was the most conserved among the five coding genes, indicating this gene is the most appropriate for quantitative genotype definition. The phylogenetic analysis of the N indicated the aG strain clustered most closely with Japanese and Russian rabies vaccine strains, suggesting that they may share the same ancestor; also, the aG strain did not share high homology with wild strains isolated from China, making it may not be the best vaccine strain, more research is needed to elucidate the genetic relationship among the RV circulating in China.

  5. Fatal outcome after postexposure rabies vaccination in a patient with Parkinson’s disease

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    Lalošević Dušan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In Serbia and Montenegro postexposure rabies vaccination is performed using five doses of rabies vaccine with a potency of 2.5 I.U. It is given on 0, 3rd, 7th, 14th and 28th day, combined with human rabies immunoglobulin with the first dose. Modern rabies vaccines produced in cell cultures rarely cause neurological complications, among which Guillain-Barre syndrome and parkinsonism. Case report The authors report a case of a 78-year-old woman with a documented five-year history of Parkinson's disease, who was bitten by a rabid cat. Twelve hours later, when the rabies infection of the cat was confirmed by an immunofluorescence test, the patient received the first dose of rabies vaccine Verorab (Aventis, a cell culture vaccine, together with the human rabies immunoglobulin produced in Belgrade. After the third dose of rabies vaccine, the symptoms of Parkinson's disease progressed and vaccination was interrupted. However, one month later, the patient died with predominantly neurological symptoms. As the patient died at the time when incubation of rabies might have been expected, autopsy and rabies diagnostics were performed. Autopsy and pathohistologic findings The autopsy and pathohistologic findings from the specimens treated with routine hematoxylin and eosin staining, together with immunofluorescence test, excluded rabies as a cause of death and revealed neurodegenerative changes typical for Parkinson's disease. Using two different fluorescent rabies antibodies, we performed a direct immunofluorescence antibody tests, but no rabies antigens were detected. However, in histologic slides of the brain stem, large intracytoplasmic inclusions were found in some neurons, identified as Lewy bodies characteristic for Parkinson's disease Conclusion Parkinson's disease, with its complications, was the cause of death of the patient bitten by a rabid cat. Furthermore, the coincidence of the progression of Parkinson's disease symptoms, at the

  6. Protection of non-human primates against rabies with an adenovirus recombinant vaccine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Z.Q. [The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Greenberg, L. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ertl, H.C., E-mail: ertl@wistar.upenn.edu [The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Rupprecht, C.E. [The Global Alliance for Rabies Control, Manhattan, KS (United States); Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, Basseterre (Saint Kitts and Nevis)

    2014-02-15

    Rabies remains a major neglected global zoonosis. New vaccine strategies are needed for human rabies prophylaxis. A single intramuscular immunization with a moderate dose of an experimental chimpanzee adenovirus (Ad) vector serotype SAd-V24, also termed AdC68, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein, resulted in sustained titers of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and protection against a lethal rabies virus challenge infection in a non-human primate model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the recombinant Ad-rabies vector for further consideration in human clinical trials. - Highlights: • Pre-exposure vaccination with vaccine based on a chimpanzee derived adenovirus protects against rabies. • Protection is sustained. • Protection is achieved with single low-dose of vaccine given intramuscularly. • Protection is not affected by pre-existing antibodies to common human serotypes of adenovirus.

  7. Review on Dog Rabies Vaccination Coverage in Africa: A Question of Dog Accessibility or Cost Recovery?

    OpenAIRE

    Tariku Jibat; Henk Hogeveen; Mourits, Monique C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies still poses a significant human health problem throughout most of Africa, where the majority of the human cases results from dog bites. Mass dog vaccination is considered to be the most effective method to prevent rabies in humans. Our objective was to systematically review research articles on dog rabies parenteral vaccination coverage in Africa in relation to dog accessibility and vaccination cost recovery arrangement (i.e.free of charge or owner charged). Methodology/Prin...

  8. Safety and immunogenicity of Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait (ONRAB) in the first us field trial in raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slate, Dennis; Chipman, Richard B; Algeo, Timothy P; Mills, Samuel A; Nelson, Kathleen M; Croson, Christopher K; Dubovi, Edward J; Vercauteren, Kurt; Renshaw, Randall W; Atwood, Todd; Johnson, Shylo; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2014-07-01

    In 2011, we conducted a field trial in rural West Virginia, USA to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a live, recombinant human adenovirus (AdRG1.3) rabies virus glycoprotein vaccine (Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait; ONRAB) in wild raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). We selected ONRAB for evaluation because of its effectiveness in raccoon rabies management in Ontario and Quebec, Canada, and significantly higher antibody prevalence rates in raccoons compared with a recombinant vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein (V-RG) vaccine, Raboral V-RG®, in US-Canada border studies. Raccoon rabies was enzootic and oral rabies vaccination (ORV) had never been used in the study area. We distributed 79,027 ONRAB baits at 75 baits/km(2) mostly by fixed-wing aircraft along parallel flight lines at 750-m intervals. Antibody prevalence was significantly higher at 49.2% (n=262) in raccoons after ONRAB was distributed than the 9.6% (n=395) before ORV. This was the highest antibody prevalence observed in raccoons by US Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services for areas with similar management histories evaluated before and after an initial ORV campaign at 75 baits/km(2) with Raboral V-RG. Tetracycline biomarker (TTCC) was significantly higher among antibody-positive raccoons after ONRAB baiting and was similar among raccoons before ORV had been conducted, an indication of vaccine-induced rabies virus-neutralizing antibody production following consumption of bait containing TTCC. Skunk sample size was inadequate to assess ONRAB effects. Safety and immunogenicity results supported replication of this field trial and led to a recommendation for expanded field trials in 2012 to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of ground-distributed ONRAB at 150 baits/km(2) in residential and commercial habitats in Ohio, USA and aerially distributed ONRAB at 75 baits/km(2) in rural habitats along US-Quebec border.

  9. Review on Dog Rabies Vaccination Coverage in Africa: A Question of Dog Accessibility or Cost Recovery?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jibat, T.; Hogeveen, H.; Mourits, Monique C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is one of the most fatal diseases in both humans and animals. A bite by a rabid dog is the main cause of human rabies in Africa. Parenteral mass dog vaccination is the most cost-effective tool to prevent rabies in humans. Our main objective was to review research articles on the parenteral

  10. Review on Dog Rabies Vaccination Coverage in Africa: A Question of Dog Accessibility or Cost Recovery?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jibat, T.; Hogeveen, H.; Mourits, Monique C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is one of the most fatal diseases in both humans and animals. A bite by a rabid dog is the main cause of human rabies in Africa. Parenteral mass dog vaccination is the most cost-effective tool to prevent rabies in humans. Our main objective was to review research articles on the parenteral do

  11. Review on Dog Rabies Vaccination Coverage in Africa: A Question of Dog Accessibility or Cost Recovery?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jibat, T.; Hogeveen, H.; Mourits, Monique C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is one of the most fatal diseases in both humans and animals. A bite by a rabid dog is the main cause of human rabies in Africa. Parenteral mass dog vaccination is the most cost-effective tool to prevent rabies in humans. Our main objective was to review research articles on the parenteral do

  12. High prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus (CAV) type 2 in domestic dog populations in South Africa precludes the use of CAV-based recombinant rabies vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, N; Jackson, F R; Niezgoda, M; Ellison, J A; Rupprecht, C E; Nel, L H

    2013-08-28

    Rabies in dogs can be controlled through mass vaccination. Oral vaccination of domestic dogs would be useful in the developing world, where greater vaccination coverage is needed especially in inaccessible areas or places with large numbers of free-roaming dogs. From this perspective, recent research has focused on development of new recombinant vaccines that can be administered orally in a bait to be used as adjunct for parenteral vaccination. One such candidate, a recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 vaccine expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (CAV2-RG), is considered a promising option for dogs, given host specificity and safety. To assess the potential use of this vaccine in domestic dog populations, we investigated the prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus type 2 in South African dogs. Blood was collected from 241 dogs from the Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces. Sampled dogs had not previously been vaccinated against canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV1) or canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2). Animals from both provinces had a high percentage of seropositivity (45% and 62%), suggesting that CAV2 circulates extensively among domestic dog populations in South Africa. Given this finding, we evaluated the effect of pre-existing CAV-specific antibodies on the efficacy of the CAV2-RG vaccine delivered via the oral route in dogs. Purpose-bred Beagle dogs, which received prior vaccination against canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and CAV, were immunized by oral administration of CAV2-RG. After rabies virus (RABV) infection all animals, except one vaccinated dog, developed rabies. This study demonstrated that pre-existing antibodies against CAV, such as naturally occurs in South African dogs, inhibits the development of neutralizing antibodies against RABV when immunized with a CAV-based rabies recombinant vaccine.

  13. Rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Nark

    2013-01-01

    Rabies has been a scourge of mankind since antiquity. The name itself, ?rabies? is derived from the ancient Sanskrit rabhas meaning ?to do violence? and has been found described in medical writings several thousand years old. The rabies virus is an RNA virus of the family Rhabdoviridae (Greek for ?rod-shaped virus?), genus Lyssavirus (Lyssa being the Greek God of frenzy and rage). Rabies infections have a worldwide spread, with only a few, mostly island nations laying claim to being ?rabies free.?

  14. A novel rabies vaccine based-on toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist PIKA adjuvant exhibiting excellent safety and efficacy in animal studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yi [Yisheng Biopharma. Co., Ltd., Beijing (China); Zhang, Shoufeng [Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Changchun (China); Li, Wei [National Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, Beijing (China); Hu, Yuchi; Zhao, Jinyan [Beijing Institute for Drug Control, Beijing (China); Liu, Fang; Lin, Haixiang; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Liliang; Xu, Shu [Yisheng Biopharma. Co., Ltd., Beijing (China); Hu, Rongliang, E-mail: ronglianghu@hotmail.com [Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Changchun (China); Shao, Hui, E-mail: hui.shao@yishengbio.com [Yisheng Biopharma. Co., Ltd., Beijing (China); Li, Lietao, E-mail: lietao.li@gmail.com [Yisheng Biopharma. Co., Ltd., Beijing (China)

    2016-02-15

    Vaccination alone is not sufficiently effective to protect human from post-exposure rabies virus infection due to delayed generation of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and weak cellular immunity. Therefore, it is vital to develop safer and more efficacious vaccine against rabies. PIKA, a stabilized chemical analog of double-stranded RNA that interacts with TLR3, was employed as adjuvant of rabies vaccine. The efficacy and safety of PIKA rabies vaccine were evaluated. The results showed that PIKA rabies vaccine enhanced both humoral and cellular immunity. After viral challenge, PIKA rabies vaccine protected 70–80% of animals, while the survival rate of non-adjuvant vaccine group (control) was 20–30%. According to the results of toxicity tests, PIKA and PIKA rabies vaccine are shown to be well tolerated in mice. Thus, this study indicates that PIKA rabies vaccine is an effective and safe vaccine which has the potential to develop next-generation rabies vaccine and encourage the start of clinical studies. - Highlights: • Vaccination alone is not effective to protect human from rabies virus infection due to delayed generation of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) and weak cellular immunity. • Therefore, it is vital to develop safer and more efficacious vaccine against rabies. PIKA, a stabilized chemical analog of double-stranded RNA that interacts with TLR3, was employed as an adjuvant of rabies vaccine. • The efficacy and safety of PIKA rabies vaccine was evaluated in mice. • The results showed that PIKA rabies vaccine enhanced both humoral and cellular immunity. • After viral challenge, PIKA rabies vaccine protected 70–80% of animals, while the survival rate of non-adjuvant vaccine group was only 20–30%. • According to the results of toxicity tests, PIKA and PIKA rabies vaccine are shown to be well tolerated in mice. • Thus, this study indicates that PIKA rabies vaccine is an effective and safe vaccine which has the potential to

  15. Antibody response of cattle to vaccination with commercial modified live rabies vaccines in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Amy; Greenberg, Lauren; Moran, David; Alvarez, Danilo; Alvarado, Marlon; Garcia, Daniel L; Peruski, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Vampire bat rabies is a public and animal health concern throughout Latin America. As part of an ecological study of vampire bat depredation on cattle in southern Guatemala, we conducted a vaccine seroconversion study among three dairy farms. The main objectives of this cross sectional and cohort study were to understand factors associated with bat bites among cattle, to determine whether unvaccinated cattle had evidence of rabies virus exposure and evaluate whether exposure was related to bat bite prevalence, and to assess whether cattle demonstrate adequate seroconversion to two commercial vaccines used in Guatemala. In 2012, baseline blood samples were collected immediately prior to intramuscular inoculation of cattle with one of two modified live rabies vaccines. Post vaccination blood samples were collected 13 and 393 days later. Sera were tested for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (rVNA) by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Across two years of study, 36% (254/702) of inspected cattle presented gross evidence of vampire bat bites. Individual cattle with a bat bite in 2012 were more likely have a bat bite in 2013. Prior to vaccination, 12% (42/350) of cattle sera demonstrated rVNA, but bite status in 2012 was not associated with presence of rVNA. Vaccine brand was the only factor associated with adequate rVNA response of cattle by day 13. However, vaccine brand and rVNA status at day 13 were associated with an adequate rVNA titer on day 393, with animals demonstrating an adequate titer at day 13 more likely to have an adequate titer at day 393. Our findings support stable levels of vampire bat depredation and evidence of rVNA in unvaccinated cattle. Brand of vaccine may be an important consideration impacting adequate rVNA response and long-term maintenance of rVNA in cattle. Further, the results demonstrate that initial response to vaccination is associated with rVNA status over one year following vaccination.

  16. Factors associated with the success of rabies vaccination of dogs in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Esteban

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background United Kingdom, Ireland, Malta and Sweden maintain their national provisions for a transitional period regarding rules concerning rabies vaccination and individual serological test for rabies neutralizing antibodies. The purpose of vaccinating dogs against rabies is to establish pre-exposure immunity and protect individual animals from contracting rabies. The aim of the study was to investigate factors associated with reaching the internationally accepted threshold antibody titre of 0.5 IU/mL after rabies vaccination of dogs. Methods The study was a prospective single cohort study including 6,789 samples from Swedish dogs vaccinated with commercially available vaccines in Sweden, and the dog's antibody responses were determined by the OIE approved FAVN test. Information on potential risk factors; breed, age, gender, date of vaccination, vaccine label and the number of vaccinations, was collected for each dog. Associations between the dependent variable, serological response ≥ 0.5 IU/mL or Results Of 6,789 vaccinated dogs, 6,241 (91.9% had an approved test result of ≥ 0.5 IU/mL. The results of the multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that vaccinating with vaccine B reduced the risk of having antibody titres of 5 years of age to have antibody titres of Conclusions The probability of success of rabies vaccinations of dogs depends on type of vaccine used, number of rabies vaccinations, the breed size of the dog, age at vaccination, and number of days after vaccination when the antibody titres are tested. The need for a booster vaccination regimen is recommended for larger breeds of dog.

  17. Efficiency of Matricaria chamomilla CH12 and number of doses of rabies vaccine on the humoral immune response in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Lima de Souza Reis, Luis Souza; Frazatti-Gallina, Neuza Maria; Paoli, Rosana de Lima; Giuffrida,Rogerio; Albas, Avelino; Oba, Eunice; Pardo, Paulo Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Matricaria chamomilla and vaccination frequency on cattle immunization against rabies. Four groups (n = 15 /group) were treated with or without Matricaria chamomilla CH12 and vaccinated with one or two doses of rabies vaccine (30 day interval). No effect of chamomile was found on cattle immunization against rabies; however, antibody titers were protective in cattle vaccinated twice, while 93.3% of cattle vaccinated only once had titers under 0.5 UI/ml after ...

  18. A sensitive in vitro assay for the detection of residual viable rabies virus in inactivated rabies vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama-Ito, Mutsuyo; Nakamichi, Kazuo; Kinoshita, Hitomi; Kakiuchi, Satsuki; Kurane, Ichiro; Saijo, Masayuki; Lim, Chang-Kweng

    2014-01-01

    Rabies is a viral disease transmitted through bites from rabid animals and can be prevented by vaccines. Clinically used rabies vaccines are prepared from inactivated rabies viruses grown in cell cultures or embryonated eggs. In Japan and across the world, tests that confirm complete inactivation, such as the in vivo suckling mouse assay, in which suckling mice are intracerebrally inoculated with vaccine products, are required for quality control. In this study, we developed a novel cell-based immunofluorescence assay that does not require mice for testing rabies vaccine inactivation for human use. The sensitivity of this cell-based in vitro assay was 5.7 times that of the in vivo suckling mouse assay, with a detection limit of one focus forming units per ml of test sample. This newly developed in vitro assay may replace the established in vivo suckling mouse assay for confirming viral vaccine inactivation. Copyright © 2013 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Immunogenicity and efficacy of an in-house developed cell-culture derived veterinarian rabies vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallel, Héla; Diouani, Mohamed Fethi; Loukil, Houssem; Trabelsi, Khaled; Snoussi, Mohamed Ali; Majoul, Samy; Rourou, Samia; Dellagi, Koussay

    2006-05-29

    The efficiency of an inactivated tissue culture rabies vaccine produced on BHK-21 cells, according to an in-house developed process, was evaluated and compared to a commercial cell-tissue culture vaccine (Rabisin). Fifteen experimental dogs from local common breed were duly conditioned during a quarantine period, then vaccinated via the subcutaneous route with 1 ml of either the tissue culture vaccine developed in-house or the commercial vaccine Rabisin. The immune response of each dog was monitored for 162 days. Serum-neutralizing antibodies titers to rabies virus were determined by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) which confirmed the strong response of dogs to both vaccines except one dog in the Rabisin group. The dogs were then challenged in the masseter muscle with a rabies street virus of canine origin. All vaccinated dogs except the single dog in the Rabisin group that failed to respond to the vaccine, survived the challenge. In contrast, 80% of animals in the control non-vaccinated group, developed rabies and died. A field vaccine trial was also conducted: 1,000 local dogs living in field conditions received one subcutaneous dose of the locally developed vaccine. Serum neutralizing antibody titers to rabies virus was determined by RFFIT at days 0, 60 and 360. Mean rabies neutralizing antibody titers were equal to 0.786, 3.73 and 1.55 IU/ml, respectively. The percentage of dogs with a neutralizing rabies antibody titer higher than the 0.5 IU/ml mandated WHO threshold, was 30%, 91.4% and 87.5% at day 0, 2 months and 1 year post-vaccination, respectively. These data demonstrate the efficiency of the in-house developed vaccine produced on BHK-21 cells in both experimental and field conditions and support its use in dog mass vaccination campaigns.

  20. Experimental oral and nasal transmission of rabies virus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, K M; Casey, G A

    1979-01-01

    Weanling female white Swiss mice were exposed to challenge virus standard rabies virus and street virus isolates from various domestic and wild animals. Virus was given free choice as suspension or as infected mouse brain by stomach tube, by single injection of suspension into the oral cavity of unanesthetized mice, by repeated injection into the oral cavity of anesthetized mice and by single application to the external nares of anesthetized mice. Challenge virus standard virus in mouse brain suspension and a suspension of skunk salivary glands infected with street virus (titers greater than or equal to 10(6)MICLD50/0.03 ml) consistently produced high rates of infection in mice exposed intranasally, low to high rates of infection in mice exposed by forced feeding and other artificial methods of oral exposure and very low rates of infection when given free choice. Street virus isolates passaged intracerebrally in mice had titers less than or equal to 10(4.5) MICLD50/0.03 ml and rarely caused rabies in mice exposed orally or nasally by any method. The results indicate that with the isolates used, virus of high titer (greater than or equal to 10(6)MICLD50/0.03 ml) is required to consistently produce infection in mice by the nasal route and that the mucosa of the nasal cavity probably is the chief route of infection even after oral administration.

  1. Determinants of Vaccination Coverage and Consequences for Rabies Control in Bali, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arief, Riana A.; Hampson, Katie; Jatikusumah, Andri; Widyastuti, Maria D. W.; Sunandar; Basri, Chaerul; Putra, Anak A. G.; Willyanto, Iwan; Estoepangestie, Agnes T. S.; Mardiana, I. W.; Kesuma, I. K. G. N.; Sumantra, I. P.; Doherty, Paul F.; Salman, M. D.; Gilbert, Jeff; Unger, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining high vaccination coverage is key to successful rabies control, but mass dog vaccination can be challenging and population turnover erodes coverage. Declines in rabies incidence following successive island-wide vaccination campaigns in Bali suggest that prospects for controlling and ultimately eliminating rabies are good. Rabies, however, has continued to circulate at low levels. In the push to eliminate rabies from Bali, high coverage needs to be maintained across all areas of the island. We carried out door-to-door (DTD) questionnaire surveys (n = 10,352 dog-owning households) and photographic mark–recapture surveys (536 line transects, 2,597 observations of free-roaming dogs) in 2011–2012 to estimate dog population sizes and assess rabies vaccination coverage and dog demographic characteristics in Bali, Indonesia. The median number of dogs per subvillage unit (banjar) was 43 (range 0–307) for owned dogs estimated from the DTD survey and 17 (range 0–83) for unconfined dogs (including both owned and unowned) from transects. Vaccination coverage of owned dogs was significantly higher in adults (91.4%) compared to juveniles (advertising to ensure that owners vaccinate pups. Long-lasting, cheap, and quick methods are needed to mark vaccinated animals and reassure communities of the reach of vaccination campaigns. PMID:28119919

  2. Immune response and protection in raccoons (Procyon lotor) following consumption of baits containing ONRAB®, a human adenovirus rabies glycoprotein recombinant vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L J; Rosatte, R C; Fehlner-Gardiner, C; Taylor, J S; Davies, J C; Donovan, D

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the immune response and protection conferred in raccoons (Procyon lotor) following consumption of ONRAB(®) oral rabies vaccine baits. Forty-two wild-caught, captive raccoons were each offered an ONRAB vaccine bait; 21 controls received no vaccine baits. Blood samples collected from all raccoons before treatment, and each week posttreatment for 16 wk, were assessed for the presence of rabies virus antibody. In the bait group, an individual was considered to have responded to vaccination if serum samples from three or more consecutive weeks were antibody-positive. Using this criterion, 77% (20/26) of raccoons that consumed ONRAB baits with no observed vaccine spillage (full dose) demonstrated a humoral immune response. In the group that received a partial dose (0.05-0.90 mL vaccine recovered), 50% (8/16) of raccoons responded to vaccination. Regardless of the vaccine dose received, among the 28 raccoons that responded to vaccination 18 had antibody initially detectable at week 2 and 22 remained antibody-positive for at least 10 consecutive weeks. Kinetics of the humoral immune response suggest that the best time to conduct postbaiting surveillance for evidence of vaccination would be 6-13 wk following bait deployment, with the highest antibody prevalence expected between weeks 8-10. A sub-sample of 29 raccoons (20 ONRAB, 9 controls) was challenged with raccoon rabies virus variant 350 days posttreatment. Eight of nine controls (89%) developed rabies whereas 15/20 vaccinates (75%) survived. Survival following rabies challenge was significantly higher in raccoons presented ONRAB vaccine baits.

  3. Regulatory Acceptance and Use of Serology for Inactivated Veterinary Rabies Vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiffelers, Marie-Jeanne W. A.; Blaauboer, Bas J.; Bakker, Wieger E.; Hendriksen, Coenraad F. M.

    2015-01-01

    In April 2013 the mouse antibody serum neutralization test (SNT) was formally incorporated into European Pharmacopoeia monograph 0451 for potency testing of inactivated veterinary rabies vaccines. The SNT is designed to replace the highly variable and pain and distress causing NIH mouse rabies

  4. Regulatory Acceptance and Use of Serology for Inactivated Veterinary Rabies Vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiffelers, Marie-Jeanne W. A.; Blaauboer, Bas J.; Bakker, Wieger E.; Hendriksen, Coenraad F. M.

    2015-01-01

    In April 2013 the mouse antibody serum neutralization test (SNT) was formally incorporated into European Pharmacopoeia monograph 0451 for potency testing of inactivated veterinary rabies vaccines. The SNT is designed to replace the highly variable and pain and distress causing NIH mouse rabies chall

  5. Comparison of anamnestic responses to rabies vaccination in dogs and cats with current and out-of-date vaccination status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael C; Davis, Rolan D; Kang, Qing; Vahl, Christopher I; Wallace, Ryan M; Hanlon, Cathleen A; Mosier, Derek A

    2015-01-15

    To compare anamnestic antibody responses of dogs and cats with current versus out-of-date vaccination status. Cross-sectional study. 74 dogs and 33 cats. Serum samples were obtained from dogs and cats that had been exposed to rabies and brought to a veterinarian for proactive serologic monitoring or that had been brought to a veterinarian for booster rabies vaccination. Blood samples were collected on the day of initial evaluation (day 0) and then again 5 to 15 days later. On day 0, a rabies vaccine was administered according to label recommendations. Paired serum samples were analyzed for antirabies antibodies by means of a rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. All animals had an antirabies antibody titer ≥ 0.5 IU/mL 5 to 15 days after booster vaccination. Dogs with an out-of-date vaccination status had a higher median increase in titer, higher median fold increase in titer, and higher median titer following booster vaccination, compared with dogs with current vaccination status. Most (26/33) cats, regardless of rabies vaccination status, had a titer ≥ 12 IU/mL 5 to 15 days after booster vaccination. Results indicated that dogs with out-of-date vaccination status were not inferior in their antibody response following booster rabies vaccination, compared with dogs with current vaccination status. Findings supported immediate booster vaccination followed by observation for 45 days of dogs and cats with an out-of-date vaccination status that are exposed to rabies, as is the current practice for dogs and cats with current vaccination status.

  6. Review on dog rabies vaccination coverage in Africa: a question of dog accessibility or cost recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibat, Tariku; Hogeveen, Henk; Mourits, Monique C M

    2015-02-01

    Rabies still poses a significant human health problem throughout most of Africa, where the majority of the human cases results from dog bites. Mass dog vaccination is considered to be the most effective method to prevent rabies in humans. Our objective was to systematically review research articles on dog rabies parenteral vaccination coverage in Africa in relation to dog accessibility and vaccination cost recovery arrangement (i.e.free of charge or owner charged). A systematic literature search was made in the databases of CAB abstracts (EBSCOhost and OvidSP), Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Medline (EBSCOhost and OvidSP) and AJOL (African Journal Online) for peer reviewed articles on 1) rabies control, 2) dog rabies vaccination coverage and 3) dog demography in Africa. Identified articles were subsequently screened and selected using predefined selection criteria like year of publication (viz. ≥ 1990), type of study (cross sectional), objective(s) of the study (i.e. vaccination coverage rates, dog demographics and financial arrangements of vaccination costs), language of publication (English) and geographical focus (Africa). The selection process resulted in sixteen peer reviewed articles which were used to review dog demography and dog ownership status, and dog rabies vaccination coverage throughout Africa. The main review findings indicate that 1) the majority (up to 98.1%) of dogs in African countries are owned (and as such accessible), 2) puppies younger than 3 months of age constitute a considerable proportion (up to 30%) of the dog population and 3) male dogs are dominating in numbers (up to 3.6 times the female dog population). Dog rabies parenteral vaccination coverage was compared between "free of charge" and "owner charged" vaccination schemes by the technique of Meta-analysis. Results indicate that the rabies vaccination coverage following a free of charge vaccination scheme (68%) is closer to the World Health Organization recommended coverage rate

  7. Review on dog rabies vaccination coverage in Africa: a question of dog accessibility or cost recovery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariku Jibat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rabies still poses a significant human health problem throughout most of Africa, where the majority of the human cases results from dog bites. Mass dog vaccination is considered to be the most effective method to prevent rabies in humans. Our objective was to systematically review research articles on dog rabies parenteral vaccination coverage in Africa in relation to dog accessibility and vaccination cost recovery arrangement (i.e.free of charge or owner charged.A systematic literature search was made in the databases of CAB abstracts (EBSCOhost and OvidSP, Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Medline (EBSCOhost and OvidSP and AJOL (African Journal Online for peer reviewed articles on 1 rabies control, 2 dog rabies vaccination coverage and 3 dog demography in Africa. Identified articles were subsequently screened and selected using predefined selection criteria like year of publication (viz. ≥ 1990, type of study (cross sectional, objective(s of the study (i.e. vaccination coverage rates, dog demographics and financial arrangements of vaccination costs, language of publication (English and geographical focus (Africa. The selection process resulted in sixteen peer reviewed articles which were used to review dog demography and dog ownership status, and dog rabies vaccination coverage throughout Africa. The main review findings indicate that 1 the majority (up to 98.1% of dogs in African countries are owned (and as such accessible, 2 puppies younger than 3 months of age constitute a considerable proportion (up to 30% of the dog population and 3 male dogs are dominating in numbers (up to 3.6 times the female dog population. Dog rabies parenteral vaccination coverage was compared between "free of charge" and "owner charged" vaccination schemes by the technique of Meta-analysis. Results indicate that the rabies vaccination coverage following a free of charge vaccination scheme (68% is closer to the World Health Organization recommended coverage rate (70

  8. Rabies vaccination campaigns in dogs and cats, and rabies positivity in bats, from 2004 to 2014, in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ricardo Conde Alves; Zuben, Andrea Paula Bruno von; Lucca, Tosca de; Reichmann, Maria de Lourdes Aguiar Bonadia

    2017-01-01

    to describe the results of rabies vaccination campaigns in dogs and cats from 2004 to 2009 and from 2012 to 2014, and the positivity for rabies in bats from 2004 to 2014, in Campinas-SP, Brazil. a descriptive study was carried out with secondary data from the Zoonoses Surveillance Unit. there was a marked reduction in the number of vaccinated dogs, from 105,764 (2004) to 65,561 (2014), with vaccine coverage below 80%, except in 2004; there was little oscillation in the number of vaccinated cats, from 10,212 (2004) to 9,522 (2014), with vaccine coverage below 80%, except in 2014; 4,464 bats were collected by passive surveillance, 2.17% of them were positive for rabies. the low vaccine coverage in dogs and cats and the circulation of the virus in bats imposes the need for improvement in surveillance actions, in order to prevent cases of human rabies.

  9. Dogs susceptibility to rabies after a vaccination campaign in endemic areas of Perú

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To determine the level of immune response after a mass vaccination campaign against rabies in two areas which presented cases of canine rabies in the last years. Materials and methods: A serologic survey was carried out in 101 and 199 dogs located respectively, in the cities of Tambo Grande (Piura) and Juliaca (Puno) and a rabies serum mouse neutralization test was perform to measure neutralizing antibodies (≥ 0,5 UI/mL) according to area of study, vaccination antecedents, age and s...

  10. Concomitant administration of GonaCon™ and rabies vaccine in female dogs (Canis familiaris) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Pino, Fernando; Gutiérrez-Cedillo, Verónica; Canales-Vargas, Erick J; Gress-Ortega, Luis R; Miller, Lowell A; Rupprecht, Charles E; Bender, Scott C; García-Reyna, Patricia; Ocampo-López, Juan; Slate, Dennis

    2013-09-13

    Mexico serves as a global model for advances in rabies prevention and control in dogs. The Mexican Ministry of Health (MMH) annual application of approximately 16 million doses of parenteral rabies vaccine has resulted in significant reductions in canine rabies during the past 20 years. One collateral parameter of rabies programs is dog population management. Enhanced public awareness is critical to reinforce responsible pet ownership. Surgical spaying and neutering remain important to prevent reproduction, but are impractical for achieving dog population management goals. GonaCon™, an anti-gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine, was initially tested in captive female dogs on the Navajo Nation, 2008. The MMH led this international collaborative study on an improved formulation of GonaCon™ in captive dogs with local representatives in Hidalgo, Mexico in 2011. This study contained 20 bitches assigned to Group A (6 control), Group B (7 GonaCon™), and Group C (7 GonaCon™ and rabies vaccine). Vaccines were delivered IM. Animals were placed under observation and evaluated during the 61-day trial. Clinically, all dogs behaved normally. No limping or prostration was observed, in spite of minor muscle atrophy post-mortem in the left hind leg of dogs that received GonaCon™. Two dogs that began the study pregnant give birth to healthy pups. Dogs that received a GonaCon™ injection had macro and microscopic lesions consistent with prior findings, but the adverse injection effects were less frequent and lower in intensity. Both vaccines were immunogenic based on significant increases in rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and anti-GnRH antibodies in treatment Groups B and C. Simultaneous administration of GonaCon™ and rabies vaccine in Group C did not affect immunogenicity. Progesterone was suppressed significantly in comparison to controls. Future studies that monitor fertility through multiple breeding cycles represent a research need to determine the

  11. Spatial control of rabies on heterogeneous landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin A Russell

    Full Text Available Rabies control in terrestrial wildlife reservoirs relies heavily on an oral rabies vaccine (ORV. In addition to direct ORV delivery to protect wildlife in natural habitats, vaccine corridors have been constructed to control the spread; these corridors are often developed around natural barriers, such as rivers, to enhance the effectiveness of vaccine deployment. However, the question of how to optimally deploy ORV around a river (or other natural barrier to best exploit the barrier for rabies control has not been addressed using mathematical models. Given an advancing epidemic wave, should the vaccine be distributed on both sides of barrier, behind the barrier, or in front of it? Here, we introduce a new mathematical model for the dynamics of raccoon rabies on a spatially heterogeneous landscape that is both simple and realistic. We demonstrate that the vaccine should always be deployed behind a barrier to minimize the recurrence of subsequent epidemics. Although the oral rabies vaccine is sufficient to induce herd immunity inside the vaccinated area, it simultaneously creates a demographic refuge. When that refuge is in front of a natural barrier, seasonal dispersal from the vaccine corridor into an endemic region sustains epidemic oscillations of raccoon rabies. When the vaccine barrier creates a refuge behind the river, the low permeability of the barrier to host movement limits dispersal of the host population from the protected populations into the rabies endemic area and limits subsequent rabies epidemics.

  12. Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are expected from rabies biological suppliers in both India and Viet Nam. Once complete, the data will ... and affected communities. For more information contact: WHO Media centre E-mail: mediainquiries@who.int Related links ...

  13. Postexposure Treatment and Animal Rabies, Ontario, 1958-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Christopher P.; Honig, Janet M.; Ball, David G. A.; Hauschildt, Peggy; LeBer, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between animal rabies and postexposure treatment (PET) in Ontario by examining the introduction of human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) in 1980 and the initiation of an oral rabies vaccination program for wildlife in 1989. Introducing HDCV led to an immediate doubling of treatments. Both animal rabies and human treatments declined rapidly after the vaccination program was introduced, but human treatments have leveled off at approximately 1,000 per year. PMID:11897079

  14. Rabies in a Vaccinated 9-Month-Old German Shepherd Dog, Akure, 2010: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Qasim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After the onset of symptoms, the clinical course of rabies is almost invariably fatal. Rabies has traditionally been associated with dogs more than any other animal, and in parts of the world where domestic animal control and vaccination programs are limited, dogs remain the most important reservoir of the disease. We report a case of canine rabies in a vaccinated 9-month-old German shepherd female dog. The presenting clinical sign was jaw muscle paralysis with a hanging bronze color like tongue without salivation. Following encephalectomy, a rabies positive diagnosis was confirmed by fluorescent antibody technique at the Rabies Laboratory, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom. The epidemiology of the rabies case is not understood. This case is of public health significance because of the at-risk population including animal health care service provider and animals. The following were recommended, (a a reinvigorated control measure that includes the awareness program on prevention, responsible dog ownership with dog registration at veterinary hospitals, and registered veterinary clinics by the government and (b a yearly rabies vaccination campaign that must be improved through the veterinary public health and other health departments collaborating.

  15. Efficiency of Matricaria chamomilla CH12 and number of doses of rabies vaccine on the humoral immune response in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Reis, Luis Souza; Frazatti-Gallina, Neuza Maria; de Lima Paoli, Rosana; Giuffrida, Rogerio; Albas, Avelino; Oba, Eunice; Pardo, Paulo Eduardo

    2008-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Matricaria chamomilla and vaccination frequency on cattle immunization against rabies. Four groups (n = 15 /group) were treated with or without Matricaria chamomilla CH12 and vaccinated with one or two doses of rabies vaccine (30 day interval). No effect of chamomile was found on cattle immunization against rabies; however, antibody titers were protective in cattle vaccinated twice, while 93.3% of cattle vaccinated only once had titers under 0.5 UI/ml after 60 days. In conclusion, the use of chamomile did not alter the humoral immune response in cattle, and two vaccine doses are suggested for achieving protective antibody titers.

  16. Molecular Characterization of China Human Rabies Vaccine Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyan Tao; Na Han; Zhenyang Guo; Qing Tang; Simon Rayner; Guodong Liang

    2013-01-01

    To understand the molecular characteristics of China human rabies vaccine strains,we report the full-length genome of the aG strain and present a comprehensive analysis of this strain and almost all available lyssavirus genomes (58 strains) from GenBank (as of Jan 6,2011).It is generally considered that the G protein plays a predominant role in determining the pathogenicity of the virus,to this end we predicted the tertiary structure of the G protein of aG strain,CTN 181 strain and wild type strain HN 10 based on the crystal structure of Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G.The predicted RABV G structure has a similar topology to VSV G and the ectodomain can be divided into 4 distinct domains DI-DIV.By mapping the characterized mutations to this structure between China vaccine strains and their close street strains,we speculate that the G303(P-H) mutations of CTN181 and HN10 causing D Ⅱ 3D change may be associated with the attenuated virulence in both strains.Specifically,the two signature mutations (G165P and G231P) in the aG strain are withinβsheets,suggesting that both sites are of structural importance.

  17. Potential for Rabies Control through Dog Vaccination in Wildlife-Abundant Communities of Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Meagan C.; Hampson, Katie; Cleaveland, Sarah; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Townsend, Jeffrey P.; Galvani, Alison P.

    2012-01-01

    Canine vaccination has been successful in controlling rabies in diverse settings worldwide. However, concerns remain that coverage levels which have previously been sufficient might be insufficient in systems where transmission occurs both between and within populations of domestic dogs and other carnivores. To evaluate the effectiveness of vaccination targeted at domestic dogs when wildlife also contributes to transmission, we applied a next-generation matrix model based on contract tracing data from the Ngorongoro and Serengeti Districts in northwest Tanzania. We calculated corresponding values of R0, and determined, for policy purposes, the probabilities that various annual vaccination targets would control the disease, taking into account the empirical uncertainty in our field data. We found that transition rate estimates and corresponding probabilities of vaccination-based control indicate that rabies transmission in this region is driven by transmission within domestic dogs. Different patterns of rabies transmission between the two districts exist, with wildlife playing a more important part in Ngorongoro and leading to higher recommended coverage levels in that district. Nonetheless, our findings indicate that an annual dog vaccination campaign achieving the WHO-recommended target of 70% will control rabies in both districts with a high level of certainty. Our results support the feasibility of controlling rabies in Tanzania through dog vaccination. PMID:22928056

  18. Potential for rabies control through dog vaccination in wildlife-abundant communities of Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meagan C Fitzpatrick

    Full Text Available Canine vaccination has been successful in controlling rabies in diverse settings worldwide. However, concerns remain that coverage levels which have previously been sufficient might be insufficient in systems where transmission occurs both between and within populations of domestic dogs and other carnivores. To evaluate the effectiveness of vaccination targeted at domestic dogs when wildlife also contributes to transmission, we applied a next-generation matrix model based on contract tracing data from the Ngorongoro and Serengeti Districts in northwest Tanzania. We calculated corresponding values of R(0, and determined, for policy purposes, the probabilities that various annual vaccination targets would control the disease, taking into account the empirical uncertainty in our field data. We found that transition rate estimates and corresponding probabilities of vaccination-based control indicate that rabies transmission in this region is driven by transmission within domestic dogs. Different patterns of rabies transmission between the two districts exist, with wildlife playing a more important part in Ngorongoro and leading to higher recommended coverage levels in that district. Nonetheless, our findings indicate that an annual dog vaccination campaign achieving the WHO-recommended target of 70% will control rabies in both districts with a high level of certainty. Our results support the feasibility of controlling rabies in Tanzania through dog vaccination.

  19. Rabies prevention and management of cats in the context of trap-neuter-vaccinate-release programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebling, A D; Johnson, D; Blanton, J D; Levin, M; Slate, D; Fenwick, G; Rupprecht, C E

    2014-06-01

    Domestic cats are an important part of many Americans' lives, but effective control of the 60-100 million feral cats living throughout the country remains problematic. Although trap-neuter-vaccinate-return (TNVR) programmes are growing in popularity as alternatives to euthanizing feral cats, their ability to adequately address disease threats and population growth within managed cat colonies is dubious. Rabies transmission via feral cats is a particular concern as demonstrated by the significant proportion of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis associated with exposures involving cats. Moreover, TNVR has not been shown to reliably reduce feral cat colony populations because of low implementation rates, inconsistent maintenance and immigration of unsterilized cats into colonies. For these reasons, TNVR programmes are not effective methods for reducing public health concerns or for controlling feral cat populations. Instead, responsible pet ownership, universal rabies vaccination of pets and removal of strays remain integral components to control rabies and other diseases. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Replacing the NIH test for rabies vaccine potency testing: a synopsis of drivers and barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiffelers, M.J.; Blaauboer, B.J.; Bakker, W.; Hendriksen, C.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 70% of animal use is utilized to demonstrate quality control of vaccines. Especially rabies vaccine potency testing, using the NIH challenge test, involves objections in terms of scientific relevance, animal welfare concern and costs. Several 3R models have been proposed to refine, red

  1. The Final (Oral Ebola) Vaccine Trial on Captive Chimpanzees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Peter D.; Kurup, Drishya; Hasselschwert, Dana L.; Wirblich, Christoph; Goetzmann, Jason E.; Schnell, Matthias J.

    2017-01-01

    Could new oral vaccine technologies protect endangered wildlife against a rising tide of infectious disease? We used captive chimpanzees to test oral delivery of a rabies virus (RABV) vectored vaccine against Ebola virus (EBOV), a major threat to wild chimpanzees and gorillas. EBOV GP and RABV GP-specific antibody titers increased exponentially during the trial, with rates of increase for six orally vaccinated chimpanzees very similar to four intramuscularly vaccinated controls. Chimpanzee sera also showed robust neutralizing activity against RABV and pseudo-typed EBOV. Vaccination did not induce serious health complications. Blood chemistry, hematologic, and body mass correlates of psychological stress suggested that, although sedation induced acute stress, experimental housing conditions did not induce traumatic levels of chronic stress. Acute behavioral and physiological responses to sedation were strongly correlated with immune responses to vaccination. These results suggest that oral vaccination holds great promise as a tool for the conservation of apes and other endangered tropical wildlife. They also imply that vaccine and drug trials on other captive species need to better account for the effects of stress on immune response. PMID:28277549

  2. Dog ecology, dog bites and rabies vaccination rates in Bauchi State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Y.J. Atuman; A. B. Ogunkoya; D.A.Y. Adawa; A.J. Nok; M.B. Biallah

    2014-01-01

    A study of dog ecology, dog bites and rabies vaccination rates was carried out in Bauchi the capital city of Bauchi State, Nigeria using direct street counts and questionnaire survey administered on 10% of the city streets selected by stratified random sampling. The questionnaire was designed to obtain data in order to determine the dog to human population ratio, dog management and care, cases of dog bites, consequences of the bites and frequencies of rabies outbreak. The estimated dog popula...

  3. Dogs that develop rabies post-vaccination usually manifest the paralytic subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepsumethanon, Veera; Likitsuntonwong, Wanlop; Thorner, Paul Scott; Shuangshoti, Shanop

    2016-09-01

    Rabies infection can manifest as either encephalitic (furious) or paralytic (dumb) types, with a ratio of approximately 2:1 in dogs. The clinical type of rabies that develops post-vaccination has only been reported in studies from one country, all with similar findings. We report a study of 36 rabid dogs with obtainable vaccination history, presenting to The Queen Saovabha Memorial Institute, Bangkok, Thailand during 2002-2008. Dogs were classified into encephalitic or paralytic types. Of 22 non-vaccinated dogs, 16 (73%) had the encephalitic type. In contrast, of the 14 vaccinated dogs, 10 (71%) had the paralytic type, a difference that was significant (p=0.016). Recent studies on canine brains have shown that lymphocyte response is more pronounced in paralytic rabies at the brainstem level, whereas viral burden is greater in the encephalitic form. We postulate partial immune response in the vaccinated dogs might influence rabies to manifest as the paralytic type. These results can serve as a natural experiment that can help explain the basis for the differences between the paralytic and encephalitic forms of canine rabies.

  4. Elimination of Dog-Mediated Human Rabies Deaths by 2030: Needs Assessment and Alternatives for Progress Based on Dog Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ryan M; Undurraga, Eduardo A; Blanton, Jesse D; Cleaton, Julie; Franka, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Rabies imposes a substantial burden to about half of the world population. The World Health Organization (WHO), World Organization for Animal Health, and the Food and Agriculture Organization have set the goal of eliminating dog-mediated human rabies deaths by 2030. This could be achieved largely by massive administration of post-exposure prophylaxis-in perpetuity-, through elimination of dog rabies, or combining both. Here, we focused on the resources needed for the elimination of dog rabies virus by 2030. Drawing from multiple datasets, including national dog vaccination campaigns, rabies literature, and expert opinion, we developed a model considering country-specific current dog vaccination capacity to estimate the years and resources required to achieve dog rabies elimination by 2030. Resources were determined based on four factors: (a) country development status, (b) dog vaccination costs, (c) dog rabies vaccine availability, and (d) existing animal health workers. Our calculations were based on the WHO's estimate that vaccinating 70% of the dog population for seven consecutive years would eliminate rabies. If dog rabies vaccine production remains at 2015 levels, we estimate that there will be a cumulative shortage of about 7.5 billion doses to meet expected demand to achieve dog rabies elimination. We estimated a present cost of $6,300 million to eliminate dog rabies in all endemic countries, equivalent to a $3,900 million gap compared to current spending. To eliminate dog rabies, the vaccination workforce may suffice if all public health veterinarians in endemic countries were to dedicate 3 months each year to dog rabies vaccination. We discuss implications of potential technology improvements, including population management, vaccine price reduction, and increases in dog-vaccinating capacities. Our results highlight the resources needed to achieve elimination of dog-mediated human rabies deaths by 2030. As exemplified by multiple successful disease

  5. Evaluation of standard reagents for radial-immunodiffusion assays. In vitro control of rabies vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICELI Graciela S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The RID assay is one of the in vitro methods used for in-process control in the production of rabies vaccines for veterinary use. It has been shown to be very useful for determining antigen concentration in the final bulk product. The work presented in this paper, including the production and standardization of candidate standard reagents for use in the Radial Immunodiffusion Assay (RID was carried out at the Pan American Institute for Food Protection and Zoonoses (INPPAZ/PAHO/WHO. The study was completed with the cooperation of the Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, National University of La Plata (NULP, Argentina, where the validation of the proposed standards and the quality control of samples from 28 different batches of rabies vaccines produced with Pasteur strain rabies virus (PV in BHK cells were performed. The activity of the vaccines was determined by in vivo (NIH and in vitro (RIDassays. The results of the candidate reagents for the reagent standardization tests showed stability, sensitivity and reproducibility. The Relative Potency the 1.2 between the problem vaccines and the reference vaccine was estimated by variance and regression analysis. The results of our validation study show that the INPPAZ (PAHO/WHO is capable of producing and distributing the above-mentioned standard reagents, as well as of providing support for the incorporation of the RID technique (sensitive, rapid and inexpensive to the laboratories that manufacture rabies vaccines in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  6. Prevalence of immunity presumed using rabies vaccination history and household factors associated with vaccination status among domestic dogs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidano, Arata; Hayama, Yoko; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Rabies was eliminated in Japan over 50 years ago; however, the recent increase in the movement of humans and animals across the world highlights the potential threat of disease reentry into the country. The immune status against rabies among the dog population in Japan is not well known; thus, the purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dogs with effective immunity from the vaccination history using a web-based survey. We found that 76.9% (95% confidence interval, 75.8-78.1) of dogs in this study population belonged to the population in which 90% were assumed to have the internationally accepted antibody titer. We showed that dogs taken less frequently for walks were less likely to be vaccinated. Additionally, the frequency of encounters with other dogs during walks and the number of individuals in households were associated with vaccination history. To our knowledge, this study is the first report estimating the prevalence of dogs in Japan with effective immunity against rabies. Further, we identified the population with low vaccination coverage as well as the heterogeneous characteristics of vaccination history among the dog population. These findings contribute to the implementation of an efficient strategy for improving the overall vaccination coverage in Japan and the development of a quantitative risk assessment of rabies.

  7. Antibodies to human myelin proteins and gangliosides in patients with acute neuroparalytic accidents induced by brain-derived rabies vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laouini, D; Kennou, M F; Khoufi, S; Dellagi, K

    1998-11-02

    Antibody responses to myelin antigens were analysed in 15 patients who developed acute neuroparalytic accidents (ANPA) during post-exposure rabies vaccination using a rabies vaccine prepared on brain tissues and in 30 individuals who were uneventfully vaccinated. High titers (> or = 100) of IgG and IgM antibodies to GM1 or GD1a gangliosides were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent-assay (ELISA) in plasmas from ANPA patients but not in controls. These data suggest that antibodies to GM1 and GD1a gangliosides may play a pathogenic role in the demyelinating and/or inflammatory processes characteristic of rabies vaccine-induced acute neurologic complications.

  8. Recombinant canine distemper virus serves as bivalent live vaccine against rabies and canine distemper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xijun; Feng, Na; Ge, Jinying; Shuai, Lei; Peng, Liyan; Gao, Yuwei; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu; Bu, Zhigao

    2012-07-20

    Effective, safe, and affordable rabies vaccines are still being sought. Attenuated live vaccine has been widely used to protect carnivores from canine distemper. In this study, we generated a recombinant canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine strain, rCDV-RVG, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) by using reverse genetics. The recombinant virus rCDV-RVG retained growth properties similar to those of vector CDV in Vero cell culture. Animal studies demonstrated that rCDV-RVG was safe in mice and dogs. Mice inoculated intracerebrally or intramuscularly with rCDV-RVG showed no apparent signs of disease and developed a strong rabies virus (RABV) neutralizing antibody response, which completely protected mice from challenge with a lethal dose of street virus. Canine studies showed that vaccination with rCDV-RVG induced strong and long-lasting virus neutralizing antibody responses to RABV and CDV. This is the first study demonstrating that recombinant CDV has the potential to serve as bivalent live vaccine against rabies and canine distemper in animals.

  9. [Evolution of human anti-rabies vaccines from Pasteur to the present].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barme, M; Tsiang, H

    1995-05-01

    Since the first immunization of man against rabies in 1885 by Louis Pasteur, antirabies vaccine has been continuously improved. Treatment failures, clinical infections by the fixed virus, neuroparalytic accidents in connection with myelin were progressively eliminated. Vaccines can be standardized and accurately controlled. After the original spinal cord, adult or newborn animals brains, embryonated eggs, primary tissue cultures, diploid and permanent cell lines have been used for the vaccine production. Today, safe and potent vaccines are available. New products might be developed from the technology of genetic recombinants.

  10. Neutralizing Antibody Response after Intramuscular Purified Vero Cell Rabies Vaccination (PVRV in Iranian Patients with Specific Medical Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooneh Rahimi

    Full Text Available Post exposure prophylaxis using one of the WHO-approved vaccines is the method of choice for preventing rabies. Abnormal immune function in patients with some specific medical conditions, such as pregnancy, chronic hepatitis B virus infection, different types of cancers like lymphoma, diabetes I and II, corticosteroid consumption by patients with rheumatoid arthritis and lupus erythematosus, could impair the immunologic response to various vaccines. The immune response to rabies vaccination has never been examined in patients with any of these described medical conditions. This study purposed to evaluate the neutralyzing antibody response after vaccination with purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV according to the WHO-recommended Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP "ESSEN" regimen.Thirty healthy volunteers and 50 volunteers with different medical conditions who were exposed to a suspected rabid animal in the 2nd or 3rd category of exposure received 5 doses of PVRV under the ESSEN protocol. Three blood samples were collected on days 0 (before the first dose, 14, and 35. The anti-rabies antibody titer was measured using the Rapid Fluorescent Foci Inhibition Test (RFFIT and an ELISA Bio-Rad, Platelia, Rabies II kit.All subjects reached NAb titers above 0.5 IU/ml by day 14 after vaccination. On day 35 (1 week after receiving the last rabies vaccine, anti-rabies antibodies were in the protective level (>0.5 IU/ml in both groups. There was no statistically significant difference in anti-rabies antibody response due to the type of exposure (category 2 or 3, and successful seroconversion was confirmed in both groups.In conclusion, the ESSEN protocol using the PVRV vaccine is sufficient for rabies prophylaxis in patients with specific medical conditions.

  11. Infectivity of attenuated poxvirus vaccine vectors and immunogenicity of a raccoonpox vectored rabies vaccine in the Brazilian Free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stading, Benjamin; Osorio, Jorge E.; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Smotherman, Michael; Kingstad-Bakke, Brock; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2016-01-01

    Bats (Order Chiroptera) are an abundant group of mammals with tremendous ecological value as insectivores and plant dispersers, but their role as reservoirs of zoonotic diseases has received more attention in the last decade. With the goal of managing disease in free-ranging bats, we tested modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) and raccoon poxvirus (RCN) as potential vaccine vectors in the Brazilian Free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), using biophotonic in vivo imaging and immunogenicity studies. Animals were administered recombinant poxviral vectors expressing the luciferase gene (MVA-luc, RCN-luc) through oronasal (ON) or intramuscular (IM) routes and subsequently monitored for bioluminescent signal indicative of viral infection. No clinical illness was noted after exposure to any of the vectors, and limited luciferase expression was observed. Higher and longer levels of expression were observed with the RCN-luc construct. When given IM, luciferase expression was limited to the site of injection, while ON exposure led to initial expression in the oral cavity, often followed by secondary replication at another location, likely the gastric mucosa or gastric associated lymphatic tissue. Viral DNA was detected in oral swabs up to 7 and 9 days post infection (dpi) for MVA and RCN, respectively. While no live virus was detected in oral swabs from MVA-infected bats, titers up to 3.88 x 104 PFU/ml were recovered from oral swabs of RCN-infected bats. Viral DNA was also detected in fecal samples from two bats inoculated IM with RCN, but no live virus was recovered. Finally, we examined the immunogenicity of a RCN based rabies vaccine (RCN-G) following ON administration. Significant rabies neutralizing antibody titers were detected in the serum of immunized bats using the rapid fluorescence focus inhibition test (RFFIT). These studies highlight the safety and immunogenicity of attenuated poxviruses and their potential use as vaccine vectors in bats.

  12. AN ELISA SUITABLE FOR THE DETECTION OF RABIES VIRUS ANTIBODIES IN SERUM SAMPLES FROM HUMAN VACCINATED WITH EITHER CELL-CULTURE VACCINE OR SUCKLING-MOUSE-BRAIN VACCINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PIZA Adriana Souza de Toledo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available An indirect ELISA for determination of post-vaccination rabies antibody was applied. Purified rabies virus was used as antigen to coat plates, and staphylococcal protein A linked with horseradish peroxidase was used for detecting IgG antibody in human sera. Sera from humans, vaccinated with cell-culture vaccine or suckling-mouse-brain vaccine, were examined. ELISA results were compared to those obtained from the virus neutralization test. The mean and standard deviation of OD were determined for 126 negative sera (pre-vaccination and for 73 sera from vaccinated persons showing antibody titers lower than 0.5 IU/ml. Results were defined as ELISA -positive, -negative or -doubtful. Establishment of a doubtful region reduced the number of sera otherwise classified as positive (false-positive sera. In this way, the sensitivity, specificity and agreement values were respectively 87.5%, 92.4% and 88.5%. No significant differences were observed in these values when the group vaccinated with cell-culture vaccine and the group vaccinated with suckling-mouse-brain vaccine were compared. It was shown that much of the disagreement between the values obtained by neutralization test and ELISA occurred in sera obtained at the beginning of the immunization process, and was probably due to the presence of IgM in the serum samples, detected only by the former test. This ELISA method can be used as a screening test in rabies laboratories regardless of the kind of vaccine used for immunization.

  13. Documenting Freedom From Disease and Re-Establishing a Free Status After a Breakdown Rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihvonen Liisa

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies reappeared in Finland in the spring of 1988 after a 29-year absence. This time rabies occurred in sylvatic form and the major species involved was the raccoon dog. During the outbreak 1988–89 66 animals were diagnosed rabid. Vaccination of cats, cattle and horses was strongly recommended and vaccination of dogs was compulsory in the outbreak area. A field trial was started on oral immunisation of raccoon dogs and foxes against rabies using baits containing rabies vaccine strain. The outbreak area and a wide buffer zone were baited three times. Finland was declared free of rabies again in 1991. Oral vaccination campaign with vaccine baits has been organised along the southeastern border once a year since the beginning of 90s. Continuous surveillance and epidemiological screening is necessary to detect any new outbreaks of rabies at an early stage.

  14. Eliminating rabies in Estonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Cliquet

    Full Text Available The compulsory vaccination of pets, the recommended vaccination of farm animals in grazing areas and the extermination of stray animals did not succeed in eliminating rabies in Estonia because the virus was maintained in two main wildlife reservoirs, foxes and raccoon dogs. These two species became a priority target therefore in order to control rabies. Supported by the European Community, successive oral vaccination (OV campaigns were conducted twice a year using Rabigen® SAG2 baits, beginning in autumn 2005 in North Estonia. They were then extended to the whole territory from spring 2006. Following the vaccination campaigns, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased, with 266 cases in 2005, 114 in 2006, four in 2007 and three in 2008. Since March 2008, no rabies cases have been detected in Estonia other than three cases reported in summer 2009 and one case in January 2011, all in areas close to the South-Eastern border with Russia. The bait uptake was satisfactory, with tetracycline positivity rates ranging from 85% to 93% in foxes and from 82% to 88% in raccoon dogs. Immunisation rates evaluated by ELISA ranged from 34% to 55% in foxes and from 38% to 55% in raccoon dogs. The rabies situation in Estonia was compared to that of the other two Baltic States, Latvia and Lithuania. Despite regular OV campaigns conducted throughout their territory since 2006, and an improvement in the epidemiological situation, rabies has still not been eradicated in these countries. An analysis of the number of baits distributed and the funding allocated by the European Commission showed that the strategy for rabies control is more cost-effective in Estonia than in Latvia and Lithuania.

  15. Development of Rabies Virus-Like Particles for Vaccine Applications: Production, Characterization, and Protection Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Diego; Etcheverrigaray, Marina; Kratje, Ricardo; Prieto, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Rabies is a viral infection of the central nervous system for which vaccination is the only treatment possible. Besides preexposure, vaccination is highly recommended for people living in endemic areas, veterinarians, and laboratory workers. Our group has developed rabies virus-like particles (RV-VLPs) with immunogenic features expressed in mammalian cells for vaccine applications. In this chapter the methods to obtain and characterize a stable HEK293 cell line expressing RV-VLPs are detailed. Further, analytical ultracentrifugation steps to purify the obtained VLPs are developed, as well as western blot, dynamic light scattering, and immunogold electron microscopy to analyze the size, distribution, shape, and antigenic conformation of the purified particles. Finally, immunization protocols are described to study the immunogenicity of RV-VLPs.

  16. Diagnostics procedures in rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malovrh Tadej

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a major zoonosis for which diagnostic techniques can only be performed in the laboratory. Laboratory techniques are preferably oriented on tissue removed from the cranium: hippocampus (Ammon's horn, cerebellum and the medulla oblongata or tissue liquids. Clinical observation may only lead to a suspicion of rabies. The only way to perform a reliable diagnosis of the disease is to identify the virus or some of its specific components using laboratory tests such as histological identification of characteristic cell lesions, immunochemical identification of rabies virus antigen and virus isolation. Serological tests are rarely used in epidemiological surveys but much more frequently in control of the vaccination programs (e.g. oral vaccination. Most commonly used serological tests are the virus neutralization test on cell culture (FAVN, virus neutralization in mice and ELISA.

