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Sample records for oral pathogen treponema

  1. Helical Conformation of Treponema pallidum (Nichols Strain), Treponema paraluis-cuniculi, Treponema denticola, Borrelia turicatae, and Unidentified Oral Spirochetes

    OpenAIRE

    Stepan, Daniel E.; Johnson, Russell C.

    1981-01-01

    Borrelia turicatae (mouse virulent) and Treponema denticola, a small oral treponeme, formed right-handed helices as determined by scanning electron microscopy. Treponema pallidum (Nichols strain), Treponema paraluis-cuniculi, and two unidentified oral spirochetes displayed left-handed helices.

  2. Opsonization of Treponema pallidum is mediated by immunoglobulin G antibodies induced only by pathogenic treponemes.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaffer, J. M.; Baker-Zander, S A; Lukehart, S A

    1993-01-01

    Rabbit antisera to Leptospira interrogans, Borrelia hermsii, and Treponema phagedenis biotype Reiter, reactive to shared spirochetal antigens, failed to enhance phagocytosis of Treponema pallidum by macrophages, while immunoglobulin G to Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue and Treponema paraluiscuniculi promoted phagocytosis. Opsonic antibodies are directed to pathogen-restricted, not shared spirochetal, antigens.

  3. Transcriptional responses of Treponema denticola to other oral bacterial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Juni; McHardy, Ian H; Simanian, Emil J; Shi, Wenyuan; Lux, Renate

    2014-01-01

    The classic organization by Socransky and coworkers categorized the oral bacteria of the subgingival plaque into different complexes. Treponema denticola, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia are grouped into the red complex that is highly correlated with periodontal disease. Socransky's work closely associates red with orange complex species such as Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia but not with members of the other complexes. While the relationship between species contained by these complexes is in part supported by their ability to physically attach to each other, the physiological consequences of these interactions and associations are less clear. In this study, we employed T. denticola as a model organism to analyze contact-dependent responses to interactions with species belonging to the same complex (P. gingivalis and T. forsythia), the closely associated orange complex (using F. nucleatum and P. intermedia as representatives) and the unconnected yellow complex (using Streptococcus sanguinis and S. gordonii as representatives). RNA was extracted from T. denticola alone as well as after pairwise co-incubation for 5 hrs with representatives of the different complexes, and the respective gene expression profiles were determined using microarrays. Numerous genes related to motility, metabolism, transport, outer membrane and hypothetical proteins were differentially regulated in T. denticola in the presence of the tested partner species. Further analysis revealed a significant overlap in the affected genes and we identified a general response to the presence of other species, those specific to two of the three complexes as well as individual complexes. Most interestingly, many predicted major antigens (e.g. flagella, Msp, CTLP) were suppressed in responses that included red complex species indicating that the presence of the most closely associated species induces immune-evasive strategies. In summary, the data presented here provide

  4. Transcriptional responses of Treponema denticola to other oral bacterial species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juni Sarkar

    Full Text Available The classic organization by Socransky and coworkers categorized the oral bacteria of the subgingival plaque into different complexes. Treponema denticola, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia are grouped into the red complex that is highly correlated with periodontal disease. Socransky's work closely associates red with orange complex species such as Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia but not with members of the other complexes. While the relationship between species contained by these complexes is in part supported by their ability to physically attach to each other, the physiological consequences of these interactions and associations are less clear. In this study, we employed T. denticola as a model organism to analyze contact-dependent responses to interactions with species belonging to the same complex (P. gingivalis and T. forsythia, the closely associated orange complex (using F. nucleatum and P. intermedia as representatives and the unconnected yellow complex (using Streptococcus sanguinis and S. gordonii as representatives. RNA was extracted from T. denticola alone as well as after pairwise co-incubation for 5 hrs with representatives of the different complexes, and the respective gene expression profiles were determined using microarrays. Numerous genes related to motility, metabolism, transport, outer membrane and hypothetical proteins were differentially regulated in T. denticola in the presence of the tested partner species. Further analysis revealed a significant overlap in the affected genes and we identified a general response to the presence of other species, those specific to two of the three complexes as well as individual complexes. Most interestingly, many predicted major antigens (e.g. flagella, Msp, CTLP were suppressed in responses that included red complex species indicating that the presence of the most closely associated species induces immune-evasive strategies. In summary, the data

  5. Treponema maltophilum sp. nov., a small oral spirochete isolated from human periodontal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, C; Choi, B K; Schüpbach, P; Guggenheim, B; Göbel, U B

    1996-07-01

    A novel culture medium for cultivation of fastidious oral anaerobes is described. This medium, OMIZ-Pat, consists of a rich chemically defined basal medium supplemented with asialofetuin, as well as yeast extract and Neopeptone fractions. Addition of 1 mg of rifampin per liter and 100 mg of fosfomycin per liter allowed routine isolation of spirochetes by a limit dilution method in 96-well plates containing liquid OMIZ-Pat. In addition to members of the four previously recognized species of oral treponemes (Treponema denticola, Treponema pectinovorum, Treponema socranskii, and Treponema vincentii), 26 previously undescribed spirochete strains belonging to one group were isolated. We propose the name Treponema maltophilum sp. nov. for these small spirochetes, which have two endoflagella; one endoflagellum is attached at each cell pole, and the endoflagella overlap in the middle of the cell. Growth of these organisms was dependent on a carbohydrate like D-arabinose, L-fucose, D-maltose, L-rhamnose, D-ribose, D-sucrose, or D-trehalose and was inhibited by fetal bovine serum. T. Maltophilum is distinguished from other oral Treponema species by its 16S rRNA sequence, its protein and antigen patterns as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting, and its characteristic alpha-glucosidase activity. The strains included in the new species on the basis of their 16S rRNA sequences are heterogeneous with respect to their alpha-fucosidase, and beta-glucuronidase activities, their dependence on N-acetylglucosamine, and their antigens as detected with patient antibodies. Strain BR is designated the type strain, and strains HO2A and PNA1 are reference strains of the new species.

  6. [Pathogenic potential of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia, the red bacterial complex associated with periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodet, C; Chandad, F; Grenier, D

    2007-01-01

    Periodontitis are mixed bacterial infections leading to destruction of tooth-supporting tissues, including periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Among over 500 bacterial species living in the oral cavity, a bacterial complex named "red complex" and made of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia has been strongly related to advanced periodontal lesions. While periodontopathogenic bacteria are the primary etiologic factor of periodontitis, tissue destruction essentially results from the host immune response to the bacterial challenge. Members of the red complex are Gram negative anaerobic bacteria expressing numerous virulence factors allowing bacteria to colonize the subgingival sites, to disturb the host defense system, to invade and destroy periodontal tissue as well as to promote the immunodestructive host response. This article reviews current knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms of bacteria of the red complex leading to tissue and alveolar bone destruction observed during periodontitis.

  7. Association between selected oral pathogens and gastric precancerous lesions.

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    Christian R Salazar

    Full Text Available We examined whether colonization of selected oral pathogens is associated with gastric precancerous lesions in a cross-sectional study. A total of 119 participants were included, of which 37 were cases of chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, or dysplasia. An oral examination was performed to measure periodontal indices. Plaque and saliva samples were tested with real-time quantitative PCR for DNA levels of pathogens related to periodontal disease (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythensis, Treponema denticola, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and dental caries (Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus. There were no consistent associations between DNA levels of selected bacterial species and gastric precancerous lesions, although an elevated but non-significant odds ratio (OR for gastric precancerous lesions was observed in relation to increasing colonization of A. actinomycetemcomitans (OR = 1.36 for one standard deviation increase, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.87-2.12, P. gingivalis (OR = 1.12, 0.67-1.88 and T. denticola (OR = 1.34, 0.83-2.12 measured in plaque. To assess the influence of specific long-term infection, stratified analyses by levels of periodontal indices were conducted. A. actinomycetemcomitans was significantly associated with gastric precancerous lesions (OR = 2.51, 1.13-5.56 among those with ≥ median of percent tooth sites with PD ≥ 3 mm, compared with no association among those below the median (OR = 0.86, 0.43-1.72. A significantly stronger relationship was observed between the cumulative bacterial burden score of periodontal disease-related pathogens and gastric precancerous lesions among those with higher versus lower levels of periodontal disease indices (p-values for interactions: 0.03-0.06. Among individuals with periodontal disease, high levels of colonization of periodontal pathogens are associated with an increased risk of gastric precancerous lesions.

  8. Treponema maltophilum sp. nov., a small oral spirochete isolated from human periodontal lesions.

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    A novel culture medium for cultivation of fastidious oral anaerobes is described. This medium, OMIZ-Pat, consists of a rich chemically defined basal medium supplemented with asialofetuin, as well as yeast extract and Neopeptone fractions. Addition of 1 mg of rifampin per liter and 100 mg of fosfomycin per liter allowed routine isolation of spirochetes by a limit dilution method in 96-well plates containing liquid OMIZ-Pat. In addition to members of the four previously recognized species of or...

  9. Structure of rrn operons in pathogenic non-cultivable treponemes: sequence but not genomic position of intergenic spacers correlates with classification of Treponema pallidum and Treponema paraluiscuniculi strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejková, Darina; Zobaníková, Marie; Pospísilová, Petra; Strouhal, Michal; Mikalová, Lenka; Weinstock, George M; Smajs, David

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the sequences of the two rRNA (rrn) operons of pathogenic non-cultivable treponemes, comprising 11 strains of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA), five strains of T. pallidum ssp. pertenue (TPE), two strains of T. pallidum ssp. endemicum (TEN), a simian Fribourg-Blanc strain and a rabbit T. paraluiscuniculi (TPc) strain. PCR was used to determine the type of 16S-23S ribosomal intergenic spacers in the rrn operons from 30 clinical samples belonging to five different genotypes. When compared with the TPA strains, TPc Cuniculi A strain had a 17 bp deletion, and the TPE, TEN and Fribourg-Blanc isolates had a deletion of 33 bp. Other than these deletions, only 17 heterogeneous sites were found within the entire region (excluding the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region encoding tRNA-Ile or tRNA-Ala). The pattern of nucleotide changes in the rrn operons corresponded to the classification of treponemal strains, whilst two different rrn spacer patterns (Ile/Ala and Ala/Ile) appeared to be distributed randomly across species/subspecies classification, time and geographical source of the treponemal strains. It is suggested that the random distribution of tRNA genes is caused by reciprocal translocation between repetitive sequences mediated by a recBCD-like system.

  10. Efficacy of Miswak on Oral Pathogens

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    Adnan Sukkarwalla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral cavity harbors a diverse and abundant number of complex oral pathogens causing different oral diseases. The development of dental caries and periodontal diseases has been found to be closely associated with various gram positive and gram negative microrganisms. Miswak, a natural toothbrush, has been documented as a potent antibacterial aid and its use is encouraged in different countries because of its good taste, texture, availability, cost and beneficial effect on teeth and supporting tissues. Different researches have been carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of Miswak. This review encompasses the efficacy of Miswak on suppression of oral pathogens with respect to conducted on fungi as well as cariogenic, periodontal and endodontic bacteria.

  11. Upregulation of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 and Proinflammatory Cytokines by the Major Surface Proteins of Treponema maltophilum and Treponema lecithinolyticum, the Phylogenetic Group IV Oral Spirochetes Associated with Periodontitis and Endodontic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Kack-Kyun; Choi, Bong-Kyu

    2005-01-01

    Treponema maltophilum and Treponema lecithinolyticum belong to the group IV oral spirochetes and are associated with endodontic infections, as well as periodontitis. Recently, the genes encoding the major surface proteins (Msps) of these bacteria (MspA and MspTL, respectively) were cloned and sequenced. The amino acid sequences of these proteins showed significant similarity. In this study we analyzed the functional role of these homologous proteins in human monocytic THP-1 cells and primary cultured periodontal ligament (PDL) cells using recombinant proteins. The complete genes encoding MspA and MspTL without the signal sequence were cloned into Escherichia coli by using the expression vector pQE-30. Fusion proteins tagged with N-terminal hexahistidine (recombinant MspA [rMspA] and rMspTL) were obtained, and any possible contamination of the recombinant proteins with E. coli endotoxin was removed by using polymyxin B-agarose. Flow cytometry showed that rMspA and rMspTL upregulated the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in both THP-1 and PDL cells. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8, was also induced significantly in both cell types by the Msps, as determined by reverse transcription-PCR and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas IL-1β synthesis could be detected only in the THP-1 cells. The upregulation of ICAM-1, IL-6, and IL-8 was completely inhibited by pretreating the cells with an NF-κB activation inhibitor, l-1-tosylamido-2-phenylethyl chloromethyl ketone. This suggests involvement of NF-κB activation. The increased ICAM-1 and IL-8 expression in the THP-1 cells obtained with rMsps was not inhibited in the presence of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), a natural inhibitor of IL-1. Our results show that the Msps of the group IV oral spirochetes may play an important role in amplifying the local immune response by continuous inflammatory cell recruitment and retention at an

  12. Unexpectedly high prevalence of Treponema pallidum infection in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with early syphilis who had engaged in unprotected sex practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C-J; Chang, S-Y; Wu, B-R; Yang, S-P; Liu, W-C; Wu, P-Y; Zhang, J-Y; Luo, Y-Z; Hung, C-C; Chang, S-C

    2015-08-01

    Between 2010 and 2014, we obtained swab specimens to detect Treponema pallidum, with PCR assays, from the oral cavities of 240 patients with 267 episodes of syphilis who reported engaging in unprotected sex practices. The detected treponemal DNA was subjected to genotyping. All of the syphilis cases occurred in men who have sex with men (MSM), and 242 (90.6%) occurred in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. The stages of syphilis included 38 cases (14.2%) of primary syphilis of the genital region, 76 (28.5%) of secondary syphilis, 21 (7.9%) of primary and secondary syphilis, 125 (46.8%) of early latent syphilis, and seven (2.6%) others. Concurrent oral ulcers were identified in 22 cases (8.2%). Treponemal DNA was identified from the swabs of 113 patients (42.2%), including 15 (68.2%) with oral ulcers. The most common genotype of T. pallidum was 14f/f. The presence of oral ulcers was associated with identification of T. pallidum in the swab specimens (15/22 (68.2%) vs. 98/245 (40.0%)) (p = 0.01). In multivariate analysis, secondary syphilis (adjusted OR 6.79; 95% CI 1.97-23.28) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titres of ≥1: 32 (adjusted OR 2.23; 95% CI 1.02-4.89) were independently associated with the presence of treponemal DNA in patients without oral ulcers. We conclude that detection of treponemal DNA in the oral cavity with PCR assays is not uncommon in MSM, most of whom reported having unprotected oral sex. Although the presence of oral ulcers is significantly associated with detection of treponemal DNA, treponemal DNA is more likely to be identified in patients without oral ulcers who present with secondary syphilis and RPR titres of ≥1: 32.

  13. Footprint of positive selection in Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum genome sequences suggests adaptive microevolution of the syphilis pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacani, Lorenzo; Chattopadhyay, Sujay; Centurion-Lara, Arturo; Jeffrey, Brendan M; Le, Hoavan T; Molini, Barbara J; Lukehart, Sheila A; Sokurenko, Evgeni V; Rockey, Daniel D

    2012-01-01

    In the rabbit model of syphilis, infection phenotypes associated with the Nichols and Chicago strains of Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum), though similar, are not identical. Between these strains, significant differences are found in expression of, and antibody responses to some candidate virulence factors, suggesting the existence of functional genetic differences between isolates. The Chicago strain genome was therefore sequenced and compared to the Nichols genome, available since 1998. Initial comparative analysis suggested the presence of 44 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 103 small (≤3 nucleotides) indels, and 1 large (1204 bp) insertion in the Chicago genome with respect to the Nichols genome. To confirm the above findings, Sanger sequencing was performed on most loci carrying differences using DNA from Chicago and the Nichols strain used in the original T. pallidum genome project. A majority of the previously identified differences were found to be due to errors in the published Nichols genome, while the accuracy of the Chicago genome was confirmed. However, 20 SNPs were confirmed between the two genomes, and 16 (80.0%) were found in coding regions, with all being of non-synonymous nature, strongly indicating action of positive selection. Sequencing of 16 genomic loci harboring SNPs in 12 additional T. pallidum strains, (SS14, Bal 3, Bal 7, Bal 9, Sea 81-3, Sea 81-8, Sea 86-1, Sea 87-1, Mexico A, UW231B, UW236B, and UW249C), was used to identify "Chicago-" or "Nichols -specific" differences. All but one of the 16 SNPs were "Nichols-specific", with Chicago having identical sequences at these positions to almost all of the additional strains examined. These mutations could reflect differential adaptation of the Nichols strain to the rabbit host or pathoadaptive mutations acquired during human infection. Our findings indicate that SNPs among T. pallidum strains emerge under positive selection and, therefore, are likely to be functional in nature.

  14. Identification of the Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum TP0092 (RpoE) regulon and its implications for pathogen persistence in the host and syphilis pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacani, Lorenzo; Denisenko, Oleg; Tompa, Martin; Centurion-Lara, Arturo

    2013-02-01

    Bacteria often respond to harmful environmental stimuli with the induction of extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma (σ) factors that in turn direct RNA polymerase to transcribe specific groups of response genes (or regulons) to minimize cellular damage and favor adaptation to the changed extracellular milieu. In Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the agent of syphilis, the TP0092 gene is predicted to code for the pathogen's only annotated ECF σ factor, homologous to RpoE, known in Escherichia coli to control a key transduction pathway for maintenance of envelope homeostasis in response to external stress and cell growth. Here we have shown that TP0092 is highly transcribed during experimental syphilis. Furthermore, TP0092 transcription levels significantly increase as infection progresses toward immune clearance of the pathogen, suggesting a role for TP0092 in helping T. pallidum respond to harmful stimuli in the host environment. To investigate this hypothesis, we determined the TP0092 regulon at two different time points during infection using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing. A total of 22 chromosomal regions, all containing putative TP0092-binding sites and corresponding to as many T. pallidum genes, were identified. Noteworthy among them are the genes encoding desulfoferrodoxin and thioredoxin, involved in detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Because T. pallidum does not possess other enzymes for ROS detoxification, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, or glutathione peroxidase, our results suggest that the TP0092 regulon is important in protecting the syphilis spirochete from damage caused by ROS produced at the site of infection during the inflammatory response.

  15. 16S rRNA-based detection of oral pathogens in coronary atherosclerotic plaque

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    Mahendra Jaideep

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerosis develops as a response of the vessel wall to injury. Chronic bacterial infections have been associated with an increased risk for atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. The ability of oral pathogens to colonize in coronary atheromatous plaque is well known. Aim: The aim of this study was to detect the presence of Treponema denticola, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Campylobacter rectus in the subgingival and atherosclerotic plaques of patients with coronary artery disease. Materials and Methods: Fifty-one patients in the age group of 40-80 years with coronary artery disease were selected for the study. DNA was extracted from the plaque samples. The specific primers for T. denticola, C. rectus and P. gingivalis were used to amplify a part of the 16S rRNA gene by polymerase chain reaction. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square analysis, correlation coefficient and prevalence percentage of the microorganisms were carried out for the analysis. Results: Of the 51 patients, T. denticola, C. rectus and P. gingivalis were detected in 49.01%, 21.51% and 45.10% of the atherosclerotic plaque samples. Conclusions: Our study revealed the presence of bacterial DNA of the oral pathogenic microorganisms in coronary atherosclerotic plaques. The presence of the bacterial DNA in the coronary atherosclerotic plaques in significant proportion may suggest the possible relationship between periodontal bacterial infection and genesis of coronary atherosclerosis.

  16. Extracellular Proteome and Citrullinome of the Oral Pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobernack, Tim; Glasner, Corinna; Junker, Sabryna; Gabarrini, Giorgio; de Smit, Menke; de Jong, Anne; Otto, Andreas; Becher, Doerte; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is an oral pathogen associated with the inflammatory disease periodontitis. Periodontitis and P. gingivalis have been associated with rheumatoid arthritis. One of the hallmarks of rheumatoid arthritis is the loss of tolerance against citrullinated proteins. Citrullination is

  17. Biosynthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Semiconductor Nanoparticles against Oral Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    C. Malarkodi; Rajeshkumar, S.; K. Paulkumar; Vanaja, M.; Gnanajobitha, G.; Annadurai, G.

    2014-01-01

    Dental care is an essential phenomenon in human health. Oral pathogens can cause severe break which may show the way to serious issues in human disease like blood circulation and coronary disease. In the current study, we demonstrated the synthesis and antimicrobial activity of cadmium sulphide and zinc sulphide nanoparticles against oral pathogens. The process for the synthesis of cadmium sulphide (CdS) and zinc sulphide (ZnS) nanoparticles is fast, novel, and ecofriendly. Formation of cadmi...

  18. Oral cavity anaerobic pathogens in biofilm formation on voice prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertl, Kristina; Zijnge, Vincent; Zatorska, Beata; Leonhard, Matthias; Schneider-Stickler, Berit; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method has been used to identify oral anaerobic pathogens in biofilms on voice prostheses. The purpose of the present study was to determine the location of those pathogens inside the biofilms. METHODS: Biofilms of 15 voice prostheses were sampled

  19. Role of Treponema denticola in periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, M N

    2001-01-01

    Among periodontal anaerobic pathogens, the oral spirochetes, and especially Treponema denticola, have been associated with periodontal diseases such as early-onset periodontitis, necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, and acute pericoronitis. Basic research as well as clinical evidence suggest that the prevalence of T denticola, together with other proteolytic gram-negative bacteria in high numbers in periodontal pockets, may play an important role in the progression of periodontal disease. The accumulation of these bacteria and their products in the pocket may render the surface lining periodontal cells highly susceptible to lysis and damage. T. denticola has been shown to adhere to fibroblasts and epithelial cells, as well as to extracellular matrix components present in periodontal tissues, and to produce several deleterious factors that may contribute to the virulence of the bacteria. These bacterial components include outer-sheath-associated peptidases, chymotrypsin-like and trypsin-like proteinases, hemolytic and hemagglutinating activities, adhesins that bind to matrix proteins and cells, and an outer-sheath protein with pore-forming properties. The effects of T. denticola whole cells and their products on a variety of host mucosal and immunological cells has been studied extensively (Fig. 1). The clinical data regarding the presence of T. denticola in periodontal health and disease, together with the basic research results involving the role of T. denticola factors and products in relation to periodontal diseases, are reviewed and discussed in this article.

  20. Pathogens and host immunity in the ancient human oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warinner, Christina; Rodrigues, João F Matias; Vyas, Rounak; Trachsel, Christian; Shved, Natallia; Grossmann, Jonas; Radini, Anita; Hancock, Y; Tito, Raul Y; Fiddyment, Sarah; Speller, Camilla; Hendy, Jessica; Charlton, Sophy; Luder, Hans Ulrich; Salazar-García, Domingo C; Eppler, Elisabeth; Seiler, Roger; Hansen, Lars H; Castruita, José Alfredo Samaniego; Barkow-Oesterreicher, Simon; Teoh, Kai Yik; Kelstrup, Christian D; Olsen, Jesper V; Nanni, Paolo; Kawai, Toshihisa; Willerslev, Eske; von Mering, Christian; Lewis, Cecil M; Collins, Matthew J; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Rühli, Frank; Cappellini, Enrico

    2014-04-01

    Calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) preserves for millennia and entraps biomolecules from all domains of life and viruses. We report the first, to our knowledge, high-resolution taxonomic and protein functional characterization of the ancient oral microbiome and demonstrate that the oral cavity has long served as a reservoir for bacteria implicated in both local and systemic disease. We characterize (i) the ancient oral microbiome in a diseased state, (ii) 40 opportunistic pathogens, (iii) ancient human-associated putative antibiotic resistance genes, (iv) a genome reconstruction of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia, (v) 239 bacterial and 43 human proteins, allowing confirmation of a long-term association between host immune factors, 'red complex' pathogens and periodontal disease, and (vi) DNA sequences matching dietary sources. Directly datable and nearly ubiquitous, dental calculus permits the simultaneous investigation of pathogen activity, host immunity and diet, thereby extending direct investigation of common diseases into the human evolutionary past.

  1. Pathogens and host immunity in the ancient human oral cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warinner, Christina; Rodrigues, João F Matias; Vyas, Rounak

    2014-01-01

    cavity has long served as a reservoir for bacteria implicated in both local and systemic disease. We characterize (i) the ancient oral microbiome in a diseased state, (ii) 40 opportunistic pathogens, (iii) ancient human-associated putative antibiotic resistance genes, (iv) a genome reconstruction...... of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia, (v) 239 bacterial and 43 human proteins, allowing confirmation of a long-term association between host immune factors, 'red complex' pathogens and periodontal disease, and (vi) DNA sequences matching dietary sources. Directly datable and nearly ubiquitous, dental...... calculus permits the simultaneous investigation of pathogen activity, host immunity and diet, thereby extending direct investigation of common diseases into the human evolutionary past....

  2. Bilateral treponema periostitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Anisuddin; Bhatti, Maqsood Ahmed; Mehboob, Ghulam

    2003-12-01

    Symmetrical exuberant periostitis is a rare disease caused by variety of infectious and non-infectious causes. Treponematosis is one of the rare causes of this condition. We report a patient who presented with left arm swelling, secondary to onion peel periostitis of the humerus, which was caused by Treponema species.

  3. Treponema denticola interactions with host proteins

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    J. Christopher Fenno

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oral Treponema species, most notably T. denticola, are implicated in the destructive effects of human periodontal disease. Progress in the molecular analysis of interactions between T. denticola and host proteins is reviewed here, with particular emphasis on the characterization of surface-expressed and secreted proteins of T. denticola involved in interactions with host cells, extracellular matrix components, and components of the innate immune system.

  4. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of oral pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veloo, A. C. M.; Seme, K.; Raangs, E.; Rurenga, P.; Singadji, Z.; Wekema-Mulder, G.; van Winkelhoff, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is a bacterial disease that can be treated with systemic antibiotics. The aim of this study was to establish the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of five periodontal pathogens to six commonly used antibiotics in periodontics. A total of 247 periodontal bacterial isolates were tested

  5. Pathogens and host immunity in the ancient human oral cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warinner, Christina; Rodrigues, João F Matias; Vyas, Rounak

    2014-01-01

    cavity has long served as a reservoir for bacteria implicated in both local and systemic disease. We characterize (i) the ancient oral microbiome in a diseased state, (ii) 40 opportunistic pathogens, (iii) ancient human-associated putative antibiotic resistance genes, (iv) a genome reconstruction......Calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) preserves for millennia and entraps biomolecules from all domains of life and viruses. We report the first, to our knowledge, high-resolution taxonomic and protein functional characterization of the ancient oral microbiome and demonstrate that the oral...... of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia, (v) 239 bacterial and 43 human proteins, allowing confirmation of a long-term association between host immune factors, 'red complex' pathogens and periodontal disease, and (vi) DNA sequences matching dietary sources. Directly datable and nearly ubiquitous, dental...

  6. Photodynamic action on some pathogenic microorganisms of oral cavity

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    Ovchinnikov, Ilya S.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2001-10-01

    The work is devoted to an analysis of pre-clinical and clinical experiments on photodynamic action of HeNe laser radiation in aggregate with a cation thiazinium dye Methylene Blue (MB) on a mix of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic aerobic bacteria being activators of pyoinflammatory diseases of oral cavity. Concentration of photosensitizes at which there is no own bactericidal influence on dying microflora, and parameters of influence at which the efficiency of irradiated microflora defeat reaches 99 % are determined.

  7. The pathogenic persona of community-associated oral streptococci.

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    Whitmore, Sarah E; Lamont, Richard J

    2011-07-01

    The mitis group streptococci (MGS) are widespread in the oral cavity and are traditionally associated with oral health. However, these organisms have many attributes that contribute to the development of pathogenic oral communities. MGS adhere rapidly to saliva-coated tooth surfaces, thereby providing an attachment substratum for more overtly pathogenic organisms such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, and the two species assemble into heterotypic communities. Close physical association facilitates physiologic support, and pathogens such as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans display resource partitioning to favour carbon sources generated by streptococcal metabolism. MGS exchange information with community members through a number of interspecies signalling systems including AI-2 and contact dependent mechanisms. Signal transduction systems induced in P. gingivalis are based on protein dephosphorylation mediated by the tyrosine phosphatase Ltp1, and converge on a LuxR-family transcriptional regulator, CdhR. Phenotypic responses in P. gingivalis include regulation of hemin uptake systems and gingipain activity, processes that are intimately linked to the virulence of the organism. Furthermore, communities of S. gordonii with P. gingivalis or with A. actinomycetemcomitans are more pathogenic in animal models than the constituent species alone. We propose that MGS should be considered accessory pathogens, organisms whose pathogenic potential only becomes evident in the context of a heterotypic microbial community.

  8. Oral pathogens change proliferation properties of oral tumor cells by affecting gene expression of human defensins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, T; Kraus, D; Novak, N; Probstmeier, R; Frentzen, M; Wenghoefer, M; Jepsen, S; Winter, J

    2016-10-01

    The impact of oral pathogens onto the generation and variability of oral tumors has only recently been investigated. To get further insights, oral cancer cells were treated with pathogens and additionally, as a result of this bacterial cellular infection, with human defensins, which are as anti-microbial peptide members of the innate immune system. After cell stimulation, proliferation behavior, expression analysis of oncogenic relevant defensin genes, and effects on EGFR signaling were investigated. The expression of oncogenic relevant anti-microbial peptides was analyzed with real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Cell culture experiments were performed to examine cellular impacts caused by stimulation, i.e., altered gene expression, proliferation rate, and EGF receptor-dependent signaling. Incubation of oral tumor cells with an oral pathogen (Porphyromonas gingivalis) and human α-defensins led to an increase in cell proliferation. In contrast, another oral bacterium used, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, enhanced cell death. The bacteria and anti-microbial peptides exhibited diverse effects on the transcript levels of oncogenic relevant defensin genes and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling. These two oral pathogens exhibited opposite primary effects on the proliferation behavior of oral tumor cells. Nevertheless, both microbe species led to similar secondary impacts on the proliferation rate by modifying expression levels of oncogenic relevant α-defensin genes. In this respect, oral pathogens exerted multiplying effects on tumor cell proliferation. Additionally, human defensins were shown to differently influence epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, supporting the hypothesis that these anti-microbial peptides serve as ligands of EGFR, thus modifying the proliferation behavior of oral tumor cells.

  9. Development of a novel protein biochip enabling validation of immunological assays and detection of serum IgG and IgM antibodies against Treponema pallidum pathogens in the patients with syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Na-Li; Ye, Lei; Schneider, Marion E; Du, Yi-Xin; Xu, Yuan-Hong; Fan, Li-Bin; Du, Wei-Dong

    2016-01-15

    In this study, we developed a novel protein biochip methodology that was characterized by dithiobis (succinimidyl undecanoate) (DSU) and specialized for detection of serum IgG and IgM antibodies against Treponema pallidum pathogens in the patients with syphilis, respectively. The biochips were validated by a dimension of atomic force microscope (AFM). The visualized detection limit of IgG antibody on the biochip was 0.39μg/ml. Finally, 286 serum samples from the patients with syphilis were simultaneously tested on the rTpN15-17-47 coated biochips. The results were evaluated in comparison with the assays of T. pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) and the toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST). The result demonstrated that the relative positive rate in the 286 patients by biochip was 99.0%, similar to that by TPPA (97.9%, P>0.05) and higher than that by TRUST, (76.2%, Ppallidum on a larger scale, but also for monitoring therapy modality of the disease.

  10. Monoclonal antibodies to Treponema Pallidum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.M. van de Donk; J.D.A. van Embden; M.F. van Olderen; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); J.C. de Jong (Jan)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractThree successive fusions of mouse myeloma cells and spleen lymphocytes of a mouse immunized with Treponema Pallidum resulted in one hybridoma producing anti T. pallidum antibodies for each fusion. The mice were immunized with live pallidum cells respectively 1, 3 and 5 months before fusi

  11. The pathogenic microflora and microbial interactions in oral cavity in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csilla Zambori

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The existing microorganisms in the oral cavity are not harmless and they can express various pathogenic factors. These pathogenic factors are represented by the morphostructural and functional characteristics that ensure germ aggression against the host. They are represented by a particular chemical structure of the germs, different morphological characteristics, or different functional properties caused by certain enzymes or toxic discharge. The expression of pathogenicity of microorganisms is achieved when there is an imbalance that can affect the dynamics of the relations between macro and micro-organisms, the interaction of host antimicrobial capacities and pathogenic proprieties of microorganisms in favor of the latter. Depending on their pathogenic proprieties these bacteria can be: pathogenic, moderately pathogenic, highly pathogenic. The objective of this study is to reveal the pathogenic proprieties and the interactions of the oral cavity bacteria.

  12. Sequential changes in susceptibility to Treponema pallidum of rabbits previously infected with Treponema paraluis-cuniculi

    OpenAIRE

    Graves, S.

    1981-01-01

    Rabbits immunised with virulent Treponema paraluis-cuniculi were challenged intradermally with graded doses of Treponema pallidum at three, five, seven, 12, and 30 months to ascertain the level of protection to T pallidum at various intervals after immunisation.

  13. Genetic diversity in Treponema pallidum: implications for pathogenesis, evolution and molecular diagnostics of syphilis and yaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smajs, David; Norris, Steven J; Weinstock, George M

    2012-03-01

    Pathogenic uncultivable treponemes, similar to syphilis-causing Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, include T. pallidum ssp. pertenue, T. pallidum ssp. endemicum and Treponema carateum, which cause yaws, bejel and pinta, respectively. Genetic analyses of these pathogens revealed striking similarity among these bacteria and also a high degree of similarity to the rabbit pathogen, Treponema paraluiscuniculi, a treponeme not infectious to humans. Genome comparisons between pallidum and non-pallidum treponemes revealed genes with potential involvement in human infectivity, whereas comparisons between pallidum and pertenue treponemes identified genes possibly involved in the high invasivity of syphilis treponemes. Genetic variability within syphilis strains is considered as the basis of syphilis molecular epidemiology with potential to detect more virulent strains, whereas genetic variability within a single strain is related to its ability to elude the immune system of the host. Genome analyses also shed light on treponemal evolution and on chromosomal targets for molecular diagnostics of treponemal infections.

  14. Assessment of the antimicrobial activity of Casearia sylvestris extract against oral pathogenic microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. SANTOS

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available An ethanolic extract of leaves from the tree Casearia sylvestris, known as guaçatonga in Brazil, was tested for in vitro activity against oral pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The results showed susceptibility of all the microorganisms tested. This study suggests a potential use of ethanolic extract of C. sylvestris as a novel treatment of oral infectious conditions, such as denture stomatitis, periodontitis and dental caries. Keywords: Casearia sylvestris; guaçatonga; oral microorganisms; antimicrobial activity.

  15. In vitro phenotypic differentiation towards commensal and pathogenic oral biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janus, M.M.; Keijser, B.J.F.; Bikker, F.J.; Exterkate, R.A.M.; Crielaard, W.; Krom, B.P.

    2015-01-01

    Commensal oral biofilms, defined by the absence of pathology-related phenotypes, are ubiquitously present. In contrast to pathological biofilms commensal biofilms are rarely studied. Here, the effect of the initial inoculum and subsequent growth conditions on in vitro oral biofilms was studied. Biof

  16. Metagenomic analysis reveals presence of Treponema denticola in a tissue biopsy of the Iceman.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Maixner

    Full Text Available Ancient hominoid genome studies can be regarded by definition as metagenomic analyses since they represent a mixture of both hominoid and microbial sequences in an environment. Here, we report the molecular detection of the oral spirochete Treponema denticola in ancient human tissue biopsies of the Iceman, a 5,300-year-old Copper Age natural ice mummy. Initially, the metagenomic data of the Iceman's genomic survey was screened for bacterial ribosomal RNA (rRNA specific reads. Through ranking the reads by abundance a relatively high number of rRNA reads most similar to T. denticola was detected. Mapping of the metagenome sequences against the T. denticola genome revealed additional reads most similar to this opportunistic pathogen. The DNA damage pattern of specifically mapped reads suggests an ancient origin of these sequences. The haematogenous spread of bacteria of the oral microbiome often reported in the recent literature could already explain the presence of metagenomic reads specific for T. denticola in the Iceman's bone biopsy. We extended, however, our survey to an Iceman gingival tissue sample and a mouth swab sample and could thereby detect T. denticola and Porphyrimonas gingivalis, another important member of the human commensal oral microflora. Taken together, this study clearly underlines the opportunity to detect disease-associated microorganisms when applying metagenomics-enabled approaches on datasets of ancient human remains.

  17. An In Silico Identification of Common Putative Vaccine Candidates against Treponema pallidum: A Reverse Vaccinology and Subtractive Genomics Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Jaiswal, Arun; Tiwari, Sandeep; Jamal, Syed Babar; Barh, Debmalya; Azevedo, Vasco; Soares, Siomar C.

    2017-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are caused by a wide variety of bacteria, viruses, and parasites that are transmitted from one person to another primarily by vaginal, anal, or oral sexual contact. Syphilis is a serious disease caused by a sexually transmitted infection. Syphilis is caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum. Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum) is a motile, gram-negative spirochete, which can be transmitted both sexually and from mother to child, and can invade virtually any organ or structure in the human body. The current worldwide prevalence of syphilis emphasizes the need for continued preventive measures and strategies. Unfortunately, effective measures are limited. In this study, we focus on the identification of vaccine targets and putative drugs against syphilis disease using reverse vaccinology and subtractive genomics. We compared 13 strains of T. pallidum using T. pallidum Nichols as the reference genome. Using an in silicoapproach, four pathogenic islands were detected in the genome of T. pallidum Nichols. We identified 15 putative antigenic proteins and sixdrug targets through reverse vaccinology and subtractive genomics, respectively, which can be used as candidate therapeutic targets in the future. PMID:28216574

  18. Rhamnolipids from non-pathogenic Burkholderia thailandensis E264: Physicochemical characterization, antimicrobial and antibiofilm efficacy against oral hygiene related pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshikh, Mohamed; Funston, Scott; Chebbi, Alif; Ahmed, Syed; Marchant, Roger; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2017-05-25

    Biosurfactants are naturally occurring surface active compounds that have mainly been exploited for environmental applications and consumer products, with their biomedical efficacy an emerging area of research. Rhamnolipids area major group of biosurfactants that have been reported for their antimicrobial and antibiofilm efficacy. One of the main limiting factors for scaled up production and downstream applications of rhamnolipids is the fact that they are predominantly produced from the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this article, we have reported the production and characterisation of long chain rhamnolipids from non-pathogenic Burkholderia thailandensis E264 (ATCC 700388). We have also investigated the antibacterial and antibiofilm properties of these rhamnolipids against some oral pathogens (Streptococcus oralis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Neisseria mucosa and Streptococcus sanguinis), important for oral health and hygiene. Treating these bacteria with different concentrations of long chain rhamnolipids resulted in a reduction of 3-4 log of bacterial viability, placing these rhamnolipids close to being classified as biocidal. Investigating long chain rhamnolipid efficacy as antibiofilm agents for prospective oral-related applications revealed good potency against oral-bacteria biofilms in a co-incubation experiments, in a pre-coated surface format, in disrupting immature biofilms and has shown excellent combination effect with Lauryl Sodium Sulphate which resulted in a drastic decrease in its minimal inhibitory concentration against different bacteria. Investigating the rhamnolipid permeabilization effect along with their ability to induce the formation of reactive oxygen species has shed light on the mechanism through which inhibition/killing of bacteria may occur.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of Uncaria tomentosa against oral human pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Renzo Alberto Ccahuana-Vasquez; Silvana Soléo Ferreira dos Santos; Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito; Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge

    2007-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa is considered a medicinal plant used over centuries by the peruvian population as an alternative treatment for several diseases. Many microorganisms usually inhabit the human oral cavity and under certain conditions can become etiologic agents of diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of different concentrations of Uncaria tomentosa on different strains of microorganisms isolated from the human oral cavity. Micropulverized Uncaria t...

  20. Antibacterial peptide nisin: a potential role in the inhibition of oral pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zhongchun; Ni, Longxing; Ling, Junqi

    2014-10-01

    Although the antimicrobial peptide nisin has been extensively studied in the food industry for decades, its application in the oral cavity remains to develop and evaluate its feasibility in treating oral common diseases. Nisin is an odorless, colorless, tasteless substance with low toxicity and with antibacterial activities against Gram-positive bacteria. These biologic properties may establish its use in promising products for oral diseases. This article summarizes the antibacterial efficiency of nisin against pathogenic bacteria related to dental caries and root canal infection and discusses the combination of nisin and common oral drugs.

  1. Acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA; targeting oral cavity pathogens

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    Shawl Abdul S

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Boswellic acids mixture of triterpenic acids obtained from the oleo gum resin of Boswellia serrata and known for its effectiveness in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disease including peritumor edema. Boswellic acids have been extensively studied for a number of activities including anti inflammatory, antitumor, immunomodulatory, and inflammatory bowel diseases. The present study describes the antimicrobial activities of boswellic acid molecules against oral cavity pathogens. Acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA, which exhibited the most potent antibacterial activity, was further evaluated in time kill studies, mutation prevention frequency, postantibiotic effect (PAE and biofilm susceptibility assay against oral cavity pathogens. Findings AKBA exhibited an inhibitory effect on all the oral cavity pathogens tested (MIC of 2-4 μg/ml. It exhibited concentration dependent killing of Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 up to 8 × MIC and also prevented the emergence of mutants of S.mutans ATCC 25175 at 8× MIC. AKBA demonstrated postantibiotic effect (PAE of 5.7 ± 0.1 h at 2 × MIC. Furthermore, AKBA inhibited the formation of biofilms generated by S.mutans and Actinomyces viscosus and also reduced the preformed biofilms by these bacteria. Conclusions AKBA can be useful compound for the development of antibacterial agent against oral pathogens and it has great potential for use in mouthwash for preventing and treating oral infections.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Lippia sidoides, carvacrol and thymol against oral pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, M. A.; Nogueira, N. A. P.; Bastos,G.M.; S.G.C. Fonseca; T.L.G. Lemos; Matos,F.J.A.; D. Montenegro; J. Heukelbach; Rao, V S; G.A.C. Brito

    2007-01-01

    Dental caries and periodontal disease are associated with oral pathogens. Several plant derivatives have been evaluated with respect to their antimicrobial effects against such pathogenic microorganisms. Lippia sidoides Cham (Verbenaceae), popularly known as "Alecrim-pimenta" is a typical shrub commonly found in the Northeast of Brazil. Many plant species belonging to the genus Lippia yield very fragrant essential oils of potential economic value which are used by the industry for the commerc...

  3. Antimicrobial activity of Uncaria tomentosa against oral human pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ccahuana-Vasquez, Renzo Alberto; Santos, Silvana Soléo Ferreira dos; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2007-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa is considered a medicinal plant used over centuries by the peruvian population as an alternative treatment for several diseases. Many microorganisms usually inhabit the human oral cavity and under certain conditions can become etiologic agents of diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of different concentrations of Uncaria tomentosa on different strains of microorganisms isolated from the human oral cavity. Micropulverized Uncaria tomentosa was tested in vitro to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) on selected microbial strains. The tested strains were oral clinical isolates of Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus spp., Candida albicans, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The tested concentrations of Uncaria tomentosa ranged from 0.25-5% in Müeller-Hinton agar. Three percent Uncaria tomentosa inhibited 8% of Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 52% of S. mutans and 96% of Staphylococcus spp. The tested concentrations did not present inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. It could be concluded that micropulverized Uncaria tomentosa presented antimicrobial activity on Enterobacteriaceae, S. mutans and Staphylococcus spp. isolates.

  4. Clinical test of serum treponema pallidum and human immunodeficiency virus in patients with oral lichen planus%口腔扁平苔藓患者血清梅毒螺旋体、人类免疫缺陷病毒感染的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘铁军; 史婷婷; 刘健; 张雨温; 许彦枝

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨梅毒螺旋体(treponema pallidum,TP)、人类免疫缺陷病毒(human immunodeficiency virus,HIV)感染对口腔扁平苔藓(oral lichen planus,OLP)发病的影响.方法 采用全自动化学发光免疫分析技术检测OLP组(n=100)与正常对照组(n=60)血清TP、HIV抗体的表达.结果 2组TP-IgG抗体、HW-IgG抗体表达率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 TP、HIV感染对OLP发病无明显影响.

  5. In vitro phenotypic differentiation towards commensal and pathogenic oral biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Marleen M; Keijser, Bart J F; Bikker, Floris J; Exterkate, Rob A M; Crielaard, Wim; Krom, Bastiaan P

    2015-01-01

    Commensal oral biofilms, defined by the absence of pathology-related phenotypes, are ubiquitously present. In contrast to pathological biofilms commensal biofilms are rarely studied. Here, the effect of the initial inoculum and subsequent growth conditions on in vitro oral biofilms was studied. Biofilms were inoculated with saliva and grown anaerobically for up to 21 days in McBain medium with or without fetal calf serum (FCS) or sucrose. Pathology-related phenotypes were quantified and the community composition was determined. Biofilms inoculated with pooled saliva or individual inocula were similar. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis allowed differentiation of biofilms grown with sucrose, but not with FCS. Lactate production by biofilms was significantly increased by sucrose and protease activity by FCS. McBain grown biofilms showed low activity for both phenotypes. Three clinically relevant in vitro biofilm models were developed and could be differentiated based on pathology-related phenotypes but not DGGE analysis. These models allow analysis of health-to-disease shifts and the effectiveness of prevention measures.

  6. The Extracellular Proteome and Citrullinome of the Oral Pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobernack, Tim; Glasner, Corinna; Junker, Sabryna; Gabarrini, Giorgio; de Smit, Menke; de Jong, Anne; Otto, Andreas; Becher, Dörte; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is an oral pathogen associated with the inflammatory disease periodontitis. Periodontitis and P. gingivalis¬ have been associated with rheumatoid arthritis. One of the hallmarks of rheumatoid arthritis is the loss of tolerance against citrullinated proteins. Citrullination i

  7. Identification of organic acids in Cichorium intybus inhibiting virulence-related properties of oral pathogenic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papetti, A.; Mascherpa, D.; Carazzone, C.; Stauder, M.; Spratt, D.A.; Wilson, M.; Pratten, J.; Ciric, L.; Lingström, P.; Zaura, E.; Weiss, E.; Ofek, I.; Signoretto, C.; Pruzzo, C.; Gazzani, G.

    2013-01-01

    The low molecular mass (LMM) extract of Cichorium intybus var. silvestre (red chicory) has been shown to inhibit virulence-linked properties of oral pathogens including Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii and Prevotella intermedia. In the present study HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS2 was used to investiga

  8. Identification of organic acids in Cichorium intybus inhibiting virulence-related properties of oral pathogenic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papetti, A.; Mascherpa, D.; Carazzone, C.; Stauder, M.; Spratt, D.A.; Wilson, M.; Pratten, J.; Ciric, L.; Lingström, P.; Zaura, E.; Weiss, E.; Ofek, I.; Signoretto, C.; Pruzzo, C.; Gazzani, G.

    2013-01-01

    The low molecular mass (LMM) extract of Cichorium intybus var. silvestre (red chicory) has been shown to inhibit virulence-linked properties of oral pathogens including Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii and Prevotella intermedia. In the present study HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS2 was used to

  9. Incidence of Bacteriocins Produced by Food-Related Lactic Acid Bacteria Active towards Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Papadimitriou

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the incidence of bacteriocins produced by 236 lactic acid bacteria (LAB food isolates against pathogenic or opportunistic pathogenic oral bacteria. This set of LAB contained several strains (≥17% producing bacteriocins active against food-related bacteria. Interestingly only Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198 was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii, while Lactobacillus fermentum ACA-DC 179 and Lactobacillus plantarun ACA-DC 269 produced bacteriocins solely against Streptococcus oralis. Thus, the percentage of strains that were found to produce bacteriocins against oral bacteria was ~1.3%. The rarity of bacteriocins active against oral LAB pathogens produced by food-related LAB was unexpected given their close phylogenetic relationship. Nevertheless, when tested in inhibition assays, the potency of the bacteriocin(s of S. macedonicus ACA-DC 198 against the three oral streptococci was high. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis revealed that exposure of the target cells to the antimicrobial compounds caused major alterations of key cellular constituents. Our findings indicate that bacteriocins produced by food-related LAB against oral LAB may be rare, but deserve further investigation since, when discovered, they can be effective antimicrobials.

  10. Analysis of immune cells within the healthy oral mucosa of specific pathogen-free cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzi, B; Murphy, B; Baumgarth, N; Vapniarsky, N; Nemec, A; Naydan, D K; Cox, D P; Verstraete, F J M

    2011-02-01

    The oral mucosa is an important interface for host-environment interactions. Based on previous studies, it is generally accepted that the cellular compartments of the oral immune system comprise organized mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues as well as diffusely and focally distributed T- and to lesser extent B-lymphocytes, oral mucosal Langerhans cells (OMLC), macrophages and mast cells. However, a comprehensive quantification of the cellular elements in the oral mucous membranes of the cat has not been reported. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the immune cell compartments in the oral mucous membranes and anatomically related tissues of healthy cats. Multiple biopsies of the oral mucous membranes and related tissues were obtained from four specific pathogen-free cats for histological and immunohistochemical assessment of lymphocyte subsets, OMLC, macrophages and mast cells. T-lymphocyte subsets, OMLC, mast cells and macrophages were present in varying frequencies among the tissue compartments of the feline oral cavity. B-lymphocytes were not identified in any of the examined tissues except the tonsils and mandibular lymph nodes. Lymphocytic aggregates (follicles) were found in the palatoglossal folds and the gingiva. We describe the topographical distribution of various leucocyte subsets in the normal healthy feline oral mucosa, and demonstrate regional differences in the distribution of these cells.

  11. Multilocus sequence analysis of Treponema denticola strains of diverse origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Sisu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oral spirochete bacterium Treponema denticola is associated with both the incidence and severity of periodontal disease. Although the biological or phenotypic properties of a significant number of T. denticola isolates have been reported in the literature, their genetic diversity or phylogeny has never been systematically investigated. Here, we describe a multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA of 20 of the most highly studied reference strains and clinical isolates of T. denticola; which were originally isolated from subgingival plaque samples taken from subjects from China, Japan, the Netherlands, Canada and the USA. Results The sequences of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, and 7 conserved protein-encoding genes (flaA, recA, pyrH, ppnK, dnaN, era and radC were successfully determined for each strain. Sequence data was analyzed using a variety of bioinformatic and phylogenetic software tools. We found no evidence of positive selection or DNA recombination within the protein-encoding genes, where levels of intraspecific sequence polymorphism varied from 18.8% (flaA to 8.9% (dnaN. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated protein-encoding gene sequence data (ca. 6,513 nucleotides for each strain using Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches indicated that the T. denticola strains were monophyletic, and formed 6 well-defined clades. All analyzed T. denticola strains appeared to have a genetic origin distinct from that of ‘Treponema vincentii’ or Treponema pallidum. No specific geographical relationships could be established; but several strains isolated from different continents appear to be closely related at the genetic level. Conclusions Our analyses indicate that previous biological and biophysical investigations have predominantly focused on a subset of T. denticola strains with a relatively narrow range of genetic diversity. Our methodology and results establish a genetic framework for the discrimination and phylogenetic

  12. Antimicrobial effect of acidified nitrate and nitrite on six common oral pathogens in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Deng-sheng; LIU Yin; ZHANG Chun-mei; YANG Sheng-hui; WANG Song-lin

    2006-01-01

    Background Salivary nitrate is positively correlated with plasma nitrate and its level is 9 times the plasma level after nitrate loading. Nitrate in saliva is known to be reduced to nitrite by oral bacteria. Nitrate and nitrite levels in saliva are 3-5 times those in serum in physiological conditions respectively in our previous study. The biological functions of high salivary nitrate and nitrite are still not well understood. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of nitrate and nitrite on main oral pathogens under acidic conditions.Methods Six common oral pathogens including Streptococcus mutans NCTC 10449, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4646, Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277, Capnocytophaga gingivalis ATCC 33624, Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 10953, and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 were cultured in liquid medium. Sodium nitrate or sodium nitrite was added to the medium to final concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 10 mmol/L. All of the microorganisms were incubated for 24 to 48 hours. The optical densities (OD) of cell suspensions were determined and the cultures were transferred to solid nutrient broth medium to observe the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration for the six tested pathogens.Results Nitrite at concentrations of 0.5 to 10 mmol/L had an inhibitory effect on all tested organisms at low pH values. The antimicrobial effect of nitrite increased with the acidity of the medium. Streptococcus mutans NCTC 10449 was highly sensitive to nitrite at low pH values. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4646 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 were relatively resistant to acidified nitrite. Nitrate at the given concentrations and under acidic conditions had no inhibitory effect on the growth of any of the tested pathogens.Conclusion Nitrite, at a concentration equal to that in human saliva, is both cytocidal and cytostatic to six principal oral pathogens in vitro, whereas nitrate at a similar

  13. Expression of Treponema pallidum Antigens in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walfield, Alan M.; Hanff, Philip A.; Lovett, Michael A.

    1982-04-01

    Treponema pallidum DNA was cloned in a bacteriophage. Clones were screened for expression of Treponema pallidum antigens by an in situ radio-immunoassay on nitrocellulose, with the use of subsequent reactions with syphilitic serum and radioiodinated Staphylococcus aureus protein A. One clone, which gave a strong signal, codes for at least seven antigens that react specifically with human antibodies to Treponema pallidum.

  14. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola Mixed Microbial Infection in a Rat Model of Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj K. Verma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola are periodontal pathogens that express virulence factors associated with the pathogenesis of periodontitis. In this paper we tested the hypothesis that P. gingivalis and T. denticola are synergistic in terms of virulence; using a model of mixed microbial infection in rats. Groups of rats were orally infected with either P. gingivalis or T. denticola or mixed microbial infections for 7 and 12 weeks. P. gingivalis genomic DNA was detected more frequently by PCR than T. denticola. Both bacteria induced significantly high IgG, IgG2b, IgG1, IgG2a antibody levels indicating a stimulation of Th1 and Th2 immune response. Radiographic and morphometric measurements demonstrated that rats infected with the mixed infection exhibited significantly more alveolar bone loss than shaminfected control rats. Histology revealed apical migration of junctional epithelium, rete ridge elongation, and crestal alveolar bone resorption; resembling periodontal disease lesion. These results showed that P. gingivalis and T. denticola exhibit no synergistic virulence in a rat model of periodontal disease.

  15. Porphyromonas gingivalis: Major Periodontopathic Pathogen Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Mysak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative oral anaerobe that is involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and is a member of more than 500 bacterial species that live in the oral cavity. This anaerobic bacterium is a natural member of the oral microbiome, yet it can become highly destructive (termed pathobiont and proliferate to high cell numbers in periodontal lesions: this is attributed to its arsenal of specialized virulence factors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of one of the main periodontal pathogens—Porphyromonas gingivalis. This bacterium, along with Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia, constitute the “red complex,” a prototype polybacterial pathogenic consortium in periodontitis. This review outlines Porphyromonas gingivalis structure, its metabolism, its ability to colonize the epithelial cells, and its influence upon the host immunity.

  16. Namibian chewing stick, Diospyros lycioides, contains antibacterial compounds against oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, L; Wei, G X; van der Bijl, P; Wu, C D

    2000-03-01

    The twigs of Diospyros lycioides, a plant commonly known as "muthala", are frequently used as chewing sticks for the cleaning of teeth by rural and urban people in Namibia. Preliminary studies showed that a methanol extract of D. lycioides inhibited growth of selected oral pathogens. Subsequent bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of four novel bioactive naphthalene glycosides, diospyrosides A, B, C, and D (1-4), and two known bioactive naphthoquinones, juglone (5) and 7-methyljuglone (6). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques including 1D and 2D NMR. These compounds inhibited the growth of oral cariogenic bacteria (Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis) and periodontal pathogens (Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia) at minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.019 to 1.25 mg/mL. Juglone exhibited the strongest inhibitory activity among these compounds.

  17. Increased infection with key periodontal pathogens during gestational diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogeneni, Himabindu; Buduneli, Nurcan; Ceyhan-Öztürk, Banu; Gümüş, Pınar; Akcali, Aliye; Zeller, Iris; Renaud, Diane E.; Scott, David A.; Özçaka, Özgün

    2015-01-01

    Aim Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), gingivitis, infection with specific periodontal pathogens and systemic inflammation each increase the risk for poor pregnancy outcome. We set out to monitor the interactions of gingivitis and GDM with respect to oral infection and the systemic inflammatory burden. Materials and Methods Four case–control groups (n = 117) were recruited, (1) No gingivitis, No GDM (n = 27); (2) Gingivitis, No GDM (n = 31); (3) No gingivitis, GDM (n = 21); and (4) Gingivitis, GDM (n = 38). Oral infection with three key periodontal pathogens was determined by PCR. Systemic inflammation was determined by quantification of CRP by EIA. Results Gingivitis during pregnancy was associated with oral infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Filifactor alocis and Treponema denticola and combinations thereof (all p Diabetes and gingivitis act in concert to increase risk biomarkers for poor pregnancy outcome. PMID:25959628

  18. [Unknown pathogens from the human oral microflora of interest for otorhinolaryngology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tets, V V; Tets, G V; Vikina, D S; Vecherovskaia, M F; Kharlamova, V V

    2014-01-01

    The identification of microorganisms from the human oral cavity is a topical problem in many clinical disciplines including otorhinolaryngology. Many bacterial species of oral microbiota are causative agents of ENT diseases, and poor conditions of the oral cavity, unhealthy teeth and gums increase the risk of the spread of infection. The objective of the present study was to distinguish and identify poorly explored and previously unknown aerobic opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms responsible for various ENT disorders. The normal microflora remains to be thoroughly studied with the use of the new culturing techniques that ensure the isolation of pure microbial cultures. The present publication reports for the first time isolation of the stable mixed microbial biofilms formed by unrelated bacterial species and containing the yet unknown microorganisms. The isolated bacteria were identified as previously unknown or poorly unexplored anaerobic opportunistic species capable of inducing ENT pathology; their sensitivity to antibiotics was evaluated.

  19. Contribution of plasminogen activation towards the pathogenic potential of oral streptococci.

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    Andreas Itzek

    Full Text Available Oral streptococci are a heterogeneous group of human commensals, with a potential to cause serious infections. Activation of plasminogen has been shown to increase the virulence of typical human pathogenic streptococci such as S. pneumoniae. One important factor for plasminogen activation is the streptococcal α-enolase. Here we report that plasminogen activation is also common in oral streptococci species involved in clinical infection and that it depends on the action of human plasminogen activators. The ability to activate plasminogen did not require full conservation of the internal plasminogen binding sequence motif FYDKERKVY of α-enolase that was previously described as crucial for increased plasminogen binding, activation and virulence. Instead, experiments with recombinant α-enolase variants indicate that the naturally occurring variations do not impair plasminogen binding. In spite of these variations in the internal plasminogen binding motif oral streptococci showed similar activation of plasminogen. We conclude that the pathomechanism of plasminogen activation is conserved in oral streptococci that cause infections in human. This may contribute to their opportunistic pathogenic character that is unfurled in certain niches.

  20. Treponema denticola in microflora of bovine periodontitis

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    Ana Carolina Borsanelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis in cattle is an infectious purulent progressive disease associated with strict anaerobic subgingival biofilm and is epidemiologically related to soil management at several locations of Brazil. This study aimed to detect Treponema species in periodontal pockets of cattle with lesions deeper than 5mm in the gingival sulcus of 6 to 24-month-old animals considered periodontally healthy. We used paper cones to collect the materials, after removal of supragingival plaques, and kept frozen (at -80°C up to DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR using T. amylovorum, T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium and T. vincentii primers. In periodontal pocket, it was possible to identify by PCR directly, the presence of Treponema amylovorum in 73% of animals (19/26, T. denticola in 42.3% (11/26 and T. maltophilum in 54% (14/26. Among the 25 healthy sites, it was possible to identify T. amylovorum in 18 (72%, T. denticola in two (8% and T. maltophilum in eight (32%. Treponema medium and T. vincentii were not detected over all 51 evaluated samples. The presence of Treponema amylovorum, T. maltophilum and, in particular, the widely recognized T. denticola in subgingival microflora brings an original and potencially important contribution in studies of the bovine periodontitis.

  1. Effect of a novel antimicrobial peptide chrysophsin-1 on oral pathogens and Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Tao, Rui; Tong, Zhongchun; Ding, Yonglin; Kuang, Rong; Zhai, Shafei; Liu, Jun; Ni, Longxing

    2012-02-01

    Dental caries and pulpal diseases are common oral bacterial infectious diseases. Controlling and reducing the causative pathogens, such as Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis, is a key step toward prevention and treatment of the two diseases. Chrysophsin-1 is a cationic antimicrobial peptide having broad-spectrum bactericidal activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial activity of chrysophsin-1 against several oral pathogens and S. mutans biofilms and performed a preliminary study of the antimicrobial mechanism. Cytotoxic activity of chrysophsin-1 against human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) was investigated. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill assay were used to evaluate the killing effect of chrysophsin-1. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze morphological and membrane change in oral pathogens. Live/Dead staining, in conjunction with confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM), was used to observe and analyze S. mutans biofilms. MIC and MBC results demonstrated that chrysophsin-1 had different antimicrobial activities against the tested oral microbes. Lysis and pore formation of the cytomembrane were observed following treatment of the bacteria with chrysophsin-1 for 4h or 24h by SEM. Furthermore, CLSM images showed that chrysophsin-1 remarkably reduced the viability of cells within biofilms and had a significantly lethal effect against S. mutans biofilms. Toxicity studies showed that chrysophsin-1 at concentration between 8 μg/ml and 32 μg/ml had little effect on viability of HGFs in 5 min. Our findings suggest that chrysophsin-1 may have potential clinical applications in the prevention and treatment of dental caries and pulpal diseases.

  2. Effect of glucose on Treponema denticola cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, J D; Lux, R; Shi, W; Charon, N W; Dasanayake, A

    2008-06-01

    Treponema denticola inhabits the oral subgingival environment and is part of a proteolytic benzoyl-dl-arginine-naphthylamide-positive 'red complex' associated with active periodontal disease. Spirochetes have a unique form of chemotactic motility that may contribute to their virulence. Chemotaxis is essential for efficient nutrient-directed translocation. We examined the effect of glucose on T. denticola cell velocity, expression of periplasmic flagella proteins, and chemotaxis, e.g. translocation into capillary tubes. The presence of glucose did not significantly effect T. denticola cell velocity in high viscosity conditions nor did it alter periplasmic flagella protein expression. The addition of glucose to capillary tubes resulted in greater numbers of T. denticola cells in tubes containing glucose. A non-motile mutant did not migrate into capillary tubes containing glucose. These results are consistent with a chemotactic response to glucose that is motility dependent.

  3. The antibacterial activity of various saturated and unsaturated fatty acids against several oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Park, Nam-Hee; Hwang, Seon-Yeong; Sohn, Jae Hak; Kwak, Inseok; Cho, Kwang Keun; Choi, In Soon

    2013-07-01

    The antibacterial activity of various saturated fatty acids (SFA) and unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) against different oral pathogens which are implicated in the cause of dental caries, stomatitis, gingivitis, and periodontitis was examined. The saturated fatty acids Pa, StA and ArA, and the unsaturated omega-7 fatty acids PLA and omega-9 fatty acids OA showed either none to low antimicrobial activity against all of the 12 oral pathogenic strains used in this study. In contrast, the omega-3 PUFAs, ALA, SDA, EPA and DHA, and the omega-6 PUFAs, LA, GLA, and AA showed considerable antimicrobial activity against 8, 7, 6 and 5 strains, and 6, 10 and 5 strains, respectively. In particular, the omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs showed strong antimicrobial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis KCTC 381, the cause of periodontitis, and against Aggregatibacter segnis KCTC 5968, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. Polymorphum KCTC 5172 and Prevotella intermedia KCTC 25611, all organisms implicated in the cause of gingivitis. To date, no bacterial resistance to free fatty acids has been encountered and no resistance phenotype has emerged. Therefore, these results suggest that PUFAs may be useful in the development of therapeutic agents for oral diseases, and in particular, in the development of agents that have minimal side effects and against which there is no bacterial resistance.

  4. The effect of selective photosuppression of sensitized pathogenic microflora: Part I. Influence on pathogenic organisms causing pyoinflammatory processes in oral cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masychev, Viktor I.; Risovannaya, Olga N.

    2005-03-01

    The effectiveness of Bacteriotoxic light therapy (BTL) in many respects depends on the right choice of the photo sensitizer and used parameters of laser radiation. Experimental studies in vitro have revealed the presence of correlation dependence between the photo sensitizer Radachlorine, energy density, irradiation duration executed with low energy diode laser and the number of viable bacterial cells causing the development of inflammatory affection of oral cavity. BTL in parameters defined in the experiments develops bactericidal action on pathogenic microflora of oral cavity.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Lippia sidoides, carvacrol and thymol against oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, M A; Nogueira, N A P; Bastos, G M; Fonseca, S G C; Lemos, T L G; Matos, F J A; Montenegro, D; Heukelbach, J; Rao, V S; Brito, G A C

    2007-03-01

    Dental caries and periodontal disease are associated with oral pathogens. Several plant derivatives have been evaluated with respect to their antimicrobial effects against such pathogenic microorganisms. Lippia sidoides Cham (Verbenaceae), popularly known as "Alecrim-pimenta" is a typical shrub commonly found in the Northeast of Brazil. Many plant species belonging to the genus Lippia yield very fragrant essential oils of potential economic value which are used by the industry for the commercial production of perfumes, creams, lotions, and deodorants. Since the leaves of L. sidoides are also extensively used in popular medicine for the treatment of skin wounds and cuts, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the composition and antimicrobial activity of L. sidoides essential oil. The essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Twelve compounds were characterized, having as major constituents thymol (56.7%) and carvacrol (16.7%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil and the major components was tested against cariogenic bacterial species of the genus Streptococcus as well as Candida albicans using the broth dilution and disk diffusion assays. The essential oil and its major components thymol and carvacrol exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against the organisms tested with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.625 to 10.0 mg/mL. The most sensitive microorganisms were C. albicans and Streptococcus mutans. The essential oil of L. sidoides and its major components exert promising antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens and suggest its likely usefulness to combat oral microbial growth.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Lippia sidoides, carvacrol and thymol against oral pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Botelho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries and periodontal disease are associated with oral pathogens. Several plant derivatives have been evaluated with respect to their antimicrobial effects against such pathogenic microorganisms. Lippia sidoides Cham (Verbenaceae, popularly known as "Alecrim-pimenta" is a typical shrub commonly found in the Northeast of Brazil. Many plant species belonging to the genus Lippia yield very fragrant essential oils of potential economic value which are used by the industry for the commercial production of perfumes, creams, lotions, and deodorants. Since the leaves of L. sidoides are also extensively used in popular medicine for the treatment of skin wounds and cuts, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the composition and antimicrobial activity of L. sidoides essential oil. The essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Twelve compounds were characterized, having as major constituents thymol (56.7% and carvacrol (16.7%. The antimicrobial activity of the oil and the major components was tested against cariogenic bacterial species of the genus Streptococcus as well as Candida albicans using the broth dilution and disk diffusion assays. The essential oil and its major components thymol and carvacrol exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against the organisms tested with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.625 to 10.0 mg/mL. The most sensitive microorganisms were C. albicans and Streptococcus mutans. The essential oil of L. sidoides and its major components exert promising antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens and suggest its likely usefulness to combat oral microbial growth.

  7. Antibacterial activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra against oral pathogens: an in vitro study

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    Fereshteh Sedighinia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Oral infections and dental caries are still considered as serious public health problems and inflict a costly burden to health care services around the world and especially in developing countries. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra (G. glabra against oral pathogens by diffusion methods and determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC by both broth and Agar dilution methods and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC by broth dilution methods. Results: In this study, G. glabra extract showed good antibacterial activity against six bacteria. No strain in this study showed resistance against this extract. Conclusion: G. glabrais suggested as an appropriate candidate to help us in order to control dental caries and endodontic infections.

