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Sample records for oral pathogen treponema

  1. Genome-wide relatedness of Treponema pedis, from gingiva and necrotic skin lesions of pigs, with the human oral pathogen Treponema denticola.

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    Olov Svartström

    Full Text Available Treponema pedis and T. denticola are two genetically related species with different origins of isolation. Treponema denticola is part of the human oral microbiota and is associated with periodontitis while T. pedis has been isolated from skin lesions in animals, e.g., digital dermatitis in cattle and necrotic ulcers in pigs. Although multiple Treponema phylotypes may exist in ulcerative lesions in pigs, T. pedis appears to be a predominant spirochete in these lesions. Treponema pedis can also be present in pig gingiva. In this study, we determined the complete genome sequence of T. pedis strain T A4, isolated from a porcine necrotic ear lesion, and compared its genome with that of T. denticola. Most genes in T. pedis were homologous to those in T. denticola and the two species were similar in general genomic features such as size, G+C content, and number of genes. In addition, many homologues of specific virulence-related genes in T. denticola were found in T. pedis. Comparing a selected pair of strains will usually not give a complete picture of the relatedness between two species. We therefore complemented the analysis with draft genomes from six T. pedis isolates, originating from gingiva and necrotic ulcers in pigs, and from twelve T. denticola strains. Each strain carried a considerable amount of accessory genetic material, of which a large part was strain specific. There was also extensive sequence variability in putative virulence-related genes between strains belonging to the same species. Signs of lateral gene-transfer events from bacteria known to colonize oral environments were found. This suggests that the oral cavity is an important habitat for T. pedis. In summary, we found extensive genomic similarities between T. pedis and T. denticola but also large variability within each species.

  2. Occurrence of two newly named oral treponemes - Treponema parvum and Treponema putidum - in primary endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, I N; Siqueira, J F

    2005-12-01

    Recent evidence from molecular genetic studies has revealed that oral Treponema species are involved in infections of endodontic origin. This study assessed the occurrence of two newly named oral treponemes - Treponema parvum and Treponema putidum - in primary endodontic infections using a culture-independent identification technique. Genomic DNA was isolated directly from clinical samples, and a 16S rRNA gene-based nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to determine the presence of T. parvum and T. putidum. Species-specific primer pairs were developed by aligning closely related 16S rRNA gene sequences. The specificity for each primer pair was validated by running PCR against a panel of oral bacteria and by sequence analysis of PCR products from positive clinical samples. T. parvum was detected in 52% of the root canals associated with chronic apical periodontitis, in 20% of the cases diagnosed as acute apical periodontitis, and in no abscessed case. In general, T. parvum was detected in 26% of the samples from primary endodontic infections. T. putidum was found in only one case of acute apical periodontitis (2% of the total number of cases investigated). The devised nested PCR protocol was able to identify both T. parvum and T. putidum directly in clinical samples and demonstrated that these two treponemes can take part in endodontic infections.

  3. Bovine digital dermatitis: Possible pathogenic consortium consisting of Dichelobacter nodosus and multiple Treponema species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Marianne; Capion, Nynne; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard

    2012-01-01

    not colonized by bacteria while only four samples were found normal. We hypothesise that external noxious stimuli allow D. nodosus to break down the epidermal barrier creating a suitable environment for the secondary invaders, Treponema species, which gradually take over the infection site. The variety...... and different distribution of treponemes in the DD lesions observed in this study, suggests that most of the Treponema phylotypes have the potential to be pathogenic....

  4. Transcriptional responses of Treponema denticola to other oral bacterial species.

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    Juni Sarkar

    Full Text Available The classic organization by Socransky and coworkers categorized the oral bacteria of the subgingival plaque into different complexes. Treponema denticola, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia are grouped into the red complex that is highly correlated with periodontal disease. Socransky's work closely associates red with orange complex species such as Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia but not with members of the other complexes. While the relationship between species contained by these complexes is in part supported by their ability to physically attach to each other, the physiological consequences of these interactions and associations are less clear. In this study, we employed T. denticola as a model organism to analyze contact-dependent responses to interactions with species belonging to the same complex (P. gingivalis and T. forsythia, the closely associated orange complex (using F. nucleatum and P. intermedia as representatives and the unconnected yellow complex (using Streptococcus sanguinis and S. gordonii as representatives. RNA was extracted from T. denticola alone as well as after pairwise co-incubation for 5 hrs with representatives of the different complexes, and the respective gene expression profiles were determined using microarrays. Numerous genes related to motility, metabolism, transport, outer membrane and hypothetical proteins were differentially regulated in T. denticola in the presence of the tested partner species. Further analysis revealed a significant overlap in the affected genes and we identified a general response to the presence of other species, those specific to two of the three complexes as well as individual complexes. Most interestingly, many predicted major antigens (e.g. flagella, Msp, CTLP were suppressed in responses that included red complex species indicating that the presence of the most closely associated species induces immune-evasive strategies. In summary, the data

  5. Swine dysentery: protection of pigs by oral and parenteral immunisation with attenuated Treponema hyodysenteriae.

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    Hudson, M J; Alexander, T J; Lysons, R J; Prescott, J F

    1976-11-01

    An attenuated strain of Treponema hyodysenteriae was used to immunise 18 pigs in three experiments. Live attenuated spirochaetes were dosed orally and injected intra-peritoneally, and killed spirochaetes were injected intramuscularly with adjuvant. The vaccinated pigs, which developed high serum agglutination titres against T hyodysenteriae, and 18 unvaccinated litter-mates were repeatedly challenged with virulent T hyodysenteriae. Nine vaccinated pigs and 16 control pigs developed typical swine dysentery.

  6. Association between selected oral pathogens and gastric precancerous lesions.

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    Christian R Salazar

    Full Text Available We examined whether colonization of selected oral pathogens is associated with gastric precancerous lesions in a cross-sectional study. A total of 119 participants were included, of which 37 were cases of chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, or dysplasia. An oral examination was performed to measure periodontal indices. Plaque and saliva samples were tested with real-time quantitative PCR for DNA levels of pathogens related to periodontal disease (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythensis, Treponema denticola, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and dental caries (Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus. There were no consistent associations between DNA levels of selected bacterial species and gastric precancerous lesions, although an elevated but non-significant odds ratio (OR for gastric precancerous lesions was observed in relation to increasing colonization of A. actinomycetemcomitans (OR = 1.36 for one standard deviation increase, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.87-2.12, P. gingivalis (OR = 1.12, 0.67-1.88 and T. denticola (OR = 1.34, 0.83-2.12 measured in plaque. To assess the influence of specific long-term infection, stratified analyses by levels of periodontal indices were conducted. A. actinomycetemcomitans was significantly associated with gastric precancerous lesions (OR = 2.51, 1.13-5.56 among those with ≥ median of percent tooth sites with PD ≥ 3 mm, compared with no association among those below the median (OR = 0.86, 0.43-1.72. A significantly stronger relationship was observed between the cumulative bacterial burden score of periodontal disease-related pathogens and gastric precancerous lesions among those with higher versus lower levels of periodontal disease indices (p-values for interactions: 0.03-0.06. Among individuals with periodontal disease, high levels of colonization of periodontal pathogens are associated with an increased risk of gastric precancerous lesions.

  7. Oral and dental infections with anaerobic bacteria: clinical features, predominant pathogens, and treatment.

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    Tanner, A; Stillman, N

    1993-06-01

    Microbial populations colonizing the teeth are a major source of pathogens responsible for oral and dental infections, including periodontal diseases, gingivitis, pericoronitis, endodontitis, peri-implantitis, and postextraction infections. Each entity has distinct clinical and microbial features. Bacterial species associated with oral infections include Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Bacteroides forsythus, Campylobacter rectus, Eubacterium species, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Eikenella corrodens, and Peptostreptococcus micros. Treponema pallidum-related spirochetes have been associated with acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. Porphyromonas endodontalis appears to be specifically related to endodontic infections. Oral infections in medically compromised patients, including those with AIDS, are associated with similar species and are usually complicated by superinfection with enteric and Candida species. Isolation of species causing oral infections requires the collection of appropriate samples and the use of strictly anaerobic techniques. Rapid selective culture, immunofluorescence, and DNA probe methods have been developed for the identification of these oral species. The varied measures required in the management of oral and dental infections may include antimicrobial therapy. Accurate microbiological diagnosis, including antibiotic susceptibility testing, is indicated for cases that do not respond to therapy.

  8. Candida glabrata: an emerging oral opportunistic pathogen.

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    Li, L; Redding, S; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, A

    2007-03-01

    Following the widespread use of immunosuppressive therapy and broad-spectrum antimycotic prophylaxis, C. glabrata has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen in the oral mucosa. In the past, studies on the virulence factors and host-pathogen interactions of this organism were scarce, but continued to rise in recent years. Denture-wearing, immunosuppression, antibiotic therapy, and aging are risk factors for oral colonization or infection with C. glabrata. Compared with C. albicans, C. glabrata exhibits lower oral keratinocyte-adherence capacity, but higher denture-surface-adherence ability. The role of extracellular hydrolase production in the virulence of this organism does not appear to be as important as it is in C. albicans pathogenesis. Although traditionally thought of as a non-transforming yeast organism, both phenotypic switching and pseudohyphal formation have recently been identified in C. glabrata, but their role in pathogenesis is not known. With the exception of granulocyte monocyte colony-stimulating factor, C. glabrata triggers a lower proinflammatory cytokine response in oral epithelial cells than does C. albicans, in a strain-dependent manner. C. glabrata is less susceptible to killing by human beta-defensins than is C. albicans and exhibits various degrees of resistance to the antifungal activity of salivary histatins and mucins. In addition, C. glabrata possesses both innate and acquired resistance against antifungal drugs, due to its ability to modify ergosterol biosynthesis, mitochondrial function, or antifungal efflux. This resistance allows for its relative overgrowth over other susceptible species and may contribute to the recent emergence of C. glabrata infections in chronically immunocompromised populations. Further investigations on the virulence and host-pathogen interactions of C. glabrata are needed to better define the pathogenesis of oral C. glabrata infection in susceptible hosts.

  9. 16S rRNA-based detection of oral pathogens in coronary atherosclerotic plaque

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    Mahendra Jaideep

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerosis develops as a response of the vessel wall to injury. Chronic bacterial infections have been associated with an increased risk for atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. The ability of oral pathogens to colonize in coronary atheromatous plaque is well known. Aim: The aim of this study was to detect the presence of Treponema denticola, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Campylobacter rectus in the subgingival and atherosclerotic plaques of patients with coronary artery disease. Materials and Methods: Fifty-one patients in the age group of 40-80 years with coronary artery disease were selected for the study. DNA was extracted from the plaque samples. The specific primers for T. denticola, C. rectus and P. gingivalis were used to amplify a part of the 16S rRNA gene by polymerase chain reaction. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square analysis, correlation coefficient and prevalence percentage of the microorganisms were carried out for the analysis. Results: Of the 51 patients, T. denticola, C. rectus and P. gingivalis were detected in 49.01%, 21.51% and 45.10% of the atherosclerotic plaque samples. Conclusions: Our study revealed the presence of bacterial DNA of the oral pathogenic microorganisms in coronary atherosclerotic plaques. The presence of the bacterial DNA in the coronary atherosclerotic plaques in significant proportion may suggest the possible relationship between periodontal bacterial infection and genesis of coronary atherosclerosis.

  10. Extracellular Proteome and Citrullinome of the Oral Pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobernack, Tim; Glasner, Corinna; Junker, Sabryna; Gabarrini, Giorgio; de Smit, Menke; de Jong, Anne; Otto, Andreas; Becher, Doerte; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is an oral pathogen associated with the inflammatory disease periodontitis. Periodontitis and P. gingivalis have been associated with rheumatoid arthritis. One of the hallmarks of rheumatoid arthritis is the loss of tolerance against citrullinated proteins. Citrullination is

  11. Oral cavity anaerobic pathogens in biofilm formation on voice prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertl, Kristina; Zijnge, Vincent; Zatorska, Beata; Leonhard, Matthias; Schneider-Stickler, Berit; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    BACKGROUND: A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method has been used to identify oral anaerobic pathogens in biofilms on voice prostheses. The purpose of the present study was to determine the location of those pathogens inside the biofilms. METHODS: Biofilms of 15 voice prostheses were sampled

  12. Pathogens and host immunity in the ancient human oral cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warinner, Christina; Rodrigues, João F Matias; Vyas, Rounak

    2014-01-01

    Calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) preserves for millennia and entraps biomolecules from all domains of life and viruses. We report the first, to our knowledge, high-resolution taxonomic and protein functional characterization of the ancient oral microbiome and demonstrate that the oral...... cavity has long served as a reservoir for bacteria implicated in both local and systemic disease. We characterize (i) the ancient oral microbiome in a diseased state, (ii) 40 opportunistic pathogens, (iii) ancient human-associated putative antibiotic resistance genes, (iv) a genome reconstruction...... calculus permits the simultaneous investigation of pathogen activity, host immunity and diet, thereby extending direct investigation of common diseases into the human evolutionary past....

  13. Pathogens and host immunity in the ancient human oral cavity

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    Warinner, Christina; Matias Rodrigues, João F.; Vyas, Rounak; Trachsel, Christian; Shved, Natallia; Grossmann, Jonas; Radini, Anita; Hancock, Y.; Tito, Raul Y.; Fiddyment, Sarah; Speller, Camilla; Hendy, Jessica; Charlton, Sophy; Luder, Hans Ulrich; Salazar-García, Domingo C.; Eppler, Elisabeth; Seiler, Roger; Hansen, Lars; Samaniego Castruita, José Alfredo; Barkow-Oesterreicher, Simon; Teoh, Kai Yik; Kelstrup, Christian; Olsen, Jesper V.; Nanni, Paolo; Kawai, Toshihisa; Willerslev, Eske; von Mering, Christian; Lewis, Cecil M.; Collins, Matthew J.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Rühli, Frank; Cappellini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) preserves for millennia and entraps biomolecules from all domains of life and viruses. We report the first high-resolution taxonomic and protein functional characterization of the ancient oral microbiome and demonstrate that the oral cavity has long served as a reservoir for bacteria implicated in both local and systemic disease. We characterize: (i) the ancient oral microbiome in a diseased state, (ii) 40 opportunistic pathogens, (iii) the first evidence of ancient human-associated putative antibiotic resistance genes, (iv) a genome reconstruction of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia, (v) 239 bacterial and 43 human proteins, allowing confirmation of a long-term association between host immune factors, “red-complex” pathogens, and periodontal disease, and (vi) DNA sequences matching dietary sources. Directly datable and nearly ubiquitous, dental calculus permits the simultaneous investigation of pathogen activity, host immunity, and diet, thereby extending the direct investigation of common diseases into the human evolutionary past. PMID:24562188

  14. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of oral pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veloo, A. C. M.; Seme, K.; Raangs, Gerwin; Rurenga, P.; Singadji, Z.; Wekema - Mulder, G.; van Winkelhoff, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is a bacterial disease that can be treated with systemic antibiotics. The aim of this study was to establish the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of five periodontal pathogens to six commonly used antibiotics in periodontics. A total of 247 periodontal bacterial isolates were tested

  15. Photodynamic action on some pathogenic microorganisms of oral cavity

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    Ovchinnikov, Ilya S.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2001-10-01

    The work is devoted to an analysis of pre-clinical and clinical experiments on photodynamic action of HeNe laser radiation in aggregate with a cation thiazinium dye Methylene Blue (MB) on a mix of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic aerobic bacteria being activators of pyoinflammatory diseases of oral cavity. Concentration of photosensitizes at which there is no own bactericidal influence on dying microflora, and parameters of influence at which the efficiency of irradiated microflora defeat reaches 99 % are determined.

  16. The pathogenic persona of community-associated oral streptococci.

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    Whitmore, Sarah E; Lamont, Richard J

    2011-07-01

    The mitis group streptococci (MGS) are widespread in the oral cavity and are traditionally associated with oral health. However, these organisms have many attributes that contribute to the development of pathogenic oral communities. MGS adhere rapidly to saliva-coated tooth surfaces, thereby providing an attachment substratum for more overtly pathogenic organisms such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, and the two species assemble into heterotypic communities. Close physical association facilitates physiologic support, and pathogens such as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans display resource partitioning to favour carbon sources generated by streptococcal metabolism. MGS exchange information with community members through a number of interspecies signalling systems including AI-2 and contact dependent mechanisms. Signal transduction systems induced in P. gingivalis are based on protein dephosphorylation mediated by the tyrosine phosphatase Ltp1, and converge on a LuxR-family transcriptional regulator, CdhR. Phenotypic responses in P. gingivalis include regulation of hemin uptake systems and gingipain activity, processes that are intimately linked to the virulence of the organism. Furthermore, communities of S. gordonii with P. gingivalis or with A. actinomycetemcomitans are more pathogenic in animal models than the constituent species alone. We propose that MGS should be considered accessory pathogens, organisms whose pathogenic potential only becomes evident in the context of a heterotypic microbial community. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Prevalence of pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the incidence of pathogenic microorganisms associated with dental caries and antimicrobial susceptibility test of some common dentifrice sold in Kano metropolis. A total of 50 samples were used in this study. The samples were taken using swab from human oral mucosa. The swabs ...

  18. DNA Checkerboard Method for Bacterial Pathogen Identification in Oral Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Cássio do; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan; Watanabe, Evandro; Ito, Izabel Yoko

    2006-01-01

    This work aim to show by literature review the principal characteristics of the DNA checkerboard method for bacterial pathogens identification in oral diseases, showing the most varieties uses and applications of this technique Este trabajo tiene como objetivo, presentar en una revisión de la literatura, las principales características del método de chequeo del DNA para la identificación de bacterias patógenas en la cavidad oral, mostrando las diferentes utilizaciones y aplicaciones de est...

  19. Antimicrobial activity of Aegiphila sellowiana Cham., Lamiaceae, against oral pathogens

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    Marcele A. Ferreira

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of Aegiphila sellowiana Cham., Lamiaceae, against oral pathogens is reported. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs for inhibiting the microorganisms growth were determined using the broth microdilution method from the CLSI M7-A7 protocol. Chlorhexidine was used as the positive control. The ethanol crude extract of the aerial parts of A. sellowiana exhibited activity against the microorganisms tested in this work; however, the activity decreased after partition with n-hexane, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate. Among the tested fractions, the n-hexane fraction was found to be the most effective against the evaluated oral pathogens. GC-MS analysis of this latter fraction revealed that fatty acids esters, steroids, and aliphatic sesquiterpene hydrocarbons are its major constituents. These compounds may be responsible for the activity of the n-hexane fraction, but other chemical constituents of the dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and hydroalcoholic fraction may potentialize their activities in the crude extract.

  20. Amixicile, a novel strategy for targeting oral anaerobic pathogens.

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    Hutcherson, Justin A; Sinclair, Kathryn M; Belvin, Benjamin R; Gui, Qin; Hoffman, Paul S; Lewis, Janina P

    2017-09-05

    The oral microflora is composed of both health-promoting as well as disease-initiating bacteria. Many of the disease-initiating bacteria are anaerobic and include organisms such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Tannerella forsythia. Here we investigated a novel therapeutic, amixicile, that targets pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), a major metabolic enzyme involved in energy generation through oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate. PFOR is present in these anaerobic pathogenic bacteria and thus we hypothesized that amixicile would effectively inhibit their growth. In general, PFOR is present in all obligate anaerobic bacteria, while oral commensal aerobes, including aerotolerant ones, such as Streptococcus gordonii, use pyruvate dehydrogenase to decarboxylate pyruvate. Accordingly, we observed that growth of the PFOR-containing anaerobic periodontal pathogens, grown in both monospecies as well as multispecies broth cultures was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner while that of S. gordonii was unaffected. Furthermore, we also show that amixicile is effective against these pathogens grown as monospecies and multispecies biofilms. Finally, amixicile is the first selective therapeutic agent active against bacteria internalized by host cells. Together, the results show that amixicile is an effective inhibitor of oral anaerobic bacteria and as such, is a good candidate for treatment of periodontal diseases.

  1. Potential of Piper betle extracts on inhibition of oral pathogens.

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    Phumat, Pimpak; Khongkhunthian, Sakornrat; Wanachantararak, Phenphichar; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, antimicrobial activity of Piper betle crude ethanol extract against 4 strains of oral pathogens; Candida albicans DMST 8684, C. albicans DMST 5815, Streptococcus gordonii DMST 38731 and Streptococcus mutans DMST 18777 was compared with other medicinal plants. P. betle showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against all tested strains. Fractionated extracts of P. betle using hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol, respectively, were subjected to antimicrobial assay. The result revealed that the fractionated extract from ethyl acetate (F-EtOAc) possessed the strongest antimicrobial activity against all tested strains. Its inhibition zones against those pathogens were 23.00 ± 0.00, 24.33 ± 0.58, 12.50 ± 0.70 and 11.00 ± 0.00 mm, respectively and its minimum inhibitory concentrations were 0.50, 1.00, 0.50 and 1.00 mg/mL, respectively. Interestingly, the minimum concentration to completely kill those pathogens was the same for all strains and found to be 2.00 mg/mL. Killing kinetic study revealed that the activity of F-EtOAc was dose dependent. HPLC chromatograms of P. betle extracts were compared with its antimicrobial activity. An obvious peak at a retention time of 4.11 min was found to be a major component of F-EtOAc whereas it was a minor compound in the other extracts. This peak was considered to be an active compound of P. betle as it was consistent with the antimicrobial activity of F-EtOAc, the most potential extract against the tested pathogens. It is suggested that F-EtOAc is a promising extract of P. betle for inhibition of oral pathogens. Separation and structure elucidation of the active compound of this extract will be further investigated.

  2. The influence of different pathogens on the lysozyme activity into tissues of rat oral cavity

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    A. P. Levitsky

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine action of the different pathogens on the lysozyme activity into tissues of oral cavity and serum. Methods: The lysozyme activities was determined into oral mucosa cheek, tongue gum and serum of 158 white rats (11 series experiments. The pathogens were used: atropine, protamine sulfat, indometacyn, bee poison, hydrasine sulfat, cytostatic cyclofosfan, lincomycin, lipopolysaccharide, composition of antibiotic and omeprasol for ACBT Results: The  whole of pathogens decreased lysozyme activity (mean in 1,6-2,5 times into oral tissues and on 16 % into serum. The specific lowering of lysozyme activities (Δ%/mg pathogen was low most for lipopolysaccharide, especially after oral application usage (exceeding was in tens times. Conclusion: The lysozyme activity lowering may play significant role in pathogenesis of stomatologic diseases/ Lipopolysaccharide (LPS send lysozyme activity lowering most especially after oral application. Probably, the antilysozyme action of pathogens realize by LPS. The stomatogenic factor in pathogenesis and profilactic of noninfection diseases is important.

  3. Clinical, therapeutic, and pathogenic aspects of chronic oral multifocal candidiasis.

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    Holmstrup, P; Bessermann, M

    1983-10-01

    In 32 patients (11 females, 21 males) the diagnosis of chronic oral multifocal candidiasis was established on the basis of erythematous, plaquelike, or nodular lesions in two or more of the following locations: commissural area, palate, or dorsum of the tongue. Hyphae and/or pseudohyphae of Candida-like organisms were demonstrated in PAS-stained smears from all lesions. Ninety-seven separate lesions were registered. Thirty patients experienced pain, burning, or itching from affected areas. All of the patients were tobacco smokers, and 21 were denture wearers. The patients were treated with antimycotics; the median length of treatment was 46 days for denture wearers and 44 days for nondenture wearers. After antimycotic therapy the change in the lesions followed certain patterns which were determined by the original type of lesion. Palatal lesions in nondenture wearers and nodular lesions of the commissural areas showed the highest recurrence rate after 6 and 12 months. The pathogenic role of tobacco and other factors in the development of candidal infection are discussed.

  4. Metagenomic analysis reveals presence of Treponema denticola in a tissue biopsy of the Iceman.

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    Frank Maixner

    Full Text Available Ancient hominoid genome studies can be regarded by definition as metagenomic analyses since they represent a mixture of both hominoid and microbial sequences in an environment. Here, we report the molecular detection of the oral spirochete Treponema denticola in ancient human tissue biopsies of the Iceman, a 5,300-year-old Copper Age natural ice mummy. Initially, the metagenomic data of the Iceman's genomic survey was screened for bacterial ribosomal RNA (rRNA specific reads. Through ranking the reads by abundance a relatively high number of rRNA reads most similar to T. denticola was detected. Mapping of the metagenome sequences against the T. denticola genome revealed additional reads most similar to this opportunistic pathogen. The DNA damage pattern of specifically mapped reads suggests an ancient origin of these sequences. The haematogenous spread of bacteria of the oral microbiome often reported in the recent literature could already explain the presence of metagenomic reads specific for T. denticola in the Iceman's bone biopsy. We extended, however, our survey to an Iceman gingival tissue sample and a mouth swab sample and could thereby detect T. denticola and Porphyrimonas gingivalis, another important member of the human commensal oral microflora. Taken together, this study clearly underlines the opportunity to detect disease-associated microorganisms when applying metagenomics-enabled approaches on datasets of ancient human remains.

  5. Smoking and periodontal disease: discrimination of antibody responses to pathogenic and commensal oral bacteria.

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    Hayman, L; Steffen, M J; Stevens, J; Badger, E; Tempro, P; Fuller, B; McGuire, A; Al-Sabbagh, Mohanad; Thomas, M V; Ebersole, J L

    2011-04-01

    Smoking is an independent risk factor for the initiation, extent and severity of periodontal disease. This study examined the ability of the host immune system to discriminate commensal oral bacteria from pathogens at mucosal surfaces, i.e. oral cavity. Serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibody reactive with three pathogenic and five commensal oral bacteria in 301 current smokers (age range 21-66 years) were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clinical features of periodontal health were used as measures of periodontitis. Antibody to the pathogens and salivary cotinine levels were related positively to disease severity; however, the antibody levels were best described by the clinical disease unrelated to the amount of smoking. The data showed a greater immune response to pathogens than commensals that was related specifically to disease extent, and most noted in black males. Significant correlations in individual patient responses to the pathogens and commensals were lost with an increasing extent of periodontitis and serum antibody to the pathogens. Antibody to Porphyromonas gingivalis was particularly distinct with respect to the discriminatory nature of the immune responses in recognizing the pathogens. Antibody responses to selected pathogenic and commensal oral microorganisms differed among racial groups and genders. The antibody response to the pathogens was related to disease severity. The level of antibody to the pathogens, and in particular P. gingivalis, was correlated with disease severity in black and male subsets of patients. The amount of smoking did not appear to impact directly serum antibody levels to these oral bacteria. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2011 British Society for Immunology.

  6. In vitro phenotypic differentiation towards commensal and pathogenic oral biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janus, M.M.; Keijser, B.J.F.; Bikker, F.J.; Exterkate, R.A.M.; Crielaard, W.; Krom, B.P.

    2015-01-01

    Commensal oral biofilms, defined by the absence of pathology-related phenotypes, are ubiquitously present. In contrast to pathological biofilms commensal biofilms are rarely studied. Here, the effect of the initial inoculum and subsequent growth conditions on in vitro oral biofilms was studied.

  7. Association between pathogens from tracheal aspirate and oral biofilm of patients on mechanical ventilation

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    Luana Carneiro Diniz SOUZA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to detect possible associations between respiratory pathogens from tracheal aspirate and oral biofilm samples in intubated patients in an intensive care unit (ICU, and to identify the most common respiratory pathogens in oral biofilm, particularly in patients that developed ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP. Two oral biofilm samples were collected from the tongue of intubated patients (at admission and after 48 hours and analyzed by culture with the Antibiotic Sensitivity Test. The results from the tongue biofilm samples were compared with the tracheal secretions samples. A total of 59.37% of patients exhibited the same species of pathogens in their tracheal aspirate and oral biofilm, of which 8 (42.1% developed VAP, 10 (52.63% did not develop pneumonia and one (5.26% had aspiration pneumonia. There was a statistically significant association between presence of microorganisms in the tracheal and mouth samples for the following pathogens: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter gergoviae, Streptococcus spp and Serratia marcescens (p < 0.05. Pathogens that are present in tracheal aspirates of intubated patients can be detected in their oral cavity, especially in those who developed VAP or aspiration pneumonia. Thus, the results indicate that an improved oral care in these patients could decrease ICU pneumonia rates.

  8. Association between pathogens from tracheal aspirate and oral biofilm of patients on mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Luana Carneiro Diniz; Mota, Vanise Barros Rodrigues da; Carvalho, Alícia Valéria Dos Santos Zaranza de; Corrêa, Rita da Graça Carvalhal Frazão; Libério, Silvana Amado; Lopes, Fernanda Ferreira

    2017-06-05

    The aim of this study was to detect possible associations between respiratory pathogens from tracheal aspirate and oral biofilm samples in intubated patients in an intensive care unit (ICU), and to identify the most common respiratory pathogens in oral biofilm, particularly in patients that developed ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Two oral biofilm samples were collected from the tongue of intubated patients (at admission and after 48 hours) and analyzed by culture with the Antibiotic Sensitivity Test. The results from the tongue biofilm samples were compared with the tracheal secretions samples. A total of 59.37% of patients exhibited the same species of pathogens in their tracheal aspirate and oral biofilm, of which 8 (42.1%) developed VAP, 10 (52.63%) did not develop pneumonia and one (5.26%) had aspiration pneumonia. There was a statistically significant association between presence of microorganisms in the tracheal and mouth samples for the following pathogens: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter gergoviae, Streptococcus spp and Serratia marcescens (p aspirates of intubated patients can be detected in their oral cavity, especially in those who developed VAP or aspiration pneumonia. Thus, the results indicate that an improved oral care in these patients could decrease ICU pneumonia rates.

  9. Size-dependent antibacterial activities of silver nanoparticles against oral anaerobic pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhong; Rong, Kaifeng; Li, Ju; Yang, Hao; Chen, Rong

    2013-06-01

    Dental caries and periodontal disease are widespread diseases for which microorganism infections have been identified as the main etiology. Silver nanoparticles (Ag Nps) were considered as potential control oral bacteria infection agent due to its excellent antimicrobial activity and non acute toxic effects on human cells. In this work, stable Ag Nps with different sizes (~5, 15 and 55 nm mean values) were synthesized by using a simple reduction method or hydrothermal method. The Nps were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The antibacterial activities were evaluated by colony counting assay and growth inhibition curve method, and corresponding minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against five anaerobic oral pathogenic bacteria and aerobic bacteria E. coli were determined. The results showed that Ag Nps had apparent antibacterial effects against the anaerobic oral pathogenic bacteria and aerobic bacteria. The MIC values of 5-nm Ag against anaerobic oral pathogenic bacteria A. actinomycetemcomitans, F. nuceatum, S. mitis, S. mutans and S. sanguis were 25, 25, 25, 50 and 50 μg/mL, respectively. The aerobic bacteria were more susceptible to Ag NPs than the anaerobic oral pathogenic bacteria. In the mean time, Ag NPs displayed an obvious size-dependent antibacterial activity against the anaerobic bacteria. The 5-nm Ag presents the highest antibacterial activity. The results of this work indicated a potential application of Ag Nps in the inhibition of oral microorganism infections.

  10. Pathogenic characteristics of Candida albicans isolated from oral cavities of denture wearers and cancer patients wearing oral prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothibe, J V; Patel, M

    2017-09-01

    Candida albicans cause opportunistic infections including oral candidiasis in immunocompromised patients. It has an ability to cause infection due to its virulence factors. This study investigated the pathogenic characteristics of C. albicans isolated from the oral cavities of healthy subjects and two vulnerable groups, denture wearers and cancer patients wearing oral prostheses. Oral rinse samples were collected and cultured for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of Candida. Twenty strains of C. albicans isolated from the healthy individuals and denture wearers and, 14 strains isolated from the cancer patients were selected and their pathogenic characteristics were measured. The results of the study groups were compared using a Scheffe test for pairwise comparison and a chi square test. Denture wearer and cancer patients with prostheses carried significantly higher number (p production were significantly higher in the strains from denture wearers. In addition, high number of isolates from the denture wearers produced phospholipase and proteinase (85% and 80% respectively) compared to the strains from normal subjects (25% and 60% respectively). Only the germ tube formation and adherence ability were significantly higher in the strains from the cancer patients with prostheses (p = 0.05 and p oral cavity and prostheses is important in the prevention of colonization of Candida and the development of oral candidiasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of oral hygiene interventions on opportunistic pathogens in patients after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Otto L T; McMillan, Anne S; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; Li, Leonard S W; McGrath, Colman

    2013-02-01

    Despite the role of the oral cavity as a reservoir of opportunistic pathogens for infection in patients following stroke, the evaluation of the effects of oral hygiene interventions has been largely neglected. This randomized clinical trial included 102 patients undergoing hospital-based rehabilitation for stroke. Patients were randomized to one of 3 groups: oral hygiene instruction (OHI) only; OHI and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth rinse twice daily; or OHI, 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth rinse twice daily, and assisted brushing twice weekly. Oral samples were obtained at baseline and after 3 weeks for detection of Staphylococcus aureus, aerobic and facultatively anaerobic gram-negative bacilli, and yeasts. Almost three-quarters (72.8%) of the patients harbored oral anaerobic gram-negative bacilli at baseline, and more than half had detectable S aureus (56.8%) and yeasts (59.3%). Percentage frequencies and viable counts of pathogens remained relatively stable during the course of the clinical trial, and no significant differences were observed among the 3 patient groups. In our study cohort, there was no significant difference in the effectiveness of the 3 different oral hygiene interventions on the prevalence or viable counts of oral opportunistic pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship between Chemical Structure and Antimicrobial Activities of Isothiocyanates from Cruciferous Vegetables against Oral Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Mi-Ok; Kim, Mi-Bo; Lim, Sang-Bin

    2016-12-28

    We evaluated the potentials of 10 isothiocyanates (ITCs) from cruciferous vegetables and radish root hydrolysate for inhibiting the growth of oral pathogens, with an emphasis on assessing any structure-function relationship. Structural differences in ITCs impacted their antimicrobial activities against oral pathogens differently. The indolyl ITC (indol-3-carbinol) was the most potent inhibitor of the growth of oral pathogens, followed by aromatic ITCs (benzyl ITC (BITC) and phenylethyl ITC (PEITC)) and aliphatic ITCs (erucin, iberin, and sulforaphene). Sulforaphene, which is similar in structure, but has one double bond, showed higher antimicrobial activity than sulforaphane. Erucin, which has a thiol group, showed higher antimicrobial activity than sulforaphane, which has a sulfinyl group. BITC and iberin with a short chain exhibited higher antimicrobial potential than PEITC and sulforaphane with a longer chain, respectively. ITCs have strong antimicrobial activities and may be useful in the prevention and management of dental caries.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Lippia sidoides, carvacrol and thymol against oral pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Botelho; N.A.P. Nogueira; G.M. Bastos; S.G.C. Fonseca; T.L.G. Lemos; F.J.A. Matos; D. Montenegro; J. Heukelbach; V.S. Rao; G.A.C. Brito

    2007-01-01

    Dental caries and periodontal disease are associated with oral pathogens. Several plant derivatives have been evaluated with respect to their antimicrobial effects against such pathogenic microorganisms. Lippia sidoides Cham (Verbenaceae), popularly known as "Alecrim-pimenta" is a typical shrub commonly found in the Northeast of Brazil. Many plant species belonging to the genus Lippia yield very fragrant essential oils of potential economic value which are used by the industry for the commerc...

  14. ANTIMICROBIAL AND SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITY OF INGREDIENTS OF BETEL QUID ON ORAL AND ENTERIC PATHOGENS

    OpenAIRE

    Niraj A Ghanwate; Prashant Thakare

    2012-01-01

    In this study, antimicrobial and synergistic activity of ingredients of betel quid i.e. kattha, lime, betel leaf, betel nut, cardamom, clove and fennel seeds was tested against microbial population of oral cavity and four enteric pathogens namely Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Shigell flexneri. For this purpose two methods were used. Pour plate method was used for calculating the reduction in microbial population in oral cavity and disk diffusion method was u...

  15. Rhamnolipids from non-pathogenic Burkholderia thailandensis E264: Physicochemical characterization, antimicrobial and antibiofilm efficacy against oral hygiene related pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshikh, Mohamed; Funston, Scott; Chebbi, Alif; Ahmed, Syed; Marchant, Roger; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2017-05-25

    Biosurfactants are naturally occurring surface active compounds that have mainly been exploited for environmental applications and consumer products, with their biomedical efficacy an emerging area of research. Rhamnolipids area major group of biosurfactants that have been reported for their antimicrobial and antibiofilm efficacy. One of the main limiting factors for scaled up production and downstream applications of rhamnolipids is the fact that they are predominantly produced from the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this article, we have reported the production and characterisation of long chain rhamnolipids from non-pathogenic Burkholderia thailandensis E264 (ATCC 700388). We have also investigated the antibacterial and antibiofilm properties of these rhamnolipids against some oral pathogens (Streptococcus oralis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Neisseria mucosa and Streptococcus sanguinis), important for oral health and hygiene. Treating these bacteria with different concentrations of long chain rhamnolipids resulted in a reduction of 3-4 log of bacterial viability, placing these rhamnolipids close to being classified as biocidal. Investigating long chain rhamnolipid efficacy as antibiofilm agents for prospective oral-related applications revealed good potency against oral-bacteria biofilms in a co-incubation experiments, in a pre-coated surface format, in disrupting immature biofilms and has shown excellent combination effect with Lauryl Sodium Sulphate which resulted in a drastic decrease in its minimal inhibitory concentration against different bacteria. Investigating the rhamnolipid permeabilization effect along with their ability to induce the formation of reactive oxygen species has shed light on the mechanism through which inhibition/killing of bacteria may occur. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Activation of Murine Macrophages by Lipoprotein and Lipooligosaccharide of Treponema denticola

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Graciela; Sela, Michael N.; Naor, Ronit; Halabi, Amal; Barak, Vivian; Shapira, Lior

    1999-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the periodontopathogenic oral spirochete Treponema denticola possesses membrane-associated lipoproteins in addition to lipooligosaccharide (LOS). The aim of the present study was to test the potential of these oral spirochetal components to induce the production of inflammatory mediators by human macrophages, which in turn may stimulate tissue breakdown as observed in periodontal diseases. An enriched lipoprotein fraction (dLPP) from T. denticola ATCC 35404 ...

  17. Multilocus sequence analysis of Treponema denticola strains of diverse origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Sisu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oral spirochete bacterium Treponema denticola is associated with both the incidence and severity of periodontal disease. Although the biological or phenotypic properties of a significant number of T. denticola isolates have been reported in the literature, their genetic diversity or phylogeny has never been systematically investigated. Here, we describe a multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA of 20 of the most highly studied reference strains and clinical isolates of T. denticola; which were originally isolated from subgingival plaque samples taken from subjects from China, Japan, the Netherlands, Canada and the USA. Results The sequences of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, and 7 conserved protein-encoding genes (flaA, recA, pyrH, ppnK, dnaN, era and radC were successfully determined for each strain. Sequence data was analyzed using a variety of bioinformatic and phylogenetic software tools. We found no evidence of positive selection or DNA recombination within the protein-encoding genes, where levels of intraspecific sequence polymorphism varied from 18.8% (flaA to 8.9% (dnaN. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated protein-encoding gene sequence data (ca. 6,513 nucleotides for each strain using Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches indicated that the T. denticola strains were monophyletic, and formed 6 well-defined clades. All analyzed T. denticola strains appeared to have a genetic origin distinct from that of ‘Treponema vincentii’ or Treponema pallidum. No specific geographical relationships could be established; but several strains isolated from different continents appear to be closely related at the genetic level. Conclusions Our analyses indicate that previous biological and biophysical investigations have predominantly focused on a subset of T. denticola strains with a relatively narrow range of genetic diversity. Our methodology and results establish a genetic framework for the discrimination and phylogenetic

  18. Identification of organic acids in Cichorium intybus inhibiting virulence-related properties of oral pathogenic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papetti, A.; Mascherpa, D.; Carazzone, C.; Stauder, M.; Spratt, D.A.; Wilson, M.; Pratten, J.; Ciric, L.; Lingström, P.; Zaura, E.; Weiss, E.; Ofek, I.; Signoretto, C.; Pruzzo, C.; Gazzani, G.

    2013-01-01

    The low molecular mass (LMM) extract of Cichorium intybus var. silvestre (red chicory) has been shown to inhibit virulence-linked properties of oral pathogens including Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii and Prevotella intermedia. In the present study HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS2 was used to

  19. Activation of the TREM-1 pathway in human monocytes by periodontal pathogens and oral commensal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanat, M; Haase, E M; Kay, J G; Scannapieco, F A

    2017-08-01

    Periodontitis is a highly prevalent disease caused in part by an aberrant host response to the oral multi-species biofilm. A balance between the oral bacteria and host immunity is essential for oral health. Imbalances in the oral microbiome lead to an uncontrolled host inflammatory response and subsequent periodontal disease (i.e. gingivitis and periodontitis). TREM-1 is a signaling receptor present on myeloid cells capable of acting synergistically with other pattern recognition receptors leading to amplification of inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the activation of the TREM-1 pathway in the human monocyte-like cell line THP-1 exposed to both oral pathogens and commensals. The relative expression of the genes encoding TREM-1 and its adapter protein DAP12 were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The surface expression of TREM-1 was determined by flow cytometry. Soluble TREM-1 and cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results demonstrate that both commensal and pathogenic oral bacteria activate the TREM-1 pathway, resulting in a proinflammatory TREM-1 activity-dependent increase in proinflammatory cytokine production. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola Mixed Microbial Infection in a Rat Model of Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj K. Verma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola are periodontal pathogens that express virulence factors associated with the pathogenesis of periodontitis. In this paper we tested the hypothesis that P. gingivalis and T. denticola are synergistic in terms of virulence; using a model of mixed microbial infection in rats. Groups of rats were orally infected with either P. gingivalis or T. denticola or mixed microbial infections for 7 and 12 weeks. P. gingivalis genomic DNA was detected more frequently by PCR than T. denticola. Both bacteria induced significantly high IgG, IgG2b, IgG1, IgG2a antibody levels indicating a stimulation of Th1 and Th2 immune response. Radiographic and morphometric measurements demonstrated that rats infected with the mixed infection exhibited significantly more alveolar bone loss than shaminfected control rats. Histology revealed apical migration of junctional epithelium, rete ridge elongation, and crestal alveolar bone resorption; resembling periodontal disease lesion. These results showed that P. gingivalis and T. denticola exhibit no synergistic virulence in a rat model of periodontal disease.

  1. The association between oral health status and respiratory pathogen colonization with pneumonia risk in institutionalized adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chl; Aung, M M; Kanagasabai, K; Lim, C A; Liang, S; Tan, K S

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the oral health and the prevalence of pre-existing oral colonization with respiratory pathogens in dependent elderly, and whether these factors influence pneumonia development. Participants residing in a long-term care facility received bedside oral examinations, and information on their oral health (caries status, calculus index and debris index) was obtained. Samples from the tongue and teeth were collected at baseline and at time of pneumonia development. Sputum was collected at the time of pneumonia diagnosis. Samples were assessed for Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae by polymerase chain reaction. This was a 1-year longitudinal study of 60 dependent elderly (mean age: 64.2 ± 14.1 years). Seventeen patients (28.3%) developed pneumonia. The mean Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth and Simplified Oral Hygiene Index were 22.8 ± 9.2 and 4.0 ± 1.0, respectively. At baseline, 48.3% were orally colonized with ≥1 respiratory pathogens. The presence of H. influenzae (P = .002) and P. aeruginosa (P = .049) in the sputum was significantly associated with their colonization on the tongue at baseline. In the bivariate analyses, pneumonia development was associated with naso-gastric feeding tube (P = .0001), H. influenzae (P = .015) and P. aeruginosa (P = .003) tongue colonization at baseline and calculus index (P = .002). Multivariate analyses revealed that calculus index (P = .09) and the presence of tracheostomy (P = .037) were associated with pneumonia. The calculus amount and tongue colonization with respiratory pathogens are risk factors for pneumonia development. Oral hygiene measures to remove tongue biofilm and calculus may reduce pneumonia development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. SERODYNAMICS OF TREPONEMA PALLIDUM IN SERUM OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    ABSTRACT. Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis has been a public health challenge for centuries. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV/AIDS are widespread in the developing countries, and constitute a major public health problem in Sub-. Saharan Africa. Information regarding the prevalence of ...

  3. Immune response in the lungs following oral immunization with bacterial lysates of respiratory pathogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruedl, C; Frühwirth, M; Wick, G; Wolf, H

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the local immune response of the BALB/c mouse respiratory tract after oral immunization with a bacterial lysate of seven common respiratory pathogens. After two immunization on five consecutive days, we examined the immunoglobulin (immunoglobulin G [IgG], IgM, and IgA) secretion rates of cells isolated from the lungs and compared them with those of spleen cells of orally immunized and nonimmunized animals by using a new test system based on time-resolved fluorescence. The...

  4. Porphyromonas gingivalis: Major Periodontopathic Pathogen Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysak, Jaroslav; Podzimek, Stepan; Sommerova, Pavla; Lyuya-Mi, Yelena; Bartova, Jirina; Janatova, Tatjana; Prochazkova, Jarmila; Duskova, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative oral anaerobe that is involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and is a member of more than 500 bacterial species that live in the oral cavity. This anaerobic bacterium is a natural member of the oral microbiome, yet it can become highly destructive (termed pathobiont) and proliferate to high cell numbers in periodontal lesions: this is attributed to its arsenal of specialized virulence factors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of one of the main periodontal pathogens—Porphyromonas gingivalis. This bacterium, along with Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia, constitute the “red complex,” a prototype polybacterial pathogenic consortium in periodontitis. This review outlines Porphyromonas gingivalis structure, its metabolism, its ability to colonize the epithelial cells, and its influence upon the host immunity. PMID:24741603

  5. Porphyromonas gingivalis: Major Periodontopathic Pathogen Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Mysak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative oral anaerobe that is involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and is a member of more than 500 bacterial species that live in the oral cavity. This anaerobic bacterium is a natural member of the oral microbiome, yet it can become highly destructive (termed pathobiont and proliferate to high cell numbers in periodontal lesions: this is attributed to its arsenal of specialized virulence factors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of one of the main periodontal pathogens—Porphyromonas gingivalis. This bacterium, along with Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia, constitute the “red complex,” a prototype polybacterial pathogenic consortium in periodontitis. This review outlines Porphyromonas gingivalis structure, its metabolism, its ability to colonize the epithelial cells, and its influence upon the host immunity.

  6. Characterization of Treponema spp. isolates from pigs with ear necrosis and shoulder ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svartström, Olov; Karlsson, Frida; Fellström, Claes; Pringle, Märit

    2013-10-25

    Ear necrosis and shoulder ulcers in pigs are animal welfare problems and ethical issues that can cause economic losses for producers. Spirochetes have been observed microscopically in scrapings from pig ulcers since the early 1900s, but have until recently not been cultured and therefore not characterized. In this study, 12 Treponema spp. isolates were acquired from porcine ear necrosis, shoulder ulcers and gingiva. DNA analysis of the 16S rRNA-tRNA(Ile) intergenic spacer region (ISR2) or the 16S rRNA gene revealed relatedness to oral treponemes found in dogs and humans. All isolates except one aligned into two clusters, Treponema pedis and Treponema sp. OMZ 840-like. The 16S rRNA gene of the remaining isolate shared 99% nucleotide identity with Treponema parvum. Genetic fingerprinting of the isolates was performed through random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). In addition, the isolates were characterized by biochemical tests, including api(®)ZYM, tryptophanase and hippuricase activity, and by testing the antimicrobial susceptibility to tiamulin, valnemulin, tylosin, tylvalosin, lincomycin and doxycycline using broth dilution. All isolates except two showed unique RAPD fingerprints, whereas metabolic activity tests could not differentiate between the isolates. The MICs of all antimicrobial agents tested were low. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Increased TLR4 expression in murine placentas after oral infection with periodontal pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, R.M.; Barros, S.P.; Wacker, B.; Peters, B.; Moss, K.; Offenbacher, S.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal periodontitis has emerged as a putative risk factor for preterm births in humans. The periodontitis-associated dental biofilm is thought to serve as an important source of oral bacteria and related virulence factors that hematogenously disseminate and affect the fetoplacental unit; however the underlying biological mechanisms are yet to be fully elucidated. This study hypothesized that an oral infection with the human periodontal pathogens Campylobacter rectus and Porphyromonas gingivalis is able to induce fetal growth restriction, placental inflammation and enhance Toll-like receptors type 4 (TLR4) expression in a murine pregnancy model. Female Balb/C mice (n=40) were orally infected with C. rectus and/or P. gingivalis over a 16-week period and mated once per week. Pregnant mice were sacrificed at embryonic day (E) 16.5 and placentas were collected and analyzed for TLR4 mRNA levels and qualitative protein expression by real time PCR and immunofluorescence. TLR4 mRNA expression was found to be increased in C. rectus-infected group (1.98±0.886 fold difference, Pperiodontal pathogens. The TLR4 pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of preterm births; therefore the abnormal regulation of placental TLR4 may give new insights into how maternal periodontitis and periodontal pathogens might be linked to placental inflammation and preterm birth pathogenesis. PMID:19101032

  8. Identification of organic acids in Cichorium intybus inhibiting virulence-related properties of oral pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papetti, Adele; Mascherpa, Dora; Carazzone, Chiara; Stauder, Monica; Spratt, David A; Wilson, Michael; Pratten, Jonathan; Ciric, Lena; Lingström, Peter; Zaura, Egija; Weiss, Ervin; Ofek, Itzak; Signoretto, Caterina; Pruzzo, Carla; Gazzani, Gabriella

    2013-06-01

    The low molecular mass (LMM) extract of Cichorium intybus var. silvestre (red chicory) has been shown to inhibit virulence-linked properties of oral pathogens including Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii and Prevotella intermedia. In the present study HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(2) was used to investigate the compounds contained in this extract for their anti-virulence activity. The extract contained a number of components, including oxalic, succinic, shikimic and quinic acids, which interfere with the growth and virulence traits (i.e., biofilm formation, adherence to epithelial cells and hydroxyapatite) of oral pathogens involved in gingivitis and tooth decay. Succinic and quinic acid seem to be the most potent, mainly by interfering with the ability of oral pathogens to form biofilms (either through inhibition of their development or promotion of their disruption). Our findings suggest that one or more of these compounds may modulate plaque formation in vivo, which is a prerequisite for the development of both caries and gingivitis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius fruits against oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Fábio C; Pereira, Maria do Socorro V; Dias, Celidarque S; Costa, Vicente Carlos O; Conde, Nikeila C O; Buzalaf, Marília A R

    2009-07-15

    In the Amazon region of Brazil, the fruits of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius (Brazilian ironwood) are widely used as an antimicrobial and healing medicine in many situations including oral infections. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius fruit extract against oral pathogens. Polyphenols estimation and spectral analysis ((1)H NMR) of the methanol extract were carried out. The microorganisms Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus oralis and Lactobacillus casei were tested using the microdilution method for planktonic cells (MIC) and a multispecies biofilm model. Chlorhexidine was used as positive control. Polyphenols in the extract were estimated at 7.3% and (1)H NMR analysis revealed hydroxy phenols and methoxilated compounds. MIC values for Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus oralis and Lactobacillus casei were 25.0, 40.0, 66.0, 100.0, 66.0 microg/mL, respectively. For the biofilm assay, chlorhexidine and plant extract showed no growth at 10(-4) and 10(-5) microbial dilution, respectively. At 10(-4) and 10(-5) the growth values (mean+/-SD) of the negative controls (DMSO and saline solution) for Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sp. and Candida albicans were 8.1+/-0.7, 7.0+/-0.6 and 5.9+/-0.9 x 10(6)CFU, respectively. Caesalpinia ferrea fruit extract can inhibit in vitro growth of oral pathogens in planktonic and biofilm models supporting its use for oral infections.

  10. Prevalence of treponema species detected in endodontic infections: systematic review and meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Fábio R M; Nascimento, Gustavo G; Demarco, Flávio F; Gomes, Brenda P F A; Pucci, Cesar R; Martinho, Frederico C

    2015-05-01

    This systematic review and meta-regression analysis aimed to calculate a combined prevalence estimate and evaluate the prevalence of different Treponema species in primary and secondary endodontic infections, including symptomatic and asymptomatic cases. The MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Scielo, Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases were searched without starting date restriction up to and including March 2014. Only reports in English were included. The selected literature was reviewed by 2 authors and classified as suitable or not to be included in this review. Lists were compared, and, in case of disagreements, decisions were made after a discussion based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. A pooled prevalence of Treponema species in endodontic infections was estimated. Additionally, a meta-regression analysis was performed. Among the 265 articles identified in the initial search, only 51 were included in the final analysis. The studies were classified into 2 different groups according to the type of endodontic infection and whether it was an exclusively primary/secondary study (n = 36) or a primary/secondary comparison (n = 15). The pooled prevalence of Treponema species was 41.5% (95% confidence interval, 35.9-47.0). In the multivariate model of meta-regression analysis, primary endodontic infections (P apical abscess, symptomatic apical periodontitis (P < .001), and concomitant presence of 2 or more species (P = .028) explained the heterogeneity regarding the prevalence rates of Treponema species. Our findings suggest that Treponema species are important pathogens involved in endodontic infections, particularly in cases of primary and acute infections. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Association of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin d concentrations and pathogenic oral bacteria in postmenopausal females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Michelle W; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Ram, Pavani K; LaMonte, Michael J; Hovey, Kathleen M; Genco, Robert J; Andrews, Christopher A; Millen, Amy E

    2014-07-01

    Previous findings of an association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations and periodontal disease may be partially explained by the antimicrobial properties of vitamin D. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no study has investigated the association between 25(OH)D and pathogenic oral bacteria, a putative cause of periodontal disease. The association between plasma 25(OH)D concentrations and pathogenic oral bacteria was examined among postmenopausal females in the Buffalo Osteoporosis and Periodontal Disease Study (1997 to 2000), an ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Subgingival plaque samples were assessed using immunofluorescence for the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, and Campylobacter rectus. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for prevalent bacteria by quintile (Q) of 25(OH)D concentrations, adjusting for age and body mass index. Of the 855 participants, 288 (34%) had deficient/inadequate (bacteria. No significant association was found between 25(OH)D and presence of any of these bacteria (adjusted OR for high [Q5] compared to low [Q1] 25(OH)D = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.61 to 1.50; P for trend = 0.50). Inverse, although not statistically significant, associations were found between 25(OH)D and more than one species of pathogenic bacteria (adjusted OR for adequate compared to deficient/inadequate 25(OH)D = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.60 to 1.19). No association was observed between pathogenic oral bacteria and 25(OH)D concentrations in postmenopausal females. This may be attributable to the species of bacteria assessed, small effect size, or a true absence of an association.

  12. B cells promote obesity-associated periodontitis and oral pathogen-associated inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Belkina, Anna C; DeFuria, Jason; Carr, Jordan D; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Gyurko, Robert; Nikolajczyk, Barbara S

    2014-08-01

    Individuals with T2D and PD suffer significantly from the ability of one disease to intensify the other. Disease-associated inflammation is one mechanism thought to fuel this pathogenic feed-forward loop. Several lines of evidence indicate that proinflammatory B cells promote T2D and PD; thus, B cells are top candidates for a cell type that predisposes PD in T2D. To test directly the role of B cells in T2D-associated PD, we compared outcomes from oral Porphyromonas gingivalis challenge of lean WT or B cell-null mice with outcomes from mice that were obese and insulin-resistant before challenge. Obese WT mice responded to oral P. gingivalis challenge with significant periodontal bone loss, whereas obese B cell-null mice were protected completely from PD. By contrast, lean WT and B cell-null mice suffer similar periodontal bone loss in response to oral pathogen. B cells from obese/insulin-resistant hosts also support oral osteoclastogenesis and both oral and systemic production of inflammatory cytokines, including pro-osteoclastogenic TNF-α and MIP-2, an ortholog of human IL-8. B cells furthermore impact AT inflammation in obese, P. gingivalis-infected hosts. Taken together, these data show that fundamentally different mechanisms regulate PD in lean and obese hosts, with B cells able to promote PD only if the hosts are "primed" by obesity. These results justify more intense analysis of obesity-associated changes in B cells that predispose PD in human T2D. © 2014 Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  13. Treponema putidum sp. nov., a medium-sized proteolytic spirochaete isolated from lesions of human periodontitis and acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, C; Moter, A; Choi, B-K; Dewhirst, F E; Xue, Yi; Schüpbach, P; Göbel, U B; Paster, B J; Guggenheim, B

    2004-07-01

    So far, little phenotypic heterogeneity has been detected in cultured oral treponemes with trypsin-like proteolytic activity, and all have been assigned to the species Treponema denticola. However, comparisons of protein patterns and antigen expression in our collection of proteolytic oral treponemes occasionally identified isolates with a unique phenotype; e.g. strain OMZ 830 (=ATCC 700768), which qualified as a 'pathogen-related oral spirochaete' due to the presence of a approximately 37 kDa protein reactive with the Treponema pallidum FlaA-specific mAb H9-2. In addition to such single isolates, a homogeneous group of seven independent strains is described that were highly motile, medium-sized, proteolytic but asaccharolytic spirochaetes and were cultured from human gingivitis, periodontitis and acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis in medium OMIZ-Pat supplemented with 1% human serum and antibiotics. Growth of these spirochaetes in OMIZ-Pat was not dependent on, but was stimulated by, human or bovine serum. Carbohydrates were neither required nor stimulatory for growth. The protein and antigen patterns of total cell extracts of these organisms separated by SDS-PAGE were distinct from those of all previously cultured spirochaetes, with highest similarity to T. denticola. The novel spirochaete has a 2 : 4 : 2 arrangement of the periplasmic flagella, similar to T. denticola. However, the flagellin pattern as detected by immunostaining or glycan staining of Western blots readily distinguished the novel group from T. denticola. Also, distinct from reference strains of T. denticola, none of the novel isolates displayed sialidase or dentilisin activities, both of which are expressed by most strains of T. denticola. Trypsin-like activity and other enzymes as detected by API ZYM test were similar to those of T. denticola. The status of a novel species is supported by the 16S rRNA gene sequence, with 98.5% similarity to its closest cultured relative, T. denticola. The

  14. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Lippia sidoides, carvacrol and thymol against oral pathogens

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    M.A. Botelho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries and periodontal disease are associated with oral pathogens. Several plant derivatives have been evaluated with respect to their antimicrobial effects against such pathogenic microorganisms. Lippia sidoides Cham (Verbenaceae, popularly known as "Alecrim-pimenta" is a typical shrub commonly found in the Northeast of Brazil. Many plant species belonging to the genus Lippia yield very fragrant essential oils of potential economic value which are used by the industry for the commercial production of perfumes, creams, lotions, and deodorants. Since the leaves of L. sidoides are also extensively used in popular medicine for the treatment of skin wounds and cuts, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the composition and antimicrobial activity of L. sidoides essential oil. The essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Twelve compounds were characterized, having as major constituents thymol (56.7% and carvacrol (16.7%. The antimicrobial activity of the oil and the major components was tested against cariogenic bacterial species of the genus Streptococcus as well as Candida albicans using the broth dilution and disk diffusion assays. The essential oil and its major components thymol and carvacrol exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against the organisms tested with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.625 to 10.0 mg/mL. The most sensitive microorganisms were C. albicans and Streptococcus mutans. The essential oil of L. sidoides and its major components exert promising antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens and suggest its likely usefulness to combat oral microbial growth.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Lippia sidoides, carvacrol and thymol against oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, M A; Nogueira, N A P; Bastos, G M; Fonseca, S G C; Lemos, T L G; Matos, F J A; Montenegro, D; Heukelbach, J; Rao, V S; Brito, G A C

    2007-03-01

    Dental caries and periodontal disease are associated with oral pathogens. Several plant derivatives have been evaluated with respect to their antimicrobial effects against such pathogenic microorganisms. Lippia sidoides Cham (Verbenaceae), popularly known as "Alecrim-pimenta" is a typical shrub commonly found in the Northeast of Brazil. Many plant species belonging to the genus Lippia yield very fragrant essential oils of potential economic value which are used by the industry for the commercial production of perfumes, creams, lotions, and deodorants. Since the leaves of L. sidoides are also extensively used in popular medicine for the treatment of skin wounds and cuts, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the composition and antimicrobial activity of L. sidoides essential oil. The essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Twelve compounds were characterized, having as major constituents thymol (56.7%) and carvacrol (16.7%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil and the major components was tested against cariogenic bacterial species of the genus Streptococcus as well as Candida albicans using the broth dilution and disk diffusion assays. The essential oil and its major components thymol and carvacrol exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against the organisms tested with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.625 to 10.0 mg/mL. The most sensitive microorganisms were C. albicans and Streptococcus mutans. The essential oil of L. sidoides and its major components exert promising antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens and suggest its likely usefulness to combat oral microbial growth.