  17. Factors associated with dog rabies vaccination in Bhol, Philippines: results of a cross-sectional cluster survey conducted following the island-wide rabies elimination campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davlin, S; Lapiz, S M; Miranda, M E; Murray, K

    2013-11-01

    The Philippines has a long history of rabies control efforts in their dog populations; however, long-term success of such programmes and the goal of rabies elimination have not yet been realized. The Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Program was developed as an innovative approach to canine rabies control in 2007. The objective of this study was to assess canine rabies vaccination coverage in the owned-dog population in Bohol and to describe factors associated with rabies vaccination 2 years after implementation of the programme. We utilized a cross-sectional cluster survey based on the World Health Organization's Expanded Programme on Immunization coverage survey technique. We sampled 460 households and collected data on 539 dogs residing within these households. Seventy-seven per cent of surveyed households reported owning at least one dog. The human-to-dog ratio was approximately 4 : 1, and the mean number of dogs owned per household was 1.6. Based on this ratio, we calculated an owned-dog population of almost 300 000. Overall, 71% of dogs were reported as having been vaccinated for rabies at some time in their lives; however, only 64% of dogs were reported as having been recently vaccinated. Dogs in our study were young (median age = 24 months). The odds of vaccination increased with increasing age. Dogs aged 12-23 months had 4.6 times the odds of vaccination compared to dogs aged 3-11 months (95% CI 1.8-12.0; P = 0.002). Confinement of the dog both day and night was also associated with increased odds of vaccination (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 0.9-4.9; P = 0.07), and this result approached statistical significance. While the programme is on track to meet its goal of 80% vaccination coverage, educational efforts should focus on the need to confine dogs and vaccinate young dogs.

  18. Reduction of animal suffering in rabies vaccine potency testing by introduction of humane endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama-Ito, Mutsuyo; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Nakamichi, Kazuo; Kakiuchi, Satsuki; Horiya, Madoka; Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Kurane, Ichiro; Saijo, Masayuki

    2017-03-01

    Potency controls of inactivated rabies vaccines for human use are confirmed by the National Institutes of Health challenge test in which lethal infection with severe neurological symptoms should be observed in approximately half of the mice inoculated with the rabies virus. Weight loss, decreased body temperature, and the presence of rabies-associated neurological signs have been proposed as humane endpoints. The potential for reduction of animal suffering by introducing humane endpoints in the potency test for inactivated rabies vaccine for human use was investigated. The clinical signs were scored and body weight was monitored. The average times to death following inoculation were 10.49 and 10.99 days post-inoculation (dpi) by the potency and challenge control tests, respectively, whereas the average times to showing Score-2 signs (paralysis, trembling, and coma) were 6.26 and 6.55 dpi, respectively. Body weight loss of more than 15% appeared at 5.82 and 6.42 dpi. The data provided here support the introduction of obvious neuronal signs combined with a body weight loss of ≥15% as a humane endpoint to reduce the time of animal suffering by approximately 4 days. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Oral vaccines for preventing cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, David; Abba, Katharine; Zaman, K; Qadri, Firdausi; Graves, Patricia M

    2011-03-16

    Cholera is a cause of acute watery diarrhoea which can cause dehydration and death if not adequately treated. It usually occurs in epidemics, and is associated with poverty and poor sanitation. Effective, cheap, and easy to administer vaccines could help prevent epidemics. To assess the effectiveness and safety of oral cholera vaccines in preventing cases of cholera and deaths from cholera. In October 2010, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) for relevant published and ongoing trials. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials of oral cholera vaccines in healthy adults and children. Each trial was assessed for eligibility and risk of bias by two authors working independently. Data was extracted by two independent reviewers and analysed using the Review Manager 5 software. Outcomes are reported as vaccine protective efficacy (VE) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Seven large efficacy trials, four small artificial challenge studies, and twenty-nine safety trials contributed data to this review.Five variations of a killed whole cell vaccine have been evaluated in large scale efficacy trials (four trials, 249935 participants). The overall vaccine efficacy during the first year was 52% (95% CI 35% to 65%), and during the second year was 62% (95% CI 51% to 62%). Protective efficacy was lower in children aged less than 5 years; 38% (95% CI 20% to 53%) compared to older children and adults; 66% (95% CI 57% to 73%).One trial of a killed whole cell vaccine amongst military recruits demonstrated 86% protective efficacy (95% CI 37% to 97%) in a small epidemic occurring within 4 weeks of the 2-dose schedule (one trial, 1426 participants). Efficacy data is not available beyond two years for the currently available vaccine formulations, but

  20. Current Status and Development of Vaccines and Other Biologics for Human Rabies Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Charles E; Nagarajan, Thirumeni; Ertl, Hildegund

    2016-06-01

    Rabies is a neglected viral zoonosis with the highest case fatality of any infectious disease. Pasteur's historical accomplishments during the late 19(th) century began the process of human vaccine development, continuing to evolve into the 21(st) century. Over the past 35 years, great improvements occurred in the production of potent tissue culture vaccines and the gradual removal from the market of unsafe nerve tissue products. Timely and appropriate administration of modern biologics virtually assures survivorship, even after severe exposures. Nevertheless, in the developing world, if not provided for free nationally, the cost of a single course of human prophylaxis exceeds the average monthly wage of the common worker. Beyond traditional approaches, recombinant, sub-unit and other novel methods are underway to improve the availability of safe, effective and more affordable rabies biologics.

  1. The control of rabies in Malaya through compulsory mass vaccination of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WELLS, C W

    1954-01-01

    A fulminating extension of rabies-which has been enzootic in northern Malaya since 1924-occurred in Kuala Lumpur in April 1952. The outbreak was suppressed by the compulsory mass vaccination of dogs, stringent legislation, and intensive stray-dog destruction. Similar measures are being employed in the current campaign, the aim of which is the complete eradication of the disease.From an average annual incidence of 112 confirmed canine cases prior to 1952-when a total of 198 cases was reported-the incidence fell to 15 cases (all in unvaccinated dogs) for the period January-November 1953, during the last 5(1/2) months of which no case in either animals or man was reported. It is considered that the extensive publicity campaign and strict enforcement of the control measures have contributed measurably to the present improved position.Statistics relating to confirmed cases in dogs previously vaccinated with (a) phenolized 20% brain-tissue suspension vaccine (buffalo origin) and (b) chicken-embryo vaccine (Flury strain) are quoted and their probable significance in favour of the latter under Malayan conditions is discussed. The hypothesis that the development of rabies may, in many instances, have been blocked by the vaccine is advanced.The plan for a pan-Federation compulsory vaccination campaign in 1954, to consolidate the 1952-3 improvements, is outlined.

  2. A Semi-quantitative Serological Method to Assess the Potency of Inactivated Rabies Vaccine for Veterinary Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Liu; Shoufeng Zhang; Fei Zhang; Rongliang Hu

    2012-01-01

    Potency is one of the most important indexes of inactivated vaccines.A number of methods have been established to assay the potency,of which the NIH test and single-dose mouse protection test are the "prescribed methods".Here,we report a method to semi-quantitatively assay the potency of an inactivated rabies vaccine,which uses fewer animals and takes less time to complete.Depending on the quality requirements of a vaccine(e.g.minimum potency),a rabies reference vaccine is,for example,diluted to the minimum potency,and 50 μL of the dilution is taken to inoculate 10 mice.The same amount of the test rabies vaccine is inoculated into another 10 mice.After two weeks,all mice are bled and serum samples are assayed for viral neutralizing antibody by the fluorescent antibody virus neutralization(FAVN) test.By comparing the median and interquartile range of antibody titers of the reference vaccine with those of the test vaccine,the test vaccine potency can be semi-quantitatively judged as to whether it is in accord with the required quality.The reliability of this method was also confirmed in dogs.The procedure can be recommended for batch potency testing during inactivated rabies vaccine production.

  3. IMMUNE RESPONSE AND COST ANALYSIS OF INTRADERMAL RABIES VACCINATION FOR POST-EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS REGIMEN IN HUMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Budayanti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe outbreak of rabies in human in Bali-Indonesia is causing an extraordinary pressure for the government in providing adequate doses of anti-rabies vaccine for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP. Here, we directly compare the immune response and benefit of the intradermal (ID protocol for rabies vaccine delivery with the intramuscular (IM route. Methods: Sixty health workers who were willing to participate in this study have been randomly selected and grouped into ID, IM, and control groups, each with 20 volunteers. The Thai Red Cross ID- and Zangreb IM-protocols have been applied to the respective group. The sera of the volunteers were collected at day 0, week 1, week 3, week 4, month 3, month 6, month 9, and month 12 after the first vaccination. Anti-rabies virus IgG was detected using PlateliaTM Rabies II Kit (Bio-Rad. Results: Anti-rabies IgG could be detected in the ID-group at one week. The ID-vaccine delivery induced a slightly higher maximum antibody titer compared to IM, though not statistically significant (p>0.05. ID vaccination caused less adverse reactions and produces longer lasting protective immune response.  Cost minimization analysis (CMA on the provincial and national PEP data in 2009-2011 shows that the ID-delivery will reduce the total cost for a completed regimen by USD 28.5, and would have saved the Indonesian government budget approximately USD 3.6 and 4.3 million for complete regimens in Bali and Indonesia, respectively. Conclusion: The ID administration of anti-rabies vaccine induces a similar immune response compared to that of intramuscular injection. It also produces longer lasting protective immune response. It offers additional advantages of potential net cost savings as well as decreasing the pressure on vaccine availability due to the high number of dog bite cases.

  4. Potential cost savings with terrestrial rabies control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry Bryan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cost-benefit of raccoon rabies control strategies such as oral rabies vaccination (ORV are under evaluation. As an initial quantification of the potential cost savings for a control program, the collection of selected rabies cost data was pilot tested for five counties in New York State (NYS in a three-year period. Methods Rabies costs reported to NYS from the study counties were computerized and linked to a human rabies exposure database. Consolidated costs by county and year were averaged and compared. Results Reported rabies-associated costs for all rabies variants totalled $2.1 million, for human rabies postexposure prophylaxes (PEP (90.9%, animal specimen preparation/shipment to laboratory (4.7%, and pet vaccination clinics (4.4%. The proportion that may be attributed to raccoon rabies control was 37% ($784,529. Average costs associated with the raccoon variant varied across counties from $440 to $1,885 per PEP, $14 to $44 per specimen, and $0.33 to $15 per pet vaccinated. Conclusion Rabies costs vary widely by county in New York State, and were associated with human population size and methods used by counties to estimate costs. Rabies cost variability must be considered in developing estimates of possible ORV-related cost savings. Costs of PEPs and specimen preparation/shipments, as well as the costs of pet vaccination provided by this study may be valuable for development of more realistic scenarios in economic modelling of ORV costs versus benefits.

  5. Epidemiology of animal bites and other potential rabies exposures and anti-rabies vaccine utilization in a rural area in Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Ramos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The presented report describes the epidemiology of potential rabies exposures and examines the utilization of anti-rabies vaccine in a rural area of Ethiopia during a period of 43 months. A total of 683 persons (51.1% females, 73% children with animal- related bites were included in the retrospective, registry-based study. The most common site of exposure was the leg (66.8%. In children under 8 years of age the face was more often involved than in adults (9.5% vs. 4.8%; p=0.03. The main type of exposure was a bite with bleeding (66.3% followed by contamination of mucous membranes with saliva (19.7%. The primary sources were dogs (93.4% followed by cats (2.6%. Children under 15 years were more likely to be exposed to dogs (94.9% than adults (88.7% (p=0.01. The most common way of coming in contact with animals was ‘walking by’ (83.9%. Children came in contact with animals while ‘playing with’ (10.7% more often than adults (1.1% (p<0.001. All the patients received an anti-rabies nervous-tissue vaccine, 99% of whom completed the vaccination course. Animal bites continue to be a problem in rural Ethiopia, mainly among children. Efforts to protect children against animal bites must be of paramount importance in preventing rabies in this population.

  6. An outbreak of post-vaccinal rabies (rage de laboratoire) in Fortaleza, Brazil, in 1960. Residual fixed virus as the etiological agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pará, M

    1965-01-01

    The repeated isolation of fixed rabies virus from the CNS tissues of victims of an acute and lethal outbreak of encephalomyelitis in Fortaleza, Brazil, in November 1960, following vaccination with a locally produced killed-virus anti-rabies vaccine of the Fermi type is considered as definitive evidence of the rabic etiology (vaccinal fixed-virus rabies, rage de laboratoire) of this outbreak. Eighteen persons were affected, all of whom died.The clinical picture of paralytic rabies was recognizable in all of these 18 patients. The well-marked characteristics of an acute infection permit the easy differentiation of the paralysis caused by fixed rabies virus from post-vaccinal accidents that occur as allergic reactions.The incriminated anti-rabies vaccine was found to contain fixed live rabies virus at a titre of 10(-3.0). After one year of storage under refrigeration, the vaccine still contained fixed rabies virus, at a titre of 0,2x10(-1.0).Subsequent laboratory studies tend to indicate that the curve of inactivation of fixed virus by phenol does not follow a linear function but rather resembles the curve of inactivation of poliomyelitis virus by heat and formol according to the Salk technique. It is suggested that the antigenicity of the so-called "killed-virus" anti-rabies vaccines is actually due to the presence in them of residual amounts of live virus.

  7. Epidemiology of acute animal bite and the direct cost of rabies vaccination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Towhid Babazadeh; Hossein Ali Nikbakhat; Amin Daemi; Mohsen Yegane-kasgari; Saber Ghaffari-fam; Morteza Banaye-Jeddi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the epidemiological aspects of animal bites and to calculate the financial burden resulting from rabies vaccination in Chalderan City. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, records of all victims of animal bites in a seven-year period were reviewed. Studied variables included demographic information of victims, biters' profile, time and place patterns, clinical aspects of the victims and the cost of vaccination. Results: Most of bites were observed in men in the age group of 10–19 years old, at rural areas and occupational group of farmers. The vast majority of animal bites happened by dogs and domestic animals. The average age of victims with head and neck injuries was lower than that of victims with injuries in the lower extremities, shoulders and hands (P=0.001). The cost of vaccination was 11 665 dollars with three doses of rabies vaccine and 849 dollars for five doses, and the 12 514 dollars cumulative frequency in the studied period. Based on the results of trend test, the incidence of animal bites was increased significantly during the study period (P=0.02). Conclusions: The results of this study showed that due to the increasing incidence of animal bites and the financial burden resulting from animal bite vaccination, it is necessary to design and implement preventive measures in order to reduce the animal bites.

  8. Antibody response to rabies vaccination in captive and freeranging wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federoff, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Fourteen captive and five free-ranging Minnesota gray wolves (Canis lupus) were tested for the presence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) after vaccination with an inactivated canine rabies vaccine. Blood was collected from all wolves prior to vaccination and at 1 mo postvaccination (PV) and from all captive and three wild wolves at 3 mo PV. In addition, one free-ranging wolf was sampled at 4 mo PV, and two free-ranging wolves were sampled at 6 mo PV. All wolves were seronegative prior to vaccination. RVNA were detected in 14 (100%) captive wolves and in four of five (80%) free-ranging wolves. The geometric mean titer of the captive wolves at 1 mo PV was significantly higher (P = 0.023) than in the free-ranging wolves. Five of 13 (38.5%) captive wolves and none of the three (0%) free-ranging wolves had measurable RVNA at 3 mo PV. No measurable RVNA were detected in the serum samples collected from the free-ranging wolves at 4 and 6 mo PV. These results should be interpreted with caution because of the small number of free-ranging wolves tested. Further research is needed to properly assess immune function and antibody response to vaccination in captive wolves in comparison with their free-ranging counterparts.

  9. A recombinant rabies vaccine expressing the trimeric form of the glycoprotein confers enhanced immunogenicity and protection in outbred mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koraka, Penelope; Bosch, Berend-Jan; Cox, Manon; Chubet, Rick; Amerongen, Geert van; Lövgren-Bengtsson, Karen; Martina, Byron E E; Roose, Jouke; Rottier, Peter J M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2014-01-01

    Rabies is a disease characterized by an invariably lethal encephalitis of viral origin that can be controlled by preventive vaccination programs of wildlife, domestic animals and humans in areas with a high risk of exposure. Currently available vaccines are expensive, cumbersome to produce and requi

  10. New approaches in oral rotavirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuate Defo, Zenas; Lee, Byong

    2016-05-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea worldwide, and affects primarily developing nations, in large part because of the inaccessibility of vaccines and high rates of mortality present therein. At present, there exist two oral rotaviral vaccines, Rotarix™ and RotaTeq™. These vaccines are generally effective in their actions: however, associated costs often stymie their effectiveness, and they continue to be associated with a slight risk of intussusception. While different programs are being implemented worldwide to enhance vaccine distribution and monitor vaccine administration for possible intussusception in light of recent WHO recommendation, another major problem persists: that of the reduced efficacy of the existing rotaviral vaccines in developing countries over time. The development of new oral rotavirus vaccine classes - live-attenuated vaccines, virus-like particles, lactic acid bacteria-containing vaccines, combination therapy with immunoglobulins, and biodegradable polymer-encapsulated vaccines - could potentially circumvent these problems.

  11. Green synthesis and evaluation of silver nanoparticles as adjuvant in rabies veterinary vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Vahid; Shoari, Alireza; Baghbani-Arani, Fahimeh; Sadat Shandiz, Seyed Ataollah; Khosravy, Mohammad Sadeq; Janani, Alireza; Bigdeli, Razieh; Bashar, Rouzbeh; Cohan, Reza Ahangari

    2016-01-01

    Background Green synthesis of nanoparticles by plant extracts plays a significant role in different applications. Recently, several studies were conducted on the use of nanoparticles as adjuvant. The main aim of this study was to evaluate green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as adjuvant in rabies veterinary vaccine and compare the results with the existing commercially available alum adjuvant. Materials and methods In the current study, AgNPs were prepared by the reduction of aqueous silver nitrate by leaf extract of Eucalyptus procera. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by ultraviolet (UV)–visible spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and X-ray diffraction analysis. Then, different amounts of AgNPs (200 µg, 400 µg, 600 µg, and 800 µg) were added to 1 mL of inactivated rabies virus. The loaded vaccines (0.5 mL) were injected intraperitoneally into six Naval Medical Research Institute mice in each group on days 1 and 7. On the 15th day, the mice were intracerebrally challenged with 0.03 mL of challenge rabies virus (challenge virus strain-11, 20 lethal dose [20 LD50]), and after the latency period of rabies disease in mice (5 days), the mice were monitored for 21 days. Neutralizing antibodies against rabies virus were also investigated using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test method. The National Institutes of Health test was performed to determine the potency of optimum concentration of AgNPs as adjuvant. In vitro toxicity of AgNPs was assessed in L929 cell line using MTT assay. In addition, in vivo toxicity of AgNPs and AgNPs-loaded vaccine was investigated according to the European Pharmacopeia 8.0. Results AgNPs were successfully synthesized, and the identity was confirmed by UV–visible spectrophotometry and X-ray diffraction analysis. The prepared AgNPs were spherical in shape, with an average size of 60 nm and a negative zeta potential of −14 mV as determined by dynamic light scattering

  12. Green synthesis and evaluation of silver nanoparticles as adjuvant in rabies veterinary vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Vahid; Shoari, Alireza; Baghbani-Arani, Fahimeh; Sadat Shandiz, Seyed Ataollah; Khosravy, Mohammad Sadeq; Janani, Alireza; Bigdeli, Razieh; Bashar, Rouzbeh; Cohan, Reza Ahangari

    2016-01-01

    Green synthesis of nanoparticles by plant extracts plays a significant role in different applications. Recently, several studies were conducted on the use of nanoparticles as adjuvant. The main aim of this study was to evaluate green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as adjuvant in rabies veterinary vaccine and compare the results with the existing commercially available alum adjuvant. In the current study, AgNPs were prepared by the reduction of aqueous silver nitrate by leaf extract of Eucalyptus procera. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and X-ray diffraction analysis. Then, different amounts of AgNPs (200 µg, 400 µg, 600 µg, and 800 µg) were added to 1 mL of inactivated rabies virus. The loaded vaccines (0.5 mL) were injected intraperitoneally into six Naval Medical Research Institute mice in each group on days 1 and 7. On the 15th day, the mice were intracerebrally challenged with 0.03 mL of challenge rabies virus (challenge virus strain-11, 20 lethal dose [20 LD50]), and after the latency period of rabies disease in mice (5 days), the mice were monitored for 21 days. Neutralizing antibodies against rabies virus were also investigated using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test method. The National Institutes of Health test was performed to determine the potency of optimum concentration of AgNPs as adjuvant. In vitro toxicity of AgNPs was assessed in L929 cell line using MTT assay. In addition, in vivo toxicity of AgNPs and AgNPs-loaded vaccine was investigated according to the European Pharmacopeia 8.0. AgNPs were successfully synthesized, and the identity was confirmed by UV-visible spectrophotometry and X-ray diffraction analysis. The prepared AgNPs were spherical in shape, with an average size of 60 nm and a negative zeta potential of -14 mV as determined by dynamic light scattering technique. The highest percentage of viability was

  13. Wild carnivore acceptance of baits for delivery of liquid rabies vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, P; Bramwell, R N; Fraser, S J; Gilmore, D A; Johnston, D H; Lawson, K F; MacInnes, C D; Matejka, F O; Miles, H E; Pedde, M A

    1990-10-01

    A series of experiments are described on the acceptance, by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and other species, of two types of vaccine-baits intended to deliver liquid rabies vaccine. The baits consisted of a cube of sponge coated in a mixture of tallow and wax, or a plastic blister-pack embedded in tallow. All baits contained tetracycline as a biological marking agent: examination of thin sections of carnivore canines under an ultraviolet microscope revealed a fluorescent line of tetracycline if an individual had eaten baits. Baits were dropped from fixed-wing aircraft flying about 100 m above ground at approximately 130 km/h. Flight lines followed the edges of woodlots midway between parallel roads. Baits were dropped at one/sec, resulting in one bait/36 m on the ground, or 17 to 25 baits per km2. Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) removed many baits, but did not appear to lower the percent of the fox population which took bait. Dropping baits only into corn and woodland to conceal baits, to reduce depredation by crows, reduced acceptance by foxes. Acceptance by foxes ranged between 37 and 68%. Meat added as an attractant did not raise acceptance. Presence, absence, color and perforations of plastic bags did not alter bait acceptance. Dispersal by juvenile foxes probably lowered the estimates of bait acceptance. It took 7 to 17 days for 80% (n = 330) of foxes to eat their first bait. The rapidity with which foxes picked up their first bait appeared more affected by unknown characteristics of years or study areas than by experimental variables. Skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) also ate these baits, but acceptance was lower. Small mammals contacted baits, but rarely contacted the vaccine, which had the potential for vaccine-induced rabies in some species. Aerial distribution of baits was more cost-effective than ground distribution as practiced in Europe. This system has potential for field control of rabies, although higher acceptance will be desirable.

  14. Arctic Rabies – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prestrud Pål

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies seems to persist throughout most arctic regions, and the northern parts of Norway, Sweden and Finland, is the only part of the Arctic where rabies has not been diagnosed in recent time. The arctic fox is the main host, and the same arctic virus variant seems to infect the arctic fox throughout the range of this species. The epidemiology of rabies seems to have certain common characteristics in arctic regions, but main questions such as the maintenance and spread of the disease remains largely unknown. The virus has spread and initiated new epidemics also in other species such as the red fox and the racoon dog. Large land areas and cold climate complicate the control of the disease, but experimental oral vaccination of arctic foxes has been successful. This article summarises the current knowledge and the typical characteristics of arctic rabies including its distribution and epidemiology.

  15. Oral fox immunization against rabies in Italy: efficiency of the method and results / Esperienze italiane di immunizzazione orale delle volpi contro la rabbia: validità del metodo e risultati ottenuti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Civardi

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From 1984 to 1987 six campaigns of oral fox vaccination against Rabies by living modified antirabies vaccine (SAD-B 19 were carried out in the province of Brescia (Central Alps and in the provinces of Bolzano and Trento (Eastern Alps. The oral fox vaccination has been shown to be a rapid and safe method to estinguish enzootic foci of sylvatic Rabies. Laboratory tests have been performed in order to control the presence of tetracycline, the serum conversion and the presence of wild or attenutated viruses in the nervous tissue of foxes and other wild animals. Results confirm the effectiveness of the method. Riassunto Sono esposti i risultati degli esperimenti di immunizzazione orale della Volpe (Vulpes vulpes contro la rabbia silvestre in Italia, illustrando la preparazione e l'esecuzione dei piani di vaccinazione, il monitoraggio delle volpi ed i relativi controlli di laboratorio. Dal 1984 al 1987 sono state compiute 6 campagne vaccinali che hanno interessato le province di Brescia, Trento e Bolzano. I risultati ottenuti confermano la validità della vaccinazione orale della Volpe come strumento di lotta e di profilassi contro la rabbia silvestre.

  16. Immunological aspects of oral vaccination in fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, P.H.M.

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis immunological consequences of oral vaccination in fish have been described. The efficacy of oral vaccination can be increased by protection of the antigen against degradation in the foregut, in order to reach the hindgut in sufficient quantities for uptake and subsequent activation of

  17. A recombinant rabies vaccine expressing the trimeric form of the glycoprotein confers enhanced immunogenicity and protection in outbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koraka, Penelope; Bosch, Berend-Jan; Cox, Manon; Chubet, Rick; Amerongen, Geert van; Lövgren-Bengtsson, Karen; Martina, Byron E E; Roose, Jouke; Rottier, Peter J M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2014-08-06

    Rabies is a disease characterized by an invariably lethal encephalitis of viral origin that can be controlled by preventive vaccination programs of wildlife, domestic animals and humans in areas with a high risk of exposure. Currently available vaccines are expensive, cumbersome to produce and require intensive immunization and booster schemes to induce and maintain protective immunity. In the present study, we describe the development of candidate recombinant subunit rabies vaccines based on the glycoprotein G of the prototype rabies virus (RABV-G) expressed either as a monomer (RABV-mG) or in its native trimeric configuration (RABV-tG), with or without Matrix-M™ adjuvant. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the respective candidate vaccines were tested in outbred NIH Swiss albino mice. The RABV-tG candidate vaccine proved to be superior to the RABV-mG vaccine candidate both in terms of immunogenicity and efficacy. The relatively poor immunogenicity of the RABV-mG vaccine candidate was greatly improved by the addition of the adjuvant. A single, low dose of RABV-tG in combination with Matrix-M™ induced high levels of high avidity neutralizing antibodies and protected all mice against challenge with a lethal dose of RABV. Consequently RABV-tG used in combination with Matrix-M™ is a promising vaccine candidate that overcomes the limitations of currently used vaccines.

  18. Oral DNA Vaccine in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Davoud Jazayeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated Salmonella has been used as a carrier for DNA vaccine. However, in vitro and in vivo studies on the bacteria following transfection of plasmid DNA were poorly studied. In this paper, eukaryotic expression plasmids encoding avian influenza virus (AIV subtype H5N1 genes, pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP, were transfected into an attenuated Salmonella enteric typhimurium SV4089. In vitro stability of the transfected plasmids into Salmonella were over 90% after 100 generations. The attenuated Salmonella were able to invade MCF-7 (1.2% and MCF-10A (0.5% human breast cancer cells. Newly hatched specific-pathogen-free (SPF chicks were inoculated once by oral gavage with 109 colony-forming unit (CFU of the attenuated Salmonella. No abnormal clinical signs or deaths were recorded after inoculation. Viable bacteria were detected 3 days after inoculation by plating from spleen, liver, and cecum. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were carried out for confirmation. Salmonella was not detected in blood cultures although serum antibody immune responses to Salmonella O antiserum group D1 factor 1, 9, and 12 antigens were observed in all the inoculated chickens after 7 days up to 35 days. Our results showed that live attenuated S. typhimurium SV4089 harboring pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP may provide a unique alternative as a carrier for DNA oral vaccine in chickens.

  19. Replacing the NIH test for rabies vaccine potency testing: a synopsis of drivers and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffelers, Marie-Jeanne; Blaauboer, Bas; Bakker, Wieger; Hendriksen, Coenraad

    2014-07-01

    Approximately 70% of animal use is utilized to demonstrate quality control of vaccines. Especially rabies vaccine potency testing, using the NIH challenge test, involves objections in terms of scientific relevance, animal welfare concern and costs. Several 3R models have been proposed to refine, reduce or replace this test. Some are formally incorporated into regulatory requirements, but actual regulatory acceptance and use by industry lags behind, raising the question concerning which factors influence this process. This question is answered by a combination of literature review, interviews and a survey among 50 rabies vaccine experts. The findings are analyzed using the multilevel perspective on technology transition, which distinguishes 3 levels of factors influencing innovation acceptance. At the micro level (where 3R models are developed and validated) the dis-advantages of, and fractional experience with, 3R models, scarce data sharing and demanding validation processes exist. The meso level (existing regulatory regime) encloses the barriers of the 'gold standard', the lack of harmonization and the driving force of legislation stimulating 3Rs use. The macro level (the societal context) combines risk aversion and increased concern for animal welfare. Regulatory acceptance and use of 3R models requires dedicated stakeholder communication, cooperation and coordination at all three levels.

  20. Dog ecology, dog bites and rabies vaccination rates in Bauchi State, Nigeria

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    Y.J. Atuman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of dog ecology, dog bites and rabies vaccination rates was carried out in Bauchi the capital city of Bauchi State, Nigeria using direct street counts and questionnaire survey administered on 10% of the city streets selected by stratified random sampling. The questionnaire was designed to obtain data in order to determine the dog to human population ratio, dog management and care, cases of dog bites, consequences of the bites and frequencies of rabies outbreak. The estimated dog population of street counts and compound counts were 5310 and 7670, respectively. The overall human to dog ratio of 4.1:1 was established. The mean number of individuals per dog owning compound was 9.6 ± 0.498 (SEM and the mean number of dogs owned per dog owning compound was 2.3 ± 0.108 (SEM. Majority of the dogs owned were local breeds (62.8% aged between 1 and 5 years old and managed under partial or no confinement. The dogs were mostly used for security (69.5% purposes. Dog owners reported low vaccination coverage (26.4%, level considered not sufficient to prevent rabies transmission. About 12.4% of dog bite victims died and majority of which (71.43% manifested nervous signs before death. Domestic dogs have been shown to be tolerated and kept in Bauchi but poorly managed in terms of feeding, confinement and vaccination thereby constituting a continuous risk to domestic animals and humans.

  1. A step forward in the quality control testing of inactivated rabies vaccines - extensive evaluation of European vaccines by using alternative methods to the in vivo potency tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servat, Alexandre; Kempff, Sébastien; Brogat, Valère; Litaize, Estelle; Schereffer, Jean-Luc; Cliquet, Florence

    2015-03-01

    The mouse challenge test still remains the reference method for the potency determination of human and animal inactivated rabies vaccines, and it is still widely used throughout the world. This test suffers from many disadvantages - it is expensive and time consuming, uses a large number of mice, causes significant animal distress, and suffers from high variability. Recently, the European Pharmacopoeia has recognised the use of a serological potency assay (SPA) as an alternative method to the challenge test. This new test is based on the determination of rabies neutralising antibody titres in vaccinated mice, by using the modified Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (mRFFIT). With the objective of adopting this new method for the batch release of inactivated rabies vaccines, we evaluated its performance on a large collection of rabies vaccines currently assessed in our laboratory. The Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralisation test (FAVNt) was used in parallel with the mRFFIT, and the results were compared to the mouse challenge test. Our results demonstrate that the SPA is capable of estimating the potency of vaccines formulated with a potency margin well above the minimum of 1IU/dose. For low potency vaccines, this new method demonstrated some limitations, due to the recurrent invalidation of the assay. We have also demonstrated the superior sensitivity of the FAVNt when compared to the mRFFIT, and the importance of minimising the risk of detecting non-responders in vaccinated mice. 2015 FRAME.

  2. Studies on an inactivated vaccine against rabies virus in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, F; Franchi, P M; Lelli, R

    2006-01-01

    An inactivated vaccine against rabies virus was prepared from the attenuated ATCC PV-12 viral rabbit Pasteur strain. The virus was grown on Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK21) cells, and the supernatant was purified by filtration and inactivated with beta-propriolactone. The inactivated product was checked according to the NHI and European Pharmacopoeia methods. Part of the product was then lyophilised and the other part was adjuvanted with Al(OH)3. Both parts were used to vaccinate and boost groups of horses, cattle and sheep at different intervals. Their immunogenicity was compared with a similar commercial product. Blood samples were collected on a regular basis and the antibody titre was determined by the Fluorescence Antibody Virus Neutralisation (FAVN) test. No significant differences were found between species after both inoculations even though the immune response increased in intensity and duration after the booster dose in all the animals tested and was stronger and lasted longer with the adjuvanted aliquot.

  3. Predictive spatial dynamics and strategic planning for raccoon rabies emergence in Ohio.

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    Colin A Russell

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is an important public health concern in North America because of recent epidemics of a rabies virus variant associated with raccoons. The costs associated with surveillance, diagnostic testing, and post-exposure treatment of humans exposed to rabies have fostered coordinated efforts to control rabies spread by distributing an oral rabies vaccine to wild raccoons. Authorities have tried to contain westward expansion of the epidemic front of raccoon-associated rabies via a vaccine corridor established in counties of eastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. Although sporadic cases of rabies have been identified in Ohio since oral rabies vaccine distribution in 1998, the first evidence of a significant breach in this vaccine corridor was not detected until 2004 in Lake County, Ohio. Herein, we forecast the spatial spread of rabies in Ohio from this breach using a stochastic spatial model that was first developed for exploratory data analysis in Connecticut and next used to successfully hind-cast wave-front dynamics of rabies spread across New York. The projections, based on expansion from the Lake County breach, are strongly affected by the spread of rabies by rare, but unpredictable long-distance translocation of rabid raccoons; rabies may traverse central Ohio at a rate 2.5-fold greater than previously analyzed wildlife epidemics. Using prior estimates of the impact of local heterogeneities on wave-front propagation and of the time lag between surveillance-based detection of an initial rabies case to full-blown epidemic, specific regions within the state are identified for vaccine delivery and expanded surveillance effort.

  4. A replication-deficient rabies virus vaccine expressing Ebola virus glycoprotein is highly attenuated for neurovirulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaneri, Amy B. [Emerging Viral Pathogens Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Fort Detrick, MD 21702 (United States); Wirblich, Christoph [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Cann, Jennifer A.; Cooper, Kurt [Integrated Research Facility, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Fort Detrick MD, 21702 (United States); Jahrling, Peter B. [Emerging Viral Pathogens Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Fort Detrick, MD 21702 (United States); Integrated Research Facility, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Fort Detrick MD, 21702 (United States); Schnell, Matthias J., E-mail: matthias.schnell@jefferson.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Jefferson Vaccine Center, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Blaney, Joseph E., E-mail: jblaney@niaid.nih.gov [Emerging Viral Pathogens Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Fort Detrick, MD 21702 (United States)

    2012-12-05

    We are developing inactivated and live-attenuated rabies virus (RABV) vaccines expressing Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein for use in humans and endangered wildlife, respectively. Here, we further characterize the pathogenesis of the live-attenuated RABV/EBOV vaccine candidates in mice in an effort to define their growth properties and potential for safety. RABV vaccines expressing GP (RV-GP) or a replication-deficient derivative with a deletion of the RABV G gene (RV{Delta}G-GP) are both avirulent after intracerebral inoculation of adult mice. Furthermore, RV{Delta}G-GP is completely avirulent upon intracerebral inoculation of suckling mice unlike parental RABV vaccine or RV-GP. Analysis of RV{Delta}G-GP in the brain by quantitative PCR, determination of virus titer, and immunohistochemistry indicated greatly restricted virus replication. In summary, our findings indicate that RV-GP retains the attenuation phenotype of the live-attenuated RABV vaccine, and RV{Delta}G-GP would appear to be an even safer alternative for use in wildlife or consideration for human use.

  5. Large-scale survey of adverse reactions to canine non-rabies combined vaccines in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Kazuki; Suzuki, Aki; Shimakura, Hidekatsu; Takase, Yukari; Kiuchi, Akio; Fujimura, Masato; Kurita, Goro; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Sakaguchi, Masahiro

    2012-01-15

    Canine non-rabies combined vaccines are widely used to protect animals from infectious agents, and also play an important role in public health. We performed a large-scale survey to investigate vaccine-associated adverse events (VAAEs), including anaphylaxis, in Japan by distributing questionnaires on VAAEs to veterinary hospitals from April 1, 2006 through May 31, 2007. Valid responses were obtained for 57,300 vaccinated dogs at 573 animal hospitals; we obtained VAAEs information for last 100 vaccinated dogs in each veterinary hospital. We found that of the 57,300, 359 dogs showed VAAEs. Of the 359 dogs, death was observed in 1, anaphylaxis in 41, dermatological signs in 244, gastrointestinal signs in 160, and other signs in 106. Onset of VAAEs was mostly observed within 12h after vaccination (n=299, 83.3%). In this study, anaphylaxis events occurred within 60 min after vaccination, and about half of these events occurred within 5 min (n=19, 46.3%). Furthermore, where anaphylaxis was reported, additional information to support the diagnosis was obtained by reinvestigation. Our resurvey of dogs with anaphylaxis yielded responses on 31 dogs; 27 of these demonstrated collapse (87.1%), 24 demonstrated cyanosis (77.4%), and both signs occurred in 22 (71.0%). Higher rates of animal VAAEs, anaphylaxis, and death were found in Japan than in other countries. Further investigations, including survey studies, will be necessary to elucidate the interaction between death and vaccination and the risk factors for VAAEs, and thus develop safer vaccines. Moreover, it may also be necessary to continually update the data of VAAEs.

  6. Design of different strategies of multivalent DNA-based vaccination against rabies and canine distemper in mice and dogs

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    Touihri Leila

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the vaccination campaigns, puppies younger than 3 months old are not targeted and remain unvaccinated for at least the first year of their lives. Almost half of the reported rabid dogs are 6 months or younger. Hence, we should recommend the vaccination against rabies of young puppies. Unfortunately, owing to the exposure of puppies to infections with either canine parvovirus (CPV or distemper virus (CDV after the intervention of the vaccinators, owners are reluctant to vaccinate puppies against rabies. Therefore, it is necessary to include the CPV and CDV valences in the vaccine against rabies. Multivalent DNA-based vaccination in dogs, including rabies and distemper valences, could help in raising vaccine coverage. Methods We have designed monovalent and multivalent DNA-based vaccine candidates for in vitro and in vivo assays. These plasmids encode to the rabies virus glycoprotein and/or the canine distemper virus hemagglutinin. The first strategy of multivalent DNA-based vaccination is by mixing plasmids encoding to a single antigen each. The second is by simply fusing the genes of the antigens together. The third is by adding the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV 2A oligopeptide gene into the antigen genes. The last strategy is by the design and use of a bicistronic plasmid with an “Internal Ribosome Entry Site” (IRES domain. Results The monovalent construct against canine distemper was efficiently validated by inducing higher humoral immune responses compared to cell-culture-derived vaccine both in mice and dogs. All multivalent plasmids efficiently expressed both valences after in vitro transfection of BHK-21 cells. In BALB/c mice, the bicistronic IRES-dependant construct was the most efficient inducer of virus-neutralizing antibodies against both valences. It was able to induce better humoral immune responses compared to the administration of either cell-culture-derived vaccines or monovalent plasmids. The

  7. Incentives Increase Participation in Mass Dog Rabies Vaccination Clinics and Methods of Coverage Estimation Are Assessed to Be Accurate.

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    Abel B Minyoo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we show that incentives (dog collars and owner wristbands are effective at increasing owner participation in mass dog rabies vaccination clinics and we conclude that household questionnaire surveys and the mark-re-sight (transect survey method for estimating post-vaccination coverage are accurate when all dogs, including puppies, are included. Incentives were distributed during central-point rabies vaccination clinics in northern Tanzania to quantify their effect on owner participation. In villages where incentives were handed out participation increased, with an average of 34 more dogs being vaccinated. Through economies of scale, this represents a reduction in the cost-per-dog of $0.47. This represents the price-threshold under which the cost of the incentive used must fall to be economically viable. Additionally, vaccination coverage levels were determined in ten villages through the gold-standard village-wide census technique, as well as through two cheaper and quicker methods (randomized household questionnaire and the transect survey. Cost data were also collected. Both non-gold standard methods were found to be accurate when puppies were included in the calculations, although the transect survey and the household questionnaire survey over- and under-estimated the coverage respectively. Given that additional demographic data can be collected through the household questionnaire survey, and that its estimate of coverage is more conservative, we recommend this method. Despite the use of incentives the average vaccination coverage was below the 70% threshold for eliminating rabies. We discuss the reasons and suggest solutions to improve coverage. Given recent international targets to eliminate rabies, this study provides valuable and timely data to help improve mass dog vaccination programs in Africa and elsewhere.

  8. Pre- and post-exposure safety and efficacy of attenuated rabies virus vaccines are enhanced by their expression of IFNγ

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    Barkhouse, Darryll A. [Department of Cancer Biology, 1020 Locust St., Jefferson Alumni Hall, Room 454, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Center for Neurovirology 1020 Locust St., Jefferson Alumni Hall, Room 454, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Faber, Milosz [Center for Neurovirology 1020 Locust St., Jefferson Alumni Hall, Room 454, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology 1020 Locust St., Jefferson Alumni Hall, Room 465, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Hooper, D. Craig, E-mail: douglas.hooper@jefferson.edu [Department of Cancer Biology, 1020 Locust St., Jefferson Alumni Hall, Room 454, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, 1020 Locust St., Jefferson Alumni Hall, Room 454, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Center for Neurovirology 1020 Locust St., Jefferson Alumni Hall, Room 454, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Consistent with evidence of a strong correlation between interferon gamma (IFNγ) production and rabies virus (RABV) clearance from the CNS, we recently demonstrated that engineering a pathogenic RABV to express IFNγ highly attenuates the virus. Reasoning that IFNγ expression by RABV vaccines would enhance their safety and efficacy, we reverse-engineered two proven vaccine vectors, GAS and GASGAS, to express murine IFNγ. Mortality and morbidity were monitored during suckling mice infection, immunize/challenge experiments and mixed intracranial infections. We demonstrate that GASγ and GASγGAS are significantly attenuated in suckling mice compared to the GASGAS vaccine. GASγ better protects mice from lethal DRV4 RABV infection in both pre- and post-exposure experiments compared to GASGAS. Finally, GASγGAS reduces post-infection neurological sequelae, compared to control, during mixed intracranial infection with DRV4. These data show IFNγ expression by a vaccine vector can enhance its safety while increasing its efficacy as pre- and post-exposure treatment. - Highlights: • IFNγ expression improves attenuated rabies virus safety and immunogenicity. • IFNγ expression is safer and more immunogenic than doubling glycoprotein expression. • Co-infection with IFNγ-expressing RABV prevents wild-type rabies virus lethality. • Vaccine safety and efficacy is additive for IFNγ and double glycoprotein expression.

  9. Development of a Time and Cost Benefit Antibody Binding Test-Based Method for Determination of Rabies Vaccine Potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Vahid; Mojtabavi, Nazanin; Janani, Alireza; Mousavi, Tahereh; Hadjati, Jamshid; Khosravy, Mohammad Sadeq; Ahangari Cohan, Reza

    2017-01-24

    This study is an improvement on the antibody binding test, known as ABT method, to develop a simple and fast method in comparison with NIH for determination of rabies vaccine potency. In the current study, several commercial human and veterinary vaccines were tested using both modified ABT and NIH methods. The ED50 was calculated using the probit method and the relative potency of each vaccine was measured based on the reference vaccine. The test was repeated four times to calculate the reproducibility of the method. Statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant difference between the result obtained from NIH and modified ABT method for either human or veterinary vaccines (p > 0.05). In addition, the linearity of the method (R(2)) was calculated as 0.94 by serial dilution of a test vaccine. Coefficient variances were determined as less than and more than 10% for the human and veterinary rabies vaccines, respectively. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the modified method could be considered as an alternative approach for rabies vaccine potency determination in in-process quality control tests at industrial scale. It is a time and cost benefit method and accuracy may further be increased by employing monoclonal antibodies against trimeric form of G glycoprotein. However, the use of serum samples may be useful compared with an artificial mix of antibodies because other components from the serum samples could have a positive impact on cell sensitivity and mimic more the complexity of the immune response. Although the modified test has solved a fundamental problem, it is still not sensitive enough for veterinary vaccine assessment and needs further modifications to obtain the acceptability criteria.

  10. Improvement Control System of Rabies in Ukraine

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    Nychyk, Serhiy; Zhukorskiy, Ostap; Polupan, Ivan; Ivanov, Mykola; Nikitova, Alina

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the research was to find out the reasons of rabies antropurgisation in Ukraine. Introduction In Ukraine in spite of considerable financial expenses on oral immunization of foxes and parenteral immunization of dogs and cats, it is not succeeded to reach considerable results in the fight with rabies. Unfortunately there was a negative tendency to increasing a part of dogs and cats in the structure of rabies disease which are the main source of rabies in people. Methods Analysis of 228 anamnesis data of rabies infected dogs during 2008–2012. Research of 234 samples of the blood serum from dogs on existence of antibodies to the rabies virus by the ELISA method. Results Analysis of animal morbidity on rabies in Ukraine in period of 2006–2011 found out the changes of structure of morbidity in animal species that means decreasing a part of wild animals (from 49,0 % in 2006 to 38,7 % in 2011) and increasing a part of dogs (from 18,3 % in 2006 to 23,2 % in 2011) and cats (from 19,8 % in 2006 to 25,0 % in 2011) in the general amount of animals which perished from rabies (Fig. 1). A lot of Ukrainian scientists and doctors of veterinary medicine consider that the main reason of spreading the rabies is a great number of homeless animals which factually are the reservoirs of infection in towns and villages. However, in our opinion spreading of rabies shows the insufficient level of measures of control of rabies among home animals. It was confirmed with conducted analysis that only 26 (12,9 %) dogs were stray, others 202 (87,1 %) had owners, but didn’t get necessary protective rabies vaccination. According to Ukrainian instruction “Preventive measures against rabies of animals”, all the dogs must be vaccinated against rabies, but it actually appears it is quite not so. At research of 234 samples of the blood serum of dogs on existence of antibodies to the rabies virus it was determined that the level of population immunity in dogs is 36,6 % in

  11. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Elizabeth A; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for "molecular pharming" in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae could be poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, as they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered - from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and systemic immune reactivity.

  12. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Specht

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for molecular pharming in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae are poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, and they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally-delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered – from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and system immune reactivity.

  13. Oral vaccination against plague using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeure, Christian E; Derbise, Anne; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, is among the deadliest bacterial pathogens affecting humans, and is a potential biological weapon. Because antibiotic resistant strains of Yersinia pestis have been observed or could be engineered for evil use, vaccination against plague might become the only means to reduce mortality. Although plague is re-emerging in many countries, a vaccine with worldwide license is currently lacking. The vaccine strategy described here is based on an oral vaccination with an attenuated strain of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Indeed, this species is genetically almost identical to Y. pestis, but has a much lower pathogenicity and a higher genomic stability. Gradual modifications of the wild-type Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strain IP32953 were performed to generate a safe and immunogenic vaccine. Genes coding for three essential virulence factors were deleted from this strain. To increase cross-species immunogenicity, an F1-encapsulated Y. pseudotuberculosis strain was then generated. For this, the Y. pestis caf operon, which encodes F1, was inserted first on a plasmid, and subsequently into the chromosome. The successive steps achieved to reach maximal vaccine potential are described, and how each step affected bacterial virulence and the development of a protective immune response is discussed. The final version of the vaccine, named VTnF1, provides a highly efficient and long-lasting protection against both bubonic and pneumonic plague after a single oral vaccine dose. Since a Y. pestis strain deprived of F1 exist or could be engineered, we also analyzed the protection conferred by the vaccine against such strain and found that it also confers full protection against the two forms of plague. Thus, the properties of VTnF1 makes it one of the most efficient candidate vaccine for mass vaccination in tropical endemic areas as well as for populations exposed to bioterrorism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. HPV Vaccine Slashes Rates of Oral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) reduces the prevalence of oral infection by an estimated 88% among young adults in the United States, a protection that could help reduce rates of HPV-related oropharyngeal cancers, according to data that will be presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting in Chicago, IL. However, the population-level benefit will remain low unless more people get vaccinated. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Spatial accessibility to vaccination sites in a campaign against rabies in São Paulo city, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Gina; Acosta, Carlos Mera; Dias, Ricardo Augusto

    2013-08-01

    It is estimated that the city of São Paulo has over 2.5 million dogs and 560 thousand cats. These populations are irregularly distributed throughout the territory, making it difficult to appropriately allocate health services focused on these species. To reasonably allocate vaccination sites, it is necessary to identify social groups and their access to the referred service. Rabies in dogs and cats has been an important zoonotic health issue in São Paulo and the key component of rabies control is vaccination. The present study aims to introduce an approach to quantify the potential spatial accessibility to the vaccination sites of the 2009 campaign against rabies in the city of São Paulo and solve the overestimation associated with the classic methodology that applies buffer zones around vaccination sites based on Euclidean (straight-line) distance. To achieve this, a Gaussian-based two-step floating catchment area method with a travel-friction coefficient was adapted in a geographic information system environment, using distances along a street network based on Dijkstra's algorithm (short path method). The choice of the distance calculation method affected the results in terms of the population covered. In general, areas with low accessibility for both dogs and cats were observed, especially in densely populated areas. The eastern zone of the city had higher accessibility values compared with peripheral and central zones. The Gaussian-based two-step floating catchment method with a travel-friction coefficient was used to assess the overestimation of the straight-line distance method, which is the most widely used method for coverage analysis. We conclude that this approach has the potential to improve the efficiency of resource use when planning rabies control programs in large urban environments such as São Paulo. The findings emphasize the need for surveillance and intervention in isolated areas.

  16. Rabies - epizootiological situation at the territory of Serbia and countries in the region from 2006. to 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović-Zorić Jelena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a disease that occurs both in animals and people, with relatively long period of incubation, intense clinical course and fatal ending. Majority of cases of illnes and death in people are caused by the standard rabies virus. According to books of regulations on suppression and eradiction of rabies from 1988. and 2009., each suspected rabies has to be laboratory confirmed. From 2006. to 2012. within the passive surveilance, 3549 samples of brain tissue were examined for the presence of rabies virus. The virus was confirmed in 923 samples by using the method of direct imunofluorescence. From 2006. to 2012. there were diagnosed 192, 160, 233, 181, 104, 43 and 10 positive cases, respectively. For the purpose of rabies eradiction at the territory of the Republic of Serbia, a regional project of oral vaccination of foxes against rabies has been implemented since 2010.Within monitoring of the effectiveness of oral vaccination against rabies which was carried out at the end of 2011. and at the beginning of 2012., there were examined 1385 samples, out of which 11 reacted positively. The virus was dominantly present in the fox population. During 2008. and 2009., a relatively large number of rabid cats was registered, what indicates a transmission of rabies from the fox to the cat population. The incidence of rabies at the territory of Serbia significantly differs from one epizootic area to another. Northern parts of the country (Sombor and Subotica epizootic regions have more favorable situation with only two cases of rabies for the last 7 years. In the period until 2010., in Pozarevac, Novi Sad, Jagodina, Pancevo, Belgrade and Nis epizootic region, a gradual decline in number of positive cases was noticed. International project for oral vaccination of foxes against rabies which has been implemented at the territory of the Republic of Serbia and neighboring countries, influenced a significant reduction of registered rabies cases. [Projekat

  17. Immunogenicity of Simulated PCECV Postexposure Booster Doses 1, 3, and 5 Years after 2-Dose and 3-Dose Primary Rabies Vaccination in Schoolchildren

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    Thavatchai Kamoltham

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion. ID rabies PrEP with PCECV is safe and immunogenic in schoolchildren and the anamnestic response to a two booster dose vaccination series was found to be adequate one, three, and five years after a two- or three-dose primary PrEP vaccination series.

  18. Immunogenicity Studies in Carnivores Using a Rabies Virus Construct with a Site-Directed Deletion in the Phosphoprotein

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    Ad Vos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Different approaches have been applied to develop highly attenuated rabies virus vaccines for oral vaccination of mesocarnivores. One prototype vaccine construct is SAD dIND1, which contains a deletion in the P-gene severely limiting the inhibition of type-1 interferon induction. Immunogenicity studies in foxes and skunks were undertaken to investigate whether this highly attenuated vaccine would be more immunogenic than the parental SAD B19 vaccine strain. In foxes, it was demonstrated that SAD dIND1 protected the animals against a rabies infection after a single oral dose, although virus neutralizing antibody titres were lower than in foxes orally vaccinated with the SAD B19 virus as observed in previous experiments. In contrast, skunks receiving 107.5 FFU SAD dIND1 did not develop virus neutralizing antibodies and were not protected against a subsequent rabies infection.

  19. 皮卡佐剂狂犬病治疗性疫苗对暴露后实验动物和人体免疫记忆的效果%The effects treated with PICKCa rabies vaccine to mice and beagle dogs infected rabies wild viruses and volunteers immunized with PICKCa rabies vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林海祥; 徐葛林; 吴杰; 张守峰; 扈荣良; 李烈涛; 刘芳; 张师瑞; 张译

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test the immune therapeutic effects of PICKCa adjuvant rabies vaccine for the post-exposure mice and beagle dogs and immune memory effect for human.Methods For the mice and beagle dogs first to infect with rabies wild virus and then immunize with PICKCa rabies vaccine.For volunteers, first to immunize with PICKCa rabies vaccine after 2.5 years to take peripheral blood mononuclear cell and then to check cells secreted interferon-gwith flow cytometry. Results In 3 independent assays of post-explosure immunization of mice and beagle dogs PICKCa rabies vaccine were much better then commercial adjuvant-free rabies vaccines, the protective rate from 20%-30%to 70%-100%Also, in the assay of cells secreted IFN-γby peripheral blood mononuclear cells from volunteers immunized by PICKCa rabies vaccine the IFN-γcell levels were much higher than control.Conclusions Compared with commercial adjuvant-free rabies vaccines the PICKCa rabies vaccine had significant immune therapeutic effects in the mice and dogs.Also PICKCa rabies vaccine had good immune memory effect in human.%目的:检测皮卡佐剂狂犬病疫苗对暴露后实验动物免疫治疗作用和对人的免疫记忆效果。方法模仿人体暴露后免疫,对小白鼠和Beagle犬进行了先感染狂犬病毒野毒株病毒再用不同狂犬病灭活疫苗免疫,观察保护效果;对犬咬伤志愿者用皮卡佐剂狂犬病疫苗免疫2.5年后分离外周血单个核细胞,用流式细胞仪检测干扰素免疫记忆细胞数量。结果在法国巴斯德研究所、武汉生物制品研究所、军事医学科学院军事兽医研究所三次独立实验结果均显示在没有联合应用抗狂犬病免疫球蛋白的情况下,国内外市售人用狂犬病疫苗保护率为0%~30%,皮卡佐剂狂犬病疫苗保护率为70%~100%,统计学分析有极其显著的差异。暴露后志愿者用皮卡佐剂狂犬病疫苗免疫,2.5年后外周血单个核细胞仍能

  20. A mixed methods approach to assess animal vaccination programmes: The case of rabies control in Bamako, Mali.

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    Mosimann, Laura; Traoré, Abdallah; Mauti, Stephanie; Léchenne, Monique; Obrist, Brigit; Véron, René; Hattendorf, Jan; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of the research network on integrated control of zoonoses in Africa (ICONZ) a dog rabies mass vaccination campaign was carried out in two communes of Bamako (Mali) in September 2014. A mixed method approach, combining quantitative and qualitative tools, was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention towards optimization for future scale-up. Actions to control rabies occur on one level in households when individuals take the decision to vaccinate their dogs. However, control also depends on provision of vaccination services and community participation at the intermediate level of social resilience. Mixed methods seem necessary as the problem-driven transdisciplinary project includes epidemiological components in addition to social dynamics and cultural, political and institutional issues. Adapting earlier effectiveness models for health intervention to rabies control, we propose a mixed method assessment of individual effectiveness parameters like availability, affordability, accessibility, adequacy or acceptability. Triangulation of quantitative methods (household survey, empirical coverage estimation and spatial analysis) with qualitative findings (participant observation, focus group discussions) facilitate a better understanding of the weight of each effectiveness determinant, and the underlying reasons embedded in the local understandings, cultural practices, and social and political realities of the setting. Using this method, a final effectiveness of 33% for commune Five and 28% for commune Six was estimated, with vaccination coverage of 27% and 20%, respectively. Availability was identified as the most sensitive effectiveness parameter, attributed to lack of information about the campaign. We propose a mixed methods approach to optimize intervention design, using an "intervention effectiveness optimization cycle" with the aim of maximizing effectiveness. Empirical vaccination coverage estimation is compared to the

  1. Evaluation of 809 Cases Applicated to A Rabies Vaccination Center of Diyarbakır Government Hospital

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    Hakan Temiz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study; 809 cases applicated to rabies vaccination center ofDiyarbakır Government Hospital between May 2006 and May 2007 wereevaluated. Human diploid cell vaccine was applicated as 3 doses in 708cases (%87.5 and 5 doses in 101 cases (%12.5. In 66 cases (%8.2 rabiesantiserum was also used. The sites of injury were head-neck in 45 cases(%5.6, body-arm-leg in 563 (%69.6 cases and hand in 201 (%24.8 cases.477 cases (%59 were evaluated as superficial and 332 cases (%41 wereevaluated as deep injury. 626 cases (%77.4 had dog bite, 142 cases (%17.6had cat bite. While 689 cases (%85.2 visited the rabies vaccination center atthe first day of injury, 115 cases (%14.2 visited in 2-5 days and 5 cases(%0.6 visited after 5 days. In conclusion; the sensitivity and the rate of theearly visit of the vaccination center because of suspicious animal contactare high and when compared with developed countries there must be a greateffort in reducing the incidence of suspicious bites.

  2. Antibody quality and protection from lethal Ebola virus challenge in nonhuman primates immunized with rabies virus based bivalent vaccine.

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    Joseph E Blaney

    Full Text Available We have previously described the generation of a novel Ebola virus (EBOV vaccine platform based on (a replication-competent rabies virus (RABV, (b replication-deficient RABV, or (c chemically inactivated RABV expressing EBOV glycoprotein (GP. Mouse studies demonstrated safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of these live or inactivated RABV/EBOV vaccines. Here, we evaluated these vaccines in nonhuman primates. Our results indicate that all three vaccines do induce potent immune responses against both RABV and EBOV, while the protection of immunized animals against EBOV was largely dependent on the quality of humoral immune response against EBOV GP. We also determined if the induced antibodies against EBOV GP differ in their target, affinity, or the isotype. Our results show that IgG1-biased humoral responses as well as high levels of GP-specific antibodies were beneficial for the control of EBOV infection after immunization. These results further support the concept that a successful EBOV vaccine needs to induce strong antibodies against EBOV. We also showed that a dual vaccine against RABV and filoviruses is achievable; therefore addressing concerns for the marketability of this urgently needed vaccine.

  3. An mRNA Vaccine Encoding Rabies Virus Glycoprotein Induces Protection against Lethal Infection in Mice and Correlates of Protection in Adult and Newborn Pigs.

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    Margit Schnee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a zoonotic infectious disease of the central nervous system (CNS. In unvaccinated or untreated subjects, rabies virus infection causes severe neurological symptoms and is invariably fatal. Despite the long-standing existence of effective vaccines, vaccine availability remains insufficient, with high numbers of fatal infections mostly in developing countries. Nucleic acid based vaccines have proven convincingly as a new technology for the fast development of vaccines against newly emerging pathogens, diseases where no vaccine exists or for replacing already existing vaccines. We used an optimized non-replicating rabies virus glycoprotein (RABV-G encoding messenger RNA (mRNA to induce potent neutralizing antibodies (VN titers in mice and domestic pigs. Functional antibody titers were followed in mice for up to one year and titers remained stable for the entire observation period in all dose groups. T cell analysis revealed the induction of both, specific CD4+ as well as CD8+ T cells by RABV-G mRNA, with the induced CD4+ T cells being higher than those induced by a licensed vaccine. Notably, RABV-G mRNA vaccinated mice were protected against lethal intracerebral challenge infection. Inhibition of viral replication by vaccination was verified by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CD4+ T cells are crucial for the generation of neutralizing antibodies. In domestic pigs we were able to induce VN titers that correlate with protection in adult and newborn pigs. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a non-replicating mRNA rabies vaccine in small and large animals and highlights the promises of mRNA vaccines for the prevention of infectious diseases.