  8. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Thymus vulgaris Essential Oil Against Major Oral Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fani, Mohammadmehdi; Kohanteb, Jamshid

    2017-01-01

    The objective of present investigation was to determine antimicrobial activity of Thymus vulgaris oil on some oral pathogens. Thymus vulgaris oil was prepared by hydrodistillation and tested against 30 clinical isolates of each of Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, prepared from related oral infections using agar disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Thymus vulgaris oil at concentrations of 16 to 256 μg/mL exhibited strong inhibitory activity on all clinical isolates producing inhibition zones of 7.5 to 42 mm as measured by agar disk diffusion method. Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus mutans were the most sensitive isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 1.9 and 3.6 μg/mL, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration values for C albicans, A actinomycetemcomitans, and P gingivalis were 16.3, 32, and 32 μg/mL, respectively.

  9. Imunopatogenesis Treponema pallidum dan Pemeriksaan Serologi

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    Efrida .

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSifilis adalah penyakit menular seksual yang sangat infeksius, disebabkan oleh bakteri berbentuk spiral, Treponema pallidum subspesies pallidum. Penyebaran sifilis di dunia telah menjadi masalah kesehatan yang besar dengan jumlah kasus 12 juta pertahun. Infeksi sifilis dibagi menjadi sifilis stadium dini dan lanjut. Sifilis stadium dini terbagi menjadi sifilis primer, sekunder, dan laten dini. Sifilis stadium lanjut termasuk sifilis tersier (gumatous, sifilis kardiovaskular dan neurosifilis serta sifilis laten lanjut. Sifilis primer didiagnosis berdasarkan gejala klinis ditemukannya satu atau lebih chancre (ulser. Sifilis sekunder ditandai dengan ditemukannya lesi mukokutaneus yang terlokalisir atau difus dengan limfadenopati. Sifilis laten tanpa gejala klinis sifilis dengan pemeriksaan nontreponemal dan treponemal reaktif, riwayat terapi sifilis dengan titer uji nontreponemal yang meningkat dibandingkan dengan hasil titer nontreponemal sebelumnya. Sifilis tersier ditemukan guma dengan pemeriksaan treponemal reaktif, sekitar 30% dengan uji nontreponemal yang tidak reaktifKata kunci: sifilis, Treponema pallidum, serologiAbstractSyphilis is a sexually transmitted disease that is highly infectious, caused by a spiral -shaped bacterium, Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum. The spread of syphilis in the world has become a major health problem and the common, the number of 12 million cases per year. Infectious syphilis is divided into early and late-stage syphilis. Early-stage syphilis is divided into primary, secondary, and early latent. Advanced stage of syphilis include tertiary syphilis (gumatous, cardiovascular syphilis, and neurosyphilis and late latent syphilis. Primary syphilis is diagnosed by clinical symptoms of the discovery of one or more chancre (ulcer. Secondary syphilis is characterized by the finding of localized mucocutaneous lesions or with diffuse lymphadenopathy. Latent syphilis without clinical symptoms of syphilis with

  10. Imunopatogenesis Treponema pallidum dan Pemeriksaan Serologi

    OpenAIRE

    Efrida ,; Elvinawaty .

    2014-01-01

    AbstrakSifilis adalah penyakit menular seksual yang sangat infeksius, disebabkan oleh bakteri berbentuk spiral, Treponema pallidum subspesies pallidum. Penyebaran sifilis di dunia telah menjadi masalah kesehatan yang besar dengan jumlah kasus 12 juta pertahun. Infeksi sifilis dibagi menjadi sifilis stadium dini dan lanjut. Sifilis stadium dini terbagi menjadi sifilis primer, sekunder, dan laten dini. Sifilis stadium lanjut termasuk sifilis tersier (gumatous, sifilis kardiovaskular dan neurosi...

  11. Activation and proteolytic activity of the Treponema pallidum metalloprotease, pallilysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Simon; Hof, Rebecca; Honeyman, Lisa; Hassler, Julia; Cameron, Caroline E

    2012-01-01

    Treponema pallidum is a highly invasive pathogen that undergoes rapid dissemination to establish widespread infection. Previous investigations identified the T. pallidum adhesin, pallilysin, as an HEXXH-containing metalloprotease that undergoes autocatalytic cleavage and degrades laminin and fibrinogen. In the current study we characterized pallilysin's active site, activation requirements, cellular location, and fibrin clot degradation capacity through both in vitro assays and heterologous treponemal expression and degradation studies. Site-directed mutagenesis showed the pallilysin HEXXH motif comprises at least part of the active site, as introduction of three independent mutations (AEXXH [H¹⁹⁸A], HAXXH [E¹⁹⁹A], and HEXXA [H²⁰²A]) abolished pallilysin-mediated fibrinogenolysis but did not adversely affect host component binding. Attainment of full pallilysin proteolytic activity was dependent upon autocatalytic cleavage of an N-terminal pro-domain, a process which could not occur in the HEXXH mutants. Pallilysin was shown to possess a thrombin cleavage site within its N-terminal pro-domain, and in vitro studies confirmed cleavage of pallilysin with thrombin generates a truncated pallilysin fragment that has enhanced proteolytic activity, suggesting pallilysin can also exploit the host coagulation process to facilitate protease activation. Opsonophagocytosis assays performed with viable T. pallidum demonstrated pallilysin is a target of opsonic antibodies, consistent with a host component-interacting, surface-exposed cellular location. Wild-type pallilysin, but not the HEXXA mutant, degraded fibrin clots, and similarly heterologous expression of pallilysin in the non-invasive spirochete Treponema phagedenis facilitated fibrin clot degradation. Collectively these results identify pallilysin as a surface-exposed metalloprotease within T. pallidum that possesses an HEXXH active site motif and requires autocatalytic or host-mediated cleavage of a pro

  12. Comparing the efficacy of hyper-pure chlorine-dioxide with other oral antiseptics on oral pathogen microorganisms and biofilm in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herczegh, Anna; Gyurkovics, Milán; Agababyan, Hayk; Ghidán, Agoston; Lohinai, Zsolt

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the antibacterial properties of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), Listerine®, and high purity chlorine dioxide (Solumium, ClO2) on selected common oral pathogen microorganisms and on dental biofilm in vitro. Antimicrobial activity of oral antiseptics was compared to the gold standard phenol. We investigated Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecalis, Veillonella alcalescens, Eikenella corrodens, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Candida albicans as some important representatives of the oral pathogens. Furthermore, we collected dental plaque from the upper first molars of healthy young students. Massive biofilm was formed in vitro and its reduction was measured after treating it with mouthrinses: CHX, Listerine® or hyper pure ClO2. Their biofilm disrupting effect was measured after dissolving the crystal violet stain from biofilm by photometer. The results have showed that hyper pure ClO2 solution is more effective than other currently used disinfectants in case of aerobic bacteria and Candida yeast. In case of anaerobes its efficiency is similar to CHX solution. The biofilm dissolving effect of hyper pure ClO2 is significantly stronger compared to CHX and Listerine® after 5 min treatment. In conclusion, hyper pure ClO2 has a potent disinfectant efficacy on oral pathogenic microorganisms and a powerful biofilm dissolving effect compared to the current antiseptics, therefore high purity ClO2 may be a new promising preventive and therapeutic adjuvant in home oral care and in dental or oral surgery practice.

  13. Can oral infection be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease?

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    Ingar Olsen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a scourge of longevity that will drain enormous resources from public health budgets in the future. Currently, there is no diagnostic biomarker and/or treatment for this most common form of dementia in humans. AD can be of early familial-onset or sporadic with a late-onset. Apart from the two main hallmarks, amyloid-beta and neurofibrillary tangles, inflammation is a characteristic feature of AD neuropathology. Inflammation may be caused by a local central nervous system insult and/or by peripheral infections. Numerous microorganisms are suspected in AD brains ranging from bacteria (mainly oral and non-oral Treponema species, viruses (herpes simplex type I, and yeasts (Candida species. A causal relationship between periodontal pathogens and non-oral Treponema species of bacteria has been proposed via the amyloid-beta and inflammatory links. Periodontitis constitutes a peripheral oral infection that can provide the brain with intact bacteria and virulence factors and inflammatory mediators due to daily, transient bacteremias. If and when genetic risk factors meet environmental risk factors in the brain, disease is expressed, in which neurocognition may be impacted, leading to the development of dementia. To achieve the goal of finding a diagnostic biomarker and possible prophylactic treatment for AD, there is an initial need to solve the etiological puzzle contributing to its pathogenesis. This review therefore addresses oral infection as the plausible etiology of late-onset AD (LOAD.

  14. Development of monoclonal antibodies that recognize Treponema pallidum.

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, J M; Folds, J D

    1983-01-01

    We developed a panel of monoclonal antibodies to Treponema pallidum (Nichols) antigens, some of which recognize treponemal antigens on T. pallidum (Nichols), T. pallidum strain 14, and Treponema phagedenis biotype Reiter. The antibodies were detected by either an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or a radioimmunoassay.

  15. Preclinical and clinical studies of photodynamic action on some pathogenic micro-organisms of the oral cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, Ilya S.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Ivanov, Krill I.; Titorenko, Vladimir A.

    2001-10-01

    The work is devoted to an analysis of pre-clinical and clinical experiments on photodynamic action of HeNe laser radiation in aggregate with a cation thiazinium dye Methylene Blue (MB) on a mix of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic aerobic bacteria being activators of pyoinflammatory diseases of oral cavity. Concentration of photosensitizes at which there is no own bactericidal influence on dying microflora, and parameters of influence at which the efficiency of irradiated microflora defeat reaches 99% are determined.

  16. Antibacterial activity of commercially available plant-derived essential oils against oral pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardají, D K R; Reis, E B; Medeiros, T C T; Lucarini, R; Crotti, A E M; Martins, C H G

    2016-01-01

    This work investigated the antibacterial activity of 15 commercially available plant-derived essential oils (EOs) against a panel of oral pathogens. The broth microdilution method afforded the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the assayed EOs. The EO obtained from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Lauraceae) (CZ-EO) displayed moderate activity against Fusobacterium nucleatum (MIC and MBC = 125 μg/mL), Actinomyces naeslundii (MIC and MBC = 125 μg/mL), Prevotella nigrescens (MIC and MBC = 125 μg/mL) and Streptococcus mutans (MIC = 200 μg/mL; MBC = 400 μg/mL). (Z)-isosafrole (85.3%) was the main chemical component of this oil. We did not detect cinnamaldehyde, previously described as the major constituent of CZ-EO, in specimens collected in other countries.

  17. Virulence and pathogenicity of Candida albicans is enhanced in biofilms containing oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley; Morse, Daniel James; da Silva, Wander José; Del-Bel-Cury, Altair Antoninha; Wei, Xiaoqing; Wilson, Melanie; Milward, Paul; Lewis, Michael; Bradshaw, David; Williams, David Wynne

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the influence of bacteria on the virulence and pathogenicity of candidal biofilms. Mature biofilms (Candida albicans-only, bacteria-only, C. albicans with bacteria) were generated on acrylic and either analysed directly, or used to infect a reconstituted human oral epithelium (RHOE). Analyses included Candida hyphae enumeration and assessment of Candida virulence gene expression. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and Candida tissue invasion following biofilm infection of the RHOE were also measured. Candida hyphae were more prevalent (p biofilms also containing bacteria, with genes encoding secreted aspartyl-proteinases (SAP4/SAP6) and hyphal-wall protein (HWP1) up-regulated (p biofilm infections of RHOE. Multi-species infections exhibited higher hyphal proportions (p biofilms promoted Candida virulence, consideration should be given to the bacterial component when managing denture biofilm associated candidoses.

  18. Antibody and T cell responses to Fusobacterium nucleatum and Treponema denticola in health and chronic periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieun Shin

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the T cell response to the members of oral flora are poorly understood. We characterized the antibody and T cell responses to FadA and Td92, adhesins from Fusobacterium nucleatum, an oral commensal, and Treponema denticola, a periodontal pathogen, respectively. Peripheral blood and saliva were obtained from healthy individuals and patients with untreated chronic periodontitis (CP, n = 11 paris and after successful treatment of the disease (n = 9. The levels of antigen-specific antibody were measured by ELISA. In plasma, IgG1 was the most abundant isotype of Ab for both Ags, followed by IgA and then IgG4. The levels of FadA-specific salivary IgA (sIgA were higher than Td92-specific sIgA and the FadA-specific IgA levels observed in plasma. However, the periodontal health status of the individuals did not affect the levels of FadA- or Td92-specific antibody. Even healthy individuals contained FadA- and Td92-specific CD4(+ T cells, as determined by the detection of intracytoplasmic CD154 after short-term in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs with the antigens. Patients with CP tended to possess increased numbers of FadA- and Td92-specific CD4(+ T cells but reduced numbers of Td92-specific Foxp3(+CD4(+ Tregs than the healthy subjects. Both FadA and Td92 induced the production of IFNγ and IL-10 but inhibited the secretion of IL-4 by PBMCs. In conclusion, F. nucleatum induced Th3 (sIgA- and Th1 (IFNγ and IgG1-dominant immune responses, whereas T. denticola induced a Th1 (IFNγ and IgG1-dominant response. This IFNγ-dominant cytokine response was impaired in CP patients, and the Td92-induced IFNγ levels were negatively associated with periodontal destruction in patients. These findings may provide new insights into the homeostatic interaction between the immune system and oral bacteria and the pathogenesis of periodontitis.

  19. Analysis of the cell surface layer ultrastructure of the oral pathogen Tannerella forsythia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekot, Gerhard; Posch, Gerald; Oh, Yoo Jin; Zayni, Sonja; Mayer, Harald F; Pum, Dietmar; Messner, Paul; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Schäffer, Christina

    2012-06-01

    The Gram-negative oral pathogen Tannerella forsythia is decorated with a 2D crystalline surface (S-) layer, with two different S-layer glycoprotein species being present. Prompted by the predicted virulence potential of the S-layer, this study focused on the analysis of the arrangement of the individual S-layer glycoproteins by a combination of microscopic, genetic, and biochemical analyses. The two S-layer genes are transcribed into mRNA and expressed into protein in equal amounts. The S-layer was investigated on intact bacterial cells by transmission electron microscopy, by immune fluorescence microscopy, and by atomic force microscopy. The analyses of wild-type cells revealed a distinct square S-layer lattice with an overall lattice constant of 10.1 ± 0.7 nm. In contrast, a blurred lattice with a lattice constant of 9.0 nm was found on S-layer single-mutant cells. This together with in vitro self-assembly studies using purified (glyco)protein species indicated their increased structural flexibility after self-assembly and/or impaired self-assembly capability. In conjunction with TEM analyses of thin-sectioned cells, this study demonstrates the unusual case that two S-layer glycoproteins are co-assembled into a single S-layer. Additionally, flagella and pilus-like structures were observed on T. forsythia cells, which might impact the pathogenicity of this bacterium.

  20. The in Vitro Antimicrobial Efficacy of Propolis against Four Oral Pathogens: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Michèle Waldner-Tomic

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study screened the available evidence for the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of propolis, a natural herbal resin bee product, against a selection of three bacterial species of relevance to oral diseases. For this purpose, papers dealing with laboratory studies assessing minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC or the agar diffusion method to analyze the antimicrobial properties of propolis on three oral pathogens (S. mutans, P. gingivalis, F. nucleatum and a yeast (C. albicans are reviewed. Overall, a positive antimicrobial effect could be shown. However, when compared to the commonly used control substances (e.g., specific antibiotics, antiseptics and antifungals, propolis appeared less effective, depending on the bacterial strain, and required higher concentrations than the control substances, in order to show a measurable effect. Nevertheless, propolis as a natural herbal resin bee product can be considered as a natural antiseptic agent within the range of other herbal products, like sanguinarine. Therefore, it may be a valuable compound of non-synthetic, natural origin for patients seeking complementary agents and alternatives for “hard” chemicals.

  1. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Softrata, Abier; Azeem, Muhammad; Pütsep, Katrin; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents.

  2. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Ocheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents.

  3. 21 CFR 866.3820 - Treponema pallidum non-treponemal test reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treponema pallidum non-treponemal test reagents... Treponema pallidum non-treponemal test reagents. (a) Identification. Treponema pallidum nontreponemal test... reaction of treponema microorganisms with body tissues. The identification aids in the diagnosis...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3830 - Treponema pallidum tre-ponemal test reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treponema pallidum tre-ponemal test reagents. 866... Treponema pallidum tre-ponemal test reagents. (a) Identification. Treponema pallidum treponemal test... the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test (FTA-ABS), the Treponema pallidum...

  5. Optimization of a Novel Non-invasive Oral Sampling Technique for Zoonotic Pathogen Surveillance in Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley Evans, Tierra; Barry, Peter A; Gilardi, Kirsten V; Goldstein, Tracey; Deere, Jesse D; Fike, Joseph; Yee, JoAnn; Ssebide, Benard J; Karmacharya, Dibesh; Cranfield, Michael R; Wolking, David; Smith, Brett; Mazet, Jonna A K; Johnson, Christine K

    2015-01-01

    Free-ranging nonhuman primates are frequent sources of zoonotic pathogens due to their physiologic similarity and in many tropical regions, close contact with humans. Many high-risk disease transmission interfaces have not been monitored for zoonotic pathogens due to difficulties inherent to invasive sampling of free-ranging wildlife. Non-invasive surveillance of nonhuman primates for pathogens with high potential for spillover into humans is therefore critical for understanding disease ecology of existing zoonotic pathogen burdens and identifying communities where zoonotic diseases are likely to emerge in the future. We developed a non-invasive oral sampling technique using ropes distributed to nonhuman primates to target viruses shed in the oral cavity, which through bite wounds and discarded food, could be transmitted to people. Optimization was performed by testing paired rope and oral swabs from laboratory colony rhesus macaques for rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) and simian foamy virus (SFV) and implementing the technique with free-ranging terrestrial and arboreal nonhuman primate species in Uganda and Nepal. Both ubiquitous DNA and RNA viruses, RhCMV and SFV, were detected in oral samples collected from ropes distributed to laboratory colony macaques and SFV was detected in free-ranging macaques and olive baboons. Our study describes a technique that can be used for disease surveillance in free-ranging nonhuman primates and, potentially, other wildlife species when invasive sampling techniques may not be feasible.

  6. Protective role for TLR4 signaling in atherosclerosis progression as revealed by infection with a common oral pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Chie; Papadopoulos, George; Gudino, Cynthia V; Weinberg, Ellen O; Barth, Kenneth R; Madrigal, Andrés G; Chen, Yang; Ning, Hua; LaValley, Michael; Gibson, Frank C; Hamilton, James A; Genco, Caroline A

    2012-10-01

    Clinical and epidemiological studies have implicated chronic infections in the development of atherosclerosis. It has been proposed that common mechanisms of signaling via TLRs link stimulation by multiple pathogens to atherosclerosis. However, how pathogen-specific stimulation of TLR4 contributes to atherosclerosis progression remains poorly understood. In this study, atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein-E null (ApoE(-/-)) and TLR4-deficient (ApoE(-/-)TLR4(-/-)) mice were orally infected with the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. ApoE(-/-)TLR4(-/-) mice were markedly more susceptible to atherosclerosis after oral infection with P. gingivalis. Using live animal imaging, we demonstrate that enhanced lesion progression occurs progressively and was increasingly evident with advancing age. Immunohistochemical analysis of lesions from ApoE(-/-)TLR4(-/-) mice revealed an increased inflammatory cell infiltrate composed primarily of macrophages and IL-17 effector T cells (Th17), a subset linked with chronic inflammation. Furthermore, enhanced atherosclerosis in TLR4-deficient mice was associated with impaired development of Th1 immunity and regulatory T cell infiltration. In vitro studies suggest that the mechanism of TLR4-mediated protective immunity may be orchestrated by dendritic cell IL-12 and IL-10, which are prototypic Th1 and regulatory T cell polarizing cytokines. We demonstrate an atheroprotective role for TLR4 in response to infection with the oral pathogen P. gingivalis. Our results point to a role for pathogen-specific TLR signaling in chronic inflammation and atherosclerosis.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Treponema paraluiscuniculi, Strain Cuniculi A: The Loss of Infectivity to Humans Is Associated with Genome Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmajs, David; Zobaníková, Marie; Strouhal, Michal; Čejková, Darina; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon; Pospíšilová, Petra; Norris, Steven J.; Albert, Tom; Qin, Xiang; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kym; Buhay, Christian; Muzny, Donna M.; Chen, Lei; Gibbs, Richard A.; Weinstock, George M.

    2011-01-01

    Treponema paraluiscuniculi is the causative agent of rabbit venereal spirochetosis. It is not infectious to humans, although its genome structure is very closely related to other pathogenic Treponema species including Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, the etiological agent of syphilis. In this study, the genome sequence of Treponema paraluiscuniculi, strain Cuniculi A, was determined by a combination of several high-throughput sequencing strategies. Whereas the overall size (1,133,390 bp), arrangement, and gene content of the Cuniculi A genome closely resembled those of the T. pallidum genome, the T. paraluiscuniculi genome contained a markedly higher number of pseudogenes and gene fragments (51). In addition to pseudogenes, 33 divergent genes were also found in the T. paraluiscuniculi genome. A set of 32 (out of 84) affected genes encoded proteins of known or predicted function in the Nichols genome. These proteins included virulence factors, gene regulators and components of DNA repair and recombination. The majority (52 or 61.9%) of the Cuniculi A pseudogenes and divergent genes were of unknown function. Our results indicate that T. paraluiscuniculi has evolved from a T. pallidum-like ancestor and adapted to a specialized host-associated niche (rabbits) during loss of infectivity to humans. The genes that are inactivated or altered in T. paraluiscuniculi are candidates for virulence factors important in the infectivity and pathogenesis of T. pallidum subspecies. PMID:21655244

  8. Complete genome sequence of Treponema paraluiscuniculi, strain Cuniculi A: the loss of infectivity to humans is associated with genome decay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Šmajs

    Full Text Available Treponema paraluiscuniculi is the causative agent of rabbit venereal spirochetosis. It is not infectious to humans, although its genome structure is very closely related to other pathogenic Treponema species including Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, the etiological agent of syphilis. In this study, the genome sequence of Treponema paraluiscuniculi, strain Cuniculi A, was determined by a combination of several high-throughput sequencing strategies. Whereas the overall size (1,133,390 bp, arrangement, and gene content of the Cuniculi A genome closely resembled those of the T. pallidum genome, the T. paraluiscuniculi genome contained a markedly higher number of pseudogenes and gene fragments (51. In addition to pseudogenes, 33 divergent genes were also found in the T. paraluiscuniculi genome. A set of 32 (out of 84 affected genes encoded proteins of known or predicted function in the Nichols genome. These proteins included virulence factors, gene regulators and components of DNA repair and recombination. The majority (52 or 61.9% of the Cuniculi A pseudogenes and divergent genes were of unknown function. Our results indicate that T. paraluiscuniculi has evolved from a T. pallidum-like ancestor and adapted to a specialized host-associated niche (rabbits during loss of infectivity to humans. The genes that are inactivated or altered in T. paraluiscuniculi are candidates for virulence factors important in the infectivity and pathogenesis of T. pallidum subspecies.

  9. Multiple Alleles of Treponema pallidum Repeat Gene D in Treponema pallidum Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Centurion-Lara, Arturo; Sun, Eileen S.; Barrett, Lynn K.; Castro, Christa; Lukehart, Sheila A.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.

    2000-01-01

    Two new tprD alleles have been identified in Treponema pallidum: tprD2 is found in 7 of 12 T. pallidum subsp. pallidum isolates and 7 of 8 non-pallidum isolates, and tprD3 is found in one T. pallidum subsp. pertenue isolate. Antibodies against TprD2 are found in persons with syphilis, demonstrating that tprD2 is expressed during infection.

  10. Fibronectin-binding protein TDE1579 affects cytotoxicity of Treponema denticola

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiaoping; Steffensen, Bjorn; Robichaud, Trista K.; Mikhailova, Margarita; Lai, Veronica; Montgomery, Ryan; Chu, Lianrui

    2015-01-01

    While FbpA, a family of bacterial fibronectin (FN) binding proteins has been studied in several gram-positive bacteria, the gram-negative Treponema denticola, an anaerobic periodontal pathogen, also has an overlooked fbp gene (tde1579). In this research, we confirm that recombinant Fbp protein (rFbp) of T. denticola binds human FN with a Kdapp of 1.5 × 10−7 M and blocks the binding of T. denticola to FN in a concentration-dependent manner to a level of 42%. The fbp gene was expressed in T. de...

  11. Investigations into the outer surface of pathogenic Treponema pallidum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. van der Sluis

    1987-01-01

    textabstractBased on the assumption that a successful immune response to T. pallidum must, at least initially, be targetted against the outer membrane of the treponemes, the purpose of the study was to gain more insight in the accessibility of this membrane. The in vitro adherence of the treponemes

  12. Major integral membrane protein immunogens of Treponema pallidum are proteolipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlain, N.R.; Brandt, M.E.; Erwin, A.L.; Radolf, J.D.; Norgard, M.V. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas (USA))

    1989-09-01

    A number of the major pathogen-specific immunogens of Treponema pallidum were characterized recently as amphiphilic, integral membrane proteins by phase partitioning with Triton X-114. In the present study, we demonstrated that the same membrane immunogens (designated as detergent phase proteins (DPPs)) become radiolabeled upon in vitro incubation of T. pallidum with various {sup 3}H-labeled fatty acids. Radioimmunoprecipitation with a monoclonal antibody confirmed that the {sup 3}H-labeled 47-kilodalton protein corresponded to the well-characterized treponemal antigen with the identical apparent molecular mass. Failure to detect {sup 3}H-labeled DPPs following incubation with erythromycin confirmed that protein acylation required de novo protein synthesis by the bacteria. When treponemes were incubated with ({sup 3}H)myristate, ({sup 3}H)palmitate, or ({sup 3}H)oleate, radiolabeled proteins corresponding to the DPPs were detected upon autoradiography. Demonstration that a number of the abundant membrane immunogens of T. pallidum are proteolipids provides information to help clarify their membrane association(s) and may serve to explain their extraordinary immunogenicity.

  13. Prevalence of potential bacterial respiratory pathogens in the oral cavity of hospitalised individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuanazzi, David; Souto, Renata; Mattos, Marcelo Barbosa Accioly; Zuanazzi, Maura Rodrigues; Tura, Bernardo Rangel; Sansone, Carmelo; Colombo, Ana Paula Vieira

    2010-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of oral colonisation by bacterial respiratory pathogens in hospitalised patients. Thirty patients undergoing myocardium revascularisation surgery were evaluated. At baseline (pre-operative phase), full-mouth clinical periodontal assessment was performed. Saliva and biofilm samples were obtained from subjects at baseline and at the post-operative phase, after orotracheal extubation. DNA was extracted from samples and species of Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus aureus and Dialister pneumosintes were detected by PCR or culture (for staphylococci isolates). Most of the subjects were males, with history of hypertension and smoking. Thirteen were edentulous (ED) and 17 were dentate (DE), with moderate chronic periodontitis. The most prevalent bacteria in saliva were Staphylococcus spp. (85.7%), Pseudomonas spp. (83.8%), and Acinetobacter spp. (53.3%). There was a trend for D. pneumosintes to be more frequently detected in DE (43.7%) than ED (11.5%) patients. In plaque samples, DE with >14 teeth showed a higher prevalence of Pseudomonas spp. (100%) than individuals with 14 teeth (5.7%; p=0.037). All staphylococci isolates were coagulase-negative, and about 11% were positive for the mecA gene. These mecA-positive isolates showed a tendency to increase in all samples, whereas P. aeruginosa reduced after surgery. A strong correlation between the presence of Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. was observed (rho=0.886, ppatients harbours high frequencies of bacterial respiratory pathogens, supporting its potential role as a reservoir for these species. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antibacterial activity of triterpene acids and semi-synthetic derivatives against oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalon Cunha, Luis C; Andrade e Silva, Márcio L; Cardoso Furtado, Niege A J; Vinhólis, Adriana H C; Gomes Martins, Carlos H; da Silva Filho, Ademar A; Cunha, Wilson R

    2007-01-01

    Triterpene acids (ursolic, oleanoic, gypsogenic, and sumaresinolic acids) isolated from Miconia species, along with a mixture of ursolic and oleanolic acids and a mixture of maslinic and 2-a-hydroxyursolic acids, as well as ursolic acid derivatives were evaluated against the following microorganisms: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Enterococcus faecalis, which are potentially responsible for the formation of dental caries in humans. The microdilution method was used for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) during the evaluation of the antibacterial activity. All the isolated compounds, mixtures, and semi-synthetic derivatives displayed activity against all the tested bacteria, showing that they are promising antiplaque and anticaries agents. Ursolic and oleanolic acids displayed the most intense antibacterial effect, with MIC values ranging from 30 microg/mL to 80 microg/mL. The MIC values of ursolic acid derivatives, as well as those obtained for the mixture of ursolic and oleanolic acids showed that these compounds do not have higher antibacterial activity when compared with the activity observed with either ursolic acid or oleanolic acid alone. With regard to the structure-activity relationship of triterpene acids and derivatives, it is suggested that both hydroxy and carboxy groups present in the triterpenes are important for their antibacterial activity against oral pathogens.

  15. Sustained Release of Antibacterial Lipopeptides from Biodegradable Polymers against Oral Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhard, Lea H.; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Sol, Asaf; Zeharia, Rotem; Shai, Yechiel; Beyth, Shaul; Domb, Abraham J.

    2016-01-01

    The development of antibacterial drugs to overcome various pathogenic species, which inhabit the oral cavity, faces several challenges, such as salivary flow and enzymatic activity that restrict dosage retention. Owing to their amphipathic nature, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) serve as the first line of defense of the innate immune system. The ability to synthesize different types of AMPs enables exploitation of their advantages as alternatives to antibiotics. Sustained release of AMPs incorporated in biodegradable polymers can be advantageous in maintaining high levels of the peptides. In this study, four potent ultra-short lipopeptides, conjugated to an aliphatic acid chain (16C) were incorporated in two different biodegradable polymers: poly (lactic acid co castor oil) (PLACO) and ricinoleic acid-based poly (ester-anhydride) (P(SA-RA)) for sustained release. The lipopeptide and polymer formulations were tested for antibacterial activity during one week, by turbidometric measurements of bacterial outgrowth, anti-biofilm activity by live/dead staining, biocompatibility by hemolysis and XTT colorimetric assays, mode of action by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and release profile by a fluorometric assay. The results show that an antibacterial and anti-biofilm effect, as well as membrane disruption, can be achieved by the use of a formulation of lipopeptide incorporated in biodegradable polymer. PMID:27606830

  16. Antibacterial Effect of Aloe Vera Gel against Oral Pathogens: An In-vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Supreet; Rathod, Nirav; Sur, Jaideep; Laheji, Afshan; Gupta, Naveen; Agrawal, Priyanka; Prasad, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Natural herbal remedies have shown promising anti-microbial property and fewer side effects compared to synthetic anti-microbial therapy. Aloe Vera is a medicinal plant used for management of various infections since ancient times as it has anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and immune-boosting properties. Aim The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-microbial and inhibitory activities of various concentration of Aloe Vera Gel (AVG) against oral pathogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods Subgingival calculus and aspiration of periapical abscess and periodontal abscess was done in 20 patients and the sample transferred to thioglycolate broth, which was incubated in Mutans Sanguis agar, blood agar and cultured in anaerobic gas chamber. The colonies formed were identified further by gram staining methods and biochemical fermentation tests (IMViC). Each isolated colony of identified bacteria were cultured separately in Muller-Hilton broth and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Anti-microbial activity of the AVG was tested by the disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by broth micro-dilution method. Result Various staining and biochemical tests confirmed that the sample contained Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans), Clostridium bacilli (C. bacilli), Streptcoccus mutans (S. mutans) and Staphlococcus aureus (Staph. aureus). AVG showed anti-bacterial property at 100% and 50% concentration (‘t’ value = 7.504, p-value <0.001). At lower concentration there was no effect against the bacteria. At 100% AVG concentration, zone of inhibition measured was 6.9mm in A. actinomycetemcomitans, 6.3mm in C. bacilli, 6.8mm in S. mutans and 6.6mm in Staph. aureus. The standard drugs were also used to compare anti-bacterial property of AVG. Result showed that higher concentration (100%, 50%) of AVG has comparable zone of inhibition with Ofloxacin (5mcg) and Ciprofloxacin (30mcg). Conclusion AVG at

  17. Complete genome sequence of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum strain SS14 determined with oligonucleotide arrays

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    Sodergren Erica

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum remains the enigmatic pathogen, since no virulence factors have been identified and the pathogenesis of the disease is poorly understood. Increasing rates of new syphilis cases per year have been observed recently. Results The genome of the SS14 strain was sequenced to high accuracy by an oligonucleotide array strategy requiring hybridization to only three arrays (Comparative Genome Sequencing, CGS. Gaps in the resulting sequence were filled with targeted dideoxy-terminators (DDT sequencing and the sequence was confirmed by whole genome fingerprinting (WGF. When compared to the Nichols strain, 327 single nucleotide substitutions (224 transitions, 103 transversions, 14 deletions, and 18 insertions were found. On the proteome level, the highest frequency of amino acid-altering substitution polymorphisms was in novel genes, while the lowest was in housekeeping genes, as expected by their evolutionary conservation. Evidence was also found for hypervariable regions and multiple regions showing intrastrain heterogeneity in the T. pallidum chromosome. Conclusion The observed genetic changes do not have influence on the ability of Treponema pallidum to cause syphilitic infection, since both SS14 and Nichols are virulent in rabbit. However, this is the first assessment of the degree of variation between the two syphilis pathogens and paves the way for phylogenetic studies of this fascinating organism.

  18. Effect of Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasma on Pathogenic Oral Biofilms and In Vitro Reconstituted Oral Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delben, Juliana Aparecida; Zago, Chaiene Evelin; Tyhovych, Natalia; Duarte, Simone; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Considering the ability of atmospheric-pressure cold plasma (ACP) to disrupt the biofilm matrix and rupture cell structure, it can be an efficient tool against virulent oral biofilms. However, it is fundamental that ACP does not cause damage to oral tissue. So, this study evaluated (1) the antimicrobial effect of ACP on single- and dual-species biofilms of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus as well as (2) the biological safety of ACP on in vitro reconstituted oral epithelium. Standardized cell suspensions of each microorganism were prepared for biofilm culture on acrylic resin discs at 37°C for 48 hours. The biofilms were submitted to ACP treatment at 10 mm of plasma tip-to-sample distance during 60 seconds. Positive controls were penicillin G and fluconazole for S. aureus and C. albicans, respectively. The biofilms were analyzed through counting of viable colonies, confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy for detection of reactive oxygen species. The in vitro reconstituted oral epithelium was submitted to similar ACP treatment and analyzed through histology, cytotoxocity test (LDH release), viability test (MTT assay) and imunnohistochemistry (Ki67 expression). All plasma-treated biofilms presented significant log10 CFU/mL reduction, alteration in microorganism/biofilm morphology, and reduced viability in comparison to negative and positive controls. In addition, fluorescence microscopy revealed presence of reactive oxygen species in all plasma-treated biofilms. Low cytotoxicity and high viability were observed in oral epithelium of negative control and plasma group. Histology showed neither sign of necrosis nor significant alteration in plasma-treated epithelium. Ki67-positive cells revealed maintenance of cell proliferation in plasma-treated epithelium. Atmospheric-pressure cold plasma is a promissing approach to eliminate single- and dual-species biofilms of C. albicans and S. aureus without having

  19. Effect of Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasma on Pathogenic Oral Biofilms and In Vitro Reconstituted Oral Epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Aparecida Delben

    Full Text Available Considering the ability of atmospheric-pressure cold plasma (ACP to disrupt the biofilm matrix and rupture cell structure, it can be an efficient tool against virulent oral biofilms. However, it is fundamental that ACP does not cause damage to oral tissue. So, this study evaluated (1 the antimicrobial effect of ACP on single- and dual-species biofilms of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus as well as (2 the biological safety of ACP on in vitro reconstituted oral epithelium. Standardized cell suspensions of each microorganism were prepared for biofilm culture on acrylic resin discs at 37°C for 48 hours. The biofilms were submitted to ACP treatment at 10 mm of plasma tip-to-sample distance during 60 seconds. Positive controls were penicillin G and fluconazole for S. aureus and C. albicans, respectively. The biofilms were analyzed through counting of viable colonies, confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy for detection of reactive oxygen species. The in vitro reconstituted oral epithelium was submitted to similar ACP treatment and analyzed through histology, cytotoxocity test (LDH release, viability test (MTT assay and imunnohistochemistry (Ki67 expression. All plasma-treated biofilms presented significant log10 CFU/mL reduction, alteration in microorganism/biofilm morphology, and reduced viability in comparison to negative and positive controls. In addition, fluorescence microscopy revealed presence of reactive oxygen species in all plasma-treated biofilms. Low cytotoxicity and high viability were observed in oral epithelium of negative control and plasma group. Histology showed neither sign of necrosis nor significant alteration in plasma-treated epithelium. Ki67-positive cells revealed maintenance of cell proliferation in plasma-treated epithelium. Atmospheric-pressure cold plasma is a promissing approach to eliminate single- and dual-species biofilms of C. albicans and S. aureus

  20. Dentilisin involvement in coaggregation between Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yumiko; Okamoto-Shibayama, Kazuko; Tanaka, Kimiko; Ito, Rieko; Shintani, Seikou; Yakushiji, Masashi; Ishihara, Kazuyuki

    2014-12-01

    Periodontitis arises from a biofilm consisting of gram-negative anaerobic rods and spirochetes. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia, termed the Red complex, have been co-isolated with high frequency from chronic periodontitis lesions, and these microorganisms are thought to be major pathogens of the disease. Coaggregation is an important strategy in the colonization of dental plaque biofilm by these bacteria. In the present study, we investigated the coaggregation of T. denticola strains with T. forsythia ATCC 43037 by use of visual grading or spectrophotometry. T. denticola ATCC 35405 coaggregated with T. forsythia, reaching a plateau at approximately 60 min. This coaggregation was inhibited by heat treatment of T. denticola ATCC 35405, but not of T. forsythia. Disaccharides such as sucrose, maltose, and lactose inhibited coaggregation by approximately 50%. The coaggregation reaction varied among T. denticola strains. There was somewhat less coaggregation between T. denticola ATCC 33520 and T. forsythia than between T. denticola ATCC 35405 and T. forsythia, although this difference was not statistically significant; T. denticola ATCC 33521 showed a trace level of coaggregation with T. forsythia. The magnitude of coaggregation among the three T. denticola strains was proportional to their dentilisin activities. Inactivation of dentilisin abolished coaggregation activity, but inactivation of the major outer sheath protein did not. In addition, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride did not affect coaggregation. These results indicate that dentilisin is involved indirectly in the coaggregation between T. denticola and T. forsythia, because its proteolytic activity is not required, possibly via ligand maturation.

  1. Complete genome sequence of Treponema succinifaciens type strain (6091T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Gronow, Sabine [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Zeytun, Ahmet [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2011-01-01

    Treponema succinifaciens Cwyk and Canale-Parola 1981 is of interest because this strictly anaerobic, apathogenic member of the genus Treponema oxidizes carbohydrates and couples the Embden-Meyerhof pathway via activity of a pyruvate-formate lyase to the production of acetyl-coenzyme A and formate. This feature separates this species from most other anaerob- ic spirochetes. The genome of T. succinifaciens 6091T is only the second completed and pub- lished type strain genome from the genus Treponema in the family Spirochaetaceae. The 2,897,425 bp long genome with one plasmid harbors 2,723 protein-coding and 63 RNA genes and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  2. Surface Characterization of Virulent Treponema pallidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, John F.; Baseman, Joel B.

    1980-01-01

    Characterization of the surface of Treponema pallidum was accomplished by [125I]lactoperoxidase-catalyzed iodination of intact organisms and sensitive radioimmunoprecipitation and gel electrophoresis technology. At least 11 outer membrane proteins with molecular weights ranging from 89,000 (89K) to 20K were identified, and all elicited high titers of antibody in experimentally infected rabbits. Proteins of 89.5K, 29.5K, and 25.5K previously implicated as ligands involved in attachment (J. B. Baseman and E. C. Hayes, J. Exp. Med. 151:573-586, 1980) were found to reside on the treponemal surface. Low levels of the 89.5K treponemal protein were released by high salt concentrations, whereas the remaining comigrating material was neither radioiodinated nor released with selective detergents. Other lower-molecular-weight (60K, 45K, and 30K) surface proteins were extracted with octyl glucoside detergent, suggesting their hydrophobic interaction with the external membrane. The molecular organization of surface proteins was studied by employing the cross-linker dithiobis(succinimidyl)-propionate, and data suggested the presence of a highly fluid envelope resulting in random collisions by the surface proteins. The biological function of the treponemal outer envelope proteins was evaluated using, as the indicator system, adherence of T. pallidum to monolayer cultures of eucaryotic cells. Trypsin treatment of motile, freshly harvested organisms decreased the extent of surface parasitism to normal rabbit testicular cells, reinforcing the idea of the proteinaceous nature and role of treponemal ligands for attachment. Other data supported functional and antigenic relatedness among the implicated ligands. Finally, brief periodate treatment of human epithelial (HEp-2) and normal rat testicular cells as well as casein-elicited rabbit peritoneal macrophages significantly reduced the extent of treponemal parasitism, suggesting a role of specific host membrane molecules as mediators of

  3. Genome differences between Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum strain Nichols and T. paraluiscuniculi strain Cuniculi A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strouhal, Michal; Smajs, David; Matejková, Petra; Sodergren, Erica; Amin, Anita G; Howell, Jerrilyn K; Norris, Steven J; Weinstock, George M

    2007-12-01

    The genome of Treponema paraluiscuniculi strain Cuniculi A was compared to the genome of the syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum strain Nichols using DNA microarray hybridization, whole-genome fingerprinting, and DNA sequencing. A DNA microarray of T. pallidum subsp. pallidum Nichols containing all 1,039 predicted open reading frame PCR products was used to identify deletions and major sequence changes in the Cuniculi A genome. Using these approaches, deletions, insertions, and prominent sequence changes were found in 38 gene homologs and six intergenic regions of the Cuniculi A genome when it was compared to the genome of T. pallidum subsp. pallidum Nichols. Most of the observed differences were localized in tpr loci and the vicinity of these loci. In addition, 14 other genes were found to contain frameshift mutations resulting in major changes in protein sequences. Analysis of restriction target sites representing 0.34% of the total genome length and DNA sequencing of three PCR products (0.46% of the total genome length) amplified from Cuniculi A chromosomal regions and comparison to the Nichols genome revealed a sequence similarity of 98.6 to 99.3%. These results are consistent with a close genetic relationship among the T. pallidum strains and subspecies and a strong, but relatively divergent connection between the human and rabbit pathogens.

  4. Plant based oral vaccines for human and animal pathogens – a new era of prophylaxis: current and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Dhama

    Full Text Available Vaccination remains a high priority for animal disease prevention and control especially on account of rising antimicrobial resistant strains of pathogens and frightening increase in new emerging and reemerging pathogens. Traditional vaccines have limitation like residual virulence, need of extensive safety precautions, production difficulty and huge initial investments. Additionally, they are inefficient in producing a protective response at mucosal surfaces such as of lungs and intestinal tract, the actual sites where disease agents enter the body. Recent advances in plant molecular farming has resulted in genetic manipulations in plants to make them bioreactors for production of various recombinant proteins, by using infectious vectors or stable transgenic systems, which formulate the edible/oral vaccines. Such plant-based oral/edible vaccines have several advantages like they are functionally similar to conventional vaccines, demonstrate extended storage period in food grains, are heat-stable and does not require cold storage, eliminate need for expensive purification steps, are free from contaminating pathogens, can be produced in large scale in a time bound fashion and their delivery is easier with practical feasibility for large masses application. Additionally, these are also ideal for vaccination of animals and birds living in the wild areas thereby preventing many zoonoses. However, at this moment there are many practical challenges like degradation of vaccine antigen by enzymes of upper digestive tract, dosage regime, oral tolerance and the issues concerned to the use of genetically modified plant. In the near future the biomedical applications of these vaccines could become a common alternative to conventional vaccines, for which there is a great need to strengthen research and development activities in this promising area for protecting health of animals as well as of humans.

  5. Conservation of the Host-Interacting Proteins Tp0750 and Pallilysin among Treponemes and Restriction of Proteolytic Capacity to Treponema pallidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Simon; Taylor, John S; Denchev, Yavor; Hof, Rebecca; Zuerner, Richard L; Cameron, Caroline E

    2015-11-01

    The spirochete Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum is the causative agent of syphilis, a chronic, sexually transmitted infection characterized by multiple symptomatic and asymptomatic stages. Although several other species in the genus are able to cause or contribute to disease, T. pallidum differs in that it is able to rapidly disseminate via the bloodstream to tissue sites distant from the site of initial infection. It is also the only Treponema species able to cross both the blood-brain and placental barriers. Previously, the T. pallidum proteins, Tp0750 and Tp0751 (also called pallilysin), were shown to degrade host proteins central to blood coagulation and basement membrane integrity, suggesting a role for these proteins in T. pallidum dissemination and tissue invasion. In the present study, we characterized Tp0750 and Tp0751 sequence variation in a diversity of pathogenic and nonpathogenic treponemes. We also determined the proteolytic potential of the orthologs from the less invasive species Treponema denticola and Treponema phagedenis. These analyses showed high levels of sequence similarity among Tp0750 orthologs from pathogenic species. For pallilysin, lower levels of sequence conservation were observed between this protein and orthologs from other treponemes, except for the ortholog from the highly invasive rabbit venereal syphilis-causing Treponema paraluiscuniculi. In vitro host component binding and degradation assays demonstrated that pallilysin and Tp0750 orthologs from the less invasive treponemes tested were not capable of binding or degrading host proteins. The results show that pallilysin and Tp0750 host protein binding and degradative capability is positively correlated with treponemal invasiveness.

  6. Molecular typing of Treponema pallidum and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, R.

    2012-01-01

    De seksueel overdraagbare aandoeningen syfilis en gonorroe worden veroorzaakt door de bacteriën Treponema pallidum en Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Raymond Heijmans onderzocht technieken voor de moleculaire genotypering van deze ziekteverwekkers. Genotypering van T. pallidum op basis van het sterk polymorf

  7. Osteitis in the dens of axis caused by Treponema pallidum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Thilde; Winther, Charlotte; Ewertsen, Caroline;

    2013-01-01

    Syphilis has been referred to as "the great imitator" due to its ability to imitate other diseases. Untreated syphilis becomes a systemic infection that can involve almost every organ systems. Treponema pallidum has a high affinity for bone tissue, but osteitis has mainly been described in late...

  8. Polymerase chain reaction of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia in primary endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Brenda P F A; Montagner, Francisco; Jacinto, Rogério Castilho; Zaia, Alexandre A; Ferraz, Caio Cezar Randi; Souza-Filho, Francisco J

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between endodontic clinical signs and symptoms and the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia or their association by nested polymerase chain reaction assay. Microbial samples were taken from 50 cases with necrotic pulp tissues in primary infections. DNA was extracted from the samples, which were analyzed for the presence of three endodontic pathogens by using species-specific primers. P gingivalis, T denticola, and T forsythia were detected in 46%, 38%, and 22% of the symptomatic cases, respectively. The bacterial complex composed by T forsythia, P gingivalis, and T denticola was found in 14% of the cases with spontaneous pain, tenderness to percussion, swelling, and pain on palpation. The high prevalence of P gingivalis, T denticola, and T forsythia in the samples examined suggests that these bacteria are related to the etiology of symptomatic periradicular diseases.

  9. Head and neck intensity modulated radiation therapy leads to an increase of opportunistic oral pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurhuis, Jennifer M.; Stokman, Monique A.; Witjes, Max J. H.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; van Winkelhoff, Arie J.; Vissink, Arjan; Spijkervet, Frederik K. L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has led to new possibilities in the treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC). Limited information is available on how this more advanced radiation technique affects the oral microflora. In a prospective study we assessed the

  10. Evidence that TP_0144 of Treponema pallidum is a thiamine-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Jiang; Tu, Youbin; Wang, Song-Mei; Wang, Xuan-Yi; Li, Chunhao

    2015-04-01

    Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), the biologically active form of thiamine (also known as vitamin B1), is an essential cofactor for several important enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, and therefore, it is required for all living organisms. We recently found that a thiamine-binding protein (TDE_0143) is essential for the survival of Treponema denticola, an important bacterial pathogen that is associated with human periodontitis. In this report, we provide experimental evidence showing that TP_0144, a homolog of TDE_0143 from the syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum, is a thiamine-binding protein that has biochemical features and functions that are similar to those of TDE_0143. First, structural modeling analysis reveal that both TDE_0143 and TP_0144 contain a conserved TPP-binding site and share similar structures to the thiamine-binding protein of Escherichia coli. Second, biochemical analysis shows that these two proteins bind to TPP with similar dissociation constant (Kd) values (TDE_0143, Kd of 36.50 nM; TP_0144, Kd of 32.62 nM). Finally, heterologous expression of TP_0144 in a ΔTDE_0143 strain, a previously constructed TDE_0143 mutant of T. denticola, fully restores its growth and TPP uptake when exogenous thiamine is limited. Collectively, these results indicate that TP_0144 is a thiamine-binding protein that is indispensable for T. pallidum to acquire exogenous thiamine, a key nutrient for bacterial survival. In addition, the studies shown in this report further underscore the feasibility of using T. denticola as a platform to study the biology and pathogenicity of T. pallidum and probably other uncultivable treponemal species as well.

  11. Secondary Lymphoid Organ Homing Phenotype of Human Myeloid Dendritic Cells Disrupted by an Intracellular Oral Pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Brodie; Zakhary, Ibrahim; El-Awady, Ahmed; Scisci, Elizabeth; Carrion, Julio; O'Neill, John C.; Rawlings, Aaron; Stern, J. Kobi; Susin, Cristiano

    2014-01-01

    Several intracellular pathogens, including a key etiological agent of chronic periodontitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, infect blood myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs). This infection results in pathogen dissemination to distant inflammatory sites (i.e., pathogen trafficking). The alteration in chemokine-chemokine receptor expression that contributes to this pathogen trafficking function, particularly toward sites of neovascularization in humans, is unclear. To investigate this, we utilized human monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) and primary endothelial cells in vitro, combined with ex vivo-isolated blood mDCs and serum from chronic periodontitis subjects and healthy controls. Our results, using conditional fimbria mutants of P. gingivalis, show that P. gingivalis infection of MoDCs induces an angiogenic migratory profile. This profile is enhanced by expression of DC-SIGN on MoDCs and minor mfa-1 fimbriae on P. gingivalis and is evidenced by robust upregulation of CXCR4, but not secondary lymphoid organ (SLO)-homing CCR7. This disruption of SLO-homing capacity in response to respective chemokines closely matches surface expression of CXCR4 and CCR7 and is consistent with directed MoDC migration through an endothelial monolayer. Ex vivo-isolated mDCs from the blood of chronic periodontitis subjects, but not healthy controls, expressed a similar migratory profile; moreover, sera from chronic periodontitis subjects expressed elevated levels of CXCL12. Overall, we conclude that P. gingivalis actively “commandeers” DCs by reprogramming the chemokine receptor profile, thus disrupting SLO homing, while driving migration toward inflammatory vascular sites. PMID:24126519

  12. Treponema pallidum and Haemophilus ducreyi DNA detection by A Multi-Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑和平; SylviaBruisten; 何玉山; 黄进梅; 吴兴中

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To develop a multi-nested polymerase chain reaction in an assay to detect early Treponema pallidum and Haemophilus ducreyi DNA in the swabs of genital ulcers. Methods: Four pairs of outer and inner primers, specific to the basic membrane protein gene of Treponema pallidum and to the 16s rRNA gene of H ducreyi were synthesized. The multi-nested PCR was developed and applied to detect Treponema pallidum and Haemophilus dicreyi in clinical swabs. Result: The two samples of standard strains of Haemophilus ducreyi and one Treponema pallidum were amplified and showed 309-bp rRNA gene of Haemophilus ducreyi and 506-bp DNA of Treponema palidum, respectively. Out of 51 samples of genital ulcer detected, 29 showed Treponemapallidum positive product and noHaemophilus ducreyi DNA was found. Conclusion: The multi-nested PCR for Treponema pallidum and Haemophilus ducreyi could be useful for early detection and distinguishing diagnosis between syphilis and chancroid.

  13. The Genomic Sequence of the Oral Pathobiont Strain NI1060 Reveals Unique Strategies for Bacterial Competition and Pathogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Darzi

    Full Text Available Strain NI1060 is an oral bacterium responsible for periodontitis in a murine ligature-induced disease model. To better understand its pathogenicity, we have determined the complete sequence of its 2,553,982 bp genome. Although closely related to Pasteurella pneumotropica, a pneumonia-associated rodent commensal based on its 16S rRNA, the NI1060 genomic content suggests that they are different species thriving on different energy sources via alternative metabolic pathways. Genomic and phylogenetic analyses showed that strain NI1060 is distinct from the genera currently described in the family Pasteurellaceae, and is likely to represent a novel species. In addition, we found putative virulence genes involved in lipooligosaccharide synthesis, adhesins and bacteriotoxic proteins. These genes are potentially important for host adaption and for the induction of dysbiosis through bacterial competition and pathogenicity. Importantly, strain NI1060 strongly stimulates Nod1, an innate immune receptor, but is defective in two peptidoglycan recycling genes due to a frameshift mutation. The in-depth analysis of its genome thus provides critical insights for the development of NI1060 as a prime model system for infectious disease.

  14. Inhibitory Effect of Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia on the Virulence Properties of the Oral Pathogens Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrudula Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study investigated the effect of Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia (DVA on the virulence properties of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis implicated in periodontal diseases. Methods. S. mutans was cultured in tryptone broth containing a crude leaf extract of DVA for 16 hours, and the pH was measured after 10, 12, 14, and 16 h. Biofilms of S. mutans were grown on glass slides for 48 hours and exposed to plant extract for 30 minutes; the adherent cells were reincubated and the pH was measured at various time intervals. Minimum bactericidal concentration of the extracts against the four periodontal pathogens was determined. The effect of the subinhibitory concentration of plant extract on the production of proteinases by P. gingivalis was also evaluated. Results. DVA had no effect on acid production by S. mutans biofilms; however, it significantly inhibited acid production in planktonic cells. Periodontal pathogens were completely eliminated at low concentrations ranging from 0.09 to 0.02 mg/mL of crude plant extracts. At subinhibitory concentrations, DVA significantly reduced Arg-gingipain (24% and Lys-gingipain (53% production by P. gingivalis (. Conclusions. These results suggest that DVA has the potential to be used to control oral infections including dental caries and periodontal diseases.

  15. The inflammasome and danger molecule signaling: at the crossroads of inflammation and pathogen persistence in the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Özlem; Lee, Kyu Lim

    2015-10-01

    Inflammasomes are an oligomeric assembly of multiprotein complexes that activate the caspase-1-dependent maturation and the subsequent secretion of inflammatory interleukin-1beta and interleukin-18 cytokines in response to a 'danger signal' in vertebrates. The assessment of their significance continues to grow rapidly as the complex biology of various chronic inflammatory conditions is better dissected. Increasing evidence strongly links inflammasomes and host-derived small 'danger molecule ATP' signaling with the modulation of the host immune response by microbial colonizers as well as with potential altering of the microbiome structure and intermicrobial interactions in the host. All of these factors eventually lead to the destructive chronic inflammatory disease state. In the oral cavity, a highly dynamic and multifaceted interplay takes place between the signaling of endogenous danger molecules and colonizing microbes on the mucosal surfaces. This interaction may redirect the local microenvironment to favor the conversion of the resident microbiome toward pathogenicity. This review outlines the major components of the known inflammasome complexes/mechanisms and highlights their regulation, in particular, by oral microorganisms, in relation to periodontal disease pathology. Better characterization of the cellular and molecular biology of the inflammasome will probably identify important potential therapeutic targets for the treatment and prevention of periodontal disease, as well as for other debilitating chronic diseases.

  16. Anti-microbial Efficacy of Soursop Leaf Extract (Annona muricata) on Oral Pathogens: An In-vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, Gururagavendra; Shenoy, Ramya; Rao, Ashwini

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Annona muricata also called as Soursop is a, flowering evergreen tree native to Mexico, Cuba, Central America and parts of India. The miracle tree as it is widely known as a natural cancer killer that is 10,000 times stronger than chemotherapy. Based on these miraculous claims, the leaves of these plants were used as an extract at varying concentrations as an antibacterial agent against oral pathogens. Aim The aim of the study was to assess antimicrobial efficacy of Soursop leaf extarct (Annona muricata) on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Candida albicans using disc diffusion method. Materials and Methods Extracts of Annona muricata leaves of concentrations of 1%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% were prepared. The anti-microbial efficacy was evaluated using disc diffusion method against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Candida albicans on agar plates. Results All concentrations of extracts were effective on the microbiota except for the P. Intermedia. The Soursop extract was highly effective on Candida species, with all concentrations exhibiting bactericidal and fungicidal property. The extracts at different concentration were effective when compared to the gold standard controls and the effect was statistically significant (pS. mutans followed by C. albicans and least on P. intermedia. Hence, this study proves to an extent that the Soursop extract when used against oral microbiota has sufficient anti-microbial and fungicidal property. PMID:28050493

  17. In-vitro activity of saponins of bauhinia purpurea, madhuca longifolia, celastrus paniculatus and semecarpus anacardium on selected oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, K S; Seshagiri, M

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases. Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 μg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 μg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 μg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 μg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 μg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 μg/ml, respectively. The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases.

  18. In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea Madhuca Longifolia Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Jyothi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases.Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method.Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 µg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 µg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 µg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 µg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 µg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 µg/ml, respectively.Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases.

  19. A simplified erythromycin resistance cassette for Treponema denticola mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetting-Minesky, M. Paula; Fenno, J. Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The primary selectable marker for genetic studies of Treponema denticola is a hybrid gene cassette containing both ermF and ermAM (ermB) genes. ErmB functions in Escherichia coli, while ErmF has been assumed to confer resistance in T. denticola. We demonstrate here that ErmB is sufficient for erythromycin selection in T. denticola and that the native ermB promoter drives ErmB expression. PMID:20691222

  20. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Punica Granatum Peel Extracts Against Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Abdollahzadeh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Punica granatum has been used for many years in folk medicine due to several purposes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of Punica granatum peel (MEPGP against Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus,Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguinis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Actynomyces viscosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, the mentioned oral organisms were cultured in blood agar and mueller-hinton media and then paper disks containing MEPGP at concentrations of 4 mg/ml, 8 mg/ml and 12 mg/ml were inserted on medias. The antimicrobialactivity was evaluated by agar disk diffusion method. The effects of three different concentrations of MEPGP against microorganisms were compared using one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests.Results: All concentrations of MEPGP had antibacterial activity against S. aureus and S.epidermidis. Only at concentration of 8 mg/ml and 12 mg/ml MEPGP was effective against L. acidophilus, S. mutans and S. salivarius. Furthermore; no concentrations ofMEPGP inhibited A. viscosus and C. albicans.Conclusion: This study suggests that MEPGP might be used as an antibacterial agent in controlling oral infections.

  1. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF DENTAL GEL CONTAINING ESSENTIAL OIL OF CORIANDER AGAINST ORAL PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawar Vinita A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial potency of essential oil of Coriander against clinical samples isolated from the oral cavity of various patients and to formulate a suitable topical preparation containing Coriander oil. A total of 41 swabs were obtained from patients (age between 20 - 50 years which were diagnosed with oral infections like periodontal abscess, periapical abscess, chronic periodontities, periapical granuloma, dental caries, root caries and plaque samples. These samples were inoculated on Blood agar, Mac-conkeys agar and MRS Lactobacilli MRS agar, Mutans Sanguis agar, KF Streptococcal agar at 37°C for 24 – 48 h aerobically except for KF Streptococcal agar and Mutans Sanguis agar, which was incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 24 – 48 h. The isolates were identified by standard microbiological procedures. The samples had positive cultures of Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Lactobacilli, CONS. The susceptibility of these isolates was determined using agar disc diffusion method for zone of inhibition. The evaluation of antimicrobial potency was studied prior to gel formulation to compare the changes in activity after incorporation in polymer gel. The topical formulations were developed using different concentrations of polymers and evaluated for various physicochemical parameters like pH, color, clarity, viscosity, consistency, homogeneity, spread ability. The activity of oil was not much affected by incorporation in gel. The gel showed promising antimicrobial activity against the strains used for the study.

  2. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for the identification of Treponema pallidum in tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrich, Annett; Rojas, Pablo; Schulze, Julia; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Giacani, Lorenzo; Schneider, Thomas; Hertel, Moritz; Kikhney, Judith; Moter, Annette

    2015-10-01

    Syphilis is often called the great imitator because of its frequent atypical clinical manifestations that make the disease difficult to recognize. Because Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the infectious agent of syphilis, is yet uncultivated in vitro, diagnosis is usually made using serology; however, in cases where serology is inconclusive or in patients with immunosuppression where these tests may be difficult to interpret, the availability of a molecular tool for direct diagnosis may be of pivotal importance. Here we present a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay that simultaneously identifies and analyzes spatial distribution of T. pallidum in histological tissue sections. For this assay the species-specific FISH probe TPALL targeting the 16S rRNA of T. pallidum was designed in silico and evaluated using T. pallidum infected rabbit testicular tissue and a panel of non-syphilis spirochetes as positive and negative controls, respectively, before application to samples from four syphilis-patients. In a HIV positive patient, FISH showed the presence of T. pallidum in inguinal lymph node tissue. In a patient not suspected to suffer from syphilis but underwent surgery for phimosis, numerous T. pallidum cells were found in preputial tissue. In two cases with oral involvement, FISH was able to differentiate T. pallidum from oral treponemes and showed infection of the oral mucosa and tonsils, respectively. The TPALL FISH probe is now readily available for in situ identification of T. pallidum in selected clinical samples as well as T. pallidum research applications and animal models.

  3. Effect of oil gum massage therapy on common pathogenic oral microorganisms - A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishu Singla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: (i To assess reduction in Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus species count in saliva sample after ten minutes of oil gum massage therapy (massage of gingival tissues per day for three weeks with sesame oil, olive oil, and coconut oil in three different groups of subjects. (ii To compare the efficacy between three different oils and the "gold standard" chlorhexidine gel. (iii To assess reduction in gingival scores and plaque scores of study subjects. Materials and Methods: Study design - Single center, parallel design, and triple blind randomized clinical study with four treatment groups. Participants: 32 of the 40 study subjects working as housekeeping personnel at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal; aged 18-55 years completed the three-week study period. Interventions: Subjects were randomly assigned to massage their gingiva everyday for three weeks with sesame oil, olive oil, coconut oil (tests, and Chlorhexidine gel (control. Oral health status and paraffin stimulated saliva samples were obtained at baseline and after three weeks of oil gum massage therapy. Outcome measures: Microbial culture, plaque index, and gingival index. Statistical analysis: Paired t test and Kruskal Wallis test. Results: There was a significant reduction in mean Streptococcus mutans count, Lactobacillus count, plaque scores, and gingival scores in all four groups after the study. However, there was no significant difference found in percentage reduction of these variables between the four groups. Conclusion: These oils can be used as valuable preventive agents in maintaining and improving oral health in low socioeconomic status population. However, it is recommended that further research should be conducted in other populations with a larger sample and longer duration of follow-up period.

  4. Há 100 anos, a descoberta do Treponema pallidum A hundred years ago, the discovery of Treponema pallidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elemir Macedo de Souza

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A descoberta do Treponema pallidum por Schaudinn & Hoffmann em 3 de março de 1905 foi influenciada pela comunicação de Siegel, sobre a descoberta do agente etiológico da sífilis. Encarada com ceticismo, a comunicação acarretou novas investigações, conduzidas pelo zoologista Schaudinn e pelo dermatologista Hoffmann -primeiros observadores do agente da sífilis, denominado Spirochaeta pallida. A descoberta foi o passo inicial para o desenvolvimento dos procedimentos diagnósticos e terapêuticos nos anos subseqüentes.The discovery of Treponema pallidum by Schaudinn & Hoffmann, on March 3rd 1905, was influenced by Siegels' communication on the finding of the etiological agent of syphilis. John Siegel, working at the Institut of Zoology, University of Berlin, claimed to have found a flagellate protozoon in syphilitic lesions. Because of the skepticism it was received with, this communcation yielded further investigation, conducted by zoologist Schaudinn and dermatologist Hoffmann. They were the first investigators to find the etiological agent of syphilis, described under the name of Spirochaeta pallida. The discovery of Treponema pallidum on March 3rd 1905 was the first step towards the development of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in subsequent years.

  5. Effects of Hangeshashinto on Growth of Oral Microorganisms

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    Haruka Fukamachi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucositis (OM in cancer patients induced by chemotherapy or radiotherapy has a significant impact on quality of life, and causes considerable morbidity. Oral microorganisms are likely to intensify the inflammatory process and aggravate the formation of ulcers. Hangeshashinto (HST, a Japanese kampo medicine, has been reported to be effective when used as a gargle for the treatment of OM. To clarify the effects of HST on oral microorganisms, we assessed its antimicrobial activity against 27 microbial species, including 19 oral bacteria and one fungus. HST extract inhibited the growth of Gram-negative bacteria, including Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella melaninogenica, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Porphyromonas asaccharolytica, though inhibitory effects were less pronounced for Gram-positive bacteria and the fungal strain. We then investigated the effects of antibacterial activities on 15 purified ingredients of HST and determined that baicalein, berberine, coptisine, [6]-shogaol, and homogentisic acid actively inhibited the growth of these bacteria. These findings showed that HST inhibits the growth of specific Gram-negative periodontopathogenic bacteria, which are significant pathogens in OM, without disturbing the normal oral flora. Our data suggest that HST may be a useful treatment for OM in patients undergoing anticancer treatment.

  6. Beta-hexosaminidase activity of the oral pathogen Tannerella forsythia influences biofilm formation on glycoprotein substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sumita; Phansopa, Chatchawal; Stafford, Prachi; Honma, Kiyonobu; Douglas, C W Ian; Sharma, Ashu; Stafford, Graham P

    2012-06-01

    Tannerella forsythia is an important pathogen in periodontal disease. Previously, we showed that its sialidase activity is key to utilization of sialic acid from a range of human glycoproteins for biofilm growth and initial adhesion. Removal of terminal sialic acid residues often exposes β-linked glucosamine or galactosamine, which may also be important adhesive molecules. In turn, these residues are often removed by a group of enzymes known as β-hexosaminidases. We show here that T. forsythia has the ability to cleave glucosamine and galactosamine from model substrates and that this activity can be inhibited by the hexosaminidase inhibitor PugNAc (O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranosylidene)amino N-phenyl carbamate). We now demonstrate for the first time that β-hexosaminidase activity plays a role in biofilm growth on glycoprotein-coated surfaces because biofilm growth and initial cell adhesion are inhibited by PugNAc. In contrast, adhesion to siallo-glycoprotein-coated surfaces is unaltered by PugNAc in the absence of sialidase activity (using a sialidase-deficient mutant) or surprisingly on the clinically relevant substrates saliva or serum. These data indicate that β-hexosaminidase activity has a significant role in biofilm formation in combination with sialidase activity in the biofilm lifestyle of T. forsythia.

  7. Antimicrobial Activity of a Cationic Guanidine Compound against Two Pathogenic Oral Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Escamilla-García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the potential antimicrobial properties of a polyguanidine (CatDex on two oral bacteria. Chlorhexidine gluconate 1340 μmoL L−1 (CHX 0.12% was used as control. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis were grown in BHI media. Bacterial sensitivity and antimicrobial activity were determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and Kirby-Bauer methods. To study side effects, that is, toxicity, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs were used. Fluorometric cytotoxicity and confocal microscopy assays were used in order to test cell viability. CatDex inhibited growth of S. mutans at all concentrations and growth of P. gingivalis at all concentrations except 25 μmoL L−1. The MIC of CatDex was 50 μmoL L−1 for both S. mutans and P. gingivalis. The inhibition of bacteria exposed for 8 h at 50 μmoL L−1 of CatDex exhibited increased antimicrobial activity over time, with 91% inhibition in both bacteria. The antimicrobial activities of CatDex and CHX were similar when tested on two common bacteria. CatDex was significantly less toxic to DPSCs. CatDex toxicity depended on time and not on concentration. With regard to clinical relevance, CatDex may have potential as a novel antimicrobial agent. Further studies are in progress.

