WorldWideScience

Sample records for oral medicine

  1. American Academy of Oral Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statements Newsletters AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands. We ...

  2. World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brailo, Vlaho; Firriolo, Francis John; Tanaka, Takako Imai

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the current scope and status of Oral Medicine-specific software (OMSS) utilized to support clinical care, research, and education in Oral Medicine and to propose a strategy for broader implementation of OMSS within the global Oral Medicine community. STUDY DESIGN: An invitat...

  3. Curriculum Guidelines for Predoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Oral diagnosis is the area of dental practice that deals with gathering, recording, and evaluating information contributing to the identification of abnormalities of the head and neck region. A statement of general curricular goals in oral diagnosis/oral medicine is presented. (MLW)

  4. Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Camilla; Reibel, Jesper; Hietanen, J

    2012-01-01

    as new approaches, treatments and diagnostic possibilities develop. Likewise, the role of the dentist in the community changes and may vary in different countries. As members of the Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine and subject representatives of oral pathology and oral......In Scandinavia, as in many European countries, most patients consult their general dentist once a year or more. This gives the dentist a unique opportunity and an obligation to make an early diagnosis of oral diseases, which is beneficial for both the patient and the society. Thus, the dentist must...... medicine, we feel obliged to contribute to the discussion of how the guidelines of the dental curriculum support the highest possible standards of dental education. This article is meant to delineate a reasonable standard of oral pathology and oral medicine in the European dental curriculum and to guide...

  5. Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine: guidelines for oral pathology and oral medicine in the dental curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragelund, C; Reibel, J; Hietanen, J; Hadler-Olsen, E; Johannessen, A C; Kenrad, B; Nylander, K; Puranen, M; Salo, T; Syrjänen, S; Søland, T M; van der Waal, I; van der Wal, J E; Warfvinge, G

    2012-11-01

    In Scandinavia, as in many European countries, most patients consult their general dentist once a year or more. This gives the dentist a unique opportunity and an obligation to make an early diagnosis of oral diseases, which is beneficial for both the patient and the society. Thus, the dentist must have knowledge of clinical symptoms, local and systemic signs and clinical differential diagnoses to make an accurate diagnosis. The dentist must be competent in selecting appropriate diagnostic tests, for example, tissue biopsy and microbiological samples, and conducting them correctly, as well as in interpreting test results and taking appropriate action accordingly. Furthermore, the dentist must be aware of diseases demanding multidisciplinary cooperation and be able to recognise his/her professional limitation, and to refer to other specialists when required. The dental curriculum changes over time as new approaches, treatments and diagnostic possibilities develop. Likewise, the role of the dentist in the community changes and may vary in different countries. As members of the Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine and subject representatives of oral pathology and oral medicine, we feel obliged to contribute to the discussion of how the guidelines of the dental curriculum support the highest possible standards of dental education. This article is meant to delineate a reasonable standard of oral pathology and oral medicine in the European dental curriculum and to guide subject representatives in curriculum development and planning. We have created an advisory topic list in oral pathology and oral medicine.

  6. Oral medicine and the ageing population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, T; McCullough, M

    2015-03-01

    The oral cavity is subject to age related processes such as cellular ageing and immunosenescence. The ageing population bears an increased burden of intraoral pathology. In oral medicine, the majority of presenting patients are in their fifth to seventh decade of life. In this review, we discuss the ageing population's susceptibility to mucosal disorders and the increased prevalence of potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma, as well as dermatoses including oral lichen planus and immunobullous conditions. We also address the ageing population's susceptibility to oral discomfort and explore salivary secretion, ulceration and the symptoms of oral burning. Finally, we will describe orofacial pain conditions which are more likely encountered in an older population. This update highlights clinical presentations which are more likely to be encountered in the ageing population in a general practice setting and the importance of screening both new and long-term patients.

  7. Oral medicine and the elderly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCreary, Christine

    2011-03-15

    A focus often exists in dental practice on the maintenance and management of the dentition and the periodontium, however, conditions of the oral mucosa and orofacial pain can cause significant problems for older patients. Oral mucosal conditions are more prevalent in older patients and many orofacial pain disorders, such as burning mouth syndrome and trigeminal neuralgia, are more common in patients over the age of 50 years. Although these conditions may not be routinely managed in general practice, identification of these patients in primary care and appropriate referral will lead to more prompt and effective treatment. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Dental practitioners need to be able to identify what is considered to be within the normal physiological limits of the ageing oral tissue and hence what is abnormal and requires further investigation to facilitate appropriate referral.

  8. Curriculum Guidelines for Postdoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' Curriculum Guidelines for oral diagnosis and medicine include a definition of the discipline, its interrelationships with other disciplines, a curriculum overview, primary educational goals, prerequisites, a core content outline, specific behavioral objectives, and notes on sequencing, faculty, and…

  9. Oral medicine in practice: angular cheilitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamey, P J; Lewis, M A

    1989-07-08

    In a series of twelve articles the authors aim to cover the more common oral medicine problems likely to be encountered in dental practice. Whenever possible, clinical photographs have been used to illustrate important points, and the text is deliberately succinct and without references. In the first article, the pathogenesis, investigation and management of angular cheilitis is reviewed.

  10. Photobiomodulation in oral medicine: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandeshwar, Padma; Roa, Mahesh Datta; Das, Reshma; Shastry, Shilpa P; Kaul, Rachna; Srinivasreddy, Mahesh B

    2016-05-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) or low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in dentistry is an evolving science, with an increasing number of controlled clinical studies exploring its potential as a treatment modality. The present study provides an outline of the biologic mechanism of PBM and summarizes the findings of clinical studies of PBM for specific applications in oral medicine. Controversies and drawbacks associated with PBM, which require further research, are also identified. Current literature reports the potential of PBM in various applications in oral medicine. Furthermore, well-documented research confirms its efficacy in certain conditions, such as oral mucositis, recurrent herpes simplex infection, and burning mouth syndrome. The absence of any reported adverse effects is an advantage over conventional therapeutic modalities. While PBM has proved to be effective for some specific applications, it is not a panacea. The paucity in standardized studies, coupled with ambiguity over the laser parameters, has limited its credibility as a therapeutic modality.

  11. Oral hygiene products and acidic medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, E; Lussi, A

    2006-01-01

    Acidic or EDTA-containing oral hygiene products and acidic medicines have the potential to soften dental hard tissues. The low pH of oral care products increases the chemical stability of some fluoride compounds, favors the incorporation of fluoride ions in the lattice of hydroxyapatite and the precipitation of calcium fluoride on the tooth surface. This layer has some protective effect against an erosive attack. However, when the pH is too low or when no fluoride is present these protecting effects are replaced by direct softening of the tooth surface. Xerostomia or oral dryness can occur as a consequence of medication such as tranquilizers, anti-histamines, anti-emetics and anti-parkinsonian medicaments or of salivary gland dysfunction e.g. due to radiotherapy of the oral cavity and the head and neck region. Above all, these patients should be aware of the potential demineralization effects of oral hygiene products with low pH and high titratable acids. Acetyl salicylic acid taken regularly in the form of multiple chewable tablets or in the form of headache powder as well chewing hydrochloric acids tablets for treatment of stomach disorders can cause erosion. There is most probably no direct association between asthmatic drugs and erosion on the population level. Consumers, patients and health professionals should be aware of the potential of tooth damage not only by oral hygiene products and salivary substitutes but also by chewable and effervescent tablets. Additionally, it can be assumed that patients suffering from xerostomia should be aware of the potential effects of oral hygiene products with low pH and high titratable acids.

  12. World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Alessandro; Wolff, Andy; Narayana, Nagamani

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of the pathogenesis of medication-induced salivary gland dysfunction (MISGD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Review of the identified papers was based on the standards regarding the methodology for systematic reviews set forth by the World Workshop on Oral Medicine...... was generally reported as xerostomia (the sensation of oral dryness) without measurements of salivary secretion rate. Medications may act on the central nervous system (CNS) and/or at the neuroglandular junction on muscarinic, α-and β-adrenergic receptors and certain peptidergic receptors. The types...... of medications that were most commonly implicated for inducing salivary gland dysfunction were those acting on the nervous, cardiovascular, genitourinary, musculo-skeletal, respiratory, and alimentary systems. CONCLUSIONS: Although many medications may affect the salivary flow rate and composition, most...

  13. Oral medicine (stomatology) across the globe: birth, growth, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Crispian; Miller, Craig S; Aguirre Urizar, Jose-Manuel; Alajbeg, Ivan; Almeida, Oslei P D; Bagan, Jose Vicente; Birek, Catalena; Chen, Qianming; Farah, Camile S; Figueirido, José Pedro; Hasséus, Bengt; Jontell, Mats; Kerr, A Ross; Laskaris, George; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Nagesh, Kikkeri S; Nikitakis, Nikolaos G; Peterson, Douglas; Sciubba, James; Thongprasom, Kobkan; Tovaru, Şerban; Zadik, Yehuda

    2016-02-01

    Oral medicine (stomatology) is a recognized and increasingly important dental specialty in many parts of the world that recognizes and fosters the interplay between medical health and oral health. Its dental activities rely greatly on the underlying biology of disease and evidence-based outcomes. However, full recognition of the importance of oral medicine to patient care, research, and education is not yet totally universally acknowledged. To address these shortcomings, we outline the birth, growth, and future of oral medicine globally, and record identifiable past contributions to the development of the specialty, providing an accurate, unique, and valuable resource on oral medicine. Although it was challenging to gather the data, we present this information as a review that endeavors to summarize the salient points about oral medicine, based on MEDLINE, other internet searches, communication with oral medicine and stomatological societies across the world, the web page http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_dental_organizations, and discussions with a wide range of key senior persons in the specialty.

  14. Traditional Chinese medicine and oral diseases: today and tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, L W; Hua, H; Cheung, L K

    2011-01-01

    With a history of over 2000 years, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) evolves into a unique system of diagnosing and treating illnesses. It is a challenge to convey the fundamentals of this traditional medicine to our Western colleagues because of the differences in language, philosophy and concept of diagnosis and treatment. This review attempts to tackle these barriers by introducing several widely used Chinese medicines for treating oral diseases. China Journals Full-text Database and Pubmed were used as the searching engines. Although many studies have demonstrated that the Chinese medicines are effective in treating oral diseases including recurrent aphthous stomatitis, oral lichen planus, leukoplakia, and Sjögren's syndrome, most of them lacked standard criteria of post-treatment assessment and laboratory evidence. Randomized controlled clinical trials with specific assessment criteria are required to close the gap between TCM and evidenced-based medicine.

  15. [Oral medicine in Israel: Current status and future directions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aframian, D J; Vered, M

    2016-04-01

    The oral cavity-body relationships are bi-directional: oral diseases affect the welfare and health of the individual, while diseases and conditions of organs and tissues in the human body affect oral health. The global policy of the World Health Organization is to improve oral health in the 21st century as an integral part of promoting our general health. During the recent years the knowledge of the dental profession has grown exponentially and widened its fields of interest and this has led to impressive advances at both clinical and research levels. Oral medicine, which is a recognized, licensed specialty in Israel, is a definite example that reflects this process. In the last decade residency programs in oral medicine are in the process of constant increased demand. The authors discuss this trend and comment on the need to maintain excellence in this specialty.

  16. Therapeutic Uses of Oral History Techniques in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Raymond; Harris, Sara

    1981-01-01

    Use of the oral history technique in clinical medicine supplies significant additional data that illuminate the psychological, social, and spiritual background of healthy or ailing aging patients. Describes some practical applications of oral history techniques in clinical medical practice and discusses their usefulness for gerontological…

  17. [Oral medicine 8. Leukoplakia of the oral mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepman, K P; van der Meij, E H; de Visscher, J G A M

    2013-01-01

    Leukoplakia of the oral mucosa is a potentially malignant disorder, which means that there is an elevated risk oftransformation into a squamous cell carcinoma. The term oral leukoplakia is a clinical diagnosis for a predominantly white lesion which is not immediately recognizable as another well definable lesion which is white in appearance. Oral leukoplakia is generally an asymptomatic disorder of the mucosa with a prevalence of less than 2 per cent in the adult population. Tobacco usage is considered to be the most important etiological factor. Malignant transformation into a squamous cell carcinoma occurs in about I per cent per year. A patient with oral leukoplakia is generally referred to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, who takes a biopsy for a definitive histopathological diagnosis. The outcome of the histopathological study, which may vary from hyperkeratosis to invasive squamous cell carcinoma, will determine the treatment. It is preferable that every leukoplakia is removed to reduce the risk of malignant transformation. Long term follow-up is indicated. Follow-up may in some cases be performed by the general dental practitioner.

  18. [Oral medicine 7: white lesions of the oral mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visscher, J G A M; van der Meij, E H; Schepman, K P

    2013-06-01

    White lesions of the oral mucosa may be due to highly diverse disorders. Most of these disorders are benign but some may be a malignant or premalignant condition. The disease is often confined to the oral mucosa. There are also disorders which are accompanied by skin disorders or systemic diseases. Many white oral mucosa disorders have such characteristic clinical aspects that a diagnosis can be made on clinical grounds only. When the clinical diagnosis is not clear, histopathological examination is carried out. Treatment depends on the histological diagnosis. In some cases, treatment is not necessary while in other cases, treatment is not possible since an effective treatment is not available. Potentially malignant disorders are treated.

  19. Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine : guidelines for oral pathology and oral medicine in the dental curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragelund, C.; Reibel, J.; Hietanen, J.; Hadler-Olsen, E.; Johannessen, A. C.; Kenrad, B.; Nylander, K.; Puranen, M.; Salo, T.; Syrjanen, S.; Soland, T. M.; van der Waal, I.; van der Wal, J. E.; Warfvinge, G.

    2012-01-01

    In Scandinavia, as in many European countries, most patients consult their general dentist once a year or more. This gives the dentist a unique opportunity and an obligation to make an early diagnosis of oral diseases, which is beneficial for both the patient and the society. Thus, the dentist must

  20. Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine: guidelines for oral pathology and oral medicine in the dental curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragelund, C.; Reibel, J.; Hietanen, J.; Hadler-Olsen, E.; Johannessen, A.C.; Kenrad, B.; Nylander, K.; Puranen, M.; Salo, T.; Syrjänen, S.; Søland, T.M.; van der Waal, I.; van der Wal, J.E.; Warfvinge, G.

    2012-01-01

    In Scandinavia, as in many European countries, most patients consult their general dentist once a year or more. This gives the dentist a unique opportunity and an obligation to make an early diagnosis of oral diseases, which is beneficial for both the patient and the society. Thus, the dentist must

  1. Report on World Workshops on Oral Medicine IV and V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, DE; Lodi, Giovanni; Jensen, Siri Beier

    2014-01-01

    The first World Workshop on Oral Medicine (WWOM) was held in 1988. The portfolio has continued to expand in scope and impact over the past twenty-six years. Five World Workshops were conducted between 1988 and 2010, focusing on creation of systematic reviews in biomedicine and health care of impo...

  2. Oral medicine case book 65: Necrotising stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khammissa, R A G; Ciya, R; Munzhelele, T I; Altini, M; Rikhotso, E; Lemmer, J; Feller, L

    2014-11-01

    Necrotising stomatitis is a fulminating anaerobic polybacterial infection affecting predominantly the oral mucosa of debilitated malnourished children or immunosuppressed HIV-seropositive subjects. It starts as necrotising gingivitis which progresses to necrotising periodontitis and subsequently to necrotising stomatitis. In order to prevent the progression of necrotising stomatitis to noma (cancrum oris), affected patients should be vigorously treated and may require admission to hospital. Healthcare personnel should therefore be familiar with the signs and symptoms of necrotising gingivitis/necrotising periodontitis, of their potential sequelae and of the need for immediate therapeutic intervention.

  3. Progress in oral personalized medicine: contribution of ‘omics’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Glurich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Precision medicine (PM, representing clinically applicable personalized medicine, proactively integrates and interprets multidimensional personal health data, including clinical, ‘omics’, and environmental profiles, into clinical practice. Realization of PM remains in progress. Objective: The focus of this review is to provide a descriptive narrative overview of: 1 the current status of oral personalized medicine; and 2 recent advances in genomics and related ‘omic’ and emerging research domains contributing to advancing oral-systemic PM, with special emphasis on current understanding of oral microbiomes. Design: A scan of peer-reviewed literature describing oral PM or ‘omic’-based research conducted on humans/data published in English within the last 5 years in journals indexed in the PubMed database was conducted using mesh search terms. An evidence-based approach was used to report on recent advances with potential to advance PM in the context of historical critical and systematic reviews to delineate current state-of-the-art technologies. Special focus was placed on oral microbiome research associated with health and disease states, emerging research domains, and technological advances, which are positioning realization of PM. Results: This review summarizes: 1 evolving conceptualization of personalized medicine; 2 emerging insight into roles of oral infectious and inflammatory processes as contributors to both oral and systemic diseases; 3 community shifts in microbiota that may contribute to disease; 4 evidence pointing to new uncharacterized potential oral pathogens; 5 advances in technological approaches to ‘omics’ research that will accelerate PM; 6 emerging research domains that expand insights into host–microbe interaction including inter-kingdom communication, systems and network analysis, and salivaomics; and 7 advances in informatics and big data analysis capabilities to facilitate interpretation of

  4. The use of quality of life measures in oral medicine: a review of the literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Riordain, R Ni

    2010-07-01

    To explore the use of patient reported quality of life measures in oral medicine, to highlight the importance of use of these measures in oral medicine practice and to provide guidance for the selection of such measures in the future.

  5. [Oral medicine 2. Treatment of dry mouth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissink, A; Visser, A; Spijkervet, F K L

    2012-11-01

    Treatment of dry mouth starts with determining the salivary gland function by measuring the unstimulated and stimulated flow rate.Treatment depends on these measurements. Iffunctioning salivary gland tissues with saliva producing potential are present, stimulation of the salivary glands by gum chewing or sucking sugar-free sweets is recommended. Salivary gland stimulation may also be achieved using medications, acupuncture and electrostimulation. If stimulation is insufficient, moistening the oral mucosa with a sip ofwater regularly during the day is one of the easiest and most effective methods of easing dry mouth. In addition, the use of saliva replacement therapy might be beneficial, but only with proper instruction. With regard to the caries risk in dentate patients, a fluoride rinse or gel should be prescribed.

  6. [Mouth diseases and the position of oral medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissink, A; Spijkervet, F K L; van der Waal, I

    2007-01-01

    The field of oral and maxillofacial surgery has greatly evolved during the last five decades. In The Netherlands, oral medicine is covered by the specialist in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Related to the increase in the ageing of the population, it is expected that both the dentist and the family dentist will more and more faced by patients with less usual oral disorders, either as a sign of a local disease or as a sign of a general (systemic) disease. Regarding research, there is a trend of a shift from therapeutic towards innovative research. Therapeutic research is mainly aimed at treating symptoms, whereas innovative research tries to increase insight in development of a disorder or to prevent the development of that disorder or to reduce its progression.

  7. Virtual Alternative to the Oral Examination for Emergency Medicine Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrath, Jillian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The oral examination is a traditional method for assessing the developing physician’s medical knowledge, clinical reasoning and interpersonal skills. The typical oral examination is a face-to-face encounter in which examiners quiz examinees on how they would confront a patient case. The advantage of the oral exam is that the examiner can adapt questions to the examinee’s response. The disadvantage is the potential for examiner bias and intimidation. Computer-based virtual simulation technology has been widely used in the gaming industry. We wondered whether virtual simulation could serve as a practical format for delivery of an oral examination. For this project, we compared the attitudes and performance of emergency medicine (EM residents who took our traditional oral exam to those who took the exam using virtual simulation. Methods: EM residents (n=35 were randomized to a traditional oral examination format (n=17 or a simulated virtual examination format (n=18 conducted within an immersive learning environment, Second Life (SL. Proctors scored residents using the American Board of Emergency Medicine oral examination assessment instruments, which included execution of critical actions and ratings on eight competency categories (1-8 scale. Study participants were also surveyed about their oral examination experience. Results: We observed no differences between virtual and traditional groups on critical action scores or scores on eight competency categories. However, we noted moderate effect sizes favoring the Second Life group on the clinical competence score. Examinees from both groups thought that their assessment was realistic, fair, objective, and efficient. Examinees from the virtual group reported a preference for the virtual format and felt that the format was less intimidating. Conclusion: The virtual simulated oral examination was shown to be a feasible alternative to the traditional oral examination format for

  8. [Analysis of oral mucosal lesions in patients referred to oral medicine specialists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailo, Vlaho; Boras, Vanja Vucićević; Pintar, Elizabeta; Juras, Danica Vidović; Karaman, Natasa; Rogulj, Ana Andabak

    2013-01-01

    The need for studies on prevalence of lesions in the field of oral medicine increases as more patients suffer from oral mucosal diseases. Data on prevalence of oral mucosal diseases throughout the world are scarce. Therefore, we have made a retrospective study of patients referred to the Department of Oral Medicine, University of Zagreb, during a period of one year, i.e. 2010. Data on patient age, gender and diagnosis were recorded. Out of 1118 analyzed clinical records of the patients, 756 (67.6%) were women and 362 (32.4%) were men. The age range of female patients was 54 +/- 19 years (mean age 62.17 years) and the male age range was 49+/-21 (mean age 64.17 years). The most common diagnosis was burning mouth syndrome (23.4%), followed by xerostomia (10.6%), traumatic ulceration (8.7%), geographic tongue (6.6%) and denture stomatitis (5.7%). Other diagnoses were found in a smaller percentage. Our results point out an increased need for oral medicine services.

  9. The application of tribology in assessing texture perception of oral liquid medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Hannah; Venables, Rebecca; Marriott, John; Mills, Tom

    2015-02-20

    The palatability of medicines is likely to have a significant impact on patient adherence and consequently, on the safety and efficacy of a medicinal product. Palatability encompasses properties of medicines not limited to taste including swallowability (e.g. size, shape, texture). However, there has been limited work undertaken to measure the texture of medicines and how this may affect palatability and subsequent adherence. Tribology offers an understanding of oral processes and can allow physical properties of materials to be linked to "mouthfeel". This paper describes a preliminary application of tribology to oral liquid medicines and demonstrates that this technique is useful in the development of future oral liquid medicines.

  10. Current Status and Prospect of Prevention and Treatment of Oral Diseases by Integrative Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ To carry out integrative medical prevention and treatment of oral diseases, based on the inheritance and development of traditional medicine as well as the application of modern scientific, technique and medical theory, is of great significance in oral health maintenance. Certain achievements of the integrative traditional Chinese and Western medicine (TCM-WM) have been obtained in the recent several years in clinical and experimental studies and theoretic exploration of oral diseases, which are introduced briefly as follows.

  11. Oral examination and charting: setting the basis for evidence-based medicine in the oral examination of equids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Robert

    2013-08-01

    The oral examination is performed in equids to assess and monitor oral health status, provide diagnoses, and determine efficacy of treatments. While there is currently insufficient scientific material of adequate quality to enable evidence-based medicine in equine dentistry, this by no means negates the clinician's responsibility to provide oral health care in a scientific and ethical manner. To do so requires that the clinician be knowledgable and skilled in dentistry and general medicine, that each case upholds the principles of scientific method, and that data is gathered and appraised in an objective, precise, consistent, uniform, and reliable manner.

  12. Psychoneuroimmunology in oral biology and medicine: the model of oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prolo, Paolo; Chiappelli, Francesco; Cajulis, Elaina; Bauer, Janet; Spackman, Susan; Romeo, Horacio; Carrozzo, Marco; Gandolfo, Sergio; Christensen, Russell

    2002-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis involves psychoneuroendocrine-immunopathological comorbidities. In the stoma, patients with rheumatoid arthritis frequently show signs of periondontal disease consequent to elevated levels of crevicular proinflammatory cytokines. It is not clear whether rheumatoid arthritis may manifest in association with immunopathological manifestations of the oral soft mucosa. Oral lichen planus (OLP), first described by E. Wilson in 1859, is a T-cell-mediated inflammatory disease whose lesions characteristically lack B cells, plasma cells, immunoglobulin. or complement. It is increasingly well characterized and recognized as a model for psychoneuroimmunology research in oral biology and medicine. To date, we have shown an association between changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) regulation, systemic markers of cellular immunity and mood states, with clinical stages of OLP (i.e., atrophic vs. erosive vs. bullous lesions). We report significant associations (p < 0.05) between the stage of OLP, HPA deregulation, and altered distribution and functional responses of naïve CD4(+) cells. We emphasize the need to study in greater details the psychoneuroendocrine-immune inter-relationships in OLP, and we propose a novel neuroimmune hypothesis for OLP.

  13. Oral self-care practices, dental attendance and self-perceived oral health status among internal medicine residents in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Omozehio Iwuala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health is important for well-being and chronic disease prevention. Physician′s confidence and willingness to counsel patients on lifestyle practices is related to their personal behavior. Limited data exists regarding oral self-care practices among physicians in developing countries, as the majority seeks oral health advice and care from doctors rather than dentists. Aim: To determine the oral self-care practices, dental attendance, and self-perceived oral health status of internal medicine residents in Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among internal medicine resident doctors attending an update course using a self-administered structured questionnaire, which included oral care practices. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 21.0, P male, P = 0.002. A higher proportion of junior compared to senior residents strongly agreed/agreed and strongly disagreed/disagreed that their oral health status was excellent (P = 0.026. Conclusion: The oral self-care practices of these doctors involved in managing patients with medical conditions linked to oral health is inadequate. There is a need for better education on oral self-care among physicians.

  14. Strategies parents use to give children oral medicine: a qualitative study of online discussion forums

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to describe strategies parents use to give oral medicine to children. Methods We conducted an Internet-based qualitative study of posts from online forums where parents discussed how to give children oral medicine. The posts were analyzed using systematic text condensation. The investigators coded and developed groups iteratively, ending up with a consensus on final themes. Results We included 4581 posts. Parents utilized three main strategies to give oral medicine to children: (1) Open administration give medicine to the child knowingly by changing the palatability, actively involve the child in play or use persuasion; (2) Hidden administration give medicine to the child unknowingly by camouflaging it in food, while sleeping or distracted by another activity; (3) Forced administration force children to take medicine with the use of restraint. Parents expressed three perspectives towards using force: Finding it unproblematic, using force despite not liking it or refusing to use force. No single strategy was described as the obvious first choice, and the strategies were not used in any particular order. Parents who gave up getting their child to ingest the medicine reported to contact the prescriber for a different medication, or stopped the treatment completely. Conclusions The three strategies are a robust and precise way to categorize techniques used by parents to give children oral medicine. We suggest that health professionals use the strategies to talk to parents and children about administration of oral medicines. PMID:28581890

  15. Strategies parents use to give children oral medicine: a qualitative study of online discussion forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergene, Elin Høien; Rø, Torstein Baade; Steinsbekk, Aslak

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe strategies parents use to give oral medicine to children. We conducted an Internet-based qualitative study of posts from online forums where parents discussed how to give children oral medicine. The posts were analyzed using systematic text condensation. The investigators coded and developed groups iteratively, ending up with a consensus on final themes. We included 4581 posts. Parents utilized three main strategies to give oral medicine to children: (1) Open administration give medicine to the child knowingly by changing the palatability, actively involve the child in play or use persuasion; (2) Hidden administration give medicine to the child unknowingly by camouflaging it in food, while sleeping or distracted by another activity; (3) Forced administration force children to take medicine with the use of restraint. Parents expressed three perspectives towards using force: Finding it unproblematic, using force despite not liking it or refusing to use force. No single strategy was described as the obvious first choice, and the strategies were not used in any particular order. Parents who gave up getting their child to ingest the medicine reported to contact the prescriber for a different medication, or stopped the treatment completely. The three strategies are a robust and precise way to categorize techniques used by parents to give children oral medicine. We suggest that health professionals use the strategies to talk to parents and children about administration of oral medicines.

  16. THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF HOLY BASIL (TULSI IN GENERAL AND ORAL MEDICINE: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhateja Sumit

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nature has bestowed on us a very rich botanical wealth and a large number of diverse types of plants grow in different parts of the country. Plants are the richest resource of drugs in traditional systems of medicine, modern medicines, nutraceuticals, food supplements, folk medicines, pharmaceutical intermediates and chemical entities for synthetic drugs. Medicinal plants are a source of great economic value all over the world. Ocimum sanctum Linn (Tulsi is a well-known plant used in the Indian system of medicine. This paper reviews the therapeutic potential of this plant in treatment of various medical and oral disorders.

  17. Chinese medicine compound Changtong oral liquid on postoperative intestinal adhesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Xiao Yang; Han-Ping Shi; Lian-Bing Hou

    2005-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to observe the effect of a Chinese medicine compound Changtong oral liquid (CT) on tissue plasminogen activity (t-PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI), TGF-β1 and hydroxyproline (OHP).METHODS: Two sets of animal experiments were performed in the present study. Forty New Zealand rabbits and 48 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were assigned randomly to one of the five groups: sham adhesion, adhesion with saline, adhesion with low dosage of the CT, adhesion with middle dosage of the CT and adhesion with high dosage of the CT. t-PA and PAI activity in plasma, OHP and TGF-β1 expression in adhesion were investigated. Analysis of variance was used to test differences among groups.RESULTS: CT treatment increased plasma t-PA activity in rabbits but decreased TGF-β1 activity in rats. The data were expressed from low to high dose respectively as follows: t-PA, 46.1±8.6 μkat/L, 59.6±10.1 μkat/L, 64.0±11.5 μkat/L; TGF-β1 28±7.23%, 31±3.05%, 30±4.04%. There were significant differences compared with saline-treated animals (t-PA 26.4±5.1 μkat/L, TGF-β1 54±5.51%). OHP content in cecum of rabbits from middle and high but not low dose of CT lowered significantly as compared with saline-treated rabbits, 0.3641±0.1373, 0.3348±0.0321, 0.2757±0.0497 mg/g vs0.4183±0.0883 mg/g of protein, P>0.05, P<0.05, P<0.05 respectively. The rabbit plasma PAI activity and OHP content in abdominal wall had no difference in all groups.CONCLUSION: CT treatment significantly enhanced t-PA activity in rabbits, but decreased TGF-β1 content in rats, OHP content in cecum of rabbits, and failed to affect the activity of PAI and OHP content in abdominal wall in rabbits,compared with saline group. The result suggests that CT could effectively prevent adhesions without interfering wound healing.

  18. [Oral medicine 9. Lichen planus and lichenoid lesions of the oral mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, E H; Schepman, K P; de Visscher, J G A M

    2013-09-01

    The general dentist is sometimes confronted with white lesions of the oral mucosa. Oral lichen planus is the most common oral white lesion. The diagnosis can usually be made on the basis of the clinical aspect, but is sometimes made more difficult by certain abnormalities in the oral mucosa which clinically resemble oral lichen planus or by abnormalities which cannot be distinguished from oral lichen planus but have a different origin. Those lesions are classified as oral lichenoid lesions. Malignant deterioration has been described in allforms of oral lichen planus lesions and oral lichenoid lesions. There is no known method to predict or prevent malignant transformation. Nor are there any studies examining the efficacy of frequent follow-up visits. It seems sensible, in keeping with the tendency in recent literature, to schedule annual check-ups for patients to be on the safe side. These follow-up visits may reasonably be performed in a general dental practice.

  19. The oral microbiome in health and disease and the potential impact on personalized dental medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarco, M F; Vess, T J; Ginsburg, G S

    2012-03-01

    Every human body contains a personalized microbiome that is essential to maintaining health but capable of eliciting disease. The oral microbiome is particularly imperative to health because it can cause both oral and systemic disease. The oral microbiome rests within biofilms throughout the oral cavity, forming an ecosystem that maintains health when in equilibrium. However, certain ecological shifts in the microbiome allow pathogens to manifest and cause disease. Severe forms of oral disease may result in systemic disease at different body sites. Microbiomics and metagenomics are two fields of research that have emerged to identify the presence of specific microbes in the body and understand the nature of the microbiome activity during both health and disease. The analysis of the microbiome and its genomes will pave the way for more effective therapeutic and diagnostic techniques and, ultimately, contribute to the development of personalized medicine and personalized dental medicine.

  20. A Problem-Solving Oral Examination for Family Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wart, Arthur D.

    1974-01-01

    The College of Family Physicians of Canada has used in its certification examination a new type of structured problem-solving examination called the Formal Oral. A series of preselected problem areas such as the complaint, relevant data base, investigation, and treatment are scored by two examiners. (Editor/PG)

  1. Oral medicines for children in the European paediatric investigation plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Riet-Nales, Diana A; Römkens, Erwin G A W; Saint-Raymond, Agnes; Kozarewicz, Piotr; Schobben, Alfred F A M; Egberts, Toine C G; Rademaker, Carin M A

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Pharmaceutical industry is no longer allowed to develop new medicines for use in adults only, as the 2007 Paediatric Regulation requires children to be considered also. The plans for such paediatric development called Paediatric Investigation Plans (PIPs) are subject to agreement by th

  2. [Technical scheme of real-time evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine orally disintegrating tablets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Dong; Chen, Xu-dong; Feng, Liang; Gu, Jun-fei; Yuan, Jia-rui; Jia, Xiao-bin

    2014-12-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODT), a kind of new solid tablet that rapidly disintegrates to work in the mouth, has became the hot form of new drug research in recent years with many advantages, such as the convenient taking, a widely applicable people, fast acting, high bioavailability, good compliance, and so on. ODT has been widely used in chemical medicines, while the application of it in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) is still in the stage of development The development of TCMs ODT provides a new direction for the research of Chinese medicine new dosage, accelerates the pace of connecting to the world and modernization of Chinese medicine. This dosage has a broad market prospect, and its quality control and assessment standards, taste, the disintegration time in vitro and evaluation method are the key factors that affect the industrialization, standardization of Chinese medicine ODT. Therefore, this paper reviewed the characteristics, preparation, taste masking technology and quality evaluation with new technology of ODT. Meantime, numerous application examples of ODT used in traditional Chinese medicine were described. We expect to provide the reference and utilization for the development of traditional Chinese medicine orally disinteeratine tablets.

  3. An Assessment of an Oral Examination Format for Evaluating Clinical Competence in Emergency Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, David J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    In July 1989 the American Board of Emergency Medicine conducted a field test of the oral recertification examination process. Sixteen examiners and 25 examinees participated in the field test. The examination included 3 chart-stimulated recall and 3 simulated-patient encounter cases. (MLW)

  4. World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI : a systematic review of medication-induced salivary gland dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villa, Alessandro; Wolff, A.; Narayana, N.; Dawes, C.; Aframian, D. J.; Pedersen, A. M. Lynge; Vissink, A.; Aliko, A.; Sia, Y. W.; Joshi, R. K.; McGowan, R.; Jensen, S. B.; Kerr, A. R.; Ekstrom, J.; Proctor, G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to perform a systematic review of the pathogenesis of medication-induced salivary gland dysfunction (MISGD). Review of the identified papers was based on the standards regarding the methodology for systematic reviews set forth by the World Workshop on Oral Medicine IV and t

  5. Antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants against oral microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, G; Tshikalange, T E; Lall, N; Botha, F; Meyer, J J M

    2008-10-28

    Ethanol extracts of eight plant species used traditionally in South Africa for the treatment of oral diseases were investigated for in vitro antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens namely Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces israelii, Candida albicans, Porphyromonus gingivalis, Privotella intermedia and Streptococcus mutans using the disk diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of ethanol extracts were determined against these microorganisms using micro dilution. The cytotoxicity and therapeutic index (TI) of selected active extracts were also determined. Out of eight plants, six (Annona senegalensis, Englerophytum magalismontanum, Dicerocarym senecioides, Euclea divinorum, Euclea natalensis, Solanum panduriforme and Parinari curatellifolia) exhibited MIC values ranging from 25.0 mg/ml to 0.8 mg/ml. Gram negative bacteria were found to be more resistant to the plant extracts than Gram positive bacteria, except for Euclea natalensis which inhibited all three Gram negative bacteria tested in this study. All plant extracts showed moderate cytotoxicity on the Vero cell line. The fifty percent inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of all plants tested range from 92.3 to 285.1 microg/ml.

  6. Initial Validity Analysis of the American Board of Emergency Medicine Enhanced Oral Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalenko, Terry; Heller, Barry N; Strauss, Robert W; Counselman, Francis L; Mallory, Mary Nan S; Joldersma, Kevin B; Coombs, Andrea B; Harvey, Anne L; Reisdorff, Earl J

    2017-01-01

    The American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM) has introduced a new testing format for the oral certification examination (OCE): the enhanced oral or "eOral" format. The purpose of this study was to perform initial validity analyses of the eOral format. The two hypotheses were: 1) the case content in the eOral format was sufficiently similar to clinical practice and 2) the eOral case materials were sufficiently similar to clinical practice. The eOral and traditional formats were compared for these characteristics. This was a prospective survey study. The survey was administered as a voluntary postexamination activity at the end of the 2015 spring (April 25-27) and fall (October 10-13) ABEM OCEs. The survey is a routine part of the ABEM oral examination experience. For 2015, two additional questions were added to gauge the similarity of the eOral format to clinical practice. Validity was defined by content and substantive elements within Messick's model of construct validity as well as portions of Kane's validity model. Of the 1,746 physicians who took the oral examination, 1,380 physicians (79.0%) completed all or part of the study survey questions. The majority of respondents agreed the patient presentations in the cases were similar (strongly agreed or agreed) to cases seen in clinical practice, in both the traditional cases (95.1%) and the eOral cases (90.1%). Likewise, the majority of respondents answered that the case materials (e.g., laboratory, radiographs) were similar (strongly agreed or agreed) to what they encounter in clinical practice, both in the traditional format (85.8%) and in the eOral cases (93.7%). Most emergency physicians reported that the types of cases tested in the traditional and eOral formats were similar to cases encountered in clinical practice. In addition, most physicians found the case materials to be similar to what is seen in clinical practice. This study provides early validity evidence for the eOral format. © 2016 by the

  7. Early Stage Health Technology Assessment for Precision Biomarkers in Oral Health and Systems Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuten, Lotte M G

    2016-01-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is a crucial science that influences the responsible and evidence-based transition of new discoveries from laboratory to applications in the clinic and society. HTA has recently moved "upstream" so as to assess technologies from their onset at their discovery, design, or planning phase. Biomarker research is relatively recent in oral health, but growing rapidly with investments made to advance dentistry and oral health and importantly, to build effective bridges between oral health and systems medicine since what happens in oral health affects systems pathophysiology, and vice versa. This article offers a synthesis of the latest trends and approaches in early phase HTA, with a view to near future applications in oral health, systems medicine, and biomarker-guided precision medicine. In brief, this review underscores that demonstrating health outcomes of biomarkers and next-generation diagnostics is particularly challenging because they do not always influence long-term outcomes directly, but rather impact subsequent care processes. Biomarker testing costs are typically less of a barrier to uptake in practice than the biomarker's impact on longer term health outcomes. As a single biomarker or next-generation diagnostic in oral health can inform decisions about numerous downstream diagnosis-treatment combinations, early stage "upstream" HTA is crucial in prioritizing the most valuable diagnostic applications to pursue first. For the vast array of oral health biomarkers currently developed, early HTA is necessary to timely and iteratively assess their comparative effectiveness and anticipate the inevitable questions about value for money from regulators and payers.

  8. Chlorhexidine, A Medicine for all the Oral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Gupta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine is a bisbiguanide antiseptic. It is active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains as well as fungi. It has bacteriostatic and bactericidal actions. Chlorhexidine has excellent antiplaque activity and unique property of substantivity. So it has got wide applications starting from maintaining oral hygiene pre surgically to post operative and also in physically and mentally handicapped patients. Chlorhexidine is now routinely used by clinicians when they treat patients with fixed appliances in orthodontia and maxillofacial surgeries. Chlorhexidine has been extensively used in various medical fields such as gynecology, urology and ophthalmology; also in disinfection of operation fields and treatment of burns. Its products are available in various forms like mouth rinses, gels, sprays, toothpastes and varnishes.

  9. From regenerative dentistry to regenerative medicine: progress, challenges, and potential applications of oral stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao L

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Li Xiao,1 Masanori Nasu2 1Department of Pharmacology, 2Research Center, The Nippon Dental University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and epithelial stem cells play essential roles in tissue repair and self-healing. Oral MSCs and epithelial stem cells can be isolated from adult human oral tissues, for example, teeth, periodontal ligament, and gingiva. Cocultivated adult oral epithelial stem cells and MSCs could represent some developmental events, such as epithelial invagination and tubular structure formation, signifying their potentials for tissue regeneration. Oral epithelial stem cells have been used in regenerative medicine over 1 decade. They are able to form a stratified cell sheet under three-dimensional culture conditions. Both experimental and clinical data indicate that the cell sheets can not only safely and effectively reconstruct the damaged cornea in humans, but also repair esophageal ulcer in animal models. Oral MSCs include dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs, stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED, stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP, periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs, and mesenchymal stem cells from gingiva (GMSCs. They are widely applied in both regenerative dentistry and medicine. DPSCs, SHED, and SCAP are able to form dentin–pulp complex when being transplanted into immunodeficient animals. They have been experimentally used for the regeneration of dental pulp, neuron, bone muscle and blood vessels in animal models and have shown promising results. PDLSCs and GMSCs are demonstrated to be ideal cell sources for repairing the damaged tissues of periodontal, muscle, and tendon. Despite the abovementioned applications of oral stem cells, only a few human clinical trials are now underway to use them for the treatment of certain diseases. Since clinical use is the end goal, their true regenerative power and safety need to be further examined.Keywords: oral mesenchymal stem cells, oral

  10. [Oral medicine 1. Causes and clinical symptoms of dry mouth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissink, A; Visser, A; Spijkervet, F K L

    2012-10-01

    Healthcare providers do not always recognize dry mouth and the problems associated with it. The symptoms of dry mouth and the patterns of complaints associated with it are the feeling that the mouth is dry; foamy or very watery saliva; a red appearance of the mucosa under a denture and the excessive presence of remaining food particles on the mucosa or the denture. The most serious detrimental aspect of dry mouth complaints is a reduced secretion of saliva, but afeeling ofa dry mouth can also exist without an objectively assessed hyposalivation. The most important causes of dry mouth are the side effects ofmedications, systemic diseases, radiotherapy in the head and neck region and occasionally a psychiatric disorder. Early recognition of the symptoms and the establishment ofa precise diagnosis are essential for proper treatment and for optimizing the quality of life of the patient. Basic investigation consists of an extensive patient history, inspection of the head and neck region and the oral cavity, evaluation ofthefunctioning of the salivary glands, and, if necessary, additional investigations.

  11. Practising case-based learning in oral medicine for dental students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, G-F; Li, C-Z; Shang, S-H; Xu, X-Y; Chen, H-Z; Zhou, G

    2013-11-01

    Teacher-centred education dominates dental education in China. Student-centred education has recently been introduced in the School of Stomatology, Wuhan University, and the effectiveness of such methods needs to be tested. The purpose of this study is to compare the learning outcomes of case-based learning (CBL) and lecture-based education (LBE) in an oral medicine curriculum. We chose oral leukoplakia as the learning subject for dental students. Forty fourth-year dental students participated in the study. First, they were presented to basic knowledge of oral leukoplakia and related oral mucosal diseases. Then, they were divided into a CBL group (n=20) and an LBE group (n=20) by random numbers. The groups experienced the remaining course in separate groups. All students answered a questionnaire on their satisfaction with the education and the same standardised written test to analyse their learning outcomes. Both CBL and LBE courses were well accepted by students according to the satisfactory scores of the questionnaire. The test scores of the CBL group (90.00±6.69) were significantly higher (Pstudents. These findings suggest that CBL should be added in our future oral medicine curriculum for dental students. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Oral complementary medicine and alternative practitioner use varies across chronic conditions and attitudes to risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Adams

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Robert J Adams1, Sarah L Appleton1, Antonia Cole2, Tiffany K Gill3, Anne W Taylor3, Catherine L Hill11The Health Observatory, 2Rheumatology Unit, 3Population Research and Outcomes Unit, SA Health, The University of Adelaide Discipline of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Woodville, AustraliaObjectives: To determine whether chronic conditions and patient factors, such as risk perception and decision-making preferences, are associated with complementary medicine and alternative practitioner use in a representative longitudinal population cohort.Participants and setting: Analysis of data from Stage 2 of the North West Adelaide Health Study of 3161 adults who attended a study clinic visit in 2004–2006. The main outcome measures were the medications brought by participants to the study clinic visit, chronic health conditions, attitudes to risk, levels of satisfaction with conventional medicine, and preferred decision-making style.Results: At least one oral complementary medicine was used by 27.9% of participants, and 7.3% were visiting alternative practitioners (naturopath, osteopath. Oral complementary medicine use was significantly associated with arthritis, osteoporosis, and mental health conditions, but not with other chronic conditions. Any pattern of complementary medicine use was generally significantly associated with female gender, age at least 45 years, patient-driven decision-making preferences (odds ratio [OR] 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08–1.77, and frequent general practitioner visits (>five per year; OR 3.62, 95% CI: 2.13–6.17. Alternative practitioner visitors were younger, with higher levels of education (diploma/trade [OR 1.88, 95% CI: 1.28–2.76], bachelor’s degree [OR 1.77, 95% CI: 1.11–2.82], income > $80,000 (OR 2.28, 95% CI: 1.26–4.11, female gender (OR 3.15, 95% CI: 2.19–4.52, joint pain not diagnosed as arthritis (OR 1.68, 95% CI: 1.17–2.41, moderate to severe depressive symptoms (OR 2.15, 95% CI

  13. From regenerative dentistry to regenerative medicine: progress, challenges, and potential applications of oral stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li; Nasu, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and epithelial stem cells play essential roles in tissue repair and self-healing. Oral MSCs and epithelial stem cells can be isolated from adult human oral tissues, for example, teeth, periodontal ligament, and gingiva. Cocultivated adult oral epithelial stem cells and MSCs could represent some developmental events, such as epithelial invagination and tubular structure formation, signifying their potentials for tissue regeneration. Oral epithelial stem cells have been used in regenerative medicine over 1 decade. They are able to form a stratified cell sheet under three-dimensional culture conditions. Both experimental and clinical data indicate that the cell sheets can not only safely and effectively reconstruct the damaged cornea in humans, but also repair esophageal ulcer in animal models. Oral MSCs include dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), and mesenchymal stem cells from gingiva (GMSCs). They are widely applied in both regenerative dentistry and medicine. DPSCs, SHED, and SCAP are able to form dentin-pulp complex when being transplanted into immunodeficient animals. They have been experimentally used for the regeneration of dental pulp, neuron, bone muscle and blood vessels in animal models and have shown promising results. PDLSCs and GMSCs are demonstrated to be ideal cell sources for repairing the damaged tissues of periodontal, muscle, and tendon. Despite the abovementioned applications of oral stem cells, only a few human clinical trials are now underway to use them for the treatment of certain diseases. Since clinical use is the end goal, their true regenerative power and safety need to be further examined.