  4. Antibody response to vaccines for rhinotracheitis, caliciviral disease, panleukopenia, feline leukemia, and rabies in tigers (Panthera tigris) and lions (Panthera leo).

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    Risi, Emmanuel; Agoulon, Albert; Allaire, Franck; Le Dréan-Quénec'hdu, Sophie; Martin, Virginie; Mahl, Philippe

    2012-06-01

    This article presents the results of a study of captive tigers (Panthera tigris) and lions (Panthera leo) vaccinated with a recombinant vaccine against feline leukemia virus; an inactivated adjuvanted vaccine against rabies virus; and a multivalent modified live vaccine against feline herpesvirus, calicivirus, and panleukopenia virus. The aim of the study was to assess the immune response and safety of the vaccines and to compare the effects of the administration of single (1 ml) and double (2 ml) doses. The animals were separated into two groups and received either single or double doses of vaccines, followed by blood collection for serologic response for 400 days. No serious adverse event was observed, with the exception of abortion in one lioness, potentially caused by the incorrect use of the feline panleukopenia virus modified live vaccine. There was no significant difference between single and double doses for all vaccines. The recombinant vaccine against feline leukemia virus did not induce any serologic response. The vaccines against rabies and feline herpesvirus induced a significant immune response in the tigers and lions. The vaccine against calicivirus did not induce a significant increase in antibody titers in either tigers or lions. The vaccine against feline panleukopenia virus induced a significant immune response in tigers but not in lions. This report demonstrates the value of antibody titer determination after vaccination of nondomestic felids.

  5. Further characterization of the immune response in mice to inactivated and live rabies vaccines expressing Ebola virus glycoprotein

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    Papaneri, Amy B.; Wirblich, Christoph; Cooper, Kurt; Jahrling, Peter B.; Schnell, Matthias J.; Blaney, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    We have previously developed (a) replication-competent, (b) replication-deficient, and (c) chemically inactivated rabies virus (RABV) vaccines expressing ebolavirus (EBOV) glycoprotein (GP) that induce humoral immunity against each virus and confer protection from both lethal RABV and mouse-adapted EBOV challenge in mice. Here, we expand our investigation of the immunogenic properties of these bivalent vaccines in mice. Both live and killed vaccines induced primary EBOV GP-specific T-cells and a robust recall response as measured by interferon-γ ELISPOT assay. In addition to cellular immunity, an effective filovirus vaccine will likely require a multivalent humoral immune response against multiple virus species. As a proof-of-principle experiment, we demonstrated that inactivated RV-GP could be formulated with another inactivated RABV vaccine expressing the nontoxic fragment of botulinum neurotoxin A heavy chain (HC50) without a reduction in immunity to each component. Finally, we demonstrated that humoral immunity to GP could be induced by immunization of mice with inactivated RV-GP in the presence of pre-existing immunity to RABV. The ability of these novel vaccines to induce strong humoral and cellular immunity indicates that they should be further evaluated in additional animal models of infection. PMID:22884661

  6. Controlling endemic cholera with oral vaccines.

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    Ira M Longini

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although advances in rehydration therapy have made cholera a treatable disease with low case-fatality in settings with appropriate medical care, cholera continues to impose considerable mortality in the world's most impoverished populations. Internationally licensed, killed whole-cell based oral cholera vaccines (OCVs have been available for over a decade, but have not been used for the control of cholera. Recently, these vaccines were shown to confer significant levels of herd protection, suggesting that the protective potential of these vaccines has been underestimated and that these vaccines may be highly effective in cholera control when deployed in mass immunization programs. We used a large-scale stochastic simulation model to investigate the possibility of controlling endemic cholera with OCVs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We construct a large-scale, stochastic cholera transmission model of Matlab, Bangladesh. We find that cholera transmission could be controlled in endemic areas with 50% coverage with OCVs. At this level of coverage, the model predicts that there would be an 89% (95% confidence interval [CI] 72%-98% reduction in cholera cases among the unvaccinated, and a 93% (95% CI 82%-99% reduction overall in the entire population. Even a more modest coverage of 30% would result in a 76% (95% CI 44%-95% reduction in cholera incidence for the population area covered. For populations that have less natural immunity than the population of Matlab, 70% coverage would probably be necessary for cholera control, i.e., an annual incidence rate of < or = 1 case per 1,000 people in the population. CONCLUSIONS: Endemic cholera could be reduced to an annual incidence rate of < or = 1 case per 1,000 people in endemic areas with biennial vaccination with OCVs if coverage could reach 50%-70% depending on the level of prior immunity in the population. These vaccination efforts could be targeted with careful use of ecological data.

  7. Update on rabies

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    Alan C Jackson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Alan C JacksonDepartments of Internal Medicine (Neurology and Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, CanadaAbstract: Human rabies is almost invariably fatal, and globally it remains an important public health problem. Our knowledge of rabies pathogenesis has been learned mainly from studies performed in experimental animal models, and a number of unresolved issues remain. In contrast with the neural pathway of spread, there is still no credible evidence that hematogenous spread of rabies virus to the central nervous system plays a significant role in rabies pathogenesis. Although neuronal dysfunction has been thought to explain the neurological disease in rabies, recent evidence indicates that structural changes involving neuronal processes may explain the severe clinical disease and fatal outcome. Endemic dog rabies results in an ongoing risk to humans in many resource-limited and resource-poor countries, whereas rabies in wildlife is important in North America and Europe. In human cases in North America, transmission from bats is most common, but there is usually no history of a bat bite and there may be no history of contact with bats. Physicians may not recognize typical features of rabies in North America and Europe. Laboratory diagnostic evaluation for rabies includes rabies serology plus skin biopsy, cerebrospinal fluid, and saliva specimens for rabies virus antigen and/or RNA detection. Methods of postexposure rabies prophylaxis, including wound cleansing and administration of rabies vaccine and human rabies immune globulin, are highly effective after recognized exposure. Although there have been rare survivors of human rabies, no effective therapy is presently available. Therapeutic coma (midazolam and phenobarbital, ketamine, and antiviral therapies (known as the “Milwaukee protocol” were given to a rabies survivor, but this therapy was likely not directly responsible for the favorable outcome. New therapeutic

  8. Controlling of CSFV in European wild boar using oral vaccination: a review

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    Sophie eRossi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever (CSF is among the most detrimental diseases for the swine industry worldwide. Infected wild boar populations can play a crucial role in CSF epidemiology and controlling wild reservoirs is of utmost importance for preventing domestic outbreaks. Oral mass vaccination (OMV has been implemented to control CSF in wild boars and limit the spill over to domestic pigs. This retrospective overview of vaccination experiences illustrates the potential for that option. The C-strain live vaccine was confirmed to be highly efficacious and palatable baits were developed for oral delivery in free ranging wild boars. The first field trials were performed in Germany in the 1990’s and allowed deploying oral baits at a large scale. The delivery process was further improved during the 2000’s among different European countries. Optimal deployment has to be early regarding disease emergence and correctly designed regarding the landscape structure and the natural food sources that can compete with oral baits. OMV deployment is also highly dependent on a local veterinary support working closely with hunters, wildlife and forestry agencies. Vaccination has been the most efficient strategy for CSF control in free ranging wild boar when vaccination is wide spread and lasting for a sufficient period of time. Alternative disease control strategies such as intensified hunting or creating physical boundaries such as fences have been, in contrast, seldom satisfactory and reliable. However, monitoring outbreaks has been challenging during and after vaccination deployment since OMV results in a low probability to detect virus-positive animals and the live-vaccine currently available does not allow serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals. The development of a new marker vaccine and companion test is thus a promising option for better monitoring outbreaks during OMV deployment as well as help to better determine when to stop

  9. Acute flaccid paralysis due to rabies

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    J B Ghosh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two clinical forms of rabies are recognize: i a furious form associated with classical signs of excitation or phobic symptoms, ii Dumb rabies (paralytic rabies characterized by progressive paralysis without an initial furious phase wherein distinction from Guillain-Barrι Syndrome may be difficult. Paralytic rabies is more common in persons who have received postexposure vaccination. We report here the diagnostic dilemma of two cases of acute flaccid paralysis due to rabies.

  10. Review of reearch on improving the compliance of persons vaccinated rabies vaccine%提高狂犬疫苗接种者依从性的研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温立波

    2016-01-01

    狂犬病死亡率100%,严重威胁患者健康。提高狂犬疫苗接种者依从性可降低狂犬病发病率。本文阐述了从正确认识狂犬病的危害性、家庭和社会支持、良好的医患关系和优质服务、健康教育和心理护理综合干预四个方面提高疫苗接种者的依从性。%The mortality rate of rabies was 100%,which was a serious threat to the health of patients.To improve the compliance of persons vaccinated rabies vaccine could reduce the incidence of rabies.This paper expounded that improving the compliance of persons vaccinated rabies vaccine from four aspects,including understanding the damage of rabies correctly,family and social support,good doctor-patient relationship and quality service,health education and psychological nursing comprehensive intervention.

  11. Replacement of in vivo human rabies vaccine potency testing by in vitro glycoprotein quantification using ELISA - Results of an international collaborative study.

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    Morgeaux, Sylvie; Poirier, Bertrand; Ragan, C Ian; Wilkinson, Dianna; Arabin, Ulrich; Guinet-Morlot, Françoise; Levis, Robin; Meyer, Heidi; Riou, Patrice; Shaid, Shahjahan; Volokhov, Dmitriy; Tordo, Noël; Chapsal, Jean-Michel

    2017-02-07

    Three different ELISAs quantifying rabies glycoprotein were evaluated as in vitro alternatives to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in vivo potency test for batch release of human rabies vaccines. The evaluation was carried out as an international collaborative study supported by the European Partnership for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EPAA). This pre-validation study, the results of which are presented in this paper, compared three different ELISA designs, assessing their within- and between-laboratory precision. One of the ELISA designs was proposed to the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM) and accepted for an international collaborative study under the umbrella of the Biological Standardisation Programme.

  12. Evaluation of the safety, immunogenicity, and pharmacokinetic profile of a new, highly purified, heat-treated equine rabies immunoglobulin, administered either alone or in association with a purified, Vero-cell rabies vaccine.

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    Lang, J; Attanath, P; Quiambao, B; Singhasivanon, V; Chanthavanich, P; Montalban, C; Lutsch, C; Pepin-Covatta, S; Le Mener, V; Miranda, M; Sabchareon, A

    1998-07-30

    A clinical evaluation of a new, purified, heat-treated equine rabies immunoglobulin (PHT-Erig), F(ab')2 preparation, was carried out in Thailand and in the Philippines-two countries where rabies is endemic. An initial prospective, randomised, controlled trial (Study 1), compared the safety and pharmacokinetics (serum concentrations of rabies antibodies) after administration either of PHT-Erig or of a commercially-available, equine rabies immune globulin (Erig PMC). A second trial (Study 2) simulated post-exposure rabies prophylaxis by using a reference cell culture vaccine, the purified Vero-cell rabies vaccine (PVRV), administered in association with either Erig PMC or PHT-Erig. In Study 1, 27 healthy, Thai adults received a 40 IU kg(-1) dose of either Erig PMC (n = 12) or PHT-Erig (n = 15) via the intramuscular (i.m.) route; half of the dose was injected into the deltoid area and the other half into the buttocks. Serum for rabies antibody determination and F(ab')2 concentration was collected at hours (H) 0, 6 and 12, and on day (D) 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 15. Both products were safe, with no serious adverse events, and in particular, no anaphylactic reactions or serum sickness was reported. A statistical comparison of the pharmacokinetic parameters did not demonstrate bioequivalence of the two products. Nonetheless, the relative bioavailability of 93% and the similar absorption rates suggest the pharmacokinetic profiles of Erig and PHT-Erig are similar. The antibody level in either group were low throughout the 15-day study period. The geometric mean titer (GMT) values ranged from group 0.027-0.117 IU ml(-1) in the Erig group and from 0.029 to 0.072 IU ml(-1) in the PHT-Erig. There was no significant difference between the evolution of GMT values for the two groups. In Study 2, 71 healthy volunteers received 40 IU kg(-1) via the intramuscular route of either Erig PMC (n = 36) or PHT-Erig (n = 35) on D0, in association with five doses of PVRV on D0, D3, D7, D14

  13. Colonic immune stimulation by targeted oral vaccine.

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    Mahesh Kathania

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Currently, sufficient data exist to support the use of lactobacilli as candidates for the development of new oral targeted vaccines. To this end, we have previously shown that Lactobacillus gasseri expressing the protective antigen (PA component of anthrax toxin genetically fused to a dendritic cell (DC-binding peptide (DCpep induced efficacious humoral and T cell-mediated immune responses against Bacillus anthracis Sterne challenge. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In the present study, we investigated the effects of a dose dependent treatment of mice with L. gasseri expressing the PA-DCpep fusion protein on intestinal and systemic immune responses and confirmed its safety. Treatment of mice with different doses of L. gasseri expressing PA-DCpep stimulated colonic immune responses, resulting in the activation of innate immune cells, including dendritic cells, which induced robust Th1, Th17, CD4(+Foxp3(+ and CD8(+Foxp3(+ T cell immune responses. Notably, high doses of L. gasseri expressing PA-DCpep (10(12 CFU were not toxic to the mice. Treatment of mice with L. gasseri expressing PA-DCpep triggered phenotypic maturation and the release of proinflammatory cytokines by dendritic cells and macrophages. Moreover, treatment of mice with L. gasseri expressing PA-DCpep enhanced antibody immune responses, including IgA, IgG(1, IgG(2b, IgG(2c and IgG(3. L. gasseri expressing PA-DCpep also increased the gene expression of numerous pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptors, C-type lectin receptors and NOD-like receptors. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that L. gasseri expressing PA-DCpep has substantial immunopotentiating properties, as it can induce humoral and T cell-mediated immune responses upon oral administration and may be used as a safe oral vaccine against anthrax challenge.

  14. Adaptation of a Chinese ferret badger strain of rabies virus to high-titered growth in BHK-21 cells for canine vaccine development.

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    Liu, Ye; Zhang, Shoufeng; Zhang, Fei; Hu, Rongliang

    2012-12-01

    Rabies virus strain JX08-45CC was derived from a Chinese isolate (JX08-45) by serial passage in the BHK-21 cell line, reaching a titer of 10(8) TCID(50)/mL. JX08-45CC produced rabies in adult mice but was nonpathogenic in dogs after intramuscular injection. A comparison of the entire genomes of JX08-45 and JX08-45CC led to the identification of 17 nucleotide substitutions, resulting in seven amino acid changes in the mature G and L proteins. The immunogenicity of β-propiolactone-inactivated JX08-45CC was similar to the immunogenicity of the live vaccine strains widely used in China. The inactivated vaccine induced antibody responses for more than 6 months and provided full protection from an intramuscular challenge in dogs. JX08-45CC has excellent potential for development as an inactivated vaccine for dogs in China.

  15. A rabies vaccine adjuvanted with saponins from leaves of the soap tree (Quillaja brasiliensis) induces specific immune responses and protects against lethal challenge.

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    Yendo, Anna Carolina A; de Costa, Fernanda; Cibulski, Samuel P; Teixeira, Thais F; Colling, Luana C; Mastrogiovanni, Mauricio; Soulé, Silvia; Roehe, Paulo M; Gosmann, Grace; Ferreira, Fernando A; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2016-04-29

    Quillaja brasiliensis (Quillajaceae) is a saponin producing species native from southern Brazil and Uruguay. Its saponins are remarkably similar to those of Q. saponaria, which provides most of the saponins used as immunoadjuvants in vaccines. The immunostimulating capacities of aqueous extract (AE) and purified saponin fraction (QB-90) obtained from leaves of Q. brasiliensis were favorably comparable to those of a commercial saponin-based adjuvant preparation (Quil-A) in experimental vaccines against bovine herpesvirus type 1 and 5, poliovirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus in mice model. Herein, the immunogenicity and protection efficacy of rabies vaccines adjuvanted with Q. brasiliensis AE and its saponin fractions were compared with vaccines adjuvanted with either commercial Quil-A or Alum. Mice were vaccinated with one or two doses (on days 0 and 14) of one of the different vaccines and serum levels of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a were quantified over time. A challenge experiment with a lethal dose of rabies virus was carried out with the formulations. Viral RNA detection in the brain of mice was performed by qPCR, and RNA copy-numbers were quantified using a standard curve of in vitro transcribed RNA. All Q. brasiliensis saponin-adjuvanted vaccines significantly enhanced levels of specific IgG isotypes when compared with the no adjuvant group (P ≤ 0.05). Overall, one or two doses of saponin-based vaccine were efficient to protect against the lethal rabies exposure. Both AE and saponin fractions from Q. brasiliensis leaves proved potent immunological adjuvants in vaccines against a lethal challenge with a major livestock pathogen, hence confirming their value as competitive or complementary sustainable alternatives to saponins of Q. saponaria.

  16. Sylvatic rabies epidemic in Italy: implementation of a data management system to assess the level of application of preventive dog vaccination.

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    Bortolotti, Laura; Cobianchi, Mario; Breda, Tatiana; Favero, Laura; Ruocco, Luigi; Marangon, Stefano

    2013-10-01

    After 20 years of absence, rabies re-emerged in wild animals in north-eastern Italy in October 2008. Besides measures undertaken to fight the spread of infection in wildlife, vaccination against rabies was made compulsory for dogs living in the risk area. In the last 15 years, the veterinary authorities have focused on implementing computerized data collection systems in animal health, to serve as working tools for epidemiological surveillance activities and emergencies management. The prerequisite for implementing any data collection system is knowledge of the animal population. This also applies to the Canine Registry Data Bank, in which data on dogs and their movements, together with personal data on each owner and keeper, have been stored since 2003. The management information system has been updated and specific functions have been integrated in order to support the activity of both the veterinary services and the veterinary practitioners involved in the dog vaccination program. Vaccination became voluntary in February 2013. This paper describes implementation of the software and organization of data gathering, highlighting the benefits of computerized data compared to previously used paper-based data collection systems. The new functions, designed to centralize collection of uniform, updated vaccination data, have led to more efficient organization and better control of the vaccination plan. Automated information processing allowed vaccination operations to be supervised, incurred costs to be calculated, and vaccination coverage of the dog population to be monitored during the 3 years of compulsory vaccination.

  17. Post-Marketing Surveillance of Human Rabies Diploid Cell Vaccine (Imovax in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS in the United States, 1990‒2015.

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    Pedro L Moro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1980, human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV, Imovax Rabies, Sanofi Pasteur, was licensed for use in the United States.To assess adverse events (AEs after HDCV reported to the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS, a spontaneous reporting surveillance system.We searched VAERS for US reports after HDCV among persons vaccinated from January 1, 1990-July 31, 2015. Medical records were requested for reports classified as serious (death, hospitalization, prolonged hospitalization, disability, life-threatening-illness, and those suggesting anaphylaxis and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS. Physicians reviewed available information and assigned a primary clinical category to each report using MedDRA system organ classes. Empirical Bayesian (EB data mining was used to identify disproportional AE reporting after HDCV.VAERS received 1,611 reports after HDCV; 93 (5.8% were serious. Among all reports, the three most common AEs included pyrexia (18.2%, headache (17.9%, and nausea (16.5%. Among serious reports, four deaths appeared to be unrelated to vaccination.This 25-year review of VAERS did not identify new or unexpected AEs after HDCV. The vast majority of AEs were non-serious. Injection site reactions, hypersensitivity reactions, and non-specific constitutional symptoms were most frequently reported, similar to findings in pre-licensure studies.

  18. Post-Marketing Surveillance of Human Rabies Diploid Cell Vaccine (Imovax) in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) in the United States, 1990‒2015

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    Moro, Pedro L.; Woo, Emily Jane; Paul, Wendy; Lewis, Paige; Petersen, Brett W.; Cano, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background In 1980, human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV, Imovax Rabies, Sanofi Pasteur), was licensed for use in the United States. Objective To assess adverse events (AEs) after HDCV reported to the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a spontaneous reporting surveillance system. Methods We searched VAERS for US reports after HDCV among persons vaccinated from January 1, 1990–July 31, 2015. Medical records were requested for reports classified as serious (death, hospitalization, prolonged hospitalization, disability, life-threatening-illness), and those suggesting anaphylaxis and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Physicians reviewed available information and assigned a primary clinical category to each report using MedDRA system organ classes. Empirical Bayesian (EB) data mining was used to identify disproportional AE reporting after HDCV. Results VAERS received 1,611 reports after HDCV; 93 (5.8%) were serious. Among all reports, the three most common AEs included pyrexia (18.2%), headache (17.9%), and nausea (16.5%). Among serious reports, four deaths appeared to be unrelated to vaccination. Conclusions This 25-year review of VAERS did not identify new or unexpected AEs after HDCV. The vast majority of AEs were non-serious. Injection site reactions, hypersensitivity reactions, and non-specific constitutional symptoms were most frequently reported, similar to findings in pre-licensure studies. PMID:27410239

  19. Killed oral cholera vaccines: history, development and implementation challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Anna Lena; Gonzales, Maria Liza Antoinette; Aldaba, Josephine G; Nair, G Balakrish

    2014-09-01

    Cholera is still a major global health problem, affecting mainly people living in unsanitary conditions and who are at risk for outbreaks of cholera. During the past decade, outbreaks are increasingly reported from more countries. From the early killed oral cholera vaccine, rapid improvements in vaccine development occurred as a result of a better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, pathogenesis of cholera infection and immunity. The newer-generation oral killed cholera vaccines have been shown to be safe and effective in field trials conducted in cholera endemic areas. Likewise, they have been shown to be protective when used during outbreak settings. Aside from providing direct protection to vaccinated individuals, recent studies have demonstrated that these killed oral vaccines also confer indirect protection through herd immunity. Although new-generation oral cholera vaccines should not be considered in isolation from other preventive approaches in countries where they are most needed, especially improved water quality and sanitation, these vaccines serve as immediately available public health tools for preventing further morbidity and mortality from cholera. However, despite its availability for more than two decades, use of these vaccines has not been optimized. Although there are limitations of the currently available oral cholera vaccines, recent data show that the vaccines are safe, feasible to use even in difficult circumstances and able to provide protection in various settings. Clear identification of the areas and target population groups who will benefit from the use of the cholera vaccines will be required and strategies to facilitate accessibility and usage of these vaccines in these areas and population groups will need to be developed.

  20. Social vaccine and its role in oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyana Chakravarthy Pentapati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Social vaccine is the alternative term intended to change the predominant biomedical orientation of healthcare personnel toward the underlying distal and proximal factors that could lead to disease and infirmity. This report highlights the importance of social vaccine concept in the field of dentistry to have better understanding of the oral diseases and reduce the social inequality in communities.

  1. ANALYSIS OF THE IMMUNE EFFECTIVENESS OF RABIES VACCINE%狂犬病疫苗接种者的免疫效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏雪琴; 刘莉; 赵稳民

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the immune effectiveness for rabies virus (RV) exposed persons after vaccinated with rabies vaccine, to find out its preventive strategies. [Methods] The adverse reactions of rabies vaccine were observed, and the venous bloods from random sampling 624 RV-exposed persons were collected during 10-20 days after finished 5 doses of serial vaccination with rabies vaccines at the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 14th and 28th day, and to lest RV IgG antibodies with indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EUSA). [Results] The reported incidence rale of the adverse reactions for rabies vaccine was 9.35 per 10 thousand, with no severe adverse reaction occurred. 594 of 624 RV exposed persons after vaccinated with ra-bies vaccine had positive RV IgG antibodies, and the average positive rate was 95.19%, with not statistic significance in posi-tive RV antibody rate between male and female exposed persons (x2 = 0.719, P> 0,05). The positive rale were the highest {100%) among the exposed persons aged under 15 years old and the lowest (90.48%) among the exposed persons aged more than 65 years old, with a descending trend with increase of ages; The positive rate had not markedly statistic significance be-tween age groups (x2 = 19.146, P 0.01) , but was higher than the rabies vaccine produced by Changchun Institute of Biologic Products (x2 = 95.446, P 0.05, respectively). [ Conclusion ] China-made rabies vaccines have good immune effectiveness, and the immune effectiveness among younger groups are better than that among older groups. The effectiveness of rabies vaccines from most of vaccine manufacturers don' t exist significant difference s post-exposure vaccination of homemade rabies vaccine can play a role of pre-vention of rabies.%[目的]了解狂犬病暴露者接种狂犬病疫苗后的免疫效果,探讨预防策略.[方法]观察疫苗使用者的反应情况,随机抽取624例狂犬病暴露者接种狂犬病疫苗5针(0、3、7、14、28 d)后10~20 d采集

  2. Management and modeling approaches for controlling raccoon rabies: The road to elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Stacey A; Chipman, Richard B; Slate, Dennis; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; VerCauteren, Kurt C; Gilbert, Amy T

    2017-03-01

    Rabies is an ancient viral disease that significantly impacts human and animal health throughout the world. In the developing parts of the world, dog bites represent the highest risk of rabies infection to people, livestock, and other animals. However, in North America, where several rabies virus variants currently circulate in wildlife, human contact with the raccoon rabies variant leads to the highest per capita population administration of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) annually. Previous rabies variant elimination in raccoons (Canada), foxes (Europe), and dogs and coyotes (United States) demonstrates that elimination of the raccoon variant from the eastern US is feasible, given an understanding of rabies control costs and benefits and the availability of proper tools. Also critical is a cooperatively produced strategic plan that emphasizes collaborative rabies management among agencies and organizations at the landscape scale. Common management strategies, alone or as part of an integrated approach, include the following: oral rabies vaccination (ORV), trap-vaccinate-release (TVR), and local population reduction. As a complement, mathematical and statistical modeling approaches can guide intervention planning, such as through contact networks, circuit theory, individual-based modeling, and others, which can be used to better understand and predict rabies dynamics through simulated interactions among the host, virus, environment, and control strategy. Strategies derived from this ecological lens can then be optimized to produce a management plan that balances the ecological needs and program financial resources. This paper discusses the management and modeling strategies that are currently used, or have been used in the past, and provides a platform of options for consideration while developing raccoon rabies virus elimination strategies in the US.

  3. Management and modeling approaches for controlling raccoon rabies: The road to elimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey A Elmore

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is an ancient viral disease that significantly impacts human and animal health throughout the world. In the developing parts of the world, dog bites represent the highest risk of rabies infection to people, livestock, and other animals. However, in North America, where several rabies virus variants currently circulate in wildlife, human contact with the raccoon rabies variant leads to the highest per capita population administration of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP annually. Previous rabies variant elimination in raccoons (Canada, foxes (Europe, and dogs and coyotes (United States demonstrates that elimination of the raccoon variant from the eastern US is feasible, given an understanding of rabies control costs and benefits and the availability of proper tools. Also critical is a cooperatively produced strategic plan that emphasizes collaborative rabies management among agencies and organizations at the landscape scale. Common management strategies, alone or as part of an integrated approach, include the following: oral rabies vaccination (ORV, trap-vaccinate-release (TVR, and local population reduction. As a complement, mathematical and statistical modeling approaches can guide intervention planning, such as through contact networks, circuit theory, individual-based modeling, and others, which can be used to better understand and predict rabies dynamics through simulated interactions among the host, virus, environment, and control strategy. Strategies derived from this ecological lens can then be optimized to produce a management plan that balances the ecological needs and program financial resources. This paper discusses the management and modeling strategies that are currently used, or have been used in the past, and provides a platform of options for consideration while developing raccoon rabies virus elimination strategies in the US.

  4. 2005-2007年太原市部分狂犬病疫苗接种者狂犬病病毒抗体检测结果分析%Detection of rabies antibody among persons vaccinated with rabies vaccine in Taiyuan, 2005-2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王骥涛; 石洁平; 张晓林; 张拉弟; 孙樯; 韩建荣

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antibody level after vaccination of rabies vaccine,and find the subjects who failed in the rabies immunization in a timely manner so that aggressive and effective revaccination could be taken to ensure effective immunization for each vaccination receiver. Methods The indirect immunofluorescence assay test (IFAT) was performed to detect rabies antibody of the subjects immunized after exposure. The data were processed using Excel and SPSS 11.5 software. Results A total of 175 rabies antibody-positive subjects were identified out of 229 vaccination receivers, the positive rate being 76.4%. There was no statistical difference in positive rates of rabies antibody by gender and age, but the statistical significant differences were observed on the sources of vaccine and the location of inoculation. Conclusion The immune response to rabies vaccine might not differed by gender or age. So it is highly suggested for people bitten by dogs, cats and other animals to be vaccinated in an available health service center with qualified vaccination.%目的 了解接种狂犬病疫苗免疫后抗体水平,及时发现免疫失败的接种者,采取积极有效的补种措施,保证每位接种者得到有效的免疫.方法 采用间接免疫荧光法(IFAT)测定狂犬病暴露者免疫后抗体效价,数据采用Excel、SPSS 11.5软件进行处理.结果 229例狂犬病疫苗接种者中狂犬病病毒抗体阳性者175例,阳性率为76.4%,阳性率在性别和年龄组之间差异无统计学意义,在疫苗来源和接种地方面差异有统计学意义.结论 狂犬病疫苗进入人体后所引发的免疫反应并不由于性别、年龄而有所差别,建议被犬、猫等动物致伤后,尽可能到具有疫苗流通和接种资质的卫生服务部门接种.

  5. Oral Cholera Vaccine Coverage, Barriers to Vaccination, and Adverse Events following Vaccination, Haiti, 20131

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Jeannot; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Iyengar, Preetha; Dismer, Amber; Adrien, Paul; Hyde, Terri B.; Marston, Barbara J.; Date, Kashmira; Mintz, Eric; Katz, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the first government-led oral cholera vaccination (OCV) campaign in Haiti was implemented in Petite Anse and Cerca Carvajal. To evaluate vaccination coverage, barriers to vaccination, and adverse events following vaccination, we conducted a cluster survey. We enrolled 1,121 persons from Petite Anse and 809 persons from Cerca Carvajal, categorized by 3 age groups (1–4, 5–14, >15 years). Two-dose OCV coverage was 62.5% in Petite Anse and 76.8% in Cerca Carvajal. Two-dose coverage was lowest among persons >15 years of age. In Cerca Carvajal, coverage was significantly lower for male than female respondents (69% vs. 85%; p<0.001). No major adverse events were reported. The main reason for nonvaccination was absence during the campaign. Vaccination coverage after this campaign was acceptable and comparable to that resulting from campaigns implemented by nongovernmental organizations. Future campaigns should be tailored to reach adults who are not available during daytime hours. PMID:25988350

  6. Oral Cholera Vaccine Coverage, Barriers to Vaccination, and Adverse Events following Vaccination, Haiti, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohme, Rania A; François, Jeannot; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Iyengar, Preetha; Dismer, Amber; Adrien, Paul; Hyde, Terri B; Marston, Barbara J; Date, Kashmira; Mintz, Eric; Katz, Mark A

    2015-06-01

    In 2013, the first government-led oral cholera vaccination (OCV) campaign in Haiti was implemented in Petite Anse and Cerca Carvajal. To evaluate vaccination coverage, barriers to vaccination, and adverse events following vaccination, we conducted a cluster survey. We enrolled 1,121 persons from Petite Anse and 809 persons from Cerca Carvajal, categorized by 3 age groups (1-4, 5-14, >15 years). Two-dose OCV coverage was 62.5% in Petite Anse and 76.8% in Cerca Carvajal. Two-dose coverage was lowest among persons >15 years of age. In Cerca Carvajal, coverage was significantly lower for male than female respondents (69% vs. 85%; p<0.001). No major adverse events were reported. The main reason for nonvaccination was absence during the campaign. Vaccination coverage after this campaign was acceptable and comparable to that resulting from campaigns implemented by nongovernmental organizations. Future campaigns should be tailored to reach adults who are not available during daytime hours.

  7. Human rabies in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahtaj, Firouzeh; Fayaz, Ahmad; Howaizi, Nader; Biglari, Peyvand; Gholami, Alirez

    2014-10-01

    Like most Asian and African countries, Iran is highly endemic for rabies, which is a preventable disease with the timely utilisation of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). With the availability of affordable vaccination in Iran, there are still several rabies deaths which are assumed misdiagnosed or received ineffective PEP. We reviewed the files of 16 human rabies deaths, consisting of two groups: 1, ineffective treatment; and 2, erroneous PEP. Most of the studied cases were male and were from rural areas. Stray dogs were found to be the common biting animal (68.75%). Of the patients, 10/16 (62.5%) who had injuries on their head and/or face demonstrated shorter incubation periods. The incubation period was longer in a 4-year-old boy who sustained injuries in his abdomen and back. All the patients in group 1 received four doses of vaccine and administration of human rabies immune globulin (HRIG), and death occurred with the mean of 49 days after the bite. This mean was 27 days in three patients in group 2, who received vaccine without administration of HRIG. In a total of 1,188,579 cases of PEP given in Iran during: 2002-2011, it is not known whether all PEPs were correctly administered by World Health Organization standards. Extending rabies awareness programmes and timely PEP education in the community in accordance with the implementation of rabies control measures might lead to a decrease in these unfortunate scenarios and heavy financial burden of vaccination required due to the prevalence of rabies. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Feasibilty of oral immunisation with LTB-based edible vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauterslager, Tosca Genevieve Maria

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the research to explore the feasibility of plants for oral vaccination. The research focussed on a model of LTB produced in potato tubers or ovalbumin (OVA) as antigen and tested in mice. A general introduction into the backgrounds of oral immunisation is given in Chapter 1. Th

  9. Use of filter paper blood samples for rabies antibody detection in foxes and raccoon dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasniewski, Marine; Barrat, Jacques; Combes, Benoit; Guiot, Anne Laure; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-08-01

    The effectiveness of oral rabies vaccination in wildlife is usually evaluated by the detection of rabies antibodies. However, the assessment of rabies antibodies has several technical difficulties in the field, such as the collection, storage, transport and titration of blood samples, often of poor quality. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of collecting blood on a filter paper (FP) coupled with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titration of rabies antibodies in raccoon dogs and red foxes. The FP blood sampling method was found highly specific and repeatable in both species. Overall, results obtained with the FP sampling method were highly concordant with the conventional (venipuncture) sampling methods. Blood eluates from FP samples from foxes and raccoon dogs tested using ELISA showed concordance values of 92% and 95%, respectively, with serum samples tested using the seroneutralisation test and values of 95% and 91%, respectively, when the ELISA was used on both types of sample. The use of FP blood sampling coupled with the titration of rabies antibodies by ELISA provides a reliable alternative to conventional blood sampling and serum testing by seroneutralisation. This simple procedure is particularly attractive and cost-effective for assessing the effectiveness of oral rabies vaccination in field conditions.

  10. Rabies in Kazakhstan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmetzhan A Sultanov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease. There is a sparsity of data on this disease with regard to the incidence of human and animal disease in many low and middle income countries. Furthermore, rabies results in a large economic impact and a high human burden of disease. Kazakhstan is a large landlocked middle income country that gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 and is endemic for rabies.We used detailed public health and veterinary surveillance data from 2003 to 2015 to map where livestock rabies is occurring. We also estimate the economic impact and human burden of rabies. Livestock and canine rabies occurred over most of Kazakhstan, but there were regional variations in disease distribution. There were a mean of 7.1 officially recorded human fatalities due to rabies per year resulting in approximately 457 Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs. A mean of 64,289 individuals per annum underwent post exposure prophylaxis (PEP which may have resulted in an additional 1140 DALYs annually. PEP is preventing at least 118 cases of human rabies each year or possibly as many as 1184 at an estimated cost of $1193 or $119 per DALY averted respectively. The estimated economic impact of rabies in Kazakhstan is $20.9 million per annum, with nearly half of this cost being attributed to the cost of PEP and the loss of income whilst being treated. A further $5.4 million per annum was estimated to be the life time loss of income for fatal cases. Animal vaccination programmes and animal control programmes also contributed substantially to the economic losses. The direct costs due to rabies fatalities of agricultural animals was relatively low.This study demonstrates that in Kazakhstan there is a substantial economic cost and health impact of rabies. These costs could be reduced by modifying the vaccination programme that is now practised. The study also fills some data gaps on the epidemiology and economic effects of rabies in respect to

  11. The immunological effects of oral polio vaccine provided with BCG vaccine at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Karkov, Hanne Sophie; Lund, Najaaraq

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaccines may have non-specific effects. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau suggested that oral polio vaccine at birth (OPV0) provided with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine was associated with down-regulation of the immune response to BCG vaccine 6 weeks later. Based...... BCG alone at birth, and subsequently randomised to have a blood sample taken at 2, 4 or 6 weeks post-randomisation. Excreted levels of cytokines (IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ) were measured from whole blood in vitro stimulations with a panel of recall vaccine antigens (BCG, PPD, OPV), mitogen...

  12. RABIES IN UKRAINE: EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND EPIZOOTIC SITUATION, MEANS FOR PREVENTIVE AND THERAPEUTIC IMMUNIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavrik A.,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and epizootic situations of rabies in Ukraine were analyzed. Active centers of animal rabies formed in many areas where 2016 persons were attacked by animals (mostly dogs suspected on rabies during 2011 year. Characteristics of preparates on rabies prevention, and basic methods of analyzing the specific activity of rabies vaccines were described.

  13. Potential effect of prior raccoonpox virus infection in raccoons on vaccinia-based rabies immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, J Jeffrey; McLean, Robert G; Slate, Dennis; MacCarthy, Kathleen A; Osorio, Jorge E

    2008-01-01

    Background The USDA, Wildlife Services cooperative oral rabies vaccination (ORV) program uses a live vaccinia virus-vectored (genus Orthopoxvirus) vaccine, Raboral V-RG® (V-RG), to vaccinate specific wildlife species against rabies virus in several regions of the U.S. Several naturally occurring orthopoxviruses have been found in North America, including one isolated from asymptomatic raccoons (Procyon lotor). The effect of naturally occurring antibodies to orthopoxviruses on successful V-RG vaccination in raccoons is the focus of this study. Results Overall, raccoons pre-immunized (n = 10) with a recombinant raccoonpox virus vaccine (RCN-F1) responded to vaccination with V-RG with lower rabies virus neutralizing antibody (VNA) titers than those which were not pre-immunized (n = 10) and some failed to seroconvert for rabies VNA to detectable levels. Conclusion These results suggest that the success of some ORV campaigns may be hindered where raccoonpox virus or possibly other orthopoxvirus antibodies are common in wildlife species targeted for ORV. If these areas are identified, different vaccination strategies may be warranted. PMID:18834520

  14. Potential effect of prior raccoonpox virus infection in raccoons on vaccinia-based rabies immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacCarthy Kathleen A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The USDA, Wildlife Services cooperative oral rabies vaccination (ORV program uses a live vaccinia virus-vectored (genus Orthopoxvirus vaccine, Raboral V-RG® (V-RG, to vaccinate specific wildlife species against rabies virus in several regions of the U.S. Several naturally occurring orthopoxviruses have been found in North America, including one isolated from asymptomatic raccoons (Procyon lotor. The effect of naturally occurring antibodies to orthopoxviruses on successful V-RG vaccination in raccoons is the focus of this study. Results Overall, raccoons pre-immunized (n = 10 with a recombinant raccoonpox virus vaccine (RCN-F1 responded to vaccination with V-RG with lower rabies virus neutralizing antibody (VNA titers than those which were not pre-immunized (n = 10 and some failed to seroconvert for rabies VNA to detectable levels. Conclusion These results suggest that the success of some ORV campaigns may be hindered where raccoonpox virus or possibly other orthopoxvirus antibodies are common in wildlife species targeted for ORV. If these areas are identified, different vaccination strategies may be warranted.

  15. Response to a Rabies Epidemic, Bali, Indonesia, 2008–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Katie; Girardi, Janice; Hiby, Elly; Knobel, Darryn; Mardiana, Wayan; Townsend, Sunny; Scott-Orr, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Emergency vaccinations and culling failed to contain an outbreak of rabies in Bali, Indonesia, during 2008–2009. Subsequent island-wide mass vaccination (reaching 70% coverage, >200,000 dogs) led to substantial declines in rabies incidence and spread. However, the incidence of dog bites remains high, and repeat campaigns are necessary to eliminate rabies in Bali. PMID:23632033

  16. Elimination of Dog-Mediated Human Rabies Deaths by 2030: Needs Assessment and Alternatives for Progress Based on Dog Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan M. Wallace; Undurraga, Eduardo A; Blanton, Jesse D.; Cleaton, Julie; Franka, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Background Rabies imposes a substantial burden to about half of the world population. The World Health Organization (WHO), World Organization for Animal Health, and the Food and Agriculture Organization have set the goal of eliminating dog-mediated human rabies deaths by 2030. This could be achieved largely by massive administration of post-exposure prophylaxis—in perpetuity—, through elimination of dog rabies, or combining both. Here, we focused on the resources needed for the elimination...

  17. Elimination of Dog-Mediated Human Rabies Deaths by 2030: Needs Assessment and Alternatives for Progress Based on Dog Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Ryan M.; Eduardo A Undurraga; Jesse D. Blanton; Cleaton, Julie; Franka, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Background Rabies imposes a substantial burden to about half of the world population. The World Health Organization (WHO), World Organization for Animal Health, and the Food and Agriculture Organization have set the goal of eliminating dog-mediated human rabies deaths by 2030. This could be achieved largely by massive administration of post-exposure prophylaxis—in perpetuity—, through elimination of dog rabies, or combining both. Here, we focused on the resources needed for the elimination of...

  18. Rabies in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if I receive treatment outside the United States? Veterinarians What to do with an animal that has bitten a person Caring for animals with potential exposure Clinical signs of rabies in animals Vaccines Rabies Vaccines Licensed and Marketed in the U.S., ...

  19. The Economics of a Successful Raccoon Rabies Elimination Program on Long Island, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elser, Julie L; Bigler, Laura L; Anderson, Aaron M; Maki, Joanne L; Lein, Donald H; Shwiff, Stephanie A

    2016-12-01

    Raccoon rabies is endemic in the eastern U.S.; however, an epizootic had not been confirmed on Long Island, New York until 2004. An oral rabies vaccination (ORV) program was initiated soon after the first rabies-positive raccoon was discovered, and continued until raccoon rabies was eliminated from the vaccination zone. The cost-effectiveness and economic impact of this rabies control program were unknown. A public health surveillance data set was evaluated following the ORV program on Long Island, and is used here as a case study in the health economics of rabies prevention and control efforts. A benefit-cost analysis was performed to determine the cost-effectiveness of the program, and a regional economic model was used to estimate the macroeconomic impacts of raccoon rabies elimination to New York State. The cost of the program, approximately $2.6 million, was recovered within eight years by reducing costs associated with post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and veterinary diagnostic testing of rabies suspect animals. By 2019, the State of New York is projected to benefit from the ORV program by almost $27 million. The benefit-cost ratio will reach 1.71 in 2019, meaning that for every dollar spent on the program $1.71 will be saved. Regional economic modeling estimated employment growth of over 100 jobs and a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) increase of $9.2 million through 2019. This analysis suggests that baiting to eliminate rabies in a geographically constrained area can provide positive economic returns.

  20. Rabies: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be tested for rabies if possible. Call animal control or a wildlife conservation officer for help in capturing the bat ... Immunization Practices (ACIP) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) formulate the ... reactions to this vaccine are mild, such as sore- ...

  1. [Rabies in bats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beranová, Kateřina; Zendulková, Dagmar

    2016-06-01

    Rabies is a zoonosis ending fatally in all mammals, including humans. Unlike the other mammals, this disease is usually not fatal in bats. Rabies is caused by lyssaviruses which are divided into several distinct phylogroups comprising 15 known viruses. It is believed that the original hosts of all lyssaviruses are bats. Classical rabies virus (RABV) occurs in bats across Americas and represents the major cause of rabies in humans and domestic animals there. European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) and European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) are the most frequently diagnosed lyssaviruses in Eurasia. The transmission of EBLV-1 and EBLV-2 from bats to other mammals is very rare. As of now, more detailed information is missing about the other Eurasian lyssaviruses - West Caucasian bat virus (WCBV), Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV), Aravan virus (ARAV), Irkut virus (IRKV), Khujand virus (KHUV) and Lleida virus. The lyssavirus most frequently found in Africa is Lagos bat virus (LBV). In Australia, only Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) has been demonstrated as yet. In the Czech Republic, a total of five cases of rabies in bats were confirmed between 1994 and 2015. Rabies can be transmitted from bats mainly by biting or scratching. Clinically ill bats suffer from nervous disorders or produce abnormal sounds. If rabies is suspected, laboratory tests are essential. Protection of human health is based on pre-exposure and/or post-exposure vaccination. However, the available vaccines do not protect against some newly identified lyssaviruses such as WCBV. Nevertheless, most bat species pose a minimal risk to humans.

  2. Development of a GIS-based, real-time Internet mapping tool for rabies surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manangan Jamie

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral rabies vaccination programs have been implemented to control the spread of wildlife rabies in the United States. However, current surveillance systems are inadequate for the efficient management and evaluation of these large scale vaccine baiting programs. With this in mind, a GIS-based rabies surveillance database and Internet mapping application was created. This surveillance system, RabID, provides a new resource for the rapid mapping and dissemination of data on animal rabies cases in relation to unaffected, enzootic, and baited areas where current interventions are underway. Results RabID is a centralized database for diagnostic and demographic information collected by local, state, and federal agencies involved in rabies surveillance. The geo-referenced database remits data to an Internet-accessible mapping application that displays rabies surveillance data in relation to environmental and geographic features. Conclusion RabID provides a pioneering example of the power of geographically based Internet-accessible, infectious disease surveillance. This surveillance system was developed from existing technology and is readily adaptable to other infectious diseases and may be particularly useful for zoonoses. The development and application of public health informatics technology may enhance the effectiveness of public health interventions and allow better evaluation of public health interventions.

  3. Vaxchora: A Single-Dose Oral Cholera Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Adriana; Lepage, Jayne E; Sullivan, Karyn M; Seed, Sheila M

    2017-07-01

    To review trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of Vaxchora, a reformulated, single-dose, oral, lyophilized Vibrio cholerae CVD 103-HgR vaccine for the prevention of travel-related cholera caused by V cholerae serogroup O1. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (1946 to January week 3, 2017) and EMBASE (1996 to 2017 week 3). Keywords included oral cholera vaccine, single-dose, Vaxchora, and CVD 103-HgR. Limits included human, clinical trials published in English since 2010. ClinicalTrials.gov was used as a source for unpublished data. Additional data sources were obtained through bibliographic review of selected articles. Studies that addressed the safety and efficacy of Vaxchora, the reformulated, single-dose oral CVD 103-HgR cholera vaccine, were selected for analysis. Approval of Vaxchora, was based on efficacy of the vaccine in human trials demonstrating 90.3% protection among those challenged with V cholerae 10 days after vaccination and in immunogenicity studies with 90% systemic vibriocidal antibody conversion at 6 months after a single-dose of vaccine. Tolerability was acceptable, with the most common adverse effects reported to be fatigue, headache, and abdominal pain. Vaxchora is the only FDA-approved, single-dose oral vaccine for the prevention of cholera caused by V cholerae serogroup O1 in adult travelers from the United States going to cholera-affected areas. Safety and efficacy has not been established in children, immunocompromised persons, and pregnant or breastfeeding women or those living in cholera-endemic areas.

  4. A Century Spent Combating Rabies in Morocco (1911–2015: How Much Longer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Darkaoui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rabies has no known beginning in Morocco and to date, government control efforts and plans fail to eradicate the disease. A review and analysis of available epidemiological data are crucial to learn lessons from the past and to propose effective actions. Legally, animal rabies is a notifiable disease since 1913 and legislation has been updated periodically since. Dogs have always been considered as both the disease’s vector and reservoir, while cattle, other herbivores, and humans are victims. Animal rabies cases evolution from 1942 to 2015 is characterized by ascending phase then decreasing one following structured rabies control plan implementation in 1980s. Indeed, from 1986 to 2010, three rabies control plans have been conducted based on free of charge rabies vaccination of owned dogs through mass campaigns. The geographical distribution of rabies is stable over the years with highest cases number in rich rural areas and around cities. Human rabies cases are decreasing over the time (1976–2015 thanks to the opening of new antirabic treatment centers in the last decade which permit the administration of more PEPs. After a century of rabies control, Morocco registered an average of 301 animal cases and 21 human cases annually for the last decade (2005–2015. Few reasons led to those limited results. The lack in law enforcement and, moreover, the fact that the law do not take into account responsible dog ownership aspect are of importance. Lack of dog population knowledge and management and intersectoral coordination deficiency are additional failure reasons. The gathered data will help to build a new strategy with a focus on a “One Health” approach. Dog population ecology parameters’ study is of primary importance. We estimated dog population to be 2.8 million dogs based on human:dog ratio. Enhancing vaccination coverage of dog population is feasible by combining parenteral vaccination and complementary oral vaccination. Updating

  5. A Century Spent Combating Rabies in Morocco (1911-2015): How Much Longer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darkaoui, Sami; Cliquet, Florence; Wasniewski, Marine; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Aboulfidaa, Nadia; Bouslikhane, Mohammed; Fassi-Fihri, Ouafaa

    2017-01-01

    Rabies has no known beginning in Morocco and to date, government control efforts and plans fail to eradicate the disease. A review and analysis of available epidemiological data are crucial to learn lessons from the past and to propose effective actions. Legally, animal rabies is a notifiable disease since 1913 and legislation has been updated periodically since. Dogs have always been considered as both the disease's vector and reservoir, while cattle, other herbivores, and humans are victims. Animal rabies cases evolution from 1942 to 2015 is characterized by ascending phase then decreasing one following structured rabies control plan implementation in 1980s. Indeed, from 1986 to 2010, three rabies control plans have been conducted based on free of charge rabies vaccination of owned dogs through mass campaigns. The geographical distribution of rabies is stable over the years with highest cases number in rich rural areas and around cities. Human rabies cases are decreasing over the time (1976-2015) thanks to the opening of new antirabic treatment centers in the last decade which permit the administration of more PEPs. After a century of rabies control, Morocco registered an average of 301 animal cases and 21 human cases annually for the last decade (2005-2015). Few reasons led to those limited results. The lack in law enforcement and, moreover, the fact that the law do not take into account responsible dog ownership aspect are of importance. Lack of dog population knowledge and management and intersectoral coordination deficiency are additional failure reasons. The gathered data will help to build a new strategy with a focus on a "One Health" approach. Dog population ecology parameters' study is of primary importance. We estimated dog population to be 2.8 million dogs based on human:dog ratio. Enhancing vaccination coverage of dog population is feasible by combining parenteral vaccination and complementary oral vaccination. Updating legislation by inclusion of

  6. A Century Spent Combating Rabies in Morocco (1911–2015): How Much Longer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darkaoui, Sami; Cliquet, Florence; Wasniewski, Marine; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Aboulfidaa, Nadia; Bouslikhane, Mohammed; Fassi-Fihri, Ouafaa

    2017-01-01

    Rabies has no known beginning in Morocco and to date, government control efforts and plans fail to eradicate the disease. A review and analysis of available epidemiological data are crucial to learn lessons from the past and to propose effective actions. Legally, animal rabies is a notifiable disease since 1913 and legislation has been updated periodically since. Dogs have always been considered as both the disease’s vector and reservoir, while cattle, other herbivores, and humans are victims. Animal rabies cases evolution from 1942 to 2015 is characterized by ascending phase then decreasing one following structured rabies control plan implementation in 1980s. Indeed, from 1986 to 2010, three rabies control plans have been conducted based on free of charge rabies vaccination of owned dogs through mass campaigns. The geographical distribution of rabies is stable over the years with highest cases number in rich rural areas and around cities. Human rabies cases are decreasing over the time (1976–2015) thanks to the opening of new antirabic treatment centers in the last decade which permit the administration of more PEPs. After a century of rabies control, Morocco registered an average of 301 animal cases and 21 human cases annually for the last decade (2005–2015). Few reasons led to those limited results. The lack in law enforcement and, moreover, the fact that the law do not take into account responsible dog ownership aspect are of importance. Lack of dog population knowledge and management and intersectoral coordination deficiency are additional failure reasons. The gathered data will help to build a new strategy with a focus on a “One Health” approach. Dog population ecology parameters’ study is of primary importance. We estimated dog population to be 2.8 million dogs based on human:dog ratio. Enhancing vaccination coverage of dog population is feasible by combining parenteral vaccination and complementary oral vaccination. Updating legislation by

  7. Oral and Anal vaccination against enteric red mouth disease protection against yersiniosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Lukas; Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Kragelund Strøm, Helene

    vaccinations with AquaVacTM ERM Oral vet. (MSD animal health) or an experimental vaccine based on formalin killed Yersinia ruckeri O1, (biotype 1) bacteria. Eight groups were studied: 1) Control group (no vaccination, no infection), 2) infected control, 3) experimental vaccine, 4) experimental vaccine w...

  8. 现代狂犬病疫苗生产用细胞和毒种:现状和前景%Cells and seed viruses for production of modern rabies vaccines: current situation and prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王月; 黄思佳

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge for global rabies prevention and control is the lack of sufficient and affordable high quality vaccines.In contrast to the outdated nervous tissue-based techniques for rabies vaccines production,modem techniques of cell culture provide suitable substrates for virus propagation to produce high titer virus and modem high quality rabies vaccine on a large scale.Given the current scenario of only inactivated vaccines for humans,the vaccines prepared from highly cell-adapted and stable,attenuated rabies viruses are ideal candidates in the future.%对全球狂犬病预防控制的一个主要挑战是不能充分供应廉价优质的狂犬病疫苗.基于神经组织生产狂犬病疫苗的技术早已过时,现代细胞培养技术提供了适当的病毒培养基质,可以获得高滴度病毒和大规模生产高质量的现代狂犬病疫苗.目前人用疫苗仅使用灭活疫苗,用高度适应细胞的稳定的减毒狂犬病病毒生产的疫苗将是未来的理想疫苗.

  9. The case for reactive mass oral cholera vaccinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Reyburn

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The outbreak of cholera in Zimbabwe intensified interest in the control and prevention of cholera. While there is agreement that safe water, sanitation, and personal hygiene are ideal for the long term control of cholera, there is controversy about the role of newer approaches such as oral cholera vaccines (OCVs. In October 2009 the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts advised the World Health Organization to consider reactive vaccination campaigns in response to large cholera outbreaks. To evaluate the potential benefit of this pivotal change in WHO policy, we used existing data from cholera outbreaks to simulate the number of cholera cases preventable by reactive mass vaccination. METHODS: Datasets of cholera outbreaks from three sites with varying cholera endemicity--Zimbabwe, Kolkata (India, and Zanzibar (Tanzania--were analysed to estimate the number of cholera cases preventable under differing response times, vaccine coverage, and vaccine doses. FINDINGS: The large cholera outbreak in Zimbabwe started in mid August 2008 and by July 2009, 98,591 cholera cases had been reported with 4,288 deaths attributed to cholera. If a rapid response had taken place and half of the population had been vaccinated once the first 400 cases had occurred, as many as 34,900 (40% cholera cases and 1,695 deaths (40% could have been prevented. In the sites with endemic cholera, Kolkata and Zanzibar, a significant number of cases could have been prevented but the impact would have been less dramatic. A brisk response is required for outbreaks with the majority of cases occurring during the early weeks. Even a delayed response can save a substantial number of cases and deaths in long, drawn-out outbreaks. If circumstances prevent a rapid response there are good reasons to roll out cholera mass vaccination campaigns well into the outbreak. Once a substantial proportion of a population is vaccinated, outbreaks in subsequent years may be reduced if not

  10. The case for reactive mass oral cholera vaccinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyburn, Rita; Deen, Jacqueline L; Grais, Rebecca F; Bhattacharya, Sujit K; Sur, Dipika; Lopez, Anna L; Jiddawi, Mohamed S; Clemens, John D; von Seidlein, Lorenz

    2011-01-25

    The outbreak of cholera in Zimbabwe intensified interest in the control and prevention of cholera. While there is agreement that safe water, sanitation, and personal hygiene are ideal for the long term control of cholera, there is controversy about the role of newer approaches such as oral cholera vaccines (OCVs). In October 2009 the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts advised the World Health Organization to consider reactive vaccination campaigns in response to large cholera outbreaks. To evaluate the potential benefit of this pivotal change in WHO policy, we used existing data from cholera outbreaks to simulate the number of cholera cases preventable by reactive mass vaccination. Datasets of cholera outbreaks from three sites with varying cholera endemicity--Zimbabwe, Kolkata (India), and Zanzibar (Tanzania)--were analysed to estimate the number of cholera cases preventable under differing response times, vaccine coverage, and vaccine doses. The large cholera outbreak in Zimbabwe started in mid August 2008 and by July 2009, 98,591 cholera cases had been reported with 4,288 deaths attributed to cholera. If a rapid response had taken place and half of the population had been vaccinated once the first 400 cases had occurred, as many as 34,900 (40%) cholera cases and 1,695 deaths (40%) could have been prevented. In the sites with endemic cholera, Kolkata and Zanzibar, a significant number of cases could have been prevented but the impact would have been less dramatic. A brisk response is required for outbreaks with the majority of cases occurring during the early weeks. Even a delayed response can save a substantial number of cases and deaths in long, drawn-out outbreaks. If circumstances prevent a rapid response there are good reasons to roll out cholera mass vaccination campaigns well into the outbreak. Once a substantial proportion of a population is vaccinated, outbreaks in subsequent years may be reduced if not prevented. A single dose vaccine would be of

  11. Rabies in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Marco; Chávez, Carlo Briones

    2010-04-01

    To review and discuss the available literature for rabies control in Latin America. A literature search was conducted in PubMed through October 2008. Articles in English, Spanish and Portuguese were reviewed. Recent reports indicate that the region is close to achieve the goal of eliminating human rabies transmitted by dogs even though there are some isolated cases reported. However, insectivorous and vampire bats continue to expose humans and animals. These cases have been reported with increasing frequency. Many challenges to the successful eradication of canine and non-canine rabies have been identified: among these are issues related to vaccine supply, the increase in transmission of canine rabies in certain areas, the presence of bat rabies in geographically inaccessible areas and lack of active action at local level. New strategies for systems information, networking and education are needed. Effective decentralization, adequate reallocation of resources, constant active surveillance, active local community participation and aggressive health education, might be some of the strategies that could prove to be helpful. More investment (funding and resources) and a very strong political commitment are needed to be able to eradicate this deadly disease.

  12. Rabies encephalitis in a child: a failure of rabies post exposure prophylaxis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsa, Faten; Borgi, Aida; Jahouat, Imen; Boussetta, Khadija

    2015-01-01

    Rabies remains a serious public health problem in many developing countries. The diagnosis is easy when a non-immunised patient presents with hydrophobia and hypersalivation after a bite by a known rabid animal but more difficult when a patient presents atypical symptoms after having received rabies postexposure prophylaxis. Rabies postexposure prophylaxis failure is rare. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy who presented febrile seizure with agitation and cerebellar signs, without hydrophobia or hypersalivation, 17 days after a dog bite. Despite four doses of rabies vaccine and immunoglobulin, he died. Diagnostic confirmation of rabies encephalitis was made in post mortem on brain biopsies by fluorescent antibody technique.

  13. Rabies outbreak in Greece during 2012-2014: use of Geographical Information System for analysis, risk assessment and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, A; Valiakos, G; Papaspyropoulos, K; Dougas, G; Korou, L M; Tasioudi, K E; Fthenakis, G C; Hutchings, M R; Kaimaras, D; Tsokana, C N; Iliadou, P; Spyrou, V; Tzani, M; Birtsas, P; Kostoglou, P; Sokos, C; Doudounakis, S; Yon, L; Hannant, D; Artois, M; Tsiodras, S; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Billinis, C

    2016-10-01

    The objectives of this work were (i) geographical analysis of the 2012-2014 outbreak of rabies in Greece using GIS and (ii) comparative analysis of animal cases with data of potential human exposure to rabies together with environmental data, in order to provide information for risk assessment, effective monitoring and control. Most animal cases (40/48) involved red foxes, while domestic animals were also diagnosed with rabies. Overall, 80% of the cases were diagnosed in central northern Greece; 75% of the cases were diagnosed in low altitudes (analysis revealed that distance from farms contributed the highest percentage in defining environmental niche profiles for rabid foxes. Oral vaccination programmes were implemented in 24 administrative units of the country during 2013 and 2014, covering a total surface area of ~60 000 km2. Rabies re-occurrence in Greece emphasizes the need for ongoing surveillance in cross-border areas and in areas with intense human activity.