  8. Identification of Treponema pedis as the predominant Treponema species in porcine skin ulcers by fluorescence in situ hybridization and high-throughput sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Frida; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2014-01-01

    Skin lesions often seen in pig production are of great animal welfare concern. To study the potential role of Treponema bacteria in porcine skin ulcers, we investigated the presence and distribution of these organisms in decubital shoulder ulcers (n=51) and ear necroses (n=54) by fluorescence...... probes targeting 16S rRNA were used, specific for domain bacterium, Treponema spp. and species T. pedis. Screening showed that two cases each of facial and other ulcers, 35 (69%) of shoulder ulcers and 32 (59%) of ear necroses were positive for Treponema spp. T. pedis was the unequivocally, predominant...

  9. The host-interacting proteins Tp0750 and Pallilysin; conservation among treponemes and restriction of proteolytic capacity to Treponema pallidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spirochete Treponema pallidum is the causative agent of syphilis, a chronic, sexually transmitted bacterial infection characterized by multiple symptomatic and asymptomatic stages. Treponema pallidum is significantly more invasive than other treponemal species, being able to cross both the blood...

  10. In vitro susceptibility of contagious ovine digital dermatitis associated Treponema spp. isolates to antimicrobial agents in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Angell, Joseph W.; Clegg, Simon R.; Sullivan, Leigh E.; Duncan, Jennifer S.; Grove‐White, Dai H.; Carter, Stuart D.; Evans, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is an important cause of infectious lameness in sheep in the UK and Ireland and has a severe impact on the welfare of affected individuals. The three treponemal phylogroups Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii‐like, Treponema phagedenis‐like and Treponema pedis spirochaetes have been associated with clinical CODD lesions and are considered to be a necessary cause of disease. There are scant data on the antimicrobial susceptibility of the t...

  11. Transcriptional Profiling of the Oral Pathogen Streptococcus mutans in Response to Competence Signaling Peptide XIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenderska, Iwona B.; Latos, Andrew; Pruitt, Benjamin; Palmer, Sara; Spatafora, Grace

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans, competence development is regulated by the ComRS signaling system comprised of the ComR regulator and the ComS prepeptide to the competence signaling peptide XIP (ComX-inducing peptide). Aside from competence development, XIP signaling has been demonstrated to regulate cell lysis, and recently, the expression of bacteriocins, small antimicrobial peptides used by bacteria to inhibit closely related species. Our study further explores the effect of XIP signaling on the S. mutans transcriptome. RNA sequencing revealed that XIP induction resulted in a global change in gene expression that was consistent with a stress response. An increase in several membrane-bound regulators, including HdrRM and BrsRM, involved in bacteriocin production, and the VicRKX system, involved in acid tolerance and biofilm formation, was observed. Furthermore, global changes in gene expression corresponded to changes observed during the stringent response to amino acid starvation. Effects were also observed on genes involved in sugar transport and carbon catabolite repression and included the levQRST and levDEFG operons. Finally, our work identified a novel heat shock-responsive intergenic region, encoding a small RNA, with a potential role in competence shutoff. IMPORTANCE Genetic competence provides bacteria with an opportunity to increase genetic diversity or acquire novel traits conferring a survival advantage. In the cariogenic pathogen Streptococcus mutans, DNA transformation is regulated by the competence stimulating peptide XIP (ComX-inducing peptide). The present study utilizes high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNAseq) to provide a greater understanding of how global gene expression patterns change in response to XIP. Overall, our work demonstrates that in S. mutans, XIP signaling induces a response that resembles the stringent response to amino acid starvation. We further identify a novel heat shock-responsive intergenic region with a

  12. Oral Candida albicans isolates from HIV-positive individuals have similar in vitro biofilm-forming ability and pathogenicity as invasive Candida isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Juliana C; Fuchs, Beth B; Muhammed, Maged; Coleman, Jeffrey J; Suleiman, Jamal M A H; Vilela, Simone F G; Costa, Anna C B P; Rasteiro, Vanessa M C; Jorge, Antonio O C; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2011-11-04

    Candida can cause mucocutaneous and/or systemic infections in hospitalized and immunosuppressed patients. Most individuals are colonized by Candida spp. as part of the oral flora and the intestinal tract. We compared oral and systemic isolates for the capacity to form biofilm in an in vitro biofilm model and pathogenicity in the Galleria mellonella infection model. The oral Candida strains were isolated from the HIV patients and included species of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, C. norvegensis, and C. dubliniensis. The systemic strains were isolated from patients with invasive candidiasis and included species of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. lusitaniae, and C. kefyr. For each of the acquired strains, biofilm formation was evaluated on standardized samples of silicone pads and acrylic resin. We assessed the pathogenicity of the strains by infecting G. mellonella animals with Candida strains and observing survival. The biofilm formation and pathogenicity in Galleria was similar between oral and systemic isolates. The quantity of biofilm formed and the virulence in G. mellonella were different for each of the species studied. On silicone pads, C. albicans and C. dubliniensis produced more biofilm (1.12 to 6.61 mg) than the other species (0.25 to 3.66 mg). However, all Candida species produced a similar biofilm on acrylic resin, material used in dental prostheses. C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis were the most virulent species in G. mellonella with 100% of mortality, followed by C. lusitaniae (87%), C. novergensis (37%), C. krusei (25%), C. glabrata (20%), and C. kefyr (12%). We found that on silicone pads as well as in the Galleria model, biofilm formation and virulence depends on the Candida species. Importantly, for C. albicans the pathogenicity of oral Candida isolates was similar to systemic Candida isolates, suggesting that Candida isolates have similar biofilm

  13. Microbiological Assessment of Moringa Oleifera Extracts and Its Incorporation in Novel Dental Remedies against Some Oral Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgamily, Hanaa; Moussa, Amani; Elboraey, Asmaa; EL-Sayed, Hoda; Al-Moghazy, Marwa; Abdalla, Aboelfetoh

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of different parts of Moringa oleifera plant using different extraction methods in attempts to formulate natural dental remedies from this plant. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three solvents extracts (Ethanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate) of different parts of Egyptian Moringa tree were prepared and tested against oral pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans using disc diffusion method; As well as to incorporate the plant extract to formulate experimental toothpaste and mouthwash. The two dental remedies were assessed against the same microbial strains. Statistical analysis was performed using One-Way ANOVA test to compare the inhibition zone diameter and t-test. RESULTS: Ethanol extracts as well as leaves extracts demonstrated the highest significant mean inhibition zone values (P ≤ 0.05) against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans growth. However, all extracts revealed no inhibition zone against Candida albicans. For dental remedies, experimental toothpaste exhibited higher mean inhibition than the mouthwash against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans and only the toothpaste revealed antifungal effect against Candida albicans. CONCLUSION: The different extracts of different parts of Moringa showed an antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans growth. The novel toothpaste of ethanolic leaves extract has antimicrobial and antifungal potential effects all selected strains. PMID:28028395

  14. Screening and Scoring of Antimicrobial and Biological Activities of Italian Vulnerary Plants against Major Oral Pathogenic Bacteria

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    Gianmaria F. Ferrazzano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the activity of Italian vulnerary plants against the most important oral pathogenic bacteria. This estimate was accomplished through a fivefold process: (a a review of ethnobotanical and microbiological data concerning the Italian vulnerary plants; (b the development of a scoring system to rank the plants; (c the comparative assessment of microbiological properties; (d the assessment of potential cytotoxic effects on keratinocyte-like cells and gingival fibroblasts in culture by XTT cell viability assay; (e clinical evaluation of the most suitable plant extract as antibacterial agent in a home-made mouthwash. The study assays hexane (H, ethanol (E, and water (W extracts from 72 plants. The agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the activity against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus casei, and Actinomyces viscosus. Twenty-two plants showed appreciable activity. The extracts showing the strongest antibacterial power were those from Cotinus coggygria Scop., Equisetum hyemale L., Helichrysum litoreum Guss, Juniperus communis L., and Phyllitis scolopendrium (L. Newman subsp. scolopendrium. The potential cytotoxic effect of these extracts was assessed. On the basis of these observations, a mouth-rinse containing the ethanolic extract of H. litoreum has been tested in vivo, resulting in reduction of the salivary concentration of S. mutans.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of apitoxin, melittin and phospholipase A2 of honey bee (Apis mellifera venom against oral pathogens

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    Luís F. Leandro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we used the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC technique to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the apitoxin produced by Apis mellifera bees against the causative agents of tooth decay. Apitoxin was assayed in naturaand in the commercially available form. The antibacterial actions of the main components of this apitoxin, phospholipase A2, and melittin were also assessed, alone and in combination. The following bacteria were tested: Streptococcus salivarius, S. sobrinus, S. mutans, S. mitis, S. sanguinis, Lactobacillus casei, and Enterococcus faecalis. The MIC results obtained for the commercially available apitoxin and for the apitoxin in natura were close and lay between 20 and 40µg / mL, which indicated good antibacterial activity. Melittin was the most active component in apitoxin; it displayed very promising MIC values, from 4 to 40µg / mL. Phospholipase A2 presented MIC values higher than 400µg / mL. Association of mellitin with phospholipase A2 yielded MIC values ranging between 6 and 80µg / mL. Considering that tooth decay affects people's health, apitoxin and its component melittin have potential application against oral pathogens.

  16. Molecular subtyping of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum in Lisbon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, R; Prieto, E; Aguas, M J; Manata, M J; Botas, J; Pereira, F Martins

    2009-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reproducibility of a molecular method for the subtyping of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum and to discriminate strains of this microorganism from strains from patients with syphilis. We studied 212 specimens from a total of 82 patients with different stages of syphilis (14 primary, 7 secondary and 61 latent syphilis). The specimens were distributed as follows: genital ulcers (n = 9), skin and mucosal lesions (n = 7), blood (n = 82), plasma (n = 82), and ear lobe scrapings (n = 32). The samples were assayed by a PCR technique to amplify a segment of the polymerase gene I (polA). Positive samples were typed on the basis of the analysis of two variable genes, tpr and arp. Sixty-two of the 90 samples positive for polA yielded typeable Treponema pallidum DNA. All skin lesions in which T. pallidum was identified (six of six [100%]) were found to contain enough DNA for typing of the organism. It was also possible to type DNA from 7/9 (77.7%) genital ulcer samples, 13/22 (59.1%) blood samples, 20/32 (62.5%) plasma samples, and 16/21 (76.2%) ear lobe scrapings. The same subtype was identified in all samples from the same patient. Five molecular subtypes (subtypes 10a, 14a, 14c, 14f, and 14g) were identified, with the most frequently found subtype being subtype 14a and the least frequently found subtype being subtype 10a. In conclusion, the subtyping technique used in this study seems to have good reproducibility. To our knowledge, subtype 10a was identified for the first time. Further studies are needed to explain the presence of this subtype in Portugal, namely, its relationship to the Treponema pallidum strains circulating in the African countries where Portuguese is spoken.

  17. Molecular Subtyping of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum in Lisbon, Portugal▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, R.; Prieto, E.; Águas, M. J.; Manata, M. J.; Botas, J.; Martins Pereira, F.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reproducibility of a molecular method for the subtyping of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum and to discriminate strains of this microorganism from strains from patients with syphilis. We studied 212 specimens from a total of 82 patients with different stages of syphilis (14 primary, 7 secondary and 61 latent syphilis). The specimens were distributed as follows: genital ulcers (n = 9), skin and mucosal lesions (n = 7), blood (n = 82), plasma (n = 82), and ear lobe scrapings (n = 32). The samples were assayed by a PCR technique to amplify a segment of the polymerase gene I (polA). Positive samples were typed on the basis of the analysis of two variable genes, tpr and arp. Sixty-two of the 90 samples positive for polA yielded typeable Treponema pallidum DNA. All skin lesions in which T. pallidum was identified (six of six [100%]) were found to contain enough DNA for typing of the organism. It was also possible to type DNA from 7/9 (77.7%) genital ulcer samples, 13/22 (59.1%) blood samples, 20/32 (62.5%) plasma samples, and 16/21 (76.2%) ear lobe scrapings. The same subtype was identified in all samples from the same patient. Five molecular subtypes (subtypes 10a, 14a, 14c, 14f, and 14g) were identified, with the most frequently found subtype being subtype 14a and the least frequently found subtype being subtype 10a. In conclusion, the subtyping technique used in this study seems to have good reproducibility. To our knowledge, subtype 10a was identified for the first time. Further studies are needed to explain the presence of this subtype in Portugal, namely, its relationship to the Treponema pallidum strains circulating in the African countries where Portuguese is spoken. PMID:19494073

  18. Evidence of Multiple Treponema Phylotypes Involved in Bovine Digital Dermatitis as Shown by 16S rRNA Gene Analysis and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Kirstine; Boye, Mette; Capion, Nynne

    2008-01-01

    The etiopathogenesis of the skin disease digital dermatitis (DD), an important cause of lameness in cattle, remains uncertain. Microscopically, the disease appears to be polymicrobial, with spirochetes as the predominant bacteria. The objective of this study was to identify the main part of the b......The etiopathogenesis of the skin disease digital dermatitis (DD), an important cause of lameness in cattle, remains uncertain. Microscopically, the disease appears to be polymicrobial, with spirochetes as the predominant bacteria. The objective of this study was to identify the main part...... of the bacteria involved in DD lesions of cattle by using culture-independent molecular methods. Ten different phylotypes of Treponema were identified either by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of bacteria from DD lesions or by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis using phylotype-specific 16S r...... that Treponema accounted for more than 90% of the total bacterial population in the biopsy specimens. These data strongly suggest that a group of apparently symbiotic Treponema species are involved as primary bacterial pathogens in DD....

  19. Transcriptional profiles of Treponema denticola in response to environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHardy, Ian; Keegan, Caroline; Sim, Jee-Hyun; Shi, Wenyuan; Lux, Renate

    2010-10-27

    The periodontal pathogen T. denticola resides in a stressful environment rife with challenges, the human oral cavity. Knowledge of the stress response capabilities of this invasive spirochete is currently very limited. Whole genome expression profiles in response to different suspected stresses including heat shock, osmotic downshift, oxygen and blood exposure were examined. Most of the genes predicted to encode conserved heat shock proteins (HSPs) were found to be induced under heat and oxygen stress. Several of these HSPs also seem to be important for survival in hypotonic solutions and blood. In addition to HSPs, differential regulation of many genes encoding metabolic proteins, hypothetical proteins, transcriptional regulators and transporters was observed in patterns that could betoken functional associations. In summary, stress responses in T. denticola exhibit many similarities to the corresponding stress responses in other organisms but also employ unique components including the induction of hypothetical proteins.

  20. Elevated aspartic proteinase secretion and experimental pathogenicity of Candida albicans isolates from oral cavities of subjects infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    OpenAIRE

    De Bernardis, F; Chiani, P; Ciccozzi, M; Pellegrini, G; Ceddia, T; D'Offizzi, G; Quinti, I; Sullivan, P A; Cassone, A

    1996-01-01

    Isolates of Candida albicans from the oral cavities of subjects at different stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or uninfected controls were examined for (i) production of aspartic proteinase(s), a putative virulence-associated factor(s); (ii) the presence in the fungal genome of two major genes (SAP1 and SAP2) of the aspartic proteinase family; and (iii) experimental pathogenicity in a murine model of systemic infection. It was found that the fungal isolates from symptomat...

  1. Treponema pallidum Invades Intercellular Junctions of Endothelial Cell Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D. Denee; Navab, Mahamad; Haake, David A.; Fogelman, Alan M.; Miller, James N.; Lovett, Michael A.

    1988-05-01

    The pathogenesis of syphilis reflects invasive properties of Treponema pallidum, but the actual mode of tissue invasion is unknown. We have found two in vitro parallels of treponemal invasiveness. We tested whether motile T. pallidum could invade host cells by determining the fate of radiolabeled motile organisms added to a HeLa cell monolayer; 26% of treponemes associated with the monolayer in a trypsin-resistant niche, presumably between the monolayer and the surface to which it adhered, but did not attain intracellularity. Attachment of T. pallidum to cultured human and rabbit aortic and human umbilical vein endothelial cells was 2-fold greater than to HeLa cells. We added T. pallidum to aortic endothelial cells grown on membrane filters under conditions in which tight intercellular junctions had formed. T. pallidum was able to pass through the endothelial cell monolayers without altering tight junctions, as measured by electrical resistance. In contrast, heat-killed T. pallidum and the nonpathogen Treponema phagedenis biotype Reiter failed to penetrate the monolayer. Transmission electron micrographs of sections of the monolayer showed T. pallidum in intercellular junctions. Our in vitro observations suggest that these highly motile spirochetes may leave the circulation by invading the junctions between endothelial cells.

  2. Identification of Microbial Pathogens in Periodontal disease and Diabetic patients of South Indian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiranjeevi, Tikka; Prasad, Osuru Hari; Prasad, Uppu Venkateswara; Kumar, Avula Kishor; Chakravarthi, Veeraraghavulu Praveen; Rao, Paramala Balaji; Sarma, Potuguchi Venkata Gurunadha Krishna; Reddy, Nagi reddy Raveendra; Bhaskar, Matcha

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis have been referred to as the sixth complication of diabetes found in high prevalence among diabetic patients than among healthy controls. The aim of the present study was to examine the periodontal disease status among collected dental plaque samples. Chromosomal DNA was isolated and amplified by universal primers. The DNA was sequenced for bacterial confirmation and phylogenetic analysis performed for the evolutionary relationship with other known pathogens. No amplification products were observed in groups labeled non periodontal and non Diabetes (NP&ND) and non Periodontal and Diabetes (NP&D). But in the case of Periodontal and non Diabetes (P&ND) groups 22 amplified products were observed. In case of Periodontal and Diabetes (P&D), 32 amplified products were positive for microbes. Among the four microbial groups, Treponemadenticola, and Tannerella forsythia were found to be prevalent in P&D. The phylogenetic analysis of 16s rRNA of Treponemadenticola showed the relationship with other Treponema oral pathogen species and with the Spirochaetazuelaera. Tannerella forsythia shows its evolutionary relationship only with four oral pathogens (Macellibacteroidesfermentans, Porphyromadaceae bacterium, Parabacteroidesmeredae and Bacillus fosythus). Prevotellaintermedia also showed its evolutionary relationship only with Prevotella Spcs while Fusobacterium revealed close evolutionary relationship only with Porpiromonasgingivalis. PMID:24966528

  3. Macrophage-specific TLR2 signaling mediates pathogen-induced TNF-dependent inflammatory oral bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, George; Weinberg, Ellen O; Massari, Paola; Gibson, Frank C; Wetzler, Lee M; Morgan, Elise F; Genco, Caroline A

    2013-02-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a primary etiological agent of chronic periodontal disease, an infection-driven chronic inflammatory disease that leads to the resorption of tooth-supporting alveolar bone. We previously reported that TLR2 is required for P. gingivalis-induced alveolar bone loss in vivo, and our in vitro work implicated TNF as a key downstream mediator. In this study, we show that TNF-deficient (Tnf(-/-)) mice are resistant to alveolar bone loss following oral infection with P. gingivalis, and thus establish a central role for TNF in experimental periodontal disease. Using bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) from wild-type and gene-specific knockout mice, we demonstrate that the initial inflammatory response to P. gingivalis in naive macrophages is MyD88 dependent and requires cooperative signaling of TLR2 and TLR4. The ability of P. gingivalis to activate cells via TLR2 or TLR4 was confirmed in TLR2- or TLR4-transformed human embryonic kidney cells. Additional studies using bacterial mutants demonstrated a role for fimbriae in the modulation of TLR-mediated activation of NF-κB. Whereas both TLR2 and TLR4 contributed to TNF production in naive macrophages, P. gingivalis preferentially exploited TLR2 in endotoxin-tolerant BMDM to trigger excessive TNF production. We found that TNF induced surface TLR2 expression and augmented TLR-induced cytokine production in P. gingivalis-stimulated BMDM, establishing a previously unidentified TNF-dependent feedback loop. Adoptive transfer of TLR2-expressing macrophages to TLR2-deficient mice restored the ability of P. gingivalis to induce alveolar bone loss in vivo. Collectively, our results identify a TLR2- and TNF-dependent macrophage-specific mechanism underlying pathogen-induced inflammatory bone loss in vivo.

  4. Heterologous expression of the Treponema pallidum laminin-binding adhesin Tp0751 in the culturable spirochete Treponema phagedenis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Caroline E; Kuroiwa, Janelle M Y; Yamada, Mitsunori; Francescutti, Teresa; Chi, Bo; Kuramitsu, Howard K

    2008-04-01

    Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, is an unculturable, genetically intractable bacterium. Here we report the use of the shuttle vector pKMR4PEMCS for the expression of a previously identified T. pallidum laminin-binding adhesin, Tp0751, in the nonadherent, culturable spirochete Treponema phagedenis. Heterologous expression of Tp0751 in T. phagedenis was confirmed via reverse transcriptase PCR analysis with tp0751 gene-specific primers and immunofluorescence analysis with Tp0751-specific antibodies; the latter assay verified the expression of the laminin-binding adhesin on the treponemal surface. Expression of Tp0751 within T. phagedenis was functionally confirmed via laminin attachment assays, in which heterologous Tp0751 expression conferred upon T. phagedenis the capacity to attach to laminin. Further, specific inhibition of the attachment of T. phagedenis heterologously expressing Tp0751 to laminin was achieved by using purified antibodies raised against recombinant T. pallidum Tp0751. This is the first report of heterologous expression of a gene from an unculturable treponeme in T. phagedenis. This novel methodology will significantly advance the field of syphilis research by allowing targeted investigations of T. pallidum proteins purported to play a role in pathogenesis, and specifically host cell attachment, in the nonadherent spirochete T. phagedenis.

  5. Neelaredoxin, an iron-binding protein from the syphilis spirochete, Treponema pallidum, is a superoxide reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, T; Ascenso, C; Hazlett, K R; Sikkink, R; Krebs, C; Litwiller, R; Benson, L M; Moura, I; Moura, J J; Radolf, J D; Huynh, B H; Naylor, S; Rusnak, F

    2000-09-15

    Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of venereal syphilis, is a microaerophilic obligate pathogen of humans. As it disseminates hematogenously and invades a wide range of tissues, T. pallidum presumably must tolerate substantial oxidative stress. Analysis of the T. pallidum genome indicates that the syphilis spirochete lacks most of the iron-binding proteins present in many other bacterial pathogens, including the oxidative defense enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase, but does possess an orthologue (TP0823) for neelaredoxin, an enzyme of hyperthermophilic and sulfate-reducing anaerobes shown to possess superoxide reductase activity. To analyze the potential role of neelaredoxin in treponemal oxidative defense, we examined the biochemical, spectroscopic, and antioxidant properties of recombinant T. pallidum neelaredoxin. Neelaredoxin was shown to be expressed in T. pallidum by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Recombinant neelaredoxin is a 26-kDa alpha(2) homodimer containing, on average, 0.7 iron atoms/subunit. Mössbauer and EPR analysis of the purified protein indicates that the iron atom exists as a mononuclear center in a mixture of high spin ferrous and ferric oxidation states. The fully oxidized form, obtained by the addition of K(3)(Fe(CN)(6)), exhibits an optical spectrum with absorbances at 280, 320, and 656 nm; the last feature is responsible for the protein's blue color, which disappears upon ascorbate reduction. The fully oxidized protein has a A(280)/A(656) ratio of 10.3. Enzymatic studies revealed that T. pallidum neelaredoxin is able to catalyze a redox equilibrium between superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, a result consistent with it being a superoxide reductase. This finding, the first description of a T. pallidum iron-binding protein, indicates that the syphilis spirochete copes with oxidative stress via a primitive mechanism, which, thus far, has not been described in pathogenic

  6. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of TP0435 (Tp17) from the syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brautigam, Chad A; Deka, Ranjit K; Norgard, Michael V

    2013-04-01

    Syphilis, caused by the bacterial spirochete Treponema pallidum, remains a prominent sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Despite sequencing of the genome of this obligate human pathogen 15 years ago, the functions of a large number of the gene products of T. pallidum are still unknown, particularly with respect to those of the organism's periplasmic lipoproteins. To better understand their functions, a structural biology approach has been pursued. To this end, the soluble portion of the T. pallidum TP0435 lipoprotein (also known as Tp17) was cloned, hyper-expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to apparent homogeneity. The protein crystals obtained from this preparation diffracted to 2.4 Å resolution and had the symmetry of space group R3. In the hexagonal setting, the unit-cell parameters were a = b = 85.7, c = 85.4 Å.

  7. Intracellular localization of Treponema denticola chymotrypsin-like proteinase in chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Marttila

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Treponema denticola is an important periodontal pathogen capable of tissue invasion. Its chymotrypsin-like proteinase (CTLP can degrade a number of basement membrane components in vitro, thus suggesting a contribution to tissue invasion by the spirochete. The aim of this study was to analyze the localization of CTLP in chronic periodontitis tissues ex vivo. A polyclonal antibody specific to T. denticola cell-bound CTLP was used to detect the spirochetes in the gingival tissues of patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis (n=25 by immunohistochemistry and periodic acid-Schiff staining (PAS. The presence of T. denticola in the periodontal tissue samples was analyzed by PCR. Periodontal tissue samples of 12 of the 25 patients were found to be positive for T. denticola by PCR. Moreover, CTLP could be detected in the periodontal tissues of all these patients by immunohistochemistry. In the epithelium, the CTLP was mostly intracellular. Typically, the positive staining could be seen throughout the whole depth of the epithelium. When detected extracellularly, CTLP was localized mainly as granular deposits. The connective tissue stained diffusely positive in four cases. The positive staining co-localized with the PAS stain in nine cases. T. denticola and its CTLP could be detected in diseased human periodontium both intra- and extracellularly. The granular staining pattern was suggestive of the presence of T. denticola bacteria, whereas the more diffused staining pattern was indicative of the recent presence of the bacterium and shedding of the cell-bound proteinase.

  8. Identification of functional candidates amongst hypothetical proteins of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Ahmad Abu Turab; Shahbaaz, Mohd; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis is a globally occurring venereal disease, and its infection is propagated through sexual contact. The causative agent of syphilis, Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum, a Gram-negative sphirochaete, is an obligate human parasite. Genome of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum SS14 strain (RefSeq NC_010741.1) encodes 1,027 proteins, of which 444 proteins are known as hypothetical proteins (HPs), i.e., proteins of unknown functions. Here, we performed functional annotation of HPs of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum using various database, domain architecture predictors, protein function annotators and clustering tools. We have analyzed the sequences of 444 HPs of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum and subsequently predicted the function of 207 HPs with a high level of confidence. However, functions of 237 HPs are predicted with less accuracy. We found various enzymes, transporters, binding proteins in the annotated group of HPs that may be possible molecular targets, facilitating for the survival of pathogen. Our comprehensive analysis helps to understand the mechanism of pathogenesis to provide many novel potential therapeutic interventions.

  9. Treponema denticola activates mitogen-activated protein kinase signal pathways through Toll-like receptor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, John; Rehani, Kunal; Martin, Michael

    2007-12-01

    Treponema denticola, a spirochete indigenous to the oral cavity, is associated with host inflammatory responses to anaerobic polymicrobial infections of the root canal, periodontium, and alveolar bone. However, the cellular mechanisms responsible for the recognition of T. denticola by the innate immune system and the underlying cell signaling pathways that regulate the inflammatory response to T. denticola are currently unresolved. In this study, we demonstrate that T. denticola induces innate immune responses via the utilization of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) but not TLR4. Assessment of TLR2/1 and TLR2/6 heterodimers revealed that T. denticola predominantly utilizes TLR2/6 for the induction of cellular responses. Analysis of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in T. denticola-stimulated monocytes identified a prolonged up-regulation of the MAPK extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38, while no discernible increase in phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) levels was observed. With the aid of pharmacological inhibitors selectively targeting ERK1/2 via the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 kinase and p38, we further demonstrate that ERK1/2 and p38 play a major role in T. denticola-mediated pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production.

  10. A Retrospective Study on Genetic Heterogeneity within Treponema Strains: Subpopulations Are Genetically Distinct in a Limited Number of Positions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darina Čejková

    Full Text Available Pathogenic uncultivable treponemes comprise human and animal pathogens including agents of syphilis, yaws, bejel, pinta, and venereal spirochetosis in rabbits and hares. A set of 10 treponemal genome sequences including those of 4 Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA strains (Nichols, DAL-1, Mexico A, SS14, 4 T. p. ssp. pertenue (TPE strains (CDC-2, Gauthier, Samoa D, Fribourg-Blanc, 1 T. p. ssp. endemicum (TEN strain (Bosnia A and one strain (Cuniculi A of Treponema paraluisleporidarum ecovar Cuniculus (TPLC were examined with respect to the presence of nucleotide intrastrain heterogeneous sites.The number of identified intrastrain heterogeneous sites in individual genomes ranged between 0 and 7. Altogether, 23 intrastrain heterogeneous sites (in 17 genes were found in 5 out of 10 investigated treponemal genomes including TPA strains Nichols (n = 5, DAL-1 (n = 4, and SS14 (n = 7, TPE strain Samoa D (n = 1, and TEN strain Bosnia A (n = 5. Although only one heterogeneous site was identified among 4 tested TPE strains, 16 such sites were identified among 4 TPA strains. Heterogeneous sites were mostly strain-specific and were identified in four tpr genes (tprC, GI, I, K, in genes involved in bacterial motility and chemotaxis (fliI, cheC-fliY, in genes involved in cell structure (murC, translation (prfA, general and DNA metabolism (putative SAM dependent methyltransferase, topA, and in seven hypothetical genes.Heterogeneous sites likely represent both the selection of adaptive changes during infection of the host as well as an ongoing diversifying evolutionary process.

  11. VDRL antibodies enhance phagocytosis of Treponema pallidum by macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Zander, S A; Shaffer, J M; Lukehart, S A

    1993-05-01

    Although reactivity in nontreponemal tests develops in patients with untreated syphilis, no immunologic function has been ascribed to these antibodies. This study demonstrates that rabbit antibodies induced by immunization with VDRL antigen and VDRL antibodies affinity-purified from syphilitic rabbit serum enhance phagocytosis of Treponema pallidum. The proportion of macrophages ingesting treponemes in the presence of these antisera was 45% +/- 5% and 27% +/- 4%, respectively, versus 14% +/- 3% for normal serum (P VDRL antibodies from syphilitic serum diminished but did not eliminate opsonization, suggesting at least two classes of target molecules. Despite opsonic capacity, VDRL antibodies fail to facilitate macrophage-mediated killing of T. pallidum. Nevertheless, VDRL-immunized rabbits are partially protected against T. pallidum infection, developing fewer lesions (delayed and smaller) than do unimmunized controls. These results suggest a heretofore unrecognized functional role for VDRL antibodies in syphilis infection.

  12. Pulse radiolysis studies on superoxide reductase from Treponema pallidum

    CERN Document Server

    Nivière, V; Fontecave, M; Houée-Levin, C

    2015-01-01

    Superoxide reductases (SORs) are small metalloenzymes, which catalyze reduction of O2*- to H2O2. The reaction of the enzyme from Treponema pallidum with superoxide was studied by pulse radiolysis methods. The first step is an extremely fast bi-molecular reaction of the ferrous center with O2, with a rate constant of 6 x 10 (8) M(-1) s(-1). A first intermediate is formed which is converted to a second one with a slower rate constant of 4800 s(-1). This latter value is 10 times higher than the corresponding one previously reported in the case of SOR from Desulfoarculus baarsii. The reconstituted spectra for the two intermediates are consistent with formation of transient iron-peroxide species.

  13. Oral Candida albicans isolates from HIV-positive individuals have similar in vitro biofilm-forming ability and pathogenicity as invasive Candida isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasteiro Vanessa MC

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida can cause mucocutaneous and/or systemic infections in hospitalized and immunosuppressed patients. Most individuals are colonized by Candida spp. as part of the oral flora and the intestinal tract. We compared oral and systemic isolates for the capacity to form biofilm in an in vitro biofilm model and pathogenicity in the Galleria mellonella infection model. The oral Candida strains were isolated from the HIV patients and included species of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, C. norvegensis, and C. dubliniensis. The systemic strains were isolated from patients with invasive candidiasis and included species of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. lusitaniae, and C. kefyr. For each of the acquired strains, biofilm formation was evaluated on standardized samples of silicone pads and acrylic resin. We assessed the pathogenicity of the strains by infecting G. mellonella animals with Candida strains and observing survival. Results The biofilm formation and pathogenicity in Galleria was similar between oral and systemic isolates. The quantity of biofilm formed and the virulence in G. mellonella were different for each of the species studied. On silicone pads, C. albicans and C. dubliniensis produced more biofilm (1.12 to 6.61 mg than the other species (0.25 to 3.66 mg. However, all Candida species produced a similar biofilm on acrylic resin, material used in dental prostheses. C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis were the most virulent species in G. mellonella with 100% of mortality, followed by C. lusitaniae (87%, C. novergensis (37%, C. krusei (25%, C. glabrata (20%, and C. kefyr (12%. Conclusions We found that on silicone pads as well as in the Galleria model, biofilm formation and virulence depends on the Candida species. Importantly, for C. albicans the pathogenicity of oral Candida isolates was similar to systemic Candida isolates

  14. Comparison between acute oral/respiratory and chronic stomatitis/gingivitis isolates of feline calicivirus: pathogenicity, antigenic profile and cross-neutralisation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, H; Brunet, S; Soulier, M; Leroy, V; Goutebroze, S; Chappuis, G

    2000-01-01

    Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a major oral and respiratory pathogen of cats, able to induce subclinical infection as well as acute disease. It is also characterized by a high degree of antigenic variation. This work sought to address the question of the existence of distinct biotypes of FCV. Eight French, 6 British and 9 American FCV isolates, responsible for acute oral/respiratory disease or chronic gingivitis/stomatitis, were compared for their pathogenicity, antigenic profiles and serological relationships. Antigenic profiles were assessed by an indirect immunofluorescence assay with a large panel of characterized monoclonal antibodies. Cross-neutralisation assays were performed with specific cat antisera collected at 30 days p.i., then analysed by calculation of antigenic bilateral relatedness and dominance. Whatever their pathogenic origin, all the isolates induced an acute upper-respiratory tract infection in oronasally infected SPF kittens. Their antigenic profiles were different and did not correlate with their geographical or pathological origin. Cross-neutralisation studies and calculation of the mean bilateral relatedness allowed us to distinguish chronic original isolates from acute original ones. This study did not confirm the existence of FCV biotypes but showed that the chronic carrier state is related to the emergence of antigenically distant viruses.

  15. 厚朴抑制口腔病原菌的研究进展%Antimicrobial activity of magnolia against oral pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳

    2012-01-01

    Magnolia has a wide range of physiological and pharmacological functions. It has anti-microbial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, viruses, etc. There is a close relationship between oral diseases and complex microbial communities in the mouth. Relevant studies indicate that magnolia extract has marked antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens. This review introduces present research progress on the antimicrobial activity, antimicrobial mechanism and several relevant influence factors of magnolia against pathogens of caries, periodontal diseases and oral mucosa infections.%厚朴是一种毒副作用相对较低的天然药物,具有广泛的生理及药理作用,对G+菌、G-菌、真菌、病毒等均有抑制效果.本文就厚朴对口腔常见的龋病、牙周病和黏膜感染性疾病病原菌的抑菌作用、抑菌机制以及影响抑菌作用的相关因素作一综述.

  16. Immuunglobulinen en thymoltroebeling bij vroege syfilis : enkele aspekten van de interaktie tussen Treponema palidum en mens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.E. Menke (Henk)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractIn Hoofdstuk l wordt een literatuuroverzicht gegeven van klinische en immunologische aspekten van syfilis, een in fasen verlopende chronische granulomateuze infektieziekte, die veroorzaakt wordt door Treponema pallidum. De waarneming dat bij patienten met syfilis de thymoltroebeling vaak

  17. Vergelijkend kwaliteitsonderzoek van nieuwe lotnummers van Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Assay-reagentia in 1984

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk; R.V.W.van; Aelbers; G.N.M.; Tideman; G.J.; Menke; H.E.

    1985-01-01

    Binnen het kader van de kwaliteitscontrole van het serologisch syfilisonderzoek bij de Streeklaboratoria voor de Volksgezondheid werd een kwaliteitsonderzoek aan nieuwe lotnummers van de eerder onderzochte Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Assay (TPHA)-reagentia uitgevoerd. Hierbij werden de r

  18. Yaws: 110 years after Castellani's discovery of Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stamm, Lola V

    2015-01-01

    .... The etiological agent of yaws, Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue (T. pertenue), was discovered by Aldo Castellani in 1905 shortly after Schaudinn and Hoffmann discovered the etiological agent of syphilis...

  19. Oral Candida albicans isolates from HIV-positive individuals have similar in vitro biofilm-forming ability and pathogenicity as invasive Candida isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Rasteiro Vanessa MC; Costa Anna CBP; Vilela Simone FG; Suleiman Jamal MAH; Coleman Jeffrey J; Muhammed Maged; Fuchs Beth B; Junqueira Juliana C; Jorge Antonio OC; Mylonakis Eleftherios

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Candida can cause mucocutaneous and/or systemic infections in hospitalized and immunosuppressed patients. Most individuals are colonized by Candida spp. as part of the oral flora and the intestinal tract. We compared oral and systemic isolates for the capacity to form biofilm in an in vitro biofilm model and pathogenicity in the Galleria mellonella infection model. The oral Candida strains were isolated from the HIV patients and included species of C. albicans, C. glabrata...

  20. Evaluation of the HISCL Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay as a Screening Test for Syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    An, Jingna; Chen, Qixia; Liu, Qianqian; Rao, Chenli; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Tingting; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lanlan

    2015-01-01

    The resurgence of syphilis in recent years has become a serious threat to public health worldwide, and the serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum remains the most reliable method for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis. This study examined the performance of the recently launched HISCL anti-Treponema pallidum (anti-TP) assay as a screening test for syphilis in a high-volume laboratory. The HISCL anti-TP assay was tested in 300 preselected syphilis-positive sample...

  1. Emerging role of bacteria in oral carcinogenesis: a review with special reference to perio-pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manosha Perera

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer, primarily oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, continues to be a major global health problem with high incidence and low survival rates. While the major risk factors for this malignancy, mostly lifestyle related, have been identified, around 15% of oral cancer cases remain unexplained. In light of evidence implicating bacteria in the aetiology of some cancer types, several epidemiological studies have been conducted in the last decade, employing methodologies ranging from traditional culture techniques to 16S rRNA metagenomics, to assess the possible role of bacteria in OSCC. While these studies have demonstrated differences in microbial composition between cancerous and healthy tissues, they have failed to agree on specific bacteria or patterns of oral microbial dysbiosis to implicate in OSCC. On the contrary, some oral taxa, particularly Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum, show strong oral carcinogenic potential in vitro and in animal studies. Bacteria are thought to contribute to oral carcinogenesis via inhibition of apoptosis, activation of cell proliferation, promotion of cellular invasion, induction of chronic inflammation, and production of carcinogens. This narrative review provides a critical analysis of and an update on the association between bacteria and oral carcinogenesis and the possible mechanisms underlying it.

  2. Emerging role of bacteria in oral carcinogenesis: a review with special reference to perio-pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Manosha; Al-hebshi, Nezar Noor; Speicher, David J.; Perera, Irosha; Johnson, Newell W.

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer, primarily oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), continues to be a major global health problem with high incidence and low survival rates. While the major risk factors for this malignancy, mostly lifestyle related, have been identified, around 15% of oral cancer cases remain unexplained. In light of evidence implicating bacteria in the aetiology of some cancer types, several epidemiological studies have been conducted in the last decade, employing methodologies ranging from traditional culture techniques to 16S rRNA metagenomics, to assess the possible role of bacteria in OSCC. While these studies have demonstrated differences in microbial composition between cancerous and healthy tissues, they have failed to agree on specific bacteria or patterns of oral microbial dysbiosis to implicate in OSCC. On the contrary, some oral taxa, particularly Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum, show strong oral carcinogenic potential in vitro and in animal studies. Bacteria are thought to contribute to oral carcinogenesis via inhibition of apoptosis, activation of cell proliferation, promotion of cellular invasion, induction of chronic inflammation, and production of carcinogens. This narrative review provides a critical analysis of and an update on the association between bacteria and oral carcinogenesis and the possible mechanisms underlying it. PMID:27677454

  3. Bifunctional role of the Treponema pallidum extracellular matrix binding adhesin Tp0751.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Simon; Hof, Rebecca; Francescutti, Teresa; Hawkes, Aaron; Boulanger, Martin J; Cameron, Caroline E

    2011-03-01

    Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, is a highly invasive pathogenic spirochete capable of attaching to host cells, invading the tissue barrier, and undergoing rapid widespread dissemination via the circulatory system. The T. pallidum adhesin Tp0751 was previously shown to bind laminin, the most abundant component of the basement membrane, suggesting a role for this adhesin in host tissue colonization and bacterial dissemination. We hypothesized that similar to that of other invasive pathogens, the interaction of T. pallidum with host coagulation proteins, such as fibrinogen, may also be crucial for dissemination via the circulatory system. To test this prediction, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methodology to demonstrate specific binding of soluble recombinant Tp0751 to human fibrinogen. Click-chemistry-based palmitoylation profiling of heterologously expressed Tp0751 confirmed the presence of a lipid attachment site within this adhesin. Analysis of the Tp0751 primary sequence revealed the presence of a C-terminal putative HEXXH metalloprotease motif, and in vitro degradation assays confirmed that recombinant Tp0751 purified from both insect and Escherichia coli expression systems degrades human fibrinogen and laminin. The proteolytic activity of Tp0751 was abolished by the presence of the metalloprotease inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline. Further, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry showed that Tp0751 binds zinc and calcium. Collectively, these results indicate that Tp0751 is a zinc-dependent, membrane-associated protease that exhibits metalloprotease-like characteristics. However, site-directed mutagenesis of the HEXXH motif to HQXXH did not abolish the proteolytic activity of Tp0751, indicating that further mutagenesis studies are required to elucidate the critical active site residues associated with this protein. This study represents the first published description of a T. pallidum protease capable of degrading host

  4. Genomic and Metagenomic Analysis of Diversity-Generating Retroelements Associated with Treponema denticola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutichot eNimkulrat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs are genetic cassettes that can produce massive protein sequence variation in prokaryotes. Presumably DGRs confer selective advantages to their hosts (bacteria or viruses by generating variants of target genes—typically resulting in target proteins with altered ligand-binding specificity—through a specialized error-prone reverse transcription process. The only extensively studied DGR system is from the Bordetella phage BPP-1, although DGRs are predicted to exist in other species. Using bioinformatics analysis, we discovered that the DGR system associated with the Treponema denticola species (a human oral-associated periopathogen is dynamic (with gains/losses of the system found in the isolates and diverse (with multiple types found in isolated genomes and the human microbiota. The T. denticola DGR is found in only nine of the 17 sequenced T. denticola strains. Analysis of the DGR-associated template regions and reverse transcriptase gene sequences revealed two types of DGR systems in T. denticola: the ATCC35405-type shared by seven isolates including ATCC35405; and the SP32-type shared by two isolates (SP32 and SP33, suggesting multiple DGR acquisitions. We detected additional variants of the T. denticola DGR systems in the human microbiomes, and found that the SP32-type DGR is more abundant than the ATCC35405-type in the healthy human oral microbiome, although the latter is found in more sequenced isolates. This is the first comprehensive study to characterize the DGRs associated with T. denticola in individual genomes as well as human microbiomes, demonstrating the importance of utilizing both individual genomes and metagenomes for characterizing the elements, and for analyzing their diversity and distribution in human populations.

  5. Treponema pallidum (syphilis) antigen TpF1 induces angiogenesis through the activation of the IL-8 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzobon, Tommaso; Facchinello, Nicola; Bossi, Fleur; Capitani, Nagaja; Benagiano, Marisa; Di Benedetto, Giulietta; Zennaro, Cristina; West, Nicole; Codolo, Gaia; Bernardini, Marialina; Baldari, Cosima Tatiana; D'Elios, Mario Milco; Pellegrini, Luca; Argenton, Francesco; de Bernard, Marina

    2016-01-05

    Over 10 million people every year become infected by Treponema pallidum and develop syphilis, a disease with broad symptomatology that, due to the difficulty to eradicate the pathogen from the highly vascularized secondary sites of infection, is still treated with injections of penicillin. Unlike most other bacterial pathogens, T. pallidum infection produces indeed a strong angiogenic response whose mechanism of activation, however, remains unknown. Here, we report that one of the major antigen of T. pallidum, the TpF1 protein, has growth factor-like activity on primary cultures of human endothelial cells and activates specific T cells able to promote tissue factor production. The growth factor-like activity is mediated by the secretion of IL-8 but not of VEGF, two known angiogenic factors. The pathogen's factor signals IL-8 secretion through the activation of the CREB/NF-κB signalling pathway. These findings are recapitulated in an animal model, zebrafish, where we observed that TpF1 injection stimulates angiogenesis and IL-8, but not VEGF, secretion. This study suggests that the angiogenic response observed during secondary syphilis is triggered by TpF1 and that pharmacological therapies directed to inhibit IL-8 response in patients should be explored to treat this disease.

  6. Cerebrospinal Fluid Treponema pallidum Particle Agglutination Assay for Neurosyphilis Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Christina M; Maxwell, Clare L; Dunaway, Shelia B; Sahi, Sharon K; Tantalo, Lauren C

    2017-06-01

    Limited data suggest that the cerebrospinal fluid Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (CSF-TPPA) is sensitive and a CSF Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (CSF-TPHA) titer of ≥1:640 is specific for neurosyphilis diagnosis. CSF-TPPA reactivity and titer were determined for a convenience sample of 191 CSF samples from individuals enrolled in a study of CSF abnormalities in syphilis (training data set). The sensitivity of a reactive test and the specificity for reactivity at serial higher CSF dilutions were determined. Subsequently, CSF-TPPA reactivity at a 1:640 dilution was determined for all available samples from study participants enrolled after the last training sample was collected (validation data set, n = 380). Neurosyphilis was defined as (i) a reactive CSF Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test (CSF-VDRL), (ii) detection of T. pallidum in CSF by reverse transcriptase PCR, or (iii) new vision loss or hearing loss. In the training data set, the diagnostic sensitivities of a reactive CSF fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test (CSF-FTA-ABS) and a reactive CSF-TPPA did not differ significantly (67 to 98% versus 76 to 95%). The specificity of a CSF-TPPA titer of ≥1:640 was significantly higher than that of lower dilutions and was not significantly different from that of CSF-VDRL. In the validation data set, the diagnostic specificity of a CSF-TPPA titer of ≥1:640 was high and did not differ significantly from that of CSF-VDRL (93 to 94% versus 90 to 91%). Ten CSF samples with a nonreactive CSF-VDRL had a CSF-TPPA titer of ≥1:640. If a CSF-TPPA titer of ≥1:640 was used in addition to a reactive CSF-VDRL, the number of neurosyphilis diagnoses would have increased from 47 to 57 (21.3%). A CSF-TPPA titer cutoff of ≥1:640 may be useful in identifying patients with neurosyphilis when CSF-VDRL is nonreactive. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Oral bacteria in placental tissues: increased molecular detection in pregnant periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, V; O'Valle, F; Pozo, E; Puertas, A; León, R; Mesa, F

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the DNA of oral bacteria in placental samples from women with and without periodontitis who had or had not had preterm births and/or low birthweight (PB/LBW) neonates. Data were gathered from 57 puerperal women in relation to socio-demographic, gynaecological, and periodontal variables and to placental histomorphology. Fifty-seven biopsies, 28 from mothers with periodontitis, were taken aseptically from preterm placentas (n = 36) and from full-term placentas (n = 21). Total DNA was extracted, and the presence of 15 oral bacteria was assessed using Nested-PCR. The placentas from women with periodontitis showed a higher prevalence of periodontopathogens compared to those from women without periodontitis (P = 0.009). Samples showed low prevalences of Actinomyces israelii, Parvimonas micra and Tannerella forsythia. An association was found between Eikenella corrodens in placenta and periodontitis (P = 0.002). The most ubiquitous bacterium, Fusobacterium nucleatum, was more prevalent in mothers with periodontitis and PB/LBW (P = 0.033). Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Prevotella intermedia and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were not detected. These results, along with previous findings, show that oral bacteria may be normally present in the placenta, however, the levels of certain oral pathogens in the placenta would highly depend on the mother's periodontal state. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Serum Treponema IgM Antibody Test for Syphilis Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑占才; 张荣富; 溪茜

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical utility of testing serum anti-treponema pallidum IgM antibody in the diagnosis of syphilis patients. Methods: Seventy-two cases of syphilis were tested for specific IgM antibody with ELISA, and the results were compared with RPR and TPPA.Results: The sensitivity of IgM antibody was 73.3 %(11/15) in primary syphilis, 88.9% (16/18) in sec-ondary syphilis, and there was no significant differ-ence between these values (x2=1.6363, P>0.10). The sensitivity of IgM antibody in diagnosing latent syphi-lis was only 26.1% (6/23), much lower than the detec-tion rate in symptomatic earlv svDhilis (x2=17.6189. P<0.005). RPR and TPPA were both 100% sensitive in latent and early symptomatic syphilis. Two were posi,five for IgM in the 16 cases who had received regular treatments 2 to 24 months before enrolled.Conclusions: Specific IgM antibody detection doees not appear superior to RPR and TPPA in diagnosing primary syphilis. The diagnosis of latent syphilis should mainly rely on RPR and TPPA, since there are low titers of IgM antibody at that stage. IgM antibody testing alone should not be recommended for monitor-ing syphilis development or treatment efficacy. Fur-ther studies should be concerned.

  9. Plasmonic ELISA for the ultrasensitive detection of Treponema pallidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xin-Min; Huang, Rong; Dong, Cai-Xia; Tang, Li-Juan; Gui, Rong; Jiang, Jian-Hui

    2014-08-15

    In this report, we have developed a plasmonic ELISA strategy for the detection of syphilis. Plasmonic ELISA is an enzyme-linked immunoassay combined with enzyme-mediated surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Immune response of the Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum) antibodies triggers the acetylcholinesterase-catalyzed hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine to produce abundant thiocholine. The positive charged thiol, in turn, alters the surface charge distribution the AuNPs and leads to the agglomeration of the AuNPs. The induced strong localized SPR effect of the agglomerate AuNPs can, thus, allow the quantitative assay of T. pallidum antibodies due to the remarkable color and absorption spectral response changes of the reaction system. The plasmonic ELISA exhibited a quasilinear response to the logarithmic T. pallidum antibody concentrations in the range of 1pg/mL-10ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.98pg/mL. Such a low detection limit was 1000-fold improvements in sensitivity over a conventional ELISA. The results of plasmonic ELISA in syphilis assays of serum specimens from 60 patients agreed with those obtained using a conventional ELISA method. The plasmonic ELISA has characteristics (analyte specific, cost-effective, ease of automatic, low limit of detection) that provide potential for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of syphilis.

  10. Molecular epidemiological research of Treponema pallidum infection in Haikou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke Han; Yong-Jiang Dai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To discuss genotypes distribution and molecular epidemiological characters of Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum) infection in Haikou. Methods: A total of 102 specimens genital ulcers were collected from patients with suspected syphilitic chancre admitted during March 2012-February 2013, which were detected by dark-field microscope and PCR method. Acidic repeat protein (arp) gene of T. pallidum and T. pallidum repeat (tpr) gene families were amplified in PCR -positive samples by nested PCR. The number of repeats presented in the arp gene and the restriction fragment length polymorphism by Mse I in the tpr gene were analyzed by electrophoresis. Results: Out of 102 patients with suspected chancre, 55 cases (53.2%) were positive by dark-field microscopy and 89 cases (87.3%) by T. pallidum bmp PCR. Seven genotypes were found in 72 cases, including 14d (28, 38.9%), 12d (12, 16.7%), 13d (11, 15.3%), 14b (9, 12.5%), 14a (5, 6.9%), 12a (3, 4.2%), 15d (2, 2.8%) 10d (1, 1.4%), 12i (1, 1.4%). Conclusions: Genotype 14 d is the predominant type of T. pallidum in Haikou and bmp PCR has high sensitivity.

  11. Surface-Associated Host Proteins on Virulent Treponema pallidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, John F.; Baseman, Joel B.

    1979-01-01

    A surface coat of host serum proteins was detected on virulent Treponema pallidum by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis. The loosely associated serum proteins could be removed by repeated washings in a protein-free medium. Washed T. pallidum retained the ability to readsorb numerous host proteins from rabbit serum as well as iodinated rabbit or human albumin. In addition, various avidly associated host serum proteins including albumin, α2-macroglobulin, transferrin, ceruloplasmin, immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin M, and C3 were identified on the outer envelope of washed treponemes by an immunoadsorbent technique with protein A-bearing staphylococcus. Hyaluronidase treatment did not remove the avidly associated host proteins from the surface of washed treponemes, whereas trypsin treatment resulted in decreased levels of agglutination. Electrophoretic patterns of trypsin-treated treponemes showed that treponemal proteins as well as adsorbed host proteins were released concurrently by protease digestion. Reacquisition studies involving α2-macroglobulin and transferrin suggested the presence of noncompetitive binding sites for serum proteins on the treponemal outer envelope. Finally, differences among the T. pallidum preparations from individual rabbits with respect to incorporation of [35S]methionine, extent of agglutination with antisera, and length of time required for removal of avidly associated host proteins by trypsin treatment indicated biological variability among the treponemal populations. Images PMID:93574

  12. Identification, cloning, and purification of protein antigens of Treponema pallidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, L V; Dallas, W S; Ray, P H; Bassford, P J

    1988-01-01

    Difficulties in culturing the bacterium Treponema pallidum have greatly hindered syphilis research. In recent years, several laboratories have begun applying recombinant DNA technology to the study of this organism. Recent work is summarized concerning the expression of T. pallidum DNA in Escherichia coli. A number of E. coli clones expressing treponemal protein antigens have been identified. In one instance, a recombinant protein was purified to homogeneity and shown to be identical to a highly immunogenic, native T. pallidum membrane protein of molecular weight 39,000, which was designated the basic membrane protein (BMP) of this organism. In addition, recent experiments are described that were designed to identify cell-surface proteins that would serve as the primary focus of our cloning efforts. Results obtained with use of several different approaches strongly suggest that the outer membrane of T. pallidum is an antigenically inert structure largely devoid of protein. However, a class of low-molecular-weight protein antigens have been identified that are actively secreted into the extracellular medium. Attempts currently are being made to clone these secreted proteins and investigate their roles in the pathogenesis and immunobiology of syphilis.

  13. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola synergistic polymicrobial biofilm development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhu

    Full Text Available Chronic periodontitis has a polymicrobial biofilm aetiology and interactions between key bacterial species are strongly implicated as contributing to disease progression. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia have all been implicated as playing roles in disease progression. P. gingivalis cell-surface-located protease/adhesins, the gingipains, have been suggested to be involved in its interactions with several other bacterial species. The aims of this study were to determine polymicrobial biofilm formation by P. gingivalis, T. denticola and T. forsythia, as well as the role of P. gingivalis gingipains in biofilm formation by using a gingipain null triple mutant. To determine homotypic and polymicrobial biofilm formation a flow cell system was employed and the biofilms imaged and quantified by fluorescent in situ hybridization using DNA species-specific probes and confocal scanning laser microscopy imaging. Of the three species, only P. gingivalis and T. denticola formed mature, homotypic biofilms, and a strong synergy was observed between P. gingivalis and T. denticola in polymicrobial biofilm formation. This synergy was demonstrated by significant increases in biovolume, average biofilm thickness and maximum biofilm thickness of both species. In addition there was a morphological change of T. denticola in polymicrobial biofilms when compared with homotypic biofilms, suggesting reduced motility in homotypic biofilms. P. gingivalis gingipains were shown to play an essential role in synergistic polymicrobial biofilm formation with T. denticola.

  14. Comparative evaluation of sutures coated with triclosan and chlorhexidine for oral biofilm inhibition potential and antimicrobial activity against periodontal pathogens: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Sunder Sethi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgical site plaque accumulation is one of the challenging problems leading to unfavorable healing. The antibacterial sutures can be used to reduce or inhibit plaque formation. Presently there is no study comparing efficacy of sutures coated with triclosan and chlorhexidine in terms of oral biofilm inhibition and antimicrobial property against periodontal pathogens. Aim: The aim of present study was to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy and oral biofilm inhibition around chlorhexidine and triclosan coated polyglactin sutures in comparison to uncoated sutures. Materials and Method: Equal segments of chlorhexidine and triclosan coated polyglactin sutures (3-0 were incubated at 370°C in saliva collected from 10 chronic periodontitis patients for 7 days. Plain uncoated suture served as control. Biofilm formation was analyzed with Confocal Laser-Scanning Microscopy (CLSM and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Quantitative assessment was done using Colony Forming Units (CFU/mL.The antibacterial efficacy of the sutures was tested against specific periodontal pathogens (S.mutans, F.nucleatum, A.actinomycetomcomitans, P.intermedia, P.gingivalis using agar diffusion method. CLSM and SEM were not subjected to statistical analysis. ANOVA test was used for colony forming units and agar diffusion test. (P < 0.05 Results: CLSM and SEM showed substantial biofilm inhibition around chlorhexidine-coated sutures followed by triclosan-coated when compared to plain uncoated suture. The antibacterial coated sutures showed statistically significant difference in CFUs/ml and zone of inhibition compared to plain uncoated sutures. Among coated sutures, chlorhexidine-coated sutures showed better results. Conclusion: The antibacterial coated sutures have a promising potential in preventing the colonization of periodontal pathogens around it thereby inhibiting biofilm formation.

  15. Single cell genomics of uncultured, health-associated Tannerella BU063 (Oral Taxon 286 and comparison to the closely related pathogen Tannerella forsythia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford J Beall

    Full Text Available The uncultivated bacterium Tannerella BU063 (oral taxon 286 is the closest relative to the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia, but is not disease-associated itself. Using a single cell genomics approach, we isolated 12 individual BU063 cells by flow cytometry, and we amplified and sequenced their genomes. Comparative analyses of the assembled genomic scaffolds and their gene contents allowed us to study the diversity of this taxon within the oral community of a single human donor that provided the sample. Eight different BU063 genotypes were represented, all about 5% divergent at the nucleotide level. There were 2 pairs of cells and one group of three that were more highly identical, and may represent clonal populations. We did pooled assemblies on the nearly identical genomes to increase the assembled genomic coverage. The presence of a set of 66 "core" housekeeping genes showed that two of the single cell assemblies and the assembly derived from the three putatively identical cells were essentially complete. As expected, the genome of BU063 is more similar to Tannerella forsythia than any other known genome, although there are significant differences, including a 44% difference in gene content, changes in metabolic pathways, loss of synteny, and an 8-9% difference in GC content. Several identified virulence genes of T. forsythia are not found in BU063 including karilysin, prtH, and bspA. The absence of these genes may explain the lack of periodontal pathogenesis by this species and provides a new foundation to further understand the genome evolution and mechanisms of bacterial-host interaction in closely related oral microbes with different pathogenicity potential.

  16. Characterization of a sialate-O-acetylesterase (NanS) from the oral pathogen Tannerella forsythia that enhances sialic acid release by NanH, its cognate sialidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phansopa, Chatchawal; Kozak, Radoslaw P; Liew, Li Phing; Frey, Andrew M; Farmilo, Thomas; Parker, Jennifer L; Kelly, David J; Emery, Robert J; Thomson, Rebecca I; Royle, Louise; Gardner, Richard A; Spencer, Daniel I R; Stafford, Graham P

    2015-12-01

    Tannerella forsythia, a Gram-negative member of the Bacteroidetes has evolved to harvest and utilize sialic acid. The most common sialic acid in humans is a mono-N-acetylated version termed Neu5Ac (5-N-acetyl-neuraminic acid). Many bacteria are known to access sialic acid using sialidase enzymes. However, in humans a high proportion of sialic acid contains a second acetyl group attached via an O-group, i.e. chiefly O-acetylated Neu5,9Ac2 or Neu5,4Ac2. This diacetylated sialic acid is not cleaved efficiently by many sialidases and in order to access diacetylated sialic acid, some organisms produce sialate-O-acetylesterases that catalyse the removal of the second acetyl group. In the present study, we performed bioinformatic and biochemical characterization of a putative sialate-O-acetylesterase from T. forsythia (NanS), which contains two putative SGNH-hydrolase domains related to sialate-O-acetylesterases from a range of organisms. Purification of recombinant NanS revealed an esterase that has activity against Neu5,9Ac2 and its glycolyl form Neu5Gc,9Ac. Importantly, the enzyme did not remove acetyl groups positioned at the 4-O position (Neu5,4Ac2). In addition NanS can act upon complex N-glycans released from a glycoprotein [erythropoietin (EPO)], bovine submaxillary mucin and oral epithelial cell-bound glycans. When incubated with its cognate sialidase, NanS increased sialic acid release from mucin and oral epithelial cell surfaces, implying that this esterase improves sialic acid harvesting for this pathogen and potentially other members of the oral microbiome. In summary, we have characterized a novel sialate-O-acetylesterase that contributes to the sialobiology of this important human pathogen and has potential applications in the analysis of sialic acid diacetylation of biologics in the pharmaceutical industry.

  17. Single cell genomics of uncultured, health-associated Tannerella BU063 (Oral Taxon 286) and comparison to the closely related pathogen Tannerella forsythia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Clifford J; Campbell, Alisha G; Dayeh, Daniel M; Griffen, Ann L; Podar, Mircea; Leys, Eugene J

    2014-01-01

    The uncultivated bacterium Tannerella BU063 (oral taxon 286) is the closest relative to the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia, but is not disease-associated itself. Using a single cell genomics approach, we isolated 12 individual BU063 cells by flow cytometry, and we amplified and sequenced their genomes. Comparative analyses of the assembled genomic scaffolds and their gene contents allowed us to study the diversity of this taxon within the oral community of a single human donor that provided the sample. Eight different BU063 genotypes were represented, all about 5% divergent at the nucleotide level. There were 2 pairs of cells and one group of three that were more highly identical, and may represent clonal populations. We did pooled assemblies on the nearly identical genomes to increase the assembled genomic coverage. The presence of a set of 66 "core" housekeeping genes showed that two of the single cell assemblies and the assembly derived from the three putatively identical cells were essentially complete. As expected, the genome of BU063 is more similar to Tannerella forsythia than any other known genome, although there are significant differences, including a 44% difference in gene content, changes in metabolic pathways, loss of synteny, and an 8-9% difference in GC content. Several identified virulence genes of T. forsythia are not found in BU063 including karilysin, prtH, and bspA. The absence of these genes may explain the lack of periodontal pathogenesis by this species and provides a new foundation to further understand the genome evolution and mechanisms of bacterial-host interaction in closely related oral microbes with different pathogenicity potential.

  18. Treponema pallidum putative novel drug target identification and validation: rethinking syphilis therapeutics with plant-derived terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Upendra N; Tiwari, Sameeksha; Singh, Priyanka; Singh, Swati; Awasthi, Manika; Pandey, Veda P

    2015-02-01

    Syphilis, a slow progressive and the third most common sexually transmitted disease found worldwide, is caused by a spirochete gram negative bacteria Treponema pallidum. Emergence of antibiotic resistant T. pallidum has led to a search for novel drugs and their targets. Subtractive genomics analyses of pathogen T. pallidum and host Homo sapiens resulted in identification of 126 proteins essential for survival and viability of the pathogen. Metabolic pathway analyses of these essential proteins led to discovery of nineteen proteins distributed among six metabolic pathways unique to T. pallidum. One hundred plant-derived terpenoids, as potential therapeutic molecules against T. pallidum, were screened for their drug likeness and ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and toxicity) properties. Subsequently the resulting nine terpenoids were docked with five unique T. pallidum targets through molecular modeling approaches. Out of five targets analyzed, D-alanine:D-alanine ligase was found to be the most promising target, while terpenoid salvicine was the most potent inhibitor. A comparison of the inhibitory potential of the best docked readily available natural compound, namely pomiferin (flavonoid) with that of the best docked terpenoid salvicine, revealed that salvicine was a more potent inhibitor than that of pomiferin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a terpenoid as a potential therapeutic molecule against T. pallidum with D-alanine:D-alanine ligase as a novel target. Further studies are warranted to evaluate and explore the potential clinical ramifications of these findings in relation to syphilis that has public health importance worldwide.

  19. Anti-biofilm and antibacterial activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles against the oral opportunistic pathogens Rothia dentocariosa and Rothia mucilaginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shams T; Ahamed, Maqusood; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A

    2014-12-01

    Species of the genus Rothia that inhabit the oral cavity have recently been implicated in a number of diseases. To minimize their role in oral infections, it is imperative to reduce and/or control the growth and biofilm formation activity of Rothia spp. In this study, two bacterial isolates, Ora-7 and Ora-16, were obtained from the oral cavity of a healthy male subject and identified as Rothia dentocariosa and Rothia mucilaginosa, respectively, using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Antimicrobial and anti-biofilm formation activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs), of average size 35 nm, were assessed in in vitro assays using Crystal Violet and live and dead staining techniques. The ZnO-NPs exhibited an IC50 value of 53 and 76 μg ml(-1) against R. dentocariosa and R. mucilaginosa, respectively. Biofilm-formation assays, performed on the surfaces of polystyrene plates, artificial teeth, and dental prostheses, revealed the efficacy of ZnO-NPs as a potential antibacterial agent for controlling the growth of Rothia isolates in both planktonic form and biofilm.

  20. The TP0796 lipoprotein of Treponema pallidum is a bimetal-dependent FAD pyrophosphatase with a potential role in flavin homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Ranjit K; Brautigam, Chad A; Liu, Wei Z; Tomchick, Diana R; Norgard, Michael V

    2013-04-19

    Treponema pallidum, an obligate parasite of humans and the causative agent of syphilis, has evolved the capacity to exploit host-derived metabolites for its survival. Flavin-containing compounds are essential cofactors that are required for metabolic processes in all living organisms, and riboflavin is a direct precursor of the cofactors FMN and FAD. Unlike many pathogenic bacteria, Treponema pallidum cannot synthesize riboflavin; we recently described a flavin-uptake mechanism composed of an ABC-type transporter. However, there is a paucity of information about flavin utilization in bacterial periplasms. Using a discovery-driven approach, we have identified the TP0796 lipoprotein as a previously uncharacterized Mg(2+)-dependent FAD pyrophosphatase within the ApbE superfamily. TP0796 probably plays a central role in flavin turnover by hydrolyzing exogenously acquired FAD, yielding AMP and FMN. Biochemical and structural investigations revealed that the enzyme has a unique bimetal Mg(2+) catalytic center. Furthermore, the pyrophosphatase activity is product-inhibited by AMP, indicating a possible role for this molecule in modulating FMN and FAD levels in the treponemal periplasm. The ApbE superfamily was previously thought to be involved in thiamine biosynthesis, but our characterization of TP0796 prompts a renaming of this superfamily as a periplasmic flavin-trafficking protein (Ftp). TP0796 is the first structurally and biochemically characterized FAD pyrophosphate enzyme in bacteria. This new paradigm for a bacterial flavin utilization pathway may prove to be useful for future inhibitor design.