  16. Genetic diversity in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis: molecular mechanisms and biological consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, Gena D; Kerr, Jennifer E; Wang, Bing-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that colonizes the human oral cavity. It is implicated in the development of periodontitis, a chronic periodontal disease affecting half of the adult population in the USA. To survive in the oral cavity, these bacteria must colonize dental plaque biofilms in competition with other bacterial species. Long-term survival requires P. gingivalis to evade host immune responses, while simultaneously adapting to the changing physiology of the host and to alterations in the plaque biofilm. In reflection of this highly variable niche, P. gingivalis is a genetically diverse species and in this review the authors summarize genetic diversity as it relates to pathogenicity in P. gingivalis. Recent studies revealing a variety of mechanisms by which adaptive changes in genetic content can occur are also reviewed. Understanding the genetic plasticity of P. gingivalis will provide a better framework for understanding the host–microbe interactions associated with periodontal disease. PMID:23642116

  17. Pathogenic Dermatophytes Survive in Nail Lesions During Oral Terbinafine Treatment for Tinea Unguium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Tomoyuki; Ushigami, Tsuyoshi; Anzawa, Kazushi; Mochizuki, Takashi

    2017-08-01

    Tinea unguium caused by dermatophyte species are usually treated with oral antimycotic, terbinafine (TBF). To understand the mechanisms of improvement and recalcitrance of tinea unguium by oral TBF treatment, a method of quantifying dermatophyte viability in the nail was developed, and the viability of dermatophytes was analyzed in toenail lesions of 14 patients with KOH-positive tinea unguium treated with oral TBF 125 mg/day for up to 16 weeks. Mycological tests, including KOH examination and fungal culture, and targeted quantitative real-time PCR for internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, including rRNA, were demonstrated at the initial visit and after 8 and 16 weeks of treatment. Assays in eight patients showed that average ITS DNA amount significantly decreased, to 44% at 8 weeks and 36% at 16 weeks compared with 100% at initial visit. No significant difference was observed between at 8 and 16 weeks, despite the TBF concentration in the nail supposedly more than 10-fold higher than the minimum fungicidal concentration for dermatophytes. This finding suggests the pathogenic dermatophytes in nail lesions could survive in a dormant form, such as arthroconidia, during oral TBF treatment. Both antimycotic activity and nail growth are important factors in treatment of tinea unguium.

  18. Enhanced antimicrobial activities of silver-nanoparticle-decorated reduced graphene nanocomposites against oral pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Jian-min; Lin, Jia-cheng; Chen, Zhuo-yu; Wei, Meng-chao [Guanghua School of Stomatology, Hospital of Stomatology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Fu, Yuan-xiang; Lu, Shu-shen [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Yu, Dong-sheng, E-mail: yudsh@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Guanghua School of Stomatology, Hospital of Stomatology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Zhao, Wei, E-mail: zhaowei3@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Guanghua School of Stomatology, Hospital of Stomatology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China)

    2017-02-01

    As a means of capitalizing on the synergistic properties between reduced graphene nanosheets (R-GNs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), an efficient and convenient chemical reduction method was used to prepare silver-nanoparticle-decorated reduced graphene nanocomposites (R-GNs/Ag). The products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy, which confirmed the loading of well-dispersed silver nanoparticles on reduced graphene sheets. Their antimicrobial activities against oral pathogens such as Candida albicans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus mutans, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were investigated by MIC determination, the counting of colony-forming units (CFU), agar diffusion tests, and growth curve observation. Compared with pure R-GNs and AgNPs, R-GNs/Ag composites exhibited enhanced antimicrobial properties owing to highly dispersed AgNPs on R-GNs. - Highlights: • This study synthesized R-GNs/Ag composites by a chemical reduction method. • AgNPs were successfully dispersed on reduced graphene nanosheets. • R-GNs/Ag composites showed enhanced antimicrobial activities against oral pathogens compared with plain AgNPs or R-GNs.

  19. Enhanced antimicrobial activities of silver-nanoparticle-decorated reduced graphene nanocomposites against oral pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Jian-min; Lin, Jia-cheng; Chen, Zhuo-yu; Wei, Meng-chao; Fu, Yuan-xiang; Lu, Shu-shen; Yu, Dong-sheng; Zhao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    As a means of capitalizing on the synergistic properties between reduced graphene nanosheets (R-GNs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), an efficient and convenient chemical reduction method was used to prepare silver-nanoparticle-decorated reduced graphene nanocomposites (R-GNs/Ag). The products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy, which confirmed the loading of well-dispersed silver nanoparticles on reduced graphene sheets. Their antimicrobial activities against oral pathogens such as Candida albicans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus mutans, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were investigated by MIC determination, the counting of colony-forming units (CFU), agar diffusion tests, and growth curve observation. Compared with pure R-GNs and AgNPs, R-GNs/Ag composites exhibited enhanced antimicrobial properties owing to highly dispersed AgNPs on R-GNs. - Highlights: • This study synthesized R-GNs/Ag composites by a chemical reduction method. • AgNPs were successfully dispersed on reduced graphene nanosheets. • R-GNs/Ag composites showed enhanced antimicrobial activities against oral pathogens compared with plain AgNPs or R-GNs.

  20. Antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens DD2 against oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Dana; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Song, Kwang-Young; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2018-01-01

    Background : Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are major causative bacterial pathogens of dental caries. Objective : We investigated the applicability of three Lactobacillus strains ( L. kefiranofaciens DD2, DD5, and DD6) isolated from kefir and three commercial Lactobacillus strains ( L. plantarum ATCC 10,012, L. johnsonii JCM 1022, and L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469) as potential oral probiotics with respect to their survivability in an experimental oral environment, antimicrobial activity, and anti-biofilm formation activity against S. mutans and S. sobrinus . Results : Strains DD2, ATCC 10012, ATCC 7469, and JCM 1022 had the best oral survivability, including aerotolerance and enzymatic resistance, and inhibited the growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans and S. sobrinus . In particular, DD2 suppressed all three classes of biofilm formation-associated genes: those associated with carbohydrate metabolism and those encoding regulatory biofilm and adhesion proteins. Conclusions : These results indicate that the novel kefir isolate L. kefiranofaciens DD2 effectively and directly inhibits S. mutans and S. sobrinus .

  1. Lipoteichoic Acid (LTA) and Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Periodontal Pathogenic Bacteria Facilitate Oncogenic Herpesvirus Infection within Primary Oral Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lu; DeFee, Michael R.; Cao, Yueyu; Wen, Jiling; Wen, Xiaofei; Noverr, Mairi C.; Qin, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) remains the most common tumor arising in patients with HIV/AIDS, and involvement of the oral cavity represents one of the most common clinical manifestations of this tumor. HIV infection incurs an increased risk for periodontal diseases and oral carriage of a variety of bacteria. Whether interactions involving pathogenic bacteria and oncogenic viruses in the local environment facilitate replication or maintenance of these viruses in the oral cavity remains unknown. In the current study, our data indicate that pretreatment of primary human oral fibroblasts with two prototypical pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) produced by oral pathogenic bacteria–lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), increase KSHV entry and subsequent viral latent gene expression during de novo infection. Further experiments demonstrate that the underlying mechanisms induced by LTA and/or LPS include upregulation of cellular receptor, increasing production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and activating intracellular signaling pathways such as MAPK and NF-κB, and all of which are closely associated with KSHV entry or gene expression within oral cells. Based on these findings, we hope to provide the framework of developing novel targeted approaches for treatment and prevention of oral KSHV infection and KS development in high-risk HIV-positive patients. PMID:24971655

  2. Antibody and T cell responses to Fusobacterium nucleatum and Treponema denticola in health and chronic periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieun Shin

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the T cell response to the members of oral flora are poorly understood. We characterized the antibody and T cell responses to FadA and Td92, adhesins from Fusobacterium nucleatum, an oral commensal, and Treponema denticola, a periodontal pathogen, respectively. Peripheral blood and saliva were obtained from healthy individuals and patients with untreated chronic periodontitis (CP, n = 11 paris and after successful treatment of the disease (n = 9. The levels of antigen-specific antibody were measured by ELISA. In plasma, IgG1 was the most abundant isotype of Ab for both Ags, followed by IgA and then IgG4. The levels of FadA-specific salivary IgA (sIgA were higher than Td92-specific sIgA and the FadA-specific IgA levels observed in plasma. However, the periodontal health status of the individuals did not affect the levels of FadA- or Td92-specific antibody. Even healthy individuals contained FadA- and Td92-specific CD4(+ T cells, as determined by the detection of intracytoplasmic CD154 after short-term in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs with the antigens. Patients with CP tended to possess increased numbers of FadA- and Td92-specific CD4(+ T cells but reduced numbers of Td92-specific Foxp3(+CD4(+ Tregs than the healthy subjects. Both FadA and Td92 induced the production of IFNγ and IL-10 but inhibited the secretion of IL-4 by PBMCs. In conclusion, F. nucleatum induced Th3 (sIgA- and Th1 (IFNγ and IgG1-dominant immune responses, whereas T. denticola induced a Th1 (IFNγ and IgG1-dominant response. This IFNγ-dominant cytokine response was impaired in CP patients, and the Td92-induced IFNγ levels were negatively associated with periodontal destruction in patients. These findings may provide new insights into the homeostatic interaction between the immune system and oral bacteria and the pathogenesis of periodontitis.

  3. Pharmacodynamic evaluation of commonly prescribed oral antibiotics against respiratory bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pignatari Antonio CC

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper and lower respiratory tract infections (RTIs account for a substantial portion of outpatient antibiotic utilization. However, the pharmacodynamic activity of commonly used oral antibiotic regimens has not been studied against clinically relevant pathogens. The objective of this study was to assess the probability of achieving the requisite pharmacodynamic exposure for oral antibacterial regimens commonly prescribed for RTIs in adults against bacterial isolates frequently involved in these processes (S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catharralis. Methods Using a 5000-subject Monte Carlo simulation, the cumulative fractions of response (CFR, (i.e., probabilities of achieving requisite pharmacodynamic targets for the most commonly prescribed oral antibiotic regimens, as determined by a structured survey of medical prescription patterns, were assessed against local respiratory bacterial isolates from adults in São Paulo collected during the same time period. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of 230 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (103, Haemophilus influenzae (98, and Moraxella catharralis (29 from a previous local surveillance were used. Results The most commonly prescribed antibiotic regimens were azithromycin 500 mg QD, amoxicillin 500 mg TID, and levofloxacin 500 mg QD, accounting for 58% of the prescriptions. Varied doses of these agents, plus gatifloxacin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, moxifloxacin, and cefaclor made up the remaining regimens. Utilizing aggressive pharmacodynamic exposure targets, the only regimens to achieve greater than 90% CFR against all three pathogens were amoxicillin/amoxicillin-clavulanate 500 mg TID (> 91%, gatifloxacin 400 mg QD (100%, and moxifloxacin 400 mg QD (100%. Considering S. pneumoniae isolates alone, azithromycin 1000 mg QD also achieved greater than 90% CFR (91.3%. Conclusions The only regimens to achieve high CFR against all three pathogen populations in both scenarios

  4. Preclinical and clinical studies of photodynamic action on some pathogenic micro-organisms of the oral cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, Ilya S.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Ivanov, Krill I.; Titorenko, Vladimir A.

    2001-10-01

    The work is devoted to an analysis of pre-clinical and clinical experiments on photodynamic action of HeNe laser radiation in aggregate with a cation thiazinium dye Methylene Blue (MB) on a mix of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic aerobic bacteria being activators of pyoinflammatory diseases of oral cavity. Concentration of photosensitizes at which there is no own bactericidal influence on dying microflora, and parameters of influence at which the efficiency of irradiated microflora defeat reaches 99% are determined.

  5. Enhanced antimicrobial activities of silver-nanoparticle-decorated reduced graphene nanocomposites against oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian-Min; Lin, Jia-Cheng; Chen, Zhuo-Yu; Wei, Meng-Chao; Fu, Yuan-Xiang; Lu, Shu-Shen; Yu, Dong-Sheng; Zhao, Wei

    2017-02-01

    As a means of capitalizing on the synergistic properties between reduced graphene nanosheets (R-GNs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), an efficient and convenient chemical reduction method was used to prepare silver-nanoparticle-decorated reduced graphene nanocomposites (R-GNs/Ag). The products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy, which confirmed the loading of well-dispersed silver nanoparticles on reduced graphene sheets. Their antimicrobial activities against oral pathogens such as Candida albicans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus mutans, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were investigated by MIC determination, the counting of colony-forming units (CFU), agar diffusion tests, and growth curve observation. Compared with pure R-GNs and AgNPs, R-GNs/Ag composites exhibited enhanced antimicrobial properties owing to highly dispersed AgNPs on R-GNs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Treponema paraluiscuniculi, Strain Cuniculi A: The Loss of Infectivity to Humans Is Associated with Genome Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmajs, David; Zobaníková, Marie; Strouhal, Michal; Čejková, Darina; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon; Pospíšilová, Petra; Norris, Steven J.; Albert, Tom; Qin, Xiang; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kym; Buhay, Christian; Muzny, Donna M.; Chen, Lei; Gibbs, Richard A.; Weinstock, George M.

    2011-01-01

    Treponema paraluiscuniculi is the causative agent of rabbit venereal spirochetosis. It is not infectious to humans, although its genome structure is very closely related to other pathogenic Treponema species including Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, the etiological agent of syphilis. In this study, the genome sequence of Treponema paraluiscuniculi, strain Cuniculi A, was determined by a combination of several high-throughput sequencing strategies. Whereas the overall size (1,133,390 bp), arrangement, and gene content of the Cuniculi A genome closely resembled those of the T. pallidum genome, the T. paraluiscuniculi genome contained a markedly higher number of pseudogenes and gene fragments (51). In addition to pseudogenes, 33 divergent genes were also found in the T. paraluiscuniculi genome. A set of 32 (out of 84) affected genes encoded proteins of known or predicted function in the Nichols genome. These proteins included virulence factors, gene regulators and components of DNA repair and recombination. The majority (52 or 61.9%) of the Cuniculi A pseudogenes and divergent genes were of unknown function. Our results indicate that T. paraluiscuniculi has evolved from a T. pallidum-like ancestor and adapted to a specialized host-associated niche (rabbits) during loss of infectivity to humans. The genes that are inactivated or altered in T. paraluiscuniculi are candidates for virulence factors important in the infectivity and pathogenesis of T. pallidum subspecies. PMID:21655244

  7. Complete genome sequence of Treponema paraluiscuniculi, strain Cuniculi A: the loss of infectivity to humans is associated with genome decay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Šmajs

    Full Text Available Treponema paraluiscuniculi is the causative agent of rabbit venereal spirochetosis. It is not infectious to humans, although its genome structure is very closely related to other pathogenic Treponema species including Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, the etiological agent of syphilis. In this study, the genome sequence of Treponema paraluiscuniculi, strain Cuniculi A, was determined by a combination of several high-throughput sequencing strategies. Whereas the overall size (1,133,390 bp, arrangement, and gene content of the Cuniculi A genome closely resembled those of the T. pallidum genome, the T. paraluiscuniculi genome contained a markedly higher number of pseudogenes and gene fragments (51. In addition to pseudogenes, 33 divergent genes were also found in the T. paraluiscuniculi genome. A set of 32 (out of 84 affected genes encoded proteins of known or predicted function in the Nichols genome. These proteins included virulence factors, gene regulators and components of DNA repair and recombination. The majority (52 or 61.9% of the Cuniculi A pseudogenes and divergent genes were of unknown function. Our results indicate that T. paraluiscuniculi has evolved from a T. pallidum-like ancestor and adapted to a specialized host-associated niche (rabbits during loss of infectivity to humans. The genes that are inactivated or altered in T. paraluiscuniculi are candidates for virulence factors important in the infectivity and pathogenesis of T. pallidum subspecies.

  8. Immune response in the lungs following oral immunization with bacterial lysates of respiratory pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedl, C; Frühwirth, M; Wick, G; Wolf, H

    1994-03-01

    We have investigated the local immune response of the BALB/c mouse respiratory tract after oral immunization with a bacterial lysate of seven common respiratory pathogens. After two immunization on five consecutive days, we examined the immunoglobulin (immunoglobulin G [IgG], IgM, and IgA) secretion rates of cells isolated from the lungs and compared them with those of spleen cells of orally immunized and nonimmunized animals by using a new test system based on time-resolved fluorescence. The procedure followed the principle of the classical ELISPOT test with nitrocellulose-bottomed microtiter plates, but europium (Eu3+)-linked streptavidin rather than enzyme-conjugated streptavidin was used, with the advantage of quantifying secreted immunoglobulins instead of detecting single antibody-secreting cells. Lymphocytes isolated from the lungs of treated animals revealed significant increases in total and antigen-specific IgA synthesis compared with the rates of the controls, whereas IgG and IgM production rates showed no remarkable differences. In addition, the sera of treated mice revealed higher antigen-specific IgA titers but not increased IgM and IgG levels. We conclude that priming the gut-associated lymphoid tissue with bacterial antigens of pneumotropic microorganisms can elicit an enhanced IgA response in a distant mucosal effector site, such as the respiratory tract, according to the concept of a common mucosa-associated immune system.

  9. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Ocheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents.

  10. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Softrata, Abier; Azeem, Muhammad; Pütsep, Katrin; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents. PMID:26170872

  11. Pathogenic Events in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Oral Poliovirus Infection Leading to Paralytic Poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ling; Chen, Crystal Y; Huang, Dan; Wang, Richard; Zhang, Meihong; Qian, Lixia; Zhu, Yanfen; Zhang, Alvin Zhuoran; Yang, Enzhuo; Qaqish, Arwa; Chumakov, Konstantin; Kouiavskaia, Diana; Vignuzzi, Marco; Nathanson, Neal; Macadam, Andrew J; Andino, Raul; Kew, Olen; Xu, Junfa; Chen, Zheng W

    2017-07-15

    Despite a great deal of prior research, the early pathogenic events in natural oral poliovirus infection remain poorly defined. To establish a model for study, we infected 39 macaques by feeding them single high doses of the virulent Mahoney strain of wild type 1 poliovirus. Doses ranging from 10 7 to 10 9 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID 50 ) consistently infected all the animals, and many monkeys receiving 10 8 or 10 9 TCID 50 developed paralysis. There was no apparent difference in the susceptibilities of the three macaque species (rhesus, cynomolgus, and bonnet) used. Virus excretion in stool and nasopharynges was consistently observed, with occasional viremia, and virus was isolated from tonsils, gut mucosa, and draining lymph nodes. Viral replication proteins were detected in both epithelial and lymphoid cell populations expressing CD155 in the tonsil and intestine, as well as in spinal cord neurons. Necrosis was observed in these three cell types, and viral replication in the tonsil/gut was associated with histopathologic destruction and inflammation. The sustained response of neutralizing antibody correlated temporally with resolution of viremia and termination of virus shedding in oropharynges and feces. For the first time, this model demonstrates that early in the infectious process, poliovirus replication occurs in both epithelial cells (explaining virus shedding in the gastrointestinal tract) and lymphoid/monocytic cells in tonsils and Peyer's patches (explaining viremia), extending previous studies of poliovirus pathogenesis in humans. Because the model recapitulates human poliovirus infection and poliomyelitis, it can be used to study polio pathogenesis and to assess the efficacy of candidate antiviral drugs and new vaccines. IMPORTANCE Early pathogenic events of poliovirus infection remain largely undefined, and there is a lack of animal models mimicking natural oral human infection leading to paralytic poliomyelitis. All 39 macaques fed with

  12. Polymers for binding of the gram-positive oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magennis, Eugene P.; Francini, Nora; Mastrotto, Francesca; Catania, Rosa; Redhead, Martin; Fernandez-Trillo, Francisco; Bradshaw, David; Churchley, David; Winzer, Klaus; Alexander, Cameron

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the most significant pathogenic bacterium implicated in the formation of dental caries and, both directly and indirectly, has been associated with severe conditions such as multiple sclerosis, cerebrovascular and peripheral artery disease. Polymers able to selectively bind S. mutans and/or inhibit its adhesion to oral tissue in a non-lethal manner would offer possibilities for addressing pathogenicity without selecting for populations resistant against bactericidal agents. In the present work two libraries of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (pDMAEMA)-based polymers were synthesized with various proportions of either N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium cationic- or sulfobetaine zwitterionic groups. These copolymers where initially tested as potential macromolecular ligands for S. mutans NCTC 10449, whilst Escherichia coli MG1655 was used as Gram-negative control bacteria. pDMAEMA-derived materials with high proportions of zwitterionic repeating units were found to be selective for S. mutans, in both isolated and S. mutans–E. coli mixed bacterial cultures. Fully sulfobetainized pDMAEMA was subsequently found to bind/cluster preferentially Gram-positive S. mutans and S. aureus compared to Gram negative E. coli and V. harveyi. A key initial stage of S. mutans pathogenesis involves a lectin-mediated adhesion to the tooth surface, thus the range of potential macromolecular ligands was further expanded by investigating two glycopolymers bearing α-mannopyranoside and β-galactopyranoside pendant units. Results with these polymers indicated that preferential binding to either S. mutans or E. coli can be obtained by modulating the glycosylation pattern of the chosen multivalent ligands without incurring unacceptable cytotoxicity in a model gastrointestinal cell line. Overall, our results allowed to identify a structure–property relationship for the potential antimicrobial polymers investigated, and suggest that preferential binding to Gram-positive S

  13. Study of some invasiveness markers as pathogenic factors in oral pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu, Roxana Maria; Mărgăritescu, Claudiu; CrăiŢoiu, Monica Mihaela; Florescu, Alma Maria; Croitoru, Ileana Cristiana; Bobic, Adelina Gabriela; Pătru, Ciprian LaurenŢiu; Mălăescu, Gheorghe Dan; CrăiŢoiu, Ştefania

    2016-01-01

    Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia is a benign reactivated epithelial lesion secondary to another pathology, whose incidence is difficult to establish. There still exist controversies regarding the origin and pathogenesis of these lesions. For this purpose, we performed an immuno-histochemical study upon 20 cases of oral pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia associated with inflammatory and neoplastic conditions, investigating a series of markers with a possible pathogenic potential in developing this type of lesions. Thus, the immunoreactivity study for β-catenin showed the presence of a membrane reactivity in all the stratum spinosum and a predominantly cytoplasmatic reactivity, more rarely a nuclear one, in the cells of the basal stratum cells, especially in the epithelial apices that descend deeply in the chorion. Instead, in the case of vimentin, the reactivity was present only in the epithelial apices, especially in the peripheral cells, in comparison to the central ones, and especially in the cases where the epithelial apices descended deeply in the sublesional chorion. Moreover, we observed that the MMP9 reactivity in pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia lesions was present in the cells at the epithelium-chorion interface and especially in the epithelial apices that descend deeply into the chorion, and also in the epithelial chorion and networks. The study for CXCR4 immuno-reactivity showed a good reactivity in almost all layers of this hyperplastic lesion, with a maximum reactivity especially inside the epithelial apices that descend deeply in the sublesional chorion. Such an immunoprofile suggests the ability of the oral epithelial cells to undergo an epithelial mesenchymal transition process, thus acquiring mesenchymal characteristics through which it deeply migrates in the subadjacent chorion and contributes to the formation of epithelial apices in pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia. Moreover, the invasive ability of these lesions is also given by the average

  14. Code blue: Acinetobacter baumannii, a nosocomial pathogen with a role in the oral cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, A.M.; Kwaik, Y. Abu; Lamont, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Actinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen that can cause a wide range of serious conditions including pneumonia, meningitis, necrotizing fasciitis and sepsis. It is also a major cause of wound infections in military personnel injured during the conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq, leading to its popular nickname of ‘Iraqibacter’. Contributing to its success in clinical settings is resistance to environmental stresses such as desiccation and disinfectants. Moreover, in recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the number of A. baumannii strains with resistance to multiple antibiotic classes. Acinetobacter baumannii is an inhabitant of oral biofilms, which can act as a reservoir for pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Subgingival colonization by A. baumannii increases the risk of refractory periodontitis. Pathogenesis of the organism involves adherence, biofilm formation and iron acquisition. In addition, A. baumannii can induce apoptotic cell death in epithelial cells and kill hyphal forms of Candida albicans. Virulence factors that have been identified include pili, the outer membrane protein OmpA, phospholipases and extracellular polysaccharide. Acinetobacter baumannii can sense blue light through a blue-light sensing using flavin (BLUF) domain protein, BlsA. The resulting conformational change in BlsA leads to changes in gene expression, including virulence genes. PMID:25052812

  15. Seroprevalence of Treponema Pallidum in Donor Blood at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the Seroprevalence of Treponema pallidum in Donor blood at University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin City. Materials and Method: This is a descriptive hospital based study. Donor blood supplied to the hospital blood bank was screened for syphilis. The study was conducted between February ...

  16. Diagnosis of swine dysentery: spirochaetes which may be confused with Treponema hyodysenteriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, M J; Alexander, T J; Lysons, R J

    Spirochaetes, designated PWS, microscopically resembling Treponema hyodysenteriae, were isolated from the colon contents of pigs with post-weaning scours from three herds, which on clinical and epidemiological grounds were thought to be free from swine dysentery. One of the isolates was fed to pigs experimentally but no evidence of disease was noted. Their cultural characteristics differed from those of T hyodysenteriae but they were similar to those of a non-pathogenic spirachaete (4/71) which had been isolated previously from the laboratory's dysentery-free herd. Smears prepared from cultures of the PWS spirochaete, 4/71 and two virulent and one avirulent strain of T hyodysenteriae were all positive to a fluorescent antibody test which was in use as an aid to the diagnosis of swine dysentery in the United Kingdom.

  17. A cytotoxic haemolysin from Treponema hyodysenteriae--a probable virulence determinant in swine dysentery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysons, R J; Kent, K A; Bland, A P; Sellwood, R; Robinson, W F; Frost, A J

    1991-02-01

    The haemolysin from a virulent strain of Treponema hyodysenteriae was extracted and injected into ligated loops of the ileum and colon of germ-free pigs. It caused severe epithelial damage, especially to the differentiated cells at the tips of the villi in the ileum and the cells in the intercrypt zones of the colon; goblet cells were less affected. The changes in the colon were similar to those seen in natural cases of swine dysentery. The ligated loop offers a means of investigating pathogenic mechanisms and the mode of action of the toxin. This study demonstrated that the haemolysin was a potent cytotoxin for pig enterocytes, and a probable virulence determinant in swine dysentery.

  18. Antibody production by the pig colon during infection with Treponema hyodysenteriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, A S; Lysons, R J; Stokes, C R; Bourne, F J

    1989-09-01

    When 47 pigs were dosed orally with cultures of Treponema hyodysenteriae, 44 (94 per cent) developed swine dysentery. Of those which recovered and were rechallenged, nine of 21 (43 per cent) showed clinical signs, as did one of 10 (10 per cent) challenged on a third occasion. Clinical disease was associated with development of specific IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies in serum and the local production of IgA in gut mucosal tissues. The appearance of antibody was not directly related to protection but rather indicated either prolonged exposure (in the case of serum IgG) or recent exposure to T hyodysenteriae (for secretory IgA). Infection also resulted in the appearance of IgG and IgA memory cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissue. However, these studies indicated that humoral immunity alone is not responsible for the onset of a protective response to T hyodysenteriae in the colon.

  19. KR-12-a5 is a non-cytotoxic agent with potent antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiaffa, Karina Sampaio; Massunari, Loiane; Danelon, Marcelle; Abuna, Gabriel Flores; Bedran, Telma Blanca Lombardo; Santos-Filho, Norival Alves; Spolidorio, Denise Madalena Palomari; Vizoto, Natalia Leal; Cilli, Eduardo Maffud; Duque, Cristiane

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluated the cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of analogs of cationic peptides against microorganisms associated with endodontic infections. L-929 fibroblasts were exposed to LL-37, KR-12-a5 and hBD-3-1C V and chlorhexidine (CHX, control), and cell metabolism was evaluated with MTT. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC) of the peptides and CHX were determined against oral pathogens associated with endodontic infections. Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus mutans biofilms were cultivated in bovine dentin blocks, exposed to different concentrations of the most efficient antimicrobial peptide and analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. CHX and peptides affected the metabolism of L-929 at concentrations > 31.25 and 500 μg ml -1 , respectively. Among the peptides, KR-12-a5 inhibited growth of both the microorganisms tested with the lowest MIC/MBC/MFC values. In addition, KR-12-a5 significantly reduced E. faecalis and S. mutans biofilms inside dentin tubules. In conclusion, KR-12-a5 is a non-cytotoxic agent with potent antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity against oral pathogens associated with endodontic infections.

  20. Sensibility of the hamster (Cricetus auratus to the Treponema pertenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nery-Guimarães

    1955-05-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments, 8 Hamsters inoculated with material from yaws lesions (Treponema pertenue, developed skin lesions considered specific by their clinical and histopathological aspects and by the presence of treponemae. These lesions appeared on the scrotumm, testicle, prepuce, anus, tail, muzzle, back and hinders paws (palm surface. In the internal organs no treponemae were found in direct examinations and inoculation of brain, spleen and lymph node. The incubation period was of 35 days for the testicle, 55 days for the scrotum and 107 days for peritoneal cavity inoculation. Positive sub-inoculations were obtained. The serum reactions (Qasserman's and Kahn's were negative in all 5 tested Hamsters. Out of 4 normal females matched to infected males two developed nasal lesions resulting from direct contact. Apparently the genital lesions hindered copulation. Hamsters are very well suited for an experimental study of yaws.Em 2 experiências, 8 Hamsters inoculados com material direto de lesões boubáticas (Treponema pertenue, desenvolveram lesões cutâneas consideradas específicas, pelo aspecto clínico e histopatológico e pela presentça de treponemas. Essas lesões se manifestaram no escrôto, testículo, prepúcio, anus, cauda, focinho, dorso e patas posteriores (face palmar. Nos órgãos internos não foram vistos treponemas ao exame direto e, uma vez, por inoculação de cérebro, baço e gânglio linfático. O período incubativo foi de 35 dias pela via testicular, 55 dias pela via escrotal e 107 dias pela via peritonial. Foram obtidas sub-inoculações positivas para Hamsters normais. As experiências continuam. De 4 fêmeas normais, acasaladas com 4 hamsters infectados apenas 2 mostraram lesões positivas resultantes de contágio direto. Aparentemente, não houve copulação e, se esta ocorreu, não determinou fecundação.

  1. Head and neck intensity modulated radiation therapy leads to an increase of opportunistic oral pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurhuis, Jennifer M.; Stokman, Monique A.; Witjes, Max J. H.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; van Winkelhoff, Arie J.; Vissink, Arjan; Spijkervet, Frederik K. L.

    Objectives: The introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has led to new possibilities in the treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC). Limited information is available on how this more advanced radiation technique affects the oral microflora. In a prospective study we assessed the

  2. Osteitis in the dens of axis caused by Treponema pallidum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Thilde; Winther, Charlotte; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Syphilis has been referred to as "the great imitator" due to its ability to imitate other diseases. Untreated syphilis becomes a systemic infection that can involve almost every organ systems. Treponema pallidum has a high affinity for bone tissue, but osteitis has mainly been described in late...... stages of the disease. Vertebral involvement is rare, and this is to our knowledge the first case describing syphilitic spondylitis in early acquired syphilis....

  3. Antimicrobial Activity of Three Lamiaceae Essential Oils Against Common Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Miloš

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of commercial essential oils’ samples from the aerial plant parts of H. officinalis, R. officinalis and S. officinalis were investigated. Analyses by GC-FID and GC-MS confirmed 52 oil components. The major constituent of the H. officinalis oil was cis-pinocamphone (34.4%, followed by transpinocamphone (23.3%, and β-pinene (11.3%. Analysis of R. officinalis oil revealed 1.8-cineol as a major constituent (43.8%, as well as transpinocamphone (12.5%, α-pinene (11.5% and β-pinene (8.2%. The most dominant constituent of S. officinalis oil was cis-thujone (32.7%, in addition to camphor (17.2%, 1.8-cineol (10.1%, α-pinene (8.6%, transthujone (7.7% and camphene (7.3%. The essential oil antimicrobial activity assay was performed by the use of microdilution method against oral Candida spp. and bacteria, the major causative agents of a number of human oral disorders; all of them were susceptible to tested concentrations of H. officinalis, R. officinalis and S. officinalis essential oils, although the oil of S. officinalis exhibited the lowest antimicrobial potential. The results obtained in this study encourage use of investigated essential oils from Lamiaceae family in development of safe natural agents for prevention and/ or alternative therapy of human oral diseases. However, a special care during development of an effective natural preparation is required.

  4. Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oils of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and Ficus deltoidea Jack against Pathogenic Oral Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuramirah Azizan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the essential oils of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and Ficus deltoidea Jack were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against invasive oral pathogens, namely Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Chemical composition of the oils was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The antibacterial activity of the oils and their major constituents were investigated using the broth microdilution method (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC. Susceptibility test, anti-adhesion, anti-biofilm, checkerboard and time-kill assays were also carried out. Physiological changes of the bacterial cells after exposure to the oils were observed under the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM. O. stamineus and F. deltoidea oils mainly consisted of sesquiterpenoids (44.6% and 60.9%, respectively, and β-caryophyllene was the most abundant compound in both oils (26.3% and 36.3%, respectively. Other compounds present in O. stamineus were α-humulene (5.1% and eugenol (8.1%, while α-humulene (5.5% and germacrene D (7.7% were dominant in F. deltoidea. The oils of both plants showed moderate to strong inhibition against all tested bacteria with MIC and MBC values ranging 0.63–2.5 mg/mL. However, none showed any inhibition on monospecies biofilms. The time-kill assay showed that combination of both oils with amoxicillin at concentrations of 1× and 2× MIC values demonstrated additive antibacterial effect. The FESEM study showed that both oils produced significant alterations on the cells of Gram-negative bacteria as they became pleomorphic and lysed. In conclusion, the study indicated that the oils of O. stamineus and F. deltoidea possessed moderate to strong antibacterial properties against the seven

  5. Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oils of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and Ficus deltoidea Jack against Pathogenic Oral Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizan, Nuramirah; Mohd Said, Shahida; Zainal Abidin, Zamirah; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2017-12-05

    In this study, the essential oils of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and Ficus deltoidea Jack were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against invasive oral pathogens, namely Enterococcus faecalis , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus mitis , Streptococcus salivarius , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum . Chemical composition of the oils was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity of the oils and their major constituents were investigated using the broth microdilution method (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC)). Susceptibility test, anti-adhesion, anti-biofilm, checkerboard and time-kill assays were also carried out. Physiological changes of the bacterial cells after exposure to the oils were observed under the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). O. stamineus and F. deltoidea oils mainly consisted of sesquiterpenoids (44.6% and 60.9%, respectively), and β-caryophyllene was the most abundant compound in both oils (26.3% and 36.3%, respectively). Other compounds present in O. stamineus were α-humulene (5.1%) and eugenol (8.1%), while α-humulene (5.5%) and germacrene D (7.7%) were dominant in F. deltoidea . The oils of both plants showed moderate to strong inhibition against all tested bacteria with MIC and MBC values ranging 0.63-2.5 mg/mL. However, none showed any inhibition on monospecies biofilms. The time-kill assay showed that combination of both oils with amoxicillin at concentrations of 1× and 2× MIC values demonstrated additive antibacterial effect. The FESEM study showed that both oils produced significant alterations on the cells of Gram-negative bacteria as they became pleomorphic and lysed. In conclusion, the study indicated that the oils of O. stamineus and F. deltoidea possessed moderate to strong antibacterial properties against the seven strains

  6. Há 100 anos, a descoberta do Treponema pallidum A hundred years ago, the discovery of Treponema pallidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elemir Macedo de Souza

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A descoberta do Treponema pallidum por Schaudinn & Hoffmann em 3 de março de 1905 foi influenciada pela comunicação de Siegel, sobre a descoberta do agente etiológico da sífilis. Encarada com ceticismo, a comunicação acarretou novas investigações, conduzidas pelo zoologista Schaudinn e pelo dermatologista Hoffmann -primeiros observadores do agente da sífilis, denominado Spirochaeta pallida. A descoberta foi o passo inicial para o desenvolvimento dos procedimentos diagnósticos e terapêuticos nos anos subseqüentes.The discovery of Treponema pallidum by Schaudinn & Hoffmann, on March 3rd 1905, was influenced by Siegels' communication on the finding of the etiological agent of syphilis. John Siegel, working at the Institut of Zoology, University of Berlin, claimed to have found a flagellate protozoon in syphilitic lesions. Because of the skepticism it was received with, this communcation yielded further investigation, conducted by zoologist Schaudinn and dermatologist Hoffmann. They were the first investigators to find the etiological agent of syphilis, described under the name of Spirochaeta pallida. The discovery of Treponema pallidum on March 3rd 1905 was the first step towards the development of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in subsequent years.

  7. The Genomic Sequence of the Oral Pathobiont Strain NI1060 Reveals Unique Strategies for Bacterial Competition and Pathogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Darzi

    Full Text Available Strain NI1060 is an oral bacterium responsible for periodontitis in a murine ligature-induced disease model. To better understand its pathogenicity, we have determined the complete sequence of its 2,553,982 bp genome. Although closely related to Pasteurella pneumotropica, a pneumonia-associated rodent commensal based on its 16S rRNA, the NI1060 genomic content suggests that they are different species thriving on different energy sources via alternative metabolic pathways. Genomic and phylogenetic analyses showed that strain NI1060 is distinct from the genera currently described in the family Pasteurellaceae, and is likely to represent a novel species. In addition, we found putative virulence genes involved in lipooligosaccharide synthesis, adhesins and bacteriotoxic proteins. These genes are potentially important for host adaption and for the induction of dysbiosis through bacterial competition and pathogenicity. Importantly, strain NI1060 strongly stimulates Nod1, an innate immune receptor, but is defective in two peptidoglycan recycling genes due to a frameshift mutation. The in-depth analysis of its genome thus provides critical insights for the development of NI1060 as a prime model system for infectious disease.

  8. In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea Madhuca Longifolia Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Jyothi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases.Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method.Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 µg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 µg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 µg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 µg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 µg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 µg/ml, respectively.Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases.

  9. In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea, Madhuca Longifolia, Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, K. S.; Seshagiri, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases. Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 μg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 μg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 μg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 μg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 μg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases. PMID:23323183

  10. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Punica Granatum Peel Extracts Against Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Abdollahzadeh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Punica granatum has been used for many years in folk medicine due to several purposes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of Punica granatum peel (MEPGP against Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus,Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguinis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Actynomyces viscosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, the mentioned oral organisms were cultured in blood agar and mueller-hinton media and then paper disks containing MEPGP at concentrations of 4 mg/ml, 8 mg/ml and 12 mg/ml were inserted on medias. The antimicrobialactivity was evaluated by agar disk diffusion method. The effects of three different concentrations of MEPGP against microorganisms were compared using one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests.Results: All concentrations of MEPGP had antibacterial activity against S. aureus and S.epidermidis. Only at concentration of 8 mg/ml and 12 mg/ml MEPGP was effective against L. acidophilus, S. mutans and S. salivarius. Furthermore; no concentrations ofMEPGP inhibited A. viscosus and C. albicans.Conclusion: This study suggests that MEPGP might be used as an antibacterial agent in controlling oral infections.

  11. A novel adjuvanted capsule based strategy for oral vaccination against infectious diarrhoeal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davitt, Christopher J H; McNeela, Edel A; Longet, Stephanie; Tobias, Joshua; Aversa, Vincenzo; McEntee, Craig P; Rosa, Monica; Coulter, Ivan S; Holmgren, Jan; Lavelle, Ed C

    2016-07-10

    Diarrhoeal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and cholera imposing a significant global burden. There is currently no licensed vaccine for ETEC. Development of new nonliving oral vaccines has proven difficult due to the physicochemical and immunological challenges associated with the oral route. This demands innovative delivery solutions to protect antigens, control their release and build in immune-stimulatory activity. We describe the Single Multiple Pill® (SmPill®) vaccine formulation which combines the benefits of enteric polymer coating to protect against low gastric pH, a dispersed phase to control release and aid the solubility of non-polar components and an optimized combination of adjuvant and antigen to promote mucosal immunity. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this system with whole cell killed E. coli overexpressing colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I), JT-49. Alpha-galactosylceramide was identified as a potent adjuvant within SmPill® that enhanced the immunogenicity of JT-49. The bacteria associated with the dispersed phase were retained within the capsules at gastric pH but released at intestinal pH. Vaccination with an optimized SmPill® formulation promoted CFA/I-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) responses in the intestinal mucosa in addition to serum IgG and a solubilized adjuvant was indispensable for efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Punica Granatum Peel Extracts Against Oral Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahzadeh, Sh.; Mashouf, RY.; Mortazavi, H.; Moghaddam, MH.; Roozbahani, N.; Vahedi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Punica granatum has been used for many years in folk medicine due to several purposes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of Punica granatum peel (MEPGP) against Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguinis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Actynomyces viscosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, the mentioned oral organisms were cultured in blood agar and mueller-hinton media and then paper disks containing MEPGP at concentrations of 4 mg/ml, 8 mg/ml and 12 mg/ml were inserted on medias. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by agar disk diffusion method. The effects of three different concentrations of MEPGP against microorganisms were compared using one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: All concentrations of MEPGP had antibacterial activity against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Only at concentration of 8 mg/ml and 12 mg/ml MEPGP was effective against L. acidophilus, S. mutans and S. salivarius. Furthermore; no concentrations of MEPGP inhibited A. viscosus and C. albicans. Conclusion: This study suggests that MEPGP might be used as an antibacterial agent in controlling oral infections. PMID:21998800

  13. Identification of Treponema pedis as the predominant Treponema species in porcine skin ulcers by fluorescence in situ hybridization and high-throughput sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Frida; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2014-01-01

    Skin lesions often seen in pig production are of great animal welfare concern. To study the potential role of Treponema bacteria in porcine skin ulcers, we investigated the presence and distribution of these organisms in decubital shoulder ulcers (n=51) and ear necroses (n=54) by fluorescence...... probes targeting 16S rRNA were used, specific for domain bacterium, Treponema spp. and species T. pedis. Screening showed that two cases each of facial and other ulcers, 35 (69%) of shoulder ulcers and 32 (59%) of ear necroses were positive for Treponema spp. T. pedis was the unequivocally, predominant...

  14. Antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens and immunomodulatory effects and toxicity of geopropolis produced by the stingless bee Melipona fasciculata Smith

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    Liberio Silvana A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Native bees of the tribe Meliponini produce a distinct kind of propolis called geopropolis. Although many pharmacological activities of propolis have already been demonstrated, little is known about geopropolis, particularly regarding its antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens. The present study aimed at investigating the antimicrobial activity of M. fasciculata geopropolis against oral pathogens, its effects on S. mutans biofilms, and the chemical contents of the extracts. A gel prepared with a geopropolis extract was also analyzed for its activity on S. mutans and its immunotoxicological potential. Methods Antimicrobial activities of three hydroalcoholic extracts (HAEs of geopropolis, and hexane and chloroform fractions of one extract, were evaluated using the agar diffusion method and the broth dilution technique. Ethanol (70%, v/v and chlorhexidine (0.12%, w/w were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Total phenol and flavonoid concentrations were assayed by spectrophotometry. Immunotoxicity was evaluated in mice by topical application in the oral cavity followed by quantification of biochemical and immunological parameters, and macro-microscopic analysis of animal organs. Results Two extracts, HAE-2 and HAE-3, showed inhibition zones ranging from 9 to 13 mm in diameter for S. mutans and C. albicans, but presented no activity against L. acidophilus. The MBCs for HAE-2 and HAE-3 against S. mutans were 6.25 mg/mL and 12.5 mg/mL, respectively. HAE-2 was fractionated, and its chloroform fraction had an MBC of 14.57 mg/mL. HAE-2 also exhibited bactericidal effects on S. mutans biofilms after 3 h of treatment. Significant differences (p Conclusions In summary, geopropolis produced by M. fasciculata can exert antimicrobial action against S. mutans and C. albicans, with significant inhibitory activity against S. mutans biofilms. The extract with the highest flavonoid concentration, HAE-2, presented the

  15. Antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens and immunomodulatory effects and toxicity of geopropolis produced by the stingless bee Melipona fasciculata Smith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberio, Silvana A; Pereira, Antônio Luís A; Dutra, Richard P; Reis, Aramys S; Araújo, Maria José A M; Mattar, Nadia S; Silva, Lucilene A; Ribeiro, Maria Nilce S; Nascimento, Flávia Raquel F; Guerra, Rosane N M; Monteiro-Neto, Valério

    2011-11-04

    Native bees of the tribe Meliponini produce a distinct kind of propolis called geopropolis. Although many pharmacological activities of propolis have already been demonstrated, little is known about geopropolis, particularly regarding its antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens. The present study aimed at investigating the antimicrobial activity of M. fasciculata geopropolis against oral pathogens, its effects on S. mutans biofilms, and the chemical contents of the extracts. A gel prepared with a geopropolis extract was also analyzed for its activity on S. mutans and its immunotoxicological potential. Antimicrobial activities of three hydroalcoholic extracts (HAEs) of geopropolis, and hexane and chloroform fractions of one extract, were evaluated using the agar diffusion method and the broth dilution technique. Ethanol (70%, v/v) and chlorhexidine (0.12%, w/w) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Total phenol and flavonoid concentrations were assayed by spectrophotometry. Immunotoxicity was evaluated in mice by topical application in the oral cavity followed by quantification of biochemical and immunological parameters, and macro-microscopic analysis of animal organs. Two extracts, HAE-2 and HAE-3, showed inhibition zones ranging from 9 to 13 mm in diameter for S. mutans and C. albicans, but presented no activity against L. acidophilus. The MBCs for HAE-2 and HAE-3 against S. mutans were 6.25 mg/mL and 12.5 mg/mL, respectively. HAE-2 was fractionated, and its chloroform fraction had an MBC of 14.57 mg/mL. HAE-2 also exhibited bactericidal effects on S. mutans biofilms after 3 h of treatment. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in total phenol and flavonoid concentrations were observed among the samples. Signs toxic effects were not observed after application of the geopropolis-based gel, but an increase in the production of IL-4 and IL-10, anti-inflammatory cytokines, was detected. In summary, geopropolis produced by M. fasciculata can

  16. Effect of oil gum massage therapy on common pathogenic oral microorganisms - A randomized controlled trial

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    Nishu Singla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: (i To assess reduction in Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus species count in saliva sample after ten minutes of oil gum massage therapy (massage of gingival tissues per day for three weeks with sesame oil, olive oil, and coconut oil in three different groups of subjects. (ii To compare the efficacy between three different oils and the "gold standard" chlorhexidine gel. (iii To assess reduction in gingival scores and plaque scores of study subjects. Materials and Methods: Study design - Single center, parallel design, and triple blind randomized clinical study with four treatment groups. Participants: 32 of the 40 study subjects working as housekeeping personnel at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal; aged 18-55 years completed the three-week study period. Interventions: Subjects were randomly assigned to massage their gingiva everyday for three weeks with sesame oil, olive oil, coconut oil (tests, and Chlorhexidine gel (control. Oral health status and paraffin stimulated saliva samples were obtained at baseline and after three weeks of oil gum massage therapy. Outcome measures: Microbial culture, plaque index, and gingival index. Statistical analysis: Paired t test and Kruskal Wallis test. Results: There was a significant reduction in mean Streptococcus mutans count, Lactobacillus count, plaque scores, and gingival scores in all four groups after the study. However, there was no significant difference found in percentage reduction of these variables between the four groups. Conclusion: These oils can be used as valuable preventive agents in maintaining and improving oral health in low socioeconomic status population. However, it is recommended that further research should be conducted in other populations with a larger sample and longer duration of follow-up period.

  17. In vitro susceptibility of contagious ovine digital dermatitis associated Treponema spp. isolates to antimicrobial agents in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Angell, Joseph W.; Clegg, Simon R.; Sullivan, Leigh E.; Duncan, Jennifer S.; Grove?White, Dai H.; Carter, Stuart D.; Evans, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is an important cause of infectious lameness in sheep in the UK and Ireland and has a severe impact on the welfare of affected individuals. The three treponemal phylogroups Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like, Treponema phagedenis-like and Treponema pedis spirochaetes have been associated with clinical CODD lesions and are considered to be a necessary cause of disease. There are scant data on the antimicrobial susceptibility of the ...

  18. Analysis of the axial filaments of Treponema hyodysenteriae by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, K A; Sellwood, R; Lemcke, R M; Burrows, M R; Lysons, R J

    1989-06-01

    Purified axial filaments from eight serotypes of Treponema hyodysenteriae and two non-pathogenic intestinal spirochaetes were characterized by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Axial filaments of all ten strains had similar SDS-PAGE profiles; five major axial filament polypeptides were identified, with molecular masses of 43.8, 38, 34.8, 32.8 and 29.4 kDa. Hyperimmune gnotobiotic pig serum raised against purified axial filaments of strain P18A (serotype 4) cross-reacted with all other serotypes and with the non-pathogens, and convalescent serum taken from a pig with persistent swine dysentery also showed a strong response to the axial filament polypeptides. Hyperimmune gnotobiotic pig serum raised against axial filaments failed to agglutinate viable organisms and did not inhibit growth in vitro. Hence, the axial filaments of T. hyodysenteriae have been identified as major immunodominant antigens, although the role that antibodies to these antigens play in protection has yet to be established.

  19. Molecular Subtyping of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum in Lisbon, Portugal▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, R.; Prieto, E.; Águas, M. J.; Manata, M. J.; Botas, J.; Martins Pereira, F.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reproducibility of a molecular method for the subtyping of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum and to discriminate strains of this microorganism from strains from patients with syphilis. We studied 212 specimens from a total of 82 patients with different stages of syphilis (14 primary, 7 secondary and 61 latent syphilis). The specimens were distributed as follows: genital ulcers (n = 9), skin and mucosal lesions (n = 7), blood (n = 82), plasma (n = 82), and ear lobe scrapings (n = 32). The samples were assayed by a PCR technique to amplify a segment of the polymerase gene I (polA). Positive samples were typed on the basis of the analysis of two variable genes, tpr and arp. Sixty-two of the 90 samples positive for polA yielded typeable Treponema pallidum DNA. All skin lesions in which T. pallidum was identified (six of six [100%]) were found to contain enough DNA for typing of the organism. It was also possible to type DNA from 7/9 (77.7%) genital ulcer samples, 13/22 (59.1%) blood samples, 20/32 (62.5%) plasma samples, and 16/21 (76.2%) ear lobe scrapings. The same subtype was identified in all samples from the same patient. Five molecular subtypes (subtypes 10a, 14a, 14c, 14f, and 14g) were identified, with the most frequently found subtype being subtype 14a and the least frequently found subtype being subtype 10a. In conclusion, the subtyping technique used in this study seems to have good reproducibility. To our knowledge, subtype 10a was identified for the first time. Further studies are needed to explain the presence of this subtype in Portugal, namely, its relationship to the Treponema pallidum strains circulating in the African countries where Portuguese is spoken. PMID:19494073

  20. Effects of Hangeshashinto on Growth of Oral Microorganisms

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    Haruka Fukamachi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucositis (OM in cancer patients induced by chemotherapy or radiotherapy has a significant impact on quality of life, and causes considerable morbidity. Oral microorganisms are likely to intensify the inflammatory process and aggravate the formation of ulcers. Hangeshashinto (HST, a Japanese kampo medicine, has been reported to be effective when used as a gargle for the treatment of OM. To clarify the effects of HST on oral microorganisms, we assessed its antimicrobial activity against 27 microbial species, including 19 oral bacteria and one fungus. HST extract inhibited the growth of Gram-negative bacteria, including Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella melaninogenica, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Porphyromonas asaccharolytica, though inhibitory effects were less pronounced for Gram-positive bacteria and the fungal strain. We then investigated the effects of antibacterial activities on 15 purified ingredients of HST and determined that baicalein, berberine, coptisine, [6]-shogaol, and homogentisic acid actively inhibited the growth of these bacteria. These findings showed that HST inhibits the growth of specific Gram-negative periodontopathogenic bacteria, which are significant pathogens in OM, without disturbing the normal oral flora. Our data suggest that HST may be a useful treatment for OM in patients undergoing anticancer treatment.

  1. Transcriptional profiles of Treponema denticola in response to environmental conditions.

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    Ian McHardy

    Full Text Available The periodontal pathogen T. denticola resides in a stressful environment rife with challenges, the human oral cavity. Knowledge of the stress response capabilities of this invasive spirochete is currently very limited. Whole genome expression profiles in response to different suspected stresses including heat shock, osmotic downshift, oxygen and blood exposure were examined. Most of the genes predicted to encode conserved heat shock proteins (HSPs were found to be induced under heat and oxygen stress. Several of these HSPs also seem to be important for survival in hypotonic solutions and blood. In addition to HSPs, differential regulation of many genes encoding metabolic proteins, hypothetical proteins, transcriptional regulators and transporters was observed in patterns that could betoken functional associations. In summary, stress responses in T. denticola exhibit many similarities to the corresponding stress responses in other organisms but also employ unique components including the induction of hypothetical proteins.

  2. Immune response of macrophages from young and aged mice to the oral pathogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis

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    Gibson Frank C

    2010-11-01

    periodontal pathogen Pg.

  3. Transcriptional Profiling of the Oral Pathogen Streptococcus mutans in Response to Competence Signaling Peptide XIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenderska, Iwona B; Latos, Andrew; Pruitt, Benjamin; Palmer, Sara; Spatafora, Grace; Senadheera, Dilani B; Cvitkovitch, Dennis G

    2017-01-01

    In the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans , competence development is regulated by the ComRS signaling system comprised of the ComR regulator and the ComS prepeptide to the competence signaling peptide XIP (ComX-inducing peptide). Aside from competence development, XIP signaling has been demonstrated to regulate cell lysis, and recently, the expression of bacteriocins, small antimicrobial peptides used by bacteria to inhibit closely related species. Our study further explores the effect of XIP signaling on the S. mutans transcriptome. RNA sequencing revealed that XIP induction resulted in a global change in gene expression that was consistent with a stress response. An increase in several membrane-bound regulators, including HdrRM and BrsRM, involved in bacteriocin production, and the VicRKX system, involved in acid tolerance and biofilm formation, was observed. Furthermore, global changes in gene expression corresponded to changes observed during the stringent response to amino acid starvation. Effects were also observed on genes involved in sugar transport and carbon catabolite repression and included the levQRST and levDEFG operons. Finally, our work identified a novel heat shock-responsive intergenic region, encoding a small RNA, with a potential role in competence shutoff. IMPORTANCE Genetic competence provides bacteria with an opportunity to increase genetic diversity or acquire novel traits conferring a survival advantage. In the cariogenic pathogen Streptococcus mutans , DNA transformation is regulated by the competence stimulating peptide XIP (ComX-inducing peptide). The present study utilizes high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNAseq) to provide a greater understanding of how global gene expression patterns change in response to XIP. Overall, our work demonstrates that in S. mutans , XIP signaling induces a response that resembles the stringent response to amino acid starvation. We further identify a novel heat shock-responsive intergenic region with a

  4. Antimicrobial activity of apitoxin, melittin and phospholipase A2 of honey bee (Apis mellifera venom against oral pathogens

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    Luís F. Leandro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we used the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC technique to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the apitoxin produced by Apis mellifera bees against the causative agents of tooth decay. Apitoxin was assayed in naturaand in the commercially available form. The antibacterial actions of the main components of this apitoxin, phospholipase A2, and melittin were also assessed, alone and in combination. The following bacteria were tested: Streptococcus salivarius, S. sobrinus, S. mutans, S. mitis, S. sanguinis, Lactobacillus casei, and Enterococcus faecalis. The MIC results obtained for the commercially available apitoxin and for the apitoxin in natura were close and lay between 20 and 40µg / mL, which indicated good antibacterial activity. Melittin was the most active component in apitoxin; it displayed very promising MIC values, from 4 to 40µg / mL. Phospholipase A2 presented MIC values higher than 400µg / mL. Association of mellitin with phospholipase A2 yielded MIC values ranging between 6 and 80µg / mL. Considering that tooth decay affects people's health, apitoxin and its component melittin have potential application against oral pathogens.

  5. Screening and Scoring of Antimicrobial and Biological Activities of Italian Vulnerary Plants against Major Oral Pathogenic Bacteria

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    Gianmaria F. Ferrazzano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the activity of Italian vulnerary plants against the most important oral pathogenic bacteria. This estimate was accomplished through a fivefold process: (a a review of ethnobotanical and microbiological data concerning the Italian vulnerary plants; (b the development of a scoring system to rank the plants; (c the comparative assessment of microbiological properties; (d the assessment of potential cytotoxic effects on keratinocyte-like cells and gingival fibroblasts in culture by XTT cell viability assay; (e clinical evaluation of the most suitable plant extract as antibacterial agent in a home-made mouthwash. The study assays hexane (H, ethanol (E, and water (W extracts from 72 plants. The agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the activity against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus casei, and Actinomyces viscosus. Twenty-two plants showed appreciable activity. The extracts showing the strongest antibacterial power were those from Cotinus coggygria Scop., Equisetum hyemale L., Helichrysum litoreum Guss, Juniperus communis L., and Phyllitis scolopendrium (L. Newman subsp. scolopendrium. The potential cytotoxic effect of these extracts was assessed. On the basis of these observations, a mouth-rinse containing the ethanolic extract of H. litoreum has been tested in vivo, resulting in reduction of the salivary concentration of S. mutans.

  6. Screening and Scoring of Antimicrobial and Biological Activities of Italian Vulnerary Plants against Major Oral Pathogenic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzano, Gianmaria F.; Roberto, Lia; Catania, Maria Rosaria; Chiaviello, Angela; De Natale, Antonino; Roscetto, Emanuela; Pinto, Gabriele; Pollio, Antonino; Ingenito, Aniello; Palumbo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the activity of Italian vulnerary plants against the most important oral pathogenic bacteria. This estimate was accomplished through a fivefold process: (a) a review of ethnobotanical and microbiological data concerning the Italian vulnerary plants; (b) the development of a scoring system to rank the plants; (c) the comparative assessment of microbiological properties; (d) the assessment of potential cytotoxic effects on keratinocyte-like cells and gingival fibroblasts in culture by XTT cell viability assay; (e) clinical evaluation of the most suitable plant extract as antibacterial agent in a home-made mouthwash. The study assays hexane (H), ethanol (E), and water (W) extracts from 72 plants. The agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the activity against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus casei, and Actinomyces viscosus. Twenty-two plants showed appreciable activity. The extracts showing the strongest antibacterial power were those from Cotinus coggygria Scop., Equisetum hyemale L., Helichrysum litoreum Guss, Juniperus communis L., and Phyllitis scolopendrium (L.) Newman subsp. scolopendrium. The potential cytotoxic effect of these extracts was assessed. On the basis of these observations, a mouth-rinse containing the ethanolic extract of H. litoreum has been tested in vivo, resulting in reduction of the salivary concentration of S. mutans. PMID:24302963

  7. Neelaredoxin, an iron-binding protein from the syphilis spirochete, Treponema pallidum, is a superoxide reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, T; Ascenso, C; Hazlett, K R; Sikkink, R; Krebs, C; Litwiller, R; Benson, L M; Moura, I; Moura, J J; Radolf, J D; Huynh, B H; Naylor, S; Rusnak, F

    2000-09-15

    Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of venereal syphilis, is a microaerophilic obligate pathogen of humans. As it disseminates hematogenously and invades a wide range of tissues, T. pallidum presumably must tolerate substantial oxidative stress. Analysis of the T. pallidum genome indicates that the syphilis spirochete lacks most of the iron-binding proteins present in many other bacterial pathogens, including the oxidative defense enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase, but does possess an orthologue (TP0823) for neelaredoxin, an enzyme of hyperthermophilic and sulfate-reducing anaerobes shown to possess superoxide reductase activity. To analyze the potential role of neelaredoxin in treponemal oxidative defense, we examined the biochemical, spectroscopic, and antioxidant properties of recombinant T. pallidum neelaredoxin. Neelaredoxin was shown to be expressed in T. pallidum by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Recombinant neelaredoxin is a 26-kDa alpha(2) homodimer containing, on average, 0.7 iron atoms/subunit. Mössbauer and EPR analysis of the purified protein indicates that the iron atom exists as a mononuclear center in a mixture of high spin ferrous and ferric oxidation states. The fully oxidized form, obtained by the addition of K(3)(Fe(CN)(6)), exhibits an optical spectrum with absorbances at 280, 320, and 656 nm; the last feature is responsible for the protein's blue color, which disappears upon ascorbate reduction. The fully oxidized protein has a A(280)/A(656) ratio of 10.3. Enzymatic studies revealed that T. pallidum neelaredoxin is able to catalyze a redox equilibrium between superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, a result consistent with it being a superoxide reductase. This finding, the first description of a T. pallidum iron-binding protein, indicates that the syphilis spirochete copes with oxidative stress via a primitive mechanism, which, thus far, has not been described in pathogenic

  8. Two Paralogous Families of a Two-Gene Subtilisin Operon Are Widely Distributed in Oral Treponemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Frederick F.; Plummer, Alvin R.; Ellen, Richard P.; Wyss, Chris; Boches, Susan K.; Galvin, Jamie L.; Paster, Bruce J.; Dewhirst, Floyd E.

