WorldWideScience

Sample records for oral history program

  1. The Oral History Program: II. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

    1998-07-01

    The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

  2. Oral biology in middle age: a history of the University at Buffalo Oral Biology PhD Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannapieco, F A

    2014-05-01

    In 1960, the first Department of Oral Biology in the United States dedicated to the conduct of research, graduate biomedical research education, and the provision of basic oral science education for the DDS curriculum was established at the University at Buffalo. In 1963, the Department organized the first PhD Program in Oral Biology in the United States. This PhD program has produced a large cadre of oral health researchers, many of whom have gone on to make major contributions to dental research and education. This article provides a brief history of the program, the context within which the program was organized and developed, and a description of some of the many faculty, students, and fellows associated with the program. Additionally, to celebrate the 50th anniversary of this program, a symposium, entitled "The Oral Microbiome, Immunity and Chronic Disease", was held on June 12-14, 2013, in Buffalo, New York. The proceedings are published online in Advances in Dental Research (2014, Vol. 26).

  3. Extended Community: An Oral History of the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP), 1989 - 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susan DeSilva

    2004-01-01

    Studying the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) provides a unique opportunity to trace a concept created by two nuclear industry originators from inception, as it transitioned through several stewardship agencies, to management by a non-profit organization. This transition is informed not only by changes over two decades in the views of the general populace toward nuclear testing but also by changing political climates and public policies. Several parallel histories accompanied the development of the CEMP: an administrative history, an environmental history, and a history of changing public perception of not only nuclear testing, but other activities involving radiation such as waste transportation, as well. Although vital, those histories will be provided only as background to the subject of this study, the oral histories gathered in this project. The oral histories collected open a window into the nuclear testing history of Nevada and Utah that has not heretofore been opened. The nuclear industry has generated a great deal of positive and negative reaction since its inception. The CEMP emerged with specific objectives. It was designed to provide information to potential downwind communities and counter negative perceptions by creating more community involvement and education about the testing. The current objectives of the program are to: (1) Manage and maintain the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) offsite monitoring program including 26 radiation and environmental monitoring stations with associated equipment. Provide air sample collection and analysis, radiological and meteorological data collection, interpretation and reporting. (2) Facilitate independent operation of radiological monitoring stations and data verification by private citizens living in communities in proximity to the Nevada Test Site (NTS). (3) Hire and initiate training of local citizens to serve as Community

  4. Extended Community: An Oral History of the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP), 1989 - 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan DeSilva

    2004-07-01

    Studying the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) provides a unique opportunity to trace a concept created by two nuclear industry originators from inception, as it transitioned through several stewardship agencies, to management by a non-profit organization. This transition is informed not only by changes over two decades in the views of the general populace toward nuclear testing but also by changing political climates and public policies. Several parallel histories accompanied the development of the CEMP: an administrative history, an environmental history, and a history of changing public perception of not only nuclear testing, but other activities involving radiation such as waste transportation, as well. Although vital, those histories will be provided only as background to the subject of this study, the oral histories gathered in this project. The oral histories collected open a window into the nuclear testing history of Nevada and Utah that has not heretofore been opened. The nuclear industry has generated a great deal of positive and negative reaction since its inception. The CEMP emerged with specific objectives. It was designed to provide information to potential downwind communities and counter negative perceptions by creating more community involvement and education about the testing. The current objectives of the program are to: (1) Manage and maintain the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) offsite monitoring program including 26 radiation and environmental monitoring stations with associated equipment. Provide air sample collection and analysis, radiological and meteorological data collection, interpretation and reporting. (2) Facilitate independent operation of radiological monitoring stations and data verification by private citizens living in communities in proximity to the Nevada Test Site (NTS). (3) Hire and initiate training of local citizens to serve as Community

  5. History of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Residency Program at Universidad el Bosque, Bogotá, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Núñez, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    The formal training of oral and maxillofacial surgeons in Colombia started in 1958 at Hospital Sanjos6, thanks to the titanic work of Waldemar Wilhelm, a German-born surgeon who settled in BogotA in 1950. Today there are seven institutions in Colombia that offer residency programs in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The aim of this article is to describe the history of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Residency Program at Universidad El Bosque in Bogota.

  6. Teacher Candidates' Attitudes to Using Oral History in History Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircioglu, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the views of history teacher candidates towards an oral history project carried out in the Special Teaching Method Course of the history pedagogy program of the Fatih Faculty of Education (FFE) at Karadeniz Technical University in Turkey. An open-ended questionnaire and semi-structured interview were the…

  7. Criteria for Evaluating Oral History Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonsino, Frank J.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for establishing criteria for evaluating oral history interviews. Presents seven evaluation categories relating to oral history tapes and three categories relating to typescripts. (CK)

  8. Program History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how the National Cancer Institute transitioned the former Cooperative Groups Program to the National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) program. The NCTN gives funds and other support to cancer research organizations to conduct cancer clinical trials.