  1. Characterizing the Syphilis-Causing Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum Proteome Using Complementary Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Simon; Lithgow, Karen V.; Meehan, Conor J.; Strouhal, Michal; Šmajs, David; Cameron, Caroline E.; Van Ostade, Xaveer; Kenyon, Chris R.; Van Raemdonck, Geert A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum is the etiological agent of syphilis, a chronic multistage disease. Little is known about the global T. pallidum proteome, therefore mass spectrometry studies are needed to bring insights into pathogenicity and protein expression profiles during infection. Methodology/Principal Findings To better understand the T. pallidum proteome profile during infection, we studied T. pallidum ssp. pallidum DAL-1 strain bacteria isolated from rabbits using complementary mass spectrometry techniques, including multidimensional peptide separation and protein identification via matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and electrospray ionization (ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap) tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 6033 peptides were detected, corresponding to 557 unique T. pallidum proteins at a high level of confidence, representing 54% of the predicted proteome. A previous gel-based T. pallidum MS proteome study detected 58 of these proteins. One hundred fourteen of the detected proteins were previously annotated as hypothetical or uncharacterized proteins; this is the first account of 106 of these proteins at the protein level. Detected proteins were characterized according to their predicted biological function and localization; half were allocated into a wide range of functional categories. Proteins annotated as potential membrane proteins and proteins with unclear functional annotations were subjected to an additional bioinformatics pipeline analysis to facilitate further characterization. A total of 116 potential membrane proteins were identified, of which 16 have evidence supporting outer membrane localization. We found 8/12 proteins related to the paralogous tpr gene family: TprB, TprC/D, TprE, TprG, TprH, TprI and TprJ. Protein abundance was semi-quantified using label-free spectral counting methods. A low correlation (r = 0.26) was found between previous microarray signal data and

  2. 探讨口腔颌面部多间隙感染患者病原菌情况%Discussion of Oral Multiple Space Pathogen Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗丽丽

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the oral and maxillofacial space infection in patients with multiple pathogens, initiation site, routes of infection. To investigate effective preventive measures to reduce infection rates. Methods January 2012 to January 2014, oral and maxillofacial hospital 120 patients infected with more space. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed 120 patients analyzed initiation site of pathogen infection, infection route, detect pathogens. Results 120 patients pathogen initiation site submandibular space 71 cases, accounting for 59.17%, parapharyngeal space 8 cases, accounting for 6.67%, masseteric gap 21 cases, accounting for 17.50%; submental space 7 cases, accounting for 5.83%, wing jaw gap 5 cases, accounting for 4.17%; sublingual space 4 cases, accounting for 3.33%, buccal space 4 cases, accounting for 3.33%. 120 cases of patients, 71 cases of odontogenic infection, accounting for 59.17%, adenovirus-borne infection in 42 cases, accounting for 35.00%, seven cases of nosocomial infection, accounting for 5.83%. Odontogenic infection is the main route of infection, iatrogenic infection at least, the difference was statistically significant (χ2=77.40, P<0.05). Oral maxillofacial space infection pathogens gram-positive bacteria dominated, of 102 cases, accounting for 85.00% of the total, 14 cases of gram-negative bacteria, accounting for 11.67%, Candida albicans 4 cases, accounting for 3.33% total. The top three pathogens are Staphylococcus aureus, accounting for 15.84 percent, followed by Streptococcus constellation, accounting for 15.00%. And F streptococci, accounting for 13.33%. The most common Gram-negative bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae, accounting for 7.50%. Conclusion Oral and maxillofacial multiple space Pathogens wide range of pathogenic bacteria in the case of effective treatment measures to promote the recovery of the patient's health is important.%目的:分析口腔颌面部多间隙感染患者的病原菌种类、起始部位

  3. Chemical composition, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Cassia bakeriana Craib. against aerobic and anaerobic oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Luís C S; de Morais, Sérgio A L; Martins, Carlos H G; Martins, Mário M; Chang, Roberto; de Aquino, Francisco J T; de Oliveira, Alberto; Moraes, Thaís da S; Machado, Fabrício C; da Silva, Cláudio V; do Nascimento, Evandro A

    2013-04-18

    The chemical composition of the essential oils from leaves, bark and wood of Cassia bakeriana Craib. was determined by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Alcohols, aldehydes and fatty acids were the major components in leaf and bark oil, while wood essential oil was rich in fatty acids. Terpenes such as linalool, (E)-nerolidol and phytol were present in low concentrations. The antimicrobial activity against aerobic and anaerobic oral bacteria was evaluated using the microdilution method, as was the cell viability test carried out with Vero cells. The oils from leaves and bark showed high antimicrobial activity, with minimum inhibitory concentrations between 62.5 and 125 µg·mL⁻¹ for most of the tested bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans, the main etiological agent of dental caries. Leaves oil displayed the lowest cytotoxic effect (EC₅₀ of 153 µg·mL⁻¹), while wood oil exhibited the highest toxicity to Vero cells. C. bakeriana oils are thus a source of biologically active compounds against aerobic and anaerobic oral microorganisms. This study is the first report on the chemical composition, antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of C. bakeriana.

  4. Chemical Composition, Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Cassia bakeriana Craib. against Aerobic and Anaerobic Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio V. da Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oils from leaves, bark and wood of Cassia bakeriana Craib. was determined by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Alcohols, aldehydes and fatty acids were the major components in leaf and bark oil, while wood essential oil was rich in fatty acids. Terpenes such as linalool, (E-nerolidol and phytol were present in low concentrations. The antimicrobial activity against aerobic and anaerobic oral bacteria was evaluated using the microdilution method, as was the cell viability test carried out with Vero cells. The oils from leaves and bark showed high antimicrobial activity, with minimum inhibitory concentrations between 62.5 and 125 µg·mL−1 for most of the tested bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans, the main etiological agent of dental caries. Leaves oil displayed the lowest cytotoxic effect (EC50 of 153 µg·mL−1, while wood oil exhibited the highest toxicity to Vero cells. C. bakeriana oils are thus a source of biologically active compounds against aerobic and anaerobic oral microorganisms. This study is the first report on the chemical composition, antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of C. bakeriana.

  5. Genome sequence of the thermophilic fresh-water bacterium Spirochaeta caldaria type strain (H1T), reclassification of Spirochaeta caldaria, Spirochaeta stenostrepta, and Spirochaeta zuelzerae in the genus Treponema as Treponema caldaria comb. nov., Treponema stenostrepta comb. nov., and Treponema zuelzerae comb. nov., and emendation of the genus Treponema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, Birte; Göker, Markus; Scheuner, Carmen; Han, Cliff; Lu, Megan; Misra, Monica; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Hammon, Nancy; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Jeffries, Cynthia D.; Rohde, Manfred; Spring, Stefan; Gronow, Sabine; Detter, John C.; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Woyke, Tanja; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Spirochaeta caldaria Pohlschroeder et al. 1995 is an obligately anaerobic, spiral-shaped bacterium that is motile via periplasmic flagella. The type strain, H1T, was isolated in 1990 from cyanobacterial mat samples collected at a freshwater hot spring in Oregon, USA, and is of interest because it enhances the degradation of cellulose when grown in co-culture with Clostridium thermocellum. Here we provide a taxonomic re-evaluation for S. caldaria based on phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA sequences and whole genomes, and propose the reclassification of S. caldaria and two other Spirochaeta species as members of the emended genus Treponema. Whereas genera such as Borrelia and Sphaerochaeta possess well-distinguished genomic features related to their divergent lifestyles, the physiological and functional genomic characteristics of Spirochaeta and Treponema appear to be intermixed and are of little taxonomic value. The 3,239,340 bp long genome of strain H1T with its 2,869 protein-coding and 59 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. PMID:23961314

  6. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence of the opportunistic oral pathogen Prevotella multisaccharivorax type strain (PPPA20T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Gronow, Sabine [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Lu, Megan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2011-01-01

    Prevotella multisaccharivorax Sakamoto et al. 2005 is a species of the large genus Prevotella, which belongs to the family Prevotellaceae. The species is of medical interest because its members are able to cause diseases in the human oral cavity such as periodontitis, root caries and others. Although 77 Prevotella genomes have already been sequenced or are targeted for sequencing, this is only the second completed genome sequence of a type strain of a species within the genus Prevotella to be published. The 3,388,644 bp long genome is assembled in three non-contiguous contigs, harbors 2,876 protein-coding and 75 RNA genes and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  7. Application of quantitative immunofluorescence to clinical serology: antibody levels of Treponema pallidum.

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    A previously reported method of quantitative immunofluorescence, employing a calibrated photometric system and chemically stabilized fluorescence intensity, was used to replace the subjective, visual method of endpoint determination with a quantitative, calibrated measurement of antibodies to Treponema pallidum in serum. The results of the quantitative immunofluorescence method showed a 90% correlation with the subjective determinations of the visual method.

  8. Molecular cloning and expression of Treponema pallidum DNA in Escherichia coli K12.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D.A. van Embden; H.J.M. van de Donk; R.V.W. van Eijk (Ron); H.G. v.d. Heide; J.A. de Jong (Jan); M.F. van Olderen; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); L.M. Schouls

    1983-01-01

    textabstractA gene bank of Treponema pallidum DNA in Escherichia coli K-12 was constructed by cloning SauI-cleaved T. pallidum DNA into the cosmid pHC79. Sixteen of 800 clones investigated produced one or more antigens that reacted with antibodies from syphilitic patients. According to the separatio

  9. Laboratory Evaluation of Three Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Dual Detection of HIV and Treponema pallidum Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Humphries, Romney M.; Woo, Jennifer S.; Chung, Jun Ho; Sokovic, Anita; Bristow, Claire C; Jeffrey D Klausner

    2014-01-01

    The performance of three research-use-only, dual HIV and syphilis rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) was evaluated for 150 patient serum samples and compared to reference HIV and Treponema pallidum antibody detection methods. The RDTs performed comparably, with sensitivities of 93 to 99% and specificities of 97 to 100%. The kappa statistic between the RDTs was 0.95.

  10. Polypeptides of Treponema pallidum: progress toward understanding their structural, functional, and immunologic roles. Treponema Pallidum Polypeptide Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, S J

    1993-09-01

    Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the spirochete that causes syphilis, is unusual in a number of respects, including its small genome size, inability to grow under standard in vitro culture conditions, microaerophilism, apparent paucity of outer membrane proteins, structurally complex periplasmic flagella, and ability to evade the host immune responses and cause disease over a period of years to decades. Many of these attributes are related ultimately to its protein content. Our knowledge of the activities, structure, and immunogenicity of its proteins has been expanded by the application of recombinant DNA, hybridoma, and structural fractionation techniques. The purpose of this monograph is to summarize and correlate this new information by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, monoclonal antibody reactivity, sequence data, and other properties as the bases of polypeptide identification. The protein profiles of the T. pallidum subspecies causing syphilis, yaws, and endemic syphilis are virtually indistinguishable but differ considerably from those of other treponemal species. Among the most abundant polypeptides are a group of lipoproteins of unknown function that appear to be important in the immune response during syphilitic infection. The periplasmic flagella of T. pallidum and other spirochetes are unique with regard to their protein content and ultrastructure, as well as their periplasmic location. They are composed of three core proteins (homologous to the other members of the eubacterial flagellin family) and a single, unrelated sheath protein; the functional significance of this arrangement is not understood at present. Although the bacterium contains the chaperonins GroEL and DnaK, these proteins are not under the control of the heat shock regulon as they are in most organisms. Studies of the immunogenicity of T. pallidum proteins indicate that many may be useful for immunodiagnosis and immunoprotection. Future goals in T. pallidum polypeptide

  11. Detection of periodontal pathogens in the patients with aortic aneurysm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Fang; Lyu Yalin; Han Xiao; Zhang Hai; Liu Dongyu; Hei Wei; Liu Yinhua

    2014-01-01

    Background The occurrence and development of aortic aneurysm (AA) are associated with infection.Some researchers have detected the DNA of periodontal pathogens in AA samples in certain populations.However,it has not been done in Chinese population.The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of periodontal pathogens in oral tissue samples and aneurysm samples of AA patients.Methods Eighty-nine subjects with AA and 59 subjects without AA were examined.Periodontal clinical parameters were evaluated.Unstimulated saliva and subgingival plaque somples were collected from all subjects.Twenty-six dissected AA samples were obtained.Evidence of eight periodontal pathogens including Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg),Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa),Prevotella intermedia (Pi),Tannerella forsythensis (Tf),Treponema denticola (Td),Campylobacter rectus (Cr),Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn),and Prevotella nigrescens (Pn) was ascertained in all samples by 16S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay.Results The periodontal indexes including plaque index (PLI),probing depth (PD),bleeding index (BI),and clinical attachment loss (CAL),of the six Ramfjord index teeth were significantly higher in the AA group than those in the control group (P <0.01).Eight periodontal pathogens in subgingival plaque samples were more frequently detected in the AA group than in control group.The difference in prevalence between the groups was significant for six (out of eight) periodontal pathogens assayed (Pg,Pi,Fn,Pn,Tf,and Td,P <0.01).Additionally,all eight periodontal pathogens were more frequently detected in saliva samples of the AA group than in those of the control group,again with six (out of eight) (Pg,Pi,Fn,Cr,Tf,and Td) displaying significant differences in prevalence between the two groups (P <0.01).Out of 26 aneurysm samples examined,Pg,Pi,Fn,Crand Tfwere detected in 6 (23.1%),2 (7.7%),3 (11.5%),1 (3.8%),2 (7.7%),respectively,and Aa,Pn,and Td were not

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Partially Oxidized Ag/Au Nanoparticles against the Oral Pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis W83

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan S. Holden

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in nanotechnology provide opportunities for the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease. While physicochemical properties of Ag containing nanoparticles (NPs are known to influence the magnitude of their toxicity, it is thought that nanosilver can be made less toxic to eukaryotes by passivation of the NPs with a benign metal. Moreover, the addition of other noble metals to silver nanoparticles, in the alloy formulation, is known to alter the silver dissolution behavior. Thus, we synthesized glutathione capped Ag/Au alloy bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs via the galvanic replacement reaction between maltose coated Ag NPs and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4 in 5% aqueous triblock F127 copolymer solution. We then compared the antibacterial activity of the Ag/Au NPs to pure Ag NPs on Porphyromonas gingivalis W83, a key pathogen in the development of periodontal disease. Only partially oxidized glutathione capped Ag and Ag/Au (Au : Ag ≈ 0.2 NPs inhibited the planktonic growth of P. gingivalis W83. This effect was enhanced in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which simulates the oxidative stress environment in the periodontal pocket during chronic inflammation.

  13. The Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effect of Propolis with Chlorhexidine against Oral Pathogens: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eralp Akca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the antimicrobial effectiveness of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP to chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX on planktonic Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Actinomyces israelii, Candida albicans, and their single-species biofilms by agar dilution and broth microdilution test methods. Both agents inhibited the growth of all planktonic species. On the other hand, CHX exhibited lower minimum bactericidal concentrations than EEP against biofilms of A. actinomycetemcomitans, S. aureus, and E. faecalis whereas EEP yielded a better result against Lactobacilli and P. intermedia. The bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations of both agents were found to be equal against biofilms of Streptecocci, P. gingivalis, A. israelii, and C. albicans. The results of this study revealed that propolis was more effective in inhibiting Gram-positive bacteria than the Gram-negative bacteria in their planktonic state and it was suggested that EEP could be as effective as CHX on oral microorganisms in their biofilm state.

  14. Neisseria gonorrhoea, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Treponema pallidum infection in antenatal and gynecological patients at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apea-Kubi, Kwasi Akyem; Yamaguchi, Shinya; Sakyi, Bright; Kishimoto, Toshio; Ofori-Adjei, David; Hagiwara, Toshikatsu

    2004-12-01

    Five hundred and seventeen women attending the gynecology and obstetrics clinics of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital were examined for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Vaginal swabs were examined for Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida albicans, and Gardnerella vaginalis infection. Endocervical swabs were examined for Neisseria gonorrhoea and Chlamydia trachomatis using a recently developed RNA detection kit. Strain typing was performed to identify serovars of C. trachomatis. Sera were analyzed for Treponema pallidum with a passive-particle agglutination assay kit. The prevalence of infection with N. gonorrhoea was 0.6%, C. trachomatis 3.0%, and T. pallidum 5.6%. Eight samples were PCR-positive for C. trachomatis. Five of these were serovar G, and the rest were serovar E. All cases of mixed infections occurred in pregnant women. In conclusion, a high transmissible risk of T. pallidum infection was observed among our study population and in particular among our pregnant women. The absence of association between the presenting symptoms, clinical findings, and specific pathogens has implications for the syndromic approach to STI case management. The low prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoea may be due to self medication and requires further research in primary health institutions in rural areas to compare rates.

  15. Detection of Treponema pallidum, Herpes Simplex Virus, and Haemophilus ducreyi from Genital Ulcers by Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周华; 傅笑冰; 熊礼宽; 杨帆; 洪福昌; 曾序春; 董时富

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical application of multiplex PCR in the detection of Treponema pallidum, Herpes simplex virus (HSV), and Haemophilus ducreyi. Method: Three standard strains were used to set up a multiplex PCR (MPCR) for detecting syphilis, herpes genitalis, and chancroid simultaneously. Samples from 122 patients with genital ulcer disease(GUD) were subjected to MPCR and the results were compared with these of dark-fidd microscopy and TP serology, HSV anligen ELISA,and H. ducreyi culture, Result: In the 122 patients with GUD, MPCR identified 34 casesof T.pallidum infection, 40 cases of HSV infection, and 2 cases of mixed infection of T.pallidum and herpes. No positive results of H. ducreyi were found. The sensitivity of MPCR to T. pallidum and herpes was 100% and 93.3%, respectivdy. The sensitivities of dark-field microscopy and TP serology, HSV antigen ELISA, and H. ducreyi culture was 35.3%, 50% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion: MPCR showed a relatively higher sensitivity for T.pallidum as compared with the routine techniques. Although its sensitivity for HSV was not as good as that of antigen ELISA, it also yielde da high detection rate. MPCR can detect more than one pathogen. It is simple, quick, sensitive, and suitable for clinical use or epidemiological investigation.

  16. Establishment of Tp0259-PCR for diagnosing infection of treponema pallidum%梅毒感染诊断中Tp0259-PCR方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨长顺; 王三虎; 周秀萍

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for detection Tp0259 gene by PCR .To provide basis of diagnosis infection of trepo‐nema pallidum by detection Tp0259 gene .Methods Gene sequences of Tp0259 was obtained from Genebank and analysis by bioin‐formatics .Specific primers were designed .The whole genome was extracted from testis specimens of the New Zealand rabbits infec‐ted by treponema pallidum and control groups .The gene of Tp0259 was amplified by PCR under the optimization reaction condi‐tions which was selected by many tests ,using the new construction of amplification method to detect the common pathogenic micro‐organism in urinary and reproductive tract infection .Results Specific bands of 646 bp was appeared only in New Zealand rabbits which was infected by treponema pallidum ,while none was in the control group and other pathogenic microorganisms .Conclusion Detection the Tp0259 gene could be used to diagnose infection of treponema pallidum .%目的:建立聚合酶链反应(PCR)方法扩增梅毒螺旋体Tp0259基因,为进一步探讨其在梅毒感染诊断中的作用提供依据。方法从Genbank获取T p0259基因序列,生物信息学分析,设计特异性引物。收集T p Nichols株感染组和对照组的新西兰兔睾丸标本,提取全基因组DNA ,通过优化PCR扩增条件寻找最佳反应体系和反应条件,PCR扩增Tp0259的编码基因,同时通过新构建扩增方法检测泌尿生殖道感染常见病原微生物。结果通过PCR扩增及琼脂糖凝胶电泳,只有感染梅毒螺旋体的新西兰兔标本才能扩增出特异性条带,条带位置约为646 bp ,其他病原微生物未见扩增条带。结论检测 T p0259基因能用于诊断梅毒螺旋体的感染。

  17. HIV感染者口腔牙周致病菌检出情况分析%Analysis for Detection of Oral Periodontal Pathogens in HIV Infected Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温龑; 裴峻浩翔; 段开文

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the detection of oral periodontal pathogens in part of HIV infected patients in Yunnan region.Methods The col ection of clinic specimens were took to obtain the 66 cases of HIV infected patients,saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF)samples which were come from the Third People,s of Kunming.The six kinds of periodontal pathogens were detected by extraction of DNA and PCR testing and analyzed by using statistical methods.Results The dif erent bacteria have been detected in dif erent specimens and the discrepancy of detection rate of these bacteria was significant.However,the dif erence of same bacterial in dif erent samples was minimal.In addition,there was no manifest function on the detection rate of periodontal pathogens in aspects of smoking,drinking,dif erent CD4 cel counts and highly active antiretroviral therapy(HAART).Conclusion It is vital to strengthen the research and detection of oral periodontal pathogens in HIV infected patients through combine with domestic and international research and report to treat targeted periodontal disease that occur ed in HIV infected patients.%目的了解云南地区部分HIV感染患者口腔内牙周致病菌检出情况。方法采用临床标本收集的方法,获得昆明市第三人民医院感染一科66例HIV感染者的唾液标本和龈沟液标本,通过DNA的提取和PCR检测,对标本中的6种牙周致病菌进行检测并运用统计学方法分析。结果不同细菌在不同取材标本都有检出,且各种细菌的检出率差异很大,但同一细菌在不同样本中检出率差异却极小。另外,吸烟饮酒、不同CD4细胞计数和高效抗逆转录病毒治疗(highly active anti retrovial therapy,HAART)HAART对可疑牙周致病菌的检出均无明显影响。结论应结合国内外的研究与报道,加强对HIV感染者口腔牙周致病菌的研究与检测,从而有针对性的治疗发生在HIV感染者口腔中的牙周疾病。

  18. Antimicrobial activity of Aegiphila sellowiana Cham., Lamiaceae, against oral pathogens Atividade antimicrobiana de Aegiphila sellowiana Cham., Lamiaceae, contra patógenos orais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcele A. Ferreira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of Aegiphila sellowiana Cham., Lamiaceae, against oral pathogens is reported. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs for inhibiting the microorganisms growth were determined using the broth microdilution method from the CLSI M7-A7 protocol. Chlorhexidine was used as the positive control. The ethanol crude extract of the aerial parts of A. sellowiana exhibited activity against the microorganisms tested in this work; however, the activity decreased after partition with n-hexane, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate. Among the tested fractions, the n-hexane fraction was found to be the most effective against the evaluated oral pathogens. GC-MS analysis of this latter fraction revealed that fatty acids esters, steroids, and aliphatic sesquiterpene hydrocarbons are its major constituents. These compounds may be responsible for the activity of the n-hexane fraction, but other chemical constituents of the dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and hydroalcoholic fraction may potentialize their activities in the crude extract.A atividade antimicrobiana de Aegiphila sellowiana Cham., Lamiaceae, contra patógenos da cavidade bucal foi avaliada empregando-se o método de microdiluição em caldo, segundo o protocolo CLSI M7-A7, utilizando-se clorexidina como controle positivo. O extrato etanólico bruto das partes aéreas de A. sellowiana, obtido por maceração, exibiu atividade contra os microrganismos testados neste trabalho, entretanto, os valores de CIM (concentração inibitória mínima aumentaram após a partição com n-hexano, diclorometano e acetato de etila. Entre as frações testadas, a fração n-hexânica foi a mais efetiva contra os patógenos bucais avaliados, com valores de CIM entre 140 e 350 µg/mL-1. Dados obtidos por CG-EM revelaram que ésteres de ácidos graxos, esteróides e hidrocarbonetos sesquiterpênicos alifáticos são os constituintes majoritários desta fração. Embora esses compostos possam ser os

  19. Diversity and antifungal resistance patterns of prevalent opportunistic pathogenic yeasts colonizing the oral cavities of asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals, and their relation to CD4 + counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Yeasts are important opportunistic pathogens, in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Yeast species inhabiting the oral mucosa of HIV-infected persons can act as source of oral lesions, especially as the individual progresses towards immunocompromised state. Present study was conducted to evaluate the diversity of yeasts in oral cavities of asymptomatic HIV-infected persons and their association with CD4 + cell counts. Materials and Methods: 100 HIV seropositive subjects and 100 healthy controls were screened for oral yeast carriage using standard procedures. Results: Of the 100 HIV-seropositive persons screened, 48 were colonized by different yeasts, either alone or in association with another species. Candida albicans was the most common species (56.90% while non C. albicans Candida (NCAC accounted for 39.65%. Among NCAC, Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei were most common. One isolate each of rare opportunistic pathogenic yeasts, Geotrichum candidum and Saccharomyces cereviseae, was recovered. The control group had an oral candidal carriage rate of 23%; C. albicans was the predominant species, followed by Candida glabrata, C. tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed no resistance in C. albicans, to the commonly used antifungal agents, whereas resistance or dose dependent susceptibility to fluconazole was observed in some of the NCAC species. Conclusion: Oral carriage of opportunistic pathogenic yeasts was greater in HIV-seropositive persons heading towards immunocompromised state, as evidenced by their CD4 + cell count. The predominant yeast isolated in this study (C. albicans, was found to be susceptible to commonly used antifungals.

  20. Development of a Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay for the Detection of Treponema pallidum, HCV, HIV-1, and HBV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Gong, Rui; Lu, Xuan; Zhang, Yi; Tang, Jingfeng

    2015-01-01

    Treponema pallidum, hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases passed through blood contact. The development of a sensitive and efficient method for detection is critical for early diagnosis and for large-scale screening of blood specimens in China. This study aims to establish an assay to detect these pathogens in clinical serum specimens. We established a TaqMan-locked nucleic acid (LNA) real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for rapid, sensitive, specific, quantitative, and simultaneous detection and identification. The copy numbers of standards of these 4 pathogens were quantified. Standard curves were generated by determining the mean cycle threshold values versus 10-fold serial dilutions of standards over a range of 10(6) to 10(1) copies/μL, with the lowest detection limit of the assay being 10(1) copies/μL. The assay was applied to 328 clinical specimens and compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and commercial nucleic acid testing (NAT) methods. The assay identified 39 T. pallidum-, 96 HCV-, 13 HIV-1-, 123 HBV-, 5 HBV/HCV-, 1 T. pallidum/HBV-, 1 HIV-1/HCV-, and 1 HIV-1/T. pallidum-positive specimens. The high sensitivity of the assay confers strong potential for its use as a highly reliable, cost-effective, and useful molecular diagnostic tool for large-scale screening of clinical specimens. This assay will assist in the study of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of sexually transmitted blood diseases.

  1. The Tp0684 (MglB-2) Lipoprotein of Treponema pallidum: A Glucose-Binding Protein with Divergent Topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brautigam, Chad A; Deka, Ranjit K; Liu, Wei Z; Norgard, Michael V

    2016-01-01

    Treponema pallidum, the bacterium that causes syphilis, is an obligate human parasite. As such, it must acquire energy, in the form of carbon sources, from the host. There is ample evidence that the principal source of energy for this spirochete is D-glucose acquired from its environment, likely via an ABC transporter. Further, there is genetic evidence of a D-glucose chemotaxis system in T. pallidum. Both of these processes may be dependent on a single lipidated chemoreceptor: Tp0684, also called TpMglB-2 for its sequence homology to MglB of Escherichia coli. To broaden our understanding of this potentially vital protein, we determined a 2.05-Å X-ray crystal structure of a soluble form of the recombinant protein. Like its namesake, TpMglB-2 adopts a bilobed fold that is similar to that of the ligand-binding proteins (LBPs) of other ABC transporters. However, the protein has an unusual, circularly permuted topology. This feature prompted a series of biophysical studies that examined whether the protein's topological distinctiveness affected its putative chemoreceptor functions. Differential scanning fluorimetry and isothermal titration calorimetry were used to confirm that the protein bound D-glucose in a cleft between its two lobes. Additionally, analytical ultracentrifugation was employed to reveal that D-glucose binding is accompanied by a significant conformational change. TpMglB-2 thus appears to be fully functional in vitro, and given the probable central importance of the protein to T. pallidum's physiology, our results have implications for the viability and pathogenicity of this obligate human pathogen.

  2. Frequency of periodontal pathogens and Helicobacter pylori in the mouths and stomachs of obese individuals submitted to bariatric surgery: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    PATARO, André Luiz; CORTELLI, Sheila Cavalca; ABREU, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães; CORTELLI, José Roberto; FRANCO, Gilson Cesar Nobre; AQUINO, Davi Romeiro; COTA, Luis Otavio Miranda; COSTA, Fernando Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives This cross-sectional study compared the frequency of oral periodontopathogens and H. pylori in the mouths and stomachs of obese individuals with or without periodontitis submitted to bariatric surgery. Material and Methods One hundred and fifty-four men and women aged 18-65 were conveniently distributed into four groups. Two groups were composed of individuals who underwent bariatric surgery with (BP) (n=40) and without (BNP) (n=39) periodontitis and two obese control groups with (CP) (n=35) and without (CNP) (n=40) periodontitis. The oral pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Parvimonas micra, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, Campylobacter rectus, and Helicobacter pylori were detected by a polymerase chain reaction technique using saliva, tongue and stomach biopsy samples. Results Statistical analysis demonstrated that periodontopathogens were highly frequent in the mouth (up to 91.4%). In the bariatric surgically treated group, orally, P. gingivalis, T. denticola and T. forsythia were more frequent in periodontitis, while C. rectus was more frequent in non-periodontitis subjects. Stomach biopsies also revealed the high frequency of five oral species in both candidates for bariatric surgery (91.6%) and the bariatric (83.3%) groups. H. pylori was frequently detected in the mouth (50.0%) and stomach (83.3%). In the stomach, oral species and H. pylori appeared in lower frequency in the bariatric group. Conclusions Obese individuals showed high frequencies of periodontopathogens and H. pylori in their mouths and stomachs. Bariatric surgery showed an inverse microbial effect on oral and stomach environments by revealing higher oral and lower stomach bacterial frequencies. PMID:27383704

  3. Frequency of periodontal pathogens and Helicobacter pylori in the mouths and stomachs of obese individuals submitted to bariatric surgery: a cross-sectional study

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    André Luiz PATARO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives This cross-sectional study compared the frequency of oral periodontopathogens and H. pylori in the mouths and stomachs of obese individuals with or without periodontitis submitted to bariatric surgery. Material and Methods One hundred and fifty-four men and women aged 18-65 were conveniently distributed into four groups. Two groups were composed of individuals who underwent bariatric surgery with (BP (n=40 and without (BNP (n=39 periodontitis and two obese control groups with (CP (n=35 and without (CNP (n=40 periodontitis. The oral pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Parvimonas micra, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, Campylobacter rectus, and Helicobacter pylori were detected by a polymerase chain reaction technique using saliva, tongue and stomach biopsy samples. Results Statistical analysis demonstrated that periodontopathogens were highly frequent in the mouth (up to 91.4%. In the bariatric surgically treated group, orally, P. gingivalis, T. denticola and T. forsythia were more frequent in periodontitis, while C. rectus was more frequent in non-periodontitis subjects. Stomach biopsies also revealed the high frequency of five oral species in both candidates for bariatric surgery (91.6% and the bariatric (83.3% groups. H. pylori was frequently detected in the mouth (50.0% and stomach (83.3%. In the stomach, oral species and H. pylori appeared in lower frequency in the bariatric group. Conclusions Obese individuals showed high frequencies of periodontopathogens and H. pylori in their mouths and stomachs. Bariatric surgery showed an inverse microbial effect on oral and stomach environments by revealing higher oral and lower stomach bacterial frequencies.

  4. The influence of orthodontic fixed appliances on the oral microbiota: A systematic review

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    Amanda Osório Ayres de Freitas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate whether there is scientific evidence to support the hypothesis that the presence of orthodontic fixed appliances influences the oral microbiota. Methods: The search for articles was conducted in PubMed; ISI Web of Knowledge and Ovid databases, including articles published in English until May 17th, 2012. They should report human observational studies presenting the following keywords: "fixed orthodontic appliance" AND "microbiological colonization"; OR "periodontal pathogens"; OR "Streptococcus"; OR "Lactobacillus"; OR "Candida"; OR "Tannerella forsythia"; OR "Treponema denticola"; OR "Fusobacterium nucleatum"; OR "Actimomyces actinomycetemcomitans"; OR "Prevotella intermedia", OR "Prevotella nigrescens"; OR "Porphyromonas gingivalis". Articles were previously selected by title and abstract. Articles that met the inclusion criteria were analyzed and classified as having low, moderate or high methodology quality. A new detailed checklist for quality assessment was developed based on the information required for applicable data extraction for reviews. The study design, sample, follow-up period, collection and microbial analysis methods, statistical treatment, results and discussion were assessed. Results: The initial search retrieved 305 articles of which 33 articles were selected by title and abstract. After full-text reading, 8 articles met the inclusion criteria, out of which 4 articles were classified as having low and 4 as moderate methodological quality. The moderate methodological quality studies were included in the systematic review. Conclusions: The literature revealed moderate evidence that the presence of fixed appliances influences the quantity and quality of oral microbiota.

  5. Antibacterial activity of Tribulus terrestris and its synergistic effect with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra against oral pathogens: an in-vitro study

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    Saman Soleimanpour

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, antimicrobial activities of an ethanol extract of Tribulus terrestris aloneand in combination with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra were examined in vitro against six pathogens namely Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Actinomyces viscosus, Enterococcus faecalis Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Materials and methods: Antibacterial activities of the extracts were examined using disc and well diffusion methods and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of ethanol extracts were determined against these microorganisms using agar and broth dilution methods. Chlorhexidine was used as positive control. Results: Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited good antibacterial activity against all bacteria. Antibacterial activity of mixed extract was evaluated and exhibited that mixed extract was more effective against all bacteria than any of the cases alone which indicates the synergistic effect between these three extracts (p˂0.05. No strain showed resistance against these extracts. In agar dilution, Tribulus terrestris exhibited MIC values ranging from 35.0 to 20.0 mg/ml and mixed extract showed MIC values ranging from 12.5 to 5.0 mg/ml. The results of broth dilution method were consistent with the findings of the agar dilution method. Conclusion: This in-vitro study was a preliminary evaluation of antibacterial activity of the plants. It provided scientific evidence to support uses of T. terrestris and its mixture with C. bursa-pastoris and G. glabra for the treatment of oral infections. In-vivo studies are also required to better evaluate the effect of these extracts.

  6. Cellular metabolic network analysis: discovering important reactions in Treponema pallidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueying; Zhao, Min; Qu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    T. pallidum, the syphilis-causing pathogen, performs very differently in metabolism compared with other bacterial pathogens. The desire for safe and effective vaccine of syphilis requests identification of important steps in T. pallidum's metabolism. Here, we apply Flux Balance Analysis to represent the reactions quantitatively. Thus, it is possible to cluster all reactions in T. pallidum. By calculating minimal cut sets and analyzing topological structure for the metabolic network of T. pallidum, critical reactions are identified. As a comparison, we also apply the analytical approaches to the metabolic network of H. pylori to find coregulated drug targets and unique drug targets for different microorganisms. Based on the clustering results, all reactions are further classified into various roles. Therefore, the general picture of their metabolic network is obtained and two types of reactions, both of which are involved in nucleic acid metabolism, are found to be essential for T. pallidum. It is also discovered that both hubs of reactions and the isolated reactions in purine and pyrimidine metabolisms play important roles in T. pallidum. These reactions could be potential drug targets for treating syphilis.

  7. [The effect of spermicides on physiological and pathogenic genital flora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, J; Poitschek, C; Kopp, W

    1983-05-31

    In vitro-studies concerning the influence of commercially available spermicides on lactobacillus acidophilus as well as on pathogenic organisms of the genital tract revealed, that the preparations had only weak antimicrobial effect on Döderlein's bacteria and pathogenic fungi. However, all four preparations tested, revealed a good inhibition effect on neisseria gonorrhoeae, treponema pallidum and trichomonas vaginalis. Irreversible damage to gonococci and trichomonas vaginalis. Irreversible damage to gonococci and trichomonas was subject to considerable variation, probably due to the different chemical composition of the commercially in Austria available spermicides.

  8. 梅毒螺旋体膜蛋白研究进展%Advances in treponema pallidum membrane protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琼(综述); 刘双全; 张秋桂(审校)

    2013-01-01

    梅毒螺旋体苍白亚种( Tp)引起的梅毒是一种严重危害人类健康的慢性性传播性疾病,其发病具有多阶段、进行性的特点。由于Tp尚不能体外培养,抗原获取困难,其致病机制研究尚不清楚。随着Tp全基因序列的解析,重组Tp膜蛋白的成功表达及蛋白功能结构日益明确,为Tp发病机制的研究及疫苗的研制奠定了良好的基础。对于Tp主要外膜蛋白的结构、功能研究进展进行了综述。%Syphilis is a serious sexually transmitted disease , caused by treponema pallidum subsp.Pallidum ( T.palli-dum) , with the disease characteristics of multistage and progressive .As T.pallidum cannot be cultured in vitro , it is really hard to acquire its antigen and thus its pathogenic mechanism is still unclear .With the publication of T.pallidum gene se-quence , the successful expression of membrane protein and more understanding of the function and structure of T.pallidum protein, it has laid a good foundation for the research of T.pallidum pathogenesis , as well as the development of vaccine . This review attempts to give an overview about the structure and function of T.pallidum membrane protein .

  9. The general transition metal (Tro) and Zn2+ (Znu) transporters in Treponema pallidum: analysis of metal specificities and expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Daniel C; Sun, Yong Cheng; Zaidi, Akbar A; Eggers, Christian H; Cox, David L; Radolf, Justin D

    2007-07-01

    Acquisition of transition metals is central to the struggle between a bacterial pathogen and its mammalian host. Previous studies demonstrated that Treponema pallidum encodes a cluster-9 (C9) ABC transporter (troABCD) whose solute-binding protein component (TroA) ligands Zn(2+) and Mn(2+) with essentially equal affinities. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that T. pallidum encodes an additional C9 transporter (tp0034-36) orthologous to Zn(2+)-uptake (Znu) systems in other bacteria; the binding protein component, ZnuA, contains a His-rich tract characteristic of C9 Zn(2+)-binding proteins. Metal analysis and metal-reconstitution studies demonstrated that ZnuA is a Zn(2+)-binding protein; parallel studies confirmed that TroA binds Zn(2+), Mn(2+) and Fe. Circular dichroism showed that ZnuA, but not TroA, undergoes conformational changes in the presence of Zn(2+). Using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), we demonstrated that TroA binds Zn(2+) and Mn(2+) with affinities approximately 100-fold greater than those previously reported. ITC analysis revealed that ZnuA contains multiple Zn(2+)-binding sites, two of which are high-affinity and presumed to be located within the binding pocket and His-rich loop. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of tro and znu transcripts combined with immunoblot analysis of TroA and ZnuA confirmed that both transporters are simultaneously expressed in T. pallidum and that TroA is expressed at much greater levels than ZnuA. Collectively, our findings indicate that T. pallidum procures transition metals via the concerted utilization of its general metal (Tro) and Zn(2+) (Znu) transporters. Sequestration of periplasmic Zn(2+) by ZnuA may free up TroA binding capacity for the importation of Fe and Mn(2+).

  10. Molecular analysis of Filifactor alocis, Tannerella forsythia, and treponema denticola associated with primary endodontic infections and failed endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Brenda P F A; Jacinto, Rogério C; Pinheiro, Ericka T; Sousa, Ezilmara L R; Zaia, Alexandre A; Ferraz, Caio C R; Souza-Filho, Francisco J

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of strict anaerobes such as Filifactor alocis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola in primary and secondary root-infected canals with periapical lesions by molecular analysis and the association of these species with specific endodontic signs and symptoms. Microbial samples were taken from 100 root canals, 50 with necrotic pulp tissues (NPT, primary infection), and 50 with failed endodontic treatment (FET, secondary infection). DNA was extracted from the samples, which were analyzed for the presence of three endodontic pathogens using species-specific primers and PCR. F. alocis were isolated from 23 canals with NPT and 12 canals with FET; T. forsythia from 12 canals with NPT and three canals with FET; T. denticola from 19 canals with NPT and 12 canals with TEP. Suggested associations were found between primary infection and the presence of F. alocis and T. forsythia (both p < 0.05). In particular, associations were found between: pain and F. alocis; swelling and F. alocis; tenderness to percussion and T. forsythia; mobility and T. forsythia and T. denticola; wet canals and F. alocis, T. forsythia, and T. denticola; purulent exsudate and F. alocis, T. forsythia and T. denticola; abscess and F. alocis, T. forsythia, and T. denticola (all p < 0.05). The findings of this study indicated that F. alocis, T. forsythia, and T. denticola seem to be associated with endodontic signs and symptoms. Additionally, F. alocis and T. forsythia were detected more frequently in teeth with necrotic pulp than in teeth with failing endodontic treatment.

  11. Differentiation of oral bacteria in in vitro cultures and human saliva by secondary electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregy, Lukas; Müggler, Annick R.; Martinez-Lozano Sinues, Pablo; García-Gómez, Diego; Suter, Yannick; Belibasakis, Georgios N.; Kohler, Malcolm; Schmidlin, Patrick R.; Zenobi, Renato

    2015-10-01

    The detection of bacterial-specific volatile metabolites may be a valuable tool to predict infection. Here we applied a real-time mass spectrometric technique to investigate differences in volatile metabolic profiles of oral bacteria that cause periodontitis. We coupled a secondary electrospray ionization (SESI) source to a commercial high-resolution mass spectrometer to interrogate the headspace from bacterial cultures and human saliva. We identified 120 potential markers characteristic for periodontal pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (n = 13), Porphyromonas gingivalis (n = 70), Tanerella forsythia (n = 30) and Treponema denticola (n = 7) in in vitro cultures. In a second proof-of-principle phase, we found 18 (P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and T. denticola) of the 120 in vitro compounds in the saliva from a periodontitis patient with confirmed infection with P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and T. denticola with enhanced ion intensity compared to two healthy controls. In conclusion, this method has the ability to identify individual metabolites of microbial pathogens in a complex medium such as saliva.

  12. Orally administered Lactobacillus rhamnosus modulates the respiratory immune response triggered by the viral pathogen-associated molecular pattern poly(I:C

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    Villena Julio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies have shown that probiotics, including Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505, had the potential to beneficially modulate the outcome of certain bacterial and viral respiratory infections. However, these studies did not determine the mechanism(s by which probiotics contribute to host defense against respiratory viruses. Results In this work we demonstrated that orally administered Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 (Lr1505 was able to increase the levels of IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-6 in the respiratory tract and the number of lung CD3+CD4+IFN-γ+ T cells. To mimic the pro-inflammatory and physiopathological consecuences of RNA viral infections in the lung, we used an experimental model of lung inflammation based on the administration of the artificial viral pathogen-associated molecular pattern poly(I:C. Nasal administration of poly(I:C to mice induced a marked impairment of lung function that was accompanied by the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and inflammatory cell recruitment into the airways. The preventive administration of Lr1505 reduced lung injuries and the production of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 in the respiratory tract after the challenge with poly(I:C. Moreover, Lr1505 induced a significant increase in lung and serum IL-10. We also observed that Lr1505 was able to increase respiratory IFN-γ levels and the number of lung CD3+CD4+IFN-γ+ T cells after poly(I:C challenge. Moreover, higher numbers of both CD103+ and CD11bhigh dendritic cells and increased expression of MHC-II, IL-12 and IFN-γ in these cell populations were found in lungs of Lr1505-treated mice. Therefore, Lr1505 treatment would beneficially regulate the balance between pro-inflammatory mediators and IL-10, allowing an effective inflammatory response against infection and avoiding tissue damage. Conclusions Results showed that Lr1505 would induce a mobilization of cells from intestine and changes in cytokine profile that would be able to

  13. Association between polycystic ovary syndrome, oral microbiota and systemic antibody responses.

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    Aliye Akcalı

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a hormonal disorder of women that not only is the leading cause of infertility but also shows a reciprocal link with oral health. This study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that the levels of putative periodontal pathogens in saliva and their antibody response in serum are elevated in PCOS, compared to systemic health. A total of 125 women were included in four groups; 45 women with PCOS and healthy periodontium, 35 women with PCOS and gingivitis, 25 systemically and periodontally healthy women, 20 systemically healthy women with gingivitis. Salivary levels of seven putative periodontal pathogens were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and serum antibody levels were analyzed by ELISA. In women with PCOS, salivary Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus oralis and Tannerella forsythia levels were higher than matched systemically healthy women, particularly in the case of gingivitis. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Treponema denticola levels were similar among study groups. The presence of PCOS also enhanced P. gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and S. oralis serum antibody levels, when gingivitis was also present. Gingival inflammation correlated positively with levels of the studied taxa in saliva, particularly in PCOS. The presence of P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum in saliva also exhibited a strong positive correlation with the corresponding serum antibody levels. In conclusion, as an underlying systemic endocrine condition, PCOS may quantitatively affect the composition of oral microbiota and the raised systemic response to selective members of this microbial community, exerting a confounding role in resultant gingival inflammation and periodontal health. The most consistent effect appeared to be exerted on P. gingivalis.

  14. Evaluation of the HISCL Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay as a Screening Test for Syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jingna; Chen, Qixia; Liu, Qianqian; Rao, Chenli; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Tingting; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lanlan

    2015-07-01

    The resurgence of syphilis in recent years has become a serious threat to public health worldwide, and the serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum remains the most reliable method for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis. This study examined the performance of the recently launched HISCL anti-Treponema pallidum (anti-TP) assay as a screening test for syphilis in a high-volume laboratory. The HISCL anti-TP assay was tested in 300 preselected syphilis-positive samples, 704 fresh syphilis-negative samples, 48 preselected potentially interfering samples, and 30 "borderline" samples and was compared head to head with the commercially available Lumipulse G TP-N. In this study, the HISCL anti-TP assay was in perfect agreement with the applied testing algorithms with an overall agreement of 100%, comparable to that of Lumipulse G TP-N (99.63%). The sensitivity and specificity of the HISCL anti-TP assay were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 98.42% to 100%) and 100% (95% CI, 99.37% to 100%), respectively. Considering the excellent ease of use and automation, high throughput, and its favorable sensitivity and specificity, the HISCL anti-TP assay may represent a new choice for syphilis screening in high-volume laboratories.

  15. Genome sequence of the thermophilic fresh-water bacterium Spirochaeta caldaria type strain (H1T), reclassification of Spirochaeta caldaria, Spirochaeta stenostrepta, and Spirochaeta zuelzerae in the genus Treponema as Treponema caldaria comb. nov., Treponema stenostrepta comb. nov., and Treponema zuelzerae comb. nov., and emendation of the genus Tr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abt, Birte [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Scheuner, Carmen [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lu, Megan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Misra, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Gronow, Sabine [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany

    2013-01-01

    Spirochaeta caldaria Pohlschroeder et al. 1995 is an obligately anaerobic, spiral-shaped bac- terium that is motile via periplasmic flagella. The type strain, H1T, was isolated in 1990 from cyanobacterial mat samples collected at a freshwater hot spring in Oregon, USA, and is of in- terest because it enhances the degradation of cellulose when grown in co-culture with Clos- tridium thermocellum. Here we provide a taxonomic re-evaluation for S. caldaria based on phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA sequences and whole genomes, and propose the reclassi- fication of S. caldaria and two other Spirochaeta species as members of the emended genus Treponema. Whereas genera such as Borrelia and Sphaerochaeta possess well-distinguished genomic features related to their divergent lifestyles, the physiological and functional ge- nomic characteristics of Spirochaeta and Treponema appear to be intermixed and are of little taxonomic value. The 3,239,340 bp long genome of strain H1T with its 2,869 protein-coding and 59 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  16. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections

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    Saini Rajiv

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.

  17. BANA-Positive Plaque Samples Are Associated with Oral Hygiene Practices and Not CD4+ T Cell Counts in HIV-Positive Patients

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    Cathy Nisha John

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The “red complex” microorganisms, namely, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia are considered as potential pathogens causing HIV-associated periodontal diseases. Moreover, it has been recognized that an association exists between CD4+ T cell counts and periodontal disease progression. Objective. To establish whether CD4+ T cell counts or oral hygiene plays a greater role in producing BANA-positive results in HIV-associated periodontal disease. Materials and Methods. One hundred and twenty HIV-positive patients participated in the study, and their CD4+ T cell counts were obtained from their medical records. The six Ramfjord teeth were used for evaluating periodontal clinical indices and subgingival plaque sampling. BANA test was used for the detection and prevalence of the “red complex” bacteria in plaque samples. Results. A majority of 69.17% HIV-positive patients were BANA-positive. No significant associations were found between BANA and CD4+ T cell counts. A highly significant association was found between BANA with probing depth and clinical attachment level (P≤0.0001 and between BANA and the use of interdental aids (P=0.0168. Conclusion. HIV-associated periodontal diseases are strongly related to oral hygiene practices rather than the effect of CD4+ T cell counts, and the use of interdental aids was marked as a significant predictor of BANA-negative plaque samples.

  18. Assessment of the immune responses to Treponema pallidum Gpd DNA vaccine adjuvanted with IL-2 and chitosan nanoparticles before and after Treponema pallidum challenge in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feijun; Zhang, Xiaohong; Liu, Shuangquan; Zeng, Tiebing; Yu, Jian; Gu, Weiming; Zhang, Yuejun; Chen, Xi; Wu, Yimou

    2013-02-01

    Syphilis is a multistage, sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochete, Treponema pallidum (Tp). A significantly high incidence of syphilis has been reported in several countries, including China, and there is an urgent need for the development of efficacious vaccines against syphilis. DNA vaccines are a major breakthrough in the field of vaccination with several advantages over traditional vaccines. Animal model studies of Tp DNA vaccines have not been reported elsewhere but our previous reports describe the development of a single-gene Tp DNA vaccine and preclinical immunization study. In this study, chitosan (CS) nanoparticles were used as a vector and an interleukin-2 expression plasmid (pIL-2) as an adjuvant to enhance a TpGpd DNA vaccine candidate (pTpGpd) in a rabbit Tp skin challenge model. At week 8 after the first immunization, three rabbits from each group were used to determine cytokine measurements and spleen lymphocyte proliferation assay. pTpGpd in combination with pIL-2 wrapped with CS led to the greatest enhancement of anti-TpGpd antibodies and T-cell proliferation. During infection, levels of anti-TpGpd antibodies and T-cell proliferation were measured. Both the serum special IgG and IL-2, interferon-γ were significantly increased by the co-injection of the IL-2 plasmid compared with the injection of TpGpd DNA alone (Ppallidum spirochetes infection and attenuate syphilitic lesion development.

  19. Insights into the potential function and membrane organization of the TP0435 (Tp17) lipoprotein from Treponema pallidum derived from structural and biophysical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brautigam, Chad A; Deka, Ranjit K; Liu, Wei Z; Norgard, Michael V

    2015-01-01

    The sexually transmitted disease syphilis is caused by the bacterial spirochete Treponema pallidum. This microorganism is genetically intractable, accounting for the large number of putative and undercharacterized members of the pathogen's proteome. In an effort to ascribe a function(s) to the TP0435 (Tp17) lipoprotein, we engineered a soluble variant of the protein (rTP0435) and determined its crystal structure at a resolution of 2.42 Å. The structure is characterized by an eight-stranded β-barrel protein with a shallow "basin" at one end of the barrel and an α-helix stacked on the opposite end. Furthermore, there is a disulfide-linked dimer of the protein in the asymmetric unit of the crystals. Solution hydrodynamic experiments established that purified rTP0435 is monomeric, but specifically forms the disulfide-stabilized dimer observed in the crystal structure. The data herein, when considered with previous work on TP0435, imply plausible roles for the protein in either ligand binding, treponemal membrane architecture, and/or pathogenesis.

  20. MyD88 deficiency markedly worsens tissue inflammation and bacterial clearance in mice infected with Treponema pallidum, the agent of syphilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C Silver

    Full Text Available Research on syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the non-cultivatable spirochete Treponema pallidum, has been hampered by the lack of an inbred animal model. We hypothesized that Toll-like receptor (TLR-dependent responses are essential for clearance of T. pallidum and, consequently, compared infection in wild-type (WT mice and animals lacking MyD88, the adaptor molecule required for signaling by most TLRs. MyD88-deficient mice had significantly higher pathogen burdens and more extensive inflammation than control animals. Whereas tissue infiltrates in WT mice consisted of mixed mononuclear and plasma cells, infiltrates in MyD88-deficient animals were predominantly neutrophilic. Although both WT and MyD88-deficient mice produced antibodies that promoted uptake of treponemes by WT macrophages, MyD88-deficient macrophages were deficient in opsonophagocytosis of treponemes. Our results demonstrate that TLR-mediated responses are major contributors to the resistance of mice to syphilitic disease and that MyD88 signaling and FcR-mediated opsonophagocytosis are linked to the macrophage-mediated clearance of treponemes.

  1. Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay seroreactivity among healthy Indian donors and its association with other transfusion transmitted diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Pahuja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of syphilis infection by Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA among blood donors in Delhi and to study their correlation with other markers of transfusion transmitted infections such as hepatitis C virus (HCV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg so as to establish the utility of TPHA over and above venereal diseases research laboratory test (VDRL, not only as a marker for testing T. pallidum infection, but also as a marker of high risk behavior. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in the Regional Blood Transfusion Centre, Lady Hardinge Medical College and associated Sucheta Kriplani Hospital, New Delhi for a period of 2 years. Donated blood was screened for TPHA seroreactivity along with screening for anti HIV I and II, anti-HCV, HBsAg by third generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. A total of 8082 serum samples of blood donors were collected from healthy blood donors in our blood bank. They were classified into two groups- test group and control group based on TPHA positivity. The co-occurrence of HBsAg, HIV and HCV infection were determined in TPHA positive blood donors (test group in comparison with TPHA negative blood donors (control group. Results: We found the TPHA seroreactivity to be 4.4% in Delhi′s blood donors. Nearly 8.2% (663/8082 of the donated blood had serological evidence of infection by at least one pathogen (syphilis/HIV/hepatitis B virus/HCV and 6.63% (44/663 donors with positive serology had multiple infections (two or more. Quadruple infection was seen in one donor, triple infection was seen in three donors and double infection was seen in 40 donors. Prevalence of HIV seroreactivity was found to be statistically significant and HCV seroreactivity statistically insignificant in TPHA positive group in comparison to TPHA negative group. Discussion: In our study, the

  2. Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay seroreactivity among healthy Indian donors and its association with other transfusion transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahuja, Sangeeta; Gupta, Santosh Kumar; Pujani, Mukta; Jain, Manjula

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of syphilis infection by Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA) among blood donors in Delhi and to study their correlation with other markers of transfusion transmitted infections such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) so as to establish the utility of TPHA over and above venereal diseases research laboratory test (VDRL), not only as a marker for testing T. pallidum infection, but also as a marker of high risk behavior. This prospective study was carried out in the Regional Blood Transfusion Centre, Lady Hardinge Medical College and associated Sucheta Kriplani Hospital, New Delhi for a period of 2 years. Donated blood was screened for TPHA seroreactivity along with screening for anti HIV I and II, anti-HCV, HBsAg by third generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. A total of 8082 serum samples of blood donors were collected from healthy blood donors in our blood bank. They were classified into two groups- test group and control group based on TPHA positivity. The co-occurrence of HBsAg, HIV and HCV infection were determined in TPHA positive blood donors (test group) in comparison with TPHA negative blood donors (control group). We found the TPHA seroreactivity to be 4.4% in Delhi's blood donors. Nearly 8.2% (663/8082) of the donated blood had serological evidence of infection by at least one pathogen (syphilis/HIV/hepatitis B virus/HCV) and 6.63% (44/663) donors with positive serology had multiple infections (two or more). Quadruple infection was seen in one donor, triple infection was seen in three donors and double infection was seen in 40 donors. Prevalence of HIV seroreactivity was found to be statistically significant and HCV seroreactivity statistically insignificant in TPHA positive group in comparison to TPHA negative group. In our study, the TPHA seropositivity correlated with higher HIV and HCV seropositivity

  3. Comparison of subgingival bacterial sampling with oral lavage for detection and quantification of periodontal pathogens by real-time polymerase chain reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutaga, Khalil; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.; Winkel, Edwin G.; van Winkelhoff, Arie J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Saliva has been studied for the presence of subgingival pathogens in periodontitis patients. With the anaerobic culture technique, the discrepancy between salivary recovery and subgingival presence has been significant, which makes this approach not suitable for practical use in the micr

  4. Comparison of subgingival bacterial sampling with oral lavage for detection and quantification of periodontal pathogens by real-time polymerase chain reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutaga, Khalil; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.; Winkel, Edwin G.; van Winkelhoff, Arie J.

    Background: Saliva has been studied for the presence of subgingival pathogens in periodontitis patients. With the anaerobic culture technique, the discrepancy between salivary recovery and subgingival presence has been significant, which makes this approach not suitable for practical use in the

  5. [Macrolide resistance in Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum in the Czech Republic and in other countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillová, L; Mikalová, L; Zákoucká, H; Židlická, J; Šmajs, D

    2015-03-01

    Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA) is the causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease syphilis. In the Czech Republic, several hundred cases of syphilis are reported annually; e.g. in 2012, 696 syphilis cases were documented. In the last decades, an increasing prevalence of macrolide resistant TPA strains harboring A2058G or A2059G mutations in the 23S rRNA gene has been reported. Macrolides were used (and rarely are still being used) in the Czech Republic for the treatment of syphilis in patients allergic to penicillin. While 37% of TPA strains were resistant to macrolides between 2004 and 2010, this rate increased to 67% between 2011-2013. High prevalence of A2058G or A2059G mutations and increasing rates of macrolide resistant TPA strains have also been documented in other developed countries. Therefore, macrolides should not be used in the treatment of syphilis.

  6. Molecular Typing of Treponema pallidum in Denmark: A Nationwide Study of Syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Cowan, Susan; Gerstoft, Jan; Larsen, Helle Kiellberg; Hoffmann, Steen; Knudsen, Troels Bygum; Katzenstein, Terese Lea; Jensen, Jørgen Skov

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this nationwide study is to determine the strain type diversity among patients diagnosed with syphilis by PCR during a 4-year period in Denmark. Epidemiological data, including HIV status, for all patients were obtained from the Danish national syphilis registration system. Molecular strain typing was based on characterization of 3 variable treponemal genes, arp, tpr and tp0548. A total of 278 specimens from 269 patients were included. Among the fully typeable specimens (n = 197), 22 strain types were identified, with 1 type, 14d/g, accounting for 54%. The majority (93%) of the patients reported acquiring syphilis in Denmark. Among patients with concurrent HIV, 9 full strain types were identified and no difference in strain type was found by HIV status (p = 0.197). In conclusion, the majority of patients were infected in Denmark and the HIV-infected syphilis patients were diagnosed with a wide spectrum of different strain types of Treponema pallidum.

  7. Yaws: 110 years after Castellani's discovery of Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Lola V

    2015-07-01

    Yaws is a neglected infectious disease that affects mostly children and adolescents living in poor, rural communities in humid, tropical areas of Africa, southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. The etiological agent of yaws, Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue (T. pertenue), was discovered by Aldo Castellani in 1905 shortly after Schaudinn and Hoffmann discovered the etiological agent of syphilis, T. pallidum subspecies pallidum. The discovery of T. pertenue enabled the development of animal models and the identification of an effective antibiotic treatment (i.e., penicillin) for yaws. A World Health Organization (WHO) mass treatment campaign from 1952 to 1964 reduced the global burden of yaws by 95%, but failed to eradicate this disease. Today, 110 years after Castellani's discovery of T. pertenue, yaws is again targeted for eradication. Recent advances in the treatment and diagnosis of yaws improve the likelihood of success this time. However, several challenges must be overcome to make the goal of yaws eradication attainable.

  8. A defined syphilis vaccine candidate inhibits dissemination of Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithgow, Karen V.; Hof, Rebecca; Wetherell, Charmaine; Phillips, Drew; Houston, Simon; Cameron, Caroline E.

    2017-01-01

    Syphilis is a prominent disease in low- and middle-income countries, and a re-emerging public health threat in high-income countries. Syphilis elimination will require development of an effective vaccine that has thus far remained elusive. Here we assess the vaccine potential of Tp0751, a vascular adhesin from the causative agent of syphilis, Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum. Tp0751-immunized animals exhibit a significantly reduced bacterial organ burden upon T. pallidum challenge compared with unimmunized animals. Introduction of lymph nodes from Tp0751-immunized, T. pallidum-challenged animals to naive animals fails to induce infection, confirming sterile protection. These findings provide evidence that Tp0751 is a promising syphilis vaccine candidate. PMID:28145405

  9. Reduced Treponema pallidum–Specific Opsonic Antibody Activity in HIV-Infected Patients With Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Christina M.; Tantalo, Lauren C.; Sahi, Sharon K.; Dunaway, Shelia B.; Lukehart, Sheila A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected individuals may have poorer serological responses to syphilis treatment and may be more likely to experience neurosyphilis. Treponema pallidum is cleared from sites of infection by opsonization, ingestion, and killing by macrophages. Methods. Serum samples from 235 individuals with syphilis were tested for T. pallidum–specific opsonic activity. Blood T. pallidum concentrations were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification of the tp0574 gene, and T. pallidum was detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction of 16S ribosomal RNA. Results. Opsonic activity was higher with higher serum rapid plasma reagin titers (P VDRL reactivity. Conclusions. Serum T. pallidum–specific opsonic activity is significantly lower in HIV-infected individuals. Impaired T. pallidum–specific immune responses could contribute to differences in the course of disease or treatment response. PMID:26655298

  10. Failure of PCR to Detect Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue DNA in Blood in Latent Yaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Michael; Katz, Samantha; Chi, Kai-Hua; Vahi, Ventis; Sun, Yongcheng; Mabey, David C; Solomon, Anthony W; Chen, Cheng Y; Pillay, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is a neglected tropical disease closely related to venereal syphilis and is targeted for eradication by 2020. Latent yaws represents a diagnostic challenge, and current tools cannot adequately distinguish between individuals with true latent infection and individuals who are serofast following successful treatment. PCR on blood has previously been shown to detect T. pallidum DNA in patients with syphilis, suggesting that this approach may be of value in yaws. We performed real-time PCR for Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue on blood samples from 140 children with positive T. pallidum Particle Agglutination (TPPA) and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) tests and 7 controls (negative serology), all collected as part of a prospective study of yaws in the Solomon Islands. All samples were also tested by a nested PCR for T. pallidum. 12 patients had clinical evidence of active yaws whilst 128 were considered to have latent yaws. 43 children had high titre rapid plasma reagins (RPRs) of ≥1:32. PCR testing with both assays gave negative results in all cases. It is possible that the failure to detect T. pallidum ssp. pertenue in blood reflects lower loads of organism in latent yaws compared to those in latent infection with T. pallidum ssp. pertenue, and/or a lower propensity for haematogenous dissemination in yaws than in syphilis. As the goal of the yaws control programme is eradication, a tool that can differentiate true latent infection from individuals who are serofast would be of value; however, PCR of blood is not that tool.

  11. Molecular typing of Treponema pallidum: a 5-year surveillance in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ting; Li, Kang; Lu, Haikong; Gu, Xin; Wang, Qianqiu; Zhou, Pingyu

    2012-11-01

    Previously, a small study showed that 14f was the predominant subtype of Treponema pallidum in Shanghai, China. The result was quite different from the genotype distribution in other areas of China. This study aimed to identify the strain types of Treponema pallidum in samples collected over a 5-year period in Shanghai. From 2007 to 2011, genital swabs were collected from patients with syphilis from the Shanghai Skin Disease Hospital. Positive specimens were typed by the enhanced typing method by adding a tp0548 gene to the existing arp and tpr genotype system. In total, 304 of the 372 enrolled patients yielded fully typeable DNA. Ten arp types (4, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 19), 3 tpr types (a, d, and o), and 5 tp0548 types (a, c, f, g, and i) were identified. In total, 12 subtypes were identified with a combination of the arp and tpr genes. Subtype 14d was found in 270 samples (88.8%). When the combination included the tp0548 gene, the 12 CDC subtypes identified were divided into 14 strain types. The predominant type was 14d/f (88.8%), followed by 15d/f (3.6%), 13d/f (1.3%), and 19d/c (1.3%). Two of the 44 14d/f-infected patients and both of the 19d/c-infected patients who underwent a lumbar puncture were diagnosed with neurosyphilis. This study showed that the predominant type in Shanghai was 14d/f. While this is in keeping with data from other areas in China, it is different from an earlier report showing that 14f is the most common genotype in Shanghai. Further studies are needed to better understand the association between strain types and neurosyphilis.

  12. Survival of Treponema pallidum in banked blood for prevention of Syphilis transmission

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    Adeolu O Adegoke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Every year, millions of people are exposed to avoidable, life-threatening risks through the trans-fusion of unsafe blood. Aim : To determine the survival time of Treponema pallidum in banked donor blood. Material and Methods : Two groups of male Wistar rats (group A and B were inoculated intratesticularly with 0.5ml of artificially infected donor blood (final density of Nichols treponemes: 5x10 5 /ml stored at 4 o C for various periods of time. In group A, a pair each of the rats was injected every 12 hours, starting at 0 hr, up to a maximal storage time of 96 hr. In group B, the rats were injected after 72, 120, 192 and 336 hours of storage of the treponemes-blood mixture. Group C which is a control group was injected with blood only, while group D rats were injected with heat-killed treponemes suspended in blood every 12 hours. The detection of Treponema pallidum IgG/IgM was based on the principle of double antigen sandwich immunoassay, in which purified recombinant antigens are employed sufficiently to identify antibodies to Syphilis. The outcomes of interest included the proportion of Syphilis positive rats and the maximal survival hours of T. pallidum in banked blood. Results : 14 rats (77.8% out of the 18 rats that were involved in group A developed orchitis and positive serology up to 72 hours of storage time, p<0.05. 2 rats (25% in group B developed orchitis after 72hrs of storage time. All the 18 rats (100% in the control group C and D showed neither clinical nor serological changes. Conclusion : It was concluded that the survival time of T. pallidum in banked donor blood lies between 72-120hrs in this study. Regardless of blood banking temperature, T. pallidum and other transfusion transmissible infections should be screened for prior to allogeneic transfusion.

  13. Failure of PCR to Detect Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue DNA in Blood in Latent Yaws.

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    Michael Marks

    Full Text Available Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is a neglected tropical disease closely related to venereal syphilis and is targeted for eradication by 2020. Latent yaws represents a diagnostic challenge, and current tools cannot adequately distinguish between individuals with true latent infection and individuals who are serofast following successful treatment. PCR on blood has previously been shown to detect T. pallidum DNA in patients with syphilis, suggesting that this approach may be of value in yaws. We performed real-time PCR for Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue on blood samples from 140 children with positive T. pallidum Particle Agglutination (TPPA and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR tests and 7 controls (negative serology, all collected as part of a prospective study of yaws in the Solomon Islands. All samples were also tested by a nested PCR for T. pallidum. 12 patients had clinical evidence of active yaws whilst 128 were considered to have latent yaws. 43 children had high titre rapid plasma reagins (RPRs of ≥1:32. PCR testing with both assays gave negative results in all cases. It is possible that the failure to detect T. pallidum ssp. pertenue in blood reflects lower loads of organism in latent yaws compared to those in latent infection with T. pallidum ssp. pertenue, and/or a lower propensity for haematogenous dissemination in yaws than in syphilis. As the goal of the yaws control programme is eradication, a tool that can differentiate true latent infection from individuals who are serofast would be of value; however, PCR of blood is not that tool.

  14. Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum TP0136 protein is heterogeneous among isolates and binds cellular and plasma fibronectin via its NH2-terminal end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Wujian; Molini, Barbara J; Lukehart, Sheila A; Giacani, Lorenzo

    2015-03-01

    Adherence-mediated colonization plays an important role in pathogenesis of microbial infections, particularly those caused by extracellular pathogens responsible for systemic diseases, such as Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (T. pallidum), the agent of syphilis. Among T. pallidum adhesins, TP0136 is known to bind fibronectin (Fn), an important constituent of the host extracellular matrix. To deepen our understanding of the TP0136-Fn interaction dynamics, we used two naturally-occurring sequence variants of the TP0136 protein to investigate which region of the protein is responsible for Fn binding, and whether TP0136 would adhere to human cellular Fn in addition to plasma Fn and super Fn as previously reported. Fn binding assays were performed with recombinant proteins representing the two full-length TP0136 variants and their discrete regions. As a complementary approach, we tested inhibition of T. pallidum binding to Fn by recombinant full-length TP0136 proteins and fragments, as well as by anti-TP0136 immune sera. Our results show that TP0136 adheres more efficiently to cellular Fn than to plasma Fn, that the TP0136 NH2-terminal conserved region of the protein is primarily responsible for binding to plasma Fn but that binding sites for cellular Fn are also present in the protein's central and COOH-terminal regions. Additionally, message quantification studies show that tp0136 is highly transcribed during experimental infection, and that its message level increases in parallel to the host immune pressure on the pathogen, which suggests a possible role for this protein in T. pallidum persistence. In a time where syphilis incidence is high, our data will help in the quest to identify suitable targets for development of a much needed vaccine against this important disease.