    2003-01-01

    Certain oral treponemes express a highly proteolytic phenotype and have been associated with periodontal diseases. The periodontal pathogen Treponema denticola produces dentilisin, a serine protease of the subtilisin family. The two-gene operon prcA-prtP is required for expression of active dentilisin (PrtP), a putative lipoprotein attached to the treponeme's outer membrane or sheath. The purpose of this study was to examine the diversity and structure of treponemal subtilisin-like proteases in order to better understand their distribution and function. The complete sequences of five prcA-prtP operons were determined for Treponema lecithinolyticum, “Treponema vincentii,” and two canine species. Partial operon sequences were obtained for T. socranskii subsp. 04 as well as 450- to 1,000-base fragments of prtP genes from four additional treponeme strains. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the sequences fall into two paralogous families. The first family includes the sequence from T. denticola. Treponemes possessing this operon family express chymotrypsin-like protease activity and can cleave the substrate N-succinyl-alanyl-alanyl-prolyl-phenylalanine-p-nitroanilide (SAAPFNA). Treponemes possessing the second paralog family do not possess chymotrypsin-like activity or cleave SAAPFNA. Despite examination of a range of protein and peptide substrates, the specificity of the second protease family remains unknown. Each of the fully sequenced prcA and prtP genes contains a 5′ hydrophobic leader sequence with a treponeme lipobox. The two paralogous families of treponeme subtilisins represent a new subgroup within the subtilisin family of proteases and are the only subtilisin lipoprotein family. The present study demonstrated that the subtilisin paralogs comprising a two-gene operon are widely distributed among treponemes. PMID:14617650

  9. Intracellular localization of Treponema denticola chymotrypsin-like proteinase in chronic periodontitis

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    Emilia Marttila

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Treponema denticola is an important periodontal pathogen capable of tissue invasion. Its chymotrypsin-like proteinase (CTLP can degrade a number of basement membrane components in vitro, thus suggesting a contribution to tissue invasion by the spirochete. The aim of this study was to analyze the localization of CTLP in chronic periodontitis tissues ex vivo. A polyclonal antibody specific to T. denticola cell-bound CTLP was used to detect the spirochetes in the gingival tissues of patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis (n=25 by immunohistochemistry and periodic acid-Schiff staining (PAS. The presence of T. denticola in the periodontal tissue samples was analyzed by PCR. Periodontal tissue samples of 12 of the 25 patients were found to be positive for T. denticola by PCR. Moreover, CTLP could be detected in the periodontal tissues of all these patients by immunohistochemistry. In the epithelium, the CTLP was mostly intracellular. Typically, the positive staining could be seen throughout the whole depth of the epithelium. When detected extracellularly, CTLP was localized mainly as granular deposits. The connective tissue stained diffusely positive in four cases. The positive staining co-localized with the PAS stain in nine cases. T. denticola and its CTLP could be detected in diseased human periodontium both intra- and extracellularly. The granular staining pattern was suggestive of the presence of T. denticola bacteria, whereas the more diffused staining pattern was indicative of the recent presence of the bacterium and shedding of the cell-bound proteinase.

  10. Antibodies to a common outer envelope antigen of Treponema hyodysenteriae with antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellwood, R; Kent, K A; Burrows, M R; Lysons, R J; Bland, A P

    1989-08-01

    Outer envelopes of Treponema hyodysenteriae strains P18A and VS1 were prepared and characterized by SDS-PAGE. In Western blot analysis of eleven strains of T. hyodysenteriae and two intestinal non-pathogenic spirochaetes, polyclonal antiserum raised to the outer envelopes of strain P18A contained antibodies primarily to two polypeptides. A 45 kDa polypeptide was present in only two strains of T. hyodysenteriae, P18A and MC52/80, whereas another antigen of 16 kDa was common to all eleven strains of T. hyodysenteriae but was not present in the two nonpathogens. Immunogold labelling of whole organisms suggested that the 16 kDa antigen was present on the surface of the spirochaetes. In in vitro tests the serum agglutinated and inhibited growth of only the T. hyodysenteriae strains, suggesting that antibodies to the 16 kDa antigen were responsible for these activities. Serum from a gnotobiotic pig infected with T. hyodysenteriae strain P18A had antibodies to the 16 kDa antigen alone and also possessed agglutinating and growth-inhibitory activities.

  11. Identification of functional candidates amongst hypothetical proteins of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Ahmad Abu Turab; Shahbaaz, Mohd; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis is a globally occurring venereal disease, and its infection is propagated through sexual contact. The causative agent of syphilis, Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum, a Gram-negative sphirochaete, is an obligate human parasite. Genome of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum SS14 strain (RefSeq NC_010741.1) encodes 1,027 proteins, of which 444 proteins are known as hypothetical proteins (HPs), i.e., proteins of unknown functions. Here, we performed functional annotation of HPs of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum using various database, domain architecture predictors, protein function annotators and clustering tools. We have analyzed the sequences of 444 HPs of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum and subsequently predicted the function of 207 HPs with a high level of confidence. However, functions of 237 HPs are predicted with less accuracy. We found various enzymes, transporters, binding proteins in the annotated group of HPs that may be possible molecular targets, facilitating for the survival of pathogen. Our comprehensive analysis helps to understand the mechanism of pathogenesis to provide many novel potential therapeutic interventions.

  12. Detecção de Treponema denticola em casos de abscesso perirradicular agudo Detection of Treponema denticola in cases of acute periradicular abscesses

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    Isabela das Neves RÔÇAS

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Nosso objetivo foi detectar Treponema denticola em casos de abscesso perirradicular agudo. O DNA extraído das amostras de pus foi examinado pelo método da "Polymerase Chain Reaction" direcionada para o gene do RNAr (fração 16S. A amplificação usando o "primer" da espécie Treponema denticola permitiu detectá-la em 5 dos 6 casos de abscessos examinados. Apenas uma banda de tamanho esperado foi observada para as amostras positivas para esta bactéria, o que foi confirmado pela comparação com o DNA de referência do Treponema denticola (controle positivo. Até o momento, este é o primeiro relato da presença desta espiroqueta, considerada um importante patógeno periodontal em infecções endodônticas. Os resultados sugerem que Treponema denticola também pode ser um importante patógeno endodôntico.The purpose of this study was to report the detection of Treponema denticola in five out of six cases of acute periradicular abscesses. The 16S rRNA gene directed Polymerase Chain Reaction was the method utilized. This is probably the first report hitherto of the occurrence of this spirochete in acute periradicular abscesses.

  13. A Retrospective Study on Genetic Heterogeneity within Treponema Strains: Subpopulations Are Genetically Distinct in a Limited Number of Positions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darina Čejková

    Full Text Available Pathogenic uncultivable treponemes comprise human and animal pathogens including agents of syphilis, yaws, bejel, pinta, and venereal spirochetosis in rabbits and hares. A set of 10 treponemal genome sequences including those of 4 Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA strains (Nichols, DAL-1, Mexico A, SS14, 4 T. p. ssp. pertenue (TPE strains (CDC-2, Gauthier, Samoa D, Fribourg-Blanc, 1 T. p. ssp. endemicum (TEN strain (Bosnia A and one strain (Cuniculi A of Treponema paraluisleporidarum ecovar Cuniculus (TPLC were examined with respect to the presence of nucleotide intrastrain heterogeneous sites.The number of identified intrastrain heterogeneous sites in individual genomes ranged between 0 and 7. Altogether, 23 intrastrain heterogeneous sites (in 17 genes were found in 5 out of 10 investigated treponemal genomes including TPA strains Nichols (n = 5, DAL-1 (n = 4, and SS14 (n = 7, TPE strain Samoa D (n = 1, and TEN strain Bosnia A (n = 5. Although only one heterogeneous site was identified among 4 tested TPE strains, 16 such sites were identified among 4 TPA strains. Heterogeneous sites were mostly strain-specific and were identified in four tpr genes (tprC, GI, I, K, in genes involved in bacterial motility and chemotaxis (fliI, cheC-fliY, in genes involved in cell structure (murC, translation (prfA, general and DNA metabolism (putative SAM dependent methyltransferase, topA, and in seven hypothetical genes.Heterogeneous sites likely represent both the selection of adaptive changes during infection of the host as well as an ongoing diversifying evolutionary process.

  14. A Retrospective Study on Genetic Heterogeneity within Treponema Strains: Subpopulations Are Genetically Distinct in a Limited Number of Positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čejková, Darina; Strouhal, Michal; Norris, Steven J; Weinstock, George M; Šmajs, David

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic uncultivable treponemes comprise human and animal pathogens including agents of syphilis, yaws, bejel, pinta, and venereal spirochetosis in rabbits and hares. A set of 10 treponemal genome sequences including those of 4 Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA) strains (Nichols, DAL-1, Mexico A, SS14), 4 T. p. ssp. pertenue (TPE) strains (CDC-2, Gauthier, Samoa D, Fribourg-Blanc), 1 T. p. ssp. endemicum (TEN) strain (Bosnia A) and one strain (Cuniculi A) of Treponema paraluisleporidarum ecovar Cuniculus (TPLC) were examined with respect to the presence of nucleotide intrastrain heterogeneous sites. The number of identified intrastrain heterogeneous sites in individual genomes ranged between 0 and 7. Altogether, 23 intrastrain heterogeneous sites (in 17 genes) were found in 5 out of 10 investigated treponemal genomes including TPA strains Nichols (n = 5), DAL-1 (n = 4), and SS14 (n = 7), TPE strain Samoa D (n = 1), and TEN strain Bosnia A (n = 5). Although only one heterogeneous site was identified among 4 tested TPE strains, 16 such sites were identified among 4 TPA strains. Heterogeneous sites were mostly strain-specific and were identified in four tpr genes (tprC, GI, I, K), in genes involved in bacterial motility and chemotaxis (fliI, cheC-fliY), in genes involved in cell structure (murC), translation (prfA), general and DNA metabolism (putative SAM dependent methyltransferase, topA), and in seven hypothetical genes. Heterogeneous sites likely represent both the selection of adaptive changes during infection of the host as well as an ongoing diversifying evolutionary process.

  15. Host Genes and Resistance/Sensitivity to Military Priority Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    analysis of the BXD resource will be a fruitful endeavor. Finally, our results establish the optimal conditions for reproducing a stereotypic ...bacterial pathogens, such as some members of the genus Borrelia and Treponema. Several members of the genus Borrelia use complement regulator-acquiring

  16. Association of red complex, A. actinomycetemcomitans and non-oral bacteria with periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva-Boghossian, Carina Maciel; do Souto, Renata Martins; Luiz, Ronir R; Colombo, Ana Paula Vieira

    2011-09-01

    Pathogens related to systemic infections have been detected in the periodontal microbiota. The relationship amongst these pathogens, periodontal bacteria and periodontal clinical status is poorly understood. This study evaluated the association amongst red complex, A. actinomycetemcomitans (A.a) and non-oral pathogenic bacteria in subjects with good periodontal health (PH), gingivitis (G), chronic (CP) and aggressive (AP) periodontitis. Subgingival biofilm samples were obtained from 51 PH, 42 G, 219 CP and 90 AP subjects. The presence and levels of A.a, red complex (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola), Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus were determined by DNA probes and DNA-DNA hybridization technique. CP and AP subjects presented significantly higher prevalence and levels of A.a, red complex and A. baumannii than G and PH individuals (pperiodontal disease (pperiodontal pathogens and non-oral bacteria alone or in association were strongly associated with periodontitis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of the HISCL Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay as a Screening Test for Syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    An, Jingna; Chen, Qixia; Liu, Qianqian; Rao, Chenli; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Tingting; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lanlan

    2015-01-01

    The resurgence of syphilis in recent years has become a serious threat to public health worldwide, and the serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum remains the most reliable method for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis. This study examined the performance of the recently launched HISCL anti-Treponema pallidum (anti-TP) assay as a screening test for syphilis in a high-volume laboratory. The HISCL anti-TP assay was tested in 300 preselected syphilis-positive sample...

  18. Genomic and Metagenomic Analysis of Diversity-Generating Retroelements Associated with Treponema denticola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutichot eNimkulrat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs are genetic cassettes that can produce massive protein sequence variation in prokaryotes. Presumably DGRs confer selective advantages to their hosts (bacteria or viruses by generating variants of target genes—typically resulting in target proteins with altered ligand-binding specificity—through a specialized error-prone reverse transcription process. The only extensively studied DGR system is from the Bordetella phage BPP-1, although DGRs are predicted to exist in other species. Using bioinformatics analysis, we discovered that the DGR system associated with the Treponema denticola species (a human oral-associated periopathogen is dynamic (with gains/losses of the system found in the isolates and diverse (with multiple types found in isolated genomes and the human microbiota. The T. denticola DGR is found in only nine of the 17 sequenced T. denticola strains. Analysis of the DGR-associated template regions and reverse transcriptase gene sequences revealed two types of DGR systems in T. denticola: the ATCC35405-type shared by seven isolates including ATCC35405; and the SP32-type shared by two isolates (SP32 and SP33, suggesting multiple DGR acquisitions. We detected additional variants of the T. denticola DGR systems in the human microbiomes, and found that the SP32-type DGR is more abundant than the ATCC35405-type in the healthy human oral microbiome, although the latter is found in more sequenced isolates. This is the first comprehensive study to characterize the DGRs associated with T. denticola in individual genomes as well as human microbiomes, demonstrating the importance of utilizing both individual genomes and metagenomes for characterizing the elements, and for analyzing their diversity and distribution in human populations.

  19. Activation of murine macrophages by lipoprotein and lipooligosaccharide of Treponema denticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, G; Sela, M N; Naor, R; Halabi, A; Barak, V; Shapira, L

    1999-03-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the periodontopathogenic oral spirochete Treponema denticola possesses membrane-associated lipoproteins in addition to lipooligosaccharide (LOS). The aim of the present study was to test the potential of these oral spirochetal components to induce the production of inflammatory mediators by human macrophages, which in turn may stimulate tissue breakdown as observed in periodontal diseases. An enriched lipoprotein fraction (dLPP) from T. denticola ATCC 35404 obtained upon extraction of the treponemes with Triton X-114 was found to stimulate the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-1 (IL-1) by mouse macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Induction of NO by dLPP was at 25% of the levels obtained by Salmonella typhosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at similar concentrations, while IL-1 was produced at similar levels by both inducers. dLPP-mediated macrophage activation was unaffected by amounts of polymyxin B that neutralized the induction produced by S. typhosa LPS. dLPP also induced NO and TNF-alpha secretion from macrophages isolated from endotoxin-unresponsive C3H/HeJ mice to an extent similar to the stimulation produced in endotoxin-responsive mice. Purified T. denticola LOS also produced a concentration-dependent activation of NO and TNF-alpha in LPS-responsive and -nonresponsive mouse macrophages. However, macrophage activation by LOS was inhibited by polymyxin B. These results suggest that T. denticola lipoproteins and LOS may play a role in the inflammatory processes that characterize periodontal diseases.

  20. Activation of Murine Macrophages by Lipoprotein and Lipooligosaccharide of Treponema denticola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Graciela; Sela, Michael N.; Naor, Ronit; Halabi, Amal; Barak, Vivian; Shapira, Lior

    1999-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the periodontopathogenic oral spirochete Treponema denticola possesses membrane-associated lipoproteins in addition to lipooligosaccharide (LOS). The aim of the present study was to test the potential of these oral spirochetal components to induce the production of inflammatory mediators by human macrophages, which in turn may stimulate tissue breakdown as observed in periodontal diseases. An enriched lipoprotein fraction (dLPP) from T. denticola ATCC 35404 obtained upon extraction of the treponemes with Triton X-114 was found to stimulate the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 (IL-1) by mouse macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Induction of NO by dLPP was at 25% of the levels obtained by Salmonella typhosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at similar concentrations, while IL-1 was produced at similar levels by both inducers. dLPP-mediated macrophage activation was unaffected by amounts of polymyxin B that neutralized the induction produced by S. typhosa LPS. dLPP also induced NO and TNF-α secretion from macrophages isolated from endotoxin-unresponsive C3H/HeJ mice to an extent similar to the stimulation produced in endotoxin-responsive mice. Purified T. denticola LOS also produced a concentration-dependent activation of NO and TNF-α in LPS-responsive and -nonresponsive mouse macrophages. However, macrophage activation by LOS was inhibited by polymyxin B. These results suggest that T. denticola lipoproteins and LOS may play a role in the inflammatory processes that characterize periodontal diseases. PMID:10024558

  1. Oral Contact Events and Caregiver Hand Hygiene: Implications for Fecal-Oral Exposure to Enteric Pathogens among Infants 3–9 Months Living in Informal, Peri-Urban Communities in Kisumu, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Davis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood diarrhea is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children under five in low and middle-income countries, second only to respiratory illness. The mouthing behavior that is common in children exposes them to fecal-orally transmitted pathogens that can result in diarrhea; however, there is a need for further evidence on specific exposure routes. This study describes the frequency and diversity of two important routes of enteric pathogen exposure among infants 3–9 months of age: infant oral contact behavior and caregiver handwashing behavior. Data were collected through structured observations of 25 index infants for the oral contact data and 25 households for the caregiver handwashing data in a peri-urban setting in Kisumu (Obunga, Kenya. Breast was the most common type of oral contact event with an average of 3.00 per observation period and 0.5 events per hour. This was followed by a range of physical objects with an average of 2.49 per observation and 0.4 events per hour. The “infant’s own hands” was the third most common oral contact, with an average of 2.16 events per hour, and 0.4 oral contact events per hour. Food and liquids were the 4th and 5th most common oral contact events with an average of 1.64 food contacts and 0.52 liquid oral contact events per observation period. Feeding events, including breastfeeding, were the most commonly observed key juncture—71% of total junctures observed were caregivers feeding children. This was followed by child cleaning (23%, caregiver toilet uses at (4%, and lastly food preparation at 2%. HWWS was observed only once before a feeding event (1%, twice after cleaning a child (9%, and twice after caregiver toilet use (40%. The combined implication of data from observing oral contact behavior in children and hand hygiene of caregivers suggests that caregiver hand hygiene prior to feeding events and after cleaning a child are priority interventions.

  2. Oral Contact Events and Caregiver Hand Hygiene: Implications for Fecal-Oral Exposure to Enteric Pathogens among Infants 3–9 Months Living in Informal, Peri-Urban Communities in Kisumu, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Emily; Cumming, Oliver; Aseyo, Rose Evalyne; Muganda, Damaris Nelima; Baker, Kelly K.; Mumma, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Childhood diarrhea is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children under five in low and middle-income countries, second only to respiratory illness. The mouthing behavior that is common in children exposes them to fecal-orally transmitted pathogens that can result in diarrhea; however, there is a need for further evidence on specific exposure routes. This study describes the frequency and diversity of two important routes of enteric pathogen exposure among infants 3–9 months of age: infant oral contact behavior and caregiver handwashing behavior. Data were collected through structured observations of 25 index infants for the oral contact data and 25 households for the caregiver handwashing data in a peri-urban setting in Kisumu (Obunga), Kenya. Breast was the most common type of oral contact event with an average of 3.00 per observation period and 0.5 events per hour. This was followed by a range of physical objects with an average of 2.49 per observation and 0.4 events per hour. The “infant’s own hands” was the third most common oral contact, with an average of 2.16 events per hour, and 0.4 oral contact events per hour. Food and liquids were the 4th and 5th most common oral contact events with an average of 1.64 food contacts and 0.52 liquid oral contact events per observation period. Feeding events, including breastfeeding, were the most commonly observed key juncture—71% of total junctures observed were caregivers feeding children. This was followed by child cleaning (23%), caregiver toilet uses at (4%), and lastly food preparation at 2%. HWWS was observed only once before a feeding event (1%), twice after cleaning a child (9%), and twice after caregiver toilet use (40%). The combined implication of data from observing oral contact behavior in children and hand hygiene of caregivers suggests that caregiver hand hygiene prior to feeding events and after cleaning a child are priority interventions. PMID:29364184

  3. Oral treponeme major surface protein: Sequence diversity and distributions within periodontal niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, M; Chan, Y; Lacap-Bugler, D C; Huo, Y-B; Gao, W; Leung, W K; Watt, R M

    2017-12-01

    Treponema denticola and other species (phylotypes) of oral spirochetes are widely considered to play important etiological roles in periodontitis and other oral infections. The major surface protein (Msp) of T. denticola is directly implicated in several pathological mechanisms. Here, we have analyzed msp sequence diversity across 68 strains of oral phylogroup 1 and 2 treponemes; including reference strains of T. denticola, Treponema putidum, Treponema medium, 'Treponema vincentii', and 'Treponema sinensis'. All encoded Msp proteins contained highly conserved, taxon-specific signal peptides, and shared a predicted 'three-domain' structure. A clone-based strategy employing 'msp-specific' polymerase chain reaction primers was used to analyze msp gene sequence diversity present in subgingival plaque samples collected from a group of individuals with chronic periodontitis (n=10), vs periodontitis-free controls (n=10). We obtained 626 clinical msp gene sequences, which were assigned to 21 distinct 'clinical msp genotypes' (95% sequence identity cut-off). The most frequently detected clinical msp genotype corresponded to T. denticola ATCC 35405 T , but this was not correlated to disease status. UniFrac and libshuff analysis revealed that individuals with periodontitis and periodontitis-free controls harbored significantly different communities of treponeme clinical msp genotypes (Pdiversity than periodontitis-free controls (Mann-Whitney U-test, Pdiversity of Treponema clinical msp genotypes within their subgingival niches. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Emerging role of bacteria in oral carcinogenesis: a review with special reference to perio-pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Manosha; Al-Hebshi, Nezar Noor; Speicher, David J; Perera, Irosha; Johnson, Newell W

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer, primarily oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), continues to be a major global health problem with high incidence and low survival rates. While the major risk factors for this malignancy, mostly lifestyle related, have been identified, around 15% of oral cancer cases remain unexplained. In light of evidence implicating bacteria in the aetiology of some cancer types, several epidemiological studies have been conducted in the last decade, employing methodologies ranging from traditional culture techniques to 16S rRNA metagenomics, to assess the possible role of bacteria in OSCC. While these studies have demonstrated differences in microbial composition between cancerous and healthy tissues, they have failed to agree on specific bacteria or patterns of oral microbial dysbiosis to implicate in OSCC. On the contrary, some oral taxa, particularly Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum, show strong oral carcinogenic potential in vitro and in animal studies. Bacteria are thought to contribute to oral carcinogenesis via inhibition of apoptosis, activation of cell proliferation, promotion of cellular invasion, induction of chronic inflammation, and production of carcinogens. This narrative review provides a critical analysis of and an update on the association between bacteria and oral carcinogenesis and the possible mechanisms underlying it.

  5. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola synergistic polymicrobial biofilm development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhu

    Full Text Available Chronic periodontitis has a polymicrobial biofilm aetiology and interactions between key bacterial species are strongly implicated as contributing to disease progression. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia have all been implicated as playing roles in disease progression. P. gingivalis cell-surface-located protease/adhesins, the gingipains, have been suggested to be involved in its interactions with several other bacterial species. The aims of this study were to determine polymicrobial biofilm formation by P. gingivalis, T. denticola and T. forsythia, as well as the role of P. gingivalis gingipains in biofilm formation by using a gingipain null triple mutant. To determine homotypic and polymicrobial biofilm formation a flow cell system was employed and the biofilms imaged and quantified by fluorescent in situ hybridization using DNA species-specific probes and confocal scanning laser microscopy imaging. Of the three species, only P. gingivalis and T. denticola formed mature, homotypic biofilms, and a strong synergy was observed between P. gingivalis and T. denticola in polymicrobial biofilm formation. This synergy was demonstrated by significant increases in biovolume, average biofilm thickness and maximum biofilm thickness of both species. In addition there was a morphological change of T. denticola in polymicrobial biofilms when compared with homotypic biofilms, suggesting reduced motility in homotypic biofilms. P. gingivalis gingipains were shown to play an essential role in synergistic polymicrobial biofilm formation with T. denticola.

  6. Comparison of Six Automated Treponema-Specific Antibody Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Borae G; Yoon, Jihoon G; Rim, John Hoon; Lee, Anna; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Six different Treponema (TP)-specific immunoassays were compared to the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) test. A total of 615 samples were tested. The overall percent agreement, analytical sensitivity, and analytical specificity of each assay compared to the FTA-ABS test were as follows: Architect Syphilis TP, 99.2%, 96.8%, and 100%; Cobas Syphilis, 99.8%, 99.4%, and 100%; ADVIA Centaur Syphilis, 99.8%, 99.4%, and 100%; HISCL Anti-TP assay kit, 99.7%, 98.7%, and 100%; Immunoticles Auto3 TP, 99.0%, 97.5%, and 99.6%; Mediace TPLA, 98.0%, 98.1%, and 98.0%. All results that were discrepant between the TP-specific assays were associated with samples from noninfectious cases (11 immunoassay false positives and 7 from previous syphilis cases). Our study demonstrated that TP-specific immunoassays generally showed high sensitivities, specificities, and percentages of agreement compared to FTA-ABS, with rare cases of false-positive or false-negative results. Therefore, most TP-specific immunoassays are acceptable for use in screening for syphilis. However, it is important to perform a thorough review of a patient's clinical and treatment history for interpreting the results of syphilis serology. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Manifestaciones orales de la sífilis. Caso clínico

    OpenAIRE

    Navazo-eguía, Ana Isabel; Rioja-peñaranda, Elena; Echevarria-iturbe, Celina; Terán-muñoz, Danilo; Cordero-civantos, Cristina; Ibañez-muñoz, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. Oral manifestations of syphilis are not frequent but may occur in all stages simulating other diseases, delaying diagnosis and treatment. We describe the case of a patient with oral lesions as a manifestation of secondary syphilis. Discussion: oral manifestations of syphilis may mimic other more common oral mucosa lesions, going undiagnosed and with no proper treatment. Although oral lesions m...

  8. Identification of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Treponema denticola and Porphyromonas gingivalis within human dental calculus: a pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Nicolino; Galgut, Peter; Mordan, Nicola

    2007-10-01

    Dental calculus is considered to be simply a "plaque-retentive factor", and therefore only a secondary aetiological factor in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Recent studies have suggested a more active role for calculus. Our objective was to demonstrate the presence of periodontal pathogens in the non-mineralised areas of supra- and subgingival dental calculus. Subjects for the study were derived from patients with substantial amounts of supragingival calculus in the lower anterior region who had moderate periodontal disease, having been referred to the periodontal department at the Eastman Dental Hospital for periodontal care. Calculus was removed in as large pieces as possible by the use of a sickle or a push scaler placed underneath the apical or facial border of the calculus and fracturing it from the tooth surface in a single stroke. The orientation and absence of dental plaque was confirmed using light microscopy for each sample prior to inclusion in this study. Samples were prepared for transmission electron microscopic (TEM) observation after immunogold staining with polyclonal antibodies for the presence of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A. a.), Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. g.) and Treponema denticola (T. d.). Most of the samples contained at least one of the bacterial species examined, either in the lacunae or in the covering dental plaque. T. d. was the most frequently identified species and was found in nearly all of the subgingival samples, whilstA. a. was rarely observed. In this limited study, supra- and subgingival dental calculus appears to be capable of maintaining periodontal pathogens within the deep recesses of its structural lacunae and channels. Therefore, calculus could possibly play a relevant role in the aetiology and pathogenesis of periodontitis. The presence of T. d. in the majority of specimens requires further investigation as its pathogenic potential may be underestimated in current published microbiological research, and

  9. Simultaneous detection of periodontal pathogens in subgingival plaque and placenta of women with hypertension in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swati, P; Thomas, Betsy; Vahab, Saadi Abdul; Kapaettu, Satyamoorthy; Kushtagi, Pralhad

    2012-03-01

    There are many studies documenting increased prevalence of periodontal infection in women with preeclampsia. But, very few studies have attempted to establish causal relationship between the two. To find out causal circumstantial evidence by isolating specific periodontal pathogens in oral and placental samples. Antenatal periodontal screening and subgingival plaque collection was carried out in ten women with hypertension in pregnancy and ten normotensive controls on their hospital admission at term for cesarean delivery. Placental biopsy was obtained after aseptic placental collection at the time of elective cesarean delivery. Subgingival plaque and placental biopsy were studied for Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Treponema denticola, Prevotella intermedia and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans using quantitative polymerase chain reaction technique. Periodontist and laboratory personnel were unaware of case or control status. Periodontal status was not informed to the obstetrician recruiting the cases and laboratory. Microbiology report was not revealed till end of the study. Periodontal pathogens were found to be high in the group with hypertension than the controls. P gingivalis was found in all the samples from subgingival plaque and placenta, irrespective of the periodontal disease status. In cases with hypertension, periodontal pathogens are present in higher proportion in subgingival plaque and placenta.

  10. The immune strategy and stress response of the Mediterranean species of the Bemisia tabaci complex to an orally delivered bacterial pathogen.

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    Chang-Rong Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, a notorious agricultural pest, has complex relationships with diverse microbes. The interactions of the whitefly with entomopathogens as well as its endosymbionts have received great attention, because of their potential importance in developing novel whitefly control technologies. To this end, a comprehensive understanding on the whitefly defense system is needed to further decipher those interactions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a comprehensive investigation of the whitefly's defense responses to infection, via oral ingestion, of the pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, using RNA-seq technology. Compared to uninfected whiteflies, 6 and 24 hours post-infected whiteflies showed 1,348 and 1,888 differentially expressed genes, respectively. Functional analysis of the differentially expressed genes revealed that the mitogen associated protein kinase (MAPK pathway was activated after P. aeruginosa infection. Three knottin-like antimicrobial peptide genes and several components of the humoral and cellular immune responses were also activated, indicating that key immune elements recognized in other insect species are also important for the response of B. tabaci to pathogens. Our data also suggest that intestinal stem cell mediated epithelium renewal might be an important component of the whitefly's defense against oral bacterial infection. In addition, we show stress responses to be an essential component of the defense system. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We identified for the first time the key immune-response elements utilized by B. tabaci against bacterial infection. This study provides a framework for future research into the complex interactions between whiteflies and microbes.

  11. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola exhibit metabolic symbioses.

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    Kheng H Tan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola are strongly associated with chronic periodontitis. These bacteria have been co-localized in subgingival plaque and demonstrated to exhibit symbiosis in growth in vitro and synergistic virulence upon co-infection in animal models of disease. Here we show that during continuous co-culture a P. gingivalis:T. denticola cell ratio of 6∶1 was maintained with a respective increase of 54% and 30% in cell numbers when compared with mono-culture. Co-culture caused significant changes in global gene expression in both species with altered expression of 184 T. denticola and 134 P. gingivalis genes. P. gingivalis genes encoding a predicted thiamine biosynthesis pathway were up-regulated whilst genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis were down-regulated. T. denticola genes encoding virulence factors including dentilisin and glycine catabolic pathways were significantly up-regulated during co-culture. Metabolic labeling using 13C-glycine showed that T. denticola rapidly metabolized this amino acid resulting in the production of acetate and lactate. P. gingivalis may be an important source of free glycine for T. denticola as mono-cultures of P. gingivalis and T. denticola were found to produce and consume free glycine, respectively; free glycine production by P. gingivalis was stimulated by T. denticola conditioned medium and glycine supplementation of T. denticola medium increased final cell density 1.7-fold. Collectively these data show P. gingivalis and T. denticola respond metabolically to the presence of each other with T. denticola displaying responses that help explain enhanced virulence of co-infections.

  12. Human Primary Epithelial Cells Acquire an Epithelial-Mesenchymal-Transition Phenotype during Long-Term Infection by the Oral Opportunistic Pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis

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    Jungnam Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis is a host-adapted oral pathogen associated with chronic periodontitis that successfully survives and persists in the oral epithelium. Recent studies have positively correlated periodontitis with increased risk and severity of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Intriguingly, the presence of P. gingivalis enhances tumorigenic properties independently of periodontitis and has therefore been proposed as a potential etiological agent for OSCC. However, the initial host molecular changes induced by P. gingivalis infection which promote predisposition to cancerous transformation through EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal-transition, has never been studied in human primary cells which more closely mimic the physiological state of cells in vivo. In this study, we examine for the first time in primary oral epithelial cells (OECs the expression and activation of key EMT mediators during long-term P. gingivalis infection in vitro. We examined the inactive phosphorylated state of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (p-GSK3β over 120 h P. gingivalis infection and found p-GSK3β, an important EMT regulator, significantly increases over the course of infection (p < 0.01. Furthermore, we examined the expression of EMT-associated transcription factors, Slug, Snail, and Zeb1 and found significant increases (p < 0.01 over long-term P. gingivalis infection in protein and mRNA expression. Additionally, the protein expression of mesenchymal intermediate filament, Vimentin, was substantially increased over 120 h of P. gingivalis infection. Analysis of adhesion molecule E-cadherin showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05 in expression and a loss of membrane localization along with β-catenin in OECs. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs 2, 7, and 9 are all markedly increased with long-term P. gingivalis infection. Finally, migration of P. gingivalis infected cells was evaluated using scratch assay in which primary OEC monolayers were wounded and treated with

  13. Characterizing the Syphilis-Causing Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum Proteome Using Complementary Mass Spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara K Osbak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum is the etiological agent of syphilis, a chronic multistage disease. Little is known about the global T. pallidum proteome, therefore mass spectrometry studies are needed to bring insights into pathogenicity and protein expression profiles during infection.To better understand the T. pallidum proteome profile during infection, we studied T. pallidum ssp. pallidum DAL-1 strain bacteria isolated from rabbits using complementary mass spectrometry techniques, including multidimensional peptide separation and protein identification via matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF and electrospray ionization (ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 6033 peptides were detected, corresponding to 557 unique T. pallidum proteins at a high level of confidence, representing 54% of the predicted proteome. A previous gel-based T. pallidum MS proteome study detected 58 of these proteins. One hundred fourteen of the detected proteins were previously annotated as hypothetical or uncharacterized proteins; this is the first account of 106 of these proteins at the protein level. Detected proteins were characterized according to their predicted biological function and localization; half were allocated into a wide range of functional categories. Proteins annotated as potential membrane proteins and proteins with unclear functional annotations were subjected to an additional bioinformatics pipeline analysis to facilitate further characterization. A total of 116 potential membrane proteins were identified, of which 16 have evidence supporting outer membrane localization. We found 8/12 proteins related to the paralogous tpr gene family: TprB, TprC/D, TprE, TprG, TprH, TprI and TprJ. Protein abundance was semi-quantified using label-free spectral counting methods. A low correlation (r = 0.26 was found between previous microarray signal data and protein abundance.This is

  14. Immunogenicity in chickens with orally administered recombinant chicken-borne Lactobacillus saerimneri expressing FimA and OmpC antigen of O78 avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sun-Ting; Ding, Guo-Jie; Huang, Xue-Wei; Wang, Zi-Wei; Wang, Li; Yu, Mei-Ling; Shi, Wen; Jiang, Yan-Ping; Tang, Li-Jie; Xu, Yi-Gang; Li, Yi-Jing

    2018-03-01

    Avian colibacillosis is responsible for economic losses to poultry producers worldwide. To combat this, we aimed to develop an effective oral vaccine for chicken against O78 avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) infection through a Lactobacillus delivery system. Eight Lactobacillus strains isolated from the intestines of broiler chickens were evaluated based on their in vitro adherence ability to assess their potential as a delivery vector. Fimbrial subunit A (FimA) and outer-membrane protein C (OmpC) of APEC with and without fusion to dendritic cell-targeting peptide (DCpep) and microfold cell-targeting peptide (Co1) were displayed on the surface of Lactobacillus saerimneri M-11 and yielded vaccine groups (pPG-ompC-fimA/M-11 and pPG-ompC-fimA-Co1-DCpep/M-11, respectively). The colonization of the recombinant strains in vivo was assessed and the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of orally administered recombinant strains in chickens were evaluated. The colonization of the recombinant strains in vivo revealed no significant differences between the recombinant and wild-type strains. Chickens orally administered with vaccine groups showed significantly higher levels of OmpC/FimA-specific IgG in serum and mucosal IgA in cecum lavage, nasal lavage and stool compared to the pPG/M-11 group. After challenge with APEC CVCC1553, better protective efficacy was observed in chickens orally immunized with pPG-ompC-fimA/M-11 and pPG-ompC-fimA-Co1-DCpep/M-11, but no significant differences were observed between the two groups. Recombinant chicken-borne L. saerimneri M-11 showed good immunogenicity in chickens, suggesting that it may be a promising vaccine candidate against APEC infections. However, the activity of mammalian DCpep and Co1 was not significant in chickens.

  15. Evaluation of two automated chemiluminescence immunoassays, the LIAISON Treponema Screen and the ARCHITECT Syphilis TP, and the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination test for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellinghausen, Nele; Dietenberger, Hanna

    2011-08-01

    Automated Treponema pallidum-specific chemi-luminescence immunoassays (CLIA) run on random-access analyzers allow for rapid diagnosis of syphilis infection. We evaluated the LIAISON Treponema Screen (LIA) and the ARCHITECT Syphilis TP (ARCH) in comparison to the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) test, as a screening test for syphilis. We performed a prospective study using 577 sera submitted for diagnosis of syphilis, including 318 samples from pregnant women. In addition, 42 stored sera from 32 patients with clinically and serologically characterized syphilis infection were investigated. In the prospective study, the sensitivity and specificity of LIA, ARCH, and TPPA were 100% (18/18), 100% (17/17), and 100% (18/18), and 100% (558/558), 99.8% (552/553), and 99.6% (556/558), respectively. In pregnant women, the specificity of LIA and ARCH was 100% (317/317) and of TPPA 99.7% (316/317). One sample from a child with assumed exposure to maternal antitreponemal antibodies was omitted from analysis. LIA, ARCH, and TPPA were also positive in all investigated sera from patients with known syphilis. Both automated CLIA demonstrated excellent diagnostic sensitivity and specificity when evaluated as a screening test for syphilis under routine conditions of a diagnostic laboratory. Thus, these may be used independently as an alternative to the manual TPPA screen.

  16. Clinical Value of Treponema pallidum Real-Time PCR for Diagnosis of Syphilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heymans, R.; van der Helm, J. J.; de Vries, H. J. C.; Fennema, H. S. A.; Coutinho, R. A.; Bruisten, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    The diagnosis of syphilis can be complicated when it is based on diverse clinical manifestations, dark-field microscopy, and serology. In the present study, therefore, we examined the additional clinical value of a Treponema pallidum real-time TaqMan PCR for the detection of primary and secondary

  17. Specific and sensitive diagnosis of syphilis using a real-time PCR for Treponema pallidum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek, A. G.; Bruisten, S. M.; Dierdorp, M.; van Dam, A. P.; Templeton, K.

    2006-01-01

    A real-time PCR assay with a Taqman probe was developed that targeted the polA gene of Treponema pallidum. The test was validated using an analytical panel (n = 140) and a clinical panel of genital samples (n = 112) from patients attending a sexually transmitted infections clinic. High sensitivities

  18. Impact of enterovirus and other enteric pathogens on oral polio and rotavirus vaccine performance in Bangladeshi infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniuchi, Mami; Platts-Mills, James A; Begum, Sharmin; Uddin, Md Jashim; Sobuz, Shihab U; Liu, Jie; Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Colgate, E Ross; Carmolli, Marya P; Dickson, Dorothy M; Nayak, Uma; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A; Houpt, Eric R

    2016-06-08

    Oral polio vaccine (OPV) and rotavirus vaccine (RV) exhibit poorer performance in low-income settings compared to high-income settings. Prior studies have suggested an inhibitory effect of concurrent non-polio enterovirus (NPEV) infection, but the impact of other enteric infections has not been comprehensively evaluated. In urban Bangladesh, we tested stools for a broad range of enteric viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi by quantitative PCR from infants at weeks 6 and 10 of life, coincident with the first OPV and RV administration respectively, and examined the association between enteropathogen quantity and subsequent OPV serum neutralizing titers, serum rotavirus IgA, and rotavirus diarrhea. Campylobacter and enterovirus (EV) quantity at the time of administration of the first dose of OPV was associated with lower OPV1-2 serum neutralizing titers, while enterovirus quantity was also associated with diminished rotavirus IgA (-0.08 change in log titer per tenfold increase in quantity; P=0.037), failure to seroconvert (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.64-0.96; P=0.022), and breakthrough rotavirus diarrhea (OR 1.34, 95% CI: 1.05-1.71; P=0.020) after adjusting for potential confounders. These associations were not observed for Sabin strain poliovirus quantity. In this broad survey of enteropathogens and oral vaccine performance we find a particular association between EV carriage, particularly NPEV, and OPV immunogenicity and RV protection. Strategies to reduce EV infections may improve oral vaccine responses. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01375647. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of TP0435 (Tp17) from the syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brautigam, Chad A.; Deka, Ranjit K.; Norgard, Michael V.

    2013-01-01

    The soluble portion of TP0435, a putative periplasmic lipoprotein from the syphilis spirochete T. pallidum, has been purified and crystallized in a rhombohedral space group. A complete native data set has been collected to 2.4 Å resolution. Syphilis, caused by the bacterial spirochete Treponema pallidum, remains a prominent sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Despite sequencing of the genome of this obligate human pathogen 15 years ago, the functions of a large number of the gene products of T. pallidum are still unknown, particularly with respect to those of the organism’s periplasmic lipoproteins. To better understand their functions, a structural biology approach has been pursued. To this end, the soluble portion of the T. pallidum TP0435 lipoprotein (also known as Tp17) was cloned, hyper-expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to apparent homogeneity. The protein crystals obtained from this preparation diffracted to 2.4 Å resolution and had the symmetry of space group R3. In the hexagonal setting, the unit-cell parameters were a = b = 85.7, c = 85.4 Å

  20. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence of the opportunistic oral pathogen Prevotella multisaccharivorax type strain (PPPA20T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Gronow, Sabine [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Lu, Megan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2011-01-01

    Prevotella multisaccharivorax Sakamoto et al. 2005 is a species of the large genus Prevotella, which belongs to the family Prevotellaceae. The species is of medical interest because its members are able to cause diseases in the human oral cavity such as periodontitis, root caries and others. Although 77 Prevotella genomes have already been sequenced or are targeted for sequencing, this is only the second completed genome sequence of a type strain of a species within the genus Prevotella to be published. The 3,388,644 bp long genome is assembled in three non-contiguous contigs, harbors 2,876 protein-coding and 75 RNA genes and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  1. The Tp0684 (MglB-2 Lipoprotein of Treponema pallidum: A Glucose-Binding Protein with Divergent Topology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad A Brautigam

    Full Text Available Treponema pallidum, the bacterium that causes syphilis, is an obligate human parasite. As such, it must acquire energy, in the form of carbon sources, from the host. There is ample evidence that the principal source of energy for this spirochete is D-glucose acquired from its environment, likely via an ABC transporter. Further, there is genetic evidence of a D-glucose chemotaxis system in T. pallidum. Both of these processes may be dependent on a single lipidated chemoreceptor: Tp0684, also called TpMglB-2 for its sequence homology to MglB of Escherichia coli. To broaden our understanding of this potentially vital protein, we determined a 2.05-Å X-ray crystal structure of a soluble form of the recombinant protein. Like its namesake, TpMglB-2 adopts a bilobed fold that is similar to that of the ligand-binding proteins (LBPs of other ABC transporters. However, the protein has an unusual, circularly permuted topology. This feature prompted a series of biophysical studies that examined whether the protein's topological distinctiveness affected its putative chemoreceptor functions. Differential scanning fluorimetry and isothermal titration calorimetry were used to confirm that the protein bound D-glucose in a cleft between its two lobes. Additionally, analytical ultracentrifugation was employed to reveal that D-glucose binding is accompanied by a significant conformational change. TpMglB-2 thus appears to be fully functional in vitro, and given the probable central importance of the protein to T. pallidum's physiology, our results have implications for the viability and pathogenicity of this obligate human pathogen.

  2. The Tp0684 (MglB-2) Lipoprotein of Treponema pallidum: A Glucose-Binding Protein with Divergent Topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brautigam, Chad A; Deka, Ranjit K; Liu, Wei Z; Norgard, Michael V

    2016-01-01

    Treponema pallidum, the bacterium that causes syphilis, is an obligate human parasite. As such, it must acquire energy, in the form of carbon sources, from the host. There is ample evidence that the principal source of energy for this spirochete is D-glucose acquired from its environment, likely via an ABC transporter. Further, there is genetic evidence of a D-glucose chemotaxis system in T. pallidum. Both of these processes may be dependent on a single lipidated chemoreceptor: Tp0684, also called TpMglB-2 for its sequence homology to MglB of Escherichia coli. To broaden our understanding of this potentially vital protein, we determined a 2.05-Å X-ray crystal structure of a soluble form of the recombinant protein. Like its namesake, TpMglB-2 adopts a bilobed fold that is similar to that of the ligand-binding proteins (LBPs) of other ABC transporters. However, the protein has an unusual, circularly permuted topology. This feature prompted a series of biophysical studies that examined whether the protein's topological distinctiveness affected its putative chemoreceptor functions. Differential scanning fluorimetry and isothermal titration calorimetry were used to confirm that the protein bound D-glucose in a cleft between its two lobes. Additionally, analytical ultracentrifugation was employed to reveal that D-glucose binding is accompanied by a significant conformational change. TpMglB-2 thus appears to be fully functional in vitro, and given the probable central importance of the protein to T. pallidum's physiology, our results have implications for the viability and pathogenicity of this obligate human pathogen.

  3. A 16-kilodalton lipoprotein of the outer membrane of Serpulina (Treponema) hyodysenteriae.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, W; Sellwood, R; Lysons, R J

    1992-01-01

    Serpulina (Treponema) hyodysenteriae P18A and VS1 were extracted by using the detergent Triton X-114 and separated into detergent and aqueous phases. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western immunoblot analysis confirmed that a membrane-associated 16-kDa antigen was hydrophobic, since it was found in the detergent phase. A 45-kDa antigen partitioned into the aqueous phase, suggesting that it was hydrophilic and may be of periplasmic origin. When spirochetes were g...

  4. Antibacterial activity of Tribulus terrestris and its synergistic effect with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra against oral pathogens: an in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimanpour, Saman; Sedighinia, Fereshteh Sadat; Safipour Afshar, Akbar; Zarif, Reza; Ghazvini, Kiarash

    2015-01-01

    In this study, antimicrobial activities of an ethanol extract of Tribulus terrestris aloneand in combination with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra were examined in vitro against six pathogens namely Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Actinomyces viscosus, Enterococcus faecalis Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Antibacterial activities of the extracts were examined using disc and well diffusion methods and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of ethanol extracts were determined against these microorganisms using agar and broth dilution methods. Chlorhexidine was used as positive control. Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited good antibacterial activity against all bacteria. Antibacterial activity of mixed extract was evaluated and exhibited that mixed extract was more effective against all bacteria than any of the cases alone which indicates the synergistic effect between these three extracts (p˂0.05). No strain showed resistance against these extracts. In agar dilution, Tribulus terrestris exhibited MIC values ranging from 35.0 to 20.0 mg/ml and mixed extract showed MIC values ranging from 12.5 to 5.0 mg/ml. The results of broth dilution method were consistent with the findings of the agar dilution method. This in-vitro study was a preliminary evaluation of antibacterial activity of the plants. It provided scientific evidence to support uses of T. terrestris and its mixture with C. bursa-pastoris and G. glabra for the treatment of oral infections. In-vivo studies are also required to better evaluate the effect of these extracts.

  5. Frequency of periodontal pathogens and Helicobacter pylori in the mouths and stomachs of obese individuals submitted to bariatric surgery: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    PATARO, André Luiz; CORTELLI, Sheila Cavalca; ABREU, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães; CORTELLI, José Roberto; FRANCO, Gilson Cesar Nobre; AQUINO, Davi Romeiro; COTA, Luis Otavio Miranda; COSTA, Fernando Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives This cross-sectional study compared the frequency of oral periodontopathogens and H. pylori in the mouths and stomachs of obese individuals with or without periodontitis submitted to bariatric surgery. Material and Methods One hundred and fifty-four men and women aged 18-65 were conveniently distributed into four groups. Two groups were composed of individuals who underwent bariatric surgery with (BP) (n=40) and without (BNP) (n=39) periodontitis and two obese control groups with (CP) (n=35) and without (CNP) (n=40) periodontitis. The oral pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Parvimonas micra, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, Campylobacter rectus, and Helicobacter pylori were detected by a polymerase chain reaction technique using saliva, tongue and stomach biopsy samples. Results Statistical analysis demonstrated that periodontopathogens were highly frequent in the mouth (up to 91.4%). In the bariatric surgically treated group, orally, P. gingivalis, T. denticola and T. forsythia were more frequent in periodontitis, while C. rectus was more frequent in non-periodontitis subjects. Stomach biopsies also revealed the high frequency of five oral species in both candidates for bariatric surgery (91.6%) and the bariatric (83.3%) groups. H. pylori was frequently detected in the mouth (50.0%) and stomach (83.3%). In the stomach, oral species and H. pylori appeared in lower frequency in the bariatric group. Conclusions Obese individuals showed high frequencies of periodontopathogens and H. pylori in their mouths and stomachs. Bariatric surgery showed an inverse microbial effect on oral and stomach environments by revealing higher oral and lower stomach bacterial frequencies. PMID:27383704

  6. The influence of orthodontic fixed appliances on the oral microbiota: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Osório Ayres de Freitas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate whether there is scientific evidence to support the hypothesis that the presence of orthodontic fixed appliances influences the oral microbiota. Methods: The search for articles was conducted in PubMed; ISI Web of Knowledge and Ovid databases, including articles published in English until May 17th, 2012. They should report human observational studies presenting the following keywords: "fixed orthodontic appliance" AND "microbiological colonization"; OR "periodontal pathogens"; OR "Streptococcus"; OR "Lactobacillus"; OR "Candida"; OR "Tannerella forsythia"; OR "Treponema denticola"; OR "Fusobacterium nucleatum"; OR "Actimomyces actinomycetemcomitans"; OR "Prevotella intermedia", OR "Prevotella nigrescens"; OR "Porphyromonas gingivalis". Articles were previously selected by title and abstract. Articles that met the inclusion criteria were analyzed and classified as having low, moderate or high methodology quality. A new detailed checklist for quality assessment was developed based on the information required for applicable data extraction for reviews. The study design, sample, follow-up period, collection and microbial analysis methods, statistical treatment, results and discussion were assessed. Results: The initial search retrieved 305 articles of which 33 articles were selected by title and abstract. After full-text reading, 8 articles met the inclusion criteria, out of which 4 articles were classified as having low and 4 as moderate methodological quality. The moderate methodological quality studies were included in the systematic review. Conclusions: The literature revealed moderate evidence that the presence of fixed appliances influences the quantity and quality of oral microbiota.

  7. Antibacterial activity of Tribulus terrestris and its synergistic effect with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra against oral pathogens: an in-vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimanpour, Saman; Sedighinia, Fereshteh Sadat; Safipour Afshar, Akbar; Zarif, Reza; Ghazvini, Kiarash

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this study, antimicrobial activities of an ethanol extract of Tribulus terrestris aloneand in combination with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra were examined in vitro against six pathogens namely Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Actinomyces viscosus, Enterococcus faecalis Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Materials and methods: Antibacterial activities of the extracts were examined using disc and well diffusion methods and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of ethanol extracts were determined against these microorganisms using agar and broth dilution methods. Chlorhexidine was used as positive control. Results: Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited good antibacterial activity against all bacteria. Antibacterial activity of mixed extract was evaluated and exhibited that mixed extract was more effective against all bacteria than any of the cases alone which indicates the synergistic effect between these three extracts (p˂0.05). No strain showed resistance against these extracts. In agar dilution, Tribulus terrestris exhibited MIC values ranging from 35.0 to 20.0 mg/ml and mixed extract showed MIC values ranging from 12.5 to 5.0 mg/ml. The results of broth dilution method were consistent with the findings of the agar dilution method. Conclusion: This in-vitro study was a preliminary evaluation of antibacterial activity of the plants. It provided scientific evidence to support uses of T. terrestris and its mixture with C. bursa-pastoris and G. glabra for the treatment of oral infections. In-vivo studies are also required to better evaluate the effect of these extracts. PMID:26101754

  8. Antibacterial activity of Tribulus terrestris and its synergistic effect with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra against oral pathogens: an in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Soleimanpour

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, antimicrobial activities of an ethanol extract of Tribulus terrestris aloneand in combination with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra were examined in vitro against six pathogens namely Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Actinomyces viscosus, Enterococcus faecalis Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Materials and methods: Antibacterial activities of the extracts were examined using disc and well diffusion methods and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of ethanol extracts were determined against these microorganisms using agar and broth dilution methods. Chlorhexidine was used as positive control. Results: Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited good antibacterial activity against all bacteria. Antibacterial activity of mixed extract was evaluated and exhibited that mixed extract was more effective against all bacteria than any of the cases alone which indicates the synergistic effect between these three extracts (p˂0.05. No strain showed resistance against these extracts. In agar dilution, Tribulus terrestris exhibited MIC values ranging from 35.0 to 20.0 mg/ml and mixed extract showed MIC values ranging from 12.5 to 5.0 mg/ml. The results of broth dilution method were consistent with the findings of the agar dilution method. Conclusion: This in-vitro study was a preliminary evaluation of antibacterial activity of the plants. It provided scientific evidence to support uses of T. terrestris and its mixture with C. bursa-pastoris and G. glabra for the treatment of oral infections. In-vivo studies are also required to better evaluate the effect of these extracts.

  9. Production, purification and molecular weight determination of the haemolysin of Treponema hyodysenteriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, K A; Lemcke, R M; Lysons, R J

    1988-11-01

    The production of haemolysin from Treponema hyodysenteriae was increased by an improved culture method and by repeated incubation of spirochaetes suspended in a buffer containing RNA-core. Ion exchange chromatography on DEAE cellulose followed by gel filtration on Sephadex G100 yielded purified haemolysin free from extraneous protein, as judged by silver-stained polyacrylamide gels. The mol. wt of the purified haemolysin, determined by gel filtration was 19,000, a value similar to that of streptolysin S, but much lower than that previously reported.

  10. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a single-dose live non-pathogenic Escherichia coli oral vaccine against F4-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli challenge in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, John Morris; Nadeau, Éric; Bélanger, Louise; Tremblay, Cindy-Love; Tremblay, Danielle; Brunelle, Mélanie; Wolf, Regina; Hellmann, Klaus; Hidalgo, Álvaro

    2017-01-05

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains expressing F4 (K88) fimbriae (F4-ETEC) are one of the most important causes of post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) in pigs. F4, a major antigen, plays an important role in the early steps of the infection. Herein, the efficacy of a live oral vaccine consisting of a non-pathogenic E. coli strain expressing F4 for protection of pigs against PWD was evaluated. Three blinded, placebo-controlled, block design, parallel-group confirmatory experiments were conducted, using an F4-ETEC PWD challenge model, each with a different vaccination-challenge interval (3, 7, and 21days). The pigs were vaccinated via the drinking water with a single dose of the Coliprotec® F4 vaccine one day post-weaning. Efficacy was assessed by evaluating diarrhea, clinical observations, intestinal fluid accumulation, weight gain, intestinal colonization and fecal shedding of F4-ETEC. The immune response was evaluated by measuring serum and intestinal F4-specific antibodies. The administration of the vaccine resulted in a significant reduction of the incidence of moderate to severe diarrhea, ileal colonization by F4-ETEC, and fecal shedding of F4-ETEC after the heterologous challenge at 7 and 21days post-vaccination. The 7-day onset of protection was associated with an increase of serum anti-F4 IgM whereas the 21-day duration of protection was associated with an increase of both serum anti-F4 IgM and IgA. Significant correlations between levels of serum and intestinal secretory anti-F4 antibodies were detected. Maternally derived F4-specific serum antibodies did not interfere with the vaccine efficacy. The evaluation of protection following a challenge three days after vaccination showed a reduction of the severity and the duration of diarrhea and of fecal shedding of F4-ETEC. The 7-day onset and the 21-day duration of protection induced by Coliprotec® F4 vaccine administered once in drinking water to pigs of at least 18days of age were confirmed by protection

  11. Evaluation of periodontal pathogens in amniotic fluid and the role of periodontal disease in pre-term birth and low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Esra; Eratalay, Kenan; Deren, Ozgur; Gur, Deniz; Ozyuncu, Ozgur; Altun, Belgin; Kanli, Ceyda; Ozdemir, Pınar; Akincibay, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    Pre-term birth and/or low birth weight (PTLBW) is a serious problem in developing countries. The absence of known risk factors in ≈ 50% of PTLBW cases has resulted in a continued search for other causes. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of periodontitis on pregnancy outcomes. Samples were taken from 50 pregnant women who underwent amniocentesis. Polymerase chain reaction was performed on amniotic fluid samples obtained during amniocentesis and on subgingival plaque samples to determine the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, Campylobacter rectus and Eikenella corrodens. Plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing depth and clinical attachment level were evaluated. Medical records were obtained after birth. Social and demographic variables were similar among the Gingivitis (G), Localized Periodontitis (LP) and Generalized Periodontitis (GP) groups. Four subjects gave birth to PTLBW neonates. Campylobacter rectus, T. forsythia, P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum were detected in the amniotic fluid and subgingival plaque samples of three patients who gave birth to PTLBW neonates. The amniotic fluid sample from the fourth patient was not positive for any of the tested pathogens. These findings suggest that the transmission of some periodontal pathogens from the oral cavity of the mother may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes. The results contribute to an understanding of the association between periodontal disease and PTLBW, but further studies are required to better clarify the possible relationship.

  12. Differentiation of oral bacteria in in vitro cultures and human saliva by secondary electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregy, Lukas; Müggler, Annick R.; Martinez-Lozano Sinues, Pablo; García-Gómez, Diego; Suter, Yannick; Belibasakis, Georgios N.; Kohler, Malcolm; Schmidlin, Patrick R.; Zenobi, Renato

    2015-10-01

    The detection of bacterial-specific volatile metabolites may be a valuable tool to predict infection. Here we applied a real-time mass spectrometric technique to investigate differences in volatile metabolic profiles of oral bacteria that cause periodontitis. We coupled a secondary electrospray ionization (SESI) source to a commercial high-resolution mass spectrometer to interrogate the headspace from bacterial cultures and human saliva. We identified 120 potential markers characteristic for periodontal pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (n = 13), Porphyromonas gingivalis (n = 70), Tanerella forsythia (n = 30) and Treponema denticola (n = 7) in in vitro cultures. In a second proof-of-principle phase, we found 18 (P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and T. denticola) of the 120 in vitro compounds in the saliva from a periodontitis patient with confirmed infection with P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and T. denticola with enhanced ion intensity compared to two healthy controls. In conclusion, this method has the ability to identify individual metabolites of microbial pathogens in a complex medium such as saliva.

  13. Polymicrobial Oral Infection with Four Periodontal Bacteria Orchestrates a Distinct Inflammatory Response and Atherosclerosis in ApoE null Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukkapalli, Sasanka S; Velsko, Irina M; Rivera-Kweh, Mercedes F; Zheng, Donghang; Lucas, Alexandra R; Kesavalu, Lakshmyya

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) develops from a synergy of complex subgingival oral microbiome, and is linked to systemic inflammatory atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD). To investigate how a polybacterial microbiome infection influences atherosclerotic plaque progression, we infected the oral cavity of ApoE null mice with a polybacterial consortium of 4 well-characterized periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerealla forsythia and Fusobacterium nucleatum, that have been identified in human atherosclerotic plaque by DNA screening. We assessed periodontal disease characteristics, hematogenous dissemination of bacteria, peripheral T cell response, serum inflammatory cytokines, atherosclerosis risk factors, atherosclerotic plaque development, and alteration of aortic gene expression. Polybacterial infections have established gingival colonization in ApoE null hyperlipidemic mice and displayed invasive characteristics with hematogenous dissemination into cardiovascular tissues such as the heart and aorta. Polybacterial infection induced significantly higher levels of serum risk factors oxidized LDL (p Periodontal microbiome infection is associated with significant decreases in Apoa1, Apob, Birc3, Fga, FgB genes that are associated with atherosclerosis. Periodontal infection for 12 weeks had modified levels of inflammatory molecules, with decreased Fas ligand, IL-13, SDF-1 and increased chemokine RANTES. In contrast, 24 weeks of infection induced new changes in other inflammatory molecules with reduced KC, MCSF, enhancing GM-CSF, IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-13, IL-4, IL-13, lymphotactin, RANTES, and also an increase in select inflammatory molecules. This study demonstrates unique differences in the host immune response to a polybacterial periodontal infection with atherosclerotic lesion progression in a mouse model.

  14. Genome sequence of the thermophilic fresh-water bacterium Spirochaeta caldaria type strain (H1T), reclassification of Spirochaeta caldaria, Spirochaeta stenostrepta, and Spirochaeta zuelzerae in the genus Treponema as Treponema caldaria comb. nov., Treponema stenostrepta comb. nov., and Treponema zuelzerae comb. nov., and emendation of the genus Tr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abt, Birte [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Scheuner, Carmen [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lu, Megan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Misra, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Gronow, Sabine [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany

    2013-01-01

    Spirochaeta caldaria Pohlschroeder et al. 1995 is an obligately anaerobic, spiral-shaped bac- terium that is motile via periplasmic flagella. The type strain, H1T, was isolated in 1990 from cyanobacterial mat samples collected at a freshwater hot spring in Oregon, USA, and is of in- terest because it enhances the degradation of cellulose when grown in co-culture with Clos- tridium thermocellum. Here we provide a taxonomic re-evaluation for S. caldaria based on phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA sequences and whole genomes, and propose the reclassi- fication of S. caldaria and two other Spirochaeta species as members of the emended genus Treponema. Whereas genera such as Borrelia and Sphaerochaeta possess well-distinguished genomic features related to their divergent lifestyles, the physiological and functional ge- nomic characteristics of Spirochaeta and Treponema appear to be intermixed and are of little taxonomic value. The 3,239,340 bp long genome of strain H1T with its 2,869 protein-coding and 59 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  15. Evaluation of the HISCL Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay as a Screening Test for Syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jingna; Chen, Qixia; Liu, Qianqian; Rao, Chenli; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Tingting; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lanlan

    2015-07-01

    The resurgence of syphilis in recent years has become a serious threat to public health worldwide, and the serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum remains the most reliable method for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis. This study examined the performance of the recently launched HISCL anti-Treponema pallidum (anti-TP) assay as a screening test for syphilis in a high-volume laboratory. The HISCL anti-TP assay was tested in 300 preselected syphilis-positive samples, 704 fresh syphilis-negative samples, 48 preselected potentially interfering samples, and 30 "borderline" samples and was compared head to head with the commercially available Lumipulse G TP-N. In this study, the HISCL anti-TP assay was in perfect agreement with the applied testing algorithms with an overall agreement of 100%, comparable to that of Lumipulse G TP-N (99.63%). The sensitivity and specificity of the HISCL anti-TP assay were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 98.42% to 100%) and 100% (95% CI, 99.37% to 100%), respectively. Considering the excellent ease of use and automation, high throughput, and its favorable sensitivity and specificity, the HISCL anti-TP assay may represent a new choice for syphilis screening in high-volume laboratories. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Prevention of pathogenic Escherichia coli infection in mice and stimulation of macrophage activation in rats by an oral administration of probiotic Lactobacillus casei I-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida-Fujii, Keiko; Sato, Rieko; Goto, Shingo; Yang, Xiao-Ping; Kuboki, Hiroshi; Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Sato, Michikatsu

    2007-04-01

    Lactobacillus casei I-5 isolated from an alcohol fermentation broth enhanced immunity and prevented pathogenic infection as a probiotic. Mice fed with I-5 cells for 11 days prior to an intraperitoneal challenge with pathogenic Escherichia coli Juhl exhibited a high survival rate compared with the control group. Rats fed with I-5 cells for 10 days significantly increased the phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages. In a cell culture system employing peritoneal macrophages from rats, the I-5 administration activated NF-kappaB stimulated by LPS. It also enhanced LPS-stimulated IL-12 and TNF-alpha production, but not IL-6 production. These results show that L. casei I-5 effectively prevented infection by pathogenic E. coli possibly through the activation of peritoneal macrophages. The strain would be useful to prevent pathogenic microbial infections in humans and farm animals.