  14. In vitro antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants against clinical isolates of oral cancer cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal Vivek

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suppression of immune system in treated cancer patients may lead to secondary infections that obviate the need of antibiotics. In the present study, an attempt was made to understand the occurrence of secondary infections in immuno-suppressed patients along with herbal control of these infections with the following objectives to: (a isolate the microbial species from the treated oral cancer patients along with the estimation of absolute neutrophile counts of patients (b assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity medicinal plants against the above clinical isolates. Methods Blood and oral swab cultures were taken from 40 oral cancer patients undergoing treatment in the radiotherapy unit of Regional Cancer Institute, Pt. B.D.S. Health University, Rohtak, Haryana. Clinical isolates were identified by following general microbiological, staining and biochemical methods. The absolute neutrophile counts were done by following the standard methods. The medicinal plants selected for antimicrobial activity analysis were Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Balanites aegyptiaca L., Cestrum diurnum L., Cordia dichotoma G. Forst, Eclipta alba L., Murraya koenigii (L. Spreng. , Pedalium murex L., Ricinus communis L. and Trigonella foenum graecum L. The antimicrobial efficacy of medicinal plants was evaluated by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. MIC and MFC were investigated by serial two fold microbroth dilution method. Results Prevalent bacterial pathogens isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (23.2%, Escherichia coli (15.62%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (12.5%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.37%, Klebsiella pneumonia (7.81%, Proteus mirabilis (3.6%, Proteus vulgaris (4.2% and the fungal pathogens were Candida albicans (14.6%, Aspergillus fumigatus (9.37%. Out of 40 cases, 35 (87.5% were observed as neutropenic. Eight medicinal plants (A. tenuifolius, A. racemosus, B. aegyptiaca, E. alba, M. koenigii, P. murex R

  15. [Students' perceptions comparing standardized and non-standardized oral exams in internal medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez H, Iván; Vergara R, Claudia; Goens G, Cristina; Viviani G, Paola; Letelier S, Luz M

    2015-07-01

    Oral examinations are a useful tool to appraise certain medical skills compared to other examinations. However, they have some disadvantages that might be reduced with standardization. To compare students' perception comparing a standardized oral exam (SOE) versus a traditional, non-standardized oral exam (NSOE). During the first semester of 2013 a NSOE was applied to internal medicine undergraduate students. During the second semester, a SOE was applied. An anonymous and voluntary perception questionnaire, consisting in 10 questions based on a 5-level Likert scale, was answered by these students. Statistical analysis was done using the Mann-Whitney U test. Among the 118 students, 50.8% were evaluated using NSOE and 49.2% using SOE. Questionnaire response rate was 84%. Among respondents, 52% took the SOE and 48%, the NSOE. Students evaluated using SOE perceived that the degree of complexity of clinical cases was similar for all examinees (p level remained high in both groups, as well as the overall satisfaction experience. Standardization of an oral examination improves the perception of medical students about levels of difficulty, duration and external influences on the final grade.

  16. Traditional Medicinal Plant Extracts and Natural Products with Activity against Oral Bacteria: Potential Application in the Prevention and Treatment of Oral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo A. Palombo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral diseases are major health problems with dental caries and periodontal diseases among the most important preventable global infectious diseases. Oral health influences the general quality of life and poor oral health is linked to chronic conditions and systemic diseases. The association between oral diseases and the oral microbiota is well established. Of the more than 750 species of bacteria that inhabit the oral cavity, a number are implicated in oral diseases. The development of dental caries involves acidogenic and aciduric Gram-positive bacteria (mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and actinomycetes. Periodontal diseases have been linked to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium. Given the incidence of oral disease, increased resistance by bacteria to antibiotics, adverse affects of some antibacterial agents currently used in dentistry and financial considerations in developing countries, there is a need for alternative prevention and treatment options that are safe, effective and economical. While several agents are commercially available, these chemicals can alter oral microbiota and have undesirable side-effects such as vomiting, diarrhea and tooth staining. Hence, the search for alternative products continues and natural phytochemicals isolated from plants used as traditional medicines are considered as good alternatives. In this review, plant extracts or phytochemicals that inhibit the growth of oral pathogens, reduce the development of biofilms and dental plaque, influence the adhesion of bacteria to surfaces and reduce the symptoms of oral diseases will be discussed further. Clinical studies that have investigated the safety and efficacy of such plant-derived medicines will also be described.

  17. Primary packaging considerations in developing medicines for children: oral liquid and powder for constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Gossett A; Vallejo, Erick

    2015-01-01

    The packaging presentation of oral liquid pediatric medicines is a critical step in maintaining chemical and physical stability, compliance, adherence, and proper handling by the target patient population, guardians, caregivers, and health-care professionals. The common packaging presentations for commercial oral liquid pediatric drug products are glass bottle, plastic bottle, sachet, and stick pack configurations. The type of pack presentation selected is driven by the quality target product profile (QTPP) that is designed around the physicochemical properties of the drug substance and the desired drug product suitability for the target population. The QTPP defines the intended use of the drug product, drug product quality criteria, dose strength, dosage form, container closure system, storage conditions, stability criteria, dosing device, shelf life, and attributes affecting the pharmacokinetic characteristics. Oral liquid pediatric formulations are typically prepared from a powder that is constituted at the time of use as a suspension or a solution for single or multiple use depending on the stability of the constituted formulation. Active ingredients with high aqueous solubility can be developed as a powder for oral solution and presented in a bottle for multiple use product and a stick pack, packet, or sachet for single-use product. Active ingredients with low aqueous solubility can be developed as a powder for oral suspension and presented in a bottle for multiple use product and a stick pack or sachet for single-use product. A secondary package may be used in cases where the primary pack failed to provide adequate protection against light degradation. This work will help formulation scientists select the most appropriate pack presentation in the early stages of pediatric clinical development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  18. Comparison of efficacy of alternative medicine with allopathy in treatment of oral fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghu, Sahil; Desai, Vela D; Sharma, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    This clinical study assessed and compared the efficacy of tea tree oil (TTO), an alternative form of medicine, with clotrimazole (i.e., allopathy) and a conservative form of management in the treatment of oral fungal infection. In this interventional, observational, and comparative study, we enrolled 36 medically fit individuals of both sexes who were aged 20-60 years old. The participants were randomly assigned to three groups. Group I was given TTO (0.25% rinse) as medicament, Group II was given clotrimazole, and Group III was managed with conservative treatment. The results were analyzed from the clinical evaluation of lesions, changes in four most common clinical parameters of lesions, and subjective symptoms on periodic follow-up. Based on the results, the percentage efficiency of the two groups were taken and compared through a bar graph on the scale of 1. No toxicity to TTO was reported. Group I (TTO) was found to be more efficient than the other two groups, as changes in four parameter indices of lesions were noted, and results for all three groups were compared on a percentage basis. The study concluded that TTO, being a natural product, is a better nontoxic modality compared to clotrimazole, in the treatment of oral fungal infection and has a promising future for its potential application in oral health products.

  19. Biofilms as "Connectors" for Oral and Systems Medicine: A New Opportunity for Biomarkers, Molecular Targets, and Bacterial Eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintim, Herman O; Gürsoy, Ulvi Kahraman

    2016-01-01

    Oral health and systems medicine are intimately related but have remained, sadly, as isolated knowledge communities for decades. Are there veritable connector knowledge domains that can usefully link them together on the critical path to biomarker research and "one health"? In this context, it is noteworthy that bacteria form surface-attached communities on most biological surfaces, including the oral cavity. Biofilm-forming bacteria contribute to periodontal diseases and recent evidences point to roles of these bacteria in systemic diseases as well, with cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and cancer as notable examples. Interestingly, the combined mass of microorganisms such as bacteria are so large that when we combine all plants and animals on earth, the total biomass of bacteria is still bigger. They literally do colonize everywhere, not only soil and water but our skin, digestive tract, and even oral cavity are colonized by bacteria. Hence efforts to delineate biofilm formation mechanisms of oral bacteria and microorganisms and the development of small molecules to inhibit biofilm formation in the oral cavity is very timely for both diagnostics and therapeutics. Research on biofilms can benefit both oral and systems medicine. Here, we examine, review, and synthesize new knowledge on the current understanding of oral biofilm formation, the small molecule targets that can inhibit biofilm formation in the mouth. We suggest new directions for both oral and systems medicine, using various omics technologies such as SILAC and RNAseq, that could yield deeper insights, biomarkers, and molecular targets to design small molecules that selectively aim at eradication of pathogenic oral bacteria. Ultimately, devising new ways to control and eradicate bacteria in biofilms will open up novel diagnostic and therapeutic avenues for oral and systemic diseases alike.

  20. Identification of risks associated with the prescribing and dispensing of oral anticancer medicines in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hammond, Lisa

    2012-09-09

    Background Oral anticancer medicines (OAM) facilitate transfer of cancer care into the community, where safeguards developed in hospitals that control their prescribing, dispensing and administration may not exist. Objective To determine if the systems of prescribing and dispensing OAM in Ireland facilitate clinical verification of the prescription, thereby ensuring treatment is tailored and appropriate for the patient. Setting Randomly selected community pharmacies in Ireland and all Irish hospitals with cancer services. Method A questionnaire was sent to a random selection of Irish community pharmacists. A different questionnaire was sent to all Irish hospitals treating cancer patients. One hundred OAM prescriptions were retrospectively reviewed, to assess the information presented and the potential barriers to a community pharmacist performing a clinical verification of the prescription. Main outcome measure Community pharmacist survey: problems experienced when dispensing OAM and risk factors identified with the current system. Hospital pharmacist survey: proportion of hospitals that clinically verify prescriptions for parenteral versus oral anticancer medicines and associated policies. OAM prescription review: proportion of OAM prescriptions that contained sufficient information for a community pharmacist to clinically verify the prescription and safely dispense the medication. Results Sixty-four percent of community pharmacist respondents felt they did not have enough information available to them to safely dispense these prescriptions, and 74 % felt that patients are at risk with the current Irish system of prescribing and dispensing OAM. Irish hospitals do not have systems to ensure that all OAM prescriptions are clinically verified by a pharmacist. Seventeen different agents were prescribed on the prescriptions reviewed. The information provided to the community pharmacist would have allowed them to clinically verify 7 % of the OAM prescriptions

  1. Application of oral history to contemporary history of medicine in Korea: with a focus on medical scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ock-Joo

    2013-08-01

    The oral history helps researchers to fill the gap in historical documents in research on the contemporary history of medicine in Korea. More and more studies in history of contemporary medicine in Korea have come out using oral history of doctors and patients. Based upon the author's research on development of neurosurgery in late 20th century Korea, this paper discusses how to apply oral history to contemporary history of medicine, focusing on oral history of doctors in Korea. In this paper the author describes how to do and use oral history of key doctors and medical scientists in the contemporary history of medicine in Korea. The oral history can be a powerful tool to complement the written documents as following. First, from their interview, doctors and medical scientists often provide valuable information which historians cannot get from documents and written sources. As intelligent interviewees, they not only understand the purpose of research but also help actively the historianresearcher- interviewer. Second, the oral history facilitates further searches and often it leads to more findings of informants, and written and image material. More often than not, doctors and medical scientists do their own research on the topic and provide the historian with valuable historical source material from their laboratories, bedsides, family and friends. Third, interviews with medical scientists and oral material produced by doctors and medical scientists helped the researcher to understand and interpret the papers and written documents. Fourth, the subjective stories told by the medical scientists provide perspectives and historical source as narrative truth. Before a historian attempts to use the oral material as complementary historial evidence, he or she needs to cross-check the validity and of objectivity of the oral material. Oral material is produced through bidirectional intersubjective interaction between the interviewer and interviewee, and critical reflection

  2. Natural remedies in the Canon of Medicine for dentistry and oral biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouya Faridi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ibn Sina is one of the most well know scholars in middle ages. This Persian physician wrote different books in medical filed which his great encyclopedia remained as one the most successful medical encyclopedia during the history. Ibn Sina discussed diseases of oral cavity and dentistry in the 3rd book of The Canon of Medicine. He discussed different conditions such as different types of trauma to the motor nerves, taste sensation, different limitations of tongue movements, Ranula, halitosis, tooth sensation, different types of tooth pain, Bruxism, attrition, loss of enamel, gingival bleeding, recession and hyperplasia. For management of these diseases he introduced more than 80 herbal remedies. Most of this plant species are from essential oil reach families. Generally, Ibn Sina has a deep view in case of dental diseases and his ideas and methods for treatment of this category of disease could be studied for finding new treatment in dental ailments.

  3. Genetically manipulated phages with improved pH resistance for oral administration in veterinary medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobrega, Franklin L.; Costa, Ana Rita; Santos, José F.; Siliakus, Melvin F.; van Lent, Jan W. M.; Kengen, Servé W. M.; Azeredo, Joana; Kluskens, Leon D.

    2016-01-01

    Orally administered phages to control zoonotic pathogens face important challenges, mainly related to the hostile conditions found in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). These include temperature, salinity and primarily pH, which is exceptionally low in certain compartments. Phage survival under these conditions can be jeopardized and undermine treatment. Strategies like encapsulation have been attempted with relative success, but are typically complex and require several optimization steps. Here we report a simple and efficient alternative, consisting in the genetic engineering of phages to display lipids on their surfaces. Escherichia coli phage T7 was used as a model and the E. coli PhoE signal peptide was genetically fused to its major capsid protein (10 A), enabling phospholipid attachment to the phage capsid. The presence of phospholipids on the mutant phages was confirmed by High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography, Dynamic Light Scattering and phospholipase assays. The stability of phages was analysed in simulated GIT conditions, demonstrating improved stability of the mutant phages with survival rates 102–107 pfu.mL−1 higher than wild-type phages. Our work demonstrates that phage engineering can be a good strategy to improve phage tolerance to GIT conditions, having promising application for oral administration in veterinary medicine. PMID:27976713

  4. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Softrata, Abier; Azeem, Muhammad; Pütsep, Katrin; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents.

  5. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Ocheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents.

  6. Oral Chinese Herbal Medicine for Treatment of Dilated Cardiomyopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shuo Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is one of the main causes of heart failure and could increase death, hospitalization, and rehospitalization rate. The effect of conventional medicine treatment (CMT is limited; meanwhile, the combination of CMT and Oral Chinese Herbal Medicine (OCHM represents exciting adjunctive therapies. In this study, we ascertained the therapeutic effect of OCHM in combination with CMT for dilated cardiomyopathy by using meta-analysis methods for controlled clinical trials. We searched studies from five databases and extracted data from these studies. We also assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. We evaluated the following outcome measures to estimate the prognosis in patients with DCM: left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD, stroke volume (SV, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP, 6-minute walk test (6MWT, and overall efficacy. The result showed that OCHM combined with CMT for the improvement of therapeutic effect in DCM patients. However, the evidence remains weak due to the small sample size, high clinical heterogeneity, and poor methodological quality of the included trials. Further, large sample size and well-designed trials are needed.

  7. The regenerative medicine in oral and maxillofacial surgery: the most important innovations in the clinical application of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatullo, Marco; Marrelli, Massimo; Paduano, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is an emerging field of biotechnology that combines various aspects of medicine, cell and molecular biology, materials science and bioengineering in order to regenerate, repair or replace tissues. The oral surgery and maxillofacial surgery have a role in the treatment of traumatic or degenerative diseases that lead to a tissue loss: frequently, to rehabilitate these minuses, you should use techniques that have been improved over time. Since 1990, we started with the use of growth factors and platelet concentrates in oral and maxillofacial surgery; in the following period we start to use biomaterials, as well as several type of scaffolds and autologous tissues. The frontier of regenerative medicine nowadays is represented by the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs): overcoming the ethical problems thanks to the use of mesenchymal stem cells from adult patient, and with the increasingly sophisticated technology to support their manipulation, MSCs are undoubtedly the future of medicine regenerative and they are showing perspectives unimaginable just a few years ago. Most recent studies are aimed to tissues regeneration using MSCs taken from sites that are even more accessible and rich in stem cells: the oral cavity turned out to be an important source of MSCs with the advantage to be easily accessible to the surgeon, thus avoiding to increase the morbidity of the patient. The future is the regeneration of whole organs or biological systems consisting of many different tissues, starting from an initial stem cell line, perhaps using innovative scaffolds together with the nano-engineering of biological tissues.

  8. Apoptosis-Inducing Effect of Three Medicinal Plants on Oral Cancer Cells KB and ORL-48

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Zabidi Majid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucea javanica, Azadirachta indica, and Typhonium flagelliforme are medicinal plants commonly used to treat conditions associated with tumour formation. This study aimed to determine the antiproliferative activity of these plants extracts on KB and ORL-48 oral cancer cell lines and to suggest their mode of cell death. The concentration producing 50% cell inhibition (IC50 was determined and the activity was examined under an inverted microscope. Immunohistochemistry fluorescent staining method (TUNEL was performed to indicate the mechanism of cell death and the fragmented DNA band pattern produced was obtained for verification. Compared to Azadirachta sp. and Typhonium sp., the antiproliferative activity of Brucea sp. extract was the most potent on both KB and ORL-48 cells with IC50 of 24.37 ± 1.75 and 6.67 ± 1.15 µg/mL, respectively. Signs of cell attrition were observed 24 hr after treatment. Green fluorescent spots indicating cell death by apoptosis were observed in images of both cells following treatment with all the three extracts. DNA fragments harvested from Brucea-treated cells produced bands in a ladder pattern suggesting the apoptotic effect of the extract. It is thus concluded that Brucea sp. extract exhibited cytotoxic activity on ORL-48 cells and their action mechanism is via apoptosis.

  9. Popular Medicine and Empirics in Greece, 1900-1950: An Oral History Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hionidou, Violetta

    2016-10-01

    Western literature has focused on medical plurality but also on the pervasive existence of quacks who managed to survive from at least the eighteenth to the twentieth century. Focal points of their practices have been their efforts at enrichment and their extensive advertising. In Greece, empirical, untrained healers in the first half of the twentieth century do not fit in with this picture. They did not ask for payment, although they did accept 'gifts'; they did not advertise their practice; and they had fixed places of residence. Licensed physicians did not undertake a concerted attack against them, as happened in the West against the quacks, and neither did the state. In this paper, it is argued that both the protection offered by their localities to resident popular healers and the healers' lack of demand for monetary payment were jointly responsible for the lack of prosecutions of popular healers. Moreover, the linking of popular medicine with ancient traditions, as put forward by influential folklore studies, also reduced the likelihood of an aggressive discourse against the popular healers. Although the Greek situation in the early twentieth century contrasts with the historiography on quacks, it is much more in line with that on wise women and cunning-folk. It is thus the identification of these groups of healers in Greece and elsewhere, mostly through the use of oral histories but also through folklore studies, that reveals a different story from that of the aggressive discourse of medical men against quacks.

  10. Regenerative medicine in dental and oral tissues: Dental pulp mesenchymal stem cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janti Sudiono

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Regenerative medicine is a new therapeutic modality using cell, stem cell and tissue engineering technologies. Purpose. To describe the regenerative capacity of dental pulp mesenchymal stem cell. Review. In dentistry, stem cell and tissue engineering technologies develop incredibly and attract great interest, due to the capacity to facilitate innovation in dental material and regeneration of dental and oral tissues. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from dental pulp, periodontal ligament and dental follicle, can be isolated, cultured and differentiated into various cells, so that can be useful for regeneration of dental, nerves, periodontal and bone tissues. Tissue engineering is a technology in reconstructive biology, which utilizes mechanical, cellular, or biological mediators to facilitate regeneration or reconstruction of a particular tissue. The multipotency, high proliferation rates and accessibility, make dental pulp as an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue regeneration. Revitalized dental pulp and continued root development is the focus of regenerative endodontic while biological techniques that can restore lost alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, and root cementum is the focus of regenerative periodontic. Conclucion. Dentin-derived morphogens such as BMP are known to be involved in the regulation of odontogenesis. The multipotency and angiogenic capacity of DPSCs as the regenerative capacity of human dentin / pulp complex indicated that dental pulp may contain progenitors that are responsible for dentin repair. The human periodontal ligament is a viable alternative source for possible primitive precursors to be used in stem cell therapy.

  11. [Study on dosage form design for improving oral bioavailability of traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hai-Jian; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Yao, Dong-Dong; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-09-01

    Both chemical drugs and traditional Chinese medicines have the problem of low bioavailability. However, as traditional Chinese medicines are a multi-component complex, their dosage forms are required to be designed in line with their characteristics, in order to improve the bioavailability of traditional Chinese medicines. Traditional Chinese medicines are mostly prepared into pill, powder, paste, elixir and decoction, but with such drawbacks as high administration dose and poor efficacy. With the process of modernization of traditional Chinese medicines, new-type preparations have be developed and made outstanding achievements. However, they fail to make an organic integration between traditional Chinese medicine theories and modern preparation theories. Characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines are required to be taken into account during the development of traditional Chinese medicines. In the article, multi-component preparation technology was adopted to establish a multi-component drug release system of traditional Chinese medicines on the basis of multiple components of traditional Chinese medicines.

  12. Dietary fats and pharmaceutical lipid excipients increase systemic exposure to orally administered cannabis and cannabis-based medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgair, Atheer; Wong, Jonathan Cm; Lee, Jong Bong; Mistry, Jatin; Sivak, Olena; Wasan, Kishor M; Hennig, Ivo M; Barrett, David A; Constantinescu, Cris S; Fischer, Peter M; Gershkovich, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    There has been an escalating interest in the medicinal use of Cannabis sativa in recent years. Cannabis is often administered orally with fat-containing foods, or in lipid-based pharmaceutical preparations. However, the impact of lipids on the exposure of patients to cannabis components has not been explored. Therefore, the aim of this study is to elucidate the effect of oral co-administration of lipids on the exposure to two main active cannabinoids, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). In this study, oral co-administration of lipids enhanced the systemic exposure of rats to THC and CBD by 2.5-fold and 3-fold, respectively, compared to lipid-free formulations. In vitro lipolysis was conducted to explore the effect of lipids on the intestinal solubilisation of cannabinoids. More than 30% of THC and CBD were distributed into micellar fraction following lipolysis, suggesting that at least one-third of the administered dose will be available for absorption following co-administration with lipids. Both cannabinoids showed very high affinity for artificial CM-like particles, as well as for rat and human CM, suggesting high potential for intestinal lymphatic transport. Moreover, comparable affinity of cannabinoids for rat and human CM suggests that similar increased exposure effects may be expected in humans. In conclusion, co-administration of dietary lipids or pharmaceutical lipid excipients has the potential to substantially increase the exposure to orally administered cannabis and cannabis-based medicines. The increase in patient exposure to cannabinoids is of high clinical importance as it could affect the therapeutic effect, but also toxicity, of orally administered cannabis or cannabis-based medicines.

  13. Knowledge, awareness, and practices of complementary and alternative medicine for oral health-care management among dental students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newadkar, Ujwala Rohan; Chaudhari, Lalit; Khalekar, Yogita K

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the awareness and practices of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for oral health-care management among dental students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 200 dental students of final year and internship selected by simple random sampling using a close-ended questionnaire. Results: Among the total respondents, 52% were females and 48% were males. Nearly, 14% of the students were not aware of the different categories of the CAM and 12% of them were not aware of its implication in oral health-care management. Conclusion: Majority of the students was aware of CAM, yet they do not follow the use of the same for their patient's oral health-care management. Hence, a small provision regarding the knowledge of CAM should be imposed under the undergraduate curriculum for the dental students so that it should be implemented in their practice in future.

  14. 3D Printing of Medicines: Engineering Novel Oral Devices with Unique Design and Drug Release Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Wang, Jie; Buanz, Asma; Martínez-Pacheco, Ramón; Telford, Richard; Gaisford, Simon; Basit, Abdul W

    2015-11-02

    Three dimensional printing (3D printing) was used to fabricate novel oral drug delivery devices with specialized design configurations. Each device was loaded with multiple actives, with the intent of applying this process to the production of personalized medicines tailored at the point of dispensing or use. A filament extruder was used to obtain drug-loaded--paracetamol (acetaminophen) or caffeine--filaments of poly(vinyl alcohol) with characteristics suitable for use in fused-deposition modeling 3D printing. A multinozzle 3D printer enabled fabrication of capsule-shaped solid devices containing the drug with different internal structures. The design configurations included a multilayer device, with each layer containing drug, whose identity was different to the drug in the adjacent layers, and a two-compartment device comprising a caplet embedded within a larger caplet (DuoCaplet), with each compartment containing a different drug. Raman spectroscopy was used to collect 2-dimensional hyper spectral arrays across the entire surface of the devices. Processing of the arrays using direct classical least-squares component matching to produce false color representations of distribution of the drugs was used. This clearly showed a definitive separation between the drug layers of paracetamol and caffeine. Drug release tests in biorelevant bicarbonate media showed unique drug release profiles dependent on the macrostructure of the devices. In the case of the multilayer devices, release of both paracetamol and caffeine was simultaneous and independent of drug solubility. With the DuoCaplet design, it was possible to engineer either rapid drug release or delayed release by selecting the site of incorporation of the drug in the device; the lag-time for release from the internal compartment was dependent on the characteristics of the external layer. The study confirms the potential of 3D printing to fabricate multiple-drug containing devices with specialized design

  15. From regenerative dentistry to regenerative medicine: progress, challenges, and potential applications of oral stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao L; Nasu M

    2014-01-01

    Li Xiao,1 Masanori Nasu2 1Department of Pharmacology, 2Research Center, The Nippon Dental University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and epithelial stem cells play essential roles in tissue repair and self-healing. Oral MSCs and epithelial stem cells can be isolated from adult human oral tissues, for example, teeth, periodontal ligament, and gingiva. Cocultivated adult oral epithelial stem cells and MSCs could represent some developmental events, such as epithelial...

  16. Early Stage Health Technology Assessment for Precision Biomarkers in Oral Health and Systems Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Steuten, Lotte M.G.

    2016-01-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is a crucial science that influences the responsible and evidence-based transition of new discoveries from laboratory to applications in the clinic and society. HTA has recently moved “upstream” so as to assess technologies from their onset at their discovery, design, or planning phase. Biomarker research is relatively recent in oral health, but growing rapidly with investments made to advance dentistry and oral health and importantly, to build effective bri...

  17. Methodology Used to Assess Acceptability of Oral Pediatric Medicines: A Systematic Literature Search and Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Punam; Batchelor, Hannah

    2017-06-01

    Regulatory guidelines require that any new medicine designed for a pediatric population must be demonstrated as being acceptable to that population. There is currently no guidance on how to conduct or report on acceptability testing. Our objective was to undertake a review of the methods used to assess the acceptability of medicines within a pediatric population and use this review to propose the most appropriate methodology. We used a defined search strategy to identify literature reports of acceptability assessments of medicines conducted within pediatric populations and extracted information about the tools used in these studies for comparison across studies. In total, 61 articles were included in the analysis. Palatability was the most common (54/61) attribute measured when evaluating acceptability. Simple scale methods were most commonly used, with visual analog scales (VAS) and hedonic scales used both separately and in combination in 34 of the 61 studies. Hedonic scales alone were used in 14 studies and VAS alone in just five studies. Other tools included Likert scales; forced choice or preference; surveys or questionnaires; observations of facial expressions during administration, ease of swallowing, or ability to swallow the dosage; prevalence of complaints or refusal to take the medicine; and time taken for a nurse to administer the medicine. The best scale in terms of validity, reliability, feasibility, and preference to use when assessing acceptability remains unclear. Further work is required to select the most appropriate method to justify whether a medicine is acceptable to a pediatric population.

  18. The functions of human saliva: A review sponsored by the World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, C; Pedersen, A M L; Villa, A; Ekström, J; Proctor, G B; Vissink, A; Aframian, D; McGowan, R; Aliko, A; Narayana, N; Sia, Y W; Joshi, R K; Jensen, S B; Kerr, A R; Wolff, A

    2015-06-01

    This narrative review of the functions of saliva was conducted in the PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases. Additional references relevant to the topic were used, as our key words did not generate references which covered all known functions of saliva. These functions include maintaining a moist oral mucosa which is less susceptible to abrasion, and removal of micro-organisms, desquamated epithelial cells, leucocytes and food debris by swallowing. The mucins form a slimy coating on all surfaces in the mouth and act as a lubricant during such processes as mastication, formation of a food bolus, swallowing and speaking. Saliva provides the fluid in which solid tastants may dissolve and distributes tastants around the mouth to the locations of the taste buds. The hypotonic unstimulated saliva facilitates taste recognition. Salivary amylase is involved in digestion of starches. Saliva acts as a buffer to protect oral, pharyngeal and oesophageal mucosae from orally ingested acid or acid regurgitated from the stomach. Saliva protects the teeth against acid by contributing to the acquired enamel pellicle, which forms a renewable lubricant between opposing tooth surfaces, by being supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, by containing bicarbonate as a buffer and urea and by facilitating clearance of acidic materials from the mouth. Saliva contains many antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal agents which modulate the oral microbial flora in different ways. Saliva also facilitates the healing of oral wounds. Clearly, saliva has many functions which are needed for proper protection and functioning of the human body.

  19. Study bioprospecting of medicinal plant extracts of the semiarid northeast: contribution to the control of oral microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Suênia P; Brandão, Deysiane O; Chaves, Thiago P; Formiga Filho, Amaro L N; Costa, Edja Maria M de B; Santos, Vanda L; Medeiros, Ana Cláudia D

    2012-01-01

    Dental pathologies can be caused by plaque-forming bacteria and yeast, which reside in the oral cavity. The bacteria growing in dental plaque, a naturally occurring biofilm, display increased resistance to antimicrobial agents. The objective was the evaluation of a preclinical assay of medicinal plants of the semiarid region from the northeast against oral pathogenic microorganism, aiming at bioprospecting a new product. The selection of plant material for this study was based on the ethnobotanical data on the traditional use of plants from the semiarid region. The thirty extracts were subjected to the determination of antibiofilm activity against gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria and yeast. The hydroalcoholic extract which showed positive antibiofilm activity against most of the microorganisms tested in agar diffusion assay was further tested for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Bioassay with Artemia salina. Plant samples tested in this study exhibited good antibiofilm activity for the treatment of oral problems. The Schinopsis brasiliensis showed greater activity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, but toxicity against Artemia salina.

  20. Study Bioprospecting of Medicinal Plant Extracts of the Semiarid Northeast: Contribution to the Control of Oral Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Suênia P. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental pathologies can be caused by plaque-forming bacteria and yeast, which reside in the oral cavity. The bacteria growing in dental plaque, a naturally occurring biofilm, display increased resistance to antimicrobial agents. The objective was the evaluation of a preclinical assay of medicinal plants of the semiarid region from the northeast against oral pathogenic microorganism, aiming at bioprospecting a new product. The selection of plant material for this study was based on the ethnobotanical data on the traditional use of plants from the semiarid region. The thirty extracts were subjected to the determination of antibiofilm activity against gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria and yeast. The hydroalcoholic extract which showed positive antibiofilm activity against most of the microorganisms tested in agar diffusion assay was further tested for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and Bioassay with Artemia salina. Plant samples tested in this study exhibited good antibiofilm activity for the treatment of oral problems. The Schinopsis brasiliensis showed greater activity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, but toxicity against Artemia salina.

  1. Pharmacokinetic Profiles of Active Components After Oral Administration of a Kampo Medicine, Shakuyakukanzoto, to Healthy Adult Japanese Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadakane, Chiharu; Watanabe, Junko; Fukutake, Miwako; Nisimura, Hiroaki; Maemura, Kazuya; Kase, Yoshio; Kono, Toru

    2015-11-01

    Shakuyakukanzoto (SKT), a traditional Japanese (Kampo) medicine, has been used by patients with muscle cramps and abdominal pains. In this trial, we analyzed plasma concentrations of active components after SKT was administered as a single oral dose of 2.5 or 5.0 g/day per person. The study was a randomized, open-label, two-arm, two-period, crossover trial conducted in healthy Japanese volunteers. Albiflorin (ALB), paeoniflorin (PAE), glycycoumarin (GCM), isoliquiritigenin (ILG), glycyrrhetic acid (GA), and glycyrrhetic acid-3-O-monoglucuronide were targeted, and the plasma concentration of each component was measured using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated, and the linearity was assessed. All targeted components were detected in the plasma after oral administration of SKT. ALB, PAE, GCM, and ILG were detected at an early stage. The linearity was observed for the maximum plasma concentration of GCM, ILG, and GA and for the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of GA. In this trial, we demonstrated for the first time in humans that these components were absorbed into the blood after oral administration of SKT. The results of this pharmacokinetic trial in humans are also important and useful for understanding the mechanism of action of SKT, verifying the active components predicted in basic research, and conducting pharmacokinetics and safety studies in the future.

  2. Study Bioprospecting of Medicinal Plant Extracts of the Semiarid Northeast: Contribution to the Control of Oral Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Suênia P.; Brandão, Deysiane O.; Chaves, Thiago P.; Formiga Filho, Amaro L. N.; Costa, Edja Maria M. de B.; Santos, Vanda L.; Medeiros, Ana Cláudia D.

    2012-01-01

    Dental pathologies can be caused by plaque-forming bacteria and yeast, which reside in the oral cavity. The bacteria growing in dental plaque, a naturally occurring biofilm, display increased resistance to antimicrobial agents. The objective was the evaluation of a preclinical assay of medicinal plants of the semiarid region from the northeast against oral pathogenic microorganism, aiming at bioprospecting a new product. The selection of plant material for this study was based on the ethnobotanical data on the traditional use of plants from the semiarid region. The thirty extracts were subjected to the determination of antibiofilm activity against gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria and yeast. The hydroalcoholic extract which showed positive antibiofilm activity against most of the microorganisms tested in agar diffusion assay was further tested for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Bioassay with Artemia salina. Plant samples tested in this study exhibited good antibiofilm activity for the treatment of oral problems. The Schinopsis brasiliensis showed greater activity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, but toxicity against Artemia salina. PMID:22719786

  3. Study on Translational Medicine of RUNX3 Expression in Oral Precancerous Lesions and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramamurthy Mustafa; Shabil Mohamed Rajaraman

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the expression and distribution characteristics of RUNX3 in the pathological process of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) as well as its correlation with clinicopathological features. Methods: Fifteen cases of normal oral mucosal tissues, 37 cases of OSCC tissues and 21 cases of precancerous lesion tissues were respectively collected. The expression and distribution characteristics of RUNX3 were detected using immunohistochemical method, and its relationship with each clinicopathological feature of OSCC was analyzed. Results: The positive rates of RUNX3 expression in normal oral mucosal tissues, precancerous lesion tissues and OSCC tissues were 100% (15/15), 95.24% (20/21) and 54.05% (20/37), and their average optical densities were (0.391±0.07), (0.369±0.03) and (0.263±0.01), respectively. The differences were statistically signiifcant by comparison to the positive rates of RUNX3 expression and their average optical densities in normal oral mucosal tissue, precancerous lesion tissue and OSCC tissue (P0.05), but the difference was statistically signiifcant among the patients with different pathological gradings (P=0.012). Conclusion: The expression of RUNX3 in normal oral mucosal tissues, precancerous lesion tissues and OSCC tissues gradually shows a down-regulating tendency and its frequency of abnormal localization is on the rise. The expression of RUNX3 is closely associated with the degree of histological differentiation. All of these findings indicate that RUNX3, an important action factor in the occurrence and progression of OSCC, can be considered as a key biological indicator for early diagnosis, judgment of malignant degree and prognostic monitoring.

  4. Genetically manipulated phages with improved pH resistance for oral administration in veterinary medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Nobrega, Franklin L.; Ana Rita Costa; Santos,José F.; Siliakus, Melvin F.; van Lent, Jan W. M.; Kengen, Servé W. M.; Joana Azeredo; Kluskens, Leon D.

    2016-01-01

    Orally administered phages to control zoonotic pathogens face important challenges, mainly related to the hostile conditions found in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). These include temperature, salinity and primarily pH, which is exceptionally low in certain compartments. Phage survival under these conditions can be jeopardized and undermine treatment. Strategies like encapsulation have been attempted with relative success, but are typically complex and require several optimization steps. He...

  5. Study on Translational Medicine of RUNX3 Expression in Oral Precancerous Lesions and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramamurthy Mustafa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the expression and distribution characteristics of RUNX3 in the pathological process of oralsquamous cell carcinoma (OSCC as well as its correlation with clinicopathological features. Methods: Fifteen cases of normal oral mucosal tissues, 37 cases of OSCC tissues and 21 cases of precancerous lesion tissues were respectively collected. The expression and distribution characteristics of RUNX3 were detected using immunohistochemical method, and its relationship with each clinicopathological feature of OSCC was analyzed. Results: The positive rates of RUNX3 expression in normal oral mucosal tissues, precancerous lesion tissues and OSCC tissues were 100% (15/15, 95.24% (20/21 and 54.05% (20/37, and their average optical densities were (0.391±0.07, (0.369±0.03 and (0.263±0.01, respectively. The differences were statistically significant by comparison to the positive rates of RUNX3 expression and their average optical densities in normal oral mucosal tissue, precancerous lesion tissue and OSCC tissue (P<0.01. There was no statistical significance regarding RUNX3 expression in the patients with different gender, age and presence or absence of lymph node metastasis (P>0.05, but the difference was statistically significant among the patients with different pathological gradings (P=0.012. Conclusion: The expression of RUNX3 in normal oral mucosal tissues, precancerous lesion tissues and OSCC tissues gradually shows a down-regulating tendency and its frequency of abnormal localization is on the rise. The expression of RUNX3 is closely associated with the degree of histological differentiation. All of these findings indicate that RUNX3, an important action factor in the occurrence and progression of OSCC, can be considered as a key biological indicator for early diagnosis, judgment of malignant degree and prognostic monitoring.

  6. [Oral medicine 4. Clinical aspects and treatment of taste and smell disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissink, A; Jager-Wittenaar, H; Visser, A; Spijkervet, F K L; van Weissenbruch, R; van Nieuw Amerongen, A

    2013-03-01

    Taste and smell perception are closely related. Many chemosensory disorders which result in faulty taste are in fact smell disorders. Causes ofchemosensory disorders which call for attention are ageing, medication, natural proteins, burning mouth syndrome, nerve injuries, aerate disorders in the neighbourhood of the sense ofsmell, damage to the smell epithelium, and oncologic diseases or their treatment. A chemosensory disorder has implications for food delight and psychological well-being, may lead to weight loss or increase and to deficient intake of vitamins and minerals. A chemosensory disorder can be treated by medication, surgical intervention, improvement of oral health, smell rehabilitation, and dietary advice.

  7. 药艾灸配合中药内服治疗肱骨外上髁炎1则%Treating 1 case of humeral epicondylitis in the medicine moxa acupuncture combined with TCM oral medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵崇智

    2013-01-01

    Humeral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common and frequently disease of clinical orthopedics. The writer summarized one representative case of humeral epicondylitis treating with the medicine moxa acupuncture combined with TCM oral medicine, the results showed that the TCM oral medicine was effective in treating humeral epicondylitis, worthy of a wide application.%  肱骨外上髁炎又称网球肘,是骨伤科临床常见病和多发病。笔者将1例采用药艾灸配合中药内服治疗肱骨外上髁炎的典型病例进行了总结。结果表明,药艾灸配合中药内服治疗肱骨外上髁炎疗效好,值得临床推广使用。

  8. Oral and depot progestin therapy for endometriosis: towards a personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buggio, Laura; Somigliana, Edgardo; Barbara, Giussy; Frattaruolo, Maria Pina; Vercellini, Paolo

    2017-09-24

    Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent chronic inflammatory disorder that requires a life-long management plan. Long-term adherence to treatment is pivotal to ensure an effective clinical management. In this optic, one of the cornerstone of endometriosis medical treatment is represented by progestins. Areas covered: This narrative review examines the clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of oral and depot progestins used in the treatment of endometriosis. The material included in the current manuscript was obtained with a MEDLINE search through PubMed from inception until February 2017. Expert opinion: Progestins are effective in controlling pain symptoms in the majority of women with endometriosis, and their effect seems not inferior to that achieved with other compounds used to treat the disease, such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist. Available progestins include a broad range of both oral and depot compounds, and represent, in most cases, an inexpensive treatment option. In addition, progestins do not increase significantly thrombotic risk and could be adopted in those women with metabolic or cardiovascular contraindication to estrogen-progestins. The choice between the different available compounds should be tailored for every woman with preference to the most cost-effective treatment, depending on the most complained symptom and disease location.

  9. Pharmacokinetic Alteration of Baclofen by Multiple Oral Administration of Herbal Medicines in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hwan Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential pharmacokinetic (PK interaction of conventional western drug, baclofen, and oriental medications Oyaksungisan (OY and Achyranthes bidentata radix (AB extract for the treatment of spasticity has been evaluated. Rats were pretreated with distilled water (DW, OY, or AB extract by oral administration every day for 7 days. After 10 min of the final dose of DW or each herbal medication, baclofen (1 mg/kg was given by oral administration and plasma concentrations of baclofen were determined by LC/MS/MS. The plasma baclofen concentration-time profiles were then analyzed by noncompartmental analysis and a population PK model was developed. Baclofen was rapidly absorbed, showed biexponential decline with elimination half-life of 3.42–4.10 hr, and mostly excreted into urine. The PK of baclofen was not affected by AB extract pretreatment. However, significantly lower maximum plasma concentration (Cmax and longer time to reach Cmax (Tmax were observed in OY pretreated rats without changes in the area under the curve (AUC and the fraction excreted into urine (Furine. The absorption rate (Ka of baclofen was significantly decreased in OY pretreated rats. These data suggested that repeated doses of OY might delay the absorption of baclofen without changes in extent of absorption, which needs further evaluation for clinical significance.

  10. Direct-Acting Oral Anticoagulants: Practical Considerations for Emergency Medicine Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, W Frank; Rafique, Zubaid; Singer, Adam J

    2016-01-01

    Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation- (NVAF-) related stroke and venous thromboembolism (VTE) are cardiovascular diseases associated with significant morbidity and economic burden. The historical standard treatment of VTE has been the administration of parenteral heparinoid until oral warfarin therapy attains a therapeutic international normalized ratio. Warfarin has been the most common medication for stroke prevention in NVAF. Warfarin use is complicated by a narrow therapeutic window, unpredictable dose response, numerous food and drug interactions, and requirements for frequent monitoring. To overcome these disadvantages, direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs)-dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban-have been developed for the prevention of stroke or systemic embolic events (SEE) in patients with NVAF and for the treatment of VTE. Advantages of DOACs include predictable pharmacokinetics, few drug-drug interactions, and low monitoring requirements. In clinical studies, DOACs are noninferior to warfarin for the prevention of NVAF-related stroke and the treatment and prevention of VTE as well as postoperative knee and hip surgery VTE prophylaxis, with decreased bleeding risks. This review addresses the practical considerations for the emergency physician in DOAC use, including dosing recommendations, laboratory monitoring, anticoagulation reversal, and cost-effectiveness. The challenges of DOACs, such as the lack of specific laboratory measurements and antidotes, are also discussed.

  11. Direct-Acting Oral Anticoagulants: Practical Considerations for Emergency Medicine Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Frank Peacock

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation- (NVAF- related stroke and venous thromboembolism (VTE are cardiovascular diseases associated with significant morbidity and economic burden. The historical standard treatment of VTE has been the administration of parenteral heparinoid until oral warfarin therapy attains a therapeutic international normalized ratio. Warfarin has been the most common medication for stroke prevention in NVAF. Warfarin use is complicated by a narrow therapeutic window, unpredictable dose response, numerous food and drug interactions, and requirements for frequent monitoring. To overcome these disadvantages, direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs—dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban—have been developed for the prevention of stroke or systemic embolic events (SEE in patients with NVAF and for the treatment of VTE. Advantages of DOACs include predictable pharmacokinetics, few drug-drug interactions, and low monitoring requirements. In clinical studies, DOACs are noninferior to warfarin for the prevention of NVAF-related stroke and the treatment and prevention of VTE as well as postoperative knee and hip surgery VTE prophylaxis, with decreased bleeding risks. This review addresses the practical considerations for the emergency physician in DOAC use, including dosing recommendations, laboratory monitoring, anticoagulation reversal, and cost-effectiveness. The challenges of DOACs, such as the lack of specific laboratory measurements and antidotes, are also discussed.

  12. Quantification of procyanidins in oral herbal medicinal products containing extracts of Crataegus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Jörg; Leipolz, Ingrid; Graefe, Eva Ulrike; Jaki, Birgit; Treutter, Dieter; Veit, Markus

    2002-01-01

    According to the European Pharmacopeia a photometric assay is used for the estimation of procyanidins in Crataegi fructus. This assay is also most commonly used for procyanidin analysis in herbal medicinal products (HMPs) containing extracts of hawthorn (Crataegus species). In order to find an appropriate method for the determination of oligomeric and polymeric procyanidins by analysing various preparations containing extracts of Crataegus, the Ph. Eur.-method was compared to an HPLC-method with chemical reaction detection (HPLC-CRD-method) and another conventional photometric assay using 4-dimethylamino-cinnamic-aldehyde (DMACA). Total procyanidins estimates obtained with the pharmacopeial method were, depending on the reference standard used, at least more than 50% higher than those obtained with the DMACA-assay. The determination of individual procyanidins could only be achieved by HPLC-CRD. Monomeric, dimeric, and trimeric procyanidins could be separated and detected individually, whereas no HPLC separation was possible for higher polymeric compounds. However, these compounds could be analysed as co-eluting groups. Using the DMACA method for the estimation of total oligomeric procyanidins and the HPLC-CRD method for quantification of the mono- up to trimeric procyanidins, some market leading herbal medicinal products from Germany containing extracts Crataegus species (C. monogyna Jacq., C. laevigata D.C., C. pentagyna Waldst. et Kit., C. nigra Waldst. et Kit, C. azarolus L.) were analysed. Procyanidin B2 (epicatechin-(4 beta-->8)-epicatechin) was isolated from Aesculus hippocastanum fruit shells as reference standard for calibration purposes. The structure elucidation was carried out by by means of MS and 1H-NMR. Quantitative 1H-NMR spectroscopy (qNMR) was applied for purity assessment.