  15. Analysis of pathogenic bacteria distribution and drug resistance in oral and maxillofacial infection%口腔颌面部间隙感染患者多药耐药菌分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐贤寅; 沈波; 林莉莉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the multi -drug resistant bacteria in oral and maxillofacial space infection , so as to provide the basis for the control of clinical infections .Methods A total of 51 cases of patients with oral and maxillofacial infection were selected , and a total 10 strains of the multi -drug resistant bacteria were detected .The antibiotic sus-ceptibility tests were carried out .The species and drug resistance of the bacteria were compared with that of the multi -drug resistant bacteria de-tected during the same period in our hospital .Statistical analysis of the data was carried out with the software SPSS 19.0.Results The main multi-drug resistant bacteria in oral and maxillofacial infection were gram-positive bacteria accounting for 80.00%, and gram -negative bacteria accounting for 20.00%.During the same period in our hospital , 1773 strains of multi-drug resistant bacteria were isolated .A total of 431 strains were gram -positive bacteria accounting for 24.31%, and 1342 strains were gram -negative bacteria accounting for 75.69%. The Staphylococcus aureus in oral and maxillofacial infection were highly resistant to penicillin, clindamycin and erythromycin.There was no signifi-cant difference in the drug resistance between pathogenic bacteria in oral and maxillofacial region and those in our hospital .Conclusion Gram positive bacteria were the main multi-drug resistant bacteria in oral and maxillofa-cial region infection.In the treatment, pathogenic bacteria detection and antibiotic susceptibility tests should be performed in time , so as to make the use of antibiotics more reasonably in clinic .%目的 观察口腔颌面部感染的多药耐药菌,为临床感染的控制提供相关的依据. 方法 口腔科共送检感染标本51例,检出多药耐药菌10株,与同期医院检出的多药耐药菌种类及耐药情况进行比较,用SPSS 19.0软件进行统计分析.结果 口腔颌面部感染的多药耐药菌10株,以革兰阳性菌为主(占80

  16. Isolation and characterization of Treponema phagedenis-like spirochetes from digital dermatitis lesions in Swedish dairy cattle

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    Höök Helena

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Digital dermatitis in cattle is an emerging infectious disease. Ulcerative lesions are typically located on the plantar skin between the heel bulbs and adjacent to the coronet. Spirochetes of the genus Treponema are found in high numbers in the lesions and are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to obtain pure cultures of spirochetes from cattle with digital dermatitis and to describe them further. Methods Tissue samples and swabs from active digital dermatitis lesions were used for culturing. Pure isolates were subjected to, molecular typing through 16S rRNA gene sequencing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and an intergenic spacer PCR developed for Treponema spp. as well as API-ZYM and antimicrobial susceptibility tests. The antimicrobial agents used were tiamulin, valnemulin, tylosin, aivlosin, lincomycin and doxycycline. Results Seven spirochete isolates from five herds were obtained. Both 16S rRNA gene sequences, which were identical except for three polymorphic nucleotide positions, and the intergenic spacer PCR indicated that all isolates were of one yet unnamed species, most closely related to Treponema phagedenis. The enzymatic profile and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern were also similar for all isolates. However it was possible to separate the isolates through their PFGE and RAPD banding pattern. Conclusion This is the first report on isolation of a Treponema sp. from cattle with digital dermatitis in Scandinavia. The phylotype isolated has previously been cultured from samples from cattle in the USA and the UK and is closely related to T. phagedenis. While very similar, the isolates in this study were possible to differentiate through PFGE and RAPD indicating that these methods are suitable for subtyping of this phylotype. No antimicrobial resistance could be detected among the tested isolates.

  17. The risk reduction of recurrent periodontal pathogens of local application minocycline HCl 2% gel, used as an adjunct to scaling and root planing for chronic periodontitis treatment

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    Soeroso Y

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Y Soeroso,1,2 T Akase,3 H Sunarto,1,2 Y Kemal,1 R Salim,1 M Octavia,1 A Viandita,1 J Setiawan,1 BM Bachtiar2,4 1Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia; 2Oral Sciences Research Center, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia; 3R&D, Oral Care Company, Sunstar Group, Takatsuki City, Japan; 4Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and microbiological effects of local application minocycline HCl 2% gel, used as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP for treatment of chronic periodontitis (CP. CP is an inflammation of periodontal tissue that is caused mainly by bacterial infection, where periodontal destruction such as loss of attachment and bone destruction occurred. Methods: A total of 81 subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis whose baseline clinical attachment loss (CAL was ≥4 mm were randomly assigned to receive SRP alone (control group, N=39 or SRP followed by four times of local application of minocycline HCl gel (Periocline once a week (test group, N=42. Pocket depth, CAL, and papilla bleeding index were examined at baseline, 21 days, 2, 3, and 6 months. Subgingival plaque samples were collected with sterile curettes and were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction for the presence of three periodontal pathogens (Porphyromonas gingivalis [P.g.], Tannerella forsythia [T.f.], and Treponema denticola [T.d.] at baseline, 2, 3, and 6 months. Results: The number of bacteria was reduced in both groups at 2 months after baseline (SRP treatment. The changes (2–6 months in T.d. and T.f. counts in the test group were significantly lower than those in the control group. In the control group, a significant regrowth of P.g., T.f., and T.d. was observed from 2 to 6 months and of P.g. and T.f. from 3 to 6 months. On the other hand, in the test group, the number of

  18. Glucose- but not rice-based oral rehydration therapy enhances the production of virulence determinants in the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae.

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    Juliane Kühn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite major attempts to prevent cholera transmission, millions of people worldwide still must address this devastating disease. Cholera research has so far mainly focused on the causative agent, the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, or on disease treatment, but rarely were results from both fields interconnected. Indeed, the treatment of this severe diarrheal disease is mostly accomplished by oral rehydration therapy (ORT, whereby water and electrolytes are replenished. Commonly distributed oral rehydration salts also contain glucose. Here, we analyzed the effects of glucose and alternative carbon sources on the production of virulence determinants in the causative agent of cholera, the bacterium Vibrio cholerae during in vitro experimentation. We demonstrate that virulence gene expression and the production of cholera toxin are enhanced in the presence of glucose or similarly transported sugars in a ToxR-, TcpP- and ToxT-dependent manner. The virulence genes were significantly less expressed if alternative non-PTS carbon sources, including rice-based starch, were utilized. Notably, even though glucose-based ORT is commonly used, field studies indicated that rice-based ORT performs better. We therefore used a spatially explicit epidemiological model to demonstrate that the better performing rice-based ORT could have a significant impact on epidemic progression based on the recent outbreak of cholera in Haiti. Our results strongly support a change of carbon source for the treatment of cholera, especially in epidemic settings.

  19. Glucose- but not rice-based oral rehydration therapy enhances the production of virulence determinants in the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Juliane; Finger, Flavio; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Borgeaud, Sandrine; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea; Blokesch, Melanie

    2014-12-01

    Despite major attempts to prevent cholera transmission, millions of people worldwide still must address this devastating disease. Cholera research has so far mainly focused on the causative agent, the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, or on disease treatment, but rarely were results from both fields interconnected. Indeed, the treatment of this severe diarrheal disease is mostly accomplished by oral rehydration therapy (ORT), whereby water and electrolytes are replenished. Commonly distributed oral rehydration salts also contain glucose. Here, we analyzed the effects of glucose and alternative carbon sources on the production of virulence determinants in the causative agent of cholera, the bacterium Vibrio cholerae during in vitro experimentation. We demonstrate that virulence gene expression and the production of cholera toxin are enhanced in the presence of glucose or similarly transported sugars in a ToxR-, TcpP- and ToxT-dependent manner. The virulence genes were significantly less expressed if alternative non-PTS carbon sources, including rice-based starch, were utilized. Notably, even though glucose-based ORT is commonly used, field studies indicated that rice-based ORT performs better. We therefore used a spatially explicit epidemiological model to demonstrate that the better performing rice-based ORT could have a significant impact on epidemic progression based on the recent outbreak of cholera in Haiti. Our results strongly support a change of carbon source for the treatment of cholera, especially in epidemic settings.

  20. Short communication: minimum bactericidal concentration of disinfectants evaluated for bovine digital dermatitis-associated Treponema phagedenis-like spirochetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartshorn, R E; Thomas, E C; Anklam, K; Lopez-Benavides, M G; Buchalova, M; Hemling, T C; Döpfer, D

    2013-05-01

    The bacterial spirochetes, Treponema spp., are thought to be a major contributor to the etiology of bovine digital dermatitis (DD), a skin disease with worldwide economic impact. Hoofbath strategies are commonly used in an attempt to control and prevent the development of DD and continuing research has been done to develop an optimal hoofbath strategy for this purpose. The aim of this study was to develop a protocol that can be used as part of the screening process for candidate hoofbath disinfectants. This protocol allows an accurate determination of the in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of a series of disinfectants for Treponema microorganisms. Assays were performed in triplicate for each of the disinfectants at 30-s and 10-min exposure times and exposed to 10 and 20% manure (vol/vol). The results of this study can be used to categorize disinfectants based on the effect of exposure and manure concentration regarding their ability to inhibit Treponema growth. This information can then aid in optimizing strategies for hoofbath-based control of DD development and spread.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of Uncaria tomentosa against oral human pathogens Atividade antimicrobiana da Uncaria tomentosa sobre patógenos da cavidade bucal humana

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    Renzo Alberto Ccahuana-Vasquez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Uncaria tomentosa is considered a medicinal plant used over centuries by the peruvian population as an alternative treatment for several diseases. Many microorganisms usually inhabit the human oral cavity and under certain conditions can become etiologic agents of diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of different concentrations of Uncaria tomentosa on different strains of microorganisms isolated from the human oral cavity. Micropulverized Uncaria tomentosa was tested in vitro to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC on selected microbial strains. The tested strains were oral clinical isolates of Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus spp., Candida albicans, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The tested concentrations of Uncaria tomentosa ranged from 0.25-5% in Müeller-Hinton agar. Three percent Uncaria tomentosa inhibited 8% of Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 52% of S. mutans and 96% of Staphylococcus spp. The tested concentrations did not present inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. It could be concluded that micropulverized Uncaria tomentosa presented antimicrobial activity on Enterobacteriaceae, S. mutans and Staphylococcus spp. isolates.Uncaria tomentosa é uma planta medicinal usada por vários séculos pela população peruana como alternativa de tratamento para diversas doenças. Muitos microrganismos que usualmente não habitam a cavidade bucal humana podem se tornar agentes etiológicos de doenças sob certas condições. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana de diferentes concentrações de Uncaria tomentosa sobre diferentes cepas de microrganismos isolados de cavidades bucais humanas. Uncaria tomentosa micropulverizada foi testada in vitro para determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM em isolados microbianos selecionados. Cepas de Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus spp., Candida albicans, Enterobacteriaceae e

  2. Molecular typing of Treponema pallidum: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Rui-Rui Peng

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Syphilis is resurgent in many regions of the world. Molecular typing is a robust tool for investigating strain diversity and epidemiology. This study aimed to review original research on molecular typing of Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum with three objectives: (1 to determine specimen types most suitable for molecular typing; (2 to determine T. pallidum subtype distribution across geographic areas; and (3 to summarize available information on subtypes associated with neurosyphilis and macrolide resistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two researchers independently searched five databases from 1998 through 2010, assessed for eligibility and study quality, and extracted data. Search terms included "Treponema pallidum," or "syphilis," combined with the subject headings "molecular," "subtyping," "typing," "genotype," and "epidemiology." Sixteen eligible studies were included. Publication bias was not statistically significant by the Begg rank correlation test. Medians, inter-quartile ranges, and 95% confidence intervals were determined for DNA extraction and full typing efficiency. A random-effects model was used to perform subgroup analyses to reduce obvious between-study heterogeneity. Primary and secondary lesions and ear lobe blood specimens had an average higher yield of T. pallidum DNA (83.0% vs. 28.2%, χ(2 = 247.6, p<0.001 and an average higher efficiency of full molecular typing (80.9% vs. 43.1%, χ(2 = 102.3, p<0.001 compared to plasma, whole blood, and cerebrospinal fluid. A pooled analysis of subtype distribution based on country location showed that 14d was the most common subtype, and subtype distribution varied across geographic areas. Subtype data associated with macrolide resistance and neurosyphilis were limited. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Primary lesion was a better specimen for obtaining T. pallidum DNA than blood. There was wide geographic variation in T. pallidum subtypes. More research is needed on the

  3. Structural, Bioinformatic, and In Vivo Analyses of Two Treponema pallidum Lipoproteins Reveal a Unique TRAP Transporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deka, Ranjit K.; Brautigam, Chad A.; Goldberg, Martin; Schuck, Peter; Tomchick, Diana R.; Norgard, Michael V. (NIH); (UTSMC)

    2012-05-25

    Treponema pallidum, the bacterial agent of syphilis, is predicted to encode one tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporter (TRAP-T). TRAP-Ts typically employ a periplasmic substrate-binding protein (SBP) to deliver the cognate ligand to the transmembrane symporter. Herein, we demonstrate that the genes encoding the putative TRAP-T components from T. pallidum, tp0957 (the SBP), and tp0958 (the symporter), are in an operon with an uncharacterized third gene, tp0956. We determined the crystal structure of recombinant Tp0956; the protein is trimeric and perforated by a pore. Part of Tp0956 forms an assembly similar to those of 'tetratricopeptide repeat' (TPR) motifs. The crystal structure of recombinant Tp0957 was also determined; like the SBPs of other TRAP-Ts, there are two lobes separated by a cleft. In these other SBPs, the cleft binds a negatively charged ligand. However, the cleft of Tp0957 has a strikingly hydrophobic chemical composition, indicating that its ligand may be substantially different and likely hydrophobic. Analytical ultracentrifugation of the recombinant versions of Tp0956 and Tp0957 established that these proteins associate avidly. This unprecedented interaction was confirmed for the native molecules using in vivo cross-linking experiments. Finally, bioinformatic analyses suggested that this transporter exemplifies a new subfamily of TPATs (TPR-protein-associated TRAP-Ts) that require the action of a TPR-containing accessory protein for the periplasmic transport of a potentially hydrophobic ligand(s).

  4. Evaluation of a PCR test for detection of treponema pallidum in swabs and blood.

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    Grange, P A; Gressier, L; Dion, P L; Farhi, D; Benhaddou, N; Gerhardt, P; Morini, J P; Deleuze, J; Pantoja, C; Bianchi, A; Lassau, F; Avril, M F; Janier, M; Dupin, N

    2012-03-01

    Syphilis diagnosis is based on clinical observation, serological analysis, and dark-field microscopy (DFM) detection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the etiological agent of syphilis, in skin ulcers. We performed a nested PCR (nPCR) assay specifically amplifying the tpp47 gene of T. pallidum from swab and blood specimens. We studied a cohort of 294 patients with suspected syphilis and 35 healthy volunteers. Eighty-seven of the 294 patients had primary syphilis, 103 had secondary syphilis, 40 had latent syphilis, and 64 were found not to have syphilis. The T. pallidum nPCR results for swab specimens were highly concordant with syphilis diagnosis, with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 95%. Reasonable agreement was observed between the results obtained with the nPCR and DFM methods (kappa = 0.53). No agreement was found between the nPCR detection of T. pallidum in blood and the diagnosis of syphilis, with sensitivities of 29, 18, 14.7, and 24% and specificities of 96, 92, 93, and 97% for peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), plasma, serum, and whole-blood fractions, respectively. HIV status did not affect the frequency of T. pallidum detection in any of the specimens tested. Swab specimens from mucosal or skin lesions seemed to be more useful than blood for the efficient detection of the T. pallidum genome and, thus, for the diagnosis of syphilis.

  5. Prevalence survey of infection with Treponema pallidum among HIV-positive patients in Tehran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Banafsheh; Moradmand; Badie; Zeinab; Yavari; Shooka; Esmaeeli; Koosha; Paydary; Sahra; Emamzadeh-Fard; SeyedAhmad; SeyedAlinaghi; Mehrnaz; Rasoulinejad

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To identify the frequency of syphilis among Iranian HIV-positive patients.Methods:A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of syphilis and HIV co-infection among 450 patients diagnosed with HIV infection was conducted between 2004 and 2008 at Imam Khomeini hospital,Tehran,Iran.The lab tests including CD4 cell count,cerebrospinal fluid,veneral disease research laboratory(VDRL),fluorescent treponema antibody-absorption(FTA-Abs)and viral load were performed for all the patients.Data regarding medical history and their demographics were also collected.Results:Of all 450 HIV-positive patients,24(5.3%)had a positive VDRL test and only two men had a FTA-Abs positive test which means 0.45%of them had a definite co-infection of syphilis.65.3%of the HIV-positive patients were injection drug users that the co-infection prevalence of them was 0.7%.We did not find any patient with neurosyphilis.Conclusions:Considering the increasing prevalence of HIV and also extensive use of highly active antiretroviral therapy in developing nations,the diagnosis of syphilis should be timely established using screening tests among such patients.

  6. Protocols for detection and typing of Treponema pallidum using PCR methods.

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    Bruisten, S M

    2012-01-01

    Syphilis, caused by Treponema pallidum, is a sexually transmitted disease which was epidemic in Europe between the 15th and 20th century. From 2000 onwards it is worldwide mostly encountered among men who have sex with men but also among women in resource poor setting. Syphilis can easily be treated with penicillin but can become chronic, if left untreated. The disease develops in several stages with ulcerative lesions in the primary stage, and systemic spread to organs via the blood in later stages. Taking swab samples from these ulcerative lesions gives the best options for detection by PCR of T. palillidum. Alternatively blood samples can be analyzed in later stages. If tested positive in screening PCR assays, T. pallidum can also be typed by molecular methods, enabling molecular epidemiology. Different protocols are discussed in this chapter, that include all steps from sample collection, nucleic acid extraction, PCR, and detection. The combination of all steps together determine the final sensitivity and specificity of T. pallidum PCR.

  7. The binary protein interactome of Treponema pallidum--the syphilis spirochete.

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    Björn Titz

    Full Text Available Protein interaction networks shed light on the global organization of proteomes but can also place individual proteins into a functional context. If we know the function of bacterial proteins we will be able to understand how these species have adapted to diverse environments including many extreme habitats. Here we present the protein interaction network for the syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum which encodes 1,039 proteins, 726 (or 70% of which interact via 3,649 interactions as revealed by systematic yeast two-hybrid screens. A high-confidence subset of 991 interactions links 576 proteins. To derive further biological insights from our data, we constructed an integrated network of proteins involved in DNA metabolism. Combining our data with additional evidences, we provide improved annotations for at least 18 proteins (including TP0004, TP0050, and TP0183 which are suggested to be involved in DNA metabolism. We estimate that this "minimal" bacterium contains on the order of 3,000 protein interactions. Profiles of functional interconnections indicate that bacterial proteins interact more promiscuously than eukaryotic proteins, reflecting the non-compartmentalized structure of the bacterial cell. Using our high-confidence interactions, we also predict 417,329 homologous interactions ("interologs" for 372 completely sequenced genomes and provide evidence that at least one third of them can be experimentally confirmed.

  8. Prevalence survey of infection with Treponema pallidum among HIV-positive patients in Tehran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Banafsheh Moradmand Badie; Zeinab Yavari; Shooka Esmaeeli; Koosha Paydary; Sahra Emamzadeh-Fard; SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi; Mehrnaz Rasoulinejad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify the frequency of syphilis among Iranian HIV-positive patients. Methods:A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of syphilis and HIV co-infection among 450 patients diagnosed with HIV infection was conducted between 2004 and 2008 at Imam Khomeini hospital, Tehran, Iran. The lab tests including CD4 cell count, cerebrospinal fluid, veneral disease research laboratory (VDRL), fluorescent treponema antibody-absorption (FTA-Abs) and viral load were performed for all the patients. Data regarding medical history and their demographics were also collected. Results: Of all 450 HIV-positive patients, 24 (5.3%) had a positive VDRL test and only two men had a FTA-Abs positive test which means 0.45% of them had a definite co-infection of syphilis. 65.3% of the HIV-positive patients were injection drug users that the co-infection prevalence of them was 0.7%. We did not find any patient with neurosyphilis. Conclusions: Considering the increasing prevalence of HIV and also extensive use of highly active antiretroviral therapy in developing nations, the diagnosis of syphilis should be timely established using screening tests among such patients.

  9. Cloning and Expression of the Tppl7 Gene of Treponema pallidum And Clinical Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊礼宽; 周华; 王慧; 姜维娜; 洪福昌; 曾序春; 罗斌

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To obtain recombinant Treponema pallidum subsp, pallidum (TP 17KD) lipoprotein in large quantities by amplification and to further purify antigens for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis and development of a syphilis vaccine. Method: The Tppl7 lipoprotein gene was amplified from the TP(strain Nichols), and then it was recombinated into a plasmid pMAL-2c and cloned within E. coli 12-TB1. The host bacteria containing recombinant plasmids were induced with IPTG. The Tpp 17KD lipoprotein gene was amplified by us-ing PCR and positive clones were screened with double digestion and PCR. Recombinant plasmids were transformed into E. coli and the E. coli carrying recombinant plasmids were induced. The expression of TP 17KD was detected by sodium dedecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(SDS-PAGE) and immunoblot. Results:Gel staining with Coomassie blue G-250 showed that the induced E. coli carrying recombinant plasmid could produce 60KD fusion protein at high levels. Gel scanning showed that 17KD protein expression in E. coli accounted for 10 % of total cellular protein. The recombinant protein antigen reacted with the sera of syphilis patients. Conclusion: Our study lays a cornerstone for developing new techniques of laboratory diagnosis for syphilis and new vaccines. Preliminary clinical application showed that the fusion protein could be used for the diagnosis of syphilis.

  10. Emerging roles of pathogens in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklossy, Judith

    2011-09-20

    Chronic spirochetal infection can cause slowly progressive dementia, cortical atrophy and amyloid deposition in the atrophic form of general paresis. There is a significant association between Alzheimer disease (AD) and various types of spirochete (including the periodontal pathogen Treponemas and Borrelia burgdorferi), and other pathogens such as Chlamydophyla pneumoniae and herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1). Exposure of mammalian neuronal and glial cells and organotypic cultures to spirochetes reproduces the biological and pathological hallmarks of AD. Senile-plaque-like beta amyloid (Aβ) deposits are also observed in mice following inhalation of C. pneumoniae in vivo, and Aβ accumulation and phosphorylation of tau is induced in neurons by HSV-1 in vitro and in vivo. Specific bacterial ligands, and bacterial and viral DNA and RNA all increase the expression of proinflammatory molecules, which activates the innate and adaptive immune systems. Evasion of pathogens from destruction by the host immune reactions leads to persistent infection, chronic inflammation, neuronal destruction and Aβ deposition. Aβ has been shown to be a pore-forming antimicrobial peptide, indicating that Aβ accumulation might be a response to infection. Global attention and action is needed to support this emerging field of research because dementia might be prevented by combined antibiotic, antiviral and anti-inflammatory therapy.

  11. Production of proinflammatory cytokines in the human THP-1 monocyte cell line following induction by Tp0751,a recombinant protein of Treponema pallidum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The tissue destruction characteristic of syphilis infection may be caused by inflammation due to Treponema pallidum and the ensuing immune responses to the pathogen.T.pallidum membrane proteins are thought to be potent inducers of inflammation during the early stages of infection.However,the actual membrane proteins that induce inflammatory cytokine production are not known,nor are the molecular mechanisms responsible for triggering and sustaining the inflammatory cascades.In the present study,Tp0751 recombinant protein from T.pallidum was found to induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines,including TNF-α,IL-1βand IL-6,in a THP-1 human monocyte cell line.The signal transduction pathways involved in the production of these cytokines were then further investigated.No inhibition of TNF-a,IL-1β,or IL-6 production was observed following treatment with the SAPK/JNK specific inhibitor SP600125 or with an ERK inhibitor PD98059.By contrast,anti-TLR2 mAb,anti-CD14 mAb,and the p38 inhibitor SB203580 significantly inhibited the production of all three cytokines.In addition,pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC),a specific inhibitor of NF-κB,profoundly inhibited the production of these cytokines.Tp0751 treatment strongly activated NF-κB,as revealed by Western blotting.However,NF-κB translocation was significantly inhibited by treatment with PDTC.These results indicated that TLR2,CD14,MAPKs/p38,and NF-κB might be implicated in the inflammatory reaction caused by T.pallidum infection.

  12. Evidence for Posttranslational Protein Flavinylation in the Syphilis Spirochete Treponema pallidum: Structural and Biochemical Insights from the Catalytic Core of a Periplasmic Flavin-Trafficking Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Ranjit K.; Brautigam, Chad A.; Liu, Wei Z.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum is an important human pathogen but a highly enigmatic bacterium that cannot be cultivated in vitro. T. pallidum lacks many biosynthetic pathways and therefore has evolved the capability to exploit host-derived metabolites via its periplasmic lipoprotein repertoire. We recently reported a flavin-trafficking protein in T. pallidum (Ftp_Tp; TP0796) as the first bacterial metal-dependent flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) pyrophosphatase that hydrolyzes FAD into AMP and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in the spirochete’s periplasm. However, orthologs of Ftp_Tp from other bacteria appear to lack this hydrolytic activity; rather, they bind and flavinylate subunits of a cytoplasmic membrane redox system (Nqr/Rnf). To further explore this dichotomy, biochemical analyses, protein crystallography, and structure-based mutagenesis were used to show that a single amino acid change (N55Y) in Ftp_Tp converts it from an Mg2+-dependent FAD pyrophosphatase to an FAD-binding protein. We also demonstrated that Ftp_Tp has a second enzymatic activity (Mg2+-FMN transferase); it flavinylates protein(s) covalently with FMN on a threonine side chain of an appropriate sequence motif using FAD as the substrate. Moreover, mutation of a metal-binding residue (D284A) eliminates Ftp_Tp’s dual activities, thereby underscoring the role of Mg2+ in the enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The posttranslational flavinylation activity that can target a periplasmic lipoprotein (TP0171) has not previously been described. The observed activities reveal the catalytic flexibility of a treponemal protein to perform multiple functions. Together, these findings imply mechanisms by which a dynamic pool of flavin cofactor is maintained and how flavoproteins are generated by Ftp_Tp locally in the T. pallidum periplasm. PMID:25944861

  13. Multiple primary syphilis on the lip, nipple-areola and penis: An immunohistochemical examination of Treponema pallidum localization using an anti-T. pallidum antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Hidetsugu; Takahashi, Misaki; Kato, Keiichi; Oharaseki, Toshiaki; Mukai, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Primary syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum usually develops after sexual contact as an initial solitary sclerosis or hard chancre in the genital region. We describe a case of primary syphilis at three sites in genital and extragenital regions of a man who had sex with men. A 29-year-old man visited our hospital for skin lesions on his lower lip, nipple-areola and penis. A positive syphilis serological test for rapid plasma reagin had a titer of 1:16; the patient also tested positive for specific antibodies against T. pallidum, with a cut-off index of 39.0. Histopathological examination of a nipple-areola biopsy specimen revealed a thickened epidermis and dense infiltration of inflammatory cells extending from the upper dermal layers to the deep dermis. The inflammatory cells were composed of abundant lymphocytes, plasma cells, histiocytes and neutrophils. Immunohistochemical staining for T. pallidum using an anti-T. pallidum antibody showed numerous spirochetes in the lower portion of the epidermis, scattered inside inflammatory cell infiltrate and perivascular sites throughout the dermis. Based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed with primary syphilis. Treatment with oral amoxicillin hydrate was started. Five days after starting treatment, a diffuse maculopapular rash (syphilitic roseola) occurred on his trunk and extremities. Perivascular cuffing due to T. pallidum was present throughout the dermis in the biopsy specimen of a localized lesion of primary syphilis. Moreover, syphilitic roseola, which indicates generalized dissemination of T. pallidum, developed during the course of treatment for primary syphilis. Therefore, we considered perivascular cuffing to be indicative of the dissemination phase.

  14. Antimicrobial Effect of Jasminum grandiflorum L. and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Extracts Against Pathogenic Oral Microorganisms--An In Vitro Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Batra, Mehak; Sharda, Archana J; Asawa, Kailash; Sanadhya, Sudhanshu; Daryani, Hemasha; Ramesh, Gayathri

    2015-01-01

    To assess and compare the antimicrobial potential and determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Jasminum grandiflorum and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis extracts as potential anti-pathogenic agents in dental caries. Aqueous and ethanol (cold and hot) extracts prepared from leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using the agar well diffusion method. The lowest concentration of every extract considered as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for both test organisms. Statistical analysis was performed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). At lower concentrations, hot ethanol Jasminum grandiflorum (10 μg/ml) and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (25 μg/ml) extracts were found to have statistically significant (P≤0.05) antimicrobial activity against S. mutans and L. acidophilus with MIC values of 6.25 μg/ml and 25 μg/ml, respectively. A proportional increase in their antimicrobial activity (zone of inhibition) was observed. Both extracts were found to be antimicrobially active and contain compounds with therapeutic potential. Nevertheless, clinical trials on the effect of these plants are essential before advocating large-scale therapy.

  15. The pathogenic potential of oral anaerobic microorganisms in rat periapical lesions%感染根管优势菌致病能力的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王变红; 葛丽华; 侯本祥

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the pathological effect of three oral anaerobic bacterial species on periapical lesions. Methods Porphyromonas endodontalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum were inoculated into the first molars' pulp of SD rats respectively, and saline inoculated as control. Another group of molars' pulp was open to the oral cavity without any inoculation. The maxillary and mandibular bone was harvested at 1, 2, 4, 8 weeks, and periapical X-ray was taken and the absorption area of the periapical bone measured and analyzed. The periapical lesions were sliced and their pathology was observed. Results The periapical bone absorption area was increased with time and became biggest at 8 weeks. There were no significant difference in area of periapical lesions and in inflammation degree between the P. e group, P. g group and saline group at 1,2, 4, 8 weeks( P >0. 05 ). At 4 weeks, the bone absorption area of F. n group was bigger than that of P. e group and P. g group ( P < 0. 01 ). The inflammation degree in F. n group was severer than that in P. e or P. g group. Conclusion Compared with P. g and P. e, the F. n plays an more important role in the progress of apical periodontitis. Mixed infection of several kinds of bacteria was the main cause of periapical diseases.%目的 研究感染根管优势菌在根尖周炎发病过程中的作用,探讨不同细菌致病能力的差异.方法 选择牙髓卟啉单胞菌(Porphyromonas endodontalis,P.e)、牙龈卟啉单胞菌(Porphyromonas gingivalis,P.g)、具核梭杆菌(Fusobacterium nudeatum,F.n)分别接种于SD大鼠第一磨牙髓腔内,以生理盐水和髓腔开放作为对照.术后1、2、4、8周处死大鼠,取上、下颌骨拍摄X线片,测量并比较各组第一磨牙根尖周透射影面积;组织学切片观察各组根尖周组织病理变化,评价根尖周组织炎症程度.结果 X线片测量结果显示根尖阴影面积在术后8周最大,组织学评价结果为术后4周

  16. Bacterial contamination of orally-consumed crude herbal remedies:A potential source for multi-drug resistant patho-gens in man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O.G.Oyero; A.O.B.Oyefolu

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The acceptability of herbal remedies for alleviating discomforts and ill-health has become very pop-ular,on the account of the increasing cost of allopathic medicine for personal health maintenance.The observ-able non-adherence of herbalists to the established World Health Organization (WHO)/National Agency for Food and Drug Administration Control (NAFDAC)regulations for the quality control of herbal medicines is an issue for concern.In view of this,34 popular and widely consumed crude herbal remedies in southwestern,Ni-geria were screened for compliance with standard limits for bacterial contamination,bacteria flora and their an-tibiotic susceptibility pattern.Methods:Isolates recovered from samples were identified using the cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics.They were also tested for drug sensitivity using standard proce-dures.Results:A heavy bacteria load ranging from 3.00 ×103 -9.58 ×105 CFU /ML and 1.20 ×105 -5.41 ×105 CFU /ML was observed for water and spirit extracted preparations respectively.The bacteria flora cum contaminants were:Staphylococcus aureus,Bacillus cereus,Bacillus subtilis,Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus,Lactobacillus plantarum,Klebsiella pneumoniae,Escherichia coli,streptococcus,Shigella, Neisseria,Arthrobacter,Kurthia and Clostridium species.All the isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains.Conclusion:The crude herbal preparations consumed in Nigeria failed to comply with the internation-ally recognized standards regarding bacteria load and flora.The presence of MDR pathogens is of greatest con-cern.It poses a great risk to consumer's health and could be a source of introducing MDR organisms into the human population.There is the need for the enforcement of established guidelines to ensure the safety of these preparations.

  17. Oral candidosis in lichen planus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Camilla; Kieffer-Kristensen, L; Reibel, J;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen in humans, but other Candida species cause candidosis. Candida species display significant differences in their susceptibility to antimycotic drugs. Patients with symptomatic or erythematous oral lichen planus (OLP) commonly have...

  18. Pathogenic Mechanism of Mouse Brain Damage Caused by Oral Infection with Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Eiji; Yunou, Yoshihisa; Kurioka, Takaaki; Harada, Hiroko; Yoshikawa, Shinji; Mikasa, Keiichi; Higashi, Nobutaka

    2000-01-01

    In a previous study, we showed that infection with Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (strain SmrN-9) caused neurologic symptoms in malnourished mice with positive immunoreactions of Stx2 in brain tissues. The present study explores the mechanism of how Stx injures the vascular endothelium to enter the central nervous system in mice. Oral infection with strain SmrN-9 elicited a tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) response in the blood as early as 2 days after infection, while Stx was first detected at 3 days postinfection. In the brain, TNF-α was detected at day 3, and its quantity was increased over the next 3 days. Frozen sections of the brains from moribound mice contained high numbers of apoptotic cells. Glycolipids recognized by an anti-Gb3 monoclonal antibody were extracted from the brain, and purified Stx2 was able to bind to the glycolipids. In human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) cultured with fluorescein-labeled Stx2 (100 ng/ml), TNF-α (20 U/ml) significantly facilitated the intracellular compartmentalization of fluorescence during 24 h of incubation, suggesting the enhanced intracellular processing of Stx2. Consequently, higher levels of apoptosis in HUVEC were found at 48 h. Short-term exposure of HUVEC to Stx2 abrogated their apoptotic response to subsequent incubation with TNF-α alone or TNF-α and Stx2. In contrast, primary exposure of HUVEC to TNF-α followed by exposure to Stx2 alone or TNF-α and Stx2 induced apoptosis at the same level as obtained after 48-h incubation with these two agents. These results suggest that the rapid production of circulating TNF-α after infection induces a state of competence in vascular endothelial cells to undergo apoptosis, which would be finally achieved by subsequent elevation of Stx in the blood. In this synergistic action, target cells must be first exposed to TNF-α. Such cell injury may be a prerequisite to brain damage after infection with Stx-producing E. coli O157:H7

  19. Diversity of cultivable and uncultivable oral spirochetes from a patient with severe destructive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, B K; Paster, B J; Dewhirst, F E; Göbel, U B

    1994-05-01

    To determine the genetic diversity of cultivable and uncultivable spirochetes in the gingival crevice of a patient with severe periodontitis, partial 16S rRNA genes were cloned from PCR-amplified products of DNA and RNA extracted from a subgingival plaque sample. Approximately 500 bp were amplified in PCRs by using universally conserved primers with polylinker tails. Purified PCR products were cloned into Escherichia coli by using the plasmid vector pUC19. The resultant clone library was screened by colony hybridization with a radiolabeled, treponeme-specific oligonucleotide probe. The 16S rRNA inserts of 81 spirochetal clones were then sequenced by standard procedures. Sequences were compared with 16S rRNA sequences of 35 spirochetes, including the four known cultivable oral treponeme species. The analysis revealed an unexpected diversity of oral treponemes from a single patient. When 98% or greater sequence similarity was used as the definition of a species-level cluster, the clone sequences were found to represent 23 species. When 92% similarity was used as the definition, the clones fell into eight major groups, only two of which contained named species, Treponema vincentii and Treponema denticola, while Treponema pectinovorum and Treponema socranskii were not represented in any cluster. Seven of the 81 spirochetal clones were found to contain chimeric 16S rRNA sequences. In situ fluorescence hybridization with a fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled oligonucleotide probe specific for one of the new species representing cluster 19 was used to identify cells of the target species directly in clinical samples.

  20. Male infertility: a public health issue caused by sexually transmitted pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenes, Fabrícia; Souza, Raquel P; Bento, Jaqueline C; Teixeira, Jorge J V; Maria-Engler, Silvya S; Bonini, Marcelo G; Consolaro, Marcia E L

    2014-12-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are caused by several pathogens, including bacteria, viruses and protozoa, and can induce male infertility through multiple pathophysiological mechanisms. Additionally, horizontal transmission of STD pathogens to sexual partners or vertical transmission to fetuses and neonates is possible. Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma spp., human papillomavirus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses, HIV-1 and human cytomegalovirus have all been detected in semen from symptomatic and asymptomatic men with testicular, accessory gland and urethral infections. These pathogens are associated with poor sperm quality and decreased sperm concentration and motility. However, the effects of these STD agents on semen quality are unclear, as are the effects of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma spp., Treponema pallidum and Trichomonas vaginalis, because few studies have evaluated the influence of these pathogens on male infertility. Chronic or inadequately treated infections seem to be more relevant to infertility than acute infections are, although in many cases the exact aetiological agents remain unknown.

  1. Molecular analysis of 16S rRNA genes identifies potentially periodontal pathogenic bacteria and archaea in the plaque of partially erupted third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, J M; Campbell, J H; Bhandari, A R; Jesionowski, A M; Vickerman, M M

    2012-07-01

    Small subunit rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were used to identify cultivable and uncultivable microorganisms present in the dental plaque of symptomatic and asymptomatic partially erupted third molars to determine the prevalence of putative periodontal pathogens in pericoronal sites. Template DNA prepared from subgingival plaque collected from partially erupted symptomatic and asymptomatic mandibular third molars and healthy incisors was used in polymerase chain reaction with broad-range oligonucleotide primers to amplify 16S rRNA bacterial and archaeal genes. Amplicons were cloned, sequenced, and compared with known nucleotide sequences in online databases to identify the microorganisms present. Two thousand three hundred two clones from the plaque of 12 patients carried bacterial sequences from 63 genera belonging to 11 phyla, including members of the uncultivable TM7, SR1, and Chloroflexi, and difficult-to-cultivate Synergistetes and Spirochaetes. Dialister invisus, Filifactor alocis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Prevotella denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola, which have been associated with periodontal disease, were found in significantly greater abundance in pericoronal compared with incisor sites. Dialister invisus and F nucleatum were found in greater abundance in sites exhibiting clinical symptoms. The archaeal species, Methanobrevibacter oralis, which has been associated with severe periodontitis, was found in 3 symptomatic patients. These findings have provided new insights into the complex microbiota of pericoronitis. Several bacterial and archaeal species implicated in periodontal disease were recovered in greater incidence and abundance from the plaque of partially erupted third molars compared with incisors, supporting the hypothesis that the pericoronal region may provide a favored niche for periodontal pathogens in otherwise healthy mouths. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and

  2. Treponema pallidum-specific antibody expression for the diagnosis of different stages of syphilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ran; LAI Di-hui; REN Rong-xin; LIAN Shi; ZHANG Hai-ping

    2013-01-01

    Background Tp15,Tp17,Tp45,and Tp47 are outer-membrane proteins found in Treponema pallidum,the etiologic agent of syphilis.These proteins are potent antigens and are potential markers for the serological detection of syphilis.The present study analyzed antibodies to these protein antigens (TP-IgM and TP-IgG) in human serum and investigated the expression of these antibodies during different stages of syphilis.Methods Serum samples were collected from 69 subjects (male 45,female 24) diagnosed with syphilis and analyzed by Western blotting for the expression of IgM and IgG against the four protein antigens.Expression levels of the target antibodies were compared during the same stage of syphilis as well as between different stages of this disease.Results In subjects with primary syphilis,the positive rate of Tp45 IgM was higher than that of other TP-IgM.Tp15 IgM was detected only in subjects with tertiary syphilis.Similarly,the seroprevalence of Tp45 IgG in primary syphilis was higher than for other TP-IgG No target TP-IgM was detected in subjects with latent syphilis.In subjects with secondary syphilis,the expression level of Tp15 IgG (138.73±20.16) was higher than for other target TP-IgG In subjects with tertiary syphilis,all target TP-IgG were detected.In subjects with tertiary or latent syphilis,the expression levels of Tp45 IgG (121.33±11.04 and 110.10±40.19,respectively) were higher than those of other target TP-IgG.The expression levels of all Tp-IgM were similar before or after anti-syphilis treatment.In comparison,the expression levels of all TP-IgG decreased compared with the pre-treatment levels,and this decrease was statistically significant (both P <0.05) for Tp17 IgG and Tp47 IgG.Conclusions After Treponema pallidum infection,Tp45 IgM appeared first and Tp15 IgM occurred during later stages.The positive rates of all TP-IgG increased with the duration of this disease.Anti-syphilis treatment reduced the expression levels of Tp17 IgG and Tp47 Ig

  3. 梅毒螺旋体耐药面临的挑战%Challenge of the Treponema pallidum resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈霞; 林昭春

    2013-01-01

    At present, penicillin is the preferred and effective drug for treating syphilis. Until now, penicillin-resistant Treponema pallidum isolates have not been found yet, however application of penicillin is limited for drug allergy. The usage of macrolides, tetra-cyclines and third-generation cephalosporin provide alternative medicine for mpenicillin-allergic patients with syphilis to some extent. However, with the promotion of alternative medicine,drug resistance has become severe challenges for penicillin-allergic patients. In this article,the challenges of the Treponema pallidum resistance are re- viewed. [%目前青霉素仍是治疗梅毒的首选药物,且治疗梅毒非常有效,也未出现耐青霉素的梅毒螺旋体(treponema pallidum,Tp)菌株,但由于过敏问题使得青霉素使用受限.大环内酯类抗生素、四环素类、第三代头孢菌素类治疗梅毒的应用在一定程度上解决了青霉素过敏梅毒患者治疗的难题,但随着临床应用的推广,耐药问题使得青霉素过敏梅毒患者的治疗面临严峻挑战.本文就Tp耐药所面临的挑战进行综述.

  4. Validation of serological tests for the detection of antibodies against Treponema pallidum in nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Knauf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence to suggest that the yaws bacterium (Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue may exist in non-human primate populations residing in regions where yaws is endemic in humans. Especially in light of the fact that the World Health Organizaiton (WHO recently launched its second yaws eradication campaign, there is a considerable need for reliable tools to identify treponemal infection in our closest relatives, African monkeys and great apes. It was hypothesized that commercially available serological tests detect simian anti-T. pallidum antibody in serum samples of baboons, with comparable sensitivity and specificity to their results on human sera. Test performances of five different treponemal tests (TTs and two non-treponemal tests (NTTs were evaluated using serum samples of 57 naturally T. pallidum-infected olive baboons (Papio anubis from Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. The T. pallidum particle agglutination assay (TP-PA was used as a gold standard for comparison. In addition, the overall infection status of the animals was used to further validate test performances. For most accurate results, only samples that originated from baboons of known infection status, as verified in a previous study by clinical inspection, PCR and immunohistochemistry, were included. All tests, TTs and NTTs, used in this study were able to reliably detect antibodies against T. pallidum in serum samples of infected baboons. The sensitivity of TTs ranged from 97.7-100%, while specificity was between 88.0-100.0%. The two NTTs detected anti-lipoidal antibodies in serum samples of infected baboons with a sensitivity of 83.3% whereas specificity was 100%. For screening purposes, the TT Espline TP provided the highest sensitivity and specificity and at the same time provided the most suitable format for use in the field. The enzyme immune assay Mastblot TP (IgG, however, could be considered as a confirmatory test.

  5. High Prevalence of Antibodies against the Bacterium Treponema pallidum in Senegalese Guinea Baboons (Papio papio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauf, Sascha; Barnett, Ulrike; Maciej, Peter; Klapproth, Matthias; Ndao, Ibrahima; Frischmann, Sieghard; Fischer, Julia; Zinner, Dietmar; Liu, Hsi

    2015-01-01

    The bacterium Treponema pallidum is known to cause syphilis (ssp. pallidum), yaws (ssp. pertenue), and endemic syphilis (ssp. endemicum) in humans. Nonhuman primates have also been reported to be infected with the bacterium with equally versatile clinical manifestations, from severe skin ulcerations to asymptomatic. At present all simian strains are closely related to human yaws-causing strains, an important consideration for yaws eradication. We tested clinically healthy Guinea baboons (Papio papio) at Parc National Niokolo Koba in south eastern Senegal for the presence of anti-T. pallidum antibodies. Since T. pallidum infection in this species was identified 50 years ago, and there has been no attempt to treat non-human primates for infection, it was hypothesized that a large number of West African baboons are still infected with simian strains of the yaws-bacterium. All animals were without clinical signs of treponematoses, but 18 of 20 (90%) baboons tested positive for antibodies against T. pallidum based on treponemal tests. Yet, Guinea baboons seem to develop no clinical symptoms, though it must be assumed that infection is chronic or comparable to the latent stage in human yaws infection. The non-active character is supported by the low anti-T. pallidum serum titers in Guinea baboons (median = 1:2,560) versus serum titers that are found in genital-ulcerated olive baboons with active infection in Tanzania (range of medians among the groups of initial, moderate, and severe infected animals = 1:15,360 to 1:2.097e+7). Our findings provide evidence for simian infection with T. pallidum in wild Senegalese baboons. Potentially, Guinea baboons in West Africa serve as a natural reservoir for human infection, as the West African simian strain has been shown to cause sustainable yaws infection when inoculated into humans. The present study pinpoints an area where further research is needed to support the currently on-going second WHO led yaws eradication campaign with

  6. Evaluation of the recombinant protein TpF1 of Treponema pallidum for serodiagnosis of syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chuanhao; Zhao, Feijun; Xiao, Jinhong; Zeng, Tiebing; Yu, Jian; Ma, Xiaohua; Wu, Haiying; Wu, Yimou

    2013-10-01

    Syphilis is a chronic infection caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, and diagnosis with sensitive and specific methods is a challenging process that is important for its prevention and treatment. In the present study, we established a recombinant protein TpF1-based indirect immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a Western blot assay for human and rabbit sera. The 20-kDa recombinant protein TpF1 was detected by Western blotting performed with sera from rabbits immunized with recombinant TpF1 and infected with the T. pallidum Nichols strain and T. pallidum clinical isolates but was not detected by Western blotting with sera from uninfected rabbits. The sensitivity of the recombinant protein was determined by screening sera from individuals with primary, secondary, latent, and congenital syphilis (n = 82). The specificity of the recombinant protein was determined by screening sera from uninfected controls (n = 30) and individuals with potentially cross-reactive infections, including Lyme disease (n = 30) and leptospirosis (n = 5). The sensitivities of TpF1-based ELISAs were 93.3%, 100%, 100%, and 100% for primary, secondary, latent, and congenital syphilis, respectively, and the specificities were all 100% for sera from uninfected controls and individuals with potentially cross-reactive infections. In Western blot assays, the sensitivities and specificities of TpF1 for human sera were all 100%. The reactivities of TpF1 with syphilitic sera were proportional to the titers of the T. pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay. These data indicate that the recombinant protein TpF1 is a highly immunogenic protein in human and rabbit infections and a promising marker for the screening of syphilis.

  7. A longitudinal evaluation of Treponema pallidum PCR testing in early syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shields Matt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Syphilis is a growing public health problem among men who have sex with men (MSM globally. Rapid and accurate detection of syphilis is vital to ensure patients and their contacts receive timely treatment and reduce ongoing transmission. Methods We evaluated a PCR assay for the diagnosis of Treponema pallidum using swabs of suspected early syphilis lesions in longitudinally assessed MSM. Results We tested 260 MSM for T pallidum by PCR on 288 occasions: 77 (26.7% had early syphilis that was serologically confirmed at baseline or within six weeks, and 211 (73.3% remained seronegative for syphilis. Of 55 men with primary syphilis, 49 were PCR positive, giving a sensitivity of 89.1% (95% CI: 77.8%-95.9% and a specificity of 99.1% (95% CI: 96.5%-99.9%. Of 22 men with secondary syphilis, 11 were PCR positive, giving a sensitivity of 50% (95% CI: 28.2%-71.8% and a specificity of 100% (95% CI: 66.4%-71.8%. Of the 77 syphilis cases, 43 (56% were HIV positive and the sensitivity and specificity of the PCR test did not vary by HIV status. The PCR test was able to detect up to five (10% primary infections that were initially seronegative, including one HIV positive man with delayed seroconversion to syphilis (72 to 140 days and one HIV positive man who did not seroconvert to syphilis over 14 months follow-up. Both men had been treated for syphilis within a week of the PCR test. Conclusions T pallidum PCR is a potentially powerful tool for the early diagnosis of primary syphilis, particularly where a serological response has yet to develop.

  8. Validation of serological tests for the detection of antibodies against Treponema pallidum in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauf, Sascha; Dahlmann, Franziska; Batamuzi, Emmanuel K; Frischmann, Sieghard; Liu, Hsi

    2015-03-01

    There is evidence to suggest that the yaws bacterium (Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue) may exist in non-human primate populations residing in regions where yaws is endemic in humans. Especially in light of the fact that the World Health Organizaiton (WHO) recently launched its second yaws eradication campaign, there is a considerable need for reliable tools to identify treponemal infection in our closest relatives, African monkeys and great apes. It was hypothesized that commercially available serological tests detect simian anti-T. pallidum antibody in serum samples of baboons, with comparable sensitivity and specificity to their results on human sera. Test performances of five different treponemal tests (TTs) and two non-treponemal tests (NTTs) were evaluated using serum samples of 57 naturally T. pallidum-infected olive baboons (Papio anubis) from Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. The T. pallidum particle agglutination assay (TP-PA) was used as a gold standard for comparison. In addition, the overall infection status of the animals was used to further validate test performances. For most accurate results, only samples that originated from baboons of known infection status, as verified in a previous study by clinical inspection, PCR and immunohistochemistry, were included. All tests, TTs and NTTs, used in this study were able to reliably detect antibodies against T. pallidum in serum samples of infected baboons. The sensitivity of TTs ranged from 97.7-100%, while specificity was between 88.0-100.0%. The two NTTs detected anti-lipoidal antibodies in serum samples of infected baboons with a sensitivity of 83.3% whereas specificity was 100%. For screening purposes, the TT Espline TP provided the highest sensitivity and specificity and at the same time provided the most suitable format for use in the field. The enzyme immune assay Mastblot TP (IgG), however, could be considered as a confirmatory test.

  9. Seroreactivity and immunogenicity of Tp0965, a hypothetical membrane protein of Treponema pallidum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Fu-quan; ZHANG Jin-ping; SHANG Guang-dong; SHANG Shu-xian; GONG Kuang-long; WANG Qian-qiu

    2012-01-01

    Background Treponema pallidum (T.pallidum) subsp.pallidum is the causative agent of syphilis.Analysis of recombinant antigens of T.pallidum led to the identification of potential candidate antigens for vaccine development and syphilis serodiagnosis.Tp0965 was predicted to be a membrane fusion protein and was found to be reactive with infected human sera in previous studies,but the results were controversial.In this research,the antigenicity and immunoreactivity of recombinant protein Tp0965 were assessed.Methods T.pallidum subsp.pallidum (Nichols strain) was propagated and isolated and the genomic DNA was extracted.The Tp0965 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Then the recombinant protein Tp0965 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) purification system.The reactivities of protein Tp0965 were examined by immunoblot analysis and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.The antisera against protein Tp0965 were obtained by immune rabbits and the immunogenicity of antisera were detected by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results Recombinant protein Tp0965 was expressed successfully in vitro.Immunoblot assay showed that the recombinant protein Tp0965 could be recognized by human syphilitic sera of all stages.Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed there were only 4 of 74 human syphilitic sera that failed to show reactivity to recombinant antigen Tp0965,and lack of reactivity of Tp0965 to all 28 uninfected sera.A low titer of antiserum against Tp0965 in immune rabbits could be detected after the third time of immunization.Conclusions The recombinant antigen Tp0965 shows excellent sensitivity for the reactivity with sera from syphilitic individuals at all stages.The results also demonstrate a potential application for the serodiagnosis of syphilis.

  10. Serology of Treponema pallidum infection: methodological considerations and seroprevalence in selected Italian populations

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    Claudio Galli

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available An increase of syphilis incidence in recent years has been reported throughout Europe and also in Italy. The advent of automated serological assays for the detection of anti-Treopnema pallidum antibodies increases the sensitivity and the reproducibility of antibody detection: one of such methods (the chemiluminescent Architect Syphilis TP assay has been evaluated in a multisite study, that involved 22 Italian laboratories, on 62,036 serum specimens obtained from blood donors (n= 44,884, from hospital in- or outpatients at low (n= 16,482 or high (n= 284 risk for treponemal infection and from 386 patients already diagnosed with syphilis at different stages. The Architect Syphilis assay showed a good reproducibility both on controls (718 replicates, CV of 14.4% on negative and of 12.7% on positive control and on clinical specimens (93 samples, CV of 3.61%. The sensitivity on syphilis cases was 99.73% compared to 99.43% by other EIAs, and the specificity on 44,898 blood donors was 99.67%.The positive predictive value was related to the signal of the Architect assay (4.3% for sample to cutoff (S/CO values 3. The positivity rates for anti-Treponema pallidum antibodies were 0.15% in blood donors, 3.46% among low risk subjects and 16.90% among patients at high risk for syphilis infection. The high prevalence in low risk groups enhances the need for a surveillance of syphilis, that appears to increase in the general population, with sensitive first-level assays. An appropriate algorithm for confirmation of low positive results by Western blot testing should be envisioned.

  11. A presença de patógenos respiratórios no biofilme bucal de pacientes com pneumonia nosocomial Presence of respiratory pathogens in the oral biofilm of patients with nosocomial pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Cláudio Borges Silva de Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    pode servir de reservatório para micro-organismos associados com pneumonia nosocomial.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hospitalized patients receiving treatment at intensive care units (ICU usually show poor oral hygiene, and may have the mouth and oropharingeal region colonized by pathogens involved in nosocomial pneumonia. The presence of these pathogens may increase the risk for respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of respiratory pathogens in the oral cavity of hospitalized patients at ICU. METHODS: Were included in the study 30 patients from Hospital Raul Sertã, Nova Friburgo, with the diagnostic of nosocomial pneumonia, and tracheal aspirate samples were cultured to identify the causing microorganisms. In addition, microbiological samples from supragingival dental plaque, tongue and respiratory tube were cultured for the presence of a panel of respiratory pathogens. RESULTS: The most frequently found bacteria in the tracheal aspirate were S. Pneumoniae 23.3% (7, P. aeruginosa 20% (6, S. aureus 13.3% (4, K. pneumoniae 13.3% (4, C. albicans 6.6% (2, a-hemolytic streptococcus 6.6% (2, Staphylococcus sp. 6.6% (2, A. calcoaceticus 3.3% (1, E. coli 3.3% (1 and E. cloacae 3.3% (1. 70% (21 of these microorganisms were found in the dental biofilm, 63.33% (19 in tongue samples; 73.33% (22 in the respiratory tube; and 43.33% (13 in all sampling sites simultaneously. No differences in proportions could be observed between the sampling sites (p > 0.05 CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that respiratory pathogens associated with nosocomial pneumonia are present in the oral biofilm of hospitalized patients in ICU, which may serve as a reservoir for these microorganisms.

  12. Oral dirofilariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahija Janardhanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis affecting animals can rarely cause infections in human beings through the accidental bite of potential vectors. The resulting infection in man, known as zoonotic filariasis occur worldwide. Human dirofilariasis, the most common zoonotic filariasis, is caused by the filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Dirofilarial worms, which are recognized as pathogenic in man can cause nodular lesions in the lung, subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity or eyes. Oral dirofilariasis is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. We report an interesting case of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens involving buccal mucosa in a patient who presented with a facial swelling. The clinical features, diagnostic issues and treatment aspects are discussed. This paper stresses the importance of considering dirofilariasis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous swelling of the face, especially in areas where it is endemic.

  13. Identification of periodontal pathogens in atherosclerotic vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Larsen, Tove; Christiansen, Natalia

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that periodontitis may be associated with presence of atherosclerosis. DNA from periodontal pathogens has been detected in atherosclerotic lesions, but viable oral bacteria have not yet been isolated from atherosclerotic plaques. The purpose of the present study...... was to determine if viable oral bacteria could be isolated from atherosclerotic lesions and if DNA from periodontal pathogens could be detected by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques....

  14. Genomics of oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Margaret J

    2003-01-01

    Advances in bacterial genetics came with the discovery of the genetic code, followed by the development of recombinant DNA technologies. Now the field is undergoing a new revolution because of investigators' ability to sequence and assemble complete bacterial genomes. Over 200 genome projects have been completed or are in progress, and the oral microbiology research community has benefited through projects for oral bacteria and their non-oral-pathogen relatives. This review describes features of several oral bacterial genomes, and emphasizes the themes of species relationships, comparative genomics, and lateral gene transfer. Genomics is having a broad impact on basic research in microbial pathogenesis, and will lead to new approaches in clinical research and therapeutics. The oral microbiota is a unique community especially suited for new challenges to sequence the metagenomes of microbial consortia, and the genomes of uncultivable bacteria.

  15. Oral microbiota and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka H. Meurman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several oral micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor oral health and the prevalence of oral and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in oral microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control oral microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion.

  16. TpF1 from Treponema pallidum activates inflammasome and promotes the development of regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babolin, Chiara; Amedei, Amedeo; Ozolins, Dzintars; Zilevica, Aija; D'Elios, Mario Milco; de Bernard, Marina

    2011-08-01

    Human syphilis is a multistage disease, with diverse and wide-ranging manifestations caused by Treponema pallidum. Despite the fact that a cell-mediated immune response takes part in the course of syphilis, T. pallidum often manages to evade host immunity and, in untreated individuals, may trigger chronic infection. With this study, we demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that Treponema pallidum induces a regulatory T (Treg) response in patients with secondary syphilis and we found that the miniferritin TpF1, produced by the bacterium, is able to expand this response and promote the production of TGF-β. Accordingly, TpF1 stimulates monocytes to release IL-10 and TGF-β, the key cytokines in driving Treg cell differentiation. Interestingly, we also found that TpF1 stimulates monocytes to synthesize and release several proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, the latter following the activation of the multiprotein complex inflammasome. Collectively, these data strongly support a central role for TpF1 both in the inflammation process, which occurs in particular during the early stage of syphilis, and in the long-term persistence of the spirochete within the host by promoting Treg response and TGF-β production.

  17. Evaluation of the Determine Syphilis TP assay for the detection of antibodies against Treponema pallidum for the serodiagnosis of syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Y-H; Tian, Y; Chen, Y; Tang, J; Wang, J-Q; Li, P; Li, Q; Jiang, Y-Q

    2012-06-01

    Currently, infectious syphilis has been resurgent in China and has become a significant public health problem. The rapid expansion of syphilis screening programs is urgently required. In the present study, the performance of the Determine Syphilis TP assay (Determine TP assay) for the detection of antibodies against Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum) for syphilis serodiagnosis was evaluated. In total, 300 serum samples were tested for the presence of treponemal-specific antibodies using the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay, the Determine TP assay, and the InTec immunochromatography assay (InTec assay). The Determine TP assay detected 99, 11, and 5 positive results, whereas the InTec assay detected 97, 3, and 3 positive samples from group I (100 TPPA-positive sera), group II (13 TPPA 1:80 +/- sera), and group III (187 TPPA-negative sera), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and the rate concordant with TPPA for the Determine TP assay were 97.35, 98.91, and 97.33%, respectively. In comparison to the TPPA, the Determine TP assay is simple to perform and time-saving, making it a favorable alternative for the detection of T. pallidum-specific antibodies where other T. pallidum-specific confirmatory tests are not available. In addition, this rapid treponemal test promotes prompt treatment for syphilis by providing early laboratory diagnosis.

  18. [MICROFLORA AND ORAL DISEASE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavkin, A I; Ippolitov, Y A; Aleshina, E O; Komarova O N

    2015-01-01

    Acid-producing microorganisms are base etiological agents of lesions of tooth enamel and destruction of dentin. The process start by specific microflora of tooth deposit--Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacteria and Actinomycetis viscosus which ferment food carbogydrate to form acids. High titre of them in oral cavity may be considered like a marker of carbohydrate food. But the pathogenic bacteria don't have aggression to host organism until they will have virulent factors which help to get over protection of host organism. At the same time, microflora of oral cavity is involved to form pellicula. Pellicula is a biofilm which to protect tooth enamel and dentin. Understanding relationships between safety factors of host and pathogenic microflora of oral cavity will give to create effective methods of prevention and treatment.

  19. High Prevalence of Antibodies against the Bacterium Treponema pallidum in Senegalese Guinea Baboons (Papio papio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Knauf

    Full Text Available The bacterium Treponema pallidum is known to cause syphilis (ssp. pallidum, yaws (ssp. pertenue, and endemic syphilis (ssp. endemicum in humans. Nonhuman primates have also been reported to be infected with the bacterium with equally versatile clinical manifestations, from severe skin ulcerations to asymptomatic. At present all simian strains are closely related to human yaws-causing strains, an important consideration for yaws eradication. We tested clinically healthy Guinea baboons (Papio papio at Parc National Niokolo Koba in south eastern Senegal for the presence of anti-T. pallidum antibodies. Since T. pallidum infection in this species was identified 50 years ago, and there has been no attempt to treat non-human primates for infection, it was hypothesized that a large number of West African baboons are still infected with simian strains of the yaws-bacterium. All animals were without clinical signs of treponematoses, but 18 of 20 (90% baboons tested positive for antibodies against T. pallidum based on treponemal tests. Yet, Guinea baboons seem to develop no clinical symptoms, though it must be assumed that infection is chronic or comparable to the latent stage in human yaws infection. The non-active character is supported by the low anti-T. pallidum serum titers in Guinea baboons (median = 1:2,560 versus serum titers that are found in genital-ulcerated olive baboons with active infection in Tanzania (range of medians among the groups of initial, moderate, and severe infected animals = 1:15,360 to 1:2.097e+7. Our findings provide evidence for simian infection with T. pallidum in wild Senegalese baboons. Potentially, Guinea baboons in West Africa serve as a natural reservoir for human infection, as the West African simian strain has been shown to cause sustainable yaws infection when inoculated into humans. The present study pinpoints an area where further research is needed to support the currently on-going second WHO led yaws eradication

  20. Microbial diagnosis of periodontal pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Miragliotta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Periodontal disease is related to the chronic inflammation involving the supporting structures of the teeth (periodontium. Beginning and progression of disease are closely associated with the presence of anaerobic Gram negative bacteria in the gingival crevice. Because of the complexity of this flora, its identification requires either traditional methods (i.e. microscopy and cultural methods or molecular approach (PCR, Polymerase Chain Reaction in order to achieve results that may be useful from a clinical point of view.We have studied the flora from periodontal pockets of 41 subjects with a clinical diagnosis of periodontitis. Methods The subgingival samples were collected using sterile paper points inserted subgingivally and inoculated onto appropriate plating media: blood agar, kanamycin vancomycin laked blood (KVLB, and NOS medium (New Oral Spirochetes.After incubation in anaerobic environment, a detailed colony description was recorded in particular with regard to size, shape, color, and pigment.The identification was performed by API20 system (bioMérieux. Molecular study was carried out by PCR method, using whole genomic DNA. Results Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythensis, and Treponema denticola were the most commonly strains isolated. Conclusions Both traditional and molecular approach are needed to identify the bacterial flora associated with periodontal disease. This approach represents an important strategy to either support the clinical diagnosis or control the extent of the disease. Furthermore, the possibility to evaluate the susceptibility pattern of antibiotic resistance among bacterial isolates might be important in view of the new antibiotic resistance recently described for those periodontal bacteria.

  1. Identification of a novel, invasive, not-yet-cultivated Treponema sp in the large intestine of pigs by PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, Lars; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Jensen, Tim Kåre;

    2006-01-01

    Laser capture microdissection in combination with fluorescent in situ hybridization was used to identify an unknown species of spirochetes from the pig colonic mucosa. The 16S rRNA gene was PCR amplified, and the closest related type strain was Treponema bryantii(T) (90.1%). The spirochete, here...

  2. Rho GTPases as pathogen targets: Focus on curable sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Cristián A; Tudela, Julián Gambarte; Damiani, María T

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens have evolved highly specialized mechanisms to infect hosts. Several microorganisms modulate the eukaryotic cell surface to facilitate their engulfment. Once internalized, they hijack the molecular machinery of the infected cell for their own benefit. At different stages of phagocytosis, particularly during invasion, certain pathogens manipulate pathways governed by small GTPases. In this review, we focus on the role of Rho proteins on curable, sexually transmitted infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis and Treponema pallidum. Despite the high, worldwide frequencies of these sexually-transmitted diseases, very little is known about the strategies developed by these microorganisms to usurp key eukaryotic proteins that control intracellular signaling and actin dynamics. Improved knowledge of these molecular mechanisms will contribute to the elucidation of how these clinically important pathogens manipulate intracellular processes and parasitize their hosts.

  3. Rho GTPases as pathogen targets: Focus on curable sexually transmitted infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Cristián A; Tudela, Julián Gambarte; Damiani, María T

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens have evolved highly specialized mechanisms to infect hosts. Several microorganisms modulate the eukaryotic cell surface to facilitate their engulfment. Once internalized, they hijack the molecular machinery of the infected cell for their own benefit. At different stages of phagocytosis, particularly during invasion, certain pathogens manipulate pathways governed by small GTPases. In this review, we focus on the role of Rho proteins on curable, sexually transmitted infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis and Treponema pallidum. Despite the high, worldwide frequencies of these sexually-transmitted diseases, very little is known about the strategies developed by these microorganisms to usurp key eukaryotic proteins that control intracellular signaling and actin dynamics. Improved knowledge of these molecular mechanisms will contribute to the elucidation of how these clinically important pathogens manipulate intracellular processes and parasitize their hosts. PMID:26023809

  4. Pathogen intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Different species inhabit different sensory worlds and thus have evolved diverse means of processing information, learning and memory. In the escalated arms race with host defense, each pathogenic bacterium not only has evolved its individual cellular sensing and behavior, but also collective sensing, interbacterial communication, distributed information processing, joint decision making, dissociative behavior, and the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity necessary for epidemiologic success. Moreover, pathogenic populations take advantage of dormancy strategies and rapid evolutionary speed, which allow them to save co-generated intelligent traits in a collective genomic memory. This review discusses how these mechanisms add further levels of complexity to bacterial pathogenicity and transmission, and how mining for these mechanisms could help to develop new anti-infective strategies. PMID:24551600

  5. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Treponema denticola / Prevotella intermedia Co-Infection Are Associated with Severe Periodontitis in a Thai Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitti Torrungruang

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is a polymicrobial infection of tooth-supporting tissues. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the associations between five target species and severe periodontitis in a Thai population. Using the CDC/AAP case definition, individuals diagnosed with no/mild and severe periodontitis were included. Quantitative analyses of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg, Tannerella forsythia (Tf, Treponema denticola (Td, and Prevotella intermedia (Pi in subgingival plaque were performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The association between target species and severe periodontitis was examined using logistic regression analysis. The study subjects comprised 479 individuals with no/mild periodontitis and 883 with severe periodontitis. Bacterial prevalence and quantity were higher in subjects with severe periodontitis than in those with no/mild disease. In the fully adjusted model, all species except Tf showed a dose-dependent relationship with periodontitis. The mere presence of Pg, even in low amount, was significantly associated with severe periodontitis, while the amount of Aa, Td, and Pi had to reach the critical thresholds to be significantly associated with disease. Compared to individuals with low levels of both Td and Pi, high colonization by either Td or Pi alone significantly increased the odds of having severe periodontitis by 2.5 (95%CI 1.7-3.5 folds. The odds ratio was further increased to 14.8 (95%CI 9.2-23.8 in individuals who were highly colonized by both species. Moreover, the presence of Pg and high colonization by Aa were independently associated with severe periodontitis with odds ratios of 5.6 (95%CI 3.4-9.1 and 2.2 (95%CI 1.5-3.3, respectively. Our findings suggest that the presence of Pg and high colonization by Aa, Td, and Pi play an important role in severe periodontitis in this study population. We also demonstrate for the first time that individuals co-infected with

  6. 杭州市中年居民牙周病流行情况及口腔病原菌检测分析%Analysis of middle-aged residents periodontal disease epidemic survey and oral pathogenic bacteria detection in Hangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡振宇

    2013-01-01

    目的:调查杭州市中年居民个人口腔卫生习惯,牙周病原菌在其口腔中的分布.方法-:400例杭州市居民进行口腔卫生习惯,口腔卫生指数(OHI-S)、牙龈指数(GI)、探诊出血(BOP)、牙周袋探诊深度(PD)、临床附着丧失(CAL)、松动度(M)及余牙数问卷调查,检测牙周病原菌.结果:个人口腔卫生习惯,卫生状况以及牙周健康程度有显著差别性;菌群分布不一.结论:个人口腔卫生习惯和口腔卫生状况同职业具有一定相关性,需要加强口腔预防工作,积极开展社区口腔卫生服务,降低牙周病发病率.%Objective:To investigate the individual oral hygiene habits and periodontal pathogens distribution in middle-aged residents in Hangzhou city.Methods:Four hundred residents were involved in this questionnaire investigation,including the oral hygiene habits,oral hygiene index(OHI-S),gingival index(GI),ground diagnostics hemorrhage (BOP),periodontal pocket depth of diagnostic agents (PD),clinical attachment loss (CAL),mobility degree (M) and rest teeth number,and the periodontal pathogens were detected too.Results:The personal oral hygiene habit,hygiene situation and periodontal health degree had significant difference among the 400 respondents,and the pathogens distribution was found vary.Conclusion:The personal oral hygiene habit and hygiene situation has a certain correlation to career.It is necessary to strengthen oral prevention and carry out community oral hygiene service to reduce the incidence of periodontal diseases.