  9. History of oral contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhont, Marc

    2010-12-01

    On the 50th birthday of the pill, it is appropriate to recall the milestones which have led to its development and evolution during the last five decades. The main contraceptive effect of the pill being inhibition of ovulation, it may be called a small miracle that this drug was developed long before the complex regulation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle was elucidated. Another stumbling block on its way was the hostile climate with regard to contraception that prevailed at the time. Animal experiments on the effect of sex steroids on ovulation, and the synthesis of sex steroids and orally active analogues were the necessary preliminaries. We owe the development of oral contraceptives to a handful of persons: two determined feminists, Margaret Sanger and Katherine McCormick; a biologist, Gregory Pincus; and a gynaecologist, John Rock. Soon after the introduction of the first pills, some nasty and life-threatening side effects emerged, which were due to the high doses of sex steroids. This led to the development of new preparations with reduced oestrogen content, progestins with more specific action, and alternative administration routes. Almost every decade we have witnessed a breakthrough in oral contraception. Social and moral objections to birth control have gradually disappeared and, notwithstanding some pill scares, oral contraceptives are now one of the most used methods of contraception. Finally, all's well that ends well: recent reports have substantiated the multiple noncontraceptive health benefits paving the way for a bright future for this 50-year-old product.

  10. Oral history database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Separately, each history provides an in depth view into the professional and personal lives of individual participants. Together, they have the power to illuminate...

  11. Oral history, trauma and September 11, comparative oral history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, S.; Pierre, P.

    2013-01-01

    It is argued in this article that the study of the trauma of september 11 can gain from other studies of disaster, Oral history is an excellent tool to study these trauma's, since traumatized stories are fragmented and layered. Listening will bring about a confrontation with the creaton of

  12. War, Journalism, and Oral History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Describes a project where students conducted oral history with either a war correspondent or a U.S. combat veteran for the course "War and the News Media: From Vietnam through Desert Storm and Beyond." Discusses how the students prepared for the interviews and the evaluation of their projects. (CMK)

  13. Oral history in radiography: Listening to pioneers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, Christine; Winslow, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    We explore the professional value of the collection and analysis of oral histories in the history of radiography. Drawing on oral histories collected from radiographers, we analyse accounts of experiences to identify common themes, some of which are of current significance, whilst others have faded from existence. 15 oral histories were collected from radiographers whose combined practice spans the years 1930-1973. The sample consists of 6 male and 9 female radiographers. Themes identified in the oral histories include radiographers as invisible pioneers who worked in professionally unclaimed territory and their dangerous working environment. The oral histories reveal the working world of the radiographer as having encompassed a practice ethos where challenges became an accepted part of work. We gain insight into less observable aspects of the radiographer's role, the difficulties they faced, how they invented techniques and equipment, and how they managed their practice including protecting the public from ionising radiation sources.

  14. Oral History in All 50 States; Two Major Openings, Input/Output, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Oral History Research Office.

    Statistics show the vigorous growth of oral history programs in the United States since 1965. Recent events at the Oral History Research Office, Columbia University, include the opening of two new memoirs (Francis Perkins and Henry A. Wallace); a successful oral history course; and projects in progress in business, English literature,…

  15. Oral History og Militærhistorie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink Rasmussen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Oral History er en forskningsmetode, der indsamler, dokumenterer og fortolker vidnesbyrd og erindringer gennem mundtlige interviews. Oral History har som metode vist sig særligt egnet til at udforske historiske processer, fx sociale og erindringshistoriske forandringer, ligesom den kan påvise...... forbindelsen mellem individuelle erfaringer og kulturelle og sociale sammenhænge. Mens Oral History internationalt er i vældig fremgang, har historievidenskaben i Danmark længe fastholdt en skepsis overfor den mundtlige beretning. Først med nyere strømninger indenfor faget har det mundtlige vidnesbyrd opnået...... et gennembrud, der lover godt for den metodiske udvikling og inspirerer til øget brug af mundtlige kilder i såvel forskning som undervisning. Oral History i Danmark er den første bog på dansk om danske historikeres erfaringer med det mundtlige interview og introducerer til både arkivarisk...