  13. Review and Assessment of Medicinal Safety Data of Orally Used Echinacea Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardjomand-Woelkart, Karin; Bauer, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea angustifoli and Echinacea pallida are frequently used as medicinal plants. Besides asking for evidence on their efficacy, there is an increasing interest for safety data. This review systematically presents the available literature on drug interactions, contraindications, adverse events, duration of use, and safety of use in pregnant and nursing women, and assesses the safety profile of corresponding Echinacea preparations. It is noteworthy that all safety data reported are as product specific as the pharmacological or efficacy data are. In pharmacokinetic herb-drug interaction studies performed in vivo, no significant inhibitions of human CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 isoforms have been found after the administration of standardized E. purpurea preparations. However, contradictory results exist in studies using liver microsomes. Adverse events reported during clinical trials following administration of Echinacea spp. mono-preparations were generally mild and mostly without causality. Due to published long term studies with continuous ingestion of different Echinacea preparations up to 6 month with no reported toxicological concerns, Echinacea can be recommended also for long-term use. Moreover, the contraindications in cases of autoimmune diseases and immune-suppression are questionable, since lipophilic Echinacea preparations containing alkamides suppress cellular immune responses, and beneficial effects in autoimmunity were reported. The same applies for the use during pregnancy. Although there has been some impact reported on embryonic angiogenesis in mice, no association with an increased risk for major or minor malformations during organogenesis was found in a literature review. Altogether, the different evaluated Echinacea preparations are well-tolerated herbal medicines in the management in children and adults alike. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. 微重力环境下的航天口腔医学研究新进展%Progress on space oral medicine research under microgravity environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婧; 程兴群; 徐欣; 周学东; 李雨庆

    2016-01-01

    As an interdisciplinary of stomatology and space medicine, space oral medicine focuses mainly on oral diseases happened under space environment. With the manned space technology stepping into the new era, space oral medicine has been put under the spotlight. This article will review the historical events on this subject, summarize the newly progress especially on craniomaxillofacial bone, tooth-derived stem cell and oral microbiology researches and still put forward future prospect.%航天口腔医学作为口腔医学与航天医学的交叉学科,主要着眼于太空特殊环境中人类口腔相关疾病的研究。随着载人航天技术的发展步入新纪元,航天口腔医学也受到人们日益广泛的关注。本文回顾了航天口腔医学的研究历史,总结了微重力环境对颅颌面骨、牙源性干细胞、口腔微生物的影响,并对航天口腔医学的发展前景进行了展望。

  15. 浅析口腔内科疾病的临床治疗%Analysis of the Clinical Treatment of Oral Diseases in Department of Internal Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗静

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveDiscussion about clinical diagnosis and treatment of oral medical disease.MethodsColect related information of 190 patients with oral medicine disease,carry out the relevant research with retrospective analysis method. ResultsProportion in male patients is higher with oral medicine disease,periarthritis of root and has a high incidence of dental caries. Dental pulp and root canal therapy is more common in the clinical treatment. Conclusion Oral medicine disease with high incidence,self oral health awareness should be increased. For patients in the prevention,treatment and prognosis of oral diseases three aspects to reduce adverse effects,to achieve the expected effect.%目的:针对临床诊治口腔内科疾病的有关情况进行较深入地探讨。方法收集190例口腔内科疾病患者有关资料,采取回顾性分析方法开展有关研究。结果男性患者在口腔内科疾病患者中占有较高比例,根尖周炎及龋齿的发病率较高。牙髓及根管治疗是临床中比较常见的治疗手段。结论口腔内科疾病具有较高的发病率,自我口腔保健意识应不断提高。对患者口腔疾病在预防、治疗及预后3方面降低不良影响,才能实现预期疗效。

  16. Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome by Oral Administration of Chinese Medicines and Retention-Enema—— A Report of 50 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段国玉

    2002-01-01

    @@ Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common disease of intestinal dysfunction, is also called emotional enteritis, mucous enteritis, irritable colon and so on1. It is often lingering with a long disease course and is easy to recur. The author has in recent years treated 50 cases of the disease by oral administration of Chinese medicines and retention-enema, with satisfactory results reported as follows.

  17. Analysis of impacted and retained teeth operated at Department of Oral Surgery, School of Dental Medicine, Zagreb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakus, Ivan; Filipović Zore, Irina; Borić, Ratka; Siber, Stjepan; Svegar, Domagoj; Kuna, Tihomir

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of the present study is to see whether we follow global guidelines for operative procedures and diagnoses for impacted and retained teeth, and to compare these results with older results in Croatia. Operative protocols from Department of Oral Surgery, School of Dental Medicine, Zagreb in the period from 1997 till 1999 were used in the present study. 4756 patients were operated (total of 4857 diagnosis were set). Of all diagnoses, 24.89% (N=1209) belongs to dens impactus, 5.13% (N=249) to dens semiimpactus, 6.05% (N=294) to dens retentus and 0.64% (N=31) to dentitio difficilis. These four diagnoses make 36.71% of all 4857 set diagnoses. Most commonly impacted teeth are: 8- (38.64%), -8 (35.88%), 8+ (10.9%) and +8 (9.29%). Most commonly retained teeth are: 3+ (19.1%) and +3 (18.8%), while in the remaining two diagnoses -8 and 8- are most commonly diagnosed and operated teeth. Impacted teeth are in 97.90% of the cases operated by alveolotomy procedure. With semiimpacted teeth alveolotomy was conducted in 94.12% cases, and 5.10% of such teeth were extracted. With retained teeth alveolotomy was conducted in 65.21%, corticotomy in 23.01% and extraction in 8.77% of the cases. With dentitio difficilis alveolotomy was applied in 46.88%, extraction in 37.50%, circumcision in 9.38% and corticotomy in 6.25% of the cases. Intra muscular corticosteroids (Dexamethason) were used in 2.80% of the cases, most commonly with dens impactus and dens retentus diagnosis. PHD was done in 4.21% cases. Although its use is on the increase, Dexamethason is still rarely used in everyday practice, despite global guidelines for the postoperative use of corticosteroids. PHD analysis is used most commonly with retained teeth since they usually come with follicular cysts. Anesthesia without epinephrine was used in only 1.80% of the operating procedures, because the epinephrine solution used at Oral Surgery Department is 1:160000.

  18. The Correlation between the Frequency of Oral Lesions and the amount of Smokeless Tobacco Usage in Patients Referred to Oral Medicine Department of Zahedan Dental School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesan S.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The increasing use of smokeless tobacco in the last 15 years has motivated researchers to evaluate its impact on its user’s health. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of oral lesions related to smokeless tobacco and any possible correlation between the frequency of oral lesions and the amount of usage in patients referred to Zahedan Dental School. Materials and Method: A total of 90 (77 male and 13 female cases, all snuff con-sumers, were surveyed in this cross sectional study which was accomplished by em-ploying questionnaires. The questionnaire included demographic information, type and amount of smokeless tobacco used the site where it is placed in the mouth. The completion of the questionnaires was followed by oral clinical examinations of patients. The site of any lesion found in soft tissue, was recorded in questionnaire. Results: The mean age for men and women was 47.7 and 55.61, respectively. A total of 38 cases (29 males 9 females were found to have oral lesions. 26 patients were using the snuff one pack per day. The common site of lesions was lower buccal sulcus. From 38 lesions, 32 lesions were found at the site of snuff placement. Most of the lesions were degree 1 and white in color. After taking biopsy from 32 lesions, 26 cases were detected as hyperkeratotic and 6 cases as epithelial dysplasia. Conclusion: This study showed that use of snuff is very common in Zahedan and usage of this material can produce oral lesions. There is not a significant correlation between the frequency of oral lesions and the amount of usage.

  19. An assessment of the quality of advice provided by patent medicine vendors to users of oral contraceptive pills in urban Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujuju C

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinazo Ujuju,1 Samson B Adebayo,2 Jennifer Anyanti,3 Obi Oluigbo,3 Fatima Muhammad,4 Augustine Ankomah5 1Research and Evaluation Division, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 2Planning, Research and Statistics Directorate, National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control, Abuja, Nigeria; 3Technical Services Directorate, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 4Family Planning Directorate, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 5Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana Introduction: In Nigeria about 50% of oral contraceptive pill users obtain their products from proprietary patent medicine vendors (PPMVs. This group of service providers are poorly trained and have very limited knowledge about contraception. This paper investigated the nature of the advice offered to simulated current and potential users of oral contraceptive pills. The main objective was to assess the nature and quality of advice provided by PPMVs to pill users. Method: This study is based on findings from a 'mystery client' approach in which three scenarios related to contraceptive pill use were simulated. Each of the 12 mystery clients simulated one of the following three scenarios: new pill users (new to family planning or switching from condom to pills; user seeking a resupply of pills; and dissatisfied pill users intending to discontinue use. Simple random sampling was used to select 410 PPMVs from a total of 1,826 in four states in Nigeria. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews was also conducted. Results: A majority of the PPMVs had pills in stock on the day of the survey and resupplied pills to the clients. PPMVs also understood the reason and importance of referring clients who were new adopters of oral contraceptive methods to a health facility; 30% of the PPMVs referred new adopters to a health facility. However, demand from clients who do not want to go

  20. Study on PBL in the experimental course of oral preventive medicine%口腔预防医学实验课PBL教学方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炯; 阳宏林

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the application of PBL in the experimental course of oral preventive medicine.Methods PBL teaching method was applied to the teaching in the experimental course of oral preventive medicine.Results PBL teaching could help the students to improve their self-learning ability,practice ability and innovation ability,and it was beneficial to cultivate new generation of Dental professionals.At the same time,it could improve the teaching quality of the teachers constantly.Conclusion PBL teaching has its own unique advantages,which is suitable to the experimental course of oral preventive medicine.However,there are still so many problems present in the process of implementing.%目的 探讨以问题为基础教学(PBL)在口腔预防医学实验课的运用.方法 根据PBL教学要求,在口腔预防医学实验课过程中予以实施.结果 PBL教学有利于学生提高自学能力、实践能力和创新能力,有利于新一代口腔专业人员的培养;同时不断提高老师的教学素质.结论 PBL教学有自身独特的优势,适合于口腔预防实验课的教学,但在实施过程中还存在诸多问题.

  1. High-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection and chemometrics method for the analysis of multiple components in the traditional Chinese medicine Shuanghuanglian oral liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bao Qiong; Chen, Jing; Li, Jiao Jiao; Wang, Xue; Zhai, Hong Lin; Zhang, Xiao Yun

    2015-12-01

    Shuanghuanlian oral liquid, a traditional Chinese medicine preparation, is a mixture of three herbs (Flos Lonicerae, Radix Scutellariae and Fructus Forsythiae). In this study, the quantitative analysis of three main active compounds, chlorogenic acid, forsythin and baicalin in samples from different manufacturers was performed rapidly by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection followed by Contour Projection coupled to stepwise regression treatment of the obtained three-dimensional spectra in which the partial overlap between adjacent target components existed. The method was validated for linearity (R>0.9940), precision (RSDliquid samples.

  2. HPLC Fingerprint with Multi-components Analysis for Quality Consistency Evaluation of Traditional Chinese Medicine Si-Mo-Tang Oral Liquid Preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Yue-neng; CHENG Xue-mei; LIU Ling-an; HU Gao-yun; CAI Guang-xian; DENG Yi-de; HUANG Ke-long; WANG Chang-hong

    2011-01-01

    Si-Mo-Tang(SMT) oral liquid preparation,a traditional Chinese medicine,was prepared from four crude herbal drugs,Fructus Aurantii Submaturus,Radix Aucklandiae,Semen Arecae and Radix Linderae Aggregatae.A combinative method using HPLC fingerprint and quantitative analysis was developed and validated for quality consistency evaluation of SMT.Individual HPLC chromatograms were evaluated against the mean chromatogram generated via a similarity evaluation computer program.Data from chromatographic fingerprints were also processed with principal component analysis(PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis(HCA).Additionally,six components (naringin,isonaringin,hesperidin,neohesperidin,norisoboldine and potassium sorbate) in SMT were simultaneously determined to interpret the quality consistency.For fingerprint analysis,20 peaks were selected as the characteristic peaks to evaluate the similarities of 26 SMT collected from different manufacturers.Among the 20 characteristic peaks,10 peaks were assigned to be naringin,hesperidin,neohesperidin,isonaringin,neoeriocitrin,tangeretin,nobiletin,norisoboldine,5-(ethoxymethyl)furan-2-carbaldehyde and potassium sorbate,respectively.The results of similarity analysis,PCA and HCA,indicate that the samples from different manufacturers were consistent with each other in composition.The results from the quantitative data show that the contents of six compounds were significantly different in SMT oral liquid preparations from different manufacturers.The combinative method of chromatographic fingerprint with quantitative analysis developed here offered an efficient way for the quality consistency evaluation of the traditional Chinese medicine SMT.

  3. 复发性口腔溃疡的中医药治疗进展%Recurrent oral ulcer of traditional Chinese medicine to progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊岭; 罗力赛; 王玲玲; 游红; 王鸿章; 刘娜; 高社光

    2012-01-01

    The recurrent oral ulcer could be classified as aphthae in TCM, for which the clinical medicine has not found out the special-effect treatment scheme. It is generally assumed to be caused by the brimming of heart and spleen, deficiency of Yin and hyperactivity of internal heat and etc. in TCM. The Chinese medicine has competitive edges in terms of the treatment of the recurrent oral ulcer: favoring the heat clearing and toxicity removal, nourishing Yin for lowering the internal heat; or emphasizing the circulation promotion and stasis removal; Yin and Qi nourishment; healthcare of kidney and spleen. The positive treatment results could be achieved based upon the scientific and accurate diagnosis. Such characteristic TCM treatment schemes as acupuncture-moxibustion therapy, acupuncture and Chinese medicine, acupoint sticking therapy as well as the catgut embedding therapy could also be flexible selections. This paper analyzes the etiological factors of recurrent oral ulcer and puts forward several TCM oral and external treatment schemes therein.%复发性口腔溃疡属于中医的"口疮"范畴.目前临床西医对该病的治疗尚无特效药物.中医认为该病可辨为心脾两经积热,脾虚清阳不升,阴虚火旺等证.中药在治疗复发性口腔溃疡方面有独特优势,有人偏重于清热解毒、滋阴降火,有人偏重于强调活血化瘀、益气养阴、补肾健脾等,只要辨证精准都可以取得肯定疗效.针灸、针药结合、穴位贴附、埋线疗法等中医特色治疗也是可行的选择.本文从复发性口腔溃疡的病因病机、中医药的内服外治法等方面进行浅析.

  4. 50例儿童口腔内科疾病病例研究%Study on 50 Cases of Children With Oral Department of Internal Medicine Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红强

    2016-01-01

    Objective Analysis of children's Oral Department of internal medicine disease cases.MethodsFrom April 2013 to April 2014, 50 cases of patients were selected as study objects.Results 50 cases of children's oral medicine disease patients, 15 cases of 2~5 years old, suffering from dental pulp disease, periodontal disease, tooth decay and periapical disease followed by 4, 3, 4 and 4 cases; For 18 cases of 5~8 years old, suffering from dental pulp disease, periodontal disease, tooth decay, periapical disease followed by 4, 2, 5 and 7 cases; 17 cases of 8~13 years old, suffering from dental pulp disease, periodontal disease, tooth decay and periapical disease followed by 4, 3, 5 and 5 cases. A total of 65 teeth .Conclusion Children's oral medicine disease seriously affect the children oral development.%目的:分析儿童口腔内科疾病病例。方法将我院2013年4月~2014年4月收治的50例患者病例作为分析的对象。结果50例儿童口腔内科疾病患者,2~5岁的患者为15例,患牙髓病、牙周病、龋病、根尖周病的依次为4、3、4和4例;5~8岁的患者为18例,患牙髓病、牙周病、龋病、根尖周病的依次为4、2、5和7例;8~13岁的患者为17例,患牙髓病、牙周病、龋病、根尖周病的依次为4、3、5和5例。共有65颗患牙。结论儿童口腔内科疾病严重影响儿童口腔发育。

  5. National Farm Medicine Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Areas Applied Sciences Biomedical Informatics Clinical Research Epidemiology Farm Medicine Human Genetics Oral-Systemic Health Clinical ... Consulting Agritourism Farm MAPPER Lyme Disease ROPS Rebate Zika Virus National Farm Medicine Center The National Farm ...

  6. Oral administration of Chinese herbal medicine during gestation period for preventing hemolytic disease of the newborn due to ABO incompatibility: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huijuan; Wu, Ruohan; Han, Mei; Caldwell, Patrina Ha Yuen

    2017-01-01

    Background About 85.3% of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) is caused by maternal-fetal ABO blood group incompatibility. However, there is currently no recommended “best” therapy for ABO incompatibility during pregnancy. Objectives To systematically assess the safety and effectiveness of oral Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for preventing HDN due to ABO incompatibility. Methods The protocol of this review was registered on the PROSPERO website (No. CRD42016038637).Six databases were searched from inception to April 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CHM for maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility were included. The primary outcome was incidence of HDN. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality of included trials. Risk ratios (RR) and mean differences with 95% confidence interval were used as effect measures. Meta-analyses using Revman 5.3 software were conducted if there were sufficient trials without obvious clinical or statistical heterogeneity available. Results Totally 28 RCTs involving3413 women were included in the review. The majority of the trials had unclear or high risk of bias. Our study found that the rate of HDN and the incidence of neonatal jaundice might be 70% lower in the herbal medicine group compared with the usual care group (RR from 0.25 to 0.30).After treatment with herbal medicine, women were twice as likely to have antibody titers lower than 1:64 compared with women who received usual care(RR from 2.15 to 3.14) and the umbilical cord blood bilirubin level in the herbal medicine group was 4umol/L lower than in those receiving usual care. There was no difference in Apgar scores or birthweights between the two groups. Conclusions This review found very low-quality evidence that CHM prevented HDN caused by maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility. No firm conclusions can be drawn regarding the effectiveness or safety of CHM for this condition. PMID:28719639

  7. Call for Emergence and Development of Oral Sleep Medicine%口腔睡眠医学的孕育和发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雪梅

    2014-01-01

    口腔睡眠医学包括一些睡眠疾病的病生理研究、口腔矫治器和正颌手术治疗、颅面发育相关的睡眠疾病的预防阻断。目前已在阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征(Obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome,OSAHS)颅面、上气道及周围组织的形态特征、肌电特点、上气道生长发育规律等方面给出了大量的观察分析。对轻中度OSAHS实行的口腔矫治器治疗、扩弓治疗,对颌骨畸形患者实行的正颌手术治疗,已被业内肯定为有效治疗手段。今后将在联合应用、个性化设计、预防阻断方面进一步深化,并在异态睡眠领域期待有新的拓展。%Oral sleep medicine includes fields of but not limited to patho-physiological researches, applications of oral appliances and orthognathic surgery in OSAHS (obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome) and prevention of sleep disorders associated with craniofacial development. Considerable observations have been done in morphology, electromyogram and development and growth pattern on the upper airway and its surrounding tissues in the field of OSAHS. And several therapies for specific population have already been proved effective, such as oral appliances or palatal expansion for mild to moderate OSAHS and orthognathic surgery for skeletal deformity. Further effort in oral sleep medicine should be made in fields of combined applications, individual therapy and prevention and of course. Also exploration into the field of parasomnias is needed.

  8. Blood glucose level and other biochemical changes induced in normal mice by oral Traditional Chinese Medicine complex for diabetes (TCM-D™

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    Donald Koh Fook Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of Traditional ChineseMedicine (TCM preparations are being used for thetreatment of diabetes mellitus. Some componentsof these preparations have biochemical effects otherthan those of lowering blood glucose and indeed havebeen used for other medical indications in traditionalpractice. The primary objective of the study was todetermine the effect of the oral mixture of TraditionalChinese Medicine for diabetes (TCM-D™ complex onblood glucose level and the biochemical changes if any,on the liver (ALT, AST, gamma-GT, albumin, globulinand renal (blood creatinine, urea functions in normalmice. The oral mixture is an aqueous extract of four wellknowntraditional Chinese medicinal herbs and consistsof Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim., Paeonia lactiflora Pall.,Glycyrrhiza uranlensis Fisch., and Panax ginseng (redCA Meyer in the proportion of 36%, 28%, 18%, and18% respectively of the dry weight. These herbs havebeen shown to have blood glucose lowering activity andhave been used for other traditional medicinal purposes.The safety of the combination was evaluated in thepresent study.Methods: Experimental Balb/c mice were treated orallyvia gastric tube with the extract at daily doses equivalentto 1 and 10 times the recommended human dose for8 weeks. Blood glucose and other biochemical profileswere monitored at pre-treatment and monthly posttreatmentuntil killed.Results: When compared to pre-treatment levels, theblood glucose levels were significantly lower in treatedanimals compared to those in the control group. Atthe recommended TCM-D™ dose the levels in treatedanimals were significantly lower than that of controlanimals and at pre-treatment. When compared withpre-treatment, the glucose levels were lowest at Week8 of treatment, the mean levels being 111.23%, 83.32%and 70.33% in control, and in animals given 1 x and10 x the recommended TCM-D™ dosage respectively.The blood glucose lowering effect was also associatedwith a significant

  9. Fifty-six Cases of Stubborn Eczema Treated by Oral Administration and Topical Application of Herbal Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗维丹; 邬成霖

    2001-01-01

    @@ Eczema is a kind of very common dermatopathy. The cases with a long course of illness and hard to be cured are termed as stubborn eczema. We have obtained good results in its treatment since 1995 with the Chu Shi Tang (除湿汤Dampness-Clearing Decoction) for oral intake and the Fu Fang Ku Shen Xi Ye (复方苦参洗液) for topical application. The following is a clinical report for treating 56 patients with stubborn eczema.

  10. [6]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol, active ingredients of the traditional Japanese medicine hangeshashinto, relief oral ulcerative mucositis-induced pain via action on Na(+) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitomi, Suzuro; Ono, Kentaro; Terawaki, Kiyoshi; Matsumoto, Chinami; Mizuno, Keita; Yamaguchi, Kiichiro; Imai, Ryota; Omiya, Yuji; Hattori, Tomohisa; Kase, Yoshio; Inenaga, Kiyotoshi

    2017-03-01

    The traditional Japanese herbal medicine hangeshashinto (HST) has beneficial effects for the treatment of oral ulcerative mucositis (OUM) in cancer patients. However, the ingredient-based mechanism that underlies its pain-relieving activity remains unknown. In the present study, to clarify the analgesic mechanism of HST on OUM-induced pain, we investigated putative HST ingredients showing antagonistic effects on Na(+) channels in vitro and in vivo. A screen of 21 major ingredients using automated patch-clamp recordings in channel-expressing cells showed that [6]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol, two components of a Processed Ginger extract, considerably inhibited voltage-activated Na(+) currents. These two ingredients inhibited the stimulant-induced release of substance P and action potential generation in cultured rat sensory neurons. A submucosal injection of a mixture of [6]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol increased the mechanical withdrawal threshold in healthy rats. In a rat OUM model, OUM-induced mechanical pain was alleviated 30min after the swab application of HST despite the absence of anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory actions in the OUM area. A swab application of a mixture of [6]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol induced sufficient analgesia of OUM-induced mechanical or spontaneous pain when co-applied with a Ginseng extract containing abundant saponin. The Ginseng extract demonstrated an acceleration of substance permeability into the oral ulcer tissue without an analgesic effect. These findings suggest that Na(+) channel blockage by gingerol/shogaol plays an essential role in HST-associated analgesia of OUM-induced pain. This pharmacological mechanism provides scientific evidence supporting the use of this herbal medicine in patients suffering from OUM-induced pain.

  11. [Monitoring of a protocol for the adequacy of the pharmaceutical form of the oral medication to the degree of dysphagia in patients hospitalized in an internal medicine service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Aparicio, J; Herrero Herrero, J I; Moreno Gómez, A Ma; Martínez Sotelo, J; González del Valle, E; Fernández de la Fuente, Ma A

    2011-01-01

    The oral route is the most convenient way of administering medication, although it may not be safe. Dysphagia is one of the factors rendering difficult a proper feeding and administration of medication. to improve the administration of oral medication in patients with dysphagia by changing the pharmaceutical formulation of the principles prescribed to tolerable textures. Pilot project for the application of a dysphagia protocol that included the patients admitted to the Internal Medicine Unit at Los Montalvos Center for 4 months. After detecting the suspicion of dysphagia, a dysphagia-viscosity test was applied to know the tolerated textures. Then, the pharmaceutical formulations were adapted and the manipulation instructions for the drugs were indicated for their proper administration. 23 out of 627 admitted patients were included, with a mean age of 85 years (σ±7.4). The pathologies implicated in dysphagia were: dementia (65.2%); cerebrovascular disease (30.4%), and Parkinson's disease (4.4%). The best texture for drug intake was a "pudding" in 48.0%. 43 active ingredients were reviewed and 134 interventions were performed: in 41% of the cases, swallowing was made easier by mixing the drug with the food and in 59% water and a thickener were used. 94% of the recommendations were considered to be appropriate. the adaptation of the pharmaceutical formulations to the degree of dysphagia impacts on the improvement of healthcare quality by implementing safety in drug prescription and administration processes.

  12. Potent Antifungal Activity of Pure Compounds from Traditional Chinese Medicine Extracts against Six Oral Candida Species and the Synergy with Fluconazole against Azole-Resistant Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activities of four traditional Chinese medicine (TCM extracts. The inhibitory effects of pseudolaric acid B, gentiopicrin, rhein, and alion were assessed using standard disk diffusion and broth microdilution assays. They were tested against six oral Candida species, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida guilliermondii, including clinical isolates from HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and Sjögren's syndrome patients. It was found that pseudolaric acid B had the most potent antifungal effect and showed similar antifungal activity to all six Candida spp, and to isolates from HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and Sjögren's syndrome patients. The MIC values ranged from 16 to 128 μg/mL. More interestingly, a synergistic effect of pseudolaric acid B in combination with fluconazole was observed. We suggest that pseudolaric acid B might be a potential therapeutic fungicidal agent in treating oral candidiasis.

  13. A stratified random survey of the proportion of poor quality oral artesunate sold at medicine outlets in the Lao PDR – implications for therapeutic failure and drug resistance

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    Vongsack Latsamy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Counterfeit oral artesunate has been a major public health problem in mainland SE Asia, impeding malaria control. A countrywide stratified random survey was performed to determine the availability and quality of oral artesunate in pharmacies and outlets (shops selling medicines in the Lao PDR (Laos. Methods In 2003, 'mystery' shoppers were asked to buy artesunate tablets from 180 outlets in 12 of the 18 Lao provinces. Outlets were selected using stratified random sampling by investigators not involved in sampling. Samples were analysed for packaging characteristics, by the Fast Red Dye test, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, mass spectrometry (MS, X-ray diffractometry and pollen analysis. Results Of 180 outlets sampled, 25 (13.9% sold oral artesunate. Outlets selling artesunate were more commonly found in the more malarious southern Laos. Of the 25 outlets, 22 (88%; 95%CI 68–97% sold counterfeit artesunate, as defined by packaging and chemistry. No artesunate was detected in the counterfeits by any of the chemical analysis techniques and analysis of the packaging demonstrated seven different counterfeit types. There was complete agreement between the Fast Red dye test, HPLC and MS analysis. A wide variety of wrong active ingredients were found by MS. Of great concern, 4/27 (14.8% fakes contained detectable amounts of artemisinin (0.26–115.7 mg/tablet. Conclusion This random survey confirms results from previous convenience surveys that counterfeit artesunate is a severe public health problem. The presence of artemisinin in counterfeits may encourage malaria resistance to artemisinin derivatives. With increasing accessibility of artemisinin-derivative combination therapy (ACT in Laos, the removal of artesunate monotherapy from pharmacies may be an effective intervention.

  14. Position Paper by Canadian Dental Sleep Medicine Professionals Regarding the Role of Different Health Care Professionals in Managing Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Snoring with Oral Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Gauthier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present Canadian position paper contains recommendations for the management by dentists of sleep-disordered breathing in adults with the use of oral appliances (OAs as a treatment option for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. The recommendations are based on literature reviews and expert panel consensus. OAs offer an effective, first-line treatment option for patients with mild to moderate OSA who prefer an OA to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP therapy, or for severe OSA patients who cannot tolerate CPAP, are inappropriate candidates for CPAP or who have failed CPAP treatment attempts. The purpose of the present position paper is to guide interdisciplinary teamwork (sleep physicians and sleep dentists and to clarify the role of each professional in the management of OA therapy. The diagnosis of OSA should always be made by a physician, and OAs should be fitted by a qualified dentist who is trained and experienced in dental sleep medicine. Follow-up assessment by the referring physician and polysomnography or sleep studies are required to verify treatment efficacy. The present article emphasizes the need for a team approach to OA therapy and provides treatment guidelines for dentists trained in dental sleep medicine. Many of the dentists and sleep physicians who contributed to the preparation of the present article are members of the Canadian Sleep Society and the authors reached a consensus based on the current literature.

  15. Different Kinetics of Puerarin in Plasma of Normal and Depressed Rats After Oral Administration of Chinese Medicine TZ18

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the puerarin in rat plasma following oral administration of TZ18 and compare the pharmacokinetics characteristics of puerarin in normal rats with that in depression model rats. A high performance liquid chromatography method was used to quantify the puerarin due to its Intra- and inter-day precision coefficients of variation and accuracy bias were acceptable (Maximum coefficient of variation was 5.74% for intra-day and 3.09% for inter-day) over the entire range. The recoveries spectively. The concentration-time curves for both normal rats and depression model rats were fit to a twocompartment model with the first order absorption. The results show significant differences in the main pharmacokinetic parameters of peak time, peak concentration, and the area under the concentration-time curve between the two kinds of rats.

  16. In vivo pharmacokinetic comparisons of ferulic acid and puerarin after oral administration of monomer, medicinal substance aqueous extract and Nao-De-Sheng to rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Ouyang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nao-De-Sheng decoction (NDS, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM prescription containing Radix puerariae lobatae, Floscarthami, Radix et Rhizoma Notoginseng, Rhizoma chuanxiong and Fructus crataegi, is effective in the treatment of cerebral arteriosclerosis, ischemic cerebral stroke and apoplexy linger effect. Ferulic acid and puerarin are the main absorbed effective ingredients of NDS. Objective: To assess the affection of other components in medical material and compound recipe compatibility on the pharmacokinetics of ferulaic acid and puerarin, of ferulic acid from the monomer Rhizoma chuanxiong aqueous extract and NDS were studied. And pharmacokinetics comparisons of puerarin from the monomer Radix puerariae extract and NDS decoction were investigated simultaneously. Materials and Methods: At respective different time points after oral administration of the monomer, medicinal substance aqueous extract and NDS at the same dose in rats, plasma concentrations of ferulic acid and puerarin in rats were determined by RP-HPLC, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated with 3P97 software. Results: The plasma concentration-time curves of ferulaic acid and puerarin were both best fitted with a two-compartment model. AUC 0−t, AUC 0→∞ , Tmax , and Cmax of ferulic acid in the monomer and NDS decoction were increased significantly (P < 0.05 compared with that in Rhizoma chuanxiong aqueous extract. And statistically significant increase (P < 0.05 in pharmacokinetic parameters of puerarin including AUC 0−t, AUC 0→∞ , CL, Tmax and Cmax were obtained after oral administration of puerarin monomer compared with Radix puerariae extract. Although the changes of AUC 0−t, AUC 0→∞ and CL had no statistically significant, Cmax of puerarin in NDS was increased remarkably (P < 0.05 compared with that in single puerarin. Conclusions: Some ingredients of Rhizoma chuanxiong and Radix puerariae may be suggested to remarkably

  17. Aligning health care policy with evidence-based medicine: the case for funding direct oral anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James A; Earl, Karen M; O'Neill, Blair J; Sharma, Mukul; Huynh, Thao; Leblanc, Kori; Ward, Richard; Teal, Philip A; Cox, Jafna L

    2014-10-01

    Misalignment between evidence-informed clinical care guideline recommendations and reimbursement policy has created care gaps that lead to suboptimal outcomes for patients denied access to guideline-based therapies. The purpose of this article is to make the case for addressing this growing access barrier to optimal care. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) is discussed as an example. Stroke is an extremely costly disease, imposing a significant human, societal, and economic burden. Stroke in the setting of AF carries an 80% probability of death or disability. Although two-thirds of these strokes are preventable with appropriate anticoagulation, this has historically been underprescribed and poorly managed. National and international guidelines endorse the direct oral anticoagulants as first-line therapy for this indication. However, no Canadian province has provided these agents with an unrestricted listing. These decisions appear to be founded on silo-based cost assessment-the drug costs rather than the total system costs-and thus overlook several important cost-drivers in stroke. The discordance between best scientific evidence and public policy requires health care providers to use a potentially suboptimal therapy in contravention of guideline recommendations. It represents a significant obstacle for knowledge translation efforts that aim to increase the appropriate anticoagulation of Canadians with AF. As health care professionals, we have a responsibility to our patients to engage with policy-makers in addressing and resolving this barrier to optimal patient care. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Autophagic Cell Death by Poncirus trifoliata Rafin., a Traditional Oriental Medicine, in Human Oral Cancer HSC-4 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Yeon Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poncirus trifoliata Rafin. has long been used as anti-inflammatory and antiallergic agent to treat gastrointestinal disorders and pulmonary diseases such as indigestion, constipation, chest fullness, chest pain, bronchitis, and sputum in Korea. P. trifoliata extract has recently been reported to possess anticancer properties; however, its mechanisms of action remain unclear. In this study, its antiproliferative effects and possible mechanisms were investigated in HSC-4 cells. The methanol extract of P. trifoliata (MEPT significantly decreased the proliferation of HSC-4 cells (inhibitory concentration (IC50 = 142.7 μg/mL in a dose-dependent manner. While there were no significant changes observed upon cell cycle analysis and ANNEXIN V and 7-AAD double staining in the MEPT-treated groups, the intensity of acidic vesicular organelle (AVO staining and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain (LC 3-II protein expression increased in response to MEPT treatment. Furthermore, 3-methyladenine (3-MA, autophagy inhibitor effectively blocked the MEPT-induced cytotoxicity of HSC-4 cells and triggered the activation of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK proteins. Taken together, our results indicate that MEPT is a potent autophagy agonist in oral cancer cells with antitumor therapeutic potential that acts through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway.

  19. Simultaneous determination of synephrine, arecoline, and norisoboldine in Chinese patent medicine Si-Mo-Tang oral liquid preparation by strong cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yue-Neng; Cheng, Xue-Mei; Liu, Ling-An; Hu, Gao-Yun; Wang, Zheng-Tao; Deng, Yi-De; Huang, Ke-Long; Cai, Guang-Xian; Wang, Chang-Hong

    2012-07-01

    Chinese patent medicine Si-Mo-Tang oral liquid preparation (SMT) is composed of Aucklandia luppa Decne (Compositae), Citrus aurantium Linn (Rutaceae), Lindera aggregata (Sims) Kosterm (Lauraceae), and Areca catechu Linn (Arecaceae). Studies of SMT have been impeded due to the lack of quality control methods. This study aimed to simultaneously determine three alkaloids including synephrine, arecoline, and norisoboldine in SMT for the first time. A strong cation exchange (SCX) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to simultaneously determine synephrine, arecoline, and norisoboldine in SMT, and was compared with ion-pairing chromatography using regular reversed-phase chromatography columns. System suitability parameters of synephrine, arecoline, and norisoboldine using the SCX chromatography column were investigated. Results demonstrated that good separations were achieved on an Agilent SCX (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column at 35 °C. The mobile phase consisting of methanol-0.2% phosphoric acid was delivered at a constant flow of 1.0 mL min(-1) and the eluent was monitored at 215 nm. The HPLC method showed good linearity for the examined concentration ranges of 2.55-255.0, 1.30-208.0, and 2.06-201.6 µg mL(-1) for synephrine, arecoline, and norisoboldine, respectively. The limits of quantification (S/N = 10) were 2.55, 1.30, and 2.06 µg mL(-1), the limits of detection (S/N = 3) were 1.53, 0.78, and 1.21 µg mL(-1), and average recoveries were 98.99, 95.63 and 99.04%, respectively, for synephrine, arecoline, and norisoboldine. This method has been successfully applied to determine synephrine, arecoline, and norisoboldine in Chinese patent medicine SMT.

  20. Anti-inlfammatory and antipyretic properties of kang 601 heji, a traditional Chinese medicine oral liquid dosage form

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raphael Nammahime Alolga; Sarah Wambui Amadi; Vitus Onoja; Assogba Gabin Assanhou; Moses Muyaba; Said Abasse Kassim

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the scientific basis for the use of Kang 601 heji (K-601) as an anti-inflammatory and antipyretic agent using appropriate animal models. Methods:Carrageenan-induced rat paw and xylene-induced ear oedemas were models used to investigate anti-inflammatory actions of K-601. Lipopolysaccharide-induced pyrexia model was used to evaluate antipyretic activity in Wistar rats. The anti-inflammatory and antipyretic mechanisms were evaluated by detecting prostaglandins E2, nitric oxide, interleukin-1βand tumor necrosis factor-αlevels using appropriate reagents and ELISA kits. Results:The results revealed that K-601 reduced the level of inflammations in both anti-inflammatory models in a dose-dependent manner. The same was true for the antipyretic model. The possible mechanisms of actions were through the inhibition of prostaglandins E2, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-αand nitric oxide. Conclusions: K-601 has proven anti-inflammatory and antipyretic actions. The findings provide a scientific basis for the use of K-601 as anti-inflammatory and antipyretic agent in traditional Chinese medicinal practice.

  1. Effects of oral dosage form and storage period on the antioxidant properties of four species used in traditional herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barreira, João C M; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-04-01

    Herbal infusions and decoctions in water are some of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. Although water is not a good solvent for many of the active components in herbs, liquid preparations are rich in several bioactive compounds. Most of them have powerful antioxidant activity and have been related to medicinal herbs' properties. Herein, decoctions and infusions in water of lemon-verbena (Aloysia citrodora) aerial parts and leaves, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) and spearmint (Mentha spicata) aerial parts with different periods of storage (0, 30, 60 and 120 days), were prepared. The effects of the method of preparation and storage period on their antioxidant properties were analysed. For all the analysed species, infusions gave better results than the corresponding decoctions. Spearmint infusions showed the highest antioxidant properties, at all the storage periods, probably due to the highest levels and synergy between phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid found in this sample. Linear discriminant analysis confirmed that the length of storage period has a significant influence on the antioxidant activity and antioxidant content. Flavonoids and reducing sugars proved to be the parameters that most highly contributed to cluster individual groups according to different periods of storage.

  2. Bias and small-study effects influence treatment effect estimates: a meta-epidemiological study in oral medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Antonoglou, Georgios N; Tsiranidou, Elli; Jepsen, Søren; Jäger, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    To examine the influence of the following study characteristics on their study effect estimates: (1) indexing in MEDLINE, (2) language, and (3) design. For randomized trials, (4) trial size and (5) unequal randomization were also assessed. The CAtegorical Dental and Maxillofacial Outcome Syntheses meta-epidemiologic study was conducted. Eight databases/registers were searched up to September 2012 for meta-analyses of binary outcomes with at least five studies in the field of dental and maxillofacial medicine. The previously mentioned five study characteristics were investigated. The ratio of odds ratios (ROR) according to each characteristic was calculated with random-effects meta-regression and then pooled across meta-analyses. A total of 281 meta-analyses were identified and used to assess the influence of the following factors: non-MEDLINE indexing vs. MEDLINE indexing (n = 78; ROR, 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05, 1.19; P = 0.001), language (n = 61; P = 0.546), design (n = 24; P = 0.576), small trials (<200 patients) vs. large trials (≥200 patients) (n = 80; ROR, 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87, 0.98; P = 0.009) and unequal randomization (n = 36; P = 0.828). Studies indexed in MEDLINE might present greater effects than non-indexed ones. Small randomized trials might present greater effects than large ones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Silent Bias: Challenges, Obstacles, and Strategies for Leadership Development in Academic Medicine-Lessons From Oral Histories of Women Professors at the University of Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingleton, Susan K; Jones, Emily V M; Rosolowski, Tacey A; Zimmerman, Mary K

    2016-08-01

    Despite dramatic increases in female learners and junior faculty, a significant gap remains in female leadership in academic medicine. To assess challenges and obstacles encountered, strategies for academic success, and lessons learned for leadership development, the authors conducted an in-depth study of women full professors. The authors used a qualitative oral history approach, interviewing 87% of the cohort of female full professors at one Midwestern medical school in 2013 using a pretested, open-ended, semistructured interview guide. Interviews were videotaped and the audio recordings transcribed. Content was sorted into categories and key themes identified within each category. Participants described significant challenges: being treated with "silent bias," "being ignored," and being seen as an "other." Coping strategies included downplaying, keeping a distance, employing humor, and using symbols (e.g., white coat) to carefully present themselves. Explanations for success included intelligence, meritocracy, being even-tempered, and carefully constructing femininity. The participants recommended individual skills and actions to prepare for leadership development. Virtually all women could describe an individual mentor (sponsor), usually male, who provided essential assistance for their career success. At the same time, they stressed the importance of institutional support for diversity, especially with child care. Attaining "full professor" status is the pinnacle of academic success. Women who successfully navigated this academic ladder describe significant external and internal challenges that require multiple strategies to overcome. Leadership development entails a combination of individual support through mentors and sponsors, self-education and reflection, and organizational structural support to promote diversity.

  4. 富血小板纤维蛋白在口腔医学中的应用%The application of platelet-rich fibrin in oral medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑友丽; 张国志

    2013-01-01

    富血小板纤维蛋白(PRF)是继富血小板血浆之后的第二代血小板浓缩制品,其制备简单,经济方便,且具有良好的促进软、硬组织再生的能力,在口腔医学基础和临床研究中有广泛应用.本文结合国内外文献,对PRF的制备方法、生物学特性及其在口腔医学中的应用作一综述.%The platelet-rich fibrin is the second-generation platelet concentrate products following the platelet-rich plasma.It has the advantage of simple preparation,economical,convenient,and it is able to promote the regeneration of soft and hard tissues.Therefore,it has been widely use in the stomatology basic and clinical research.In this paper,we reviewed the preparation methods,biological characteristics of platelet-rich fibrin and its application in oral medicine combining domestic and foreign literature.

  5. Oral Administration of the Japanese Traditional Medicine Keishibukuryogan-ka-yokuinin Decreases Reactive Oxygen Metabolites in Rat Plasma: Identification of Chemical Constituents Contributing to Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Matsubara

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient detoxification and/or overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS induce cellular and tissue damage, and generated reactive oxygen metabolites become exacerbating factors of dermatitis. Keishibukuryogan-ka-yokuinin (KBGY is a traditional Japanese medicine prescribed to treat dermatitis such as acne vulgaris. Our aim was to verify the antioxidant properties of KBGY, and identify its active constituents by blood pharmacokinetic techniques. Chemical constituents were quantified in extracts of KBGY, crude components, and the plasma of rats treated with a single oral administration of KBGY. Twenty-three KBGY compounds were detected in plasma, including gallic acid, prunasin, paeoniflorin, and azelaic acid, which have been reported to be effective for inflammation. KBGY decreased level of the diacron-reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs in plasma. ROS-scavenging and lipid hydroperoxide (LPO generation assays revealed that gallic acid, 3-O-methylgallic acid, (+-catechin, and lariciresinol possess strong antioxidant activities. Gallic acid was active at a similar concentration to the maximum plasma concentration, therefore, our findings indicate that gallic acid is an important active constituent contributing to the antioxidant effects of KBGY. KBGY and its active constituents may improve redox imbalances induced by oxidative stress as an optional treatment for skin diseases.

  6. 提高口腔医学专业人体解剖学教学效果的几点思考%Some Thoughts on Improving the Teaching Effect of Human Anatomy in the Specialty of Oral Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振全; 李文明; 董立珉; 王建中

    2016-01-01

    Human anatomy is not only the most important basic course of oral medicine, but also the foundation of learning other basic medical courses. For students of oral medicine, it is very important to learn the anatomy of human body. For a long time, the anatomy teaching mode of most medical college oral medicine major in our country, is to offer two courses of systematic anatomy and local anatomy. Oral medicine professional students do not have professional anatomy textbook, they use the same set of anatomy textbook for clinical medicine and other professional students. Since entering in twenty-first Century, although the National Health Organization has repeatedly organized experts for the preparation of oral professional human anatomy textbook, but has not been widely used. Therefore, in order to improve the teaching quality of oral profession, it is very important to do well in the teaching of human anatomy.%人体解剖学不仅是口腔医学最重要的基础课程,也是学习其他基础医学课程的基础,对于口腔医学专业的学生来说,学好人体解剖学至关重要。长期以来,我国多数医学院校口腔专业人体解剖学的教学模式,都是采用开设系统解剖学和局部解剖学二门课程来实现的,口腔医学专业的学生没有专业的教材,和临床医学等专业的学生共同使用一套解剖学教材。自从进入21世纪以来,尽管国家的卫生组织曾多次组织专家为口腔专业编写专业的人体解剖学教材,但是一直没有得到推广使用。所以为了提高口腔专业的教学质量,做好人体解剖学的教学至关重要。

  7. Review on Literature of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Treatment of Recurrent Oral Ulceration%寒热中药外用治疗口腔溃疡的文献回顾与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟华强; 王双艳; 张硕峰; 高明超; 马长华

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过文献查阅及整理,对寒热中药外用治疗口腔溃疡进行回顾与思考.方法:以CNKI,VIP数据库为依据,以口腔溃疡、中药外用、复方、临床研究、药理研究等为关键词,查阅数据库中近10年的相关文献,对单味药及复方中药治疗口腔溃疡的情况进行整理和分析.结果:外用治疗口腔溃疡的寒凉中药包括草珊瑚、青黛、白及、枯矾;温热中药包括细辛、吴茱萸、丁香、蜈蚣.复方中药主要有溃疡散、冰硼散、双黄连粉等,其方法以局部涂抹、穴位贴敷为主.结论:从寒热药性角度,对中药外用治疗口腔溃疡的文献进行系统分析,将为临床治疗口腔溃疡提供参考.%Objective: Through the revision and collation of literature, we think about the traditional Chinese medicine which could cure the Recurrent Oral Ulcer by external using. Method:We used CNKI and VIP database, based on the oral ulcer, external treatment of Traditional Chinese Medicine, compound, clinical research, pharmacological research as the key words in order to access the nearly 10 years of related literatures,then we collect and analysis the single herbs and compounds traditional Chinese medicine which could treatment for recurrent oral ulcer. Result: The single herbs which could external using for recurrent oral ulcer include warm herbs such as Sarcandra glabra, Indigo Naturalis, Rhizoma Platantherae Chloranthae, aridi and cold herbs such as Asarum, Evodia, Flos Caryophylli, Scolopendra. The compounds include Ulcers scattered, Bingpeng San, Shuanghuanglian powder and so on. They are mainly to be local daubed and acupoint sticking applide. Conclusion: From the Angle of the cold - heat nature of traditional Chinese medicine, we referred to the related literatures and reviewed the traditional Chinese medicine which could cure the Recurrent Oral Ulcer by external using, in order to provide reference for the clinical treatment of oral ulcers.