  7. Oral Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Oral Medication The first treatment for type 2 diabetes blood ... new — even over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money ...

  8. Pathogenic microbial flora of genital ulcers in Sheffield with particular reference to herpes simplex virus and Haemophilus ducreyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinghorn, G R; Hafiz, S; McEntegart, M G

    1982-12-01

    The pathogenic microbial flora of genital ulcers in 161 (80 men and 81 women) unselected patients was studied prospectively. In only one case was Treponema pallidum responsible whereas herpes simplex virus was considered to be the cause of 130 (80.8%) genital ulcers. H ducreyi was isolated from 46 (28.6%) patients, most commonly as a secondary pathogen in herpetic lesions. Two or more pathogens were isolated from the ulcers in 67 (41.6%) patients, and in 21 (13%) patients no pathogens were isolated. Our results indicate an urgent need for antiviral treatment to reduce the local reservoir of genital herpes, challenge traditional concepts about the prevalence of H ducreyi in Britain, and call for a reappraisal of its role in the causation of genital ulcers.

  9. Oral myiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Thalaimalai Saravanan; Mathan A Mohan; Meera Thinakaran; Saneem Ahammed

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability ...

  10. Syphilis and HIV co-infection. Epidemiology, treatment and molecular typing of Treponema pallidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2015-12-01

    The studies included in this PhD thesis examined the interactions of syphilis, which is caused by Treponema pallidum, and HIV. Syphilis reemerged worldwide in the late 1990s and hereafter increasing rates of early syphilis were also reported in Denmark. The proportion of patients with concurrent HIV has been substantial, ranging from one third to almost two thirds of patients diagnosed with syphilis some years. Given that syphilis facilitates transmission and acquisition of HIV the two sexually transmitted diseases are of major public health concern. Further, syphilis has a negative impact on HIV infection, resulting in increasing viral loads and decreasing CD4 cell counts during syphilis infection. Likewise, HIV has an impact on the clinical course of syphilis; patients with concurrent HIV are thought to be at increased risk of neurological complications and treatment failure. Almost ten per cent of Danish men with syphilis acquired HIV infection within five years after they were diagnosed with syphilis during an 11-year study period. Interestingly, the risk of HIV declined during the later part of the period. Moreover, HIV-infected men had a substantial increased risk of re-infection with syphilis compared to HIV-uninfected men. As one third of the HIV-infected patients had viral loads >1,000 copies/ml, our conclusion supported the initiation of cART in more HIV-infected MSM to reduce HIV transmission. During a five-year study period, including the majority of HIV-infected patients from the Copenhagen area, we observed that syphilis was diagnosed in the primary, secondary, early and late latent stage. These patients were treated with either doxycycline or penicillin and the rate of treatment failure was similar in the two groups, indicating that doxycycline can be used as a treatment alternative - at least in an HIV-infected population. During a four-year study period, the T. pallidum strain type distribution was investigated among patients diagnosed by PCR

  11. Molecular subtyping of Treponema pallidum during a local syphilis epidemic in men who have sex with men in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzato, Francesca; Ryan, Norbert; Fyfe, Janet; Leslie, David E

    2012-06-01

    Treponema pallidum is the causative agent of syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection of significant public health importance. Since 2000 there has been a marked increase in the number of cases of syphilis infections notified in Victoria, Australia, with the majority of cases occurring in men who have sex with men (MSM) and the highest incidence being in HIV-infected MSM. The molecular subtyping method described by Pillay et al. (A. Pillay et al., Sex. Transm. Dis. 25:408-414, 1998) has been used in this study to determine the diversity of T. pallidum subtypes circulating locally and to look for any relationship between T. pallidum subtypes and HIV status over a 6-year period (2004 to 2009). Treponema pallidum DNA was detected in 303 patient specimens (n = 3,652), and full subtyping profiles were obtained from 90 of these (from 88 patients). A total of 11 T. pallidum subtypes were identified: types 14e (28, 31.1%), 14d (15, 16.7%), 14k (13, 14.4%), 14p (12, 13.3%), 14i (7, 7.8%) 14b (6, 6.7%), 14l (5, 5.6%), and 12i, 13b, 13i, and 13e (1 each, 1.1%). This study showed a similar level of variation among circulating T. pallidum strains compared with that in other studies using the same methodology. A different mix of strains and different predominating strains have been found at each geographical study location, with type 14e emerging as the predominant local strain in Victoria. There was no detectable trend between T. pallidum subtypes and the specimen collection site or stage of syphilis (where known), nor was there any relationship between particular strains and HIV status.

  12. Whole genome sequence of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum, strain Mexico A, suggests recombination between yaws and syphilis strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Pětrošová

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA, the causative agent of syphilis, and Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue (TPE, the causative agent of yaws, are closely related spirochetes causing diseases with distinct clinical manifestations. The TPA Mexico A strain was isolated in 1953 from male, with primary syphilis, living in Mexico. Attempts to cultivate TPA Mexico A strain under in vitro conditions have revealed lower growth potential compared to other tested TPA strains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The complete genome sequence of the TPA Mexico A strain was determined using the Illumina sequencing technique. The genome sequence assembly was verified using the whole genome fingerprinting technique and the final sequence was annotated. The genome size of the Mexico A strain was determined to be 1,140,038 bp with 1,035 predicted ORFs. The Mexico A genome sequence was compared to the whole genome sequences of three TPA (Nichols, SS14 and Chicago and three TPE (CDC-2, Samoa D and Gauthier strains. No large rearrangements in the Mexico A genome were found and the identified nucleotide changes occurred most frequently in genes encoding putative virulence factors. Nevertheless, the genome of the Mexico A strain, revealed two genes (TPAMA_0326 (tp92 and TPAMA_0488 (mcp2-1 which combine TPA- and TPE- specific nucleotide sequences. Both genes were found to be under positive selection within TPA strains and also between TPA and TPE strains. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The observed mosaic character of the TPAMA_0326 and TPAMA_0488 loci is likely a result of inter-strain recombination between TPA and TPE strains during simultaneous infection of a single host suggesting horizontal gene transfer between treponemal subspecies.

  13. 老年患者梅毒螺旋体抗体阳性临床分析%Clinical analysis of positive Treponema pallidum antibody in elderly patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱守兰; 邢丽华; 杜华杰; 周淑芬

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical significance of positive anti - Treponema pallidum. (TP) antibody in elderly patients. Methods The samples of positive Treponema pallidum antibody from 98 elderly patients were screened by enzyme linked immune adsorption assay ( ELISA) before the positive samples underwent Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA) and rapid plasma regaining detection diagnostic tests ( RPR). All the experimental results were statistically analyzed. Results Among the 98 TP - ELISA positive samples, TPHA was confirmed in 48 cases, the positive coincidence rate being 48. 98%. RPR was detected in 44 cases, 16 of whom were confirmed positive by TPHA. Conclusions The body of elderly patients has anti - Iipid antibodies and anti -TP antibodies. The presence of positive Treponema pallidum antibody cannot be interpreted as hard evidence of infection with syphilis.%目的 探讨老年患者梅毒螺旋体( Treponema pallidum,TP)抗体阳性的临床价值.方法 对98例老年人采用酶联免疫吸附试验( ELISA)筛查梅毒抗体阳性标本,分别进行梅毒螺旋体血球凝集试验(treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay,TPHA)检测和快速血浆反应素诊断试验(rapid plasma regaining,RPR)检测,对实验结果 进行统计分析.结果 98例TP- ELISA阳性标本,用TPHA法检测阳性48例,阳性符合率48.98%.RPR法检测阳性44例,该44例仅16例用TPHA确证阳性.结论 老年人梅毒血清学试验阳性,只提示其体内有抗类脂抗体或抗TP抗体存在,不能作为感染梅毒螺旋体的绝对依据.

  14. Pathogen Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Irudayaraj

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of sensors for detecting foodborne pathogens has been motivated by the need to produce safe foods and to provide better healthcare. However, in the more recent times, these needs have been expanded to encompass issues relating to biosecurity, detection of plant and soil pathogens, microbial communities, and the environment. The range of technologies that currently flood the sensor market encompass PCR and microarray-based methods, an assortment of optical sensors (including bioluminescence and fluorescence, in addition to biosensor-based approaches that include piezoelectric, potentiometric, amperometric, and conductometric sensors to name a few. More recently, nanosensors have come into limelight, as a more sensitive and portable alternative, with some commercial success. However, key issues affecting the sensor community is the lack of standardization of the testing protocols and portability, among other desirable elements, which include timeliness, cost-effectiveness, user-friendliness, sensitivity and specificity. [...

  15. [Antagonism of lactobacilli, oral streptococci and staphylococci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervinets, Iu V; Beliaeva, E A; Ganina, E B; Troshin, A V; Chervinets, A V

    2015-01-01

    From the oral cavity of healthy young people aged 18-22 years there were isolated 26 strains of lactobacilli, 28 streptococci, including the pathogenic and opportunistic strains, and 32 strains of staphylococci, 10 of which were methicillin-resistant S.aureus. Oral lactobacilli possessed by a high probiotic potential, showing high antagonism to methicillin-resistant staphylococci, pathogenic and opportunistic streptococci and enterococci. Oral lactobacilli showed medium and high adhesive activity that determines their high adaptive capacity. Staphylococci and streptococci in 90.3% of cases have not an antagonistic effect on lactobacilli. Isolated lactobacilli can be used as probiotic strains for oral administration.

  16. A multicenter prospective trial to asses a new real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex-1/2 and Haemophilus ducreyi in genital, anal and oropharyngeal ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, M; Juricevic, N; Altwegg, M; Bruisten, S; Komericki, P; Lautenschlager, S; Weber, R; Bosshard, P P

    2014-12-01

    Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex virus types 1 or 2 (HSV-1/2) and Haemophilus ducreyi are sexually transmitted pathogens that can cause genital, anal and oropharyngeal ulcers. Laboratory evaluation of these pathogens in ulcers requires different types of specimens and tests, increasing the risk of improper specimen handling and time lapse until analysis. We sought to develop a new real-time PCR (TP-HD-HSV1/2 PCR) to facilitate the detection of T. pallidum, HSV-1/2 and H. ducreyi in ulcers. The TP-HD-HSV1/2 PCR was tested (i) in a retrospective study on 193 specimens of various clinical origin and (ii) in a prospective study on 36 patients with genital, anal or oropharyngeal ulcers (ClinicalTrials.gov # NCT01688258). The results of the TP-HD-HSV1/2 PCR were compared with standard diagnostic methods (T. pallidum: serology, dark field microscopy; HSV-1/2: PCR; H. ducreyi: cultivation). Sensitivity and specificity of the TP-HD-HSV1/2 PCR for T. pallidum were both 100%, for HSV-1 100% and 98%, and for HSV-2 100% and 98%, respectively. T. pallidum and HSV-1/2 were detected in 53% and 22% of patients in the prospective study; H. ducreyi was not detected. In the prospective study, 5/19 (26%) specimens were true positive for T. pallidum in the TP-HD-HSV1/2 PCR but non-reactive in the VDRL. The TP-HD-HSV1/2 PCR is sensitive and specific for the detection of T. pallidum and HSV-1/2 in routine clinical practice and it appears superior to serology in early T. pallidum infections.

  17. Polybacterial Periodontal Pathogens Alter Vascular and Gut BH4/nNOS/NRF2-Phase II Enzyme Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandu Gangula

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is a highly prevalent chronic inflammatory disease and is associated with complex microbial infection in the subgingival cavity. Recently, American Heart Association supported a century old association between periodontal disease and atherosclerotic vascular disease. We have recently shown that polybacterial periodontal infection led to aortic atherosclerosis and modulation of lipid profiles; however the underlying mechanism(s has not been yet demonstrated. Altered nitric oxide (NO synthesis and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4, a cofactor for nitric oxide synthases (NOS has long been shown to be associated with vascular dysfunction and gastrointestinal motility disorders. We sought to examine the mechanism of periodontal infection leading to altered vascular and gastrointestinal smooth muscle relaxation, focusing on the BH4/nNOS pathways. In addition, we also have investigated how the antioxidant system (NRF2-Phase II enzyme expression in vascular and GI specimens is altered by oral infection. Eight week old male ApoEnull mice were either sham-infected or infected orally for 16 weeks with a mixture of major periodontal bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia to induce experimental periodontitis. Serum, vascular (mesenteric, stomach, and colon specimens were collected at the end of periodontal pathogen infection. Bacterial infection induced significant (p<0.05 reductions in the levels of BH4,in ratio of BH4:BH2+B and also in nitric oxide levels compared to sham-infected controls. In addition, we identified a significant (p<0.05 reduction in eNOS dimerization, nNOS dimerization and protein expression of BH4 biosynthesis enzymes; GCH-1, DHFR and NRF2 & Phase II enzymes in infected mice versus controls in both mesenteric artery and colon tissues. However, we found no differences in nNOS/BH4 protein expression in stomach tissues of infected and sham-infected mice. This suggests that a polybacterial

  18. 梅毒螺旋体检测方法及其临床应用%Methods for detection of Treponema pallidum and their clinical applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金涛

    2011-01-01

    Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease which harms people's health seriously. To understand and to gasp methods for detection of Treponema pallidum have an important significance for discovery and control of syphilis in the early stage. This article reviews methods for detection of Treponema pallidum and their clinical applications.%梅毒是一种严重危害人民健康的性传播疾病,了解并掌握梅毒螺旋体检测方法对早期发现和控制梅毒具有重要的意义.此文就梅毒螺旋体检测方法及其临床应用作一综述.

  19. Prevalence of Treponema pallidum DNA among blood donors with two different serologic tests profiles for syphilis in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, S C; de Almeida-Neto, C; Nishiya, A S; Di-Lorenzo-Oliveira, C; Ferreira, J E; Alencar, C S; Levi, J E; Salles, N A; Mendrone-Junior, A; Sabino, E C

    2014-05-01

    The presence of Treponema pallidum DNA was assessed by real-time PCR in samples of blood donors with reactive serologic tests for syphilis. Treponema pallidum DNA was detected in two (1·02%) of 197 samples of VDRL>8, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ donors, and in no sample from 80 VDRL−, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ donors. Donors VDRL−, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ lack demonstrable T. pallidum DNA in their blood and are unlike to transmit syphilis. Donors VDRL>8, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ carry the risk of syphilis infectivity even in concomitance to antibodies detection. Serologic screening for syphilis may still play a role to prevent its transfusion transmission.

  20. Oral health disparities in older adults: oral bacteria, inflammation, and aspiration pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannapieco, Frank A; Shay, Kenneth

    2014-10-01

    Poor oral hygiene has been suggested to be a risk factor for aspiration pneumonia in the institutionalized and disabled elderly. Control of oral biofilm formation in these populations reduces the numbers of potential respiratory pathogens in the oral secretions, which in turn reduces the risk for pneumonia. Together with other preventive measures, improved oral hygiene helps to control lower respiratory infections in frail elderly hospital and nursing home patients.

  1. Methodological study on detection of Treponema pallidum DNA with nested PCR%巢式PCR检测梅毒螺旋体DNA方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佃鹏; 易娟; 张艳芳; 汤海燕; 邓丽丹; 罗斌; 李培茂; 张志敏; 童向东

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for detecting serum Treponema pallidum DNA with nested PCR detection. Methods Serum Treponema pallidum DNA was extracted on the basis of chemical pyrolysis method and principles of nucleic acid extraction column. According to the literature,primers were screened and optimized and established the nested PCR detection system. The fingdings of specificity,anti-interference and gradient test were evaluated,and the clinical specimens were tested. Results This experimental method was extremely specific and showed a strong anti-interference features. The clinical detection showed that the samples with syphilis toluidine red untreated serum test (TRUST)titre 1:8 or above were all positive. Conclusion Both serum Treponema pallidum DNA extraction and nested PCR detection allow rapidly diagnosis of syphilis and that show great potential for confirming proliferative ability of Treponema pallidum in blood.%目的 建立一种血清梅毒螺旋体DNA提取及PCR鉴定方法.方法 基于化学热裂解法和柱式核酸提取原理进行血清梅毒螺旋体DNA提取.根据文献筛选优化引物建立巢式PCR检测体系,并对实验方法的特异性、抗干扰性、检测梯度进行评价.结果 建立的实验方法特异性好、抗干扰性强,对TRUST为1∶8以上的标本检测全部为阳性.结论 提取梅毒螺旋体DNA及PCR鉴定有助于梅毒的快速诊断,对于血液中梅毒螺旋体增殖能力判断具有重大潜在应用价值.

  2. Performance of the 47-kilodalton membrane protein versus DNA polymerase I genes for detection of Treponema pallidum by PCR in ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayet-Ageron, Angèle; Laurent, Frédéric; Schrenzel, Jacques; Charton, Béatrice; Jimenez-Getaz, Gisela; Tangomo, Manuela; Ferry, Tristan; Sednaoui, Patrice; Lautenschlager, Stephan; Toutous-Trellu, Laurence; Martinez de Tejada, Begoña; Cavassini, Matthias; Emonet, Stéphane; Perneger, Thomas; Salord, Hélène

    2015-03-01

    Treponema pallidum PCR (Tp-PCR) is a direct diagnostic method for primary and secondary syphilis, but there is no recommendation regarding the best choice of target gene. In this study, we sequentially tested 272 specimens from patients with sexually transmitted ulcers using Tp-PCR targeting the tpp47 and then polA genes. The two methods showed similar accuracies and an almost-perfect agreement.

  3. Involvement of lipopolysaccharide binding protein, CD14, and Toll-like receptors in the initiation of innate immune responses by Treponema glycolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, N W; Opitz, B; Lamping, N; Michelsen, K S; Zähringer, U; Göbel, U B; Schumann, R R

    2000-09-01

    Culture supernatants from Treponema maltophilum associated with periodontitis in humans and Treponema brennaborense found in a bovine cattle disease accompanied with cachexia caused a dose-dependent TNF-alpha synthesis in human monocytes increasing with culture time. This activity could be reduced significantly by blocking the CD14-part of the LPS receptor using the My 4 mAb and by polymyxin B. In the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7, Treponema culture supernatants induced TNF-alpha secretion in a LPS binding protein (LBP)-dependent fashion. To enrich for active compounds, supernatants were extracted with butanol, while whole cells were extracted using a phenol/water method resulting in recovery of material exhibiting a similar activity profile. An LPS-LBP binding competition assay revealed an interaction of the treponeme phenol/water extracts with LBP, while precipitation studies implied an affinity to polymyxin B and endotoxin neutralizing protein. Macrophages obtained from C3H/HeJ mice carrying a Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 mutation were stimulated with treponeme extracts for NO release to assess the role of TLRs in cell activation. Furthermore, NF-kappaB translocation in TLR-2-negative Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was studied. We found that phenol/water-extracts of the two strains use TLRs differently with T. brennaborense-stimulating cells in a TLR-4-dependent fashion, while T. maltophilum-mediated activation apparently involved TLR-2. These results indicate the presence of a novel class of glycolipids in Treponema initiating inflammatory responses involving LBP, CD14, and TLRs.

  4. Gram-negative periodontal pathogens and bacterial endotoxin in metallic orthodontic brackets with or without an antimicrobial agent: an in-vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Valdez, Remberto Marcelo Argandoña; Andrucioli, Marcela Cristina Damião; Saraiva, Maria Conceição Pereira; Feres, Magda; Sorgi, Carlos Artério; Faccioli, Lucia Helena

    2011-12-01

    High levels of periodontal pathogens can cause periodontal alterations. The presence of endotoxin might be responsible for the occurrence and progression of tissue inflammation and bone resorption. The aims of this study were to use checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization and limulus amebocyte lysate assay to evaluate in metallic orthodontic brackets (1) the presence of 16 gram-negative periodontal pathogenic microorganisms of the orange complex and red complex +Treponema socranskii, (2) the amount of bacterial endotoxin, and (3) the efficacy of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash in reducing bacterial contamination and endotoxin amount. Thirty-three patients (ages, 11-33 years) under orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances had 3 new metallic brackets bonded to 3 different premolars. Sixteen patients used a 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash (Periogard, Colgate-Palmolive, São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, Brazil) (experimental group), and 17 patients used a placebo mouthwash (control group) twice a week. After 30 days, the brackets were removed, and the samples were obtained. The data were analyzed statistically by Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and Dunn tests (α = 0.05). The 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate group accumulated significantly lower levels of microorganisms than did the placebo group (P = 0.01). When each microbial complex was analyzed separately, a statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups was found for the orange complex (P = 0.04). A greater amount of bacterial endotoxin was detected in the 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate group than in the control group (P = 0.02). The 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate oral rinses can be useful to reduce the levels of gram-negative periodontal pathogenic microorganisms in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. Considering the increased amount of bacterial endotoxin after chlorhexidine gluconate use, further research is necessary to develop clinical procedures or

  5. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalaimalai Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy.

  6. Diagnostic approaches in unsuspected oral lesions of syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, C S; Saturno, J L; de Sousa, S C O M; da Silveira, F R X

    2014-12-01

    Awareness of the increased prevalence of syphilis is essential for early diagnosis and treatment, and to prevent the spread of the disease. Although serological studies are the primary tool used to confirm the diagnosis of secondary syphilis, biopsy of unsuspected oral lesions is not uncommon in the routine oral pathology laboratory. In these cases, histopathological characteristics are likely to indicate the possibility of syphilis, and an immunohistochemical reaction can confirm it. The aim of the present study was to highlight the histological features and test the efficacy of immunohistochemistry in the detection of Treponema pallidum in oral lesions biopsied with the assumption of a non-syphilitic disease. Thirty-nine tissue samples from patients for whom the possibility of syphilis was suggested on the basis of histopathological findings, were retrieved from the surgical oral pathology service files and submitted to immunohistochemical staining for T. pallidum. The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Eighteen of the tissue samples were positive for T. pallidum. Following this, the contributing clinicians were contacted to check whether they had asked for serological examinations when the diagnostic report was received; for all 18 positive cases, the clinicians confirmed that the patients had tested positive at that time. This study shows the importance of clinical-pathological correlation and the value of immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of unsuspected syphilis. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Oral Thrush

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding mothers In addition to the distinctive white mouth lesions, infants may have trouble feeding or be fussy ... candidiasis (yeast infection) patient information. American Academy of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology. http://www.aaomp.org/public/oral-candidiasis.php. ...

  8. Oral Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    鈴木, 規子; スズキ, ノリコ; Noriko, SUZUKI

    2004-01-01

    The major oral functions can be categorized as mastication, swallowing, speech and respiratory functions. Dysfunction of these results in dysphagia, speech disorders and abnormal respiration (such as Sleep Apnea). These functions relate to dentistry in the occurrence of : (1) oral preparatory and oral phases, (2) articulation disorders and velopharyngeal incompetence (VPI), and (3) mouth breathing, respiratory and blowing disorders. These disorders are related to oral and maxillofacial diseas...

  9. TP0262 is a modulator of promoter activity of tpr Subfamily II genes of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacani, Lorenzo; Godornes, Charmie; Puray-Chavez, Maritza; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Tompa, Martin; Lukehart, Sheila A; Centurion-Lara, Arturo

    2009-06-01

    Transcriptional regulation in Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum is poorly understood, primarily because this organism cannot be cultivated in vitro or genetically manipulated. We have recently shown a phase variation mechanism controlling transcription initiation of Subfamily II tpr (T. pallidumrepeat) genes (tprE, tprG and tprJ), a group of virulence factor candidates. Furthermore, the same study suggested that additional mechanisms might influence the level of transcription of these tprs. The T. pallidum genome sequence has revealed a few open reading frames with similarity to known bacterial transcription factors, including four catabolite activator protein homologues. In this work, sequences matching the Escherichia coli cAMP receptor protein (CRP) binding motif were identified in silico upstream of tprE, tprG and tprJ. Using elecrophoretic mobility shift assay and DNaseI footprinting assay, recombinant TP0262, a T. pallidum CRP homologue, was shown to bind specifically to amplicons obtained from the tpr promoters containing putative CRP binding motifs. Using a heterologous reporter system, binding of TP0262 to these promoters was shown to either increase (tprE and tprJ) or decrease (tprG) tpr promoter activity. This is the first characterization of a T. pallidum transcriptional modulator that influences tpr promoter activity.

  10. Genome-Wide Effects of Selenium and Translational Uncoupling on Transcription in the Termite Gut Symbiont Treponema primitia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Eric G.; Rosenthal, Adam Z.; Zhang, Xinning; Leadbetter, Jared R.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT When prokaryotic cells acquire mutations, encounter translation-inhibiting substances, or experience adverse environmental conditions that limit their ability to synthesize proteins, transcription can become uncoupled from translation. Such uncoupling is known to suppress transcription of protein-encoding genes in bacteria. Here we show that the trace element selenium controls transcription of the gene for the selenocysteine-utilizing enzyme formate dehydrogenase (fdhFSec) through a translation-coupled mechanism in the termite gut symbiont Treponema primitia, a member of the bacterial phylum Spirochaetes. We also evaluated changes in genome-wide transcriptional patterns caused by selenium limitation and by generally uncoupling translation from transcription via antibiotic-mediated inhibition of protein synthesis. We observed that inhibiting protein synthesis in T. primitia influences transcriptional patterns in unexpected ways. In addition to suppressing transcription of certain genes, the expected consequence of inhibiting protein synthesis, we found numerous examples in which transcription of genes and operons is truncated far downstream from putative promoters, is unchanged, or is even stimulated overall. These results indicate that gene regulation in bacteria allows for specific post-initiation transcriptional responses during periods of limited protein synthesis, which may depend both on translational coupling and on unclassified intrinsic elements of protein-encoding genes. PMID:24222491

  11. Recombinant Treponema pallidum protein Tp0965 activates endothelial cells and increases the permeability of endothelial cell monolayer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Li Zhang

    Full Text Available The recombinant Treponema pallidum protein Tp0965 (rTp0965, one of the many proteins derived from the genome of T. pallidum subsp. pallidum, shows strong immunogenicity and immunoreactivity. In this study, we investigated the effects of rTp0965 on the endothelial barrier. Treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs with rTp0965 resulted in increased levels of ICAM-1, E-selectin, and MCP-1 mRNA and protein expression. These increases contributed to the adhesion and chemataxis of monocytes (THP-1 cells to HUVECs preincubated with rTp0965. In addition, rTp0965 induced reorganization of F-actin and decreased expression of claudin-1 in HUVECs. Interestingly, inhibition of the RhoA/ROCK signal pathway protected against rTp0965-induced higher endothelial permeability as well as transendothelial migration of monocytes. These data indicate that Tp0965 protein may play an important role in the immunopathogenesis of syphilis.

  12. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF FOUR RECOMBINANT TREPONEMA PALLIDUM ANTIGEN-BASED RAPID TESTS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF SYPHILIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-na Wang; Lei Yang; He-yi Zheng

    2007-01-01

    To assess the sensitivity, specificity, and feasibility of 4 recombinant Treponema pallidum antigenbased rapid tests in the diagnosis of syphilis.Methods A total of 970 outpatients were selected from the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Centre of Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Venous blood was collected and serum was extracted. T. pallidum antibodies in whole blood, anticoagulant whole blood, and serum were detected using 4 recombinant T. pallidum antigen-based rapid tests.T. pallidum haemagglutination test (TPHA) was considered as the gold standard for the detection of T. pallidum specific antibodies in serum. The sensitivities and specificities of four methods were analyzed.Results The sensitivities and specificities of Abbott Determine Syphilis TP test, SD-BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test,VISITECT-SYPHILIS test, and Syphicheck-WB test for serum specimens were 100% and 98.9%, 95.7% and 98.0%, 94.6% and 98.2%, 68.1% and 98.9%; for whole blood were 74.1% and 99.5%, 87.9% and 99.4%,73.2% and 99.7%, 64.7% and 99.7%. The observed sensitivities of the 4 rapid diagnosis tests were not significantly different with TPHA ( P>0.05 ).Conclusions The 4 rapid tests show good performance and characteristics in the diagnosis of syphilis. Furthermore, they are more sensitive for serum specimens than whole blood.

  13. Macrolide Resistance in the Syphilis Spirochete, Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum: Can We Also Expect Macrolide-Resistant Yaws Strains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmajs, David; Paštěková, Lenka; Grillová, Linda

    2015-10-01

    Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA) causes over 10 million new cases of syphilis worldwide whereas T. pallidum ssp. pertenue (TPE), the causative agent of yaws, affects about 2.5 million people. Although penicillin remains the drug of choice in the treatment of syphilis, in penicillin-allergic patients, macrolides have been used in this indication since the 1950s. Failures of macrolides in syphilis treatment have been well documented in the literature and since 2000, there has been a dramatic increase in a number of clinical samples with macrolide-resistant TPA. Scarce data regarding the genetics of macrolide-resistant mutations in TPA suggest that although macrolide-resistance mutations have emerged independently several times, the increase in the proportion of TPA strains resistant to macrolides is mainly due to the spread of resistant strains, especially in developed countries. The emergence of macrolide resistance in TPA appears to require a two-step process including either A2058G or A2059G mutation in one copy of the 23S rRNA gene and a subsequent gene conversion unification of both rRNA genes. Given the enormous genetic similarity that was recently revealed between TPA and TPE strains, there is a low but reasonable risk of emergence and spread of macrolide-resistant yaws strains following azithromycin treatment.

  14. TP0326, a Treponema pallidum β-barrel assembly machinery A (BamA) orthologue and rare outer membrane protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Daniel C; Anand, Arvind; Luthra, Amit; Dunham-Ems, Star M; LeDoyt, Morgan; Cummings, Michael A D; Eshghi, Azad; Cameron, Caroline E; Cruz, Adriana R; Salazar, Juan C; Caimano, Melissa J; Radolf, Justin D

    2011-06-01

    Definitive identification of Treponema pallidum rare outer membrane proteins (OMPs) has long eluded researchers. TP0326, the sole protein in T. pallidum with sequence homology to a Gram-negative OMP, belongs to the BamA family of proteins essential for OM biogenesis. Structural modelling predicted that five polypeptide transport-associated (POTRA) domains comprise the N-terminus of TP0326, while the C-terminus forms an 18-stranded amphipathic β-barrel. Circular dichroism, heat modifiability by SDS-PAGE, Triton X-114 phase partitioning and liposome incorporation supported these topological predictions and confirmed that the β-barrel is responsible for the native protein's amphiphilicity. Expression analyses revealed that native TP0326 is expressed at low abundance, while a protease-surface accessibility assay confirmed surface exposure. Size-exclusion chromatography and blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a modular Bam complex in T. pallidum larger than that of Escherichia coli. Non-orthologous ancillary factors and self-association of TP0326 via its β-barrel may both contribute to the Bam complex. T. pallidum-infected rabbits mount a vigorous antibody response to both POTRA and β-barrel portions of TP0326, whereas humans with secondary syphilis respond predominantly to POTRA. The syphilis spirochaete appears to have devised a stratagem for harnessing the Bam pathway while satisfying its need to limit surface antigenicity.

  15. Prevalence of antibodies against Treponema pallidum among HIV-positive patients in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Marín, José Antonio; Sandoval-Sánchez, Juan Joel; Huerta-García, Gloria; Arroyo-Anduiza, Carla Ileana; Alcalá-Martínez, Enrique; Mata-Marín, Luis Alberto; Sandoval-Ramirez, Jorge Luis; Gaytán-Martínez, Jesús

    2015-02-01

    Our objective was to determine the seroprevalence of syphilis among HIV-infected patients in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was developed, and 318 HIV-positive patients were evaluated from January to February 2013 at Hospital de Infectología, National Medical Center 'La Raza' (a tertiary care hospital specialising in infectious diseases in Mexico City). Laboratory data were screened for the detection of antibodies against Treponema pallidum. Patients completed a questionnaire relating to socio-demographic data and factors associated with syphilis. Of the 318 patients, 83% were men. The mean age ± SD was 36 ± 11 years; 52% were men who have sex with men and 47% had undertaken higher education. The overall seroprevalence of syphilis among these patients was 25% (95% confidence interval 21%, 30%). Men who have sex with men had a significantly higher seroprevalence (30% vs. 15%, p = 0.009). We conclude that, in Mexico, there is a high seroprevalence of syphilis antibodies in HIV-infected patients and that men who have sex with men are the group most affected.

  16. Prevalence of HIV and Treponema pallidum infections in pregnant women in Campinas and their association with socio-demographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Amaral

    Full Text Available The anonymous seroprevalence of HIV and syphilis was studied by collecting umbilical cord blood samples from 5,815 women who gave birth in Campinas' hospitals throughout a six-month period. ELISA and Western blot were used for HIV, and VDRL and TPHA for Treponema pallidum screening. While maintaining the anonymity of the women, information was recorded on the hospital of origin, divided into university (public and private hospitals, as well as on the form of payment (social security, private insurance or direct payment, age, marital status, education, employment and place of residence. Seroprevalence was 0.42 percent for HIV and 1.16 percent for syphilis. There was a significant correlation between a positive reaction to the two infections (p=0.02. After univariate and logistic regression analysis, only university hospitals were shown to be associated with seropositivity for HIV, whereas the same variable and an older age were associated with syphilis. All positive reactions were found either in public hospitals or among social security patients treated at private institutions. The conclusion was that HIV infection is becoming almost as prevalent as syphilis among this population, and affects primarily the lower socio-economic strata. This suggests that routine, voluntary HIV serology should be considered and discussed with patients during prenatal or delivery care whenever a population shows a seroprevalence close to or greater than 1 percent.

  17. Detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola in chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients: A comparative polymerase chain reaction study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumawat, Ramniwas M.; Ganvir, Sindhu M.; Hazarey, Vinay K.; Qureshi, Asifa; Purohit, Hemant J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The detection frequency of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola in chronic periodontitis (CP) and aggressive periodontitis (AgP) is not explored well in Indian population. Aim: The study was undertaken to detect P. gingivalis and T. denticola in CP as well as in AgP patients using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and to determine the relationship between the frequency of these two microorganisms and the severity of clinical periodontal parameters. Materials and Methods: Subgingival plaque samples were collected from ninety participants (thirty CP patients, thirty AgP patients, and thirty healthy participants) and the aforementioned two microorganisms were detected using PCR. Results: However, when CP and AgP were compared for the detection frequency of two microorganisms, no statistically significant difference was noted. A statistically significant increase in the number of bacteria-positive sites increased as the score of plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), and clinical attachment level of CP and AgP patients increased. Coexistence of P. gingivalis and T. denticola was frequently observed in deep periodontal pockets. Conclusions: Study findings suggest that P. gingivalis and T. denticola are significantly associated with the severity of periodontal tissue destruction. Statistically significant association exists between clinical periodontal parameters such as PI, GI, periodontal pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment loss and presence of both the microorganisms. PMID:27994415

  18. Simultaneous PCR detection of Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 from genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orle, K A; Gates, C A; Martin, D H; Body, B A; Weiss, J B

    1996-01-01

    A multiplex PCR (M-PCR) assay with colorimetric detection was devised for the simultaneous amplification of DNA targets from Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. By using target-specific oligonucleotides in a microwell format, 298 genital ulcer swab specimens collected in New Orleans during three intervals from 1992 through 1994 were evaluated. The results of the M-PCR assay were compared with the results of dark-field microscopy and H. ducreyi culture on two different culture media. HSV culture results were available for 99 specimens collected during the third interval. Confirmatory PCR assays targeting different gene sequences for each of the three organisms were used to validate the M-PCR results. Specimens were resolved as positive for the determination of sensitivity if the reference diagnostic test was positive or if the results of both the M-PCR and the confirmatory PCR were positive. The resolved sensitivities of M-PCR for HSV, H. ducreyi, and T. pallidum were 100, 98.4, and 91%, respectively. The resolved sensitivities of HSV culture, H. ducreyi culture, and dark-field microscopy were 71.8, 74.2, and 81%, respectively. These results indicate that the M-PCR assay is more sensitive than standard diagnostic tests for the detection of HSV, H. ducreyi, and T. pallidum from genital ulcers.

  19. TP0262 is a modulator of promoter activity of tpr Subfamily II genes of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacani, Lorenzo; Godornes, Charmie; Puray-Chavez, Maritza; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Tompa, Martin; Lukehart, Sheila A.; Centurion-Lara, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation in Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum is poorly understood, primarily because this organism cannot be cultivated in vitro or genetically manipulated. We have recently shown a phase variation mechanism controlling transcription initiation of Subfamily II tpr (T. pallidum repeat) genes (tprE, tprG, and tprJ), a group of virulence factor candidates. Furthermore, the same study suggested that additional mechanisms might influence the level of transcription of these tprs. The T. pallidum genome sequence has revealed a few open reading frames (ORFs) with similarity to known bacterial transcription factors (TFs), including four catabolite activator protein (CAP) homologs. In this work, sequences matching the E. coli cAMP receptor protein (CRP) binding motif were identified in silico upstream of tprE, tprG, and tprJ. Using elecrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and DNaseI footprinting assay, recombinant TP0262, a T. pallidum CRP homolog, was shown to bind specifically to amplicons obtained from the tpr promoters containing putative CRP binding motifs. Using a heterologous reporter system, binding of TP0262 to these promoters was shown to either increase (tprE and tprJ) or decrease (tprG) tpr promoter activity. This is the first characterization of a T. pallidum transcriptional modulator which influences tpr promoter activity. PMID:19432808

  20. Cellular architecture of Treponema pallidum: novel flagellum, periplasmic cone, and cell envelope as revealed by cryo electron tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Howell, Jerrilyn K; Bradley, Sherille D; Zheng, Yesha; Zhou, Z Hong; Norris, Steven J

    2010-11-01

    High-resolution cryo electron tomography (cryo-ET) was utilized to visualize Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, at the molecular level. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions from 304 infectious organisms revealed unprecedented cellular structures of this unusual member of the spirochetal family. High-resolution cryo-ET reconstructions provided detailed structures of the cell envelope, which is significantly different from that of Gram-negative bacteria. The 4-nm lipid bilayer of both outer membrane and cytoplasmic membrane resolved in 3D reconstructions, providing an important marker for interpreting membrane-associated structures. Abundant lipoproteins cover the outer leaflet of the cytoplasmic membrane, in contrast to the rare outer membrane proteins visible by scanning probe microscopy. High-resolution cryo-ET images also provided the first observation of T. pallidum chemoreceptor arrays, as well as structural details of the periplasmically located cone-shaped structure at both ends of the bacterium. Furthermore, 3D subvolume averages of periplasmic flagellar motors and flagellar filaments from living organisms revealed the novel flagellar architectures that may facilitate their rotation within the confining periplasmic space. Our findings provide the most detailed structural understanding of periplasmic flagella and the surrounding cell envelope, which enable this enigmatic bacterium to efficiently penetrate tissue and to escape host immune responses.

  1. Comparison of a recombinant-antigen enzyme immunoassay with Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test for serological confirmation of syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Islay; Alvarez, Elvio L; Fernández, Carmen; Miranda, Alina

    2002-04-01

    A recombinant-antigen enzyme immunoassay (EIA), BioSCREEN anti-Treponema pallidum, was compared favorably with the T. pallidum hemagglutination test, in the detection of specific antibodies in different groups of sera from patients with primary (n = 38), secondary (n = 10), early latent (n = 28) and congenital syphilis (n = 2), patients with leptospirosis ( n= 8), infectious mononucleosis (n = 7), hepatitis (n = 9), diabetes mellitus (n = 11), rheumatoid arthritis (n = 13), leprosy (n = 11), tuberculosis (n = 9), HIV/Aids ( n= 12), systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 4), rheumatic fever (n = 3), old-persons (n = 9), pregnant women (n = 29) and blood donors (n = 164). The coincidence between them was 95.1%. The sensitivity and specificity of the EIA were 93.3% and 95.5%, respectively. Fifteen serum specimens belonging to old-persons, pregnant women, blood donors, and patients with human leptospirosis, hepatitis, diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis and rheumatic fever gave false-positive results by Venereal Disease Research Laboratory and/or Rapid Plasma Reagin. The EIA can be used as alternative method for the serological confirmation of syphilis.

  2. Comparison of a Recombinant-antigen Enzyme Immunoassay with Treponema pallidum Hemagglutination Test for Serological Confirmation of Syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islay Rodríguez

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A recombinant-antigen enzyme immunoassay (EIA, BioSCREEN TM anti-Treponema pallidum, was compared favorably with the T. pallidum hemagglutination test, in the detection of specific antibodies in different groups of sera from patients with primary (n = 38, secondary (n = 10, early latent (n = 28 and congenital syphilis (n = 2, patients with leptospirosis ( n= 8, infectious mononucleosis (n = 7, hepatitis (n = 9, diabetes mellitus (n = 11, rheumatoid arthritis (n = 13, leprosy (n = 11, tuberculosis (n = 9, HIV/Aids ( n= 12, systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 4, rheumatic fever (n = 3, old-persons (n = 9, pregnant women (n = 29 and blood donors (n = 164. The coincidence between them was 95.1%. The sensitivity and specificity of the EIA were 93.3% and 95.5%, respectively. Fifteen serum specimens belonging to old-persons, pregnant women, blood donors, and patients with human leptospirosis, hepatitis, diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis and rheumatic fever gave false-positive results by Venereal Disease Research Laboratory and/or Rapid Plasma Reagin. The EIA can be used as alternative method for the serological confirmation of syphilis.

  3. Screening for sexually transmitted infection pathogens in semen samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, Rw; Embree, J

    2005-03-01

    The transmission of sexually transmitted infection (STI) pathogens from an infected donor to the recipient of a semen donation in assisted conception may result not only in acute infection but also in long-term reproductive complications or adverse outcomes of pregnancy, including infection of the offspring. Screening for bacterial STI pathogens, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is strongly recommended because these pathogens can cause serious reproductive complications in the recipients of semen donations and infection in their offspring. Screening for these pathogens should be performed using the most sensitive methods, such as nucleic acid amplified tests. False-negative results due to inhibitory substances in the semen sample should be monitored using amplification controls. Where specimen transport is not a problem and culture facilities are available, N gonorrhoeae can also be detected by culture. Laboratories performing screening should subscribe to proficiency programs and have strict quality controls. Although Trichomonas vaginalis, group B streptococcus and genital mycoplasmas have been associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy, the frequent finding of these organisms in healthy individuals brings into question the validity of mandatory inclusion of these organisms in the screening panel. Although viral STI pathogens and Treponema pallidum - the causative agent of syphilis - may be detected in semen, their presence may be more sensitively detected through antibody testing of the donor. Screening donors for HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis by serology is uniformly recommended in all of the guidelines, but the value of screening either donors or semen samples for cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex viruses and human papilloma viruses is less clear.

  4. Screening for Sexually Transmitted Infection Pathogens in Semen Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RW Peeling

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of sexually transmitted infection (STI pathogens from an infected donor to the recipient of a semen donation in assisted conception may result not only in acute infection but also in long-term reproductive complications or adverse outcomes of pregnancy, including infection of the offspring. Screening for bacterial STI pathogens, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is strongly recommended because these pathogens can cause serious reproductive complications in the recipients of semen donations and infection in their offspring. Screening for these pathogens should be performed using the most sensitive methods, such as nucleic acid amplified tests. False-negative results due to inhibitory substances in the semen sample should be monitored using amplification controls. Where specimen transport is not a problem and culture facilities are available, N gonorrhoeae can also be detected by culture. Laboratories performing screening should subscribe to proficiency programs and have strict quality controls. Although Trichomonas vaginalis, group B streptococcus and genital mycoplasmas have been associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy, the frequent finding of these organisms in healthy individuals brings into question the validity of mandatory inclusion of these organisms in the screening panel. Although viral STI pathogens and Treponema pallidum -- the causative agent of syphilis -- may be detected in semen, their presence may be more sensitively detected through antibody testing of the donor. Screening donors for HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis by serology is uniformly recommended in all of the guidelines, but the value of screening either donors or semen samples for cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex viruses and human papilloma viruses is less clear.

  5. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus, Treponema pallidum, and co-infections among blood donors in Kyrgyzstan: a retrospective analysis (2013-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabaev, Bakyt B; Beisheeva, Nurgul J; Satybaldieva, Aiganysh B; Ismailova, Aikul D; Pessler, Frank; Akmatov, Manas K

    2017-02-21

    Post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan has experienced a major surge in blood-borne infections, but data from adequately powered, up-to-date studies are lacking. We thus examined a) the seroprevalences of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), HIV-1 p24 antigen and antibodies against hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), human immunodeficiency viruses (anti-HIV-1/2, HIV-1 group O), and Treponema pallidum among blood donors in Kyrgyzstan and assess their distribution according to sex, age, and provinces of residence; b) trends in the respective seroprevalences; and c) co-infection rates among the pathogens studied. Serological screening was performed on 37 165 blood donors at the Republican Blood Centre in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, between January 2013 and December 2015. We applied poststratification weights to control for sampling bias and used logistic regression analyses to examine the association of seropositivity and co-infections with sex, age, provinces of residence, and year of blood donation. Twenty nine thousand and one hundred forty-five (78%) donors were males and 8 020 (22%) were females. The median age was 27 years (range: 18 - 64). The prevalences of HBsAg, anti-HCV, HIV (p24 Ag and anti-HIV), and anti-T. pallidum were 3.6% (95%CI: 3.4 - 3.8%), 3.1% (3.0 - 3.3%), 0.78% (0.69 - 0.87%), and 3.3% (3.1 - 3.5%), respectively. Males were more likely to be seropositive for HBsAg than females (OR: 1.63; 95%CI: 1.40 - 1.90), but less likely to be seropositive for anti-HCV (0.85; 0.74 - 0.98) and HIV (0.65; 0.49 - 0.85). Prevalences were lower in the capital than in the other provinces. There was a decreasing trend in the seroprevalences of HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-T. pallidum from 2012 to 2015 (P-value for trend, P = 0.01, P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, respectively), while the seroprevalence of HIV increased (P = 0.049). One hundred eighty donors (0.48%) were seropositive for multiple infections. The highest co-infection rate was observed between anti-T. pallidum and HBs

  6. [Oral candidiasis: clinical features and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2010-10-01

    Candidiasis is the most commonly encountered fungal infection, and oral candidiasis is often observed as a local opportunistic infection. Oral candidiasis is clinically divided into three types: acute forms, chronic forms, and Candida-associated lesions. Candida adhesion and multiplication are largely regulated by the local and systemic factors of the host. The local factors include impairment of the oral mucosal integrity, which is usually impaired by hyposalivation, anticancer drugs/radiation for head and neck cancers, denture wearing, a decrease in the oral bacterial population, and poor oral hygiene. Among Candida species, oral candidiasis is mostly caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans), C. glabrata, or C. tropicalis. Oral Candida induces a variety of symptoms, such as oral mucosal inflammation manifesting as an uncomfortable feeling, pain, erythema, erosion, taste abnormalities, and hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. Candida overgrowth in the oral cavity may disseminate to distant organs. Therefore, in order to avoid the sequelae of systemic candidiasis, oral candidiasis should be rapidly controlled. Oral candidiasis is usually treated by the local application of antifungal drugs. However, oral candidiasis occasionally escapes the control of such local treatment due to the development of multi-drug resistant Candida strains and species or due to the suppression of salivation or cellular immune activity. When drug-resistant strains are suspected as the pathogens and when the host is generally compromised, the oral administration of combinations of antifungal drugs, enhancement of cellular immune activity, and improvement of the nutritional condition are recommended.

  7. Advances in molecular epidemiology of Treponema pallidum and its neurotropic subtypes%梅毒螺旋体分子流行病学及亲神经亚型菌株研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴开奇; 楼永良; 周平玉

    2015-01-01

    1998年建立基于梅毒螺旋体tpr和arp基因分子分型系统,世界各国均有梅毒螺旋体亚型菌株流行特征的报道并结合tp0548或rpsA基因以加强分型,发现了各地的优势亚型菌株及亚型菌株存在多样性,其中14d和14f是出现频率较高的亚型.另外,某些特定亚型与临床表现之间存在相关性.有研究发现,某些特定亚型菌株可能有亲神经现象,其中14a、14d/f、19d/c与神经梅毒相关.确定特定亚型菌株与神经梅毒的相关性对临床诊治和判断梅毒患者预后意义重大.%Since the development of molecular typing system for Treponema pallidum based on acidic repeat protein (arp) gene and Treponema pallidum repeat (tpr) gene in 1998,there have been reports on the epidemiological characteristics of Treponema pallidum subtypes from various countries in the world.The tp0548 and rpsA genes also have been used for enhancing the molecular typing of Treponema pallidum.Predominant subtypes of Treponema pallidum have been reported in various regions,and there is a high variety in the subtypes of Treponema pallidum,with 14d and 14f as the most frequent subtypes.Further more,some specific subtypes of Treponema pallidum are associated with clinical manifestations of syphilis.Studies have found that some neurotropic subtypes of Treponema pallidum,for example,14a,14d/f and 19d/c types are related to neurosyphilis.Determining specific Treponema pallidum subtypes associated with neurosyphilis is of great significance for the clinical diagnosis,treatment and prediction of prognosis of syphilis.

  8. Prevention of aspiration pneumonia (AP) with oral care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Akio; Miura, Hiroko

    2012-01-01

    AP is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly patients, especially frail elderly patients. The aim of this article is to review effect of oral care, including oral hygiene and improvement of oral function, on the prevention of AP among elderly people in hospitals and nursing homes. There is now a substantial body of work studying the effect of oral care on the prevention of respiratory diseases. Oral hygiene, consisting of oral decontamination and mechanical cleaning by dental professionals, has resulted in significant clinical effects (decreased incidence of pneumonia and decreased mortality from respiratory diseases) in clinical randomized trials. Moreover, studies examining oral colonization by pneumonia pathogens have shown the effect of oral hygiene on eliminating these pathogens. In addition, swallowing training has been shown to improve the movement and function of swallowing-related muscles, also resulting in decreased incidence of pneumonia. These findings support the contention that oral care is effective in the prevention of AP.

  9. Sífilis secundaria en cavidad oral: Reporte de dos casos Oral secondary syphilis: Two cases report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M G Díaz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La sífilis es una enfermedad infecciosa humana causada por una bacteria: el Treponema pallidum. La enfermedad es transmitida por contacto directo a través de lesiones durante el estadio primario y secundario, por vía transplacentaria intrauterina o a través del canal uterino; puede afectar cualquier órgano de la economía causando un número infinito de presentaciones clínicas. La sífilis secundaria cursa con manifestaciones mucocutáneas características y eventual sintomatología general. La presentación clínica de nuestros dos pacientes es singular ya que solo poseían lesiones en la cavidad oral. La respuesta al tratamiento instaurado fue buena.Syphilis is a human infectious disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. The disease is transmitted by direct contact with a lesion during the primary or secondary stages, in utero by the transplacental route, or during delivery as the baby passes through an infected canal. The bacterium may infect any organ, causing an infinite number of clinical presentations. Secondary syphilis is characterized by mucocutaneous lesions, a flulike syndrome, and generalized adenopathy. Hepatosplenomegaly may be present. The oral mucosa is the second most frequent site of luetic lesions; the genital areas are the most frequent. In the oral cavity, the most characteristic lesion is a whitish mucosal patch, normally located on the lips, tongue, or palate, which is extremely contagious. The differential diagnosis of this lesion may include oral squamous carcinoma, leukoplakia, candidosis, lichen planus, and hairy oral leukoplakia. Definitive diagnosis is based on clinical information and completed by laboratory examinations even the biopsy can help us. With the diagnosis of secondary syphilis treatment with penicillin G benzathine must be started. We present two cases of secondary syphilis with oral lesions only; the first one, a man with macule covered with a whitish membrane on palate mucosa and a

  10. Identification of periodontal pathogens in atherosclerotic vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Larsen, Tove; Christiansen, Natalia;

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that periodontitis may be associated with presence of atherosclerosis. DNA from periodontal pathogens has been detected in atherosclerotic lesions, but viable oral bacteria have not yet been isolated from atherosclerotic plaques. The purpose of the present study...

  11. Occurrence of periodontal pathogens among patients with chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C. Farias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of the periodontal pathogens that form the red complex (Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in patients with chronic periodontitis. The sample consisted of 29 patients with a clinical and radiographic diagnosis of chronic periodontitis based on the criteria of the American Academy of Periodontology (3. Samples for microbiological analysis were collected from the four sites of greatest probing depth in each patient, totaling 116 samples. These samples were processed using conventional polymerase chain reaction, which achieved the following positive results: 46.6% for P. gingivalis, 41.4% for T. forsythia, 33.6% for T. denticola and 27.6% for A. actinomycetemcomitans. P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were more prevalent (p < 0.05 in periodontal pockets ≥ 8 mm. The combinations T. forsythia + P. gingivalis (23.2% and T. forsythia + P. gingivalis + T. denticola (20.0% were more frequent in sites with a probing depth ≥ 8 mm. Associations with the simultaneous presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans + P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans + T. forsythia, P. gingivalis + T. forsythia and T. forsythia + T. denticola were statistically significant (p < 0.05. It was concluded that the red complex pathogens are related to chronic periodontitis, presenting a higher occurrence in deep periodontal pockets. Moreover, the simultaneous presence of these bacteria in deep sites suggests a symbiotic relationship between these virulent species, favoring, in this way, a further progression of periodontal disease.

  12. Oral histoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Karthikeya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal disease that takes various clinical forms, among which oral lesions are rare. The disseminated form of the disease that usually occurs in association with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is one of the AIDS-defining diseases. Isolated oral histoplasmosis, without systemic involvement, with underlying immunosuppression due to AIDS is very rare. We report one such case of isolated oral histoplasmosis in a HIV-infected patient.

  13. Presencia de Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola y Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans en el biofilm subgingival de pacientes diabéticos tipo 2: estudio transversal Presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in the subgingival biofilm of diabetic mellitus 2 patients: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJ Quintero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: La investigación de la microflora subgingival en pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 con periodontitis ha presentado resultados contradictorios. Objetivo: Determinar la presencia de Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forshytia, Treponema denticola y Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, en el biofilm subgingival de pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 y relacionarlo con el grado de control metabólico. Método: Estudio descriptivo transversal, en el cual se analizaron 23 pacientes diabéticos derivados consecutivamente del Policlínico de Especialidades de la Universidad de los Andes. Previo consentimiento informado, se realizó un examen clínico periodontal que incluyó mediciones de profundidad al sondaje, nivel de inserción clínica y sangrado gingival. Fueron clasificados según severidad de periodontitis y control metabólico de la diabetes determinado por un promedio de 3 exámenes de hemoglobina glicosilada. La detección microbiológica se realizó mediante la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Resultados: En el grupo de pacientes estudiados, Treponema denticola y Tannerella forsythia fueron las bacterias más prevalentes (65.2%, seguida por Porphyromonas gingivalis (17.3% y Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (13%. Los pacientes con peor control glicémico tuvieron una mayor presencia de Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis y Agreggatibacter actinomycetemcomitans y un aumento en el índice de sangrado al sondaje. Conclusiones: En el grupo de pacientes diabéticos estudiado, las bacterias más prevalentes fueron Treponema denticola y Tannerella forsythia. Los pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 con moderado y mal control glicémico presentaron mayor presencia de los microorganismos estudiados, comparado con los grupos con mejores niveles de control glicémico.Background: The investigation of subgingival microflora in type 2 diabetic patients with periodontitis presented conflicting results

  14. Comparison of periodontal pathogens between cats and their owners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij-Vrieling, H.E.; van der Reijden, W.A.; Houwers, D.J.; de Wit, W.E.A.J.; Bosch-Tijhof, C.J.; Penning, L.C.; van Winkelhoff, A.J.; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.

    2010-01-01

    The periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia are strongly associated with periodontal disease and are highly prevalent in humans with periodontitis. Porphyromonas and Tannerella spp. have also been isolated from the oral cavity of cats. The oral microflora in animals w

  15. Comparison of periodontal pathogens between cats and their owners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij-Vrieling, H.E.; van der Reijden, W.A.; Houwers, D.J.; de Wit, W.E.A.J.; Bosch-Tijhof, C.J.; Penning, L.C.; van Winkelhoff, A.J.; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.

    2010-01-01

    The periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia are strongly associated with periodontal disease and are highly prevalent in humans with periodontitis. Porphyromonas and Tannerella spp. have also been isolated from the oral cavity of cats. The oral microflora in animals

  16. DETECTION OF PATHOGENS CAUSING GENITAL ULCER DISEASE BY MULTIPLEX POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-ying Liu; Ming-jun Jiang; Yue-ping Yin; Jiang-fang Sun

    2005-01-01

    Objective To establish a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) assay for simultaneous detection of pathogens causing genital ulcer disease (GUD).Methods Based on the gene-specific region of the following pathogens: Chlamydia trachomatis ompl/ompb, herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA polymerase, Treponema pallidum tpp47, Haemophilus ducreyi 16s rRNA, four sets of primers were designed and an M-PCR assay was developed to detect four pathogens in one test. The assay was evaluated with diagnostic result of golden standard for each pathogen.Results Of the 51 clinical samples, M-PCR showed slightly higher positive rate (47.1%) of HSV than cell culture (23.6%).Meanwhile, the positive rate of T. p allidum detected by M-PCR and dark-field microscopy was 19.6% ( 10/51) and 15.7% (8/51),respectively. Only one sample was positive for H. ducreyiand no sample was positive for C. trachomatis detected by both M-PCR assay and culture.Conclusion This primary study indicated that M-PCR assay can simultaneously and rapidly detect the four etiologic pathogens causing GUD.

  17. Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI) database contains emerging pathogens information from the local Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The EPI software...

  18. Detection of antibodies to Treponema pallidum from the pleural effussion of a patient%胸腔积液中检测出梅毒抗体一例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施辛; 苏玉华; 孙晓东; 冯萍; 石怡珍; 刘晖; 顾爱萍

    2008-01-01

    A 77-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital for chest distress, depression, drowsiness, edema of lower limbs, anepithymia, debilitation and scaled erythema on the limbs and trunk. Sera, cerebrospinal fluid and pleural effusion were obtained from the patient and subjected to the detection of antibodies to Treponema pallidum with rapid plasma reagent test (RPR), Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA) and Tp-IgM-ELISA. Both the sera and pleural effusion were positive for RPR with a titer of 1∶128 and 1∶64 respectively, as well as for TPPA and Tp-IgM-ELISA test, whereas the cerebrospinal fluid was weakly positve for TPPA but negative for the other two tests. Serologic tests can be utilized to detect the antibodies to Treponema pallidum in pleural effusion.%患者男,77岁,胸闷、精神萎靡、嗜睡、双下肢浮肿、纳差、全身乏力,并伴有躯干、四肢鳞屑性红斑,血清及脑脊液梅毒抗体检查阳性,行胸腔积液快速血浆反应素环状卡片试验(RPR),梅毒螺旋体明胶凝集试验(TPPA),梅毒螺旋体特异性IgM抗体检查(Tp-IgM-ELISA),结果RPR 1∶64,TPPA(+)和Tp-IgM-ELISA(+).在胸腔积液中可沿用血液方法检查梅毒抗体.

  19. A novel beta-lactamase activity from a penicillin-binding protein of Treponema pallidum and why syphilis is still treatable with penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Joo Young; Ishiwata, Akihiro; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2004-04-09

    Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, is sensitive to penicillins. Yet, an abundant membrane-bound protein of this organism, Tp47, turns over penicillins. It is shown herein that the turnover process is a hydrolytic reaction that results in the corresponding penicilloates, products that have their beta-lactam bonds hydrolyzed. This is the reaction of beta-lactamases, bona fide resistance enzymes to beta-lactam antibiotics. Remarkably, the x-ray structure of Tp47 bears no resemblance to any other beta-lactamases or the related penicillin-binding proteins. Furthermore, evidence is presented that the reaction of Tp47 takes place in the absence of the zinc ion and does not involve intermediary acyl enzyme species. Hence, the beta-lactamase activity of Tp47 is the fifth known mechanism for turnover of beta-lactam antibiotics. Tp47 also exhibits a penicillin binding reaction, in the process of which the enzyme is covalently modified in the active site. The two reactions take place in two different active sites, and the events of the beta-lactamase activity are over 2,000-fold more rapid than the penicillin binding reaction. The level of beta-lactamase activity is high and is held back only by a strong product-inhibition component to the catalytic process. If natural selection would result in a mutant variant of Tp47 that overcomes product inhibition for the beta-lactamase activity, a novel bona fide resistance to penicillins will emerge in Treponema, which will be a disconcerting clinical development. The physiological functions of Tp47 are not known, but it is likely that this is at least a bifunctional enzyme involved in the processing of the Treponema peptidoglycan as a substrate.

  20. Rapid Treponema pallidum clearance from blood and ulcer samples following single dose benzathine penicillin treatment of early syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, Craig; Jones, Rachael; McClure, Myra; Taylor, Graham

    2015-02-01

    Currently, the efficacy of syphilis treatment is measured with anti-lipid antibody tests. These can take months to indicate cure and, as a result, syphilis treatment trials require long periods of follow-up. The causative organism, Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum), is detectable in the infectious lesions of early syphilis using DNA amplification. Bacteraemia can likewise be identified, typically in more active disease. We hypothesise that bacterial clearance from blood and ulcers will predict early the standard serology-measured treatment response and have developed a qPCR assay that could monitor this clearance directly in patients with infectious syphilis. Patients with early syphilis were given an intramuscular dose of benzathine penicillin. To investigate the appropriate sampling timeframe samples of blood and ulcer exudate were collected intensively for T. pallidum DNA (tpp047 gene) and RNA (16S rRNA) quantification. Sampling ended when two consecutive PCRs were negative. Four males were recruited. The mean peak level of T. pallidum DNA was 1626 copies/ml whole blood and the mean clearance half-life was 5.7 hours (std. dev. 0.53). The mean peak of 16S rRNA was 8879 copies/ml whole blood with a clearance half-life of 3.9 hours (std. dev. 0.84). From an ulcer, pre-treatment, 67,400 T. pallidum DNA copies and 7.08 x 107 16S rRNA copies were detected per absorbance strip and the clearance half-lives were 3.2 and 4.1 hours, respectively. Overall, T. pallidum nucleic acids were not detected in any sample collected more than 56 hours (range 20-56) after treatment. All patients achieved serologic cure. In patients with active early syphilis, measuring T. pallidum levels in blood and ulcer exudate may be a useful measure of treatment success in therapeutic trials. These laboratory findings need confirmation on a larger scale and in patients receiving different therapies.

  1. Treponema pallidum infection in the wild baboons of East Africa: distribution and genetic characterization of the strains responsible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Kristin N; Fyumagwa, Robert D; Hoare, Richard; Wambura, Philemon N; Coppenhaver, Dorian H; Sapolsky, Robert M; Alberts, Susan C; Tung, Jenny; Rogers, Jeffrey; Kilewo, Morris; Batamuzi, Emmanuel K; Leendertz, Fabian H; Armelagos, George J; Knauf, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    It has been known for decades that wild baboons are naturally infected with Treponema pallidum, the bacterium that causes the diseases syphilis (subsp. pallidum), yaws (subsp. pertenue), and bejel (subsp. endemicum) in humans. Recently, a form of T. pallidum infection associated with severe genital lesions has been described in wild baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. In this study, we investigated ten additional sites in Tanzania and Kenya using a combination of macroscopic observation and serology, in order to determine whether the infection was present in each area. In addition, we obtained genetic sequence data from six polymorphic regions using T. pallidum strains collected from baboons at two different Tanzanian sites. We report that lesions consistent with T. pallidum infection were present at four of the five Tanzanian sites examined, and serology was used to confirm treponemal infection at three of these. By contrast, no signs of treponemal infection were observed at the six Kenyan sites, and serology indicated T. pallidum was present at only one of them. A survey of sexually mature baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in 2006 carried out as part of this study indicated that roughly ten percent displayed T. pallidum-associated lesions severe enough to cause major structural damage to the genitalia. Finally, we found that T. pallidum strains from Lake Manyara National Park and Serengeti National Park were genetically distinct, and a phylogeny suggested that baboon strains may have diverged prior to the clade containing human strains. We conclude that T. pallidum infection associated with genital lesions appears to be common in the wild baboons of the regions studied in Tanzania. Further study is needed to elucidate the infection's transmission mode, its associated morbidity and mortality, and the relationship between baboon and human strains.

  2. Rabbit models of Treponema pallidum infection%梅毒螺旋体感染兔模型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙福泉; 王千秋

    2011-01-01

    通过家兔睾丸接种梅毒螺旋体建立家兔感染动物模型是研究梅毒的重要实验方法.接种后的梅毒螺旋体展现出5个阶段的变化:孵育期、指数增长期、静止生长期、退化期、潜伏期.各阶段根据损害的表现、损害的持续时间、寄生菌的特征、感染器官的表现、病理学改变、血清学的改变、与青霉素治疗的相关性共7个方面的变化各自有其特点.该模型的建立,对梅毒发病机制、早期诊断、药物治疗及预后等多方面的研究均具有重要意义.%It is an important experimental approach to study syphilis by upbuilding a rabbit model of Treponema pallidum (Tp) infection through inoculation of Tp into the testicles of rabbits. After inoculation, Tp undergoes five stages of evolution, i.e., incubation,exponential growth,stationary phase, retrogression and latency. And, each stage is characterized by the appearance and duration of lesions, features of the parasite, infectivity of the animal's organs, pathological findings, serological changes and correlations of these findings with treatment with penicillin. To establish this model is of great significance for the investigation of pathogenesis, early diagnosis, pharmacotherapy and prognosis of syphilis.

  3. Treponema pallidum infection in the wild baboons of East Africa: distribution and genetic characterization of the strains responsible.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin N Harper

    Full Text Available It has been known for decades that wild baboons are naturally infected with Treponema pallidum, the bacterium that causes the diseases syphilis (subsp. pallidum, yaws (subsp. pertenue, and bejel (subsp. endemicum in humans. Recently, a form of T. pallidum infection associated with severe genital lesions has been described in wild baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. In this study, we investigated ten additional sites in Tanzania and Kenya using a combination of macroscopic observation and serology, in order to determine whether the infection was present in each area. In addition, we obtained genetic sequence data from six polymorphic regions using T. pallidum strains collected from baboons at two different Tanzanian sites. We report that lesions consistent with T. pallidum infection were present at four of the five Tanzanian sites examined, and serology was used to confirm treponemal infection at three of these. By contrast, no signs of treponemal infection were observed at the six Kenyan sites, and serology indicated T. pallidum was present at only one of them. A survey of sexually mature baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in 2006 carried out as part of this study indicated that roughly ten percent displayed T. pallidum-associated lesions severe enough to cause major structural damage to the genitalia. Finally, we found that T. pallidum strains from Lake Manyara National Park and Serengeti National Park were genetically distinct, and a phylogeny suggested that baboon strains may have diverged prior to the clade containing human strains. We conclude that T. pallidum infection associated with genital lesions appears to be common in the wild baboons of the regions studied in Tanzania. Further study is needed to elucidate the infection's transmission mode, its associated morbidity and mortality, and the relationship between baboon and human strains.