  14. The Formation of the Eastern Africa Rabies Network: A Sub-Regional Approach to Rabies Elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily G Pieracci

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: International rabies networks have been formed in many of the canine-rabies endemic regions around the world to create unified and directed regional approaches towards elimination. The aim of the first sub-regional Eastern Africa rabies network meeting, which included Kenya, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Rwanda, and Uganda, was to discuss how individual country strategies could be coordinated to address the unique challenges that are faced within the network. The Stepwise Approach towards Rabies Elimination and the Global Dog Rabies Elimination Pathway tool were used to stimulate discussion and planning to achieve the elimination of canine-mediated human rabies by 2030. Our analysis estimated a total dog population of 18.3 million dogs in the Eastern Africa region. The current dog vaccination coverage was estimated to be approximately 5% (915,000 dogs, with an estimated 4910 vaccinators available. Assuming that every vaccinator performs rabies vaccination, this equated to each vaccinator currently vaccinating 186 dogs per year, whilst the target would be to vaccinate 2609 dogs every year for the community to reach 70% coverage. In order to achieve the World Health Organization-recommended 70% vaccination coverage, an additional 11 million dogs need to be vaccinated each year, pointing to an average annual shortfall of $ 23 million USD in current spending to achieve elimination by 2030 across the region. Improved vaccination efficiency within the region could be achieved by improving logistics and/or incorporating multiple vaccination methods to increase vaccinator efficiency, and could serve to reduce the financial burden associated with rabies elimination. Regional approaches to rabies control are of value, as neighboring countries can share their unique challenges while, at the same time, common approaches can be developed and resource-saving strategies can be implemented.

  15. Costs analysis of a population level rabies control programme in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kakkar, Manish; Rogawski, Elizabeth Tacket

    2014-02-01

    The study aimed to determine costs to the state government of implementing different interventions for controlling rabies among the entire human and animal populations of Tamil Nadu. This built upon an earlier assessment of Tamil Nadu's efforts to control rabies. Anti-rabies vaccines were made available at all health facilities. Costs were estimated for five different combinations of animal and human interventions using an activity-based costing approach from the provider perspective. Disease and population data were sourced from the state surveillance data, human census and livestock census. Program costs were extrapolated from official documents. All capital costs were depreciated to estimate annualized costs. All costs were inflated to 2012 Rupees. Sensitivity analysis was conducted across all major cost centres to assess their relative impact on program costs. It was found that the annual costs of providing Anti-rabies vaccine alone and in combination with Immunoglobulins was $0.7 million (Rs 36 million) and $2.2 million (Rs 119 million), respectively. For animal sector interventions, the annualised costs of rolling out surgical sterilisation-immunization, injectable immunization and oral immunizations were estimated to be $ 44 million (Rs 2,350 million), $23 million (Rs 1,230 million) and $ 11 million (Rs 590 million), respectively. Dog bite incidence, health systems coverage and cost of rabies biologicals were found to be important drivers of costs for human interventions. For the animal sector interventions, the size of dog catching team, dog population and vaccine costs were found to be driving the costs. Rabies control in Tamil Nadu seems a costly proposition the way it is currently structured. Policy makers in Tamil Nadu and other similar settings should consider the long-term financial sustainability before embarking upon a state or nation-wide rabies control programme.

  16. Costs analysis of a population level rabies control programme in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shahid Abbas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine costs to the state government of implementing different interventions for controlling rabies among the entire human and animal populations of Tamil Nadu. This built upon an earlier assessment of Tamil Nadu's efforts to control rabies. Anti-rabies vaccines were made available at all health facilities. Costs were estimated for five different combinations of animal and human interventions using an activity-based costing approach from the provider perspective. Disease and population data were sourced from the state surveillance data, human census and livestock census. Program costs were extrapolated from official documents. All capital costs were depreciated to estimate annualized costs. All costs were inflated to 2012 Rupees. Sensitivity analysis was conducted across all major cost centres to assess their relative impact on program costs. It was found that the annual costs of providing Anti-rabies vaccine alone and in combination with Immunoglobulins was $0.7 million (Rs 36 million and $2.2 million (Rs 119 million, respectively. For animal sector interventions, the annualised costs of rolling out surgical sterilisation-immunization, injectable immunization and oral immunizations were estimated to be $ 44 million (Rs 2,350 million, $23 million (Rs 1,230 million and $ 11 million (Rs 590 million, respectively. Dog bite incidence, health systems coverage and cost of rabies biologicals were found to be important drivers of costs for human interventions. For the animal sector interventions, the size of dog catching team, dog population and vaccine costs were found to be driving the costs. Rabies control in Tamil Nadu seems a costly proposition the way it is currently structured. Policy makers in Tamil Nadu and other similar settings should consider the long-term financial sustainability before embarking upon a state or nation-wide rabies control programme.

  17. Rare adverse events associated with oral poliovirus vaccine in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich F.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV developed by A. Sabin has been effectively used to control poliomyelitis in Brazil, and the last case with the isolation of a wild poliovirus strain occurred in March 1989. Although the vaccine controlled the circulation of wild strains and poliomyelitis cases associated with these strains were not detected during the last eight years, rare cases classified as vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP have been detected. Molecular characterization studies of poliovirus strains isolated from VAPP cases and from healthy contacts have confirmed that the isolates are derived from the Sabin vaccine strains and also detected genomic modifications known or suspected to increase neurovirulence such as mutations and recombination. The molecular characterization of polioviruses isolated during the last eight years from paralysis cases classified as Guillain-Barré (GBS syndrome and transverse myelitits (TM, and from facial paralysis (FP cases also confirmed the vaccine origin of the strains and demonstrated mutations known to increase neurovirulence. Analysis of the epidemiologic data of these GBS, TM and FP cases demonstrated that in most of them the last OPV dose was given months or years before the onset of the disease and the isolation of the polioviruses. The temporal association between the isolation of these strains and the GBS, TM and FP suggested that the Sabin vaccine-derived poliovirus strains could also rarely trigger the diseases.

  18. Oral and anal vaccination confers full protection against enteric redmouth disease (ERM) in rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Neumann, Lukas; Otani, Maki

    2014-01-01

    The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate for decades. Recently both M-like cells and dendritic cells have been discovered in the intestine of rainbow trout. It is therefore likely that antigens reaching the intestine can be taken up and thereby induce...... immunity in orally vaccinated fish. The objective of this project was to investigate whether oral and anal vaccination of rainbow trout induces protection against an experimental waterborne infection with the pathogenic enterobacteria Yersinia ruckeri O1 biotype 1 the causative agent of enteric redmouth...... disease (ERM). Rainbow trout were orally vaccinated with AquaVac ERM Oral (MERCK Animal Health) or an experimental vaccine bacterin of Y. ruckeri O1. Both vaccines were tested with and without a booster vaccination four months post the primary vaccination. Furthermore, two groups of positive controls were...

  19. Antibody Secreting Cell Responses following Vaccination with Bivalent Oral Cholera Vaccine among Haitian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Wilfredo R; Falkard, Brie; Charles, Richelle C; Mayo-Smith, Leslie M; Teng, Jessica E; Xu, Peng; Kováč, Pavol; Ryan, Edward T; Qadri, Firdausi; Franke, Molly F; Ivers, Louise C; Harris, Jason B

    2016-06-01

    The bivalent whole-cell (BivWC) oral cholera vaccine (Shanchol) is effective in preventing cholera. However, evaluations of immune responses following vaccination with BivWC have been limited. To determine whether BivWC induces significant mucosal immune responses, we measured V. cholerae O1 antigen-specific antibody secreting cell (ASC) responses following vaccination. We enrolled 24 Haitian adults in this study, and administered doses of oral BivWC vaccine 14 days apart (day 0 and day 14). We drew blood at baseline, and 7 days following each vaccine dose (day 7 and 21). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated, and ASCs were enumerated using an ELISPOT assay. Significant increases in Ogawa (6.9 cells per million PBMCs) and Inaba (9.5 cells per million PBMCs) OSP-specific IgA ASCs were detected 7 days following the first dose (P cholerae-specific ASC responses did not appear to be associated with recent exposure to cholera. ASC responses measured against the whole lipolysaccharide (LPS) antigen and the OSP moiety of LPS were equivalent, suggesting that all or nearly all of the LPS response targets the OSP moiety. Immunization with the BivWC oral cholera vaccine induced ASC responses among a cohort of healthy adults in Haiti after a single dose. The second dose of vaccine resulted in minimal ASC responses over baseline, suggesting that the current dosing schedule may not be optimal for boosting mucosal immune responses to V. cholerae antigens for adults in a cholera-endemic area.

  20. Study on thermostabilizers for trivalent oral poliomyelitis vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. F. Leal

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Different formulations of trivalent oral poliomyelitis vaccine were tested, in order to obtain better thermostability, reduce corrosion of machinery and improve production costs. Magnesium chloride, sucrose, arginine and 199-Hank's medium were used in the formulations. The most appropriate formulation was a mixture of MgCl2 and arginine, which was highly thermostable, and had low production costs. The low corrosive formulation was rejected, due to low thermostability on storage.

  1. Oral polio vaccine influences the immune response to BCG vaccination. A natural experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartono, Erliyani; Lisse, Ida M; Terveer, Elisabeth M

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is recommended to be given at birth together with BCG vaccine. While we were conducting two trials including low-birth-weight (LBW) and normal-birth-weight (NBW) infants in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during some periods and therefore some infants did...... not receive OPV at birth, but only BCG. We investigated the effect of OPV given simultaneously with BCG at birth on the immune response to BCG vaccine. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared the in vitro and the in vivo response to PPD in the infants who received OPV and BCG with that of infants who received BCG...... with OPV. Worryingly, the results indicate that the common practice in low-income countries of administering OPV together with BCG at birth may down-regulate the response to BCG vaccine....

  2. Does Oral Vaccination Protect Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Against Enteric Red Mouth Disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Lukas; Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Kragelund Strøm, Helene

    with AquaVacTM ERM Oral vet. (MSD animal health) or an experimental vaccine based on killed Yersinia ruckeri O1, (biotype 1) bacteria. Seven groups were studied: 1) Control group (no vaccination, no infection), 2) infected control, 3) experimental vaccine, 4) experimental vaccine w/ booster (4 months post...

  3. Respiratory and oral vaccination improves protection conferred by the live vaccine strain against pneumonic tularemia in the rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Elizabeth; Smith, Le'Kneitah P; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Barry, Eileen M; Reed, Douglas S

    2016-10-01

    Tularemia is a severe, zoonotic disease caused by a gram-negative bacterium, Francisella tularensis We have previously shown that rabbits are a good model of human pneumonic tularemia when exposed to aerosols containing a virulent, type A strain, SCHU S4. We further demonstrated that the live vaccine strain (LVS), an attenuated type B strain, extended time to death when given by scarification. Oral or aerosol vaccination has been previously shown in humans to offer superior protection to parenteral vaccination against respiratory tularemia challenge. Both oral and aerosol vaccination with LVS were well tolerated in the rabbit with only minimal fever and no weight loss after inoculation. Plasma antibody titers against F. tularensis were higher in rabbits that were vaccinated by either oral or aerosol routes compared to scarification. Thirty days after vaccination, all rabbits were challenged with aerosolized SCHU S4. LVS given by scarification extended time to death compared to mock-vaccinated controls. One orally vaccinated rabbit did survive aerosol challenge, however, only aerosol vaccination extended time to death significantly compared to scarification. These results further demonstrate the utility of the rabbit model of pneumonic tularemia in replicating what has been reported in humans and macaques as well as demonstrating the utility of vaccination by oral and respiratory routes against an aerosol tularemia challenge.

  4. The analysis of VH and VL genes repertoires of Fab library built from peripheral B cells of human rabies virus vaccinated donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houimel, Mehdi

    2014-08-01

    A human combinatorial Fab antibody library was generated from immune repertoire based on peripheral B cells of ten rabies virus vaccinated donors. The analysis of random Fab fragments from the unselected library presented some bias of V gene usage towards IGHV-genes and IGLV-gen families. The screening of the Fab library on rabies virus allowed specific human Fab antibody fragments characterized for their gene encoding sequences, binding and specificities to RV. Genetic analysis of selected Fabs indicated that the IGHV and IGLV differ from the germ-line sequence. At the level of nucleotide sequences, the IGHV and IGLV domains were found to share 74-92% and 90-96% homology with sequences encoded by the corresponding human germ-line genes respectively. IGHV domains are characterized most frequently by IGHV3 genes, and large proportions of the anti-RV heavy chain IGHV domains are obtained following a VDJ recombination process that uses IGHD3, IGHD2, IGHD1 and IGHD6 genes. IGHJ3 and IGHJ4 genes are predominantly used in RV-Fab. The IGLV domains are dominated by IGKV1, IGLV1 and IGLV3 genes. Numerous somatic hypermutations in the RV-specific IGHV are detected, but only limited amino acid replacement in most of the RV-specific IGLV particularly in those encoded by J proximal IGLV or IGKV genes are found. Furthermore, IGHV3-IGKV1, IGHV3-IGVL1, and IGHV3-IGLV3 germ-line family pairings are preferentially enriched after the screening on rabies virus.

  5. Methods to assess the impact of mass oral cholera vaccination campaigns under real field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Deen

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest to use oral cholera vaccination as an additional strategy to water and sanitation interventions against endemic and epidemic cholera. There are two internationally-available and WHO-prequalified oral cholera vaccines: an inactivated vaccine containing killed whole-cells of V. cholerae O1 with recombinant cholera toxin B-subunit (WC/rBS and a bivalent inactivated vaccine containing killed whole cells of V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 (BivWC. The efficacy, effectiveness, direct and indirect (herd protection conferred by WC/rBS and BivWC are well established. Yet governments may need local evidence of vaccine impact to justify and scale-up mass oral cholera vaccination campaigns. We discuss various approaches to assess oral cholera vaccine protection, which may be useful to policymakers and public health workers considering deployment and evaluation of the vaccine.

  6. Oral vaccination with heat inactivated Mycobacterium bovis activates the complement system to protect against tuberculosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; de la Fuente, José; Garrido, Joseba M; Aranaz, Alicia; Sevilla, Iker; Villar, Margarita; Boadella, Mariana; Galindo, Ruth C; Pérez de la Lastra, José M; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Alberdi, Pilar; Santos, Gracia; Ballesteros, Cristina; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Minguijón, Esmeralda; Romero, Beatriz; de Juan, Lucía; Domínguez, Lucas; Juste, Ramón; Gortazar, Christian

    2014-01-01

    ...). Oral vaccination with the IV resulted in significantly lower culture and lesion scores, particularly in the thorax, suggesting that the IV might provide a novel vaccine for TB control with special...

  7. Evaluation of mucoadhesive carrier adjuvant: toward an oral anthrax vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangal, Sharad; Pawar, Dilip; Agrawal, Udita; Jain, Arvind K; Vyas, Suresh P

    2014-02-01

    The aim of present study was to evaluate the potential of mucoadhesive alginate-coated chitosan microparticles (A-CHMp) for oral vaccine against anthrax. The zeta potential of A-CHMp was -29.7 mV, and alginate coating could prevent the burst release of antigen in simulated gastric fluid. The results indicated that A-CHMp was mucoadhesive in nature and transported it to the peyer's patch upon oral delivery. The immunization studies indicated that A-CHMp resulted in the induction of potent systemic and mucosal immune responses, whereas alum-adjuvanted rPA could induce only systemic immune response. Thus, A-CHMp represents a promising acid carrier adjuvant for oral immunization against anthrax.

  8. Seed-based oral vaccines as allergen-specific immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaiwa, Fumio

    2011-03-01

    Plant-based vaccines have advantages over conventional vaccines in terms of scalability, lack of requirement for cold chain logistics, stability, safety, cost-effectiveness and needle-free administration. In particular, when antigen is expressed in seeds, high production is possible and immunogenicity is not lost even if stocked at ambient temperature for several years. Induction of immune tolerance (desensitization) to allergen is a principle strategy for controlling allergic diseases, and is generally carried out by subcutaneous injection. Seed-based oral administration offers a straightforward and inexpensive alternative approach to deliver vaccines effectively to the GALT without loss of activity. Consumption of transgenic seeds containing modified hypo-allergenic tolerogen or T-cell epitope peptides derived from allergens has no or very few severe side effects and can induce immune tolerance leading to reduction of allergen-specific IgE production, T-cell proliferation and release of histamine. Suppression of allergen-specific clinical symptoms results. Thus, seed-based allergy vaccines offer an innovative and convenient allergen-specific immunotherapeutic approach as an alternative to conventional allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  9. Current status and control of rabies in Perú

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Rabies is an endemic disease of Peru, that appears in two cycles, one urban related with transmission by dog, and another wild caused mainly by vampires bats bite. Most of human cases of the last decades they have been by urban rabies, nevertheless the used measures of control (canine vaccine campaigns, vaccine production, identification of biting dog, opportune attention of the victim and surveillance and notification system) they have managed to reduce the incidence of canine rabies and ...

  10. Oral vaccination through Peyer's Patches: update on particle uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Edna; Borges, Olga

    2017-08-25

    Oral immunization has numerous advantages over parenteral administrations. In addition to ease administration, more effective pathogen elimination on the mucosa before spreading into the blood circulation, constitutes the main benefit. This is particularly true for pathogens that enter the body through the oral route. On the other hand, it is the most challenging administration route for peptides, proteins and recombinant antigens due to gastrointestinal (GI) tract numerous barriers including the harsh environment and the inherent weak immunogenicity. In addition to the adjuvant properties, polymeric particles arise as the most promising strategy to overcome poor antigen bioavailability/stability upon oral administration. The Peyer's patches have been considered an important structure of the gut associate lymphoid tissue (GALT) for the initiation of the immune response towards particulate oral antigens. The transport mechanism of both, nano and microparticles across intestinal mucosa, particularly throughout Peyer's patches, is discussed in this review. We provide a short and concise update (last decade) focused on the importance of particle physicochemical properties, M-cell ligands and size-dependent transport and intracellular fate concerning Peyer's patches targeted oral vaccination. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Oral and anal vaccination confers full protection against enteric redmouth disease (ERM in rainbow trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Rømer Villumsen

    Full Text Available The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate for decades. Recently both M-like cells and dendritic cells have been discovered in the intestine of rainbow trout. It is therefore likely that antigens reaching the intestine can be taken up and thereby induce immunity in orally vaccinated fish. The objective of this project was to investigate whether oral and anal vaccination of rainbow trout induces protection against an experimental waterborne infection with the pathogenic enterobacteria Yersinia ruckeri O1 biotype 1 the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease (ERM. Rainbow trout were orally vaccinated with AquaVac ERM Oral (MERCK Animal Health or an experimental vaccine bacterin of Y. ruckeri O1. Both vaccines were tested with and without a booster vaccination four months post the primary vaccination. Furthermore, two groups of positive controls were included, one group receiving the experimental oral vaccine in a 50 times higher dose, and the other group receiving a single dose administered anally in order to bypass the stomach. Each group was bath challenged with 6.3 × 10(8 CFU/ml Y. ruckeri, six months post the primary vaccination. The challenge induced significant mortality in all the infected groups except for the groups vaccinated anally with a single dose or orally with the high dose of bacterin. Both of these groups had 100% survival. These results show that a low dose of Y. ruckeri bacterin induces full protection when the bacterin is administered anally. Oral vaccination also induces full protection, however, at a dose 50 times higher than if the fish were to be vaccinated anally. This indicates that much of the orally fed antigen is digested in the stomach before it reaches the second segment of the intestine where it can be taken up as immunogenic antigens and presented to lymphocytes.

  12. Oral and anal vaccination confers full protection against enteric redmouth disease (ERM) in rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Neumann, Lukas; Ohtani, Maki; Strøm, Helene Kragelund; Raida, Martin Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate for decades. Recently both M-like cells and dendritic cells have been discovered in the intestine of rainbow trout. It is therefore likely that antigens reaching the intestine can be taken up and thereby induce immunity in orally vaccinated fish. The objective of this project was to investigate whether oral and anal vaccination of rainbow trout induces protection against an experimental waterborne infection with the pathogenic enterobacteria Yersinia ruckeri O1 biotype 1 the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease (ERM). Rainbow trout were orally vaccinated with AquaVac ERM Oral (MERCK Animal Health) or an experimental vaccine bacterin of Y. ruckeri O1. Both vaccines were tested with and without a booster vaccination four months post the primary vaccination. Furthermore, two groups of positive controls were included, one group receiving the experimental oral vaccine in a 50 times higher dose, and the other group receiving a single dose administered anally in order to bypass the stomach. Each group was bath challenged with 6.3 × 10(8) CFU/ml Y. ruckeri, six months post the primary vaccination. The challenge induced significant mortality in all the infected groups except for the groups vaccinated anally with a single dose or orally with the high dose of bacterin. Both of these groups had 100% survival. These results show that a low dose of Y. ruckeri bacterin induces full protection when the bacterin is administered anally. Oral vaccination also induces full protection, however, at a dose 50 times higher than if the fish were to be vaccinated anally. This indicates that much of the orally fed antigen is digested in the stomach before it reaches the second segment of the intestine where it can be taken up as immunogenic antigens and presented to lymphocytes.

  13. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Rabies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if I receive treatment outside the United States? Veterinarians What to do with an animal that has bitten a person Caring for animals with potential exposure Clinical signs of rabies in animals Vaccines Rabies Vaccines Licensed and Marketed in the U.S., ...

  14. Evaluation of Novel Oral Vaccine Candidates and Validation of a Caprine Model of Johne's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray E. Hines

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Johne’s disease (JD caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP is a major threat to the dairy industry and possibly some cases of Crohn’s disease in humans. A MAP vaccine that reduced of clinical disease and/or reduced fecal shedding would aid in the control of JD. The objectives of this study were 1 to evaluate the efficacy of 5 attenuated strains of MAP as vaccine candidates compared to a commercial control vaccine using the protocol proposed by the Johne’s Disease Integrated Program (JDIP Animal Model Standardization Committee (AMSC, and 2 to validate the AMSC Johne’s disease goat challenge model. Eighty goat kids were vaccinated orally twice at 8 and 10 weeks of age with an experimental vaccine or once subcutaneously at 8 weeks with Silirum® (Zoetis, or a sham control oral vaccine at 8 and 10 weeks. Kids were challenged orally with a total of approximately 1.44 X 10^9 CFU divided in 2 consecutive daily doses using MAP ATCC-700535 (K10-like bovine isolate. All kids were necropsied at 13 months post challenge. Results indicated that the AMSC goat challenge model is a highly efficient and valid model for JD challenge studies. None of the experimental or control vaccines evaluated prevented MAP infection or eliminated fecal shedding, although the 329 vaccine lowered the incidence of infection, fecal shedding, tissue colonization and reduced lesion scores, but less than the control vaccine. Based on our results the relative performance ranking of the experimental live-attenuated vaccines evaluated, the 329 vaccine was the best performer, followed by the 318 vaccine, then 316 vaccine, 315 vaccine and finally the 319 vaccine was the worst performer. The subcutaneously injected control vaccine outperformed the orally-delivered mutant vaccine candidates. Two vaccines (329 and 318 do reduce presence of JD gross and microscopic lesions, slow progression of disease, and one vaccine (329 reduced fecal shedding and tissue

  15. Evaluation of novel oral vaccine candidates and validation of a caprine model of Johne's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Murray E; Turnquist, Sue E; Ilha, Marcia R S; Rajeev, Sreekumari; Jones, Arthur L; Whittington, Lisa; Bannantine, John P; Barletta, Raúl G; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Katani, Robab; Talaat, Adel M; Li, Lingling; Kapur, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Johne's disease (JD) caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a major threat to the dairy industry and possibly some cases of Crohn's disease in humans. A MAP vaccine that reduced of clinical disease and/or reduced fecal shedding would aid in the control of JD. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the efficacy of 5 attenuated strains of MAP as vaccine candidates compared to a commercial control vaccine using the protocol proposed by the Johne's Disease Integrated Program (JDIP) Animal Model Standardization Committee (AMSC), and (2) to validate the AMSC Johne's disease goat challenge model. Eighty goat kids were vaccinated orally twice at 8 and 10 weeks of age with an experimental vaccine or once subcutaneously at 8 weeks with Silirum® (Zoetis), or a sham control oral vaccine at 8 and 10 weeks. Kids were challenged orally with a total of approximately 1.44 × 10(9) CFU divided in two consecutive daily doses using MAP ATCC-700535 (K10-like bovine isolate). All kids were necropsied at 13 months post-challenge. Results indicated that the AMSC goat challenge model is a highly efficient and valid model for JD challenge studies. None of the experimental or control vaccines evaluated prevented MAP infection or eliminated fecal shedding, although the 329 vaccine lowered the incidence of infection, fecal shedding, tissue colonization and reduced lesion scores, but less than the control vaccine. Based on our results the relative performance ranking of the experimental live-attenuated vaccines evaluated, the 329 vaccine was the best performer, followed by the 318 vaccine, then 316 vaccine, 315 vaccine and finally the 319 vaccine was the worst performer. The subcutaneously injected control vaccine outperformed the orally-delivered mutant vaccine candidates. Two vaccines (329 and 318) do reduce presence of JD gross and microscopic lesions, slow progression of disease, and one vaccine (329) reduced fecal shedding and tissue colonization.

  16. The changing landscape of rabies epidemiology and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cleaveland

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 20 years, major progress has been made in our understanding of critical aspects of rabies epidemiology and control. This paper presents results of recent research, highlighting methodological advances that have been applied to burden of disease studies, rabies epidemiological modelling and rabies surveillance. These results contribute new insights and understanding with regard to the epidemiology of rabies and help to counteract misperceptions that currently hamper rabies control efforts in Africa. The conclusion of these analyses is that the elimination of canine rabies in Africa is feasible, even in wildlife-rich areas, through mass vaccination of domestic dogs and without the need for indiscriminate culling to reduce dog population density. Furthermore, the research provides valuable practical insights that support the operational planning and design of dog vaccination campaigns and rabies surveillance measures.

  17. Efficacy of a square presentation of V-RG vaccine baits in red fox, domestic dog and raccoon dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliquet, F; Guiot, A L; Schumacher, C; Maki, J; Cael, N; Barrat, J

    2008-01-01

    Oral vaccination programmes conducted in rabies infected countries from Eastern Europe and Eurasia should not be restricted to foxes but should target other major rabies vectors such as dogs and raccoon dogs as well. The objective of this experimental trial was to assess the protection induced by the vaccine by challenging these different species, which had been previously vaccinated intramuscularly with the square V-RG baits (produced in the US). Different parameters were evaluated such as attractiveness of the baits and induction of neutralising antibodies as an indicator for immunogenicity and protection after rabies challenge. The acceptability of the square bait was satisfactory in dogs, foxes and raccoon dogs, confirming previous laboratory and field studies conducted with the rectangular baits. Only one vaccinated dog out of nine seroconverted after vaccination and among them one dog died of rabies. Eight of ten vaccinated foxes seroconverted after vaccination and survived the rabies challenge. All vaccinated raccoon dogs seroconverted after challenge and all survived the challenge. These trials demonstrated that the square presentation of the V-RG vaccine was attractive, immunogenic and efficacious.

  18. Vaccination of cattle with Mycobacterium bovis BCG by a combination of systemic and oral routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddle, Bryce M; Denis, Michel; Aldwell, Frank E; Martin Vordermeier, H; Glyn Hewinson, R; Neil Wedlock, D

    2008-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine delivered to calves by the subcutaneous (s.c.) or by the oral route in a formulated lipid matrix has been previously shown to induce similar levels of protection against bovine tuberculosis. The current study was aimed at determining whether a combination of delivering BCG by s.c. and oral routes would enhance levels of protection, compared to only one route of vaccination. Forty calves were randomly divided into four groups (10/group). Calves were vaccinated with 10(6)colony forming units (CFU) of BCG Pasteur by the s.c. route or orally with 10(9)CFU BCG incorporated into a lipid formulation. One group received a combination of BCG administered by both the s.c. and oral routes and a non-vaccinated group served as a control. The two groups of calves that received s.c. BCG produced strong IFN-gamma responses in whole blood cultures stimulated with bovine purified protein derivative (PPD) 3 weeks after vaccination. Cattle vaccinated just with oral BCG in a lipid matrix produced a strong IFN-gamma response 8 weeks after vaccination, and peaking at 11 weeks after vaccination. All calves were challenged by the intratracheal route with M. bovis 15 weeks after vaccination and were euthanized and necropsied to assess protection at 17 weeks following challenge. BCG given s.c. or orally induced significant and comparable levels of protection against the virulent challenge. Vaccination of cattle by a combination of s.c./oral routes did not enhance protection beyond that achieved by s.c. or oral vaccination alone. We conclude that vaccination of cattle with BCG by a combination of routes has no beneficial additive effects, compared to a single s.c. administration of BCG or BCG given orally in a lipid formulation.

  19. 冻干无佐剂Veto细胞狂犬病疫苗免疫应答动态观察%A dynamic observation on the immune response to the freeze-dried without adjuvant Veto cell rabies vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨书宏; 陈胤忠; 陈万庚; 姜仁杰; 沈进进; 吴巨飞; 何飞; 王立成

    2009-01-01

    目的 评价国产冻干无佐剂Vero细胞狂犬病疫苗的免疫原性.方法 选择既往无明确狂犬病疫苗接种史和犬伤史、符合研究方案制定的入选标准和排除标准为研究对象,对暴露于狂犬病的患者采用常规5针注射.观察对象于首针接种前、首针接种后7、14、28、45 d,全程后6个月采集血样检测抗狂犬病中和抗体.结果 符合入选标准和排除标准的观察对象90名常规接种5针冻干无佐剂Vero细胞狂犬病疫苗.观察对象接种前狂犬病抗体均为阴性,接种首针后7 d狂犬病抗体阳转率为12.22%,接种首针后14 d阳转率达到100%,接种首针后28、45 d和全程后6个月的阳性率均为100%.接种首针后7 d抗狂犬病病毒综合抗体的几何抗体平均滴度(GMT)仅为0.27 IU/ml,接种首针后14 d狂犬病抗体的GlVlT达到2.52 IU/ml,较首针接种后7 d增长9.33倍.接种首针后28、45 d狂犬病抗体的GMT分别达到4.43、7.08 IU/ml,较首针后14 d分别增长1.76倍、2.81倍.全程接种后6个月狂犬病抗体的GMT仍达到8.41 IU/ml.结论 国产冻干无佐剂Vero细胞狂犬病疫苗具有良好的免疫原性,6个月内再被暴露于狂犬病动物者可以不需要接种狂犬病疫苗.%Objective The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the immunogenicity of the freeze-dried without adjuvant Vero cell rabies vaccine made in China. Methods A conventional vaccination procedure that included 5 injections of vaccine was applied to 90 patients who had exposed to rabies and were without history of rabies vaccination and dog bite injury, selected according to the requirements for recruitment and exclusion in the project. Blood samples were acquired before the first vaccination, 7, 14, 28 and45 days after the first vaccination and 180 days after the whole procedure of vaccination, respectively, for determination of anti-rabies neutralizing antibody. Results No anti-rabies neutralizing antibody was detected before the

  20. Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control, 2001. National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-25

    The purpose of this compendium is to provide rabies information to veterinarians, public health officials, and others concerned with rabies prevention and control. These recommendations serve as the basis for animal rabies-control programs throughout the United States and facilitate standardization of procedures among jurisdictions, thereby contributing to an effective national rabies-control program. This document is reviewed annually and revised as necessary. Vaccination procedure recommendations are contained in Part I; all animal rabies vaccines licensed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and marketed in the United States are listed in Part II; Part III details the principles of rabies control.

  1. Rabies antibody levels in pregnant women and their newborns after rabies post-exposure prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fayaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rabies is a fatal infectious disease and rabies post-exposure prophylaxis is the method of choice for prevention of human rabies.Case series: We report rabies antibody levels in cord blood and also in serum of pregnant women who were bitten by suspected animals to rabies and were immunized by purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV and Human Rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG serum. During the years of 2007-2010, six pregnant women by the age range of 22-35 years were admitted in treatment and prevention of rabies center in Pasture institute of Iran, in Tehran. Among them two cases were at first trimester, one at second trimester and three at third trimester of conception. The interval between biting with delivery was 5-265 days (mean 121 days.Conclusion: Results of immunoglobulin illustrate that levels of rabies antibody in maternal sera with the fetus are not equal and uniform but it is proved that baby will find efficient immunity as well with minimum protective level of 0.5 IU/ml in all cases except a newborn whom had been born just 5 days after the mother’s immunization and in a shorter time than the appropriate immunization of the mother who had received her second vaccination courses.

  2. 护理干预对患者全程接种狂犬病疫苗依从性的影响%Influence of nursing intervention on the obedience of rabies patients in completeing the entire process of rabies vaccination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡丽珍; 吴丽兰; 区慧霞; 张少雯

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of systematized nursing intervention on increasing the obedience of rabies patients throughout the comprehensive vaccination.Methods 1392 cases of rabies patients who were infected by dogs or other animals treated in dog injury outpatient at our center from July 2010 to June 2011,were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group,each with 696 cases.The intervention nursing measures were implemented to the experimental group,which included vaccination record book,intensive psychological counseling and health education,enquiry hotline service and random telephone interviews etc.The conventional rabies vaccination notification advice and verbal explanation on health education were applied to the control group without random telephone interviews.Results The obedience of the experimental group during the rabies vaccination was remarkably enhanced compared to that of the control group (P<0.01).Conclusion The implement of systematized hohstic nursing intervention on the patients is of positive significance to strengthen the obedience of patients to complete the entire process of rabies vaccination.%目的 探讨系统化整体护理干预对提高患者狂犬病疫苗全程接种依从性的影响.方法 将2010年7月至2011年6月在我中心犬伤门诊就诊的1392例被犬等动物致伤患者随机分为干预组和对照组各696例.干预组实施使用预防接种记录本、加强心理护理和健康教育、提供电话咨询和进行电话随访等护理干预措施;对照组使用以往应用的狂犬病疫苗注射通知单,进行口头告知健康教育,未接受电话随访.结果 干预组与对照组比较,患者狂犬病疫苗全程接种依从性显著增强,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 对患者实施系统化整体护理干预,对于提高患者全程接种狂犬病疫苗依从性具有积极意义.

  3. Introduction of sequential inactivated polio vaccine-oral polio vaccine schedule for routine infant immunization in Brazil's National Immunization Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Carla Magda Allan S; de Fátima Pereira, Sirlene; Cunha Marreiros, Ana Carolina; Menezes, Nair; Flannery, Brendan

    2014-11-01

    In August 2012, the Brazilian Ministry of Health introduced inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) as part of sequential polio vaccination schedule for all infants beginning their primary vaccination series. The revised childhood immunization schedule included 2 doses of IPV at 2 and 4 months of age followed by 2 doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV) at 6 and 15 months of age. One annual national polio immunization day was maintained to provide OPV to all children aged 6 to 59 months. The decision to introduce IPV was based on preventing rare cases of vaccine-associated paralytic polio, financially sustaining IPV introduction, ensuring equitable access to IPV, and preparing for future OPV cessation following global eradication. Introducing IPV during a national multivaccination campaign led to rapid uptake, despite challenges with local vaccine supply due to high wastage rates. Continuous monitoring is required to achieve high coverage with the sequential polio vaccine schedule.

  4. Survey of immune effect of rabies vaccine and influencial factors.%狂犬疫苗接种后抗体水平及免疫效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建沂

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the immune effect of rabies vaccine and the factors related with the vaccination. Methods The 2 413 cases treated with rabies vaccine after bitten either by dogs and cats were detected by ELJSA for antibody against rabies virus 14 days after vaccination. Results The antibosy positive rate after vaccination was 97.1% and the positive rate was the lowesr in the age group of over 70 years (94.1%). The antibody positive rates in those with full course and those without full course were 95.8% and 89.2%. The antibody psositive rate in those inoculated rabies vaccine and immunoglobulin was 100%. The positive rates of domestic vaccine,imported vaccine and mixed vaccines were 98.8%, 95.4% and 99.0%. Conclusion The rabies vaccine can provided protection to those bitten by dogs and cats and inoculation with rabies vaccine in combination with immunoglobulin can provided optimual protection.%目的 了解狂犬疫苗的免疫效果、抗体产生的情况和可能影响的因素.方法 采用ELISA法对2 413例被犬、猫致伤者注射狂犬疫苗后14d的血清标本进行抗体检测.结果 接种疫苗后抗体阳性率为97.1%,年龄在70岁~组的抗体阳性率最低,为94.1%;全程注射狂犬疫苗者抗体阳性率为95.8%,未全程注射者阳性率为89.2%,同时注射狂犬免疫球蛋白者抗体阳性率为100.0%,各组间差异有统计学意义(x2.=45.49,P<0.05).女性阳性率高于男性,差异有统计学意义(x2=13.58,P<0.05);接种进口疫苗者l 242例,阳性率95.4%,国产疫苗者998例,阳性率98.8%,进口疫苗和国产疫苗混合173例,阳性率99.0%,差异有统计学意义(x2=24.31,P<0.05).结论 对被犬、猫致伤者及时接种狂犬疫苗可获得有效地保护.严重暴露者狂犬免疫球蛋白和疫苗联合免疫可获得最佳的免疫效果.

  5. Susceptibility and lack of evidence for a viremic state of rabies in the night owl monkey, Aotus nancymaae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reaves Erik J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabies causes an acute fatal encephalomyelitis in most mammals following infection with rhabdovirus of the genus Lyssavirus. Little is known about rabies virus infection in species of New World non-human Primates (NHP. To investigate the suitability of the owl monkey Aotus nancymaae asissue sections examined were unremarkable for inflammation or other histologic signs of rabies a viable animal model for rabies virus candidate vaccine testing, we used clinical presentation, serology, viral isolation, and PCR to evaluate the incubation period, immunity, and pathogenesis of infected animals. We tested the hypothesis that no viremic state exists for rabies virus. Methods Eight monkeys divided into two equal groups were inoculated intramuscularly either in the neck or footpad with 105 pfu of rabies virus (Pasteur/V-13R and observed for >130 days. Oral and blood samples were collected and analyzed. Results Two monkeys inoculated in the neck displayed classic paralytic rabies. The mean incubation period was 11.5 days. The average maximum IgG response (antibody titer >0.200 O.D. was achieved at day 10.0 and 62.3 in the clinical rabies and non-clinical rabies cases, respectively (p = 0.0429. No difference in IgM or IgG time to seroconversion or average maximum IgM level was observed between neck versus footpad inoculation groups. No viremia or viral shedding was detected by PCR or viral isolation during the observation period, including within the two symptomatic animals three days after disease onset. Tissue sections examined were unremarkable for inflammation or other histologic signs of rabies within the asymptomatic animal. Similarly none of the brain sections exhibited immunoreactivity for rabies virus antibody. Discussion This study demonstrates there is no difference in time to immune response between inoculation sites and distance to the brain; however, immune response tends to be more rapid in cases of clinically

  6. [10 years' of production and use of human rabies immunoglobulin in Yugoslavia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romić, M; Tomović, O; Medić, P; Pelević, S; Sindić, M; Popović, M; Gligorović, V; Bogdanović, G; Mitrović, M; Petrović, M; Stankov, S; Lazarević-Ivanc, L; Lalosević, V; Lalosević, D

    2001-01-01

    Application of the rabies immunoglobuline is a compulsory part of the prophylaxis of rabies in all severe, transdermal lesions caused by rabies infected animals. Sylvatic rabies has spread in the past few years throughout the whole Yugoslavia, and human cases of rabies have also been reported in other East European countries. In order to achieve the highest level of rabies prophylaxis, apart from postinfective rabies vaccination, it is necessary to provide passive immunization using specific antibodies against rabies. After successful immunization of the young, healthy volunteers in 1990, National Blood Transfusion Institute, in cooperation with the Pasteur Institute from Novi Sad, prepared the first quantities of immunized plasma by plasmapheresis procedure and human rabies immunoglobuline. Without national production, sufficient quantities of human rabies immunoglobuline could not be provided, since the price on the world market is rather high (over $1000 per patient).

  7. An Estimation of Private Household Costs to Receive Free Oral Cholera Vaccine in Odisha, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittal Mogasale

    Full Text Available Service provider costs for vaccine delivery have been well documented; however, vaccine recipients' costs have drawn less attention. This research explores the private household out-of-pocket and opportunity costs incurred to receive free oral cholera vaccine during a mass vaccination campaign in rural Odisha, India.Following a government-driven oral cholera mass vaccination campaign targeting population over one year of age, a questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was conducted to estimate private household costs among vaccine recipients. The questionnaire captured travel costs as well as time and wage loss for self and accompanying persons. The productivity loss was estimated using three methods: self-reported, government defined minimum daily wages and gross domestic product per capita in Odisha.On average, families were located 282.7 (SD = 254.5 meters from the nearest vaccination booths. Most family members either walked or bicycled to the vaccination sites and spent on average 26.5 minutes on travel and 15.7 minutes on waiting. Depending upon the methodology, the estimated productivity loss due to potential foregone income ranged from $0.15 to $0.29 per dose of cholera vaccine received. The private household cost of receiving oral cholera vaccine constituted 24.6% to 38.0% of overall vaccine delivery costs.The private household costs resulting from productivity loss for receiving a free oral cholera vaccine is a substantial proportion of overall vaccine delivery cost and may influence vaccine uptake. Policy makers and program managers need to recognize the importance of private costs and consider how to balance programmatic delivery costs with private household costs to receive vaccines.

  8. An Estimation of Private Household Costs to Receive Free Oral Cholera Vaccine in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogasale, Vittal; Kar, Shantanu K; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Mogasale, Vijayalaxmi V; Kerketta, Anna S; Patnaik, Bikash; Rath, Shyam Bandhu; Puri, Mahesh K; You, Young Ae; Khuntia, Hemant K; Maskery, Brian; Wierzba, Thomas F; Sah, Binod

    2015-01-01

    Service provider costs for vaccine delivery have been well documented; however, vaccine recipients' costs have drawn less attention. This research explores the private household out-of-pocket and opportunity costs incurred to receive free oral cholera vaccine during a mass vaccination campaign in rural Odisha, India. Following a government-driven oral cholera mass vaccination campaign targeting population over one year of age, a questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was conducted to estimate private household costs among vaccine recipients. The questionnaire captured travel costs as well as time and wage loss for self and accompanying persons. The productivity loss was estimated using three methods: self-reported, government defined minimum daily wages and gross domestic product per capita in Odisha. On average, families were located 282.7 (SD = 254.5) meters from the nearest vaccination booths. Most family members either walked or bicycled to the vaccination sites and spent on average 26.5 minutes on travel and 15.7 minutes on waiting. Depending upon the methodology, the estimated productivity loss due to potential foregone income ranged from $0.15 to $0.29 per dose of cholera vaccine received. The private household cost of receiving oral cholera vaccine constituted 24.6% to 38.0% of overall vaccine delivery costs. The private household costs resulting from productivity loss for receiving a free oral cholera vaccine is a substantial proportion of overall vaccine delivery cost and may influence vaccine uptake. Policy makers and program managers need to recognize the importance of private costs and consider how to balance programmatic delivery costs with private household costs to receive vaccines.

  9. Rabies in the Baltic States: Decoding a Process of Control and Elimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Robardet

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a fatal zoonosis that still causes nearly 70, 000 human deaths every year. In Europe, the oral rabies vaccination (ORV of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes was developed in the late 1970s and has demonstrated its effectiveness in the eradication of the disease in Western and some Central European countries. Following the accession of the three Baltic countries--Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania--to the European Union in 2004, subsequent financial support has allowed the implementation of regular ORV campaigns since 2005-2006. This paper reviews ten years of surveillance efforts and ORV campaigns in these countries resulting in the near eradication of the disease. The various factors that may have influenced the results of vaccination monitoring were assessed using generalized linear models (GLMs on bait uptake and on herd immunity. As shown in previous studies, juveniles had lower bait uptake level than adults. For the first time, raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides were shown to have significantly lower bait uptake proportion compared with red foxes. This result suggests potentially altered ORV effectiveness in this invasive species compared to the red foxes. An extensive phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the North-East European (NEE rabies phylogroup is endemic in all three Baltic countries. Although successive oral vaccination campaigns have substantially reduced the number of detected rabies cases, sporadic detection of the C lineage (European part of Russian phylogroup underlines the risk of reintroduction via westward spread from bordering countries. Vaccine induced cases were also reported for the first time in non-target species (Martes martes and Meles meles.

  10. Oral vaccination of fish- antigen preparations, uptake and immune induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eMutoloki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The oral route offers the most attractive approach of immunization of fish for a number of reasons: the ease of administration of antigens, it is less stressful than parenteral delivery and in principle, it is applicable to small and large sized fish; it also provides a procedure for oral boosting during grow-out periods in cages or ponds. There are however not many commercial vaccines available at the moment due to lack of efficacy and challenges associated with production of large quantities of antigens. These are required to stimulate an effective immune response locally and systemically, and need to be protected against degradation before they reach the sites where immune induction occurs. The hostile stomach environment is believed to be particularly important with regard to degradation of antigens in certain species. There is also a poor understanding about the requirements for proper immune induction following oral administration on one side, and the potential for induction of tolerance on the other. To what extent primary immunization via the oral route will elicit both local and systemic responses is not understood in detail. Furthermore, to what extent parenteral delivery will protect mucosal/gut surfaces and vice-versa is also not fully understood. We review the work that has been done on the subject and discuss it in light of recent advances that include mass production of antigens including the use of plant systems. Different encapsulation techniques that have been developed in the quest to protect antigens against digestive degradation, as well as to target them for appropriate immune induction are also highlighted.

  11. Oral Polio Vaccination and Hospital Admissions With Non-Polio Infections in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Signe; Stensballe, Lone G; Krause, Tyra Grove;

    2015-01-01

    Background.  Live vaccines may have nonspecific beneficial effects on morbidity and mortality. This study examines whether children who had the live-attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) as the most recent vaccine had a different rate of admissions for infectious diseases than children with inactiv......Background.  Live vaccines may have nonspecific beneficial effects on morbidity and mortality. This study examines whether children who had the live-attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) as the most recent vaccine had a different rate of admissions for infectious diseases than children...... with inactivated diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-polio-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTaP-IPV-Hib) or live measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) as their most recent vaccine. Methods.  A nationwide, register-based, retrospective cohort study of 137 403 Danish children born 1997-1999, who had received 3 doses...... of DTaP-IPV-Hib, were observed from 24 months (first OPV dose) to 36 months of age. Results.  Oral polio vaccine was associated with a lower rate of admissions with any type of non-polio infection compared with DTaP-IPV-Hib as most recent vaccine (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.85; 95% confidence...

  12. Use of Rhodamine B as a biomarker for oral plague vaccination of prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2011-01-01

    Oral vaccination against Yersinia pestis could provide a feasible approach for controlling plague in prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) for conservation and public health purposes. Biomarkers are useful in wildlife vaccination programs to demonstrate exposure to vaccine baits. Rhodamine B (RB) was tested as a potential biomarker for oral plague vaccination because it allows nonlethal sampling of animals through hair, blood, and feces. We found that RB is an appropriate marker for bait uptake studies of C. ludovicianus) when used at concentrations 10 mg RB per kg target animal mass. Whiskers with follicles provided the best sample for RB detection.

  13. Use of rhodamine B as a biomarker for oral plague vaccination of prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Rocke, Tonie E

    2011-07-01

    Oral vaccination against Yersinia pestis could provide a feasible approach for controlling plague in prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) for conservation and public health purposes. Biomarkers are useful in wildlife vaccination programs to demonstrate exposure to vaccine baits. Rhodamine B (RB) was tested as a potential biomarker for oral plague vaccination because it allows nonlethal sampling of animals through hair, blood, and feces. We found that RB is an appropriate marker for bait uptake studies of black-tailed prairie dogs (C. ludovicianus) when used at concentrations 10 mg RB per kg target animal mass. Whiskers with follicles provided the best sample for RB detection.

  14. Oral Polio Vaccine Influences the Immune Response to BCG Vaccination. A Natural Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartono, E.; Lisse, I.M.; Terveer, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    not receive OPV at birth, but only BCG. We investigated the effect of OPV given simultaneously with BCG at birth on the immune response to BCG vaccine. Methods and Findings: We compared the in vitro and the in vivo response to PPD in the infants who received OPV and BCG with that of infants who received BCG......Background: Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is recommended to be given at birth together with BCG vaccine. While we were conducting two trials including low-birth-weight (LBW) and normal-birth-weight (NBW) infants in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during some periods and therefore some infants did...... scar (0.95 (0.91-1.00), p = 0.057)). Among children with a scar, OPV was associated with reduced scar size, the regression coefficient being -0.24 (-0.43-0.05), p = 0.012. Conclusions: This study is the first to address the consequences for the immune response to BCG of simultaneous administration...

  15. Potential economic benefits of eliminating canine rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwiff, Stephanie; Hampson, Katie; Anderson, Aaron

    2013-05-01

    Although canine rabies has been eliminated from industrialized countries, infected dogs remain the primary source of human and livestock exposures in Asia, Africa and much of South America. Human deaths are the most important direct economic impact of canine rabies, followed by livestock losses and the cost of PEP, while expenses associated with dog vaccination and control are major indirect impacts. The global burden of rabies disproportionately affects Asia, which experiences more than half of human rabies deaths and approximately 65% of livestock losses, and performs more than 90% of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). Africa is second to Asia in terms of human deaths and livestock losses, but administers the least number of PEPs of the three regions. Recent experience in Latin America shows that efforts to reduce human deaths from rabies through expanded dog vaccination and improved access to PEP result in significant monetary savings. The elimination of canine rabies would lead to major economic benefits in developing countries that are often the least capable of dealing with the disease. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on the elimination of canine rabies. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. 精制Vero细胞狂犬病疫苗的研制及免疫学效果观察%Studies on the manufacture and immunogenicity of purified rabies vaccines on hum ans Vero cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于伟; 刘兆文; 钱浩; 鲁宏; 王宏伟; 李福安; 窦志勇

    2001-01-01

    目的 以Vero细胞为基质,研制新一代精制Vero细胞狂犬病疫苗。 方法 以CTN-1V10为生产毒株,以<150代Vero细胞为培养基质, 采用转瓶旋转培养,按不同时间收获病毒液,经过澄清、浓缩、纯化、灭活制成精制Vero 细胞狂犬病疫苗。从以此工艺制备的疫苗中选取一批做为免疫学效果观察的受试疫苗。按暴 露后免疫程序接种63人,其中受试疫苗接种33人,法国维尔博狂犬病疫苗接种30人,观察不 良反应和测定中和抗体。结果 新研制的精制Vero细胞狂犬病疫苗 各项指标完全符合WHO的有关质量要求。两种疫苗全程免疫后中和抗体阳转率均为100%,中 和抗体受试组为11.94 IU/ml;维尔博疫苗对照组为11.69 IU/ml。结论  精制Vero细胞狂犬病疫苗不但制造工艺合理,而且副反应轻微,免疫原性 良好。%Objective Using Vero cell as basic cultur al material to improve the quality of rabies vaccines and to produce rabies va ccines for humans. Methods CTN-1V10 strain were used for prodaction. Vero cell of 150th generation were used for cultivation. Rotating cultivatal method with rotating bottle was used. Fluids with virus were collected at diffe rent time. Puritied rabies vaccine was produeed on Vero cell after clarification , condensation, purification and extermination. A batch of vaccines made b y this techniques were used for immunological observation. Sixty-three people were injected with this rabies vaccine according to the procedure of time of exposure. Thirty of them were injected with vaccines made in France (Verorab ) while the others were injected with vaccines to be tested. Side effect and neu tratizing antibody were recorded. Results The quality of this newly developed rabies vaccines has met the quality set by WHO. After all dosages of injection, the rates of positive antibody were both 100% in two groups. The neutralizing antibody among testing group was

  17. Plastid Molecular Pharming I. Production of Oral Vaccines via Plastid Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berecz, Bernadett; Zelenyánszki, Helga; Pólya, Sára; Tamás-Nyitrai, Cecília; Oszvald, Mária

    2017-01-01

    Vaccines produced in plants have opened up new opportunities in vaccination. Among the various categories of vaccines, the recombinant vaccine is generally regarded as the most economical and safest type because it cannot cause disease and does not require large-scale cultivation of pathogens. Due to the low cost of their cultivation, plants may represent viable alternative platforms for producing subunit vaccines. Genetic engineering of plastids is the innovation of the last three decades and has numerous benefits when compared to nuclear transformation. Due to the high level of expression, oral vaccines produced in transplastomic plants do not have to be purified as they can be consumed raw, which, therefore, reduces the cost of preparation, transportation and handling of the vaccines. Oral vaccination also excludes the risk of other infections or contaminations, while compartmentation of the plant cell provides an excellent encapsulation to the antigen within the plastid. Herein we review the main biotechnological and immunological aspects of the progress achieved in the field of plastid derived edible vaccines during the last decade. As there is a public debate against genetically modified crops, the advantages and limitations of oral vaccines are also discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. ICAM-1-based rabies virus vaccine shows increased infection and activation of primary murine B cells in vitro and enhanced antibody titers in-vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Norton

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that live-attenuated rabies virus (RABV-based vaccines infect and directly activate murine and human primary B cells in-vitro, which we propose can be exploited to help develop a single-dose RABV-based vaccine. Here we report on a novel approach to utilize the binding of Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1 to its binding partner, Lymphocyte Function-associated Antigen-1 (LFA-1, on B cells to enhance B cell activation and RABV-specific antibody responses. We used a reverse genetics approach to clone, recover, and characterize a live-attenuated recombinant RABV-based vaccine expressing the murine Icam1 gene (rRABV-mICAM-1. We show that the murine ICAM-1 gene product is incorporated into virus particles, potentially exposing ICAM-1 to extracellular binding partners. While rRABV-mICAM-1 showed 10-100-fold decrease in viral titers on baby hamster kidney cells compared to the parental virus (rRABV, rRABV-mICAM-1 infected and activated primary murine B cells in-vitro more efficiently than rRABV, as indicated by significant upregulation of CD69, CD40, and MHCII on the surface of infected B cells. ICAM-1 expression on the virus surface was responsible for enhanced B cell infection since pre-treating rRABV-mICAM-1 with a neutralizing anti-ICAM-1 antibody reduced B cell infection to levels observed with rRABV alone. Furthermore, 100-fold less rRABV-mICAM-1 was needed to induce antibody titers in immunized mice equivalent to antibody titers observed in rRABV-immunized mice. Of note, only 10(3 focus forming units (ffu/mouse of rRABV-mICAM-1 was needed to induce significant anti-RABV antibody titers as early as five days post-immunization. As both speed and potency of antibody responses are important in controlling human RABV infection in a post-exposure setting, these data show that expression of Icam1 from the RABV genome, which is then incorporated into the virus particle, is a promising strategy for the development of a

  19. An oral vaccine against candidiasis generated by a yeast molecular display system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Seiji; Aoki, Wataru; Nomura, Takashi; Miyoshi, Ayuko; Tafuku, Senji; Sewaki, Tomomitsu; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2013-12-01

    Enolase 1 (Eno1p) of Candida albicans is an immunodominant antigen. However, conventional technologies for preparing an injectable vaccine require purification of the antigenic protein and preparation of an adjuvant. To develop a novel type of oral vaccine against candidiasis, we generated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells that display the Eno1p antigen on their surfaces. Oral delivery of the engineered S. cerevisiae cells prolonged survival rate of mice that were subsequently challenged with C. albicans. Given that a vaccine produced using molecular display technology avoids the need for protein purification, this oral vaccine offers a promising alternative to the use of conventional and injectable vaccines for preventing a range of infectious diseases.

  20. Compendium of animal rabies prevention and control, 2000. National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-14

    The purpose of this Compendium is to provide rabies information to veterinarians, public health officials, and others concerned with rabies prevention and control. These recommendations serve as the basis for animal rabies-control programs throughout the United States and facilitate standardization of procedures among jurisdictions, thereby contributing to an effective national rabies-control program. This document is reviewed annually and revised as necessary. Immunization procedure recommendations are contained in Part I; all animal rabies vaccines licensed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and marketed in the United States are listed in Part II; Part III details the principles of rabies control.

  1. Compendium of Animal Rabies Control, 1999. National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-02

    The purpose of this Compendium is to provide information on rabies control to veterinarians, public health officials, and others concerned with rabies control. These recommendations serve as the basis for animal rabies-control programs throughout the United States and facilitate standardization of procedures among jurisdictions, thereby contributing to an effective national rabies-control program. This document is reviewed annually and revised as necessary. Immunization procedure recommendations are contained in Part I; all animal rabies vaccines licensed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and marketed in the United States are listed in Part II; Part III details the principles of rabies control.

  2. Global epidemiology of canine rabies: past, present, and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor LH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Louise H Taylor,1 Louis H Nel1,21Global Alliance for Rabies Control, Manhattan, KS, USA; 2Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa Abstract: The rabies virus, a public health scourge from ancient times, is currently responsible for an estimated 59,000 human deaths a year, almost all transmitted via dog bites. It causes considerable economic impacts on developing countries, primarily in Africa and Asia, which can least afford these losses. However, despite its almost 100% case fatality rate, canine rabies is a completely preventable disease, and historic examples of canine rabies elimination in the developed world attest to this. Over the last decade, programs based on eliminating the source of the disease from dogs have shown success in reducing the public health burden of canine rabies in developing countries, notably across Latin America, and this has contributed to the growing evidence base necessary to change attitudes toward the feasibility of global canine rabies elimination. More recently, assessments of the current economic burden of canine rabies and the potential cost savings achievable through mass dog vaccinations have been added to this evidence base. Tools and support are available from the international community to help countries move progressively toward canine rabies elimination, and there is optimism that global freedom from canine rabies can be achieved within the next few decades. Keywords: canine rabies, epidemiology, elimination, zoonosis, rabies virus

  3. Does oral polio vaccine at birth affect the size of the thymus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Helle Brander; Lund, Najaaraq; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that vaccines have an effect on general mortality which goes beyond specific disease protection. Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is widely used in low-income countries, but in observational studies in Guinea-Bissau we observed that not receiving OPV at birth...