  16. Oral history: Validating contributions of elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Lois B; Stolder, Mary Ellen; Knutson, Alice Briolat; Tamke, Karolyn; Platt, Jennifer; Bowlds, Tara

    2004-01-01

    Recording memories of World War II is an intervention that can humanize geriatric care in addition to the historical significance provided. Participants in this oral history project described memories of World War II and expressed themes of patriotism, loss, tense moments, makeshift living, self-sufficiency, and uncertain journey. Their ethnic roots were primarily Scandinavian, Dutch, German, and English. The nursing home participants were slightly older than the community participants (mean ages: 85.5 and 82.4 years, respectively). More women (58%) than men (42%) participated, and 35% of the participants were veterans (eight men one woman). Nursing home and community residents participated in this project, and reciprocal benefits were experienced by participants and listeners alike. Memories of World War II provide a meaningful topic for oral histories. Listening and valuing oral history supports, involves, and validates elders. Oral history has reciprocal benefits that can create a culture to enhance a therapeutic environment.

  17. Teaching the Past through Oral History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Pattie

    2000-01-01

    Discusses oral history as a means to connect national events with the lives of individual people. Relates the information from student oral term paper interviews, focusing on topics such as the Vietnam War, the Great Depression, civil rights and school integration, and the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. (CMK)

  18. Oral History as Educational Technology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Rebecca P.

    2008-01-01

    Oral history is a significant type of historical research. Its use in retaining records of the early days of educational technology provides another way to look at the history of this field. The remembrances of its founders inform everyone today of, not only of what went on before, but also of how current and future technologies evolve. There are…

  19. Oral History: Methodology for Dialogue

    OpenAIRE

    DAVID, Priscila [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    A história oral, como metodologia qualitativa de pesquisa, traz outras dimensões ao debate historiográfico. Por meio dela o historiador consegue visualizar diversos pontos de vista de um determinado fato histórico. Neste aspecto, cabe ressaltar que sua utilização depende da compreensão de que o diálogo entre pesquisador e entrevistado apresenta especificidades. Utilizar-se da história oral requer a compreensão de que a pesquisa somente é possível mediante a vontade do pesquisador, o qual deli...

  20. Dutch voices: exploring the role of oral history in Dutch secondary history teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, Tim; Holthuis, Paul; Trškan, Danijela

    2016-01-01

    Oral history may enhance students’ historical content knowledge, historical reasoning competencies, and motivation to learn history. However, little is known regarding the role of oral history in Dutch history education. This study therefore explores the role of oral history in Dutch history

  1. Ordinary Lives Illuminated: Writing Oral History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandesbery, Jean

    1990-01-01

    Describes how writing oral history can help students to feel that they are participating in a lively intellectual and cultural process that travels beyond the limits of the classroom. Says students claim that their obligations to the assignment are surpassed by their feelings of gratification in having created living works with lasting vitality.…

  2. Oral History Archives | Fellowship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship; Oral History Archives. Oral history archive ... video documentaries of some of the leading scientists of the country from among Academy's fellowship. ... Math Art and Design: MAD about Math, Math Education and Outreach.

  3. The life trajectories modality of oral history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Gonçalves

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to explore the potential of qualitative research. It presents the life trajectory modality of the oral history method, to discuss the possibility of its utilization in scientific research in the Social Work profession. The epistemological foundations of oral history are discussed to establish its scientific character. The life trajectories modality is presented as a historic and social construction that utilizes different interview techniques to give voice to previously invisible subjects, indicating the principal phases of the methodological procedures used in this approach. The conclusions highlight the importance of the construction of this model and its projection as a research proposal that implies a process of understanding and analyzing the social universes that are contextualized and interconnected, considering the realities of the life trajectories of the subjects studied.

  4. The History of the Rhodes State College Dental Hygiene Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    The historiography of the Rhodes State College Dental Hygiene Program (Program) presents a historical journey of health care, as it relates to oral health, in the United States, in Ohio, and in Lima. This study bridges the gap between the history of higher education and the history of an academic program, dental hygiene. Prior to this study, there…

  5. [Oral communication: short history and some rules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panini, Roberta; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    The verbal communication represents the first human communication, that even more used and one most immediate. History and the development of communication is divided into historical periods, is complex and is bound to the period contingencies and to the social reference community. The oral communication is never isolated but is always taken by the not verbal one, including the silences, the position and the spaces (c.d. proxemics). The good communicator stimulates the cooperation through the conversation rule respect (qualities, amounts, way and relation) and reduces the possible asymmetry between broadcaster and receiver fitting its code to that of the interlocutor.