  4. Association between coinfection of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Treponema denticola and periodontal tissue destruction in chronic periodontitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li-li; WU Yan-min; YAN Jie; SUN Wei-lian; SUN Yu-zheng; David Ojcius

    2005-01-01

    Background The association between the infection of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus actinomy-cetemcomitans and Treponema denticola in chronic periodontitis (CP) and the severity of periodontal disease remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the subgingival infection frequencies of three periodontopathic bacteria in Chinese CP patients and to evaluate the correlations between infection by these bacteria and periodontal destruction.Methods A multiple PCR assay using primers derived from 16SrDNA genes of P. gingivalis, A. actinomy-cetemitans and T. denticola was established to measure simultaneously the presence of the three microbes in 162 subgingival samples from 81 Chinese CP patients. Results The positive rates of P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemitans and T. denticola in the subgingival samples were 84.6%, 83.3% and 88.3%, respectively. Of the subgingival samples, 68% revealed the coinfection of all the three microbes. The infection rates with P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemitans or T. denticola alone was 5.9% (1/17), 17.6% (3/17) and 76.5% (13/17), respectively. A close association was present between the A. actinomycetemitans infection and gingival index (GI) (P0.05). P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemitans were more frequently detectable in middle and deep pockets than in shallow ones (P<0.01), while T. denticola was found remarkably often in deep pockets (P<0.05). The coinfection rate of the three microbes was significantly higher in sites with severe periodontitis than in those with mild periodontitis (P<0.01). Conclusions The multiple PCR established in this study can be used as a sensitive and specific method to simultaneously detect all three microbes in subgingival samples. A. actinomycetemitans infection may be associated with CP and play an important role in the periodontal tissue destruction. The coinfection of P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemitans and T. denticola can cause more serious periodontal destruction than

  5. Evaluation of a new multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay STDFinder for the simultaneous detection of 7 sexually transmitted disease pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muvunyi, Claude Mambo; Dhont, Nathalie; Verhelst, Rita; Crucitti, Tania; Reijans, Martin; Mulders, Brit; Simons, Guus; Temmerman, Marleen; Claeys, Geert; Padalko, Elizaveta

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated a new multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR), "STDFinder assay", a novel multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay for the simultaneous detection of 7 clinically relevant pathogens of STDs, i.e., Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2). An internal amplification control was included in the mPCR reaction. The limits of detection for the STDFinder assay varied among the 7 target organisms from 1 to 20 copies per MLPA assay. There were no cross-reactions among any of the probes. Two hundred and forty-two vaginal swabs and an additional 80 specimens with known results for N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis, obtained from infertile women seen at an infertility research clinic at the Kigali Teaching Hospital in Rwanda, were tested by STDFinder assay and the results were confirmed by single real-time PCR using different species-specific targets. Compared to the reference standard, the STDFinder assay showed specificities and sensitivities of 100% and 100%, respectively, for N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, and M. genitalium; 90.2% and 100%, respectively, for Trichomonas vaginalis; and 96.1% and 100%, respectively, for HSV-2. No specimen was found to be positive for HSV-1 by either the STDFinder assay or the comparator method. Similarly, the sensitivity for Treponema pallidum could not be calculated due to the absence of any Treponema pallidum-positive samples. In conclusion, the STDFinder assays have comparable clinical sensitivity to the conventional mono and duplex real-time PCR assay and are suitable for the routine detection of a broad spectrum of these STDs at relatively low cost due to multiplexing.

  6. Treponema pallidum pallidum Genotypes and Macrolide Resistance Status in Syphilitic Lesions among Patients at 2 Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinics in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Juan Antonio; Vargas, Silver Keith; Leon, Segundo Ramos; Perez, Danny Giancarlo; Ramos, Lourdes Beatriz; Chow, Jeremy; Konda, Kelika Anne; Calvo, Gino Mauricio; Salvatierra, Hector J; Klaussner, Jeffrey D; Caceres, Carlos Fernando

    2016-07-01

    We report the circulating genotypes and the frequency of macrolide-resistance patterns among Treponema pallidum pallidum DNA isolated from syphilitic lesions from patients who attended 2 sexual health clinics in Lima, Peru. We implemented and used a molecular typing scheme to describe local T. pallidum pallidum strains. Among 14 specimens, subtype 14d/f was the most prevalent strain in 7 fully typed T. pallidum DNA specimens obtained from men who have sex with men and transgender women presenting with chancre-like lesions. No macrolide-resistance mutations were found in T. pallidum DNA from 10 lesions.

  7. Seroprevalence of the Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses and Treponema pallidum at the Beijing General Hospital from 2010 to 2014: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoxia Xu

    Full Text Available The hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency viruses and Treponema pallidum are important causes of infectious diseases concern to public health.Between 2010 and 2014, we used an automated chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay to detect the hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency viruses as well as Treponema pallidum (the rapid plasma regain test was used in 2010-2011. Positive human immunodeficiency virus tests were confirmed via western blotting.Among 416,130 subjects, the seroprevalences for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and Treponema pallidum were 5.72%, 1.23%, 0.196%, and 0.76%, respectively. Among 671 patients with positive human immunodeficiency virus results, 392 cases were confirmed via western blotting. Hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus infections were more frequent in men (7.78% and 0.26%, respectively than in women (4.45% and 0.021%, respectively. The hepatitis B and C virus seroprevalences decreased from 6.21% and 1.58%, respectively, in 2010, to 5.37% and 0.988%, respectively, in 2014. The human immunodeficiency virus seroprevalence increased from 0.04% in 2010 to 0.17% in 2014, and was elevated in the Infectious Disease (2.65%, Emergency (1.71%, and Dermatology and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (1.12% departments. The specificity of the human immunodeficiency virus screening was 71.4%. The false positive rates for the Treponema pallidum screening tests increased in patients who were 60-70 years old. The co-infection rates for the hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency viruses were 0.47% in hepatitis C virus-positive patients and 7.33% in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients.During 2010-2014, hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus infections were more frequent among men at our institution. Although the seroprevalences of hepatitis B and C viruses decreased, the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection increased (with

  8. Use of the Treponema pallidum-specific captia syphilis IgG assay in conjunction with the rapid plasma reagin to test for syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The Captia Syphilis IgG enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was evaluated for use in conjunction with the rapid plasma reagin test (RPR) as a method to test for syphilis. A total of 1,288 serum specimens were tested by the routine laboratory protocol of the RPR followed by microhemagluttination assay for Treponema pallidum (MHA-TP) testing of RPR-reactive sera as well as the EIA-RPR protocol in which the automated EIA followed by a manual RPR test for EIA-positive specimens is used. When using the routi...

  9. Discovery of Bovine Digital Dermatitis-Associated Treponema spp. in the Dairy Herd Environment by a Targeted Deep-Sequencing Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Weiss Nielsen, Martin; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian;

    2014-01-01

    The bacteria associated with the infectious claw disease bovine digital dermatitis (DD) are spirochetes of the genus Treponema; however, their environmental reservoir remains unknown. To our knowledge, the current study is the first report of the discovery and phylogenetic characterization of r......RNA gene sequences from DD-associated treponemes in the dairy herd environment. Although the spread of DD appears to be facilitated by wet floors covered with slurry, no DD-associated treponemes have been isolated from this environment previously. Consequently, there is a lack of knowledge about the spread...

  10. Oral Histoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, Gillian A; Nelson, Brenda L

    2017-02-20

    A 44-year-old female presented to her general dentist with the chief complaint of a painful mouth sore of 2 weeks duration. Clinical examination revealed an irregularly shaped ulcer of the buccal and lingual attached gingiva of the anterior mandible. A biopsy was performed and microscopic evaluation revealed histoplasmosis. Histoplasmosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulate, is the most common fungal infection in the United States. Oral lesions of histoplasmosis are generally associated with the disseminated form of histoplasmosis and may present as a fungating or ulcerative lesion of the oral mucosa. The histologic findings and differential diagnosis for oral histoplasmosis are discussed.

  11. Oral leukoplakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The idea of identifying oral lesions with a precancerous nature, i.e. in the sense of pertaining to a pathologic process with an increased risk for future malignant development, of course is to prevent frank malignancy to occur in the affected area. The most common oral lesion with a precancerous...... nature is oral leukoplakia, and for decades it has been discussed how to treat these lesions. Various treatment modalities, such as systemic therapies and surgical removal, have been suggested. The systemic therapies tested so far include retinoids, extracts of green tea, inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2...

  12. Oral and nasal microbiota in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Pedro A B; Aho, Velma T E; Paulin, Lars; Pekkonen, Eero; Auvinen, Petri; Scheperjans, Filip

    2017-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with neuropathological changes in olfactory and gastrointestinal tissues, and PD patients frequently suffer from hyposmia, hyposalivation, and dysphagia. Since hyposmia and gastrointestinal dysfunction are frequently premotor symptoms, it has been speculated that an external, for example microbial, agent could trigger the pathologic process in the corresponding organs, subsequently spreading to the central nervous system. We recently showed evidence for compositional differences between the fecal microbiota of PD patients and control subjects. In this study, our objective was to explore a possible connection between nasal and oral microbiota and PD. We compared the oral and nasal bacterial communities of PD patients (oral: n = 72, nasal: n = 69) and control subjects (oral: n = 76, nasal: n = 67) using a 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing approach. Oral and nasal microbiota differed markedly from each other, with no notable similarity within subjects. Oral microbiota of PD patients and control subjects had differences in beta diversity and abundances of individual bacterial taxa. An increase in the abundance of opportunistic oral pathogens was detected in males, both with and without PD. Our data did not reveal convincing differences between the nasal microbiota of control subjects and PD patients. The oral microbiome deserves additional research regarding its connection to PD and its biomarker potential. The higher abundance of oral pathogens in men underlines the importance of monitoring and promoting male dental health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oral pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2008-05-01

    Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth.

  14. Herpes - oral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000606.htm Herpes - oral To use the sharing features on this page, ... 374. Read More Atopic dermatitis Cancer Fever Genital herpes Mouth ulcers Vesicles Review Date 8/14/2015 Updated ...

  15. As-yet-uncultivated oral bacteria: breadth and association with oral and extra-oral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Siqueira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that 40–60% of the bacteria found in different healthy and diseased oral sites still remain to be grown in vitro, phenotypically characterized, and formally named as species. The possibility exists that these as-yet-uncultivated bacteria play important ecological roles in oral bacterial communities and may participate in the pathogenesis of several oral infectious diseases. There is also a potential for these as-yet-uncultivated oral bacteria to take part in extra-oral infections. For a comprehensive characterization of physiological and pathogenic properties as well as antimicrobial susceptibility of individual bacterial species, strains need to be grown in pure culture. Advances in culturing techniques have allowed the cultivation of several oral bacterial taxa only previously known by a 16S rRNA gene sequence signature, and novel species have been proposed. There is a growing need for developing improved methods to cultivate and characterize the as-yet-uncultivated portion of the oral microbiome so as to unravel its role in health and disease.

  16. Genome-wide effects of selenium and translational uncoupling on transcription in the termite gut symbiont Treponema primitia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Eric G; Rosenthal, Adam Z; Zhang, Xinning; Leadbetter, Jared R

    2013-11-12

    When prokaryotic cells acquire mutations, encounter translation-inhibiting substances, or experience adverse environmental conditions that limit their ability to synthesize proteins, transcription can become uncoupled from translation. Such uncoupling is known to suppress transcription of protein-encoding genes in bacteria. Here we show that the trace element selenium controls transcription of the gene for the selenocysteine-utilizing enzyme formate dehydrogenase (fdhFSec) through a translation-coupled mechanism in the termite gut symbiont Treponema primitia, a member of the bacterial phylum Spirochaetes. We also evaluated changes in genome-wide transcriptional patterns caused by selenium limitation and by generally uncoupling translation from transcription via antibiotic-mediated inhibition of protein synthesis. We observed that inhibiting protein synthesis in T. primitia influences transcriptional patterns in unexpected ways. In addition to suppressing transcription of certain genes, the expected consequence of inhibiting protein synthesis, we found numerous examples in which transcription of genes and operons is truncated far downstream from putative promoters, is unchanged, or is even stimulated overall. These results indicate that gene regulation in bacteria allows for specific post-initiation transcriptional responses during periods of limited protein synthesis, which may depend both on translational coupling and on unclassified intrinsic elements of protein-encoding genes. A large body of literature demonstrates that the coupling of transcription and translation is a general and essential method by which bacteria regulate gene expression levels. However, the potential role of noncanonical amino acids in regulating transcriptional output via translational control remains, for the most part, undefined. Furthermore, the genome-wide transcriptional state in response to translational decoupling is not well quantified. The results presented here suggest that the

  17. Superoxide reductase from the syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum: crystallization and structure determination using soft X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Silva, Teresa; Trincão, José; Carvalho, Ana L.; Bonifácio, Cecília; Auchère, Françoise; Moura, Isabel; Moura, José J. G.; Romão, Maria J., E-mail: mromao@dq.fct.unl.pt [REQUIMTE Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2005-11-01

    Superoxide reductase is a non-haem iron-containing protein involved in resistance to oxidative stress. The oxidized form of the protein has been crystallized and its three-dimensional structure solved. A highly redundant X-ray diffraction data set was collected on a rotating-anode generator using Cu Kα X-ray radiation. Four Fe atoms were located in the asymmetric unit corresponding to four protein molecules arranged as a dimer of homodimers. Superoxide reductase is a 14 kDa metalloprotein containing a catalytic non-haem iron centre [Fe(His){sub 4}Cys]. It is involved in defence mechanisms against oxygen toxicity, scavenging superoxide radicals from the cell. The oxidized form of Treponema pallidum superoxide reductase was crystallized in the presence of polyethylene glycol and magnesium chloride. Two crystal forms were obtained depending on the oxidizing agents used after purification: crystals grown in the presence of K{sub 3}Fe(CN){sub 6} belonged to space group P2{sub 1} (unit-cell parameters a = 60.3, b = 59.9, c = 64.8 Å, β = 106.9°) and diffracted beyond 1.60 Å resolution, while crystals grown in the presence of Na{sub 2}IrCl{sub 6} belonged to space group C2 (a = 119.4, b = 60.1, c = 65.6 Å, β = 104.9°) and diffracted beyond 1.55 Å. A highly redundant X-ray diffraction data set from the C2 crystal form collected on a copper rotating-anode generator (λ = 1.542 Å) clearly defined the positions of the four Fe atoms present in the asymmetric unit by SAD methods. A MAD experiment at the iron absorption edge confirmed the positions of the previously determined iron sites and provided better phases for model building and refinement. Molecular replacement using the P2{sub 1} data set was successful using a preliminary trace as a search model. A similar arrangement of the four protein molecules could be observed.

  18. Disparities in Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2020: Oral Health Objectives Site Map Disparities in Oral Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Oral health ... to get and keep dental insurance. Disparities in Oral Health Some of the oral health disparities that exist ...

  19. Gorilla gorilla gorilla gut: a potential reservoir of pathogenic bacteria as revealed using culturomics and molecular tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittar, Fadi; Keita, Mamadou B; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Peeters, Martine; Delaporte, Eric; Raoult, Didier

    2014-11-24

    Wild apes are considered to be the most serious reservoir and source of zoonoses. However, little data are available about the gut microbiota and pathogenic bacteria in gorillas. For this propose, a total of 48 fecal samples obtained from 21 Gorilla gorilla gorilla individuals (as revealed via microsatellite analysis) were screened for human bacterial pathogens using culturomics and molecular techniques. By applying culturomics to one index gorilla and using specific media supplemented by plants, we tested 12,800 colonies and identified 147 different bacterial species, including 5 new species. Many opportunistic pathogens were isolated, including 8 frequently associated with human diseases; Mycobacterium bolletii, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium botulinum. The genus Treponema accounted for 27.4% of the total reads identified at the genus level via 454 pyrosequencing. Using specific real-time PCR on 48 gorilla fecal samples, in addition to classical human pathogens, we also observed the fastidious bacteria Bartonella spp. Borrelia spp., Coxiella burnetii and Tropheryma whipplei in the gorilla population. We estimated that the prevalence of these pathogens vary between 4.76% and 85.7%. Therefore, gorillas share many bacterial pathogens with humans suggesting that they could be a reservoir for their emergence.

  20. [Oral microbiota: a promising predictor of human oral and systemic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xu; Junzhi, He; Xuedong, Zhou

    2015-12-01

    A human oral microbiota is the ecological community of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms found in human oral cavity. Oral microbiota exists mostly in the form of a biofilm and maintains a dynamic ecological equilibrium with the host body. However, the disturbance of this ecological balance inevitably causes oral infectious diseases, such as dental caries, apical periodontitis, periodontal diseases, pericoronitis, and craniofacial bone osteomyelitis. Oral microbiota is also correlated with many systemic diseases, including cancer, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, and preterm birth. Hence, oral microbiota has been considered as a potential biomarker of human diseases. The "Human Microbiome Project" and other metagenomic projects worldwide have advanced our knowledge of the human oral microbiota. The integration of these metadata has been the frontier of oral microbiology to improve clinical translation. By reviewing recent progress on studies involving oral microbiota-related oral and systemic diseases, we aimed to propose the essential role of oral microbiota in the prediction of the onset, progression, and prognosis of oral and systemic diseases. An oral microbiota-based prediction model helps develop a new paradigm of personalized medicine and benefits the human health in the post-metagenomics era.

  1. Probiotics and oral health effects in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Stecksén-Blicks, Christina

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Probiotics are living micro-organisms added to food which beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to present a general background on probiotics and its health effects in children, and to examine the evidence for oral...... colonization and the possible impact on oral health in children and young adults. METHODS: For delivery and general health effects, recent systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and other relevant papers were used. Concerning oral installation and oral effects, a broad search for publications in English...... of daily consumption of probiotic milk. CONCLUSION: Bacteriotheraphy in the form of probiotic bacteria with an inhibitory effect on oral pathogens is a promising concept, especially in childhood, but this may not necessarily lead to improved oral health. Further placebo controlled trials that assess...

  2. Oral health promotion interventions on oral reservoirs of staphylococcus aureus: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, O L T; McGrath, C; Bandara, H M H N; Li, L S W; Samaranayake, L P

    2012-04-01

    The oral cavity serves as a reservoir of Staphylococcus aureus for infection of the lower respiratory tract and cross-infection to other patients. This systematic review was designed to examine the effectiveness of oral health promotion interventions on this pathogen. The PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for clinical trials assessing the effect of oral health promotion interventions on oral and oropharyngeal carriage of S. aureus. Oral health promotion interventions on oral reservoirs of S. aureus in both systemically healthy and medically compromised groups consisted of oral hygiene interventions only. There was a lack of evidence pertaining to the effectiveness of mechanical oral hygiene interventions against this pathogen. Chlorhexidine delivered in oral hygiene products such as mouthrinses, gels, and sprays appeared to have some utility against S. aureus, although some studies found equivocal effects. There was a dearth of studies investigating the efficacy of other chemical agents. Although many chemical agents contained in oral hygiene products have proven in vitro activity against S. aureus, their clinical effectiveness and potential role as adjuncts or alternative therapies to conventional treatment remain to be confirmed by further high-quality randomized controlled trials.

  3. [Identification of key markers of normal and pathogenic microbiota determining health of periodontium by NGS-sequencing 16S-rDNA libraries of periodontal swabs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorina, O A; Petrukhina, N B; Basova, A A; Shibaeva, A V; Trubnikova, E V; Shevelev, A B

    2014-01-01

    By using NGS-sequencing libraries of DNA from periodontal swabs with primers specific to V6 region of 16S rDNA prevalence of bacterial genera and species in periodontal microbiota of patients with aggressive periodontitis and healthy donors was analyzed. Six genera of putative periodontal protectors and eight periodontal pathogens were identified with respect to aggressive (but not chronic) periodontitis. Statistically relevant over-colonization by general Porphyromonas, Treponema, Synergistes, Tannerella, Filifactor, Ruminococcus, Parvimonas and Mycoplasma was found to be associated with the condition. From these, only three genera Porphyromonas, Treponema and Tannerella are traditionally considered as periodontal pathogens. Statistically confidential over-colonization by genus Veillonella was found in healthy patients. This genus should be considered as a relevant marker of a healthy periodontium. Genera Streptococcus, Bergeyella, Granulicatella, Kingella and Corynebacterium may be considered as putative periodontal protectors. Comparison of data of NGS-sequencing and real-time PCR demonstrated a good agreement if different PCR efficiency using independent primer pairs is taken into account.

  4. Emerging Food-borne Pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The epidemiology of foodborne diseases is changing. While in manydeveloping nations the efficient treatment of diarrhoeal diseases through oral rehydration has probably led to the prevention of many food related deaths, the underlying problems have not been solved. In these countries, the disease incidence of food-and waterborne disease is still increasing, and now data from other parts of the world indicate that new foodborne pathogens have emerged as important public health problems. Over the last two decades, bacterial infections caused by Campylobacter and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli have emerged, well-recognized pathogens, such as Salmonella enteritidis, have increased dramatically in disease incidence and important foodborne pathogens have become increasingly resistant to antimicrobial agents. The future strategy for prevention of foodborne disease should be founded in scientifically based evaluations of the whole food production chain ‘from farm to table’, including a description of the most important (risk) factors. Epidemiological studies of outbreaks as well as sporadic cases should be aimed at a better understanding of these factors. In terms of public health importance of the problem, the focus should be on the size of the problem, and the potential for improvement. The indications are that both in developed and developing countries there is significant potential for an improvement of the situation. With this aim in mind, international effort should focus on scientific assessments of the potential for risk reduction under different regional conditions.

  5. Emerging Food—borne pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JORGENSCHLUNDT

    2001-01-01

    The epidemiology of foodborne diseases is changing,While in many developing nations the efficient treatment of diarrhoeal diseases through oral rehydration has probably led to the prevention of many food related deaths,the underlying problems have not been solved.In these countries,the disease incidence of food-and waterborne disease is still increasing,and now data from other parts of the world indicate that new foodborne pathogens have emerged as important public health problems,Over the last two decades,bacterial infections caused by Campylobacter and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli have emerged,well-recognized pathogens.such as Salmonella enteritidis,have increased dramatically in disease incidence and important foodborne pathogens have become increasingly resistant to antimicrobial agents.The future strategy for prevention of foodborne disease should be founded in scienfifically based evaluations of the whole foor prodcution chain"from farm to table",including a description of the most important(risk) factors.Epidemiological studies of outbreaks as well as sporadic cases should be aimed at a better understanding of these factors.In terms of public health importance of the problem,the focus should be on the size of the problem,and the potential for improvement,The indications are that both in developed and developing countries there is significant potential for an improvement of the situation.With this aim in mind,international effort should focus on scientific assessments of the potential for risk reduction under different regional conditions.

  6. Oral bacterial DNA findings in pericardial fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Mari Louhelainen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We recently reported that large amounts of oral bacterial DNA can be found in thrombus aspirates of myocardial infarction patients. Some case reports describe bacterial findings in pericardial fluid, mostly done with conventional culturing and a few with PCR; in purulent pericarditis, nevertheless, bacterial PCR has not been used as a diagnostic method before. Objective: To find out whether bacterial DNA can be measured in the pericardial fluid and if it correlates with pathologic–anatomic findings linked to cardiovascular diseases. Methods: Twenty-two pericardial aspirates were collected aseptically prior to forensic autopsy at Tampere University Hospital during 2009–2010. Of the autopsies, 10 (45.5% were free of coronary artery disease (CAD, 7 (31.8% had mild and 5 (22.7% had severe CAD. Bacterial DNA amounts were determined using real-time quantitative PCR with specific primers and probes for all bacterial strains associated with endodontic disease (Streptococcus mitis group, Streptococcus anginosus group, Staphylococcus aureus/Staphylococcus epidermidis, Prevotella intermedia, Parvimonas micra and periodontal disease (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatus, and Dialister pneumosintes. Results: Of 22 cases, 14 (63.6% were positive for endodontic and 8 (36.4% for periodontal-disease-associated bacteria. Only one case was positive for bacterial culturing. There was a statistically significant association between the relative amount of bacterial DNA in the pericardial fluid and the severity of CAD (p=0.035. Conclusions: Oral bacterial DNA was detectable in pericardial fluid and an association between the severity of CAD and the total amount of bacterial DNA in pericardial fluid was found, suggesting that this kind of measurement might be useful for clinical purposes.

  7. [PCR rationale for use of oral cephalosporins by oral surgery procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarev, V N; Chuvilkin, V I; Akhmedov, G D; Chuvilkina, E I; Gadzhiev, F N; Nikitin, I V

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the experience of PCR detection of DNA of pathogenic germs inducing odontogenic inflammation. Pus samples of 48 patients aged 18 to 68 years undergoing oral surgery because of apical periodontal lesions and pericoronitis. The results showed microorganisms associations revealed by PCR are sensitive to III generation cephalosporins. Effective oral regimen included 400 mg Ceftibuten once daily. The PCR results thus served as a rationale for use of oral cephalosporins by oral surgery procedures proved by clinical and immunological data in postoperative period.

  8. Application of metagenomics in understanding oral health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Gunsolley, John

    2014-04-01

    Oral diseases including periodontal disease and caries are some of the most prevalent infectious diseases in humans. Different microbial species cohabitate and form a polymicrobial biofilm called dental plaque in the oral cavity. Metagenomics using next generation sequencing technologies has produced bacterial profiles and genomic profiles to study the relationships between microbial diversity, genetic variation, and oral diseases. Several oral metagenomic studies have examined the oral microbiome of periodontal disease and caries. Gene annotations in these studies support the association of specific genes or metabolic pathways with oral health and with specific diseases. The roles of pathogenic species and functions of specific genes in oral disease development have been recognized by metagenomic analysis. A model is proposed in which three levels of interactions occur in the oral microbiome that determines oral health or disease.

  9. Oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options.

  10. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treville Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency.

  11. Pathogen Phytosensing: Plants to Report Plant Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal Stewart

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Real-time systems that provide evidence of pathogen contamination in crops can be an important new line of early defense in agricultural centers. Plants possess defense mechanisms to protect against pathogen attack. Inducible plant defense is controlled by signal transduction pathways, inducible promoters and cis-regulatory elements corresponding to key genes involved in defense, and pathogen-specific responses. Identified inducible promoters and cis-acting elements could be utilized in plant sentinels, or ‘phytosensors’, by fusing these to reporter genes to produce plants with altered phenotypes in response to the presence of pathogens. Here, we have employed cis-acting elements from promoter regions of pathogen inducible genes as well as those responsive to the plant defense signal molecules salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene. Synthetic promoters were constructed by combining various regulatory elements supplemented with the enhancer elements from the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter to increase basal level of the GUS expression. The inducibility of each synthetic promoter was first assessed in transient expression assays using Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts and then examined for efficacy in stably transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. Histochemical and fluorometric GUS expression analyses showed that both transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants responded to elicitor and phytohormone treatments with increased GUS expression when compared to untreated plants. Pathogen-inducible phytosensor studies were initiated by analyzing the sensitivity of the synthetic promoters against virus infection. Transgenic tobacco plants infected with Alfalfa mosaic virus showed an increase in GUS expression when compared to mock-inoculated control plants, whereas Tobacco mosaic virus infection caused no changes in GUS expression. Further research, using these transgenic plants against a range of different

  12. 梅毒螺旋体感染实验室诊断方法研究进展%Laboratory diagnostic methods for Treponema pallidum infection: research progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武雨霖; 阮森林; 王敏敏

    2013-01-01

    梅毒是一种性传播疾病,病程长、危害大、临床表现复杂,容易造成漏诊和误诊.梅毒的早期诊断对控制梅毒传播具有重要意义.本文对当前梅毒螺旋体的病原学、血清学及分子生物学等检测方法及研究进展作一综述.%Syphilis is a kind of sexually transmitted diseases. Because of its long duration, great harm and complex clinical manifestations, it is liable to make misdiagnosis or missed diagnosis. The early diagnosis of syphilis is important for the control of syphilis transmission. This paper reviewed the etiological, serological and molecular biological methods for Treponema pallidum detection and the research progress.

  13. 梅毒螺旋体的检测技术与应用现状%Detection techniques of Treponema Pallidum and their application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏; 冯国基

    2005-01-01

    梅毒的病原体为梅毒螺旋体(Treponema Pallidum,TP),它是危害性较严重的一种性传播疾病。早期侵犯皮肤黏膜,晚期以侵犯心血管和神经系统为主。它不仅引起全身性损害,同时还可能通过胎盘传给胎儿,引起先天性梅毒。全国流行病学调查表明,我国1991~2000年全国性病呈增长趋势,TP年增长51.63%[1]。因此选择敏感性及特异性高的诊断方法,对该病的防治具有重要意义。

  14. Treponema pallidum in Gel Microdroplets: A Method for Topological Analysis of BamA (TP0326) and Localization of Rare Outer Membrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Amit; Anand, Arvind; Radolf, Justin D

    2015-01-01

    The noncultivable spirochete Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum (T. pallidum) is the etiological agent of venereal syphilis. In contrast to the outer membranes (OMs) of gram-negative bacteria, the OM of T. pallidum lacks lipopolysaccharide, contains a paucity of integral membrane proteins, and is extremely labile. The lability of the T. pallidum OM greatly hinders efforts to localize the bacterium's rare outer membrane proteins (OMPs). To circumvent this problem, we developed the gel microdroplet method in which treponemes are encapsulated in porous agarose beads and then probed with specific antibodies in the absence or presence of low concentrations of the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100. To demonstrate the general utility of this method for surface localization of any T. pallidum antigen, herein we describe a protocol for immunolabeling of encapsulated treponemes using antibodies directed against the β-barrel and POTRA domains of TP0326, the spirochete's BamA ortholog.

  15. Analysis of ELISA method in the diagnosis of treponema pallidum infection%诊断梅毒螺旋体感染中ELISA法的检验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁兆明

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨诊断梅毒螺旋体感染中ELISA法的检验分析效果.方法 收集我院2014年8月至2015年8月入院的70例接受疑似梅毒螺旋体感染治疗的患者,分别对所有患者采用梅毒螺旋体ELISA试验(ELISA法)及快速血浆反应素试验(RPR法)进行检测,比较两种方法的检测结果以及诊断效能等.结果 临床确诊梅毒患者50例,非患者20例;患者RPR法检测阳性43例(61.4%),检测阴性27例(38.6%);患者ELISA法检测阳性47例(67.1%),检测阴性23例(32.9%);ELISA法灵敏度90.0%,漏诊率10.0%,特异度93.3%,误诊率6.7%,正确指数83.3%;RPR法灵敏度80.0%,漏诊率20.0%,特异度85.0%,误诊率15.0%,正确指数65.0%;ELISA法的灵敏度、特异度及正确指数均高于RPR法;ELISA法的漏诊率及误诊率均低于RPR法.结论 诊断梅毒螺旋体感染中ELISA法的检验分析效果显著,具有临床诊断借鉴意义.%Objective To investigate the effect of ELISA method in the diagnosis of treponema pallidum infection.Methods 70 patients with suspected treponema pallidum infection treated in our hospital from August 2014 to August 2015 were collected,all patients underwent treponema pallidum ELISA assay (ELISA method) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR method) testing.Test results and diagnostic performance of two methods were compared.Results There were 50 patients with clinical diagnosis of syphilis,20 cases of non-patient.There were 43 positive cases (61.4%) detected by RPR,27 negative cases (38.6%);there were 47 positive cases (67.1%) detected by ELISA,23 negative cases (32.9%).The sensitivity of ELISA method was 90.0%,missed diagnosis rate was 10.0%,specificity was 93.3%,misdiagnosis rate was 6.7%,correct index was 83.3%;the sensitivity of RPR method was 80.0%,missed diagnosis rate was 20.0%,specificity was 85.0%,misdiagnosis rate was 15.0%,correct index was 65.0%;sensitivity,specificity and correct index of ELISA method were

  16. Oral calcitonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy RC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald C Hamdy,1,2 Dane N Daley11Osteoporosis Center, College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, 2Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Johnson City, TN, USAAbstract: Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through β-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ. Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis failed to

  17. PCR diagnosis of PRRS virus in oral fluids from weaned Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, P. R.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Pedersen, K. S.

    Introduction Oral fluid testing has been suggested as an alternative diagnostic approach for surveillance of pathogens in swine herds3. In Denmark oral fluid has been used for detection of PCV22 and swine veterinarians are eager to use it for diagnosis of other pathogens. The aim of the present s...... in this study is applicable for PRRS surveillance and diagnosis under Danish conditions....

  18. Bipartite Topology of Treponema pallidum Repeat Proteins C/D and I: OUTER MEMBRANE INSERTION, TRIMERIZATION, AND PORIN FUNCTION REQUIRE A C-TERMINAL β-BARREL DOMAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Arvind; LeDoyt, Morgan; Karanian, Carson; Luthra, Amit; Koszelak-Rosenblum, Mary; Malkowski, Michael G; Puthenveetil, Robbins; Vinogradova, Olga; Radolf, Justin D

    2015-05-08

    We previously identified Treponema pallidum repeat proteins TprC/D, TprF, and TprI as candidate outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and subsequently demonstrated that TprC is not only a rare OMP but also forms trimers and has porin activity. We also reported that TprC contains N- and C-terminal domains (TprC(N) and TprC(C)) orthologous to regions in the major outer sheath protein (MOSP(N) and MOSP(C)) of Treponema denticola and that TprC(C) is solely responsible for β-barrel formation, trimerization, and porin function by the full-length protein. Herein, we show that TprI also possesses bipartite architecture, trimeric structure, and porin function and that the MOSP(C)-like domains of native TprC and TprI are surface-exposed in T. pallidum, whereas their MOSP(N)-like domains are tethered within the periplasm. TprF, which does not contain a MOSP(C)-like domain, lacks amphiphilicity and porin activity, adopts an extended inflexible structure, and, in T. pallidum, is tightly bound to the protoplasmic cylinder. By thermal denaturation, the MOSP(N) and MOSP(C)-like domains of TprC and TprI are highly thermostable, endowing the full-length proteins with impressive conformational stability. When expressed in Escherichia coli with PelB signal sequences, TprC and TprI localize to the outer membrane, adopting bipartite topologies, whereas TprF is periplasmic. We propose that the MOSP(N)-like domains enhance the structural integrity of the cell envelope by anchoring the β-barrels within the periplasm. In addition to being bona fide T. pallidum rare outer membrane proteins, TprC/D and TprI represent a new class of dual function, bipartite bacterial OMP.

  19. Syphilis-causing strains belong to separate SS14-like or Nichols-like groups as defined by multilocus analysis of 19 Treponema pallidum strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechvátal, Lukáš; Pětrošová, Helena; Grillová, Linda; Pospíšilová, Petra; Mikalová, Lenka; Strnadel, Radim; Kuklová, Ivana; Kojanová, Martina; Kreidlová, Miluše; Vaňousová, Daniela; Procházka, Přemysl; Zákoucká, Hana; Krchňáková, Alena; Smajs, David

    2014-07-01

    Treponema pallidum strains are closely related at the genome level but cause distinct diseases. Subspecies pallidum (TPA) is the causative agent of syphilis, subspecies pertenue (TPE) causes yaws while subspecies endemicum (TEN) causes bejel (endemic syphilis). Compared to the majority of treponemal genomic regions, several chromosomal loci were found to be more diverse. To assess genetic variability in diverse genomic positions, we have selected (based on published genomic data) and sequenced five variable loci, TP0304, TP0346, TP0488, TP0515 and TP0558, in 19 reference Treponema pallidum strains including all T. pallidum subspecies (TPA, TPE and TEN). Results of this multilocus analysis divided syphilitic isolates into two groups: SS14-like and Nichols-like. The SS14-like group is comprised of SS14, Grady, Mexico A and Philadelphia 1 strains. The Nichols-like group consisted of strains Nichols, Bal 73-1, DAL-1, MN-3, Philadelphia 2, Haiti B and Madras. The TP0558 locus was selected for further studies because it clearly distinguished between the SS14- and Nichols-like groups and because the phylogenetic tree derived from the TP0558 locus showed the same clustering pattern as the tree constructed from whole genome sequences. In addition, TP0558 was shown as the only tested locus that evolved under negative selection within TPA strains. Sequencing of a short fragment (573bp) of the TP0558 locus in a set of 25 clinical isolates from 22 patients collected in the Czech Republic during 2012-2013 revealed that clinical isolates follow the SS14- and Nichols-like distribution.

  20. “Nothing is permanent but change”* -- Antigenic variation in persistent bacterial pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Guy H.; Bankhead, Troy; Lukehart, Sheila A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Pathogens persist in immunocompetent mammalian hosts using various strategies, including evasion of immune effectors by antigenic variation. Among highly antigenically variant bacteria, gene conversion is used to generate novel expressed variants from otherwise silent donor sequences. Recombination using oligonucleotide segments from multiple donors is a combinatorial mechanism that tremendously expands the variant repertoire, allowing thousands of variants to be generated from a relatively small donor pool. Three bacterial pathogens, each encoded by a small genome (Borrelia burgdorferi VlsE diversity is encoded and expressed on a linear plasmid required for persistence and recent experiments have demonstrated that VlsE recombination is necessary for persistence in the immunocompetent host. In contrast, both Treponema pallidum TprK and Anaplasma marginale Msp2 expression sites and donors are chromosomally encoded. Both T. pallidum and A. marginale generate antigenic variants in vivo in individual hosts and studies at the population level reveal marked strain diversity in the variant repertoire that may underlie pathogen strain structure and the capacity for re-infection and heterologous strain superinfection. Here, we review gene conversion in bacterial antigenic variation and discuss the short- and long-term selective pressures that shape the variant repertoire. PMID:19709057

  1. 'Nothing is permanent but change'- antigenic variation in persistent bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Guy H; Bankhead, Troy; Lukehart, Sheila A

    2009-12-01

    Pathogens persist in immunocompetent mammalian hosts using various strategies, including evasion of immune effectors by antigenic variation. Among highly antigenically variant bacteria, gene conversion is used to generate novel expressed variants from otherwise silent donor sequences. Recombination using oligonucleotide segments from multiple donors is a combinatorial mechanism that tremendously expands the variant repertoire, allowing thousands of variants to be generated from a relatively small donor pool. Three bacterial pathogens, each encoded by a small genome (Borrelia burgdorferi VlsE diversity is encoded and expressed on a linear plasmid required for persistence and recent experiments have demonstrated that VlsE recombination is necessary for persistence in the immunocompetent host. In contrast, both Treponema pallidum TprK and Anaplasma marginale Msp2 expression sites and donors are chromosomally encoded. Both T. pallidum and A. marginale generate antigenic variants in vivo in individual hosts and studies at the population level reveal marked strain diversity in the variant repertoire that may underlie pathogen strain structure and the capacity for re-infection and heterologous strain superinfection. Here, we review gene conversion in bacterial antigenic variation and discuss the short- and long-term selective pressures that shape the variant repertoire.

  2. Differential Responses of Pattern Recognition Receptors to Outer Membrane Vesicles of Three Periodontal Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Jessica D; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Lenzo, Jason C; Holden, James A; Chen, Yu-Yen; Singleton, William; Gause, Katelyn T; Yan, Yan; Caruso, Frank; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    Highly purified outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of the periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia were produced using tangential flow ultrafiltration, ultracentrifugation and Optiprep density gradient separation. Cryo-TEM and light scattering showed OMVs to be single lipid-bilayers with modal diameters of 75 to 158 nm. Enumeration of OMVs by nanoparticle flow-cytometry at the same stage of late exponential culture indicated that P. gingivalis was the most prolific OMV producer. P. gingivalis OMVs induced strong TLR2 and TLR4-specific responses and moderate responses in TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, NOD1 and NOD2 expressing-HEK-Blue cells. Responses to T. forsythia OMVs were less than those of P. gingivalis and T. denticola OMVs induced only weak responses. Compositional analyses of OMVs from the three pathogens demonstrated differences in protein, fatty acids, lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan fragments and nucleic acids. Periodontal pathogen OMVs induced differential pattern recognition receptor responses that have implications for their role in chronic periodontitis.

  3. Differential Responses of Pattern Recognition Receptors to Outer Membrane Vesicles of Three Periodontal Pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica D Cecil

    Full Text Available Highly purified outer membrane vesicles (OMVs of the periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia were produced using tangential flow ultrafiltration, ultracentrifugation and Optiprep density gradient separation. Cryo-TEM and light scattering showed OMVs to be single lipid-bilayers with modal diameters of 75 to 158 nm. Enumeration of OMVs by nanoparticle flow-cytometry at the same stage of late exponential culture indicated that P. gingivalis was the most prolific OMV producer. P. gingivalis OMVs induced strong TLR2 and TLR4-specific responses and moderate responses in TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, NOD1 and NOD2 expressing-HEK-Blue cells. Responses to T. forsythia OMVs were less than those of P. gingivalis and T. denticola OMVs induced only weak responses. Compositional analyses of OMVs from the three pathogens demonstrated differences in protein, fatty acids, lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan fragments and nucleic acids. Periodontal pathogen OMVs induced differential pattern recognition receptor responses that have implications for their role in chronic periodontitis.

  4. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

  5. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

  6. Genome Sequence of the Oral Probiotic Streptococcus salivarius JF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fang

    2016-09-22

    Streptococcus salivarius is a nonpathogenic Gram-positive bacterium and the predominant colonizer of the oral microbiota. It finds a wide application in the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections, also reducing the frequency of other main pathogens. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the oral probiotic S. salivarius JF. Copyright © 2016 Jia.

  7. Genome Sequence of the Oral Probiotic Streptococcus salivarius JF

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius is a nonpathogenic Gram-positive bacterium and the predominant colonizer of the oral microbiota. It finds a wide application in the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections, also reducing the frequency of other main pathogens. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the oral probiotic S. salivarius JF.

  8. Oral health promotion interventions on oral yeast in hospitalised and medically compromised patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Otto L T; Bandara, H M H N; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; McGrath, Colman; Li, Leonard S W

    2012-03-01

    Yeast are major aetiological agents of localised oral mucosal lesions, and are also leading causes of nosocomial bloodstream infections. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of oral health promotion interventions on the prevalence and incidence of these opportunistic oral pathogens in hospitalised and medically compromised patients. The PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases were searched for clinical trials assessing the effect of oral health promotion interventions on oral yeast. Chlorhexidine delivered in a variety of oral hygiene products appeared to have some effect on oral yeast, although some studies found equivocal effects. Although a wide array of other compounds have also been investigated, their clinical effectiveness remains to be substantiated. Likewise, the utility of mechanical oral hygiene interventions and other oral health promotion measures such as topical application of salivary substitute, remains unsettled. Although many chemical agents contained in oral hygiene products have proven in vitro activity against oral yeast, their clinical effectiveness and potential role as adjuncts or alternative therapies to conventional treatment remains to be confirmed by further high-quality randomised controlled trials. This is pertinent, given the recent emergence of yeast resistance to conventional antifungal agents.

  9. CMIA法测定梅毒螺旋体抗体在临床筛检梅毒的应用%Evaluation of a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay for determination of Treponema pallidum antibodies in syphilis screening test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金国江; 邹大伟; 杜毅鑫; 陈俊丽

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨CMIA法测定梅毒螺旋体抗体在临床筛检梅毒的应用.方法:用CMIA法测定患者梅毒螺旋体抗体,阳性标本再进行TPPA确认试验,用ROC曲线分析确定S/CO值筛检梅毒精确度.结果:在28468例受检患者中,CMIA法梅毒抗体阳性501例,其中TPPA阳性413例,通过ROC曲线分析确定S/CO为3.2时(曲线下面积0.953,95%可信区间0.936~0.970),预测梅毒精确度为(敏感性88.8%,特异性94.4%).结论:CMIA法检测梅毒抗体可以准确预测梅毒感染,根据S/CO值可以确定是否需要进行TPPA确认试验.%Objective: To explore the clinical application of a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) for determination of Treponema pallidum antibodies in syphilis screening test. Methods: All serum samples were detected for the Treponema pallidum antibodies by CMIA. Then the positive samples were confirmed by Treponema pallidum particle agglutination ( TPPA). Receiver - operating characteristic ( ROC ) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Treponema pallidum antibody S/CO for syphilis diagnosis. Results: In total of 28,468 patients, 501 patients were CMIA positive, and 413 cases were TPPA positive. By ROC curve a-nalysis, Treponema pallidum antibody S/CO ratio ( area, 0. 953 ; 95% confidence interval, 0. 936 to 0. 970) accurately predicted the presence of Syphilis, with a cutoff value of 3. 2 ( sensitivity, 88. 8% ; specificity, 94. 4% ) . Conclusion: The CMIA for determination of Treponema pallidum antibodies can predict syphilis infection accurately. The S/CO ratio can be used to determine whether a TPPA test should be performed.

  10. Test of Syphilis by Treponema Pallidum Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay and Treponema Pallidum Particle Assay%梅毒酶联免疫吸附试验与梅毒螺旋体明胶凝集试验检测梅毒的效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴险

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨梅毒酶联免疫吸附试验与梅毒螺旋体明胶凝集试验检测梅毒的效果。方法对100例梅毒患者,分别运用梅毒酶联免疫吸附试验与梅毒螺旋体明胶凝集试验进行检测,对比检测结果。结果两种方法的阳性检出率分别为97.0%和92.0%,特异性分别为94.0%和100%。结论在梅毒阳性检出率上梅毒酶联免疫吸附试验较高,而特异性梅毒螺旋体明胶凝集试验较高。%Objective To compare the different test results of syphilis by treponema pallidum enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(TP-ELISE) and treponema pallidum particle assay(TPPA). Methods 100 patients with syphilis were tested respectively by TP-ELISE and TPPA, and the results were compared. Results The positive rates of the two methods were 97%and 92%, and the speciifcity were 94%and 100%. Conclusions The positive rate of TP-ELISE was higher, and the speciifcity of TPPA was the highest.

  11. Determination of the antibacterial activity of crude extracts and compounds isolated from Hortia oreadica (Rutaceae against oral pathogens Determinação da atividade antibacteriana de extratos brutos e substâncias isoladas de Hortia oreadica (Rutaceae frente à patógenos bucais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Gisele Pasqualotto Severino

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from Hortia oreadica afforded four dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives, isolated from the n-hexane extract, as well as limonoid guyanin and the furoquinoline alkaloid dictamnine, both isolated from the dichloromethane extract. The extracts and the isolated compounds were tested against some oral pathogens, so as to investigate their antibacterial activity. The results showed that the n-hexane extract and the compound dictamnine are the most active against the selected microorganisms.Extratos brutos de Hortia oreadica, forneceram quatro derivados do ácido diidrocinâmico, que foram isolados do extrato n-hexânico, bem como as substâncias guianina e dictamina, isoladas do extrato em diclorometano. Os extratos brutos e as substâncias isoladas foram avaliados frente a alguns patógenos bucais com o objetivo de investigar a atividade antibacteriana. Os resultados demonstraram que o extrato bruto n-hexânico e a substância dictamina foram os mais ativos frente ao conjunto de microrganismos avaliados.

  12. Associations between Oral Infections and Salivary Gland Hypofunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    provides antimicrobial activity via numerous proteins and peptides including lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, lysozyme, statherin and histatins. This chapter focuses on the oral microbiota in patients suffering from salivary gland hypofunction due to Sjögren’s syndrome, radiotherapy of tumours in the head...... and neck region, cancer chemotherapy and intake of medications. Despite the different causes of salivary gland hypofunction, these patient groups show some similarities regarding the composition of the oral microbiota with increased colonisation of oral pathogens associated with dental caries...

  13. Oral dirofilariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R S Desai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilaria is parasitic nematodes of domestic and wild animals that can infect humans accidentally via vectors. Its occurrence in the oral cavity is extremely rare. The most frequent presentation of human dirofilariasis is a single submucosal nodule without signs of inflammation. We hereby, report a case of human dirofilariasis affecting the buccal mucosa in a 32-year-old farmer caused by D. repens.

  14. Oral leiomyomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, D D; Neville, B W

    1979-04-01

    Oral leiomyomas are considered to be rare neoplasms, but they may be encountered more frequently than generally believed. Three types of leiomyomas are commonly described: solid leiomyomas, angiomyomas, and epithelioid leiomyomas. Three cases of solid leiomyoma are presented, all of which occurred in the anterior mandibular mucobuccal fold. Leiomyomas can be easily confused with other spindle-cell tumors. The necessity of using special stains, especially Mallory's phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin, is discussed.

  15. [Sensitivity to antibiotics monitoring of oral microflora in practically sound children and patients with chronic gastroduodenitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilova, O A; Davydov, B N; Chervinets, Iu V; Chervinets, V M

    2009-01-01

    Characteristic of oral microflora in practically sound children and patients with chronic gastroduodenitis was offered. Microflora singled out from ill persons differed by pathogenicity in previously opportunistic pathogenic forms. Monitoring of sensitivity and resistivity to antibiotics of the singled out microflora in practically sound children and ill with chronic gastroduodenitis was presented. When treating oral diseases one should take into account the high resistivity to antibiotics (especially to benzilpenicillin) of opportunistic pathogenic forms.

  16. The oral microbiome and adverse pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobb CM

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Charles M Cobb,1 Patricia J Kelly,2 Karen B Williams,3 Shilpa Babbar,4 Mubashir Angolkar,5 Richard J Derman6 1Department of Periodontics, School of Dentistry, 2Department of Public Health Nursing, School of Nursing and Health Studies, 3Department of Biomedical & Health Informatics, School of Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, 4Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Women’s Health, Division of Maternal & Fetal Medicine, School of Medicine, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO, USA; 5Department of Public Health, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College (JNMC, KLE University, Karnataka, India; 6Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Significant evidence supports an association between periodontal pathogenic bacteria and preterm birth and preeclampsia. The virulence properties assigned to specific oral pathogenic bacteria, for example, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Filifactor alocis, Campylobacter rectus, and others, render them as potential collaborators in adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Several pathways have been suggested for this association: 1 hematogenous spread (bacteremia of periodontal pathogens; 2 hematogenous spread of multiple mediators of inflammation that are generated by the host and/or fetal immune response to pathogenic bacteria; and 3 the possibility of oral microbial pathogen transmission, with subsequent colonization, in the vaginal microbiome resulting from sexual practices. As periodontal disease is, for the most part, preventable, the medical and dental public health communities can address intervention strategies to control oral inflammatory disease, lessen the systemic inflammatory burden, and ultimately reduce the potential for adverse pregnancy outcomes. This article reviews the oral, vaginal, and placental microbiomes, considers their potential impact on preterm labor, and the future

  17. 呼吸机相关性肺炎病原菌耐药性分析及口腔消毒对感染预防价值%Antibiotics resistance of pathogens causing ventilator-associated pneumonia and clinical value of oral disinfection in prevention of infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the characteristics of distribution and drug resistance of pathogens in the patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and observe the effect of the compound borax solution for the oral disinfection on the prevention of pulmonary infections. METHODS A total of 45 patients diagnosed as VAP were selected in this study. Identification of bacterial strains was performed after sputum culture; K-B was utilized for the antibiotic susceptibility testing. 53 and 62 ICU patients were respectively selected as the control group and the intervention group. Oral disinfection was used in the intervention group by compound borax solution before treatment of ventilator. The morbidity of VAP, detection rate of airway bacteria , and duration of fever and cough were observed and compared between the two groups. RESULTS Totally 83 strains of pathogens were detected; there were 55 (66. 27%) of gram-negative bacteria, 17 (20. 48%) strains of gram-positive bacteria, and 11 (13.25%) strains of fungi. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.07%), Acinetobacter baumannii (15. 66%) , and Staphylococcus aureus(14. 58%) were the top three species of pathogens. P. aeruginosa strains were resistant to many antibiotics, and the drug susceptibility rates to imipenem and meropenem were 100. 00%; S. aureus strains were also resistant to some commonly used antibiotics, but no strains resistant to vancomycin or furantoin were detected; the drug susceptibility rate of Candida albicans to amphotericin B was the highest (100. 00%). After the intervention with cmpound borax solution, the incidence of VAP and the detection rate of the airway bacteria of the hospitalized ICU patients were 6. 45% and 9. 68%, respectively, which were significantly decreased; the duration of fever was (3. 14±1. 07), duration of cough (3. 28 ± 1. 17), both significantly shortened. CONCLUSION The gram-negative bacteria are the predominant pathogens causing VAP and are resistant to many antibiotics. The

  18. Potatoes, pathogens and pests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazebnik, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    Currently, fungicides are necessary to protect potato crops against late blight, Phytophthora infestans, one of the world’s most damaging crop pathogens. The introgression of plant resistance genes from wild potato species targeted specifically to the late blight pathogen into susceptible

  19. Plant pathogen resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jean T; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

    2012-11-27

    Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

  20. Plant pathogen resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Jean T.; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

    2015-10-20

    Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

  1. Oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclennan, A H

    1987-12-01

    Over 60 million women use highly efficient and safe modern combined oral contraceptives (OCs) every day. A women who takes the oral contraceptive for 5 years before the age of 30 will actually live 12 days longer, although a woman taking the pill for the 1st time for 5 years after the age of 30 will have her life span reduced on the average by 80 days. OC related morbidity and mortality mostly occur in women over 35 who smoke. Combined low dose OCs are safe for women who do not smoke, at least to 45 years of age and probably to the menopause. The prescription of OCs is also safe to the young adolescent. The pill does not interfere with maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary ovarian axis and does not increase the incidence of amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea or infertility in later life. Patients with contraindications to estrogen therapy are excluded from OC use (history of thromboembolism, major heart disease, liver disease, breast cancer). Low-dose (30-35 mcg estrogen-containing monophasic or triphasic) pills are recommended. Combined oral contraceptives contain either ethinyl estradiol (1.7 to 2 times more potent) or mestranol. After absorption the progestagens, norethisterone acetate, ethynodiol diacetate and lynoestrenol are all metabolized to norethisterone. The progestagen-only pill has about a 2% failure rate and poorer cycle control than the combined pill, but it lacks estrogenic, progestagenic and androgenic side effects. This pill is suitable for the lactating mother, for smokers over 35, for hypertensive patients, and for those with a history of thrombosis. The efficacy of the progestagen-only pill is restored in 3 days of pill taking. Postcoital contraception is an alternative: treatment can be given for at least 72 hours after intercourse. The Yuzpe method calls for the patient to take 2 combined oral contraceptive tablets containing levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol (Eugynon or Ovral) followed by a further 2 tablets 12 hours later. This regimen

  2. Animal models for oral transmission of Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E F D'Orazio

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes has been recognized as a food borne pathogen in humans since the 1980s, but we still understand very little about oral transmission of L. monocytogenes or the host factors that determine susceptibility to gastrointestinal infection, due to the lack of an appropriate small animal model of oral listeriosis. Early feeding trials suggested that many animals were highly resistant to oral infection, and the more reproducible intravenous or intraperitoneal routes of inoculation soon came to be favored. There are a fair number of previously published studies using an oral infection route, but the work varies widely in terms of bacterial strain choice, the methods used for oral transmission, and various manipulations used to enhance infectivity. This mini review will summarize the published literature using oral routes of L. monocytogenes infection and will highlight recent technological advances that have made oral infection a more attractive model system.

  3. Oral microbiota species in acute apical endodontic abscesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle George

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Acute apical abscesses are serious endodontic diseases resulting from pulpal infection with opportunistic oral microorganisms. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the oral microbiota in patients (N=18 exhibiting acute apical abscesses, originating from the demographic region in Portland, Oregon. The study hypothesis is that abscesses obtained from this demographic region may contain unique microorganisms not identified in specimens from other regions. Design: Endodontic abscesses were sampled from patients at the Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU School of Dentistry. DNA from abscess specimens was subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification using 16S rRNA gene-specific primers and Cy3-dCTP labeling. Labeled DNA was then applied to microbial microarrays (280 species generated by the Human Oral Microbial Identification Microarray Laboratory (Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA. Results: The most prevalent microorganisms, found across multiple abscess specimens, include Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Megasphaera species clone CS025, Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Atopobium rimae, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. The most abundant microorganisms, found in highest numbers within individual abscesses, include F. nucleatum, P. micra, Streptococcus Cluster III, Solobacterium moorei, Streptococcus constellatus, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. Strong bacterial associations were identified between Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Acidaminococcaceae species clone DM071, Megasphaera species clone CS025, Actinomyces species clone EP053, and Streptococcus cristatus (all with Spearman coefficients >0.9. Conclusions: Cultivable and uncultivable bacterial species have been identified in endodontic abscesses obtained from the Portland, Oregon demographic region, and taxa identifications correlated well with other published studies, with the exception of Treponema and Streptococcus cristae, which

  4. 梅毒螺旋体抗体的检测方法及其临床意义%The detection method of treponema pallidum antibody and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈庆红; 马浩杰; 翟光华

    2014-01-01

    Objective to explore the importance and necessity of three methods in testing treponema pallidum including treponema pallidum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (tP-elisa), treponema pallidum gelatin particle agglutination test (tPPa) and rapid plasma reaction ring card test (rPr).Methods a total of 40448 patients were screened from inpatient and outpatient department and 745 cases showed positive specimens by tP - elisa screening, which was detected by further tPPa and rPr.Results 745 cases were detected with positive specimens by TP - ELISA. Further conifrmation was performed by tPPa test and 690 cases showed positive (212 patients with positive rPr). the positive rate compared by the two methods showed signiifcant difference(χ2=55.050,P=0.000)Conclusion the two step method of tP-elisa is a better screening test for treponema pallidum, but there are still a number of false positive results in the clinical monitoring. Conifrmed by TPPA can effectively eliminate the false positive problem in tP - elisa test. rPr is a good index for detecting treponema pallidum and observating curative effect.%目的:探讨梅毒螺旋体酶联免疫吸附试验(tP-elisa)、(tPPa)和快速血浆反应环状卡片试验(rPr)三种方法同时用于梅毒螺旋体检测的重要性和必要性。方法对住院及门诊患者共40448例用tP-elisa筛查出745例阳性标本,阳性标本则进一步做tPPa和rPr。结果用tP-elisa法检测出阳性的745例标本,进一步做tPPa确证试验,tPPa阳性690例(其中rPr阳性212例),两种方法阳性率具有显著性差异(χ2=55.050,P=0.000)。结论 tP-elisa二步法是较好的梅毒筛查试验,但在临床监测中仍有一定数量假阳性,用tPPa确证能有效排除tP-elisa的假阳性问题,rPr是现症梅毒和疗效观察的指标。

  5. Analysis of 88 Cases of Elderly Patients with Treponema Pallidum Antibody Positive Screening Results%88例老年患者梅毒螺旋体抗体筛查阳性结果的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨清梅; 贾伟建

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of Treponema pallidum antibody screening positive for elderly patients. Method The detection of Treponema pallidum antibody in the serum of 3520 elderly patients by chemiluminescence method, and then the positive results of Treponema pallidum gelatin agglutination test (TPPA) and toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST) for a test, antibody indeterminate samples by immunoblotting of Treponema pallidum (Western blot, WB) method for the final confirmation. Results The chemiluminescence method screening of 88 cases of syphilis antibody positive, confirmed by TPPA positive 63 cases, TRUST was positive in 17 cases, which were positive for TPPA validation. 25 cases were identified by uncertainty, WB was positive in 1 cases, 7 cases of suspected, negative in 17 cases. Conclusion Elderly patients with Treponema pallidum antibody screening will have certain false positive, final confirmation of a single screening positive samples by Western blotting.%目的:探讨梅毒螺旋体抗体筛查阳性对老年患者的价值。方法采用化学发光法检测3520例老年患者血清中梅毒螺旋体抗体,阳性结果再用梅毒螺旋体明胶凝集试验(TPPA)和甲苯胺红不加热血清试验( TRUST)进行检测,对不确定标本再用免疫印迹(Western blot, WB)法进行最后确认。结果化学发光法共筛查出88例梅毒螺旋体抗体阳性,经TPPA确证阳性63例,TRUST阳性17例,当中TPPA确证均阳性。25例不确定标本,WB法确认1例阳性,7例可疑,17例阴性。结论老年患者梅毒螺旋体抗体筛查会有一定的假阳性,对单筛查阳性的标本应用免疫印迹法作最后确认。

  6. 梅毒螺旋体阳性患者C反应蛋白的变化及意义%The Changes of the Level of CRP in Patients with Positive Treponema Pallidum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟延芳

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察梅毒抗体阳性患者C反应蛋白水平以探讨其对梅毒螺旋体感染的诊断意义及应用价值.方法:分别检测并比较75例梅毒抗体阳性患者、80例健康正常人c反应蛋白水平,并同时对比分析梅毒患者治疗前后c反应蛋白水平变化情况.结果:观察组梅毒患者治疗前CRP水平显著高于健康正常人组(P<0.001).I期、Ⅱ期、Ⅲ期梅毒患者CRP水平有显著性差异(P<0.01),随患者梅毒分期的增高,CRP水平有所降低.梅毒患者治疗前后CRP水平有统计学差异(P<0.01).结论:CRP检测在梅毒抗体阳性患者早期诊断、临床分期及治疗转归等方面具有重要应用价值.%Objective: Observing the C-reaction protein( CRP) in patients with positive treponema pal-lidum to explore the value of CRP in the diagnosis of syphilis. Method: The level of CRP in 75 cases of positive treponema pallidum ,80 cases of health was detection, and also after the treatment of syphilis. Result: There was significant difference between the patients'of positive treponema pallidum and the health in the lev-el of CRP( P<0. 001). There's evident difference in clinical stages of Ⅰ ,Ⅱ , Ⅲ ( P<0. 001). Compared with the level of CRP in patients with positive treponema pallidum before treatment, there was obvious difference after treatment(P<0.01). Conclusion: CRP testing to patients with positive treponema pallidum has application value in early diagnosis , the clinical stages ,and treatment outcome.

  7. Prevalence of "non-oral" pathogenic bacteria in subgingival biofilm of subjects with chronic periodontitis Prevalência de bactérias patogênicas "não-orais" no biofilme dental subgengival de pacientes com periodontite crônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Souto

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The oral cavity may act as a reservoir for several pathogens related to systemic infections. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and levels of pathogenic bacteria in the subgingival biofilm of chronic periodontitis lesions and healthy periodontal sites using the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. 200 samples of subgingival biofilm from sites with periodontitis (probing pocket depth > 4 mm and /or clinical attachment level > 4 mm and 200 samples from healthy sites of 14 patients with chronic periodontitis, as well as 200 samples from 3 periodontally healthy patients were obtained. The presence and levels of 11 pathogenic bacteria were determined using whole genomic DNA probes and the checkerboard method, computed for each site and then across sites within each subject group. Significance of differences in clinical and microbiological parameters among groups were examinated using the Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon sign tests. The predominant species in all 600 samples included Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus,Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli. In general, most of the species were detected in greater prevalence and levels in sites with and without disease from patients with periodontitis in comparison to the periodontally healthy group. In particular, C. diphtheriae, E. coli, E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were significantly more prevalent and detected in higher counts in diseased sites of patients with periodontal disease compared to healthy subjects (p Apesar da extensa literatura sobre a associação de bactérias orais e doenças sistêmicas, tem se dado pouca atenção à cavidade oral como um reservatório de bactérias patogênicas "não-orais". A microbiota oral é constituída de mais de 300 espécies bacterianas já caracterizadas, além de organismos não cultiváveis que vêm sendo descobertos através de técnicas moleculares. O

  8. Oral amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Lima Arrais Ribeiro

    Full Text Available A amiloidose é uma doença complexa rara de difícil diagnóstico que ocorre devido à deposição de substância amilóide no meio extracelular. Ao ser diagnosticado na cavidade bucal, deve-se monitorar o paciente a fim de avaliar possíveis complicações sistêmicas da doença. Diante disso, o objetivo do presente estudo é relatar um caso de amiloidose oral em uma paciente do gênero feminino de 72 anos de idade. Baseado nos sinais clínicos observados, a hipótese diagnóstica foi de fibroma traumático. Após realização de biópsia e exame histopatológico, o diagnóstico foi de amiloidose oral, o que foi confirmado com a coloração do espécime com o reagente vermelho congo. Depósitos de amilóide foram encontrados no tecido conjuntivo, na avaliação através da luz polarizada, que apresentou birrefringência. Tal achado foi preocupante, já que a amiloidose geralmente acomete diversos tecidos levando a comprometimentos sistêmicos. Por essa razão a paciente foi encaminhada a procurar atendimento médico. No entanto, houve abandono do tratamento e a mesma veio a óbito 6 meses após o diagnóstico da doença. Lesões orais aparentemente simples podem revelar doenças raras e de difícil tratamento. O diagnóstico preciso e acompanhamentos médicos são fundamentais na sobrevida do paciente.

  9. Iron availability increases the pathogenic potential of Salmonella typhimurium and other enteric pathogens at the intestinal epithelial interface.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortman, G.A.M.; Boleij, A.; Swinkels, D.W.; Tjalsma, H.

    2012-01-01

    Recent trials have questioned the safety of untargeted oral iron supplementation in developing regions. Excess of luminal iron could select for enteric pathogens at the expense of beneficial commensals in the human gut microflora, thereby increasing the incidence of infectious diseases. The objectiv

  10. Evaluation of tissue engineered models of the oral mucosa to investigate oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadev, Nishant P; Murdoch, Craig; Saville, Stephen P; Thornhill, Martin H

    2011-06-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal organism that can be isolated from the majority of healthy individuals. However, in certain susceptible individuals C. albicans can become pathogenic leading to the mucocutaneous infection; oral candidiasis. Murine models and in vitro monolayer cultures have generated some data on the likely virulence and host factors that contribute to oral candidiasis but these models have limitations. Recently, tissue engineered oral mucosal models have been developed to mimic the normal oral mucosa but little information is available on their true representation. In this study, we assessed the histological features of three different tissue engineered oral mucosal models compared to the normal oral mucosa and analysed both cell damage and cytokine release following infection with C. albicans. Models comprised of normal oral keratinocytes and a fibroblast-containing matrix displayed more similar immunohistological and proliferation characteristics to normal mucosa, compared to models composed of an oral carcinoma cell line. Although all models were invaded and damaged by C. albicans in a similar manner, the cytokine response was much more pronounced in models containing normal keratinocytes. These data suggest that models based on normal keratinocytes atop a fibroblast-containing connective tissue will significantly aid in dissecting the molecular pathogenesis of oral candidiasis.

  11. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, signs and symptoms of oral cancer, and the importance of detecting the disease in its early ...

  12. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – ... detection and treatment of oral cancers. Note: For materials specific to African American men, please see: Oral ...

  13. Oral Lichen Planus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral lichen planus Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Oral lichen planus (LIE-kun PLAY-nus) is an ongoing (chronic) ... that affects mucous membranes inside your mouth. Oral lichen planus may appear as white, lacy patches; red, ...

  14. Oral Health Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Children's Oral Health Mouth Breathing Can Cause Major Health Problems Over ... news feeds delivered directly to your desktop! more... Oral Health Glossary Article Chapters Oral Health Glossary print full ...

  15. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, signs and symptoms of oral cancer, and the importance of detecting the disease in its early ...

  16. Uncommon opportunistic fungal infections of oral cavity: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G Deepa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of opportunistic oral mucosal fungal infections are due to Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus species. Mucor and Cryptococcus also have a major role in causing oral infections, whereas Geotrichum, Fusarium, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces and Penicillium marneffei are uncommon pathogens in the oral cavity. The broad spectrum of clinical presentation includes pseudo-membranes, abscesses, ulcers, pustules and extensive tissue necrosis involving bone. This review discusses various uncommon opportunistic fungal infections affecting the oral cavity including their morphology, clinical features and diagnostic methods.

  17. 羧甲基壳聚糖口腔复合膜剂对智牙冠周炎疗效的观察%The Effect Observation of Carboxymethyl Chitosan Oral Composite Membrane Film Agent in Treatment of Wisdom Tooth Pericoronitis Pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘起群

    2015-01-01

    目的:探究羧甲基壳聚糖口腔复合膜剂对智牙冠周炎致病菌的作用。方法:选取本院2011年1月-2013年12月收治的120例智牙冠周炎患者,随机分为观察组和对照组,给予观察组患者羧甲基壳聚糖口腔复合膜剂治疗,给予对照组患者奥硝唑碘甘油明胶海绵治疗,比较两组患者的临床治疗效果。结果:观察组和对照组患者临床症状均得到有效缓解,其中观察组治愈率为78.3%,总有效率为98.3%,明显高于对照组的60.0%、91.7%,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:羧甲基壳聚糖口腔复合膜剂对智牙冠周炎致病菌的作用效果明显,可促进临床症状改善和加快患者预后,值得在临床上大力推广。%Objective:To explore the effect of the carboxymethyl chitosan oral composite membrane films on pericoronitis of the wisdom tooth disease causing germs.Method:From January 2011 to December 2013,120 cases of wisdom intellectual pericoronitis in our hospital were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group,the observation group were given carboxymethyl chitosan oral composite membrane treatment,the control group were given Ornidazole Iodine Glycerol gelatin sponge treatment,the clinical effect of the two groups were compared.Result:The clinical symptoms of the two group were effectively alleviated,the cure rate of the observation group was 78.3%, the total effective rate was 98.3%, which was significantly higher than 60.0%,91.7% of the control group,the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:The effect of carboxymethyl chitosan composite membrane film agent oral pathogens to wisdom tooth pericoronitis obviously,could promote the improvement of clinical symptoms and accelerate the prognosis of patients, it was worth to popularize in clinic.