  17. A double-edged sword: does highly active antiretroviral therapy contribute to syphilis incidence by impairing immunity to Treponema pallidum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekart, Michael L; Ndifon, Wilfred; Brunham, Robert C; Dushoff, Jonathan; Park, Sang Woo; Rawat, Sanjana; Cameron, Caroline E

    2017-08-01

    Recently, the world has experienced a rapidly escalating outbreak of infectious syphilis primarily affecting men who have sex with men (MSM); many are taking highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV-1 infection. The prevailing hypothesis is that HAART availability and effectiveness have led to the perception among both individuals who are HIV-1 infected and those who are uninfected that HIV-1 transmission has become much less likely, and the effects of HIV-1 infection less deadly. This is expected to result in increased sexual risk-taking, especially unprotected anal intercourse, leading to more non-HIV-1 STDs, including gonorrhoea, chlamydia and syphilis. However, syphilis incidence has increased more rapidly than other STDs. We hypothesise that HAART downregulates the innate and acquired immune responses to Treponema pallidum and that this biological explanation plays an important role in the syphilis epidemic. We performed a literature search and developed a mathematical model of HIV-1 and T. pallidum confection in a population with two risk groups with assortative mixing to explore the consequence on syphilis prevalence of HAART-induced changes in behaviour versus HAART-induced biological effects. Since rising syphilis incidence appears to have outpaced gonorrhoea and chlamydia, predominantly affecting HIV-1 positive MSM, behavioural factors alone may be insufficient to explain the unique, sharp increase in syphilis incidence. HAART agents have the potential to alter the innate and acquired immune responses in ways that may enhance susceptibility to T. pallidum . This raises the possibility that therapeutic and preventative HAART may inadvertently increase the incidence of syphilis, a situation that would have significant and global public health implications. We propose that additional studies investigating the interplay between HAART and enhanced T. pallidum susceptibility are needed. If our hypothesis is correct, HAART should be combined with

  18. Novel Treponema pallidum Recombinant Antigens for Syphilis Diagnostics: Current Status and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Kubanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The recombinant protein technology considerably promoted the development of rapid and accurate treponema-specific laboratory diagnostics of syphilis infection. For the last ten years, the immunodominant recombinant inner membrane lipoproteins are proved to be sensitive and specific antigens for syphilis screening. However, the development of an enlarged T. pallidum antigen panel for diagnostics of early and late syphilis and differentiation of syphilis stages or cured syphilis remains as actual goal of multidisciplinary expertise. Current review revealed novel recombinant antigens: surface-exposed proteins, adhesins, and periplasmic and flagellar proteins, which are promising candidates for the improved syphilis serological diagnostics. The opportunities and limitations of diagnostic usage of these antigens are discussed and the criteria for selection of optimal antigens panel summarized.

  19. Novel Treponema pallidum Recombinant Antigens for Syphilis Diagnostics: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubanov, Aleksey; Runina, Anastassia; Deryabin, Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    The recombinant protein technology considerably promoted the development of rapid and accurate treponema-specific laboratory diagnostics of syphilis infection. For the last ten years, the immunodominant recombinant inner membrane lipoproteins are proved to be sensitive and specific antigens for syphilis screening. However, the development of an enlarged T. pallidum antigen panel for diagnostics of early and late syphilis and differentiation of syphilis stages or cured syphilis remains as actual goal of multidisciplinary expertise. Current review revealed novel recombinant antigens: surface-exposed proteins, adhesins, and periplasmic and flagellar proteins, which are promising candidates for the improved syphilis serological diagnostics. The opportunities and limitations of diagnostic usage of these antigens are discussed and the criteria for selection of optimal antigens panel summarized.

  20. Porphyromonas gingivalis Outer Membrane Vesicles Mediate Coaggregation and Piggybacking of Treponema denticola and Lachnoanaerobaculum saburreum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Grenier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis sheds outer membrane vesicles that contain several virulence factors, including adhesins. In this study, we investigated the ability of P. gingivalis outer membrane vesicles to mediate the coaggregation and piggybacking of Treponema denticola and Lachnoanaerobaculum saburreum. Marked coaggregation between T. denticola and L. saburreum occurred in the presence of P. gingivalis outer membrane vesicles. Sucrose was an effective chemoattractant for the motile species T. denticola. The addition of outer membrane vesicles to a mixture of T. denticola and L. saburreum significantly increased the number of nonmotile bacteria that migrated into a sucrose-filled capillary tube immersed in the bacterial mixture. Under optimal conditions, the number of nonmotile L. saburreum in the capillary tube increased approximately 5-fold, whereas no increase occurred when boiled vesicles were used. This study showed that P. gingivalis outer membrane vesicles mediate coaggregation between T. denticola and L. saburreum and that nonmotile bacteria can be translocated by piggybacking on spirochetes.

  1. The growth of Treponema hyodysenteriae and other porcine intestinal spirochaetes in a liquid medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemcke, R M; Bew, J; Burrows, M R; Lysons, R J

    1979-05-01

    A new simple method for the preparation of a liquid medium containing rabbit serum for the propagation of Treponema hyodysenteriae and other porcine intestinal spirochaetes is described. The medium, when dispensed in shallow layers and sealed under 10 per cent CO2 in nitrogen, had a redox potential not greater than -125mV and an initial pH of about 6.9 when buffered with bicarbonate. Growth of T hyodysenteriae developed more rapidly and viable counts reached higher levels at 42 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. Viable counts increased at least 10,000-fold after two to five days' incubation, depending on the temperature. Growth could be initiated from small inocula that failed to produce colonies on blood agar. Using a 1 per cent inoculum, the medium supported the growth of two strains of T hyodysenteriae through 10 serial passages.

  2. Comparative analyses identified species-specific functional roles in oral microbial genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsute; Gajare, Prasad; Olsen, Ingar; Dewhirst, Floyd E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The advent of next generation sequencing is producing more genomic sequences for various strains of many human oral microbial species and allows for insightful functional comparisons at both intra- and inter-species levels. This study performed in-silico functional comparisons for currently available genomic sequences of major species associated with periodontitis including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (AA), Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG), Treponema denticola (TD), and Tannerella forsythia (TF), as well as several cariogenic and commensal streptococcal species. Complete or draft sequences were annotated with the RAST to infer structured functional subsystems for each genome. The subsystems profiles were clustered to groups of functions with similar patterns. Functional enrichment and depletion were evaluated based on hypergeometric distribution to identify subsystems that are unique or missing between two groups of genomes. Unique or missing metabolic pathways and biological functions were identified in different species. For example, components involved in flagellar motility were found only in the motile species TD, as expected, with few exceptions scattered in several streptococcal species, likely associated with chemotaxis. Transposable elements were only found in the two Bacteroidales species PG and TF, and half of the AA genomes. Genes involved in CRISPR were prevalent in most oral species. Furthermore, prophage related subsystems were also commonly found in most species except for PG and Streptococcus mutans, in which very few genomes contain prophage components. Comparisons between pathogenic (P) and nonpathogenic (NP) genomes also identified genes potentially important for virulence. Two such comparisons were performed between AA (P) and several A. aphrophilus (NP) strains, and between S. mutans + S. sobrinus (P) and other oral streptococcal species (NP). This comparative genomics approach can be readily used to identify functions unique to

  3. Retrospective Review of Treponema pallidum PCR and Serology Results: Are Both Tests Necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brischetto, Anna; Gassiep, Ian; Whiley, David; Norton, Robert

    2018-05-01

    There has been a resurgence of syphilis diagnoses in Australia. We investigated whether our Treponema pallidum PCR test provides any additional diagnostic information over syphilis serology (chemiluminescence immunoassay [CMIA], Treponema pallidum particle agglutination [TPPA] assay, and the rapid plasma reagin [RPR] flocculation test). A retrospective audit of all T. pallidum PCR requests that came through our laboratory from January 2010 to June 2017 was conducted; data collected included age, gender, site of swab, and results from T. pallidum PCR, syphilis serology, and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 PCRs. A total of 441 T. pallidum PCR tests were performed; on average, 3 T. pallidum PCRs per month were requested in 2011, and this rate increased to 17.2 requests per month in 2017. A total of 323 patients had both T. pallidum PCR and syphilis serology performed, with 67% of swabs taken from the genitals. T. pallidum PCR gave positive results for 61/323 (19%) patients; of these 61 patients, 59 (97%) also had positive syphilis serology results ( T. pallidum PCR sensitivity, 68%; specificity, 99%; positive predictive value, 97%; negative predictive value, 89%). Syphilis serology was positive for 91/323 patients (28%); of these 91 patients, 61 (66%) were also T. pallidum PCR positive (syphilis serology sensitivity, 97%; specificity, 88%; positive predictive value, 60%; negative predictive value, 99%). The Cohen's kappa value was 0.74, indicating substantial agreement between the two tests. Our results show that most patients with positive T. pallidum PCR results also had positive syphilis serology. Therefore, T. pallidum PCR adds little clinical value over serology for the diagnosis of syphilis in certain clinical settings. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Failure of PCR to Detect Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue DNA in Blood in Latent Yaws.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marks

    Full Text Available Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is a neglected tropical disease closely related to venereal syphilis and is targeted for eradication by 2020. Latent yaws represents a diagnostic challenge, and current tools cannot adequately distinguish between individuals with true latent infection and individuals who are serofast following successful treatment. PCR on blood has previously been shown to detect T. pallidum DNA in patients with syphilis, suggesting that this approach may be of value in yaws. We performed real-time PCR for Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue on blood samples from 140 children with positive T. pallidum Particle Agglutination (TPPA and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR tests and 7 controls (negative serology, all collected as part of a prospective study of yaws in the Solomon Islands. All samples were also tested by a nested PCR for T. pallidum. 12 patients had clinical evidence of active yaws whilst 128 were considered to have latent yaws. 43 children had high titre rapid plasma reagins (RPRs of ≥1:32. PCR testing with both assays gave negative results in all cases. It is possible that the failure to detect T. pallidum ssp. pertenue in blood reflects lower loads of organism in latent yaws compared to those in latent infection with T. pallidum ssp. pertenue, and/or a lower propensity for haematogenous dissemination in yaws than in syphilis. As the goal of the yaws control programme is eradication, a tool that can differentiate true latent infection from individuals who are serofast would be of value; however, PCR of blood is not that tool.

  5. Failure of PCR to Detect Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue DNA in Blood in Latent Yaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Michael; Katz, Samantha; Chi, Kai-Hua; Vahi, Ventis; Sun, Yongcheng; Mabey, David C; Solomon, Anthony W; Chen, Cheng Y; Pillay, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is a neglected tropical disease closely related to venereal syphilis and is targeted for eradication by 2020. Latent yaws represents a diagnostic challenge, and current tools cannot adequately distinguish between individuals with true latent infection and individuals who are serofast following successful treatment. PCR on blood has previously been shown to detect T. pallidum DNA in patients with syphilis, suggesting that this approach may be of value in yaws. We performed real-time PCR for Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue on blood samples from 140 children with positive T. pallidum Particle Agglutination (TPPA) and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) tests and 7 controls (negative serology), all collected as part of a prospective study of yaws in the Solomon Islands. All samples were also tested by a nested PCR for T. pallidum. 12 patients had clinical evidence of active yaws whilst 128 were considered to have latent yaws. 43 children had high titre rapid plasma reagins (RPRs) of ≥1:32. PCR testing with both assays gave negative results in all cases. It is possible that the failure to detect T. pallidum ssp. pertenue in blood reflects lower loads of organism in latent yaws compared to those in latent infection with T. pallidum ssp. pertenue, and/or a lower propensity for haematogenous dissemination in yaws than in syphilis. As the goal of the yaws control programme is eradication, a tool that can differentiate true latent infection from individuals who are serofast would be of value; however, PCR of blood is not that tool.

  6. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Saini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.

  7. Comparison of subgingival bacterial sampling with oral lavage for detection and quantification of periodontal pathogens by real-time polymerase chain reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutaga, Khalil; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.; Winkel, Edwin G.; van Winkelhoff, Arie J.

    Background: Saliva has been studied for the presence of subgingival pathogens in periodontitis patients. With the anaerobic culture technique, the discrepancy between salivary recovery and subgingival presence has been significant, which makes this approach not suitable for practical use in the

  8. Protection against Syphilis Correlates with Specificity of Antibodies to the Variable Regions of Treponema pallidum Repeat Protein K

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Cecilia A.; Lukehart, Sheila A.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.

    2003-01-01

    Syphilis has been recognized as a disease since the late 1400s, yet there is no practical vaccine available. One impediment to the development of a vaccine is the lack of understanding of multiple reinfections in humans despite the development of robust immune responses during the first episode. It has been shown that the Treponema pallidum repeat protein K (TprK) differs in seven discrete variable (V) regions in isolates and that the antibody response during infection is directed to these V ...

  9. In vitro susceptibility of contagious ovine digital dermatitis associated Treponema spp. isolates to antimicrobial agents in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Joseph W; Clegg, Simon R; Sullivan, Leigh E; Duncan, Jennifer S; Grove-White, Dai H; Carter, Stuart D; Evans, Nicholas J

    2015-12-01

    Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is an important cause of infectious lameness in sheep in the UK and Ireland and has a severe impact on the welfare of affected individuals. The three treponemal phylogroups Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like, Treponema phagedenis-like and Treponema pedis spirochaetes have been associated with clinical CODD lesions and are considered to be a necessary cause of disease. There are scant data on the antimicrobial susceptibility of the treponemes cultured from CODD lesions. The aim of this study was to determine in vitro the miniumum inhibitory concentration/ minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC/MBC) of antimicrobials used in the sheep industry for isolates of the three CODD associated treponeme phylogroups T. medium/T. vincentii-like, T. phagedenis-like and T. pedis. Twenty treponeme isolates; from 19 sheep with clinical CODD lesions. A microdilution method was used to determine in vitro the MIC/MBC of 10 antimicrobial agents for 20 treponeme isolates (five T. medium/T. vincentii-like, 10 T. phagedenis-like and five T. pedis). The antimicrobials tested were penicillin G, amoxicillin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, lincomycin, spectinomycin, tylosin, tildipirosin, tulathromycin and gamithromycin. The treponeme isolates tested showed low MICs and MBCs to all 10 antimicrobials tested. They were most susceptible to gamithromycin and tildipirosin (MIC90: 0.0469 mg/L), and were least susceptible to lincomycin, spectinomycin and oxytetracycline (MIC90: 48 mg/L, 24 mg/L and 3 mg/L, respectively). These data are comparable to in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility data for treponemes cultured from bovine digital dermatitis lesions. Dependent on local licensing, penicillin and tilmicosin appear to be the best candidates for future in vivo studies. © 2015 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the ESVD and ACVD.

  10. Isolation and characterization of Treponema phagedenis-like spirochetes from digital dermatitis lesions in Swedish dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höök Helena

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Digital dermatitis in cattle is an emerging infectious disease. Ulcerative lesions are typically located on the plantar skin between the heel bulbs and adjacent to the coronet. Spirochetes of the genus Treponema are found in high numbers in the lesions and are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to obtain pure cultures of spirochetes from cattle with digital dermatitis and to describe them further. Methods Tissue samples and swabs from active digital dermatitis lesions were used for culturing. Pure isolates were subjected to, molecular typing through 16S rRNA gene sequencing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and an intergenic spacer PCR developed for Treponema spp. as well as API-ZYM and antimicrobial susceptibility tests. The antimicrobial agents used were tiamulin, valnemulin, tylosin, aivlosin, lincomycin and doxycycline. Results Seven spirochete isolates from five herds were obtained. Both 16S rRNA gene sequences, which were identical except for three polymorphic nucleotide positions, and the intergenic spacer PCR indicated that all isolates were of one yet unnamed species, most closely related to Treponema phagedenis. The enzymatic profile and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern were also similar for all isolates. However it was possible to separate the isolates through their PFGE and RAPD banding pattern. Conclusion This is the first report on isolation of a Treponema sp. from cattle with digital dermatitis in Scandinavia. The phylotype isolated has previously been cultured from samples from cattle in the USA and the UK and is closely related to T. phagedenis. While very similar, the isolates in this study were possible to differentiate through PFGE and RAPD indicating that these methods are suitable for subtyping of this phylotype. No antimicrobial resistance could be detected among the tested isolates.

  11. Isolation and characterization of Treponema phagedenis-like spirochetes from digital dermatitis lesions in Swedish dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Märit; Bergsten, Christer; Fernström, Lise-Lotte; Höök, Helena; Johansson, Karl-Erik

    2008-10-20

    Digital dermatitis in cattle is an emerging infectious disease. Ulcerative lesions are typically located on the plantar skin between the heel bulbs and adjacent to the coronet. Spirochetes of the genus Treponema are found in high numbers in the lesions and are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to obtain pure cultures of spirochetes from cattle with digital dermatitis and to describe them further. Tissue samples and swabs from active digital dermatitis lesions were used for culturing. Pure isolates were subjected to, molecular typing through 16S rRNA gene sequencing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and an intergenic spacer PCR developed for Treponema spp. as well as API-ZYM and antimicrobial susceptibility tests. The antimicrobial agents used were tiamulin, valnemulin, tylosin, aivlosin, lincomycin and doxycycline. Seven spirochete isolates from five herds were obtained. Both 16S rRNA gene sequences, which were identical except for three polymorphic nucleotide positions, and the intergenic spacer PCR indicated that all isolates were of one yet unnamed species, most closely related to Treponema phagedenis. The enzymatic profile and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern were also similar for all isolates. However it was possible to separate the isolates through their PFGE and RAPD banding pattern. This is the first report on isolation of a Treponema sp. from cattle with digital dermatitis in Scandinavia. The phylotype isolated has previously been cultured from samples from cattle in the USA and the UK and is closely related to T. phagedenis. While very similar, the isolates in this study were possible to differentiate through PFGE and RAPD indicating that these methods are suitable for subtyping of this phylotype. No antimicrobial resistance could be detected among the tested isolates.

  12. Host-Symbiont Cospeciation of Termite-Gut Cellulolytic Protists of the Genera Teranympha and Eucomonympha and their Treponema Endosymbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Satoko; Shimizu, Daichi; Yuki, Masahiro; Kitade, Osamu; Ohkuma, Moriya

    2018-03-29

    Cellulolytic flagellated protists inhabit the hindgut of termites. They are unique and essential to termites and related wood-feeding cockroaches, enabling host feeding on cellulosic matter. Protists of two genera in the family Teranymphidae (phylum Parabasalia), Eucomonympha and Teranympha, are phylogenetically closely related and harbor intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria from the genus Treponema. In order to obtain a clearer understanding of the evolutionary history of this triplex symbiotic relationship, the molecular phylogenies of the three symbiotic partners, the Teranymphidae protists, their Treponema endosymbionts, and their host termites, were inferred and compared. Strong congruence was observed in the tree topologies of all interacting partners, implying their cospeciating relationships. In contrast, the coevolutionary relationship between the Eucomonympha protists and their endosymbionts was more complex, and evidence of incongruence against cospeciating relationships suggested frequent host switches of the endosymbionts, possibly because multiple Eucomonympha species are present in the same gut community. Similarities in the 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences of the endosymbionts were higher among Teranympha spp. (>99.25% and >97.2%, respectively), whereas those between Teranympha and Eucomonympha were lower (<97.1% and <91.9%, respectively). In addition, the endosymbionts of Teranympha spp. formed a phylogenetic clade distinct from those of Eucomonympha spp. Therefore, the endosymbiont species of Teranympha spp., designated here as "Candidatus Treponema teratonymphae", needs to be classified as a species distinct from the endosymbiont species of Eucomonympha spp.

  13. Local, systemic, demographic, and health-related factors influencing pathogenic yeast spectrum and antifungal drug administration frequency in oral candidiasis: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Moritz; Schmidt-Westhausen, Andrea Maria; Strietzel, Frank-Peter

    2016-09-01

    In order to identify oral candidiasis patients being at risk of carrying potentially drug-resistant Candida, the aim of the study was to detect local, systemic, demographic, and health-related factors influencing (I) yeast spectrum composition and (II) antifungal administration frequency. Additionally, the aim was to investigate (III) species shift occurrence. Data from 798 patients (496 females, 302 males; mean age 59.7) with oral candidiasis diagnosed based on positive clinical and microbial findings (species identification and CFU count) between 2006 and 2011 were retrospectively analyzed using Pearson's chi(2) test and regression analysis. Among 958 isolates, Candida albicans was the most frequently detected (76.8 %). Also, species intrinsically resistant to azoles were frequently isolated (15.8 and 17.7 % of isolates and patients). (I) Infections only caused by C. albicans were significantly associated with the use of inhalation steroids (p = 0.001) and antibiotics (p = 0.04), super-infection of lichen planus (p = 0.002), and the absence of removable dentures (p oral candidiasis remains C. albicans. Nevertheless, therapeutic problems may be caused by the frequent presence of species intrinsically resistant to azoles, especially in patients wearing dentures.

  14. In vitro and in vivo activities of sedecamycin against Treponema hyodysenteriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, T; Suenaga, I; Narukawa, N; Yamazaki, T

    1988-01-01

    Sedecamycin (lankacidin A), one of the lankacidin-group antibiotics, showed potent activity against Treponema hyodysenteriae. The MICs of sedecamycin against 79 field isolates of T. hyodysenteriae ranged from 0.78 to 12.5 micrograms/ml, the MIC for 90% of the strains tested (MIC90) being 3.13 micrograms/ml. The protective and therapeutic effects of sedecamycin were compared with those of carbadox, tiamulin, and lincomycin against experimental infection with T. hyodysenteriae in mice. The protective effect of sedecamycin was similar to that of carbadox, two times more potent than that of tiamulin, and three times greater than that of lincomycin. In the therapeutic test, sedecamycin showed activity similar to that of carbadox and was two times more active than both tiamulin and lincomycin. At doses of 10 mg or more of sedecamycin per kg, the recurrence of shedding of T. hyodysenteriae into the feces of mice was not detected for at least 8 weeks postmedication. Images PMID:3377458

  15. A 16-kilodalton lipoprotein of the outer membrane of Serpulina (Treponema) hyodysenteriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, W; Sellwood, R; Lysons, R J

    1992-08-01

    Serpulina (Treponema) hyodysenteriae P18A and VS1 were extracted by using the detergent Triton X-114 and separated into detergent and aqueous phases. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western immunoblot analysis confirmed that a membrane-associated 16-kDa antigen was hydrophobic, since it was found in the detergent phase. A 45-kDa antigen partitioned into the aqueous phase, suggesting that it was hydrophilic and may be of periplasmic origin. When spirochetes were grown in the presence of [3H]palmitic acid, a predominant 16-kDa antigen was labeled; from the results of immunoprecipitation experiments, this antigen appeared to be the same as that recognized by both polyclonal and monoclonal antisera to a previously described 16-kDa antigen. This antigen was proteinase K sensitive and was not a component of the lipopolysaccharide, which, although [3H]palmitate labeled, was resistant to proteinase K digestion. The most probable explanation is that the 16-kDa antigen is a membrane-associated, surface-exposed, immunodominant lipoprotein.

  16. Structural, Bioinformatic, and In Vivo Analyses of Two Treponema pallidum Lipoproteins Reveal a Unique TRAP Transporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deka, Ranjit K.; Brautigam, Chad A.; Goldberg, Martin; Schuck, Peter; Tomchick, Diana R.; Norgard, Michael V. (NIH); (UTSMC)

    2012-05-25

    Treponema pallidum, the bacterial agent of syphilis, is predicted to encode one tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporter (TRAP-T). TRAP-Ts typically employ a periplasmic substrate-binding protein (SBP) to deliver the cognate ligand to the transmembrane symporter. Herein, we demonstrate that the genes encoding the putative TRAP-T components from T. pallidum, tp0957 (the SBP), and tp0958 (the symporter), are in an operon with an uncharacterized third gene, tp0956. We determined the crystal structure of recombinant Tp0956; the protein is trimeric and perforated by a pore. Part of Tp0956 forms an assembly similar to those of 'tetratricopeptide repeat' (TPR) motifs. The crystal structure of recombinant Tp0957 was also determined; like the SBPs of other TRAP-Ts, there are two lobes separated by a cleft. In these other SBPs, the cleft binds a negatively charged ligand. However, the cleft of Tp0957 has a strikingly hydrophobic chemical composition, indicating that its ligand may be substantially different and likely hydrophobic. Analytical ultracentrifugation of the recombinant versions of Tp0956 and Tp0957 established that these proteins associate avidly. This unprecedented interaction was confirmed for the native molecules using in vivo cross-linking experiments. Finally, bioinformatic analyses suggested that this transporter exemplifies a new subfamily of TPATs (TPR-protein-associated TRAP-Ts) that require the action of a TPR-containing accessory protein for the periplasmic transport of a potentially hydrophobic ligand(s).

  17. Glucose- but not rice-based oral rehydration therapy enhances the production of virulence determinants in the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Kühn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite major attempts to prevent cholera transmission, millions of people worldwide still must address this devastating disease. Cholera research has so far mainly focused on the causative agent, the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, or on disease treatment, but rarely were results from both fields interconnected. Indeed, the treatment of this severe diarrheal disease is mostly accomplished by oral rehydration therapy (ORT, whereby water and electrolytes are replenished. Commonly distributed oral rehydration salts also contain glucose. Here, we analyzed the effects of glucose and alternative carbon sources on the production of virulence determinants in the causative agent of cholera, the bacterium Vibrio cholerae during in vitro experimentation. We demonstrate that virulence gene expression and the production of cholera toxin are enhanced in the presence of glucose or similarly transported sugars in a ToxR-, TcpP- and ToxT-dependent manner. The virulence genes were significantly less expressed if alternative non-PTS carbon sources, including rice-based starch, were utilized. Notably, even though glucose-based ORT is commonly used, field studies indicated that rice-based ORT performs better. We therefore used a spatially explicit epidemiological model to demonstrate that the better performing rice-based ORT could have a significant impact on epidemic progression based on the recent outbreak of cholera in Haiti. Our results strongly support a change of carbon source for the treatment of cholera, especially in epidemic settings.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of Uncaria tomentosa against oral human pathogens Atividade antimicrobiana da Uncaria tomentosa sobre patógenos da cavidade bucal humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Alberto Ccahuana-Vasquez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Uncaria tomentosa is considered a medicinal plant used over centuries by the peruvian population as an alternative treatment for several diseases. Many microorganisms usually inhabit the human oral cavity and under certain conditions can become etiologic agents of diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of different concentrations of Uncaria tomentosa on different strains of microorganisms isolated from the human oral cavity. Micropulverized Uncaria tomentosa was tested in vitro to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC on selected microbial strains. The tested strains were oral clinical isolates of Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus spp., Candida albicans, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The tested concentrations of Uncaria tomentosa ranged from 0.25-5% in Müeller-Hinton agar. Three percent Uncaria tomentosa inhibited 8% of Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 52% of S. mutans and 96% of Staphylococcus spp. The tested concentrations did not present inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. It could be concluded that micropulverized Uncaria tomentosa presented antimicrobial activity on Enterobacteriaceae, S. mutans and Staphylococcus spp. isolates.Uncaria tomentosa é uma planta medicinal usada por vários séculos pela população peruana como alternativa de tratamento para diversas doenças. Muitos microrganismos que usualmente não habitam a cavidade bucal humana podem se tornar agentes etiológicos de doenças sob certas condições. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana de diferentes concentrações de Uncaria tomentosa sobre diferentes cepas de microrganismos isolados de cavidades bucais humanas. Uncaria tomentosa micropulverizada foi testada in vitro para determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM em isolados microbianos selecionados. Cepas de Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus spp., Candida albicans, Enterobacteriaceae e

  19. Multiple primary syphilis on the lip, nipple-areola and penis: An immunohistochemical examination of Treponema pallidum localization using an anti-T. pallidum antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Hidetsugu; Takahashi, Misaki; Kato, Keiichi; Oharaseki, Toshiaki; Mukai, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Primary syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum usually develops after sexual contact as an initial solitary sclerosis or hard chancre in the genital region. We describe a case of primary syphilis at three sites in genital and extragenital regions of a man who had sex with men. A 29-year-old man visited our hospital for skin lesions on his lower lip, nipple-areola and penis. A positive syphilis serological test for rapid plasma reagin had a titer of 1:16; the patient also tested positive for specific antibodies against T. pallidum, with a cut-off index of 39.0. Histopathological examination of a nipple-areola biopsy specimen revealed a thickened epidermis and dense infiltration of inflammatory cells extending from the upper dermal layers to the deep dermis. The inflammatory cells were composed of abundant lymphocytes, plasma cells, histiocytes and neutrophils. Immunohistochemical staining for T. pallidum using an anti-T. pallidum antibody showed numerous spirochetes in the lower portion of the epidermis, scattered inside inflammatory cell infiltrate and perivascular sites throughout the dermis. Based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed with primary syphilis. Treatment with oral amoxicillin hydrate was started. Five days after starting treatment, a diffuse maculopapular rash (syphilitic roseola) occurred on his trunk and extremities. Perivascular cuffing due to T. pallidum was present throughout the dermis in the biopsy specimen of a localized lesion of primary syphilis. Moreover, syphilitic roseola, which indicates generalized dissemination of T. pallidum, developed during the course of treatment for primary syphilis. Therefore, we considered perivascular cuffing to be indicative of the dissemination phase. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  20. Genetic characteristics and pathogenic mechanisms of periodontal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, A; Chen, C; Honma, K; Li, C; Settem, R P; Sharma, A

    2014-05-01

    Periodontal disease is caused by a group of bacteria that utilize a variety of strategies and molecular mechanisms to evade or overcome host defenses. Recent research has uncovered new evidence illuminating interesting aspects of the virulence of these bacteria and their genomic variability. This paper summarizes some of the strategies utilized by the major species - Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Porphyromonas gingivalis - implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Whole-genome sequencing of 14 diverse A. actinomycetemcomitans strains has revealed variations in their genetic content (ranging between 0.4% and 19.5%) and organization. Strikingly, isolates from human periodontal sites showed no genomic changes during persistent colonization. T. forsythia manipulates the cytokine responses of macrophages and monocytes through its surface glycosylation. Studies have revealed that bacterial surface-expressed O-linked glycans modulate T-cell responses during periodontal inflammation. Periodontal pathogens belonging to the "red complex" consortium express neuraminidases, which enables them to scavenge sialic acid from host glycoconjugates. Analysis of recent data has demonstrated that the cleaved sialic acid acts as an important nutrient for bacterial growth and a molecule for the decoration of bacteria surfaces to help evade the host immune attack. In addition, bacterial entry into host cells is also an important prerequisite for the lifestyle of periodontal pathogens such as P. gingivalis. Studies have shown that, after its entry into the cell, this bacterium uses multiple sorting pathways destined for autophagy, lysosomes, or recycling pathways. In addition, P. gingivalis releases outer membrane vesicles which enter cells via endocytosis and cause cellular functional impairment.

  1. The association between subgingival periodontal pathogens and systemic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winning, Lewis; Patterson, Christopher C; Cullen, Kathy M; Stevenson, Kathryn A; Lundy, Fionnuala T; Kee, Frank; Linden, Gerard J

    2015-09-01

    To investigate associations between periodontal disease pathogens and levels of systemic inflammation measured by C-reactive protein (CRP). A representative sample of dentate 60-70-year-old men in Northern Ireland had a comprehensive periodontal examination. Men taking statins were excluded. Subgingival plaque samples were analysed by quantitative real time PCR to identify the presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia. High-sensitivity CRP (mg/l) was measured from fasting blood samples. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed using log-transformed CRP concentration as the dependent variable, with the presence of each periodontal pathogen as predictor variables, with adjustment for various potential confounders. A total of 518 men (mean age 63.6 SD 3.0 years) were included in the analysis. Multiple regression analysis showed that body mass index (p C-reactive protein. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Antibacterial Properties of Tebipenem Pivoxil Tablet, a New Oral Carbapenem Preparation against a Variety of Pathogenic Bacteria in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Yao

    2016-01-01

    the sepsis-model mice as compared with the control. Furthermore, the survival rate in the tebipenem pivoxil tablet group was remarkably higher than that in the meropenem group in all the sepsis mouse models tested. In the sepsis model challenged with Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213, Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical strain, respectively, tebipenem pivoxil tablet (100 mg/kg displayed a better protective effect than tebipenem pivoxil granules (100 mg/kg. Conclusions: In summary, tebipenem pivoxil displays an excellent antibacterial activity against a variety of pathogenic bacteria in vitro. Importantly, tebipenem pivoxil tablet significantly protects the sepsis mice challenged with various pathogenic bacteria, which may provide a potential approach to treating bacterial sepsis in clinic.

  3. A longitudinal evaluation of Treponema pallidum PCR testing in early syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shields Matt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Syphilis is a growing public health problem among men who have sex with men (MSM globally. Rapid and accurate detection of syphilis is vital to ensure patients and their contacts receive timely treatment and reduce ongoing transmission. Methods We evaluated a PCR assay for the diagnosis of Treponema pallidum using swabs of suspected early syphilis lesions in longitudinally assessed MSM. Results We tested 260 MSM for T pallidum by PCR on 288 occasions: 77 (26.7% had early syphilis that was serologically confirmed at baseline or within six weeks, and 211 (73.3% remained seronegative for syphilis. Of 55 men with primary syphilis, 49 were PCR positive, giving a sensitivity of 89.1% (95% CI: 77.8%-95.9% and a specificity of 99.1% (95% CI: 96.5%-99.9%. Of 22 men with secondary syphilis, 11 were PCR positive, giving a sensitivity of 50% (95% CI: 28.2%-71.8% and a specificity of 100% (95% CI: 66.4%-71.8%. Of the 77 syphilis cases, 43 (56% were HIV positive and the sensitivity and specificity of the PCR test did not vary by HIV status. The PCR test was able to detect up to five (10% primary infections that were initially seronegative, including one HIV positive man with delayed seroconversion to syphilis (72 to 140 days and one HIV positive man who did not seroconvert to syphilis over 14 months follow-up. Both men had been treated for syphilis within a week of the PCR test. Conclusions T pallidum PCR is a potentially powerful tool for the early diagnosis of primary syphilis, particularly where a serological response has yet to develop.

  4. Performance Evaluation of a Novel Chemiluminescence Assay Detecting Treponema Pallidum Antibody as a Syphilis Screening Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qixia; An, Jingna; Rao, Chenli; Wang, Tingting; Li, Dongdong; Feng, Shu; Tao, Chuanmin

    2016-01-01

    Syphilis is a major concern to global public health with increasing incidence. So its screening test should have sufficient sensitivity and specificity. We evaluated the performance of the Lumipulse G TP-N assay detection for syphilis screening and compared it with the InTec ELISA test kit for TP, which is widely used. Samples of several patient groups including 133 clinical and serologically characterized syphilitic sera, 175 samples containing potentially interfering agents, and 2290 unselected samples submitted for routine screening were detected by both the Lumipulse G TP-N assay and the InTec ELISA test kit for TP. Inconsistent samples were confirmed by RecomLine Treponema IgG, IgM immunoblot. Coefficient of variations of the Lumipulseo G TP-N assay at both levels were below 5% and of the InTec ELISA test kit for TP both over 5%. The sensitivity of the Lumipulse G TP-N assay and the InTec ELISA test kit for TP were 100% for all stages of syphilis. The two methods had consistent analytical specificity of 100% (95% CI: 97.21 - 100.00), while the clinical specificity was 100% (95% CI: 99.79 - 100.00) and 99.82% (95% CI: 99.51 - 99.94), respectively. Between them, Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.455 and kappa value was 0.986. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the Lumipulse G TP-N assay was higher than the InTec ELISA test kit for TP (sensitivity: 100.0 versus 99.5, specificity: 100.0 versus 99.8). The automated Lumipulse G TP-N assay demonstrated excellent diagnostic sensitivity and specificity when evaluated as a screening test for syphilis. Thus, it can be an alternative to the treponemal screening test.

  5. Antimicrobial Effect of Jasminum grandiflorum L. and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Extracts Against Pathogenic Oral Microorganisms--An In Vitro Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Batra, Mehak; Sharda, Archana J; Asawa, Kailash; Sanadhya, Sudhanshu; Daryani, Hemasha; Ramesh, Gayathri

    2015-01-01

    To assess and compare the antimicrobial potential and determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Jasminum grandiflorum and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis extracts as potential anti-pathogenic agents in dental caries. Aqueous and ethanol (cold and hot) extracts prepared from leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using the agar well diffusion method. The lowest concentration of every extract considered as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for both test organisms. Statistical analysis was performed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). At lower concentrations, hot ethanol Jasminum grandiflorum (10 μg/ml) and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (25 μg/ml) extracts were found to have statistically significant (P≤0.05) antimicrobial activity against S. mutans and L. acidophilus with MIC values of 6.25 μg/ml and 25 μg/ml, respectively. A proportional increase in their antimicrobial activity (zone of inhibition) was observed. Both extracts were found to be antimicrobially active and contain compounds with therapeutic potential. Nevertheless, clinical trials on the effect of these plants are essential before advocating large-scale therapy.

  6. Supernatants from oral epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts modulate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 promoter activation induced by periodontopathogens in monocytes/macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, O A; Ebersole, J L; Huang, C B

    2010-04-01

    Bacterial and host cell products during coinfections of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1-positive (HIV-1(+)) patients regulate HIV-1 recrudescence in latently infected cells (e.g. T cells, monocytes/macrophages), impacting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) failure and progression of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A high frequency of oral opportunistic infections (e.g. periodontitis) in HIV-1(+) patients has been demonstrated; however, their potential to impact HIV-1 exacerbation is unclear. We sought to determine the ability of supernatants derived from oral epithelial cells (OKF4) and human gingival fibroblasts (Gin-4) challenged with periodontal pathogens, to modulate the HIV-1 promoter activation in monocytes/macrophages. BF24 monocytes/macrophages transfected with the HIV-1 promoter driving the expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) were stimulated with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, or Treponema denticola in the presence of supernatants from OKF4 or Gin4 cells either unstimulated or previously pulsed with bacteria. CAT levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and cytokine production was evaluated by Luminex beadlyte assays. OKF4 and Gin4 supernatants enhanced HIV-1 promoter activation particularly related to F. nucleatum challenge. An additive effect was observed in HIV-1 promoter activation when monocytes/macrophages were simultaneously stimulated with gingival cell supernatants and bacterial extracts. OKF4 cells produced higher levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukins -6 and -8 in response to F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis. Preincubation of OKF4 supernatants with anti-GM-CSF reduced the additive effect in periodontopathogen-induced HIV-1 promoter activation. These results suggest that soluble mediators produced by gingival resident cells in response to periodontopathogens could contribute to HIV-1 promoter activation in monocytes

  7. Molecular analysis of 16S rRNA genes identifies potentially periodontal pathogenic bacteria and archaea in the plaque of partially erupted third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, J M; Campbell, J H; Bhandari, A R; Jesionowski, A M; Vickerman, M M

    2012-07-01

    Small subunit rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were used to identify cultivable and uncultivable microorganisms present in the dental plaque of symptomatic and asymptomatic partially erupted third molars to determine the prevalence of putative periodontal pathogens in pericoronal sites. Template DNA prepared from subgingival plaque collected from partially erupted symptomatic and asymptomatic mandibular third molars and healthy incisors was used in polymerase chain reaction with broad-range oligonucleotide primers to amplify 16S rRNA bacterial and archaeal genes. Amplicons were cloned, sequenced, and compared with known nucleotide sequences in online databases to identify the microorganisms present. Two thousand three hundred two clones from the plaque of 12 patients carried bacterial sequences from 63 genera belonging to 11 phyla, including members of the uncultivable TM7, SR1, and Chloroflexi, and difficult-to-cultivate Synergistetes and Spirochaetes. Dialister invisus, Filifactor alocis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Prevotella denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola, which have been associated with periodontal disease, were found in significantly greater abundance in pericoronal compared with incisor sites. Dialister invisus and F nucleatum were found in greater abundance in sites exhibiting clinical symptoms. The archaeal species, Methanobrevibacter oralis, which has been associated with severe periodontitis, was found in 3 symptomatic patients. These findings have provided new insights into the complex microbiota of pericoronitis. Several bacterial and archaeal species implicated in periodontal disease were recovered in greater incidence and abundance from the plaque of partially erupted third molars compared with incisors, supporting the hypothesis that the pericoronal region may provide a favored niche for periodontal pathogens in otherwise healthy mouths. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and

  8. Oral candidosis in lichen planus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Camilla; Kieffer-Kristensen, L; Reibel, J

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen in humans, but other Candida species cause candidosis. Candida species display significant differences in their susceptibility to antimycotic drugs. Patients with symptomatic or erythematous oral lichen planus (OLP) commonly have...

  9. Comparisons of subgingival microbial profiles of refractory periodontitis, severe periodontitis, and periodontal health using the human oral microbe identification microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Ana Paula V; Boches, Susan K; Cotton, Sean L; Goodson, J Max; Kent, Ralph; Haffajee, Anne D; Socransky, Sigmund S; Hasturk, Hatice; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Dewhirst, Floyd; Paster, Bruce J

    2009-09-01

    This study compared the subgingival microbiota of subjects with refractory periodontitis (RP) to those in subjects with treatable periodontitis (GRs = good responders) or periodontal health (PH) using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). At baseline, subgingival plaque samples were taken from 47 subjects with periodontitis and 20 individuals with PH and analyzed for the presence of 300 species by HOMIM. The subjects with periodontitis were classified as having RP (n = 17) based on mean attachment loss (AL) and/or more than three sites with AL >or=2.5 mm after scaling and root planing, surgery, and systemically administered amoxicillin and metronidazole or as GRs (n = 30) based on mean attachment gain and no sites with AL >or=2.5 mm after treatment. Significant differences in taxa among the groups were sought using the Kruskal-Wallis and chi(2) tests. More species were detected in patients with disease (GR or RP) than in those without disease (PH). Subjects with RP were distinguished from GRs or those with PH by a significantly higher frequency of putative periodontal pathogens, such as Parvimonas micra (previously Peptostreptococcus micros or Micromonas micros), Campylobacter gracilis, Eubacterium nodatum, Selenomonas noxia, Tannerella forsythia (previously T. forsythensis), Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Treponema spp., and Eikenella corrodens, as well as unusual species (Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, TM7 spp. oral taxon [OT] 346/356, Bacteroidetes sp. OT 272/274, Solobacterium moorei, Desulfobulbus sp. OT 041, Brevundimonas diminuta, Sphaerocytophaga sp. OT 337, Shuttleworthia satelles, Filifactor alocis, Dialister invisus/pneumosintes, Granulicatella adiacens, Mogibacterium timidum, Veillonella atypica, Mycoplasma salivarium, Synergistes sp. cluster II, and Acidaminococcaceae [G-1] sp. OT 132/150/155/148/135) (P spp. cluster I, Capnocytophaga sputigena, Cardiobacterium hominis, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Lautropia mirabilis

  10. Identification of periodontal pathogens in atherosclerotic vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Larsen, Tove; Christiansen, Natalia

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that periodontitis may be associated with presence of atherosclerosis. DNA from periodontal pathogens has been detected in atherosclerotic lesions, but viable oral bacteria have not yet been isolated from atherosclerotic plaques. The purpose of the present study...... was to determine if viable oral bacteria could be isolated from atherosclerotic lesions and if DNA from periodontal pathogens could be detected by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques....

  11. Detection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum from Skin Lesions, Serum, and Cerebrospinal Fluid in an Infant with Congenital Syphilis after Clindamycin Treatment of the Mother during Pregnancy▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woznicová, Vladana; Šmajs, David; Wechsler, Dan; Matějková, Petra; Flasarová, Magdalena

    2007-01-01

    We report here a case of congenital syphilis in a newborn after clindamycin treatment in pregnancy. Using PCR detection of tmpC (TP0319) and DNA sequencing of the genes TP0136 and TP0548, DNA sequences identical to Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum strain SS14 were detected in the infant's skin lesions, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:17151205

  12. Oral dirofilariasis

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    Mahija Janardhanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis affecting animals can rarely cause infections in human beings through the accidental bite of potential vectors. The resulting infection in man, known as zoonotic filariasis occur worldwide. Human dirofilariasis, the most common zoonotic filariasis, is caused by the filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Dirofilarial worms, which are recognized as pathogenic in man can cause nodular lesions in the lung, subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity or eyes. Oral dirofilariasis is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. We report an interesting case of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens involving buccal mucosa in a patient who presented with a facial swelling. The clinical features, diagnostic issues and treatment aspects are discussed. This paper stresses the importance of considering dirofilariasis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous swelling of the face, especially in areas where it is endemic.

  13. Oral dirofilariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Mahija; Rakesh, S; Savithri, Vindhya

    2014-01-01

    Filariasis affecting animals can rarely cause infections in human beings through the accidental bite of potential vectors. The resulting infection in man, known as zoonotic filariasis occur worldwide. Human dirofilariasis, the most common zoonotic filariasis, is caused by the filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Dirofilarial worms, which are recognized as pathogenic in man can cause nodular lesions in the lung, subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity or eyes. Oral dirofilariasis is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. We report an interesting case of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens involving buccal mucosa in a patient who presented with a facial swelling. The clinical features, diagnostic issues and treatment aspects are discussed. This paper stresses the importance of considering dirofilariasis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous swelling of the face, especially in areas where it is endemic.

  14. Oral microbiota and cancer

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    Jukka H. Meurman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several oral micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor oral health and the prevalence of oral and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in oral microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control oral microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion.

  15. Pathogen intelligence

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    Michael eSteinert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different species inhabit different sensory worlds and thus have evolved diverse means of processing information, learning and memory. In the escalated arms race with host defense, each pathogenic bacterium not only has evolved its individual cellular sensing and behaviour, but also collective sensing, interbacterial communication, distributed information processing, joint decision making, dissociative behaviour, and the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity necessary for epidemiologic success. Moreover, pathogenic populations take advantage of dormancy strategies and rapid evolutionary speed, which allow them to save co-generated intelligent traits in a collective genomic memory. This review discusses how these mechanisms add further levels of complexity to bacterial pathogenicity and transmission, and how mining for these mechanisms could help to develop new anti-infective strategies.

  16. Periodontal pathogen levels in adolescents before, during, and after fixed orthodontic appliance therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Michelle J; Riolo, Christopher S; Bayirli, Burcu; Riolo, Michael L; Van Tubergen, Elizabeth A; Kulbersh, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to document and investigate changes in periodontal pathogen levels before, during, and after orthodontic treatment in adolescents. DNA gene probe analysis was used to quantify the levels of 8 periodontal pathogens before, during, and after treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances in 190 concurrently treated adolescent orthodontic patients. The 8 pathogens examined were Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (AA), Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG), Prevotella intermedia (PI), Tannerella forsythia (TF), Eikenella corrodens (EC), Fusobacterium nucleatum (FN), Treponema denticola (TD), and Campylobacter rectus (CR). Chi-square tests were used to determine whether the percentages of subjects with high counts significantly changed over time. Logistic regression analyses were also performed to derive the relative risk of higher counts of pathogenic bacteria with fixed appliances at the various time intervals studied. For 6 (PI, TF, EC, FN, TD, CR) of the 8 pathogens, the percentages of subjects with high pathogen counts increased significantly after 6 months of fixed appliance treatment, but these returned to pretreatment levels by 12 months of orthodontic treatment. No pathogen level was significantly higher after 12 months of orthodontic treatment, and orthodontic treatment was found to be significantly protective for half of the pathogens (EC, FN, TD, CR) posttreatment. Orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances does not increase the risk of high levels of these periodontal pathogens.

  17. Comparisons of Subgingival Microbial Profiles of Refractory Periodontitis, Severe Periodontitis and Periodontal Health using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Ana Paula V.; Boches, Susan K.; Cotton, Sean L.; Goodson, J. Max; Kent, Ralph; Haffajee, Anne D.; Socransky, Sigmund S.; Hasturk, Hatice; Van Dyke, Thomas E.; Paster, Bruce J.

    2013-01-01

    Aim This study compared the subgingival microbiota of subjects with refractory periodontitis (RP) to those in subjects with treatable periodontitis (GR) or periodontal health (PH) using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Methods At baseline, subgingival plaque samples were taken from 47 periodontitis and 20 PH individuals, and analyzed for the presence of 300 species by HOMIM. The periodontitis subjects were classified as RP (n=17) based on mean attachment loss (AL) and/or >3 sites with AL ≥2.5 mm after SRP, surgery and systemically administered amoxicillin and metronidazole or as GR (n=30) based on mean attachment gain and no sites with AL ≥2.5 mm after treatment. Significant differences in taxa among groups were sought using the Kruskal Wallis and Chi-square tests. Results More species were detected in diseased patients (GR or RP) than those without disease (PH). RP subjects were distinguished from GR and PH by a significantly high frequency of putative periodontal pathogens such as, Parvimonas micra, Campylobacter gracilis, Eubacterium nodatum, Selenomonas noxia, Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Treponema spp., Eikenella corrodens, as well as “unusual” species (Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, TM7 spp. oral taxon (OT) 346/356, Bacteroidetes spp. OT 272/274, Solobacterium moorei, Desulfobulbus sp. OT 041, Brevundimonas diminuta, Sphaerocytophaga sp. OT 337, Shuttleworthia satelles, Filifactor alocis, Dialister invisus/pneumosintes, Granulicatella adiacens, Mogibacterium tidmidum, Veillonella atypica, Mycoplasma salivarium, Synergistes sp. cluster II, Acidaminococcaceae [G-1] sp. OT 132/150/155/148/135) [pspp. cluster I, Capnocytophaga sputigena, Cardiobacterium hominis, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Lautropia mirabilis, Propionibacterium propionicum, Rothia dentocariosa/mucilagenosa, Streptococcus sanguinis (p<0.05). Conclusion RP patients present a distinct microbial profile compared to patients in the

  18. Land application of sewage sludge: Pathogen issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    Diseases transmitted via the faecal-oral exposure route cause severe gastroenteric disorders, and large numbers of causative organisms are discharged with the faecal matter of infected individuals. For this reason, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or helminths, are always found in sewage sludge. If not properly treated for use in agriculture, sludge can be a source of pathogenic contamination. Radiation is an attractive method to reduce the numbers of microorganisms in sewage sludge. Routine examination for pathogens is not practised nor recommended because complicated and costly procedures are involved. Instead, an indicator organism is usually assayed and enumerated. In this paper, methods are discussed for the investigation of pathogens in sewage sludge. (author)

  19. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...

  20. First Report of the 23S rRNA Gene A2058G Point Mutation Associated With Macrolide Resistance in Treponema pallidum From Syphilis Patients in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Angel A; Matos, Nelvis; Blanco, Orestes; Rodríguez, Islay; Stamm, Lola Virginia

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the presence of macrolide-resistant Treponema pallidum subtypes in Havana, Cuba. Samples from 41 syphilis patients were tested for T. pallidum 23S rRNA gene mutations. Twenty-five patients (61%) harbored T. pallidum with the A2058G mutation, which was present in all 8 subtypes that were identified. The A2059G mutation was not detected.

  1. Results of Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay to Identify Urethritis Pathogens

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    Mehmet Sarıer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR test applied to identify the pathogens in male patients who attended our urology clinic with a pre-diagnosis of urethritis related with sexual intercourse. Materials and Methods: In this study, we included a total of 91 male patients, who sought medical advice in our clinic between August 2015 and October 2016 due to complaints of urethral discharge, dysuria and urethral itching, having a visible urethral discharge during the physical examination or a positive leukocyte esterase test (Combur-Test®-Roche in the first urine sample. In the urethral swab samples of these patients, urethritis pathogens were searched with a multiplex PCR test. The multiplex PCR kit, which is able to identify nine pathogens and produced by PathoFinder® (Holland, was used in the process. The pathogens that could be detected by the kit were Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Gardnerella vaginalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Treponema pallidum, and Candida albicans. Results: The average age of the subjects was 35.1 (19-57 years. Sixty one out of 91 patients (67% were found to have a pathogen in the urethral swab sample. In 45 patients (49.4%, only one pathogen, in 12 (13.1% - two different pathogens and in 4 (4.3% patients, 3 different pathogens were detected. The pathogens found were as follows: Ureaplasma urealyticum in 22 patients (27.1%, Gardnerella vaginalis in 15 (18.6%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 13 (16.1%, Mycoplasma genitalium (10 patients; 12.3%, Mycoplasma hominis (8 patients; 9.9%, Chlamydia trachomatis (8 patients; 9.9%, Trichomonas vaginalis (3 patients; 3.8%, and Candida albicans (2 patients; 2.4%. None of the patients were identified with Treponema pallidum. None of the pathogens were identified in 30 patients (32.9% whose samples were examined by PCR method. Conclusion

  2. Foodborne pathogens

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    Thomas Bintsis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne pathogens are causing a great number of diseases with significant effects on human health and economy. The characteristics of the most common pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens, Cronobacter sakazakii, Esherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Staphylococccus aureus, Vibrio spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica, viruses (Hepatitis A and Noroviruses and parasites (Cyclospora cayetanensis, Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis, together with some important outbreaks, are reviewed. Food safety management systems based on to classical hazard-based approach has been proved to be inefficient, and risk-based food safety approach is now suggested from leading researchers and organizations. In this context, a food safety management system should be designed in a way to estimate the risks to human health from food consumption and to identify, select and implement mitigation strategies in order to control and reduce these risks. In addition, the application of suitable food safety education programs for all involved people in the production and consumption of foods is suggested.

  3. PCR-based identification of selected pathogens associated with endodontic infections in deciduous and permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogulu, Dilsah; Uzel, Atac; Oncag, Ozant; Eronat, Cemal

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of the selected pathogens in samples from deciduous and permanent tooth root canals by using PCR method and to determine the association of these organisms with clinical symptoms. A total of 145 children, 5 to 13 years old, were involved in this study. The presence of selected pathogens (Actinomyces israelii, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Streptococcus intermedius, Treponema denticola, Parvimonas micra, Tannerella forsythensis, Enterococcus faecium, Prevotella melaninogenica) in infected root canals was studied using PCR. T. denticola (P = .012, .02) and E. faecalis (P = .012, .04) were highly associated with periapical radiolucency and previous pain, while P. gingivalis was associated with tenderness to percussion in both deciduous and permanent teeth (P = .01, .015). The results of the present study confirm that certain species of microorganisms are associated with clinical signs and symptoms of endodontic disease in both deciduous and permanent teeth.

  4. Comparison of a Recombinant-antigen Enzyme Immunoassay with Treponema pallidum Hemagglutination Test for Serological Confirmation of Syphilis

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    Rodríguez Islay

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A recombinant-antigen enzyme immunoassay (EIA, BioSCREEN TM anti-Treponema pallidum, was compared favorably with the T. pallidum hemagglutination test, in the detection of specific antibodies in different groups of sera from patients with primary (n = 38, secondary (n = 10, early latent (n = 28 and congenital syphilis (n = 2, patients with leptospirosis ( n= 8, infectious mononucleosis (n = 7, hepatitis (n = 9, diabetes mellitus (n = 11, rheumatoid arthritis (n = 13, leprosy (n = 11, tuberculosis (n = 9, HIV/Aids ( n= 12, systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 4, rheumatic fever (n = 3, old-persons (n = 9, pregnant women (n = 29 and blood donors (n = 164. The coincidence between them was 95.1%. The sensitivity and specificity of the EIA were 93.3% and 95.5%, respectively. Fifteen serum specimens belonging to old-persons, pregnant women, blood donors, and patients with human leptospirosis, hepatitis, diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis and rheumatic fever gave false-positive results by Venereal Disease Research Laboratory and/or Rapid Plasma Reagin. The EIA can be used as alternative method for the serological confirmation of syphilis.

  5. Protection against syphilis correlates with specificity of antibodies to the variable regions of Treponema pallidum repeat protein K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Cecilia A; Lukehart, Sheila A; Van Voorhis, Wesley C

    2003-10-01

    Syphilis has been recognized as a disease since the late 1400s, yet there is no practical vaccine available. One impediment to the development of a vaccine is the lack of understanding of multiple reinfections in humans despite the development of robust immune responses during the first episode. It has been shown that the Treponema pallidum repeat protein K (TprK) differs in seven discrete variable (V) regions in isolates and that the antibody response during infection is directed to these V regions. Immunization with TprK confers significant protection against infection with the homologous strain. We hypothesize that the antigenic diversity of TprK is involved in immune evasion, which contributes to the lack of heterologous protection. Here, using the rabbit model, we show a correlation between limited heterologous protection and tprK diversity in the challenge inoculum. We demonstrate that antibody responses to the V regions of one TprK molecule show limited cross-reactivity with heterologous TprK V regions.

  6. Sensitive detection of Treponema pallidum DNA from the whole blood of patients with syphilis by the nested PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuini; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Liu, Biao; Wang, Yuanyuan; Gong, Weiming; Qian, Yihong; Guan, Zhifang; Lu, Haikong; Gu, Xin; Shi, Mei; Zhou, Pingyu

    2018-05-09

    The aim of this work was to investigate the application of the nested PCR assay for the detection of Treponema pallidum (TP) DNA from the blood of patients with different stages of syphilis. In this study, a nested PCR method targeting the Tpp47 and polA genes (Tpp47-Tp-PCR and polA-Tp-PCR) was developed to detect TP-DNA in whole blood samples collected from 262 patients with different stages of syphilis (84 primary syphilis, 97 secondary syphilis, and 81 latent syphilis patients). The PCR assay detected T. pallidum DNA in 53.6% and 62.9% of the patients with primary and secondary syphilis, respectively, which was much higher than the detection levels in patients with latent syphilis (7.4%) (both p PCR in the early phase of the latent infection. Thus, blood RPR titers were correlated with the blood T. pallidum burden, but the correlations varied with primary and secondary syphilis. The results indicate that nested PCR is a sensitive method for detecting blood TP-DNA and is especially useful for detecting early syphilis including primary syphilis and secondary syphilis. The findings also suggest that the PCR assay may be used to complement other methods to enhance the diagnosis of syphilis.

  7. Oral health disparities in older adults: oral bacteria, inflammation, and aspiration pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannapieco, Frank A; Shay, Kenneth

    2014-10-01

    Poor oral hygiene has been suggested to be a risk factor for aspiration pneumonia in the institutionalized and disabled elderly. Control of oral biofilm formation in these populations reduces the numbers of potential respiratory pathogens in the oral secretions, which in turn reduces the risk for pneumonia. Together with other preventive measures, improved oral hygiene helps to control lower respiratory infections in frail elderly hospital and nursing home patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhanced Molecular Typing of Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum Strains From 4 Italian Hospitals Shows Geographical Differences in Strain Type Heterogeneity, Widespread Resistance to Macrolides, and Lack of Mutations Associated With Doxycycline Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacani, Lorenzo; Ciccarese, Giulia; Puga-Salazar, Christian; Dal Conte, Ivano; Colli, Laura; Cusini, Marco; Ramoni, Stefano; Delmonte, Sergio; DʼAntuono, Antonietta; Gaspari, Valeria; Drago, Francesco

    2018-04-01

    Although syphilis rates have been relatively high in Italy for more than 15 years, no data on the molecular types of Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum circulating in this country are yet available. Likewise, no data on how widespread is resistance to macrolide or tetracycline antibiotics in these strains exist. Such data would, however, promote comprehensive studies on the molecular epidemiology of syphilis infections in Italy and inform future interventions aiming at syphilis control in this and other European countries. Swabs from oral, genital, cutaneous, or anal lesions were obtained from 60 syphilis patients attending dermatology clinics in Milan, Turin, Genoa, and Bologna. Molecular typing of T. pallidum DNA was performed to provide a snapshot of the genetic diversity of strains circulating in Northern Italy. Samples were also screened for mutations conferring resistance to macrolides and tetracyclines. T. pallidum DNA was detected in 88.3% (53/60) of the specimens analyzed. Complete and partial T. pallidum typing data were obtained for 77.3% (41/53) and 15.0% (8/53) of samples, respectively, whereas 4 samples could not be typed despite T. pallidum DNA being detected. The highest strain type heterogeneity was seen in samples from Bologna and Milan, followed by Genoa. Minimal diversity was detected in samples from Turin, despite the highest number of typeable samples collected there. Resistance to macrolides was detected in 94.3% (50/53) of the strains, but no known mutations associated with tetracycline resistance were found. Genetic diversity among T. pallidum strains circulating in Northern Italy varies significantly among geographical areas regardless of physical distance. Resistance to macrolides is widespread.