  4. Post-licensure deployment of oral cholera vaccines: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen; Lopez, Anna Lena; Bellos, Anna; Ali, Mohammad; Alberti, Kathryn; Anh, Dang Duc; Costa, Alejandro; Grais, Rebecca F; Legros, Dominique; Luquero, Francisco J; Ghai, Megan B; Perea, William; Sack, David A

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe and analyse the characteristics of oral cholera vaccination campaigns; including location, target population, logistics, vaccine coverage and delivery costs. Methods We searched PubMed, the World Health Organization (WHO) website and the Cochrane database with no date or language restrictions. We contacted public health personnel, experts in the field and in ministries of health and did targeted web searches. Findings A total of 33 documents were included in the analysis. One country, Viet Nam, incorporates oral cholera vaccination into its public health programme and has administered approximately 10.9 million vaccine doses between 1997 and 2012. In addition, over 3 million doses of the two WHO pre-qualified oral cholera vaccines have been administered in more than 16 campaigns around the world between 1997 and 2014. These campaigns have either been pre-emptive or reactive and have taken place under diverse conditions, such as in refugee camps or natural disasters. Estimated two-dose coverage ranged from 46 to 88% of the target population. Approximate delivery cost per fully immunized person ranged from 0.11–3.99 United States dollars. Conclusion Experience with oral cholera vaccination campaigns continues to increase. Public health officials may draw on this experience and conduct oral cholera vaccination campaigns more frequently. PMID:25552772

  5. 2009-2011年科学城疾病预防控制中心门诊狂犬病暴露病例调查%Rabies Exposure Cases at Vaccination Clinic of Science City CDC, 2009-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈青; 刘咏洁; 张红利; 何准辉; 杨春光

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析2009-2011年在四川省科学城疾控中心接种门诊就诊的狂犬病暴露病例的流行病学因素,探讨狂犬病防治对策.方法 对监测资料进行回顾性分析,包括狂犬病暴露病例的性别、年龄、就诊时间、暴露级别、疫苗接种、Ⅲ级暴露病例狂犬病免疫球蛋白的使用以及伤人动物情况等.结果 2009-2011年科学城疾控中心接种门诊共接诊狂犬病暴露病例327例.被犬致伤的患者最多,占86.54%;95.41%的患者在暴露后24h内就诊;伤人动物中有免疫接种史占39.45%,无免疫史的占16.51%,免疫史不详的高达44.04%;暴露病例中Ⅲ级暴露119例,占36.39%,Ⅲ级暴露病例同时接种狂犬病疫苗和狂犬病免疫球蛋白的仅占21.85%.结论 科学城疾控中心门诊狂犬病暴露人群狂犬病疫苗接种率较高,但狂犬病免疫球蛋白的使用率还有待进一步提高;伤人动物免疫史不高,应普及狂犬病预防知识;加强犬只管理.%Objective To explore the rabies prevention measures based on analysis of the epidemiological factors at vaccination clinic of Science City from 2009 to 2011. Methods According to monitoring data, analysis were conducted concerning following variables: gender, age, treatment time, exposure degree, vaccinating, rabies immune globulin (RIG) on the person with grade DI exposure and situations of wounding animals. Results A total of 327 rabies exposure cases were treated from 2009 to 2011. Patients wounded by dogs accounted for 86. 5% , 95.4% of which took treatment after the exposure within 24 h. Proportion of dogs never taking vaccination reached 16. 51% and those vaccinated accounted only for 39.45% ; the proportion of those with unclear vaccination history was as high as 44. 04%. The grade HI exposure cases were 119, accounted for 36. 39% , among which only 21. 85% vaccinated both the rabies vaccine and RIG. Conclusion Rabies vaccination rate is relatively high among

  6. Molecular and mathematical modeling analyses of inter-island transmission of rabies into a previously rabies-free island in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohma, Kentaro; Saito, Mariko; Demetria, Catalino S; Manalo, Daria L; Quiambao, Beatriz P; Kamigaki, Taro; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-03-01

    Rabies is endemic in the Philippines and dog bites are a major cause of rabies cases in humans. The rabies control program has not been successful in eliminating rabies because of low vaccination coverage among dogs. Therefore, more effective and feasible strategies for rabies control are urgently required in the country. To control rabies, it is very important to know if inter-island transmission can occur because rabies can become endemic once the virus is introduced in areas that previously had no reported cases. Our molecular epidemiological study suggests that inter-island transmission events can occur; therefore, we further investigated these inter-island transmission using phylogenetic and modeling approaches. We investigate inter-island transmission between Luzon and Tablas Islands in the Philippines. Phylogenetic analysis and mathematical modeling demonstrate that there was a time lag of several months to a year from rabies introduction to initial case detection, indicating the difficulties in recognizing the initial rabies introductory event. There had been no rabies cases reported in Tablas Island; however, transmission chain was sustained on this island after the introduction of rabies virus because of low vaccination coverage among dogs. Across the islands, a rabies control program should include control of inter-island dog transportation and rabies vaccination to avoid viral introduction from the outside and to break transmission chains after viral introduction. However, this program has not yet been completely implemented and transmission chains following inter-island virus transmission are still observed. Local government units try to control dog transport; however, it should be more strictly controlled, and a continuous rabies control program should be implemented to prevent rabies spread even in rabies-free areas.

  7. Rabies in Captive Deer, Pennsylvania, USA, 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Danielle M.; Longenberger, Allison; Simeone, Aliza; Moll, Mària E.; Deasy, Marshall P.; Blanton, Jesse D.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Since January 2007, a total of 11 rabid deer from 4 deer farms have been identified in 2 neighboring Pennsylvania counties. Vaccination of deer against rabies, decreasing wildlife animal contact with deer, and education of deer farmers may prevent further cases of rabies in captive deer and exposures to humans. PMID:22260956

  8. Rabies encephalomyelitis vs. ADEM: Usefulness of MR imaging in differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asokan Santhoshkumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of rabies encephalomyelitis in a 12-year-old boy who had received anti-rabies vaccine 6 weeks after being bitten by a puppy. The MR (magnetic resonance imaging helped to differentiate rabies from acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM. ADEM involves the white matter predominantly, whereas rabies has a predilection for grey matter, that too of midline regions. This report emphasizes the usefulness of MRI in differentiating rabies and ADEM when encephalomyelitis occurs in a vaccinated child.

  9. Controlling rabies through a multidisciplinary, public health system in Trujillo, La Libertad, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneschall, Charlotte; Luna-Farro, Maria

    2013-10-01

    Rabies remains endemic in Peru. In 1983, Latin America and the Caribbean promised to eliminate canine-transmitted rabies from the continent. This led to Peru introducing a multidisciplinary public health system for controlling and managing rabies across the country. The system consists of mass canine vaccination campaigns, post exposure prophylaxis and monitoring aggressor animals for signs of rabies. The Peruvian city of Trujillo, La Libertad, is an urban area where dogs are the principal reservoir for rabies. The disease burden of rabies in Trujillo, La Libertad is currently minimal, with no rabies cases in humans for over 10 years, and only three canine cases. No human deaths due to rabies have occurred for several decades. From this it can be inferred that antirabies systems such as this do have real effects in reducing cases of human rabies at a grass roots level.

  10. Transmission dynamics of oral polio vaccine viruses and vaccine-derived polioviruses on networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hoon; Rho, Seong-Hwan

    2015-01-07

    One drawback of oral polio vaccine (OPV) is the potential reversion to more transmissible, virulent circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs), which may cause outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis. Previous modeling studies of the transmission of cVDPVs assume an unrealistic homogeneous mixing of the population and/or ignore that OPV viruses and cVDPVs compete for susceptibles, which we show is a key to understanding the dynamics of the transmission of cVDPVs. We examined the transmission of OPV viruses and cVDPVs on heterogeneous, dynamic contact networks using differential equation-based and individual-based models. Despite the lower transmissibility, OPV viruses may outcompete more transmissible cVDPVs in the short run by spreading extensively before cVDPVs emerge. If viruses become endemic, however, cVDPVs eventually dominate and force OPV viruses to extinction. This study improves our understanding of the emergence of cVDPVs and helps develop more detailed models to plan a policy to control paralytic polio associated with the continued use of OPV in many countries.

  11. Influence to pregnancy after vaccination of rabies exposure in the reproductive age women%育龄妇女狂犬病暴露后接种疫苗对妊娠的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳辉

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过分析狂犬病监测信息报告管理系统的数据库资料,探讨育龄妇女狂犬病暴露后的流行病学特点及接种疫苗对优生优育的影响.方法 流行病学资料来源于中国疾病预防控制信息系统疾病监测信息报告管理系统;犬致伤数据来源于门头沟区三家狂犬病免疫预防门诊动物致伤数据库.以EpiData数据库录入数据.结果 接受狂犬疫苗注射的25 258人中,育龄妇女4216人,占9.5%.三类伤口的育龄妇女中,66.2%接受了被动免疫,与一般人群三类伤口接种率72.35%相比有显著性差异(P<0.0001).拒绝接受被动免疫最主要的原因为害怕其对妊娠的影响.流产、妊娠高血压、妊娠糖尿病、出生低体重以及小先天缺陷在接种狂犬疫苗妊娠妇女和一般妊娠妇女中发生率均无显著性差异.不孕症在接种狂犬疫苗育龄妇女与一般育龄妇女中发病率亦无显著性差异.结论 接种狂犬疫苗对妇女妊娠及生育无明显影响.%Objective: This study investigated the influence of rabies vaccinating exposure to reproductive women by analyzing the database of rabies reporting and mortaring system. Methods: The epidemiology data was from the China information system for diseases control and prevention. The data of rabies, which was recorded by EpiData and analyzed by Excel 2007, was from the prevention clinic of rabies in Mentougou District. Results: The number of reproductive age women was 4216; it was 9. 5% in the 25 258 people who experienced rabies vaccinating. 66. 2% reproductive age women were passive immunized, whose wounds were type Ⅲ. 72. 35% normal people with type III wounds were passive immunized. Significant difference was found between the two groups ( P < 0. 0001). The main reason of why the women refused to be passive immunized was afraid of the side effect of vaccine to pregnancy. No significant differences of incidence about abortion, gestational hypertension

  12. Controlled and targeted release of antigens by intelligent shell for improving applicability of oral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zeng, Zhanzhuang; Hu, Chaohua; Bellis, Susan L; Yang, Wendi; Su, Yintao; Zhang, Xinyan; Wu, Yunkun

    2016-01-01

    Conventional oral vaccines with simple architecture face barriers with regard to stimulating effective immunity. Here we describe oral vaccines with an intelligent phase-transitional shielding layer, poly[(methyl methacrylate)-co-(methyl acrylate)-co-(methacrylic acid)]-poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PMMMA-PLGA), which can protect antigens in the gastro-intestinal tract and achieve targeted vaccination in the large intestine. With the surface immunogenic protein (SIP) from group B Streptococcus (GBS) entrapped as the antigen, oral administration with PMMMA-PLGA (PTRBL)/Trx-SIP nanoparticles stimulated robust immunity in tilapia, an animal with a relatively simple immune system. The vaccine succeeded in protecting against Streptococcus agalactiae, a pathogen of worldwide importance that threatens human health and is transmitted in water with infected fish. After oral vaccination with PTRBL/Trx-SIP, tilapia produced enhanced levels of SIP specific antibodies and displayed durability of immune protection. 100% of the vaccinated tilapia were protected from GBS infection, whereas the control groups without vaccines or vaccinated with Trx-SIP only exhibited respective infection rates of 100% or >60% within the initial 5 months after primary vaccination. Experiments in vivo demonstrated that the recombinant antigen Trx-SIP labeled with FITC was localized in colon, spleen and kidney, which are critical sites for mounting an immune response. Our results revealed that, rather than the size of the nanoparticles, it is more likely that the negative charge repulsion produced by ionization of the carboxyl groups in PMMMA shielded the nanoparticles from uptake by small intestinal epithelial cells. This system resolves challenges arising from gastrointestinal damage to antigens, and more importantly, offers a new approach applicable for oral vaccination.

  13. Instruments for oral disease-intervention strategies : recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing tetanus toxin fragment C for vaccination or myelin proteins for oral tolerance induction in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen, C.B.M.; Laman, J.D.; Heijne den Bak-Glashouwer, M.J.; Tielen, F.J.; Holten-Neelen, J.C.P.A. van; Hoogteijling, L.; Antonissen, C.; Leer, R.J.; Pouwels, P.H.; Boersma, W.J.A.; Shaw, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    Lactobacillus strains possess properties that make them attractive candidates as vehicles for oral administration of therapeutics. In this report we describe the construction and analysis of recombinant Lactobacillus casei applicable in oral vaccination against an infectious disease (tetanus) and in

  14. Instruments for oral disease-intervention strategies : recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing tetanus toxin fragment C for vaccination or myelin proteins for oral tolerance induction in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen, C.B.M.; Laman, J.D.; Heijne den Bak-Glashouwer, M.J.; Tielen, F.J.; Holten-Neelen, J.C.P.A. van; Hoogteijling, L.; Antonissen, C.; Leer, R.J.; Pouwels, P.H.; Boersma, W.J.A.; Shaw, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    Lactobacillus strains possess properties that make them attractive candidates as vehicles for oral administration of therapeutics. In this report we describe the construction and analysis of recombinant Lactobacillus casei applicable in oral vaccination against an infectious disease (tetanus) and in

  15. [Rabies Tissue Culture Infection Test as an Alternative for the Mouse Inoculation Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, R.; Hörnlimann, B.; Wandeler, A. I.; Kappeler, A.; Kipfer, R.; Peterhans, E.

    1990-01-01

    Rabies has disappeared from large parts of Switzerland. Due to systematic oral fox-vaccination campaings that started in 1987, cases of rabies in wild and domestic animals have been confined to the western frontier with France in the last three years. Nevertheless, some cases of severe exposition of man by rabid or rabies-suspect animals still occur. Rabies can be diagnosed in brain smears of infected animals with high specificity and sensitivity by a direct immunofluorescence method. According to WHO recommendations, negative results are to be confirmed in cases of a human exposition by intracerebral inoculation of brain suspensions in three-weeks-old mice. This method has an excellent sensitivity and is able to detect false-negative results in immunofluorescence, which occur in a very small percentage (0.043%). The disadvantage of this confirmatory assay is the sacrification of relatively high numbers of mice (in the Swiss rabies center about 1,300 animals each year), and the long time required for a final diagnosis: 7-20 days in positive, 21 days in negative cases. The cultivation of virus from brain suspensions on a mouse neuroblastoma cell line is a tempting alternative to the mouse inoculation test. This method usually provides a conclusive diagnosis within a few days. However, in our hands it showed in preliminary experiments an unsatisfactory sensitivity (80.7%). The necessity to carry out strict reproducibility controls in this assay has to be emphasized. Further work must be invested in the improvement of the rabies tissue culture infection test and a careful long-term comparison with the mouse inoculation test will be necessary before the mouse inoculation test can be replaced.

  16. The efficacy of a multivalent calicivirus, herpesvirus and parvovirus vaccine and a rabies vaccine is not affected when administered in combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wilson

    2015-01-01

    In conclusion, the data show that combining these two separate vaccines in one administration has limited impact on their ability to generate serological responses, and that these responses are still of a magnitude previously demonstrated to be protective.

  17. Pregnancy Outcomes after a Mass Vaccination Campaign with an Oral Cholera Vaccine in Guinea: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Grout

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, WHO has recommended oral cholera vaccines as an additional strategy for cholera control. During a cholera episode, pregnant women are at high risk of complications, and the risk of fetal death has been reported to be 2-36%. Due to a lack of safety data, pregnant women have been excluded from most cholera vaccination campaigns. In 2012, reactive campaigns using the bivalent killed whole-cell oral cholera vaccine (BivWC, included all people living in the targeted areas aged ≥ 1 year regardless of pregnancy status, were implemented in Guinea. We aimed to determine whether there was a difference in pregnancy outcomes between vaccinated and non-vaccinated pregnant women.From 11 November to 4 December 2013, we conducted a retrospective cohort study in Boffa prefecture among women who were pregnant in 2012 during or after the vaccination campaign. The primary outcome was pregnancy loss, as reported by the mother, and fetal malformations, after clinical examination. Primary exposure was the intake of the BivWC vaccine (Shanchol during pregnancy, as determined by a vaccination card or oral history. We compared the risk of pregnancy loss between vaccinated and non-vaccinated women through binomial regression analysis. A total of 2,494 pregnancies were included in the analysis. The crude incidence of pregnancy loss was 3.7% (95%CI 2.7-4.8 for fetuses exposed to BivWC vaccine and 2.6% (0.7-4.5 for non-exposed fetuses. The incidence of malformation was 0.6% (0.1-1.0 and 1.2% (0.0-2.5 in BivWC-exposed and non-exposed fetuses, respectively. In both crude and adjusted analyses, fetal exposure to BivWC was not significantly associated with pregnancy loss (adjusted risk ratio (aRR = 1.09 [95%CI: 0.5-2.25], p = 0.818 or malformations (aRR = 0.50 [95%CI: 0.13-1.91], p = 0.314.In this large retrospective cohort study, we found no association between fetal exposure to BivWC and risk of pregnancy loss or malformation. Despite the weaknesses of a

  18. Pregnancy Outcomes after a Mass Vaccination Campaign with an Oral Cholera Vaccine in Guinea: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grout, Lise; Martinez-Pino, Isabel; Ciglenecki, Iza; Keita, Sakoba; Diallo, Alpha Amadou; Traore, Balla; Delamou, Daloka; Toure, Oumar; Nicholas, Sarala; Rusch, Barbara; Staderini, Nelly; Serafini, Micaela; Grais, Rebecca F.; Luquero, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Since 2010, WHO has recommended oral cholera vaccines as an additional strategy for cholera control. During a cholera episode, pregnant women are at high risk of complications, and the risk of fetal death has been reported to be 2–36%. Due to a lack of safety data, pregnant women have been excluded from most cholera vaccination campaigns. In 2012, reactive campaigns using the bivalent killed whole-cell oral cholera vaccine (BivWC), included all people living in the targeted areas aged ≥1 year regardless of pregnancy status, were implemented in Guinea. We aimed to determine whether there was a difference in pregnancy outcomes between vaccinated and non-vaccinated pregnant women. Methods and Findings From 11 November to 4 December 2013, we conducted a retrospective cohort study in Boffa prefecture among women who were pregnant in 2012 during or after the vaccination campaign. The primary outcome was pregnancy loss, as reported by the mother, and fetal malformations, after clinical examination. Primary exposure was the intake of the BivWC vaccine (Shanchol) during pregnancy, as determined by a vaccination card or oral history. We compared the risk of pregnancy loss between vaccinated and non-vaccinated women through binomial regression analysis. A total of 2,494 pregnancies were included in the analysis. The crude incidence of pregnancy loss was 3.7% (95%CI 2.7–4.8) for fetuses exposed to BivWC vaccine and 2.6% (0.7–4.5) for non-exposed fetuses. The incidence of malformation was 0.6% (0.1–1.0) and 1.2% (0.0–2.5) in BivWC-exposed and non-exposed fetuses, respectively. In both crude and adjusted analyses, fetal exposure to BivWC was not significantly associated with pregnancy loss (adjusted risk ratio (aRR = 1.09 [95%CI: 0.5–2.25], p = 0.818) or malformations (aRR = 0.50 [95%CI: 0.13–1.91], p = 0.314). Conclusions In this large retrospective cohort study, we found no association between fetal exposure to BivWC and risk of pregnancy loss or

  19. Pregnancy Outcomes after a Mass Vaccination Campaign with an Oral Cholera Vaccine in Guinea: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grout, Lise; Martinez-Pino, Isabel; Ciglenecki, Iza; Keita, Sakoba; Diallo, Alpha Amadou; Traore, Balla; Delamou, Daloka; Toure, Oumar; Nicholas, Sarala; Rusch, Barbara; Staderini, Nelly; Serafini, Micaela; Grais, Rebecca F; Luquero, Francisco J

    2015-12-01

    Since 2010, WHO has recommended oral cholera vaccines as an additional strategy for cholera control. During a cholera episode, pregnant women are at high risk of complications, and the risk of fetal death has been reported to be 2-36%. Due to a lack of safety data, pregnant women have been excluded from most cholera vaccination campaigns. In 2012, reactive campaigns using the bivalent killed whole-cell oral cholera vaccine (BivWC), included all people living in the targeted areas aged ≥ 1 year regardless of pregnancy status, were implemented in Guinea. We aimed to determine whether there was a difference in pregnancy outcomes between vaccinated and non-vaccinated pregnant women. From 11 November to 4 December 2013, we conducted a retrospective cohort study in Boffa prefecture among women who were pregnant in 2012 during or after the vaccination campaign. The primary outcome was pregnancy loss, as reported by the mother, and fetal malformations, after clinical examination. Primary exposure was the intake of the BivWC vaccine (Shanchol) during pregnancy, as determined by a vaccination card or oral history. We compared the risk of pregnancy loss between vaccinated and non-vaccinated women through binomial regression analysis. A total of 2,494 pregnancies were included in the analysis. The crude incidence of pregnancy loss was 3.7% (95%CI 2.7-4.8) for fetuses exposed to BivWC vaccine and 2.6% (0.7-4.5) for non-exposed fetuses. The incidence of malformation was 0.6% (0.1-1.0) and 1.2% (0.0-2.5) in BivWC-exposed and non-exposed fetuses, respectively. In both crude and adjusted analyses, fetal exposure to BivWC was not significantly associated with pregnancy loss (adjusted risk ratio (aRR = 1.09 [95%CI: 0.5-2.25], p = 0.818) or malformations (aRR = 0.50 [95%CI: 0.13-1.91], p = 0.314). In this large retrospective cohort study, we found no association between fetal exposure to BivWC and risk of pregnancy loss or malformation. Despite the weaknesses of a retrospective

  20. Vaccination in food allergic patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Important potential food allergens in vaccines include egg and gelatin. Rare cases of ... rabies vaccine: purified chick embryo cell (PCEC) culture vaccine; human diploid cell ... found in MMR, varicella, influenza, typhoid, yellow fever, Japanese.

  1. Effectiveness of reactive oral cholera vaccination in rural Haiti: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Louise C; Hilaire, Isabelle J; Teng, Jessica E; Almazor, Charles P; Jerome, J Gregory; Ternier, Ralph; Boncy, Jacques; Buteau, Josiane; Murray, Megan B; Harris, Jason B; Franke, Molly F

    2015-01-01

    Background Between April and June 2012, a reactive cholera vaccination campaign was conducted in Haiti using an oral inactivated bivalent whole-cell vaccine (BivWC). Methods We conducted a case-control study to estimate field effectiveness of the vaccine. Cases had acute watery diarrhea, sought treatment at one of three participating cholera treatment units from October 24, 2012 through March 9, 2014, and had a stool sample positive for cholera by culture. For each case, four controls (individuals who did not seek treatment for acute watery diarrhea) were matched by location of residence, calendar time, and age. We also conducted a bias-indicator case-control study to assess the likelihood of bias in the vaccine effectiveness (VE) study. Findings During the study period, 114 eligible individuals presented with acute watery diarrhea and were enrolled. 47 were analyzed as cases in the VE case-control study and 42 as cases in the bias-indicator study. In multivariable analyses, VE was 63% [95% confidence interval (CI): 8%–85%] by self-reported vaccination and 58% [95% CI: 13%–80%] for verified vaccination. Neither self-reported nor verified vaccination was significantly associated with non-cholera diarrhea (VE: 18% [95% CI: −208%–−78%] by self-report and −21% [95%CI: −238%–57%] for verified vaccination). Interpretation BivWC oral cholera vaccine was effective in protecting against cholera in Haiti during the study period –from 4 through 24 months after vaccination. Vaccination is an important component of epidemic cholera control efforts. Funding National Institutes of Health, Delivering Oral Vaccines Effectively project, Department of Global Health and Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School. PMID:25701994

  2. Comparative Effectiveness of Different Strategies of Oral Cholera Vaccination in Bangladesh: A Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Dobromir T.; Troeger, Christopher; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M.; Chao, Dennis L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Killed, oral cholera vaccines have proven safe and effective, and several large-scale mass cholera vaccination efforts have demonstrated the feasibility of widespread deployment. This study uses a mathematical model of cholera transmission in Bangladesh to examine the effectiveness of potential vaccination strategies. Methods & Findings We developed an age-structured mathematical model of cholera transmission and calibrated it to reproduce the dynamics of cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh. We used the model to predict the effectiveness of different cholera vaccination strategies over a period of 20 years. We explored vaccination programs that targeted one of three increasingly focused age groups (the entire vaccine-eligible population of age one year and older, children of ages 1 to 14 years, or preschoolers of ages 1 to 4 years) and that could occur either as campaigns recurring every five years or as continuous ongoing vaccination efforts. Our modeling results suggest that vaccinating 70% of the population would avert 90% of cholera cases in the first year but that campaign and continuous vaccination strategies differ in effectiveness over 20 years. Maintaining 70% coverage of the population would be sufficient to prevent sustained transmission of endemic cholera in Matlab, while vaccinating periodically every five years is less effective. Selectively vaccinating children 1–14 years old would prevent the most cholera cases per vaccine administered in both campaign and continuous strategies. Conclusions We conclude that continuous mass vaccination would be more effective against endemic cholera than periodic campaigns. Vaccinating children averts more cases per dose than vaccinating all age groups, although vaccinating only children is unlikely to control endemic cholera in Bangladesh. Careful consideration must be made before generalizing these results to other regions. PMID:25473851

  3. Comparative effectiveness of different strategies of oral cholera vaccination in bangladesh: a modeling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobromir T Dimitrov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Killed, oral cholera vaccines have proven safe and effective, and several large-scale mass cholera vaccination efforts have demonstrated the feasibility of widespread deployment. This study uses a mathematical model of cholera transmission in Bangladesh to examine the effectiveness of potential vaccination strategies.We developed an age-structured mathematical model of cholera transmission and calibrated it to reproduce the dynamics of cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh. We used the model to predict the effectiveness of different cholera vaccination strategies over a period of 20 years. We explored vaccination programs that targeted one of three increasingly focused age groups (the entire vaccine-eligible population of age one year and older, children of ages 1 to 14 years, or preschoolers of ages 1 to 4 years and that could occur either as campaigns recurring every five years or as continuous ongoing vaccination efforts. Our modeling results suggest that vaccinating 70% of the population would avert 90% of cholera cases in the first year but that campaign and continuous vaccination strategies differ in effectiveness over 20 years. Maintaining 70% coverage of the population would be sufficient to prevent sustained transmission of endemic cholera in Matlab, while vaccinating periodically every five years is less effective. Selectively vaccinating children 1-14 years old would prevent the most cholera cases per vaccine administered in both campaign and continuous strategies.We conclude that continuous mass vaccination would be more effective against endemic cholera than periodic campaigns. Vaccinating children averts more cases per dose than vaccinating all age groups, although vaccinating only children is unlikely to control endemic cholera in Bangladesh. Careful consideration must be made before generalizing these results to other regions.

  4. Comparative effectiveness of different strategies of oral cholera vaccination in bangladesh: a modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Dobromir T; Troeger, Christopher; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M; Chao, Dennis L

    2014-12-01

    Killed, oral cholera vaccines have proven safe and effective, and several large-scale mass cholera vaccination efforts have demonstrated the feasibility of widespread deployment. This study uses a mathematical model of cholera transmission in Bangladesh to examine the effectiveness of potential vaccination strategies. We developed an age-structured mathematical model of cholera transmission and calibrated it to reproduce the dynamics of cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh. We used the model to predict the effectiveness of different cholera vaccination strategies over a period of 20 years. We explored vaccination programs that targeted one of three increasingly focused age groups (the entire vaccine-eligible population of age one year and older, children of ages 1 to 14 years, or preschoolers of ages 1 to 4 years) and that could occur either as campaigns recurring every five years or as continuous ongoing vaccination efforts. Our modeling results suggest that vaccinating 70% of the population would avert 90% of cholera cases in the first year but that campaign and continuous vaccination strategies differ in effectiveness over 20 years. Maintaining 70% coverage of the population would be sufficient to prevent sustained transmission of endemic cholera in Matlab, while vaccinating periodically every five years is less effective. Selectively vaccinating children 1-14 years old would prevent the most cholera cases per vaccine administered in both campaign and continuous strategies. We conclude that continuous mass vaccination would be more effective against endemic cholera than periodic campaigns. Vaccinating children averts more cases per dose than vaccinating all age groups, although vaccinating only children is unlikely to control endemic cholera in Bangladesh. Careful consideration must be made before generalizing these results to other regions.

  5. Oral administration of myostatin-specific recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae vaccine in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongtian; Zhou, Gang; Ren, Chonghua; Xu, Kun; Yan, Qiang; Li, Xinyi; Zhang, Tingting; Zhang, Zhiying

    2016-04-29

    Yeast is considered as a simple and cost-effective host for protein expression, and our previous studies have proved that Saccharomyces cerevisiae can deliver recombinant protein and DNA into mouse dendritic cells and can further induce immune responses as novel vaccines. In order to know whether similar immune responses can be induced in rabbit by oral administration of such recombinant S. cerevisiae vaccine, we orally fed the rabbits with heat-inactivated myostatin-recombinant S. cerevisiae for 5 weeks, and then myostatin-specific antibody in serum was detected successfully by western blotting and ELISA assay. The rabbits treated with myostatin-recombinant S. cerevisiae vaccine grew faster and their muscles were much heavier than that of the control group. As a common experimental animal and a meat livestock with great economic value, rabbit was proved to be the second animal species that have been successfully orally immunized by recombinant S. cerevisiae vaccine after mice.

  6. Evaluation of Peru-15, a new live oral vaccine for cholera, in volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, D A; Sack, R B; Shimko, J; Gomes, G; O'Sullivan, D; Metcalfe, K; Spriggs, D

    1997-07-01

    A new live oral cholera vaccine, Peru-15, was studied for safety, immunogenicity, and excretion in 2 groups of healthy volunteers. Twelve inpatient volunteers received freshly harvested vaccine in doses of either 10(7) or 10(9) cfu. Subsequently 50 outpatient volunteers received freeze-dried vaccine in doses of 10(8) or 10(9) cfu or placebo in a three-cell, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial. The strain was well tolerated at all dose levels, and it stimulated high levels of vibriocidal antibodies in most inpatient volunteers and in all outpatient volunteers. Although antitoxin responses were less frequent and of lower magnitude than the vibriocidal responses, antitoxin responses were seen in >60% of the outpatient volunteers. About 60% of the volunteers excreted the vaccine in their feces; however, fecal excretion did not correlate with serologic responses. It is concluded that Peru-15 is a safe and immunogenic oral vaccine for cholera.

  7. Transgenic plants: a 5-year update on oral antipathogen vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Marisela; Rosas, Gabriela; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Fragoso, Gladis; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Sciutto, Edda

    2014-12-01

    The progressive interest in transgenic plants as advantageous platforms for the production and oral delivery of vaccines has led to extensive research and improvements in this technology over recent years. In this paper, the authors examine the most significant advances in this area, including novel approaches for higher yields and better containment, and the continued evaluation of new vaccine prototypes against several infectious diseases. The use of plants to deliver vaccine candidates against viruses, bacteria, and eukaryotic parasites within the last 5 years is discussed, focusing on innovative expression strategies and the immunogenic potential of new vaccines. A brief section on the state of the art in mucosal immunity is also included.

  8. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding rabies risk in community members and healthcare professionals: Pétionville, Haiti, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenelon, N; Dely, P; Katz, M A; Schaad, N D; Dismer, A; Moran, D; Laraque, F; Wallace, R M

    2017-06-01

    Haiti has the highest human rabies burden in the Western Hemisphere. There is no published literature describing the public's perceptions of rabies in Haiti, information that is critical to developing effective interventions and government policies. We conducted a knowledge, attitudes and practices survey of 550 community members and 116 health professionals in Pétionville, Haiti in 2013 to understand the perception of rabies in these populations. The majority of respondents (85%) knew that dogs were the primary reservoir for rabies, yet only 1% were aware that bats and mongooses could transmit rabies. Animal bites were recognized as a mechanism of rabies transmission by 77% of the population and 76% were aware that the disease could be prevented by vaccination. Of 172 persons reporting a bite, only 37% sought medical treatment. The annual bite incidence rate in respondents was 0·9%. Only 31% of bite victims reported that they started the rabies vaccination series. Only 38% of respondents reported that their dog had been vaccinated against rabies. The majority of medical professionals recognized that dogs were the main reservoir for rabies (98%), but only 28% reported bats and 14% reported mongooses as posing a risk for rabies infection. Bites were reported as a mechanism of rabies transmission by 73% of respondents; exposure to saliva was reported by 20%. Thirty-four percent of medical professionals reported they would wash a bite wound with soap and water and 2·8% specifically mentioned rabies vaccination as a component of post-bite treatment. The majority of healthcare professionals recommended some form of rabies assessment for biting animals; 68·9% recommended a 14-day observation period, 60·4% recommended a veterinary consultation, and 13·2% recommended checking the vaccination status of the animal. Fewer than 15% of healthcare professionals had ever received training on rabies prevention and 77% did not know where to go to procure rabies vaccine for

  9. Aerial distribution of ONRAB baits as a tactic to control rabies in raccoons and striped skunks in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosatte, R C; Donovan, D; Davies, J C; Allan, M; Bachmann, P; Stevenson, B; Sobey, K; Brown, L; Silver, A; Bennett, K; Buchanan, T; Bruce, L; Gibson, M; Beresford, A; Beath, A; Fehlner-Gardiner, C; Lawson, K

    2009-04-01

    During August 2006 and 2007, baits containing oral rabies vaccine, live adenovirus vector, known as ONRAB , were aerially distributed in SW Ontario, Canada. Bait acceptance during 2006 was 62 and 74% in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in areas baited at 150 baits/km(2) and 75 and 77% in plots baited at 300 baits/km(2). During 2007, bait acceptance for raccoons ranged between 59% and 80%, and 83% and 87%, in areas baited at 75 and 400 baits/km(2), respectively. Bait acceptance by skunks varied among plots (5-24%). Rabies virus-specific seroconversion during 2006 averaged 66 and 81% in raccoons in areas baited at 150 and 300 baits/km(2), respectively. During 2007, seroconversion by raccoons was 76 and 84% in areas baited at 75 and 400 baits/km(2), respectively. Seroconversion by skunks varied among plots (17-51%). Vaccine efficacy, as judged by the percentage of animals that consumed a bait and seroconverted, averaged 79 and 87% during 2006 for raccoons in areas baited at 150 and 300 baits/km(2), respectively, and 81 and 90% in areas baited during 2007 at 75 and 400 baits/km(2), respectively. Because tetracycline marking was poor in skunks, an estimate of vaccine efficacy was not possible. Aerial distribution of ONRAB vaccine baits seems to be a feasible tactic for controlling rabies in skunks and raccoons.

  10. First Outbreak Response Using an Oral Cholera Vaccine in Africa: Vaccine Coverage, Acceptability and Surveillance of Adverse Events, Guinea, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquero, Francisco J.; Grout, Lise; Ciglenecki, Iza; Sakoba, Keita; Traore, Bala; Heile, Melat; Dialo, Alpha Amadou; Itama, Christian; Serafini, Micaela; Legros, Dominique; Grais, Rebecca F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite World Health Organization (WHO) prequalification of two safe and effective oral cholera vaccines (OCV), concerns about the acceptability, potential diversion of resources, cost and feasibility of implementing timely campaigns has discouraged their use. In 2012, the Ministry of Health of Guinea, with the support of Médecins Sans Frontières organized the first mass vaccination campaign using a two-dose OCV (Shanchol) as an additional control measure to respond to the on-going nationwide epidemic. Overall, 316,250 vaccines were delivered. Here, we present the results of vaccination coverage, acceptability and surveillance of adverse events. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a cross-sectional cluster survey and implemented adverse event surveillance. The study population included individuals older than 12 months, eligible for vaccination, and residing in the areas targeted for vaccination (Forécariah and Boffa, Guinea). Data sources were household interviews with verification by vaccination card and notifications of adverse events from surveillance at vaccination posts and health centres. In total 5,248 people were included in the survey, 3,993 in Boffa and 1,255 in Forécariah. Overall, 89.4% [95%CI:86.4–91.8%] and 87.7% [95%CI:84.2–90.6%] were vaccinated during the first round and 79.8% [95%CI:75.6–83.4%] and 82.9% [95%CI:76.6–87.7%] during the second round in Boffa and Forécariah respectively. The two dose vaccine coverage (including card and oral reporting) was 75.8% [95%CI: 71.2–75.9%] in Boffa and 75.9% [95%CI: 69.8–80.9%] in Forécariah respectively. Vaccination coverage was higher in children. The main reason for non-vaccination was absence. No severe adverse events were notified. Conclusions/Significance The well-accepted mass vaccination campaign reached high coverage in a remote area with a mobile population. Although OCV should not be foreseen as the long-term solution for global cholera control, they should be

  11. First outbreak response using an oral cholera vaccine in Africa: vaccine coverage, acceptability and surveillance of adverse events, Guinea, 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Luquero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite World Health Organization (WHO prequalification of two safe and effective oral cholera vaccines (OCV, concerns about the acceptability, potential diversion of resources, cost and feasibility of implementing timely campaigns has discouraged their use. In 2012, the Ministry of Health of Guinea, with the support of Médecins Sans Frontières organized the first mass vaccination campaign using a two-dose OCV (Shanchol as an additional control measure to respond to the on-going nationwide epidemic. Overall, 316,250 vaccines were delivered. Here, we present the results of vaccination coverage, acceptability and surveillance of adverse events. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a cross-sectional cluster survey and implemented adverse event surveillance. The study population included individuals older than 12 months, eligible for vaccination, and residing in the areas targeted for vaccination (Forécariah and Boffa, Guinea. Data sources were household interviews with verification by vaccination card and notifications of adverse events from surveillance at vaccination posts and health centres. In total 5,248 people were included in the survey, 3,993 in Boffa and 1,255 in Forécariah. Overall, 89.4% [95%CI:86.4-91.8%] and 87.7% [95%CI:84.2-90.6%] were vaccinated during the first round and 79.8% [95%CI:75.6-83.4%] and 82.9% [95%CI:76.6-87.7%] during the second round in Boffa and Forécariah respectively. The two dose vaccine coverage (including card and oral reporting was 75.8% [95%CI: 71.2-75.9%] in Boffa and 75.9% [95%CI: 69.8-80.9%] in Forécariah respectively. Vaccination coverage was higher in children. The main reason for non-vaccination was absence. No severe adverse events were notified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The well-accepted mass vaccination campaign reached high coverage in a remote area with a mobile population. Although OCV should not be foreseen as the long-term solution for global cholera control, they

  12. First outbreak response using an oral cholera vaccine in Africa: vaccine coverage, acceptability and surveillance of adverse events, Guinea, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquero, Francisco J; Grout, Lise; Ciglenecki, Iza; Sakoba, Keita; Traore, Bala; Heile, Melat; Dialo, Alpha Amadou; Itama, Christian; Serafini, Micaela; Legros, Dominique; Grais, Rebecca F

    2013-01-01

    Despite World Health Organization (WHO) prequalification of two safe and effective oral cholera vaccines (OCV), concerns about the acceptability, potential diversion of resources, cost and feasibility of implementing timely campaigns has discouraged their use. In 2012, the Ministry of Health of Guinea, with the support of Médecins Sans Frontières organized the first mass vaccination campaign using a two-dose OCV (Shanchol) as an additional control measure to respond to the on-going nationwide epidemic. Overall, 316,250 vaccines were delivered. Here, we present the results of vaccination coverage, acceptability and surveillance of adverse events. We performed a cross-sectional cluster survey and implemented adverse event surveillance. The study population included individuals older than 12 months, eligible for vaccination, and residing in the areas targeted for vaccination (Forécariah and Boffa, Guinea). Data sources were household interviews with verification by vaccination card and notifications of adverse events from surveillance at vaccination posts and health centres. In total 5,248 people were included in the survey, 3,993 in Boffa and 1,255 in Forécariah. Overall, 89.4% [95%CI:86.4-91.8%] and 87.7% [95%CI:84.2-90.6%] were vaccinated during the first round and 79.8% [95%CI:75.6-83.4%] and 82.9% [95%CI:76.6-87.7%] during the second round in Boffa and Forécariah respectively. The two dose vaccine coverage (including card and oral reporting) was 75.8% [95%CI: 71.2-75.9%] in Boffa and 75.9% [95%CI: 69.8-80.9%] in Forécariah respectively. Vaccination coverage was higher in children. The main reason for non-vaccination was absence. No severe adverse events were notified. The well-accepted mass vaccination campaign reached high coverage in a remote area with a mobile population. Although OCV should not be foreseen as the long-term solution for global cholera control, they should be integrated as an additional tool into the response.

  13. Learning about Bats and Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Rabies Rabies Homepage Share Compartir Learning about bats and rabies Most bats don t ... Monday-Friday Closed Holidays cdcinfo@cdc.gov Bats Learning about bats and rabies Coming in contact with ...

  14. Differential Kinetics and Distribution of Antibodies in Serum and Nasal and Vaginal Secretions after Nasal and Oral Vaccination of Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Rudin, Anna; Johansson, Eva-Liz; Bergquist, Charlotta; Holmgren, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Although nasal vaccination has emerged as an interesting alternative to systemic or oral vaccination, knowledge is scarce about the immune responses after such immunization in humans. In the present study, we have compared the kinetics and organ distribution of the antibody responses after nasal and oral vaccination. We immunized female volunteers nasally or orally with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and determined the specific antibody levels in serum and nasal and vaginal secretions, as well...

  15. The History of Rabies in Trinidad: Epidemiology and Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine F. R. Seetahal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vampire bat-transmitted rabies was first recognized in Trinidad during a major outbreak reported in 1925. Trinidad is the only Caribbean island with vampire bat-transmitted rabies. We conducted a literature review to describe the changing epidemiology of rabies in Trinidad and give a historical perspective to rabies prevention and control measures on the island. The last human case of rabies occurred in 1937 and although no case of canine-transmitted rabies was reported since 1914, sporadic outbreaks of bat-transmitted rabies still occur in livestock to date. Over the last century, seven notable epidemics were recorded in Trinidad with the loss of over 3000 animals. During the 1950s, several measures were effectively adopted for the prevention and control of the disease which led to a significant reduction in the number of cases. These measures include: vampire bat population control, livestock vaccination, and animal surveillance. However, due to lapses in these measures over the years (e.g., periods of limited vampire control and incomplete herd vaccination, epidemics have occurred. In light of the significant negative impact of rabies on animal production and human health, rabies surveillance in Trinidad should be enhanced and cases evaluated towards the design and implementation of more evidence-based prevention and control programs.

  16. Regulatory systems for prevention and control of rabies, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi-Omoe, Hiromi; Omoe, Katsuhiko; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2008-09-01

    Japan is one of the few rabies-free countries. Although 3 imported cases of human rabies were seen in 1970 and 2006, no other cases have been reported for approximately 50 years. The elimination of rabies in Japan is attributed to not only its geographic isolation but also to effective prevention and control measures, such as registration and vaccination of domestic dogs, required quarantine of susceptible imported animals, and national plans of action based on scientific research. Countermeasures against rabies have been upgraded; an improved management system for domestic dogs under the amended Enforcement Regulations of the Rabies Prevention Law has been in effect since April 2007. The latest regulatory systems for preventing and controlling rabies provide an effective model for elimination of the disease worldwide.

  17. Canine Rabies: A Looming Threat to Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigfrido Burgos-Cáceres

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is an acute, fatal viral disease that infects domestic and wild animals and is transmissible to humans. Worldwide, rabies kills over 55,000 people every year. The domestic dog plays a pivotal role in rabies transmission. Domestic dogs are not only part of our daily lives but also of our immediate surroundings, and this is reflected in the rise in pet dog ownership in developed and developing countries. This is important given that more frequent exposures and interactions at the animal-human interface increases the likelihood of contracting zoonotic diseases of companion animals. Despite existing vaccines and post-exposure prophylactic treatment, rabies remains a neglected disease that is poorly controlled throughout much of the developing world, particularly Africa and Asia, where most human rabies deaths occur. It is believed that with sustained international commitments, global elimination of rabies from domestic dog populations, the most dangerous vector to humans, is a realistic goal.

  18. Rabies in Saudi Arabia: a need for epidemiological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad A. Memish

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is endemic in animals in the Arabian Peninsula. Although Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Peninsula, little has been published about the rabies situation in the country. A total of 11 069 animal bites to humans were reported during 2007–2009, and 40 animals suspected of rabies were examined for rabies infection from 2005 through 2010. Results suggest that animal-related injuries in Saudi Arabia remain a public health problem, with feral dogs accounting for the majority of bites to humans and for the majority of animals found to be rabid. Over the last 10 years, no confirmed human rabies case has been reported. More detailed information about the epidemiology of animal bites and that of animal rabies in Saudi Arabia would be of great interest, notably to provide a basis on which vaccination recommendations could be made for the numerous international travellers visiting the country.

  19. Viral Aetiology of Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance Cases, before and after Vaccine Policy Change from Oral Polio Vaccine to Inactivated Polio Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Saraswathy Subramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1992, surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP cases was introduced in Malaysia along with the establishment of the National Poliovirus Laboratory at the Institute for Medical Research. In 2008, the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, approved a vaccine policy change from oral polio vaccine to inactivated polio vaccine (IPV. Eight states started using IPV in the Expanded Immunization Programme, followed by the remaining states in January 2010. The objective of this study was to determine the viral aetiology of AFP cases below 15 years of age, before and after vaccine policy change from oral polio vaccine to inactivated polio vaccine. One hundred and seventy-nine enteroviruses were isolated from the 3394 stool specimens investigated between 1992 and December 2012. Fifty-six out of 107 virus isolates were polioviruses and the remaining were non-polio enteroviruses. Since 2009 after the sequential introduction of IPV in the childhood immunization programme, no Sabin polioviruses were isolated from AFP cases. In 2012, the laboratory AFP surveillance was supplemented with environmental surveillance with sewage sampling. Thirteen Sabin polioviruses were also isolated from sewage in the same year, but no vaccine-derived poliovirus was detected during this period.

  20. Considerations for Oral Cholera Vaccine Use during Outbreak after Earthquake in Haiti, 2010−2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicari, Andrea; Hyde, Terri B.; Mintz, Eric; Danovaro-Holliday, M. Carolina; Henry, Ariel; Tappero, Jordan W.; Roels, Thierry H.; Abrams, Joseph; Burkholder, Brenton T.; Ruiz-Matus, Cuauhtémoc; Andrus, Jon; Dietz, Vance

    2011-01-01

    Oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) have been recommended in cholera-endemic settings and preemptively during outbreaks and complex emergencies. However, experience and guidelines for reactive use after an outbreak has started are limited. In 2010, after over a century without epidemic cholera, an outbreak was reported in Haiti after an earthquake. As intensive nonvaccine cholera control measures were initiated, the feasibility of OCV use was considered. We reviewed OCV characteristics and recommendations for their use and assessed global vaccine availability and capacity to implement a vaccination campaign. Real-time modeling was conducted to estimate vaccine impact. Ultimately, cholera vaccination was not implemented because of limited vaccine availability, complex logistical and operational challenges of a multidose regimen, and obstacles to conducting a campaign in a setting with population displacement and civil unrest. Use of OCVs is an option for cholera control; guidelines for their appropriate use in epidemic and emergency settings are urgently needed. PMID:22099114

  1. Protection against bovine tuberculosis induced by oral vaccination of cattle with Mycobacterium bovis BCG is not enhanced by co-administration of mycobacterial protein vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedlock, D Neil; Aldwell, Frank E; Vordermeier, H Martin; Hewinson, R Glyn; Buddle, Bryce M

    2011-12-15

    Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) delivered to calves by the oral route in a formulated lipid matrix has been previously shown to induce protection against bovine tuberculosis. A study was conducted in cattle to determine if a combination of a low dose of oral BCG and a protein vaccine could induce protective immunity to tuberculosis while not sensitising animals to tuberculin. Groups of calves (10 per group) were vaccinated by administering 2 × 10(7)colony forming units (CFU) of BCG orally or a combination of 2 × 10(7)CFU oral BCG and a protein vaccine comprised of M. bovis culture filtrate proteins (CFP) formulated with the adjuvants Chitin and Gel 01 and delivered by the intranasal route, or CFP formulated with Emulsigen and the TLR2 agonist Pam(3)CSK(4) and administered by the subcutaneous (s.c.) route. Two further groups were vaccinated with the CFP/Chitin/Gel 01 or CFP/Emulsigen/Pam(3)CSK(4) vaccines alone. Positive control groups were given 10(8)CFU oral BCG or 10(6)CFU s.c. BCG while a negative control group was non-vaccinated. All animals were challenged with M. bovis 15 weeks after vaccination and euthanized and necropsied at 16 weeks following challenge. Groups of cattle vaccinated with s.c. BCG, 10(8)CFU or 2 × 10(7)CFU oral BCG showed significant reductions in seven, three and four pathological or microbiological disease parameters, respectively, compared to the results for the non-vaccinated group. There was no evidence of protection in calves vaccinated with the combination of oral BCG and CFP/Emulsigen/Pam(3)CSK(4) or oral BCG and CFP/Chitin/Gel 01 or vaccinated with the protein vaccines alone. Positive responses in the comparative cervical skin test at 12 weeks after vaccination were only observed in animals vaccinated with s.c. BCG, 10(8)CFU oral BCG or a combination of 2 × 10(7)CFU oral BCG and CFP/Chitin/Gel 01. In conclusion, co-administration of a protein vaccine, administered by either systemic or mucosal routes with oral

  2. Public Health Responses to Reemergence of Animal Rabies, Taiwan, July 16-December 28, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Song-En Huang

    Full Text Available Taiwan had been free of indigenous human and animal rabies case since canine rabies was eliminated in 1961. In July 2013, rabies was confirmed among three wild ferret-badgers, prompting public health response to prevent human rabies cases. This descriptive study reports the immediate response to the reemergence of rabies in Taiwan. Response included enhanced surveillance for human rabies cases by testing stored cerebrospinal fluids (CSF from patients with encephalitides of unknown cause by RT-PCR, prioritizing vaccine use for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP during periods of vaccine shortage and subsequent expansion of PEP, surveillance of animal bites using information obtained from vaccine application, roll out of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP with vaccine stock restoration, surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI, and ensuring surge capacity to respond to general public inquiries by phone and training for healthcare professionals. Enhanced surveillance for human rabies found no cases after testing 205 stored CSF specimens collected during January 2010-July 2013. During July 16 to December 28, 2013, we received 8,241 rabies PEP application; 6,634 (80.5% were consistent with recommendations. Among the 6,501 persons who received at least one dose of rabies vaccine postexposure, 4,953 (76.2% persons who were bitten by dogs; only 59 (0.9% persons were bitten by ferret-badgers. During the study period, 6,247 persons received preexposure prophylaxis. There were 23 reports of AEFI; but no anaphylaxis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis were found. During the study period, there were 40,312 calls to the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control hotline, of which, 8,692 (22% were related to rabies. Recent identification of rabies among ferret-badgers in a previously rabies-free country prompted rapid response. To date, no human rabies has been identified. Continued multifaceted surveillance and

  3. Burrow Dusting or Oral Vaccination Prevents Plague-Associated Prairie Dog Colony Collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Daniel W; Rocke, Tonie E; Runge, Jonathan P; Abbott, Rachel C; Miller, Michael W

    2017-06-22

    Plague impacts prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), the endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) and other sensitive wildlife species. We compared efficacy of prophylactic treatments (burrow dusting with deltamethrin or oral vaccination with recombinant "sylvatic plague vaccine" [RCN-F1/V307]) to placebo treatment in black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus) colonies. Between 2013 and 2015, we measured prairie dog apparent survival, burrow activity and flea abundance on triplicate plots ("blocks") receiving dust, vaccine or placebo treatment. Epizootic plague affected all three blocks but emerged asynchronously. Dust plots had fewer fleas per burrow (P plague emerged. Patterns in corresponding dust and vaccine plots were less consistent and appeared strongly influenced by timing of treatment applications relative to plague emergence. Deltamethrin or oral vaccination enhanced apparent survival within two blocks. Applying insecticide or vaccine prior to epizootic emergence blunted effects of plague on prairie dog survival and abundance, thereby preventing colony collapse. Successful plague mitigation will likely entail strategic combined uses of burrow dusting and oral vaccination within large colonies or colony complexes.

  4. Modeling enzootic raccoon rabies from land use patterns - Georgia (USA 2006-2010 [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2i3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Duke

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed how land-use patterns and changes in urbanization influence reported rabid raccoons in Georgia from 2006 - 2010.  Using Geographical Information Systems and rabies surveillance data, multivariate analysis was conducted on 15 land-use variables that included natural topography, agricultural development, and urbanization to model positive raccoon rabies cases while controlling for potential raccoon submission bias associated with higher human population densities.  Low intensity residential development was positively associated with reported rabid raccoons while a negative association was found with evergreen forest.  Evergreen forests may offer a barrier effect where resources are low and raccoon populations are not supported.  Areas with pure stands of upland evergreen forest might be utilized in baiting strategies for oral rabies vaccination programs where fewer or no baits may be needed.  Their use as a barrier should be considered carefully in a cost-effective strategy for oral rabies vaccination (ORV programs to contain the western spread of this important zoonotic disease.

  5. Modeling enzootic raccoon rabies from land use patterns - Georgia (USA 2006-2010 [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/34t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Duke

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed how land-use patterns and changes in urbanization influence reported rabid raccoons in Georgia from 2006 - 2010.  Using Geographical Information Systems and rabies surveillance data, multivariate analysis was conducted on 15 land-use variables that included natural topography, agricultural development, and urbanization to model positive raccoon rabies cases while controlling for potential raccoon submission bias associated with higher human population densities.  Low intensity residential development was positively associated with reported rabid raccoons while a negative association was found with evergreen forest.  Evergreen forests may offer a barrier effect where resources are low and raccoon populations are not supported.  Areas with pure stands of upland evergreen forest might be utilized in baiting strategies for oral rabies vaccination programs where fewer or no baits may be needed.  Their use as a barrier should be considered carefully in a cost-effective strategy for oral rabies vaccination (ORV programs to contain the western spread of this important zoonotic disease.

  6. Modelling of Rabies Transmission Dynamics Using Optimal Control Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Kiddy K. Asamoah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine an optimal way of eradicating rabies transmission from dogs into the human population, using preexposure prophylaxis (vaccination and postexposure prophylaxis (treatment due to public education. We obtain the disease-free equilibrium, the endemic equilibrium, the stability, and the sensitivity analysis of the optimal control model. Using the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS, the forward-backward sweep scheme and the fourth-order Range-Kutta numerical method predict that the global alliance for rabies control’s aim of working to eliminate deaths from canine rabies by 2030 is attainable through mass vaccination of susceptible dogs and continuous use of pre- and postexposure prophylaxis in humans.

  7. Is injecting a finger with rabies immunoglobulin dangerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwansrinon, Kanitta; Jaijaroensup, Wipaporn; Wilde, Henry; Sitprija, Visith

    2006-08-01

    Treating potentially rabies virus infected wounds requires the injection of rabies immunoglobulin into and around the wounds, followed by vaccination with an approved tissue culture rabies vaccine. A significant number of such bite wounds involves fingers where there is little space for expansion. Injecting immunoglobulin into such areas under pressure may induce a compartment syndrome caused by compromising circulation. We carried out a retrospective review and a prospective study of patients seen with digital bite injuries and found that it is a safe procedure if carried out with care by experienced staff.

  8. Rabies in travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautret, Philippe; Parola, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Most cases of rabies in travelers are associated with dog bites and occur in adults who are commonly migrants. The incidence of injuries to travelers caused by potentially rabid animals is approximately 0.4 % per month of stay. Dogs account for 51 % of cases, but nonhuman primates are the leading animals responsible for injuries in travelers returning from Southeast Asia. Travel to Southeast Asia, India and North Africa, young age, and traveling for tourism are risk factors for potential exposure. More than 70 % of travelers are not immunized prior to departing and do not receive adequate care when injured. The intradermal vaccination route has been proven economical, safe and immunogenic in travelers. The immunity provided by the three-dose series is long-lasting and should be considered an investment for future travel. Abbreviated schedules may be used for last-minute travelers.

  9. Vampire bat-transmitted rabies in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Sota, C

    1988-01-01

    A short history of bovine paralytic rabies in the Americas is given. Based on information from the Animal Health Yearbook--a cooperative publication of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the International Office of Epizootics (OIE)--a comparison is made of the epidemiology of the disease in 1968, 1978, and 1985. An important reduction in the number of cases of rabies was observed in some countries (Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama), mainly as a result of the use of effective vaccines that are now available and of the application of new technology to reduce the vampire bat population, the vector of the disease in cattle. The trials performed in Argentina and Mexico in the 1960s and 1970s provide enough evidence that many vaccines will protect cattle against bovine paralytic rabies. Results of these trials are presented.

  10. Methods for the purification of equine rabies immunoglobulin: Effects on yield and biological activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. Hong; E.J.M. Rooijakkers; N.T. Ke; J.M. Groen (Jan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractSince rabies is still a major cause of human death in many developing countries and the implementation of recommended post-exposure prophylaxis by vaccination and specific immunoglobulin therapy is largely hampered by its high cost, the development of cheap rabies vaccines and immunoglob

  11. Rabies exposures, post-exposure prophylaxis and deaths in a region of endemic canine rabies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Hampson

    Full Text Available Thousands of human deaths from rabies occur annually despite the availability of effective vaccines following exposure, and for disease control in the animal reservoir. Our aim was to assess risk factors associated with exposure and to determine why human deaths from endemic canine rabies still occur.Contact tracing was used to gather data on rabies exposures, post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP delivered and deaths in two rural districts in northwestern Tanzania from 2002 to 2006. Data on risk factors and the propensity to seek and complete courses of PEP was collected using questionnaires. Exposures varied from 6-141/100,000 per year. Risk of exposure to rabies was greater in an area with agropastoralist communities (and larger domestic dog populations than an area with pastoralist communities. Children were at greater risk than adults of being exposed to rabies and of developing clinical signs. PEP dramatically reduced the risk of developing rabies (odds ratio [OR] 17.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.39-60.83 and when PEP was not delivered the risks were higher in the pastoralist than the agro-pastoralist area (OR 6.12, 95% CI 2.60-14.58. Low socioeconomic class and distance to medical facilities lengthened delays before PEP delivery. Over 20% of rabies-exposed individuals did not seek medical treatment and were not documented in official records and <65% received PEP. Animal bite injury records were an accurate indicator of rabies exposure incidence.Insufficient knowledge about rabies dangers and prevention, particularly prompt PEP, but also wound management, was the main cause of rabies deaths. Education, particularly in poor and marginalized communities, but also for medical and veterinary workers, would prevent future deaths.

  12. Plant-made subunit vaccine against pneumonic and bubonic plague is orally immunogenic in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, M Lucrecia; Pinyerd, Heidi L; Crisantes, Jason D; Rigano, M Manuela; Pinkhasov, Julia; Walmsley, Amanda M; Mason, Hugh S; Cardineau, Guy A

    2006-03-24

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is an extremely virulent bacterium but there are no approved vaccines for protection against it. Our goal was to produce a vaccine that would address: ease of delivery, mucosal efficacy, safety, rapid scalability, and cost. We developed a novel production and delivery system for a plague vaccine of a Y. pestis F1-V antigen fusion protein expressed in tomato. Immunogenicity of the F1-V transgenic tomatoes was confirmed in mice that were primed subcutaneously with bacterially-produced F1-V and boosted orally with transgenic tomato fruit. Expression of the plague antigens in fruit allowed producing an oral vaccine candidate without protein purification and with minimal processing technology.

  13. Plant-made oral vaccines against human infectious diseases-Are we there yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hui-Ting; Daniell, Henry

    2015-10-01

    Although the plant-made vaccine field started three decades ago with the promise of developing low-cost vaccines to prevent infectious disease outbreaks and epidemics around the globe, this goal has not yet been achieved. Plants offer several major advantages in vaccine generation, including low-cost production by eliminating expensive fermentation and purification systems, sterile delivery and cold storage/transportation. Most importantly, oral vaccination using plant-made antigens confers both mucosal (IgA) and systemic (IgG) immunity. Studies in the past 5 years have made significant progress in expressing vaccine antigens in edible leaves (especially lettuce), processing leaves or seeds through lyophilization and achieving antigen stability and efficacy after prolonged storage at ambient temperatures. Bioencapsulation of antigens in plant cells protects them from the digestive system; the fusion of antigens to transmucosal carriers enhances efficiency of their delivery to the immune system and facilitates successful development of plant vaccines as oral boosters. However, the lack of oral priming approaches diminishes these advantages because purified antigens, cold storage/transportation and limited shelf life are still major challenges for priming with adjuvants and for antigen delivery by injection. Yet another challenge is the risk of inducing tolerance without priming the host immune system. Therefore, mechanistic aspects of these two opposing processes (antibody production or suppression) are discussed in this review. In addition, we summarize recent progress made in oral delivery of vaccine antigens expressed in plant cells via the chloroplast or nuclear genomes and potential challenges in achieving immunity against infectious diseases using cold-chain-free vaccine delivery approaches. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Burrow dusting or oral vaccination prevents plague-associated prairie dog colony collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Daniel W.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Runge, Jonathan P.; Abbott, Rachel C.; Miller, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    Plague impacts prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), the endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) and other sensitive wildlife species. We compared efficacy of prophylactic treatments (burrow dusting with deltamethrin or oral vaccination with recombinant “sylvatic plague vaccine” [RCN-F1/V307]) to placebo treatment in black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus) colonies. Between 2013 and 2015, we measured prairie dog apparent survival, burrow activity and flea abundance on triplicate plots (“blocks”) receiving dust, vaccine or placebo treatment. Epizootic plague affected all three blocks but emerged asynchronously. Dust plots had fewer fleas per burrow (P plague emerged. Patterns in corresponding dust and vaccine plots were less consistent and appeared strongly influenced by timing of treatment applications relative to plague emergence. Deltamethrin or oral vaccination enhanced apparent survival within two blocks. Applying insecticide or vaccine prior to epizootic emergence blunted effects of plague on prairie dog survival and abundance, thereby preventing colony collapse. Successful plague mitigation will likely entail strategic combined uses of burrow dusting and oral vaccination within large colonies or colony complexes.