  18. Least Wanted Foodborne Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Least Wanted Foodborne Pathogens The U.S. Public Health Service has identified the following microorganisms as being the biggest culprits of foodborne illness, either because of the severity of the ...

  19. T0 PATHOGENS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal, Vol. ... Selection for durable resistance against such pathogens should consist ot' removing the ... major gene resistance has been overcome. .... a simple way. .... which causes either a change in the avirulence.

  20. Syphilis epidemiology in 1994-2013, molecular epidemiological strain typing and determination of macrolide resistance in Treponema pallidum in 2013-2014 in Tuva Republic, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairullin, Rafil; Vorobyev, Denis; Obukhov, Andrey; Kuular, Ural-Herel; Kubanova, Anna; Kubanov, Alexey; Unemo, Magnus

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of syphilis in the Tuva Republic (geographical centre of Asia), Russia has been exceedingly high historically. No detailed examinations and no molecular investigations of Treponema pallidum strains transmitted in the Tuva Republic, or in general, in Russia, were published internationally. We examined the syphilis epidemiology in 1994-2013, and the molecular epidemiology and macrolide resistance in T. pallidum strains in 2013-2014 in the Tuva Republic. Among 95 mainly primary or secondary syphilis patients, the arp, tpr, tp0548 and 23S rRNA genes in 85 polA gene-positive genital ulcer specimens were characterized. The syphilis incidence in Tuva Republic peaked in 1998 (1562), however declined to 177 in 2013. Among the 70 (82%) completely genotyped specimens, six molecular strain types were found. Strain type 14d/f accounted for 91%, but also 14c/f, 14d/g, 14b/f, 14i/f, 9d/f, and 4d/f were identified. Two (2.4%) specimens contained the 23S rRNA A2058G macrolide resistance mutation. This is the first internationally published typing study regarding T. pallidum in Russia, performed in the Tuva Republic with the highest syphilis incidence in Russia. The two molecular strain types 4d/f and 9d/f have previously been described only in Eastern and Northern China and for the first time, macrolide-resistant syphilis was described in Russia.

  1. Molecular differentiation of Treponema pallidum subspecies in skin ulceration clinically suspected as yaws in Vanuatu using real-time multiplex PCR and serological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Kai-Hua; Danavall, Damien; Taleo, Fasihah; Pillay, Allan; Ye, Tun; Nachamkin, Eli; Kool, Jacob L; Fegan, David; Asiedu, Kingsley; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Ballard, Ronald C; Chen, Cheng-Yen

    2015-01-01

    We developed a TaqMan-based real-time quadriplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to simultaneously detect Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, T. pallidum subsp. pertenue, and T. pallidum subsp. endemicum, the causative agents of venereal syphilis, yaws, and bejel, respectively. The PCR assay was applied to samples from skin ulcerations of clinically presumptive yaws cases among children on Tanna Island, Vanuatu. Another real-time triplex PCR was used to screen for the point mutations in the 23S rRNA genes that have previously been associated with azithromycin resistance in T. pallidum subsp. pallidum strains. Seropositivity by the classical syphilis serological tests was 35.5% among children with skin ulcerations clinically suspected with yaws, whereas the presence of T. pallidum subsp. pertenue DNA was only found in lesions from 15.5% of children. No evidence of T. pallidum subsp. pertenue infection, by either PCR or serology was found in ∼59% of cases indicating alternative causes of yaws-like lesions in this endemic area.

  2. 梅毒螺旋体血清学诊断的不同方法评价%EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT METHODS FOR SERUM DETECTIONOF TREPONEMA PALLIDUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏祥松; 薛敏曦; 谢红博

    2004-01-01

    目前诊断梅毒螺旋体(treponema pallidum,TP)感染的血清学方法,大多数临床实验室常采用甲苯胺红不加热血清试验(TRUST)和快速血浆反应素试验(rapid plasma reagintest,PRP),其作为一种过筛试验,通常可容忍假阳性的出现,但常规应用中发现,上述方法不但假阳性较多,而且假阴性也同样较多。这一现象也有文献作了相关报道。我们通过对梅毒螺旋体血清抗体的酶联免疫吸附试验(TP-ELISA)与确证试验的梅毒螺旋体明胶颗粒凝集试验(TPPA)的对比,

  3. A synthetic lymph node containing inactivated Treponema pallidum cells elicits strong, antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Lola V; Drapp, Rebecca L

    2014-02-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the use of a synthetic lymph node (SLN) for delivery of Treponema pallidum (Tp) antigens. Immune responses of C57BL/6 mice were analyzed at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after SLN implantation. Group 1 mice received SLN with no antigen; Group 2, SLN with formalin-inactivated Tp (f-Tp); and Group 3, SLN with f-Tp plus a CpG oligodeoxynucleotide. When tested by ELISA, sera from Group 2 and Group 3 mice showed stronger IgG antibody reactivity than sera from Group 1 mice to sonicates of f-Tp or untreated Tp, but not to sonicate of normal rabbit testicular extract at all times. The IgG1 level was higher than IgG2c level for Group 2 mice at all times and for Group 3 mice at 4 and 8 weeks. IgG1 and IgG2c levels were nearly equivalent for Group 3 mice at 12 weeks. Immunoblotting showed that IgG from Group 2 and Group 3 mice recognized several Tp proteins at all times. Supernatants of splenocytes from Group 2 and Group 3 mice contained significantly more IFNγ than those from Group 1 mice after stimulation with f-Tp at all times. A significant level of IL-4 was not detected in any supernatants. These data show that strong humoral and cellular immune responses to Tp can be elicited via a SLN.

  4. Laboratory Evaluation of a Smartphone-Based Electronic Reader of Rapid Dual Point-of-Care Tests for Antibodies to Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Treponema pallidum Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst de Cortina, Sasha; Bristow, Claire C; Humphries, Romney; Vargas, Silver Keith; Konda, Kelika A; Caceres, Carlos F; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2017-07-01

    Dual point-of-care tests for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Treponema pallidum allow for same-day testing and treatment and have been demonstrated to be cost-effective in preventing the adverse outcomes of HIV infection and syphilis. By recording and transmitting data as they are collected, electronic readers address challenges related to the decentralization of point-of-care testing. We evaluated a smartphone-based electronic reader using 201 sera tested with 2 dual rapid tests for detection of antibodies to HIV and T. pallidum in Los Angeles, USA, and Lima, Peru. Tests were read both visually and with the electronic reader. Enzyme immunoassay followed by Western blot and T. pallidum particle agglutination were the reference tests for HIV and T. pallidum, respectively. The sensitivities of the 2 rapid tests for detection of HIV were 94.1% and 97.0% for electronic readings. Both tests had a specificity of 100% for detection of HIV by electronic reading. The sensitivities of the 2 rapid tests for detection of T. pallidum were 86.5% and 92.4% for electronic readings. The specificities for detection of T. pallidum were 99.1% and 99.0% by electronic reading. There were no significant differences between the accuracies of visual and electronic readings, and the performance did not differ between the 2 study sites. Our results show the electronic reader to be a promising option for increasing the use of point-of-care testing programs.

  5. An evaluation of the relative sensitivities of the venereal disease research laboratory test and the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination test among patients diagnosed with primary syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creegan, Linda; Bauer, Heidi M; Samuel, Michael C; Klausner, Jeffrey; Liska, Sally; Bolan, Gail

    2007-12-01

    Because definitive methods for diagnosing primary syphilis are limited, it is important to optimize the sensitivity of serodiagnosis. To determine the most sensitive testing approach to the diagnosis of primary syphilis, using the commonly available serologic tests: the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test and the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TP-PA) test. Sensitivities of 2 serologic testing strategies for primary syphilis were compared among 106 darkfield-confirmed cases treated in San Francisco from January 2002 through December 2004. The sensitivity of the diagnostic strategy using VDRL confirmed by TP-PA was 71% (95% CI, 61%-79%). Substituting Rapid Plasma Reagin test for VDRL in a subset of 51 patients produced the same sensitivity (71%; 95% CI, 56%-83%). The sensitivity of TP-PA as the first-line diagnostic test was 86% (95% CI, 78%-92%). The sensitivity of the former approach was significantly lower among HIV-positive patients, compared with HIV-negative patients (55% vs. 77%, P = 0.05). The TP-PA test as the first-line diagnostic test yielded higher sensitivity for primary syphilis than did the use of the currently recommended strategy.

  6. Prevalence of Treponema pallidum seropositivity and herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in a cohort of men who have sex with men, Bangkok, Thailand, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, T H; Thienkrua, W; McNicholl, J M; Wimonsate, W; Chaikummao, S; Chonwattana, W; Wasinrapee, P; Varangrat, A; Mock, P A; Sirivongrangson, P; van Griensven, F

    2012-06-01

    We report prevalence of Treponema pallidum (TP) seropositivity and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection and risk factors associated with their prevalence in a cohort of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bangkok, Thailand. Between April 2006 and March 2010 we enrolled Thai MSM into a cohort study based at the Silom Community Clinic, with baseline behavioural data and laboratory testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Logistic regression was used to analyse risk factors associated with the prevalence of TP seropositivity and HSV-2 infection. From a total of 1544 enrolled men (mean age 26 years) TP, HSV-2 and HIV seropositive rates were 4.4%, 20.7% and 21.6%, respectively. After multivariable analysis, participating in group sex, reporting paying for sex, reporting sex with a casual partner in a park and being HSV-2 seropositive were associated with TP prevalence. Age ≥30 years, having less than a high school education, past use of recreational drugs, meeting casual sexual partners at a public venue (sauna) and TP seropositivity were associated with HSV-2 infection. The significant baseline prevalence of TP seropositivity and HSV-2 infection in this cohort demonstrates the need for screening and treatment of these STIs and targeted prevention interventions in Thai MSM in Bangkok.

  7. Molecular typing of Treponema pallidum isolates from Buenos Aires, Argentina: Frequent Nichols-like isolates and low levels of macrolide resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo Vaulet, Lucía; Grillová, Linda; Mikalová, Lenka; Casco, Ricardo; Rodríguez Fermepin, Marcelo; Pando, María A.; Šmajs, David

    2017-01-01

    A total of 54 clinical samples, including genital lesion swabs, whole blood and cerebrospinal fluid from patients diagnosed with syphilis were collected in 2006 and in 2013 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Treponemal DNA was detected in 43 of the analyzed samples (79.6%) and further analyzed using Sequencing-based molecular typing (SBMT) and Enhanced CDC-typing (ECDCT). By SBMT, 10 different Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA) genotypes were found, of which six were related to the TPA SS14 strain, and four to the TPA Nichols strain. The 23S rRNA gene was amplified in samples isolated from 42 patients, and in six of them (14.3%), either the A2058G (four patients, 9.5%) or the A2059G (two patients, 4.8%) mutations were found. In addition to Taiwan, Madagascar and Peru, Argentina is another country where the prevalence of Nichols-like isolates (26.8%) is greater than 10%. PMID:28235102

  8. The multifunctional role of the pallilysin-associated Treponema pallidum protein, Tp0750, in promoting fibrinolysis and extracellular matrix component degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Simon; Russell, Shannon; Hof, Rebecca; Roberts, Alanna K; Cullen, Paul; Irvine, Kyle; Smith, Derek S; Borchers, Christoph H; Tonkin, Michelle L; Boulanger, Martin J; Cameron, Caroline E

    2014-02-01

    The mechanisms that facilitate dissemination of the highly invasive spirochaete, Treponema pallidum, are incompletely understood. Previous studies showed the treponemal metalloprotease pallilysin (Tp0751) possesses fibrin clot degradation capability, suggesting a role in treponemal dissemination. In the current study we report characterization of the functionally linked protein Tp0750. Structural modelling predicts Tp0750 contains a von Willebrand factor type A (vWFA) domain, a protein-protein interaction domain commonly observed in extracellular matrix (ECM)-binding proteins. We report Tp0750 is a serine protease that degrades the major clot components fibrinogen and fibronectin. We also demonstrate Tp0750 cleaves a matrix metalloprotease (MMP) peptide substrate that is targeted by several MMPs, enzymes central to ECM remodelling. Through proteomic analyses we show Tp0750 binds the endothelial fibrinolytic receptor, annexin A2, in a specific and dose-dependent manner. These results suggest Tp0750 constitutes a multifunctional protein that is able to (1) degrade infection-limiting clots by both inhibiting clot formation through degradation of host coagulation cascade proteins and promoting clot dissolution by complexing with host proteins involved in the fibrinolytic cascade and (2) facilitate ECM degradation via MMP-like proteolysis of host components. We propose that through these activities Tp0750 functions in concert with pallilysin to enable T. pallidum dissemination.

  9. The Treponema pallidum tro operon encodes a multiple metal transporter, a zinc-dependent transcriptional repressor, and a semi-autonomously expressed phosphoglycerate mutase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlett, Karsten R O; Rusnak, Frank; Kehres, David G; Bearden, Scott W; La Vake, Carson J; La Vake, Morgan E; Maguire, Michael E; Perry, Robert D; Radolf, Justin D

    2003-06-06

    The Treponema pallidum tro operon encodes an ABC transporter (TroABCD), a transcriptional repressor (TroR), and the essential glycolytic enzyme phosphoglycerate mutase (Gpm). The apparently discordant observations that the solute binding protein (TroA) binds Zn2+, whereas DNA binding by TroR in vitro is Mn2+-dependent, have generated uncertainty regarding the identities of the ligand(s) and co-repressor(s) of the permease. Moreover, this operonic structure suggests that Gpm expression, and hence glycolysis, the sole source of ATP for the bacterium, would be suspended during TroR-mediated repression. To resolve these discrepancies, we devised an experimental strategy permitting a more direct assessment of Tro operon function and regulation. We report that (i) apo-TroA has identical affinities for Zn2+ and Mn2+; (ii) the Tro transporter expressed in Escherichia coli imports Zn2+, Mn2+, and possibly iron; (iii) TroR represses transporter expression in E. coli at significantly lower concentrations of Zn2+ than of Mn2+; and (iv) TroR-mediated repression causes a disproportionately greater down-regulation of the transporter genes than of gpm. The much higher concentrations of Zn2+ than of Mn2+ in human body fluids suggests that Zn2+ is both the primary substrate and co-repressor of the permease in vivo. Our data also indicate that Gpm expression and, therefore, glycolysis would not be abrogated when T. pallidum encounters high Zn2+ levels.

  10. Evaluation of the usefulness of Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test in the diagnosis of syphilis in weak reactive Venereal Disease Research Laboratory sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Manju; Toor, Aman; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Kakran, Monika; Muralidhar, Sumathi; Ramesh, V

    2012-07-01

    Biological false positive (BFP) reactivity by the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test used for diagnosis of syphilis is a cause for concern. The use of the VDRL as a screening procedure is challenged by some studies. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of BFP reactions in different subject groups and to assess the usefulness of Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA) test in low titre VDRL reactive sera. A total of 5785 sera from sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic attendees, antenatal clinic attendees, husbands of antenatal cases, peripheral health centres attendees (representing community population) and from patients referred from different OPDs/wards were screened for BFP reactions by the VDRL test. Sera reactive in the VDRL test were confirmed by the TPHA test. Out of 80 qualitative VDRL reactive sera, 68 had VDRL and TPHA positivity was highest (76%) in the age group of 20-29 years. The seroprevalence of syphilis varied from 0.4% to 3.5% in different patient groups. The results of this study highlight that the TPHA positivity was high (86.8%) in sera with VDRL titre less than 1:8. Therefore, for the diagnosis of syphilis, it is recommended that a confirmatory test such as TPHA should be performed on all sera with a reactive VDRL regardless of its titre.

  11. Oral malodorous compounds are periodontally pathogenic and carcinogenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Yaegaki

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs, mainly composed of hydrogen sulfide (H2S and methyl mercaptan (CH3SH, cause halitosis. VSCs increase the permeability of a model for gingival crevicular epithelia, causing an increase in the penetration of lipopolysaccharide, as well as prostaglandin, into the tissue. VSCs inhibit the proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF, human gingival epithelial cells (HGEC and osteoblasts. H2S also causes apoptosis in HGF and HGEC. Furthermore, VSCs increase collagen degradation and reduce collagen synthesis in HGF and suppress wound healing, especially the formation of basal membrane and Type IV collagen synthesis. Moreover, VSCs stimulate interleukin-1 production, resulting in an increase in prostaglandin E and matrix metalloproteinase 1. Thus, VSCs may induce the initial damage to the epithelial barrier in the progression of periodontal disease. VSCs, especially H2S, strongly inhibit cytochrome c oxidase, which is a key enzyme for oxidative phosphorylation in the respiratory chain. Therefore, high concentration of VSCs causes lethal toxicities as well as cyanide. On the other hand, very low concentration of H2S at lower concentration in periodontal pocket causes genomic DNA damages in both HGF and HGEC. It has been suggested that VSCs may be one of the contributing factors for carcinogenesis because of increasing oxidative stress, and as the Ras/mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathway, which is constitutively activated in many types of cancer, is enhanced.

  12. Pathogenic human viruses in coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.; Donaldson, Kim A.; Paul, J.H.; Rose, Joan B.

    2003-01-01

    This review addresses both historical and recent investigations into viral contamination of marine waters. With the relatively recent emergence of molecular biology-based assays, a number of investigations have shown that pathogenic viruses are prevalent in marine waters being impacted by sewage. Research has shown that this group of fecal-oral viral pathogens (enteroviruses, hepatitis A viruses, Norwalk viruses, reoviruses, adenoviruses, rotaviruses, etc.) can cause a broad range of asymptomatic to severe gastrointestinal, respiratory, and eye, nose, ear, and skin infections in people exposed through recreational use of the water. The viruses and the nucleic acid signature survive for an extended period in the marine environment. One of the primary concerns of public health officials is the relationship between the presence of pathogens and the recreational risk to human health in polluted marine environments. While a number of studies have attempted to address this issue, the relationship is still poorly understood. A contributing factor to our lack of progress in the field has been the lack of sensitive methods to detect the broad range of both bacterial and viral pathogens. The application of new and advanced molecular methods will continue to contribute to our current state of knowledge in this emerging and

  13. Colletotrichum graminicola: a new corneal pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterband, D C; Shah, M; Seedor, J A

    1997-05-01

    We report the first case of an ocular infection with the fungus Colletotrichum graminicola causing keratitis in a 27-year-old man. Twenty-four months after a postoperative course complicated by recurrent fungal keratitis requiring two penetrating keratoplasties, two anterior chamber washouts, a conjunctival flap, and medical treatment with topical natamycin, intracameral amphotericin B, and oral fluconazole. The patient has shown no signs of fungal recurrence despite a failed corneal graft. C. graminicola is a new corneal pathogen and should be included in the differential diagnosis of mycotic keratitis.

  14. Association of oral flora with orbital complications of acute sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flam, Juliette O; Platt, Michael P; Sobel, Rachel; Devaiah, Anand K; Brook, Christopher D

    2016-07-01

    Acute and chronic sinusitis in children and adults can spread to the orbit. Oral flora has been seen in orbital infections, but the extent of synergy between pathogens in such infections remains unknown. A retrospective case series of patients with complicated sinusitis that involved the orbit from acute sinusitis who were admitted to a tertiary care hospital from January 2000 to December 2014 and who had surgical cultures obtained. Patients were identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code for periorbital cellulitis, subperiosteal abscess, or orbital abscess. Sixteen patients underwent surgical drainage via external drainage or endoscopic sinus surgery of an orbital infection associated with sinusitis and had cultures obtained. Nine patients (56%) grew organisms that exist in oral flora, whereas seven patients (44%) grew common respiratory pathogens. The most common organisms recovered were viridans group streptococcus (VGS) (50%), Staphylococcus aureus (31%), Eikenella corrodens (25%), and Prevotella species (19%). Oral flora anaerobes were cultured alongside a VGS species in seven of eight patients (88%) as opposed to the respiratory pathogens, which were less frequently associated with concomitant VGS infection (29%) (p = 0.04). There are two main sources for infectious orbital complications from acute sinusitis: respiratory pathogens and oral flora. The high prevalence of concurrent anaerobic oral flora and VGS infection supports a suspected synergy between VGS and other oral organisms.

  15. 梅毒螺旋体金属蛋白酶水解纤维蛋白原的活性研究%The Fibrinolytic Potential of Treponema Pallidum Metalloprotease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘双全

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the fibrinolytic potential of Treponema pallidum metalloprotease Tp0751,provi-ding the experimental basis for further research on syphilis pathogenic mechanism. Methods Constructed the H198A mutant Tp0751 and H202A mutant Tp0751 with two-point technology. Wide-type and Mutant Tp0751 recombinant protein were expressed in E. coli BL21. And detected their degradation activity to fibrinogen. Results Three fusion protein with molecular weight about 26KDa were attained after expression and purification,The wild type Tp0751 can degradate plas-minogen-free human fibrinogen,fibrinogen was absolutely degradated 24h post-incubation,The H198A mutant Tp0751 can also degradate plasminogen-free human fibrinogen,but which was partly degradated 24h post-incubation;The H202A mutant Tp0751 can not degradate plasminogen-free human fibrinogen,fibrinogen was scarcely degradated 24h post-incubation. Conclusion The wild type Tp0751 can degradate plasminogen-free human fibrinogen,The HEXXH motif may have a im-portant role on Tp0751 to the degradation of plasminogen-free human fibrinogen,residue H202,but not H198,from the palli-lysin HEXXH motif is required for fibrinogen degradation.%目的:研究梅毒螺旋体金属蛋白酶Tp0751对细胞外基质纤维蛋白原的水解能力,为深入研究TP的致病机制提供实验依据。方法采用两点法构建H198A突变型及H202A突变型Tp0751基因,分别构建野生型和突变型Tp0751原核载体进行诱导表达;体外实验检测Tp0751野生型Tp0751蛋白、H198A Tp0751突变型蛋白、H202ATp0751突变型蛋白对纤维蛋白原的降解活性。结果成功表达并纯化了野生型Tp0751蛋白、H198A Tp0751突变体蛋白、H202A Tp0751突变体蛋白,各蛋白相对分子量大小约为26kD;纤维蛋白原在与野生型Tp0751蛋白作用约24h后被完全水解;与 H198A Tp0751突变体蛋白作用约24 h 后部分水解,尚有部分未被降解;与H202A Tp0751

  16. Implications of Probiotics on Oral Health: Past-to-Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Muralidhar Menon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Misuse of antibiotics has led to an exponential increase in cases related to antibiotic resistance. This alarming situation calls for antibiotic substitutes to restore sound health. The answer to this is "PROBIOTICS." Considered inimical to pathogens, probiotics help the commensal microflora residing in the host′s body to combat diseases. It increases the number of good microorganisms to fight the bad ones. Traditionally considered beneficial against gastrointestinal problems, probiotics in recent times has showcased its ability to take down oral pathogens as well. The aim of this article is to review the literature till date to (1 understand the evolution of probiotics, (2 assess its impact on potential oral pathogens, and (3 analyze its significance in establishing good oral health.

  17. Bioterrorism: pathogens as weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D; Bokor, Gyula

    2012-10-01

    Biowarfare has been used for centuries. The use of biological weapons in terrorism remains a threat. Biological weapons include infectious agents (pathogens) and toxins. The most devastating bioterrorism scenario would be the airborne dispersal of pathogens over a concentrated population area. Characteristics that make a specific pathogen a high-risk for bioterrorism include a low infective dose, ability to be aerosolized, high contagiousness, and survival in a variety of environmental conditions. The most dangerous potential bioterrorism agents include the microorganisms that produce anthrax, plague, tularemia, and smallpox. Other diseases of interest to bioterrorism include brucellosis, glanders, melioidosis, Q fever, and viral encephalitis. Food safety and water safety threats are another area of concern.

  18. The presence of Helicobacter pylori in oral cavities of patients with leukoplakia and oral lichen planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kazanowska-Dygdała

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in men. This gastrointestinal pathogen is closely related to gastritis, peptic ulcers, and the increased risk of gastric cancer. Numerous studies have indicated oral cavities as possible Helicobacter pylori reservoirs. Helicobacter pylori has been detected both in supragingival and subgingival plaques, and also in saliva. In addition, the relationship between lesions of oral mucosa and the presence of H. pylori has been evaluated and described in some studies. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of Helicobacter pylori DNA in the oral cavity of patients with oral leukoplakia and oral lichen planus. Material and Methods The study included 54 patients with oral leukoplakia, 72 with oral lichen planus lesions, and 40 healthy controls. The presence of Helicobacter pylori in oral cavity samples was analyzed using a single-step Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR method. All patients underwent a periodontal examination and the following clinical parameters were collected: pocket depth, bleeding, and plaque indexes. The periodontal status was assessed using the Offenbacher classification. Results In most patients, pathological lesions were in typical sites on the buccal mucosa (leukoplakia in 88%, and oral lichen planus in 93% of patients. The DNA of the Helicobacter pylori was present in 20% of patients with leukoplakia and 23% of patients with lichen planus. We did not find the DNA of H. pylori in healthy controls. The periodontal status described by periodontal indices was worse in the investigated group than in the control group. Conclusion These findings suggest that the H. pylori presence in oral cavities may be related with leukoplakia and lichen planus oral lesions.

  19. Clinical analysis on elderly patients with treponema pallidum antibody positive%老年患者梅毒螺旋体抗体呈阳性的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迎春

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical significance of treponema pallidum antibody positive in elderly patients.Methods:77 cases with treponema pallidum antibody positive were selected from April 2008 to December 2013.All cases were detected used a double antigen sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA method).Results:In 842 cases of the young group,10 cases with treponema pallidum antibody positive,and the positive rate was 1.19%,accounting for 12.99% of the number of positive cases.In 989 cases of the middle-aged group,21 cases with treponema pallidum antibody positive,and the positive rate was 2.12%, accounting for 27.27% of the number of positive cases.In 1035 cases of the elderly group,46 cases with treponema pallidum antibody positive,and the positive rate was 4.44%,accounting for 59.74% of the number of positive cases.The positive rate in the elderly group was higher than in the young group(P<0.05).Among 10 cases with positive treponema pallidum antibody in the youth group,there were 8 cases had syphilis symptom.Among 21 cases in the middle-aged group,there were 12 cases had syphilis symptom.Among 46 cases in the elderly group,there were 3 cases had syphilis symptom.It was significantly lower in the elderly group than in the young group.Conclusion:When diagnosing elderly patients who with positive syphilis antibody,we should combine with the clinical symptoms,not based on the serological examination simply.%目的:探讨老年患者梅毒螺旋体抗体呈阳性的临床意义。方法:2008年4月-2013年12月收治梅毒螺旋体抗体阳性患者77例,均采用双抗原夹心酶联免疫法(ELISA法)进行检测。结果:青年组842例,梅毒螺旋体抗体阳性10例,阳性检查率1.19%,占阳性例数的12.99%;中年组989例,梅毒螺旋体抗体阳性21例,阳性检查率2.12%,占阳性例数的27.27%;老年组1035例,梅毒螺旋体抗体阳性46例,阳性检查率4.44%,占阳性例数的59.74%。老年

  20. Preterm low birthweight and the role of oral bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Shira Davenport

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Preterm and low birthweight (PTLBW continues to be a major cause of mortality and morbidity across the world. In recent years, maternal periodontal disease has been implicated as a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. There is conflicting evidence to support such an outcome as illustrated by descriptive, case control and randomised controlled trials involving pregnant women from across the world, using different measurement tools to determine the level of periodontal disease. Whilst considering the literature, there is evidence for both arguments, based on the effect of periodontal inflammatory by products. Bacteria associated with periodontal disease are not dissimilar to those known to be associated with genito-urinary bacterial infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Several groups have demonstrated the apparent translocation of Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella nigrescens, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonus gingivalis, Treponema denticola to the foetal placental unit whereby a maternal or foetal response has been detected resulting in premature birth or low birthweight. The normal process of parturition involves a cascade of events including a build-up of inflammatory mediators as linked to inflammation, whereby the maternal environment becomes hostile and threatens the well-being of the infant, and the foetus expelled. The question remains therefore, is there a greater risk of delivering a PTLBW infant when the mother has detectable periodontal disease, or is the release of inflammatory mediators and their translocation via the haematogenous route sufficient to induce a poor pregnancy outcome? The data investigated would suggest that there is a positive outcome when certain oral gram-negative bacteria create a cumulative effect sufficient to trigger early delivery, which represents the final straw to result in preterm or low birthweight delivery. There is equally sufficient epidemiological evidence that does not support this

  1. Human Treponema pallidum 11q/j isolate belongs to subsp. endemicum but contains two loci with a sequence in TP0548 and TP0488 similar to subsp. pertenue and subsp. pallidum, respectively.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Mikalová

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Treponema pallidum subsp. endemicum (TEN is the causative agent of endemic syphilis (bejel. An unusual human TEN 11q/j isolate was obtained from a syphilis-like primary genital lesion from a patient that returned to France from Pakistan.The TEN 11q/j isolate was characterized using nested PCR followed by Sanger sequencing and/or direct Illumina sequencing. Altogether, 44 chromosomal regions were analyzed. Overall, the 11q/j isolate clustered with TEN strains Bosnia A and Iraq B as expected from previous TEN classification of the 11q/j isolate. However, the 11q/j sequence in a 505 bp-long region at the TP0488 locus was similar to Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA strains, but not to TEN Bosnia A and Iraq B sequences, suggesting a recombination event at this locus. Similarly, the 11q/j sequence in a 613 bp-long region at the TP0548 locus was similar to Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue (TPE strains, but not to TEN sequences.A detailed analysis of two recombinant loci found in the 11q/j clinical isolate revealed that the recombination event occurred just once, in the TP0488, with the donor sequence originating from a TPA strain. Since TEN Bosnia A and Iraq B were found to contain TPA-like sequences at the TP0548 locus, the recombination at TP0548 took place in a treponeme that was an ancestor to both TEN Bosnia A and Iraq B. The sequence of 11q/j isolate in TP0548 represents an ancestral TEN sequence that is similar to yaws-causing treponemes. In addition to the importance of the 11q/j isolate for reconstruction of the TEN phylogeny, this case emphasizes the possible role of TEN strains in development of syphilis-like lesions.

  2. Human Treponema pallidum 11q/j isolate belongs to subsp. endemicum but contains two loci with a sequence in TP0548 and TP0488 similar to subsp. pertenue and subsp. pallidum, respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikalová, Lenka; Strouhal, Michal; Oppelt, Jan; Grange, Philippe Alain; Janier, Michel; Benhaddou, Nadjet; Dupin, Nicolas; Šmajs, David

    2017-03-01

    Treponema pallidum subsp. endemicum (TEN) is the causative agent of endemic syphilis (bejel). An unusual human TEN 11q/j isolate was obtained from a syphilis-like primary genital lesion from a patient that returned to France from Pakistan. The TEN 11q/j isolate was characterized using nested PCR followed by Sanger sequencing and/or direct Illumina sequencing. Altogether, 44 chromosomal regions were analyzed. Overall, the 11q/j isolate clustered with TEN strains Bosnia A and Iraq B as expected from previous TEN classification of the 11q/j isolate. However, the 11q/j sequence in a 505 bp-long region at the TP0488 locus was similar to Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA) strains, but not to TEN Bosnia A and Iraq B sequences, suggesting a recombination event at this locus. Similarly, the 11q/j sequence in a 613 bp-long region at the TP0548 locus was similar to Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue (TPE) strains, but not to TEN sequences. A detailed analysis of two recombinant loci found in the 11q/j clinical isolate revealed that the recombination event occurred just once, in the TP0488, with the donor sequence originating from a TPA strain. Since TEN Bosnia A and Iraq B were found to contain TPA-like sequences at the TP0548 locus, the recombination at TP0548 took place in a treponeme that was an ancestor to both TEN Bosnia A and Iraq B. The sequence of 11q/j isolate in TP0548 represents an ancestral TEN sequence that is similar to yaws-causing treponemes. In addition to the importance of the 11q/j isolate for reconstruction of the TEN phylogeny, this case emphasizes the possible role of TEN strains in development of syphilis-like lesions.

  3. Quantitative analysis of tpr gene expression in Treponema pallidum isolates: Differences among isolates and correlation with T-cell responsiveness in experimental syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacani, Lorenzo; Molini, Barbara; Godornes, Charmie; Barrett, Lynn; Van Voorhis, Wesley; Centurion-Lara, Arturo; Lukehart, Sheila A

    2007-01-01

    Transcriptional analysis of the tpr genes in Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (referred to here as simply T. pallidum) has been limited to date, and yet the expression of members of this gene family is likely relevant to the pathogenesis of syphilis. Recently, immunological studies and semiquantitative mRNA analysis led to the hypothesis of the modulation of tpr gene transcription during infection and suggested that various strains of T. pallidum might differentially express these genes. In this study we developed a real-time amplification assay to quantify the tpr mRNAs with respect to the 47-kDa lipoprotein message and to compare transcript levels among four different strains of T. pallidum. In addition, we analyzed the lymphocyte responsiveness pattern toward the Tpr antigens in late experimental syphilis to identify tpr genes that had been expressed during the course of infection. The T-cell response has been implicated in clearance of treponemes from early lesions, and some of the Tprs were identified as strong targets of the cellular immune response. We show that message for many of the tpr genes can be detected in treponemes harvested at the peak of early infection. Interestingly, tprK seems to be preferentially expressed in almost every strain, and it is uniformly the target of the strongest cellular immune response. These studies demonstrate the differential expression of certain tpr genes among strains of T. pallidum, and further studies are needed to explore the relationship between tpr gene expression and the clinical course of syphilis in infected individuals.

  4. Evaluation of macrolide resistance and enhanced molecular typing of Treponema pallidum in patients with syphilis in Taiwan: a prospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsiu; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Lee, Nan-Yao; Huang, Wen-Chi; Wu, Bing-Ru; Yang, Chia-Jui; Liang, Shiou-Haur; Lee, Chen-Hsiang; Ko, Wen-Chien; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Liu, Wen-Chun; Su, Yi-Ching; Hsieh, Chia-Yin; Wu, Pei-Ying; Hung, Chien-Ching

    2012-07-01

    Studies of macrolide resistance mutations and molecular typing using the newly proposed enhanced typing system for Treponema pallidum isolates obtained from HIV-infected patients in the Asia-Pacific region are scarce. Between September 2009 and December 2011, we conducted a survey to detect T. pallidum using a PCR assay using clinical specimens from patients with syphilis at six major designated hospitals for HIV care in Taiwan. The T. pallidum strains were genotyped by following the enhanced molecular typing methodology, which analyzed the number of 60-bp repeats in the acidic repeat protein (arp) gene, T. pallidum repeat (tpr) polymorphism, and the sequence of base pairs 131 to 215 in the tp0548 open reading frame of T. pallidum. Detection of A2058G and A2059G point mutations in the T. pallidum 23S rRNA was performed with the use of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). During the 2-year study period, 211 clinical specimens were obtained from 136 patients with syphilis. T. pallidum DNA was isolated from 105 (49.8%) of the specimens, with swab specimens obtained from chancres having the highest yield rate (63.2%), followed by plasma (49.4%), serum (35.7%), and cerebrospinal fluid or vitreous fluid (18.2%) specimens. Among the 40 fully typed specimens, 11 subtypes of T. pallidum were identified. Subtype 14f/f (18 isolates) was the most common isolates, followed by 14f/c (3), 14b/c (3), and 14k/f (3). Among the isolates examined for macrolide resistance, none had the A2058G or A2059G mutation. In conclusion, we found that type 14 f/f was the most common T. pallidum strain in this multicenter study on syphilis in Taiwan and that none of the isolates exhibited 23S rRNA mutations causing resistance to macrolides.

  5. Resequencing of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum strains Nichols and SS14: correction of sequencing errors resulted in increased separation of syphilis treponeme subclusters.

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    Helena Pětrošová

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA, the causative agent of syphilis, is a highly clonal bacterium showing minimal genetic variability in the genome sequence of individual strains. Nevertheless, genetically characterized syphilis strains can be clearly divided into two groups, Nichols-like strains and SS14-like strains. TPA Nichols and SS14 strains were completely sequenced in 1998 and 2008, respectively. Since publication of their complete genome sequences, a number of sequencing errors in each genome have been reported. Therefore, we have resequenced TPA Nichols and SS14 strains using next-generation sequencing techniques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The genomes of TPA strains Nichols and SS14 were resequenced using the 454 and Illumina sequencing methods that have a combined average coverage higher than 90x. In the TPA strain Nichols genome, 134 errors were identified (25 substitutions and 109 indels, and 102 of them affected protein sequences. In the TPA SS14 genome, a total of 191 errors were identified (85 substitutions and 106 indels and 136 of them affected protein sequences. A set of new intrastrain heterogenic regions in the TPA SS14 genome were identified including the tprD gene, where both tprD and tprD2 alleles were found. The resequenced genomes of both TPA Nichols and SS14 strains clustered more closely with related strains (i.e. strains belonging to same syphilis treponeme subcluster. At the same time, groups of Nichols-like and SS14-like strains were found to be more distantly related. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We identified errors in 11.5% of all annotated genes and, after correction, we found a significant impact on the predicted proteomes of both Nichols and SS14 strains. Corrections of these errors resulted in protein elongations, truncations, fusions and indels in more than 11% of all annotated proteins. Moreover, it became more evident that syphilis is caused by treponemes belonging to two separate genetic

  6. TprC/D (Tp0117/131), a trimeric, pore-forming rare outer membrane protein of Treponema pallidum, has a bipartite domain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Arvind; Luthra, Amit; Dunham-Ems, Star; Caimano, Melissa J; Karanian, Carson; LeDoyt, Morgan; Cruz, Adriana R; Salazar, Juan C; Radolf, Justin D

    2012-05-01

    Identification of Treponema pallidum rare outer membrane proteins (OMPs) has been a longstanding objective of syphilis researchers. We recently developed a consensus computational framework that employs a battery of cellular localization and topological prediction tools to generate ranked clusters of candidate rare OMPs (D. L. Cox et al., Infect. Immun. 78:5178-5194, 2010). TP0117/TP0131 (TprC/D), a member of the T. pallidum repeat (Tpr) family, was a highly ranked candidate. Circular dichroism, heat modifiability by SDS-PAGE, Triton X-114 phase partitioning, and liposome incorporation confirmed that full-length, recombinant TprC (TprC(Fl)) forms a β-barrel capable of integrating into lipid bilayers. Moreover, TprC(Fl) increased efflux of terbium-dipicolinic acid complex from large unilamellar vesicles and migrated as a trimer by blue-native PAGE. We found that in T. pallidum, TprC is heat modifiable, trimeric, expressed in low abundance, and, based on proteinase K accessibility and opsonophagocytosis assays, surface exposed. From these collective data, we conclude that TprC is a bona fide rare OMP as well as a functional ortholog of Escherichia coli OmpF. We also discovered that TprC has a bipartite architecture consisting of a soluble N-terminal portion (TprC(N)), presumably periplasmic and bound directly or indirectly to peptidoglycan, and a C-terminal β-barrel (TprC(C)). Syphilitic rabbits generate antibodies exclusively against TprC(C), while secondary syphilis patients fail to mount a detectable antibody response against either domain. The syphilis spirochete appears to have resolved a fundamental dilemma arising from its extracellular lifestyle, namely, how to enhance OM permeability without increasing its vulnerability to the antibody-mediated defenses of its natural human host.

  7. Seroprevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Treponema pallidum Infections among Blood Donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-De Xie

    Full Text Available Regular screening of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HBV and HCV, respectively, and Treponema pallidum, in blood donors is essential to guaranteeing clinical transfusion safety. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of four TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (EG.A retrospective survey of blood donors from January 2011 to April 2013 was conducted to assess the presence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum. The medical records were analyzed to verify the seroprevalence of these TTIs among blood donations stratified by gender, age and geographical region.Of the total 2937 consecutive blood donors, 1098 (37.39% had a minimum of one TTI and 185 (6.29% harbored co-infections. The general seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were 7.83%, 10.01%, 3.71% and 21.51%, respectively. The most frequent TTI co-infections were HBV-T. pallidum 60 (2.04% and HIV-T. pallidum 46 (1.57%. The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were highest among blood donors 38 to 47 years, 18 to 27 years and ≥ 48 years age, respectively (P<0.05. The seroprevalence of TTIs varied according to the population from which the blood was collected on Bioko Island.Our results firstly provide a comprehensive overview of TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island. Strict screening of blood donors and improved hematological examinations using standard operating procedures are recommended.

  8. Evaluation of FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, and Tp0463 of Treponema pallidum for serodiagnosis of syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chuanhao; Xiao, Jinhong; Xie, Yafeng; Xiao, Yongjian; Wang, Chuan; Kuang, Xingxing; Xu, Man; Li, Ranhui; Zeng, Tiebing; Liu, Shuanquan; Yu, Jian; Zhao, Feijun; Wu, Yimou

    2016-02-01

    Syphilis is a multistage disease caused by the invasive spirochete Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, and accurate diagnosis is important for the prevention and treatment of syphilis. Here, to identify appropriate diagnostic antigens for serodiagnosis of syphilis, 6 recombinant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified, including flagellins (FlaB1 [Tp0868], FlaB2 [Tp0792], and FlaB3 [Tp0870]), Tp0463, Tp0751, and Tp1038. The sensitivities were determined by screening sera from individuals with primary (n=82), secondary (n=115), latent (n=105), and congenital (n=65) syphilis. The specificities were determined by screening sera from uninfected controls (n=30) and potentially cross-reactive infections including Lyme disease (n=30), leptospirosis (n=5), and hepatitis B (n=30). Our data showed that FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, Tp0463, and Tp1038 exhibited higher overall sensitivities and specificities for detecting IgG antibody, with 95.4% and 98.9%, 92.6% and 95.8%, 95.1% and 95.8%, 92.6% and 97.9%, and 95.9% and 98.9%, respectively. In contrast, Tp0751 demonstrated only an overall sensitivity of 39.2%. For comparison, the sensitivity and specificity of Architect Syphilis TP were determined to be 98.1% and 93.7%, respectively. In addition, FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, and Tp0463 demonstrated excellent performance for detecting IgM antibody in primary and congenital syphilis, with sensitivities of 76.8% and 83.1%, 72.0% and 87.7%, 74.4% and 89.2%, and 64.6% and 75.3%, respectively. These results indicate that FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, and Tp0463 could be as novel diagnostic candidates for serodiagnosis of syphilis.

  9. Transcription of TP0126, Treponema pallidum putative OmpW homolog, is regulated by the length of a homopolymeric guanosine repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacani, Lorenzo; Brandt, Stephanie L; Ke, Wujian; Reid, Tara B; Molini, Barbara J; Iverson-Cabral, Stefanie; Ciccarese, Giulia; Drago, Francesco; Lukehart, Sheila A; Centurion-Lara, Arturo

    2015-06-01

    An effective mechanism for introduction of phenotypic diversity within a bacterial population exploits changes in the length of repetitive DNA elements located within gene promoters. This phenomenon, known as phase variation, causes rapid activation or silencing of gene expression and fosters bacterial adaptation to new or changing environments. Phase variation often occurs in surface-exposed proteins, and in Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the syphilis agent, it was reported to affect transcription of three putative outer membrane protein (OMP)-encoding genes. When the T. pallidum subsp. pallidum Nichols strain genome was initially annotated, the TP0126 open reading frame was predicted to include a poly(G) tract and did not appear to have a predicted signal sequence that might suggest the possibility of its being an OMP. Here we show that the initial annotation was incorrect, that this poly(G) is instead located within the TP0126 promoter, and that it varies in length in vivo during experimental syphilis. Additionally, we show that TP0126 transcription is affected by changes in the poly(G) length consistent with regulation by phase variation. In silico analysis of the TP0126 open reading frame based on the experimentally identified transcriptional start site shortens this hypothetical protein by 69 amino acids, reveals a predicted cleavable signal peptide, and suggests structural homology with the OmpW family of porins. Circular dichroism of recombinant TP0126 supports structural homology to OmpW. Together with the evidence that TP0126 is fully conserved among T. pallidum subspecies and strains, these data suggest an important role for TP0126 in T. pallidum biology and syphilis pathogenesis.

  10. Expression and purification of the recombinant outer membrane protein Tp0453 of Treponema pallidum and its characterization of immuno-competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUANGQUANLIU; YIMOUWU; FEIJUNZHAO; TIEBINGZENG; WEIGUOYIN

    2005-01-01

    To clone and express the recombinant outer membrane protein Tp0453 of Treponema pallidum and to analyze the immuno-reactivity and immunogenicity of the expressed protein, the immuno-dominant epitope of the Tp0453 was amplified from the complete genome of T. pallidum by PCR, subcloned into expression vector pQE32 to generate the recombinant plasmid pQE32/Tp0453, then expressed in E. coli M15 and analyzed by SDS/PAGE and Western blotting. The fusion protein expressed was purified with Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Its immuno-reactivity was assayed by indirect ELISA, and the immunogenicity was determined by immunization with this fusion protein in New Zealand rabbits. In the presentstudy, a fusion protein of molecular weight about 32 kDa was obtained. As demonstrated by Western blotting, the recombinant protein could react specifically with positive IgG sera of patients with syphilis, and the antibodies against T. pallidum in human sera were successfully detected by indirect ELISA. Both the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA based on the Tp0453 fusion protein as were 100% (30/30) when detected with control sera. In comparison with the results of IgG ELISA with those of TPPA. It was found that the sensitivity of ELISA was 96.8% and the specificity was 100%. The difference of ELISA and TPPA was not significant, and the concordance of results between ELISA and TPPA was 98.2 %. In addition, specific humoral responses could be elicited by immunization with the recombinant fusion protein in New Zealand rabbits with a specific antibody titer of 1:1280 after 3 successive doses of immunization.These results demonstrate that the expressed recombinant fusion protein shows excellent immuno-competence and provide foundation to develop a quick diagnostic kid applied to detect the presence of T. pallidum infections.

  11. Molecular detection of Treponema pallidum sp. pallidum in blood samples of VDRL-seroreactive women with lethal pregnancy outcomes: a retrospective observational study in northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Charliana Aragão Damasceno; Silva, Mayra Oliveira da; Costa, Igor Brasil; Araújo, Eliete da Cunha; Corvelo, Tereza Cristina de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Although control measures of maternal and congenital syphilis are available in Brazil, difficulties exist within the healthcare network in providing a laboratory diagnosis of the infection during the prenatal period. The objective of this study was to confirm the presence of Treponema pallidum by PCR in women with positive VDRL serology and lethal pregnancy outcomes, i.e., abortion, stillbirth and neonatal death. A retrospective study was conducted on VDRLseroreactive women with lethal pregnancy outcomes admitted to the Fundação Santa Casa de Misericórdia do Pará (FSCM-PA) between January and July 2004. Serum samples and DNA from whole blood were obtained at the time of screening by the VDRL test. These samples were analyzed by IgG ELISA, IgM FTA-Abs and simple PCR (polA). During the study period, 0.7% (36/4,912) of women with lethal pregnancy outcomes presented a positive VDRL test. The polAgene was amplified in 72.7% (24/33) of these women, with 55.6% (20/36) and 94.4% (34/36) presenting IgM and IgG antibodies against T. pallidum, respectively. Comparison of these results showed a significant difference, with agreement between the PCR and IgM FTA-Abs results, suggesting that maternal syphilis was an active infection. No basic cause of death of the conceptus was reported in 97.2% (35/36) of cases. Among women who were submitted to the VDRL test during the prenatal period, only four of the nine seroreactive patients underwent treatment. The high frequency of syphilis in the group studied indicates the fragility of the service of infection diagnosis, treatment and monitoring, compromising epidemiological control.

  12. Inflammatory responses of a macrophage/epithelial cell co-culture model to mono and mixed infections with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodet, Charles; Chandad, Fatiha; Grenier, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Accumulated evidence points to Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia as three major etiologic agents of chronic periodontitis. Epithelial cells and macrophages play a major role in the host response to periodontopathogens, and the secretion of inflammatory mediators and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by these host cells is believed to contribute to periodontal tissue destruction. The aim of this study was to investigate the inflammatory response of a macrophage/epithelial cell co-culture model following mono or mixed infections with the above three periodontopathogens. An in vitro co-culture model composed of epithelial-like transformed cells (HeLa cell line) and macrophage-like cells (phorbol myristic acid-differentiated U937 monocytic cell line) was challenged with whole cells or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and T. forsythia, individually and in combination. Following stimulation, the production of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and MMP-9 were quantified by enzyme-linked immunoassays. We observed that mono or mixed infections of the co-culture model induced the secretion of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, PGE2, and MMP-9. P. gingivalis and T. forsythia induced an increase in RANTES secretion, whereas T. denticola alone or in combination resulted in a significant decrease in RANTES levels. All LPS challenges induced an increase in chemokine, MMP-9, and PGE2 production. No synergistic effect on the production of cytokines, chemokines, PGE2, and MMP-9 was observed for any of the bacterial or LPS mixtures tested. This study supports the view that P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and T. forsythia may induce high levels of pro-inflammatory mediators and MMP-9 in periodontal lesions, thus contributing to the progression of periodontitis.

  13. [Salmonella pathogenicity islands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sırıken, Belgin

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella species are facultative intracellular pathogenic bacteria. They can invade macrophages, dendritic and epithelial cells. The responsible virulence genes for invasion, survival, and extraintestinal spread are located in Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs). SPIs are thought to be acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Some of the SPIs are conserved throughout the Salmonella genus, and some of them are specific for certain serovars. There are differences between Salmonella serotypes in terms of adaptation to host cell, virulence factors and the resulting infection according to SPA presence and characteristics. The most important Salmonella virulence gene clusters are located in 12 pathogenicity islands. Virulence genes that are involved in the intestinal phase of infection are located in SPI-1 and SPI-2 and the remaining SPIs are required for intracellular survival, fimbrial expression, magnesium and iron uptake, multiple antibiotic resistance and the development of systemic infections. In addition SPIs, Sigma ss (RpoS) factors and adaptive acid tolerance response (ATR) are the other two important virulence factors. RpoS and ATR found in virulent Salmonella strains help the bacteria to survive under inappropriate conditions such as gastric acidity, bile salts, inadequate oxygen concentration, lack of nutrients, antimicrobial peptides, mucus and natural microbiota and also to live in phagosomes or phagolysosomes. This review article summarizes the data related to pathogenicity islands in Salmonella serotypes and some factors which play role in the regulation of virulence genes.

  14. Fungal pathogens of Proteaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Summerell, B.A.; Swart, L.; Denman, S.; Taylor, J.E.; Bezuidenhout, C.M.; Palm, M.E.; Marincowitz, S.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2011-01-01

    Species of Leucadendron, Leucospermum and Protea (Proteaceae) are in high demand for the international floriculture market due to their brightly coloured and textured flowers or bracts. Fungal pathogens, however, create a serious problem in cultivating flawless blooms. The aim of the present study

  15. Fungal pathogens of Proteaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Summerell, B.A.; Swart, L.; Denman, S.; Taylor, J.E.; Bezuidenhout, C.M.; Palm, M.E.; Marincowitz, S.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2012-01-01

    Species of Leucadendron, Leucospermum and Protea (Proteaceae) are in high demand for the international floriculture market due to their brightly coloured and textured flowers or bracts. Fungal pathogens, however, create a serious problem in cultivating flawless blooms. The aim of the present study

  16. Examination of periodontal pathogens in stenotic valve specimens and in whole blood samples in patients affected by aortic valve stenosis and chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaelli, L; Santangelo, R; Falchetti, P; Galluccio, F; Luciani, N; Anselmi, A; Nowzari, H; Verdugo, F; Fadda, G; D'Addona, A

    2010-01-01

    Periodontitis may be a risk factor for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The influence of periodontal pathogens in cardiovascular diseases needs further investigation. Therefore, the aims of this clinical study are: to test the presence of periodontal bacteria DNA in aortic valves and to assess the concomitant presence of the same periodontal bacteria DNA in whole blood samples in patients affected by aortic valve stenosis and chronic periodontitis. Nineteen consecutive patients (12 males and 7 females, age: 49-85 years) were enrolled in this study after having been subjected to a complete periodontal evaluation to confirm the diagnosis of chronic periodontitis. All patients were scheduled for aortic valve replacement surgery. After clinical and microbial periodontal examination, the aortic valve tissue specimens were obtained by excision during valve replacement surgery and the patients were subjected to the whole blood sampling before the surgery. The polymerase chain reaction technology was used to detect the putative periodontal pathogens Tannerella forshytia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Campylobacter rectus, Eikenella corrodens and Treponema denticola. Neither the 19 aortic valve specimens nor the blood samples were positive for the genoma of the selected periodontal pathogens. The selected periodontal pathogens did not colonize the aortic valve of patients affected by stenosis and bacterial genoma was not present in whole blood samples. A high blood pressure at the aortic valve may prevent the adhesion and proliferation of bacterial colonies.

  17. Impact of the Oral Commensal Flora on Alveolar Bone Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Irie, K; Novince, C.M.; Darveau, R. P.

    2014-01-01

    Homeostasis of healthy periodontal tissues is affected by innate and adaptive immunosurveillance mechanisms in response to the normal oral flora. Recent comparisons of germ-free (GF) and normal specific-pathogen-free (SPF) mice have revealed the impact of host immunosurveillance mechanisms in response to the normal oral flora on alveolar bone height. Prior reports that alveolar bone height is significantly less in normal SPF mice compared with their age- and strain-matched GF counterparts sug...

  18. Oral and airway microbiota in HIV-infected pneumonia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Iwai, S.; Fei, M; Huang, D.; Fong, S.; Subramanian, A.; Grieco, K; Lynch, SV; Huang, L

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increased frequency of recurrent pneumonia in HIV-infected patients and recent studies linking the airway bacterial community (microbiota) to acute and chronic respiratory infection, little is known of the oral and airway microbiota that exist in these individuals and their propensity to harbor pathogens despite antimicrobial treatment for acute pneumonia. This pilot study compared paired samples of the oral and airway microbiota from 15 hospitalized HIV-infected patients receivin...

  19. Antibacterial and hemolytic effects of aqueous and organic extracts from different tissues of sea urchin Echinometra mathaei on pathogenic streptococci

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kazemi, Soodabeh; Heidari, Behrooz; Rassa, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    ... and Aristotle’s lantern of the sea urchin (Echinometra mathaei) were investigated. The aerobic Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus were selected because of their importance in oral diseases...

  20. 化学发光检测梅毒特异性抗体反应性结果分析%Reactive results of Treponema pallidum antibody in chemiluminescent assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾春瑜; 刘刚; 赵乔妹; 李少增; 于勇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To find the cause of false positive results during the detection of Treponema pallidum antibody(TP) in chemiluminescent assay. Methods We put 129 TP reactive samples to chemiluminscent assay, reexamined them by treponema pallidum hemaglutination assay (TPHA) before comparing them. Results When cut - off S/CO was 1, the difference was significant, but there was no significant difference when cut - off S/CO was 5. Conclusions When anti - TP is reactive, especially in the samples of low S/CO value(1.0 -5.0), multiple factors should be taken into consideration, such as age, history of disease, and clinical symptoms , followed by re - examination of the sample by other means. In this way, the chance of false positivity will be reduced.%目的 分析梅毒特异性抗体(treponema pallidum antibody,TP)的有反应性结果,尤其是COI值较低的标本,为减少假阳性的发生提供依据.方法 选取129例用化学发光法检测梅毒特异性抗体有反应性的术前筛查标本,用梅毒螺旋体血凝试剂盒(treponema pallidum hemaglutination assay,TPHA)进行复检,分析比对两者的结果.结果 当切点S/CO值为5时,Syphilis TP阳性为96例,阴性为33例,两种方法差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 当TP有反应性时(尤其是S/CO值为1.0 ~5.0的标本),要综合考虑患者的年龄、病史,以及临床表现,可再用TPHA做复检,如两者均为阳性再报阳性,这样大大减少了假阳性的发生,降低了医疗纠纷的可能.

  1. Altered Microbiomes in Bovine Digital Dermatitis Lesions, and the Gut as a Pathogen Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinicola, Martin; Lima, Fabio; Lima, Svetlana; Machado, Vinicius; Gomez, Marilia; Döpfer, Dörte; Guard, Charles; Bicalho, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is the most important infectious disease associated with lameness in cattle worldwide. Since the disease was first described in 1974, a series of Treponema species concurrent with other microbes have been identified in DD lesions, suggesting a polymicrobial etiology. However, the pathogenesis of DD and the source of the causative microbes remain unclear. Here we characterized the microbiomes of healthy skin and skin lesions in dairy cows affected with different stages of DD and investigated the gut microbiome as a potential reservoir for microbes associated with this disease. Discriminant analysis revealed that the microbiomes of healthy skin, active DD lesions (ulcerative and chronic ulcerative) and inactive DD lesions (healing and chronic proliferative) are completely distinct. Treponema denticola, Treponema maltophilum, Treponema medium, Treponema putidum, Treponema phagedenis and Treponema paraluiscuniculi were all found to be present in greater relative abundance in active DD lesions when compared with healthy skin and inactive DD lesions, and these same Treponema species were nearly ubiquitously present in rumen and fecal microbiomes. The relative abundance of Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus, a bacterium not previously reported in DD lesions, was increased in both active and inactive lesions when compared with healthy skin. In conclusion, our data support the concept that DD is a polymicrobial disease, with active DD lesions having a markedly distinct microbiome dominated by T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium, T. putidum, T. phagedenis and T. paraluiscuniculi. Furthermore, these Treponema species are nearly ubiquitously found in rumen and fecal microbiomes, suggesting that the gut is an important reservoir of microbes involved in DD pathogenesis. Additionally, the bacterium Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus was highly abundant in active and inactive DD lesions. PMID:25781328

  2. Altered microbiomes in bovine digital dermatitis lesions, and the gut as a pathogen reservoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zinicola

    Full Text Available Bovine digital dermatitis (DD is the most important infectious disease associated with lameness in cattle worldwide. Since the disease was first described in 1974, a series of Treponema species concurrent with other microbes have been identified in DD lesions, suggesting a polymicrobial etiology. However, the pathogenesis of DD and the source of the causative microbes remain unclear. Here we characterized the microbiomes of healthy skin and skin lesions in dairy cows affected with different stages of DD and investigated the gut microbiome as a potential reservoir for microbes associated with this disease. Discriminant analysis revealed that the microbiomes of healthy skin, active DD lesions (ulcerative and chronic ulcerative and inactive DD lesions (healing and chronic proliferative are completely distinct. Treponema denticola, Treponema maltophilum, Treponema medium, Treponema putidum, Treponema phagedenis and Treponema paraluiscuniculi were all found to be present in greater relative abundance in active DD lesions when compared with healthy skin and inactive DD lesions, and these same Treponema species were nearly ubiquitously present in rumen and fecal microbiomes. The relative abundance of Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus, a bacterium not previously reported in DD lesions, was increased in both active and inactive lesions when compared with healthy skin. In conclusion, our data support the concept that DD is a polymicrobial disease, with active DD lesions having a markedly distinct microbiome dominated by T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium, T. putidum, T. phagedenis and T. paraluiscuniculi. Furthermore, these Treponema species are nearly ubiquitously found in rumen and fecal microbiomes, suggesting that the gut is an important reservoir of microbes involved in DD pathogenesis. Additionally, the bacterium Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus was highly abundant in active and inactive DD lesions.

  3. Controlling the oral biofilm with antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, P D

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this article is to review the properties of compounds available for the control of dental plaque biofilms, and describe their mode of action. The mouth is colonised by a diverse but characteristic collection of micro-organisms, which confer benefit to host. Numerous antiplaque (e.g. surfactants, essential oils) and antimicrobial agents (e.g. bisbiguanides, metal ions, phenols, quaternary ammonium compounds, etc.) have been successfully formulated into toothpastes and mouthrinses to control plaque biofilms. At high concentrations, these agents can remove biofilm and/or kill disease-associated bacteria, while even at sub-lethal levels they can inhibit the expression of pathogenic traits. Successful antimicrobial agents are able to meet the apparently contradictory requirements of maintaining the oral biofilm at levels compatible with oral health but without disrupting the natural and beneficial properties of the resident oral microflora.

  4. Oral biofilm architecture on natural teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijnge, Vincent; van Leeuwen, M Barbara M; Degener, John E; Abbas, Frank; Thurnheer, Thomas; Gmür, Rudolf; Harmsen, Hermie J M

    2010-02-24

    Periodontitis and caries are infectious diseases of the oral cavity in which oral biofilms play a causative role. Moreover, oral biofilms are widely studied as model systems for bacterial adhesion, biofilm development, and biofilm resistance to antibiotics, due to their widespread presence and accessibility. Despite descriptions of initial plaque formation on the tooth surface, studies on mature plaque and plaque structure below the gum are limited to landmark studies from the 1970s, without appreciating the breadth of microbial diversity in the plaque. We used fluorescent in situ hybridization to localize in vivo the most abundant species from different phyla and species associated with periodontitis on seven embedded teeth obtained from four different subjects. The data showed convincingly the dominance of Actinomyces sp., Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Spirochaetes, and Synergistetes in subgingival plaque. The latter proved to be new with a possibly important role in host-pathogen interaction due to its localization in close proximity to immune cells. The present study identified for the first time in vivo that Lactobacillus sp. are the central cells of bacterial aggregates in subgingival plaque, and that Streptococcus sp. and the yeast Candida albicans form corncob structures in supragingival plaque. Finally, periodontal pathogens colonize already formed biofilms and form microcolonies therein. These in vivo observations on oral biofilms provide a clear vision on biofilm architecture and the spatial distribution of predominant species.

  5. Oral biofilm architecture on natural teeth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Zijnge

    Full Text Available Periodontitis and caries are infectious diseases of the oral cavity in which oral biofilms play a causative role. Moreover, oral biofilms are widely studied as model systems for bacterial adhesion, biofilm development, and biofilm resistance to antibiotics, due to their widespread presence and accessibility. Despite descriptions of initial plaque formation on the tooth surface, studies on mature plaque and plaque structure below the gum are limited to landmark studies from the 1970s, without appreciating the breadth of microbial diversity in the plaque. We used fluorescent in situ hybridization to localize in vivo the most abundant species from different phyla and species associated with periodontitis on seven embedded teeth obtained from four different subjects. The data showed convincingly the dominance of Actinomyces sp., Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Spirochaetes, and Synergistetes in subgingival plaque. The latter proved to be new with a possibly important role in host-pathogen interaction due to its localization in close proximity to immune cells. The present study identified for the first time in vivo that Lactobacillus sp. are the central cells of bacterial aggregates in subgingival plaque, and that Streptococcus sp. and the yeast Candida albicans form corncob structures in supragingival plaque. Finally, periodontal pathogens colonize already formed biofilms and form microcolonies therein. These in vivo observations on oral biofilms provide a clear vision on biofilm architecture and the spatial distribution of predominant species.

  6. ANALYSIS OF Treponema pallidum RECOMBINANT ANTIGENS FOR DIAGNOSIS OF SYPHILIS BY WESTERN BLOTTING TECHNIQUE Análise de antígenos recombinantes de Treponema pallidum no diagnóstico da sífilis utilizando a técnica de Western Blotting

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    Neuza Satomi SATO

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Three GST fusion recombinant antigen of Treponema pallidum, described as GST-rTp47, GST-rTp17 and GST-rTp15 were analyzed by Western blotting techniques. We have tested 53 serum samples: 25 from patients at different clinical stages of syphilis, all of them presenting anti-treponemal antibody, 25 from healthy blood donors and three from patients with sexually transmitted disease (STD other than syphilis. Almost all samples from patients with syphilis presented a strong reactivity with GST-rTp17 antigen. Some samples were non-reactive or showed a weak reaction with GST-rTp47 and/or GST-rTp15, and apparently there was no correlation with the stage of disease. There was no seropositivity among blood donors. No sample reacted with purified GST. We concluded that due to their specificity these recombinant antigens can be used as GST fusion protein for development of syphilis diagnostic assays.Os antígenos recombinantes de Treponema pallidum GST-rTp47, GST-rTp17 e GST-rTp15, produzidos em fusão com glutationa S-transferase (GST em E. coli, foram analisados quanto ao potencial diagnóstico da sífilis pela técnica de Western blotting. Foram testadas 53 amostras, sendo 25 de pacientes em diferentes estágios clínicos da sífilis, com resultados positivos no teste treponêmico clássico; 25 amostras procedentes de doadores de banco de sangue, com sorologia negativa e 3 de pacientes com doença sexualmente transmissível não relacionado à sífilis. Todas as amostras de pacientes com sífilis apresentaram alta reatividade com o antígeno GST-rTp17. Quanto aos antígenos GST-rTp47 e GST-Tp15 verificou-se uma variação na presença ou na intensidade da reação em diferentes amostras de pacientes com sífilis, sem mostrar correlação com o estágio da doença. Nenhuma reatividade contra quaisquer desses antígenos foi observada com as amostras do grupo controle. Nenhuma das amostras testadas apresentaram reatividade com a GST purificada. A

  7. Oral Cancer Exam

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    Full Text Available ... and Deadlines Grant Application Forms Application Receipt Dates Electronic Submission of Applications Grants 101 (How to Write ... detection and treatment of oral cancers. Note: For materials specific to African American men, please see: Oral ...

  8. Oral Appliances Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your sleep doctor may schedule you for a sleep study to verify treatment success. Follow-Up Visits Follow-up visits with your dentist will be needed to ensure the optimal fit of the oral appliance. Effective oral appliances ...

  9. Oral Cancer Exam

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    Full Text Available ... See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See ... this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected ...

  10. Oral Cancer Exam

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    Full Text Available ... the exam can detect oral cancer early—when it can be treated more successfully. Publications​ For Health ... and the importance of detecting the disease in its early stages. The Oral Cancer Exam Step-by- ...

  11. Oral Cancer Exam

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    Full Text Available ... Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See All Order ... Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, ...

  12. Oral Cancer Exam

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    Full Text Available ... signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, ... not collect any actual information. External Web Site Policy This graphic notice ( ) means that you are leaving ...

  13. Oral Cancer Exam

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    Full Text Available ... diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected medical terms and resource information. Oral ... of Dental and Craniofacial Research National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD 20892-2190 301-496-4261 NIH… ...

  14. Oral Cancer Exam

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    Full Text Available ... See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See ... this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected ...

  15. Oral Cancer Exam

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    Full Text Available ... and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings ... of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected medical terms and resource information. Oral Cancer A fact ...

  16. Oral Cancer Exam

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    Full Text Available ... signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that ... any actual information. External Web Site Policy This graphic notice ( ) means that you are leaving ...

  17. Oral Cancer Exam

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    Full Text Available ... the exam can detect oral cancer early—when it can be treated more successfully. Publications​ For Health ... and the importance of detecting the disease in its early stages. The Oral Cancer Exam Step-by- ...

  18. Periodontal pathogens in atheromatous plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj K. Rath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been increasing attention paid in recent years to the possibility that oral bacterial infection, particularly periodontal disease may influence the initiation and or progression of systemic diseases. These studies confirm the observation that heart disease is the most commonly found systemic condition in patients with periodontal disease. Moreover, the literature has also highlighted substantial evidence indicating the presence of Gram-negative periodontal pathogens in atheromatous plaques. Aim: This study intends to investigate the possible association between periodontal health and coronary artery disease by evaluating periodontal status, association between the periodontal plaque and coronary atheromatous plaques for presence of micro-organisms such as, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Tannerella forsythia. Materials and methods: A case-control study was designed with seven patients who had undergone coronary endarterectomy for cardiovascular disease and 28 controls. The periodontal examination for cases was performed 1 day before vascular surgery and the controls were clinically examined. The atheromatous plaque sample collected during endarterectomy and the intraoral plaque samples were subjected to polymerase chain reaction for identification of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, P. intermedia and T. forsythia. Results: The presence of periodontal bacteria DNA in coronary atheromatous plaques and sub-gingival plaque samples of the same patients was confirmed by this study. CONCLUSION A correlation was established between putative bacteria contributing to atheromatous plaques and species associated with periodontal disease. One particularly important study to be carried out is the investigation of a possible clinically meaningful reduction in coronary heart disease resulting from the prevention or treatment of periodontal disease.

  19. HAD Oral History Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.

  20. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment.

  1. Plant Pathogenic Fungi and Oomycetes

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    Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Fungi and Oomycetes are notorious plant pathogens and use similar strategies to infect plants. The majority of plants, however, is not infected by pathogens as they recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors that mediate PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) ,

  2. Plant Pathogenic Fungi and Oomycetes

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    Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Fungi and O