  9. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalaimalai Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy.

  10. Prevalencia de la infección por el VIH y de Treponema pallidum en mujeres trabajadoras sexuales de Argentina Prevalence of HIV infection and Treponema pallidum in Argentine female sex workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles Pando

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH y de Treponema pallidum en mujeres trabajadoras sexuales (MTS de Argentina, y describir las características sociodemográficas de este grupo de población asociadas a la transmisión del VIH. MÉTODOS: Entre octubre de 2006 y diciembre de 2009 se realizó un estudio de corte transversal y un muestreo por conveniencia en MTS mayores de 18 años de nueve ciudades de Argentina. Un total de 1 255 mujeres participaron en este estudio. Se capacitó especialmente a un grupo de MTS para convocar a las otras mujeres a participar en talleres y a realizarse el diagnóstico del VIH y T. pallidum. RESULTADOS: Las características socio-epidemiológicas más destacadas de las MTS incluyeron un alto porcentaje de abuso sexual, escaso uso de preservativos con parejas sexuales no comerciales y un alto porcentaje de situaciones de violencia. La prevalencia del VIH fue de 2% (25/1 255, intervalo de confianza de 95% [IC95%]:1,2-2,8 y la de T. pallidum, de 22,4% (245/ 1 094, IC95%: 19,9-24,9. En las MTS de la ciudad de La Plata, la prevalencia del VIH fue significativamente más baja comparada con las participantes del resto del país (0,3% vs 2,7%, P OBJECTIVE: Estimate the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and Treponema pallidum in Argentine female sex workers (FSW, and describe the sociodemographic characteristics of this population group associated with HIV transmission. METHODS: A cross-sectional study and convenience sampling were conducted in FSW over 18 years of age in nine Argentine cities from October 2006 to December 2009. A total of 1 255 women participated in this study. A group of FSW was especially trained to invite other women to participate in the workshops and undergo screening for HIV and T. pallidum. RESULTS: The most noteworthy socioepidemiological characteristics of the FSW included a high percentage of sexual abuse, limited

  11. Screening for Sexually Transmitted Infection Pathogens in Semen Samples

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    RW Peeling

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of sexually transmitted infection (STI pathogens from an infected donor to the recipient of a semen donation in assisted conception may result not only in acute infection but also in long-term reproductive complications or adverse outcomes of pregnancy, including infection of the offspring. Screening for bacterial STI pathogens, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is strongly recommended because these pathogens can cause serious reproductive complications in the recipients of semen donations and infection in their offspring. Screening for these pathogens should be performed using the most sensitive methods, such as nucleic acid amplified tests. False-negative results due to inhibitory substances in the semen sample should be monitored using amplification controls. Where specimen transport is not a problem and culture facilities are available, N gonorrhoeae can also be detected by culture. Laboratories performing screening should subscribe to proficiency programs and have strict quality controls. Although Trichomonas vaginalis, group B streptococcus and genital mycoplasmas have been associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy, the frequent finding of these organisms in healthy individuals brings into question the validity of mandatory inclusion of these organisms in the screening panel. Although viral STI pathogens and Treponema pallidum -- the causative agent of syphilis -- may be detected in semen, their presence may be more sensitively detected through antibody testing of the donor. Screening donors for HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis by serology is uniformly recommended in all of the guidelines, but the value of screening either donors or semen samples for cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex viruses and human papilloma viruses is less clear.

  12. Diagnostic approaches in unsuspected oral lesions of syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, C S; Saturno, J L; de Sousa, S C O M; da Silveira, F R X

    2014-12-01

    Awareness of the increased prevalence of syphilis is essential for early diagnosis and treatment, and to prevent the spread of the disease. Although serological studies are the primary tool used to confirm the diagnosis of secondary syphilis, biopsy of unsuspected oral lesions is not uncommon in the routine oral pathology laboratory. In these cases, histopathological characteristics are likely to indicate the possibility of syphilis, and an immunohistochemical reaction can confirm it. The aim of the present study was to highlight the histological features and test the efficacy of immunohistochemistry in the detection of Treponema pallidum in oral lesions biopsied with the assumption of a non-syphilitic disease. Thirty-nine tissue samples from patients for whom the possibility of syphilis was suggested on the basis of histopathological findings, were retrieved from the surgical oral pathology service files and submitted to immunohistochemical staining for T. pallidum. The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Eighteen of the tissue samples were positive for T. pallidum. Following this, the contributing clinicians were contacted to check whether they had asked for serological examinations when the diagnostic report was received; for all 18 positive cases, the clinicians confirmed that the patients had tested positive at that time. This study shows the importance of clinical-pathological correlation and the value of immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of unsuspected syphilis. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. PCR methodology as a valuable tool for identification of endodontic pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, José F; Rôças, Isabela N

    2003-07-01

    This paper reviews the principles of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology, its application in identification of endodontic pathogens and the perspectives regarding the knowledge to be reached with the use of this highly sensitive, specific and accurate methodology as a microbial identification test. Studies published in the medical, dental and biological literature. Evaluation of published epidemiological studies examining the endodontic microbiota through PCR methodology. PCR technology has enabled the detection of bacterial species that are difficult or even impossible to culture as well as cultivable bacterial strains showing a phenotypically divergent or convergent behaviour. Moreover, PCR is more rapid, much more sensitive, and more accurate when compared with culture. Its use in endodontics to investigate the microbiota associated with infected root canals has expanded the knowledge on the bacteria involved in the pathogenesis of periradicular diseases. For instance, Tannerella forsythensis (formerly Bacteroides forsythus), Treponema denticola, other Treponema species, Dialister pneumosintes, and Prevotella tannerae were detected in infected root canals for the first time and in high prevalence when using PCR analysis. The diversity of endodontic microbiota has been demonstrated by studies using PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing of the PCR products. Moreover, other fastidious bacterial species, such as Porphyromonas endodontalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis and some Eubacterium spp., have been reported in endodontic infections at a higher prevalence than those reported by culture procedures.

  14. The relationship between turbidity of mouth-rinsed water and oral health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Susumu; Ueno, Masayuki; Takehara, Sachiko; Pham, Thuy Anh Vu; Hakuta, Chiyoko; Morishima, Seiji; Shinada, Kayoko; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between turbidity of mouth rinsed water and oral health status such as dental and periodontal conditions, oral hygiene status, flow rate of saliva and oral bacteria. Subjects were 165 patients who visited the Dental Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University. Oral health status, including dental and periodontal conditions, oral hygiene status and flow rate of saliva, was clinically examined. The turbidity was measured with a turbidimeter. Quantification of Fusobacterium spp, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola and total bacteria levels was performed using real-time PCR. The Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis were used to explore the associations between the turbidity and oral health parameters. The turbidity showed significant correlations with the number of decayed teeth and deep pockets, the plaque index, extent of tongue coating and Fusobacterium spp, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, T. denticola and total bacteria levels. In a multiple regression model, the turbidity was negatively associated with the flow rate of saliva and positively associated with the total number of bacteria (p turbidity of mouth rinsed water could be used as an indicator to evaluate oral health condition and the amount of bacteria in the oral cavity. In addition, the turbiditimeter appeared as a simple and objective device for screening abnormality of oral health condition at chair side as well as community-based research.

  15. Oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... National Cancer Institute. PDQ lip and oral cavity cancer ... September 25, 2015. www.cancer.gov/types/head-and-neck/hp/lip- ...

  16. Oral Ketamine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral Ketamine: A Four-years Experience in ... Key words: Oral Ketamine, Premedication and Oncology. .... form of a letter published in 19835. .... Acta. Anaesthesiol Scandinavica, 1998; 42: 750-758. 4. Murray P. Substitution of another opioid ...

  17. [Evaluation of the Recombinant Protein Tp0965 of Treponema Pallidum as Perspective Antigen for the Improved Serological Diagnosis of Syphilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runina, A V; Starovoitova, A S; Deryabin, D G; Kubanov, A A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGRAUND. Treponemal tests based on the detection of antibodies against the Treponema pallidum antigens are the most specific methods for serological diagnosis of syphilis. Due to the inability to cultivate this bacterium in vitro, the most promising sources of antigens for diagnostics are recombinant proteins of T. pallidum. Evaluation of the analytical value of certain T. pallidum proteins is the approach to improve sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of syphilis serological tests, including possibilities of differential diagnosis of various forms of the disease. The aim of the research was to evaluate the analytical values (sensitivity and specificity) of recombinant protein Tp0965 of T. pallidum as a candidate antigen for serological diagnosis of syphilis. tp0965 gene was cloned into the expression vector pET28a and the construct was used for the transformation of E. coli BL-21 (DE3) cells and further expression and purification of the recombinant protein. The collected protein was used as T. pallidum antigen for serum analysis (ELISA) of groups of patients with various forms of syphilis (n=84) and the group of healthy donors (n = 25). High frequency of positive ELISA results was shown with serum of patients with syphilis, compared to the group of healthy donors. The sensitivity of serological reactions using recombinant protein Tp0965 was 98.8%, specificity--87.5%. The highest sensitivity (100%) was detected in the groups of patients with primary, secondary and early latent syphilis while in the group of patients with late latent syphilis it decreased to 95.2%. We concluded that due to its specificity T. pallidum recombinant protein Tp0965 can be used as a novel perspective antigen for development of syphilis serological diagnostic assays (for primary and early latent forms).

  18. Rapid Treponema pallidum clearance from blood and ulcer samples following single dose benzathine penicillin treatment of early syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, Craig; Jones, Rachael; McClure, Myra; Taylor, Graham

    2015-02-01

    Currently, the efficacy of syphilis treatment is measured with anti-lipid antibody tests. These can take months to indicate cure and, as a result, syphilis treatment trials require long periods of follow-up. The causative organism, Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum), is detectable in the infectious lesions of early syphilis using DNA amplification. Bacteraemia can likewise be identified, typically in more active disease. We hypothesise that bacterial clearance from blood and ulcers will predict early the standard serology-measured treatment response and have developed a qPCR assay that could monitor this clearance directly in patients with infectious syphilis. Patients with early syphilis were given an intramuscular dose of benzathine penicillin. To investigate the appropriate sampling timeframe samples of blood and ulcer exudate were collected intensively for T. pallidum DNA (tpp047 gene) and RNA (16S rRNA) quantification. Sampling ended when two consecutive PCRs were negative. Four males were recruited. The mean peak level of T. pallidum DNA was 1626 copies/ml whole blood and the mean clearance half-life was 5.7 hours (std. dev. 0.53). The mean peak of 16S rRNA was 8879 copies/ml whole blood with a clearance half-life of 3.9 hours (std. dev. 0.84). From an ulcer, pre-treatment, 67,400 T. pallidum DNA copies and 7.08 x 107 16S rRNA copies were detected per absorbance strip and the clearance half-lives were 3.2 and 4.1 hours, respectively. Overall, T. pallidum nucleic acids were not detected in any sample collected more than 56 hours (range 20-56) after treatment. All patients achieved serologic cure. In patients with active early syphilis, measuring T. pallidum levels in blood and ulcer exudate may be a useful measure of treatment success in therapeutic trials. These laboratory findings need confirmation on a larger scale and in patients receiving different therapies.

  19. Clinical Evaluation of Fully Automated Elecsys® Syphilis Assay for the Detection of Antibodies of Treponema pallidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; An, Jingna; Wang, Tingting; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lanlan

    2016-11-01

    The resurgence of syphilis in recent years has become a serious threat to the public health worldwide, and the serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum (TP) remains the most reliable method for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis. The performance of the Elecsys ® Syphilis assay, a brand new electrochemiluminescene immunoassay (ECLIA), was assessed by large amounts of samples in this study. In comparison with InTec assay, the Elecsys ® Syphilis assay was evaluated in 146 preselected samples from patients with syphilis, 1803 clinical routine samples, and 175 preselected samples from specific populations with reportedly increased rates of false-positive syphilis test results. Discrepancy samples must be investigated by Mikrogen Syphilis recomline assay. There was an overall agreement of 99.58% between two assays (Kappa = 0.975). The sensitivity and specificity of the Elecsys ® Syphilis assay were 100.0% (95% CI, 96.8-100.0%) and 99.8% (95% CI, 99.5-100.0%), respectively. The Elecsys syphilis assay displays better sensitivity (100%), specificity (99.8%), PPV (98.7%), and NPV (100%) in 2124 samples enrolled, compared with the InTec assay. Considering the excellent ease of use and automation, high throughput, and its superior sensitivity, especially in primary syphilis, the Elecsys ® Syphilis assay could represent an outstanding choice for screening of syphilis in high-volume laboratories. However, more attention was still needed, or the results must be confirmed by other treponemal immunoassays. The new Elecsys ® Syphilis assay is applied to patients with malignant neoplasm or HIV infection. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. PATHOGENIC POTENTIALS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrolyte and haematological parameters in rabbits infected with pathogenic isolates of Escherichia coli from rural water supplies in Rivers State, Nigeria, where monitored. Rabbits were orally infected with suspension containing 3x107 cfu /ml of Escherichia coli to induce diarrhoea, and the electrolyte (sodium, potassium ...

  1. Host defense mechanisms in oral mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    菅原, 俊二

    2003-01-01

    It is speculated that more than 500 bacterial species reside in the oral cavity. Some cause periodontitis and dental caries, an understanding of which requires examination of innate immunity in the oral cavity. Oral mucosal cells such as epithelial cells and fibroblasts are thought to act as a physical barrier against invasion by pathogenic organisms, but they also can produce inflammatory cytokines and express adhesion molecules, resulting in control of neutrophil and T cell infiltration. Th...

  2. Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI) database contains emerging pathogens information from the local Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The EPI software...

  3. Clinical Comparison of the Treponema pallidum CAPTIA Syphilis-G Enzyme Immunoassay with the Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody Absorption Immunoglobulin G Assay for Syphilis Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Halling, V. W.; Jones, M. F.; Bestrom, J. E.; Wold, A. D.; Rosenblatt, J. E.; Smith, T. F.; Cockerill, F. R.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, a treponema-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme immunoassay (EIA), the CAPTIA Syphilis-G (Trinity Biotech, Jamestown, N.Y.), has become available as a diagnostic test for syphilis. A total of 89 stored sera previously tested by the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) IgG assay were evaluated by the CAPTIA EIA. The FTA-ABS IgG procedure was performed by technologists unblinded to results of rapid plasmid reagin (RPR) testing of the same specimens. Borderline CAPTI...

  4. Seroprevalence of the Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses and Treponema pallidum at the Beijing General Hospital from 2010 to 2014: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoxia Xu

    Full Text Available The hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency viruses and Treponema pallidum are important causes of infectious diseases concern to public health.Between 2010 and 2014, we used an automated chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay to detect the hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency viruses as well as Treponema pallidum (the rapid plasma regain test was used in 2010-2011. Positive human immunodeficiency virus tests were confirmed via western blotting.Among 416,130 subjects, the seroprevalences for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and Treponema pallidum were 5.72%, 1.23%, 0.196%, and 0.76%, respectively. Among 671 patients with positive human immunodeficiency virus results, 392 cases were confirmed via western blotting. Hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus infections were more frequent in men (7.78% and 0.26%, respectively than in women (4.45% and 0.021%, respectively. The hepatitis B and C virus seroprevalences decreased from 6.21% and 1.58%, respectively, in 2010, to 5.37% and 0.988%, respectively, in 2014. The human immunodeficiency virus seroprevalence increased from 0.04% in 2010 to 0.17% in 2014, and was elevated in the Infectious Disease (2.65%, Emergency (1.71%, and Dermatology and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (1.12% departments. The specificity of the human immunodeficiency virus screening was 71.4%. The false positive rates for the Treponema pallidum screening tests increased in patients who were 60-70 years old. The co-infection rates for the hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency viruses were 0.47% in hepatitis C virus-positive patients and 7.33% in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients.During 2010-2014, hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus infections were more frequent among men at our institution. Although the seroprevalences of hepatitis B and C viruses decreased, the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection increased (with

  5. Comparison of periodontal pathogens between cats and their owners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij-Vrieling, H E; van der Reijden, W A; Houwers, D J; de Wit, W E A J; Bosch-Tijhof, C J; Penning, L C; van Winkelhoff, A J; Hazewinkel, H A W

    2010-01-01

    The periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia are strongly associated with periodontal disease and are highly prevalent in humans with periodontitis. Porphyromonas and Tannerella spp. have also been isolated from the oral cavity of cats. The oral microflora in animals

  6. Sífilis secundaria en cavidad oral: Reporte de dos casos Oral secondary syphilis: Two cases report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M G Díaz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La sífilis es una enfermedad infecciosa humana causada por una bacteria: el Treponema pallidum. La enfermedad es transmitida por contacto directo a través de lesiones durante el estadio primario y secundario, por vía transplacentaria intrauterina o a través del canal uterino; puede afectar cualquier órgano de la economía causando un número infinito de presentaciones clínicas. La sífilis secundaria cursa con manifestaciones mucocutáneas características y eventual sintomatología general. La presentación clínica de nuestros dos pacientes es singular ya que solo poseían lesiones en la cavidad oral. La respuesta al tratamiento instaurado fue buena.Syphilis is a human infectious disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. The disease is transmitted by direct contact with a lesion during the primary or secondary stages, in utero by the transplacental route, or during delivery as the baby passes through an infected canal. The bacterium may infect any organ, causing an infinite number of clinical presentations. Secondary syphilis is characterized by mucocutaneous lesions, a flulike syndrome, and generalized adenopathy. Hepatosplenomegaly may be present. The oral mucosa is the second most frequent site of luetic lesions; the genital areas are the most frequent. In the oral cavity, the most characteristic lesion is a whitish mucosal patch, normally located on the lips, tongue, or palate, which is extremely contagious. The differential diagnosis of this lesion may include oral squamous carcinoma, leukoplakia, candidosis, lichen planus, and hairy oral leukoplakia. Definitive diagnosis is based on clinical information and completed by laboratory examinations even the biopsy can help us. With the diagnosis of secondary syphilis treatment with penicillin G benzathine must be started. We present two cases of secondary syphilis with oral lesions only; the first one, a man with macule covered with a whitish membrane on palate mucosa and a

  7. Pathogenesis of oral FIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Miller

    Full Text Available Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV is the feline analogue of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and features many hallmarks of HIV infection and pathogenesis, including the development of concurrent oral lesions. While HIV is typically transmitted via parenteral transmucosal contact, recent studies prove that oral transmission can occur, and that saliva from infected individuals contains significant amounts of HIV RNA and DNA. While it is accepted that FIV is primarily transmitted by biting, few studies have evaluated FIV oral infection kinetics and transmission mechanisms over the last 20 years. Modern quantitative analyses applied to natural FIV oral infection could significantly further our understanding of lentiviral oral disease and transmission. We therefore characterized FIV salivary viral kinetics and antibody secretions to more fully document oral viral pathogenesis. Our results demonstrate that: (i saliva of FIV-infected cats contains infectious virus particles, FIV viral RNA at levels equivalent to circulation, and lower but significant amounts of FIV proviral DNA; (ii the ratio of FIV RNA to DNA is significantly higher in saliva than in circulation; (iii FIV viral load in oral lymphoid tissues (tonsil, lymph nodes is significantly higher than mucosal tissues (buccal mucosa, salivary gland, tongue; (iv salivary IgG antibodies increase significantly over time in FIV-infected cats, while salivary IgA levels remain static; and, (v saliva from naïve Specific Pathogen Free cats inhibits FIV growth in vitro. Collectively, these results suggest that oral lymphoid tissues serve as a site for enhanced FIV replication, resulting in accumulation of FIV particles and FIV-infected cells in saliva. Failure to induce a virus-specific oral mucosal antibody response, and/or viral capability to overcome inhibitory components in saliva may perpetuate chronic oral cavity infection. Based upon these findings, we propose a model of oral FIV pathogenesis

  8. Rapid Treponema pallidum clearance from blood and ulcer samples following single dose benzathine penicillin treatment of early syphilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Tipple

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the efficacy of syphilis treatment is measured with anti-lipid antibody tests. These can take months to indicate cure and, as a result, syphilis treatment trials require long periods of follow-up. The causative organism, Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum, is detectable in the infectious lesions of early syphilis using DNA amplification. Bacteraemia can likewise be identified, typically in more active disease. We hypothesise that bacterial clearance from blood and ulcers will predict early the standard serology-measured treatment response and have developed a qPCR assay that could monitor this clearance directly in patients with infectious syphilis. Patients with early syphilis were given an intramuscular dose of benzathine penicillin. To investigate the appropriate sampling timeframe samples of blood and ulcer exudate were collected intensively for T. pallidum DNA (tpp047 gene and RNA (16S rRNA quantification. Sampling ended when two consecutive PCRs were negative. Four males were recruited. The mean peak level of T. pallidum DNA was 1626 copies/ml whole blood and the mean clearance half-life was 5.7 hours (std. dev. 0.53. The mean peak of 16S rRNA was 8879 copies/ml whole blood with a clearance half-life of 3.9 hours (std. dev. 0.84. From an ulcer, pre-treatment, 67,400 T. pallidum DNA copies and 7.08 x 107 16S rRNA copies were detected per absorbance strip and the clearance half-lives were 3.2 and 4.1 hours, respectively. Overall, T. pallidum nucleic acids were not detected in any sample collected more than 56 hours (range 20-56 after treatment. All patients achieved serologic cure. In patients with active early syphilis, measuring T. pallidum levels in blood and ulcer exudate may be a useful measure of treatment success in therapeutic trials. These laboratory findings need confirmation on a larger scale and in patients receiving different therapies.

  9. Further evaluation of the characteristics of Treponema pallidum-specific IgM antibody in syphilis serofast reaction patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Rong; Zheng, Wei-Hong; Tong, Man-Li; Fu, Zuo-Gen; Liu, Gui-Li; Fu, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Dai-Wei; Yang, Tian-Ci; Liu, Li-Li

    2011-11-01

    Syphilis serofast reaction (SSR) is common in clinical work. From June 2005 to May 2009, 1208 syphilis patients were chosen for research by the Xiamen Center of Clinical Laboratory in China. Serologic tests were performed with toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST) and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA). Then, T. pallidum-specific IgM antibody (TP-IgM) was detected with fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-Abs) and TPPA. In this study, patients were divided into the following experimental groups according to the results of TRUST and TPPA: (1) the SSR group consisted of 411 cases with (+) TRUST and (+) TPPA, and without clinical manifestations after 1 year of recommended syphilis treatment; (2) the serum cure group, which was further subdivided into group A consisting of 251cases with (-) TRUST and (+) TPPA; (3) group B consisting of 546 cases with (-) TRUST and (-) TPPA; and (4) the blood donor control group which consisted of 100 cases. We demonstrated that a total of 136 cases (33.09%) of 411 SSR patients were TP-IgM positive by TPPA, and this percentage was markedly higher than that in serum cure group A (9.16%). FTA-Abs analyses revealed similar results. All samples in serum cure group B and the control group were TP-IgM negative, which is identical to our previous report. The present study also indicated that the TP-IgM positive rate was not significantly different among patients with different ages, genders, and clinical phases after 1 year of recommended therapy. From the total of 1208 syphilis patients, 289 were randomly selected for TP-DNA detection by fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the positive rate of TP-DNA was 32.53%, which was slightly higher than that of FTA-Abs TP-IgM, and no statistically significant difference by chi-square tests, indicating the TP-DNA result is preferably consistent with FTA-Abs and supporting our deduction that TP-IgM could be used as a serologic marker for the relapse and

  10. Superoxide reductase from the syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum: crystallization and structure determination using soft X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Silva, Teresa; Trincão, José; Carvalho, Ana L.; Bonifácio, Cecília; Auchère, Françoise; Moura, Isabel; Moura, José J. G.; Romão, Maria J., E-mail: mromao@dq.fct.unl.pt [REQUIMTE Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2005-11-01

    Superoxide reductase is a non-haem iron-containing protein involved in resistance to oxidative stress. The oxidized form of the protein has been crystallized and its three-dimensional structure solved. A highly redundant X-ray diffraction data set was collected on a rotating-anode generator using Cu Kα X-ray radiation. Four Fe atoms were located in the asymmetric unit corresponding to four protein molecules arranged as a dimer of homodimers. Superoxide reductase is a 14 kDa metalloprotein containing a catalytic non-haem iron centre [Fe(His){sub 4}Cys]. It is involved in defence mechanisms against oxygen toxicity, scavenging superoxide radicals from the cell. The oxidized form of Treponema pallidum superoxide reductase was crystallized in the presence of polyethylene glycol and magnesium chloride. Two crystal forms were obtained depending on the oxidizing agents used after purification: crystals grown in the presence of K{sub 3}Fe(CN){sub 6} belonged to space group P2{sub 1} (unit-cell parameters a = 60.3, b = 59.9, c = 64.8 Å, β = 106.9°) and diffracted beyond 1.60 Å resolution, while crystals grown in the presence of Na{sub 2}IrCl{sub 6} belonged to space group C2 (a = 119.4, b = 60.1, c = 65.6 Å, β = 104.9°) and diffracted beyond 1.55 Å. A highly redundant X-ray diffraction data set from the C2 crystal form collected on a copper rotating-anode generator (λ = 1.542 Å) clearly defined the positions of the four Fe atoms present in the asymmetric unit by SAD methods. A MAD experiment at the iron absorption edge confirmed the positions of the previously determined iron sites and provided better phases for model building and refinement. Molecular replacement using the P2{sub 1} data set was successful using a preliminary trace as a search model. A similar arrangement of the four protein molecules could be observed.

  11. Superoxide reductase from the syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum: crystallization and structure determination using soft X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos-Silva, Teresa; Trincão, José; Carvalho, Ana L.; Bonifácio, Cecília; Auchère, Françoise; Moura, Isabel; Moura, José J. G.; Romão, Maria J.

    2005-01-01

    Superoxide reductase is a non-haem iron-containing protein involved in resistance to oxidative stress. The oxidized form of the protein has been crystallized and its three-dimensional structure solved. A highly redundant X-ray diffraction data set was collected on a rotating-anode generator using Cu Kα X-ray radiation. Four Fe atoms were located in the asymmetric unit corresponding to four protein molecules arranged as a dimer of homodimers. Superoxide reductase is a 14 kDa metalloprotein containing a catalytic non-haem iron centre [Fe(His) 4 Cys]. It is involved in defence mechanisms against oxygen toxicity, scavenging superoxide radicals from the cell. The oxidized form of Treponema pallidum superoxide reductase was crystallized in the presence of polyethylene glycol and magnesium chloride. Two crystal forms were obtained depending on the oxidizing agents used after purification: crystals grown in the presence of K 3 Fe(CN) 6 belonged to space group P2 1 (unit-cell parameters a = 60.3, b = 59.9, c = 64.8 Å, β = 106.9°) and diffracted beyond 1.60 Å resolution, while crystals grown in the presence of Na 2 IrCl 6 belonged to space group C2 (a = 119.4, b = 60.1, c = 65.6 Å, β = 104.9°) and diffracted beyond 1.55 Å. A highly redundant X-ray diffraction data set from the C2 crystal form collected on a copper rotating-anode generator (λ = 1.542 Å) clearly defined the positions of the four Fe atoms present in the asymmetric unit by SAD methods. A MAD experiment at the iron absorption edge confirmed the positions of the previously determined iron sites and provided better phases for model building and refinement. Molecular replacement using the P2 1 data set was successful using a preliminary trace as a search model. A similar arrangement of the four protein molecules could be observed

  12. Land application of sewage sludge: Pathogen issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, A C [Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Univ. of California at Riverside, Riverside, CA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Diseases transmitted via the faecal-oral exposure route cause severe gastroenteric disorders, and large numbers of causative organisms are discharged with the faecal matter of infected individuals. For this reason, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or helminths, are always found in sewage sludge. If not properly treated for use in agriculture, sludge can be a source of pathogenic contamination. Radiation is an attractive method to reduce the numbers of microorganisms in sewage sludge. Routine examination for pathogens is not practised nor recommended because complicated and costly procedures are involved. Instead, an indicator organism is usually assayed and enumerated. In this paper, methods are discussed for the investigation of pathogens in sewage sludge. (author). 8 refs, 3 tabs.

  13. Oral Hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Marie Toftdahl; Villadsen, Dorte Buxbom

    The aim of the study was to explore how adults with schizo- phrenia describe their lived experiences with oral hygiene. 23 adults with schizophrenia were interviewed within a period of four months in late 2015. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using the Reflective Lifeworld Research...... health care professionals and adults with schizophrenia in order to improve oral health, well-being and recovery....

  14. Oral Hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Dorte Buxbom; Sørensen, Marie Toftdahl

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore how adults with schizophrenia describe their lived experiences with oral hygiene. 23 adults with schizophrenia were interviewed within a period of four months in late 2015. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using the Reflective Lifeworld Research ph...... health care professionals and adults with schizophrenia in order to improve oral health, well-being and recovery....

  15. Gorilla gorilla gorilla gut: a potential reservoir of pathogenic bacteria as revealed using culturomics and molecular tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittar, Fadi; Keita, Mamadou B; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Peeters, Martine; Delaporte, Eric; Raoult, Didier

    2014-11-24

    Wild apes are considered to be the most serious reservoir and source of zoonoses. However, little data are available about the gut microbiota and pathogenic bacteria in gorillas. For this propose, a total of 48 fecal samples obtained from 21 Gorilla gorilla gorilla individuals (as revealed via microsatellite analysis) were screened for human bacterial pathogens using culturomics and molecular techniques. By applying culturomics to one index gorilla and using specific media supplemented by plants, we tested 12,800 colonies and identified 147 different bacterial species, including 5 new species. Many opportunistic pathogens were isolated, including 8 frequently associated with human diseases; Mycobacterium bolletii, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium botulinum. The genus Treponema accounted for 27.4% of the total reads identified at the genus level via 454 pyrosequencing. Using specific real-time PCR on 48 gorilla fecal samples, in addition to classical human pathogens, we also observed the fastidious bacteria Bartonella spp. Borrelia spp., Coxiella burnetii and Tropheryma whipplei in the gorilla population. We estimated that the prevalence of these pathogens vary between 4.76% and 85.7%. Therefore, gorillas share many bacterial pathogens with humans suggesting that they could be a reservoir for their emergence.

  16. Analysis of bacterial metagenomes from the Southwestern Gulf of Mexico for pathogens detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo-Hinojosa, Wendy; Pardo-López, Liliana

    2017-07-31

    Little is known about the diversity of bacteria in the Southwestern Gulf of Mexico. The aim of the study illustrated in this perspective was to search for the presence of bacterial pathogens in this ecosystem, using metagenomic data recently generated by the Mexican research group known as the Gulf of Mexico Research Consortium. Several genera of bacteria annotated as pathogens were detected in water and sediment marine samples. As expected, native and ubiquitous pathogenic bacteria genera such as Burkolderia, Halomonas, Pseudomonas, Shewanella and Vibrio were highly represented. Surprisingly, non-native genera of public health concern were also detected, including Borrelia, Ehrlichia, Leptospira, Mycobacterium, Mycoplasma, Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Treponema. While there are no previous metagenomics studies of this environment, the potential influences of natural, anthropogenic and ecological factors on the diversity of putative pathogenic bacteria found in it are reviewed. The taxonomic annotation herein reported provides a starting point for an improved understanding of bacterial biodiversity in the Southwestern Gulf of Mexico. It also represents a useful tool in public health as it may help identify infectious diseases associated with exposure to marine water and ingestion of fish or shellfish, and thus may be useful in predicting and preventing waterborne disease outbreaks. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Clinical comparison of the Treponema pallidum CAPTIA syphilis-G enzyme immunoassay with the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption immunoglobulin G assay for syphilis testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling, V W; Jones, M F; Bestrom, J E; Wold, A D; Rosenblatt, J E; Smith, T F; Cockerill, F R

    1999-10-01

    Recently, a treponema-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme immunoassay (EIA), the CAPTIA Syphilis-G (Trinity Biotech, Jamestown, N.Y.), has become available as a diagnostic test for syphilis. A total of 89 stored sera previously tested by the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) IgG assay were evaluated by the CAPTIA EIA. The FTA-ABS IgG procedure was performed by technologists unblinded to results of rapid plasmid reagin (RPR) testing of the same specimens. Borderline CAPTIA-positive samples (antibody indices of >/=0.650 and 0.900, the sample was considered positive. Thirteen of 89 (15%) samples had discrepant results. Compared to the FTA-ABS assay, the CAPTIA EIA had a sensitivity and specificity and positive and negative predictive values of 70.7, 97.9, 96.7, and 79.7%, respectively. In another analysis, discrepancies between results were resolved by repeated FTA-ABS testing (technologists were blinded to previous RPR results) and patient chart reviews. Seven CAPTIA-negative samples which were previously interpreted (unblinded) as minimally reactive by the FTA method were subsequently interpreted (blinded) as nonreactive. One other discrepant sample (CAPTIA negative and FTA-ABS positive [at an intensity of 3+], unblinded) was FTA negative with repeated testing (blinded). For the five remaining discrepant samples, chart reviews indicated that one patient (CAPTIA negative and FTA-ABS positive [minimally reactive], blinded) had possible syphilis. These five samples were also evaluated and found to be negative by another treponema-specific test, the Treponema pallidum microhemagglutination assay. Therefore, after repeated testing and chart reviews, 2 of the 89 (2%) samples had discrepant results; the adjusted sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 96.7, 98.3, 96.7, and 98.3%, respectively. This study demonstrates that the CAPTIA IgG EIA is a reliable method for syphilis testing and that personnel performing tests

  18. AMPK in Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Mesquita, Inês Morais; Moreira, Diana; Marques, Belém Sampaio; Laforge, Mireille; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela; Ludovico, Paula; Estaquier, Jérôme; Silvestre, Ricardo Jorge Leal

    2016-01-01

    During host–pathogen interactions, a complex web of events is crucial for the outcome of infection. Pathogen recognition triggers powerful cellular signaling events that is translated into the induction and maintenance of innate and adaptive host immunity against infection. In opposition, pathogens employ active mechanisms to manipulate host cell regulatory pathways toward their proliferation and survival. Among these, subversion of host cell energy metabolism by pathogens is currently recogn...

  19. Oral leukoplakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The idea of identifying oral lesions with a precancerous nature, i.e. in the sense of pertaining to a pathologic process with an increased risk for future malignant development, of course is to prevent frank malignancy to occur in the affected area. The most common oral lesion with a precancerous...... nature is oral leukoplakia, and for decades it has been discussed how to treat these lesions. Various treatment modalities, such as systemic therapies and surgical removal, have been suggested. The systemic therapies tested so far include retinoids, extracts of green tea, inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2...

  20. Oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, S J

    1990-01-01

    In the U.S. oral cancer accounts for 2.1% of all cancers and 1% of cancer deaths. Two to three times as many males as females are affected. Blacks have more intra-oral cancer than whites, and their incidence and mortality rates have increased in recent years. The etiologic process very likely involves several factors. The major etiologic agents are tobacco (all types) and alcoholic beverages. Herpes simplex virus, human papilloma virus, and Candida have been implicated. Host factors include poor state of dentition, nutritional aberrations, cirrhosis of liver, lichen planus, and immunologic impairmant. Cellular changes include amplification of some oncogenes, alterations in antigen expression, production of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and disturbance of keratin and involucrin production. Experimentally, cancer is readily produced on the hamster cheek pouch and rat oral mucosa. Unlike oral cancer in humans, most experimental lesions are exophytic, and they rarely metastasize.

  1. Discovery of Bovine Digital Dermatitis-Associated Treponema spp. in the Dairy Herd Environment by a Targeted Deep-Sequencing Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Weiss Nielsen, Martin; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    2014-01-01

    The bacteria associated with the infectious claw disease bovine digital dermatitis (DD) are spirochetes of the genus Treponema; however, their environmental reservoir remains unknown. To our knowledge, the current study is the first report of the discovery and phylogenetic characterization of r...... of this disease among cows within a herd as well as between herds. To address the issue of DD infection reservoirs, we searched for evidence of DD-associated treponemes in fresh feces, in slurry, and in hoof lesions by deep sequencing of the V3 and V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene coupled...... with identification at the operational-taxonomic-unit level. Using treponeme-specific primers in this high-throughput approach, we identified small amounts of DNA (on average 0.6% of the total amount of sequence reads) from DD-associated treponemes in 43 of 64 samples from slurry and cow feces collected from six...

  2. [Oral microbiota: a promising predictor of human oral and systemic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xu; Junzhi, He; Xuedong, Zhou

    2015-12-01

    A human oral microbiota is the ecological community of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms found in human oral cavity. Oral microbiota exists mostly in the form of a biofilm and maintains a dynamic ecological equilibrium with the host body. However, the disturbance of this ecological balance inevitably causes oral infectious diseases, such as dental caries, apical periodontitis, periodontal diseases, pericoronitis, and craniofacial bone osteomyelitis. Oral microbiota is also correlated with many systemic diseases, including cancer, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, and preterm birth. Hence, oral microbiota has been considered as a potential biomarker of human diseases. The "Human Microbiome Project" and other metagenomic projects worldwide have advanced our knowledge of the human oral microbiota. The integration of these metadata has been the frontier of oral microbiology to improve clinical translation. By reviewing recent progress on studies involving oral microbiota-related oral and systemic diseases, we aimed to propose the essential role of oral microbiota in the prediction of the onset, progression, and prognosis of oral and systemic diseases. An oral microbiota-based prediction model helps develop a new paradigm of personalized medicine and benefits the human health in the post-metagenomics era.

  3. Oral sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-05

    The Gay and Lesbian Medical Association urges HIV prevention specialists to regard male-to-male oral-genital sex as a low-risk activity and concentrate instead on the danger of unprotected anal intercourse. According to the association, the confusion and mixed messages surrounding oral sex are harming efforts to encourage gay men to make rational choices about truly risky behavior. The recommendations appear in the association's position paper issued March 19, 1996.

  4. Oral Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decrease the risk of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. Oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer are diseases in ... and treatment of oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer: Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention Lip and Oral ...

  5. Development of a Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) scheme for Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue: Application to yaws in Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godornes, Charmie; Giacani, Lorenzo; Barry, Alyssa E; Mitja, Oriol; Lukehart, Sheila A

    2017-12-01

    Yaws is a neglected tropical disease, caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue. The disease causes chronic lesions, primarily in young children living in remote villages in tropical climates. As part of a global yaws eradication campaign initiated by the World Health Organization, we sought to develop and evaluate a molecular typing method to distinguish different strains of T. pallidum subsp. pertenue for disease control and epidemiological purposes. Published genome sequences of strains of T. pallidum subsp. pertenue and pallidum were compared to identify polymorphic genetic loci among the strains. DNA from a number of existing historical Treponema isolates, as well as a subset of samples from yaws patients collected in Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea, were analyzed using these targets. From these data, three genes (tp0548, tp0136 and tp0326) were ultimately selected to give a high discriminating capability among the T. pallidum subsp. pertenue samples tested. Intragenic regions of these three target genes were then selected to enhance the discriminating capability of the typing scheme using short readily amplifiable loci. This 3-gene multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method was applied to existing historical human yaws strains, the Fribourg-Blanc simian isolate, and DNA from 194 lesion swabs from yaws patients on Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea. Among all samples tested, fourteen molecular types were identified, seven of which were found in patient samples and seven among historical isolates or DNA. Three types (JG8, TD6, and SE7) were predominant on Lihir Island. This MLST approach allows molecular typing and differentiation of yaws strains. This method could be a useful tool to complement epidemiological studies in regions where T. pallidum subsp. pertenue is prevalent with the overall goals of improving our understanding of yaws transmission dynamics and helping the yaws eradication campaign to succeed.

  6. Development of a Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) scheme for Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue: Application to yaws in Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godornes, Charmie; Giacani, Lorenzo; Barry, Alyssa E.; Mitja, Oriol

    2017-01-01

    Background Yaws is a neglected tropical disease, caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue. The disease causes chronic lesions, primarily in young children living in remote villages in tropical climates. As part of a global yaws eradication campaign initiated by the World Health Organization, we sought to develop and evaluate a molecular typing method to distinguish different strains of T. pallidum subsp. pertenue for disease control and epidemiological purposes. Methods and principal findings Published genome sequences of strains of T. pallidum subsp. pertenue and pallidum were compared to identify polymorphic genetic loci among the strains. DNA from a number of existing historical Treponema isolates, as well as a subset of samples from yaws patients collected in Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea, were analyzed using these targets. From these data, three genes (tp0548, tp0136 and tp0326) were ultimately selected to give a high discriminating capability among the T. pallidum subsp. pertenue samples tested. Intragenic regions of these three target genes were then selected to enhance the discriminating capability of the typing scheme using short readily amplifiable loci. This 3-gene multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method was applied to existing historical human yaws strains, the Fribourg-Blanc simian isolate, and DNA from 194 lesion swabs from yaws patients on Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea. Among all samples tested, fourteen molecular types were identified, seven of which were found in patient samples and seven among historical isolates or DNA. Three types (JG8, TD6, and SE7) were predominant on Lihir Island. Conclusions This MLST approach allows molecular typing and differentiation of yaws strains. This method could be a useful tool to complement epidemiological studies in regions where T. pallidum subsp. pertenue is prevalent with the overall goals of improving our understanding of yaws transmission dynamics and helping the yaws eradication campaign to succeed

  7. Whole Genome Sequences of Three Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue Strains: Yaws and Syphilis Treponemes Differ in Less than 0.2% of the Genome Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Pospíšilová, Petra; Strouhal, Michal; Qin, Xiang; Mikalová, Lenka; Norris, Steven J.; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Fulton, Lucinda L.; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M.; Šmajs, David

    2012-01-01

    Background The yaws treponemes, Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue (TPE) strains, are closely related to syphilis causing strains of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA). Both yaws and syphilis are distinguished on the basis of epidemiological characteristics, clinical symptoms, and several genetic signatures of the corresponding causative agents. Methodology/Principal Findings To precisely define genetic differences between TPA and TPE, high-quality whole genome sequences of three TPE strains (Samoa D, CDC-2, Gauthier) were determined using next-generation sequencing techniques. TPE genome sequences were compared to four genomes of TPA strains (Nichols, DAL-1, SS14, Chicago). The genome structure was identical in all three TPE strains with similar length ranging between 1,139,330 bp and 1,139,744 bp. No major genome rearrangements were found when compared to the four TPA genomes. The whole genome nucleotide divergence (dA) between TPA and TPE subspecies was 4.7 and 4.8 times higher than the observed nucleotide diversity (π) among TPA and TPE strains, respectively, corresponding to 99.8% identity between TPA and TPE genomes. A set of 97 (9.9%) TPE genes encoded proteins containing two or more amino acid replacements or other major sequence changes. The TPE divergent genes were mostly from the group encoding potential virulence factors and genes encoding proteins with unknown function. Conclusions/Significance Hypothetical genes, with genetic differences, consistently found between TPE and TPA strains are candidates for syphilitic treponemes virulence factors. Seventeen TPE genes were predicted under positive selection, and eleven of them coded either for predicted exported proteins or membrane proteins suggesting their possible association with the cell surface. Sequence changes between TPE and TPA strains and changes specific to individual strains represent suitable targets for subspecies- and strain-specific molecular diagnostics. PMID:22292095

  8. microbiological profile of oral infections in diabetic patients and non

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    aerobic bacteria were significantly isolated from cases of dental caries. Conclusion: The oral .... study, it was reported that periodontal pathogens were different in diabetic patients and non-diabetic controls as well as in aggressive and chronic.

  9. Oral bacterial DNA findings in pericardial fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Mari Louhelainen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We recently reported that large amounts of oral bacterial DNA can be found in thrombus aspirates of myocardial infarction patients. Some case reports describe bacterial findings in pericardial fluid, mostly done with conventional culturing and a few with PCR; in purulent pericarditis, nevertheless, bacterial PCR has not been used as a diagnostic method before. Objective: To find out whether bacterial DNA can be measured in the pericardial fluid and if it correlates with pathologic–anatomic findings linked to cardiovascular diseases. Methods: Twenty-two pericardial aspirates were collected aseptically prior to forensic autopsy at Tampere University Hospital during 2009–2010. Of the autopsies, 10 (45.5% were free of coronary artery disease (CAD, 7 (31.8% had mild and 5 (22.7% had severe CAD. Bacterial DNA amounts were determined using real-time quantitative PCR with specific primers and probes for all bacterial strains associated with endodontic disease (Streptococcus mitis group, Streptococcus anginosus group, Staphylococcus aureus/Staphylococcus epidermidis, Prevotella intermedia, Parvimonas micra and periodontal disease (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatus, and Dialister pneumosintes. Results: Of 22 cases, 14 (63.6% were positive for endodontic and 8 (36.4% for periodontal-disease-associated bacteria. Only one case was positive for bacterial culturing. There was a statistically significant association between the relative amount of bacterial DNA in the pericardial fluid and the severity of CAD (p=0.035. Conclusions: Oral bacterial DNA was detectable in pericardial fluid and an association between the severity of CAD and the total amount of bacterial DNA in pericardial fluid was found, suggesting that this kind of measurement might be useful for clinical purposes.

  10. Enhancing oral vaccine potency by targeting intestinal M cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Azizi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The immune system in the gastrointestinal tract plays a crucial role in the control of infection, as it constitutes the first line of defense against mucosal pathogens. The attractive features of oral immunization have led to the exploration of a variety of oral delivery systems. However, none of these oral delivery systems have been applied to existing commercial vaccines. To overcome this, a new generation of oral vaccine delivery systems that target antigens to gut-associated lymphoid tissue is required. One promising approach is to exploit the potential of microfold (M cells by mimicking the entry of pathogens into these cells. Targeting specific receptors on the apical surface of M cells might enhance the entry of antigens, initiating the immune response and consequently leading to protection against mucosal pathogens. In this article, we briefly review the challenges associated with current oral vaccine delivery systems and discuss strategies that might potentially target mouse and human intestinal M cells.

  11. Sequential colonization of periodontal pathogens in induction of periodontal disease and atherosclerosis in LDLRnull mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukkapalli, Sasanka S; Easwaran, Meena; Rivera-Kweh, Mercedes F; Velsko, Irina M; Ambadapadi, Sriram; Dai, Jiayin; Larjava, Hannu; Lucas, Alexandra R; Kesavalu, Lakshmyya

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) and atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD) are both chronic inflammatory diseases with a polymicrobial etiology and have been epidemiologically associated. The purpose is to examine whether periodontal bacteria that infect the periodontium can also infect vascular tissues and enhance pre-existing early aortic atherosclerotic lesions in LDLRnull mice. Mice were orally infected with intermediate bacterial colonizer Fusobacterium nucleatum for the first 12 weeks followed by late bacterial colonizers (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia) for the remaining 12 weeks mimicking the human oral microbiota ecological colonization. Genomic DNA from all four bacterial was detected in gingival plaque by PCR, consistently demonstrating infection of mouse gingival surfaces. Infected mice had significant levels of IgG and IgM antibodies, alveolar bone resorption, and showed apical migration of junctional epithelium revealing the induction of PD. These results support the ability of oral bacteria to cause PD in mice. Detection of bacterial genomic DNA in systemic organs indicates hematogenous dissemination from the gingival pockets. Bacterial infection did not alter serum lipid fractions or serum amyloid A levels and did not induce aortic atherosclerotic plaque. This is the first study examining the causal role of periodontal bacteria in induction of ASVD in LDLRnull mice. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treville Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency.

  14. Oral Streptococcal Endocarditis, Oral Hygiene Habits, and Recent Dental Procedures: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Xavier; Millot, Sarah; Chirouze, Catherine; Selton-Suty, Christine; Moby, Vanessa; Tattevin, Pierre; Strady, Christophe; Euvrard, Edouard; Agrinier, Nelly; Thomas, Daniel; Hoen, Bruno; Alla, François

    2017-06-15

    We aimed to compare oral hygiene habits, orodental status, and dental procedures in patients with infective endocarditis (IE) according to whether the IE-causing microorganism originated in the oral cavity. We conducted an assessor-blinded case-control study in 6 French tertiary-care hospitals. Oral hygiene habits were recorded using a self-administered questionnaire. Orodental status was analyzed by trained dental practitioners blinded to the microorganism, using standardized clinical examination and dental panoramic tomography. History of dental procedures was obtained through patient and dentist interviews. Microorganisms were categorized as oral streptococci or nonoral pathogens using an expert-validated list kept confidential during the course of the study. Cases and controls had definite IE caused either by oral streptococci or nonoral pathogens, respectively. Participants were enrolled between May 2008 and January 2013. Cases (n = 73) were more likely than controls (n = 192) to be aged calculus, and infectious dental diseases did not significantly differ between groups. Patients with IE caused by oral streptococci differ from patients with IE caused by nonoral pathogens regarding background characteristics, oral hygiene habits, and recent dental procedures, but not current orodental status. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Oral calcitonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy RC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald C Hamdy,1,2 Dane N Daley11Osteoporosis Center, College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, 2Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Johnson City, TN, USAAbstract: Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through β-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ. Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis failed to

  16. Oral care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. AMPK in Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Inês; Moreira, Diana; Sampaio-Marques, Belém; Laforge, Mireille; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela; Ludovico, Paula; Estaquier, Jérôme; Silvestre, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    During host-pathogen interactions, a complex web of events is crucial for the outcome of infection. Pathogen recognition triggers powerful cellular signaling events that is translated into the induction and maintenance of innate and adaptive host immunity against infection. In opposition, pathogens employ active mechanisms to manipulate host cell regulatory pathways toward their proliferation and survival. Among these, subversion of host cell energy metabolism by pathogens is currently recognized to play an important role in microbial growth and persistence. Extensive studies have documented the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, a central cellular hub involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, in host-pathogen interactions. Here, we highlight the most recent advances detailing how pathogens hijack cellular metabolism by suppressing or increasing the activity of the host energy sensor AMPK. We also address the role of lower eukaryote AMPK orthologues in the adaptive process to the host microenvironment and their contribution for pathogen survival, differentiation, and growth. Finally, we review the effects of pharmacological or genetic AMPK modulation on pathogen growth and persistence.

  18. Potatoes, pathogens and pests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazebnik, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    Currently, fungicides are necessary to protect potato crops against late blight, Phytophthora infestans, one of the world’s most damaging crop pathogens. The introgression of plant resistance genes from wild potato species targeted specifically to the late blight pathogen into

  19. Food-borne pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemand, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    The Salmonella scare reinforced the importance of never taking chances when it comes to controlling pathogens. The issue has been resolved by radurisation. The article deals with the various pathogens that can effect food and argues the case for radurisation in dealing with them. It also looks at some of the other food products that can be treated using this process

  20. Pathogen inactivation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, J P R; Transue, S; Snyder, E L

    2006-01-01

    The desire to rid the blood supply of pathogens of all types has led to the development of many technologies aimed at the same goal--eradication of the pathogen(s) without harming the blood cells or generating toxic chemical agents. This is a very ambitious goal, and one that has yet to be achieved. One approach is to shun the 'one size fits all' concept and to target pathogen-reduction agents at the Individual component types. This permits the development of technologies that might be compatible with, for example, plasma products but that would be cytocidal and thus incompatible with platelet concentrates or red blood cell units. The technologies to be discussed include solvent detergent and methylene blue treatments--designed to inactivate plasma components and derivatives; psoralens (S-59--amotosalen) designed to pathogen-reduce units of platelets; and two products aimed at red blood cells, S-303 (a Frale--frangible anchor-linker effector compound) and Inactine (a binary ethyleneimine). A final pathogen-reduction material that might actually allow one material to inactivate all three blood components--riboflavin (vitamin B2)--is also under development. The sites of action of the amotosalen (S-59), the S-303 Frale, Inactine, and riboflavin are all localized in the nucleic acid part of the pathogen. Solvent detergent materials act by dissolving the plasma envelope, thus compromising the integrity of the pathogen membrane and rendering it non-infectious. By disrupting the pathogen's ability to replicate or survive, its infectivity is removed. The degree to which bacteria and viruses are affected by a particular pathogen-reducing technology relates to its Gram-positive or Gram-negative status, to the sporulation characteristics for bacteria, and the presence of lipid or protein envelopes for viruses. Concerns related to photoproducts and other breakdown products of these technologies remain, and the toxicology of pathogen-reduction treatments is a major ongoing area

  1. Ecological dynamics of oral microbial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    The microbiota of the oral cavity have been a topic of research for quite some years. Yet, this research was mostly focused on isolated pathogenic species, with limited attention for the ecosystem and what a healthy ecosystem encompasses. The general aim of this thesis was to investigate the

  2. Oral Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  3. [New approaches to oral cavity opportunistic microbiota study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tets, G V; Vikina, D S; Vecherkovskaia, M F; Domorad, A A; Kharlamova, V V; Tets, V V

    2013-01-01

    Identification of some bacteria of the oral microbiota in humans including opportunistic pathogens capable of causing infections of various locations is a challenging problem for dentistry. Lack of knowledge on oral microbiota is the result of the absence of appropriate culture technique for isolation of pure cultures of those bacteria. The paper presents the study on mixed oral microbial biofilms with isolation and identification of insufficiently explored or still unknown aerobic opportunistic bacteria.

  4. Processes for managing pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfree, Alan; Farrell, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Wastewater contains human, animal, and plant pathogens capable of causing viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections. There are several routes whereby sewage pathogens may affect human health, including direct contact, contamination of food crops, zoonoses, and vectors. The range and numbers of pathogens in municipal wastewater vary with the level of endemic disease in the community, discharges from commercial activities, and seasonal factors. Regulations to control pathogen risk in the United States and Europe arising from land application of biosolids are based on the concept of multiple barriers to the prevention of transmission. The barriers are (i) treatment to reduce pathogen content and vector attraction, (ii) restrictions on crops grown on land to which biosolids have been applied, and (iii) minimum intervals following application and grazing or harvesting. Wastewater treatment reduces number of pathogens in the wastewater by concentrating them with the solids in the sludge. Although some treatment processes are designed specifically to inactivate pathogens, many are not, and the actual mechanisms of microbial inactivation are not fully understood for all processes. Vector attraction is reduced by stabilization (reduction of readily biodegradable material) and/or incorporation immediately following application. Concerns about health risks have renewed interest in the effects of treatment (on pathogens) and advanced treatment methods, and work performed in the United States suggests that Class A pathogen reduction can be achieved less expensively than previously thought. Effective pathogen risk management requires control to the complete chain of sludge treatment, biosolids handling and application, and post-application activities. This may be achieved by adherence to quality management systems based on hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) principles.

  5. Postirradiation flap infection about the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabbabe, E.B.; Herbold, D.R.; Sunwoo, Y.C.; Baroudi, I.F.

    1983-01-01

    Postirradiation alteration of oral flora is well documented in the literature. Infection as a complication leading to partial or complete loss of a flap used to reconstruct a defect in the oral cavity is a worrisome outcome. We describe how a flap that was judged clinically to be viable became overwhelmingly infected with the Klebsiella oxytoca, an oral cavity pathogen encountered in this patient following irradiation. Local and systemic changes led to detachment of the flap. This complication may be explained, in view of the absence of venous congestion or arterial ischemia both clinically and pathologically, by the proven contamination of the flap by the Klebsiella pathogen. Local factors resulted in lower resistance and subsequent overwhelming infection. Discussion of the case, review of pertinent literature, and proposed solutions are presented

  6. The oral microbiome and adverse pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobb CM

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Charles M Cobb,1 Patricia J Kelly,2 Karen B Williams,3 Shilpa Babbar,4 Mubashir Angolkar,5 Richard J Derman6 1Department of Periodontics, School of Dentistry, 2Department of Public Health Nursing, School of Nursing and Health Studies, 3Department of Biomedical & Health Informatics, School of Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, 4Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Women’s Health, Division of Maternal & Fetal Medicine, School of Medicine, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO, USA; 5Department of Public Health, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College (JNMC, KLE University, Karnataka, India; 6Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Significant evidence supports an association between periodontal pathogenic bacteria and preterm birth and preeclampsia. The virulence properties assigned to specific oral pathogenic bacteria, for example, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Filifactor alocis, Campylobacter rectus, and others, render them as potential collaborators in adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Several pathways have been suggested for this association: 1 hematogenous spread (bacteremia of periodontal pathogens; 2 hematogenous spread of multiple mediators of inflammation that are generated by the host and/or fetal immune response to pathogenic bacteria; and 3 the possibility of oral microbial pathogen transmission, with subsequent colonization, in the vaginal microbiome resulting from sexual practices. As periodontal disease is, for the most part, preventable, the medical and dental public health communities can address intervention strategies to control oral inflammatory disease, lessen the systemic inflammatory burden, and ultimately reduce the potential for adverse pregnancy outcomes. This article reviews the oral, vaginal, and placental microbiomes, considers their potential impact on preterm labor, and the future

  7. Molecular Characterization of Syphilis in Patients in Canada: Azithromycin Resistance and Detection of Treponema pallidum DNA in Whole-Blood Samples versus Ulcerative Swabs▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Irene E.; Tsang, Raymond S. W.; Sutherland, Karen; Tilley, Peter; Read, Ron; Anderson, Barbara; Roy, Colleen; Singh, Ameeta E.

    2009-01-01

    Although detection of Treponema pallidum DNA in whole-blood specimens of syphilis patients has been reported, it is uncertain at what stage of the disease such specimens are most suitable for the molecular diagnosis of syphilis. Also, few studies have directly compared the different gene targets for routine laboratory diagnostic usage in PCR assays. We examined 87 specimens from 68 patients attending two urban sexually transmitted disease clinics in Alberta, Canada. PCR was used to amplify the T. pallidum tpp47, bmp, and polA genes as well as a specific region of the 23S rRNA gene linked to macrolide antibiotic susceptibility. In primary syphilis cases, PCR was positive exclusively (75% sensitivity rate) in ulcerative swabs but not in blood specimens, while in secondary syphilis cases, 50% of the blood specimens were positive by PCR. Four out of 14 (28.6%) of our PCR-positive syphilis cases were found to be caused by an azithromycin-resistant strain(s). Our results confirmed that swabs from primary ulcers are the specimens of choice for laboratory diagnostic purposes. However, further research is required to determine what specimen(s) would be most appropriate for molecular investigation of syphilis in secondary and latent syphilis. PMID:19339468

  8. Molecular typing of Treponema pallidum isolates from Buenos Aires, Argentina: Frequent Nichols-like isolates and low levels of macrolide resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Gallo Vaulet

    Full Text Available A total of 54 clinical samples, including genital lesion swabs, whole blood and cerebrospinal fluid from patients diagnosed with syphilis were collected in 2006 and in 2013 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Treponemal DNA was detected in 43 of the analyzed samples (79.6% and further analyzed using Sequencing-based molecular typing (SBMT and Enhanced CDC-typing (ECDCT. By SBMT, 10 different Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA genotypes were found, of which six were related to the TPA SS14 strain, and four to the TPA Nichols strain. The 23S rRNA gene was amplified in samples isolated from 42 patients, and in six of them (14.3%, either the A2058G (four patients, 9.5% or the A2059G (two patients, 4.8% mutations were found. In addition to Taiwan, Madagascar and Peru, Argentina is another country where the prevalence of Nichols-like isolates (26.8% is greater than 10%.

  9. Occurrence of periodontal pathogens in ethnic groups from a native Brazilian reservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaetti-Jardim, Elerson; Pereira, Maurício Fabiano; Vieira, Evanice Menezes Marçal; Schweitzer, Christiane Marie; Okamoto, Ana Cláudia; Ávila-Campos, Mario J

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the occurrence of periodontal pathogens in the subgingival biofilm of 100 native Brazilians living at the Umutina Indian Reservation, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Periodontal clinical examinations were carried out prior to collection of subgingival biofilm, and the presence of 14 periodontal microorganisms was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The prevalence and risk analysis was performed using Cochran and Mantel-Haenszel statistics for dichotomous variables or Pearson's chi-squared test for analysis of proportions when variables had three or more categories. The interrelations between clinical and microbiological parameters were assessed using Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney U test. Individuals with chronic periodontitis were frequently colonized by the association between Porphyromonas gingivalis and Campylobacter rectus, P. gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia, or P. gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia. Patients with chronic periodontitis were also colonized by Porphyromonas gulae and P. intermedia or by the association between P. gulae and T. forsythia. P. gulae was detected only in the subgingival samples from natives on a traditional diet. Gingival bleeding was associated with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, T. forsythia, P. gingivalis, P. gulae, Porphyromonas endodontalis, P. intermedia, and Prevotella nigrescens. Treponema denticola was uncommon. Peculiar microbiota was demonstrated to be associated with different periodontal disease statuses in native Brazilians, with modest occurrence of certain pathogens, such as T. denticola, and the presence of P. gulae in natives with gingivitis or chronic periodontitis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Extracts against Various Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritika Chauhan

    2013-07-01

    The present study shows that tested lichen Parmotrema sp. extracts demonstrated a strong antimicrobial effect. That suggests the active components from methanol extracts of the investigated lichen Parmotrema sp. can be used as natural antimicrobial agent against pathogens.

  11. Evolution of microbial pathogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DiRita, Victor J; Seifert, H. Steven

    2006-01-01

    ... A. Hogan vvi ■ CONTENTS 8. Evolution of Pathogens in Soil Rachel Muir and Man-Wah Tan / 131 9. Experimental Models of Symbiotic Host-Microbial Relationships: Understanding the Underpinnings of ...