  15. Resource Needs for the Trivalent Oral Polio to Bivalent Oral Polio Vaccine Switch in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Marionette; Abimbola, Taiwo; Lusiana, Merry; Pallas, Sarah; Hampton, Lee M; Widyastuti, Retno; Muas, Idawati; Karlina, Karlina; Kosen, Soewarta

    2017-07-01

    We present an empirical economic cost analysis of the April 2016 switch from trivalent (tOPV) to bivalent (bOPV) oral polio vaccine at the national-level and 3 provinces (Bali, West Sumatera and Nusa Tenggara) for Indonesia's Expanded Program on Immunization. Data on the quantity and prices of resources used in the 4 World Health Organization guideline phases of the switch were collected at the national-level and in each of the sampled provinces, cities/districts, and health facilities. Costs were calculated as the sum of the value of resources reportedly used in each sampled unit by switch phase. Estimated national-level costs were $46 791. Costs by health system level varied from $9062 to $34 256 at the province-level, from $4576 to $11 936 at the district-level , and from $3488 to $29 175 at the city-level. Estimated national costs ranged from $4 076 446 (Bali, minimum cost scenario) to $28 120 700 (West Sumatera, maximum cost scenario). Our findings suggest that the majority of tPOV to bOPV switch costs were borne at the subnational level. Considerable variation in reported costs among health system levels surveyed indicates a need for flexibility in budgeting for globally synchronized public health activities.

  16. The feasibility of canine rabies elimination in Africa: dispelling doubts with data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Lembo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Canine rabies causes many thousands of human deaths every year in Africa, and continues to increase throughout much of the continent.This paper identifies four common reasons given for the lack of effective canine rabies control in Africa: (a a low priority given for disease control as a result of lack of awareness of the rabies burden; (b epidemiological constraints such as uncertainties about the required levels of vaccination coverage and the possibility of sustained cycles of infection in wildlife; (c operational constraints including accessibility of dogs for vaccination and insufficient knowledge of dog population sizes for planning of vaccination campaigns; and (d limited resources for implementation of rabies surveillance and control. We address each of these issues in turn, presenting data from field studies and modelling approaches used in Tanzania, including burden of disease evaluations, detailed epidemiological studies, operational data from vaccination campaigns in different demographic and ecological settings, and economic analyses of the cost-effectiveness of dog vaccination for human rabies prevention.We conclude that there are no insurmountable problems to canine rabies control in most of Africa; that elimination of canine rabies is epidemiologically and practically feasible through mass vaccination of domestic dogs; and that domestic dog vaccination provides a cost-effective approach to the prevention and elimination of human rabies deaths.

  17. Successful comeback of the single-dose live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Effective and easy to administer cholera vaccines are in need more than ever, for at risk populations and travellers alike. In many parts of the world cholera is still endemic, causing outbreaks and constituting repeatedly serious public health problems. The oral live cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR (Orochol, Mutachol), the first genetically modified organism (GMO) used as vaccine, was in its time (launched 1993, Switzerland) the ideal cholera vaccine: single-dose, protective efficacy of 80-100% against moderate to severe cholera, acting within 8 days and exhibiting excellent safety, indiscernible from placebo. However, there were strong headwinds: In the 1990s the indication for cholera vaccines was generally downplayed by experts and in 1997 the European Commission called for a moratorium of GMOs which blocked the registration in the European Union. Thus, demand for this vaccine remained low and in 2003 it was taken off the market for economic reasons. After a decade in obscurity it (Vaxchora) has resurfaced again, now produced in the U.S. and equipped with a U.S. FDA license (June 10, 2016). What had happened? This commentary gives a critical account of an almost unbelievable string of misadventures, emerging adverse circumstances and man-made failures which nearly killed this single-dose live oral cholera vaccine. The good news is that patience and persistence lead to success in the end, allowing good science to prevail for the benefit of those in need. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phylogeographic analysis of rabies viruses in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohma, Kentaro; Saito, Mariko; Kamigaki, Taro; Tuason, Laarni T; Demetria, Catalino S; Orbina, Jun Ryan C; Manalo, Daria L; Miranda, Mary E; Noguchi, Akira; Inoue, Satoshi; Suzuki, Akira; Quiambao, Beatriz P; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2014-04-01

    Rabies still remains a public health threat in the Philippines. A significant number of human rabies cases, about 200-300 cases annually, have been reported, and the country needs an effective strategy for rabies control. To develop an effective control strategy, it is important to understand the transmission patterns of the rabies viruses. We conducted phylogenetic analyses by considering the temporal and spatial evolution of rabies viruses to reveal the transmission dynamics in the Philippines. After evaluating the molecular clock and phylogeographic analysis, we estimated that the Philippine strains were introduced from China around the beginning of 20th century. Upon this introduction, the rabies viruses evolved within the Philippines to form three major clades, and there was no indication of introduction of other rabies viruses from any other country. However, within the Philippines, island-to-island migrations were observed. Since then, the rabies viruses have diffused and only evolved within each island group. The evolutionary pattern of these viruses was strongly shaped by geographical boundaries. The association index statistics demonstrated a strong spatial structure within the island group, indicating that the seas were a significant geographical barrier for viral dispersal. Strong spatial structure was also observed even at a regional level, and most of the viral migrations (79.7% of the total median number) in Luzon were observed between neighboring regions. Rabies viruses were genetically clustered at a regional level, and this strong spatial structure suggests a geographical clustering of transmission chains and the potential effectiveness of rabies control that targets geographical clustering. Dog vaccination campaigns have been conducted independently by local governments in the Philippines, but it could be more effective to implement a coordinated vaccination campaign among neighboring areas to eliminate geographically-clustered rabies

  19. Surveillance and control of rabies in La Reunion, Mayotte, and Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Mayotte and La Reunion islands are currently free of animal rabies and surveillance is performed by the French Human and Veterinary Public Health Services. However, dog rabies is still enzootic in Madagascar with 4 to 10 confirmed human cases each year. The number of antirabies medical centres in Madagascar is still scarce to provide easy access to the local population for post-exposure rabies prophylaxis. Furthermore, stray dog populations are considerable and attempts to control rabies by mass campaigns of dog vaccination have not received sufficient attention from the national health authorities. To address these challenges, an expanded program to control rabies needs to be initiated by the Malagasy authorities. PMID:24016204

  20. Compendium of animal rabies prevention and control, 2006: National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc. (NASPHV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-14

    Rabies is a fatal viral zoonosis and a serious public health problem. The recommendations in this compendium serve as a basis for animal rabies prevention and control programs throughout the United States and facilitate standardization of procedures among jurisdictions, thereby contributing to an effective national rabies-control program. This document is reviewed annually and revised as necessary. These recommendations do not supersede state and local laws or requirements. Principles of rabies prevention and control are detailed in Part I; Part II contains recommendations for parenteral vaccination procedures; all animal rabies vaccines licensed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and marketed in the United States are listed in Part III.

  1. Achieving population-level immunity to rabies in free-roaming dogs in Africa and Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle K Morters

    Full Text Available Canine rabies can be effectively controlled by vaccination with readily available, high-quality vaccines. These vaccines should provide protection from challenge in healthy dogs, for the claimed period, for duration of immunity, which is often two or three years. It has been suggested that, in free-roaming dog populations where rabies is endemic, vaccine-induced protection may be compromised by immuno-suppression through malnutrition, infection and other stressors. This may reduce the proportion of dogs that seroconvert to the vaccine during vaccination campaigns and the duration of immunity of those dogs that seroconvert. Vaccination coverage may also be limited through insufficient vaccine delivery during vaccination campaigns and the loss of vaccinated individuals from populations through demographic processes. This is the first longitudinal study to evaluate temporal variations in rabies vaccine-induced serological responses, and factors associated with these variations, at the individual level in previously unvaccinated free-roaming dog populations. Individual-level serological and health-based data were collected from three cohorts of dogs in regions where rabies is endemic, one in South Africa and two in Indonesia. We found that the vast majority of dogs seroconverted to the vaccine; however, there was considerable variation in titres, partly attributable to illness and lactation at the time of vaccination. Furthermore, >70% of the dogs were vaccinated through community engagement and door-to-door vaccine delivery, even in Indonesia where the majority of the dogs needed to be caught by net on successive occasions for repeat blood sampling and vaccination. This demonstrates the feasibility of achieving population-level immunity in free-roaming dog populations in rabies-endemic regions. However, attrition of immune individuals through demographic processes and waning immunity necessitates repeat vaccination of populations within at least

  2. Oral cholera vaccine use in Zanzibar: socioeconomic and behavioural features affecting demand and acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaetti, Christian; Hutubessy, Raymond; Ali, Said M; Pach, Al; Weiss, Mitchell G; Chaignat, Claire-Lise; Khatib, Ahmed M

    2009-04-07

    Cholera remains a serious public health problem in low-income countries despite efforts in the past to promote oral rehydration therapy as major treatment. In 2007, the majority of worldwide cases (94%) and deaths (99%) were reported from Africa. To improve cholera control efforts in addition to maintaining and improving existing water supply, sanitation and hygiene behaviour measures, the World Health Organization has recently started to consider the use of vaccines as an additional public health tool. To assess this new approach in endemic settings, a project was launched in Zanzibar to vaccinate 50,000 individuals living in communities at high risk of cholera with an oral two-dose vaccine (Dukoral). Immunisation programmes in low-income countries have suffered a reduced coverage or were even brought to a halt because of an ignorance of local realities. To ensure the success of vaccination campaigns, implementers have to consider community-held perceptions and behaviours regarding the infectious disease and the vaccine of interest. The main aim of this study is to provide advice to the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare of Zanzibar regarding routine introduction of an oral cholera vaccine from a socioeconomic and behavioural perspective as part of a long-term development for a sustained cholera prevention strategy. Qualitative and quantitative methods of health social science research will be applied on four stakeholder levels before and after the mass vaccination campaign. Rapid assessment individual interviews and focus groups will be used to describe cholera- and vaccine-related views of policy makers, health care professionals and community representatives. The cultural epidemiological approach will be employed on the individual household resident level in a repeated cross-sectional design to estimate determinants of anticipated and actual oral cholera vaccine acceptance. The study presented here is designed to inform about people's perceptions regarding

  3. Strategies for Developing Oral Vaccines for Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Induced Cancer using Nanoparticle mediated Delivery System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Kouzi, Samir A; Hussain, Muhammad Delwar

    2015-01-01

    Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) are a diverse group of small non-enveloped DNA viruses. Some HPVs are classified as low-risk as they are very rarely associated with neoplasia or cancer in the general population, and cause lenient warts. Other HPVs are considered as high-risk types because they are responsible for several important human cancers, including cervical cancer, a large proportion of other anogenital cancers, and a growing number of head and neck cancers. Transmission of HPV occurs primarily by skin-to-skin contact. The risk of contracting genital HPV infection and cervical cancer is influenced by sexual activity. Currently two prophylactic HPV vaccines, Gardasil® (Merck, USA) and Cervarix® (GlaxoSmithKline, UK), are available and recommended for mass immunization of adolescents. However, these vaccines have limitations as they are expensive and require cold chain storage and trained personnel to administer them by injection. The use of nano or micro particulate vaccines could address most of these limitations as they are stable at room temperature, inexpensive to produce and distribute to resource poor regions, and can be administered orally without the need for adjuvants in the formulation. Also it is possible to increase the efficiency of these particulate vaccines by decorating the surface of the nano or micro particulates with suitable ligands for targeted delivery. Oral vaccines, which can be delivered using particulate formulations, have the added potential to stimulate mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue located in the digestive tract and the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, both of which are important for the induction of effective mucosal response against many viruses. In addition, oral vaccines provide the opportunity to reduce production and administration costs and are very patient compliant. This review elaborately discusses different strategies that can be pursued to develop a nano or micro particulate oral vaccine for HPV induced cancers and

  4. Edwardsiella tarda OmpA Encapsulated in Chitosan Nanoparticles Shows Superior Protection over Inactivated Whole Cell Vaccine in Orally Vaccinated Fringed-Lipped Peninsula Carp (Labeo fimbriatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Saurabh; Avadhani, Kiran; Mutalik, Srinivas; Sivadasan, Sangeetha Madambithara; Maiti, Biswajit; Girisha, Shivani Kallappa; Venugopal, Moleyur Nagarajappa; Mutoloki, Stephen; Evensen, Øystein; Karunasagar, Indrani; Munang’andu, Hetron Mweemba

    2016-11-07

    The use of oral vaccination in finfish has lagged behind injectable vaccines for a long time as oral vaccines fall short of injection vaccines in conferring protective immunity. Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) have shown potential to serve as antigen delivery systems for oral vaccines. In this study the recombinant outer membrane protein A (rOmpA) of Edwardsiella tarda was encapsulated in chitosan NPs (NP-rOmpA) and used for oral vaccination of Labeo fimbriatus. The rOmpA purity was 85%, nanodiameter fish (Mean OD450 = 2.430) than in fish vaccinated with inactivated whole cell E. tarda (IWC-ET) vaccine (Mean OD450 = 1.735), which corresponded with post-challenge survival proportions (PCSP) of 73.3% and 48.28% for the NP-rOmpA and IWC-ET groups, respectively. Serum samples from NP-rOmpA-vaccinated fish had a higher inhibition rate for E. tarda growth on tryptic soy agar (TSA) than the IWC-ET group. There was no significant difference (p = 0.989) in PCSPs between fish vaccinated with empty NPs and the unvaccinated control fish, while serum from both groups showed no detectable antibodies against E. tarda. Overall, these data show that the NP-rOmpA vaccine produced higher antibody levels and had superior protection over the IWC-ET vaccine, showing that encapsulating OmpA in chitosan NPs confer improved protection against E. tarda mortality in L. fimbriatus. There is a need to elucidate the possible adjuvant effects of chitosan NPs and the immunological mechanisms of protective immunity induced by OMPs administered orally to fish.

  5. Systematic review of mucosal immunity induced by oral and inactivated poliovirus vaccines against virus shedding following oral poliovirus challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Hird

    Full Text Available Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV may be used in mass vaccination campaigns during the final stages of polio eradication. It is also likely to be adopted by many countries following the coordinated global cessation of vaccination with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV after eradication. The success of IPV in the control of poliomyelitis outbreaks will depend on the degree of nasopharyngeal and intestinal mucosal immunity induced against poliovirus infection. We performed a systematic review of studies published through May 2011 that recorded the prevalence of poliovirus shedding in stool samples or nasopharyngeal secretions collected 5-30 days after a "challenge" dose of OPV. Studies were combined in a meta-analysis of the odds of shedding among children vaccinated according to IPV, OPV, and combination schedules. We identified 31 studies of shedding in stool and four in nasopharyngeal samples that met the inclusion criteria. Individuals vaccinated with OPV were protected against infection and shedding of poliovirus in stool samples collected after challenge compared with unvaccinated individuals (summary odds ratio [OR] for shedding 0.13 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08-0.24. In contrast, IPV provided no protection against shedding compared with unvaccinated individuals (summary OR 0.81 [95% CI 0.59-1.11] or when given in addition to OPV, compared with individuals given OPV alone (summary OR 1.14 [95% CI 0.82-1.58]. There were insufficient studies of nasopharyngeal shedding to draw a conclusion. IPV does not induce sufficient intestinal mucosal immunity to reduce the prevalence of fecal poliovirus shedding after challenge, although there was some evidence that it can reduce the quantity of virus shed. The impact of IPV on poliovirus transmission in countries where fecal-oral spread is common is unknown but is likely to be limited compared with OPV.

  6. Systematic review of mucosal immunity induced by oral and inactivated poliovirus vaccines against virus shedding following oral poliovirus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hird, Thomas R; Grassly, Nicholas C

    2012-01-01

    Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) may be used in mass vaccination campaigns during the final stages of polio eradication. It is also likely to be adopted by many countries following the coordinated global cessation of vaccination with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) after eradication. The success of IPV in the control of poliomyelitis outbreaks will depend on the degree of nasopharyngeal and intestinal mucosal immunity induced against poliovirus infection. We performed a systematic review of studies published through May 2011 that recorded the prevalence of poliovirus shedding in stool samples or nasopharyngeal secretions collected 5-30 days after a "challenge" dose of OPV. Studies were combined in a meta-analysis of the odds of shedding among children vaccinated according to IPV, OPV, and combination schedules. We identified 31 studies of shedding in stool and four in nasopharyngeal samples that met the inclusion criteria. Individuals vaccinated with OPV were protected against infection and shedding of poliovirus in stool samples collected after challenge compared with unvaccinated individuals (summary odds ratio [OR] for shedding 0.13 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08-0.24)). In contrast, IPV provided no protection against shedding compared with unvaccinated individuals (summary OR 0.81 [95% CI 0.59-1.11]) or when given in addition to OPV, compared with individuals given OPV alone (summary OR 1.14 [95% CI 0.82-1.58]). There were insufficient studies of nasopharyngeal shedding to draw a conclusion. IPV does not induce sufficient intestinal mucosal immunity to reduce the prevalence of fecal poliovirus shedding after challenge, although there was some evidence that it can reduce the quantity of virus shed. The impact of IPV on poliovirus transmission in countries where fecal-oral spread is common is unknown but is likely to be limited compared with OPV.

  7. Dog bites in humans and estimating human rabies mortality in rabies endemic areas of Bhutan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenzin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dog bites in humans are a public health problem worldwide. The issues of increasing stray dog populations, rabies outbreaks, and the risk of dogs biting humans have been frequently reported by the media in Bhutan. This study aimed to estimate the bite incidence and identify the risk factors for dog bites in humans, and to estimate human deaths from rabies in rabies endemic south Bhutan. METHODS: A hospital-based questionnaire survey was conducted during 2009-2010 among dog bites victims who visited three hospitals in Bhutan for anti-rabies vaccine injection. Decision tree modeling was used to estimate human deaths from rabies following dog bite injuries in two rabies endemic areas of south Bhutan. RESULTS: Three hundred and twenty four dog bite victims were interviewed. The annual incidence of dog bites differed between the hospital catchment areas: 869.8 (95% CI: 722.8-1022.5, 293.8 (240-358.2 and 284.8 (251.2-323 per 100,000 people in Gelephu, Phuentsholing and Thimphu, respectively. Males (62% were more at risk than females (P<0.001. Children aged 5-9 years were bitten more than other age groups. The majority of victims (71% were bitten by stray dogs. No direct fatal injury was reported. In two hospital areas (Gelephu and Phuentsholing in south Bhutan the annual incidence of death from rabies was 3.14 (95% CI: 1.57-6.29 per 100,000 population. The decision tree model predicted an equivalent annual incidence of 4.67 (95% CI: 2.53-7.53 deaths/100,000 population at risk. In the absence of post exposure prophylaxis, the model predicted 19.24 (95% CI: 13.69-25.14 deaths/year in these two areas. CONCLUSIONS: Increased educational awareness of people about the risk of dog bites and rabies is necessary, particularly for children in rabies endemic areas of Bhutan.

  8. Oral vaccination with heat inactivated Mycobacterium bovis activates the complement system to protect against tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Beltrán-Beck

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a pandemic affecting billions of people worldwide, thus stressing the need for new vaccines. Defining the correlates of vaccine protection is essential to achieve this goal. In this study, we used the wild boar model for mycobacterial infection and TB to characterize the protective mechanisms elicited by a new heat inactivated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine (IV. Oral vaccination with the IV resulted in significantly lower culture and lesion scores, particularly in the thorax, suggesting that the IV might provide a novel vaccine for TB control with special impact on the prevention of pulmonary disease, which is one of the limitations of current vaccines. Oral vaccination with the IV induced an adaptive antibody response and activation of the innate immune response including the complement component C3 and inflammasome. Mycobacterial DNA/RNA was not involved in inflammasome activation but increased C3 production by a still unknown mechanism. The results also suggested a protective mechanism mediated by the activation of IFN-γ producing CD8+ T cells by MHC I antigen presenting dendritic cells (DCs in response to vaccination with the IV, without a clear role for Th1 CD4+ T cells. These results support a role for DCs in triggering the immune response to the IV through a mechanism similar to the phagocyte response to PAMPs with a central role for C3 in protection against mycobacterial infection. Higher C3 levels may allow increased opsonophagocytosis and effective bacterial clearance, while interfering with CR3-mediated opsonic and nonopsonic phagocytosis of mycobacteria, a process that could be enhanced by specific antibodies against mycobacterial proteins induced by vaccination with the IV. These results suggest that the IV acts through novel mechanisms to protect against TB in wild boar.

  9. Safety evaluation of adenovirus type 4 and type 7 vaccine live, oral in military recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Azhar; Mathena, Julie; Albano, Jessica D; Yacovone, Margaret; Collins, Limone

    2016-08-31

    Before the widespread adoption of vaccination, adenovirus type 4 and type 7 were long associated with respiratory illnesses among military recruits. When supplies were depleted and vaccination was suspended in 1999 for approximately a decade, respiratory illnesses due to adenovirus infections resurged. In March 2011, a new live, oral adenovirus vaccine was licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration and was first universally administered to military recruits in October 2011, leading to rapid, dramatic elimination of the disease within a few months. As part of licensure, a postmarketing study (Sentinel Surveillance Plan) was performed to detect potential safety signals within 42days after immunization of military recruits. This study retrospectively evaluated possible adverse events related to vaccination using data from the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS) database. Among 100,000 recruits who received the adenovirus vaccine, no statistically significant greater risk of prespecified medical events was observed within 42days after vaccination when compared with a historical cohort of 100,000 unvaccinated recruits. In an initial statistical analysis of International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification codes, a statistically significant higher risk for 19 other (not prespecified) medical events occurring in 5 or more recruits was observed among vaccinated compared with unvaccinated groups. After case record data abstraction for attribution and validation, two events (psoriasis [21 vs 7 cases] and serum reactions [12 vs 4 cases]) occurred more frequently in the vaccinated cohort. A causal relation of these rare events with adenovirus vaccination could not be established given confounding factors in the DMSS, such as coadministration of other vaccines and incomplete or inaccurate medical information, for some recruits. Prospective surveillance assessing these uncommon, but potentially

  10. PaxVax CVD 103-HgR single-dose live oral cholera vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Myron M; Chen, Wilbur H; Kaper, James B; Lock, Michael; Danzig, Lisa; Gurwith, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Cholera remains a problem in developing countries and a risk for travelers. Hypochlorhydria, blood group O, cardiac and renal disease increase the risk of developing cholera gravis. Oral vaccines containing inactivated Vibrio cholerae and requiring two doses are available in some countries. No cholera vaccine had been available for U.S. travelers for decades until 2016 when CVD 103-HgR (VAXCHORA™), an oral live attenuated vaccine, was licensed by the U.S. FDA. Areas covered: Enduring protection following wild-type cholera provided the rationale to develop a single-dose live oral vaccine. CVD 103-HgR is well-tolerated and protects against cholera caused by V. cholerae O1 of either serotype (Inaba, Ogawa) and biotype (El Tor, Classical). Since 90% vaccine efficacy is evident 10 days post-ingestion of a single dose, CVD 103-HgR can rapidly protect travelers. Vibriocidal antibody seroconversion correlates with protection; >90% of U.S. adult (including elderly) vaccinees seroconvert. The U.S. Public Health Service's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends CVD 103-HgR for U.S. travelers to areas of ongoing cholera transmission. Expert commentary: Next steps include evaluations in children, post-licensure safety and effectiveness monitoring, diminishing cold chain constraints, optimizing a 'high-dose' formulation for developing countries, and diminishing/eliminating the need for water to administer a dose.

  11. Pathogenicity of different rabies virus isolates and protection test in vaccinated mice Patogenicidade de diferentes isolados do vírus da raiva e teste de proteção em camundongos vacinados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice M.S. Cunha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the pathogenicity of rabies virus isolated from bats and dogs, and to verify the efficacy of a commercial rabies vaccine against these isolates. For evaluation of pathogenicity, mice were inoculated by the intramuscular route (IM with 500MICLD50/0.03mL of the viruses. The cross-protection test was performed by vaccinating groups of mice by the subcutaneous route and challenged through the intracerebral (IC route. Isolates were fully pathogenic when inoculated by the IC route. When inoculated intramuscularly, the pathogenicity observed showed different death rates: 60.0% for the Desmodus rotundus isolate; 50.0% for dog and Nyctinomops laticaudatus isolates; 40.0% for Artibeus lituratus isolate; 9.5% Molossus molossus isolate; and 5.2% for the Eptesicus furinalis isolate. Mice receiving two doses of the vaccine and challenged by the IC route with the isolates were fully protected. Mice receiving only one dose of vaccine were partially protected against the dog isolate. The isolates from bats were pathogenic by the IC route in mice. However, when inoculated through the intramuscular route, the same isolates were found with different degrees of pathogenicity. The results of this work suggest that a commercial vaccine protects mice from infection with bat rabies virus isolates, in addition to a canine rabies virus isolate.O estudo avaliou e comparou as propriedades patogênicas de cinco isolados do vírus da raiva de morcegos e um isolado do vírus da raiva de cão e analisou a eficácia de vacina comercial contra estes isolados, em camundongos. Para o estudo de patogenicidade camundongos foram inoculados pela via IM com 0,1 mL contendo 500MICLD50/0,03mL das amostras de vírus. Quando inoculados pela via IC, os isolados do vírus da raiva provocaram a morte de 100% dos camundongos. No entanto, 500MICLD50/0,03mL das mesmas amostras, inoculadas pela via IM, ocasionaram mortalidade de: 60,0% quando a amostra

  12. Efficacy of a Single-Dose, Inactivated Oral Cholera Vaccine in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Firdausi; Wierzba, Thomas F; Ali, Mohammad; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful I; Saha, Amit; Khan, Iqbal A; Asaduzzaman, Muhammad; Akter, Afroza; Khan, Arifuzzaman; Begum, Yasmin A; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur R; Khanam, Farhana; Chowdhury, Mohiul I; Islam, Taufiqul; Chowdhury, Atique I; Rahman, Anisur; Siddique, Shah A; You, Young A; Kim, Deok R; Siddik, Ashraf U; Saha, Nirod C; Kabir, Alamgir; Cravioto, Alejandro; Desai, Sachin N; Singh, Ajit P; Clemens, John D

    2016-05-05

    A single-dose regimen of the current killed oral cholera vaccines that have been prequalified by the World Health Organization would make them more attractive for use against endemic and epidemic cholera. We conducted an efficacy trial of a single dose of the killed oral cholera vaccine Shanchol, which is currently given in a two-dose schedule, in an urban area in which cholera is highly endemic. Nonpregnant residents of Dhaka, Bangladesh, who were 1 year of age or older were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of oral cholera vaccine or oral placebo. The primary outcome was vaccine protective efficacy against culture-confirmed cholera occurring 7 to 180 days after dosing. Prespecified secondary outcomes included protective efficacy against severely dehydrating culture-confirmed cholera during the same interval, against cholera and severe cholera occurring 7 to 90 versus 91 to 180 days after dosing, and against cholera and severe cholera according to age at baseline. A total of 101 episodes of cholera, 37 associated with severe dehydration, were detected among the 204,700 persons who received one dose of vaccine or placebo. The vaccine protective efficacy was 40% (95% confidence interval [CI], 11 to 60%; 0.37 cases per 1000 vaccine recipients vs. 0.62 cases per 1000 placebo recipients) against all cholera episodes, 63% (95% CI, 24 to 82%; 0.10 vs. 0.26 cases per 1000 recipients) against severely dehydrating cholera episodes, and 63% (95% CI, -39 to 90%), 56% (95% CI, 16 to 77%), and 16% (95% CI, -49% to 53%) against all cholera episodes among persons vaccinated at the age of 5 to 14 years, 15 or more years, and 1 to 4 years, respectively, although the differences according to age were not significant (P=0.25). Adverse events occurred at similar frequencies in the two groups. A single dose of the oral cholera vaccine was efficacious in older children (≥5 years of age) and in adults in a setting with a high level of cholera endemicity. (Funded by the Bill

  13. Evaluation of a measles vaccine campaign in Ethiopia using oral-fluid antibody surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigatu, Wondatir; Samuel, Dhan; Cohen, Bernard; Cumberland, Phillippa; Lemma, Eshetu; Brown, David W G; Nokes, James

    2008-09-01

    We undertook a study to demonstrate the potential contribution of oral-fluid (OF) antibody prevalence surveys in evaluating measles vaccine campaigns. In Asela town, southern Ethiopia, oral fluids were collected from 1928 children aged 9 months to 5 years attending for campaign immunization in December 1999 and 6 months later, from 745 individuals aged 9 months to 19 years, in the same location. Measles antibody status was determined by microimmune measles specific IgG enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Antibody prevalence was estimated at 48% in children attending for vaccination (pre-campaign), and 85% post-campaign in the comparable age group. The estimated reduction in the susceptible proportion was 75%. In older children the proportion antibody negative post-campaign was 28% in 7-9 year olds, and 13% in 10-14 year olds levels of susceptibility which raise concern over continued measles transmission. This is the first evaluation of a measles vaccine campaign based on oral-fluid seroprevalence surveys and it demonstrates the merit of oral-fluid surveys in informing health authorities about vaccination strategy refinement.

  14. Flexibility of oral cholera vaccine dosing-a randomized controlled trial measuring immune responses following alternative vaccination schedules in a cholera hyper-endemic zone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kanungo, Suman; Desai, Sachin N; Nandy, Ranjan Kumar; Bhattacharya, Mihir Kumar; Kim, Deok Ryun; Sinha, Anuradha; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Yang, Jae Seung; Lopez, Anna Lena; Manna, Byomkesh; Bannerjee, Barnali; Ali, Mohammad; Dhingra, Mandeep Singh; Chandra, Ananga Mohan; Clemens, John D; Sur, Dipika; Wierzba, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    A bivalent killed whole cell oral cholera vaccine has been found to be safe and efficacious for five years in the cholera endemic setting of Kolkata, India, when given in a two dose schedule, two weeks apart...

  15. Maximizing protection from use of oral cholera vaccines in developing country settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sachin N; Cravioto, Alejandro; Sur, Dipika; Kanungo, Suman

    2014-01-01

    When oral vaccines are administered to children in lower- and middle-income countries, they do not induce the same immune responses as they do in developed countries. Although not completely understood, reasons for this finding include maternal antibody interference, mucosal pathology secondary to infection, malnutrition, enteropathy, and previous exposure to the organism (or related organisms). Young children experience a high burden of cholera infection, which can lead to severe acute dehydrating diarrhea and substantial mortality and morbidity. Oral cholera vaccines show variations in their duration of protection and efficacy between children and adults. Evaluating innate and memory immune response is necessary to understand V. cholerae immunity and to improve current cholera vaccine candidates, especially in young children. Further research on the benefits of supplementary interventions and delivery schedules may also improve immunization strategies. PMID:24861554

  16. Food-Grade Organisms as Vaccine Biofactories and Oral Delivery Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Angulo, Carlos; Meza, Beatriz

    2016-02-01

    The use of food-grade organisms as recombinant vaccine expression hosts and delivery vehicles has been explored during the past 25 years, opening new avenues for vaccinology. Considering that oral immunization is a beneficial approach in terms of costs, patient comfort, and protection of mucosal tissues, the use of food-grade organisms can lead to highly advantageous vaccines in terms of costs, easy administration, and safety. The organisms currently used for this purpose are bacteria (Lactobacillus and Bacillus), yeasts, algae, plants, and insect species. Herein, a comparative and updated scenario on the production of oral vaccines in food-grade organisms is provided and placed in perspective. The status of clinical evaluations and the adoption of this technology by the industry are highlighted.

  17. Cervical, anal and oral HPV in an adolescent inner-city health clinic providing free vaccinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas F Schlecht

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Published human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine trials indicate efficacy is strongest for those naive to the vaccine-types. However, few high-risk young women have been followed and cervical HPV has been the predominant outcome measure. METHODS: We collected cervical and anal swabs, as well as oral rinse specimens from 645 sexually active inner-city young females attending a large adolescent health-clinic in New York City that offers free care and HPV vaccination. Specimens were tested for HPV-DNA using a MY09/MY11-PCR system. Type-specific prevalence of HPV at each anatomic site was compared for individuals by vaccination dose using generalized estimating equation logistic regression models. RESULTS: The majority of subjects reported being of non-Caucasian (92% and/or Hispanic ethnicity (61%. Median age was 18 years (range:14-20. All had practiced vaginal sex, a third (33% practiced anal sex, and most (77% had also engaged in oral sex. At enrollment, 21% had not received the vaccine and 51% had received three doses. Prevalent HPV infection at enrollment was detected in 54% of cervical, 42% of anal and 20% of oral specimens, with vaccine types present in 7%, 6% and 1% of specimens, respectively. Comparing prevalence for vaccine types, the detection of HPV in the cervix of vaccinated compared to unvaccinated adolescents was significantly reduced: HPV6/11 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.19, 95%CI:0.06-0.75, HPV16 (OR = 0.31, 95%CI:0.11-0.88 and HPV18 (OR = 0.14, 95%CI:0.03-0.75. For anal HPV, the risk of detecting vaccine types HPV6/11 (OR = 0.27, 95%CI:0.10-0.72 and HPV18(OR = 0.12, 95%CI:0.01-1.16 were significantly reduced for vaccinated adolescents however, the risk for HPV16 was not significantly decreased (OR = 0.63, 95%CI:0.18-2.20. CONCLUSION: HPV Prevalence is extremely high in inner-city female adolescents. Administration of the HPV vaccine reduced the risk for cervical HPV; however continued follow-up is required to

  18. Immunogenicity of the Bivalent Oral Cholera Vaccine Shanchol in Haitian Adults With HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Louise C; Charles, Richelle C; Hilaire, Isabelle J; Mayo-Smith, Leslie M; Teng, Jessica E; Jerome, J Gregory; Rychert, Jenna; LaRocque, Regina C; Xu, Peng; Kovácˇ, Pavol; Ryan, Edward T; Qadri, Firdausi; Almazor, Charles P; Franke, Molly F; Harris, Jason B

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated immune responses following bivalent oral cholera vaccination (Shanchol [Shantha Biotechnics]; BivWC) in a cohort of 25 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults in Haiti. Compared with adults without HIV infection, vaccination in HIV-infected individuals resulted in lower vibriocidal responses against Vibrio cholerae O1, and there was a positive relationship between the CD4(+) T-cell count and vibriocidal responses following vaccination. Nevertheless, seroconversion occurred at a rate of 65% against the Ogawa serotype and 74% against the Inaba serotype in adults with HIV infection. These results suggest that the vaccine retains substantial immunogenicity in adults with HIV infection and may benefit this population by protecting against cholera. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Achievements and challenges for the use of killed oral cholera vaccines in the global stockpile era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sachin N; Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Alberti, Kathryn P; Martin, Stephen; Costa, Alejandro; Perea, William; Legros, Dominique

    2016-11-04

    Cholera remains an important but neglected public health threat, affecting the health of the poorest populations and imposing substantial costs on public health systems. Cholera can be eliminated where access to clean water, sanitation, and satisfactory hygiene practices are sustained, but major improvements in infrastructure continue to be a distant goal. New developments and trends of cholera disease burden, the creation of an affordable cholera vaccine for use in developing countries, as well as recent evidence of vaccination impact has created an increased demand for oral cholera vaccine (OCV). The global OCV stockpile was established in 2013 and with support from Gavi, has assisted in achieving rapid access to vaccine in emergencies. Recent WHO prequalification of a second affordable OCV supports the stockpile goals of increased availability and distribution to affected populations. It serves as an essential step towards an integrated cholera control and prevention strategy in emergency and endemic settings.

  20. Controlling cholera in the Ouest Department of Haiti using oral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpich, Alexander; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Yang, Yang; Morris, John Glenn; Longini, Ira M

    2017-04-01

    Following the 2010 cholera outbreak in Haiti, a plan was initiated to provide massive improvements to the sanitation and drinking water infrastructure in order to eliminate cholera from the island of Hispaniola by 2023. Six years and a half billion dollars later, there is little evidence that any substantial improvements have been implemented; with increasing evidence that cholera has become endemic. Thus, it is time to explore strategies to control cholera in Haiti using oral cholera vaccines (OCVs). The potential effects of mass administration of OCVs on cholera transmission were assessed using dynamic compartment models fit to cholera incidence data from the Ouest Department of Haiti. The results indicated that interventions using an OCV that was 60% effective could have eliminated cholera transmission by August 2012 if started five weeks after the initial outbreak. A range of analyses on the ability of OCV interventions started January 1, 2017 to eliminate cholera transmission by 2023 were performed by considering different combinations of vaccine efficacies, vaccine administration rates, and durations of protective immunity. With an average of 50 weeks for the waiting time to vaccination and an average duration of three years for the vaccine-induced immunity, all campaigns that used an OCV with a vaccine efficacy of at least 60% successfully eliminated cholera transmission by 2023. The results of this study suggest that even with a relatively wide range of vaccine efficacies, administration rates, and durations of protective immunity, future epidemics could be controlled at a relatively low cost using mass administration of OCVs in Haiti.

  1. Impact of oral cholera vaccines in cholera-endemic countries: A mathematical modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hoon; Mogasale, Vittal; Burgess, Colleen; Wierzba, Thomas F

    2016-04-19

    Impact evaluation of vaccination programs is necessary for making decisions to introduce oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) in cholera-endemic countries. We analyzed data to forecast the future global burden of cholera. We developed a mathematical model of cholera transmission in three countries as examples: Nigeria, Uganda, and Indonesia. After fitting the model, we evaluated the impact of OCVs delivered in four vaccination strategies varying by target age group and frequency of vaccination over the period of 2015-2030. Data suggest that the global annual incidence of cholera will increase from 3046238 in 2015 to 3787385 in 2030 with the highest burden in Asia and Africa where overall population size is large and the proportion of population with access to improved sanitation facilities is low. We estimate that OCV will reduce the cumulative incidence of cholera by half in Indonesia and >80% in Nigeria and Uganda when delivered to 1+ year olds every three years at a coverage rate of 50%, although cholera may persist through higher coverage rates (i.e., >90%). The proportion of person-to-person transmission compared to water-to-person transmission is positively correlated with higher vaccination impact in all three countries. Periodic OCV vaccination every three or five years can significantly reduce the global burden of cholera although cholera may persist even with high OCV coverage. Vaccination impact will likely vary depending on local epidemiological conditions including age distribution of cases and relative contribution of different transmission routes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effectiveness of Oral Cholera Vaccine in Haiti: 37-Month Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sévère, Karine; Rouzier, Vanessa; Anglade, Stravinsky Benedict; Bertil, Claudin; Joseph, Patrice; Deroncelay, Alexandra; Mabou, Marie Marcelle; Wright, Peter F; Guillaume, Florence Duperval; Pape, Jean William

    2016-05-04

    The first oral cholera vaccine (OCV) campaign, since its prequalification by the World Health Organization, in response to an ongoing cholera epidemic (reactive vaccination) was successfully conducted in a poor urban slum of approximately 70,000 inhabitants in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, in 2012. Vaccine coverage was 75% of the target population. This report documents the impact of OCV in reducing the number of culture-confirmed cases of cholera admitted to the Groupe Haïtien d'Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes (GHESKIO) cholera treatment center from that community in the 37 months postvaccination (April 2012-April 30, 2015). Of 1,788 patients with culture-confirmed cholera, 1,770 (99%) were either from outside the vaccine area (1,400 cases) or from the vaccinated community who had not received OCV (370 cases). Of the 388 people from the catchment area who developed culture-confirmed cholera, 370 occurred among the 17,643 people who had not been vaccinated (2.1%) and the remaining 18 occurred among the 52,357 people (0.034%) who had been vaccinated (P cholera in outbreak settings. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. Overview of Animal Rabies in Kinshasa Province in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin Tshibwabwa Twabela

    Full Text Available Rabies is one of the major public health problems mostly affecting developing countries in Africa and Asia where 99.9% of all rabies related human deaths are recorded each year. In Democratic Republic of Congo, repeated outbreaks have been reported. Despite this, there is little reliable epidemiological data about rabies in the country for the development of effective control strategies.A retrospective study was carried out in Kinshasa Province during a period of five years (2009-2013 to describe the proportion of rabid animals and the species involved in rabies transmission and maintenance. The survey also aimed at describing the spatial-temporal distribution of rabies. To gather information, the daily registers of institutions involved in rabies diagnosis were reviewed and each rabies case was traced back to area of occurrence for collection of geographic coordinates.A total of 5,053 attacks were registered involving six animal species including dog, cat, monkey, rabbit, rat, and pig. Based on clinical observations, rabies was reported in dogs and cats while data obtained from the laboratory confirmed rabies cases included dogs, cats and a goat. The annual distribution showed a significant decrease of rabies cases from 2009 up to 2011 and a later increase up to 2013. There was no difference in rabies occurrence between seasons (p = 0.721. Rabies cases were three times higher in peri-urban zone than in urban zone OR = 3.4 (95% CI: 2.3-5.1. The positive proportion of rabies was 2.6% (95% CI: 2.1-3 based on clinical evidence and 65.9% (95% CI: 50-79.5 for laboratory confirmed cases.This study confirms the endemicity of rabies in Kinshasa where occurrence of rabies cases was related to human population density and lifestyle. In order to control rabies, there is need to set up a surveillance program and implement efficient mass vaccination campaigns of susceptible animals.

  4. 贵州省狂犬病病毒流行毒株与疫苗毒株糖蛋白基因差异研究%Study on the differences of glycoprotein gene between rabies virus epidemic strains from Guizhou province and vaccine strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世军; 田克诚; 唐光鹏; 余春; 王定明; 唐青; 陶晓燕; 李浩; 庄妍; 周敬祝; 王月

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the differences of glycoprotein gene (G gene) between rabies virus epidemic strains of Guizhou province in recent years and vaccine strains,and to provide scientific basis for the development of rabies vaccine and establishment of effective control and prevention measures.Methods RT-PCR assay was used to amplify the G gene of rabies positive brain tissues samples of human and dog derived from Guizhou province in recent years.The amplification products were sequenced and comparatively analyzed with that of vaccine strains by using bioinformatics software.Results Eight full-length G gene sequences were obtained by RT-PCR amplification,sequencing and splicing.The homogeny of G gene between 8 epidemic strains of Guizhou province and 9 vaccine strains were 82.0%-94.1% and 87.6%-97.5% on nucleotide and deduced amino acid level,respectively,and the highest homogeny were found with the human vaccine strain CTN (87.0%-94.1% for nucleotide and 93.7.%-97.5% for amino acid) among the 6 human rabies vaccine strains,while highest homogeny were found with strain Flury (83.9%-84.6% for nucleotide and 91.1%-93.0% for amino acid) among the three animal vaccine strains.Besides,among the 8 epidemic strains from Guizhou province,strain GZ09 collected in the year of 2005 was of the highest homogeny with human rabies vaccine strain CTN and animal rabies vaccine strain Flury,while strain GZ30 collected in the year of 2010 was of lowest homogeny with human rabies vaccine strain CTN and animal rabies vaccine strain Flury.Moreover,phylogenetic analysis based on the G gene indicated that the relationship of 8 epidemic strains derived from Guizhou,the 9 vaccine strains and genotype 1 Lyssavirus were clustered to a same branch.Vaccine strain CTN among the 9 vaccine strains was closest to the 8 epidemic strains,and the other 8 vaccine strains were relatively more distant from the epidemic strains of Guizhou province.In addition,phylogenetic analysis

  5. Observation the vaccination reaction and immune effect of rabies exposed people in Jinrui town during 2009 to 2010%2009-2010年金瑞镇暴露者狂犬病疫苗接种反应及免疫效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁和根; 刘莉红

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察人用狂犬病疫苗的接种反应及免疫效果.方法 对金瑞镇2009 -2010年狂犬病疫苗(全程5针)免疫者观察其接种反应并用间接ELISA法检测狂犬病毒抗体.被检对象分为<15岁组、15 ~30岁组、31 ~60岁组和>61岁组.结果 共接种狂犬疫苗609例,免疫后抗体阳性587例,阳性率为96.39%.年龄越小抗体阳性率越高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);女性与男性抗体阳性率差异无统计学意义;不同产地疫苗间的抗体阳性率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 人用狂犬病疫苗有良好的安全性及免疫原性,但对免疫失败者应加强免疫.%Objective To understand the vaccination reaction and immunization effect of human rabies vaccine. Method Observation the vaccination reaction of rabies exposed people who accepted full course ( five doses ) of rabies vaccine and their antibody against rabies virus was detected by ELISA. The subjects were divided into four groups, less than 15 years old group, 15 and 30 years group, 31 and 60 years group and above 61 years old group. Results Total of 609 persons were inoculation rabies vaccines, 587 cases were antibody positive, the positive rate was 96.39 % (587/609) . There was no statistically significant between male antibody rate to female. With the age-increasing, the positive rates decreased (P 0.05 ) . Conclusions Rabies vaccine showed good safety and irnmunogenicity, but it need to reinforce to the people who's antibody was negative.

  6. Biodegradable Bioadherent Microcapsules for Orally Administered Sustained Release Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Fasciola hepatica which is a known bioadhesive’’. The encapsulation method is the classical, well described water in oil technique for the preparation of...immunization, Vaccine 12 (1994) 387-340. 6. Waite, J.H., Rice-Ficht, A.C., Presclerotized eggshell protein from the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica ...Biochemistry 26 (1987) 7819-7825. 7. Waite, J.H., Rice-Ficht, A.C., Eggshell precursor proteins of Fasciola hepatica : II. Microheterogeneity in vitelline

  7. Complex genetic structure of the rabies virus in Bangkok and its surrounding provinces, Thailand: implications for canine rabies control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumlertdacha, Boonlert; Wacharapluesadee, Supaporn; Denduangboripant, Jessada; Ruankaew, Nipada; Hoonsuwan, Wirongrong; Puanghat, Apirom; Sakarasaeranee, Plyyonk; Briggs, Deborrah; Hemachudha, Thiravat

    2006-03-01

    Dog vaccination and population management have been suggested as priorities in attempts at disease control in canine rabies-endemic countries. Budget limitations and the complexity of social, cultural and religious variables have complicated progress in the developing world. In Bangkok, Thailand, an intensive canine vaccination and sterilization programme has been in place since November 2002. Our objective was to determine if the rabies virus could be mapped according to its genetic variations and geographical location on the small localized scale of Bangkok and its surrounding provinces. Phylogenetic characterization of 69 samples from Bangkok and five neighbouring and two remote provinces, by limited sequence analysis of the rabies virus nucleoprotein gene, distinguished six different clades. Rabies viruses of four clades were intermixed in Bangkok and in the surrounding highly populated regions whereas the other two clades were confined to rural and less populated provinces. Such a complex pattern of gene flow, particularly in Bangkok, may affect the outcome of canine control programmes.

  8. Safety and immunogenicity of combined rabies and typhoid fever immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzell, C; Rollin, P E; Touir, M; Sureau, P; Teulieres, L

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of rabies and typhoid fever in many developing countries poses a serious health hazard to travellers. The development of a combined immunization schedule would be advantageous. A study was performed on 104 adult volunteers using purified Vero cell rabies vaccine and Typhim Vi, a purified capsular polysaccharide, either separately or in combination. No significant difference was observed in immunogenicity or tolerance between the two groups. A 3-year follow-up study is planned.

  9. Oral vaccination against bubonic plague using a live avirulent Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blisnick, Thierry; Ave, Patrick; Huerre, Michel; Carniel, Elisabeth; Demeure, Christian E

    2008-08-01

    We evaluated the possibility of using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a live vaccine against plague because it shares high genetic identity with Y. pestis while being much less virulent, genetically much more stable, and deliverable orally. A total of 41 Y. pseudotuberculosis strains were screened by PCR for the absence of the high pathogenicity island, the superantigens YPM, and the type IV pilus and the presence of the pYV virulence plasmid. One strain (IP32680) fulfilled these criteria. This strain was avirulent in mice upon intragastric or subcutaneous inoculation and persisted for 2 months in the mouse intestine without clinical signs of disease. IP32680 reached the mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and liver without causing major histological lesions and was cleared after 13 days. The antibodies produced in vaccinated animals recognized both Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis antigens efficiently. After a subcutaneous challenge with Y. pestis CO92, bacteria were found in low amounts in the organs and rarely in the blood of vaccinated animals. One oral IP32680 inoculation protected 75% of the mice, and two inoculations induced much higher antibody titers and protected 88% of the mice. Our results thus validate the concept that an attenuated Y. pseudotuberculosis strain can be an efficient, inexpensive, safe, and easy-to-produce live vaccine for oral immunization against bubonic plague.

  10. Oral vaccination of mice against rodent malaria with recombinant expressing MSP-119

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hong Zhang; Pei-Hong Jiang; Ning-Jun Li; Mi Shi; Weida Huang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To construct the recombinant Lactococcus lactis as oral delivery vaccination against malaria.METHODS: The C-terminal 19-ku fragments of MSP1(MSP-119) of Plasmodium yoelii265-BY was expressed in L. lactis and the recombinant L. lactis was administered orally to BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. After seven interval vaccinations within 4 wk, the mice were challenged with P.yoelii 265-BY parasites of erythrocytic stage. The protective efficacy of recombinant L.lactiswas evaluated.RESULTS: The peak parasitemias in average for the experiment groups of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were 0.8±0.4% and 20.8±26.5%, respectively, and those of their control groups were 12.0±0.8% and 60.8±9.6%, respectively. None of the BALB/c mice in both experimental group and control group died during the experiment.However, all the C57BL/6 mice in the control group died within 23 d and all the vaccinated mice survived well.CONCLUSION: The results imply the potential of recombinant L.lactis as oral delivery vaccination against malaria.

  11. A review of current strategy for rabies prevention and control in the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneela Garg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The control of Rabies, a zoonotic viral disease is a major public challenge in several developing countries. Current approaches for rabies control are overwhelmingly directed towards provision of effective post exposure prophylaxis (PEP to animal bite victims. The enormous costs involved in rabies prophylaxis is an important factor precluding its universal application in all animal bite victims especially in those residing in resource constrained settings. The intradermal route of administration has been shown to be cost effective except in peripheral regions with fewer animal bite cases. Nevertheless, rabies control program with their expected emphasis on human rabies prophylaxis have neglected canine vaccination. The feasibility of canine rabies vaccination depends primarily upon allocation of resources through political commitment and effective public private partnerships. However, in large parts of the world including India formal dog ownership constitutes a small minority of the overall canine population while state funded canine vaccination drives often fail to impress policy makers who struggle to maintain budgets for adequate coverage of rabies PEP for animal bite victims. The key to rabies control may therefore rest upon a one health approach with development of newer vaccine technology which is cost effective for vaccination in both, man and animal.

  12. Safety and immunogenicity of oral killed whole cell recombinant B subunit cholera vaccine in Barranquilla, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, A; Giraldo, A; Castañeda, E; Martínez, M; de la Hoz, F; Rivas, F; Depetris, A; Svennerholm, A M; Sack, D A

    1995-12-01

    In January and February 1992, an assessment was conducted of the safety and immunogenicity of two doses of a new oral cholera vaccine prepared from the recombinant B subunit of the toxin and from killed whole cells (rBS/WC) in 1,165 individuals between the ages of 12 months and 64 years in Barranquilla, Colombia. This was a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Participants received two doses of either the vaccine or a placebo (killed Escherichia coli K12) over a two-week interval. Few symptoms were detected during the three days following administration of the initial dose and even fewer following the second. Sera obtained upon administration of the first dose and two weeks after administration of the second were tested for Vibrio cholerae 01 Inaba vibriocidal antibodies and antitoxins. Geometric mean titers (GMT) of vibriocidal antibodies were found to increase two-fold in subjects receiving the vaccine. In the paired samples taken from vaccinated subjects, two-fold or greater increases were observed in 44% and four-fold or greater increases were observed in 34%, as compared to similar increases in 9.2% and 2.2% of the sera taken from those receiving the placebo (P or = 1.5, as compared to only about 20% of those in the placebo group (P < 0.000001). Belonging to the O blood group did not significantly affect the immune response. Children under age four tended to show a weaker vibriocidal antibody response and a stronger antitoxin response than older subjects. The two doses of oral vaccine were found to be safe and without attributable side-effects. The vibriocidal antibody and antitoxin responses were similar to those obtained previously with the conventional oral killed whole cell B subunit cholera vaccine.

  13. Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae serves as novel carrier for oral DNA vaccines in Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Nana; Xu, Kun; Li, Xinyi; Liu, Yuwan; Bai, Yichun; Zhang, Xiaohan; Han, Baoquan; Chen, Zhilong; Zhang, Zhiying

    2015-12-01

    Oral delivery of DNA vaccines represents a promising vaccinating method for fish. Recombinant yeast has been proved to be a safe carrier for delivering antigen proteins and DNAs to some species in vivo. However, whether recombinant yeast can be used to deliver functional DNAs for vaccination to fish is still unknown. In this study, red crucian carp (Carassius auratus) was orally administrated with recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae harboring CMV-EGFP expression cassette. On day 5 post the first vaccination, EGFP expression in the hindgut was detected under fluorescence microscope. To further study whether the delivered gene could induce specific immune responses, the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) was used as immunogen, and oral administrations were conducted with recombinant S. cerevisiae harboring pCMV-OVA mammalian gene expression cassette as gene delivery or pADH1-OVA yeast gene expression cassette as protein delivery. Each administration was performed with three different doses, and the OVA-specific serum antibody was detected in all the experimental groups by western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ELISA assay also revealed that pCMV-OVA group with lower dose (pCMV-OVA-L) and pADH1-OVA group with moderate dose (pADH1-OVA-M) triggered relatively stronger antibody response than the other two doses. Moreover, the antibody level induced by pCMV-OVA-L group was significantly higher than pADH1-OVA-M group at the same serum dilutions. All the results suggested that recombinant yeast can be used as a potential carrier for oral DNA vaccines and would help to develop more practical strategies to control infectious diseases in aquaculture.

  14. Construction of an oral recombinant DNA vaccine from H pylori neutrophil activating protein and its immunogenicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Sun; Zhao-Shen Li; Zhen-Xing Tu; Guo-Ming Xu; Yi-Qi Du

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To construct a live attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (S.typhimurium) strain harboring the H pylori neutrophil activating protein (HP-NAP) gene as an oral recombinant DNA vaccine, and to evaluate its immunogenicity.METHODS: By genetic engineering methods, the genomic DNA of H pylori was extracted as a template. The total length of the HP-NAP gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cloned into pBT vector for sequencing and BLAST analysis, then subcloned into a eukaryotic expression vector pIRES followed by PCR identification and restriction enzyme digestion. The identified recombinant plasmid pIRES-NAP was transfected into COS-7 cells for target fusion protein expression, and its antigenicity was detected by Western blotting. Then the recombinant plasmid was transformed into a live attenuated S. typhimurium strain SL7207 as an oral vaccine strain, and its immunogenicity was evaluated with animal experiments.RESULTS: A 435 bp product was cloned using high homology with HP-NAP gene in GenBank (more than 98%). With identification by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion, a recompinant eukaryotic expression plasmid pIRES-NAP containing the HP-NAP gene of H pylori was successfully constructed. The expressed target protein had a specific reaction with H pylor(i) whole cell antibody and showed a single strip result detected by Western blotting. Oral immunization of mice with recombinant DNA vaccine strain SL7207 (pIRES-NAP) also induced a specific immune response.CONCLUSION: The successful construction of HP-NAP oral DNA vaccine with good immunogenicity may help to further investigate its immunoprotection effects and develop vaccine against H pylori infection.

  15. Edwardsiella tarda OmpA Encapsulated in Chitosan Nanoparticles Shows Superior Protection over Inactivated Whole Cell Vaccine in Orally Vaccinated Fringed-Lipped Peninsula Carp (Labeo fimbriatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Dubey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of oral vaccination in finfish has lagged behind injectable vaccines for a long time as oral vaccines fall short of injection vaccines in conferring protective immunity. Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs have shown potential to serve as antigen delivery systems for oral vaccines. In this study the recombinant outer membrane protein A (rOmpA of Edwardsiella tarda was encapsulated in chitosan NPs (NP-rOmpA and used for oral vaccination of Labeo fimbriatus. The rOmpA purity was 85%, nanodiameter <500 nm, encapsulation efficiency 60.6%, zeta potential +19.05 mV, and there was an in vitro release of 49% of encapsulated antigen within 48 h post incubation in phosphate-buffered saline. Empty NPs and a non-formulated, inactivated whole cell E. tarda (IWC-ET vaccine were used as controls. Post-vaccination antibody levels were significantly (p = 0.0458 higher in the NP-rOmpA vaccinated fish (Mean OD450 = 2.430 than in fish vaccinated with inactivated whole cell E. tarda (IWC-ET vaccine (Mean OD450 = 1.735, which corresponded with post-challenge survival proportions (PCSP of 73.3% and 48.28% for the NP-rOmpA and IWC-ET groups, respectively. Serum samples from NP-rOmpA-vaccinated fish had a higher inhibition rate for E. tarda growth on tryptic soy agar (TSA than the IWC-ET group. There was no significant difference (p = 0.989 in PCSPs between fish vaccinated with empty NPs and the unvaccinated control fish, while serum from both groups showed no detectable antibodies against E. tarda. Overall, these data show that the NP-rOmpA vaccine produced higher antibody levels and had superior protection over the IWC-ET vaccine, showing that encapsulating OmpA in chitosan NPs confer improved protection against E. tarda mortality in L. fimbriatus. There is a need to elucidate the possible adjuvant effects of chitosan NPs and the immunological mechanisms of protective immunity induced by OMPs administered orally to fish.