  8. 刮痧结合药物内服治疗项背肌筋膜炎的临床体会%Clinical experience for treating nape muscular fasciae inflammation by scraping plus oral medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雨果

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To observe clinical effects of scraping and oral medicine on nape muscular fasciae inflammation. Methods: 17 patients were treated by scraping and oral medicine (Compound chlorzoxazone tablets). Results: 13 cases were cured; 3 cases were improved; 1 case was ineffective, and the total efficiency was 94.12%. Conclusion: Scraping and oral medicine on nape muscular fasciae inflammation showeda remarkable effect, and better clinical application value.%目的::观察刮痧结合药物内服治疗项背肌筋膜炎的临床效果。方法:17例患者均采用刮痧结合药物内服(复方氯唑沙宗片)治疗。结果:治愈13例,好转3例,无效1例,总有效率为94.12%。结论:刮痧结合药物内服治疗项背肌筋膜炎效果显著,具有较好的临床应用价值。

  9. 儿童睡眠呼吸障碍与口腔医学治疗%Pediatric sleep-disordered breathing and oral medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雪梅

    2014-01-01

    儿童阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征(OSAHS),系因儿童上气道狭窄夜间反复阻塞而影响血氧交换。由于夜间缺氧对生长发育的损害,将影响睡眠期间生长激素分泌、脑皮层的休眠及活动,对体格发育、精神行为、学习能力、性格养成均有不利影响,是医学领域重要的交叉学科内容,但尚存许多研究空白。口腔医学的介入,一方面以口腔医学特殊手段,如头影测量等,开展OSAHS患儿的颅面形态诊断和分析,并能够实现对上气道生长发育的追踪观察;另一方面能够提供多种改善睡眠呼吸、改善因睡眠呼吸障碍导致的牙颌面畸形的治疗手段,较为典型的有下颌前导、横向扩弓和上颌前方牵引。口腔医学对符合条件的OSAHS儿童开展治疗,是对腺体手术疗法的重要补充,纠正睡眠呼吸障碍带来的并发症,此外还可以探讨对成人OSAHS的预防。%Pediatric sleep-disordered breathing, also known as obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) in children, is caused by obstruction of upper airway, characterized by repetitive pauses in breathing during sleep despite the effort to breathe, and usually leads to reduction in oxygen saturation. Due to the importance of sufficient oxygen in growth and development, many children patients suffer from abnormal secretion of growth hormone at night, and also their activity and resting of cerebral cortex during sleep. Therefore, they face great risks in keeping normal physical growth, forming mental behavior, building up learning ability and shaping personalities. It is a very important interdisciplinary subject, yet still much remains unclear about the disease. Oral medicine is one of the subjects that show increasing importance in prevention and treatment of OSAHS in children. On one hand, due to the special means of the field, such as cephalometric, it can diagnose and monitor the development of

  10. Determination of Matrine in Rat Plasma after Oral Administration of Novel Korean Herbal Medicine KIOM-MA128 and Application of PK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-moon Back

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available KIOM-MA128 is a novel Korean herbal medicine with antiatopic, anti-inflammatory, and antiasthmatic effects. Matrine is thought to be a potential chemical marker of KIOM-MA128, but pharmacokinetic studies on KIOM-MA128 had not been performed. This study describes a simple and rapid method using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS to determine the concentration of matrine in rats plasma after administration of KIOM-MA128. The isocratic mobile phase consisted of methanol and distilled water, and the flow rate was 0.15 mL/min. The accuracy and precision of the assay, as well as stability tests, were performed in accordance with FDA regulations for the validation of bioanalytical methods. The half-life and Tmax of matrine after administration of KIOM-MA128 were 4.29 ± 2.20 h and 1.8 ± 1.23 h, respectively. Cmax and AUCinf of matrine after administration of KIOM-MA128 at 4 g/kg and 8 g/kg were 595.10 ± 182.91 ng/mL, 5336.77 ± 1503.84 ng/mL·h and 850.46 ± 120 ng/mL, 9583.10 ± 888.92 ng/mL·h, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rats after oral administration of KIOM-MA128.

  11. Oral Chinese herbal medicine combined with pharmacotherapy for stable COPD: a systematic review of effect on BODE index and six minute walk test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiankun Chen

    Full Text Available This systematic review evaluated the effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM plus routine pharmacotherapy (RP on the objective outcome measures BODE index, 6-minute walk test (6MWT, and 6-minute walk distance (6MWD in individuals with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Searches were conducted of six English and Chinese databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, CNKI and CQVIP from their inceptions until 18th November 2013 for randomized controlled trials involving oral administration of CHM plus RP compared to the same RP, with BODE Index and/or 6MWT/D as outcomes. Twenty-five studies were identified. BODE Index was used in nine studies and 6MWT/D was used in 22 studies. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Weaknesses were identified in most studies. Six studies were judged as 'low' risk of bias for randomisation sequence generation. Twenty-two studies involving 1,834 participants were included in the meta-analyses. The main meta-analysis results showed relative benefits for BODE Index in nine studies (mean difference [MD] -0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.94, -0.47 and 6MWT/D in 17 studies (MD 54.61 meters, 95%CI 33.30, 75.92 in favour of the CHM plus RP groups. The principal plants used were Astragalus membranaceus, Panax ginseng and Cordyceps sinensis. A. membranaceus was used in combination with other herbs in 18 formulae in 16 studies. Detailed sub-group and sensitivity analyses were conducted. Clinically meaningful benefits for BODE Index and 6MWT were found in multiple studies. These therapeutic effects were promising but need to be interpreted with caution due to variations in the CHMs and RPs used and methodological weakness in the studies. These issues should be addressed in future trials.

  12. 住院药房全自动口服摆药机应用分析%Application analysis on automatic oral medicine dispensed machine used in inpatient dispensary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜蔚; 杨跃辉; 菅凌燕

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析全自动口服摆药机应用情况,为医院病房口服药品的分包使用及管理提供参考.方法 统计口服摆药药房的药品种类、剂型、分劈药片及临床口服摆药医嘱情况,对常见问题进行分析,并提出解决办法.结果 我院目前常摆药品289种,占口服药品的77.69%,其中分劈药品156种,占口服摆药品种的53.98%,分劈药品摆药品种仍以普通片剂和胶囊为主,缓控释制剂品种相对少.结论 我院住院药房全自动口服摆药机应用普及较广,品种配置合理,分劈药品的共性问题仍存在.%Objective To analyze the use of automatic oral medicine dispensed machine,and provide reference for hospital use and management of the oral drugs.Methods The common problems of drug kinds,dosage forms,splitting tablets and clinical oral medicine with doctor's advice were analyzed,and the corresponding solutions were put forward.Results Current dispensed drug kind of our hospital was 289,accounted for 77.69% of oral drugs,included splitting drug 156 species,which accounted for 53.98% of oral dispensed drugs,common tablet and capsule were still the main splitting drug,slow controlled release preparation breed was relatively few.Conclusion Automatic oral medicine dispensed machine has a wide application in our hospital pharmacy,breed configuration is reasonable,common problems of splitting drug are still exist.

  13. Clinical effect of Chinese Medicine Gargle to Treat AIDS oral Lesion%自拟中药含漱液防治艾滋病口腔病损的临床效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林深常

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of traditional Chinese medicine gargle to treat AIDS oral lesion.Methods We selected 80 cases of AIDS patients with oral lesions,which were randomly divided into two groups,the observation group patients using traditional Chinese medicine gargle treatment,patients in the control group using 0.9%Sodium Chloride Injection treatment.Comparison of the therapeutic effect of two groups of patients.Results Patients in the observation group the total effective rate was 95.0%,the incidence of oral lesions was 22.5%,while the control group were 82.5%,65.0%,the difference was statisticaly significant (P<0.05).Conclusion The use of Chinese medicine gargle in AIDS prevention and treatment of oral lesions,has good curative effect,can significantly improve the oral lesions of patients with.%目的 探讨自拟中药含漱液防治艾滋病口腔病损的临床效果.方法 选取80例艾滋病口腔病损患者,将其采用随机数字表法分为两组,观察组患者使用自拟中药含漱液含漱,对照组患者使用 0.9%氯化钠注射液含漱.比较两组患者的治疗效果.结果 观察组患者治疗总有效率为95.0%,口腔病损发病率为22.5%,对照组则分别为82.5%、65.0%,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05).结论 采用中药含漱液防治艾滋病口腔病损,疗效较好,可明显改善患者的口腔病损情况.

  14. Sugar content in liquid oral medicines for children Concentração de açúcares em medicamentos pediátricos na forma líquida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Glazer Peres

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The most sold and/or prescribed liquid oral medicines for children in Tubarão, Southern Brazil, were assessed. Their sugar concentration was tested and compared to those in their directions for use. All pharmacies and pediatricians working in the city were visited by a previously trained interviewer. Pre-tested questionnaires were applied in order to assess the most sold pediatric as well as the most prescribed pediatric liquid oral medicines. Three samples of each medicine were analyzed by Lane-Eynon general volumetric method. Among the 14 most sold/prescribed medicines only four did not have sugar contents (analgesic, cortisone, and syrups. Sugar concentration ranged from 8.59 g/100 g of drug (SD=0.29 g/100 g to 67.0 g/100 g of drug (SD=6.07 g/100 g. Only 50.0% of the total medicines that presented sugar in their ingredients showed this information in their directions.Foram identificados os medicamentos infantis líquidos de uso oral mais vendidos e/ou prescritos em Tubarão, Brasil. Foi analisada a concentração de açúcares e comparados os achados com as informações presentes nas bulas dos medicamentos. Todas as farmácias e todos os médicos pediatras que trabalham na cidade foram visitados por um entrevistador previamente treinado. Utilizaram-se dois questionários pré-testados, para conhecer os medicamentos pediátricos mais vendidos e os mais receitados. Três amostras de cada medicamento foram analisadas pelo método geral de análise volumétrica Lane-Eynon. Dentre os 14 medicamentos mais vendidos/prescritos somente quatro não apresentavam açúcares na sua composição (analgésico, cortisona, e xaropes. A concentração de açúcares variou de 8,59 g/100 g (DP=0,29 g/100 g à 67,0 g/100 g (6,07 g/100 g. Somente 50% dos medicamentos analisados que continham açúcares apresentavam esta descrição na bula do medicamento.

  15. 呼吸内科住院患者口腔感染调查及危险因素分析%Risk factors for oral infections in hospitalized patients of department of respiratory medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢云; 诸兰艳; 范杜

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解呼吸内科住院患者口腔感染的感染率、病原菌分布及其相关危险因素,为防治呼吸内科住院患者口腔感染提供科学依据。方法回顾性调查医院呼吸内科2010年1月-2011年12月收治的2908例住院患者临床资料,对口腔感染危险因素进行单因素分析,并对差异有统计学意义的因素行 logistic多因素回归分析,所有数据采用SPSS 11.0软件进行统计分析。结果呼吸内科住院患者口腔感染55例,感染率为1.9%;其中以口腔假丝酵母菌属感染最多见,占72.73%,检出病原菌以白色假丝酵母菌为主,占84.21%;单因素及 logistic多因素回归分析表明,恶性肿瘤和吸入激素是口腔感染的独立危险因素。结论呼吸内科住院患者口腔感染感染率较高,以口腔黏膜假丝酵母菌感染最为常见,医护人员应根据其特点采取有效措施加以预防控制。%OBJECTIVE To investigate the incidence of oral infections in hospitalized patients of department of respiratory medicine ,distribution of pathogens ,and related risk factors so as to provide guidance for prevention of oral infections .METHODS The clinical data of 2 908 patients who were hospitalized in the department of respirato-ry medicine from Jan 2010 to Dec 2011 were retrospectively investigated ,then the univariate analysis was conduc-ted for the risk factors for the oral infections ,the multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed for the factors that had significant differences ,and all the data were analyzed with the use of SPSS 11 .0 software . RESULTS The oral infections occurred in 55 cases of hospitalized patients with the infection rate of 1 .9% ,among which 72 .73% were infected with oral Candida .Candida albicans was the predominant species of pathogen , accounting for 84 .21% .The univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the malignant tumor and inhaled

  16. Oral calcitonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy RC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald C Hamdy,1,2 Dane N Daley11Osteoporosis Center, College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, 2Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Johnson City, TN, USAAbstract: Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through β-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ. Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis failed to

  17. Comparative pharmacokinetic investigation on baicalin and wogonoside in type 2 diabetic and normal rats after oral administration of traditional Chinese medicine Huanglian Jiedu decoction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meng-Yun; Deng, Yuan-Xiong; Shi, Qun-Zhi; Zhang, Xiao-Jie; Lv, Yuan

    2014-08-08

    Huanglian Jiedu decoction (HLJDD) is used traditionally in China for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in clinical practice, which has been proved to be effective. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic characteristics (especially the area under the curve, AUC) of baicalin and wogonoside in type 2 diabetic rats after oral administration of HLJDD extract and to explore its possible mechanism. HLJDD extract and Radix scutellariae extract were prepared and the contents of baicalin and wogonoside contained in two extracts were assayed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Type 2 diabetic rats were induced by high fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Pharmacokinetics of baicalin and wogonoside in type 2 diabetic and normal control rats after oral administration of HLJDD extract or Radix scutellariae extract were investigated. Pharmacokinetics of baicalin in type 2 diabetic and normal rats after oral administration of pure baicalin was also investigated. The pharmacokinetic parameters (especially AUCs) of baicalin and wogonoside in type 2 diabetic rats after oral administration of HLJDD extract were remarkably different from those in normal rats. And the alterations of the AUCs of baicalin and wogonoside in type 2 diabetic rats after oral administration of Radix scutellariae extract were similar to those after oral administration of HLJDD extract. Moreover, the increase of the AUC of baicalin in type 2 diabetic rats after oral administration of pure baicalin was similar to that after oral administration of HLJDD extract or Radix scutellariae extract. The pharmacokinetic behaviors of baicalin and wogonoside (especially the systemic exposure [AUCs] of baicalin and wogonoside) were significantly altered in type 2 diabetic rats after orally administrated HLJDD extract. And the increased AUCs of baicalin and wogonoside in type 2 diabetic rats after oral administration of HLJDD extract resulted from neither the

  18. Efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine oral liquid against Newcastle disease in chickens%中药口服液防治鸡新城疫临床效果试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继红; 常英

    2012-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine with antiviral activity, such as Radix Scutellariae. Rcutix Astragali, Rodix lsatidis. Radix Forsythiae, etc., were screened to make into oral liquid, then was given to chickens naturally injected with Newcastle disease for 5-7 days. After treatment, the clinical curative rate was delermined. The resutls showed that traditional Chinese medicine oral liquid was effective for the prevention and trealment of Newcastle disease in chickens.%将筛选出具有抗病毒作用的黄芪、黄芩、板蓝根等中药制成口服液,用于鸡新城疫防治试验。结果表明,中药口服液防治鸡新城疫具有较好疗效,中药治疗组鸡死亡率极显著低于对照组,且以中药口服液疗效最佳。同时,中药治疗组可提高蛋鸡生产性能。

  19. Analysis and Improvement Measures of Medicine Loss of Single Oral Dose Dispensing in Our Hospital%我院单剂量口服摆药药品损耗情况分析及改进措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晶晶; 袁明奎; 李景庄; 樊萍

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To provide reference for minimizing drug loss.METHODS:By retrospective analysis,medicine loss of single oral dose dispensing in our hospital during Jul.2011-Jun.2012 were summarized,and the experiences were also summarized to formulate related measures,and then the effect of measures were re-evaluated.RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS:The causes of medicine loss can be classified into four types:dismounting peeling medicine loss (22.6%),splitting operating loss (25.1%),medicine packaging machine loss (32.1%),incorrect drug storage or out of date after dismounted (20.2 %).The ratio of destroyed tablets decreased from 3.72‰ to 1.55‰ through related improvement measure,including establishing perfect work system and operation standard,carrying our staff training and examination,improving working environment of medicine packaging machine,enhancing management of dismounted medicine,etc.It is suggested that pharmacists should strictly regulate the dismounting medicine process,sum up experience and implement different drugs dismounting and splitting method according to different pills during single oral dose dispensing process; strengthen validity and quality management of dismounted medicines; regularly strengthen the maintenance and overhaul of medicine packaging machine to reduce medicine loss caused by machine stoppage.%目的:为减少药品损耗提供参考.方法:回顾性分析我院2011年7月-2012年6月单剂量口服摆药过程中发生的药品损耗情况并进行归纳整理,总结经验并制订相关措施予以改进,再评价成效.结果与结论:损耗原因可归为拆零剥药损耗(22.6%)、分劈操作损耗(25.1%)、包药机包药损耗(32.1%)及拆零后药品保管不当或过期损耗(20.2%).通过建立完善的工作制度和操作规范、对人员进行培训考核、改善包药机的工作环境、加强拆零药品的管理等改进措施,使损耗片(粒)数占总摆药片(粒)数的比例从3.72‰降为1.55‰.

  20. Genetic imbalances detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification in a cohort of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma-the first step towards clinical personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ilda Patrícia; Marques, Francisco; Caramelo, Francisco; Ferrão, José; Prazeres, Hugo; Julião, Maria José; Rifi, Widad; Savola, Suvi; de Melo, Joana Barbosa; Baptista, Isabel Poiares; Carreira, Isabel Marques

    2014-05-01

    Oral tumors are a growing health problem worldwide; thus, it is mandatory to establish genetic markers in order to improve diagnosis and early detection of tumors, control relapses and, ultimately, delineate individualized therapies. This study was the first to evaluate and discuss the clinical applicability of a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) probe panel directed to head and neck cancer. Thirty primary oral squamous cell tumors were analyzed using the P428 MLPA probe panel. We detected genetic imbalances in 26 patients and observed a consistent pattern of distribution of genetic alterations in terms of losses and gains for some chromosomes, particularly for chromosomes 3, 8, and 11. Regarding the latter, some specific genes were highlighted due to frequent losses of genetic material--RARB, FHIT, CSMD1, GATA4, and MTUS1--and others due to gains--MCCC1, MYC, WISP1, PTK2, CCND1, FGF4, FADD, and CTTN. We also verified that the gains of MYC and WISP1 genes seem to suggest higher propensity of tumors localized in the floor of the mouth. This study proved the value of this MLPA probe panel for a first-tier analysis of oral tumors. The probemix was developed to include target regions that have been already shown to be of diagnostic/prognostic relevance for oral tumors. Furthermore, this study emphasized several of those specific genetic targets, suggesting its importance to oral tumor development, to predict patients' outcomes, and also to guide the development of novel molecular therapies.

  1. Retrospect on the methods in Non-oral administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine in the treatment of asthma%中医非口服给药治疗哮喘方法回顾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭海平; 朱慧芳; 马杰

    2011-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a kind of incurable diseases in Chinese medicine about pulmonary. There is a long history and rich experience in the treatment of asthma by Traditional Chinese Medicine. Treatment of asthma by Traditional Chinese Medicine has a good effect in recent years. Especially the non-oral administration can reduce the effect of relapse with little toxic side effects, which show a good prospect in cure of asthma completely, Now the authors summarize the research progress as follows.%支气管哮喘属中医肺系疑难病症.中医治疗哮喘历史悠久、经验丰富.近年来中医药治疗哮喘取得了较好的效果,尤其是非口服给药法,毒副作用小,减少复发的效果好,并为彻底治愈哮喘显示了可喜的前景.现在将研究进展作一综述.

  2. Overview and consideration on improving oral bioavailability of traditional Chinese medicine preparation%改善中药制剂口服生物利用度的研究概况与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢燕; 马越鸣; 王长虹; 陶建生

    2011-01-01

    Oral bioavailability of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations is a bottleneck in the field of TCM preparations. The classification of TCM preparations was introduced and recent researches on oral bioavailability of TCM preparations were described in several aspects such as dosage form changes, new preparation techniques and application of absorption enhancers, delivery system design based on the biopharmaceutical properties and formula design based on TCM compatibility. The restrictive factors and problems on researches of oral bioavailability of TCM preparations were proposed. Some new research ideas for improving oral bioavailability of TCM preparations were discussed in order to provide reference for the research on modernization of TCM preparations.%中药制剂的口服生物利用度问题一直是制约中药制剂发展的瓶颈之一.本文介绍了中药制剂的分类,对采用改变剂型、制剂新技术、应用吸收促进剂、基于药物生物药剂学特征的给药系统设计和基于配伍规律的中药复方制剂处方设计等方面改善中药制剂口服生物利用度的研究现状进行分析.提出制约中药制剂口服生物利用度研究的因素及存在的问题,探讨改善中药制剂口服生物利用度的研究思路,以期为中药制剂的现代化研究提供借鉴.

  3. A Guide to Medications Inducing Salivary Gland Dysfunction, Xerostomia, and Subjective Sialorrhea : A Systematic Review Sponsored by the World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, Andy; Joshi, Revan Kumar; Ekström, Jörgen; Aframian, Doron; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge; Proctor, Gordon; Narayana, Nagamani; Villa, Alessandro; Sia, Ying Wai; Aliko, Ardita; McGowan, Richard; Kerr, Alexander Ross; Jensen, Siri Beier; Vissink, Arjan; Dawes, Colin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medication-induced salivary gland dysfunction (MISGD), xerostomia (sensation of oral dryness), and subjective sialorrhea cause significant morbidity and impair quality of life. However, no evidence-based lists of the medications that cause these disorders exist. OBJECTIVE: Our objective

  4. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive ... NIBIB-funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that ...

  5. [Antifugal susceptibility testing and antifugal traditional Chinese medicines screening of oral Candida isolated from head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy or chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Zhou, Zeng-Tong; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity and resistance of pathogenic oral Candida spp. isolated from head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy or chemotherapy to antifungal agents. To screen antifugal agents from Chinese traditional and herbal drugs by NCCLS M27-A2 method. Using YBC Test Kit to identify 20 clinical oral Candida isolated from head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The in vitro susceptibilities of 20 oral Candida spp. to 5-flucytosine (5-FC), itraconazole (ITR), fluconazole (FLU), the extracts of 6 Chinese traditional and herbal drugs (caltrop, honeysuckle flower, dandelion, green tea, pine bark, red trefoil) and utility componets of 7 Chinese traditional and herbal drugs (sophorcarpidine, aloperine, archin, glycyrrhizic acid, glycosides of white peony root, glycosides of baikal skullcap root, hydrochloric berberine) were determined by NCCLS M27-A2 method. The proportion of no-C. albicans in all Candida spp. were 25%. All strains were sensitive to 5-flucytosine, 25% stains were resistant to fluconazole and 40% stains were resistant to itraconazole. In all agents from Chinese traditional and herbal drugs, glycosides of white peony root and hydrochloric berberine (C20H18CINO4) exhibited antifungal activity, especially to C. glabrates. The proportion of no-C. albicans in all oral Candida spp. isolated from head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy or chemotherapy was pretty high. NCCLS M27-A2 micro-dilution method is a reliable and reproducible method and can be used to screen antifugal agents from Chinese traditional and herbal drugs.

  6. Common Calcium Hydroxide Preparation and Its Application in the Oral Medicine%常用氢氧化钙制剂及其在口腔内科学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春锋

    2016-01-01

    口腔科常用氢氧化钙制剂包括放射线阻射氢氧化钙复合物、氢氧化钙甘油、ZT胶氢氧化钙混合剂和可见光固化氢氧化钙,可用于根管消毒、根管充填、根尖诱导成形术、活髓切断术和盖髓术。用于治疗口腔内科疾病操作简单,成本低廉,治疗效果显著。但应合理应用氢氧化钙制剂,充分认识其优势和不足,使之充分发挥治疗作用。%The common calcium hydroxide preparations in the oral department include the radiation resistance calcium hy-droxide compound, calcium hydroxide glycerol, ZT glue alcium hydroxide mixture, visible light solidified alcium hydroxide, which can be used in the root canal disinfection, root canal filling, apexifieation, vital pulpotomy and capping, the treatment effect of diseases in the oral medicine is obvious with easy operation and cheap cost, but we should rationally use the calci-um hydroxide preparation, fully recognize their advantages and disadvantages, and make them fully play a treatment role.

  7. Clinical curative effect and safety evaluation of oral traditional Chinese medicine dialectical treatment on chronic ec-zema%辨证治疗慢性湿疹中药临床疗效与安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈录凯

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察辨证治疗慢性湿疹中药的临床疗效及其安全性。方法将72例慢性湿疹患者随机分为治疗组和对照组各36例。治疗组根据患者病情及分型给予相应的中医辨证治疗;对照组给予地氯雷他定片口服,并外涂复方地塞米松软膏;2组均14d为1个疗程,在3个疗程后比较2组临床疗效。结果治疗组总有效率为97.22%高于对照组的58.33%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论慢性湿疹根据患者病情及分型给予相应的中药治疗,疗效显著,值得在临床上应用。%Objective To observe clinical curative effect and safety of oral traditional Chinese medicine dialectical treatment on chronic eczema.Methods 72 patients with chronic eczema were randomly divided into treatment group and con-trol group,36 cases of each.The treatment group was given oraltraditional Chinese medicine dialectical treatment based on the patients′condition and type;The control group was given desloratadine tablets oral therapy,and coated with compound dexam-ethasone acetate ointment drug.The two groups both were 14d for 1 courses.After the 3 course,the clinical curative effect of the two groups were compared.Results The total effective rate of treatment group was 97.22%,which was higher than 58.33%in the control group,the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion Treated by syndrome differentiation of traditional Chinese Medicine therapy based on the patient′s condition and treatment.The curative effect is remarkable,and it is worthy of application in clinic.

  8. Asthma Medicines: Quick Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 18-21yrs. Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & ... Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted ... Children > Health Issues > Conditions > Allergies & Asthma > Asthma Medicines: Quick ...

  9. Herbal medicinal oils in traditional Persian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, Azadeh; Zarshenas, Mohammad M; Sohrabpour, Maryam; Zargaran, Arman

    2013-09-01

    In Iran, conventional production methods of herbal oils are widely used by local practitioners. Administration of oils is rooted in traditional knowledge with a history of more than 3000 years. Scientific evaluation of these historical documents can be valuable for finding new potential use in current medicine. The current study (i) compiled an inventory of herbal oils used in ancient and medieval Persia and (ii) compared the preparation methods and therapeutic applications of ancient times to current findings of medicinal properties in the same plant species. Information on oils, preparation methods and related clinical administration was obtained from ancient Persian documents and selected manuscripts describing traditional Persian medicine. Moreover, we investigated the efficacy of medicinal plant species used for herbal oils through a search of the PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases. In Iran, the application of medicinal oils date back to ancient times. In medieval Persian documents, 51 medicinal oils produced from 31 plant species, along with specific preparation methods, were identified. Flowers, fruits and leaves were most often used. Herbal oils have been traditionally administered via oral, topical and nasal routes for gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and neural diseases, respectively. According to current investigations, most of the cited medicinal plant species were used for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Medicinal oils are currently available in Iranian medicinal plant markets and are prepared using traditional procedures for desirable clinical outcomes. Other than historical clarification, the present study provides data on clinical applications of the oils that should lead to future opportunities to investigate their potential medicinal use.

  10. Oral Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Oral Medication The first treatment for type 2 diabetes blood ... new — even over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money ...

  11. Oral myiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Thalaimalai Saravanan; Mathan A Mohan; Meera Thinakaran; Saneem Ahammed

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability ...

  12. A review of the role of African traditional medicine in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of the role of African traditional medicine in the management of oral ... This review was done to document the role of African traditional medicine in oral ... operate a pluralistic health system whereby highly sophisticated biomedical ...

  13. Observation of sitagliptin combined treatment of type 2 diabetes with single oral medicine poor treatment effect%西格列汀联合单一口服药治疗2型糖尿病观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李真真

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical curative effect and reliability of sitagliptin combined treatment of type 2 diabetes with single oral medicine poor treatment effect.Methods:60 patients with type 2 diabetes were selected from April 2013 to April 2014.The patients were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group with 30 cases in each according to the admission number.The control group was given single oral medicine metformin treatment.The observation group was given combined sitagliptin treatment on the basis of the control group.The treatment effects of patients in two groups were compared. Results:After the patients in two groups received 10 weeks treatment,the BMI,fasting blood glucose,diet after 2 hours blood glucose,HbA1C and the incidence rate of hypoglycemia of the control group were significantly decreased than before treatment,The above index of the observation group were significantly decreased than before treatment.The diet after 2 hours C peptide and fasting C peptide of patients in two groups were compared,there was no statistical significance(P>0.05).After 10 weeks treatment, the BMI,fasting blood glucose,diet after 2 hours blood glucose,HbA1C of the observation group and the control group were compared with a significant difference(P<0.05).Conclusion:In the treatment of type 2 diabetes,it can use sitagliptin combined single oral medicine treatment methods.It can effectively improve the treatment effect of patients,and improve the prognosis quality.It is worth popularizing in clinic.%目的:探讨西格列汀联合单一口服药治疗2型糖尿病的临床疗效与可靠性。方法:2013年4月-2014年4月收治2型糖尿病患者60例,将患者按照入院编号随机分为观察组和对照组,各30例。对照组给予单一口服药二甲双胍治疗;观察组在对照组的基础上,再联合采用西格列汀治疗,比较两组患者的治疗效果。结果:两组患者在接受10周治疗后,对照组

  14. Aerospace Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  15. Nuclear Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  16. Oral health and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, G W

    1994-03-01

    The relationships between oral health conditions, dietary practices and nutritional status, and general health status in the older American are complex, with many interrelating factors. Just as inadequate nutrition can affect oral health, poor oral health status affects food choices and, thus, nutritional status. It is clearly essential that the primary care practitioner and/or screening health professionals always include an evaluation of oral status in assessment of an elderly person. Effective care for the elderly dental patient requires knowledge about the disease of aging and the impact of those diseases on oral health and nutrition, pharmacology and drug interactions and their impact on oral health status, the biology of aging including sensory changes, the relationship of general medicine and systemic diseases, and psychology and sociology. The attitudes of empathy and understanding, caring and compassion, respect and a positive attitude toward the older patient, and flexibility in treatment planning are also critical elements. The interdisciplinary team of physicians, nurses, nutrition professionals, dentists, and social service professionals must all work together to ensure that good oral health status and adequate nutrition are maintained in older Americans. Recognizing and treating oral health and nutrition problems are important in improving the health and quality of life for the elderly population. Research that can provide more answers to health care problems in this growing group; educating professionals with respect to the relationships between oral health and nutrition; and public policy changes with regard to provision and funding of nutrition services, especially when provided by registered and/or licensed nutrition professionals, contribute to improving the health and quality of life for elders.

  17. Molecular Signatures in the Prevention of Radiation Damage by the Synergistic Effect of N-Acetyl Cysteine and Qingre Liyan Decoction, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Using a 3-Dimensional Cell Culture Model of Oral Mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria P. Lambros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Qingre Liyan decoction (QYD, a Traditional Chinese medicine, and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC have been used to prevent radiation induced mucositis. This work evaluates the protective mechanisms of QYD, NAC, and their combination (NAC-QYD at the cellular and transcriptional level. A validated organotypic model of oral mucosal consisting of a three-dimensional (3D cell tissue-culture of primary human keratinocytes exposed to X-ray irradiation was used. Six hours after the irradiation, the tissues were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H and E and a TUNEL assay to assess histopathology and apoptosis, respectively. Total RNA was extracted and used for microarray gene expression profiling. The tissue-cultures treated with NAC-QYD preserved their integrity and showed no apoptosis. Microarray results revealed that the NAC-QYD caused the upregulation of genes encoding metallothioneins, HMOX1, and other components of the Nrf2 pathway, which protects against oxidative stress. DNA repair genes (XCP, GADD45G, RAD9, and XRCC1, protective genes (EGFR and PPARD, and genes of the NFκB pathway were upregulated. Finally, tissue-cultures treated prophylactically with NAC-QYD showed significant downregulation of apoptosis, cytokines and chemokines genes, and constrained damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs. NAC-QYD treatment involves the protective effect of Nrf2, NFκB, and DNA repair factors.

  18. Cultivating the students' creative ability in clinical Internship of oral medicine%在口腔医学毕业实习中培养学生的创新能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元婷; 刘铁玉; 严美凤; 曲晓娟

    2011-01-01

    口腔临床实习是医学生通过临床实践,理论联系实际、化知识为能力的关键阶段.应根据口腔医学的特点,首先整合教学内容、开展讨论式教学;然后进行专题讲座,设疑、质疑、答疑;同时加强科研训练.通过指导学生查阅资料、填写并作开题报告、进行病历讨论、撰写专业综述和论文,培养其创新能力.%The dental clinical internship is the critical stage of combining theory and practice and changing the knowledge into ability for medical smdents through clinical practice.It should be based on the characteristics of oral medicine such as integrating the teaching content firstly,promoting the discussion teaching;then carrying the seminar teaching,including three steps,question-making,question-suspecting and question-solving Meanwhile,the training of scientific research and cultivate the innovative ability should be strengthened to cultivate students'creative ability by guiding studetents to refer to data.fill in the proposal of medical students and process an opening report,make medical records discussion and write professional summary and thesis.

  19. Simultaneous determination of four phenolic acids and seven alkaloids in rat plasma after oral administration of traditional Chinese medicinal preparation Jinqi Jiangtang Tablet by LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yan-xu; Ge, Ai-hua; Yu, Xie-an; Jiao, Xiu-cheng; Li, Jin; He, Jun; Tian, Ji; Liu, Wei; Azietaku, John Teye; Zhang, Bo-li; Gao, Xiu-mei

    2016-01-05

    A rapid, sensitive and selective high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of four phenolic acids (neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid and ferulic acid) and seven alkaloids (berberine, epiberberine, coptisine, magnoflorine, berberubine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine) in rat plasma. After mixing with the internal standards tetrahydropalmatine (IS1) and rosmarinic acid (IS2), plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation using acetonitrile. The HPLC analysis was performed on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18 (4.6 mm×100 mm, 1.8 μm) column with mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.3 mL min(-1). The detection was accomplished for the analytes and internal standards using positive electrospray ionization for the alkaloids and negative electrospray ionization for the phenolic acids in multiple-reaction monitoring mode. The method showed a good linearity over a wide concentration range (r(2)>0.99). The lower limit of quantification of seven alkaloids was lower than 2 ng mL(-1) and that of four phenolic acids was less than 20 ng mL(-1). The developed method was applied to the pharmacokinetic study of 11 components after oral administration of traditional Chinese medicinal preparation Jinqi Jiangtang Tablet in rats.

  20. Research progress on the application of rare earth elements in oral medicine%稀土元素在口腔医学领域应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡颖; 甄蕾(综述); 杜毅(审校)

    2013-01-01

    Rare earth elements are a group of metals,including the lanthanides and scandium and tytrium of the similar nature. Rare earth elements have been widely used in biomedical applications;they have effect of antagonism of endotox-in,inhibition of inflammatory cytokine secretion,caries prevention,intervention and regulation of bone formation and recycling,anticoagulant and anticancer biological effects. Research progress on application of rare earth elements in oral medicine is reviewed in this article.%稀土元素是一组金属元素的简称,包括镧系元素及化学性质与其相近的钪和钇2种元素。稀土元素具有拮抗内毒素、抑制炎症因子分泌、防龋、干预和调控骨的形成与再造、抗凝血、抑癌等生物学作用,已广泛应用于生物医学领域。本文主要对稀土元素在口腔医学领域内的应用研究进展做一综述。

  1. Clinical Observation on Treatment for 54 Cases of Oral Ulcers with Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine%中西医结合疗法治疗口腔溃疡54例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈传耀

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察中西医结合疗法治疗口腔溃疡的临床疗效.方法:将108 例患者随机分为治疗组、对照组各54 例,2组均在局部消炎止痛的基础上给予左旋咪唑50 mg,3 次/d,口服;3%过氧化氢溶液和生理盐水冲洗溃疡面,3次/d;5 mg维生素B12 捣碎后与8 万U 庆大霉素混合成糊状,外敷于溃疡表面.治疗组同时加用中药,水煎分服,2次/d.2 组均以治疗3 天为1 个疗程,治疗2个疗程后观察疗效.结果:总有效率治疗组为92.59%,对照组为77.78%,2组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).治疗组3 天愈合例数多于对照组,2 组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).愈合天数治疗组明显短于对照组,2 组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:中西医结合疗法治疗口腔溃疡临床疗效显著.%Objective: To observe the effects of integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine in treating oral ulcers. Method: All 108 patients were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, 54 cases each group. Both groups took levamisole 50mg orally on the base of local anti-inflammation and analgesic, three times per day, 3% hydrogen peroxide solution and physiological saline for rinse of ulcer, three time each day; mixing 5mg vitamin B12 powder and 80000 U gentamycin together into paste and applied externally to the surface. Treatment group received decoction of herbs, twice each day. One session was three days for both groups, after two sessions to observe the effect. Result: Total effective rate of treatment group was 92.59%, higher than 77.78% of control group with statistical meaning (P<0.05). Cured cases within three days of treatment group were more than that of control group with statistical meaning(P<0.05). Healing days of treatment group was shorter than control group with statistical meaning (P<0.05). Conclusion: Integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine is proved to be effective in treating oral ulcers.

  2. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalaimalai Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy.

  3. Medicine organizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ricardo; Belchior, Ismael

    2015-04-01

    In the last year of secondary school, students studying physics and chemistry are incentivized to do a project where they must put in practice their improvement of scientific knowledge and skills, like observation of phenomena and analysis of data with scientific knowledge. In this project a group of students, tutored by the teacher, wanted to build an instrument that helps people to take their medical drugs at the right time. This instrument must have some compartments with an alarm and an LED light where the people can put their medical drugs. The instrument must be easily programed using an android program that also registers if the medicine has been taken. The students needed to simulate the hardware and software, draw the electronic system and build the final product. At the end of the school year, a public oral presentation was prepared by each group of students and presented to the school community. They are also encouraged to participate in national and international scientific shows and competitions.

  4. Oral Thrush

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding mothers In addition to the distinctive white mouth lesions, infants may have trouble feeding or be fussy ... candidiasis (yeast infection) patient information. American Academy of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology. http://www.aaomp.org/public/oral-candidiasis.php. ...

  5. Oral Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    鈴木, 規子; スズキ, ノリコ; Noriko, SUZUKI

    2004-01-01

    The major oral functions can be categorized as mastication, swallowing, speech and respiratory functions. Dysfunction of these results in dysphagia, speech disorders and abnormal respiration (such as Sleep Apnea). These functions relate to dentistry in the occurrence of : (1) oral preparatory and oral phases, (2) articulation disorders and velopharyngeal incompetence (VPI), and (3) mouth breathing, respiratory and blowing disorders. These disorders are related to oral and maxillofacial diseas...

  6. Applications of OralCDx ® methodology in the diagnosis of oral leukoplakia

    OpenAIRE

    Seijas-Naya, Flavio; García-Carnicero, Tamara; Gándara-Vila, Pilar; Couso-Folgueiras, Elena; Pérez-Sayáns, Mario; Gándara-Vila, Rafael; García-García, Abel; Gándara-Rey, José-Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the brush biopsy technique using OralCDx ® (OralScan Laboratories Inc., Suffern, NY) as a new method for early diagnosis and control of a “potentially malignant disorder” such as oral leukoplakia. Design of the study: We performed a study in which samples were taken using OralCDx ® on 24 patients who visited the Master of Oral Medicine, Oral Surgery and Implantology of the University of Santiago de Compostela between February 2009 and May 201...

  7. Essentials of periodontal medicine in preventive medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkle Gulati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of systemic disorders on periodontal diseases is well established. However, of growing interest is the effect of periodontal diseases on numerous systemic diseases or conditions like cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, pre-term low birth weight babies, preeclampsia, respiratory infections and others including osteoporosis, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, erectile dysfunction, Alzheimer′s disease, gastrointestinal disease, prostatitis, renal diseases, which has also been scientifically validated. This side of the oral-systemic link has been termed Periodontal Medicine and is potentially of great public health significance, as periodontal disease is largely preventable and in many instances readily treatable, hence, providing many new opportunities for preventing and improving prognosis of several systemic pathologic conditions. This review article highlights the importance of prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases as an essential part of preventive medicine to circumvent its deleterious effects on general health.

  8. Impact of oral mucosa lesions on the quality of life related to oral health. An etiopathogenic study

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva-Vilchis, María-del-Carmen; López-Ríos, Patricia; García, Ixchel-Maya; Gaitán Cepeda, Luis Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess the impact of oral mucosa lesions on quality of life related to oral health (QLROH) and additionally to establish whether the etiopathogenicy of oral lesion is associated to the degree of QLROH impact. Material and Methods In this cross-sectional study performed on a non-probability sample of 247 consecutively patients attending the oral medicine and pathology clinic the Spanish version of Oral Health Impact Profile-49 questionnaire (OHIP-49-mx) was applied. Responses wer...

  9. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clincal trials of oral Chinese medicine for treatment on chronic heart failure%口服中药治疗慢性心力衰竭随机对照实验的系统评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟; 陈婵; 张鹏; 史琦; 杨易; 黄黎明; 王伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of oral Chinese medicine for chronic heart failure. Methods: Electronic and manual searches were conducted and the search ended in October 2009. This study include randomized clinical trials that used oral Chinese medicine plus Western-based treatment according to the newest Chronic Congestive Heart Failure Treatment Guidelines vs Western-based treatment, and random-effect modal of Meta-analysis was performed by using the statistical software RevMan5.0 on the basis of strict quality evaluation. Results: Sixty randomized trials (involving 5 344 patients) in 1 067 with various methodological quality were finally included. Observed indicators including: EF and 6-min walking test. The pooled results showed that Western-based treatment plus oral Chinese medicine are better than Western-based treatment, Western-based treatment plus placebo, Western-based treatment plus ACEI or P-blocker or cardilol in improving EF and 6-min walking test. Four trials in ten were observed among the oral Chinese medicine treatment, such as nausea, sickness, dizziness and so on, so using oral Chinese medicine is relatively safe. Conclusion: Oral Chinese medicine included in this review have effects in improving heart function and exercise endurance in patients with chronic heart failure, and more RCT should be conducted to accumulate evidence for the efficacy and safety of oral Chinese medicine.%目的:运用循证医学评价口服中药治疗慢性心力衰竭的疗效与安全性.方法:电子结合手工检索日期截止于2009年10月,纳入口服中药与单纯西医治疗比较的随机对照试验的文献,评价质量并做Meta分析.结果:纳入60个随机对照试验(5 344例患者),结局指标为超声心动图射血分数和6min步行实验.Meta分析结果:加用口服中药可以提高射血分数并延长6min步行距离,且不良反应轻微,使用相对安全.结论:加用口服中药在改善患者超声心功能和运动耐

  10. Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Camilla; Reibel, J; Hadler-Olsen, E S

    2010-01-01

    , including the dental education, is required. As a result of the Bologna process, the Association for Dental Education in Europe and the thematic network DentEd have generated guidelines in the document 'Profile and Competences for the European Dentist' (PCD). This document is meant to act as the leading...

  11. Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Alternative Medicine en Español email Send this article to a ... Dr. Yvonne Ou on Lifestyle Modifications and Glaucoma Alternative medicine may be defined as non-standard, unconventional treatments ...

  12. Diabetes Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. If you can't control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends ...

  13. Herbal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...

  14. Oral histoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Karthikeya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal disease that takes various clinical forms, among which oral lesions are rare. The disseminated form of the disease that usually occurs in association with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is one of the AIDS-defining diseases. Isolated oral histoplasmosis, without systemic involvement, with underlying immunosuppression due to AIDS is very rare. We report one such case of isolated oral histoplasmosis in a HIV-infected patient.

  15. World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Alessandro; Wolff, Andy; Aframian, Doron

    2015-01-01

    , use of saliva substitutes or of electro-stimulating devices. Although there are promising approaches to improve salivary gland function, most studies are characterized by small numbers and heterogeneous methods. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians and dentists should identify the medications associated...

  16. Oral and maxillofacial aspects of diving medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Matthew T

    2004-02-01

    Sport diving has witnessed explosive growth in the past decade, as 8.5 million people are certified in the United States alone. Even though scuba diving is a relatively safe sport, there are serious risks that all divers must consider. Beyond the better-known sequelae such as decompression sickness, middle ear dysfunction, and potential central nervous system effects, scuba diving also carries inherent risk to the maxillofacial region. Atypical facial pain, temporomandibular joint dysfunction, sinus barotraumas, and barodontalgia have all been reported by dentists and physicians treating military, commercial, and sport divers. Additionally, clinicians must address anatomic concerns for would-be divers, including cleft lip and palate, edentulism, or patients with pre-existing temporomandibular dysfunction, midfacial trauma, or craniomaxillofacial surgery. Health care professionals should have a thorough understanding of the implications of scuba diving for consultation and recommendation regarding diving fitness and the treatment of adverse effects of scuba diving to the maxillofacial region.