  12. Indicators for waterborne pathogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Indicators for Waterborne Pathogens, National Research Council

    2004-01-01

    ... not practical or feasible to monitor for the complete spectrum of microorganisms that may occur in water, and many known pathogens are difficult to detect directly and reliably in water samples.Â...

  13. Host–Pathogen Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.A.; Schokker, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    The outcome of an infection is determined by numerous interactions between hosts and pathogens occurring at many different biological levels, ranging from molecule to population. To develop new control strategies for infectious diseases in livestock species, appropriate methodologies are needed

  14. Pathogenic human viruses in coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.; Donaldson, Kim A.; Paul, J.H.; Rose, Joan B.

    2003-01-01

    This review addresses both historical and recent investigations into viral contamination of marine waters. With the relatively recent emergence of molecular biology-based assays, a number of investigations have shown that pathogenic viruses are prevalent in marine waters being impacted by sewage. Research has shown that this group of fecal-oral viral pathogens (enteroviruses, hepatitis A viruses, Norwalk viruses, reoviruses, adenoviruses, rotaviruses, etc.) can cause a broad range of asymptomatic to severe gastrointestinal, respiratory, and eye, nose, ear, and skin infections in people exposed through recreational use of the water. The viruses and the nucleic acid signature survive for an extended period in the marine environment. One of the primary concerns of public health officials is the relationship between the presence of pathogens and the recreational risk to human health in polluted marine environments. While a number of studies have attempted to address this issue, the relationship is still poorly understood. A contributing factor to our lack of progress in the field has been the lack of sensitive methods to detect the broad range of both bacterial and viral pathogens. The application of new and advanced molecular methods will continue to contribute to our current state of knowledge in this emerging and

  15. Prevalence of "non-oral" pathogenic bacteria in subgingival biofilm of subjects with chronic periodontitis Prevalência de bactérias patogênicas "não-orais" no biofilme dental subgengival de pacientes com periodontite crônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Souto

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The oral cavity may act as a reservoir for several pathogens related to systemic infections. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and levels of pathogenic bacteria in the subgingival biofilm of chronic periodontitis lesions and healthy periodontal sites using the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. 200 samples of subgingival biofilm from sites with periodontitis (probing pocket depth > 4 mm and /or clinical attachment level > 4 mm and 200 samples from healthy sites of 14 patients with chronic periodontitis, as well as 200 samples from 3 periodontally healthy patients were obtained. The presence and levels of 11 pathogenic bacteria were determined using whole genomic DNA probes and the checkerboard method, computed for each site and then across sites within each subject group. Significance of differences in clinical and microbiological parameters among groups were examinated using the Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon sign tests. The predominant species in all 600 samples included Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus,Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli. In general, most of the species were detected in greater prevalence and levels in sites with and without disease from patients with periodontitis in comparison to the periodontally healthy group. In particular, C. diphtheriae, E. coli, E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were significantly more prevalent and detected in higher counts in diseased sites of patients with periodontal disease compared to healthy subjects (p Apesar da extensa literatura sobre a associação de bactérias orais e doenças sistêmicas, tem se dado pouca atenção à cavidade oral como um reservatório de bactérias patogênicas "não-orais". A microbiota oral é constituída de mais de 300 espécies bacterianas já caracterizadas, além de organismos não cultiváveis que vêm sendo descobertos através de técnicas moleculares. O

  16. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Oral and maxillofacial surgeons surgically treat the soft ... Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Oral and maxillofacial surgeons surgically treat the soft ...

  17. Oral infections and systemic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Poulsen, Anne Havemose; Andersen, Lone

    2003-01-01

    An association between periodontal infection and CVD has been revealed in some epidemiologic studies, whereas other studies were unable to demonstrate such an association. A link between the two diseases may be explained by shared established or nonestablished risk factors. Future studies...... with extended control of confounding factors and intervention studies may add to the understanding of a possible relationship between the diseases. In some cases, IE is caused by dental plaque bacteria. Several studies are suggestive of oral bacteria causing respiratory infection. The pathogenesis and course...... of a number of other diseases including DM and rheumatoid arthritis have been associated wish periodontitis, but more research is necessary to elucidate possible pathogenic interactions....

  18. Associations between Oral Infections and Salivary Gland Hypofunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2016-01-01

    Saliva plays an important role in the maintenance of oral health and regulation of the oral microbiota. Saliva lubricates the oral hard and soft tissues, dilutes food detritus and bacteria and enhances the clearance of microorganisms and dietary carbohydrates from the oral cavity. Saliva also...... provides antimicrobial activity via numerous proteins and peptides including lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, lysozyme, statherin and histatins. This chapter focuses on the oral microbiota in patients suffering from salivary gland hypofunction due to Sjögren’s syndrome, radiotherapy of tumours in the head...... and neck region, cancer chemotherapy and intake of medications. Despite the different causes of salivary gland hypofunction, these patient groups show some similarities regarding the composition of the oral microbiota with increased colonisation of oral pathogens associated with dental caries...

  19. Animal models for oral transmission of Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E F D'Orazio

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes has been recognized as a food borne pathogen in humans since the 1980s, but we still understand very little about oral transmission of L. monocytogenes or the host factors that determine susceptibility to gastrointestinal infection, due to the lack of an appropriate small animal model of oral listeriosis. Early feeding trials suggested that many animals were highly resistant to oral infection, and the more reproducible intravenous or intraperitoneal routes of inoculation soon came to be favored. There are a fair number of previously published studies using an oral infection route, but the work varies widely in terms of bacterial strain choice, the methods used for oral transmission, and various manipulations used to enhance infectivity. This mini review will summarize the published literature using oral routes of L. monocytogenes infection and will highlight recent technological advances that have made oral infection a more attractive model system.

  20. Towards understanding oral health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaura, E.; ten Cate, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term ‘oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain

  1. Oral microbiota species in acute apical endodontic abscesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle George

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Acute apical abscesses are serious endodontic diseases resulting from pulpal infection with opportunistic oral microorganisms. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the oral microbiota in patients (N=18 exhibiting acute apical abscesses, originating from the demographic region in Portland, Oregon. The study hypothesis is that abscesses obtained from this demographic region may contain unique microorganisms not identified in specimens from other regions. Design: Endodontic abscesses were sampled from patients at the Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU School of Dentistry. DNA from abscess specimens was subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification using 16S rRNA gene-specific primers and Cy3-dCTP labeling. Labeled DNA was then applied to microbial microarrays (280 species generated by the Human Oral Microbial Identification Microarray Laboratory (Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA. Results: The most prevalent microorganisms, found across multiple abscess specimens, include Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Megasphaera species clone CS025, Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Atopobium rimae, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. The most abundant microorganisms, found in highest numbers within individual abscesses, include F. nucleatum, P. micra, Streptococcus Cluster III, Solobacterium moorei, Streptococcus constellatus, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. Strong bacterial associations were identified between Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Acidaminococcaceae species clone DM071, Megasphaera species clone CS025, Actinomyces species clone EP053, and Streptococcus cristatus (all with Spearman coefficients >0.9. Conclusions: Cultivable and uncultivable bacterial species have been identified in endodontic abscesses obtained from the Portland, Oregon demographic region, and taxa identifications correlated well with other published studies, with the exception of Treponema and Streptococcus cristae, which

  2. Oral microbiota species in acute apical endodontic abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Noelle; Flamiatos, Erin; Kawasaki, Kellie; Kim, Namgu; Carriere, Charles; Phan, Brian; Joseph, Raphael; Strauss, Shay; Kohli, Richie; Choi, Dongseok; Baumgartner, J Craig; Sedgley, Christine; Maier, Tom; Machida, Curtis A

    2016-01-01

    Acute apical abscesses are serious endodontic diseases resulting from pulpal infection with opportunistic oral microorganisms. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the oral microbiota in patients (N=18) exhibiting acute apical abscesses, originating from the demographic region in Portland, Oregon. The study hypothesis is that abscesses obtained from this demographic region may contain unique microorganisms not identified in specimens from other regions. Endodontic abscesses were sampled from patients at the Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) School of Dentistry. DNA from abscess specimens was subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification using 16S rRNA gene-specific primers and Cy3-dCTP labeling. Labeled DNA was then applied to microbial microarrays (280 species) generated by the Human Oral Microbial Identification Microarray Laboratory (Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA). The most prevalent microorganisms, found across multiple abscess specimens, include Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Megasphaera species clone CS025, Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Atopobium rimae, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. The most abundant microorganisms, found in highest numbers within individual abscesses, include F. nucleatum, P. micra, Streptococcus Cluster III, Solobacterium moorei, Streptococcus constellatus, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. Strong bacterial associations were identified between Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Acidaminococcaceae species clone DM071, Megasphaera species clone CS025, Actinomyces species clone EP053, and Streptococcus cristatus (all with Spearman coefficients >0.9). Cultivable and uncultivable bacterial species have been identified in endodontic abscesses obtained from the Portland, Oregon demographic region, and taxa identifications correlated well with other published studies, with the exception of Treponema and Streptococcus cristae, which were not commonly identified in endodontic abscesses between the

  3. Evaluation of tissue engineered models of the oral mucosa to investigate oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadev, Nishant P; Murdoch, Craig; Saville, Stephen P; Thornhill, Martin H

    2011-06-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal organism that can be isolated from the majority of healthy individuals. However, in certain susceptible individuals C. albicans can become pathogenic leading to the mucocutaneous infection; oral candidiasis. Murine models and in vitro monolayer cultures have generated some data on the likely virulence and host factors that contribute to oral candidiasis but these models have limitations. Recently, tissue engineered oral mucosal models have been developed to mimic the normal oral mucosa but little information is available on their true representation. In this study, we assessed the histological features of three different tissue engineered oral mucosal models compared to the normal oral mucosa and analysed both cell damage and cytokine release following infection with C. albicans. Models comprised of normal oral keratinocytes and a fibroblast-containing matrix displayed more similar immunohistological and proliferation characteristics to normal mucosa, compared to models composed of an oral carcinoma cell line. Although all models were invaded and damaged by C. albicans in a similar manner, the cytokine response was much more pronounced in models containing normal keratinocytes. These data suggest that models based on normal keratinocytes atop a fibroblast-containing connective tissue will significantly aid in dissecting the molecular pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pathogenic mechanisms of intracellular bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niller, Hans Helmut; Masa, Roland; Venkei, Annamária; Mészáros, Sándor; Minarovits, Janos

    2017-06-01

    We wished to overview recent data on a subset of epigenetic changes elicited by intracellular bacteria in human cells. Reprogramming the gene expression pattern of various host cells may facilitate bacterial growth, survival, and spread. DNA-(cytosine C5)-methyltransferases of Mycoplasma hyorhinis targeting cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides and a Mycobacterium tuberculosis methyltransferase targeting non-CpG sites methylated the host cell DNA and altered the pattern of gene expression. Gene silencing by CpG methylation and histone deacetylation, mediated by cellular enzymes, also occurred in M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages. M. tuberculosis elicited cell type-specific epigenetic changes: it caused increased DNA methylation in macrophages, but induced demethylation, deposition of euchromatic histone marks and activation of immune-related genes in dendritic cells. A secreted transposase of Acinetobacter baumannii silenced a cellular gene, whereas Mycobacterium leprae altered the epigenotype, phenotype, and fate of infected Schwann cells. The 'keystone pathogen' oral bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis induced local DNA methylation and increased the level of histone acetylation in host cells. These epigenetic changes at the biofilm-gingiva interface may contribute to the development of periodontitis. Epigenetic regulators produced by intracellular bacteria alter the epigenotype and gene expression pattern of host cells and play an important role in pathogenesis.

  5. Viral pathogen discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Charles Y

    2015-01-01

    Viral pathogen discovery is of critical importance to clinical microbiology, infectious diseases, and public health. Genomic approaches for pathogen discovery, including consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR), microarrays, and unbiased next-generation sequencing (NGS), have the capacity to comprehensively identify novel microbes present in clinical samples. Although numerous challenges remain to be addressed, including the bioinformatics analysis and interpretation of large datasets, these technologies have been successful in rapidly identifying emerging outbreak threats, screening vaccines and other biological products for microbial contamination, and discovering novel viruses associated with both acute and chronic illnesses. Downstream studies such as genome assembly, epidemiologic screening, and a culture system or animal model of infection are necessary to establish an association of a candidate pathogen with disease. PMID:23725672

  6. Highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayne, D E; Suarez, D L

    2000-08-01

    Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza (AI) (HPAI) is an extremely contagious, multi-organ systemic disease of poultry leading to high mortality, and caused by some H5 and H7 subtypes of type A influenza virus, family Orthomyxoviridae. However, most AI virus strains are mildly pathogenic (MP) and produce either subclinical infections or respiratory and/or reproductive diseases in a variety of domestic and wild bird species. Highly pathogenic avian influenza is a List A disease of the Office International des Epizooties, while MPAI is neither a List A nor List B disease. Eighteen outbreaks of HPAI have been documented since the identification of AI virus as the cause of fowl plague in 1955. Mildly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are maintained in wild aquatic bird reservoirs, occasionally crossing over to domestic poultry and causing outbreaks of mild disease. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses do not have a recognised wild bird reservoir, but can occasionally be isolated from wild birds during outbreaks in domestic poultry. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses have been documented to arise from MPAI viruses through mutations in the haemagglutinin surface protein. Prevention of exposure to the virus and eradication are the accepted methods for dealing with HPAI. Control programmes, which imply allowing a low incidence of infection, are not an acceptable method for managing HPAI, but have been used during some outbreaks of MPAI. The components of a strategy to deal with MPAI or HPAI include surveillance and diagnosis, biosecurity, education, quarantine and depopulation. Vaccination has been used in some control and eradication programmes for AI.

  7. Biochemical characterization of a D-psicose 3-epimerase from Treponema primitia ZAS-1 and its application on enzymatic production of D-psicose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenli; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo; Mu, Wanmeng

    2016-01-15

    The rare sugar D-psicose is a hexoketose monosaccharide and a C-3 epimer of D-fructose. D-Psicose is a novel functional sweetener with 70% of the sweetness but only 0.3% of the energy content of sucrose. Generally, the industrial production of D-psicose involves a bioconversion from D-fructose induced by ketose 3-epimerases. The D-psicose 3-epimerase (DPEase) gene from Treponema primitia ZAS-1 (Trpr-DPEase) was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant enzyme was purified with a molecular mass of 33 kDa. Trpr-DPEase exhibited optimal activity at pH 8.0 and 70 °C and was sensitive to temperature, with relative thermal stability below 50 °C. It was strictly metal-dependent and displayed maximum catalytic activity with 450 µmol L(-1) Co(2+). The Km values of the enzyme for D-psicose and D-fructose were 209 and 279 mmol L(-1) respectively. The D-psicose/D-fructose equilibrium ratio of Trpr-DPEase was 28:72. A novel DPEase from T. primitia ZAS-1 was characterized that could catalyze the formation of D-psicose from D-fructose. D-Psicose was produced at a yield of 137.5 g L(-1) from 500 g L(-1) D-fructose, suggesting that Trpr-DPEase might be appropriate for the industrial production of D-psicose. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Complete genome sequences of two strains of Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue from Ghana, Africa: Identical genome sequences in samples isolated more than 7 years apart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Strouhal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue (TPE is the causative agent of yaws, a multi-stage disease, endemic in tropical regions of Africa, Asia, Oceania, and South America. To date, four TPE strains have been completely sequenced including three TPE strains of human origin (Samoa D, CDC-2, and Gauthier and one TPE strain (Fribourg-Blanc isolated from a baboon. All TPE strains are highly similar to T. pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA strains. The mutation rate in syphilis and related treponemes has not been experimentally determined yet.Complete genomes of two TPE strains, CDC 2575 and Ghana-051, that infected patients in Ghana and were isolated in 1980 and 1988, respectively, were sequenced and analyzed. Both strains had identical consensus genome nucleotide sequences raising the question whether TPE CDC 2575 and Ghana-051 represent two different strains. Several lines of evidence support the fact that both strains represent independent samples including regions showing intrastrain heterogeneity (13 and 5 intrastrain heterogeneous sites in TPE Ghana-051 and TPE CDC 2575, respectively. Four of these heterogeneous sites were found in both genomes but the frequency of alternative alleles differed. The identical consensus genome sequences were used to estimate the upper limit of the yaws treponeme evolution rate, which was 4.1 x 10-10 nucleotide changes per site per generation.The estimated upper limit for the mutation rate of TPE was slightly lower than the mutation rate of E. coli, which was determined during a long-term experiment. Given the known diversity between TPA and TPE genomes and the assumption that both TPA and TPE have a similar mutation rate, the most recent common ancestor of syphilis and yaws treponemes appears to be more than ten thousand years old and likely even older.

  9. Seroprevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Treponema pallidum Infections among Blood Donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-De Xie

    Full Text Available Regular screening of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HBV and HCV, respectively, and Treponema pallidum, in blood donors is essential to guaranteeing clinical transfusion safety. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of four TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (EG.A retrospective survey of blood donors from January 2011 to April 2013 was conducted to assess the presence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum. The medical records were analyzed to verify the seroprevalence of these TTIs among blood donations stratified by gender, age and geographical region.Of the total 2937 consecutive blood donors, 1098 (37.39% had a minimum of one TTI and 185 (6.29% harbored co-infections. The general seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were 7.83%, 10.01%, 3.71% and 21.51%, respectively. The most frequent TTI co-infections were HBV-T. pallidum 60 (2.04% and HIV-T. pallidum 46 (1.57%. The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were highest among blood donors 38 to 47 years, 18 to 27 years and ≥ 48 years age, respectively (P<0.05. The seroprevalence of TTIs varied according to the population from which the blood was collected on Bioko Island.Our results firstly provide a comprehensive overview of TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island. Strict screening of blood donors and improved hematological examinations using standard operating procedures are recommended.

  10. Treponema pallidum 3-Phosphoglycerate Mutase Is a Heat-Labile Enzyme That May Limit the Maximum Growth Temperature for the Spirochete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Stéphane; Posey, James E.; Chenoweth, Matthew R.; Gherardini, Frank C.

    2001-01-01

    In the causative agent of syphilis, Treponema pallidum, the gene encoding 3-phosphoglycerate mutase, gpm, is part of a six-gene operon (tro operon) that is regulated by the Mn-dependent repressor TroR. Since substrate-level phosphorylation via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway is the principal way to generate ATP in T. pallidum and Gpm is a key enzyme in this pathway, Mn could exert a regulatory effect on central metabolism in this bacterium. To study this, T. pallidum gpm was cloned, Gpm was purified from Escherichia coli, and antiserum against the recombinant protein was raised. Immunoblots indicated that Gpm was expressed in freshly extracted infective T. pallidum. Enzyme assays indicated that Gpm did not require Mn2+ while 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) was required for maximum activity. Consistent with these observations, Mn did not copurify with Gpm. The purified Gpm was stable for more than 4 h at 25°C, retained only 50% activity after incubation for 20 min at 34°C or 10 min at 37°C, and was completely inactive after 10 min at 42°C. The temperature effect was attenuated when 1 mM DPG was added to the assay mixture. The recombinant Gpm from pSLB2 complemented E. coli strain PL225 (gpm) and restored growth on minimal glucose medium in a temperature-dependent manner. Increasing the temperature of cultures of E. coli PL225 harboring pSLB2 from 34 to 42°C resulted in a 7- to 11-h period in which no growth occurred (compared to wild-type E. coli). These data suggest that biochemical properties of Gpm could be one contributing factor to the heat sensitivity of T. pallidum. PMID:11466272

  11. Development of a colloidal gold-immunochromatography assay to detect immunoglobulin G antibodies to Treponema pallidum with TPN17 and TPN47.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Rong; Fu, Zuo-Gen; Dan, Bing; Jing, Guang-Jun; Tong, Man-li; Chen, De-Teng; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Chang-Gong; Yang, Tian-Ci; Zhang, Zhong-Ying

    2010-11-01

    Syphilis remains a worldwide public health problem; it is necessary to develop a new diagnostic approach that is easier and faster than conventional tests. Here, we report a new testing method named colloidal gold-immunochromatography assay (GICA) to detect syphilis instead of fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (FTA-Abs). Syphilis-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody was detected with GICA established on syphilis-specific recombinant proteins, TPN17 and TPN47. FTA-Abs Treponema pallidum (TP)-IgG was set as the gold standard. A GICA test was performed to detect the serum of 14 967 subjects who took a serologic test for syphilis at the Xiamen Center of Clinical Laboratory, Fujian, China, from March 2009 to February 2010, among which 1326 cases were diagnosed as syphilitic. The results showed that the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were 99.38% (1279/1287), 99.96% (12,975/12,980), and 99.61% (1279/1284), respectively. The positive rate between the 2 test methods had no significant difference (χ(2) = 0.003, P > 0.05). Detection on 500 interference specimens indicated that the biologic false-positive rate of the GICA test was extremely low and free from other biologic and chemical factors. The characteristics of GICA TP-IgG correspond to that of FTA-Abs TP-IgG (EUROIMMUN Medizinische Labordiagnostika, Germany). The GICA test is convenient, fast, and inexpensive, and it can be used both as a confirmatory test and a screening indicator, instead of FTA-Abs TP-IgG. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative evaluation of the INNO-LIA syphilis score and the MarDx Treponema pallidum immunoglobulin G Marblot test assays for the serological diagnosis of syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, T K; Lau, H Y; Lee, Y P; Fung, S M; Leung, W L; Kam, K M

    2010-02-01

    We evaluated the performance of two immunoblot assays: the INNO-LIA Syphilis Score (LIA) and the MarDx T. pallidum IgG Marblot Test (TWB), as compared with that of the Murex ICE Syphilis enzyme immunoassay (EIA), the Serodia Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay and the fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (FTA-abs) assay, for the serological diagnosis of syphilis using serum samples of 135 attendees of the social hygiene clinics of the Department of Health in Hong Kong newly diagnosed with syphilis and provided with clinical stages (39 in primary, 20 in secondary, 18 in early latent and 58 in latent of unknown duration) and of 43 normal healthy subjects between October and December 2004. The differences in the overall sensitivities of the LIA assay and the EIA/TPPA/FTA-abs assays were not statistically significant (P > 0.05) whereas the overall sensitivity of the TWB assay was significantly lower (P FTA-abs assays. The LIA assay had an overall sensitivity of 94.1% (95% CI 88.7-97.0%) whereas the TWB assay 65.2% (95% CI 56.8-72.7%). Both the LIA and the TWB assays have a specificity of 100%. When consensus results were derived from the most predominant results of the EIA, the TPPA and the FTA-abs assays, the LIA assay had a positive agreement with the consensus results of 98.5% (95% CI 94.5-99.6%) whereas the TWB assay 68.2% (95% CI 59.8-75.6%). Therefore, the LIA assay performed significantly better (P < 0.05) than the TWB assay. The LIA assay can be considered to be a valid alternative confirmatory test for the serological diagnosis of syphilis.

  13. Evaluation of macrolide resistance and enhanced molecular typing of Treponema pallidum in patients with syphilis in Taiwan: a prospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsiu; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Lee, Nan-Yao; Huang, Wen-Chi; Wu, Bing-Ru; Yang, Chia-Jui; Liang, Shiou-Haur; Lee, Chen-Hsiang; Ko, Wen-Chien; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Liu, Wen-Chun; Su, Yi-Ching; Hsieh, Chia-Yin; Wu, Pei-Ying; Hung, Chien-Ching

    2012-07-01

    Studies of macrolide resistance mutations and molecular typing using the newly proposed enhanced typing system for Treponema pallidum isolates obtained from HIV-infected patients in the Asia-Pacific region are scarce. Between September 2009 and December 2011, we conducted a survey to detect T. pallidum using a PCR assay using clinical specimens from patients with syphilis at six major designated hospitals for HIV care in Taiwan. The T. pallidum strains were genotyped by following the enhanced molecular typing methodology, which analyzed the number of 60-bp repeats in the acidic repeat protein (arp) gene, T. pallidum repeat (tpr) polymorphism, and the sequence of base pairs 131 to 215 in the tp0548 open reading frame of T. pallidum. Detection of A2058G and A2059G point mutations in the T. pallidum 23S rRNA was performed with the use of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). During the 2-year study period, 211 clinical specimens were obtained from 136 patients with syphilis. T. pallidum DNA was isolated from 105 (49.8%) of the specimens, with swab specimens obtained from chancres having the highest yield rate (63.2%), followed by plasma (49.4%), serum (35.7%), and cerebrospinal fluid or vitreous fluid (18.2%) specimens. Among the 40 fully typed specimens, 11 subtypes of T. pallidum were identified. Subtype 14f/f (18 isolates) was the most common isolates, followed by 14f/c (3), 14b/c (3), and 14k/f (3). Among the isolates examined for macrolide resistance, none had the A2058G or A2059G mutation. In conclusion, we found that type 14 f/f was the most common T. pallidum strain in this multicenter study on syphilis in Taiwan and that none of the isolates exhibited 23S rRNA mutations causing resistance to macrolides.

  14. Human Treponema pallidum 11q/j isolate belongs to subsp. endemicum but contains two loci with a sequence in TP0548 and TP0488 similar to subsp. pertenue and subsp. pallidum, respectively.

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    Lenka Mikalová

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Treponema pallidum subsp. endemicum (TEN is the causative agent of endemic syphilis (bejel. An unusual human TEN 11q/j isolate was obtained from a syphilis-like primary genital lesion from a patient that returned to France from Pakistan.The TEN 11q/j isolate was characterized using nested PCR followed by Sanger sequencing and/or direct Illumina sequencing. Altogether, 44 chromosomal regions were analyzed. Overall, the 11q/j isolate clustered with TEN strains Bosnia A and Iraq B as expected from previous TEN classification of the 11q/j isolate. However, the 11q/j sequence in a 505 bp-long region at the TP0488 locus was similar to Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA strains, but not to TEN Bosnia A and Iraq B sequences, suggesting a recombination event at this locus. Similarly, the 11q/j sequence in a 613 bp-long region at the TP0548 locus was similar to Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue (TPE strains, but not to TEN sequences.A detailed analysis of two recombinant loci found in the 11q/j clinical isolate revealed that the recombination event occurred just once, in the TP0488, with the donor sequence originating from a TPA strain. Since TEN Bosnia A and Iraq B were found to contain TPA-like sequences at the TP0548 locus, the recombination at TP0548 took place in a treponeme that was an ancestor to both TEN Bosnia A and Iraq B. The sequence of 11q/j isolate in TP0548 represents an ancestral TEN sequence that is similar to yaws-causing treponemes. In addition to the importance of the 11q/j isolate for reconstruction of the TEN phylogeny, this case emphasizes the possible role of TEN strains in development of syphilis-like lesions.

  15. Ecological Effect of Arginine on Oral Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; He, Jinzhi; Wang, Lin; Zhou, Shuangshuang; Peng, Xian; Huang, Shi; Zheng, Liwei; Cheng, Lei; Hao, Yuqing; Li, Jiyao; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xin; Zhou, Xuedong

    2017-08-03

    Dental caries is closely associated with the microbial dybiosis between acidogenic/aciduric pathogens and alkali-generating commensal bacteria colonized in the oral cavity. Our recent studies have shown that arginine may represent a promising anti-caries agent by modulating microbial composition in an in vitro consortium. However, the effect of arginine on the oral microbiota has yet to be comprehensively delineated in either clinical cohort or in vitro biofilm models that better represent the microbial diversity of oral cavity. Here, by employing a clinical cohort and a saliva-derived biofilm model, we demonstrated that arginine treatment could favorably modulate the oral microbiota of caries-active individuals. Specifically, treatment with arginine-containing dentifrice normalized the oral microbiota of caries-active individuals similar to that of caries-free controls in terms of microbial structure, abundance of typical species, enzymatic activities of glycolysis and alkali-generation related enzymes and their corresponding transcripts. Moreover, we found that combinatory use of arginine with fluoride could better enrich alkali-generating Streptococcus sanguinis and suppress acidogenic/aciduric Streptococcus mutans, and thus significantly retard the demineralizing capability of saliva-derived oral biofilm. Hence, we propose that fluoride and arginine have a potential synergistic effect in maintaining an eco-friendly oral microbial equilibrium in favor of better caries management.

  16. Oral Candida colonization in oral cancer patients and its relationship with traditional risk factors of oral cancer: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnuaimi, Ali D; Wiesenfeld, David; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Reynolds, Eric C; McCullough, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Candida, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, has been implicated in oral and oesophageal cancers. This study aimed to examine oral Candida carriage in 52 oral cancer patients and 104 age-, gender- and denture status-matched oral cancer-free subjects. We assessed general health, smoking and alcohol drinking habits, use of alcohol-containing mouthwash and periodontal status (community periodontal index of treatment needs). Yeasts were isolated using oral rinse technique and genetically identified via Real-Time PCR-High resolution melting curve analysis of conserved ribosomal DNA. Conditional and binary logistic regressions were used to identify explanatory variables that are risk factors for oral cancer. The frequencies of oral yeasts' presence and high oral colonization were significantly higher in oral cancer than non-oral cancer patients (p=001; p=0.033, respectively). No significant difference in the isolation profile of Candida species was found between the two groups, except C. parapsilosis was more frequent in non-oral cancer group. Differences were noticed in the incidence of C. albicans strains where significantly more C. albicans genotype-A was isolated from cancer patients and significantly more C. albicans genotype-B isolated from non-cancer patients. Multiple regression analyses showed significant association with cancer observed for alcohol drinking (OR=4.253; 95% CI=1.351, 13.386), Candida presence (OR=3.242; 95% CI=1.505, 6.984) and high oral colonization (OR=3.587; 95% CI=1.153, 11.162). These results indicate that there is a significant association between oral cancer occurrence and Candida oral colonization and that the observed genotypic diversity of C. albicans strains may play a role in oral carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Oral hygiene reinforcement in the simplified periodontal treatment of 1 hour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apatzidou, Danae A; Zygogianni, Penelope; Sakellari, Dimitra; Konstantinidis, Antonis

    2014-02-01

    To compare the clinical and microbiological outcome of the 1-h ultrasonic debridement of chronic periodontitis patients (CPP) with and without frequent sessions of oral hygiene reinforcement. Clinical measurements and subgingival plaque were collected from 44 CPP at baseline, 3- and 6-months. The control group received a single session of 1-h full-mouth ultrasonic debridement, while oral hygiene instructions (OHI) were reiterated over four visits. In the test group, OHI were limited in the 1-h treatment session. At 3-months, both groups received additional debridement and OHI. The "Checkerboard" DNA-DNA hybridization technique quantified Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola in plaque. At three months, smaller reductions in plaque and bleeding indices, and in P. gingivalis numbers were noted in the test group, while these differences disappeared at six months. After the 3-month re-treatment visit, the test group presented with a greater probing pocket depth (PPD) reduction. Plaque negatively affected PPD in a similar manner after both treatment approaches. Lack of oral hygiene reinforcement in the 1-h full-mouth debridement resulted in higher plaque and bleeding scores and numbers of P. gingivalis at three months; professional removal of dental biofilm every three months is beneficial in subjects with compromised plaque control. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Human pathogen avoidance adaptations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tybur, J.M.; Lieberman, D.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, researchers have become increasingly interested in the adaptations guiding the avoidance of disease-causing organisms. Here we discuss the latest developments in this area, including a recently developed information-processing model of the adaptations underlying pathogen

  19. ANALYSIS OF Treponema pallidum RECOMBINANT ANTIGENS FOR DIAGNOSIS OF SYPHILIS BY WESTERN BLOTTING TECHNIQUE Análise de antígenos recombinantes de Treponema pallidum no diagnóstico da sífilis utilizando a técnica de Western Blotting

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    Neuza Satomi SATO

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Three GST fusion recombinant antigen of Treponema pallidum, described as GST-rTp47, GST-rTp17 and GST-rTp15 were analyzed by Western blotting techniques. We have tested 53 serum samples: 25 from patients at different clinical stages of syphilis, all of them presenting anti-treponemal antibody, 25 from healthy blood donors and three from patients with sexually transmitted disease (STD other than syphilis. Almost all samples from patients with syphilis presented a strong reactivity with GST-rTp17 antigen. Some samples were non-reactive or showed a weak reaction with GST-rTp47 and/or GST-rTp15, and apparently there was no correlation with the stage of disease. There was no seropositivity among blood donors. No sample reacted with purified GST. We concluded that due to their specificity these recombinant antigens can be used as GST fusion protein for development of syphilis diagnostic assays.Os antígenos recombinantes de Treponema pallidum GST-rTp47, GST-rTp17 e GST-rTp15, produzidos em fusão com glutationa S-transferase (GST em E. coli, foram analisados quanto ao potencial diagnóstico da sífilis pela técnica de Western blotting. Foram testadas 53 amostras, sendo 25 de pacientes em diferentes estágios clínicos da sífilis, com resultados positivos no teste treponêmico clássico; 25 amostras procedentes de doadores de banco de sangue, com sorologia negativa e 3 de pacientes com doença sexualmente transmissível não relacionado à sífilis. Todas as amostras de pacientes com sífilis apresentaram alta reatividade com o antígeno GST-rTp17. Quanto aos antígenos GST-rTp47 e GST-Tp15 verificou-se uma variação na presença ou na intensidade da reação em diferentes amostras de pacientes com sífilis, sem mostrar correlação com o estágio da doença. Nenhuma reatividade contra quaisquer desses antígenos foi observada com as amostras do grupo controle. Nenhuma das amostras testadas apresentaram reatividade com a GST purificada. A

  20. Implications of Probiotics on Oral Health: Past-to-Present

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    Archana Muralidhar Menon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Misuse of antibiotics has led to an exponential increase in cases related to antibiotic resistance. This alarming situation calls for antibiotic substitutes to restore sound health. The answer to this is "PROBIOTICS." Considered inimical to pathogens, probiotics help the commensal microflora residing in the host′s body to combat diseases. It increases the number of good microorganisms to fight the bad ones. Traditionally considered beneficial against gastrointestinal problems, probiotics in recent times has showcased its ability to take down oral pathogens as well. The aim of this article is to review the literature till date to (1 understand the evolution of probiotics, (2 assess its impact on potential oral pathogens, and (3 analyze its significance in establishing good oral health.

  1. Autophagy in plant pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Hong; Xu, Fei; Snyder, John Hugh; Shi, Huan-Bin; Lu, Jian-Ping; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Autophagy is a conserved cellular process that degrades cytoplasmic constituents in vacuoles. Plant pathogenic fungi develop special infection structures and/or secrete a range of enzymes to invade their plant hosts. It has been demonstrated that monitoring autophagy processes can be extremely useful in visualizing the sequence of events leading to pathogenicity of plant pathogenic fungi. In this review, we introduce the molecular mechanisms involved in autophagy. In addition, we explore the relationship between autophagy and pathogenicity in plant pathogenic fungi. Finally, we discuss the various experimental strategies available for use in the study of autophagy in plant pathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evidence for an ABC-Type Riboflavin Transporter System in Pathogenic Spirochetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Ranjit K.; Brautigam, Chad A.; Biddy, Brent A.; Liu, Wei Z.; Norgard, Michael V.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial transporter proteins are involved in the translocation of many essential nutrients and metabolites. However, many of these key bacterial transport systems remain to be identified, including those involved in the transport of riboflavin (vitamin B2). Pathogenic spirochetes lack riboflavin biosynthetic pathways, implying reliance on obtaining riboflavin from their hosts. Using structural and functional characterizations of possible ligand-binding components, we have identified an ABC-type riboflavin transport system within pathogenic spirochetes. The putative lipoprotein ligand-binding components of these systems from three different spirochetes were cloned, hyperexpressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to homogeneity. Solutions of all three of the purified recombinant proteins were bright yellow. UV-visible spectra demonstrated that these proteins were likely flavoproteins; electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and thin-layer chromatography confirmed that they contained riboflavin. A 1.3-Å crystal structure of the protein (TP0298) encoded by Treponema pallidum, the syphilis spirochete, demonstrated that the protein’s fold is similar to the ligand-binding components of ABC-type transporters. The structure also revealed other salient details of the riboflavin binding site. Comparative bioinformatics analyses of spirochetal genomes, coupled with experimental validation, facilitated the discovery of this new ABC-type riboflavin transport system(s). We denote the ligand-binding component as riboflavin uptake transporter A (RfuA). Taken together, it appears that pathogenic spirochetes have evolved an ABC-type transport system (RfuABCD) for survival in their host environments, particularly that of the human host. PMID:23404400

  3. Probiotic features of two oral Lactobacillus isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Zavisic, Gordana; Petricevic, Sasa; Radulovic, Zeljka; Begovic, Jelena; Golic, Natasa; Topisirovic, Ljubisa; Strahinic, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we checked lactobacilli strains of human origin for their potential as probiotic. Samples were collected from oral mucosa of 16 healthy individuals, out of which twenty isolates were obtained and two of them were selected and identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (G1) and L. casei (G3). Both isolates exhibited antagonistic action towards pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella abony, and Clostridium sporogene...

  4. Anaerobic Co-Culture of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Anaerobic Pathogens - A New In Vitro Model System

    OpenAIRE

    Kriebel, Katja; Biedermann, Anne; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Lang, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are multipotent by nature and are originally isolated from bone marrow. In light of a future application of hMSCs in the oral cavity, a body compartment with varying oxygen partial pressures and an omnipresence of different bacterial species i.e. periodontitis pathogens, we performed this study to gain information about the behavior of hMSC in an anaerobic system and the response in interaction with oral bacterial pathogens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIP...

  5. The presence of Helicobacter pylori in oral cavities of patients with leukoplakia and oral lichen planus

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    Magdalena Kazanowska-Dygdała

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in men. This gastrointestinal pathogen is closely related to gastritis, peptic ulcers, and the increased risk of gastric cancer. Numerous studies have indicated oral cavities as possible Helicobacter pylori reservoirs. Helicobacter pylori has been detected both in supragingival and subgingival plaques, and also in saliva. In addition, the relationship between lesions of oral mucosa and the presence of H. pylori has been evaluated and described in some studies. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of Helicobacter pylori DNA in the oral cavity of patients with oral leukoplakia and oral lichen planus. Material and Methods The study included 54 patients with oral leukoplakia, 72 with oral lichen planus lesions, and 40 healthy controls. The presence of Helicobacter pylori in oral cavity samples was analyzed using a single-step Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR method. All patients underwent a periodontal examination and the following clinical parameters were collected: pocket depth, bleeding, and plaque indexes. The periodontal status was assessed using the Offenbacher classification. Results In most patients, pathological lesions were in typical sites on the buccal mucosa (leukoplakia in 88%, and oral lichen planus in 93% of patients. The DNA of the Helicobacter pylori was present in 20% of patients with leukoplakia and 23% of patients with lichen planus. We did not find the DNA of H. pylori in healthy controls. The periodontal status described by periodontal indices was worse in the investigated group than in the control group. Conclusion These findings suggest that the H. pylori presence in oral cavities may be related with leukoplakia and lichen planus oral lesions.

  6. The presence of Helicobacter pylori in oral cavities of patients with leukoplakia and oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanowska-Dygdała, Magdalena; Duś, Irena; Radwan-Oczko, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in men. This gastrointestinal pathogen is closely related to gastritis, peptic ulcers, and the increased risk of gastric cancer. Numerous studies have indicated oral cavities as possible Helicobacter pylori reservoirs. Helicobacter pylori has been detected both in supragingival and subgingival plaques, and also in saliva. In addition, the relationship between lesions of oral mucosa and the presence of H. pylori has been evaluated and described in some studies. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of Helicobacter pylori DNA in the oral cavity of patients with oral leukoplakia and oral lichen planus. The study included 54 patients with oral leukoplakia, 72 with oral lichen planus lesions, and 40 healthy controls. The presence of Helicobacter pylori in oral cavity samples was analyzed using a single-step Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. All patients underwent a periodontal examination and the following clinical parameters were collected: pocket depth, bleeding, and plaque indexes. The periodontal status was assessed using the Offenbacher classification. In most patients, pathological lesions were in typical sites on the buccal mucosa (leukoplakia in 88%, and oral lichen planus in 93% of patients). The DNA of the Helicobacter pylori was present in 20% of patients with leukoplakia and 23% of patients with lichen planus. We did not find the DNA of H. pylori in healthy controls. The periodontal status described by periodontal indices was worse in the investigated group than in the control group. These findings suggest that the H. pylori presence in oral cavities may be related with leukoplakia and lichen planus oral lesions.

  7. Evolution of microbial pathogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Morschhäuser, J; Köhler, G; Ziebuhr, W; Blum-Oehler, G; Dobrindt, U; Hacker, J

    2000-01-01

    Various genetic mechanisms including point mutations, genetic rearrangements and lateral gene transfer processes contribute to the evolution of microbes. Long-term processes leading to the development of new species or subspecies are termed macroevolution, and short-term developments, which occur during days or weeks, are considered as microevolution. Both processes, macro- and microevolution need horizontal gene transfer, which is particularly important for the development of pathogenic micr...

  8. Preterm low birthweight and the role of oral bacteria

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    Elizabeth Shira Davenport

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Preterm and low birthweight (PTLBW continues to be a major cause of mortality and morbidity across the world. In recent years, maternal periodontal disease has been implicated as a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. There is conflicting evidence to support such an outcome as illustrated by descriptive, case control and randomised controlled trials involving pregnant women from across the world, using different measurement tools to determine the level of periodontal disease. Whilst considering the literature, there is evidence for both arguments, based on the effect of periodontal inflammatory by products. Bacteria associated with periodontal disease are not dissimilar to those known to be associated with genito-urinary bacterial infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Several groups have demonstrated the apparent translocation of Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella nigrescens, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonus gingivalis, Treponema denticola to the foetal placental unit whereby a maternal or foetal response has been detected resulting in premature birth or low birthweight. The normal process of parturition involves a cascade of events including a build-up of inflammatory mediators as linked to inflammation, whereby the maternal environment becomes hostile and threatens the well-being of the infant, and the foetus expelled. The question remains therefore, is there a greater risk of delivering a PTLBW infant when the mother has detectable periodontal disease, or is the release of inflammatory mediators and their translocation via the haematogenous route sufficient to induce a poor pregnancy outcome? The data investigated would suggest that there is a positive outcome when certain oral gram-negative bacteria create a cumulative effect sufficient to trigger early delivery, which represents the final straw to result in preterm or low birthweight delivery. There is equally sufficient epidemiological evidence that does not support this

  9. Are Treponema pallidum specific rapid and point-of-care tests for syphilis accurate enough for screening in resource limited settings? Evidence from a meta-analysis.

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    Yalda Jafari

    Full Text Available Rapid and point-of-care (POC tests for syphilis are an invaluable screening tool, yet inadequate evaluation of their diagnostic accuracy against best reference standards limits their widespread global uptake. To fill this gap, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of rapid and POC tests in blood and serum samples against Treponema pallidum (TP specific reference standards.Five electronic databases (1980-2012 were searched, data was extracted from 33 articles, and Bayesian hierarchical models were fit.In serum samples, against a TP specific reference standard point estimates with 95% credible intervals (CrI for the sensitivities of popular tests were: i Determine, 90.04% (80.45, 95.21, ii SD Bioline, 87.06% (75.67, 94.50, iii VisiTect, 85.13% (72.83, 92.57, and iv Syphicheck, 74.48% (56.85, 88.44, while specificities were: i Syphicheck, 99.14% (96.37, 100, ii Visitect, 96.45% (91.92, 99.29, iii SD Bioline, 95.85% (89.89, 99.53, and iv Determine, 94.15% (89.26, 97.66. In whole blood samples, sensitivities were: i Determine, 86.32% (77.26, 91.70, ii SD Bioline, 84.50% (78.81, 92.61, iii Syphicheck, 74.47% (63.94, 82.13, and iv VisiTect, 74.26% (53.62, 83.68, while specificities were: i Syphicheck, 99.58% (98.91, 99.96, ii VisiTect, 99.43% (98.22, 99.98, iii SD Bioline, 97.95%(92.54, 99.33, and iv Determine, 95.85% (92.42, 97.74.Rapid and POC treponemal tests reported sensitivity and specificity estimates comparable to laboratory-based treponemal tests. In resource limited settings, where access to screening is limited and where risk of patients lost to follow up is high, the introduction of these tests has already been shown to improve access to screening and treatment to prevent stillbirths and neonatal mortality due to congenital syphilis. Based on the evidence, it is concluded that rapid and POC tests are useful in resource limited settings with poor access to laboratories or screening

  10. Evaluation of FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, and Tp0463 of Treponema pallidum for serodiagnosis of syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chuanhao; Xiao, Jinhong; Xie, Yafeng; Xiao, Yongjian; Wang, Chuan; Kuang, Xingxing; Xu, Man; Li, Ranhui; Zeng, Tiebing; Liu, Shuanquan; Yu, Jian; Zhao, Feijun; Wu, Yimou

    2016-02-01

    Syphilis is a multistage disease caused by the invasive spirochete Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, and accurate diagnosis is important for the prevention and treatment of syphilis. Here, to identify appropriate diagnostic antigens for serodiagnosis of syphilis, 6 recombinant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified, including flagellins (FlaB1 [Tp0868], FlaB2 [Tp0792], and FlaB3 [Tp0870]), Tp0463, Tp0751, and Tp1038. The sensitivities were determined by screening sera from individuals with primary (n=82), secondary (n=115), latent (n=105), and congenital (n=65) syphilis. The specificities were determined by screening sera from uninfected controls (n=30) and potentially cross-reactive infections including Lyme disease (n=30), leptospirosis (n=5), and hepatitis B (n=30). Our data showed that FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, Tp0463, and Tp1038 exhibited higher overall sensitivities and specificities for detecting IgG antibody, with 95.4% and 98.9%, 92.6% and 95.8%, 95.1% and 95.8%, 92.6% and 97.9%, and 95.9% and 98.9%, respectively. In contrast, Tp0751 demonstrated only an overall sensitivity of 39.2%. For comparison, the sensitivity and specificity of Architect Syphilis TP were determined to be 98.1% and 93.7%, respectively. In addition, FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, and Tp0463 demonstrated excellent performance for detecting IgM antibody in primary and congenital syphilis, with sensitivities of 76.8% and 83.1%, 72.0% and 87.7%, 74.4% and 89.2%, and 64.6% and 75.3%, respectively. These results indicate that FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, and Tp0463 could be as novel diagnostic candidates for serodiagnosis of syphilis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effects of Antimicrobial Peptide Nal-P-113 on Inhibiting Periodontal Pathogens and Improving Periodontal Status

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    Hongyan Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease consists of chronic gingival inflammation characterized by both degradation of the periodontal connective tissue and alveolar bone loss. Drug therapy is used as an auxiliary treatment method in severe chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and periodontitis-associated systemic disease. Nal-P-113, a modified antimicrobial peptide, specifically replaces the histidine residues of P-113 with the bulky amino acid β-naphthylalanine, and our previous studies have verified that this novel peptide is not toxic to the human body within a certain concentration range. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Nal-P-113 on periodontal pathogens and periodontal status in clinical studies. In a split-mouth clinical trial, the pocket depth and bleeding index values tended to decrease in the experimental group compared with those in the control group. SEM results verified that Nal-P-113 restrained the maturation of plaque. Based on real-time polymerase chain reaction, the levels of Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus gordonii, Treponema denticola, and Porphyromonas gingivalis in subgingival plaque were decreased when the subjects were given Nal-P-113. Bacterial growth curve analysis and a biofilm susceptibility assay verified that Nal-P-113 at a concentration of 20 μg/mL restrained the growth of S. gordonii, F. nucleatum, and P. gingivalis and biofilm formation. Therefore, Nal-P-113 effectively reduces periodontal pathogens and ameliorates periodontal status.

  12. Periodontal status and pathogenic bacteria after gastric bypass: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho; de Moura-Grec, Patrícia Garcia; Yamashita, Joselene Martinelli; Torres, Elza Araujo; Dionísio, Thiago José; Leite, Celso Vieira de Souza; Sales-Peres, Arsenio; Ceneviva, Reginaldo

    2015-06-01

    The aim this study was to evaluate the influence of gastric bypass surgery (GBS) on periodontal disease and quantify the periodontopathogenic bacteria in patients undergoing this surgery. This prospective study was composed of 50 patients who underwent bariatric surgery and the data collection was performed in three periods pre-operative, 6 (6M) and 12 months (12 M) postoperative. The oral clinical examination to assess periodontal disease; gingival fluid sample collection for quantification of the periodontopathogenic bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Prevotella intermedia using q-PCR; body mass index (BMI) and for collection of the individual's health-related data from medical files. There was a significant reduction in serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and glucose levels after surgery. The mean probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) increased significantly in the postoperative period of 6 months (p = 0.001). In the same period, the amount of P. gingivalis increased (p = 0.028) and the other bacteria decreased slightly (p > 0.050). In the presence of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, T. denticola and P. intermedia, a poor periodontal condition was observed. The periodontal disease increased in severity and P. gingivalis increased after GBS. A systemic inflammation resolution due to bariatric surgery in obese subjects does not seem to affect the course of periodontal disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Periodontal Therapy Effects on Nitrite Related to Oral Bacteria: A 6-Month Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortelli, Sheila C; Costa, Fernando O; Rodrigues, Edson; Cota, Luis O M; Cortelli, Jose R

    2015-08-01

    Nitrite is a biologic factor relevant to oral and systemic homeostasis. Through an oral bacteria reduction process, it was suggested that periodontal therapy and chlorhexidine (CHX) rinse could affect nitrite levels, leading to negative effects, such as an increase in blood pressure. This 6-month randomized clinical trial evaluated the effects of periodontal therapeutic protocols on salivary nitrite and its relation to subgingival bacteria. One hundred patients with periodontitis were allocated randomly to debridement procedures in four weekly sections (quadrant scaling [QS]) or within 24 hours (full-mouth scaling [FMS]) in conjunction with a 60-day CHX (QS + CHX and FMS + CHX), placebo (QS + placebo and FMS + placebo), or no mouthrinse (QS + none and FMS + none) use. Real-time polymerase chain reaction determined total bacterial, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Streptococcus oralis, and Actinomyces naeslundii levels. Salivary nitrite concentration was determined with Griess reagent. Data were analyzed statistically at baseline and 3 and 6 months by analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and Spearman correlation tests (P periodontal pockets. The relationship between nitrite and bacterial levels appears weak. Short-term scaling exhibited a greater influence on nitrite concentrations then long-term CHX use.

  14. Multi-view learning and deep learning for heterogeneous biological data to maintain oral health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imangaliyev, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    Oral health is an integral component of overall health and well-being. The human oral cavity is the entry point for all food, the first active step of the human digestive system, and the entry point for many pathogens. Little is known about the physiological and biological processes involved in the

  15. Exopolysaccharide Productivity and Biofilm Phenotype on Oral Commensal Bacteria as Pathogenesis of Chronic Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    2 Exopolysaccharide Productivity and Biofilm Phenotype on Oral Commensal Bacteria as Pathogenesis of Chronic Periodontitis Takeshi Yamanaka1...species biofilm in the oral cavity can cause persistent chronic periodontitis along with the importance of dental plaque formation and maturation...independent manner could be pathogenic for periodontal tissues and can cause chronic periodontitis lesions. 2.1 Initial colonizers on the tooth surface

  16. Non-oral gram-negative facultative rods in chronic periodontitis microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winkelhoff, Arie J; Rurenga, Patrick; Wekema-Mulder, Gepke J; Singadji, Zadnach; Rams, Thomas E

    OBJECTIVE: The subgingival prevalence of gram-negative facultative rods not usually inhabiting or indigenous to the oral cavity (non-oral GNFR), as well as selected periodontal bacterial pathogens, were evaluated by culture in untreated and treated chronic periodontitis patients. METHODS:

  17. Microbiomics of Oral Biofilms: Driving The Future of Dental Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaminda Jayampath Seneviratne

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral infectious diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, endodontic infections, oral candidiasis and peri-implantitis cause major health problems worldwide. All of these infectious diseases are associated with the biofilm growth mode of the oral pathogens. In the past, researchers often attempted to examine the association of single pathogens with particular dental diseases such as in the case of Streptococcus mutans acting as an aetiological agent for dental caries and the so-called “red-complex” bacteria for periodontal disease. However, with the recent advent of OMICS biology techniques such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, it is possible to gain new insights into the host-microbial interaction, microbial community structure and composition in the oral cavity. The new studies on oral microbiomics can unravel the facets of the aetiopathology of oral diseases as never seen before. This mini-review will provide an history and overview of some of the existing DNA sequencing platforms employed to study the microbiomics of oral biofilms and the exciting future ahead for dental research.

  18. Oral Health and Erectile Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijendra P; Nettemu, Sunil K; Nettem, Sowmya; Hosadurga, Rajesh; Nayak, Sangeeta U

    2017-01-01

    Ample evidence strongly supports the fact that periodontal disease is a major risk factor for various systemic diseases namely cardio-vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, etc. Recently, investigators focussed on exploring the link between chronic periodontitis (CP) and erectile dysfunction (ED) by contributing to the endothelial dysfunction. Both the diseases share common risk factors. Various studies conducted in different parts of the world in recent years reported the evidence linking this relationship as well as improvement in ED with periodontal treatment. Systemic exposure to the periodontal pathogen and periodontal infection-induced systemic inflammation was thought to associate with these conditions. The objective of this review was to highlight the evidence of the link between CP and ED and the importance of oral health in preventing the systemic conditions.

  19. Oral health and erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijendra P Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ample evidence strongly supports the fact that periodontal disease is a major risk factor for various systemic diseases namely cardio-vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, etc. Recently, investigators focussed on exploring the link between chronic periodontitis (CP and erectile dysfunction (ED by contributing to the endothelial dysfunction. Both the diseases share common risk factors. Various studies conducted in different parts of the world in recent years reported the evidence linking this relationship as well as improvement in ED with periodontal treatment. Systemic exposure to the periodontal pathogen and periodontal infection-induced systemic inflammation was thought to associate with these conditions. The objective of this review was to highlight the evidence of the link between CP and ED and the importance of oral health in preventing the systemic conditions.

  20. Oral contraceptives induced hepatotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    B. Akshaya Srikanth; V. Manisree

    2013-01-01

    Oral Contraceptives are the pharmacological agents used to prevent pregnancy. These are divided as the combined and progestogen methods and are administered orally, transdermally, systemically and via vaginal route. All these methods contain both oestrogen and progestogen. Vigorous usage of oral contraceptives and anabolic steroids as associated with cholestasis, vascular lesions and hepatic neoplasm. Benign hepatic neoplasms are clearly associated with oral contraceptives. In this article we...

  1. Oral vaccination of fish

    OpenAIRE

    Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen breakdown in the harsh gastric environment, but also to the high tolerogenic gut environment and to inadequate vaccine design. In this review we discuss current approaches used to develop oral vaccines fo...

  2. Detección de Treponema pallidum subespecie pallidum para el diagnóstico de sífilis congénita mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa anidada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinilla, Gladys; Campos, Lesly; Durán, Andrea; Navarrete, Jeannette; Muñoz, Liliana

    2018-03-15

    Introducción. La sífilis es una enfermedad producida por Treponema pallidum subespecie pallidum cuya incidencia mundial es de 12 millones de casos por año, aproximadamente; de estos, más de dos millones se presentan en mujeres gestantes, siendo la sífilis congénita la complicación más grave de esta infección en el embarazo.Objetivo. Detectar la presencia de T. pallidum subespecie pallidum en muestras clínicas para el diagnóstico de sífilis congénita mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) anidada y determinar su concordancia con las pruebas serológicas.Materiales y métodos. Mediante PCR convencional y anidada, se amplificaron tres genes diana (polA, 16S ADNr y TpN47) y se confirmaron los productos de amplificación de los genes TpN47 y polA por secuenciación. Las pruebas serológicas empleadas fueron la VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory), la de reagina plasmática rápida (Rapid Plasma Reagin, RPR) y la de aglutinación de partículas para Treponema pallidum (Treponema pallidum Particle Agglutination Assay, TPPA).Resultados. La sensibilidad para la PCR convencional fue de 52 pg y, para la PCR anidada, de 0,52 pg. La especificidad con los iniciadores TpN47 y polA fue de 100 %; los resultados de la secuenciación mostraron una identidad de 97 % con T. pallidum. En 70 % de las muestras, los resultados de las pruebas serológicas y la PCR anidada concordaron.Conclusión. El gen TpN47 resultó ser el mejor blanco molecular para la identificación de T. pallidum. La PCR anidada se presenta como una alternativa de diagnóstico molecular promisoria para el diagnóstico de sífilis congénita.

  3. Oral vaccination of fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen

  4. Interventions for preventing oral mucositis in patients with cancer receiving treatment: oral cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Philip; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Worthington, Helen V; Littlewood, Anne; Clarkson, Jan E; McCabe, Martin G

    2015-12-23

    Oral mucositis is a side effect of chemotherapy, head and neck radiotherapy, and targeted therapy, affecting over 75% of high risk patients. Ulceration can lead to severe pain and difficulty eating and drinking, which may necessitate opioid analgesics, hospitalisation and nasogastric or intravenous nutrition. These complications may lead to interruptions or alterations to cancer therapy, which may reduce survival. There is also a risk of death from sepsis if pathogens enter the ulcers of immunocompromised patients. Ulcerative oral mucositis can be costly to healthcare systems, yet there are few preventive interventions proven to be beneficial. Oral cryotherapy is a low-cost, simple intervention which is unlikely to cause side-effects. It has shown promise in clinical trials and warrants an up-to-date Cochrane review to assess and summarise the international evidence. To assess the effects of oral cryotherapy for preventing oral mucositis in patients with cancer who are receiving treatment. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 17 June 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5), MEDLINE via Ovid (1946 to 17 June 2015), EMBASE via Ovid (1980 to 17 June 2015), CANCERLIT via PubMed (1950 to 17 June 2015) and CINAHL via EBSCO (1937 to 17 June 2015). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry, and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching databases. We included parallel-design randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of oral cryotherapy in patients with cancer receiving treatment. We used outcomes from a published core outcome set registered on the COMET website. Two review authors independently screened the results of electronic searches, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We contacted study authors for information

  5. Oral vaccination with attenuated Salmonella choleraesuis C500 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helicobacter pylori are well known as the major gastro-duodenal pathogen of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Recombinant H. pylori vaccine comprising a single subunit antigen can only induce immune response with limited protection efficiency. Development of oral vaccine would be a new effective strategy for the ...

  6. Next-generation sequencing approaches to understanding the oral microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaura, E.

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, the focus in dental research has been on studying a small fraction of the oral microbiome—so-called opportunistic pathogens. With the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, researchers now have the tools that allow for profiling of the microbiomes and metagenomes at

  7. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to detect oral cancer during your routine dental examinations. Don't risk it. Perform an oral cancer ... oral cancer self-exam each month. An oral examination is performed using a bright light and a ...

  8. Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

  9. Oral microbiota of Brazilian captive snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MG Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to determine the oral microbiotic composition of snakes from São José do Rio Preto city, São Paulo State, Brazil. Ten snake species, comprising the families Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae and Viperidae, were submitted to microbiological examination of their oral cavity, which indicated positivity for all buccal samples. Gram-negative bacilli, gram-negative cocci bacilli, gram-positive bacilli and gram-positive cocci were isolated from the snakes. Among isolated bacterium species, the occurrence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in the buccal cavity of Crotalus durissus (Viperiade, Eunectes murinus (Boidae, Mastigodryas bifossatus (Colubridae and Bacillus subtilis, common to oral cavity of Bothrops alternatus (Viperidae and Phalotris mertensi (Colubridae, was detected. It was observed higher diversity of isolated bacteria from the oral cavity of Micrurus frontalis (Elapidae and Philodryas nattereri (Colubridae, as well as the prevalence of gram-positive baccillus and gram-positive cocci. The composition of the oral microbiota of the studied snakes, with or without inoculating fangs, is diverse and also related to the formation of abscesses at the bite site in the victims of the ophidian accidents, and to pathogenic processes in the snakes that host these microorganisms.

  10. Quantification of oral palatine Langerhans cells in HIV/AIDS associated oral Kaposi sarcoma with and without oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivan, Vibha; Meer, Shabnum

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are effective antigen-presenting cells that function as "custodians" of mucosa, modifying the immune system to pathogen entry, and tolerance to self-antigen and commensal microbes. A reduction in number of LCs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals may predispose to local mucosal infections. To quantitatively determine the number of oral mucosal LCs in HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) associated oral Kaposi sarcoma (KS) with/without oral candidiasis (OC) and to define in situ interrelationships between the cells, OC, and HIV infection. Thirty-two periodic acid-Schiff. (PAS) stained histologic sections of palatal HIV/AIDS associated KS with intact oral epithelium were examined for Candida and divided into two groups: . (1) KS coinfected with Candida and. (2) KS noninfected with Candida. Sections were immunohistochemically stained with CD1a. The standard length of surface epithelium was measured and number of positively stained LCs counted per unit length. Control cases included non-Candida infected palatal mucosa overlying pleomorphic adenoma. (PA) and oral mucosa infected with Candida in otherwise healthy individuals. LC number per unit length of surface epithelium was statistically significantly greatest in uninfected PA mucosa and lowest in KS coinfected with Candida (P = 0.0001). A statistically significant difference was also noted between uninfected PA mucosa and non-Candida infected KS (P = 0.0014), in KS coinfected with Candida and non-infected KS (P = 0.0035), between OC and PA (P = 0.0001), and OC and KS coinfected with Candida (P = 0.0247). LC numbers are significantly reduced in oral tissues of HIV/AIDS infected patients by Candida infection when compared to oral tissues without.