  16. Complete Protection against Pneumonic and Bubonic Plague after a Single Oral Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbise, Anne; Hanada, Yuri; Khalifé, Manal; Carniel, Elisabeth; Demeure, Christian E

    2015-01-01

    No efficient vaccine against plague is currently available. We previously showed that a genetically attenuated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis producing the Yersinia pestis F1 antigen was an efficient live oral vaccine against pneumonic plague. This candidate vaccine however failed to confer full protection against bubonic plague and did not produce F1 stably. The caf operon encoding F1 was inserted into the chromosome of a genetically attenuated Y. pseudotuberculosis, yielding the VTnF1 strain, which stably produced the F1 capsule. Given orally to mice, VTnF1 persisted two weeks in the mouse gut and induced a high humoral response targeting both F1 and other Y. pestis antigens. The strong cellular response elicited was directed mostly against targets other than F1, but also against F1. It involved cells with a Th1-Th17 effector profile, producing IFNγ, IL-17, and IL-10. A single oral dose (108 CFU) of VTnF1 conferred 100% protection against pneumonic plague using a high-dose challenge (3,300 LD50) caused by the fully virulent Y. pestis CO92. Moreover, vaccination protected 100% of mice from bubonic plague caused by a challenge with 100 LD50 Y. pestis and 93% against a high-dose infection (10,000 LD50). Protection involved fast-acting mechanisms controlling Y. pestis spread out of the injection site, and the protection provided was long-lasting, with 93% and 50% of mice surviving bubonic and pneumonic plague respectively, six months after vaccination. Vaccinated mice also survived bubonic and pneumonic plague caused by a high-dose of non-encapsulated (F1-) Y. pestis. VTnF1 is an easy-to-produce, genetically stable plague vaccine candidate, providing a highly efficient and long-lasting protection against both bubonic and pneumonic plague caused by wild type or un-encapsulated (F1-negative) Y. pestis. To our knowledge, VTnF1 is the only plague vaccine ever reported that could provide high and durable protection against the two forms of plague after a single oral

  17. Complete Protection against Pneumonic and Bubonic Plague after a Single Oral Vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Derbise

    Full Text Available No efficient vaccine against plague is currently available. We previously showed that a genetically attenuated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis producing the Yersinia pestis F1 antigen was an efficient live oral vaccine against pneumonic plague. This candidate vaccine however failed to confer full protection against bubonic plague and did not produce F1 stably.The caf operon encoding F1 was inserted into the chromosome of a genetically attenuated Y. pseudotuberculosis, yielding the VTnF1 strain, which stably produced the F1 capsule. Given orally to mice, VTnF1 persisted two weeks in the mouse gut and induced a high humoral response targeting both F1 and other Y. pestis antigens. The strong cellular response elicited was directed mostly against targets other than F1, but also against F1. It involved cells with a Th1-Th17 effector profile, producing IFNγ, IL-17, and IL-10. A single oral dose (108 CFU of VTnF1 conferred 100% protection against pneumonic plague using a high-dose challenge (3,300 LD50 caused by the fully virulent Y. pestis CO92. Moreover, vaccination protected 100% of mice from bubonic plague caused by a challenge with 100 LD50 Y. pestis and 93% against a high-dose infection (10,000 LD50. Protection involved fast-acting mechanisms controlling Y. pestis spread out of the injection site, and the protection provided was long-lasting, with 93% and 50% of mice surviving bubonic and pneumonic plague respectively, six months after vaccination. Vaccinated mice also survived bubonic and pneumonic plague caused by a high-dose of non-encapsulated (F1- Y. pestis.VTnF1 is an easy-to-produce, genetically stable plague vaccine candidate, providing a highly efficient and long-lasting protection against both bubonic and pneumonic plague caused by wild type or un-encapsulated (F1-negative Y. pestis. To our knowledge, VTnF1 is the only plague vaccine ever reported that could provide high and durable protection against the two forms of plague after a single

  18. Rabies in translocated raccoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, V F; Shaddock, J H; Sikes, R K; Reyes, C R

    1979-01-01

    Two raccoons imported from Florida by a North Carolina hunting club were diagnosed as having rabies by fluorescent antibody testing of brain tissue. Although dead on arrival in North Carolina, they could have infected other raccoons in the same shipment which had already been released into the wild. Raccoon rabies has become increasingly important in recent years, but this is the first documented report of rabies presence in hunter-purchased interstate shipments. PMID:443502

  19. HPV and oral lesions: preventive possibilities, vaccines and early diagnosis of malignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    TESTI, D.; NARDONE, M.; MELONE, P.; CARDELLI, P.; OTTRIA, L.; ARCURI, C.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The importance of HPV in world healthy is high, in fact high-risk HPV types contribute significantly to viral associated neoplasms. In this article we will analyze vary expression of HPV in oral cavity both benign and malignant, their prevalence and the importance in early diagnosis and prevention. The classical oral lesions associated with human papillomavirus are squamous cell papilloma, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris and focal epithelial hyperplasia. Overall, HPV types 2, 4, 6, 11, 13 and 32 have been associated with benign oral lesions while HPV types 16 and 18 have been associated with malignant lesions, especially in cancers of the tonsils and elsewhere in the oropharynx. Transmission of the virus can occur with direct contact, genital contact, anal and oral sex; latest studies suggest a salivary transmission and from mother to child during delivery. The number of lifetime sexual partners is an important risk factor for the development of HPV-positive head-neck cancer. Oral/oropharyngeal cancer etiologically associated with HPV having an increased survival and a better prognostic (85%–90% to five years). There is no cure for the virus. There are two commercially available prophylactic vaccines against HPV today: the bivalent (16 and 18) Cervarix® and the tetravalent (6, 11, 16 and 18) Gardasil® and new vaccine Gardasil 9 (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) was approved in the United States. To be effective, such vaccination should start before “sexual puberty”. The vaccine could be an important preventive strategy, in fact the scientific community is in agreement on hypothesis that blocking the contagion it may also limit the distance complications as the oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:27555904

  20. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners to canine rabies in Wukari metropolis, Taraba State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameh, Veronica O; Dzikwi, Asabe A; Umoh, Jarlath U

    2014-06-12

    Canine rabies is endemic and occurs throughout the year in all parts of Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional study was designed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, to check for the presence of rabies antigens in brain tissue of dogs slaughtered for human consumption and to assess rabies vaccination coverage of dogs in Wukari. Structured questionnaires were prepared and administered to 200 dog owners by face to face interview. The questionnaire sought information on demographic characteristics of the dog owners, their association with dogs, knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies. Associations between demographic variables and knowledge, attitude or practice scores were assessed using chi(2) analysis. Also, 188 brain samples from slaughtered dogs were analysed for presence of rabies antigen using direct fluorescent antibody test. Fifteen (7.89%) had rabies antigen. Record files and vaccination certificates of dogs presented to the State Veterinary Hospital Wukari were assessed for anti rabies vaccination coverage. Out of the 200 dog owners, only 26 (13%) knew that rabies virus can be found in nervous tissue, 121 (60.5%) were aware that rabies can be spread through the saliva of a rabid animal, but majority of respondents 172 (86%) did not know the age for first vaccination of dogs against rabies. Dog owners who were civil servants were 4.8 times more likely to have good knowledge (OR=4.84, 95% CI on OR 1.09-21.44) than those of other occupation groups. Positive attitude towards rabies increased with increase in age of dog owners, with respondents within the age group 20-30 years more likely to have negative attitude than those over 40 years. Civil servants were 9.8 times more likely to have good practice than other occupation groups. Rabies antigen was detected in 7.98% of slaughtered dogs. Out of 8370 dogs presented to the hospital between January 2003 and December 2012, only 1128 (13.50%) received anti

  1. 高效价冻干人用狂犬病疫苗暴露后免疫程序的研究%The PEP Schedule of Freeze-Dried Rabies Vaccine with High Potency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汝东宇; 雷连成

    2011-01-01

    初步确定高效价冻干人用狂犬病疫苗(6.0 IU/剂)暴露后免疫程序.制备高效价的冻干人用狂犬病疫苗(6.0 IU/剂),以狂犬病街毒CNX8601和BD06分别攻击小鼠和比格犬的咬肌,接种不同效价的狂犬病疫苗,以RFFIT法检测中和抗体,根据动物死亡情况,计算暴露后疫苗保护率,对不同效价的疫苗进行中和抗体测定和保护率统计分析.在以小鼠为实验动物的疫苗保护率研究中,冻干人用狂犬病疫苗(3.1 IU/剂)0/3/7/14/28免疫程序的保护率为40.6%,高效价的冻干人用狂犬病疫苗(6.0 IU/剂)0/3/14免疫程序的保护率为56.2%,中和抗体比较,P<0.05,2组间有显著性差异;在以比格犬为实验动物的保护效果研究中,冻干人用狂犬病疫苗的保护率(3.1 IU/剂)为70%;高效价的冻干人用狂犬病疫苗(6.0 IU/剂)的保护率为80%,中和抗体的比较,P>0.05,没有显著性差异.高效价冻干人用狂犬病疫苗暴露后免疫程序可初步确定为0、3、14 d免疫.%The PEP ( post-exposure prophylaxis) schedule of freeze-dried rabies vaccine with high potency (HPRabV) (6.0 IU/dose) was established preliminarily. The HPRabV (6.0 IU/dose) was prepared, the BALB/c mice and Beagles were challenged with the street virus CNX8601 or BD06 at the masseter muscle, then inoculated with rabies vaccine of different potency (3. 1 IU/dose or 6.0 IU/dose). The rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) was used to detect rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) in mouse and beagles sera. The protection efficacy against street rabies virus was calculated according to the animal' 8 death rates and carried out statistic analyses. The results showed that HPRabV (6.0 IU/dose) could induce the more vigorous production of RVNA in BALB/ c mice and beagles. The data indicated that the three-shot HPRabV could achieve a higher protection rate ( survival rate 56.2% ) by 0/3/14 PEP schedule as compared with that of the RabV group

  2. Dynamic Observation on First-immunization and Re-immunization Effects of Rabies Vaccine 2 -1-1 Regimen%狂犬病疫苗2-1-1方案的初种与复种效果的动态观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋学友; 张建; 郑以山; 王念跃; 仲崇辉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe first-immunization and re-immunization effects of rabies vaccine 2-1-1 regimen.Methods According to the the past history of rabies vaccine inoculation before three years,the volunteers were divided into two groups for experimen-tal research:groupA first-immunization of 2-1-1 regimen without past history of rabies vaccine,groupB re-immunization of 2-1-1 regimen with past history of rabies vaccine.The observation indexes included rabies neutralizing antibodies titer and positive rate. Results The rabies neutralizing antibodies titer and positive rate in group B were both statistically higher than those in group A on 7th and 21st day.There was statistical difference in rabies neutralizing antibodies titer, but wasn′t statistical difference in positive rate positive between group A and group B on 45th day.Conclusion The re-immunization effect of rabies was significantly better than the first-im-munization effect.The effective rabies neutralizing antibodies titer occurred earlier on 7th day in Re-immunization,so it was quite neces-sary to receive pre-exposure vaccination for the people engaged in the work with high exposure to rabies risk.%目的:观察狂犬病疫苗2-1-1接种方案的初种与复种免疫效果。方法根据3年以前有无狂犬病疫苗接种史分两组进行实验研究:A组:无既往狂犬病疫苗接种史的2-1-1方案初种组;B组:有既往史的2-1-1方案复种组。观察指标包括狂犬病疫苗抗体效价和阳性率。结果复种组人群在7、21天时狂犬病疫苗抗体效价和阳性率方面均高于初种组,差异有统计学意义。45天时两组间狂犬病疫苗抗体效价有统计学差异,但是阳性率差异无统计学意义。结论狂犬病疫苗复种组的免疫效果明显优于初种组,复种者早期(7天)即可出现有效浓度的抗狂犬病抗体,因此从事狂犬病高暴露风险者接受暴露前免疫是非常必要的。

  3. BAIT DEVELOPMENT FOR ORAL DELIVERY OF PHARMACEUTICALS TO RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR) AND STRIPED SKUNKS (MEPHITIS MEPHITIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Shylo R; Crider, Nikki J; Weyer, Grant A; Tosh, Randall D; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2016-10-01

    Oral vaccination is one tool used to control wildlife diseases. A challenge to oral vaccination is identifying baits specific to target species. The US has been conducting oral vaccination against rabies since the 1990s. Improvements in bait development will hasten disease elimination. In Colorado, we examined a novel bait for oral vaccination and offered two different flavors, sweet and fish, to captive raccoons ( Procyon lotor ) and striped skunks ( Mephitis mephitis ) to assess consumption and flavor preference and observed bait removal by target and nontarget species in the field. During captive trials, raccoons and skunks consumed 98% and 87% of offered baits, respectively. Baits contained a sachet to simulate a vaccine package. Raccoons and skunks consumed 98% and 94% of the sachets, respectively. All unconsumed sachets were punctured, suggesting that animals had oral exposure to the contents. Raccoons preferred fish-flavored bait, but skunks did not have a preference. In the field, raccoons consumed the most baits, followed by fox squirrels ( Sciurus niger ). Other rabies host species (striped skunks, red foxes [ Vulpes vulpes ], coyotes [ Canis latrans ]) had very low visitation and were never observed consuming baits. High consumption rates by raccoons and skunks in captivity and observance of raccoons consuming baits in the field suggest that these baits may be useful for oral delivery of pharmaceuticals. Further field research is warranted to determine how to best optimize bait delivery.

  4. Anti-microbial peptide gene expression during oral vaccination: analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simuyandi, M; Kapulu, M; Kelly, P

    2016-11-01

    We have observed previously that micronutrient supplementation ameliorated suppression of α-defensin expression during diarrhoea. However, how interactions between anti-microbial peptide (AMP) expression and diarrhoeal disease are altered by micronutrient supplementation remain unclear. Using oral vaccination as a model of intestinal infection, we measured changes in AMP expression during multiple micronutrient supplementation. In the first part, volunteers underwent duodenal jejunal biopsy before and at 1, 2, 4 or 7 days after administration of one of three live, attenuated oral vaccines against rotavirus, typhoid and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. In the second part, participants were randomized to receive a multiple micronutrient supplement or placebo for 6 weeks before undergoing intestinal biopsy, vaccination against typhoid and rebiopsy after 14 days. Expression of human alpha-defensin (HD)5, HD6, hBD1, hBD2 and LL-37 was measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Taken together, the bacterial vaccines, but not rotavirus vaccine, reduced HD5 expression (P = 0·02, signed-rank test) and reduced LL-37 expression in seven of the eight individuals whose biopsies had expression prevaccination (P = 0·03). hBD2 was not detected. In the controlled trial, HD5 and HD6 expression after vaccination was lower [median ratio 0·5, interquartile range (IQR) = 0·07-2·2 and 0·58, IQR = 0·13-2·3, respectively] than before vaccination. There was no significant effect detected of micronutrient supplementation on expression of HD5, HD6, hBD1 or LL-37. We conclude that live attenuated bacterial vaccines, but not rotavirus vaccine, can reduce intestinal α-defensins, and typhoid vaccine reduced LL-37 expression. We found no evidence that micronutrient supplementation in the short term had any impact on anti-microbial peptide expression. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Immunology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  5. Implementation of an intersectoral program to eliminate human and canine rabies: the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Marie D Lapiz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The province of Bohol, located in the Visayas islands region in the Philippines has a human population of 1.13 million and was the 4th highest region for human rabies deaths in the country, averaging 10 per year, prior to the initiation of the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Project (BRPEP. AIMS: The BRPEP was initiated in 2007 with the goal of building a sustainable program that would prevent human rabies by eliminating rabies at its source, in dogs, by 2010. This goal was in line with the Philippine National Rabies Program whose objective is to eliminate rabies by 2020. METHODS: The intersectoral BRPEP was launched in 2007 and integrated the expertise and resources from the sectors of agriculture, public health and safety, education, environment, legal affairs, interior and local government. The program included: increasing local community involvement; implementing dog population control; conducting mass dog vaccination; improving dog bite management; instituting veterinary quarantine; and improving diagnostic capability, surveillance and monitoring. Funding was secured from the national government, provincial, municipal and village units, dog owners, NGOs, the regional office of the WHO, the UBS Optimus Foundation, and the Global Alliance for Rabies Control. The BRPEP was managed by the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Eradication Council (BRPEC under the jurisdiction of the Governor of Bohol. Parallel organizations were created at the municipal level and village level. Community volunteers facilitated the institution of the program. Dog population surveys were conducted to plan for sufficient resources to vaccinate the required 70% of the dogs living in the province. Two island-wide mass vaccination campaigns were conducted followed by "catch up" vaccination campaigns. Registration of dogs was implemented including a small fee that was rolled back into the program to maintain sustainability. Children were educated by

  6. Implementation of an intersectoral program to eliminate human and canine rabies: the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapiz, Stella Marie D; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth G; Garcia, Romulo G; Daguro, Leonida I; Paman, Meydalyn D; Madrinan, Frederick P; Rances, Polizena A; Briggs, Deborah J

    2012-01-01

    The province of Bohol, located in the Visayas islands region in the Philippines has a human population of 1.13 million and was the 4th highest region for human rabies deaths in the country, averaging 10 per year, prior to the initiation of the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Project (BRPEP). The BRPEP was initiated in 2007 with the goal of building a sustainable program that would prevent human rabies by eliminating rabies at its source, in dogs, by 2010. This goal was in line with the Philippine National Rabies Program whose objective is to eliminate rabies by 2020. The intersectoral BRPEP was launched in 2007 and integrated the expertise and resources from the sectors of agriculture, public health and safety, education, environment, legal affairs, interior and local government. The program included: increasing local community involvement; implementing dog population control; conducting mass dog vaccination; improving dog bite management; instituting veterinary quarantine; and improving diagnostic capability, surveillance and monitoring. Funding was secured from the national government, provincial, municipal and village units, dog owners, NGOs, the regional office of the WHO, the UBS Optimus Foundation, and the Global Alliance for Rabies Control. The BRPEP was managed by the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Eradication Council (BRPEC) under the jurisdiction of the Governor of Bohol. Parallel organizations were created at the municipal level and village level. Community volunteers facilitated the institution of the program. Dog population surveys were conducted to plan for sufficient resources to vaccinate the required 70% of the dogs living in the province. Two island-wide mass vaccination campaigns were conducted followed by "catch up" vaccination campaigns. Registration of dogs was implemented including a small fee that was rolled back into the program to maintain sustainability. Children were educated by introducing rabies prevention modules into all

  7. Plant-based oral vaccines against zoonotic and non-zoonotic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Naila; Daniell, Henry

    2016-11-01

    The shared diseases between animals and humans are known as zoonotic diseases and spread infectious diseases among humans. Zoonotic diseases are not only a major burden to livestock industry but also threaten humans accounting for >60% cases of human illness. About 75% of emerging infectious diseases in humans have been reported to originate from zoonotic pathogens. Because antibiotics are frequently used to protect livestock from bacterial diseases, the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of epidemic and zoonotic pathogens is now a major concern. Live attenuated and killed vaccines are the only option to control these infectious diseases and this approach has been used since 1890. However, major problems with this approach include high cost and injectable vaccines is impractical for >20 billion poultry animals or fish in aquaculture. Plants offer an attractive and affordable platform for vaccines against animal diseases because of their low cost, and they are free of attenuated pathogens and cold chain requirement. Therefore, several plant-based vaccines against human and animals diseases have been developed recently that undergo clinical and regulatory approval. Plant-based vaccines serve as ideal booster vaccines that could eliminate multiple boosters of attenuated bacteria or viruses, but requirement of injectable priming with adjuvant is a current limitation. So, new approaches like oral vaccines are needed to overcome this challenge. In this review, we discuss the progress made in plant-based vaccines against zoonotic or other animal diseases and future challenges in advancing this field. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Use of oral cholera vaccines in an outbreak in Vietnam: a case control study.

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    Dang Duc Anh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Killed oral cholera vaccines (OCVs are available but not used routinely for cholera control except in Vietnam, which produces its own vaccine. In 2007-2008, unprecedented cholera outbreaks occurred in the capital, Hanoi, prompting immunization in two districts. In an outbreak investigation, we assessed the effectiveness of killed OCV use after a cholera outbreak began. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 16 to 28 January 2008, vaccination campaigns with the Vietnamese killed OCV were held in two districts of Hanoi. No cholera cases were detected from 5 February to 4 March 2008, after which cases were again identified. Beginning 8 April 2008, residents of four districts of Hanoi admitted to one of five hospitals for acute diarrhea with onset after 5 March 2008 were recruited for a matched, hospital-based, case-control outbreak investigation. Cases were matched by hospital, admission date, district, gender, and age to controls admitted for non-diarrheal conditions. Subjects from the two vaccinated districts were evaluated to determine vaccine effectiveness. 54 case-control pairs from the vaccinated districts were included in the analysis. There were 8 (15% and 16 (30% vaccine recipients among cases and controls, respectively. The vaccine was 76% protective against cholera in this setting (95% CI 5% to 94%, P = 0.042 after adjusting for intake of dog meat or raw vegetables and not drinking boiled or bottled water most of the time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to explore the effectiveness of the reactive use of killed OCVs during a cholera outbreak. Our findings suggest that killed OCVs may have a role in controlling cholera outbreaks.

  9. An oral Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine for wildlife produced in the absence of animal-derived reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Martin L; Lambeth, Matthew R; Aldwell, Frank E

    2009-09-01

    Cultures of Mycobacterium bovis BCG, comprising predominantly single-cell bacilli, were prepared in broth without animal-derived reagents. When formulated into a vegetable-derived lipid matrix, the vaccine was stable in vitro and was immunogenic in vivo upon feeding it to mice. This formulation could be useful for oral vaccination of wildlife against tuberculosis, where concern over transmissible prions may preclude the field use of vaccines containing animal products.

  10. Human Rabies in the WHO Southeast Asia Region: Forward Steps for Elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyanendra Gongal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are eleven Member States in the WHO southeast Asia region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Timor-Leste of which eight are endemic for rabies. More than 1.4 billion people in the Region are at risk of rabies infection, and approximately 45% of worldwide rabies deaths occur in Asia. Dog bites account for 96% of human rabies cases. Progress in preventing human rabies through control of the disease in dogs has been slow due to various factors. Innovative control tools and techniques have been developed and standardized in recent years. The introduction of cost-effective intradermal rabies vaccination regimens in Asian countries has increased the availability and affordability of postexposure prophylaxis. Elimination of rabies is not possible without regional and intersectoral cooperation. Considering the importance of consolidating achievements in rabies control in Member countries, the WHO Regional Office for southeast Asia has developed a regional strategy for elimination of human rabies transmitted by dogs in the Region. They have committed to provide technical leadership, to advocate national health authorities to develop major stakeholder consensus for a comprehensive rabies elimination programme, and to implement national strategies for elimination of human rabies.

  11. Development of an acid-resistant Salmonella Typhi Ty21a attenuated vector for improved oral vaccine delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The licensed oral, live-attenuated bacterial vaccine for typhoid fever, Salmonella Typhi strain Ty21a, has also been utilized as a vaccine delivery platform for expression of diverse foreign antigens that stimulate protection against shigellosis, anthrax, plague, or human papilloma virus. However, T...

  12. The Corn Smut (‘Huitlacoche’) as a New Platform for Oral Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Montiel, Margarita; Romero-Maldonado, Andrea; Monreal-Escalante, Elizabeth; Becerra-Flora, Alicia; Korban, Schuyler S.; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The development of new alternative platforms for subunit vaccine production is a priority in the biomedical field. In this study, Ustilago maydis, the causal agent of common corn smut or ‘huitlacoche’has been genetically engineered to assess expression and immunogenicity of the B subunit of the cholera toxin (CTB), a relevant immunomodulatory agent in vaccinology. An oligomeric CTB recombinant protein was expressed in corn smut galls at levels of up to 1.3 mg g-1 dry weight (0.8% of the total soluble protein). Mice orally immunized with ‘huitlacoche’-derived CTB showed significant humoral responses that were well-correlated with protection against challenge with the cholera toxin (CT). These findings demonstrate the feasibility of using edible corn smut as a safe, effective, and low-cost platform for production and delivery of a subunit oral vaccine. The implications of this platform in the area of molecular pharming are discussed. PMID:26207365

  13. The Corn Smut ('Huitlacoche') as a New Platform for Oral Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Montiel, Margarita; Romero-Maldonado, Andrea; Monreal-Escalante, Elizabeth; Becerra-Flora, Alicia; Korban, Schuyler S; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The development of new alternative platforms for subunit vaccine production is a priority in the biomedical field. In this study, Ustilago maydis, the causal agent of common corn smut or 'huitlacoche'has been genetically engineered to assess expression and immunogenicity of the B subunit of the cholera toxin (CTB), a relevant immunomodulatory agent in vaccinology. An oligomeric CTB recombinant protein was expressed in corn smut galls at levels of up to 1.3 mg g-1 dry weight (0.8% of the total soluble protein). Mice orally immunized with 'huitlacoche'-derived CTB showed significant humoral responses that were well-correlated with protection against challenge with the cholera toxin (CT). These findings demonstrate the feasibility of using edible corn smut as a safe, effective, and low-cost platform for production and delivery of a subunit oral vaccine. The implications of this platform in the area of molecular pharming are discussed.

  14. The Corn Smut ('Huitlacoche' as a New Platform for Oral Vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Juárez-Montiel

    Full Text Available The development of new alternative platforms for subunit vaccine production is a priority in the biomedical field. In this study, Ustilago maydis, the causal agent of common corn smut or 'huitlacoche'has been genetically engineered to assess expression and immunogenicity of the B subunit of the cholera toxin (CTB, a relevant immunomodulatory agent in vaccinology. An oligomeric CTB recombinant protein was expressed in corn smut galls at levels of up to 1.3 mg g-1 dry weight (0.8% of the total soluble protein. Mice orally immunized with 'huitlacoche'-derived CTB showed significant humoral responses that were well-correlated with protection against challenge with the cholera toxin (CT. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of using edible corn smut as a safe, effective, and low-cost platform for production and delivery of a subunit oral vaccine. The implications of this platform in the area of molecular pharming are discussed.

  15. Peru-15, an improved live attenuated oral vaccine candidate for Vibrio cholerae O1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, J R; Coster, T S; Taylor, D N; Trofa, A F; Barrera-Oro, M; Hyman, T; Adams, J M; Beattie, D T; Killeen, K P; Spriggs, D R

    1995-10-01

    Cholera vaccine candidate Peru-15 was derived from a Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Inaba strain by deleting the cholera toxin genetic element, introducing the gene encoding cholera toxin B subunit into recA, and screening for nonmotility. In a controlled study, Peru-15 (2 x 10(8) cfu) was administered to 11 volunteers. No vaccinee developed diarrhea, and 10 of 11 had > 4-fold rises in vibriocidal antibody titers. One month later, 5 vaccinees and 5 control volunteers were challenged with wild type V. cholerae O1. Four of 5 controls developed diarrhea (mean, 1.9 L). Two Peru-15 vaccinees developed diarrhea, 1 with volunteer had not developed a significant vibriocidal immune response to vaccination. Peru-15 shows promise as a single-dose, oral cholera vaccine that is safe, immunogenic, and protective.

  16. Live oral cholera vaccine: evaluation of the clinical effectiveness of two strains in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, R A; Music, S I; Libonati, J P; Schwartz, A R; Hornick, R B

    1974-10-01

    El Tor Ogawa C14-S5 and EW-6, two live vaccine candidate strains, were given to volunteers in varying doses with and without bicarbonate. Vibrios were found in the stool of one of 32 men given the vaccine strain, and only three men developed a significant titer rise (fourfold or greater) at 2 weeks of vibriocidal or antitoxic antibody. Five men who had previously received 10(9) organisms of the C14-S5 strain were challenged subsequently with virulent Ogawa 395 Vibrio cholerae. The rate of clinical infection in these men was no different than in unvaccinated controls. It was demonstrated that the live oral cholera vaccines did not remain viable in the intestine long enough to act antigenically.

  17. Comprehensive screening for immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived poliovirus: an essential oral poliovirus vaccine cessation risk management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duintjer Tebbens, R J; Thompson, K M

    2017-01-01

    If the world can successfully control all outbreaks of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus that may occur soon after global oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) cessation, then immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived polioviruses (iVDPVs) from rare and mostly asymptomatic long-term excretors (defined as ⩾6 months of excretion) will become the main source of potential poliovirus outbreaks for as long as iVDPV excretion continues. Using existing models of global iVDPV prevalence and global long-term poliovirus risk management, we explore the implications of uncertainties related to iVDPV risks, including the ability to identify asymptomatic iVDPV excretors to treat with polio antiviral drugs (PAVDs) and the transmissibility of iVDPVs. The expected benefits of expanded screening to identify and treat long-term iVDPV excretors with PAVDs range from US$0.7 to 1.5 billion with the identification of 25-90% of asymptomatic long-term iVDPV excretors, respectively. However, these estimates depend strongly on assumptions about the transmissibility of iVDPVs and model inputs affecting the global iVDPV prevalence. For example, the expected benefits may decrease to as low as US$260 million with the identification of 90% of asymptomatic iVDPV excretors if iVDPVs behave and transmit like partially reverted viruses instead of fully reverted viruses. Comprehensive screening for iVDPVs will reduce uncertainties and maximize the expected benefits of PAVD use.

  18. An oral recombinant vaccine in dogs against Echinococcus granulosus, the causative agent of human hydatid disease: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Francoise Petavy

    Full Text Available Dogs are the main source of human cystic echinococcosis. An oral vaccine would be an important contribution to control programs in endemic countries. We conducted two parallel experimental trials in Morocco and Tunisia of a new oral vaccine candidate against Echinococcus granulosus in 28 dogs. The vaccine was prepared using two recombinant proteins from adult worms, a tropomyosin (EgTrp and a fibrillar protein similar to paramyosin (EgA31, cloned and expressed in a live attenuated strain of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium.In each country, five dogs were vaccinated with the associated EgA31 and EgTrp; three dogs received only the vector Salmonella; and six dogs were used as different controls. The vaccinated dogs received two oral doses of the vaccine 21 d apart, and were challenged 20 d later with 75,000 living protoscoleces. The controls were challenged under the same conditions. All dogs were sacrificed 26-29 d postchallenge, before the appearance of eggs, for safety reasons.We studied the histological responses to both the vaccine and control at the level of the duodenum, the natural localization of the cestode. Here we show a significant decrease of parasite burden in vaccinated dogs (70% to 80% and a slower development rate in all remaining worms. The Salmonella vaccine EgA31-EgTrp demonstrated a high efficacy against E. granulosus promoting its potential role in reducing transmission to humans and animals.

  19. Mechanisms Underlying the Immune Response Generated by an Oral Vibrio cholerae Vaccine

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    Danylo Sirskyj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mechanistic details underlying the resulting protective immune response generated by mucosal vaccines remain largely unknown. We investigated the involvement of Toll-like receptor signaling in the induction of humoral immune responses following oral immunization with Dukoral, comparing wild type mice with TLR-2-, TLR-4-, MyD88- and Trif-deficient mice. Although all groups generated similar levels of IgG antibodies, the proliferation of CD4+ T-cells in response to V. cholerae was shown to be mediated via MyD88/TLR signaling, and independently of Trif signaling. The results demonstrate differential requirements for generation of immune responses. These results also suggest that TLR pathways may be modulators of the quality of immune response elicited by the Dukoral vaccine. Determining the critical signaling pathways involved in the induction of immune response to this vaccine would be beneficial, and could contribute to more precisely-designed versions of other oral vaccines in the future.

  20. Detection and Genetic Characterization of Rabies Virus from Human Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Saliva and blood were collected from two patients who had not received post exposure prophylaxis in the cities of Wenzhou and Xinning respectively. Both patients were confirmed as positive for rabies by detection of rabies virus specific nucleoprotein antibodies in the sera by Western Blot. However, rabies virus specific RNA was only identified in the saliva collected from the patient in Wenzhou. Furthermore, the isolate Zhejiang Wz0 (H) was obtained by inoculating one-day-old suckling mice. Both nucleoprotein (N) and glycoprotein (G) genes from the isolate were amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolate belonged to classic rabies virus, and shared a higher homology with the street viruses from dogs in the main endemic areas in China and the street virus from dogs in Indonesia than with other known strains. Further comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences between the isolate and the vaccine strains used in China showed that the virus had a higher level of homology with the vaccine strain CTN than with the other vaccine strains (3aG, PV, PM and ERA). In particular, amino acid residues substitutions located in antigenic site Ⅲ in the G protein, which could react with the neutralizing antibodies, were observed. These results suggested that the virus belonged to the classic rabies virus, and both N and G genes diverged from the current vaccine strains used in China at either the nucleotide or the amino acid level.

  1. Burden of Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wild animal acting strangely, report it to animal control. If you or someone in your family is exposed to a rabid animal, rabies can be prevented through a series of shots called rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) . If you are bitten by any animal (domestic ...

  2. Oral Cholera Vaccination Delivery Cost in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: An Analysis Based on Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogasale, Vittal; Ramani, Enusa; Wee, Hyeseung; Kim, Jerome H

    2016-12-01

    Use of the oral cholera vaccine (OCV) is a vital short-term strategy to control cholera in endemic areas with poor water and sanitation infrastructure. Identifying, estimating, and categorizing the delivery costs of OCV campaigns are useful in analyzing cost-effectiveness, understanding vaccine affordability, and in planning and decision making by program managers and policy makers. To review and re-estimate oral cholera vaccination program costs and propose a new standardized categorization that can help in collation, analysis, and comparison of delivery costs across countries. Peer reviewed publications listed in PubMed database, Google Scholar and World Health Organization (WHO) websites and unpublished data from organizations involved in oral cholera vaccination. The publications and reports containing oral cholera vaccination delivery costs, conducted in low- and middle-income countries based on World Bank Classification. Limits are humans and publication date before December 31st, 2014. No participants are involved, only costs are collected. Oral cholera vaccination and cost estimation. A systematic review was conducted using pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Cost items were categorized into four main cost groups: vaccination program preparation, vaccine administration, adverse events following immunization and vaccine procurement; the first three groups constituting the vaccine delivery costs. The costs were re-estimated in 2014 US dollars (US$) and in international dollar (I$). Ten studies were identified and included in the analysis. The vaccine delivery costs ranged from US$0.36 to US$ 6.32 (in US$2014) which was equivalent to I$ 0.99 to I$ 16.81 (in I$2014). The vaccine procurement costs ranged from US$ 0.29 to US$ 29.70 (in US$2014), which was equivalent to I$ 0.72 to I$ 78.96 (in I$2014). The delivery costs in routine immunization systems were lowest from US$ 0.36 (in US$2014) equivalent to I$ 0.99 (in I$2014). The reported cost categories

  3. Oral vaccination of brushtail possums with BCG: Investigation into factors that may influence vaccine efficacy and determination of duration of protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddle, B M; Aldwell, F E; Keen, D L; Parlane, N A; Hamel, K L; de Lisle, G W

    2006-10-01

    To determine factors that may influence the efficacy of an oral pelleted vaccine containing Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) to induce protection of brushtail possums against tuberculosis. To determine the duration of protective immunity following oral administration of BCG. In Study 1, a group of possums (n=7) was immunised by feeding 10 pellets containing dead Pasteur BCG, followed 15 weeks later with a single pellet of live Pasteur BCG. At that time, four other groups of possums (n=7 per group) were given a single pellet of live Pasteur BCG orally, a single pellet of live Danish BCG orally, 10 pellets of live Pasteur BCG orally, or a subcutaneous injection of live Pasteur BCG. For the oral pelleted vaccines, BCG was formulated into a lipid matrix, and each pellet contained approximately 107 colony forming units (cfu) of BCG, while the vaccine injected subcutaneously contained 106 cfu of BCG. A sixth, non-vaccinated, group (n=7) served as a control. All possums were challenged by the aerosol route with a low dose of virulent M. bovis 7 weeks after vaccination, and killed 7-8 weeks after challenge. Protection against challenge with M. bovis was assessed from pathological and bacteriological findings. In Study 2, lipid-formulated live Danish BCG was administered orally to three groups of possums (10-11 per group), and these possums were challenged with virulent M. bovis 8, 29 or 54 weeks later. The possums were killed 7 weeks after challenge, to assess protection in comparison to a non-vaccinated group. The results from Study 1 showed that vaccine efficacy was not adversely affected by feeding dead BCG prior to live BCG. Feeding 10 vaccine pellets induced a level of protection similar to feeding a single pellet. Protection was similar when feeding possums a single pellet containing the Pasteur or Danish strains of BCG. All vaccinated groups had significantly reduced pathological changes or bacterial counts when compared to the non-vaccinated group

  4. Bacterial antigen expression is an important component in inducing an immune response to orally administered Salmonella-delivered DNA vaccines.

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    Michelle E Gahan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of Salmonella to deliver heterologous antigens from DNA vaccines is a well-accepted extension of the success of oral Salmonella vaccines in animal models. Attenuated S. typhimurium and S. typhi strains are safe and efficacious, and their use to deliver DNA vaccines combines the advantages of both vaccine approaches, while complementing the limitations of each technology. An important aspect of the basic biology of the Salmonella/DNA vaccine platform is the relative contributions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression in production of the vaccine antigen. Gene expression in DNA vaccines is commonly under the control of the eukaryotic cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter. The aim of this study was to identify and disable putative bacterial promoters within the CMV promoter and evaluate the immunogenicity of the resulting DNA vaccine delivered orally by S. typhimurium. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results reported here clearly demonstrate the presence of bacterial promoters within the CMV promoter. These promoters have homology to the bacterial consensus sequence and functional activity. To disable prokaryotic expression from the CMV promoter a series of genetic manipulations were performed to remove the two major bacterial promoters and add a bacteria transcription terminator downstream of the CMV promoter. S. typhimurium was used to immunise BALB/c mice orally with a DNA vaccine encoding the C-fragment of tetanus toxin (TT under control of the original or the modified CMV promoter. Although both promoters functioned equally well in eukaryotic cells, as indicated by equivalent immune responses following intramuscular delivery, only the original CMV promoter was able to induce an anti-TT specific response following oral delivery by S. typhimurium. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that prokaryotic expression of the antigen and co-delivery of this protein by Salmonella are at least partially responsible for the successful

  5. DIAGNOSTIC AND MEDICAL TREATMENT OF RABIES DISEASE IN HEALTH CENTER OF COMMUNITY

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    Raflizar Raflizar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, Rabies is still considered as the most common zoonotic disease. It is not due to the number of death cases but to the number of human cases of human bitten by rabies virus infected animals or suspected ones. Most of human rabies cases caused by dog bites, besides cat and monkey bites. If rabies can be eliminated from dogs, rabies in cats and monkeys can also be eliminated as spontaneous rabies in these two animals are rare. Rabies is caused by an RNA virus from Rhabdowidae Family and it attacks the central nervous system. It is almost invariably fatal if post-exposure prophylaxis is not administered prior to the onset of severe symptoms in unvaccinated people Diagnose is based on the history of close contacts to infected saliva (via bites or scratches and development of signs and symptoms. The early stage symptoms are fever. malaise, followed by agitation, abnormal behaviours, anxiety, hallucination, progressing to delirium, hypersalivalion, hydrophobia, aerophobia, neurological symptoms such as pharynx spasm. paralysis, seizure, and finally death. Laboratory test to detect rabies virus in saliva can be done by a Reverse transcription followed by Polymerase Cham Reaction (RT/PCR and virus isolation in cultured tissues. Skin biopsies of hair follicles at nape of the neck are exammed for rabies antigen in cutaneous nerves at the base of hair follicles by immunofluoresence staining. The treatment after exposure are cleansing lesion, administering intradermal anti-rabies immunization to accelerate immune response. anti-rabies serum to stop infection process, intravenous and intraventricular ribavirin and alfa interferon, high concentration of ketamine infusion to inhibit rabies virus replication. At last, vaccination is the best prevention. Key words: rabies, RNA-virus, vaccination, diagnosis, treatment

  6. Mass vaccination with a two-dose oral cholera vaccine in a long-standing refugee camp, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phares, Christina R; Date, Kashmira; Travers, Philippe; Déglise, Carole; Wongjindanon, Nuttapong; Ortega, Luis; Bhuket, Ponchanok Rattanadilok Na

    2016-01-02

    During 2005-2012, surveillance in Maela refugee camp, Thailand, identified four cholera outbreaks, with rates up to 10.7 cases per 1000 refugees. In 2013, the Thailand Ministry of Public Health sponsored a two-dose oral cholera vaccine (OCV) campaign for the approximately 46,000 refugees living in Maela. We enumerated the target population (refugees living in Maela who are ≥1 year old and not pregnant) in a census three months before the campaign and issued barcoded OCV cards to each individual. We conducted the campaign using a fixed-post strategy during two eight-day rounds plus one two-day round for persons who had missed their second dose and recorded vaccine status for each individual. To identify factors associated with no vaccination (versus at least one dose) and those associated with adverse events following immunization (AEFI), we used separate marginal log-binomial regression models with robust variance estimates to account for household clustering. A total of 63,057 OCV doses were administered to a target population of 43,485 refugees. An estimated 35,399 (81%) refugees received at least one dose and 27,658 (64%) received two doses. A total of 993 additional doses (1.5%) were wasted including 297 that were spat out. Only 0.05% of refugees, mostly children, could not be vaccinated due to repeated spitting. Characteristics associated with no vaccination (versus at least one dose) included age ≥15 years (versus 1-14 years), Karen ethnicity (versus any other ethnicity) and, only among adults 15-64 years old, male sex. Passive surveillance identified 84 refugees who experienced 108 AEFI including three serious but coincidental events. The most frequent AEFI were nausea (49%), dizziness (38%), and fever (30%). Overall, AEFI were more prevalent among young children and older adults. Our results suggest that mass vaccination in refugee camps with a two-dose OCV is readily achievable and AEFI are few. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Oral vaccination with lipid-formulated BCG induces a long-lived, multifunctional CD4(+ T cell memory immune response.

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    Lindsay R Ancelet

    Full Text Available Oral delivery of BCG in a lipid formulation (Liporale™-BCG targets delivery of viable bacilli to the mesenteric lymph nodes and confers protection against an aerosol Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge. The magnitude, quality and duration of the effector and memory immune response induced by Liporale™-BCG vaccination is unknown. Therefore, we compared the effector and memory CD4(+ T cell response in the spleen and lungs of mice vaccinated with Liporale™-BCG to the response induced by subcutaneous BCG vaccination. Liporale™-BCG vaccination induced a long-lived CD4(+ T cell response, evident by the detection of effector CD4(+ T cells in the lungs and a significant increase in the number of Ag85B tetramer-specific CD4(+ T cells in the spleen up to 30 weeks post vaccination. Moreover, following polyclonal stimulation, Liporale™-BCG vaccination, but not s.c. BCG vaccination, induced a significant increase in both the percentage of CD4(+ T cells in the lungs capable of producing IFNγ and the number of multifunctional CD4(+ T cells in the lungs at 30 weeks post vaccination. These results demonstrate that orally delivered Liporale™-BCG vaccine induces a long-lived multifunctional immune response, and could therefore represent a practical and effective means of delivering novel BCG-based TB vaccines.

  8. Transmissibility and persistence of oral polio vaccine viruses: implications for the global poliomyelitis eradication initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, P E; Carneiro, I A

    1999-11-15

    The global poliomyelitis eradication initiative has been a tremendous success, with current evidence suggesting that wild poliovirus will cease to circulate anywhere in the world soon after the year 2000. As the goal of wild poliovirus eradication is approached, concern has been raised about the potential for persistent transmission of oral polio vaccine (OPV) viruses, as these viruses are known to revert toward wild-type neurovirulence. This paper has been extracted from a document prepared for the World Health Organization on the implications of OPV transmissibility for the strategy of stopping OPV vaccination after global eradication of wild polioviruses. The authors review the empirical evidence on OPV transmissibility available from household and community transmission studies and from mass-vaccination experiences. They then consider theoretical measures of transmissibility and persistence for wild and OPV viruses (secondary attack rate, basic reproduction number, and critical populations' size), to assess whether transmissibility of OPV viruses is sufficient to allow persistence of these viruses after cessation of vaccination. The findings indicate that OPV viruses could persist under various plausible circumstances, and that this potential should be a major consideration when planning the cessation of OPV vaccination.

  9. Impact of caspase-1/11, -3, -7, or IL-1β/IL-18 deficiency on rabies virus-induced macrophage cell death and onset of disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kip, E; Nazé, F; Suin, V; Vanden Berghe, T; Francart, A; Lamoral, S; Vandenabeele, P; Beyaert, R; Van Gucht, S; Kalai, M

    2017-01-01

    Rabies virus is a highly neurovirulent RNA virus, which causes about 59000 deaths in humans each year. Previously, we described macrophage cytotoxicity upon infection with rabies virus. Here we examined the type of cell death and the role of specific caspases in cell death and disease development upon infection with two laboratory strains of rabies virus: Challenge Virus Standard strain-11 (CVS-11) is highly neurotropic and lethal for mice, while the attenuated Evelyn–Rotnycki–Abelseth (ERA) strain has a broader cell tropism, is non-lethal and has been used as an oral vaccine for animals. Infection of Mf4/4 macrophages with both strains led to caspase-1 activation and IL-1β and IL-18 production, as well as activation of caspases-3, -7, -8, and -9. Moreover, absence of caspase-3, but not of caspase-1 and -11 or -7, partially inhibited virus-induced cell death of bone marrow-derived macrophages. Intranasal inoculation with CVS-11 of mice deficient for either caspase-1 and -11 or -7 or both IL-1β and IL-18 led to general brain infection and lethal disease similar to wild-type mice. Deficiency of caspase-3, on the other hand, significantly delayed the onset of disease, but did not prevent final lethal outcome. Interestingly, deficiency of caspase-1/11, the key executioner of pyroptosis, aggravated disease severity caused by ERA virus, whereas wild-type mice or mice deficient for either caspase-3, -7, or both IL-1β and IL-18 presented the typical mild symptoms associated with ERA virus. In conclusion, rabies virus infection of macrophages induces caspase-1- and caspase-3-dependent cell death. In vivo caspase-1/11 and caspase-3 differently affect disease development in response to infection with the attenuated ERA strain or the virulent CVS-11 strain, respectively. Inflammatory caspases seem to control attenuated rabies virus infection, while caspase-3 aggravates virulent rabies virus infection. PMID:28280602

  10. Critical Analysis of Compositions and Protective Efficacies of Oral Killed Cholera Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Two cholera vaccines, sold as Shanchol and Dukoral, are currently available. This review presents a critical analysis of the protective efficacies of these vaccines. Children under 5 years of age are very vulnerable to cholera and account for the highest incidence of cholera cases and more than half of the resulting deaths. Both Shanchol and Dukoral are two-spaced-dose oral vaccines comprising large numbers of killed cholera bacteria. The former contains Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 cells, and the latter contains V. cholerae O1 cells with the recombinant B subunit of cholera toxin. In a field trial in Kolkata (India), Shanchol, the preferred vaccine, protected 45% of the test subjects in all of the age groups and only 17% of the children under 5 years of age during the first year of surveillance. In a field trial in Peru, two spaced doses of Dukoral offered negative protection in children under 5 years of age and little protection (15%) in vaccinees over 6 years of age during the first year of surveillance. Little is known about Dukoral's long-term protective efficacy. Both of these vaccines have questionable compositions, using V. cholerae O1 strains isolated in 1947 that have been inactivated by heat and formalin treatments that may denature protein. Immunological studies revealed Dukoral's reduced and short-lived efficacy, as measured by several immunological endpoints. Various factors, such as the necessity for multiple doses, poor protection of children under 5 years of age, the requirement of a cold supply chain, production costs, and complex logistics of vaccine delivery, greatly reduce the suitability of either of these vaccines for endemic or epidemic cholera control in resource-poor settings. PMID:25056361

  11. Spatio-temporal analysis of fox rabies cases in Germany 2005-2006

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    Matthias Eckardt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to achieve new insights into rabies dynamics, this paper is the first to investigate fox rabies in Germany from a space-time pattern perspective. Based on a locally restricted dataset covering a fourteen month period, our findings indicate a strongly aggregated spatiotemporal point pattern resulting from an inhomogeneous stochastic process. In contrast to spatial or temporal approaches or cellular automata, our analysis focuses on the disease dynamics in time and space in a continuous time domain. Our findings confirm existing theories regarding fox rabies control highlighting the potential risk of urban areas and the need for effective rabies vaccination.

  12. [Technical guideline for human rabies prevention and control (2016)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H; Li, Y; Chen, R F; Tao, X Y; Yu, P C; Cao, S C; Li, L; Chen, Z H; Zhu, W Y; Yin, W W; Li, Y H; Wang, C L; Yu, H J

    2016-02-01

    In order to promote the prevention and control programs on rabies in our country, to regulate the prevention and disposition of rabies and to reduce the deaths caused by rabies, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention has organized a panel of experts, in the reference with Guidelines issued by WHO, American Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, and the latest research progress from home and abroad, and compiled this document-"Technical Guidelines for Human Rabies Prevention and Control (2016)". The Guidelines conducted a systematic review on the etiology, clinical characteristics, laboratory diagnosis, epidemiology of rabies and provided evidence on varieties, mechanisms, effects, side-effects and security of rabies vaccine, as well as on other preparations on passive immunity of its kind, on methods related to prevention and disposition of exposure etc, finally to have come up with the recommendation on the above mentioned various techniques. The guidelines will be used by staff working on prevention and control of rabies from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention at all levels, from the departments of outpatient and divisions of infection and emergency control in all the medical institutions. The guideline will be updated and revised, following the research progress from home and abroad.

  13. Preparation and Identification of Anti-rabies Virus Monoclonal Antibodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-juan Wang; Xiong Li; Li-hua Wang; Hu Shan; Lei Cao; Peng-cheng Yu; Qing Tang; Guo-dong Liang

    2012-01-01

    To provide a foundation for the development of rapid and specific methods for the diagnosis of rabies virus infection,anti-rabies virus monoclonal antibodies were prepared and rabies virus nucleoprotein and human rabies virus vaccine strain (PV strain) were used as immunogens to immunize 6-8 week old female BALB/c mice.Spleen cells and SP2/0 myeloma cells were fused according to conventional methods:the monoclonal cell strains obtained were selected using the indirect immunofluorescence test; this was followed by preparation of monoclonal antibody ascitic fluid; and finally,systematic identification of subclass,specificity and sensitivity was carried out.Two high potency and specific monoclonal antibodies against rabies virus were obtained and named 3B12 and 4A12,with ascitic fluid titers of 1∶8000 and 1∶10000,respectively.Both belonged to the IgG2a subclass.These strains secrete potent,stable and specific anti-rabies virus monoclonal antibodies,which makes them well suited for the development of rabies diagnosis reagents.

  14. Safety of a killed oral cholera vaccine (Shanchol) in pregnant women in Malawi: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Nelson, Allyson; Luquero, Francisco J; Azman, Andrew S; Debes, Amanda K; M'bang'ombe, Maurice Mwesawina; Seyama, Linly; Kachale, Evans; Zuze, Kingsley; Malichi, Desire; Zulu, Fatima; Msyamboza, Kelias Phiri; Kabuluzi, Storn; Sack, David A

    2017-05-01

    Pregnancy increases the risk of harmful effects from cholera for both mothers and their fetuses. A killed oral cholera vaccine, Shanchol (Shantha Biotechnics, Hydrabad, India), can protect against the disease for up to 5 years. However, cholera vaccination campaigns have often excluded pregnant women because of insufficient safety data for use during pregnancy. We did an observational cohort study to assess the safety of Shanchol during pregnancy. This observational cohort study was done in two adjacent districts (Nsanje and Chikwawa) in Malawi. Individuals older than 1 year in Nsanje were offered oral cholera vaccine during a mass vaccination campaign between March 30 and April 30, 2015, but no vaccines were administered in Chikwawa. We enrolled women who were exposed to oral cholera vaccine during pregnancy in Nsanje district, and women who were pregnant in Chikwawa district (and thus not exposed to oral cholera vaccine) during the same period. The primary endpoint of our analysis was pregnancy loss (spontaneous miscarriage or stillbirth), and the secondary endpoints were neonatal deaths and malformations. We evaluated these endpoints using log-binomial regression, adjusting for the imbalanced baseline characteristics between the groups. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02499172. We recruited 900 women exposed to oral cholera vaccine and 899 women not exposed to the vaccine between June 16 and Oct 10, 2015, and analysed 835 in each group. 361 women exposed to the vaccine and 327 not exposed to the vaccine were recruited after their pregnancies had ended. The incidence of pregnancy loss was 27·54 (95% CI 18·41-41·23) per 1000 pregnancies among those exposed to the vaccine and 21·56 (13·65-34·04) per 1000 among those not exposed. The adjusted relative risk for pregnancy loss among those exposed to oral cholera vaccine was 1·24 (95% CI 0·64-2·43; p=0·52) compared with those not exposed to the vaccine. The neonatal mortality rate

  15. The scenario approach for countries considering the addition of oral cholera vaccination in cholera preparedness and control plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Jacqueline; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Luquero, Francisco J; Troeger, Christopher; Reyburn, Rita; Lopez, Anna Lena; Debes, Amanda; Sack, David A

    2016-01-01

    Oral cholera vaccination could be deployed in a diverse range of situations from cholera-endemic areas and locations of humanitarian crises, but no clear consensus exists. The supply of licensed, WHO-prequalified cholera vaccines is not sufficient to meet endemic and epidemic needs worldwide and so prioritisation is needed. We have developed a scenario approach to systematically classify situations in which oral cholera vaccination might be useful. Our scenario approach distinguishes between five types of cholera epidemiology based on experiences from around the world and provides evidence that we hope will spur the development of detailed guidelines on how and where oral cholera vaccines could, and should, be most rationally deployed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Oral attenuated Salmonella typhimurium vaccine against MG7-Ag mimotope of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan-Ping Meng; Jie Ding; Zhao-Cai Yu; Quan-Li Han; Chang-Cun Guo; Na Liu; Dai-Ming Fan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To develop an oral attenuated Salmonella typhimurium vaccine against gastric cancer and to evaluate its efficacy in mice.METHODS: A complementary sequence of Nco I site and a sequence coding for MG7-Ag mimotope were designed at the 5' terminus of forward primer. Using p1.2 Ⅱ-HBCAg plasmid as template, PCR was performed to get a fusion gene of the mimotope and a HBcAg gene. The fusion gene was then subcloned into the plasmid pYA3341complementary to Salmonella typhimurium X4550, and the recombinant plasmid was then transformed into attenuated Salmonella typhimurium X4550. Balb/c mice were orally immunized with the recombinant Salmonella typhimurium X4550. The mice were immunized every 2 wk to reinforce the immunity. At the 6th wk, serum titer of antibody was detected by ELISA, and at the 8th wk,cellular immunity was detected by 51Cr release test. Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells expressing MG7-Ag were used in tumor challenge assay as a model to evaluate the protective effect of the vaccine.RESULTS: Serum titer of antibody against MG7-Ag was significantly higher in mice immunized with the vaccine than in control groups (0.9538±0.043 vs0.6531±0.018,P<0.01; 0.9538±0.043 vs0.6915±0.012, P<0.01), while in vitro 51Cr release assay of the splenocytes showed no statistical difference in the three groups. Two weeks after tumor challenge, 1 in 5 immunized mice was tumor free, while all the mice in the control group presented tumor.CONCLUSION: Oral attenuated Salmonella typhimurium vaccine against the MG7-Ag mimotope of gastric cancer is immunogenic. It can induce significant humoral immunity against tumors in mice, and has some protective effects.

  17. Rabies and canine distemper virus epidemics in the red fox population of northern Italy (2006-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Nouvellet

    Full Text Available Since 2006 the red fox (Vulpes vulpes population in north-eastern Italy has experienced an epidemic of canine distemper virus (CDV. Additionally, in 2008, after a thirteen-year absence from Italy, fox rabies was re-introduced in the Udine province at the national border with Slovenia. Disease intervention strategies are being developed and implemented to control rabies in this area and minimise risk to human health. Here we present empirical data and the epidemiological picture relating to these epidemics in the period 2006-2010. Of important significance for epidemiological studies of wild animals, basic mathematical models are developed to exploit information collected from the surveillance program on dead and/or living animals in order to assess the incidence of infection. These models are also used to estimate the rate of transmission of both diseases and the rate of vaccination, while correcting for a bias in early collection of CDV samples. We found that the rate of rabies transmission was roughly twice that of CDV, with an estimated effective contact between infected and susceptible fox leading to a new infection occurring once every 3 days for rabies, and once a week for CDV. We also inferred that during the early stage of the CDV epidemic, a bias in the monitoring protocol resulted in a positive sample being almost 10 times more likely to be collected than a negative sample. We estimated the rate of intake of oral vaccine at 0.006 per day, allowing us to estimate that roughly 68% of the foxes would be immunised. This was confirmed by field observations. Finally we discuss the implications for the eco-epidemiological dynamics of both epidemics in relation to control measures.

  18. Reported rabies pre-exposure immunization of students at US Colleges of Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, Joann M; Wright, James C; Nusbaum, Kenneth E; Saville, William J A; Evanson, Timothy C; Pappaioanou, Marguerite

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the US experienced a disruption in human rabies vaccine supplies, leading public health authorities to prioritize vaccine release for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and limit vaccine supplies for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PreEP) in high-risk groups. In 2008, the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) surveyed its member institutions on rabies vaccination policies and practices. Senior administrators at Colleges of Veterinary Medicine (CVMs) and departments of veterinary science and comparative medicine were asked to identify the person most knowledgeable about their institution's student rabies vaccination program. Respondents were asked to describe their policies and procedures for administering PreEP to veterinary medical students and staff and to estimate the annual demand for student and staff PreEP vaccine. Twenty-one CVMs responded. Twenty (95%) reported requiring PreEP of veterinary medical students and 16 (80%) of those 20 required vaccination upon matriculation. An estimated 7,309 doses of vaccine were required for PreEP of an estimated 2,436 first-year US veterinary medical students. Seventy-two percent of respondents administered PreEP in August, September, and October, coinciding with the highest public demand for PEP. CVMs should consider altering the timing of rabies vaccine administration to veterinary medical students and staff to other months, thereby helping to ensure that PEP rabies vaccine will be available to people with validated rabies exposures and to ensure that supplies will be available for PreEP of students and staff. AAVMC may wish to identify and support a point of coordination to facilitate the purchase and distribution of human rabies vaccine among its US member CVMs.

  19. Surveillance of Canine Rabies in the Central African Republic: Impact on Human Health and Molecular Epidemiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tricou, Vianney; Bouscaillou, Julie; Kamba Mebourou, Emmanuel; Koyanongo, Fidèle Dieudonné; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2016-01-01

    Although rabies represents an important public health threat, it is still a neglected disease in Asia and Africa where it causes tens of thousands of deaths annually despite available human and animal vaccines...

  20. Oral Vaccination with Heat-Inactivated Mycobacterium bovis Does Not Interfere with the Antemortem Diagnostic Techniques for Tuberculosis in Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Roy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination against tuberculosis (TB is prohibited in cattle or other species subjected to specific TB eradication campaigns, due to the interference that it may cause with the official diagnostic tests. However, immunization with a heat-inactivated (HI Mycobacterium bovis vaccine via the oral route has been suggested to overcome this issue. In this study, the main goal was to assess the interference of the HI vaccine by different routes of administration using a previous vaccination and re-vaccination (boosting protocol. TB-free kid goats were divided into three groups: oral (n = 16, intramuscular (IM; n = 16, and control (n = 16. Results showed that there was a significant difference in the percentage of animals positive to the single intradermal test (SIT and blood based interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA caused by vaccination when performed in the IM group compared to the oral group (p < 0.001. Nevertheless, no positivity to the SIT or IGRA test was observed in orally vaccinated goats regardless of the different interpretation criteria applied. None of the groups presented positive antibody titers using an in-house ELISA and samples collected 2 months after the boost. These results suggest the potential usefulness of the HI vaccine by the oral route in goats to minimize the interference on diagnostic tests (skin and IGRA tests and reducing the necessity of defined antigens to replace the traditional purified protein derivatives for diagnosis. Finally, the results pave the way to future efficacy studies in goats using different routes of HI vaccination.

  1. SOSIALISASI PENYAKIT RABIES PADA SISWA SLTA DI DESA BEBANDEM KARANGASEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmawan. N. S.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This Community Service was conducted on October 23rd. 2010 in Bebandem village, Karangasem regency in the form of socialization of rabies on senior high school students. The aim of this program was to give knowledge, clinical symptoms, transmission, and prevention of the rabies diseases. There were 50 participants who came from representatives of each class. Twenty-eight (56% participants reported that at their house, they have dogs and cats, mostly (50% have not been vaccinated. The activity runs smoothly and as planned. Socialization of rabies diseases has improved the understanding of all participants. At the end of the event, most of them (90% reported that they were satisfied and there are 48 (96% participants are interested in becoming a volunteer to join to inform rabies to other school children.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of oral cholera vaccine in a stable refugee population at risk for epidemic cholera and in a population with endemic cholera.

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, J.; McFarland, D. A.; Waldman, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    Recent large epidemics of cholera with high incidence and associated mortality among refugees have raised the question of whether oral cholera vaccines should be considered as an additional preventive measure in high-risk populations. The potential impact of oral cholera vaccines on populations prone to seasonal endemic cholera has also been questioned. This article reviews the potential cost-effectiveness of B-subunit, killed whole-cell (BS-WC) oral cholera vaccine in a stable refugee popula...