  17. World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aliko, Ardita; Wolff, Andy; Dawes, Colin

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to systematically review the available literature on the clinical implications of medication-induced salivary gland dysfunction (MISGD). STUDY DESIGN: The systematic review was performed using PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science (through June 2013). Studies were assessed....... In the majority of the 129 reviewed papers, it was not documented whether xerostomia was accompanied by decreased salivary flow. Incidence and prevalence of medication-induced xerostomia varied widely and was often associated with number and dose of medications. Xerostomia was most frequently reported to be mild...

  18. 中药海尔福口服液对砷中毒小鼠的解毒效果研究%Detoxification effects of traditional Chinese medicine of Haier Fu oral liquid on mice with arsenic poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何胜; 陆晓峰; 银彩林; 李红妃; 梁海燕; 林洁; 周国荃; 张树球

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨砷对动物的毒性作用及中药对其解毒效果.方法 用亚砷酸钠毒物染毒小鼠(造模),然后用海尔福口服液(中药制剂)分别按小剂量(治疗1组)和大剂量(治疗2组)灌胃治疗.同时设染毒不治疗组(即模型组)和正常组做对照.实验连续30 d.测定染毒前、后和治疗后的血红蛋白(Hb).实验结束,从眼球取血,分离血清,测定丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT),尿素;处死动物后,取肝脏作病理研究,取大脑制成10%脑匀浆,测定超氧阴离子自由基清除率.结果 正常组、模型组、治疗1组、治疗2组,造模前Hb,各组比较(P>0.05)差异无统计学意义;造模后(治疗前)Hb依次分别为143.77 +7.11、120.47±14.23、117.66±7.01、125.66±6.86(g/L),正常组明显高于造模的三个组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),其中最低为治疗l组,同时造模后的三个组均明显低于其造模前水平,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).治疗后Hb分别为152.37±13.69、122.46±12.52、137.62±11.29、151.00 ±9.09(g/L),模型组最低,明显低于正常组和治疗2组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05或P<0.01),治疗1组、治疗2组治疗后明显高于治疗前水平,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),而模型组治疗前后比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).病理研究结果表明,砷对肝脏有损害作用,模型组肝损害较严重,治疗组较轻.脑对超氧阴离子自由基清除率和肝ALT活性,各组间也有一定变化.结论 砷对造血系统有明显的抑制作用和对肝脏有明显损害作用,中药海尔福治疗后恢复明显.%Objective To explore the role of arsenic toxicity to animals and detoxification effects of traditional Chinese medicine. Methods Using sodium arsenide toxicant to contaminate mice ( mice model) , and then gave mice gastric lavage treatment with Haier Fu oral liquid (traditional Chinese medicine). The mice were divided into group 1 with small dose of Haier Fu oral liquid and group 2

  19. Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine : statement on oral pathology and oral medicine in the European Dental Curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragelund, C.; Reibel, J.; Hadler-Olsen, E. S.; Hietanen, J.; Johannessen, A. C.; Kenrad, B.; Nylander, K.; Puranen, M.; Rozell, B.; Salo, T.; Syrjanen, S.; Soland, T. M.; van der Waal, I.; van der Wal, J. E.; Warfvinge, G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: For many years, dentists have migrated between the Scandinavian countries without an intentionally harmonized dental education. The free movement of the workforce in the European Union has clarified that a certain degree of standardization or harmonization of the European higher educatio

  20. Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine: statement on oral pathology and oral medicine in the European Dental Curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragelund, C.; Reibel, J.; Hadler-Olsen, E.S.; Hietanen, J.; Johannessen, A.C.; Kenrad, B.; Nylander, K.; Puranen, M.; Rozell, B.; Salo, T.; Syrjanen, S.; Soland, T.M.; van der Waal, I.; van der Wal, J.E.; Warfvinge, G.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For many years, dentists have migrated between the Scandinavian countries without an intentionally harmonized dental education. The free movement of the workforce in the European Union has clarified that a certain degree of standardization or harmonization of the European higher educatio

  1. Dynamic Hip Screw Fixation Combined of Oral Medicine Treating Intertrochanteric Fracture%动力髋螺钉固定术配合口服中药治疗高龄股骨粗隆间骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐爱民

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨采用动力髋螺钉(DHS)固定术配合口服中药治疗高龄股骨粗隆间骨折的方法和疗效.方法:对2004年1月—2009年1月收治的股骨粗隆间骨折患者进行手术治疗.其中男25例,女21例,年龄65~83岁,平均年龄73岁,采用动力髋螺钉(DHS)固定术.结果:1例病人术后3天出现患肢深静脉血栓,经活血、溶栓治疗后恢复.2例因其他疾病死亡,43例骨折均全部愈合,已恢复原来生活能力,无内固定物松动及髋内翻畸形等并发症.结论:动力髋螺钉(DHS)固定术配合口服中药治疗高龄股骨粗隆间骨折具有操作简单、时间短、固定可靠、损伤小、出血少、骨折愈合率高、并发症少等优点,是值得推广应用的手术方法[1].%Objective:To investigate the method and effect of the dynamic hip screw ( DHS )fixation of intertrochanteric fracture. Methods; During January 2004-January 2009, patients admitted because of intertrochanteric fractures were treated surgically, including 25 males and 21 females, aged 65 to 83 years old, mean age was 73, using dynamic hip screw ( DHS ) fixation. Results: 3 days after surgery, 1 case limb deep vein thrombosis occurs, the blood circulation restored after thrombolytic therapy. 2 patients died due to other diseases,43 cases of fracture were all healed and returned to the original capacity, no loosening of internal fixation, or complications such as varus deformity. Conclusion: The dynamic hip screw ( DHS ) fixation combined with oral medicine treatment of intertrochanteric fracture is simple, treatment course is short, fixed and reliable, with less damage, less bleeding, high fracture healing rate, fewer complications, and is worthy of promoting application for the surgical method[1].

  2. Interactions between sleep disorders and oral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, N T; Emami, E; Helman, J I; Chervin, R D

    2014-04-01

    Dental sleep medicine is a rapidly growing field that is in close and direct interaction with sleep medicine and comprises many aspects of human health. As a result, dentists who encounter sleep health and sleep disorders may work with clinicians from many other disciplines and specialties. The main sleep and oral health issues that are covered in this review are obstructive sleep apnea, chronic mouth breathing, sleep-related gastroesophageal reflux, and sleep bruxism. In addition, edentulism and its impact on sleep disorders are discussed. Improving sleep quality and sleep characteristics, oral health, and oral function involves both pathophysiology and disease management. The multiple interactions between oral health and sleep underscore the need for an interdisciplinary clinical team to manage oral health-related sleep disorders that are commonly seen in dental practice.

  3. 中药内服外敷配合隔物灸治疗肝癌腹胀的临床观察%Observation on Traditional Chinese Medicine Orally Taken and Externally Applied Combined with Indirect Moxibustion in the Treatment of Hepato-cellular Carcinoma and Abdominal Distension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙素芹; 常丽; 叶婷

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine orally taken and externally applied combined with indirect moxibustion in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with abdominal distention. Methods 30 cases of patients were treated with traditional Chinese medicine orally taken and externally applied combined with indirect moxibustion, and the short-term efficacy was observed. Results The total effective rate of the 30 patients reaches 80%, compared with that (55.6%) of the cisapride group, the difference is statistically significant (P<0.05), and is suitable for various TCM syndrome types of hepatocellular carcinoma patients with abdominal distension. Conclusion Traditional Chinese medicine orally taken and externally applied combined with indirect moxibustion has the clinical effect of eliminating, reducing or alleviating hepatocellular carcinoma patients with abdominal distension.%目的:观察中药内服外敷配合隔物灸治疗肝癌腹胀的临床疗效。方法对30例患者均用中药内服外敷配合隔物灸治疗,观察近期疗效。结果30例患者总有效率达到80%,与西沙必利组(55.6%)相比,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),且适用于多种中医辨证类型的肝癌腹胀患者。结论中药内服外敷配合隔物灸综合治疗能达到消除、减轻或缓解肝癌腹胀的临床效果。

  4. Oral Histoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, Gillian A; Nelson, Brenda L

    2017-02-20

    A 44-year-old female presented to her general dentist with the chief complaint of a painful mouth sore of 2 weeks duration. Clinical examination revealed an irregularly shaped ulcer of the buccal and lingual attached gingiva of the anterior mandible. A biopsy was performed and microscopic evaluation revealed histoplasmosis. Histoplasmosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulate, is the most common fungal infection in the United States. Oral lesions of histoplasmosis are generally associated with the disseminated form of histoplasmosis and may present as a fungating or ulcerative lesion of the oral mucosa. The histologic findings and differential diagnosis for oral histoplasmosis are discussed.

  5. Oral leukoplakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The idea of identifying oral lesions with a precancerous nature, i.e. in the sense of pertaining to a pathologic process with an increased risk for future malignant development, of course is to prevent frank malignancy to occur in the affected area. The most common oral lesion with a precancerous...... nature is oral leukoplakia, and for decades it has been discussed how to treat these lesions. Various treatment modalities, such as systemic therapies and surgical removal, have been suggested. The systemic therapies tested so far include retinoids, extracts of green tea, inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2...

  6. The Systematical Evaluation to The Randomixed Controlled Trials of Traditional Chinese Medicine Oral Intervention Intervention in the Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)%中药内服治疗盆腔炎随机对照试验的系统评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐俐平

    2011-01-01

    目的:系统评价中药内服干预治疗盆腔炎的随机对照试验的疗效.方法:通过检索中国生物医学文献数据库(CBM)、万方、CNKI和VIP等中文数据库(1999-2009年),全面搜集有关中药内服治疗盆腔炎的随机对照试验.由2名评价员对文献进行筛选,纳入中药治疗盆腔炎的随机对照试验并提取资料和质量评价,质量评价参照Cochranehand-book 5.0提供的标准,数据分析采用Revman 5.0软件.结果:纳入12篇随机对照研究文献,经临床异质性检验,采用固定效应模型进行Meta分析,得出中药内服治疗盆腔炎有明显的疗效且优于对照组.结论:由于中药内服治疗盆腔炎的随机对照研究开展较少,纳入研究质量较低,故中药治疗盆腔炎的有效性尚缺乏足够的证据,有待进一步研究来验证.%Objective:To systematically evaluate the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine Oral intervention in the pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) of the randomized controlled trials.Methods: to research the clinical trials by searching Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) ,Wanfang, CNKI and VIP such as a database of Chinese (1999 -2009 ) ,full collection of oral administration of Chinese medicine to PID,that are randomized controlled trials.Two evaluators screening the traditional Chinese medicine treatment of PID in randomized controlled trials and extracting data and quality assessment followed Cochranehandbook5.0 criteria and data analysis software used Revman5.0.Results: The included 12 randomized controlled study,by clinical heterogeneity test, using a fixed effects model, Meta analysis resulted in traditional Chinese medicine Oral treatment of PID and the efficacy is better than the control group.Conclusion :for the fewer oral treatment of randomized controlled studies to PID, the low quality, and therefore the effectiveness of TCM treatment of PID is still a lack of sufficient evidence, pending further studies to validate.

  7. [Expedition medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlagić, Lana

    2009-01-01

    Expedition and wildeness medicine is a term that combines rescue medicine, sport medicine as well as more specific branches as polar or high altitude medicine. It is being intensively studied both at the reaserch institutes and on expeditions. Ophtalmologists are concentrated on the reaserch of HARH (High Altitude Retinal Hemorrhage), neurologists on HACE reaserch (High Altitude Cerebral Edema), psychologists are developing tests to decsribe cognitive functions and many physicians are being trained to work in extreme enviroment. The result of all this effort are numerous new findings in pathophysiology and therapy of altitude illness, increased security on expedition and further development of expeditionism.

  8. Oral pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2008-05-01

    Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth.

  9. Herpes - oral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000606.htm Herpes - oral To use the sharing features on this page, ... 374. Read More Atopic dermatitis Cancer Fever Genital herpes Mouth ulcers Vesicles Review Date 8/14/2015 Updated ...

  10. Disparities in Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2020: Oral Health Objectives Site Map Disparities in Oral Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Oral health ... to get and keep dental insurance. Disparities in Oral Health Some of the oral health disparities that exist ...

  11. Treatment for Cancer Patients with Oral Mucositis: Assessment Based on the Mucositis Study Group of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer in International Society of Oral Oncology (MASCC/ISOO) in 2013 and Proposal of Possible Novel Treatment with a Japanese Herbal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyano, Kanako; Ueno, Takao; Yatsuoka, Wakako; Uezono, Yasuhito

    2016-01-01

    The cancer patients who received chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hematopoietic stem cell transplant and terminal care often have a wide range of stomatitis, which induces severe pain and limits fundamental life behaviors such as "eating, drinking and talking". In addition, oral mucositis frequently leads to systemic infection through opportunistic microorganisms, which causes extension of hospitalization. Severe oral mucositis often causes cancer patients to partially or completely discontinue/modify cancer therapy regimen, which adversely affects the curative effects of cancer. Therefore, the control of oral mucositis is important and indispensable for improvement of quality of life and prognosis. In this review, we introduce recent trends of the oral mucositis management in cancer patients, according to the following sentences; 1) pathophysiological mechanisms of oral mucositis, 2) assessment, 3) risk factors, 4) prevention and treatment, and 5) development of novel therapy for oral mucositis.

  12. [Sport medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram

    2012-02-01

    It is only since the late 20th century that Sport and Exercise Medicine has emerged as a distinct entity in health care. In Israel, sports medicine is regulated by a State Law and a sport physician is certified after graduating a structured program. In the past, sports medicine was related to the diagnosis and treatment of injuries encountered by top athletes. In recent years, the scope of sport medicine has broadened to reflect the awareness of modern society of the dangers of physical inactivity. In this perspective the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM) recently launched a program--"Exercise is Medicine", to promote physical activity in order to improve health and well-being and prevention of diseases through physical activity prescriptions. This program is from doctors and healthcare providers, adjusted to the patient or trainee. The sport physician does not replace a medical specialist, but having a thorough understanding about the etiology of a sport-related injury enables him to better focus on treatment and prevention. Therefore, Team Physicians in Elite Sport often play a role regarding not only the medical care of athletes, but also in the physiological monitoring of the athlete and correcting aberrations, to achieve peak physical performance. The broad spectrum of issues in sport and exercise medicine cannot be completely covered in one issue of the Journal. Therefore, the few reports that are presented to enhance interest and understanding in the broad spectrum of issues in sports and exercise medicine are only the tip of the iceberg.

  13. Vulnerable Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochner, Arthur P.

    2009-01-01

    In "Narrative Medicine: Honoring the Stories of Illness," Rita Charon paints an original and humane portrait of what it can mean to be a doctor, to live a life immersed in sickness and dedicated to wellness. Charon drops the veil, inviting readers to look at the secret, subjective, emotional face of medicine, a zone of self-censored feelings and…

  14. Oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... papillomavirus (HPV) infection (same virus that causes genital warts ) Taking medicines that weaken the immune system (immunosuppressants) ... dry mouth Support Groups You can ease the stress of illness by joining a cancer support group . ...

  15. Pharmacoeconomics of the oral antidiabetic drugs in National Essential Medicine%国家基本药物中口服降糖药的药物经济学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江学容; 成小蔓

    2011-01-01

    比较国家基本药物中口服降糖药治疗2型糖尿病的经济效果.选取体重指数19~27 kg/m2的2型糖尿病患者200例,分为5组,每组40例,分别给予格列本脲(A组)、格列吡嗪(B组)、二甲双胍(C组)、格列本脲+二甲双胍(D组)、格列吡嗪+二甲双胍(E)进行治疗,观察疗效,采用药物经济学中的成本-效果分析法(CEA)进行分析.5组均可有效控制血糖,均可显著降低HbA1c.格列本脲更符合药物经济学原则,但由于易发生严重而持久的低血糖限制其临床广泛应用,老年患者应更加慎重;在以控制空腹血糖和体重为主要目标时选择二甲双胍更经济;在以控制餐后血糖为主要目标时选择格列吡嗪更为合理,尤其是体形偏瘦者更为合适;格列吡嗪+二甲双胍联合用药方案适合单用格列吡嗪或二甲双胍效果不佳者,值得推荐.%To compare the economic efficacies of the oral antidiabetic drugs in National Essential Medicine for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus.200 diabetic patients with body mass indices between 19-27 kg/m2 were assigned into 5 groups:group A received glibenclamide,group B glipizide,group C metformin,group D glibenclamide +metformin,and group E glipizide + metformin.Pharmacoeconomic evaluation was performed by cost-effectiveness analysis( CEA ).Fasting glucose level in patients treated with these 5 drugs all decreased significantly,as well as HbA1c.Glibenclamide was more in line with the principles of pharmacoeconomics,but should be used carefully for its serious and prolonged hypoglycemia,especially in elderly patients.According to the method of cost-effectiveness analysis,it was more economical to use metformin to control fasting glucose level while it is more reasonable to use glipizide to control the postprandial glucose whereas controlling of postprandial blood glucose is considered as a priority.Glipizide+mefformin combination may be recommended to the patients whose blood glucose level is

  16. [Oral microbiota: a promising predictor of human oral and systemic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xu; Junzhi, He; Xuedong, Zhou

    2015-12-01

    A human oral microbiota is the ecological community of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms found in human oral cavity. Oral microbiota exists mostly in the form of a biofilm and maintains a dynamic ecological equilibrium with the host body. However, the disturbance of this ecological balance inevitably causes oral infectious diseases, such as dental caries, apical periodontitis, periodontal diseases, pericoronitis, and craniofacial bone osteomyelitis. Oral microbiota is also correlated with many systemic diseases, including cancer, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, and preterm birth. Hence, oral microbiota has been considered as a potential biomarker of human diseases. The "Human Microbiome Project" and other metagenomic projects worldwide have advanced our knowledge of the human oral microbiota. The integration of these metadata has been the frontier of oral microbiology to improve clinical translation. By reviewing recent progress on studies involving oral microbiota-related oral and systemic diseases, we aimed to propose the essential role of oral microbiota in the prediction of the onset, progression, and prognosis of oral and systemic diseases. An oral microbiota-based prediction model helps develop a new paradigm of personalized medicine and benefits the human health in the post-metagenomics era.

  17. Effect of oral and external use of traditional Chinese medicine on the elderly with pain in low back and legs:the clinical analysis of 200 cases%中药口服联合外用治疗老年顽固性腰腿痛200例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘铀宁

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨中药口服联合外用治疗老年顽固性腰腿痛的临床疗效.方法:200例老年顽固性腰腿痛患者随机均分为2组,分别采用中药口服加外用(联用组)和口服腰腿痛丸(对照组)进行治疗.分析2组患者视觉模拟评分法(VAS)、腰椎功能障碍指数(ODI)评分和综合疗效.结果:所有患者获得半年随访.联用组患者VAS评分和ODI评分低于对照组(P<0.05),有效率则显著高于对照组(P<0.01).结论:中药口服联合外用治疗老年顽固性腰腿痛能够获得良好的效果.%Objective: To investigate the effect of oral and external traditional Chinese medicine on elderly patients with pain in low back and legs. Methods: Two hundred elderly patients with low back pain and legs pain were divided into two groups randomly. Patients in observe group were received oral and external traditional Chinese medicine while patients in control group were received the treatment of routine oral low back pain pills. The VAS scores, ODI scores and the effective rate of each group were analyzed. Results: After a halfyear follow-up, the VAS and ODI scores in observe group were less than those of control group significantly( P < 0.05 ) , and the effective rate of the former were higher than that of the latter( P < 0.01 ). Conclusions: Oral and external use of traditional Chinese medicine were effective in treating the elderly with low back pain and legs pain.

  18. Oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options.

  19. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treville Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency.

  20. 口服避孕药联合中药治疗剖宫产术后子宫切口憩室56例临床分析%Clinical Analysis of Oral Contraceptives Combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine in Treatment of 56 Cases of Uterine Incision Diverticulum after Cesarean Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆红; 徐明翠

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the treatment method of cesarean section uterine incision diverticulum. Method:Our hospitai found and treated 56 patients with cutting cesarean section uterine incision diverticulum from 2007 to 2013,according to different treatment groups,the treatment group 28 cases,the control group 28 cases,the treatment group were given oral contraceptive(menstruation of mom rich grand day 5)with traditional chinese medicine therapy,the control group patients were given simple hemostatic drugs.Result:28 cases in treatment group,oral contraceptives with traditional chinese midicine therapy,menstruai period shorten the different level,effect was better than the control group.Conclusion:Oral contraceptives,combined traditional chinese medicine treatment of uterine incision diverticulum after cesarean section is effective.%目的:探讨剖宫产术后子宫切口憩室的治疗方法。方法:本院2007-2013年发现并治疗56例剖宫产术后子宫切口憩室,按治疗方法不同分组,治疗组28例,对照组28例,治疗组给予口服避孕药妈富隆(月经第5天)联合中药治疗,对照组给予单纯的止血药物治疗。结果:治疗组患者经期均有不同程度缩短,效果明显优于对照组。结论:口服避孕药联合中药治疗剖宫产术后子宫切口憩室有显著效果。

  1. COPD Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Training Home Treatment & Programs Medications COPD Medications COPD Medications Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer ... control the symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Most people with COPD take long-acting medicine ...

  2. Herbal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Diseases and Conditions Acupuncture Art, Dance, and Music Ayurveda Biofeedback Body Movement Chinese Medicine Electromagnetic Therapy ... conditions associated with aging, including poor circulation and memory loss. Ginseng Used as a general tonic to ...

  3. Mitochondrial medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bandyopadhyay, S K; Dutt, Anita

    2010-01-01

    .... With the coming of age for mitochondrial medicine, it is now appropriate that physicians keep themselves well-acquainted with the recent developments in this expanding field of biomedical research.

  4. Medicine Man

    OpenAIRE

    Paola, Frederick Adolf

    2012-01-01

    It becomes imperative that our doctors bring to the practice of medicine a true scientific perspective; it may be just as important that those of us doing biomedical research try to learn more of what doctors know.

  5. Medicinal Moves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine is becoming a new source of growth in China-Africa trade LIU Tao never expected that his traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) products would be so warmly welcomed at the annual Canton Fair last year.His surprise came after a large number of African businessmen expressed a keen interest in importing the products.That knowledge left a broad smile on his face.

  6. Network medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Tony; Linding, Rune

    2008-01-01

    for new therapeutic intervention. We argue that by targeting the architecture of aberrant signaling networks associated with cancer and other diseases new therapeutic strategies can be implemented. Transforming medicine into a network driven endeavour will require quantitative measurements of cell...... signaling processes; we will describe how this may be performed and combined with new algorithms to predict the trajectories taken by a cellular system either in time or through disease states. We term this approach, network medicine....

  7. The "child size medicines" concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nsabagasani, Xavier; Okeng, Jasper Ogwal; Mbonye, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    of policy provisions for the MMCS recommendations. Results For most medicines for the selected diseases, appropriate strength for children’s age and weight was addressed especially in the EMHSLU 2012. However, policy documents neither referred to ‘child size medicines’ concept nor provided for flexible oral...... formulations. This study examined policy provisions for MMCS recommendations in Uganda. Methods This was an in-depth case study of the Ugandan health policy documents to assess provisions for MMCS recommendations in respect to oral and rectal medicine formulations for malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea, the major...... causes of morbidity and mortality among children in Uganda- diseases that were also emphasized in the MMCS campaign. Asthma and epilepsy were included as conditions that require long term care. Schistomiasis was included as a neglected tropical disease. Content analysis was used to assess evidence...

  8. Is oral contraceptive associated with genital warts?

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the association between oral contraceptive use and the prevalence of genital warts in women. METHODS: Cross sectional case control study comparing oral contraceptive use in women with and without genital warts attending a city centre genitourinary medicine clinic controlling for recent sexual activity, the presence of other sexually transmitted infections, socio-economic class and history of pregnancy using a multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: After control...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch ...

  11. General Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of ... limitations of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses ... limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  16. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

  17. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

  18. Oral dirofilariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R S Desai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilaria is parasitic nematodes of domestic and wild animals that can infect humans accidentally via vectors. Its occurrence in the oral cavity is extremely rare. The most frequent presentation of human dirofilariasis is a single submucosal nodule without signs of inflammation. We hereby, report a case of human dirofilariasis affecting the buccal mucosa in a 32-year-old farmer caused by D. repens.

  19. Oral leiomyomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, D D; Neville, B W

    1979-04-01

    Oral leiomyomas are considered to be rare neoplasms, but they may be encountered more frequently than generally believed. Three types of leiomyomas are commonly described: solid leiomyomas, angiomyomas, and epithelioid leiomyomas. Three cases of solid leiomyoma are presented, all of which occurred in the anterior mandibular mucobuccal fold. Leiomyomas can be easily confused with other spindle-cell tumors. The necessity of using special stains, especially Mallory's phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin, is discussed.

  20. [Medicinal cannabis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Meersch, H; Verschuere, A P; Bottriaux, F

    2006-01-01

    Pharmaceutical grade cannabis is available to Dutch patients from public pharmacies in the Netherlands. The first part of this paper reviews the pharmaceutical and pharmacological properties of medicinal cannabis. Detailed information about its composition and quality, potential applications, methods of administration, adverse reactions, drug interactions and safety during pregnancy or breastfeeding are given. The second part deals with the legal aspects of dispensing medicinal cannabis through pharmacies in view of the Belgian and Dutch legislation. The last part discusses the present Belgian regulation about the possession of cannabis.

  1. Herbal and alternative medicine: the impact on anesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herbal and alternative medicine: the impact on anesthesia. JM Dippenaara* .... Oral – prevent and treat common cold and upper respiratory tract ... energy, immune response, and stress response. Antidepressant. Diuretic. Acute respiratory ...

  2. Traditional Japanese herbal medicines for treatment of odontopathy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights several refractory oral diseases, such as stomatitis, burning mouth syndrome (BMS), glossalgia, atypical facial pain (AFP), oral cancer, dry mouth, and Sjögren's syndrome (SJS), in which use of Japanese herbal medicines, Kampo medicines (KM), on the basis of Kampo theory could exert the maximum effects on human body. (1) In acute stomatitis, heat because of agitated vital energy may affect the head, chest, and middle abdominal region. Stomatitis is also related to the ...

  3. Sports Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2004-01-01

    Sports medicine has become one of the biggest and fastest growing medical fields in recent years. That is because sports have become a major part of most societies. As work becomes more stressful (紧张的,压力重

  4. Medicinal Mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindequist, U.; Won Kim, H.; Tiralongo, E.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    Since beginning of mankind nature is the most important source of medicines. Bioactive compounds produced by living organisms can be used directly as drugs or as lead compounds for drug development. Besides, the natural material can be used as crude drug for preparation of powder or extracts. Plants

  5. Medicinal Mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindequist, U.; Won Kim, H.; Tiralongo, E.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    Since beginning of mankind nature is the most important source of medicines. Bioactive compounds produced by living organisms can be used directly as drugs or as lead compounds for drug development. Besides, the natural material can be used as crude drug for preparation of powder or extracts. Plants

  6. Predictive medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boenink, Marianne; Have, ten Henk

    2015-01-01

    In the last part of the twentieth century, predictive medicine has gained currency as an important ideal in biomedical research and health care. Research in the genetic and molecular basis of disease suggested that the insights gained might be used to develop tests that predict the future health sta

  7. Personalized medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    engineered anti-TNF-alpha antibody constructs now constitute one of the heaviest medicinal expenditures in many countries. All currently used TNF antagonists may dramatically lower disease activity and, in some patients, induce remission. Unfortunately, however, not all patients respond favorably, and safety...

  8. Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  9. Tibetan traditional medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Tibetan medicine companies in T.A.R can manufacture more than 360 Tibetan patent medicines. There are 18 Tibetan medicine factories in Tibet, and total out value exceeds 3 billion yuan. 24 kinds of Tibetan patent medicines have been incorporated into State Fundamental Medicine List, in which 14 Tibetan patent medicines are listed in national protected traditional medicine category.

  10. Oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclennan, A H

    1987-12-01

    Over 60 million women use highly efficient and safe modern combined oral contraceptives (OCs) every day. A women who takes the oral contraceptive for 5 years before the age of 30 will actually live 12 days longer, although a woman taking the pill for the 1st time for 5 years after the age of 30 will have her life span reduced on the average by 80 days. OC related morbidity and mortality mostly occur in women over 35 who smoke. Combined low dose OCs are safe for women who do not smoke, at least to 45 years of age and probably to the menopause. The prescription of OCs is also safe to the young adolescent. The pill does not interfere with maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary ovarian axis and does not increase the incidence of amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea or infertility in later life. Patients with contraindications to estrogen therapy are excluded from OC use (history of thromboembolism, major heart disease, liver disease, breast cancer). Low-dose (30-35 mcg estrogen-containing monophasic or triphasic) pills are recommended. Combined oral contraceptives contain either ethinyl estradiol (1.7 to 2 times more potent) or mestranol. After absorption the progestagens, norethisterone acetate, ethynodiol diacetate and lynoestrenol are all metabolized to norethisterone. The progestagen-only pill has about a 2% failure rate and poorer cycle control than the combined pill, but it lacks estrogenic, progestagenic and androgenic side effects. This pill is suitable for the lactating mother, for smokers over 35, for hypertensive patients, and for those with a history of thrombosis. The efficacy of the progestagen-only pill is restored in 3 days of pill taking. Postcoital contraception is an alternative: treatment can be given for at least 72 hours after intercourse. The Yuzpe method calls for the patient to take 2 combined oral contraceptive tablets containing levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol (Eugynon or Ovral) followed by a further 2 tablets 12 hours later. This regimen

  11. Remote medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-29

    The international oil industry, catalyzed by a surge in exploration and production projects in remote regions, is giving health care for its travelers and expatriates a high priority. L.R. Aalund, the Journal`s Managing Editor--Technology, reports on why and how this is happening now. He covers this in articles on: health care in Russia, air ambulance evacuations, and the deployment of remote paramedics. Aalund gathered the information during trips to Finland and Russia and interviews with oil industry personnel, physicians, and other medical professionals in North America, Europe, and Siberia. Titles of the four topics presented in this special section on remote medicine are as follows: Oil companies focus on emergency care for expats in Russia; Air ambulance plan can be critical; Remote paramedics have high level of training; and Other facets of remote medicine.

  12. Energy Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan T

    2012-01-01

    Energy medicine is the most comprehensive concept introduced in medical diagnostics and therapy to account for a whole range of phenomena and methods available to help an individual proceed from sickness to health. The modern medical theories do not account for, much less accept many traditional therapies due to deep suspicion that the older methods are not scientific. However, the Holistic Health groups around the world have now created an environment for therapies which work at subtle energ...

  13. Transfusion medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murawski, K.; Peetoom, F.

    1986-01-01

    These proceedings contain 24 selections, including papers presented at the conference of American Red Cross held in May 1985, on the Subject of transfusion medicine. Some of the titles are: Fluosol/sup R/-DA in Radiation Therapy; Expression of Cloned Human Factor VIII and the Molecular Basis of Gene Defects that Cause Hemophilia; DNA-Probing Assay in the Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Genome in Human Peripheral Blood Cells; and Monoclonal Antibodies: Convergence of Technology and Application.

  14. Transfusion Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Sibinga CT

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cees Th. Smit Sibinga ID Consulting, Zuidhorn, The NetherlandsTransfusion Medicine is a bridging science, spanning the evidence-based practice at the bedside with the social sciences in the community.     Transfusion Medicine starts at the bedside. Surprisingly, only recently that has become rediscovered with the development of ‘patient blood management’ and ‘patient centered’ approaches to allow the growth of an optimal and rational patient care through supportive hemotherapy – safe and effective, affordable and accessible.1    Where transfusion of blood found its origin in the need of a patient, it has drifted away for a long period of time from the bedside and has been dominated for almost a century by laboratory sciences. At least the first ten editions of the famous and well reputed textbook Mollison’s Blood Transfusion in Clinical Medicine contained only a fraction on the actual bedside practice of transfusion medicine and did not focus at all on patient blood management.2    This journal will focus on all aspects of the transfusion chain that immediately relate to the bedside practice and clinical use of blood and its components, and plasma derivatives as integral elements of a human transplant tissue. That includes legal and regulatory aspects, medical, ethical and cultural aspects, pure science and pathophysiology of disease and the impact of transfusion of blood, as well as aspects of the epidemiology of blood transfusion and clinical indications, and cost-effectiveness. Education through timely and continued transfer of up to date knowledge and the application of knowledge in clinical practice to develop and maintain clinical skills and competence, with the extension of current educational approaches through e-learning and accessible ‘apps’ will be given a prominent place.

  15. Oral surgical procedures and prevalence of oral diseases in Oral Surgery Department in Faculty of Dentistry Sarajevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeta Šečić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study is to determine prevalence of oral diseases and oral surgical procedures at Department of Oral Surgery, Faculty of Dental Medicine, University in Sarajevo.Methods: The current study is retrospective analysis of oral surgical procedures performed from January 2011 to December 2012 at Department of Oral Surgery, Faculty of Dental Medicine, University in Sarajevo. The data were statistically analyzed by T-test of independent samples and using Chi-squared test. P value lower than 0,001 was considered to be statistically significant.Results: A total of 1299 patients were included in study. The age range is from 18 to 84 years, with mean age ± SD= 35±15 years. There were 42 different clinical diagnoses, and 13 diagnoses appeared in more than 1% of all patients. Impacted and semi-impacted teeth, periapical lesions and retained roots are the most frequent diagnoses and represent 68% of all diagnoses. Embedded and impacted teeth (35% and diseases of pulp and periapical tissues (31% are the most frequent diagnoses with respect of ICD-10. Impacted teeth is the most common diagnosis and removal of impacted third molars is the most common oral surgical procedure.Conclusion: Study points out variety of dentoalveolar patology and complexity of dental health care that often requires interdisciplinary approach in order to achieve optimal outcome for patient.

  16. [Travel medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, S; Grimm, M

    2009-07-01

    Travel medicine deals with travellers' diseases. The target group is therefore distinct from tropical medicine. It has gained in significance due to the increase in tourism and professional work abroad in the last 50 years. Dangerous and widespread diseases in tropical countries, in particular tropical malaria, have come into focus in industrialized countries because of their appearance in travellers. Travel medicine deals not only with infectious or transmittable diseases, but also with the ability of patients with chronic diseases to travel, the medical aspects of flying, as well as the health hazards of professional work or high-risk sports abroad. The risk of disease as a result of travelling can be minimized by advice and prophylactic measures, such as vaccinations and drug prophylaxis against malaria, if indicated. On return, medical symptoms should be investigated promptly to ensure early detection of life-threatening disease courses, particularly tropical malaria, as well as to prevent the occurrence of small-scale epidemics. A small number of diseases can also emerge after several years, such as benign types of malaria, amoebic liver abscess and visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). Aids also belongs to these diseases. Therefore, in this era of HIV pandemic travellers concerned should be made aware of the risks.

  17. Managing Your Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Problems & Solutions for Being Active - FAQs About Physical Activity Managing Your Medicines - Introduction - Taking Control of Your Medicines - Medicine Assistance Programs - Medicine Checklist - Medication Tracker Communicating with Professionals - Introduction - Preparing for Medical Visits - ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a ... of your child's body. top of page How is the procedure performed? Nuclear medicine imaging is usually ...

  19. Folk Medicine, Folk Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa SEVER

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Folk medicine and folk healing may be defined codified, regulated, taught openly and practised widely, and benefit from thousands of years of experience. On the other hand, it may be highly secretive, mystical and extremely localized, with knowledge of its practices passed on orally. Folk medicine and traditional medical practices emerged as a result of the reactions of primitive men against natural events and their ways of comparing and exchanging the medical practices of relevant communities with their own practices. Magic played an important role in shaping the practices. Folk medicine is the solutions developed by societies against material and moral disorders starting from the mythic period until today. Folk healer, on the other hand, is the wisest and the most respectable person in the society, in terms of materiality and morale. This person has the power of identifying and curing the diseases, disorders, consequently the origin of these diseases and disorders, and the skill of using various drugs for the treatment of the diseases and disorders or applying the practices with the help of information and practices acquired from the tradition. The Turks having rich and deep rooted culture. The Turkısh folk medicine and folk healing that contain rich cultural structure in themselves survive until today by being fed by different sources. Before Islam, the Turks used to believe that there were white and black possessors, ancestors’ spirits (arvaks and their healthy and peaceful life depended on getting on with these spirits. They also believed that diseases were caused when they could no more keep in with possessors and spirits, or when they offended and annoyed them. In such an environment of belief, the visible diseases caused by material reasons were generally cured with products obtained from plants, mines and animals in the region or drugs that were made out of their combinations. On the other hand, in invisible diseases associated with

  20. Plantas medicinais usadas para a saúde bucal pela comunidade do bairro Santa Cruz, Chapada dos Guimarães, MT, Brasil Medicinal plants used for oral health in the Santa Cruz neighborhood, Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneliza Meireles Borba

    2006-12-01

    by the local community, therapeutic indications, preparation and use methods intended to maintain and recover oral health. Forty local residents were interviewed by a qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews. The cataloged species were filed for identification in the UFMT/Herbário Central. There were 87 species named as being used for oral health, pertaining to 48 families, found in the Cerrado biome or grown at home. The most frequently cited species for treating oral ailments were as follows: teeth eruption - "camomila" (Matricaria chamomilla L.; candidiases, stomatitis, gingivitis and canker sores - "açafrão" (Crocus sativus L.; tooth ache - "arnica-da-serra" (Brickelia brasiliensis (Spreng. Robinson. The most commonly used part of the plant was the leaf while tea, by decoction, was the most common method of preparation. Elderly people, community leaders, accoucheuses and medicine women had a greater knowledge of medicinal plant use. This shows that the community uses both native cerrado and exotic plant species therapeutically to maintain and recover oral health, as a traditional, economic and effective alternative.

  1. 口服胞磷胆碱钠片联合中药治疗弱视的疗效%Oral Citicoline Sodium Tablets Combined Effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment of Amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩治红

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨胞磷胆碱联合中药治疗弱视的疗效。方法66例弱视患者,随机分为2组,对照组33例给予常规物理疗法加中药,治疗组33例在常规物理疗法加中药基础上联合胞磷胆碱钠0.2g,3次/d,对视力等结果进行统计分析。结果治疗组对不同年龄弱视均有效,且视力,视敏度指标与对照组差异均有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论胞磷胆碱钠联合中药治疗弱视效果较好。%Objective To investigate the curative effect of citicoline combined with traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of amblyopia. Methods 66 cases of amblyopia were randomly divided into two groups, 33 patients as a control group received conventional physical therapy and traditional Chinese medicine, the other 33 cases as a conventional treatment group,re-ceived physical therapy and traditional Chinese medicine combined citicoline sodium 0. 2g, 3 times a day,the visions were selected and analyzed. Results The treatment is effective for all age groups with amblyopia, and the vision and visual acuity was statisti-cally significant between the two groups(P<0. 05). Conclusion Citicoline sodium combined with traditional Chinese had abetter effect in amblyopia treatment.

  2. 中药口服、敷脐联合静脉补液治疗肝胃不和型妊娠剧吐32例%32 Cases of Hyperemesis Gravidarum of Disharmony Pattern between the Liver and Stomach Treated with Oral Administration of Herbal Medicine,Umbilicus Compress and Intravenous Fluid Infusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单崇武; 王瑞霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical efficacy on hyperemesis gravidarum of disharmony pattern between the liver and stomach treated with oral administration of herbal medicine, umbilicus compress and intravenous fluid infusion. Methods From September 2008 to June 2010,66 cases of hyperemesis gravidarum of disharmony pattern between the liver and stomach treated in Digestive Department, Gynecology Clinic and Admission Department were divided randomly into two groups. In a control group( 34 cases ),the intravenous fluid infusion was applied simply. In an observation group( 32 cases ), the oral administration of herbal medicine for clearing away liver fire and harmonizing the stomach,and umbilicus compress were adopted,in combination with intravenous fluid infusion. Results Of 32 cases in treatment group, 13 cases were cured, 12 cases remarkably effective,5 cases effective and 2 cases failed. The total effective rate was 93. 75%. Of 34 cases in control group, 10 cases were cured, 11 cases remarkably effective,7 cases effective and 6 cases failed. The total effective rate was 82. 35% . By the statistical management, the difference was significant statistically in comparison of the total effective rate between two groups( P < 0. 05 ). The efficacy in treatment group was superior to that in control group. Conclusion The combined treatment of the oral administration of herbal medicine for clearing away liver fire and harmonizing the stomach, umbilicus compress and intravenous fluid infusion achieves a significant efficacy on hyperemesis gravidarum. Such treatment program is a kind practical therapy of the integrated Chinese and western medicine and deserves to be promoted in clinical practice.%目的 探讨清肝和胃中药口服、敷脐联合静脉补液治疗肝胃不和型妊娠剧吐的临床疗效.方法 将2008年9月~2010年6月就诊于消化科及妇科门诊、住院部的66例肝胃不和型妊娠剧吐患者随机分为两组.对照组34例,单纯采

  3. Oral dirofilariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahija Janardhanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis affecting animals can rarely cause infections in human beings through the accidental bite of potential vectors. The resulting infection in man, known as zoonotic filariasis occur worldwide. Human dirofilariasis, the most common zoonotic filariasis, is caused by the filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Dirofilarial worms, which are recognized as pathogenic in man can cause nodular lesions in the lung, subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity or eyes. Oral dirofilariasis is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. We report an interesting case of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens involving buccal mucosa in a patient who presented with a facial swelling. The clinical features, diagnostic issues and treatment aspects are discussed. This paper stresses the importance of considering dirofilariasis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous swelling of the face, especially in areas where it is endemic.

  4. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini Rajiv

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.

  5. Oral amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Lima Arrais Ribeiro

    Full Text Available A amiloidose é uma doença complexa rara de difícil diagnóstico que ocorre devido à deposição de substância amilóide no meio extracelular. Ao ser diagnosticado na cavidade bucal, deve-se monitorar o paciente a fim de avaliar possíveis complicações sistêmicas da doença. Diante disso, o objetivo do presente estudo é relatar um caso de amiloidose oral em uma paciente do gênero feminino de 72 anos de idade. Baseado nos sinais clínicos observados, a hipótese diagnóstica foi de fibroma traumático. Após realização de biópsia e exame histopatológico, o diagnóstico foi de amiloidose oral, o que foi confirmado com a coloração do espécime com o reagente vermelho congo. Depósitos de amilóide foram encontrados no tecido conjuntivo, na avaliação através da luz polarizada, que apresentou birrefringência. Tal achado foi preocupante, já que a amiloidose geralmente acomete diversos tecidos levando a comprometimentos sistêmicos. Por essa razão a paciente foi encaminhada a procurar atendimento médico. No entanto, houve abandono do tratamento e a mesma veio a óbito 6 meses após o diagnóstico da doença. Lesões orais aparentemente simples podem revelar doenças raras e de difícil tratamento. O diagnóstico preciso e acompanhamentos médicos são fundamentais na sobrevida do paciente.

  6. Role of Ayurveda in management of oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torwane, Nilesh Arjun; Hongal, Sudhir; Goel, Pankaj; Chandrashekar, B R

    2014-01-01

    Oral diseases continue to be a major health problem world-wide. Oral health is integral to general well-being and relates to the quality-of-life that extends beyond the functions of the craniofacial complex. The standard Western medicine has had only limited success in the prevention of periodontal disease and in the treatment of a variety of oral diseases. Hence, the search for alternative products continues and natural phytochemicals isolated from plants used in traditional medicine are considered to be good alternatives to synthetic chemicals. The botanicals in the Ayurvedic material medica have been proven to be safe and effective, through several hundred to several thousand years of use. The exploration of botanicals used in traditional medicine may lead to the development of novel preventive or therapeutic strategies for oral health. The present scientific evidence based review is focused on the possible role of Ayurveda in the management of various orofacial disorders.

  7. Role of Ayurveda in management of oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Arjun Torwane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral diseases continue to be a major health problem world-wide. Oral health is integral to general well-being and relates to the quality-of-life that extends beyond the functions of the craniofacial complex. The standard Western medicine has had only limited success in the prevention of periodontal disease and in the treatment of a variety of oral diseases. Hence, the search for alternative products continues and natural phytochemicals isolated from plants used in traditional medicine are considered to be good alternatives to synthetic chemicals. The botanicals in the Ayurvedic material medica have been proven to be safe and effective, through several hundred to several thousand years of use. The exploration of botanicals used in traditional medicine may lead to the development of novel preventive or therapeutic strategies for oral health. The present scientific evidence based review is focused on the possible role of Ayurveda in the management of various orofacial disorders.

  8. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, signs and symptoms of oral cancer, and the importance of detecting the disease in its early ...

  9. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – ... detection and treatment of oral cancers. Note: For materials specific to African American men, please see: Oral ...

  10. Oral Lichen Planus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral lichen planus Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Oral lichen planus (LIE-kun PLAY-nus) is an ongoing (chronic) ... that affects mucous membranes inside your mouth. Oral lichen planus may appear as white, lacy patches; red, ...

  11. Oral Health Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Children's Oral Health Mouth Breathing Can Cause Major Health Problems Over ... news feeds delivered directly to your desktop! more... Oral Health Glossary Article Chapters Oral Health Glossary print full ...

  12. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, signs and symptoms of oral cancer, and the importance of detecting the disease in its early ...

  13. Traditional medicine and food supplements in rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, S K; Yeap, S S; Goh, E M L; Veerapen, K; Lim, K K T

    2002-09-01

    This was a prospective survey using a standard questionnaire to determine the prevalence of use of oral traditional medicine and food supplements among patients with rheumatic diseases. Among the 141 patients surveyed, we found that 69% of the patients were consuming food supplements, 35% were using traditional medicine and 45% had used traditional medicine at some time or other. Females were more likely to use food supplements (P traditional medicines. The Chinese were more likely than others to be using traditional medicine (p traditional medicine from non-medical personnel. More than half of them used 2 or more types of traditional medicine for more than two months. Spending on traditional medicine was noted to be modest with 73% spending less than one hundred ringgit a month for their traditional treatment. Doctors need to be aware of the possible interactions between these 'self-medications' and the conventionally prescribed medication.