  11. Bacteriophage and their potential roles in the human oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Edlund

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The human oral cavity provides the perfect portal of entry for viruses and bacteria in the environment to access new hosts. Hence, the oral cavity is one of the most densely populated habitats of the human body containing some 6 billion bacteria and potentially 35 times that many viruses. The role of these viral communities remains unclear; however, many are bacteriophage that may have active roles in shaping the ecology of oral bacterial communities. Other implications for the presence of such vast oral phage communities include accelerating the molecular diversity of their bacterial hosts as both host and phage mutate to gain evolutionary advantages. Additional roles include the acquisitions of new gene functions through lysogenic conversions that may provide selective advantages to host bacteria in response to antibiotics or other types of disturbances, and protection of the human host from invading pathogens by binding to and preventing pathogens from crossing oral mucosal barriers. Recent evidence suggests that phage may be more involved in periodontal diseases than were previously thought, as their compositions in the subgingival crevice in moderate to severe periodontitis are known to be significantly altered. However, it is unclear to what extent they contribute to dysbiosis or the transition of the microbial community into a state promoting oral disease. Bacteriophage communities are distinct in saliva compared to sub- and supragingival areas, suggesting that different oral biogeographic niches have unique phage ecology shaping their bacterial biota. In this review, we summarize what is known about phage communities in the oral cavity, the possible contributions of phage in shaping oral bacterial ecology, and the risks to public health oral phage may pose through their potential to spread antibiotic resistance gene functions to close contacts.

  12. Oral Microbial Shift: Factors affecting the Microbiome and Prevention of Oral Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagli, Namrata; Dagli, Rushabh; Darwish, Shrouq; Baroudi, Kusai

    2016-01-01

    Recently, oral microbiome has gained popularity among scientists. Microorganisms are no longer considered as disease-producing pathogens, rather they are now considered as partners of human in maintaining health. Since ancient times, changes in our lifestyle have affected our microbiome and the balance with their human host has been perturbed. The present review includes the description about factors affecting oral microbiome and establishing symbiosis with the human host so that they contribute in maintaining health rather than eliciting diseases. A comprehensive literature search was performed on databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed and Medline until April 2015. First, articles were selected on the basis of their titles and then abstracts were screened and unwanted articles were excluded. Articles obtained from all the databases were checked and duplicate articles were removed. Articles obtained from various databases: PubMed = 35, Google Scholar=8. Out of these 43 articles, total 29 articles were finally selected for this review. The published literature suggests that the modern oral microbiome is less biodiverse, and possess more pathogenic bacterial species and lesser beneficial bacteria. The possible factors mainly responsible for this shift in microbiome were found to be change in diet, industrial revolution and indiscriminate use of antibiotics. Various changes in lifestyles have affected oral microbiome adversely and perturb the symbiosis between the microbiome and their hosts. The present oral microbiome is found to be less diverse and more pathogenic. The present review may be helpful in understanding the relationship between the microbiome and their human hosts so that microbiome contributes in maintaining healthy state of the body.

  13. Rhamnolipids and lactonic sophorolipids: natural antimicrobial surfactants for oral hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshikh, M; Moya-Ramírez, I; Moens, H; Roelants, S; Soetaert, W; Marchant, R; Banat, I M

    2017-11-01

    To assess the efficacy of rhamnolipid (mixture of monorhamnolipid and dirhamnolipid congeners), purified monorhamnolipid, dirhamnolipid and lactonic sophorolipid biosurfactants against pathogens important for oral hygiene. Acquired and produced biosurfactants were fully characterized to allow the antimicrobial activity to be assigned to the biosurfactant congeners. Antimicrobial activity was assessed using the resazurin-aided microdilution method. Mixed rhamnolipid JBR425 (MR) and lactonic sophorolipids (LSLs) demonstrated the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) which ranged between 100 and 400 μg ml -1 against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Neisseria mucosa and Streptococcus sanguinis. Combining these biosurfactants with standard antimicrobial agents namely chlorhexidine, sodium lauryl sulphate, tetracycline HCl and ciprofloxacin showed a dramatic drop in the MIC values. In addition, in vitro studies demonstrated the biosurfactants' ability to prevent and disrupt oral pathogens biofilms. The increased permeability of microorganisms treated with biosurfactant, as shown using bisbenzimide dye, in part explains the inhibition effect. The results demonstrate that rhamnolipids and LSLs have the ability to inhibit oral pathogens both in planktonic and oral biofilm states. The findings indicate the potential value of biosurfactants for both oral hygiene and the pharmaceutical industries since there is a serious need to reduce the reliance on synthetic antimicrobials and antibiotics. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Essentials of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators.

  15. Actinobaculum schaalii an emerging pediatric pathogen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Petra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actinobaculum schaalii was first described as a causative agent for human infection in 1997. Since then it has mainly been reported causing urinary tract infections (UTI in elderly individuals with underlying urological diseases. Isolation and identification is challenging and often needs molecular techniques. A. schaalii is increasingly reported as a cause of infection in humans, however data in children is very limited. Case presentation We present the case of an 8-month-old Caucasian boy suffering from myelomeningocele and neurogenic bladder who presented with a UTI. An ultrasound of the urinary tract was unremarkable. Urinalysis and microscopy showed an elevated leukocyte esterase test, pyuria and a high number of bacteria. Empiric treatment with oral co-trimoxazole was started. Growth of small colonies of Gram-positive rods was observed after 48 h. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed an A. schaalii infection 9 days later. Treatment was changed to oral amoxicillin for 14 days. On follow-up urinalysis was normal and urine cultures were negative. Conclusions A.schaalii is an emerging pathogen in adults and children. Colonization and subsequent infection seem to be influenced by the age of the patient. In young children with high suspicion of UTI who use diapers or in children who have known abnormalities of their urogenital tract, infection with A. schaalii should be considered and empiric antimicrobial therapy chosen accordingly.

  16. Oral DNA Vaccine in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Davoud Jazayeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated Salmonella has been used as a carrier for DNA vaccine. However, in vitro and in vivo studies on the bacteria following transfection of plasmid DNA were poorly studied. In this paper, eukaryotic expression plasmids encoding avian influenza virus (AIV subtype H5N1 genes, pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP, were transfected into an attenuated Salmonella enteric typhimurium SV4089. In vitro stability of the transfected plasmids into Salmonella were over 90% after 100 generations. The attenuated Salmonella were able to invade MCF-7 (1.2% and MCF-10A (0.5% human breast cancer cells. Newly hatched specific-pathogen-free (SPF chicks were inoculated once by oral gavage with 109 colony-forming unit (CFU of the attenuated Salmonella. No abnormal clinical signs or deaths were recorded after inoculation. Viable bacteria were detected 3 days after inoculation by plating from spleen, liver, and cecum. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were carried out for confirmation. Salmonella was not detected in blood cultures although serum antibody immune responses to Salmonella O antiserum group D1 factor 1, 9, and 12 antigens were observed in all the inoculated chickens after 7 days up to 35 days. Our results showed that live attenuated S. typhimurium SV4089 harboring pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP may provide a unique alternative as a carrier for DNA oral vaccine in chickens.

  17. Taxonomy, virulence and epidemiology of black-pigmented Bacteroides species in relation to oral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steenbergen, T J; van Winkelhoff, A J; van der Velden, U; de Graaff, J

    1989-01-01

    Black-pigmented Bacteroides species are recognized as suspected pathogens of oral infections. Developments in the taxonomy of this group include description of a new asaccharolytic species, Bacteroides salivosus, and proposal for the reclassification of the asaccharolytic species into a separate genus, Porphyromonas. Studies on the pathogenicity and virulence of black-pigmented Bacteroides species have identified Bacteroides gingivalis as the most virulent species. B. gingivalis and Bacteroides intermedius have been associated with periodontal diseases; Bacteroides endodontalis is isolated specifically from infections in the oral cavity, and other black-pigmented Bacteroides species are recovered from oral mucous sites. DNA restriction endonuclease analysis was adapted for typing of B. gingivalis and B. intermedius.

  18. Screening for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitender, Solanki; Sarika, Gupta; Varada, Hiremath R; Omprakash, Yadav; Mohsin, Khan

    2016-11-01

    Oral cancer is considered as a serious health problem resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Early detection and prevention play a key role in controlling the burden of oral cancer worldwide. The five-year survival rate of oral cancer still remains low and delayed diagnosis is considered as one of the major reasons. This increases the demand for oral screening. Currently, screening of oral cancer is largely based on visual examination. Various evidence strongly suggest the validity of visual inspection in reducing mortality in patients at risk for oral cancer. Simple visual examination is accompanied with adjunctive techniques for subjective interpretation of dysplastic changes. These include toluidine blue staining, brush biopsy, chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence. This review highlights the efficacy of various diagnostic methods in screening of oral cancer. © 2016 Old City Publishing, Inc.

  19. Pathogenic agents in freshwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldreich, Edwin E.

    1996-02-01

    Numerous pathogenic agents have been found in freshwaters used as sources for water supplies, recreational bathing and irrigation. These agents include bacterial pathogens, enteric viruses, several protozoans and parasitic worms more common to tropical waters. Although infected humans are a major source of pathogens, farm animals (cattle, sheep, pigs), animal pets (dogs, cats) and wildlife serve as significant reservoirs and should not be ignored. The range of infected individuals within a given warm-blooded animal group (humans included) may range from 1 to 25%. Survival times for pathogens in the water environment may range from a few days to as much as a year (Ascaris, Taenia eggs), with infective dose levels varying from one viable cell for several primary pathogenic agents to many thousands of cells for a given opportunistic pathogen.As pathogen detection in water is complex and not readily incorporated into routine monitoring, a surrogate is necessary. In general, indicators of faecal contamination provide a positive correlation with intestinal pathogen occurrences only when appropriate sample volumes are examined by sensitive methodology.Pathways by which pathogens reach susceptible water users include ingestion of contaminated water, body contact with polluted recreational waters and consumption of salad crops irrigated by polluted freshwaters. Major contributors to the spread of various water-borne pathogens are sewage, polluted surface waters and stormwater runoff. All of these contributions are intensified during periods of major floods. Several water-borne case histories are cited as examples of breakdowns in public health protection related to water supply, recreational waters and the consumption of contaminated salad crops. In the long term, water resource management must focus on pollution prevention from point sources of waste discharges and the spread of pathogens in watershed stormwater runoff.

  20. Identification of infectious microbiota from oral cavity environment of various population group patients as a preventive approach to human health risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Paweł J; Perkowski, Konrad; Starościak, Bohdan; Baltaza, Wanda; Padzik, Marcin; Pionkowski, Krzysztof; Chomicz, Lidia

    2016-12-23

    This study presents the results of comparative investigations aimed to determine microbiota that can occur in the oral environment in different human populations. The objective of the research was to identify pathogenic oral microbiota, the potential cause of health complications in patients of different population groups. The study included 95 patients requiring dental or surgical treatment; their oral cavity environment microbiota as risk factors of local and general infections were assessed. In clinical assessment, differences occurred in oral cavity conditions between patients with malformations of the masticatory system, kidney allograft recipients and individuals without indications for surgical procedures. The presence of various pathogenic and opportunistic bacterial strains in oral cavities were revealed by direct microscopic and in vitro culture techniques. Colonization of oral cavities of patients requiring surgical treatment by the potentially pathogenic bacteria constitutes the threat of their spread, and development of general infections. Assessment of oral cavity infectious microbiota should be performed as a preventive measure against peri-surgical complications.

  1. Oral and endotracheal tubes colonization by periodontal bacteria: a case-control ICU study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, A N; Cortelli, S C; Borges, A H; Matos, F Z; Aquino, D R; Miranda, T B; Oliveira Costa, F; Aranha, A F; Cortelli, J R

    2016-03-01

    Periodontal infection is a possible risk factor for respiratory disorders; however, no studies have assessed the colonization of periodontal pathogens in endotracheal tubes (ET). This case-control study analyzed whether periodontal pathogens are able to colonize ET of dentate and edentulous patients in intensive care units (ICU) and whether oral and ET periodontal pathogen profiles have any correlation between these patients. We selected 18 dentate and 18 edentulous patients from 78 eligible ICU patients. Oral clinical examination including probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index , and plaque index was performed by a single examiner, followed by oral and ET sampling and processing by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (total bacterial load, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia). Data were statistically analyzed by Mann-Whitney U, two-way analysis of variance (p Periodontal pathogens can colonize ET and the oral cavity of ICU patients. Periodontal pathogen profiles tend to be similar between dentate and edentulous ICU patients. In ICU patients, oral cavity represents a source of ET contamination. Although accompanied by higher oral bacterial levels, teeth do not seem to influence ET bacterial profiles.

  2. Oral biopsy: Oral pathologist′s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K L Kumaraswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many oral lesions may need to be diagnosed by removing a sample of tissue from the oral cavity. Biopsy is widely used in the medical field, but the practice is not quite widespread in dental practice. As oral pathologists, we have found many artifacts in the tissue specimen because of poor biopsy technique or handling, which has led to diagnostic pitfalls and misery to both the patient and the clinician. This article aims at alerting the clinicians about the clinical faults arising preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively while dealing with oral biopsy that may affect the histological assessment of the tissue and, therefore, the diagnosis. It also reviews the different techniques, precautions and special considerations necessary for specific lesions.

  3. Beneficial Oral Biofilms as Smart Bioactive Interfaces

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    Beatrice Gutt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is a very common health problem caused by formation of pathogenic bacterial biofilm that triggers inflammation resulting in either reversible gingivitis or irreversible periodontal hard and soft tissue damages, leading to loss of teeth when left untreated. Commensal bacteria play an important role in oral health in many aspects. Mainly by colonizing oral tissues, they (i contribute to maturation of immune response, and (ii foreclose attachment of pathobiont and, therefore, prevent from infection. The main goal of the study was to investigate if blocking of receptors on a commensal biofilm can prevent or reduce the attachment of pathogenic strains. To do so, biofilm produced by commensal Streptococcus sanguinis was treated with whole cell lysate of pathobionts Fusobacterium nucleatum or Porphyromonas gingivalis, followed by incubation with respective strain(s. The study revealed significant reduction in pathobiont adhesion to lysate-treated commensal biofilm. Therefore, adhesion of pathobionts onto the lysate-blocked biofilm was hindered; however, not completely eliminated supporting the idea that such approach in the oral cavity would benefit the production of a well-balanced and healthy bioactive interface.

  4. Comparative proteomic analysis of pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains from the swine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

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    Klein Cátia S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a highly infectious swine pathogen and is the causative agent of enzootic pneumonia (EP. Following the previous report of a proteomic survey of the pathogenic 7448 strain of swine pathogen, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, we performed comparative protein profiling of three M. hyopneumoniae strains, namely the non-pathogenic J strain and the two pathogenic strains 7448 and 7422. Results In 2DE comparisons, we were able to identify differences in expression levels for 67 proteins, including the overexpression of some cytoadherence-related proteins only in the pathogenic strains. 2DE immunoblot analyses allowed the identification of differential proteolytic cleavage patterns of the P97 adhesin in the three strains. For more comprehensive protein profiling, an LC-MS/MS strategy was used. Overall, 35% of the M. hyopneumoniae genome coding capacity was covered. Partially overlapping profiles of identified proteins were observed in the strains with 81 proteins identified only in one strain and 54 proteins identified in two strains. Abundance analysis of proteins detected in more than one strain demonstrates the relative overexpression of 64 proteins, including the P97 adhesin in the pathogenic strains. Conclusions Our results indicate the physiological differences between the non-pathogenic strain, with its non-infective proliferate lifestyle, and the pathogenic strains, with its constitutive expression of adhesins, which would render the bacterium competent for adhesion and infection prior to host contact.

  5. Antimicrobial properties of Cocos nucifera (coconut) husk: An extrapolation to oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Maji; Cyriac, Maria B; Pai, Vidya; Varghese, Ipe; Shantaram, Manjula

    2014-07-01

    Brushing the teeth with fibrous husk of Cocos nucifera (coconut) is a common oral hygiene practice among people of rural areas of South India. However, the probable antimicrobial properties of this plant material against common oral pathogens have not been proved scientifically. Therefore, the present study was designed. Alcoholic extract of the husk of Cocos nucifera was prepared and the antimicrobial properties against common oral pathogens like cariogenic bacteria, periodontal pathogens, and candidal organisms were performed by the Agar Well Diffusion Method. The results obtained were then subjected to statistical analysis using One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD). The alcoholic extract of Cocos nucifera showed a significant concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity, expressed as a zone of inhibition with respect to all tested organisms except Actinomyces species. The inhibitory effect was more significant, with a majority of cariogenic organisms and Candida, with a zone of inhibition ranging from 4.6 mm to 16.3 mm. However, the effect was lesser with Cocos nucifera compared to chlorhexidine. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 50 mg/ml to 75 mg/ml. Cocos nucifera has a significant inhibitory action against common oral pathogens, indicating the presence of highly effective antimicrobial compounds. Therefore, it is proved that its use can contribute to oral health to a great extent. Identification of these active compounds provides the scope for incorporating it into a modern oral care system, so as to control oral diseases.

  6. Oral manifestations of lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, S; O'Shea, F; Galvin, S; Wynne, B

    2018-02-01

    Mucosal involvement is commonly seen in patients with lupus; however, oral examination is often forgotten. Squamous cell carcinoma arising within oral lupoid plaques has been described, emphasizing the importance of identifying and treating oral lupus. We undertook a retrospective single-centre study looking at oral findings in patients attending our multidisciplinary lupus clinic between January 2015 and April 2016. A total of 42 patients were included. The majority of patients were female (88%) and had a diagnosis of discoid lupus erythematosus (62%). Half of the patients had positive oral findings, 26% had no oral examination documented, and 24% had documented normal oral examinations. Our findings suggest that oral pathology is common in this cohort of patients. Regular oral examination is warranted to identify oral lupus and provide treatment. Associated diseases such as Sjogren's syndrome may also be identified. Patients should be encouraged to see their general dental practitioners on a regular basis for mucosal review. Any persistent ulcer that fails to respond to treatment or hard lump needs urgent histopathological evaluation to exclude malignant transformation to squamous cell carcinoma.

  7. Frequency and levels of candidate endodontic pathogens in acute apical abscesses as compared to asymptomatic apical periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, Isabela N.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Acute apical abscess is caused by bacteria that leave the infected dental root canal to invade the periodontal tissues. Most species occurring in abscesses are also found in asymptomatic infections; therefore, the possibility exists that not only the presence of certain species but also their specific counts influence the appearance of symptoms. This molecular study compared the frequency and levels of several candidate endodontic pathogens in teeth with acute apical abscesses and asymptomatic apical periodontitis. Methods Samples were taken from the root canals of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis (n = 73) and by aspiration of purulent exudate from acute abscesses (n = 55). DNA was extracted from samples and bacterial identifications were performed by a closed-ended semi-quantitative reverse-capture checkerboard approach targeting 40 bacterial species/phylotypes. Results Bacterial DNA was detected in all cases. In abscesses, the most prevalent taxa were Fusobacterium nucleatum (60%), Porphyromonas endodontalis (53%), Parvimonas micra (51%), and Streptococcus species (45%). The most frequently detected taxa in asymptomatic teeth were P. endodontalis (63%), Dialister invisus (58%), Olsenella uli (56%), and F. nucleatum (51%). None of the targeted taxa were significantly associated with abscesses when only mere presence was evaluated (p>0.05). However, semi-quantitative data demonstrated that P. endodontalis, Prevotella baroniae, Treponema denticola and Streptococcus species were significantly more frequent at levels >105 in abscesses than in asymptomatic cases (pabscesses in terms of frequency. However, some taxa were significantly found in higher levels in abscesses. Presence of a potentially virulent pathogen in high counts may increase the collective pathogenicity of the bacterial community and give rise to symptoms. PMID:29293651

  8. Frequency and levels of candidate endodontic pathogens in acute apical abscesses as compared to asymptomatic apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, Isabela N; Siqueira, José F

    2018-01-01

    Acute apical abscess is caused by bacteria that leave the infected dental root canal to invade the periodontal tissues. Most species occurring in abscesses are also found in asymptomatic infections; therefore, the possibility exists that not only the presence of certain species but also their specific counts influence the appearance of symptoms. This molecular study compared the frequency and levels of several candidate endodontic pathogens in teeth with acute apical abscesses and asymptomatic apical periodontitis. Samples were taken from the root canals of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis (n = 73) and by aspiration of purulent exudate from acute abscesses (n = 55). DNA was extracted from samples and bacterial identifications were performed by a closed-ended semi-quantitative reverse-capture checkerboard approach targeting 40 bacterial species/phylotypes. Bacterial DNA was detected in all cases. In abscesses, the most prevalent taxa were Fusobacterium nucleatum (60%), Porphyromonas endodontalis (53%), Parvimonas micra (51%), and Streptococcus species (45%). The most frequently detected taxa in asymptomatic teeth were P. endodontalis (63%), Dialister invisus (58%), Olsenella uli (56%), and F. nucleatum (51%). None of the targeted taxa were significantly associated with abscesses when only mere presence was evaluated (p>0.05). However, semi-quantitative data demonstrated that P. endodontalis, Prevotella baroniae, Treponema denticola and Streptococcus species were significantly more frequent at levels >105 in abscesses than in asymptomatic cases (p<0.05). None of the target species/phylotypes were associated with abscesses in terms of frequency. However, some taxa were significantly found in higher levels in abscesses. Presence of a potentially virulent pathogen in high counts may increase the collective pathogenicity of the bacterial community and give rise to symptoms.

  9. Models hosts for the study of oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2012-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection caused by yeast of the Candida genus, primarily Candida albicans. It is generally associated with predisposing factors such as the use of immunosuppressive agents, antibiotics, prostheses, and xerostomia. The development of research in animal models is extremely important for understanding the nature of the fungal pathogenicity, host interactions, and treatment of oral mucosal Candida infections. Many oral candidiasis models in rats and mice have been developed with antibiotic administration, induction of xerostomia, treatment with immunosuppressive agents, or the use of germ-free animals, and all these models has both benefits and limitations. Over the past decade, invertebrate model hosts, including Galleria mellonella, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila melanogaster, have been used for the study of Candida pathogenesis. These invertebrate systems offer a number of advantages over mammalian vertebrate models, predominantly because they allow the study of strain collections without the ethical considerations associated with studies in mammals. Thus, the invertebrate models may be useful to understanding of pathogenicity of Candida isolates from the oral cavity, interactions of oral microorganisms, and study of new antifungal compounds for oral candidiasis.

  10. Assessment of the rapid test based on an immunochromatography technique for detecting anti-Treponema pallidum antibodies Avaliação do teste rápido para a detecção de anticorpos anti-Treponema pallidum baseado na técnica de imunocromatografia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza Satomi Sato

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A rapid test based on an immunochromatography assay - Determine™ Syphilis TP (Abbott Lab. for detecting specific antibodies to Treponema pallidum was evaluated against serum samples from patients with clinical, epidemiological and serological diagnosis of syphilis, patients with sexually transmitted disease other than syphilis, and individuals with negative serology for syphilis. The Determine™ test presented the sensitivity of 93.6%, specificity of 92.5%, and positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 95.2% and 93.7%, respectively. One serum sample from patient with recent latent syphilis showed a prozone reaction. Determine™ is a rapid assay, highly specific and easy to perform. This technique obviates the need of equipment and its diagnostic features demonstrate that it may be applicable as an alternative assay for syphilis screening under some emergency conditions or for patients living in remote localities.O desempenho do teste rápido imunocromatográfico de procedência comercial Determine™ Syphilis TP (Abbott Lab. para detectar anticorpos específicos contra antígenos treponêmicos foi avaliado com soros de pacientes tendo diagnóstico epidemiológico, clínico e laboratorial de sífilis, de pacientes com outras doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e de indivíduos clinicamente sadios ou com resultados negativos nos testes sorológicos para sífilis. Os valores de sensibilidade e de especificidade do teste Determine™ foram respectivamente de 93,6% e 95,2%, o valor preditivo positivo foi de 95,2% e o valor preditivo negativo 93,6%. O fenômeno de prozona foi observado em uma amostra de paciente com sífilis recente latente. O teste é de fácil e rápida execução, sem necessidade de equipamentos e o resultado pode ser obtido em 15 minutos, que de acordo com suas características diagnósticas poderá ser utilizado como teste alternativo de triagem em determinadas situações de emergência ou em pacientes que vivem

  11. Radiation induced oral mucositis

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    P S Satheesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene

  12. Application of Metagenomic Analyses in Dentistry as a Novel Strategy Enabling Complex Insight into Microbial Diversity of the Oral Cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burczynska, Aleksandra; Dziewit, Lukasz; Decewicz, Przemysław; Struzycka, Izabela; Wroblewska, Marta

    2017-03-30

    The composition of the oral microbiome in healthy individuals is complex and dynamic, and depends on many factors, such as anatomical location in the oral cavity, diet, oral hygiene habits or host immune responses. It is estimated at present that worldwide about 2 billion people suffer from diseases of the oral cavity, mainly periodontal disease and dental caries. Importantly, the oral microflora involved in local infections may spread and cause systemic, even life-threatening infections. In search for etiological agents of infections in dentistry, traditional approaches are not sufficient, as about 50% of oral bacteria are not cultivable. Instead, metagenomic analyses are particularly useful for studies of the complex oral microbiome - both in healthy individuals, and in patients with oral and dental diseases. In this paper we review the current and future applications of metagenomic studies in evaluation of both the composition of the oral microbiome as well as its potential pathogenic role in infections in dentistry.

  13. Polymicrobial infection with major periodontal pathogens induced periodontal disease and aortic atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic ApoE(null mice.

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    Mercedes F Rivera

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease (PD and atherosclerosis are both polymicrobial and multifactorial and although observational studies supported the association, the causative relationship between these two diseases is not yet established. Polymicrobial infection-induced periodontal disease is postulated to accelerate atherosclerotic plaque growth by enhancing atherosclerotic risk factors of orally infected Apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE(null mice. At 16 weeks of infection, samples of blood, mandible, maxilla, aorta, heart, spleen, and liver were collected, analyzed for bacterial genomic DNA, immune response, inflammation, alveolar bone loss, serum inflammatory marker, atherosclerosis risk factors, and aortic atherosclerosis. PCR analysis of polymicrobial-infected (Porphyromonas gingivalis [P. gingivalis], Treponema denticola [T. denticola], and Tannerella forsythia [T. forsythia] mice resulted in detection of bacterial genomic DNA in oral plaque samples indicating colonization of the oral cavity by all three species. Fluorescent in situ hybridization detected P. gingivalis and T. denticola within gingival tissues of infected mice and morphometric analysis showed an increase in palatal alveolar bone loss (p<0.0001 and intrabony defects suggesting development of periodontal disease in this model. Polymicrobial-infected mice also showed an increase in aortic plaque area (p<0.05 with macrophage accumulation, enhanced serum amyloid A, and increased serum cholesterol and triglycerides. A systemic infection was indicated by the detection of bacterial genomic DNA in the aorta and liver of infected mice and elevated levels of bacterial specific IgG antibodies (p<0.0001. This study was a unique effort to understand the effects of a polymicrobial infection with P. gingivalis, T. denticola and T. forsythia on periodontal disease and associated atherosclerosis in ApoE(null mice.

  14. Oral microbiota and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Meurman, Jukka H.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the...

  15. Effects of professional oral health care on elderly: randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino, T; Ookawa, K; Haruta, N; Hagiwara, Y; Seki, M

    2014-11-01

    To better understand the role of the professional oral health care for elderly in improving geriatric oral health, the effects of short-term professional oral health care (once per week for 1 month) on oral microbiological parameters were assessed. Parallel, open-labelled, randomize-controlled trial was undertaken in a nursing home for elderly in Shizuoka, Japan. Thirty-four dentate elderly over 74 years were randomly assigned from ID number to the intervention (17/34) and control (17/34) groups. The outcomes were changes in oral microbiological parameters (number of bacteria in unstimulated saliva; whole bacteria, Streptococcus, Fusobacterium and Prevotella: opportunistic pathogens detection: and index of oral hygiene evaluation [Dental Plaque Index, DPI]) within the intervention period. Each parameter was evaluated at before and after intervention period. Four elderly were lost from mortality (1), bone fracture (1), refused to participate (1) and multi-antibiotics usage (1). Finally, 30 elderly were analysed (14/intervention and 16/control). At baseline, no difference was found between the control and intervention groups. After the intervention period, the percentage of Streptococcus species increased significantly in the intervention group (Intervention, 86% [12/14]; Control, 50% [8/16]: Fisher's, right-tailed, P oral health care can improve oral conditions in the elderly. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Reduced Oral Microbial Diversity in Individuals Harbor Periodontal Diseases

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    Jinghua Sun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bacteria colonize a variety of surfaces of the hu-man body. The bacterial diversity in the oral cavity is estimated to be more than 700 different species. The oral cavity is home to microbial communities, with important implications for human health and disease. Oral microbial flora is responsible for two major human infectious diseases of the oral cavity, dental caries and periodontal diseases. From the clinical samples, previously, using polymerase chain reaction-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE technique, we found a significantly greater diversity of oral microbes in caries-free individuals compared with caries-active individuals. The hypothesis: We hypothesize that a greater diversity of indigenous bacteria inhabits a healthy oral environment, and that a sig-nificant proportion of oral biota may be absent, suppressed, or replaced in a periodontal diseases environment. Evaluation of the hypothesis: The microbiota undergoes a transition from a commensal to a pathogenic relationship with the host due to factors that trigger a shift in the proportions of resident microorganisms. If our hypothesis is true, many techniques which were used to detect the oral bacterial diversity can be used in diagnosis and prognosis of periodontal diseases.

  17. Transient virulence of emerging pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolker, Benjamin M; Nanda, Arjun; Shah, Dharmini

    2010-05-06

    Should emerging pathogens be unusually virulent? If so, why? Existing theories of virulence evolution based on a tradeoff between high transmission rates and long infectious periods imply that epidemic growth conditions will select for higher virulence, possibly leading to a transient peak in virulence near the beginning of an epidemic. This transient selection could lead to high virulence in emerging pathogens. Using a simple model of the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of emerging pathogens, along with rough estimates of parameters for pathogens such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, West Nile virus and myxomatosis, we estimated the potential magnitude and timing of such transient virulence peaks. Pathogens that are moderately evolvable, highly transmissible, and highly virulent at equilibrium could briefly double their virulence during an epidemic; thus, epidemic-phase selection could contribute significantly to the virulence of emerging pathogens. In order to further assess the potential significance of this mechanism, we bring together data from the literature for the shapes of tradeoff curves for several pathogens (myxomatosis, HIV, and a parasite of Daphnia) and the level of genetic variation for virulence for one (myxomatosis). We discuss the need for better data on tradeoff curves and genetic variance in order to evaluate the plausibility of various scenarios of virulence evolution.

  18. Towards understanding oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Global Oral Health Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, I.; Tabak, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be “at the table” with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions. PMID:21490232

  20. African Journal of Oral Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Oral Health Sciences is devoted to research into oral diseases and encourages a multidisciplinary approach. Emphasis is on oral pathology, oral microbiology, oral medicine, oral physiology and biochemistry and related clinical sciences.

  1. Oral candidosis in relation to oral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Chandran, R; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2014-09-01

    Symptomatic oral infection with Candida albicans is characterized by invasion of the oral epithelium by virulent hyphae that cause tissue damage releasing the inflammatory mediators that initiate and sustain local inflammation. Candida albicans triggers pattern-recognition receptors of keratinocytes, macrophages, monocytes and dendritic cells, stimulating the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23. These cytokines induce the differentiation of Th17 cells and the generation of IL-17- and/or IL-22-mediated antifungal protective immuno-inflammatory responses in infected mucosa. Some immune cells including NKT cells, γδ T cells and lymphoid cells that are innate to the oral mucosa have the capacity to produce large quantities of IL-17 in response to C. albicans, sufficient to mediate effective protective immunity against C. albicans. On the other hand, molecular structures of commensal C. albicans blastoconidia, although detected by pattern-recognition receptors, are avirulent, do not invade the oral epithelium, do not elicit inflammatory responses in a healthy host, but induce regulatory immune responses that maintain tissue tolerance to the commensal fungi. The type, specificity and sensitivity of the protective immune response towards C. albicans is determined by the outcome of the integrated interactions between the intracellular signalling pathways of specific combinations of activated pattern-recognition receptors (TLR2, TLR4, Dectin-1 and Dectin-2). IL-17-mediated protective immune response is essential for oral mucosal immunity to C. albicans infection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Ecological niche of plant pathogens

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    Ecaterina Fodor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Disease ecology is a new approach to the understanding of the spread and dynamics of pathogens in natural and man-made environments. Defining and describing the ecological niche of the pathogens is one of the major tasks for ecological theory, as well as for practitioners preoccupied with the control and forecasting of established and emerging diseases. Niche theory has been periodically revised, not including in an explicit way the pathogens. However, many progresses have been achieved in niche modeling of disease spread, but few attempts were made to construct a theoretical frame for the ecological niche of pathogens. The paper is a review of the knowledge accumulated during last decades in the niche theory of pathogens and proposes an ecological approach in research. It quest for new control methods in what concerns forest plant pathogens, with a special emphasis on fungi like organisms of the genus Phytophthora. Species of Phytophthora are the most successful plant pathogens of the moment, affecting forest and agricultural systems worldwide, many of them being invasive alien organisms in many ecosystems. The hyperspace of their ecological niche is defined by hosts, environment and human interference, as main axes. To select most important variables within the hyperspace, is important the understanding of the complex role of pathogens in the ecosystems as well as for control programs. Biotic relationships within ecosystem of host-pathogen couple are depicted by ecological network and specific metrics attached to this. The star shaped network is characterized by few high degree nodes, by short path lengths and relatively low connectivity, premises for a rapid disturbance spread. 

  3. Ecological niche of plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Fodor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Disease ecology is a new approach to the understanding of the spread and dynamics of pathogens in natural and man-made environments. Defining and describing the ecological niche of the pathogens is one of the major tasks for ecological theory, as well as for practitioners preoccupied with the control and forecasting of established and emerging diseases. Niche theory has been periodically revised, not including in an explicit way the pathogens. However, many progresses have been achieved in niche modeling of disease spread, but few attempts were made to construct a theoretical frame for the ecological niche of pathogens. The paper is a review of the knowledge accumulated during last decades in the niche theory of pathogens and proposes an ecological approach in research. It quest for new control methods in what concerns forest plant pathogens, with a special emphasis on fungi like organisms of the genus Phytophthora. Species of Phytophthora are the most successful plant pathogens of the moment, affecting forest and agricultural systems worldwide, many of them being invasive alien organisms in many ecosystems. The hyperspace of their ecological niche is defined by hosts, environment and human interference, as main axes. To select most important variables within the hyperspace, is important for the understanding of the complex role of pathogens in the ecosystems as well as for control programs. Biotic relationships within ecosystem of host-pathogen couple are depicted by ecological network and specific metrics attached to this. The star shaped network is characterized by few high degree nodes, by short path lengths and relatively low connectivity, premises for a rapid disturbance spread.

  4. Oral complications of cancer therapies. Mucosal alterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squier, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    The initial effect of anticancer therapy, such as radiation and chemotherapy, is on the rapidly proliferating cells of the oral epithelium. As a consequence, the epithelium may show atrophy and ulceration. The sites of these alterations are related to the rate of epithelial proliferation. Regions of rapid proliferation, such as the oral lining mucosa, show a greater frequency of ulceration than masticatory mucosa or skin. Subsequent changes in the mucosa reflect damage to connective tissue, including fibroblasts and blood vessels. This results in hyalinization of collagen, hypovascularity, and ischemia. Indirect effects of anticancer therapy may include granulocytopenia and reduced salivary secretion, so that the protective mucin coating of the epithelium is compromised. These changes result in tissue with reduced barrier function and impaired ability to heal and to resist entry of pathogens, thus increasing the risk of systemic infections

  5. Host pathogen relations: exploring animal models for fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Catherine G; Rao, Reeta P

    2014-06-30

    Pathogenic fungi cause superficial infections but pose a significant public health risk when infections spread to deeper tissues, such as the lung. Within the last three decades, fungi have been identified as the leading cause of nosocomial infections making them the focus of research. This review outlines the model systems such as the mouse, zebrafish larvae, flies, and nematodes, as well as ex vivo and in vitro systems available to study common fungal pathogens.

  6. Host Pathogen Relations: Exploring Animal Models for Fungal Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine G. Harwood

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic fungi cause superficial infections but pose a significant public health risk when infections spread to deeper tissues, such as the lung. Within the last three decades, fungi have been identified as the leading cause of nosocomial infections making them the focus of research. This review outlines the model systems such as the mouse, zebrafish larvae, flies, and nematodes, as well as ex vivo and in vitro systems available to study common fungal pathogens.

  7. Effectiveness of oral hygiene interventions against oral and oropharyngeal reservoirs of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic gram-negative bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Otto L T; McGrath, Colman; Li, Leonard S W; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2012-03-01

    Aerobic and facultatively anaerobic gram-negative bacilli (AGNB) are opportunistic pathogens and continue to cause a large number of hospital-acquired infections. AGNB residing in the oral cavity and oropharynx have been linked to nosocomial pneumonia and septicemia. Although AGNB are not considered members of the normal oral and oropharyngeal flora, medically compromised patients have been demonstrated to be susceptible to AGNB colonization. A literature search was conducted to retrieve articles that evaluated the effectiveness of oral hygiene interventions in reducing the oral and oropharyngeal carriage of AGNB in medically compromised patients. Few studies have documented the use of mechanical oral hygiene interventions alone against AGNB. Although a number of studies have employed oral hygiene interventions complemented by antiseptic agents such as chlorhexidine and povidone iodine, there appears to be a discrepancy between their in vitro and in vivo effectiveness. With the recognition of the oral cavity and oropharynx as a reservoir of AGNB and the recent emergence of multidrug and pandrug resistance in hospital settings, there is a pressing need for additional high-quality randomized controlled trials to determine which oral hygiene interventions or combination of interventions are most effective in eliminating or reducing AGNB carriage. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A MOLECULAR METHOD TO IDENTIFY THE EMERGING PATHOGEN HEPATITIS E IN WATER SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging pathogen that causes significant illness in the developing world. Like the hepatitis A virus, it is transmitted via the fecal-oral route and can cause short-term, acute hepatitis. In addition, hepatitis E has been found to cause a signific...

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A MOLECULAR METHOD TO IDENTIFY THE MERGING PATHOGEN HEPATITIS E IN WATER SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging pathogen that causes significant illness in the developing world. Like the hepatitis A virus, it is transmitted via the fecal-oral route and can cause short-term, acute hepatitis. In addition, hepatitis E has been found to cause a signific...

  10. Transgenic tobacco expressing a modified spider peptide inhibits the growth of plant pathogens and insect larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gene encoding lycotoxin I, an amphipathic pore-forming peptide, was modified to increase oral toxicity to insects. One of the most active modified genes was then constitutively expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and transformants were evaluated for insect and disease resistance. Pathogenic...

  11. Animal vaccines based on orally presented yeast recombinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min-Kyoung; Yoo, Han Sang

    2013-09-13

    In veterinary vaccinology, the oral route of administration is an attractive alternative compared to the commonly used parenteral route. Yeasts have a number of properties that make them potential live delivery systems for oral vaccination purposes such as their high expression levels, their GRAS status, adjuvant properties, and post-translational modification possibilities. Consequently, yeasts have been employed for the expression of heterologous genes and for the production of therapeutic proteins. Yeast-based vaccines are reviewed with regard to their ability to express and produce antigens from pathogens for veterinary use. Many of these vaccines have been shown to elicit protective immune responses following oral immunization in animals. Ultimately, yeast-based oral vaccines may offer a potential opportunity for the development of novel ideal vaccines in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Oral candidiasis-adhesion of non-albicans Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokor-Bratić Marija B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection caused primarily by Candida albicans. However, in recent years, species of non-albicans Candida have been implicated more frequently in mucosal infection. Candida species usually reside as commensal organisms and are part of normal oral microflora. Determining exactly how transformation from commensal to pathogen takes place and how it can be prevented is continuous challenge for clinical doctors. Candidal adherence to mucosal surfaces is considered as a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. Acrylic dentures, acting as reservoirs, play an important role in increasing the risk from Candida colonisation. Thus, this review discusses what is currently known about the adhesion of non-albicans Candida species of oral origin to buccal epithelial cells and denture acrylics.

  13. Chitosan-based polyherbal toothpaste: As novel oral hygiene product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohire Nitin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present work was to develop chitosan-based polyherbal toothpaste and evaluate its plaque-reducing potential and efficacy in reduction of dental pathogens. Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial activity of herbal extracts against dental pathogens were performed by using disk diffusion method. The pharmaceutical evaluation of toothpaste was carried out as per the US Government Tooth Paste Specifications. A 4-week clinical study was conducted in patients with oro-dental problems to evaluate the plaque removing efficacy of chitosan-based polyherbal toothpaste with commercially available chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2% w/v mouthwash as positive control. Total microbial count was carried out to determine the percentage decrease in the oral bacterial count over the period of treatment. Result: Herbal extracts were found to possess satisfactory antimicrobial activity against most of the dental pathogens. Chitosan-containing polyherbal toothpaste significantly reduces the plaque index by 70.47% and bacterial count by 85.29%, and thus fulfills the majority of esthetic and medicinal requirements of oral hygiene products. Conclusion: Chitosan-based polyherbal toothpaste proves itself as a promising novel oral hygiene product as compared with currently available oral hygiene products. A further study to confirm the exact mechanism and active constituents behind antiplaque and antimicrobial activity of chitosan-based polyherbal toothpaste and its efficacy in large number of patient population is on high demand.

  14. Detection of five potentially periodontal pathogenic bacteria in peri-implant disease: A comparison of PCR and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Gerhard; Tsigaras, Sandra; Rinke, Sven; Kottmann, Tanja; Haak, Rainer; Ziebolz, Dirk

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the microbial analysis methods of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) in terms of detection of five selected potentially periodontal pathogenic bacteria in peri-implant disease. Therefore 45 samples of healthy, mucositis and peri-implantitis (n = 15 each) were assessed according to presence of the following bacteria using PCR (DNA-strip technology) and RT-PCR (fluorescent dye SYBR green-system): Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Treponema denticola (Td), Tanerella forsythia (Tf), and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn). There were no significant correlations between the bacterial and disease patterns, so the benefit of using microbiological tests for the diagnosis of peri-implant diseases is questionable. Correlations between the methods were highest for Tf (Kendall's Tau: 0.65, Spearman: 0.78), Fn (0.49, 0.61) and Td (0.49, 0.59). For Aa (0.38, 0.42) and Pg (0.04, 0.04), lower correlation values were detected. Accordingly, conventional semi-quantitative PCR seems to be sufficient for analyzing potentially periodontal pathogenic bacterial species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sarcoidosis: Oral and extra-oral manifestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease, which is usually associated with the formation of noncaseating granulomas in affected tissues and organs. It is mostly present with bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, pulmonary infiltration, ocular, and cutaneous lesions. Oral manifestations of this disease are relatively rare. The present case report shows a 40-year-old male with lesions in the soft tissue of oral cavity (buccal mucosa, gingiva, and palate and a diagnosis of sarcoidosis was established following hematological, biochemical and pulmonary function tests, chest radiograph, and histopathological investigation.

  16. Tropism and pathogenicity of rickettsiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuneo eUchiyama

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular parasitic bacteria that cause febrile exanthematous illnesses such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Mediterranean spotted fever, epidemic and murine typhus, etc. Although the vector ranges of each Rickettsia species are rather restricted; i.e., ticks belonging to Arachnida and lice and fleas belonging to Insecta usually act as vectors for spotted fever group and typhus group rickettsiae, respectively, it would be interesting to elucidate the mechanisms controlling the vector tropism of rickettsiae. This review discusses the factors determining the vector tropism of rickettsiae. In brief, the vector tropism of rickettsiae species is basically consistent with their tropism towards cultured tick and insect cells. The mechanisms responsible for rickettsiae pathogenicity are also described. Recently, genomic analyses of rickettsiae have revealed that they possess several genes that are homologous to those affecting the pathogenicity of other bacteria. Analyses comparing the genomes of pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of rickettsiae have detected many factors that are related to rickettsial pathogenicity. It is also known that a reduction in the rickettsial genome has occurred during the course of its evolution. Interestingly, Rickettsia species with small genomes, such as Rickettsia prowazekii, are more pathogenic to humans than those with larger genomes. This review also examines the growth kinetics of pathogenic and nonpathogenic species of spotted fever group rickettsiae in mammalian cells. The growth of nonpathogenic species is restricted in these cells, which is mediated, at least in part, by autophagy. The superinfection of nonpathogenic rickettsiae-infected cells with pathogenic rickettsiae results in an elevated yield of the nonpathogenic rickettsiae and the growth of the pathogenic rickettsiae. Autophagy is restricted in these cells. These results are discussed in this review.

  17. Pathogen avoidance by insect predators

    OpenAIRE

    Meyling, Nicolai V.; Ormond, Emma; Roy, Helen E.; Pell, Judith K.

    2008-01-01

    Insects can detect cues related to the risk of attack by their natural enemies. Pathogens are among the natural enemies of insects and entomopathogenic fungi attack a wide array of host species. Evidence documents that social insects in particular have adapted behavioural mechanisms to avoid infection by fungal pathogens. These mechanisms are referred to as 'behavioural resistance'. However, there is little evidence for similar adaptations in non-social insects. We have conducted experime...

  18. Antibiotic Resistance in Foodborne Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Ciara; Duffy, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    Wide-spread antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens is now a serious public health issue and multi-antibiotic resistance has been reported in many foodborne pathogens including Salmonella and E. coli. A study to determine antibiotic resistance profiles of a range of Salmonella and Verocytotoxigenic E.coli (VTEC) isolated from Irish foods revealed significant levels of antibiotic resistance in the strains. S. typhimurium DT104 were multiantibiotic resistant with 97% resistant to 7 anti...

  19. Molecular detection of human bacterial pathogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Dongyou

    2011-01-01

    .... Molecular Detection of Human Bacterial Pathogens addresses this issue, with international scientists in respective bacterial pathogen research and diagnosis providing expert summaries on current...

  20. Oral cavity and jaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solntsev, A.M.; Koval', G.Yu.

    1984-01-01

    Radioanatome of oral cavity and jaw is described. Diseases of the teeth, jaw, large salivary glands, temporo-mandibular articulation are considered. Roentgenograms of oral cacity and jaw of healthy people are presented and analyzed as well as roentgenograms in the above-mentioned diseases

  1. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section...

  2. Brachytherapy for oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzen, Yoshio; Ajimu, Akira; Morikawa, Minoru; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Shintarou; Ashizawa, Kazuto; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Ikenaga, Kouji; Sakamoto, Ichirou.

    1988-01-01

    13 cases with oral cancer were treated using brachytherapy at the Department of Radiology, Nagasaki University Hospital from September 1985 to February 1988. Among 11 cases of tongue cancer, T1 and T2 cases were well controlled by radiation therapy using 226 Ra needles. Cancer of oral floor and buccal mucosa were controlled by the use of 192 Au grains. (author)

  3. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Surgeries Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Injury / Trauma Surgery Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Oral, Head and Neck Pathology TMJ and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are ...

  4. American Academy of Oral Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statements Newsletters AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands. We ...

  5. What Is an Oral Piercing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your desktop! more... What Is an Oral Piercing? Article Chapters What Is an Oral Piercing? print full article print this chapter email this article Oral piercing can cause pain, swelling, infection, drooling, taste loss, ...

  6. Pathogenicity of Salmonella Paratyphi A in Pullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Ogunleye

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenicity of Salmonella Paratyphi A isolated at Debiwise Poultry Farm during a fulminating outbreak was tested. Twenty 16-week-old pullets were inoculated orally with 0.5 ml of 1.3 x 108 CFU/bird Salmonella Paratyphi A, while 20 others of the same age served as uninfected control. By the fourth day postinoculation (p.i. dullness, ruffled and unkempt feathers, somnolence, yellowish- green diarrhea, decreased water and feed consumption were observed in the infected birds; mortality was 95% by day 16 p.i. Remarkable pathological lesions were recorded between days 7 and 14 p.i. The liver was moderately enlarged, with multiple necrotic foci, and dark brown to bronze coloration. The kidneys were swollen, with widespread focal pale necrotic areas, while the spleen was slightly enlarged. Histopathologically, the proventriculus showed focal glandular necrosis, mononuclear cell infiltration and moderate perivascular leucocytic infiltration. There was mucosal hemorrhage, matting of intestinal villi with reduction of villous height and presence of epithelial debris in the lumen with increased leucocytic infiltration in the lamina propriae. The liver showed moderate, diffuse congestion of the sinusoid and central veins, as well as multiple foci of necrosis of hepatocytes, mononuclear infiltration and perivascular cellular infiltration. There was diffuse lymphoid depletion in the nodule and around the splenic arterioles as well as throughout the parenchyma. The kidneys were congested with tubular epithelial necrosis characterized by karyorrhexis of the nuclei. The organism was recovered from the liver, spleen, heart, heart blood and bone marrow of infected birds. No clinical sign or gross lesion or pathogen was observed in the negative control.

  7. Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Dave

    As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17…

  8. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral and maxillofacial surgeons surgically treat the soft tissues of the face, mouth ... involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and maxillofacial ...

  9. Biosensors for plant pathogen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Mohga; de la Escosura-Muñiz, Alfredo; Merkoçi, Arben

    2017-07-15

    Infectious plant diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, viroids, phytoplasma and nematodes. Worldwide, plant pathogen infections are among main factors limiting crop productivity and increasing economic losses. Plant pathogen detection is important as first step to manage a plant disease in greenhouses, field conditions and at the country boarders. Current immunological techniques used to detect pathogens in plant include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and direct tissue blot immunoassays (DTBIA). DNA-based techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real time PCR (RT-PCR) and dot blot hybridization have also been proposed for pathogen identification and detection. However these methodologies are time-consuming and require complex instruments, being not suitable for in-situ analysis. Consequently, there is strong interest for developing new biosensing systems for early detection of plant diseases with high sensitivity and specificity at the point-of-care. In this context, we revise here the recent advancement in the development of advantageous biosensing systems for plant pathogen detection based on both antibody and DNA receptors. The use of different nanomaterials such as nanochannels and metallic nanoparticles for the development of innovative and sensitive biosensing systems for the detection of pathogens (i.e. bacteria and viruses) at the point-of-care is also shown. Plastic and paper-based platforms have been used for this purpose, offering cheap and easy-to-use really integrated sensing systems for rapid on-site detection. Beside devices developed at research and development level a brief revision of commercially available kits is also included in this review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2013-09-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers.

  11. Effect of oral booster vaccination of rainbow trout against Yersinia ruckeri depends on type of primary immunization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaafar, Rzgar M.; Al-Jubury, Azmi; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2017-01-01

    provided as dip (most effective), bath (less effective) or orally (least effective). Oral immunization may be used as booster after dip but applied as a single oral application it induced merely a slight and statistically non-significant response. It is noteworthy that primary oral immunization followed...... already primed by one of these vaccination methods. Oral vaccination of trout (administering vaccine in feed) is an even more convenient way of presenting antigen to the fish but the effect of an oral booster has not previously been described in detail. The present work describes to what extent protection...... by an oral booster vaccination showed a trend for an even weaker response. It should be investigated if continued exposure to a low antigen concentration - as performed by two oral immunizations - may induce tolerance to the pathogen and thereby leave the fish more vulnerable....

  12. Prevention of gingival trauma : Oral hygiene devices and oral piercings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenderdos, N.L.

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining healthy teeth and soft oral tissues for life is important. Oral hygiene devices and oral piercings can damage the soft oral tissues. This thesis investigates the safety of manual toothbrushes, interdental brushes and rubber bristles interdental cleaners by analysing the gingival abrasion

  13. Genome of the opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus sanguinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Alves, Joao M; Kitten, Todd; Brown, Arunsri; Chen, Zhenming; Ozaki, Luiz S; Manque, Patricio; Ge, Xiuchun; Serrano, Myrna G; Puiu, Daniela; Hendricks, Stephanie; Wang, Yingping; Chaplin, Michael D; Akan, Doruk; Paik, Sehmi; Peterson, Darrell L; Macrina, Francis L; Buck, Gregory A

    2007-04-01

    The genome of Streptococcus sanguinis is a circular DNA molecule consisting of 2,388,435 bp and is 177 to 590 kb larger than the other 21 streptococcal genomes that have been sequenced. The G+C content of the S. sanguinis genome is 43.4%, which is considerably higher than the G+C contents of other streptococci. The genome encodes 2,274 predicted proteins, 61 tRNAs, and four rRNA operons. A 70-kb region encoding pathways for vitamin B(12) biosynthesis and degradation of ethanolamine and propanediol was apparently acquired by horizontal gene transfer. The gene complement suggests new hypotheses for the pathogenesis and virulence of S. sanguinis and differs from the gene complements of other pathogenic and nonpathogenic streptococci. In particular, S. sanguinis possesses a remarkable abundance of putative surface proteins, which may permit it to be a primary colonizer of the oral cavity and agent of streptococcal endocarditis and infection in neutropenic patients.

  14. Cromolyn Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor.Cromolyn oral inhalation helps to prevent asthma attacks (sudden episodes of shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing) but will not stop an asthma attack that has already started. Your doctor will prescribe ...

  15. Intravenous versus oral etoposide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Abir Salwa; Grönberg, Malin; Langer, Seppo W.

    2018-01-01

    High-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs, G3) are aggressive cancers of the digestive system with poor prognosis and survival. Platinum-based chemotherapy (cisplatin/carboplatin + etoposide) is considered the first-line palliative treatment. Etoposide is frequently...... administered intravenously; however, oral etoposide may be used as an alternative. Concerns for oral etoposide include decreased bioavailability, inter- and intra-patient variability and patient compliance. We aimed to evaluate possible differences in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS......) in patients treated with oral etoposide compared to etoposide given as infusion. Patients (n = 236) from the Nordic NEC study were divided into three groups receiving etoposide as a long infusion (24 h, n = 170), short infusion (≤ 5 h, n = 33) or oral etoposide (n = 33) according to hospital tradition. PFS...

  16. Fostering oral presentation performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van Stan; Gulikers, Judith; Biemans, Harm; Mulder, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Previous research revealed significant differences in the effectiveness of various feedback sources for encouraging students’ oral presentation performance. While former studies emphasised the superiority of teacher feedback, it remains unclear whether the quality of feedback actually differs

  17. Oral Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get involved Understanding Dental Research People Resources About Understanding Events Get involved Dental Research Resources Contact Sitemap The Oral Cancer Foundation admin 2017-11-12T16:49:25+ ...

  18. Pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Emmie; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; de Jong, Menno D.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry. Occasionally, these outbreaks have resulted in transmission of influenza viruses to humans and other mammals, with symptoms ranging from conjunctivitis to pneumonia and death. Here, the

  19. Maintaining women's oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, A L; Bonci, L

    2001-07-01

    Women must adopt health-promoting strategies for both general health and the oral cavity, because the health of a woman's body and oral cavity are bidirectional. For general health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should actively advise women to minimize alcohol use, abstain from or cease smoking, stay physically active, and choose the right foods to nourish both the body and mind. For oral health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should advise women on how to prevent or control oral infections, particularly dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specifically, women need to know how to remove plaque from the teeth mechanically, use appropriate chemotherapeutic agents and dentifrices, use oral irrigation, and control halitosis. Dental practitioners also need to stress the importance of regular maintenance visits for disease prevention. Adolescent women are more prone to gingivitis and aphthous ulcers when they begin their menstrual cycles and need advice about cessation of tobacco use, mouth protection during athletic activities, cleaning orthodontic appliances, developing good dietary habits, and avoiding eating disorders. Women in early to middle adulthood may be pregnant or using oral contraceptives with concomitant changes in oral tissues. Dental practitioners need to advise them how to take care of the oral cavity during these changes and how to promote the health of their infants, including good nutrition. Older women experience the onset of menopause and increased vulnerability to osteoporosis. They may also experience xerostomia and burning mouth syndrome. Dental practitioners need to help women alleviate these symptoms and encourage them to continue good infection control and diet practices.

  20. ON ORAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Svetitsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes a rise in the incidence of oral cancer in the Rostov Region since the 1990s. The study has indicated that this rise is associated with regional population growth due to the forced migrants after the collapse of the USSR. Financial problems, unbalanced nutrition, poor oral hygiene, and depression in this group of patients have contributed to the higher incidence of precancers and cancers.

  1. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  2. Immunologically mediated oral diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Jimson, Sudha; Balachader, N.; Anita, N.; Babu, R.

    2015-01-01

    Immune mediated diseases of oral cavity are uncommon. The lesions may be self-limiting and undergo remission spontaneously. Among the immune mediated oral lesions the most important are lichen planus, pemphigus, erythema multiformi, epidermolysis bullosa, systemic lupus erythematosis. Cellular and humoral mediated immunity play a major role directed against epithelial and connective tissue in chronic and recurrent patterns. Confirmatory diagnosis can be made by biopsy, direct and indirect imm...

  3. New trends in emerging pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Niels

    2007-12-15

    The emergence of pathogens is the result of a number of impact in all parts of the food chain. The emerging technologies in food production explain how new pathogens can establish themselves in the food chain and compromise food safety. The impact of the food technology is analysed for several bacteria, such as Yersinia, Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter pullorum, Enterobacter sakazakii, Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis, prions related to vCJD and others. The importance of the ability of many microbes to form VBNC forms is elaborated on. Research on culture independent methods may address this outstanding issue to the better understanding of emerging pathogens. The "demerging" of pathogens also occur, and examples of this are explained. The reaction of bacteria to stresses and sublethal treatments, and how exposure to one stress factor can confer resistance to other stresses, literally speaking causing contagious resistance, are explained. The implication of this e.g. in modern approaches of food preservation, such as Minimally processed Foods, is considerable. Intestinal colonization of EHEC may be regulated by Quorum sensing, and this ability of microbes plays an important role in the colonization of microbes in food and on food processing equipment, an important factor in the emergence of pathogens. The emergence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as an opportunistic human pathogen, used for centuries for food and production of alcoholic beverages, calls for research in molecular tools to distinguish between probiotic and clinical strains. Cyclospora cayetanensis and Norovirus outbreaks can no longer be designated as emerging pathogens, they share however one characteristic in the epidemiology of emerging nature, the importance of the hygiene in the primary production stage, including supply of potable water, and the application of GMP and the HACCP principles in the beginning of the food chain. Hepatitis E virus is a potential emerging food borne

  4. Applied Genomics of Foodborne Pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and customized source of information designed for and accessible to microbiologists interested in applying cutting-edge genomics in food safety and public health research. This book fills this void with a well-selected collection of topics, case studies, and bioinformatics tools contributed by experts......This book provides a timely and thorough snapshot into the emerging and fast evolving area of applied genomics of foodborne pathogens. Driven by the drastic advance of whole genome shot gun sequencing (WGS) technologies, genomics applications are becoming increasingly valuable and even essential...... at the forefront of foodborne pathogen genomics research....

  5. Determinants of Oral Health: Does Oral Health Literacy Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Naghibi Sistani, Mohammad Mehdi; Yazdani, Reza; Virtanen, Jorma; Pakdaman, Afsaneh; Murtomaa, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate oral health literacy, independent of other oral health determinants, as a risk indicator for self-reported oral health. Methods. A cross-sectional population-based survey conducted in Tehran, Iran. Multiple logistic regression analysis served to estimate the predictive effect of oral health literacy on self-reported oral health status (good versus poor) controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors and tooth-brushing behavior. Results. In all, among 1031 partici...

  6. Oral Carcinogenesis and Oral Cancer Chemoprevention: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Takuji; Tanaka, Mayu; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important adv...

  7. Oral microbiome and oral and gastrointestinal cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Chen, Calvin Y.; Hayes, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of evidence implicates human oral bacteria in the etiology of oral and gastrointestinal cancers. Epidemiological studies consistently report increased risks of these cancers in men and women with periodontal disease or tooth loss, conditions caused by oral bacteria. More than 700 bacterial species inhabit the oral cavity, including at least 11 bacterial phyla and 70 genera. Oral bacteria may activate alcohol and smoking-related carcinogens locally or act systemically, through c...

  8. Ethnicity and oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, C; Bedi, R

    2000-09-01

    Oral squamous-cell carcinoma, the main type of oral cancer, is among the ten most common cancers in the world. The aims of this paper were first, to consider whether there was evidence of marked ethnic variations in the incidence, management, and survival of oral cancer, and then, to review possible explanations for these variations. Evidence from the literature suggests that there is marked, inter-country variation in both the incidence and mortality from oral cancer. There is also growing evidence of intracountry ethnic differences, mostly reported in the UK and USA. These variations among ethnic groups have been attributed mainly to specific risk factors, such as alcohol and tobacco (smoking and smokeless), but dietary factors and the existence of genetic predispositions may also play a part. Variations in access to care services are also an apparent factor. The extent of ethnic differences in oral cancer is masked by the scarcity of information available. Where such data are accessible, there are clear disparities in both incidence and mortality of oral cancer between ethnic groups.

  9. Encapsulation Strategies of Bacteriophage (Felix O1) for Oral Therapeutic Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Golam S; Wang, Qi; Sabour, Parviz M

    2018-01-01

    Due to emerging antibiotic-resistant strains among the pathogens, a variety of strategies, including therapeutic application of bacteriophages, have been suggested as a possible alternative to antibiotics in food animal production. As pathogen-specific biocontrol agents, bacteriophages are being studied intensively. Primarily their applications in the food industry and animal production have been recognized in the USA and Europe, for pathogens including Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, and Listeria. However, the viability of orally administered phage may rapidly reduce under the harsh acidic conditions of the stomach, presence of enzymes and bile. It is evident that bacteriophages, intended for phage therapy by oral administration, require efficient protection from the acidic environment of the stomach and should remain active in the animal's gastrointestinal tract where pathogen colonizes. Encapsulation of phages by spray drying or extrusion methods can protect phages from the simulated hostile gut conditions and help controlled release of phages to the digestive system when appropriate formulation strategy is implemented.