  3. Factors associated with dog rabies immunisation status in Bamako, Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauti, S; Traoré, A; Hattendorf, J; Schelling, E; Wasniewski, M; Schereffer, J L; Zinsstag, J; Cliquet, F

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Bamako, Mali, to determine for the first time the seroprevalence of rabies virus antibodies in the dog population and people's knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) towards the disease and its control. Antibody detection was done with the fluorescent antibody virus neutralisation (FAVN) test, with a positivity threshold of 0.25IU/ml. We visited 2956 households in 2010 and 2011 and found 379 dogs in 279 households. Data were collected on 279 dog-owning households, on 1017 non-dog-owning households and on 311 dogs. A serum or plasma sample was collected from 98 dogs. For 26 dogs we had sufficient data to describe the antibody decline over time after rabies vaccination using a quadratic regression. Ninety percent of interviewed persons (95% CI: 85%-91%) knew about rabies. The majority of interviewees knew that rabies is transmitted from dogs to humans, and some of the characteristic clinical signs seen in rabid dogs (change of behaviour, biting, salivation) could be listed by the majority. When asked how people behave regarding a rabid dog, killing the animal was the most frequent answer (>70%). Most (65% of the non-dog-owners and 81% of the dog-owners) were aware that vaccination of dogs can prevent rabies, but only a minority of dog-owners could answer correctly at what age the dog should get a first rabies vaccination (i.e. at 3 months). There was also strong consensus among dog-owners that it is better to protect their dog from becoming rabid by vaccinating it rather than needing to treat a bitten person. Forty-five percent (n=306; 95% CI 38%-52%) of dogs were reported as vaccinated against rabies at least once, but less than half of these (59/136) had a valid vaccination card. When asked for reasons for non-vaccination, cost was the most frequent reason at 31% (95% CI: 21%-43%), while general negligence was mentioned by 15% (95% CI: 10%-24%). Approximately one third of dog-owners would not pay for vaccination. To reach

  4. Correction of one mistake regarding the rabies vaccine developed by Louis Pasteur in the textbook of Medical Microbiology%更正医学微生物学教材中巴斯德制备狂犬病疫苗的一处描述错误

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓国英; 杨淑凤; 张伟; 刘欣; 孙文长

    2016-01-01

    In the textbook of Medical Microbiology published by People's Medical Publishing House,there is a mistake regarding the rabies vaccine developed by Louis Pasteur.It was written in the textbook that " The pathogenicity of the fixed rabies virus in the rabbit brain was much weaker for humans and dogs than that of the street strain." According to the papers Pasteur published and other references,the mistake was corrected as follows:The pathogenicity of the fixed rabies virus in the rabbit brain was much stronger for dogs than that of the street strain.The mechanisms of rabies vaccine are elucidated based on modern immunology.The academic contributions of Pasteur are briefly introduced to make the students further understand what's behind the vaccine.%在目前供临床医学专业使用的人民卫生出版社出版的《医学微生物学》教材中,关于巴斯德研制狂犬病疫苗的过程有一处描述错误,即兔脑中的固定毒株对人或犬的致病性“明显减弱”,本文根据文献特此更正为“明显增强”,并利用现今的免疫学原理解释了当时疫苗发挥作用的机制.同时也对巴斯德的学术贡献略加叙述,让医学生对疫苗背后的人文知识有所了解.

  5. Estimating the global burden of endemic canine rabies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Hampson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a notoriously underreported and neglected disease of low-income countries. This study aims to estimate the public health and economic burden of rabies circulating in domestic dog populations, globally and on a country-by-country basis, allowing an objective assessment of how much this preventable disease costs endemic countries.We established relationships between rabies mortality and rabies prevention and control measures, which we incorporated into a model framework. We used data derived from extensive literature searches and questionnaires on disease incidence, control interventions and preventative measures within this framework to estimate the disease burden. The burden of rabies impacts on public health sector budgets, local communities and livestock economies, with the highest risk of rabies in the poorest regions of the world. This study estimates that globally canine rabies causes approximately 59,000 (95% Confidence Intervals: 25-159,000 human deaths, over 3.7 million (95% CIs: 1.6-10.4 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs and 8.6 billion USD (95% CIs: 2.9-21.5 billion economic losses annually. The largest component of the economic burden is due to premature death (55%, followed by direct costs of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP, 20% and lost income whilst seeking PEP (15.5%, with only limited costs to the veterinary sector due to dog vaccination (1.5%, and additional costs to communities from livestock losses (6%.This study demonstrates that investment in dog vaccination, the single most effective way of reducing the disease burden, has been inadequate and that the availability and affordability of PEP needs improving. Collaborative investments by medical and veterinary sectors could dramatically reduce the current large, and unnecessary, burden of rabies on affected communities. Improved surveillance is needed to reduce uncertainty in burden estimates and to monitor the impacts of control efforts.

  6. Development of a Live Attenuated Bivalent Oral Vaccine Against Shigella sonnei Shigellosis and Typhoid Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun; Chakravarty, Sumana; Li, Minglin; Wai, Tint T; Hoffman, Stephen L; Sim, B Kim Lee

    2017-01-15

    Shigella sonnei and Salmonella Typhi cause significant morbidity and mortality. We exploited the safety record of the oral, attenuated S. Typhi vaccine (Ty21a) by using it as a vector to develop a bivalent oral vaccine to protect against S. sonnei shigellosis and typhoid fever. We recombineered the S. sonnei form I O-antigen gene cluster into the Ty21a chromosome to create Ty21a-Ss, which stably expresses S. sonnei form I O antigen. To enhance survivability in the acid environment of the stomach, we created an acid-resistant strain, Ty21a-AR-Ss, by inserting Shigella glutaminase-glutamate decarboxylase systems coexpressed with S. sonnei form I O-antigen gene. Mice immunized intranasally with Ty21a-AR-Ss produced antibodies against S. sonnei and S. Typhi, and survived lethal intranasal S. sonnei challenge. This paves the way for proposed good manufacturing practices manufacture and clinical trials intended to test the clinical effectiveness of Ty21a-AR-Ss in protecting against S. sonnei shigellosis and typhoid fever, as compared with the current Ty21a vaccine. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. RDIS: The Rabies Disease Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmalingam, Baskeran; Jothi, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is a deadly viral disease causing acute inflammation or encephalitis of the brain in human beings and other mammals. Therefore, it is of interest to collect information related to the disease from several sources including known literature databases for further analysis and interpretation. Hence, we describe the development of a database called the Rabies Disease Information System (RDIS) for this purpose. The online database describes the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and pathology of the disease using diagrammatic representations. It provides information on several carriers of the rabies viruses like dog, bat, fox and civet, and their distributions around the world. Information related to the urban and sylvatic cycles of transmission of the virus is also made available. The database also contains information related to available diagnostic methods and vaccines for human and other animals. This information is of use to medical, veterinary and paramedical practitioners, students, researchers, pet owners, animal lovers, livestock handlers, travelers and many others. The database is available for free http://rabies.mscwbif.org/home.html.

  8. Vaccines against diseases transmitted from animals to humans: a one health paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, Thomas P

    2013-11-04

    This review focuses on the immunization of animals as a means of preventing human diseases (zoonoses). Three frameworks for the use of vaccines in this context are described, and examples are provided of successes and failures. Framework I vaccines are used for protection of humans and economically valuable animals, where neither plays a role in the transmission cycle. The benefit of collaborations between animal health and human health industries and regulators in developing such products is discussed, and one example (West Nile vaccine) of a single product developed for use in animals and humans is described. Framework II vaccines are indicated for domesticated animals as a means of preventing disease in both animals and humans. The agents of concern are transmitted directly or indirectly (e.g. via arthropod vectors) from animals to humans. A number of examples of the use of Framework II vaccines are provided, e.g. against brucellosis, Escherichia coli O157, rabies, Rift Valley fever, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and Hendra virus. Framework III vaccines are used to immunize wild animals as a means of preventing transmission of disease agents to humans and domesticated animals. Examples are reservoir-targeted, oral bait rabies, Mycobacterium bovis and Lyme disease vaccines. Given the speed and lost cost of veterinary vaccine development, some interventions based on the immunization of animals could lead to rapid and relatively inexpensive advances in public health. Opportunities for vaccine-based approaches to preventing zoonotic and emerging diseases that integrate veterinary and human medicine (the One Health paradigm) are emphasized.

  9. Uptake of Rabies Control Measures by Dog Owners in Flores Island, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wera, Ewaldus; Mourits, M.C.M.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Rabies has been a serious public health threat in Flores Island, Indonesia since it was introduced in 1997. To control the disease, annual dog vaccination campaigns have been implemented to vaccinate all dogs free of charge. Nevertheless, the uptake rate of the vaccination campaigns has been low.

  10. Oral Immunization of Mice With Vaccine of Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium Expressing Helicobacter pylori Urease B Subunit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING-LONG YANG; WEN-CHAO LIU; WU-WEI YANG; DONG ZHONG; YU-HU LIU; JING-DONG ZHANG; JIAN-HUI JIANG; SHAN-SHAN LI

    2005-01-01

    Objective To prepare the live recombinant vaccine of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium SL3261 expressing Helicobacterpylori (H. pylori) B subunit (UreB) and to determine whether it could be used as an oral vaccine against H. pylori infection. Methods Using genomic DNA of H. pylori Sydney strain (SS1) as template, the H. pylori UreB gene fragment was amplified by PCR and subcloned into the expression vector pTC01. The recombinant plasmid pTC01-UreB was then transferred into LB5000 to obtain modified forms, and further conversed into the attenuated Salmonella typhimurium SL3261 to obtain recombinant SL3261/pCT01-UreB as an oral immunization reagent, which was then used to orally immunize Balb/c mice twice at a three-week interval. Twelve weeks later, anti-UreB IgA antibodies in intestinal fluid and IgG antibodies in sera were determined by ELISA. The relating data in control groups (including body weight, gastric inflammation, etc.) were also collected. Results The sequencing analysis showed that the UreB gene fragment amplified by PCR was consistent with the sequence of the H. pylori UreB gene. The restriction enzyme digestion revealed that the correct pTC01-UreB was obtained.SDS-PAGE and Western blot showed that a 61KD protein was expressed in SL3261/pTC01-UreB, which could be recognized by anti-H. pylori UreB antiserum and was absent in the control containing only Salmonella typhimurium SL3261 strain. The multiple oral immunization with SL3261/pTC01-UreB could significantly induce H. pylori specific mucosal IgA response as well as serum IgG responses. IFN-γ and IL-10 levels were significantly increased in SL3261/pTC01-UreB group, and no obvious side effect and change in gastric inflammation were observed. Conclusion The attenuated vaccine of Salmonella typhimurium expressing H. pylori UreB can be used as an oral vaccine against H. pylori infection.

  11. Combined immersion and oral vaccination of Vietnamese catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) confers protection against mortality caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinh, N H; Kuo, T Y; Hung, L T; Loc, T H; Chen, S C; Evensen, O; Schuurman, H J

    2009-12-01

    Edwardsiella ictaluri septicemia occurs worldwide and causes high mortality and considerable economic damage to the catfish industry especially in Vietnam and the USA. To control Edwardsiella septicemia farmers extensively use antibiotics and various vaccination methods. Vaccination with inactivated vaccines has come with variable efficacy. In this trial the results of an approach of controlling Edwardsiella septicemia of Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) in Vietnam through vaccination via mucosal surfaces are presented. The results show that a combination of primary vaccination by immersion with inactivated E. ictaluri followed by an oral boost with a formulated antigen preparation induces a statistically significant level of protection against mortality caused by experimental infection 4 weeks post-boost. Fish immunized by immersion only show significantly lower level of protection but significantly higher than the controls. Repeated boosts result in improved duration of immunity with a relative percent survival (RPS) of 47% at 90% control mortality. The immunization procedure provides an alternative for disease control through vaccination.

  12. CVD 908, CVD 908-htrA, and CVD 909 live oral typhoid vaccines: a logical progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacket, Carol O; Levine, Myron M

    2007-07-15

    Typhoid fever remains an important public health problem in many parts of the world. Despite the availability of oral Ty21a (Vivotif; Berna Biotech) and parenteral Vi polysaccharide vaccine (Typhim Vi; Aventis Pasteur), improved typhoid fever vaccines have been sought. These include a series of vaccine candidates developed at the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland, based on attenuation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi by deletions in the aroC, aroD, and htrA genes. These vaccine candidates, designated "CVD 908," "CVD 908-htrA," and "CVD 909," have been developed and tested in volunteers with variable success. This review summarizes the clinical data that directed the logical progression of this vaccine development strategy.

  13. Heat-stable oral alga-based vaccine protects mice from Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreesen, Imke A J; Charpin-El Hamri, Ghislaine; Fussenegger, Martin

    2010-02-01

    While 15 million deaths per year are caused by communicable pathogens worldwide, health care authorities emphasize the considerable impact of poverty on the incidence of infectious diseases. The emergence of antigen-expressing plant tissues (e.g. rice, tomato, potato) has indicated the potential of land plants for low-cost vaccines in oral immunization programs. In this study, we engineered the chloroplasts of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for the stable expression of the D2 fibronectin-binding domain of Staphylococcus aureus fused with the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), under the control of rbcL UTRs. Analysis of sera and faeces of mice, fed for 5 weeks with transgenic algae grown in confined Wave Bioreactor, revealed the induction of specific mucosal and systemic immune responses. Algae-based vaccination significantly reduced the pathogen load in the spleen and the intestine of treated mice and protected 80% of them against lethal doses of S. aureus. Importantly, the alga vaccine was stable for more than 1.5 years at room temperature. These results indicate that C. reinhardtii may play an important role in molecular pharming, as it combines the beneficial features of land plant vaccines, while offering unmatched ease of growth compared to other members of the plant kingdom.

  14. When, how, and where can oral cholera vaccines be used to interrupt cholera outbreaks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, John; Holmgren, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Cholera continues to be a major global health problem, at times causing major and prolonged outbreaks in both endemic and nonendemic settings in developing countries. While improved water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) will provide the ultimate solution to prevention of this disease burden, this is a far-off goal for most developing countries. Oral cholera vaccines cholera vaccines (OCVs) have been demonstrated to be effective in the control of cholera outbreaks, and constitute useful tools to be used in conjunction with efforts to improve WASH. Two killed OCVs are prequalified by WHO for purchase by UN agencies for international use. Recently, WHO has launched a global stockpile stockpile of killed OCVs for use to control outbreaks. Rational deployment of OCV from this stockpile will require consideration of costs, feasibility, disease epidemiology epidemiology , and the protective characteristics of the vaccine deployed, as well as effective and rapid coordination of processes and logistics logistics used to make decisions on deployment and delivery of the vaccine to the population in need. Despite not having data on all the questions of relevance as to how to use OCVs to control cholera outbreaks in different settings, there is clearly more than enough evidence to initiate their use, as answers to remaining questions and refinement of policies will mainly come with experience.

  15. Optimal allocation of the limited oral cholera vaccine supply between endemic and epidemic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sean M; Lessler, Justin

    2015-10-06

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recently established a global stockpile of oral cholera vaccine (OCV) to be preferentially used in epidemic response (reactive campaigns) with any vaccine remaining after 1 year allocated to endemic settings. Hence, the number of cholera cases or deaths prevented in an endemic setting represents the minimum utility of these doses, and the optimal risk-averse response to any reactive vaccination request (i.e. the minimax strategy) is one that allocates the remaining doses between the requested epidemic response and endemic use in order to ensure that at least this minimum utility is achieved. Using mathematical models, we find that the best minimax strategy is to allocate the majority of doses to reactive campaigns, unless the request came late in the targeted epidemic. As vaccine supplies dwindle, the case for reactive use of the remaining doses grows stronger. Our analysis provides a lower bound for the amount of OCV to keep in reserve when responding to any request. These results provide a strategic context for the fulfilment of requests to the stockpile, and define allocation strategies that minimize the number of OCV doses that are allocated to suboptimal situations. © 2015 The Authors.

  16. Optimal allocation of the limited oral cholera vaccine supply between endemic and epidemic settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sean M.; Lessler, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recently established a global stockpile of oral cholera vaccine (OCV) to be preferentially used in epidemic response (reactive campaigns) with any vaccine remaining after 1 year allocated to endemic settings. Hence, the number of cholera cases or deaths prevented in an endemic setting represents the minimum utility of these doses, and the optimal risk-averse response to any reactive vaccination request (i.e. the minimax strategy) is one that allocates the remaining doses between the requested epidemic response and endemic use in order to ensure that at least this minimum utility is achieved. Using mathematical models, we find that the best minimax strategy is to allocate the majority of doses to reactive campaigns, unless the request came late in the targeted epidemic. As vaccine supplies dwindle, the case for reactive use of the remaining doses grows stronger. Our analysis provides a lower bound for the amount of OCV to keep in reserve when responding to any request. These results provide a strategic context for the fulfilment of requests to the stockpile, and define allocation strategies that minimize the number of OCV doses that are allocated to suboptimal situations. PMID:26423441

  17. Fighting rabies in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia--experts call for a regional initiative for rabies elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikimbayev, A; Briggs, D; Coltan, G; Dodet, B; Farahtaj, F; Imnadze, P; Korejwo, J; Moiseieva, A; Tordo, N; Usluer, G; Vodopija, R; Vranješ, N

    2014-05-01

    MEEREB is an informal network of rabies experts from the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, seeking to eliminate rabies from the region. They met for the second time to review the current rabies situation, both globally and in their respective countries, highlighting current rabies control problems and potential solutions. Success stories in Latin America, in Western Europe, in some Asian countries, as well as in Croatia and Serbia prove that elimination of human rabies is achievable in the MEEREB region. It requires political willingness and cooperation of all stakeholders, including Ministries of Health and of Agriculture; adequate management of animal bites through post-exposure prophylaxis; pre-exposure prophylaxis for populations at high risk of rabies exposure, animal vaccination and humane control of stray dog populations. MEEREB members called for a regional initiative for rabies elimination in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. They are confident that the elimination of human rabies of canine origin can be achieved in the region through adopting a One Health approach, and that campaigns for rabies elimination will have significant benefit for public health, including strengthening the structure for control of other zoonoses.

  18. Compendium of animal rabies prevention and control, 2004: National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc. (NASPHV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-25

    Rabies is a fatal viral zoonosis and a serious public health problem. The purpose of this compendium is to provide information to veterinarians, public health officials, and others concerned with rabies prevention and control. These recommendations serve as the basis for animal rabies-control programs throughout the United States and facilitate standardization of procedures among jurisdictions, thereby contributing to an effective national rabies-control program. This document is reviewed annually and revised as necessary. Parenteral vaccination procedure recommendations are contained in Part I; Part II details the principles of rabies control; all animal rabies vaccines licensed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and marketed in the United States are listed in Part III.

  19. Rabies: the clinical features, management and prevention of the classic zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrell, Mary J; Warrell, David A

    2015-02-01

    The diagnosis of rabies encephalitis relies on awareness of the varied clinical features and eliciting a history of unusual contact with a mammal throughout the endemic area. The diagnosis is easily missed. Laboratory tests are not routine and only confirm clinical suspicion. Rabies infection carries a case fatality exceeding 99.9%. Palliation is appropriate, except for previously-vaccinated patients or those infected by American bats, for whom intensive care is probably indicated. However, as rabies vaccines are outstandingly effective, no one should die of dog-transmitted infection. Vaccines and rabies immunoglobulin are expensive and usually scarce in Asia and Africa. All travellers to dog rabies enzootic areas should be strongly encouraged to have pre-exposure immunisation before departure. There is no contraindication to vaccination but the cost can be prohibitive. Intradermal immunisation, using 0.1 ml and sharing vials of vaccine, is cheaper and is now permitted by UK regulations. Returning travellers may need post-exposure prophylaxis. Economical intradermal post-exposure vaccination is practicable and should be introduced into rural areas of Africa and Asia immediately. Eliminating rabies in dogs is now feasible and would dramatically reduce human mortality, if funds were made available. The high current economic burden of human prophylaxis would then be largely relieved.

  20. Evaluation of Oral Bait Vaccine Efficacy Against Classical Swine Fever in Village Backyard Pig Farms in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monger, V R; Stegeman, J A; Dukpa, K; Gurung, R B; Loeffen, W L A

    2016-12-01

    Control and eradication of classical swine fever (CSF) in countries with a high proportion of backyard holdings is a challenge. Conventional attenuated Chinese C-strain vaccines, though safe and effective, are difficult to use in backyard farms due to various practical reasons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the CSF oral bait vaccine in village backyard pig farms and to assess the farmers' knowledge on CSF and motivation on using oral vaccines. The pigs were fed the bait by the farmers themselves; one bait was given on day 0, followed by second bait on the next day. Seventy-three per cent (140 of 193 pigs) of vaccinated pigs had either a slight (2-fold-3-fold; 60 pigs) or significant (at least 4-fold; 80 pigs) increase of the antibody titre against CSFV. A significant increase of the antibody titres was mainly observed in pigs with no pre-vaccination titre (OR = 12, 95% CI = 4-40). The number of pigs with protective antibody titres (≥40) rose from 47 (24%) to 115 (60%) following vaccination. Only 30% of the farmers claimed to be familiar with CSF, although clinical signs they mentioned were rather unspecific and could relate to many other pig diseases. Most of the farmers claimed to be motivated to use oral vaccines if made available. The oral vaccine could be a substitute for the conventional attenuated CSF vaccines in areas where it is logistically difficult for veterinarians to visit. It may therefore be a useful tool to combat endemic CSF disease in regions where the disease continues to have a serious impact on the backyard farmers who depend on pig farming for their sustenance and livelihoods.

  1. Translation of an experimental oral vaccine formulation into a commercial product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, K C; Ferro, V A; Alexander, J; Mullen, A B

    2006-02-01

    An effective experimental vaccine may fail to become a therapeutic reality for a number of scientific, regulatory or commercial reasons. In this review, we share some of our personal experiences as University-based researchers and provide an account of some of the problems that we have encountered during preliminary scale-up and assessment of an oral influenza vaccine formulation. Many of the problems we have faced have been non-scientific and related to identifying project-funding sources, finding suitable contract manufacturing companies that are GMP compliant, and protecting intellectual property generated from the scientific studies. The review is intended as a practical guide that will allow other researchers to adopt effective strategies to permit the translation of an effective experimental formulation to a viable commercial product.

  2. Use of Oral Cholera Vaccine in Haiti: A Rural Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Louise C.; Teng, Jessica E.; Lascher, Jonathan; Raymond, Max; Weigel, Jonathan; Victor, Nadia; Jerome, J. Gregory; Hilaire, Isabelle J.; Almazor, Charles P.; Ternier, Ralph; Cadet, Jean; Francois, Jeannot; Guillaume, Florence D.; Farmer, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    A cholera epidemic has claimed the lives of more than 8,000 Haitians and sickened 650,000 since the outbreak began in October 2010. Early intervention in the epidemic focused on case-finding, treatment, and water and sanitation interventions for prevention of transmission. Use of oral cholera vaccine (OCV) as part of a complementary set of control activities was considered but initially rejected by policymakers. In December 2011, the Minister of Health of Haiti called for a demonstration of the acceptability and feasibility of the use of OCV in urban and rural Haiti. This paper describes the collaborative activity that offered OCV to one region of the Artibonite Department of rural Haiti in addition to other ongoing treatment and control measures. Despite logistics and cold chain challenges, 45,417 persons were successfully vaccinated with OCV in the region, and 90.8% of these persons completed their second dose. PMID:24106187

  3. Intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in Flores Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wera, Ewaldus; Mourits, Monique C M; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-04-01

    The success of a rabies control strategy depends on the commitment and collaboration of dog owners. In this study the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used to identify the factors, which are associated with the intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in the Manggarai and Sikka regencies of Flores Island, Indonesia. Questionnaires were administered to 450 dog owners from 44 randomly selected villages in the two regencies. Ninety-six percent of the dog owners intended to participate in a free-of-charge vaccination campaign. The intention decreased to 24% when dog owners were asked to pay a vaccination fee equal to the market price of the vaccine (Rp 18.000 per dose=US$2). Approximately 81% of the dog owners intended to keep their dogs inside their house or to leash them day and night during a period of at least three months in case of an incidence of rabies in the dog population within their village. Only 40% intended to cull their dogs in case of a rabies incident within their village. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, the attitude item 'vaccinating dogs reduces rabies cases in humans', and the perceived behavioural control items 'availability of time' and 'ability to confine dogs' were shown to be significantly associated with the intention to participate in a free-of-charge vaccination campaign. The attitude item 'culling dogs reduces rabies cases in humans' was significantly associated with the intention to participate in a culling measure. The attitude item 'leashing of dogs reduces human rabies cases' and perceived behavioural controls 'availability of time' and 'money to buy a leash' were associated with the intention to leash dogs during a rabies outbreak. As the attitude variables were often significantly associated with intention to participate in a rabies control measure, an educational rabies campaign focusing on the benefit of rabies control measures is expected to increase the intention of dog owners to

  4. Enhanced immune response to foot-and-mouth disease vaccine by oral administration of ginseng stem-leaf saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Renjun; Ma, Yanfen; Zhai, Lijuan; Lu, Yisong; Chi, Xiaoqing; Wu, Jiusheng; Hu, Songhua

    2016-08-01

    Vaccination is an important approach to the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). This study evaluated the effect of oral administration of ginseng stem-leaf saponins (GSLS) on the immune response to FMD vaccine and the gut mucosal immunity in mice. In experiment 1, mice were orally administered GSLS or not treated as a control. The animals were then immunized twice with FMD vaccine. Blood was sampled weekly within five weeks after the boost immunization for measurement of serum IgG and the isotypes. In experiment 2, mice were orally administrated GSLS or not treated as a control. After that, splenocytes were prepared from sacrificed mice for lymphocyte proliferation assay and intestinal tissues were sampled for immunohistochemistry and histological examination. The results showed that oral administration of GSLS significantly enhanced serum IgG and the isotype responses to FMD vaccine as well as the number of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and immunoglobulin A (IgA)+ cells. Therefore, GSLS may be a potent oral adjuvant and deserve further study to improve vaccination in susceptible animals.

  5. Epidemiology, Impact and Control of Rabies in Nepal: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brecht Devleesschauwer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a vaccine-preventable viral zoonosis belonging to the group of neglected tropical diseases. Exposure to a rabid animal may result in a fatal acute encephalitis if effective post-exposure prophylaxis is not provided. Rabies occurs worldwide, but its burden is disproportionately high in developing countries, including Nepal. We aimed to summarize current knowledge on the epidemiology, impact and control of rabies in Nepal.We performed a systematic review of international and national scientific literature and searched grey literature through the World Health Organization Digital Library and the library of the National Zoonoses and Food Hygiene Research Centre, Nepal, and through searching Google and Google Scholar. Further data on animal and human rabies were obtained from the relevant Nepalese government agencies. Finally, we surveyed the archives of a Nepalese daily to obtain qualitative information on rabies in Nepal.So far, only little original research has been conducted on the epidemiology and impact of rabies in Nepal. Per year, rabies is reported to kill about 100 livestock and 10-100 humans, while about 1,000 livestock and 35,000 humans are reported to receive rabies post-exposure prophylaxis. However, these estimates are very likely to be serious underestimations of the true rabies burden. Significant progress has been made in the production of cell culture-based anti-rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin, but availability and supply remain a matter of concern, especially in remote areas. Different state and non-state actors have initiated rabies control activities over the years, but efforts typically remained focalized, of short duration and not harmonized. Communication and coordination between veterinary and human health authorities is limited at present, further complicating rabies control in Nepal. Important research gaps include the reporting biases for both human and animal rabies, the ecology of stray dog

  6. Epidemiology, Impact and Control of Rabies in Nepal: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aryal, Arjun; Sharma, Barun Kumar; Ale, Anita; Declercq, Anne; Depraz, Stephanie; Gaire, Tara Nath; Gongal, Gyanendra; Karki, Surendra; Pandey, Basu Dev; Pun, Sher Bahadur; Duchateau, Luc; Dorny, Pierre; Speybroeck, Niko

    2016-01-01

    Background Rabies is a vaccine-preventable viral zoonosis belonging to the group of neglected tropical diseases. Exposure to a rabid animal may result in a fatal acute encephalitis if effective post-exposure prophylaxis is not provided. Rabies occurs worldwide, but its burden is disproportionately high in developing countries, including Nepal. We aimed to summarize current knowledge on the epidemiology, impact and control of rabies in Nepal. Methods We performed a systematic review of international and national scientific literature and searched grey literature through the World Health Organization Digital Library and the library of the National Zoonoses and Food Hygiene Research Centre, Nepal, and through searching Google and Google Scholar. Further data on animal and human rabies were obtained from the relevant Nepalese government agencies. Finally, we surveyed the archives of a Nepalese daily to obtain qualitative information on rabies in Nepal. Findings So far, only little original research has been conducted on the epidemiology and impact of rabies in Nepal. Per year, rabies is reported to kill about 100 livestock and 10–100 humans, while about 1,000 livestock and 35,000 humans are reported to receive rabies post-exposure prophylaxis. However, these estimates are very likely to be serious underestimations of the true rabies burden. Significant progress has been made in the production of cell culture-based anti-rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin, but availability and supply remain a matter of concern, especially in remote areas. Different state and non-state actors have initiated rabies control activities over the years, but efforts typically remained focalized, of short duration and not harmonized. Communication and coordination between veterinary and human health authorities is limited at present, further complicating rabies control in Nepal. Important research gaps include the reporting biases for both human and animal rabies, the ecology of stray

  7. Rabies in Captive Deer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-30

    Dr. Brett Petersen, a medical officer at CDC, discusses rabies in captive deer.  Created: 4/30/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/30/2012.

  8. Travelers' Health: Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from rabies in a UK traveller returning from India. Euro Surveill. 2005 Jul;10(30):E050728 5. ... Follow CDC Email Recommend Tweet Post RSS CDC Media Listen Watch YouTube About CDC Employment Newsroom Training/ ...

  9. Rabies in Transplant Recipients

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-19

    Dr. Richard Franka, a CDC scientist, discusses rabies in organ transplant recipients.  Created: 9/19/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/19/2016.

  10. Improving Community Coverage of Oral Cholera Mass Vaccination Campaigns: Lessons Learned in Zanzibar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaetti, Christian; Ali, Said M.; Chaignat, Claire-Lise; Khatib, Ahmed M.; Hutubessy, Raymond; Weiss, Mitchell G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent research in two cholera-endemic communities of Zanzibar has shown that a majority (∼94%) of the adult population was willing to receive free oral cholera vaccines (OCVs). Since OCV uptake in the 2009 campaign reached only ∼50% in these communities, an evaluation of social and cultural factors and of barriers was conducted to understand this difference for future cholera control planning. Methodology/Principal Findings A random sample of 367 adult peri-urban and rural community residents (46.6% immunized vs. 53.4% unimmunized) was studied with a semi-structured interview that inquired about social and cultural features of cholera depicted in a vignette and barriers to OCV uptake. Symptoms (rectal pain, loose skin only in rural community) and perceived causes (uncovered food, contact with contaminated water) specific for severe diarrhea were associated with uptake. Purchasing drugs from pharmacies to stop diarrhea and vomiting was negatively associated with uptake. Increasing household size, age and previous enteric illness episode were positively related to uptake, the latter only at the rural site. The most prominent barrier to uptake was competing obligations or priorities (reported by 74.5%, identified as most important barrier by 49.5%). Next most prominent barriers were lacking information about the campaign (29.6%, 12.2%), sickness (14.3%, 13.3%) and fear of possible vaccine side effects (15.3%, 5.6%). The majority of unvaccinated respondents requested repetition of the vaccination with free OCVs. Conclusions/Significance Factors associated with uptake indicated a positive impact of the vaccination campaign and of sensitization activities on vaccine acceptance behavior. Unlike communities opposed to cholera control or settings where public confidence in vaccines is lacking, identified barriers to uptake indicated a good campaign implementation and trust in the health system. Despite prospects and demand for repeating the vaccination

  11. Improving community coverage of oral cholera mass vaccination campaigns: lessons learned in Zanzibar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schaetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent research in two cholera-endemic communities of Zanzibar has shown that a majority (∼94% of the adult population was willing to receive free oral cholera vaccines (OCVs. Since OCV uptake in the 2009 campaign reached only ∼50% in these communities, an evaluation of social and cultural factors and of barriers was conducted to understand this difference for future cholera control planning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A random sample of 367 adult peri-urban and rural community residents (46.6% immunized vs. 53.4% unimmunized was studied with a semi-structured interview that inquired about social and cultural features of cholera depicted in a vignette and barriers to OCV uptake. Symptoms (rectal pain, loose skin only in rural community and perceived causes (uncovered food, contact with contaminated water specific for severe diarrhea were associated with uptake. Purchasing drugs from pharmacies to stop diarrhea and vomiting was negatively associated with uptake. Increasing household size, age and previous enteric illness episode were positively related to uptake, the latter only at the rural site. The most prominent barrier to uptake was competing obligations or priorities (reported by 74.5%, identified as most important barrier by 49.5%. Next most prominent barriers were lacking information about the campaign (29.6%, 12.2%, sickness (14.3%, 13.3% and fear of possible vaccine side effects (15.3%, 5.6%. The majority of unvaccinated respondents requested repetition of the vaccination with free OCVs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Factors associated with uptake indicated a positive impact of the vaccination campaign and of sensitization activities on vaccine acceptance behavior. Unlike communities opposed to cholera control or settings where public confidence in vaccines is lacking, identified barriers to uptake indicated a good campaign implementation and trust in the health system. Despite prospects and demand for repeating the

  12. Effect of experimental single Ancylostoma caninum and mixed infections of Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma congolense on the humoural immune response to anti-rabies vaccination in dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nwoha Rosemary Ijeoma Ogechi; Anene Boniface Maduka

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the effect of Ancylostoma caninum (A. caninum) and trypanosome parasites on the immune response to vaccination in dogs in endemic environments. Methods:Sixteen dogs for the experiment were grouped into 4 of 4 members each. Group I was the uninfected control one, and GPII was infected with A. caninum; GPIII was infected with A. caninum/Trypanosoma congolense (T. congolense), and GPIV was infected with Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei)/A. caninum. The dogs were first vaccinated with antirabies vaccine before infecting GPII, GPIII and GPIV with A. caninum which were done 4 weeks after vaccination. By 2-week post-vaccination, trypanosome parasites were superimposed on both GPIII and GPIV. A secondary vaccination was given to GPI, GPII, GPIII, and GPIV by Week 12 of the experiment (4 weeks post treatment). Results:The prepatent period was (3.00 ± 1.40) days, in the conjunct infection of T. brucei/A. caninum. It was (9.00 ± 1.10) days, in conjunct T. congolense/A. caninum. The prepatent period of A. caninum was (14.0 ± 2.0) days in the single A. caninum group and (13.0 ± 1.0) days in the conjunct trypanosome/A. caninum. At the 1st week after vaccination, the antibody titer in all the vaccinated groups (GPI, GPII, GPIII, and GPIV) significantly increased (P Conclusions:It was therefore concluded that A. caninum, T. brucei and T. congolense induced immunosuppression in antirabies vaccination in dogs.

  13. The efficacy of oral vaccination of mice with alginate encapsulated outer membrane proteins of Pasteurella haemolytica and One-Shot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidane, A; Guimond, P; Ju, T R; Sanchez, M; Gibson, J; Bowersock, T L

    2001-03-21

    The goal of this study was to examine the efficacy of oral delivery of alginate encapsulated outer membrane proteins (OMP) of Pasteurella haemolytica and a commercial One-Shot vaccine in inducing protection in mice against lethal challenge with virulent P. haemolytica. We examined two alginate microsphere formulations and compared them with oral unencapsulated and subcutaneously administered vaccines. Alginate microspheres were made by the emulsion-cross-linking technique. They were examined for size, hydrophobicity, and antigen loading efficiency before they were used in the study. Mice were vaccinated by administering 200 microg of antigens in 200 microl of microspheres suspension orally or subcutaneously. One group of mice received blank microspheres and a second group was given unencapsulated antigen orally. A third and a fourth group received different formulations of alginate encapsulated antigens by oral administration. Three groups received subcutaneous inoculations (alginate encapsulated, non-adjuvanted and unencapsulated antigens, and adjuvanted One-Shot), and one group received water (naïve group). Mice were vaccinated orally for four consecutive days and challenged with P. haemolytica 5 weeks after the first vaccination. Weekly serum and feces samples were assayed for antigen specific antibodies. The number of dead mice in each group 4 days post challenge was used to compare the efficacy of the various vaccination groups. The mean volume sizes of blank alginate microsphere formulations A, and AA were 15.9, 16 and 9.2 microm, respectively. Hydrophobicity of the microspheres was evaluated by measuring contact angle on a glass slide coated with the microspheres. The contact angles on A and AA were 37.8 and 74.3 degrees, respectively. Antigen concentration in a 1:1 w/w suspension of microspheres in water was 0.9 mg/ml. Rate of death for the blank group was 42.8% whereas for groups vaccinated with antigens encapsulated in A and AA the death rates were 40

  14. Evaluation of oral and subcutaneous delivery of an experimental canarypox recombinant canine distemper vaccine in the Siberian polecate (Mustela eversmanni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimsatt, Jeffrey; Biggins, Dean E.; Innes, Kim; Taylor, Bobbi; Garell, Della

    2003-01-01

    We assessed the safety and efficacy of an experimental canarypox-vectored recombinant canine distemper virus (CDV) subunit vaccine in the Siberian polecat (Mustela eversmanni), a close relative of the black-footed ferret, (M. nigripes), an endangered species that is highly susceptible to the virus. Siberian polecats were randomized into six treatment groups. Recombinant canine distemper vaccine was administered s.c. at three dose levels (104.5, 105.0, and 105.5 plaque-forming units [PFU] per dose) and was administered orally by spraying the vaccine into the oropharnyx at two dose levels (105.5, 108.0 PFU per dose). The sixth group of control animals was not vaccinated. For both routes of administration, two 1-ml doses of reconstituted vaccine were delivered 4 wk apart, followed by live virus challenge 3 wk after the second vaccination. During the challenge, Synder Hill test strain CDV obtained from the National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Ames, Iowa, was administered i.p. Serial blood samples for CDV serology were collected immediately before vaccination and challenge, and 10, 15, and 20 days after challenge. Clinical signs and body weights were recorded up to 32 days after challenge. The survival rate in animals receiving vaccine at the highest oral dose (108.0 PFU per dose) was 83.3%. Survival rate was 50.0% in the high s.c. and 60.0% in the medium s.c. groups. All animals in the low–s.c. dose, low–oral dose, and control groups died after exposure. Vaccine dose overall (oral and s.c.) and dose in response to s.c. administration when considered alone were significant predictors of survival (P = 0.006 and P = 0.04, respectively). Among the polecats challenged with virulent virus, those that died became sick sooner than those that survived. Animals that died lost significantly more weight during the 10 days after challenge than did animals that survived (P = 0.02). Survival rates did not differ by sex, founder female status, or breeding pedigree in any of

  15. Modelling the dispersal of the two main hosts of the raccoon rabies variant in heterogeneous environments with landscape genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux Paquette, Sébastien; Talbot, Benoit; Garant, Dany; Mainguy, Julien; Pelletier, Fanie

    2014-01-01

    Predicting the geographic spread of wildlife epidemics requires knowledge about the movement patterns of disease hosts or vectors. The field of landscape genetics provides valuable approaches to study dispersal indirectly, which in turn may be used to understand patterns of disease spread. Here, we applied landscape genetic analyses and spatially explicit models to identify the potential path of raccoon rabies spread in a mesocarnivore community. We used relatedness estimates derived from microsatellite genotypes of raccoons and striped skunks to investigate their dispersal patterns in a heterogeneous landscape composed predominantly of agricultural, forested and residential areas. Samples were collected in an area covering 22 000 km2 in southern Québec, where the raccoon rabies variant (RRV) was first detected in 2006. Multiple regressions on distance matrices revealed that genetic distance among male raccoons was strictly a function of geographic distance, while dispersal in female raccoons was significantly reduced by the presence of agricultural fields. In skunks, our results suggested that dispersal is increased in edge habitats between fields and forest fragments in both males and females. Resistance modelling allowed us to identify likely dispersal corridors used by these two rabies hosts, which may prove especially helpful for surveillance and control (e.g. oral vaccination) activities. PMID:25469156

  16. The rise and fall of rabies in Japan: A quantitative history of rabies epidemics in Osaka Prefecture, 1914-1933.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Kurosawa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Japan has been free from rabies since the 1950s. However, during the early 1900s several large-scale epidemics spread throughout the country. Here we investigate the dynamics of these epidemics between 1914 and 1933 in Osaka Prefecture, using archival data including newspapers. The association between dog rabies cases and human population density was investigated using Mixed-effects models and epidemiological parameters such as the basic reproduction number (R0, the incubation and infectious period and the serial interval were estimated. A total of 4,632 animal rabies cases were reported, mainly in dogs (99.0%, 4,584 cases during two epidemics from 1914 to 1921, and 1922 to 1933 respectively. The second epidemic was larger (3,705 cases than the first (879 cases, but had a lower R0 (1.50 versus 2.42. The first epidemic was controlled through capture of stray dogs and tethering of pet dogs. Dog mass vaccination began in 1923, with campaigns to capture stray dogs. Rabies in Osaka Prefecture was finally eliminated in 1933. A total of 3,805 rabid dog-bite injuries, and 75 human deaths were reported. The relatively low incidence of human rabies, high ratio of post-exposure vaccines (PEP and bite injuries by rabid dogs (minimum 6.2 to maximum 73.6, between 1924 and 1928, and a decline in the proportion of bite victims that developed hydrophobia over time (slope = -0.29, se = 3, p < 0.001, indicated that increased awareness and use of PEP might have prevented disease. Although significantly more dog rabies cases were detected at higher human population densities (slope = 0.66, se = 0.03, p < 0.01, there were fewer dog rabies cases detected per capita (slope = -0.34, se = 0.03, p < 0.01. We suggest that the combination of mass vaccination and restriction of dog movement enabled by strong legislation was key to eliminate rabies. Moreover, the prominent role of the media in both reporting rabies cases and efforts to control the disease likely contributed

  17. Rabies Control: Could Innovative Financing Break the Deadlock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welburn, Susan C.; Coleman, Paul G.; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    The neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs) have been all but eradicated in wealthier countries but remain major causes of ill-health and mortality in over 80 countries across Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The nature of neglect for the NZDs has been ascribed, in part, to underreporting resulting in an underestimation of their global burden that, together with a lack of advocacy, downgrades their relevance to policy-makers and funding agencies. While this may be the case for many NZDs, for rabies this is not the case. The global burden estimates for rabies (931,600 DALYs) more than justify prioritizing rabies control building on the strong advocacy platforms, functioning at local, regional, and global levels (including the Global Alliance for Rabies Control), and commitments from WHO, OIE, and FAO. Simple effective tools for rabies control exist together with blueprints for operationalizing control, yet, despite elimination targets being set, no global affirmative action has been taken. Rabies control demands activities both in the short term and over a long period of time to achieve the desired cumulative gains. Despite the availability of effective vaccines and messaging tools, rabies will not be sustainably controlled in the near future without long-term financial commitment, particularly as disease incidence decreases and other health priorities take hold. While rabies control is usually perceived as a public good, public private partnerships could prove equally effective in addressing endemic rabies through harnessing social investment and demonstrating the cost-effectiveness of control. It is acknowledged that greater attention to navigating local realities in planning and implementation is essential to ensuring that rabies, and other neglected diseases, are controlled sustainably. In the shadows of resource and institutional limitations in the veterinary sector in low- and middle-income countries, sufficient funding is required so that top-down interventions

  18. Rabies Control: Could Innovative Financing Break the Deadlock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welburn, Susan C; Coleman, Paul G; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    The neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs) have been all but eradicated in wealthier countries but remain major causes of ill-health and mortality in over 80 countries across Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The nature of neglect for the NZDs has been ascribed, in part, to underreporting resulting in an underestimation of their global burden that, together with a lack of advocacy, downgrades their relevance to policy-makers and funding agencies. While this may be the case for many NZDs, for rabies this is not the case. The global burden estimates for rabies (931,600 DALYs) more than justify prioritizing rabies control building on the strong advocacy platforms, functioning at local, regional, and global levels (including the Global Alliance for Rabies Control), and commitments from WHO, OIE, and FAO. Simple effective tools for rabies control exist together with blueprints for operationalizing control, yet, despite elimination targets being set, no global affirmative action has been taken. Rabies control demands activities both in the short term and over a long period of time to achieve the desired cumulative gains. Despite the availability of effective vaccines and messaging tools, rabies will not be sustainably controlled in the near future without long-term financial commitment, particularly as disease incidence decreases and other health priorities take hold. While rabies control is usually perceived as a public good, public private partnerships could prove equally effective in addressing endemic rabies through harnessing social investment and demonstrating the cost-effectiveness of control. It is acknowledged that greater attention to navigating local realities in planning and implementation is essential to ensuring that rabies, and other neglected diseases, are controlled sustainably. In the shadows of resource and institutional limitations in the veterinary sector in low- and middle-income countries, sufficient funding is required so that top-down interventions

  19. Antibody-Secreting Cell Responses after Vibrio cholerae O1 Infection and Oral Cholera Vaccination in Adults in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Atiqur; Rashu, Rasheduzzaman; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Islam, Kamrul; LaRocque, Regina C.; Ryan, Edward T.; Wrammert, Jens; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Qadri, Firdausi; Harris, Jason B.

    2013-01-01

    Infection with Vibrio cholerae and oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) induce transient circulating plasmablast responses that peak within approximately 7 days after infection or vaccination. We previously demonstrated that plasmablast responses strongly correlate with subsequent levels of V. cholerae-specific duodenal antibodies up to 6 months after V. cholerae infection. Hence, plasmablast responses provide an early window into the immunologic memory at the mucosal surface. In this study, we chara...

  20. A retrospective analysis of oral cholera vaccine use, disease severity and deaths during an outbreak in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekolo, Cavin Epie; van Loenhout, Joris Adriaan Frank; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Rumunu, John; Ramadan, Otim Patrick; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether pre-emptive oral cholera vaccination reduces disease severity and mortality in people who develop cholera disease during an outbreak. The study involved a retrospective analysis of demographic and clinical data from 41 cholera treatment facilities in South Sudan on patients who developed cholera disease between 23 April and 20 July 2014 during a large outbreak, a few months after a pre-emptive oral vaccination campaign. Patients who developed severe dehydration were regarded as having a severe cholera infection. Vaccinated and unvaccinated patients were compared and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with developing severe disease or death. In total, 4115 cholera patients were treated at the 41 facilities: 1946 (47.3%) had severe disease and 62 (1.5%) deaths occurred. Multivariate analysis showed that patients who received two doses of oral cholera vaccine were 4.5-fold less likely to develop severe disease than unvaccinated patients (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 0.22; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.11-0.44). Moreover, those with severe cholera were significantly more likely to die than those without (aOR: 4.76; 95% CI: 2.33-9.77). Pre-emptive vaccination with two doses of oral cholera vaccine was associated with a significant reduction in the likelihood of developing severe cholera disease during an outbreak in South Sudan. Moreover, severe disease was the strongest predictor of death. Two doses of oral cholera vaccine should be used in emergencies to reduce the disease burden.

  1. Reduced prevalence of oral human papillomavirus (HPV 4 years after bivalent HPV vaccination in a randomized clinical trial in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Herrero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV infection, particularly with type 16, causes a growing fraction of oropharyngeal cancers, whose incidence is increasing, mainly in developed countries. In a double-blind controlled trial conducted to investigate vaccine efficacy (VE of the bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine against cervical infections and lesions, we estimated VE against prevalent oral HPV infections 4 years after vaccination. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 7,466 women 18-25 years old were randomized (1∶1 to receive the HPV16/18 vaccine or hepatitis A vaccine as control. At the final blinded 4-year study visit, 5,840 participants provided oral specimens (91·9% of eligible women to evaluate VE against oral infections. Our primary analysis evaluated prevalent oral HPV infection among all vaccinated women with oral and cervical HPV results. Corresponding VE against prevalent cervical HPV16/18 infection was calculated for comparison. Oral prevalence of identifiable mucosal HPV was relatively low (1·7%. Approximately four years after vaccination, there were 15 prevalent HPV16/18 infections in the control group and one in the vaccine group, for an estimated VE of 93·3% (95% CI = 63% to 100%. Corresponding efficacy against prevalent cervical HPV16/18 infection for the same cohort at the same visit was 72·0% (95% CI = 63% to 79% (p versus oral VE = 0·04. There was no statistically significant protection against other oral HPV infections, though power was limited for these analyses. CONCLUSIONS: HPV prevalence four years after vaccination with the ASO4-adjuvanted HPV16/18 vaccine was much lower among women in the vaccine arm compared to the control arm, suggesting that the vaccine affords strong protection against oral HPV16/18 infection, with potentially important implications for prevention of increasingly common HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer. ClinicalTrials.gov, Registry number NCT00128661.

  2. Protective role of interferon against cytotoxcicity induced by rabies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... lack of safe efficient vaccines and poor information on the risk of contracting rabies post animal ... chromosomes directly or cause activation of lysosomal enzymes including ... USA) was subcutaneously injected in mice 24 h pre viral infection with the .... cell was considered centromerically attenuated when it.

  3. Fatal rabies despite post-exposure prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D G Deshmukh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Only sporadic reports of failure of post-exposure prophylaxis for rabies exist in the published literature. We are reporting such a case in a 3-year-old boy. The child had Category III dog bite on his right thigh. He presented with progressive ascending paralysis, finally developing quadriplegia and respiratory paralysis. Typical hydrophobia and aerophobia were absent. He received four doses of antirabies cell culture vaccine. He did not receive antirabies immunoglobulin. The boy succumbed on the 23 rd day of the dog bite. Diagnosis of rabies was confirmed in the laboratory by demonstration of Negri bodies, direct fluorescent antibody test and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction either on impression smear of brain or a piece of brain taken during autopsy.

  4. VAKSINASI, EDUKASI DAN ELIMINASI ANJING LIAR SEBAGAI USAHA PERCEPATAN PENANGGULANGAN PENYAKIT RABIES DI BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerta Besung. INK

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is an old zoonotic disease coused by lyssavirus of Rhabdovirus family, affecting warm-blooded animal including human. This community service is required to give information about the rabies diseases, vaccination and elimination of stray dogs. This activities was cooperated with Department of Animal Husbandry in Denpasar, Badung, Gianyar and Tabanan regency. The method used in this activities were to give information about the rabies diseases, to give vaccination and elimination of stray dogs. The number of dog vaccinated is: 172, eliminated : 81, and the activity was attended by 348 people, all of them were interested in this program. This activity should be continued, because when the rabies disease outbursts, it is very difficult to eradicate.

  5. Plant based oral vaccines for human and animal pathogens – a new era of prophylaxis: current and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Dhama

    Full Text Available Vaccination remains a high priority for animal disease prevention and control especially on account of rising antimicrobial resistant strains of pathogens and frightening increase in new emerging and reemerging pathogens. Traditional vaccines have limitation like residual virulence, need of extensive safety precautions, production difficulty and huge initial investments. Additionally, they are inefficient in producing a protective response at mucosal surfaces such as of lungs and intestinal tract, the actual sites where disease agents enter the body. Recent advances in plant molecular farming has resulted in genetic manipulations in plants to make them bioreactors for production of various recombinant proteins, by using infectious vectors or stable transgenic systems, which formulate the edible/oral vaccines. Such plant-based oral/edible vaccines have several advantages like they are functionally similar to conventional vaccines, demonstrate extended storage period in food grains, are heat-stable and does not require cold storage, eliminate need for expensive purification steps, are free from contaminating pathogens, can be produced in large scale in a time bound fashion and their delivery is easier with practical feasibility for large masses application. Additionally, these are also ideal for vaccination of animals and birds living in the wild areas thereby preventing many zoonoses. However, at this moment there are many practical challenges like degradation of vaccine antigen by enzymes of upper digestive tract, dosage regime, oral tolerance and the issues concerned to the use of genetically modified plant. In the near future the biomedical applications of these vaccines could become a common alternative to conventional vaccines, for which there is a great need to strengthen research and development activities in this promising area for protecting health of animals as well as of humans.

  6. The recombinant Lactococcus lactis oral vaccine induces protection against C. difficile spore challenge in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shanguang; Yan, Weiwei; McDonough, Sean P; Lin, Nengfeng; Wu, Katherine J; He, Hongxuan; Xiang, Hua; Yang, Maosheng; Moreira, Maira Aparecida S; Chang, Yung-Fu

    2015-03-24

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis in the developed world. Two potent cytotoxins, toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB) are the virulence factors of this disease and can be a good vaccine candidate against CDI. In the present study, we genetically engineered Lactococcus lactis to express the nontoxic, recombinant fragments derived from TcdA and TcdB C-terminal receptor binding domains (Tcd-AC and Tcd-BC) as an oral vaccine candidate. The immunogenicity of the genetically engineered L. lactis oral vaccine delivery system (animal groups LAC and LBC or the combination of both, LACBC) was compared with the recombinant TcdA and TcdB C-terminal receptor binding domain proteins (animal groups PAC and PBC or the combination of both, PACBC), which were expressed and purified from E. coli. After the C. difficile challenge, the control groups received PBS or engineered L. lactis with empty vector, showed severe diarrhea symptoms and died within 2-3 days. However, both the oral vaccine and recombinant protein vaccine groups had significantly lower mortalities, body weight decreases and histopathologic lesions than the control sham-vaccine groups (pvaccinated animals produced higher titers of both IgG and IgA than the control groups (pvaccine against CDI.

  7. Development of real-time PCR to detect oral vaccine-like poliovirus and its application to environmental surveillance.

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    Iwai-Itamochi, Masae; Yoshida, Hiromu; Obara-Nagoya, Mayumi; Horimoto, Eiji; Kurata, Takeshi; Takizawa, Takenori

    2014-01-01

    In order to perform environmental surveillance to track oral poliovirus vaccine-like poliovirus sensitively and conveniently, real-time PCR was developed and applied to a raw sewage concentrate. The real-time PCR method detected 0.01-0.1 TCID50 of 3 serotypes of Sabin strain specifically. The method also detected the corresponding serotypes of oral poliovirus vaccine-like poliovirus specifically, but detected neither wild poliovirus, except Mahoney for type 1 and Saukett for type 3, nor other enteric viruses, as far as examined. When real-time PCR was applied to environmental surveillance, the overall agreement rates between real-time PCR and the cell culture were 83.3% for all serotypes. Since real-time PCR has the advantages of rapid detection of viruses and minimum requirement of sampling volume as compared with ordinary cell culture, it is suitable to monitor oral poliovirus vaccine-like poliovirus in the environment, especially in areas where an oral vaccine is being replaced by an inactivated vaccine.

  8. A Randomised Trial Evaluating the Safety and Immunogenicity of the Novel Single Oral Dose Typhoid Vaccine M01ZH09 in Healthy Vietnamese Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, T.H.; Nguyen, T.D.; Nguyen, T.T.; Ninh, T.T.V.; Tran, N.B.C.; Nguyen, V.M.H.; Tran, T.T.N.; Cao, T.T.; Pham, V.M.; Nguyen, T.C.B.; Tran, T.D.H.; Pham, V.T.; To, S.D.; Campbell, J.I.; Stockwell, E.; Schultsz, C.; Simmons, C.P.; Glover, C.; Lam, W.; Marques, F.; May, J.P.; Upton, A.; Budhram, R.; Dougan, G.; Farrar, J.; Nguyen, V.V.C.; Dolecek, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The emergence of drug resistant typhoid fever is a major public health problem, especially in Asia. An oral single dose typhoid vaccine would have major advantages. M01ZH09 is a live oral single dose candidate typhoid vaccine containing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Ty2 aroC(-)

  9. Truncated VP28 as oral vaccine candidate against WSSV infection in shrimp: an uptake and processing study in the midgut of Penaeus monodon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulkarni, V.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Singh, I.S.B.; Sudheer, N.S.; Vlak, J.M.; Caipang, C.M.A.; Brinchmann, M.; Kiron, V.

    2013-01-01

    Several oral vaccination studies have been undertaken to evoke a better protection against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a major shrimp pathogen. Formalin-inactivated virus and WSSV envelope protein VP28 were suggested as candidate vaccine components, but their uptake mechanism upon oral deliver

  10. A Randomised Trial Evaluating the Safety and Immunogenicity of the Novel Single Oral Dose Typhoid Vaccine M01ZH09 in Healthy Vietnamese Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, T.H.; Nguyen, T.D.; Nguyen, T.T.; Ninh, T.T.V.; Tran, N.B.C.; Nguyen, V.M.H.; Tran, T.T.N.; Cao, T.T.; Pham, V.M.; Nguyen, T.C.B.; Tran, T.D.H.; Pham, V.T.; To, S.D.; Campbell, J.I.; Stockwell, E.; Schultsz, C.; Simmons, C.P.; Glover, C.; Lam, W.; Marques, F.; May, J.P.; Upton, A.; Budhram, R.; Dougan, G.; Farrar, J.; Nguyen, V.V.C.; Dolecek, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The emergence of drug resistant typhoid fever is a major public health problem, especially in Asia. An oral single dose typhoid vaccine would have major advantages. M01ZH09 is a live oral single dose candidate typhoid vaccine containing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Ty2 aroC(-) ssaV

  11. Haemophilus influenzae oral vaccination for preventing acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Edward; Lockhart, Kathleen; Purchuri, Sai Navya; Pushparajah, Jennifer; Cripps, Allan W; van Driel, Mieke L

    2017-06-19

    Chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are serious conditions in which patients are predisposed to viral and bacterial infections resulting in potentially fatal acute exacerbations. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is defined as a lung disease characterised by obstruction to lung airflow that interferes with normal breathing. Antibiotic therapy has not been particularly useful in eradicating bacteria such as non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) because they are naturally occurring flora of the upper respiratory tract in many people. However, they can cause opportunistic infection. An oral NTHi vaccine has been developed to protect against recurrent infective acute exacerbations in chronic bronchitis. To assess the effectiveness of an oral, whole-cell NTHi vaccine in protecting against recurrent episodes of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and COPD in adults. To assess the effectiveness of NTHi vaccine in reducing NTHi colonising the respiratory tract during recurrent episodes of acute exacerbations of COPD. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2017, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1946 to January 2017), Embase (1974 to January 2017), CINAHL (1981 to January 2017), LILACS (1985 to January 2017), and Web of Science (1955 to January 2017). We also searched trials registries and contacted authors of trials requesting unpublished data. We included randomised controlled trials comparing the effects of an oral monobacterial NTHi vaccine in adults with recurrent acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis or COPD when there was overt matching of the vaccine and placebo groups on clinical grounds. The selection criteria considered populations aged less than 65 years and those older than 65 years. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data from original records and publications for incidence and severity of bronchitis episodes and carriage rate of

  12. Antibody levels against rabies among occupationally exposed individuals in a Nigerian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babasola O. Olugasa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigated the levels of anti-glycoprotein antibodies against rabies virus in the sera of occupationally exposed humans at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. A quantitative indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to detect rabies virus anti-glycoprotein antibodies in sera from 20 zoological garden workers, 20 veterinarians and 30 clinical veterinary students at the University of Ibadan. The sera were obtained between September 2008 and February 2009. Of these 70 healthy individuals, 29 (41.4% consisting of 15 zoological garden workers (75.0%, 13 veterinarians (65.0% and 1 veterinary student (3.3% were immune to rabies virus (antibody titre >0.5 equivalent units per ml, while 41 (58.6% were not immune. The prevalence of rabies anti-glycoprotein antibody was higher within the older segment of the study population than among the younger veterinary students. Almost all those who had spent at least 10 years on the job had higher levels of rabies vaccination compliance and were immune. Our results indicated that there is low anti-rabies immunity among occupationally exposed individuals at the University of Ibadan. There is a need for a complete course of primary and booster vaccinations of professionals exposed to the rabies virus. The impact of these results on rabies control in Nigeria is discussed.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis in the context of very low rabies risk: A decision-tree model based on the experience of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribadeau Dumas, Florence; N'Diaye, Dieynaba S; Paireau, Juliette; Gautret, Philippe; Bourhy, Hervé; Le Pen, Claude; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan

    2015-05-11

    Benefit-risk of different anti-rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) strategies after scratches or bites from dogs with unknown rabies status is unknown in very low rabies risk settings. A cost-effectiveness analysis in metropolitan France using a decision-tree model and input data from 2001 to 2011. A cohort of 2807 patients, based on the mean annual number of patients exposed to category CII (minor scratches) or CIII (transdermal bite) dog attacks in metropolitan France between 2001 and 2011. Five PEP strategies: (A) no PEP for CII and CIII; (B) vaccine only for CIII; (C) vaccine for CII and CIII; (D) vaccine+ rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) only for CIII; and (E) vaccine for CII and vaccine+ RIG for CIII. The number of deaths related to rabies and to traffic accidents on the way to anti-rabies centers (ARC), effectiveness in terms of years of life gained by reducing rabies cas