  14. Pilotaje de un protocolo para la adecuación de la forma farmacéutica de la medicación oral al grado de disfagia, de los pacientes ingresados en un servicio de medicina interna Monitoring of a protocol for the adequacy of the pharmaceutical form of the oral medication to the degree of dysphagia in patients hospitalized in an internal medicine service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. García Aparicio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La vía oral es la forma de administrar medicación más cómoda, pero puede no ser segura. La disfagia es uno de los factores que dificulta la correcta alimentación y administración de la medicación. Objetivos: La mejora de la administración de la medicación oral en pacientes con disfagia, a través de la adecuación de la forma farmacéutica de los principios prescritos a las texturas toleradas. Métodos: Proyecto piloto de aplicación de un protocolo de disfagia, donde se incluyeron los pacientes ingresados en el Servicio de Medicina Interna-Los Montalvos durante 4 meses. Tras detectarse la sospecha de disfagia, se aplicaba un test de disfagia-viscosidad para conocer las texturas toleradas. Posteriormente se adecuaban las formas farmacéuticas y se indicaban las normas de manipulación de los fármacos para su correcta administración. Resultados: De los 627 pacientes ingresados se incluyeron 23 pacientes, con edad media de 85 años (σ ± 7,4. Las patologías implicadas en la disfagia fueron: demencia (65,2%; enfermedad cerebrovascular (30,4% y enfermedad de Parkinson (4,4%. La textura óptima para la ingesta fue "pudin" en el 48,0%. Se revisaron 43 principios activos y se realizaron 134 intervenciones: En el 41% de ellas se facilitó la deglución mezclando el fármaco con los alimentos y en el 59% se utilizó la adición de agua y espesante. El 94% de las recomendaciones se consideraron adecuadas. Conclusión: La adecuación de las formas farmacéuticas al grado de disfagia repercute en la mejora de la calidad asistencial implementando la seguridad en los procesos de prescripción y administración de fármacos.Introduction: The oral route is the most convenient way of administering medication, although it may not be safe. Dysphagia is one of the factors rendering difficult a proper feeding and administration of medication. Objectives: to improve the administration of oral medication in patients with dysphagia by

  15. [Psychiatric medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez Dominguez, J

    1984-06-01

    The author, after a short historical introduction which shows the Medicine, especially the Neurology, as the predecessor of the Psychiatry, intents to relate in a theorico-practical way the anxiety and the depression within a bio-chemical and endocrinological frame. He presents the hipo and hipercalcemia signals and symptoms demonstrating with a casuistic from his clinical practice the similitude between anxiety and depression respectively. Finally he realizes a theorical analysis about the investigations published over the AMP-ciclic and infers about the hormonal interference and the clinical data linked with the manic-depressive disease.

  16. Plasma medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive text is suitable for researchers and graduate students of a 'hot' new topic in medical physics. Written by the world's leading experts,  this book aims to present recent developments in plasma medicine, both technological and scientific, reviewed in a fashion accessible to the highly interdisciplinary audience consisting of doctors, physicists, biologists, chemists and other scientists, university students and professors, engineers and medical practitioners. The book focuses on major topics and covers the physics required to develop novel plasma discharges relevant for medic

  17. Application of Case-based PBL Tecahing Mode in Oral medicine for Clinical inter ns%案例式PBL教学模式在口腔科临床实习生带教中的体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽; 李慧

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To adapt to the characteristics of the oral intern students, the intern teaching of the oral intern students applica-tion of integration of case-based PBL teaching mode.The process of the new teaching method was including the study group , design problems and choose case et al C.arry on student-centered in interaction and discussion-based teaching guided by teachers,which culti-vated the students'autonomous learning ability, communication ability,problem solving ability and innovation thinking ability and so on , and greatly obtained the teaching effect.%目的:探讨案例式PBL教学模式在口腔科临床实习生带教中的体会。方法:为适应口腔实习生的特点,在口腔实习生教学中应用CBL联合PBL教学模式,包括建立小组、设计问题、选择病例等,学生为主体,教师监督下开展病案讨论式教学。结果:培养了学生的自主学习能力、沟通交流能力、分析解决问题能力、创新思维能力等等,取得了良好的教学效果。结论:案例式PBL教学模式激发了学生兴趣,提高了学生创新能力,值得教学中推广应用。

  18. Evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swynghedauw, B

    2004-04-01

    Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution. Evolutionary, or darwinian, medicine takes the view that contemporary diseases result from incompatibility between the conditions under which the evolutionary pressure had modified our genetic endowment and the lifestyle and dietary habits in which we are currently living, including the enhanced lifespan, the changes in dietary habits and the lack of physical activity. An evolutionary trait express a genetic polymorphism which finally improve fitness, it needs million years to become functional. A limited genetic diversity is a necessary prerequisite for evolutionary medicine. Nevertheless, search for a genetic endowment would become nearly impossible if the human races were genetically different. From a genetic point of view, homo sapiens, is homogeneous, and the so-called human races have only a socio-economic definition. Historically, Heart Failure, HF, had an infectious origin and resulted from mechanical overload which triggered mechanoconversion by using phylogenically ancient pleiotropic pathways. Adaptation was mainly caused by negative inotropism. Recently, HF was caused by a complex remodelling caused by the trophic effects of mechanics, ischemia, senescence, diabetes and, neurohormones. The generally admitted hypothesis is that cancers were largely caused by a combination of modern reproductive and dietary lifestyles mismatched with genotypic traits, plus the longer time available for a confrontation. Such a concept is illustrated for skin and breast cancers, and also for the link between cancer risk and dietary habits.

  19. Genomic Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Briceño Balcázar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Until the twilight of the 20th century, genetics was a branch of medicine applied to diseases of rare occurrence.  The advent of the human genome sequence and the possibility of studying it at affordable costs for patients and healthcare institutions, has permitted its application in high-priority diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s, among others. There is great potential in predictive and preventive medicine, through studying polymorphic genetic variants associated to risks for different diseases. Currently, clinical laboratories offer studies of over 30,000 variants associated with susceptibilities, to which individuals can access without much difficulty because a medical prescription is not required. These exams permit conducting a specific plan of preventive medicine.  For example, upon the possibility of finding a deleterious mutation in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, the patient can prevent the breast cancer by mastectomy or chemoprophylaxis and in the presence of polymorphisms associated to cardiovascular risk preventive action may be undertaken through changes in life style (diet, exercise, etc.. Legal aspects are also present in this new conception of medicine.  For example, currently there is legislation for medications to indicate on their labels the different responses such medication can offer regarding the genetic variants of the patients, given that similar doses may provoke adverse reactions in an individual, while for another such dosage may be insufficient. This scenario would allow verifying the polymorphisms of drug response prior to administering medications like anticoagulants, hyperlipidemia treatments, or chemotherapy, among others. We must specially mention recessive diseases, produced by the presence of two alleles of a mutated gene, which are inherited from the mother, as well as the father. By studying the mutations, we may learn if a couple is at risk of bearing children with the

  20. GENOMIC MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Briceño Balcázar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Until the twilight of the 20th century, genetics was a branch of medicine applied to diseases of rare occurrence. The advent of the human genome sequence and the possibility of studying it at affordable costs for patients and healthcare institutions, has permitted its application in high-priority diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s, among others.There is great potential in predictive and preventive medicine, through studying polymorphic genetic variants associated to risks for different diseases. Currently, clinical laboratories offer studies of over 30,000 variants associated with susceptibilities, to which individuals can access without much difficulty because a medical prescription is not required. These exams permit conducting a specific plan of preventive medicine. For example, upon the possibility of finding a deleterious mutation in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, the patient can prevent the breast cancer by mastectomy or chemoprophylaxis and in the presence of polymorphisms associated to cardiovascular risk preventive action may be undertaken through changes in life style (diet, exercise, etc..Legal aspects are also present in this new conception of medicine. For example, currently there is legislation for medications to indicate on their labels the different responses such medication can offer regarding the genetic variants of the patients, given that similar doses may provoke adverse reactions in an individual, while for another such dosage may be insufficient. This scenario would allow verifying the polymorphisms of drug response prior to administering medications like anticoagulants, hyperlipidemia treatments, or chemotherapy, among others.We must specially mention recessive diseases, produced by the presence of two alleles of a mutated gene, which are inherited from the mother, as well as the father. By studying the mutations, we may learn if a couple is at risk of bearing children with the disease

  1. Smoking Habits Among Patients Diagnosed with Oral Lichen Planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasson-Kanfi Haya

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Oral lichen planus (OLP is one of the most common dermatologic diseases that manifests in the oral cavity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between smoking habits and the clinical subtypes of OLP. Methods Oral findings and smoking data from 187 charts of OLP patients from an oral medicine clinic was reviewed and compared to data from 76 matched control patients. Results and Discussion Ninety-three patients were diagnosed with reticular OLP, 55 with atrophic and 39 with erosive forms of the disease. Symptomatic OLP occurred in 63.6% of patients. Fewer cases of reticular OLP were symptomatic than erosive OLP (p

  2. 布洛芬缓释胶囊内服配合中药外敷治疗膝骨性关节炎40例疗效观察%Clinical efficacy of oral ibuprofen sustained-release capsules combined with external application of Chinese medicine in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何汉戊; 吴龙章

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of oral ibuprofen sustained-release capsules combined with external application of Chinese medicine in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis.Methods Forty patients with knee osteoarthritis as the observation group and treated by oral ibuprofen sustained-release capsules combined with ex-ternal application of Chinese medicine.Forty cases in the control group were treated with oral ibuprofen sustained-re-lease capsules,10 days were used as a course of treatment.Results In the treatment group, 5 cases were cured, 20 cases were marked effective, 12 cases were effective and 3 cases were ineffective.In control group, 2 cases were cured, 13 cases were marked effective, 16 cases were effective and 9 cases were ineffective.The therapeutic effect of the observation group was better than that of the control group( P<0.05) .Compared with the scores before and after treatment, the scores in pain, walking distance, joints function, swelling and activity of daily living all decreased sig-nificantly in two groups, but the therapeutic effect of the observation group was better than that of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion Ibuprofen sustained-release capsules combined with external application of Chinese medicine in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis has significant clinical efficacy and safety.It is worthy of clinical application.%目的:观察布洛芬缓释胶囊内服结合中药外敷治疗膝骨性关节炎的临床疗效。方法将80例膝骨性关节炎患者按就诊单双号分为两组。对照组40例口服布洛芬缓释胶囊治疗,治疗组40例在对照组的基础上加用中药外敷治疗,10 d为1个疗程。结果治疗组临床治愈5例,显效20例,有效12例,无效3例,对照组分别为2、13、16、9例。两组疗效比较差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。治疗后两组患者膝关节疼痛、最大步行距离、关节功能、日常活动能力、关节肿胀等指标评分均较

  3. Medicinal cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnion, Bridin

    2015-12-01

    A number of therapeutic uses of cannabis and its derivatives have been postulated from preclinical investigations. Possible clinical indications include spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis, cancer-associated nausea and vomiting, cancer pain and HIV neuropathy. However, evidence is limited, may reflect subjective rather than objective outcomes, and is not conclusive. Controversies lie in how to produce, supply and administer cannabinoid products. Introduction of cannabinoids therapeutically should be supported by a regulatory and educational framework that minimises the risk of harm to patients and the community. The Regulator of Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2014 is under consideration in Australia to address this. Nabiximols is the only cannabinoid on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods at present, although cannabidiol has been recommended for inclusion in Schedule 4.

  4. Oral pathology in inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhvić-Urek, Miranda; Tomac-Stojmenović, Marija; Mijandrušić-Sinčić, Brankica

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) - Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) - has been increasing on a global scale, and progressively, more gastroenterologists will be included in the diagnosis and treatment of IBD. Although IBD primarily affects the intestinal tract, extraintestinal manifestations of the disease are often apparent, including in the oral cavity, especially in CD. Specific oral manifestations in patients with CD are as follows: indurate mucosal tags, cobblestoning and mucogingivitis, deep linear ulcerations and lip swelling with vertical fissures. The most common non-specific manifestations, such as aphthous stomatitis and angular cheilitis, occur in both diseases, while pyostomatitis vegetans is more pronounced in patients with UC. Non-specific lesions in the oral cavity can also be the result of malnutrition and drugs. Malnutrition, followed by anemia and mineral and vitamin deficiency, affects the oral cavity and teeth. Furthermore, all of the drug classes that are applied to the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases can lead to alterations in the oral cavity due to the direct toxic effects of the drugs on oral tissues, as well as indirect immunosuppressive effects with a risk of developing opportunistic infections or bone marrow suppression. There is a higher occurrence of malignant diseases in patients with IBD, which is related to the disease itself and to the IBD-related therapy with a possible oral pathology. Treatment of oral lesions includes treatment of the alterations in the oral cavity according to the etiology together with treatment of the primary intestinal disease, which requires adequate knowledge and a strong cooperation between gastroenterologists and specialists in oral medicine. PMID:27433081

  5. Clinical curative efficacy of oral Chinese medicine combined acapuncture point embedded wire in treatment of stroke patients with lower limb spasticity%口服中药联合穴位埋线治疗中风患者下肢痉挛的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾兆一

    2015-01-01

    Objective to observe the clinical effect of Combined oral medicine catgut embedding in treatment of Stroke lower limb spasticity. Methods 80 cases of patients with Stroke lower limb spasticity in our hospital were randomly selected, according to the number table method was divided into the observation group and the control group with 40 cases in each group, the control group was treated with western, clinical results were compared in two groups Myonal, the observation group was treated with Oral self slow tendon soup joint catgut implantation.Simplified Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scale Motor Function. Results Recovery of motor function of observation group was More outstanding than control group the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05). Conclusion Chinese medicine combined catgut implantation in treatment of Lower limb paralysis after stroke has define effect, It effectively alleviate the patient's lower limb spasticity state and Worthy of promotion and make.%目的:观察和研究口服中药联合穴位埋线治疗中风患者下肢痉挛的临床疗效。方法选取在我院接诊的80例中风后下肢痉挛患者作为主要研究对象,并将其随机分为观察组和对照组,每组40例患者,对照组患者接受西药妙纳治疗,观察组患者接受口服自拟缓筋汤联合穴位埋线治疗,两组患者接受两个月的治疗,采用简化Fugl-Meyer运动功能评定量表对患者的临床效果进行对比。结果观察组患者的运动功能恢复情况优于对照组,组间比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论在中风后下肢痉挛的临床治疗过程中,口服自拟缓筋汤联合穴位埋线具有较好的临床治疗效果,有效缓解患者的下肢痉挛的状态,值得临床推广和使用。

  6. Exploration on dental materials course reform in seven-year program for oral medicine%七年制口腔医学专业口腔材料学课程改革的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵克; 吴玮琦; 程斌; 赵煜; 程绍华

    2011-01-01

    现行的七年制口腔医学专业口腔材料学课程教学中存在着一些问题,例如,教材内容滞后,与其英语教学要求及临床实际需要相脱节,教师队伍缺乏具有扎实专业基础知识的人才,实验教学内容单薄等.本文探讨了七年制口腔医学专业口腔材料学课程安排及实验教学模式,并结合口腔材料学发展趋势提出了改进对策.%The dental material textbook for seven-year program students could not keep up with present situations, not only in the respect of English teaching requirements, but also in terms of clinical practices, the lack of teachers both for researches in correlated specialized fields and bilingual teaching,the monotonous experiment model, as well as the insufficiency of teacher-student interaction during experiment classes.Thus, work had been accomplished that a discussion about the above problems be carried out and a brand new teaching model of both theoretical and experimental lessons be investigated, then strategies be advanced after the development trend of oral materials was taken into account.

  7. Matrix metalloproteinase gene polymorphisms and oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Andresa C; Dias do Carmo, Elaine; Dias da Silva, Marco A; Blumer Rosa, Luiz E

    2012-12-01

    Since oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most prevalent malignant cancer in the oral cavity, several researches have been performed to study the role of important enzymes in this disease. Among them, the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are highlighted, due to the fact that they are proteinases responsible to degrade many extra-cellular matrix components, making possible the invasion of neoplasic cells. Important tools in cancer prognosis have been utilized aiming to correlate high levels of MMPs and OSCC, such as immunohistochemical, zymographic and mRNA detection methods. However, these techniques are usually applied after cancer detection, characterizing a curative but not a preventive medicine. Trying to make interventions before the development of the disease and making possible the identification of people at high risk and, analysis of modifications in MMP genes has been a chance for modern medicine. Recently, polymorphisms in MMP genes have been related to different neoplasias, including OSCC. Despite investigation is beginning, MMP gene polymorphisms seems to have a promising future in oral cancer research and some of the present results have shown that there are MMP polymorphisms related to an increased risk for developing oral cancer. Key words:Oral cancer, polymorphism, matrix metalloproteinase.

  8. Effekte und Nachhaltigkeit von Trainingsworkshops für den mündlich-praktischen Teil des M2-Examens [Effects and Sustainability of Trainings for the Oral and Practical Part of the German Final Exam in Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öchsner, Wolfgang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] Study Goals: It is known that the manifold limitations of oral and practical examinations can be improved by specific training. With the help of an online survey, our present study analyzes the effects that can be achieved by the training conducted at the University of Ulm for examiners in the final medical examination, the long-lasting impact of the training, and differences among participant subgroups.Method: All 367 participants in the training at Ulm (2007- 2012 were contacted via email. Sixty-three persons responded to the survey that included 28 items concerning demographic data, effectiveness, and sustainability.Results: Six main effects of the training were identified (meaning effects rated with a grade of 1 or 2 on a 6-point scale by two thirds of the participants, with 1=“applicable” and 6=“not applicable”; cumulated percentage of answers of 1 or 2 in parentheses:The responses of participants trained more than two years ago were not significantly different from the answers given by recently trained persons. This is an argument for the sustainability of the training effects.Furthermore, participants without relevant prior experience in oral/practical examinations profited significantly more from the trainings, especially in the areas of stress reduction, confidence in grading, and competence in critical discrimination of grading.Conclusion: The positive and sustained effects of the examiner training argue for continuing the training program, especially for inexperienced examiners. Expansion of the successful training program to include the first medical exam should be considered.[german] Zielsetzung: Die vielfältigen Limitationen mündlich-praktischer Prüfungen können bekanntermaßen durch spezifische Trainings günstig beeinflusst werden. Die vorliegende Studie analysiert daher anhand eines Fragebogens die in Ulm durchgeführten Trainings für Staatsexamensprüfer, deren Nachhaltigkeit und mögliche Unterschiede

  9. Oral contraception following abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Yan; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Linan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Oral contraceptives (OCs) following induced abortion offer a reliable method to avoid repeated abortion. However, limited data exist supporting the effective use of OCs postabortion. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis in the present study reported immediate administration of OCs or combined OCs postabortion may reduce vaginal bleeding time and amount, shorten the menstruation recovery period, increase endometrial thickness 2 to 3 weeks after abortion, and reduce the risk of complications and unintended pregnancies. A total of 8 major authorized Chinese and English databases were screened from January 1960 to November 2014. Randomized controlled trials in which patients had undergone medical or surgical abortions were included. Chinese studies that met the inclusion criteria were divided into 3 groups: administration of OC postmedical abortion (group I; n = 1712), administration of OC postsurgical abortion (group II; n = 8788), and administration of OC in combination with traditional Chinese medicine postsurgical abortion (group III; n = 19,707). In total, 119 of 6160 publications were included in this analysis. Significant difference was observed in group I for vaginal bleeding time (P = 0.0001), the amount of vaginal bleeding (P = 0.03), and menstruation recovery period (P abortion (P abortion, and reduce the risk of complications and unintended pregnancies. PMID:27399060

  10. Alternative medicine - pain relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative medicine refers to treatments that are used instead of conventional (standard) ones. If you use an alternative ... with conventional medicine or therapy, it is considered complementary therapy. There are many forms of alternative medicine. Acupuncture ...

  11. Personalized Medicine and Pharmacogenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medications. Pharmacogenomics is part of a field called personalized medicine — also called individualized or precision medicine — that ... may be part of routine medical care. References Personalized medicine. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www. ...

  12. Medicines by Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order Search the NIGMS Website Search the NIGMS Website NIGMS Home Research Funding Research Training News & Meetings Science Education About NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Medicines By Design Medicines By Design Spotlight Nature's Medicine Cabinet A ...

  13. Traveling Safely with Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Safely My Medicine List How to Administer Traveling Safely with Medicines Planes, trains, cars – even boats ... your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you ...

  14. Depression - stopping your medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000570.htm Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ...

  15. Storing your medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... potent, or they may go bad before the expiration date. Pills and capsules are easily damaged by heat ... of unused medicine safely and promptly. Check the expiration date on your medicine. Throw out medicines that are ...

  16. Complementary and Integrative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical treatments that are not part of mainstream medicine. When you are using these types of care, it may be called complementary, integrative, or alternative medicine. Complementary medicine is used together with mainstream medical ...

  17. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... DXM Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  18. [Disaster medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Pierre; Telionri, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    For over 30 years, the French hospital and pre-hospital medical teams are trained in disaster medicine. In fact, they are regularly confronted with the management of multiple casualties in accidents or even terrorist attacks, and more rarely to large-scale disasters. The intervention of physicians of the EMS system (SAMU-SMUR) in the field allows an original healthcare organization: in an advanced medical post, the victims are triaged according to their severity and benefit if needed of initial resuscitation. SAMU medical regulating center then organize their transport and repartition in several hospitals put on alert. To cope with a mass casualty situation, the hospital also has a specific organization, the White Plan. This plan, initiated by the director, assisted by a medico-administrative cell crisis can mobilize all the resources of the institution. Personnel are recalled and the ability of emergency units is increased. Care, less urgent, other patients are postponed. There are many plans for responding to disasters. ORSEC plans of the ministry of Interior articulate with the ORSAN plans of the ministry of Health. This complementarity allows a global mobilization of public services in disasters or exceptional medical situations.

  19. Alternative medicine studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

    A peer-reviewed, open-access journal about alternative medicine systems including acupuncture, anthroposophic medicine, ayurveda, chiropractic, herbalism and natural products, homeopathy, naturopathy...

  20. Medicines for osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teriparatide (Forteo); Denosumab (Prolia); Low bone density - medicines; Osteoporosis - medicines ... when: A bone density test shows you have osteoporosis, even if you have not had a fracture ...

  1. Medicines for sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzodiazepines; Sedatives; Hypnotics; Sleeping pills; Insomnia - medicines; Sleep disorder - medicines ... are commonly used to treat allergies. While these sleep aids are not addictive, your body becomes used ...

  2. Obstetric medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Balbi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Obstetric assistance made major advances in the last 20 years: improved surgical technique allows quicker caesarean sections, anaesthesiology procedures such as peripheral anaesthesia and epidural analgesia made safer operative assistance, remarkably reducing perioperative morbidity and mortality, neonatology greatly improved the results of assistance to low birth weight newborns. A new branch of medicine called “obstetric medicine” gained interest and experience after the lessons of distinguished physicians like Michael De Swiet in England. All together these advances are making successful pregnancies that 20 years ago would have been discouraged or even interrupted: that’s what we call high risk pregnancy. High risk of what? Either complications of pregnancy on pre-existing disease or complications of pre-existing disease on pregnancy. Nowadays, mortality in pregnancy has a medical cause in 80% of cases in Western countries (Confidential Enquiry on Maternal Deaths, UK, 2004. DISCUSSION The background is always changing and we have to take in account of: increase of maternal age; widespread use of assisted fertilization techniques for treatment of infertility; social feelings about maternity desire with increasing expectations from medical assistance; immigration of medically “naive” patients who don’t know to have a chronic disease, but apt and ready to conceive; limited knowledge of feasibility of drug use in pregnancy which may induce both patients and doctors to stopping appropriate drug therapy in condition of severe disease. Preconception counseling, planning the pregnancy, wise use of drugs, regular follow-up throughout the pregnancy and, in selected cases, preterm elective termination of pregnancy may result in excellent outcome both for mother and foetus. CONCLUSIONS Highly committed and specifically trained physicians are required to counsel these patients and to plan their treatment before and during pregnancy.

  3. The oral microbiome and adverse pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobb CM

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Charles M Cobb,1 Patricia J Kelly,2 Karen B Williams,3 Shilpa Babbar,4 Mubashir Angolkar,5 Richard J Derman6 1Department of Periodontics, School of Dentistry, 2Department of Public Health Nursing, School of Nursing and Health Studies, 3Department of Biomedical & Health Informatics, School of Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, 4Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Women’s Health, Division of Maternal & Fetal Medicine, School of Medicine, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO, USA; 5Department of Public Health, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College (JNMC, KLE University, Karnataka, India; 6Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Significant evidence supports an association between periodontal pathogenic bacteria and preterm birth and preeclampsia. The virulence properties assigned to specific oral pathogenic bacteria, for example, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Filifactor alocis, Campylobacter rectus, and others, render them as potential collaborators in adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Several pathways have been suggested for this association: 1 hematogenous spread (bacteremia of periodontal pathogens; 2 hematogenous spread of multiple mediators of inflammation that are generated by the host and/or fetal immune response to pathogenic bacteria; and 3 the possibility of oral microbial pathogen transmission, with subsequent colonization, in the vaginal microbiome resulting from sexual practices. As periodontal disease is, for the most part, preventable, the medical and dental public health communities can address intervention strategies to control oral inflammatory disease, lessen the systemic inflammatory burden, and ultimately reduce the potential for adverse pregnancy outcomes. This article reviews the oral, vaginal, and placental microbiomes, considers their potential impact on preterm labor, and the future

  4. 中医药治疗老年痴呆症的疗效与安全性%Clinical efficacy and safety of oral Chinese herbal medicine for Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾令烽; 陈云波; 王宁生; 王奇; 宓穗卿; 梁兆晖; 蔡浩斌; 孔令朔; 赵路光; 张越

    2015-01-01

    Objective To systematically evaluate efficacy and adverse events of Chinese herbal medicine( CHM) for the treatment of Alzheimer's Disease(AD).Methods Randomized controlled trial(RCTs) involving CHM or integrative medicine comparing with routine pharmacotherapy for AD were retrieved and collected from database of VIP,WANFANG,CNKI,CBM,PubMed,EMbase,and the Cochrane Li-brary.The journals related to the research were also manually searched from college library.The quality of literature was conducted by the risk of bias and quality evaluation based on the Cochrane Handbook 5.1,while the data analysis was handled by the software RevMan 5.2.6 of Cochrane Collaboration.The evidence quality grading evaluation for the system review was operated by the software of 'GRADE profiler'. Results Thirty-one studies involving 2 583 participants were contained in the meta-analysis.The main meta-analysis results indicated rela-tive benefits for the effective rate in six studies( odds ratio〔 OR〕3.35,95%CI 2.17,5.17) and the cure(control) rate in six studies(OR 1.86,95%CI 1.31,2.63) in favor of the CHM plus routine pharmacotherapy group.For CHM compared with routine pharmacotherapy,no significant difference was revealed in effective rate(OR 1.20,95%CI 0.95,1.51),cure rate(OR 1.17,95%CI 0.94,1.46) and the detailed sub-group of MMSE score at the timing-point of week-4〔weighted mean difference(WMD) 0.31,95%CI -0.38,0.99〕,week-6(WMD 0.18,95%CI-0.52,0.89),week-8(WMD 0.75,95%CI-0.32,1.83),week-12(WMD 0.06,95%CI-0.76,0.88).The GRADE quality level of this systematic review indicated"very low".Compared to the routine pharmacotherapy group(9.61%) ,the incidence of adverse e-vents of CHM(1.18%) was much lower.Conclusions As a relative safe intervention method for AD,CHM shows benefits with few adverse reactions and relative better effect of improving cognitive function incorporated with the routine pharmacotherapy;CHM reveales no statistical difference while in contrast with routine

  5. 预混胰岛素治疗的2型糖尿病患者转为甘精胰岛素联合口服药的疗效分析%Analysis of the effect of premixed insulin converted to glargine combined with oral medicine for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈云华

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨预混胰岛素治疗的2型糖尿病患者转为甘精胰岛素联合口服药的临床疗效。方法:将2型糖尿病患者144例随机平分为两组,观察组停用预混胰岛采用甘精胰岛素联合口服降糖药进行治疗,对照组采用预混胰岛素联合口服降糖药进行治疗。观察并比较两组患者FBG(空腹血糖)、HbA1c(糖化血红蛋白)、2 hPG(餐后2 h血糖)及治疗期间患者BMI(体重指数)、低血糖发生次数。结果:两组治疗后FBG、HbA1c、2 hPG等各项指标均下降,下降幅度观察组明显优于对照组;观察组治疗过程中患者BMI无明显变化,而对照组BMI明显上升,且对照组低血糖发生次数明显多于观察组,P<0.05,差异有统计学意义。结论:预混胰岛素治疗效果欠佳的2型糖尿病患者采用甘精胰岛素联合口服降糖药进行治疗,可有效改善患者的FBG、HbA1c水平,降低低血糖风险,且患者体重不会增加。%Objective:To investigate the clinical effect of premixed insulin converted to glargine combined with oral medicine for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods:144 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly divided into the two groups on average.Patients in the observation group deactivated the premixed insulin therapy,and they were treated by the combination of glargine and oral hypoglycemic agents.Patients in the control group were treated by the combination of premixed insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents.We observed and compared the FBG(fasting blood glucose),HbA1c(glycosylated hemoglobin),2 hPG(2 h postprandial blood sugar)and BMI(body mass index),the number of occurrences of hypoglycemia during treatment.Results:The indicators of FBG,HbA1c,2 hPG were all decreased of the two groups after treatment,and the decline of the observation group was significantly better than the control group.Patients in the observation group had no significant change in BMI

  6. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the We

  7. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the

  8. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the We

  9. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Deadlines Grant Application Forms Application Receipt Dates Electronic Submission of Applications Grants 101 (How to Write ... detection and treatment of oral cancers. Note: For materials specific to African American men, please see: Oral ...

  10. Oral Appliances Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your sleep doctor may schedule you for a sleep study to verify treatment success. Follow-Up Visits Follow-up visits with your dentist will be needed to ensure the optimal fit of the oral appliance. Effective oral appliances ...

  11. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See ... this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected ...

  12. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the exam can detect oral cancer early—when it can be treated more successfully. Publications​ For Health ... and the importance of detecting the disease in its early stages. The Oral Cancer Exam Step-by- ...

  13. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See All Order ... Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, ...

  14. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, ... not collect any actual information. External Web Site Policy This graphic notice ( ) means that you are leaving ...

  15. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected medical terms and resource information. Oral ... of Dental and Craniofacial Research National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD 20892-2190 301-496-4261 NIH… ...

  16. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See ... this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected ...

  17. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings ... of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected medical terms and resource information. Oral Cancer A fact ...

  18. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that ... any actual information. External Web Site Policy This graphic notice ( ) means that you are leaving ...

  19. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the exam can detect oral cancer early—when it can be treated more successfully. Publications​ For Health ... and the importance of detecting the disease in its early stages. The Oral Cancer Exam Step-by- ...

  20. Antimicrobial activity of Uncaria tomentosa against oral human pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Renzo Alberto Ccahuana-Vasquez; Silvana Soléo Ferreira dos Santos; Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito; Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge

    2007-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa is considered a medicinal plant used over centuries by the peruvian population as an alternative treatment for several diseases. Many microorganisms usually inhabit the human oral cavity and under certain conditions can become etiologic agents of diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of different concentrations of Uncaria tomentosa on different strains of microorganisms isolated from the human oral cavity. Micropulverized Uncaria t...

  1. HAD Oral History Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.

  2. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment.

  3. Medicinal Marijuana: A Legitimate Appetite Stimulant?

    OpenAIRE

    Aquino, Glen

    2005-01-01

    Medicinal marijuana has been at the center of controversy for the treatment of cancer cachexia and AIDS related weight loss. Dronabinol, the oral form of marijuana, was approved for appetite stimulation, but its variability in absorption has led researchers to believe that smoked marijuana may be more effective. The discovery of endocannabinoids and their receptors has drawn attention from the research community, and as a result, marijuana’s role in appetite stimulation is clearer. Marijua...

  4. Personalized laboratory medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazzagli, M.; Malentacchi, F.; Mancini, I.

    2015-01-01

    Developments in "omics" are creating a paradigm shift in Laboratory Medicine leading to Personalised Medicine. This allows the increasing in diagnostics and therapeutics focused on individuals rather than populations. In order to investigate whether Laboratory Medicine is able to implement new...... diagnostic tools and expertise and commands proper state-of-the-art knowledge about Personalized Medicine and Laboratory Medicine in Europe, the joint Working Group "Personalized Laboratory Medicine" of the EFLM and ESPT societies compiled and conducted the Questionnaire "Is Laboratory Medicine ready...... for the era of Personalized Medicine?". 48 laboratories from 18 European countries participated at this survey. The answers of the participating Laboratory Medicine professionals indicate that they are aware that Personalized Medicine can represent a new and promising health model. Whereas they are aware...

  5. Personalized laboratory medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazzagli, M.; Malentacchi, F.; Mancini, I.

    2015-01-01

    Developments in "omics" are creating a paradigm shift in Laboratory Medicine leading to Personalised Medicine. This allows the increasing in diagnostics and therapeutics focused on individuals rather than populations. In order to investigate whether Laboratory Medicine is able to implement new...... diagnostic tools and expertise and commands proper state-of-the-art knowledge about Personalized Medicine and Laboratory Medicine in Europe, the joint Working Group "Personalized Laboratory Medicine" of the EFLM and ESPT societies compiled and conducted the Questionnaire "Is Laboratory Medicine ready...... for the era of Personalized Medicine?". 48 laboratories from 18 European countries participated at this survey. The answers of the participating Laboratory Medicine professionals indicate that they are aware that Personalized Medicine can represent a new and promising health model. Whereas they are aware...

  6. Profil lesi oral pada penderita penyakit autoimun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Suasani Wahyuni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral lesion’s profi le in autoimmune disease. Oral lesions are commonly found in patients with autoimmune diseases as manifestations of the disease or a side effect of the treatment. Oral lesions must be handled properly to prevent secondary infection, relieve pain and improve the patient’s quality of life. The aim of this study is to describe oral lesions profile in patients with autoimmune diseases, including clinical characteristics and location of oral lesions as well as the distribution of age and sex of the patient. The methods were retrospective observation by describing the secondary data from patients with autoimmune handled by Oral Medicine Specialist, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Padjadjaran in dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Dental Clinic. Patient files from August 2010 untill August 2014 (n = 66 were used, with the most often diagnosis were Systemic Lupus erythematosus (SLE, Oral lichen planus (OLP and Pemphigus vulgaris (PV. It is revealed that, the age of patients varied between 9 to 68 years old and there was predominance of female patients. Patients diagnosed with SLE were 26 (39.4%, 12 patients with OLP (18.2% and 28 patients with PV (42.4%. Based on the clinical feature, the most commonly found type of oral lesion was erosion (n=52/78,8%, while the most commonly predilection was in the buccal mucosa (n = 46/69,7%. In conclusion, intra-oral examination should be used as a routine procedure in the comprehensive management of patients with autoimmune diseases. Dentist have a professional role in the diagnosis of oral lesions and provide appropriate therapy in order to improve the quality of life of patients with autoimmune diseases. ABSTRAK Lesi oral biasa ditemukan pada penderita penyakit autoimun sebagai manifestasi penyakit atau efek samping pengobatan kortikosteroid jangka panjang. Lesi oral harus ditangani dengan baik untuk mencegah terjadinya infeksi sekunder, mengatasi rasa sakit dan meningkatkan kualitas hidup

  7. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See All Order Publications ...

  8. Oral Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of ... years. He spoke with NIH MedlinePlus magazine about oral health issues common in older adults. What has been ...

  9. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A– ... Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral ...

  10. Oral Health in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Oral Health in Rural Communities Adequate access to oral healthcare ... about oral health programs in my area? What oral health disparities are present in rural America? According to ...

  11. [Self-rating of oral health according to the Oral Health Impact Profile and associated factors: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardo, Marilisa Carneiro Leão; Moysés, Simone Tetu; Moysés, Samuel Jorge

    2013-06-01

    To systematically evaluate the literature to investigate associations between social, demographic, economic, psychosocial, and behavioral factors and the self-perception of oral health measured using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP). In this systematic review of the literature, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) were adapted for the performance of a qualitative metasummary, without meta-analysis. Articles about oral health and associated factors with implications for quality of life were selected, with a focus on the tool for self-rating of the oral health-disease process, the OHIP. Pubmed/National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the Virtual Health Library (Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde - BVS/BIREME) were searched. Articles published between 2001 and 2011 were included. The following Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) were employed: oral health, quality of life, sickness impact profile, and socioeconomic factors. Of 57 articles identified, 20 met the inclusion criteria. The metasummary revealed that a poor self-perception of oral health was associated with unfavorable social, economic, demographic, and psychosocial factors, as well as with undesirable habits and poor clinical oral conditions. There is consensus in the literature about the influence of the investigated factors on the self-perception of oral health and on quality of life. The OHIP is an important aid for determining oral health needs and for developing strategies to control/reduce disease and promote oral health, with a consequent positive impact on quality of life.

  12. Clinical Research of Massage Manipulation Combined with Orally Taking Traditional Chinese Medicine in Treating Acute Lumbar Sprain%推拿手法配合桃红四物汤加味治疗急性腰扭伤临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄东来; 钟玉涛; 高邈; 凌波

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the clinical curative effects of massage manipulation combined with traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of acute lumbar sprain. Methods: 60 cases of patients were randomly divided into two groups,the treatment group was treated by massage and Taohong Siwu Decoction (composition: Amygdalus persica 10 g,Carthamus tinctorius 10 g, Rehmannia glutinosa 20 g, Angelica sinensis 15 g,Paeonia lactiflora Pall 15 g,Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort 10 g,Cyathula officinalis Kuan 60 g, Boswellia carterii Birdw 6 g, Commiphora myrrha Engl 6 g, Radix Glycyrrhizae 6 g. one dosage one day, three times with once of 150 mL) ;the control group was treated by electric acupuncture plus TDP and combined with Taohong Siwu Decoction. Results: The difference of therapeutic effects between both groups had statistically significance(P <0. 05) ;comparing the VAS score difference between two groups,the treatment group decreased more obviously than the control group(P <0.01). Conclusion ?Massage manipulation combined with orally taking traditional Chinese medicine has great curative effects in the treatment of acute lumbar sprain.%目的:探讨推拿手法配合桃红四物汤加味治疗急性腰扭伤的临床疗效.方法:将60例患者随机分为两组,治疗组30例采用推拿手法配合桃红四物汤加味(方药组成:桃仁10 g,红花10 g,熟地黄20 g,当归15 g,赤芍15 g,川芎10 g,川牛膝60 g,制乳香6 g,制没药6 g,甘草6g)治疗.每天1剂,水煎分3次温服,每次150mL,对照组采用电针加TDP配合桃红四物汤加味治疗.结果:两组治疗疗效经统计分析差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),VAS评分差值比较,治疗组较对照组降低更明显(P<0.01).结论:推拿手法配合中药内服治疗急性腰扭伤疗效显著.

  13. Infant oral health and oral habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, A J; Warren, J J

    2000-10-01

    Many oral diseases and conditions, including dental caries (cavities) and malocclusions, have their origins early in life. Prudent anticipatory guidance by the medical and dental professions can help prevent many of the more common oral health problems. This article provides information on the rationale for early dental examination and instructions for pediatric and family practitioners in scheduling and conducting an early oral intervention appointment. In addition, feeding practices, non-nutritive sucking, mouth breathing, and bruxing are discussed, including their effects on orofacial growth and development.

  14. Oral steroid contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sech, Laura A; Mishell, Daniel R

    2015-11-01

    Oral steroid contraception is a popular method of family planning worldwide. Over the past several decades, this method of contraception has changed significantly by decreasing the estrogen dose, changing the progestin component, and reducing the hormone free interval. Despite the popularity of oral steroid contraception, there has been much criticism regarding the associated risks of venous thromboembolism and stroke. Despite these established, yet uncommon risks, oral steroid contraception has many important health benefits. This review highlights the available formulations of oral contraceptives along with their evidence-based associated risks and benefits. Highlights regarding future directions for development of novel oral contraceptives are also addressed.

  15. The oral-systemic connection: role of salivary diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    Utilizing saliva instead of blood for diagnosis of both local and systemic health is a rapidly emerging field. Recognition of oral-systemic interrelationships for many diseases has fostered collaborations between medicine and dentistry, and many of these collaborations rely on salivary diagnostics. The oral cavity is easily accessed and contains most of the analytes present in blood. Saliva and mucosal transudate are generally utilized for oral diagnostics, but gingival crevicular fluid, buccal swabs, dental plaque and volatiles may also be useful depending on the analyte being studied. Examples of point-of-care devices capable of detecting HIV, TB, and Malaria targets are being developed and discussed in this overview.

  16. Ayurvedic herbal medicine and lead poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunturu Krishna S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although the majority of published cases of lead poisoning come from occupational exposures, some traditional remedies may also contain toxic amounts of lead. Ayurveda is a system of traditional medicine that is native to India and is used in many parts of world as an alternative to standard treatment regimens. Here, we report the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain, anemia, liver function abnormalities, and an elevated blood lead level. The patient was found to have been taking the Ayurvedic medicine Jambrulin prior to presentation. Chemical analysis of the medication showed high levels of lead. Following treatment with an oral chelating agent, the patient's symptoms resolved and laboratory abnormalities normalized. This case highlights the need for increased awareness that some Ayurvedic medicines may contain potentially harmful levels of heavy metals and people who use them are at risk of developing associated toxicities.

  17. Oral biopsy: Oral pathologist′s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K L Kumaraswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many oral lesions may need to be diagnosed by removing a sample of tissue from the oral cavity. Biopsy is widely used in the medical field, but the practice is not quite widespread in dental practice. As oral pathologists, we have found many artifacts in the tissue specimen because of poor biopsy technique or handling, which has led to diagnostic pitfalls and misery to both the patient and the clinician. This article aims at alerting the clinicians about the clinical faults arising preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively while dealing with oral biopsy that may affect the histological assessment of the tissue and, therefore, the diagnosis. It also reviews the different techniques, precautions and special considerations necessary for specific lesions.

  18. Relevance of tumor angiogenesis patterns as a diagnostic value and prognostic indicator in oral precancer and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty Devicharan D; Panda A; Ahuja; Urs AB; Chandra RH; Tyagi,; Adesh Manchanda A

    2011-01-01

    Devi Charan Shetty,1 Puneet Ahuja,2 DK Taneja,5 Ajit Singh Rathore,2 Shivjot Chhina,3 Upasana Sethi Ahuja,4 Kiran Kumar,1 Anshuman Ahuja,5 Priyanka Rastogi,11Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology, I.T.S-CDSR, Muradnagar, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India; 2Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology; 3Department of Periodontics; 4Department of Oral Medicine & Radiology; 5Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, I.T.S Dental College, Greater Noida, Utta...

  19. Reflections on preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Olli S

    2014-10-01

    Having thought much about medicine in my career-long effort to understand it and the research for its advancement, I have come to views rather different form the now-prevailing ones in respect to what preventive medicine is about; what epidemiology is in relation to preventive medicine; what distinguishes preventive medicine in preventive healthcare at large; the relation of preventive medicine to public health; the concept of health promotion; and also the core principles of preventive medicine. All of these views I set forth in this article, for the readers' critical reflection.

  20. The Oral Cavity State in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gašpar, Marija; Glavina, Ana; Grubišić, Kristina; Sabol, Ivan; Bušić, Mirela; Mravak, Marinka

    2015-01-01

    Aim Patients with a solid organ transplant can have many different complications in the mouth, as a result of immunosuppression and side effects of drugs. The aim of this study was to examine the frequency and type of oral lesions in renal transplant patients, dental status, oral hygiene, oral lesions related to drugs which patients take and the time of transplantation as well as the frequency of patient’s visits to the dentist in the post-transplant period. Material and methods The study was performed in a period of two years and included 100 subjects with a renal transplant during their regular control visits to the Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, Clinical Hospital Centre Zagreb and the Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb and 100 randomly selected control subjects at the Department of Endodontics and Restorative Dentistry, School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb. Results Results showed a significantly higher incidence of oral lesions in patients with renal transplant (31%) compared to control subjects. The most frequent were erythematous (inflammatory changes), keratotic lesions and gingival hyperplasia. The average DMFT index was significantly lower in patients with renal transplant than in the control group. One third of patients had a subjective feeling of dry mouth. Oral hygiene was poor overall, and only a small number of subjects used the additional sustainers for oral hygiene. Most patients did not visit the dentist after the transplantation. Conclusion Renal transplant patients need a comprehensive and regular dental care during the pre- and post-transplant period and a doctor of dental medicine should be part of a multidisciplinary team of medical specialists. PMID:27688404

  1. Clinical use of extended-release oral treprostinil in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pugliese SC

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Steven C Pugliese,1 Todd M Bull1,2 1Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, 2UCD Pulmonary Vascular Disease Center, Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine and Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA Abstract: The development of parenteral prostacyclin therapy marked a dramatic breakthrough in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. Intravenous (IV epoprostenol was the first PAH specific therapy and to date, remains the only treatment to demonstrate a mortality benefit. Because of the inherent complexities and risks of treating patients with continuous infusion IV therapy, there is great interest in the development of an oral prostacyclin analog that could mimic the benefits of IV therapy. Herein, we highlight the development of oral prostacyclin therapy, focusing on oral treprostinil, the only US Food and Drug Administration approved oral prostacyclin. Recent Phase III clinical trials have shown the drug to improve exercise tolerance in treatment-naïve PAH patients, but not patients on background oral therapy. Oral treprostinil appears to be most efficacious at higher doses, but its side effect profile and complexities with dosing complicate its use. While oral treprostinil’s current therapeutic role in PAH remains unclear, ongoing studies of this class of medication should help clarify their role in the treatment of PAH. Keywords: oral treprostinil, pulmonary arterial hypertension, selexipag

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ...