  10. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  11. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  12. The Oral HIV/AIDS Research Alliance: updated case definitions of oral disease endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiboski, C H; Patton, L L; Webster-Cyriaque, J Y; Greenspan, D; Traboulsi, R S; Ghannoum, M; Jurevic, R; Phelan, J A; Reznik, D; Greenspan, J S

    2009-07-01

    The Oral HIV/AIDS Research Alliance (OHARA) is part of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG), the largest HIV clinical trials organization in the world. Its main objective is to investigate oral complications associated with HIV/AIDS as the epidemic is evolving, in particular, the effects of antiretrovirals on oral mucosal lesion development and associated fungal and viral pathogens. The OHARA infrastructure comprises: the Epidemiologic Research Unit (at the University of California San Francisco), the Medical Mycology Unit (at Case Western Reserve University) and the Virology/Specimen Banking Unit (at the University of North Carolina). The team includes dentists, physicians, virologists, mycologists, immunologists, epidemiologists and statisticians. Observational studies and clinical trials are being implemented at ACTG-affiliated sites in the US and resource-poor countries. Many studies have shared end-points, which include oral diseases known to be associated with HIV/AIDS measured by trained and calibrated ACTG study nurses. In preparation for future protocols, we have updated existing diagnostic criteria of the oral manifestations of HIV published in 1992 and 1993. The proposed case definitions are designed to be used in large-scale epidemiologic studies and clinical trials, in both US and resource-poor settings, where diagnoses may be made by non-dental healthcare providers. The objective of this article is to present updated case definitions for HIV-related oral diseases that will be used to measure standardized clinical end-points in OHARA studies, and that can be used by any investigator outside of OHARA/ACTG conducting clinical research that pertains to these end-points.

  13. Oral Bacterial and Fungal Microbiome Impacts Colorectal Carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Klara Klimesova; Zuzana Jiraskova Zakostelska; Helena Tlaskalova-Hogenova

    2018-01-01

    Host’s physiology is significantly influenced by microbiota colonizing the epithelial surfaces. Complex microbial communities contribute to proper mucosal barrier function, immune response, and prevention of pathogen invasion and have many other crucial functions. The oral cavity and large intestine are distant parts of the digestive tract, both heavily colonized by commensal microbiota. Nevertheless, they feature different proportions of major bacterial and fungal phyla, mostly due to distin...

  14. Combinatorial Effects of Arginine and Fluoride on Oral Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, X.; Cheng, X.; Wang, L.; Qiu, W.; Wang, S.; Zhou, Y.; Li, M.; Li, Y.; Cheng, L.; Li, J.; Zhou, X.; Xu, X.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is closely associated with the microbial disequilibrium between acidogenic/aciduric pathogens and alkali-generating commensal residents within the dental plaque. Fluoride is a widely used anticaries agent, which promotes tooth hard-tissue remineralization and suppresses bacterial activities. Recent clinical trials have shown that oral hygiene products containing both fluoride and arginine possess a greater anticaries effect compared with those containing fluoride alone, indicati...

  15. Strengthening of oral health systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    is either due to low availability and accessibility of oral health care or because oral health care is costly. In all countries, the poor and disadvantaged population groups are heavily affected by a high burden of oral disease compared to well-off people. Promotion of oral health and prevention of oral...... diseases must be provided through financially fair primary health care and public health intervention. Integrated approaches are the most cost-effective and realistic way to close the gap in oral health between rich and poor. The World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Programme will work......Around the globe many people are suffering from oral pain and other problems of the mouth or teeth. This public health problem is growing rapidly in developing countries where oral health services are limited. Significant proportions of people are underserved; insufficient oral health care...

  16. Microbial Community Composition Impacts Pathogen Iron Availability during Polymicrobial Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apollo Stacy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential nutrient for bacterial pathogenesis, but in the host, iron is tightly sequestered, limiting its availability for bacterial growth. Although this is an important arm of host immunity, most studies examine how bacteria respond to iron restriction in laboratory rather than host settings, where the microbiome can potentially alter pathogen strategies for acquiring iron. One of the most important transcriptional regulators controlling bacterial iron homeostasis is Fur. Here we used a combination of RNA-seq and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq to characterize the iron-restricted and Fur regulons of the biofilm-forming opportunistic pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. We discovered that iron restriction and Fur regulate 4% and 3.5% of the genome, respectively. While most genes in these regulons were related to iron uptake and metabolism, we found that Fur also directly regulates the biofilm-dispersing enzyme Dispersin B, allowing A. actinomycetemcomitans to escape from iron-scarce environments. We then leveraged these datasets to assess the availability of iron to A. actinomycetemcomitans in its primary infection sites, abscesses and the oral cavity. We found that A. actinomycetemcomitans is not restricted for iron in a murine abscess mono-infection, but becomes restricted for iron upon co-infection with the oral commensal Streptococcus gordonii. Furthermore, in the transition from health to disease in human gum infection, A. actinomycetemcomitans also becomes restricted for iron. These results suggest that host iron availability is heterogeneous and dependent on the infecting bacterial community.

  17. Characterization of the oral fungal microbiome (mycobiome in healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A Ghannoum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral microbiome-organisms residing in the oral cavity and their collective genome-are critical components of health and disease. The fungal component of the oral microbiota has not been characterized. In this study, we used a novel multitag pyrosequencing approach to characterize fungi present in the oral cavity of 20 healthy individuals, using the pan-fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS primers. Our results revealed the "basal" oral mycobiome profile of the enrolled individuals, and showed that across all the samples studied, the oral cavity contained 74 culturable and 11 non-culturable fungal genera. Among these genera, 39 were present in only one person, 16 genera were present in two participants, and 5 genera were present in three people, while 15 genera (including non-culturable organisms were present in >/=4 (20% participants. Candida species were the most frequent (isolated from 75% of participants, followed by Cladosporium (65%, Aureobasidium, Saccharomycetales (50% for both, Aspergillus (35%, Fusarium (30%, and Cryptococcus (20%. Four of these predominant genera are known to be pathogenic in humans. The low-abundance genera may represent environmental fungi present in the oral cavity and could simply be spores inhaled from the air or material ingested with food. Among the culturable genera, 61 were represented by one species each, while 13 genera comprised between 2 and 6 different species; the total number of species identified were 101. The number of species in the oral cavity of each individual ranged between 9 and 23. Principal component (PCO analysis of the obtained data set followed by sample clustering and UniFrac analysis revealed that White males and Asian males clustered differently from each other, whereas both Asian and White females clustered together. This is the first study that identified the "basal mycobiome" of healthy individuals, and provides the basis for a detailed characterization of the oral mycobiome in

  18. Pathogen disgust and interpersonal personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupfer, Tom R.; Tybur, Joshua M.

    2017-01-01

    The behavioral immune system includes motivational systems for avoiding contact with pathogens, including those transmitted by other people. Motivations to avoid others may depend not only on the perceived risk of infection but also on perceived benefits of social interaction. Based on this idea, we

  19. Lectins in human pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Belém; Martínez, Ruth; Pérez, Laura; Del Socorro Pina, María; Perez, Eduardo; Hernández, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins widely distributed in nature. They constitute a highly diverse group of proteins consisting of many different protein families that are, in general, structurally unrelated. In the last few years, mushroom and other fungal lectins have attracted wide attention due to their antitumour, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. The present mini-review provides concise information about recent developments in understanding lectins from human pathogenic fungi. A bibliographic search was performed in the Science Direct and PubMed databases, using the following keywords "lectin", "fungi", "human" and "pathogenic". Lectins present in fungi have been classified; however, the role played by lectins derived from human pathogenic fungi in infectious processes remains uncertain; thus, this is a scientific field requiring more research. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.

  1. Non-oral gram-negative facultative rods in chronic periodontitis microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Winkelhoff, Arie J; Rurenga, Patrick; Wekema-Mulder, Gepke J; Singadji, Zadrach M; Rams, Thomas E

    2016-05-01

    The subgingival prevalence of gram-negative facultative rods not usually inhabiting or indigenous to the oral cavity (non-oral GNFR), as well as selected periodontal bacterial pathogens, were evaluated by culture in untreated and treated chronic periodontitis patients. Subgingival biofilm specimens from 102 untreated and 101 recently treated adults with chronic periodontitis in the Netherlands were plated onto MacConkey III and Dentaid selective media with air-5% CO2 incubation for isolation of non-oral GNFR, and onto enriched Oxoid blood agar with anaerobic incubation for recovery of selected periodontal bacterial pathogens. Suspected non-oral GNFR clinical isolates were identified to a species level with the VITEK 2 automated system. A total of 87 (42.9%) out of 203 patients yielded subgingival non-oral GNFR. Patients recently treated with periodontal mechanical debridement therapy demonstrated a greater prevalence of non-oral GNFR (57.4% vs 28.4%, P chronic periodontitis patients yielded cultivable non-oral GNFR in periodontal pockets, particularly among those recently treated with periodontal mechanical debridement therapy. Since non-oral GNFR species may resist mechanical debridement from periodontal pockets, and are often not susceptible to many antibiotics frequently used in periodontal practice, their subgingival presence may complicate periodontal treatment in species-positive patients and increase risk of potentially dangerous GNFR infections developing at other body sites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antibiofilm and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Houttuynia cordata Decoction for Oral Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko Sekita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental biofilms that form in the oral cavity play a critical role in the pathogenesis of several infectious oral diseases, including dental caries, periodontal disease, and oral candidiasis. Houttuynia cordata (HC, Saururaceae is a widely used traditional medicine, for both internal and external application. A decoction of dried HC leaves (dHC has long been consumed as a health-promoting herbal tea in Japan. We have recently reported that a water solution of HC poultice ethanol extract (wHCP exerts antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects against several important oral pathogens. It also exhibits anti-inflammatory effects on human keratinocytes. In our current study, we examined the effects of dHC on infectious oral pathogens and inflammation. Our results demonstrated that dHC exerts moderate antimicrobial effects against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and other oral microorganisms. dHC also exhibited antibiofilm effects against MRSA, Fusobacterium nucleatum (involved in dental plaque formation, and Candida albicans and inhibitory effects on interleukin-8, CCL20, IP-10, and GROα productions by human oral keratinocytes stimulated by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (a cause of periodontal disease, without cytotoxic effects. This suggests that dHC exhibits multiple activities in microorganisms and host cells. dHC can be easily prepared and may be effective in preventing infectious oral diseases.

  3. Exploring the possible applications of catechin (gel for oral care of the elderly and disabled individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneaki Tamura

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The oral cavity contains more than hundreds of microbial species. An increase in the number of these microorganisms like high pathogenic potential species, such as cariogenic and periodontopathic bacteria, and the change of microbial biota may result in, not only oral infection, but also systemic diseases, such as infective endocarditis and aspiration pneumonia. It is very important to control the growth of these microorganisms and its biota just after oral cleaning in order to suppress disease onset. In this regard, it is useful to use the anti-microbial component which acts against pathogenic microorganisms. Here, we highlight the importance of catechin, and feature its possible oral, especially periodontal applications. By combining catechin with gel (catechin gel, antimicrobial activity of catechin was prolonged in gel and catechin anti-oxidization property was observed. Catechin gel inhibited the growth of the Actinomyces, periodontopathic bacteria and Candida strains tested, but did not inhibit that of the oral streptococci that are important in the normal oral flora. In contrast, commercially available moisture gels containing antimicrobial components showed antimicrobial activity against all of the tested strains including the oral streptococci. This show that catechin has selective antimicrobial activity, attributable to hydrogen peroxide production. This paper reviews previous works using catechin and, likewise, catechin gel may be show its possible oral application for prevent dental caries and periodontal disease.

  4. Exploring the Association between Alzheimer’s Disease, Oral Health, Microbial Endocrinology and Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Harding, Alice; Gonder, Ulrike; Robinson, Sarita J.; Crean, StJohn; Singhrao, Sim K.

    2017-01-01

    Longitudinal monitoring of patients suggests a causal link between chronic periodontitis and the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the explanation of how periodontitis can lead to dementia remains unclear. A working hypothesis links extrinsic inflammation as a secondary cause of AD. This hypothesis suggests a compromised oral hygiene leads to a dysbiotic oral microbiome whereby Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone periodontal pathogen, with its companion species, orchestrates ...

  5. ORAL MYIASIS CONVERTING TO ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oral Myiasis, a condition of infestation of the body by fly larvae (maggots is a rare pathology in humans. It is associated with poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, suppurating lesions, severe halitosis. It is seen frequently in tropical countries and hot climatic regions. The reported cases in literature of oral Myiasis associated with oral cancer are few. The treatment is a mechanical removal of the maggots but a systemic treatment with Ivermectin, a semi - synthetic macrolide antibiotic, has been used successfully for treatment for oral m yiasis. We present a case of 55 yr old male alcoholic patient with oral myiasis with extensive proliferative growth of oral cavity. Our patient was managed with manual debridement and administration of systemic ivermect in along with antibiotic coverage. Incisional biopsy of the proliferative lesion showed well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Thus our patient showed presence of oral myiasis in association with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  6. Communication among Oral Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolenbrander, Paul E.; Andersen, Roxanna N.; Blehert, David S.; Egland, Paul G.; Foster, Jamie S.; Palmer, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Human oral bacteria interact with their environment by attaching to surfaces and establishing mixed-species communities. As each bacterial cell attaches, it forms a new surface to which other cells can adhere. Adherence and community development are spatiotemporal; such order requires communication. The discovery of soluble signals, such as autoinducer-2, that may be exchanged within multispecies communities to convey information between organisms has emerged as a new research direction. Direct-contact signals, such as adhesins and receptors, that elicit changes in gene expression after cell-cell contact and biofilm growth are also an active research area. Considering that the majority of oral bacteria are organized in dense three-dimensional biofilms on teeth, confocal microscopy and fluorescently labeled probes provide valuable approaches for investigating the architecture of these organized communities in situ. Oral biofilms are readily accessible to microbiologists and are excellent model systems for studies of microbial communication. One attractive model system is a saliva-coated flowcell with oral bacterial biofilms growing on saliva as the sole nutrient source; an intergeneric mutualism is discussed. Several oral bacterial species are amenable to genetic manipulation for molecular characterization of communication both among bacteria and between bacteria and the host. A successful search for genes critical for mixed-species community organization will be accomplished only when it is conducted with mixed-species communities. PMID:12209001

  7. [Oral health in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagojević, Duska; Brkanić, Tatjana; Stojić, Sinisa

    2002-01-01

    Good oral health care during pregnancy is essential but often overlooked factor of dental growth as well as of other structures of oral cavity. Pregnancy is the time when conscious approach to preventive oral care should increase. Preventive measures during pregnancy mean usage of fluorides, special dietary measures and increased oral hygiene habits. Preventive measures in pregnant women have one goal: providing conditions for development of fetal teeth as well as preventing tooth decay in pregnant women. The optimal period for introducing preventive measures is the first trimester of pregnancy. Because of hormonal alterations there is an increased incidence of dental diseases: gingivitis and low salivary pH (inflammation and bleeding gums). Eating habits of pregnant women may lead to frequent snacking on candy or other decay-promoting foods, thereby increasing the risk of caries. However, very poor oral health, possible dental complications and their consequences to the health as well as emotional status represent very strong reasons for activation of dental health care in this period.

  8. The Oral Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arweiler, Nicole B; Netuschil, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    The oral microbiota represents an important part of the human microbiota, and includes several hundred to several thousand diverse species. It is a normal part of the oral cavity and has an important function to protect against colonization of extrinsic bacteria which could affect systemic health. On the other hand, the most common oral diseases caries, gingivitis and periodontitis are based on microorganisms. While (medical) research focused on the planktonic phase of bacteria over the last 100 years, it is nowadays generally known, that oral microorganisms are organised as biofilms. On any non-shedding surfaces of the oral cavity dental plaque starts to form, which meets all criteria for a microbial biofilm and is subject to the so-called succession. When the sensitive ecosystem turns out of balance - either by overload or weak immune system - it becomes a challenge for local or systemic health. Therefore, the most common strategy and the golden standard for the prevention of caries, gingivitis and periodontitis is the mechanical removal of this biofilms from teeth, restorations or dental prosthesis by regular toothbrushing.

  9. Oral health during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Hugh; Douglass, Alan B; Douglass, Joanna M; Silk, Laura

    2008-04-15

    Oral health care in pregnancy is often avoided and misunderstood by physicians, dentists, and patients. Evidence-based practice guidelines are still being developed. Research suggests that some prenatal oral conditions may have adverse consequences for the child. Periodontitis is associated with preterm birth and low birth weight, and high levels of cariogenic bacteria in mothers can lead to increased dental caries in the infant. Other oral lesions, such as gingivitis and pregnancy tumors, are benign and require only reassurance and monitoring. Every pregnant woman should be screened for oral risks, counseled on proper oral hygiene, and referred for dental treatment when necessary. Dental procedures such as diagnostic radiography, periodontal treatment, restorations, and extractions are safe and are best performed during the second trimester. Xylitol and chlorhexidine may be used as adjuvant therapy for high-risk mothers in the early postpartum period to reduce transmission of cariogenic bacteria to their infants. Appropriate dental care and prevention during pregnancy may reduce poor prenatal outcomes and decrease infant caries.

  10. Canine oral melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Philip J

    2007-05-01

    Melanoma is the most common oral malignancy in the dog. Oral and/or mucosal melanoma has been routinely considered an extremely malignant tumor with a high degree of local invasiveness and high metastatic propensity. Primary tumor size has been found to be extremely prognostic. The World Health Organization staging scheme for dogs with oral melanoma is based on size, with stage I = or = 4cm tumor and/or lymph node metastasis, and stage IV = distant metastasis. Median survival times for dogs with oral melanoma treated with surgery are approximately 17 to 18, 5 to 6, and 3 months with stage I, II, and III disease, respectively. Significant negative prognostic factors include stage, size, evidence of metastasis, and a variety of histologic criteria. Standardized treatments such as surgery, coarse-fractionation radiation therapy, and chemotherapy have afforded minimal to modest stage-dependent clinical benefits and death is usually due to systemic metastasis. Numerous immunotherapeutic strategies have been employed to date with limited clinical efficacy; however, the use of xenogeneic DNA vaccines may represent a leap forward in clinical efficacy. Oral melanoma is a spontaneous syngeneic cancer occurring in outbred, immunocompetent dogs and appears to be a more clinically faithful therapeutic model for human melanoma; further use of canine melanoma as a therapeutic model for human melanoma is strongly encouraged. In addition, the development of an expanded but clinically relevant staging system incorporating the aforementioned prognostic factors is also strongly encouraged.

  11. The novel Candida albicans transporter Dur31 Is a multi-stage pathogenicity factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François L Mayer

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is the most frequent cause of oral fungal infections. However, the exact pathogenicity mechanisms that this fungus employs are largely unknown and many of the genes expressed during oral infection are uncharacterized. In this study we sought to functionally characterize 12 previously unknown function genes associated with oral candidiasis. We generated homozygous knockout mutants for all 12 genes and analyzed their interaction with human oral epithelium in vitro. Eleven mutants caused significantly less epithelial damage and, of these, deletion of orf19.6656 (DUR31 elicited the strongest reduction in pathogenicity. Interestingly, DUR31 was not only involved in oral epithelial damage, but in multiple stages of candidiasis, including surviving attack by human neutrophils, endothelial damage and virulence in vivo. In silico analysis indicated that DUR31 encodes a sodium/substrate symporter with 13 transmembrane domains and no human homologue. We provide evidence that Dur31 transports histatin 5. This is one of the very first examples of microbial driven import of this highly cytotoxic antimicrobial peptide. Also, in contrast to wild type C. albicans, dur31Δ/Δ was unable to actively increase local environmental pH, suggesting that Dur31 lies in the extracellular alkalinization hyphal auto-induction pathway; and, indeed, DUR31 was required for morphogenesis. In agreement with this observation, dur31Δ/Δ was unable to assimilate the polyamine spermidine.

  12. The Novel Candida albicans Transporter Dur31 Is a Multi-Stage Pathogenicity Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, François L.; Wilson, Duncan; Jacobsen, Ilse D.; Miramón, Pedro; Große, Katharina; Hube, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequent cause of oral fungal infections. However, the exact pathogenicity mechanisms that this fungus employs are largely unknown and many of the genes expressed during oral infection are uncharacterized. In this study we sought to functionally characterize 12 previously unknown function genes associated with oral candidiasis. We generated homozygous knockout mutants for all 12 genes and analyzed their interaction with human oral epithelium in vitro. Eleven mutants caused significantly less epithelial damage and, of these, deletion of orf19.6656 (DUR31) elicited the strongest reduction in pathogenicity. Interestingly, DUR31 was not only involved in oral epithelial damage, but in multiple stages of candidiasis, including surviving attack by human neutrophils, endothelial damage and virulence in vivo. In silico analysis indicated that DUR31 encodes a sodium/substrate symporter with 13 transmembrane domains and no human homologue. We provide evidence that Dur31 transports histatin 5. This is one of the very first examples of microbial driven import of this highly cytotoxic antimicrobial peptide. Also, in contrast to wild type C. albicans, dur31Δ/Δ was unable to actively increase local environmental pH, suggesting that Dur31 lies in the extracellular alkalinization hyphal auto-induction pathway; and, indeed, DUR31 was required for morphogenesis. In agreement with this observation, dur31Δ/Δ was unable to assimilate the polyamine spermidine. PMID:22438810

  13. Pathogen reduction of blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, Bjarte G

    2008-08-01

    Thanks to many blood safety interventions introduced in developed countries the risk of transfusion transmitted infections has become exceedingly small in these countries. However, emerging pathogens still represent a serious challenge, as demonstrated by West Nile virus in the US and more recently by Chikungunya virus in the Indian Ocean. In addition bacterial contamination, particularly in platelets, and protozoa transmitted by blood components still represent sizeable risks in developed countries. In developing countries the risk of all transfusion transmitted infections is still high due to insufficient funding and organisation of the health service. Pathogen reduction of pooled plasma products has virtually eliminated the risk of transfusion transmitted infections, without compromising the quality of the products significantly. Pathogen reduction of blood components has been much more challenging. Solvent detergent treatment which has been so successfully applied for plasma products dissolves cell membranes, and can, therefore, only be applied for plasma and not for cellular blood components. Targeting of nucleic acids has been another method for pathogen inactivation of plasma and the only approach possible for cellular blood products. As documented in more than 15 year's track record, solvent detergent treatment of pooled plasma can yield high quality plasma. The increased risk for contamination by unknown viruses due to pooling is out weighed by elimination of TRALI, significant reduction in allergic reactions and standardisation of the product. Recently, a promising method for solvent detergent treatment of single donor plasma units has been published. Methylene blue light treatment of single donor plasma units has a similar long track record as pooled solvent detergent treated plasma; but the method is less well documented and affects coagulation factor activity more. Psoralen light treated plasma has only recently been introduced (CE marked in Europe

  14. Oral pregnancy tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh M Gondivkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyogenic granuloma is one of the inflammatory hyperplasias seen in the oral cavity. This term is a misnomer because the lesion is unrelated to infection and in reality arises in response to various stimuli such as low-grade local irritation, traumatic injury, or hormonal factors. It predominantly occurs in the second decade of life in young females, possibly because of the vascular effects of female hormones. Clinically, oral pyogenic granuloma is a smooth or lobulated exophytic lesion manifesting as small, red erythematous growth on a pedunculated or sometimes sessile base, which is usually hemorrhagic. Although excisional surgery is the treatment of choice , some other treatment protocols such as the use of Nd:YAG laser, flash lamp pulsed dye laser, cryosurgery, intralesional injection of ethanol or corticosteroids, and sodium tetradecyl sulfate sclerotherapy have been proposed. We present the case of a 25-year-old pregnant woman with large oral pyogenic granuloma.

  15. [Overview of researches for Helicobacter pylori in oral cavity and stomach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kaiyu; Li, Yuqing; Zhou, Xuedong

    2014-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common pathogens in human and it is closely related to gastrointestinal diseases. It is essential for us to understand the transmission process of H. pylori to prevent its spreading. The oral cavity has been proposed as a reservoir for gastric H. pylori, which has been detected by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in both dental plaque and saliva. Some researchers have proposed H. pylori in oral cavity may play an important role in its transmission and reinfection. Oral-oral or fecal-oral transmission are thought to be the most possible transmit way. This review will discuss the evidence for the role of the oral cavity in the transmission of H. pylori, the difficulties encountered in addressing this topic and possible directions for future research. Oral H. pylori may also play a role in the diagnosis and prevention of deceases related to H. pylori such as gastritis, gastric ulcer and gastric carcinoma. The recent progresses in this area are also reviewed. Moreover, we also discussed the relationship between oral H. pylori and oral deceases like periodontal disease and oral ulcer.

  16. Shared Oral Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Børge; Elmelund Poulsen,, Johan; Christophersen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Shared Oral Care - Forebyggelse af orale sygdomme på plejecentre Introduktion og formål: Mangelfuld mundhygiejne hos plejekrævende ældre er et alment og veldokumenteret sundhedsproblem, der kan føre til massiv udvikling af tandsygdomme, og som yderligere kan være medvirkende årsag til alvorlige...... ressourceanvendelse er muligt at skabe en betydeligt forbedret mundhygiejne hos plejekrævende ældre Key words: Geriatric dentistry, nursing home, community health services, prevention, situated learning...

  17. Oral lichen planus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasool, S.; Katpar, S.; Ali, A.

    2007-01-01

    Lichen planus is a mucocutaneous dermatological disorder, with intraoral manifestation. Skin lesions prevail with oral mucosal lesions. Prevalence of lichen planus, as an oral pre-malignant lesion, is 1-2 % population. Lateral border, dorsal tongue, gingiva, hard palate and vermilion border are common sites and lesions appear as reticular, plaque-like and papular intraoral types. Skin presents with pururitic, polygonal papules. Atrophic and erosive are the known intraoral pre-malignant types. A case report is presented, which responded well to steroid therapy. (author)

  18. Neuroepigenetic Regulation of Pathogenic Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillivan, Stephanie E; Vaissière, Thomas; Miller, Courtney A

    2015-01-01

    Our unique collection of memories determines our individuality and shapes our future interactions with the world. Remarkable advances into the neurobiological basis of memory have identified key epigenetic mechanisms that support the stability of memory. Various forms of epigenetic regulation at the levels of DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) can modulate transcriptional and translational events required for memory processes. By changing the cellular profile in the brain's emotional, reward, and memory circuits, these epigenetic modifications have also been linked to perseverant, pathogenic memories. In this review, we will delve into the relevance of epigenetic dysregulation to pathogenic memory mechanisms by focusing on two neuropsychiatric disorders perpetuated by aberrant memory associations: substance use disorder (SUD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As our understanding improves, neuroepigenetic mechanisms may someday be harnessed to develop novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of these chronic, relapsing disorders.

  19. Neuroepigenetic regulation of pathogenic memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E. Sillivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our unique collection of memories determines our individuality and shapes our future interactions with the world. Remarkable advances into the neurobiological basis of memory have identified key epigenetic mechanisms that support the stability of memory. Various forms of epigenetic regulation at the levels of DNA methylation, histone modification, and noncoding RNAs can modulate transcriptional and translational events required for memory processes. By changing the cellular profile in the brain’s emotional, reward, and memory circuits, these epigenetic modifications have also been linked to perseverant, pathogenic memories. In this review, we will delve into the relevance of epigenetic dysregulation to pathogenic memory mechanisms by focusing on 2 neuropsychiatric disorders perpetuated by aberrant memory associations: substance use disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. As our understanding improves, neuroepigenetic mechanisms may someday be harnessed to develop novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of these chronic, relapsing disorders.

  20. Antimicrobial resistance of mastitis pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stephen P; Murinda, Shelton E

    2012-07-01

    Antibiotics are used extensively in the dairy industry to combat disease and to improve animal performance. Antibiotics such as penicillin, cephalosporin, streptomycin, and tetracycline are used for the treatment and prevention of diseases affecting dairy cows caused by a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Antibiotics are often administrated routinely to entire herds to prevent mastitis during the dry period. An increase in the incidence of disease in a herd generally results in increased use of antimicrobials, which in turn increases the potential for antibiotic residues in milk and the potential for increased bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. Continued use of antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of diseases of dairy cows will continue to be scrutinized. It is clear that strategies employing the prudent use of antimicrobials are needed. This clearly illustrates the importance of effective herd disease prevention and control programs. Based on studies published to date, scientific evidence does not support widespread, emerging resistance among mastitis pathogens to antibacterial drugs even though many of these antibiotics have been used in the dairy industry for treatment and prevention of disease for several decades. However, it is clear that use of antibiotics in dairy cows can contribute to increased antimicrobial resistance. While antimicrobial resistance does occur, we are of the opinion that the advantages of using antibiotics for the treatment of mastitis far outweigh the disadvantages. The clinical consequences of antimicrobial resistance of dairy pathogens affecting humans appear small. Antimicrobial resistance among dairy pathogens, particularly those found in milk, is likely not a human health concern as long as the milk is pasteurized. However, there are an increasing number of people who choose to consume raw milk. Transmission of an antimicrobial-resistant mastitis pathogen and/or foodborne pathogen to humans could occur

  1. Evolutionary biology of bacterial and fungal pathogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baquero, F

    2008-01-01

    ... and Evolutionary Dynamics of Pathogens * 21 Keith A. Crandall and Marcos Pérez-Losada II. Evolutionary Genetics of Microbial Pathogens 4. Environmental and Social Influences on Infectious Disea...

  2. Plant Pathogenicity in Spaceflight Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, Deborah L.; Levine, Howard G.; Anderson, Anne J.

    1996-01-01

    Plants grown in microgravity are subject to many environmental stresses, which may promote microbial growth and result in pathogenicity to the plant. Recent plant experiments with super dwarf wheat aboard the NASA Space Shuttle and NASA/Russian Mir Space Station returned from the mission with severe degrees of fungal contamination. Understanding the cause of such microbial contamination and methods to eliminate it are necessary prerequisites for continued plant growth and development studies ...

  3. Proteomics of Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel González-Fernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogenic fungi cause important yield losses in crops. In order to develop efficient and environmental friendly crop protection strategies, molecular studies of the fungal biological cycle, virulence factors, and interaction with its host are necessary. For that reason, several approaches have been performed using both classical genetic, cell biology, and biochemistry and the modern, holistic, and high-throughput, omic techniques. This work briefly overviews the tools available for studying Plant Pathogenic Fungi and is amply focused on MS-based Proteomics analysis, based on original papers published up to December 2009. At a methodological level, different steps in a proteomic workflow experiment are discussed. Separate sections are devoted to fungal descriptive (intracellular, subcellular, extracellular and differential expression proteomics and interactomics. From the work published we can conclude that Proteomics, in combination with other techniques, constitutes a powerful tool for providing important information about pathogenicity and virulence factors, thus opening up new possibilities for crop disease diagnosis and crop protection.

  4. Minisequencing mitochondrial DNA pathogenic mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carracedo Ángel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are a number of well-known mutations responsible of common mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA diseases. In order to overcome technical problems related to the analysis of complete mtDNA genomes, a variety of different techniques have been proposed that allow the screening of coding region pathogenic mutations. Methods We here propose a minisequencing assay for the analysis of mtDNA mutations. In a single reaction, we interrogate a total of 25 pathogenic mutations distributed all around the whole mtDNA genome in a sample of patients suspected for mtDNA disease. Results We have detected 11 causal homoplasmic mutations in patients suspected for Leber disease, which were further confirmed by standard automatic sequencing. Mutations m.11778G>A and m.14484T>C occur at higher frequency than expected by change in the Galician (northwest Spain patients carrying haplogroup J lineages (Fisher's Exact test, P-value Conclusion We here developed a minisequencing genotyping method for the screening of the most common pathogenic mtDNA mutations which is simple, fast, and low-cost. The technique is robust and reproducible and can easily be implemented in standard clinical laboratories.

  5. Molecular Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Thilo Martin

    Cautious optimism has arisen over recent decades with respect to the long struggle against bacteria, viruses, and parasites. This has been offset, however, by a fatal complacency stemming from previous successes such as the development of antimicrobial drugs, the eradication of smallpox, and global immunization programs. Infectious diseases nevertheless remain the world's leading cause of death, killing at least 17 million persons annually [61]. Diarrheal diseases caused by Vibrio cholerae or Shigella dysenteriae kill about 3 million persons every year, most of them young children: Another 4 million die of tuberculosis or tetanus. Outbreaks of diphtheria in Eastern Europe threatens the population with a disease that had previously seemed to be overcome. Efforts to control infectious diseases more comprehensively are undermined not only by socioeconomic conditions but also by the nature of the pathogenic organisms itself; some isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter have become so resistant to drugs by horizontal gene transfer that they are almost untreatable. In addition, the mechanism of genetic variability helps pathogens to evade the human immune system, thus compromising the development of powerful vaccines. Therefore detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of microbial pathogenicity is absolutely necessary to develop new strategies against infectious diseases and thus to lower their impact on human health and social development.

  6. Plant innate immunity against human bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeli eMelotto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Certain human bacterial pathogens such as the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica are not proven to be plant pathogens yet. Nonetheless, under certain conditions they can survive on, penetrate into, and colonize internal plant tissues causing serious food borne disease outbreaks. In this review, we highlight current understanding on the molecular mechanisms of plant responses against human bacterial pathogens and discuss salient common and contrasting themes of plant interactions with phytopathogens or human pathogens.

  7. Effectiveness of irradiation in killing pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeager, J.G.; Ward, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    United States Environmental Protection Agency regulations include gamma ray irradiation of sludge as an approved Process to Further Reduce Pathogens (PFRP) prior to land application. Research at Sandia National Laboratories on pathogen inactivation in sludge by gamma irradiation has demonstrated that the 1 Mrad PFRP dose is capable, by itself, of eliminating bacterial, fungal, and parasitic pathogens from sludge. Gamma irradiation of sludge in conjunction with the required Processes to Significantly Reduce Pathogens (PSRP) should also eliminate the viral hazard from wastewater sludges

  8. Candida infection in oral leukoplakia: an unperceived public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilhari, Ayomi; Weerasekera, Manjula M; Siriwardhana, Anusha; Maheshika, Oshanthi; Gunasekara, Chinthika; Karunathilaka, Sunil; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Fernando, Neluka

    2016-10-01

    The study aimed to determine the proportion, known risk factors and etiology for Candida infection in leukoplakia lesions among patients with oral leukoplakia attending the Oral and Maxillofacial Clinic at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Sri Lanka. Eighty clinically suspected oral leukoplakia patients were included. Two oral swabs each, from leukoplakia patients: one swab from the lesion and the other one from the contralateral unaffected corresponding area (as a control) were collected. Direct microscopy and culture followed by colony count and phenotypic identification were performed to identify pathogenic Candida species. Candida infection was seen in 47% of patients with oral leukoplakia. Candida albicans (94.7%) was the most common Candida species followed by Candida tropicalis (5.3%). Majority of Candida-infected lesions were seen in the buccal mucosa region. Alteration of taste (p = 0.021), having other oral lesions (p = 0.008), angular cheilitis (p = 0.024) and periodontitis (p = 0.041) showed a significant association with Candida-associated leukoplakia. Increasing age showed a significant tendency for Candida infection (p = 0.020). Smoking (p = 0.026) and betel-quid chewing (p = 0.006) were also found to be significantly associated, although alcohol consumption alone did not show a significant association. Oral leukoplakia patients who had all three habits: alcohol consumption, smoking and betel-quid chewing had a significant association with Candida infection (p = 0.004). Patients who had a combination of risk factors: smoking, betel-quid chewing and alcohol consumption were seen to have a significant association with Candida infection. Further betel-quid chewing alone and smoking singly was also significantly associated with Candida infection in oral leukoplakia.

  9. Inequalities in oral health and oral health promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Moysés, Samuel Jorge

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a critical review of the problem of inequalities in oral health and discusses strategies for disease prevention and oral health promotion. It shows that oral health is not merely a result of individual biological, psychological, and behavioral factors; rather, it is the sum of collective social conditions created when people interact with the social environment. Oral health status is directly related to socioeconomic position across the socioeconomic gradient in almost all...

  10. Probiotics as oral health biotherapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Shyamali; Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Tabrizian, Maryam; Prakash, Satya

    2012-09-01

    Oral health is affected by its resident microorganisms. Three prominent oral disorders are dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis, with the oral microbiota playing a key role in the initiation/progression of all three. Understanding the microbiota and the diseases they may cause is critical to the development of new therapeutics. This review is focused on probiotics for the prevention and/or treatment of oral diseases. This review describes the oral ecosystem and its correlation with oral health/disease. The pathogenesis and current prevention/treatment strategies of periodontal diseases (PD) and dental caries (DC) are depicted. An introduction of probiotics is followed by an analysis of their role in PD and DC, and their potential role(s) in oral health. Finally, a discussion ensues on the future research directions and limitations of probiotics for oral health. An effective oral probiotic formulation should contribute to the prevention/treatment of microbial diseases of the oral cavity. Understanding the oral microbiota's role in oral disease is important for the development of a therapeutic to prevent/treat dental diseases. However, investigations into clinical efficacy, delivery/dose optimization, mechanism(s) of action and other related parameters are yet to be fully explored. Keeping this in mind, investigations into oral probiotic therapies are proving promising.

  11. Gut-associated lymphoid tissues for the development of oral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisawa, Jun; Kurashima, Yosuke; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2012-05-01

    Oral vaccine has been considered to be a prospective vaccine against many pathogens especially invading across gastrointestinal tracts. One key element of oral vaccine is targeting efficient delivery of antigen to gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), the inductive site in the intestine where antigen-specific immune responses are initiated. Various chemical and biological antigen delivery systems have been developed and some are in clinical trials. In this review, we describe the immunological features of GALT and the current status of antigen delivery system candidates for successful oral vaccine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 76 FR 24793 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    .... APHIS-2006-0074] RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist. The interim rule also imposed... avian influenza, or that have moved through regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian...

  13. Detection and quantification of periodontal pathogens in smokers and never-smokers with chronic periodontitis by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmetti, Mariana R; Rosa, Ecinele F; Lourenção, Daniele S; Inoue, Gislene; Gomes, Elaine F; De Micheli, Giorgio; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Hirata, Rosário D C; Hirata, Mario H; Pannuti, Claudio M

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the present investigation is to compare the presence and number of periodontal pathogens in the subgingival microbiota of smokers versus never-smokers with chronic periodontitis and matched probing depths (PDs) using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Forty current smokers and 40 never-smokers, matched for age, sex, and mean PD of sampling site, were included in this investigation. A full-mouth periodontal examination was performed, and a pooled subgingival plaque sample was collected from the deepest site in each quadrant of each participant. To confirm smoking status, expired carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were measured with a CO monitor. The presence and quantification of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola were determined using RT-PCR. Smokers had greater overall mean PD (P = 0.001) and attachment loss (P = 0.006) and fewer bleeding on probing sites (P = 0.001). An association was observed between smoking status and the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans (P <0.001). The counts of A. actinomycetemcomitans (P <0.001), P. gingivalis (P = 0.042), and T. forsythia (P <0.001) were significantly higher in smokers. Smokers showed significantly greater amounts of P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and T. forsythia than never-smokers. There was a significant association between smoking and the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  14. Oral hygiene practices and risk of oral leukoplakia | Macigo | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. Design: Case control study. Setting: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. Subjects: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. Results: The relative risk (RR) of oral ...

  15. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumpei Washio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the ‘Warburg effect’. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases.

  16. Oral Hygiene and Oral Flora Evaluation in Psychiatric Patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: The oral hygiene of most patients was insufficient. The presence of Gram‑negative Bacilli growth in the oral flora can be explained by poor hand hygiene. These findings suggest that it is useful to educate individuals about oral hygiene and hand hygiene and to inform the staff and families about this issue.

  17. The New Orality: Oral Characteristics of Computer-Mediated Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Sharmila Pixy; Montgomery, Maureen

    1996-01-01

    Considers the characteristics of orality and literacy developed in the work of scholars such as Walter Ong to consider computer-mediated communication (CMC) as the potential site of a "new orality" which is neither purely oral or literate. Notes that the medium of CMC is writing, which has traditionally represented the…

  18. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-06-02

    Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the 'Warburg effect'. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases.

  19. Imaging in oral cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, Supreeta; Chaukar, Devendra; Pai, Prathamesh

    2012-01-01

    Oral cavity squamous cell cancers form a significant percentage of the cancers seen in India. While clinical examination allows direct visualization, it cannot evaluate deep extension of disease. Cross-sectional imaging has become the cornerstone in the pretreatment evaluation of these cancers and provides accurate information about the extent and depth of disease that can help decide the appropriate management strategy and indicate prognosis. Early cancers are treated with a single modality, either surgery or radiotherapy while advanced cancers are offered a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Imaging can decide resectability, help plan the precise extent of resection, and indicate whether organ conservation therapy should be offered. Quality of life issues necessitate preservation of form and function and pretreatment imaging helps plan appropriate reconstruction and counsel patients regarding lifestyle changes. Oral cavity has several subsites and the focus of the review is squamous cancers of the gingivobuccal region, oral tongue and retromolar trigone as these are most frequently encountered in the subcontinent. References for this review were identified by searching Medline and PubMed databases. Only articles published in English language literature were selected. This review aims to familiarize the radiologist with the relevant anatomy of the oral cavity, discuss the specific issues that influence prognosis and management at the above subsites, the optimal imaging methods, the role of imaging in accurately staging these cancers and in influencing management. A checklist for reporting will emphasize the information to be conveyed by the radiologist

  20. IDEA: Stimulating Oral Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Jacob J.

    1995-01-01

    Presents daily activities that facilitate complete sentence response, promote oral production, and aid the learning of vocabulary in foreign-language classes. Because speech is the primary form of communication in the foreign-language classroom, it is important to stimulate students to converse as soon as possible. (Author/CK)

  1. Fluoride and Oral Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S

    2016-01-01

    and strategies is noteworthy. This updated version of ‘Fluoride and Oral Health’ has adopted an evidence-based approach to its commentary on the different fl uoride vehicles and strategies and also to its recommendations. In this regard, full account is taken of the many recent systematic reviews published...

  2. Oral Health and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-12

    This women's health podcast focuses on the importance of maintaining good oral health during pregnancy.  Created: 5/12/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/12/2009.

  3. History of oral contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhont, Marc

    2010-12-01

    On the 50th birthday of the pill, it is appropriate to recall the milestones which have led to its development and evolution during the last five decades. The main contraceptive effect of the pill being inhibition of ovulation, it may be called a small miracle that this drug was developed long before the complex regulation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle was elucidated. Another stumbling block on its way was the hostile climate with regard to contraception that prevailed at the time. Animal experiments on the effect of sex steroids on ovulation, and the synthesis of sex steroids and orally active analogues were the necessary preliminaries. We owe the development of oral contraceptives to a handful of persons: two determined feminists, Margaret Sanger and Katherine McCormick; a biologist, Gregory Pincus; and a gynaecologist, John Rock. Soon after the introduction of the first pills, some nasty and life-threatening side effects emerged, which were due to the high doses of sex steroids. This led to the development of new preparations with reduced oestrogen content, progestins with more specific action, and alternative administration routes. Almost every decade we have witnessed a breakthrough in oral contraception. Social and moral objections to birth control have gradually disappeared and, notwithstanding some pill scares, oral contraceptives are now one of the most used methods of contraception. Finally, all's well that ends well: recent reports have substantiated the multiple noncontraceptive health benefits paving the way for a bright future for this 50-year-old product.

  4. Oral Lichen Planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Daniela I; Setterfield, Jane F

    2016-02-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a relatively common autoimmune T-cell-mediated disease of unknown aetiology affecting the mucous membranes, skin and nails. Its prevalence varies between 0.5 and 2.2% of the population in epidemiological studies with a peak incidence in the 30-60 years range and with a female predominance of 2:1. Mucosal lichen planus tends to follow a chronic course with acute exacerbations. Spontaneous remission of oral lichen planus (OLP) is uncommon, and indeed mucosal LP may become worse with time. In contrast, cutaneous lichen planus may follow a milder clinical course though some variants may be severe such as those affecting the palms and soles and the scalp and the genital tract in females (vulvovaginal gingival LP) where scarring leads to significant complications. It is important to identify those cases that may be drug induced or be associated with a contact allergic or irritant reaction (lichenoid reaction) or the rarer oral presentation of discoid lupus erythematosus. There is a very small risk of malignancy (approximately 1:200 patients/year) associated with oral lichen planus; thus patients should be informed that long term monitoring via their general dental practitioner is appropriate. This review will focus on the clinical presentation and management of oral lichen planus.

  5. Oral lichen planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šehalić Meliha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 29 - year Lichen planus is a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune skin disease, that is often manifested, except on the skin, in the oral cavity in a variety of clinical forms. The prevalence of the disease in the general population is about 1-2%. Etiopathogenesis is not still well understood. Histopathology, in addition to the basic methods, anamnesis and physical examination, is vital for proper diagnosis of oral lichen planus (OLP. Very diverse and loaded histological findings are common for all forms of oral lichen planus. We reported the case of oral lichen planus in a 49 years old male patient, who presented to the Dentistry clinic of Medical faculty of Priština with burning and itching symptoms and changes in the buccal mucosa. Histopathological analysis of biopsy tissue conformed clinical diagnosis of lichen planus. Due to the possibility for malignant transformation of lesions, the long-term follow-up of patients with this disease is of great importance.

  6. Amphibian commerce as a likely source of pathogen pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picco, Angela M; Collins, James P

    2008-12-01

    The commercial trade of wildlife occurs on a global scale. In addition to removing animals from their native populations, this trade may lead to the release and subsequent introduction of nonindigenous species and the pathogens they carry. Emerging infectious diseases, such as chytridiomycosis caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), and ranaviral disease have spread with global trade in amphibians and are linked to amphibian declines and die-offs worldwide, which suggests that the commercial trade in amphibians may be a source of pathogen pollution. We screened tiger salamanders involved in the bait trade in the western United States for both ranaviruses and Bd with polymerase chain reaction and used oral reports from bait shops and ranavirus DNA sequences from infected bait salamanders to determine how these animals and their pathogens are moved geographically by commerce. In addition, we conducted 2 surveys of anglers to determine how often tiger salamanders are used as bait and how often they are released into fishing waters by anglers, and organized bait-shop surveys to determine whether tiger salamanders are released back into the wild after being housed in bait shops. Ranaviruses were detected in the tiger salamander bait trade in Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico, and Bd was detected in Arizona bait shops. Ranaviruses were spread geographically through the bait trade. All tiger salamanders in the bait trade were collected from the wild, and in general they moved east to west and north to south, bringing with them their multiple ranavirus strains. Finally, 26-73% of anglers used tiger salamanders as fishing bait, 26-67% of anglers released tiger salamanders bought as bait into fishing waters, and 4% of bait shops released tiger salamanders back into the wild after they were housed in shops with infected animals. The tiger salamander bait trade in the western United States is a useful model for understanding the consequences of the

  7. Antibiotics and oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRossi, Scott S; Hersh, Elliot V

    2002-10-01

    With the exception of rifampin-like drugs, there is a lack of scientific evidence supporting the ability of commonly prescribed antibiotics, including all those routinely employed in outpatient dentistry, to either reduce blood levels and/or the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. To date, all clinical trials studying the effects of concomitant antibiotic therapy (with the exception of rifampin and rifabutin) have failed to demonstrate an interaction. Like all drugs, oral contraceptives are not 100% effective with the failure rate in the typical United States population reported to be as high as 3%. It is thus possible that the case reports of unintended pregnancies during antibiotic therapy may simply represent the normal failure rate of these drugs. Considering that both drug classes are prescribed frequently to women of childbearing potential, one would expect a much higher rate of oral contraceptive failure in this group of patients if a true drug:drug interaction existed. On the other hand, if the interaction does exist but is a relatively rare event, occurring in, say, 1 in 5000 women, clinical studies such as those described in this article would not detect the interaction. The pharmacokinetic studies of simultaneous antibiotic and oral contraceptive ingestion, and the retrospective studies of pregnancy rates among oral contraceptive users exposed to antibiotics, all suffer from one potential common weakness, i.e., their relatively small sample size. Sample sizes in the pharmacokinetic trials ranged from 7 to 24 participants, whereas the largest retrospective study of pregnancy rates still evaluated less than 800 total contraceptive users. Still, the incidence of such a rare interaction would not differ from the accepted normal failure rate of oral contraceptive therapy. The medico-legal ramifications of what looks like at best a rare interaction remains somewhat "murky." On one hand, we have medico-legal experts advising the profession to exercise caution

  8. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Extensive education and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral ... Extensive education and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral ...

  9. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Find a Surgeon What We Do Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are extensively trained to ... and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are extensively trained to ...

  10. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to find out more. Facial Cosmetic ... mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to find out more. Facial Cosmetic ...

  11. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral and maxillofacial surgeons. The experts in face, mouth and jaw surgery.™ What We Do Who We ... surgically treat the soft tissues of the face, mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral ...

  12. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this ... and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this ...

  13. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissues of the face, mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to ... tissues of the face, mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to ...

  14. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and maxillofacial ... and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and maxillofacial ...

  15. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to find out more. Facial Cosmetic ... and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to find out more. Facial Cosmetic ...

  16. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and maxillofacial surgeon to ... in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and maxillofacial surgeon to ...

  17. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  18. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for further information Your oral and maxillofacial surgeon (OMS) is the expert for diagnosing and surgically treating ... late in its development. Your family dentist or OMS is in the best position to detect oral ...

  19. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with ... and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with ...

  20. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

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    Full Text Available ... education and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and ... education and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and ...

  1. Identification of infectious microbiota from oral cavity environment of various population group patients as a preventive approach to human health risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł J. Zawadzki

    2016-09-01

    Colonization of oral cavities of patients requiring surgical treatment by the potentially pathogenic bacteria constitutes the threat of their spread, and development of general infections. Assessment of oral cavity infectious microbiota should be performed as a preventive measure against peri-surgical complications.

  2. The effect of a daily application of a 0.05% chlorhexidine oral rinse solution on the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in nursing home residents: a multicenter study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollaar, V.R.Y.; Putten, G.J. van der; Maarel-Wierink, C.D. van der; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Swart, B.J.M. de; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dysphagia and potential respiratory pathogens in the oral biofilm are risk factors for aspiration pneumonia in nursing home residents. The aim of the study was to examine if the daily application of 0.05% chlorhexidine oral rinse solution is effective in reducing the incidence of

  3. Age-related oral changes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mckenna, Gerald

    2010-10-01

    Age-related oral changes are seen in the oral hard and soft tissues as well as in bone, the temporomandibular joints and the oral mucosa. As older patients retain their natural teeth for longer, the clinical picture consists of normal physiological age changes in combination with pathological and iatrogenic effects. Clinical Relevance: With an ageing population retaining more of its natural teeth for longer, dental professionals should expect to observe oral age changes more frequently.

  4. Oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Rio, Rute; Sim?es-Silva, Liliana; Garro, Sofia; Silva, M?rio-Jorge; Azevedo, ?lvaro; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that placenta may harbour a unique microbiome that may have origin in maternal oral microbiome. Although the major physiological and hormonal adjustments observed in pregnant women lead to biochemical and microbiological modifications of the oral environment, very few studies evaluated the changes suffered by the oral microbiota throughout pregnancy. So, the aim of our study was to evaluate oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy and to compare it with n...

  5. Oral Lichen Planus in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan Das, Usha; JP, Beena

    2009-01-01

    Oral lichen planus which is one of the most common oral mucosal diseases in adults, it has been rarely described in children. There are very reports in the literature regarding oral lichen planus in children, here we report a case of intraoral lesions of lichen planus. Lichen planus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hyperkeratotic or erosive lesions of the oral mucosa in children.

  6. Epigenetic control of effectors in plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eGijzen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogens display impressive versatility in adapting to host immune systems. Pathogen effector proteins facilitate disease but can become avirulence (Avr factors when the host acquires discrete recognition capabilities that trigger immunity. The mechanisms that lead to changes to pathogen Avr factors that enable escape from host immunity are diverse, and include epigenetic switches that allow for reuse or recycling of effectors. This perspective outlines possibilities of how epigenetic control of Avr effector gene expression may have arisen and persisted in plant pathogens, and how it presents special problems for diagnosis and detection of specific pathogen strains or pathotypes.

  7. Oral and anal vaccination confers full protection against enteric redmouth disease (ERM) in rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Neumann, Lukas; Otani, Maki

    2014-01-01

    The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate for decades. Recently both M-like cells and dendritic cells have been discovered in the intestine of rainbow trout. It is therefore likely that antigens reaching the intestine can be taken up and thereby induce...... immunity in orally vaccinated fish. The objective of this project was to investigate whether oral and anal vaccination of rainbow trout induces protection against an experimental waterborne infection with the pathogenic enterobacteria Yersinia ruckeri O1 biotype 1 the causative agent of enteric redmouth...... disease (ERM). Rainbow trout were orally vaccinated with AquaVac ERM Oral (MERCK Animal Health) or an experimental vaccine bacterin of Y. ruckeri O1. Both vaccines were tested with and without a booster vaccination four months post the primary vaccination. Furthermore, two groups of positive controls were...

  8. Oral vaccination against plague using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeure, Christian E; Derbise, Anne; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, is among the deadliest bacterial pathogens affecting humans, and is a potential biological weapon. Because antibiotic resistant strains of Yersinia pestis have been observed or could be engineered for evil use, vaccination against plague might become the only means to reduce mortality. Although plague is re-emerging in many countries, a vaccine with worldwide license is currently lacking. The vaccine strategy described here is based on an oral vaccination with an attenuated strain of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Indeed, this species is genetically almost identical to Y. pestis, but has a much lower pathogenicity and a higher genomic stability. Gradual modifications of the wild-type Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strain IP32953 were performed to generate a safe and immunogenic vaccine. Genes coding for three essential virulence factors were deleted from this strain. To increase cross-species immunogenicity, an F1-encapsulated Y. pseudotuberculosis strain was then generated. For this, the Y. pestis caf operon, which encodes F1, was inserted first on a plasmid, and subsequently into the chromosome. The successive steps achieved to reach maximal vaccine potential are described, and how each step affected bacterial virulence and the development of a protective immune response is discussed. The final version of the vaccine, named VTnF1, provides a highly efficient and long-lasting protection against both bubonic and pneumonic plague after a single oral vaccine dose. Since a Y. pestis strain deprived of F1 exist or could be engineered, we also analyzed the protection conferred by the vaccine against such strain and found that it also confers full protection against the two forms of plague. Thus, the properties of VTnF1 makes it one of the most efficient candidate vaccine for mass vaccination in tropical endemic areas as well as for populations exposed to bioterrorism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Oral Biopsy: A Dental Gawk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sir,. Dermatologists are often confronted with neoplasms and diseases of the oral cavity. Although many may be reluctant to perform oral surgical procedures, a biopsy is often needed to establish a definitive diagnosis, and biopsy of the oral cavity is a safe and useful technique that can be easily employed by dermatologists.

  10. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

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    Full Text Available ... cancer of the head, neck and mouth. The Oral Cancer Foundation estimates that close to 42,000 Americans ... diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Oral cancer’s mortality is particularly high, not because it is ...

  11. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

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    Full Text Available ... Americans will be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Oral cancer’s mortality is particularly high, not because it is ... OMS is in the best position to detect oral cancer during your routine dental examinations. Don't risk ...

  12. Future research needs involving pathogens in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Scott A.; Harvey, Ronald W.

    2017-01-01

    Contamination of groundwater by enteric pathogens has commonly been associated with disease outbreaks. Proper management and treatment of pathogen sources are important prerequisites for preventing groundwater contamination. However, non-point sources of pathogen contamination are frequently difficult to identify, and existing approaches for pathogen detection are costly and only provide semi-quantitative information. Microbial indicators that are readily quantified often do not correlate with the presence of pathogens. Pathogens of emerging concern and increasing detections of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens in groundwater are topics of growing concern. Adequate removal of pathogens during soil passage is therefore critical for safe groundwater extraction. Processes that enhance pathogen transport (e.g., high velocity zones and preferential flow) and diminish pathogen removal (e.g., reversible retention and enhanced survival) are of special concern because they increase the risk of groundwater contamination, but are still incompletely understood. Improved theory and modeling tools are needed to analyze experimental data, test hypotheses, understand coupled processes and controlling mechanisms, predict spatial and/or temporal variability in model parameters and uncertainty in pathogen concentrations, assess risk, and develop mitigation and best management approaches to protect groundwater.

  13. Future research needs involving pathogens in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Scott A.; Harvey, Ronald W.

    2017-06-01

    Contamination of groundwater by enteric pathogens has commonly been associated with disease outbreaks. Proper management and treatment of pathogen sources are important prerequisites for preventing groundwater contamination. However, non-point sources of pathogen contamination are frequently difficult to identify, and existing approaches for pathogen detection are costly and only provide semi-quantitative information. Microbial indicators that are readily quantified often do not correlate with the presence of pathogens. Pathogens of emerging concern and increasing detections of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens in groundwater are topics of growing concern. Adequate removal of pathogens during soil passage is therefore critical for safe groundwater extraction. Processes that enhance pathogen transport (e.g., high velocity zones and preferential flow) and diminish pathogen removal (e.g., reversible retention and enhanced survival) are of special concern because they increase the risk of groundwater contamination, but are still incompletely understood. Improved theory and modeling tools are needed to analyze experimental data, test hypotheses, understand coupled processes and controlling mechanisms, predict spatial and/or temporal variability in model parameters and uncertainty in pathogen concentrations, assess risk, and develop mitigation and best management approaches to protect groundwater.

  14. Ultra-deep and quantitative saliva proteome reveals dynamics of the oral microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassl, Niklas; Kulak, Nils Alexander; Pichler, Garwin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The oral cavity is home to one of the most diverse microbial communities of the human body and a major entry portal for pathogens. Its homeostasis is maintained by saliva, which fulfills key functions including lubrication of food, pre-digestion, and bacterial defense. Consequently, d...

  15. Microbiële genetica: nieuwe mogelijkheden voor preventie en behandeling van (orale) infecties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, D.M.; Crielaard, W.

    2008-01-01

    Meer inzicht in de microbiële genetica van pathogene orale micro-organismen en een nieuw scala van moleculair genetische technieken hebben samen geleid tot andere strategieën in de ontwikkeling van antimicrobiële geneesmiddelen. In dit artikel wordt de belangrijke rol van de kennis van de microbiële

  16. Pathogen recognition in the innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Himanshu; Kawai, Taro; Akira, Shizuo

    2009-04-28

    Immunity against microbial pathogens primarily depends on the recognition of pathogen components by innate receptors expressed on immune and non-immune cells. Innate receptors are evolutionarily conserved germ-line-encoded proteins and include TLRs (Toll-like receptors), RLRs [RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I)-like receptors] and NLRs (Nod-like receptors). These receptors recognize pathogens or pathogen-derived products in different cellular compartments, such as the plasma membrane, the endosomes or the cytoplasm, and induce the expression of cytokines, chemokines and co-stimulatory molecules to eliminate pathogens and instruct pathogen-specific adaptive immune responses. In the present review, we will discuss the recent progress in the study of pathogen recognition by TLRs, RLRs and NLRs and their signalling pathways.

  17. Contamination of water resources by pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Water-borne pathogen contamination in water resources and related diseases are a major water quality concern throughout the world. Increasing interest in controlling water-borne pathogens in water resources evidenced by a large number of recent publications clearly attests to the need for studies that synthesize knowledge from multiple fields covering comparative aspects of pathogen contamination, and unify them in a single place in order to present and address the problem as a whole. Providing a broader perceptive of pathogen contamination in freshwater (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, groundwater) and saline water (estuaries and coastal waters) resources, this review paper attempts to develop the first comprehensive single source of existing information on pathogen contamination in multiple types of water resources. In addition, a comprehensive discussion describes the challenges associated with using indicator organisms. Potential impacts of water resources development on pathogen contamination as well as challenges that lie ahead for addressing pathogen contamination are also discussed. PMID:25006540

  18. Oral health: equity and social determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwan, Stella; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2010-01-01

    This book chapter discusses the social determinants of oral health, and identifies interventions that have been, or can be, used in addressing oral health inequities (e.g. oral health promotion, education programmes, improving access to oral health care)....

  19. Identification of infectious microbiota from oral cavity environment of various population group patients as a preventive approach to human health risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Paweł J. Zawadzki; Konrad Perkowski; Bohdan Starościak; Wanda Baltaza; Marcin Padzik; Krzysztof Pionkowski; Lidia Chomicz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and objective This study presents the results of comparative investigations aimed to determine microbiota that can occur in the oral environment in different human populations. The objective of the research was to identify pathogenic oral microbiota, the potential cause of health complications in patients of different population groups. Material and Methods The study included 95 patients requiring dental or surgical treatment; their oral cavity environment microbiota as...

  20. Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Camilla; Reibel, J; Hietanen, J

    2012-01-01

    as new approaches, treatments and diagnostic possibilities develop. Likewise, the role of the dentist in the community changes and may vary in different countries. As members of the Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine and subject representatives of oral pathology and oral......In Scandinavia, as in many European countries, most patients consult their general dentist once a year or more. This gives the dentist a unique opportunity and an obligation to make an early diagnosis of oral diseases, which is beneficial for both the patient and the society. Thus, the dentist must...... medicine, we feel obliged to contribute to the discussion of how the guidelines of the dental curriculum support the highest possible standards of dental education. This article is meant to delineate a reasonable standard of oral pathology and oral medicine in the European dental curriculum and to guide...