  3. Veterinary medicines update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-11

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues.

  4. Taking multiple medicines safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in your wallet and at home. Review your medicine list with your health care providers and pharmacists. Discuss ... all of your providers a copy of your medicine list. Ask questions about any new drugs you are ...

  5. Giving Medicine to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Articulos en Espanol Giving Medicine to Children Share Tweet ... right medicine and the right amount More in Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas Cosméticos Dispositivos Médicos ...

  6. Technology in respiratory medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repro

    Respiratory medicine is the subspecialty in medicine which ... The very nature of respiratory physiology ... of this essential step with resultant loss of accuracy in .... intensity of treatment, or for medicolegal .... likened to trying to manage dia-.

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine ... physicians diagnose and evaluate medical conditions. These imaging scans use radioactive materials called radiopharmaceuticals or radiotracers . Depending ...

  8. Cold and Cough Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking lots of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... its earliest stages as well as a patient’s immediate response to therapeutic interventions. Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine ... leaving the nuclear medicine facility. Through the natural process of radioactive decay, the small amount of radiotracer ...

  10. Society for Vascular Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certification with this new online course from the Society for Vascular Medicine. Learn more. Looking for a ... jobs are listed right now. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Vascular Medicine. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tell your doctor about your child’s recent illnesses, medical conditions, medications and allergies. Depending on the type ... Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material ...

  12. Medicine safety and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000619.htm Medicine safety and children To use the sharing features ... especially careful if you have toddlers around. Keep Medicines out of Reach and Sight Safety tips: DO ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging is performed ... the thyroid gland. top of page How does the nuclear medicine procedure work? With ordinary x-ray ...

  14. ADHD Medicines (for Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Kids > ADHD Medicines Print A ... Help en español Medicamentos para el TDAH About ADHD Have you ever been so bored that you ...

  15. Anatomy and Disorders of the Oral Cavity of Miscellaneous Exotic Companion Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Angela M; Miwa, Yasutsugu

    2016-09-01

    Unusual mammalian species such as the hedgehog, sugar glider, and miniature pig are encountered with increasing frequency in exotic companion medicine. Disease of the oral cavity can occur in any species; although occasionally encountered in exotic mammalian species, it is rarely described in the literature. Anatomy and dentition vary significantly; diagnosis and treatment are often extrapolated from that known in other species. The best-documented disease of the oral cavity in this group of species is oral neoplasia in the hedgehog.

  16. Oral Submucous Fibrosis Caused Due to Long Term Tobacco Use - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun V Subramaniam

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of a middle aged male patient afflicted with oral submucous fibrosis was noticed by the department of Oral Medicine, Bharari Vidyapeeth′s Dental College & Hospital,Pune , when the patient reported to the department with the chief complaint of a painful lower left molar. On clinical examination, oral submucous fibrosis was diagnosed. The only positive history of tissue abuse habit given by the patient was of the use of tobacco containing toothpaste since many years.

  17. Radiation induced oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Satheesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene

  18. Traditional medicines, HIV, and related infections: workshop 2C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M; Bessong, P; Liu, H

    2011-04-01

    Traditional medicines are an integral part of health care worldwide, even though their efficacy has not been scientifically proven. HIV-infected individuals may use them singularly or in combination with conventional medicines. Many in vitro studies have proven the anti-HIV, anti-Candida, and anti-herpes simplex virus potential of traditional plants and identified some of the mechanisms of action. Very few in vivo studies are available that involve a small number of participants and show controversial results. In addition, knowledge is limited of the role of traditional medicines in the enhancement of the immune system. The use of traditional medicines with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) has created a problem because drug interactions compromise the efficacy of ARVs. Several currently popular plants have been studied in the laboratory for their interaction with ARVs, with disadvantageous results. Unfortunately, no clinical trials are available. The science of traditional medicines is relatively new and is at present being modernized worldwide. However, there are still ethical issues regarding traditional medicines that need to be addressed-for example, regulations regarding quality control and standardization of medicines, regulation and education of healers who deliver these medicines, and unregulated clinical trials. The workshop addressed the following questions about traditional medicine and their use in HIV infection: What are the mechanisms of action of anti-HIV traditional medicines? Should traditional medicines be used in conjunction with ARV? Do traditional medicines enhance the immune system? Should medicinal plants be used for the control of oral infections associated with HIV? What are the ethical issues surrounding the use of traditional medicines for the treatment of HIV and associated infections?

  19. Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine Small Text Medium Text Large Text Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine YESTERDAY The concept that the mind is important ...

  20. Bimaxillary Oral Focal Mucinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sunil; Malik, Sunita; Mittal, Hitesh Chander; Singh, Gurdarshan; Kamra, Hemlata

    2016-10-01

    Oral focal mucinosis is considered as oral counterpart of cutaneous focal mucinosis. The preoperative diagnosis of mucinosis is almost impossible because of its rarity and clinical similarity to other lesions of various etiologies. The histological diagnosis of oral mucinosis is important to better understand the etiopathogenesis, treatment modalities, and any recurrence of the lesion besides differentiating from the other soft tissue lesions.The purpose of this paper is to report the first case of bimaxillary involvement with dome-shaped elevated, rounded, asymptomatic, normally colored swelling in left posterior palatal mucosa and left mandibular posterior region in a 25-year old woman who was diagnosed as oral focal mucinosis histopathologically.

  1. Chrysomya Bezziana oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G S Vijay Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is an opportunistic infestation of human and vertebrate animals with dipterous larvae. Oral myiasis is a rare condition associated with poor oral hygiene, mental disability, halitosis and other conditions. We present a case report of an adult mentally challenged woman with extensive necrotic oral lesion burrowing into the hard palate through which three live maggots (larvae were seen emerging out. The larvae were removed using forceps and the patient was treated with oral ivermectin. The maggots were identified as larvae of the Chrysomya bezziana fly.

  2. Oral microbiota and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka H. Meurman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several oral micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor oral health and the prevalence of oral and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in oral microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control oral microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion.

  3. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Receipt Dates Electronic Submission of Applications Grants 101 (How to Write a Grant) ... Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – ...

  4. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Writing Tips Careers & Training Fellowships and Internships ... Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, ...

  5. Towards understanding oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations.

  6. Nuclear medicine physics

    CERN Document Server

    De Lima, Joao Jose

    2011-01-01

    Edited by a renowned international expert in the field, Nuclear Medicine Physics offers an up-to-date, state-of-the-art account of the physics behind the theoretical foundation and applications of nuclear medicine. It covers important physical aspects of the methods and instruments involved in modern nuclear medicine, along with related biological topics. The book first discusses the physics of and machines for producing radioisotopes suitable for use in conventional nuclear medicine and PET. After focusing on positron physics and the applications of positrons in medicine and biology, it descr

  7. Medicinal plants used to treat malaria in Southern Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    People in Benin who cannot resort to allopathic medicines provided by the pharmaceutical industry use many species of plants to alleviate malaria symptoms. Complicated mixtures of different parts of several plant species are employed orally or as a bathing substance. The inventory of 85 species and

  8. Medicinal plants used to treat malaria in Southern Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    People in Benin who cannot resort to allopathic medicines provided by the pharmaceutical industry use many species of plants to alleviate malaria symptoms. Complicated mixtures of different parts of several plant species are employed orally or as a bathing substance. The inventory of 85 species and

  9. [Contribution of occupational medicine to social medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraut, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Occupational medicine has always been part of social medicine, but focuses on the part of the population in paid employment. Investigations of occupational diseases have identified several toxic chemicals that can affect other sectors of society: examples include cancers due to sawdust, asbestos, benzene, as well as carcinogens, mutagens and reproductive toxins. Better knowledge of the risks posed by epoxy resins, cements, formaldehyde, lead, toluene and other chemical agents has helped to understand certain diseases in the population. Knowledge of musculoskeletal disorders due to repetitive work has been of help in other areas; gradual resumption of appropriate activity seems to be the best basic treatment. Studies of mental overload and its consequences in the workplace (suicide, depression, etc.) have implications for human relations in society as a whole. Multidisciplinary networking helps to regularly take stock of findings in occupational medicine that may be applicable to social medicine.

  10. Sarcoidosis: Oral and extra-oral manifestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease, which is usually associated with the formation of noncaseating granulomas in affected tissues and organs. It is mostly present with bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, pulmonary infiltration, ocular, and cutaneous lesions. Oral manifestations of this disease are relatively rare. The present case report shows a 40-year-old male with lesions in the soft tissue of oral cavity (buccal mucosa, gingiva, and palate and a diagnosis of sarcoidosis was established following hematological, biochemical and pulmonary function tests, chest radiograph, and histopathological investigation.

  11. [Interaction between medicines and medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tres, J C

    2006-01-01

    In recent years there has been a notable increase in the consumption of medicinal plants in Spanish society. This might be due to the fact that in some cases they have shown themselves to be efficient in treating certain pathologies and to the erroneous perception that these products are innocuous. Medicinal plants behave as authentic medicines since the chemical substances of which they are formed can have a biological activity in humans. For this reason, their joint administration with "conventional medicines" can produce variations in the magnitude of the effect. This type of interaction, just like those produced between two or more medicines, can produce pharmacokinetic mechanisms if they affect the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, or pharmacodynamic mechanisms if they affect the result of the pharmacological action. In the medical literature there are few articles and notifications of cases concerning the adverse effects and interactions that affect medicinal plants, which probably reflects an under-notification of these phenomena. If we add to this the lack of experimental data and controlled studies, perception of their prevalence is difficult or nearly impossible. This article sets out, in an order that will be explained later, the findings of an exhaustive review of the medical literature with the aim of making its existence known to the reader, without going into other considerations, such as the degree of evidence for example, which will be the subject of forthcoming articles.

  12. Feasibility of a porcine oral mucosa equivalent: a preclinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinikoglu, Beste; Hemar, Julie; Hasirci, Vasif; Breton, Pierre; Damour, Odile

    2012-08-01

    Oral tissue engineering aims to treat and fill tissue deficits caused by congenital defects, facial trauma, or malignant lesion surgery, as well as to study the biology of oral mucosa. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) require a large animal model to evaluate cell-based devices, including tissue-engineered oral mucosa, prior to initiating human clinical studies. Porcine oral mucosa is non-keratinized and resembles that of humans more closely than any other animal in terms of structure and composition; however, there have not been any reports on the reconstruction of a porcine oral mucosa equivalent, probably due to the difficulty to culture porcine fibroblasts. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of a 3D porcine oral mucosa equivalent based on a collagen-GAG-chitosan scaffold, as well as reconstructed porcine epithelium by using an amniotic membrane as support, or without any support in form of epithelial cell sheets by using thermoresponsive culture plates. Explants technique was used for the isolation of the porcine fibroblasts and a modified fibroblast medium containing 20% fetal calf serum was used for their culture. The histological and transmission electron microscopic analyses of the resulting porcine oral mucosa models showed the presence of non-keratinized epithelia expressing keratin 13, the major differentiation marker of non-keratinized oral mucosa, in all models, and the presence of newly synthesized collagen fibers in the lamina propria equivalent of the full-thickness model, indicating the functionality of porcine fibroblasts.

  13. Shared Oral Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Børge; Elmelund Poulsen,, Johan; Christophersen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Shared Oral Care - Forebyggelse af orale sygdomme på plejecentre Introduktion og formål: Mangelfuld mundhygiejne hos plejekrævende ældre er et alment og veldokumenteret sundhedsproblem, der kan føre til massiv udvikling af tandsygdomme, og som yderligere kan være medvirkende årsag til alvorlige...

  14. Visual overview, oral detail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    and with the coordinating nurse, who is the main keeper of the whiteboard. On the basis of observations, we find that coordination is accomplished through a highly intertwined process of technologically mediated visual overview combined with orally communicated details. The oral details serve to clarify and elaborate...

  15. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See ... this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected medical terms and ...

  16. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section...

  17. Epilepsy and oral care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Janice; Boyle, Carole

    2002-05-01

    Epilepsy is a common symptom of an underlying neurological disorder. The seizures can take a variety of forms. Both the condition and its medical management can affect oral health. Prevention of oral disease and carefully planned dental treatment are essential to the well-being of people with epilepsy.

  18. Oral environment and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Yasusei; Tada, Hidesuke; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Tada, Yoshiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Miyake, Yoichiro; Ishimaru, Naozumi

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is now the leading cause of death in Japan. A rapid increase in cancer mortality is expected as Japan is facing a super-aged society. Many causes of cancer are known to be closely linked to life style factors, such as smoking, drinking, and diet. The oral environment is known to be involved in the pathogenesis and development of various diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, diabetes, heart disease, and dementia. Because the oral cavity acts as the bodily entrance for air and food, it is constantly exposed to foreign substances, including bacteria and viruses. A large number of bacteria are endemic to the oral cavity, and indigenous oral flora act to prevent the settlement of foreign bacteria. The oral environment is influenced by local factors, including dental plaque, tartar, teeth alignment, occlusion, an incompatible prosthesis, and bad lifestyle habits, and systemic factors, including smoking, consumption of alcohol, irregular lifestyle and eating habits, obesity, stress, hormones, and heredity. It has recently been revealed that the oral environment is associated with cancer. In particular, commensal bacteria in the oral cavity are involved in the development of cancer. Moreover, Candida, human papilloma virus and Epstein-Barr virus as well as commensal bacteria have been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of cancer. In this review, we introduce recent findings of the correlation between the oral environment and cancer.

  19. Barriers to administering non-oral formulations in a paediatric population: A semi-structured interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, Rebecca; Batchelor, Hannah; Stirling, Heather; Marriott, John

    2016-01-30

    There is a paucity of research exploring barriers to non-oral medicines administration in paediatric patients; however, these undoubtedly influence medicines adherence. Studies conducted with healthcare professionals have identified various issues with the administration and acceptance of non-oral medicines and devices (Venables et al., 2012; Walsh et al., 2015). EMA (2014) guidelines specify that formulation teams should demonstrate 'acceptability' of paediatric formulations when developing pharmaceutical formulations. Semi-structured interviews exploring barriers to administering non-oral medicines were conducted with young persons and the parents/legal guardians of children (0-17 years) with chronic conditions at the University Hospital of Coventry and Warwickshire, UK. 90 children prescribed a total of 148 non-oral medicines were recruited to the study; 88 barriers to administering non-oral medicines were reported. The most commonly reported barriers were: poor acceptance of face mask/difficulties with spacer for inhaled formulations (38% of reports); disliking parenteral/preferring alternative formulations (38% of reports); greasy texture of topical preparations; difficulty with administering an ocular ointment and the large dose volume of a nasal preparation. Formulation teams should consider the use of child-friendly, age-appropriate designs to improve usability and acceptance, thus medicines adherence. These findings should be used to inform future development of non-oral formulations and devices, suitable in terms of safety, efficacy and acceptability to paediatric patients.

  20. Genomics of oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Margaret J

    2003-01-01

    Advances in bacterial genetics came with the discovery of the genetic code, followed by the development of recombinant DNA technologies. Now the field is undergoing a new revolution because of investigators' ability to sequence and assemble complete bacterial genomes. Over 200 genome projects have been completed or are in progress, and the oral microbiology research community has benefited through projects for oral bacteria and their non-oral-pathogen relatives. This review describes features of several oral bacterial genomes, and emphasizes the themes of species relationships, comparative genomics, and lateral gene transfer. Genomics is having a broad impact on basic research in microbial pathogenesis, and will lead to new approaches in clinical research and therapeutics. The oral microbiota is a unique community especially suited for new challenges to sequence the metagenomes of microbial consortia, and the genomes of uncultivable bacteria.

  1. Oral syringe use survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, J N; Wedemeyer, H F

    1980-09-01

    Use of oral syringes at children's and ASHP-accredited residency hospitals in the United States was surveyed. Questionnaires were mailed to 131 hospitals; 117 (89.3%) were returned. Of the responding hospitals, 54.5% of children's hospitals and 67.1% of residency hospitals used oral syringes. There was no definite preference for a particular brand or type (glass vs. plastic) of syringe. Patients who often required liquid dosage forms, including pediatric and geriatric patients and patients with nasogastric tubes, were most frequently included in oral syringe distribution systems. Twenty-six of the 73 hospitals utilizing oral syringes used them for most unit dose liquids in all drug distribution systems. The remainder reported use for specific medications or circumstances. Expiration dating policies varied from 24 hours to one year to the manufacturer's expiration dating. The survey indicates widespread use of oral syringes and identifies a need for evaluation of medication stability in these devices.

  2. Oral mucocele: A clinical and histopathological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Chandramani B; Bhavsar, Khushbu; Varma, Saurabh; Tailor, Mansi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral mucocele is the most common benign minor (accessory) salivary gland lesion, caused due to mechanical trauma to the excretory duct of the gland. Clinically they are characterized by single or multiple, soft, fluctuant nodule, ranging from the normal color of the oral mucosa to deep blue. It affects at any age and is equally present in both sexes with highest incidence in second decade of life. They are classified as extravasation or retention type. Objectives: To analyze the data between 2010 and 2011 of, clinically and histopathologically diagnosed 58 oral mucoceles for age, gender, type, site, color, cause, symptoms and dimension. Results: Oral mucoceles were highly prevalent in the age group of 15-24 years, were seen in 51.72% of males and 48.28% of females, with a ratio of 1.07:1. The extravasation type (84.48%) was more common than the retention type (15.52%). The most common affected site was lower lip (36.20%) followed by ventral surface of the tongue (25.86%). The lowest frequency was observed in floor of mouth, upper lip and palate. The maximum numbers of mucoceles were asymptomatic (58.62%), and the color of the overlying mucosa had color of adjacent normal mucosa (48.28%). It was also observed that most of the mucoceles had diameter ranging from 5 to 14 mm. The causative factors of the lesion were lip biting (22.41%), trauma (5.18%) and numerous lesions (72.41%). Conclusion: Oral Mucoceles are frequently seen in an oral medicine service, mainly affecting young people and lower lip, measuring around 5 to 14 mm and the extravasation type being the most common. PMID:25364184

  3. [Oral fluid bacteriocidal activity in complex diagnostics of oral disbiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, O F; Abramova, E S

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of examination of oral fluid bacteriocidal activity in complex diagnostics of oral mucosa disbiosis was evaluated. Thirty-seven patients were included in complex clinical and laboratory studies. The patients were divided in two groups: main group (30 patients exhibiting various grades of oral mucosa disbiosis) and control group (7 patients with no signs of oral disbiosis). The oral fluid bacteriocidal activity was examined by means of laser flow cytometry. Study results proved oral fluid bacteriocidal activity increase to correlate with the grade of oral mucosa disbiosis thus confirming the usefulness of the method in complex diagnostics of oral disbiosis.

  4. Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Dave

    As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17…

  5. [Sports medicine in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickhuth, H-H

    2005-08-01

    Sports medicine covers many different aspects, ranging from clinical specialties, such as internal medicine, orthopedics or pediatrics to physiology and sports sciences. The requirements for sports medicine evolve mainly from exercise physiology (elite, leisure and health oriented physical activity), orthopedics and traumatology as well as from preventive and rehabilitative issues. In the new German curriculum, sports medicine is defined as a subspecialty. Historically, sports medicine in Germany has a federal structure with a governing body (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin und Prävention). Due to these facts, University Departments of Sports Medicine (which vary greatly in size and performance) are either attached to Medical or non-Medical Faculties, such as Sports Sciences. In medical schools, sports medicine can be selected as an elective subject. However, the main part of teaching sports medicine is covered by Sports Science Faculties. In an international context, the strength of German sports medicine is its clinical orientation and close cooperation with the sport itself, especially high-performance sports. In the future, like in the Anglo- American countries, sports medicine in Germany will play a major role in health prevention and rehabilitation.

  6. Oral mucocele: A clinical and histopathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandramani B More

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the data between 2010 and 2011 of, clinically and histopathologically diagnosed 58 oral mucoceles for age, gender, type, site, color, cause, symptoms and dimension. Results: Oral mucoceles were highly prevalent in the age group of 15-24 years, were seen in 51.72% of males and 48.28% of females, with a ratio of 1.07:1. The extravasation type (84.48% was more common than the retention type (15.52%. The most common affected site was lower lip (36.20% followed by ventral surface of the tongue (25.86%. The lowest frequency was observed in floor of mouth, upper lip and palate. The maximum numbers of mucoceles were asymptomatic (58.62%, and the color of the overlying mucosa had color of adjacent normal mucosa (48.28%. It was also observed that most of the mucoceles had diameter ranging from 5 to 14 mm. The causative factors of the lesion were lip biting (22.41%, trauma (5.18% and numerous lesions (72.41%. Conclusion: Oral Mucoceles are frequently seen in an oral medicine service, mainly affecting young people and lower lip, measuring around 5 to 14 mm and the extravasation type being the most common.

  7. Regenerative nanotechnology in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakib, Kaveh; Tan, Aaron; Soskic, Vukic; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2014-12-01

    Regenerative nanotechnology is at the forefront of medical research, and translational medicine is a challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Although there has been an exponential rise in the volume of research generated about it for both medical and surgical uses, key questions remain about its actual benefits. Nevertheless, some people think that therapeutics based on its principles may form the core of applied research for the future. Here we give an account of its current use in oral and maxillofacial surgery, and implications and challenges for the future.

  8. Impact of oral mucosa lesions on the quality of life related to oral health. An etiopathogenic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Vilchis, María-del-Carmen; López-Ríos, Patricia; García, Ixchel-Maya

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess the impact of oral mucosa lesions on quality of life related to oral health (QLROH) and additionally to establish whether the etiopathogenicy of oral lesion is associated to the degree of QLROH impact. Material and Methods In this cross-sectional study performed on a non-probability sample of 247 consecutively patients attending the oral medicine and pathology clinic the Spanish version of Oral Health Impact Profile-49 questionnaire (OHIP-49-mx) was applied. Responses were recorded on Likert-type scale whose values ranged from 0 (never) to 4 (always). Values greater than the 50 percentile (median) were considered as indicative of poor quality of life. All patients were orally examined and diagnosed. In accordance to their etiopathogenicy 6 study groups were formed: 4 corresponded to MIND classification for diseases (Metabolic, Inflammatory, Neoplastic, and Development groups), with ≥2 diseases and no-lesion group. To identify possible differences of OHIP-49 values between study groups an ANOVA (one factor) parametric and a chi square tests were performed (SPSS®20.0). Results The OHIP-49-mx values were higher than the 50 percentile (established at 39) in metabolic, inflammatory, development, and ≥2 diseases groups, suggesting that this type of oral lesions negatively impact the quality of life. ≥2 diseasesgroup followed by metabolic and inflammatory diseases group (p 0.001) depicted worst quality of life. Functional limitation (p 0.003), pain, physical inability (p 0.001) and psychological disabilities dimensions exhibited greater values in all groups. Conclusions Injured oral mucosa negatively impacts quality of life, specifically functional limitation, physical inability and psychological disabilities could lead to social isolation.To our knowledge, this is the first time that an association between QLROH and the etiopathogenicy of oral mucosal diseases is established. Key words:Quality of life, quality of life related to oral health

  9. Ethics in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Warren R; George, Michael S; Churchill, Larry; Spindler, Kurt P

    2007-05-01

    Physicians have struggled with the medical ramifications of athletic competition since ancient Greece, where rational medicine and organized athletics originated. Historically, the relationship between sport and medicine was adversarial because of conflicts between health and sport. However, modern sports medicine has emerged with the goal of improving performance and preventing injury, and the concept of the "team physician" has become an integral part of athletic culture. With this distinction come unique ethical challenges because the customary ethical norms for most forms of clinical practice, such as confidentiality and patient autonomy, cannot be translated easily into sports medicine. The particular areas of medical ethics that present unique challenges in sports medicine are informed consent, third parties, advertising, confidentiality, drug use, and innovative technology. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted code of sports medicine ethics that adequately addresses these issues.

  10. Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2013-09-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers.

  11. [Digital oral-maxillofacial imaging: present and future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G; Yu, Q

    2016-04-09

    Digital imaging has been widely used in the field of oral and maxillofacial radiology. The present work summarizes the use of digital imaging from the following aspects: ①The origin of digital oral and maxillofacial imaging; ②The influence of digital imaging on the work mode and work flow of oral and maxillofacial radiology; ③ Application of picture archiving and communication system(PACS)in oral and maxillofacial radiology; ④The influence of three dimensional medical data sets on diagnosis, prognosis and treatment plan; ⑤Digital imaging facilitates the development of telemedicine and internet-medicine; ⑥The significance of establishing a medical database or data center; ⑦Problems and challenges.

  12. Natural ways to prevent and treat oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Danaraddi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is one of the usual causes of mortality all over the world, with a five-year survival rate of only 50%. Oral cancers are treated primarily by surgery with / without adjuvant radiotherapy and / or chemotherapy. However, there is significant post-treatment morbidity and mortality secondary to recurrences. Dietary supplements like fruits and vegetables are rich in phytochemicals and provide a variety of antioxidants like vitamin A, C, E. Spirulina, Selenium, Green tea (EGCG, Neem, Tomatoes (lycopene, Turmeric (curcumin, and some medicinal mushrooms are also used as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents. This overview emphasizes on natural therapies to fight against oral cancer. Thus, there are several natural compounds that can enhance the prevention of oral cancer.

  13. 叩刺拔罐、火针及口服西药治疗股外侧皮神经炎临床疗效比较%Comparison of Tapping Cupping, Fire Needling and Oral Western Medicine for Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Neuritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李月红; 俞婧; 马玲; 沈艳玲

    2013-01-01

    目的 比较叩刺拔罐、火针疗法及口服西药治疗股外侧皮神经炎的疗效.方法 将90例股外侧皮神经炎患者随机分为叩刺拔罐组、火针组、对照组各30例.对照组口服西药甲钴胺片每次500 μg,布洛芬胶囊每次300 mg,均每日2次,疗程30天.叩刺拔罐组、火针组分别于阿是穴(病变皮损处)行叩刺拔罐、火针治疗,3天治疗1次,5次为1个疗程,休息4天后进行下一个疗程,连续治疗2个疗程.记录患者疼痛缓解程度、疼痛开始缓解时间、疼痛持续时间,治疗前后检测各组患者患侧、健侧神经传导速度,并于治疗结束后比较各组患者临床疗效.结果 叩刺拔罐组总有效率为90.0%,火针组为93.3%,对照组为70.0%,叩刺拔罐组和火针组总有效率均高于对照组(P<0.05),叩刺拔罐组和火针组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).叩刺拔罐组及火针组在疼痛缓解程度、疼痛开始缓解时间及神经传导速度的改善方面均优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);叩刺拔罐组在疼痛缓解程度、疼痛缓解缓解时间、疼痛持续时间及神经传导速度的改善方面与火针组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 叩刺拔罐及火针疗法对股外侧皮神经炎患者的治疗效果均优于口服西药,火针疗法、叩刺拔罐疗法疗效相当.%Objective To compare the therapeutic effects of tapping cupping, fire needling and oral western medicine on lateral femoral cutaneous neuritis. Methods Ninety cases of lateral femoral cutaneous neuritis were randomized into a tapping cupping group, fire needling group and control group, with 30 in each. The control group was given 500 μg methylcobalamin and 300mg ibuprofen capsule orally, twice daily for 30 days. The tapping cupping group and fire needling group was treated with tapping cupping therapy and fire needling respectively, once 3 days, 5 times as one treatment course and resting for 4 days after

  14. Occupational medicine and toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This editorial is to announce the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, a new Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal published by BioMed Central. Occupational medicine and toxicology belong to the most wide ranging disciplines of all medical specialties. The field is devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, management and scientific analysis of diseases from the fields of occupational and environmental medicine and toxicology. It also covers the promotion of occupational ...

  15. Advances in Regenerative medicine

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    PREFACE In order to better introduce this book, it is important to define regenerative medicine as this field is built through a combination of multiple elements including living cells, matrix to support the living cells (i.e. a scaffold), and cell communicators (or signaling systems) to stimulate the cells, and their surrounding environment to grow and develop into new tissue or organ. Indeed, regenerative medicine is an emerging multidisciplinary field involving biology, medicine, and ...

  16. Implementations of translational medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Sonntag Kai-Christian

    2005-01-01

    Abstract New developments in science are rapidly influencing and shaping basic and clinical research and medicine. This has led to the emergence of multiple opportunities and challenges on many levels in the bio-medical and other associated fields. To face these opportunities and challenges, new concepts and strategies are needed. These can be provided by translational research/medicine as an integrative concept based on a multidirectional understanding of research and medicine embedded in a ...

  17. Fluorine in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallow, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Since its first use in the steroid field in the late 1950s, the use of fluorine in medicinal chemistry has become commonplace, with the small electronegative fluorine atom being a key part of the medicinal chemist's repertoire of substitutions used to modulate all aspects of molecular properties including potency, physical chemistry and pharmacokinetics. This review will highlight the special nature of fluorine, drawing from a survey of marketed fluorinated pharmaceuticals and the medicinal chemistry literature, to illustrate key concepts exploited by medicinal chemists in their attempts to optimize drug molecules. Some of the potential pitfalls in the use of fluorine will also be highlighted.

  18. Personalized medicine in psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Personalized medicine is a model in which a patient’s unique clinical, genetic, and environmental characteristics are the basis for treatment and prevention.  Aim, method, and results: This review aims to describe the current tools, phenomenological features, clinical risk factors......, and biomarkers used to provide personalized medicine. Furthermore, this study describes the target areas in which they can be applied including diagnostics, treatment selection and response, assessment of risk of side-effects, and prevention.  Discussion and conclusion: Personalized medicine in psychiatry....... The discussion proposes possible solutions to narrow this gap and to move psychiatric research forward towards personalized medicine....

  19. Music and medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Lippi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Donatella Lippi1, Paolo Roberti di Sarsina2, John Patrick D’Elios11History of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Histology, and Forensic Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 2Health Local Unit, Department of Mental Health, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: Healing sounds have always been considered in the past an important aid in medical practice, and nowadays, medicine has confirmed the efficacy of music therapy in many diseases. The aim of this study is to assess the curative power of music, in the frame of the current clinical relationship.Keywords: history of medicine, medical humanities, healing music

  20. Technologists for Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Huey D.

    1974-01-01

    Physicians need support personnel for work with radioisotopes in diagnosing dangerous diseases. The Nuclear Medicine Technology (NMT) Program at Hillsborough Community College in Tampa, Florida, is described. (MW)

  1. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know Getting Rid of Old Medicines Dealing With Addiction Understanding Medications and What They Do Prescription Drug Abuse Bath Salts Depressants Ketamine MDMA (Ecstasy) Contact Us Print Resources ...

  2. Etiology of oral habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayardo, R E; Mejia, J J; Orozco, S; Montoya, K

    1996-01-01

    The pedodontic admission histories of 1600 Mexican children were analyzed, to determine general epidemiologic factors or oral habits, as well as their relationship with identifiable biopsychosociologic factors. Fifty-six percent of the children gave evidence of an oral habit, with significant predisposition among female patients, single children, subjects in poor physical health (particularly from allergies), as well as children with histories of chronic health problems. Oral habits should be considered a major health hazard because of their high incidence. Successful treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach to the basic cause of the problem.

  3. Microbioma oral humano

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Joana Pinto Oliveira e

    2016-01-01

    O microbioma oral humano é constituído por um vasto conjunto de microrganismos presentes na cavidade oral. Analisando a cavidade oral podemos verificar que nela existem mais de 700 espécies de bactérias responsáveis pelo domínio de parte do microbioma humano, tornando-a um importante local de estudo. É um dos habitats com maior diversidade no corpo humano onde esses microrganismos se apresentam de forma organizada e estruturada. Estes habitats estão intimamente relacionados ...

  4. [Herbal medicines alternative to synthetical medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, A M; Schilcher, H; Loew, D

    2013-12-16

    Herbal pharmaceuticals in medical practice are similarly used as chemically well defined drugs. Like other synthetical drugs, they are subject to pharmaceutical legislature (AMG) and EU directives. It is to differentiate between phytopharmaceuticals with effectiveness of proven indications and traditional registered herbal medicine. Through the Health Reform Act January 2004 and the policy of the Common Federal Committee (G-BA)on the contractual medical care from March 2009--with four exceptions--Non-prescription Phytopharmaka of the legal Health insurance is no longer (SHI) refundable and must be paid by the patients. The result is that more and more well-established preparations disappear from the market. This article gives an overview of practical relevant indications for herbal medicines, which according to its licensing status, the scientific assessment by the Cochrane Collaboration and the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) and evidence-based Medicine (EBM)/ meta-analyzes as an alternative to synthetics can be used.

  5. Teaching evidence based medicine in family medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorka Vrdoljak

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of evidence based medicine (EBM as the integrationof clinical expertise, patient values and the best evidence was introduced by David Sackett in the 1980’s. Scientific literature in medicine is often marked by expansion, acummulation and quick expiration. Reading all important articles to keep in touch with relevant information is impossible. Finding the best evidence that answers a clinical question in general practice (GP in a short time is not easy. Five useful steps are described –represented by the acronym “5A+E”: assess, ask, acquire, appraise, apply and evaluate.The habit of conducting an evidence search “on the spot’’ is proposed. Although students of medicine at University of Split School of Medicine are taught EBM from the first day of their study and in all courses, their experience of evidence-searching and critical appraisal of the evidence, in real time with real patient is inadequate. Teaching the final-year students the practical use of EBM in a GP’s office is different and can have an important role in their professional development. It can positively impact on quality of their future work in family practice (or some other medical specialty by acquiring this habit of constant evidence-checking to ensure that best practice becomes a mechanism for life-long learning. Conclusion. EBM is a foundation stone of every branch of medicine and important part of Family Medicine as scientific and professional discipline. To have an EB answer resulting from GP’s everyday work is becoming a part of everyday practice.

  6. Amiloidosis oral nodular Oral nodular amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martos Díaz

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La amiloidosis constituye una entidad marcada por el depósito de amiloide en diferentes tejidos. En la cavidad oral se manifiesta habitualmente en forma de macroglosia, y más raramente, como nódulos dispuestos en la superficie. Caso clínico. Varón afecto de Mieloma Múltiple, que comienza con lesiones nodulares en labio inferior y lengua. A raíz de estas lesiones, mediante estudio histológico, es diagnosticado de Amiloidosis Sistémica. Discusión. Los nódulos amiloideos en la cavidad oral, constituyen una manifestación rara de la amiloidosis sistémica. Su aparición conlleva la necesidad de realizar un diagnostico diferencial con otras entidades y el diagnostico de certeza se obtiene mediante el análisis histológico.Introduction. Amyloidosis is a condition characterized by the deposit of amyloid in different tissues. In the oral cavity it is usually manifested as macroglossia and, more rarely, as nodules on the surface. Clinical case. A man had multiple myeloma that began with nodular lesions of the lower lip and tongue. As a result of these lesions, the patient was diagnosed of systemic amyloidosis by histological study. Discussion. Amyloid nodules in the oral cavity are a rare manifestation of systemic amyloidosis. Its appearance entails the necessity to make I diagnose differential with other organizations and I diagnose of certainty is obtained by means of the histological analysis.

  7. Oral sex and oral health: An enigma in itself

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active couples of various age groups, including male-female and same-gender adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus, and analingus. Oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital infections from one site in body to the other. Oral health has a direct correlation on the transmission of infection; a cut in the mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of life-threatening infections. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues, and oral hygiene and dental issues. The ulcerations or unhealthy periodontium in mouth accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus, consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.

  8. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Z Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ ... site’s privacy policy when you follow the link. Home Contact Us Viewers and Players Site Map FOIA ...

  9. Oral Cancer Exam

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    Full Text Available ... Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See All Order Publications English and Spanish brochures available free ...

  10. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it can be treated more successfully. Publications​ For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health Care Professionals A step-by-step, illustrated guide ...

  11. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Submission of Applications Grants 101 (How to Write a Grant) Questions and Answers Grant Writing Tips Careers & ... successfully. Publications​ For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health Care Professionals A step-by- ...

  12. Oral Cancer Exam

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    Full Text Available ... Research Programs (Extramural Research) NIDCR Laboratories (Intramural Research) Science News in Brief Study Takes First Comprehensive Look ... Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – ...

  13. Oral Hypersensitivity Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... food, food additives, drugs, oral hygiene products, and dental materials. Q: Are there any specific foods that are ... dental treatment trigger a hypersensitivity reaction? A: Some dental materials used by the dentist can cause a hypersensitivity ...

  14. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Skip to Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral ... High School and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities ...

  15. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it can be treated more successfully. Publications​ For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health Care Professionals A step-by-step, illustrated guide ...

  16. Leucoplasia oral: Conceptos actuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Escribano-Bermejo

    Full Text Available La leucoplasia es la lesión premaligna más frecuente de la cavidad oral. La Organización Mundial de la Salud la define clínicamente como una lesión predominantemente blanca de la mucosa oral que no puede caracterizarse como ninguna otra lesión conocida y con una elevada tendencia a convertirse en un cáncer oral. El objetivo de esta revisión es hacer un repaso al conocimiento actual acerca de la leucoplasia oral prestando especial atención a su nomenclatura, su etiología, su potencial maligno y su tratamiento.

  17. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes ... Browse Studies by Topic NIDCR-Sponsored Clinical Trials Research NIDCR Strategic Plan Research Results Tools for Researchers ...

  18. Oral Cancer Exam

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    Full Text Available ... and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – ...

  19. Oral Cancer Exam

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    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See All Order Publications English and Spanish brochures available free of charge. ... early—when it can be treated more successfully. Publications​ For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide ...

  20. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Submission of Applications Grants 101 (How to Write a Grant) Questions and Answers Grant Writing Tips Careers & ... successfully. Publications​ For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health Care Professionals A step-by- ...

  1. Fostering oral presentation performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van Stan; Gulikers, Judith; Biemans, Harm; Mulder, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research revealed significant differences in the effectiveness of various feedback sources for encouraging students’ oral presentation performance. While former studies emphasised the superiority of teacher feedback, it remains unclear whether the quality of feedback actually differs bet

  2. Oral Cancer Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shown to participate in their development. These include lichen planus, an inflammatory disease of the oral soft ... at an uncontrolled rate, is unable to repair DNA damage within itself, or refuses to self destruct ...

  3. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Answers Grant Writing Tips Careers & Training Fellowships and Internships for... High School and College Students Recent College ... signs and symptoms of oral cancer, and the importance of detecting the disease in its early stages. ...

  4. Oral Cancer Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Answers Grant Writing Tips Careers & Training Fellowships and Internships for... High School and College Students Recent College ... signs and symptoms of oral cancer, and the importance of detecting the disease in its early stages. ...

  5. A Single Medicine for a Disease: Simple Formula of Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine, It's Compilation and Succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Imkyung; Kim, Hoyeon

    2013-08-01

    In this article, we will examine the theory and practice of encounters between oral history and narrative medicine in view of storytelling. Man is a storytelling animal. Our experience is understood, reconstructed and transmitted as a story and we can find the meaning of life through a story. Oral history is a specific practice and method of research. It refers to the process of recording interviews with people who have something to say, transcribing the record and interpretating the written text to conduct the study of the past. Therefore story is a basic tool of oral history. There has been also growing interest regarding the narrative features of medicine. Especially the illness narrative is one of the most powerful tools in this context. An illness narrative is a patient's story about his illness, including the meaning of the illness in his life. Illness as a specific event of life can only be understood through a story of patient. How can we combine oral history and narrative medicine altogether? We propose two subjects, one is 'healing' and the other is 'the social'. The goal of medicine is healing of suffered people. It is well known that storytelling has a healing effect. Conducting oral history is not only 'recovery history' but also is helping people to have a well organized memory and integrate that into his whole life story. The use of oral history as a means of empowerment should be extended referring the healing effect of medicine. On the other hand, modern medicine has a tendency to reduce the problem of health and illness as an individual one. However story of illness can reveal the dominance of modern biomedicine in the contemporary and have political implications. Oral history deals with memory. Personal memory can only be understood in the context of social and cultural backgrounds. Collective memory is necessary in building community history. Medicine should learn from oral history's social dimensions. In this context, life of KIM Hyeongyul who

  6. Probiotics and oral health

    OpenAIRE

    Rastogi, Pavitra; Saini, Himani; Dixit, Jaya; Singhal, Rameshwari

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics utilize the naturally occurring bacteria to confer health benefits. Traditionally, probiotics have been associated with gut health, and are being mainly utilized for prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal infections and disease; however, recently, several studies have suggested the use of probiotics for oral health purposes. The aim of this review is to understand the potential mechanism of action of probiotic bacteria in the oral cavity and summarize their observed effects wi...

  7. Oral Somatosensory Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    De Boer, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    Oral somatosensory awareness refers to the somatic sensations arising within the mouth, and to the information these sensations provide about the state and structure of the mouth itself, and objects in the mouth. Because the oral tissues have a strong somatosensory innervation, they are the locus of some of our most intense and vivid bodily experiences. The salient pain of toothache, or the habit of running one's tongue over one's teeth when someone mentions "dentist", provide two very differ...

  8. Oral and esophageal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyer, C M; Simon, D

    1997-06-01

    This article focused on the approach to oral and esophageal disorders in patients with AIDS. Most of these disorders respond to various therapeutic regimens. Some of the oral complications can be prevented with dental prophylaxis, whereas recurrent esophageal disease in some patients may require long-term suppressive therapy. As patients with AIDS live longer with lower CD4 counts, gastroenterologists need to become familiar with the approach to and management of the more common lesions of the mouth and esophagus.

  9. Oral pigmentation: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeja, C; Ramakrishnan, K; Vijayalakshmi, D; Devi, M; Aesha, I; Vijayabanu, B

    2015-08-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations.

  10. ON ORAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Svetitsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes a rise in the incidence of oral cancer in the Rostov Region since the 1990s. The study has indicated that this rise is associated with regional population growth due to the forced migrants after the collapse of the USSR. Financial problems, unbalanced nutrition, poor oral hygiene, and depression in this group of patients have contributed to the higher incidence of precancers and cancers.

  11. Maintaining women's oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, A L; Bonci, L

    2001-07-01

    Women must adopt health-promoting strategies for both general health and the oral cavity, because the health of a woman's body and oral cavity are bidirectional. For general health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should actively advise women to minimize alcohol use, abstain from or cease smoking, stay physically active, and choose the right foods to nourish both the body and mind. For oral health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should advise women on how to prevent or control oral infections, particularly dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specifically, women need to know how to remove plaque from the teeth mechanically, use appropriate chemotherapeutic agents and dentifrices, use oral irrigation, and control halitosis. Dental practitioners also need to stress the importance of regular maintenance visits for disease prevention. Adolescent women are more prone to gingivitis and aphthous ulcers when they begin their menstrual cycles and need advice about cessation of tobacco use, mouth protection during athletic activities, cleaning orthodontic appliances, developing good dietary habits, and avoiding eating disorders. Women in early to middle adulthood may be pregnant or using oral contraceptives with concomitant changes in oral tissues. Dental practitioners need to advise them how to take care of the oral cavity during these changes and how to promote the health of their infants, including good nutrition. Older women experience the onset of menopause and increased vulnerability to osteoporosis. They may also experience xerostomia and burning mouth syndrome. Dental practitioners need to help women alleviate these symptoms and encourage them to continue good infection control and diet practices.

  12. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  13. The Evaluation of Psychosocial Factors Associated with Oral Lichen Planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Mollashahi Leila

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lichen planus is a chronic mucocutaneous disease that often affects the oral mucosa.However, the exact etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear, there are reports about the association between Oral Lichen Plans (OLP and immunological disorders and psychological factors. The role of psychosocial factors especially depression and anxiety in oral lichen planus is debated. This study was done to determine the association of these factors in oral lichen planus.Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was done in department of oral medicine of Zahedan University of Dentistry from May 2007 to May 2008. One hundred and sixty patients were evaluated in three groups of OLP, negative control and positive control using Beck Anxiety (BAI, Beck Depression (BDI and Stress Life Event Questionnaires. Data were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. P value0.05.Conclusions: It seems that psychosocial factors may have role in the causation of oral lichen planus. These factors may form a starting point for initiation of various autoimmune reactions, which have been shown to be contributory to the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus

  14. Preventive Effects of Houttuynia cordata Extract for Oral Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko Sekita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Houttuynia cordata (HC (Saururaceae has been used internally and externally as a traditional medicine and as an herbal tea for healthcare in Japan. Our recent survey showed that HC poultice (HCP prepared from smothering fresh leaves of HC had been frequently used for the treatment of purulent skin diseases with high effectiveness. Our experimental study also demonstrated that ethanol extract of HCP (eHCP has antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anti-inflammatory effects against S. aureus which caused purulent skin diseases. In this study, we focused on novel effects of HCP against oral infectious diseases, such as periodontal disease and dental caries. We determined the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of water solution of HCP ethanol extract (wHCP against important oral pathogens and investigated its cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects on human oral epithelial cells. wHCP had moderate antimicrobial effects against some oral microorganisms and profound antibiofilm effects against Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans. In addition, wHCP had no cytotoxic effects and could inhibit interleukin-8 and CCL20 productions by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human oral keratinocytes. Our findings suggested that wHCP may be clinically useful for preventing oral infectious diseases as a mouthwash for oral care.

  15. Preventive Effects of Houttuynia cordata Extract for Oral Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekita, Yasuko; Murakami, Keiji; Amoh, Takashi; Ogata, Shohei; Matsuo, Takashi; Miyake, Yoichiro; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata (HC) (Saururaceae) has been used internally and externally as a traditional medicine and as an herbal tea for healthcare in Japan. Our recent survey showed that HC poultice (HCP) prepared from smothering fresh leaves of HC had been frequently used for the treatment of purulent skin diseases with high effectiveness. Our experimental study also demonstrated that ethanol extract of HCP (eHCP) has antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anti-inflammatory effects against S. aureus which caused purulent skin diseases. In this study, we focused on novel effects of HCP against oral infectious diseases, such as periodontal disease and dental caries. We determined the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of water solution of HCP ethanol extract (wHCP) against important oral pathogens and investigated its cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects on human oral epithelial cells. wHCP had moderate antimicrobial effects against some oral microorganisms and profound antibiofilm effects against Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans. In addition, wHCP had no cytotoxic effects and could inhibit interleukin-8 and CCL20 productions by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human oral keratinocytes. Our findings suggested that wHCP may be clinically useful for preventing oral infectious diseases as a mouthwash for oral care. PMID:27413739

  16. Oral and systemic photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L; Halliday, Gary M

    2014-01-01

    Photoprotection can be provided not only by ultraviolet (UV) blockers but also by oral substances. Epidemiologically identified associations between foods and skin cancer and interventional experiments have discovered mechanisms of UV skin damage. These approaches have identified oral substances that are photoprotective in humans. UV inhibits adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production causing an energy crisis, which prevents optimal skin immunity and DNA repair. Enhancing ATP production with oral nicotinamide protects from UV immunosuppression, enhances DNA repair and reduces skin cancer in humans. Reactive oxygen species also contribute to photodamage. Nontoxic substances consumed in the diet, or available as oral supplements, can protect the skin by multiple potential mechanisms. These substances include polyphenols in fruit, vegetables, wine, tea and caffeine-containing foods. UV-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) contributes to photodamage. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and food substances reduce production of this lipid mediator. Fish oils are photoprotective, at least partially by reducing PGE2 . Orally consumed substances, either in the diet or as supplements, can influence cutaneous responses to UV. A current research goal is to develop an oral supplement that could be used in conjunction with other sun protective strategies in order to provide improved protection from sunlight.

  17. Melatonin and oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Murat İnanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-01-01

    While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers.

  18. Melatonin and Oral Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat İnanç Cengiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers.

  19. Personality and oral health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Broadbent, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated age-26 personality characteristics and age-32 oral health in a prospective study of a complete birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand. Personality was measured using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Oral health was measured using the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), a global measure, and dental examinations. Personality profiles were constructed for 916 individuals (50.8% men) using standardized MPQ scores, and multivariate analyses examined their association with oral health. Those reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts had higher Negative Emotionality scores (and lower Constraint and Positive Emotionality MPQ superfactor scores) than those who did not. After controlling for gender, clinical status, and the other two MPQ superfactors, those scoring higher on Negative Emotionality had a greater risk of reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts, as well as 3+ OHIP-14 impacts and worse-than-average oral health. They also had a greater risk of having lost at least one tooth from caries and of having 3+ decayed surfaces. Personality characteristics appear to shape self-reports of oral health. Personality is also a risk factor for clinical disease status, at least with respect to dental caries and its sequelae. Because the attitudes and values tapped into by personality tests can be altered by brief cognitive interventions, those might be useful in preventive dentistry. PMID:21896053

  20. Personalized Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjmand, Babak; Goodarzi, Parisa; Mohamadi-Jahani, Fereshteh; Falahzadeh, Khadijeh; Larijani, Bagher

    2017-03-01

    Personalized medicine as a novel field of medicine refers to the prescription of specific therapeutics procedure for an individual. This approach has established based on pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic information and data. The terms precision and personalized medicines are sometimes applied interchangeably. However, there has been a shift from "personalized medicine" towards "precision medicine". Although personalized medicine emerged from pharmacogenetics, nowadays it covers many fields of healthcare. Accordingly, regenerative medicine and cellular therapy as the new fields of medicine use cell-based products in order to develop personalized treatments. Different sources of stem cells including mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been considered in targeted therapies which could give many advantages. iPSCs as the novel and individual pluripotent stem cells have been introduced as the appropriate candidates for personalized cell therapies. Cellular therapies can provide a personalized approach. Because of person-to-person and population differences in the result of stem cell therapy, individualized cellular therapy must be adjusted according to the patient specific profile, in order to achieve best therapeutic results and outcomes. Several factors should be considered to achieve personalized stem cells therapy such as, recipient factors, donor factors, and the overall body environment in which the stem cells could be active and functional. In addition to these factors, the source of stem cells must be carefully chosen based on functional and physical criteria that lead to optimal outcomes.

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scan being performed, you will receive specific preparation instructions for what your child may eat and drink before the exam, especially ... Epilepsy Images related to Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine ... Videos related to Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo. ...

  2. [Opening medicine containers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glerup, E; Dengsø, H

    1990-07-09

    In connection with self-administration of medicine for patients with rheumatoid arthritis, patients with weak hands and elderly patients in general, the design of many medicine containers makes them awkward to handle for the patients. In this investigation 12 different medicine containers were tested. The 12 containers represent the antirheumatic medicine containers available on the market in Denmark in 1988. Sixty patients participated in the investigation. Thirty had rheumatoid arthritis and 30 had normal hand function. The age range was 40-85 years The patients had the choice between five possible answers concerning each container. In all patients, grip strength was measured. The patients with rheumatoid arthritis were classified in four functional classes, and pulpa-vola distance end thumb--5th MCP point distance were measured. The opening mechanisms of 29% of the antirheumatic medicine containers are unacceptable; these are plastic containers with a "push-off" top and suppository packs. 46%--(containers with screw cap or pressure dispensing) are considered acceptable. For 25% (tablet and capsule blister packs) the patients' estimate varied. It is important that medicine containers can be opened by the patients without difficulty, so that they do not present a hindrance to a correct intake of medicine or result in an unnecessary admission to hospital. The results of this investigation show that it is of continuous importance to encourage the production of medicine containers that comply with the requirements of the patients.

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicine exams will involve an injection in a vein in your child’s arm or hand. Your child should wear loose, comfortable clothing and ... medicine exams will involve an injection into a vein in your child's arm or hand. Children should wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing to ...

  4. Preventive Medicine Redefined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, George

    1981-01-01

    Departments of preventive medicine can survive through unity, which can be achieved through majority agreement on a new and specific definition of preventive medicine. A definition is proposed that is based on a review and analysis of recent progress in the prevention of the major causes of mortality. (MLW)

  5. Implementation of an Integrative Medicine Curriculum for Preventive Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, Delia R; D'Adamo, Christopher; Amr, Sania

    2015-11-01

    The University of Maryland Department of Epidemiology and Public Health collaborated with the Center for Integrative Medicine at the same institution to develop and implement a unique integrative medicine curriculum within a preventive medicine residency program. Between October 2012 and July 2014, Center for Integrative Medicine faculty provided preventive medicine residents and faculty, and occasionally other Department of Epidemiology and Public Health faculty, with comprehensive exposure to the field of integrative medicine, including topics such as mind-body medicine, nutrition and nutritional supplements, Traditional Chinese Medicine, massage, biofield therapies, manual medicine, stress management, creative arts, and the use of integrative medicine in the inpatient setting. Preventive medicine residents, under the supervision of Department of Epidemiology and Public Health faculty, led integrative medicine-themed journal clubs. Resident assessments included a case-based knowledge evaluation, the Integrative Medicine Attitudes Questionnaire, and a qualitative evaluation of the program. Residents received more than 60 hours of integrative medicine instruction, including didactic sessions, experiential workshops, and wellness retreats in addition to clinical experiences and individual wellness mentoring. Residents rated the program positively and recommended that integrative medicine be included in preventive medicine residency curricula. The inclusion of a wellness-focused didactic, experiential, and skill-based integrative medicine program within a preventive medicine residency was feasible and well received by all six preventive medicine residents.

  6. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV Medicines and Side Effects (Last updated 1/17/2017; last reviewed 1/17/2017) Key Points HIV medicines help people with ... will depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people ...

  7. Anti-halitosis plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Fahimi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Halitosis is an oral health condition characterized by unpleasant odors emanating constantly from oral cavity. Almost 22-50% of the population experiences such a condition during lifespan and about half of them suffer from personal discomfort and social embarrassment. Based on the literature survey, it seems that the oral cavity is the most important origin of halitosis; therefore, this area could be considered as the best target for the treatment. Halitosis is a well-known disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM; Avicenna and some other famous Iranian traditional physicians have described this condition in their manuscripts precisely. Herbal therapy was the major treatment suggested by Iranian scholars in which mixtures of medicinal plants were used in the form of mouthwashes and other oral formulations. In the present study, six Iranian ancient medical texts were screened for the herbs with anti-halitosis effects. Subsequent to this study, the medicinal herbs were listed and scored based on the frequency of their repetition. Moreover, the effort has been taken to provide the best scientific name for each plant as well as searching modern studies about their biological effects. In our investigation fourteen plants were obtained as the most frequent herbs for treatment of halitosis in ITM. Previous studies revealed that some of these plants have shown biological activities relating to anti-halitosis effect. The present study introduces some more plants for future studies about anti-halitosis property.

  8. Functionalized Polymers for Enhance Oral Bioavailability of Sensitive Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Alvarado Pérez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many sensitive molecules have been studied for effective oral administration. These substances are biologically active compounds that mainly suffer early degradation in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT and physicochemical instability, inactivation and poor solubility and permeability. The sensibility of the biomolecules has limited their oral administration in the body and today is an important research topic to achieve desired effects in medicine field. Under this perspective, various enhancement approaches have been studied as alternatives to increase their oral bioavailability. Some of these strategies include functionalized polymers to provide specific useful benefits as protection to the intestinal tract by preventing its degradation by stomach enzymes, to increase their absorption, permeability, stability, and to make a proper release in the GIT. Due to specific chemical groups, shapes and sizes, morphologies, mechanical properties, and degradation, recent advances in functionalized polymers have opened the door to great possibilities to improve the physicochemical characteristics of these biopharmaceuticals. Today, many biomolecules are found in basic studies, preclinical steps, and others are late stage clinical development. This review summarizes the contribution of functionalized polymers to enhance oral bioavailability of sensitive molecules and their application status in medicine for different diseases. Future trends of these polymers and their possible uses to achieve different formulation goals for oral delivery are also covered in this manuscript.

  9. Maimonides’ Appreciation for Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Gesundheit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Moses Maimonides, the illustrious medieval rabbi and philosopher, dedicated the last decade of his life primarily to medicine. His strong interest in medicine was an integral component of his religious-philosophical teachings and world view. In this paper various sources from his rabbinic writings are presented that explain Maimonides’ motivation regarding and deep appreciation for medicine: (A The physician fulfills the basic biblical obligation to return lost objects to their owner, for with his knowledge and experience the physician can restore good health to his sick fellow human being; (B medicine provides a unique opportunity to practice imitatio dei, as it reflects the religious duty to maintain a healthy life-style; (C as an important natural science, medicine offers tools to recognize, love, and fear God. These three aspects address man’s relationship and obligation towards his fellow-man, himself and God. Biographical insights supported by additional sources from Maimonides’ writings are discussed.

  10. Evolutionary molecular medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M; Ganten, Detlev; Gregory, T Ryan; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2012-05-01

    Evolution has long provided a foundation for population genetics, but some major advances in evolutionary biology from the twentieth century that provide foundations for evolutionary medicine are only now being applied in molecular medicine. They include the need for both proximate and evolutionary explanations, kin selection, evolutionary models for cooperation, competition between alleles, co-evolution, and new strategies for tracing phylogenies and identifying signals of selection. Recent advances in genomics are transforming evolutionary biology in ways that create even more opportunities for progress at its interfaces with genetics, medicine, and public health. This article reviews 15 evolutionary principles and their applications in molecular medicine in hopes that readers will use them and related principles to speed the development of evolutionary molecular medicine.

  11. Foucault and modern medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peerson, A

    1995-06-01

    Modernity as a concept or ideal, resulting from the age of Enlightenment and the French Revolution gave hope of a better future and new possibilities. To be modern means an 'enlightened' individual and society, welcoming change and development. In this paper, I will discuss Foucault's analysis (1973) of problematics in medicine in eighteenth century France. Three themes prominent in the text are: 'the birth of the clinic', 'the clinical gaze' and the power-knowledge relationship. Three problematics identified in modern medicine by Foucault and which are particularly relevant to twentieth century medicine are: (i) the extension of the clinical gaze from the individual body to the wider population; (ii) the increasing medical intervention and use of technology in fundamental life processes; and (iii) the relationship between society and medicine. I will argue that Foucault's analysis is fraught with ambiguities. It is useful, however, for establishing an explanation for medicine today and for presenting a particular interpretation of modernity.

  12. HPV-associated oral warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Wood, N H; Marnewick, J C; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J

    2011-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is strictly epitheliotropic, infecting stratified squamous cutaneous and mucosal epithelial cells. Oral HPV infection may be subclinical or putatively associated with benign or malignant oral neoplasms. The benign HPV-associated oral lesions, focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease), oral squamous cell papilloma, oral verruca vulgaris (common wart) and oral condyloma acuminatum, are collectively referred to as oral warts. Oral warts are usually asymptomatic, may be persistent or uncommonly, may regress spontaneously. HPV-associated oral warts have a prevalence of 0.5% in the general population, occur in up to 5% of HIV-seropositive subjects, and in up to 23% of HIV-seropositive subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy. This paper is a clinico-pathological review of HPV-associated oral warts.

  13. Strengthening of oral health systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    Around the globe many people are suffering from oral pain and other problems of the mouth or teeth. This public health problem is growing rapidly in developing countries where oral health services are limited. Significant proportions of people are underserved; insufficient oral health care...... is either due to low availability and accessibility of oral health care or because oral health care is costly. In all countries, the poor and disadvantaged population groups are heavily affected by a high burden of oral disease compared to well-off people. Promotion of oral health and prevention of oral...... diseases must be provided through financially fair primary health care and public health intervention. Integrated approaches are the most cost-effective and realistic way to close the gap in oral health between rich and poor. The World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Programme will work...

  14. Pilotaje de un protocolo para la adecuación de la forma farmacéutica de la medicación oral al grado de disfagia, de los pacientes ingresados en un servicio de medicina interna Monitoring of a protocol for the adequacy of the pharmaceutical form of the oral medication to the degree of dysphagia in patients hospitalized in an internal medicine service

    OpenAIRE

    J. García Aparicio; Herrero Herrero, J I; A. M.ª Moreno Gómez; J. Martínez Sotelo; E. González del Valle; Mª A. Fernández de la Fuente

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: La vía oral es la forma de administrar medicación más cómoda, pero puede no ser segura. La disfagia es uno de los factores que dificulta la correcta alimentación y administración de la medicación. Objetivos: La mejora de la administración de la medicación oral en pacientes con disfagia, a través de la adecuación de la forma farmacéutica de los principios prescritos a las texturas toleradas. Métodos: Proyecto piloto de aplicación de un protocolo de disfagia, donde se incluyeron l...

  15. [Aspects of traditional Indian medicine (Ayurveda) in urology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, J; Kumar, S; Dobos, G J; Haferkamp, A

    2012-12-01

    Ayurveda is from a global viewpoint the oldest and the most employed traditional form of medicine in India. The difference to western medicine is that this form of medicine is based on experience, empirical evidence and intuition accumulated over thousands of years and passed down through generations orally as well as by sketches. Ayurveda is not only concerned with the physical but also with the spiritual aspects of the body and according to this doctrine most diseases result from psychological and pathological alterations in the body. Ultimately, the definition of health according to Ayurveda is an equilibrium between the physical, mental and spiritual components. Ayurvedic medicine is used within the framework of the treatment of urolithiasis for diuresis, for litholysis, as an analgetic for spasms and with an antimicrobial function.

  16. Folklore medicinal plants of North Andaman Islands, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, P Rama Chandra; Reddy, C Sudhakar; Raza, S H; Dutt, C B S

    2008-09-01

    The rural folk of North Andaman, India use the traditional medicine for their primary health care. Folklore medicinal uses of 72 interesting medicinal plant species along with botanical name, local name, family, habit, part used, disease for which the drug is administrated, mode of administration are presented. These 72 plant species which provide the crude drugs pertain to 67 genera and 43 families of Magnoliophyta from tropical rainforests. These plants used to cure 40 ailments. Most remedies were taken orally, accounting for 76% of medicinal use. Most of the remedies were reported to have been from trees (55.6%) and herb (22.2%) species. The most widely sought after plant parts in the preparation of remedies in the areas are the stem bark (33.8%) and root (23.9%).

  17. Understanding Resolvin Signaling Pathways to Improve Oral Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Oleo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of resolvins has been a major breakthrough for understanding the processes involved in resolution of inflammation. Resolvins belong to a family of novel lipid mediators that possess dual anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution actions. Specifically, they protect healthy tissue during immune-inflammatory responses to infection or injury, thereby aiding inflammation resolution and promoting tissue healing. One of the major concerns in modern medicine is the management and treatment of oral diseases, as they are related to systemic outcomes impacting the quality of life of many patients. This review summarizes known signaling pathways utilized by resolvins to regulate inflammatory responses associated with the oral cavity.

  18. [Cataplasma of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Gao, Wen-yuan; Wang, Tao; Liu, Yun-bin; Xue, Jing; Xiao, Pei-gen

    2003-01-01

    The TCM (traditional Chinese medicine) transdermal plaster (also known as "cataplasma") are flexible adhesive patches used for treatment of pain, resulted from arthritis, sprain and bruise, tendovaginitis, lumbar spine protrude, neuralgia, hyperosteogeny ache, abdominal discomfort and metastatic cancer, etc. Since the 1980's, investigators in China have used this modern patch delivery system for herbal drugs and obtained satisfactory results especially from the treatment of various types of pain associated with bone diseases, abdominal discomfort, and tumors, etc. The production of TCM cataplasma was successfully scaled up in early 90's and the commercial product line for an antirheumatic agent was first established in Shanghai by Leiyunshang Group. Thus far, a number of products in the form of TCM cataplasma became commercially available in the market, and clinical investigations with these products indicated that topically applicable herbal preparations, especially in the form of cataplasma, are preferred formulations with respect to the treatment comfort of the patient. Compared to the traditional preparations which utilize rubber and rosin as adhesives, cataplasma is advantageous in that the lipophilic and hydrophilic ingredients of the herbal extracts are solubilized and then "gellified" with the organic polymers, and that the drug matrix containing up to 40%-70% of water serves as a "drug reservoir" that will sustain the quick and continuous release of herbal ingredients over several days across the skin. While there are conventional remedies for palliation of pain and discomfort associated with bone diseases or cancers, administration of oral medicinal herbs combined with topical agents such as TCM cataplasma may significantly alleviate the symptoms and improve their quality of life. This article provides a review on three aspects, which include the process development, characteristics and developmental status of TCM cataplasma, and future development of

  19. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify ...

  20. Medicine's Life Inside the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page A Medicine's Life Inside the Body By Alison Davis Posted ... field that studies how the body reacts to medicines and how medicines affect the body. Scientists funded ...

  1. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify ...

  2. American Academy of Sleep Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the field of sleep medicine. Join the American Academy of Sleep Medicine to further your career and ... MD Sept. 21 - As president of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, I am keenly aware of ...

  3. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  4. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease in its earliest stage, often before symptoms ... benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. To learn more about nuclear medicine, visit Radiology ...

  5. Women and Diabetes -- Diabetes Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes - Diabetes Medicines Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 1-800-332-1088 to request a form. Diabetes Medicines The different kinds of diabetes medicines are ...

  6. Alternative Medicine and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Parents > Complementary and Alternative Medicine A ... works. previous continue How CAM Differs From Traditional Medicine CAM is frequently distinguished by its holistic methods, ...

  7. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  8. ORAL MYIASIS CONVERTING TO ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oral Myiasis, a condition of infestation of the body by fly larvae (maggots is a rare pathology in humans. It is associated with poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, suppurating lesions, severe halitosis. It is seen frequently in tropical countries and hot climatic regions. The reported cases in literature of oral Myiasis associated with oral cancer are few. The treatment is a mechanical removal of the maggots but a systemic treatment with Ivermectin, a semi - synthetic macrolide antibiotic, has been used successfully for treatment for oral m yiasis. We present a case of 55 yr old male alcoholic patient with oral myiasis with extensive proliferative growth of oral cavity. Our patient was managed with manual debridement and administration of systemic ivermect in along with antibiotic coverage. Incisional biopsy of the proliferative lesion showed well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Thus our patient showed presence of oral myiasis in association with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  9. Prevention of the exposure by cyclophosphamide oral tablet

    OpenAIRE

    Hanada, Takae; Takami, Yoichiro; Moriyama, Kei; Oro, Masafumi; Ogawa, Takehiro; Moriyasu, Hiroko; Inoue, Yuka; Kanemitsu, Asako; Kawamoto, Eiko; Nagase, Ayaka; Hamahara, Anna; Yamamoto, Atsuko; Shimada, Kenichi; TAKAHASHI, Masashi; Egawa, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Background Unintended exposure to antitumor agents from an oral medicine may place healthcare workers and patients taking medicine at risk. In this study, the exposure to blister pack by CP (cyclophosphamide) and appropriate preventive procedures were examined. Findings CP detected inside the blister pack of the tested seven lots by LC-MS/MS ranged from 8.2 to 199.6 ng. Raman imaging clearly showed that CP ingredient was completely covered by the tablet coating layer and had not leached out o...

  10. Excipients in Oral Antihistamines Can Perpetuate Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocci, Elizabeth M; Robinson, Amanda; Belazarian, Leah; Foley, Elizabeth; Wiss, Karen; Silvestri, Dianne L

    2015-01-01

    Propylene glycol is a well-documented causative agent of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). It is also reported to cause systemic dermatitis after ingestion of foods or medicines containing it and after intravenous injection of a medicine with propylene glycol in its base. We describe two adolescents with sensitivity to propylene glycol confirmed by patch testing whose dermatitis improved dramatically after cessation of oral antihistamines containing propylene glycol. We report these cases to alert providers to the potential for worsening of ACD due to systemic exposure to propylene glycol in patients with a cutaneous sensitivity to the allergen.

  11. Generic and biosimilar medicines: quid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Simoens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Once intellectual property protection, data and marketing exclusivity of reference medicines have expired, generic medicines and biosimilar medicines can enter the off-patent market. This market entry is conditional on the approval of marketing authorization, pricing and reimbursement. Given that there tends to be confusion surrounding generic and biosimilar medicines, this Editorial introduces basic concepts related to generic and biosimilar medicines and presents the different studies and articles included in this supplement dedicated to generic and biosimilar medicines.

  12. Paracoccidioidomicosis en cavidad oral Oral cavity paracoccidioidomycosis

    OpenAIRE

    D. Antunes Freitas; C.I. Vergara Hernández; A. Díaz Caballero; G. Moreira

    2012-01-01

    La paracoccidioidomicosis (PCM) o blastomicosis suramericana es la micosis sistémica más importante de América latina que es relativamente común en Brasil, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador y Argentina. Los casos esporádicos también pueden verse en algunos otros países, la cual es progresiva y con un infrecuente desenlace fatal si no es tratada a tiempo. Se considera como una enfermedad multifocal, con lesiones orales como la característica prominente. Es causada por un hongo dimórfico, Paracoccid...

  13. Research and Practice Communications Between Oral Health Providers and Prenatal Health Providers: A Bibliometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvoretz, John; Dyer, Karen; Daley, Ellen; Debate, Rita; Vamos, Cheryl; Kline, Nolan; Thompson, Erika

    2016-08-01

    Objectives We aimed to examine scholarly collaboration between oral health and prenatal providers. Oral disease is a silent epidemic with significant public health implications for pregnant women. Evidence linking poor oral health during pregnancy to adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes requires oral health and prenatal providers to communicate on the prevention, treatment and co-management matters pertaining to oral health issues among their pregnant patients. The need for inter-professional collaboration is highlighted by guidelines co-endorsed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Dental Association, stressing the importance of oral health care during pregnancy. Methods To assess if interdisciplinary communication occurs between oral health and prenatal disciplines, we conducted a network analysis of research on pregnancy-related periodontal disease. Results Social Network analysis allowed us to identify communication patterns between communities of oral health and prenatal professionals via scientific journals. Analysis of networks of citations linking journals in different fields reveals a core-periphery pattern dominated by oral health journals with some participation from medicine journals. However, an analysis of dyadic ties of citation reveals statistically significant "inbreeding" tendencies in the citation patterns: both medical and oral health journals tend to cite their own kind at greater-than-chance levels. Conclusions Despite evidence suggesting that professional collaboration benefits patients' overall health, findings from this research imply that little collaboration occurs between these two professional groups. More collaboration may be useful in addressing women's oral-systemic health concerns that result in adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  14. Practical nuclear medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Gemmell, Howard G; Sharp, Peter F

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear medicine plays a crucial role in patient care, and this book is an essential guide for all practitioners to the many techniques that inform clinical management. The first part covers the scientific basis of nuclear medicine, the rest of the book deals with clinical applications. Diagnostic imaging has an increasingly important role in patient management and, despite advances in other modalities (functional MRI and spiral CT), nuclear medicine continues to make its unique contribution by its ability to demonstrate physiological function. This book is also expanded by covering areas of d

  15. Robotics in reproductive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroga, Julie; Patel, Sejal Dharia; Falcone, Tommaso

    2008-01-01

    In the past decade, robotic technology has been increasingly incorporated into various industries, including surgery and medicine. This chapter will review the history, development, current applications, and future of robotic technology in reproductive medicine. A literature search was performed for all publications regarding robotic technology in medicine, surgery, reproductive endocrinology, and its role in both surgical education and telepresence surgery. As robotic assisted surgery has emerged, this technology provides a feasible option for minimally invasive surgery, impacts surgical education, and plays a role in telepresence surgery.

  16. Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    Among the highlights of Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989 are a status report on the thyroid scan in clinical practice, a review of functional and structural brain imaging in dementia, an update on radionuclide renal imaging in children, and an article outlining a quality assurance program for SPECT instrumentation. Also included are discussions on current concepts in osseous sports and stress injury scintigraphy and on correlative magnetic resonance and radionuclide imaging of bone. Other contributors assess the role of nuclear medicine in clinical decision making and examine medicolegal and regulatory aspects of nuclear medicine.

  17. Oral Complications in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Recipients: The Role of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Haverman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is widely used as a potentially curative treatment for patients with various hematological malignancies, bone marrow failure syndromes, and congenital immune deficiencies. The prevalence of oral complications in both autologous and allogeneic HSCT recipients remains high, despite advances in transplant medicine and in supportive care. Frequently encountered oral complications include mucositis, infections, oral dryness, taste changes, and graft versus host disease in allogeneic HSCT. Oral complications are associated with substantial morbidity and in some cases with increased mortality and may significantly affect quality of life, even many years after HSCT. Inflammatory processes are key in the pathobiology of most oral complications in HSCT recipients. This review article will discuss frequently encountered oral complications associated with HSCT focusing on the inflammatory pathways and inflammatory mediators involved in their pathogenesis.

  18. Clinical trial registration in oral health journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaïl-Faugeron, V; Fron-Chabouis, H; Durieux, P

    2015-03-01

    Prospective registration of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) represents the best solution to reporting bias. The extent to which oral health journals have endorsed and complied with RCT registration is unknown. We identified journals publishing RCTs in dentistry, oral surgery, and medicine in the Journal Citation Reports. We classified journals into 3 groups: journals requiring or recommending trial registration, journals referring indirectly to registration, and journals providing no reference to registration. For the 5 journals with the highest 2012 impact factors in each group, we assessed whether RCTs with results published in 2013 had been registered. Of 78 journals examined, 32 (41%) required or recommended trial registration, 19 (24%) referred indirectly to registration, and 27 (35%) provided no reference to registration. We identified 317 RCTs with results published in the 15 selected journals in 2013. Overall, 73 (23%) were registered in a trial registry. Among those, 91% were registered retrospectively and 32% did not report trial registration in the published article. The proportion of trials registered was not significantly associated with editorial policies: 29% with results in journals that required or recommended registration, 15% in those that referred indirectly to registration, and 21% in those providing no reference to registration (P = 0.05). Less than one-quarter of RCTs with results published in a sample of oral health journals were registered with a public registry. Improvements are needed with respect to how journals inform and require their authors to register their trials.

  19. Women's oral health: the evolving science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkford, Jeanne C; Valachovic, Richard W; Harrison, Sonja G

    2008-02-01

    The evidence base for women's oral health is emerging from legislative action, clinical research, and survey documentation. The Women's Health in the Dental School Curriculum study (1999) followed a similar study (1996) of medical school curricula. Both of these major efforts resulted from statutory mandates in the National Institutes of Health Revitalization Act of 1993 (updated October 2000). A major study of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) National Academy of Sciences in 2001 concluded that "the study of sex differences is evolving into a mature science." This IOM study documented the scientific basis for gender-related policy and research and challenged the dental research enterprise to conduct collaborative, cross-disciplinary research on gender-related issues in oral health, disease, and disparities. This report chronicles some of the factors that have and continue to influence concepts of women's oral health in dental education, research, and practice. Gender issues related to women's health are no longer restricted to reproductive issues but are being considered across the life span and include psychosocial factors that impact women's health and treatment outcomes.

  20. Nomegestrol acetate-17b-estradiol for oral contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anne Burke Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Oral contraceptives remain a popular method of contraception over 50 years after their introduction. While safe and effective for many women, the failure rate of oral contraception is about 8%. Concerns about the risk of venous thromboembolism continue to drive the search for the safest oral contraceptive formulations. The oral contraceptive NOMAC-E2 contains nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC 2.5 mg + 17b-estradiol (E2 1.5 mg. The approved dosing regimen is 24 days of active hormone, followed by a 4-day hormone-free interval. NOMAC is a progestin derived from testosterone, which has high bioavailability, rapid absorption, and a long half-life. Estradiol, though it has a lower bioavailability, has been successfully combined with NOMAC in a monophasic oral contraceptive. Two recently published randomized controlled trials demonstrate that NOMAC-E2 is an effective contraceptive, with a Pearl Index less than one pregnancy per 100 woman-years. The bleeding pattern on NOMAC-E2 is characterized by fewer bleeding/spotting days, shorter withdrawal bleeds, and a higher incidence of amenorrhea than the comparator oral contraceptive containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol. The adverse event profile appears to be acceptable. Few severe adverse events were reported in the randomized controlled trials. The most common adverse events were irregular bleeding, acne, and weight gain. Preliminary studies suggest that NOMAC-E2 does not seem to have negative effects on hemostatic and metabolic parameters. While no one oral contraceptive formulation is likely to be the optimum choice for all women, NOMAC-E2 is a formulation with effectiveness comparable with that of other oral contraceptives, and a reassuring safety profile.Keywords: oral contraception, nomegestrol acetate, estradiol

  1. Some Medicinal Plants Used in Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    prescriptions for treating dysentery, nephritis, hypertension and other diseases. The bark is also a sourse for the production of the alkaloid berberine ...which is produced in large wuantities in the Chinese People’s Republic. Berberine preparations have become widely used in medicine for treating...many alkaloids (up to 6-9$), the most important being berberine . There is an annual harvest of approximately 900 tons of wild coptis which is also a

  2. Traditional Japanese herbal (kampo) medicines and treatment of ocular diseases: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaka, Seiji; Kodama, Tatsuo; Ohira, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    Herbal medicines have been used clinically in Eastern Asia, and traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo) formulas are approved as ethical drugs. The Kampo formulas are mixtures of the crude extracts of several herbs, each of which contains multiple components. Numerous investigators have reported that some herbal medicines are efficacious for treating several human diseases. We reviewed the literature on traditional herbal medicines and treatment of ocular diseases. Oral Orengedoku-to and Kakkon-to inhibit postoperative uveitis in humans. Oral Goshajinki-gan improved ocular surface disorders in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Oral Hachimijio-gan increased retinal blood flow. Keishi-bukuryo-gan Sho might be associated with vitreoretinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Oral Hachimijio-gan and Goshajinki-gan delayed lens opacification in rats and mice. Oral Sairei-to, Orengedoku-to, Senkanmeimoku-to, Scutellariae radix extract, Gardeniae fructus extract, topical Liguisticum wallichii rhizoma extract, and intravenous injection of tetramethylpyrazine, baicalin, baicalein, wogonin, and crocetin inhibited some forms of experimental uveitis in rabbits. Topical glycyrrhizinate improved allergic conjunctivitis in humans and rats. Oral crocetin improved eyestrain in humans. Oral berberine diminished experimental uveitis in rats. Baicalein, wogonin, berberine, and berberrubine inhibited in vitro expression of several cytokines in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells. Some Kampo formulas are efficacious for treating several ocular diseases in humans and animals. Some herbal extracts and their components inhibit some forms of experimental uveitis.

  3. [MICROFLORA AND ORAL DISEASE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavkin, A I; Ippolitov, Y A; Aleshina, E O; Komarova O N

    2015-01-01

    Acid-producing microorganisms are base etiological agents of lesions of tooth enamel and destruction of dentin. The process start by specific microflora of tooth deposit--Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacteria and Actinomycetis viscosus which ferment food carbogydrate to form acids. High titre of them in oral cavity may be considered like a marker of carbohydrate food. But the pathogenic bacteria don't have aggression to host organism until they will have virulent factors which help to get over protection of host organism. At the same time, microflora of oral cavity is involved to form pellicula. Pellicula is a biofilm which to protect tooth enamel and dentin. Understanding relationships between safety factors of host and pathogenic microflora of oral cavity will give to create effective methods of prevention and treatment.

  4. Oral pregnancy tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh M Gondivkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyogenic granuloma is one of the inflammatory hyperplasias seen in the oral cavity. This term is a misnomer because the lesion is unrelated to infection and in reality arises in response to various stimuli such as low-grade local irritation, traumatic injury, or hormonal factors. It predominantly occurs in the second decade of life in young females, possibly because of the vascular effects of female hormones. Clinically, oral pyogenic granuloma is a smooth or lobulated exophytic lesion manifesting as small, red erythematous growth on a pedunculated or sometimes sessile base, which is usually hemorrhagic. Although excisional surgery is the treatment of choice , some other treatment protocols such as the use of Nd:YAG laser, flash lamp pulsed dye laser, cryosurgery, intralesional injection of ethanol or corticosteroids, and sodium tetradecyl sulfate sclerotherapy have been proposed. We present the case of a 25-year-old pregnant woman with large oral pyogenic granuloma.

  5. Oral heparin: status review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez-Orellana Isabel

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin are the most commonly used antithrombotic and thromboprophylactic agents in hospital practice. Extended out-of-hospital treatment is inconvenient in that these agents must be administered parenterally. Current research is directed at development of a safe and effective oral antithrombotic agent as an alternative for the effective, yet difficult to use vitamin K antagonists. A novel drug delivery technology that facilitates transport of drugs across the gastrointestinal epithelium has been harnessed to develop an oral dosage form of unfractionated heparin. Combining unfractionated heparin with the carrier molecule, sodium N-(8 [2-hydroxybenzoyl]amino caprylate, or SNAC has markedly increased the gastrointestinal absorption of this drug. Preclinical and clinical studies to-date suggests that oral heparin-SNAC can confer a clinical efficacious effect; further confirmation is sought in planned clinical trials.

  6. Fluoride and Oral Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S

    2016-01-01

    of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fi elds of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fl uorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fl uoride......The discovery during the fi rst half of the 20th century of the link between natural fl uoride, adjusted fl uoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fl uoride in improving oral health...... including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fl uorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision...

  7. [Oral problems in divers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheper, W A; Lobbezoo, F; Eijkman, M A J

    2005-05-01

    Divers can have several oral problems. Firstly, problems caused by pressure changes. These are barodontalgia and odontocrexis. Barodontalgia is toothache by barotrauma. Odontocrexis is restorations coming lose or breaking or tooth fractures by expansion of air beneath restorations. Other problems can occur by cements used to fix casted restorations, by inflammations in the orofacial region, and by not yet fully healed oral wounds. Secondly, there are problems related to the diver's mouthpiece. To keep the mouthpiece in place, the mandible has to be forced in a forward position. Holding this position often and for long periods of time, may develop or aggravate temporomandibular dysfunction. Insufficient fit of the mouthpiece may induce oral mucosal lesions. Therefore, it is recommended to produce individual diver mouthpieces. It is also recommended to produce individual diver mouthpieces for complete dentures wearing divers and for divers with fixed orthodontic appliances.

  8. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: oral health and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touger-Decker, Riva; Mobley, Connie

    2013-05-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that nutrition is an integral component of oral health. The Academy supports integration of oral health with nutrition services, education, and research. Collaboration between dietetics practitioners and oral health care professionals is recommended for oral health promotion and disease prevention and intervention. Scientific and epidemiological data suggest a lifelong synergy between diet, nutrition, and integrity of the oral cavity in health and disease. Oral health and nutrition have a multifaceted relationship. Oral infectious diseases, as well as acute, chronic, and systemic diseases with oral manifestations, impact an individual's functional ability to eat and their nutrition status. Likewise, nutrition and diet can affect the development and integrity of the oral cavity and progression of oral diseases. As knowledge of the link between oral and nutrition health increases, dietetics practitioners and oral health care professionals must learn to provide screening, education, and referrals as part of comprehensive client/patient care. The provision of medical nutrition therapy, including oral and overall health, is incorporated into the Standards of Practice for registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered. Inclusion of didactic and clinical practice concepts that illustrate the role of nutrition in oral health is essential in education programs for both professional groups. Collaborative endeavors between dietetics, dentistry, medicine, and allied health professionals in research, education, and delineation of practice roles are needed to ensure comprehensive health care. The multifaceted interactions between diet, nutrition, and oral health in practice, education, and research in both dietetics and dentistry merit continued, detailed delineation. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. NEW ORAL ANTICOAGULANTS IN THE THERAPY OF ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Satybaldyeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The vitamin K antagonist warfarin is an essential medicine from a group of anticoagulants, which is used to treat antiphospholipid syndrome (APS. However, it has a number of disadvantages especially in patients who need longterm and frequently lifetime prevention of thromboses. New oral anticoagulants, such as dabigatran etexilate (Pradaxa®, rivaroxaban (Xarelto®, apixaban (Eliquis and others, have been recently synthesized. Unlike warfarin, they are administered at fixed doses, require neither routine monitoring nor diet, and interact with drugs only in small amounts. The new oral anticoagulants have been approved for certain indications, but the data of performed trials are inapplicable to patients with APS. These medicines are expected to improve quality of life in patients with this condition. 

  10. High-Definition Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkamani, Ali; Andersen, Kristian G; Steinhubl, Steven R; Topol, Eric J

    2017-08-24

    The foundation for a new era of data-driven medicine has been set by recent technological advances that enable the assessment and management of human health at an unprecedented level of resolution-what we refer to as high-definition medicine. Our ability to assess human health in high definition is enabled, in part, by advances in DNA sequencing, physiological and environmental monitoring, advanced imaging, and behavioral tracking. Our ability to understand and act upon these observations at equally high precision is driven by advances in genome editing, cellular reprogramming, tissue engineering, and information technologies, especially artificial intelligence. In this review, we will examine the core disciplines that enable high-definition medicine and project how these technologies will alter the future of medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Personalized medicine in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars Vedel; McIntyre, Roger S

    2017-01-01

    Personalized medicine is a model in which a patient's unique clinical, genetic, and environmental characteristics are the basis for treatment and prevention. Aim, method, and results: This review aims to describe the current tools, phenomenological features, clinical risk factors, and biomarkers used to provide personalized medicine. Furthermore, this study describes the target areas in which they can be applied including diagnostics, treatment selection and response, assessment of risk of side-effects, and prevention. Personalized medicine in psychiatry is challenged by the current taxonomy, where the diagnostic categories are broad and great biological heterogeneity exists within each category. There is, thus, a gap between the current advanced research prospects and clinical practice, and the current taxonomy is, thus, a poor basis for biological research. The discussion proposes possible solutions to narrow this gap and to move psychiatric research forward towards personalized medicine.

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... beforehand, especially if sedation is to be used. Most nuclear medicine exams will involve an injection in ... PET/CT, SPECT/CT and PET/MR) are most often used in children with cancer, epilepsy and ...

  13. [Palliative psychosomatic medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosin, U

    2001-07-01

    Psychotherapeutic medicine, the area of medicinal specialisation dealing with the foundations of psychosomatic medicine, so far dealt mostly with diagnosis and therapy of acute diseases. The course of illness in patients with bio-psycho-social disorders however ist most often chronic. Sigmund Freud the founder of scientific psychotherapy himself was a patient in palliative care for 26 years and underwent over 30 surgical procedures to treat his carcinoma of the palate and jaw. Some goals and psychotherapeutic strategies of intervention that can be used in palliative psychosomatic medicine are laid out. This important field has in itself so far not reached a wide spread recognition and there are hardly any theoretical concepts or empirical validation to be found.

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special camera and a computer ... medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose and determine the severity of or ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging is performed ... the thyroid gland. top of page How does the procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, an ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... necessitate sedation for your child. You will receive instructions prior to the exam if your child will ... child has been sedated, you will receive specific instructions to be followed after leaving the nuclear medicine ...

  17. The medicine from behind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, Van Tinde; Onselen, Van Sabine; Myren, Britt; Towns, Alexandra; Quiroz, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Purgative enemas form an integral part of African traditional medicine. Besides possible benefits, serious health risks of rectal herbal therapy have been described in literature. To design appropriate health education programs, it is essential to understand

  18. Occupational medicine and toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Axel

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This editorial is to announce the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, a new Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal published by BioMed Central. Occupational medicine and toxicology belong to the most wide ranging disciplines of all medical specialties. The field is devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, management and scientific analysis of diseases from the fields of occupational and environmental medicine and toxicology. It also covers the promotion of occupational and environmental health. The complexity of modern industrial processes has dramatically changed over the past years and today's areas include effects of atmospheric pollution, carcinogenesis, biological monitoring, ergonomics, epidemiology, product safety and health promotion. We hope that the launch of the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology will aid in the advance of these important areas of research bringing together multi-disciplinary research findings.

  19. Astronomy, Astrology, and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Dorian Gieseler

    Astronomy and astrology were combined with medicine for thousands of years. Beginning in Mesopotamia in the second millennium BCE and continuing into the eighteenth century, medical practitioners used astronomy/astrology as an important part of diagnosis and prescription. Throughout this time frame, scientists cited the similarities between medicine and astrology, in addition to combining the two in practice. Hippocrates and Galen based medical theories on the relationship between heavenly bodies and human bodies. In an enduring cultural phenomenon, parts of the body as well as diseases were linked to zodiac signs and planets. In Renaissance universities, astronomy and astrology were studied by students of medicine. History records a long tradition of astrologer-physicians. This chapter covers the topic of astronomy, astrology, and medicine from the Old Babylonian period to the Enlightenment.

  20. Submarine Medicine Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Submarine Medicine Team conducts basic and applied research on biomedical aspects of submarine and diving environments. It focuses on ways to optimize the health...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page How does the nuclear medicine procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, an image is ... placed over the patient's body. SPECT involves the rotation of the gamma camera heads around the patient's ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bladder. bones. liver and gallbladder. gastrointestinal tract. heart. lungs. brain. thyroid. Nuclear medicine scans are typically used ... gas via a mask, such as with a lung scan. Bladder: some exams require a catheter to ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the procedure. top of page Who interprets the results and how do we get them? A radiologist ... radiotracer administered are small, diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures result in low radiation exposure, acceptable for diagnostic exams. ...

  4. Medicine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Medicine and Pregnancy Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... reporting problems to FDA . Sign Up for a Pregnancy Registry Pregnancy Exposure Registries are research studies that ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to be followed after leaving the nuclear medicine facility. Through the natural process of radioactive decay, the ... Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical questions ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. jaundice in newborns and older children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. top ... to be followed after leaving the nuclear medicine facility. Through the natural process of radioactive decay, the ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... used. Most nuclear medicine exams will involve an injection in a vein in your child’s arm or ... are noninvasive and, with the exception of intravenous injections, are usually painless medical tests that help physicians ...

  8. Pregnancy and Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control long-term health problems like asthma, diabetes, depression, or seizures. Also, some women have a pregnancy problem that needs treatment with medicine. These problems might include severe nausea and vomiting, ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits The information provided by nuclear medicine examinations ... diagnosis or to determine appropriate treatment, if any. Risks Because the doses of radiotracer administered are small, ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... liver and gallbladder. gastrointestinal tract. heart. lungs. brain. thyroid. Nuclear medicine scans are typically used to help ... children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. top of page How does the procedure ...

  11. Darwin, medicine and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushotham, A D; Sullivan, R

    2010-02-01

    'Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution'! So said Theodore Dobzhansky. It is extraordinary how little Darwinism and post-Darwinian evolutionary science has penetrated medicine despite the fact that all biology is built upon its foundations. Randy Nesse, one of the fathers of Darwinian medicine, recently observed that doctors 'know the facts but not the origins'. Clearly, then, in this auspicious year-200 years since Charles Darwin's birth and 150 years since the first edition of the Origin of Species-it is time to reconsider Darwin's legacy to medicine and to invite evolution back into the biomedical fold. Here, we consider the legacy of Darwin and the contribution of the other great evolutionists such as Ernst Mayr to cancer and medicine.

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... jaundice in newborns and older children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. top of ... full size with caption Related Articles and Media General Nuclear Medicine Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Epilepsy ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

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    Full Text Available ... organs and tissues in your body. Hybrid imaging techniques (PET/CT, SPECT/CT and PET/MR) are ... equipment look like? The special camera and imaging techniques used in nuclear medicine include the gamma camera ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

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    Full Text Available ... diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures result in low radiation exposure, acceptable for diagnostic exams. Thus, the radiation risk ... long-term adverse effects from such low-dose exposure. For more information about safety in pediatric radiology ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... molecular information. In many centers, nuclear medicine images can be superimposed with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic ... small hand-held device resembling a microphone that can detect and measure the amount of the radiotracer ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... painless medical tests that help physicians diagnose and evaluate medical conditions. These imaging scans use radioactive materials called radiopharmaceuticals or radiotracers . Depending on the type of nuclear medicine exam, the radiotracer is either ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... including many types of cancers, heart disease, gastrointestinal, endocrine, neurological disorders and other abnormalities within the body. Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... variety of diseases, including many types of cancers, heart disease, gastrointestinal, endocrine, neurological disorders and other abnormalities ... and bladder. bones. liver and gallbladder. gastrointestinal tract. heart. lungs. brain. thyroid. Nuclear medicine scans are typically ...

  19. Occupational Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Learning Objectives are: (1) Understand the unique work environment of astronauts. (2) Understand the effect microgravity has on human physiology (3) Understand how NASA Space Medicine Division is mitigating the health risks of space missions.

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... will be inhaled as a gas via a mask, such as with a lung scan. Bladder: some ... A radiologist or other physician who has specialized training in nuclear medicine will interpret the images and ...