  6. Learning Historical Thinking with Oral History Interviews: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Intervention Study of Oral History Interviews in History Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Christiane; Wagner, Wolfgang; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of the oral history approach with respect to students' historical competence. A total of 35 ninth-grade classes (N = 900) in Germany were randomly assigned to one of four conditions--live, video, text, or a (nontreated) control group--in a pretest, posttest, and follow-up design. Comparing the three…

  7. Preparing the Next Generation of Oral Historians: An Anthology of Oral History Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanman, Barry A., Ed.; Wendling, Laura M., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is an invaluable resource to educators seeking to bring history alive for students at all levels. The anthology opens with chapters on the fundamentals of oral history and its place in the classroom, but its heart lies in nearly two dozen insightful personal essays by educators who have successfully incorporated oral history into their…

  8. Oral Sources and Missionary Historiography in Igbo Church History ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper takes a look at the problems of oral sources and missionary historiography in Igbo church history, 1940-2012. Findings show that the problems of missionary and African Christian oral informants and historiographers had significant effect on Igbo church history. Primary and secondary means in the collection of ...

  9. Oral History Archives | Fellowship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Oral history archive. Audio and video documentaries. In the Academy Council meeting held in December 2011, the proposal of creating an 'Oral history archive' was discussed and finalized for implementation. The archive is intended to be a repository of audio and video documentaries of some of the leading scientists of ...

  10. Understanding the Impact of Using Oral Histories in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt-Doner, Karen M.; Allen, Susan; Campanaro, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Oral histories are a powerful pedagogical tool in developing historical understanding and important learning skills simultaneously. Teachers use firsthand accounts of historical time periods and/or events to help develop students' sense of history. In addition to gaining historical understanding, students are able to bring history alive by…

  11. Do You Understand? Unsettling Interpretative Authority in Feminist Oral History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Fobear

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article interrogates interpretative authority in feminist oral history through a critical Indigenous lens. I argue that critical Indigenous theory provides a useful and needed understanding of participants’ agency and the active role they have in shaping the research. Feminist oral history as a methodology has a long and well-established lineage of exploring difficult questions of power in the relationship between the researcher and the participants. While many feminist oral historians have actively interrogated issues surrounding power within their own research, there are relatively few works that press beyond looking at the one-sided hierarchical relationship between the oral historian and the research participants. The first part provides a theoretical and historical overview of feminist oral history in North America and Europe. From there I bring forward Linda Tuhiwai Smith’s work on decolonizing research and the need to recognize the authority of the participants. I will review the challenges I encountered when conducting oral histories with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and trans (LGBT refugees, and discuss how critical Indigenous theory provided a useful tool in understanding, acknowledging, and representing participants’ agency. In this way, I will intersect critical Indigenous theory with the methodology of feminist oral history and move previous discussions on power and interpretative authority away from focusing just on the role of the researcher and toward embracing the role of the participant as well.

  12. Employee assistance programs: history and program description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, B

    1994-10-01

    1. The history and development of Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) can be traced back to the 1800s. There are currently over 10,000 EAPs in the United States. 2. Standards for program accreditation and counselor certification have been established for EAPs. The "core technology of Employee Assistance Programs" includes identification of behavioural problems based on job performance issues, expert consultation with supervisors, appropriate use of constructive confrontation, microlinkages with treatment providers and resources, macrolinkages between providers, resources, and work organizations, focus on substance abuse, and evaluation of employee success based on job performance. 3. Some EAPs take a broad brush approach, and incorporate health promotion and managed care functions.

  13. Dole i niedole czeskiej oral history (1990-2012)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mücke, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2013), s. 131-160 ISSN 2084-0578 R&D Projects : GA ČR(CZ) GAP410/11/1352 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : oral history * Czech Republic * transformation Subject RIV: AB - History

  14. Affinity and Interpretation in Oral Histories of Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnet, Dustin

    2017-01-01

    In the pursuit of my doctoral research on the institutional history of the art department at Central Technical School (CTS) in Toronto, Canada, I amassed a collection of oral histories from 20 current and former CTS art instructors and students, recorded across the country. As an instructor in the CTS art department in addition to being its…

  15. Authenticating History With Oral Narratives: The Example of Ekajuk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is generally accepted that oral narratives serve as a veritable means for historical reconstruction. This holds true, particularly in societies where written documents do not subsist. The Ekajuk community, though very warlike, is a relatively small community that lacks a written history. The attempt to reconstruct the history of ...

  16. Citizenship Education about War and Peace: A Study of the History of the Vietnam War through Oral History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses his "History of the Vietnam War" course, which takes oral history as the core of its curriculum. This oral history focuses on personal lives and stories that can bring history to life. The components of the course are as follows: (1) overview of the History of the Vietnam War; (2) email interviews;…

  17. The Medium and the Message: Oral History, New Media, and a Grassroots History of Working Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerowitz, Ruth; Zinni, Christine F.

    2009-01-01

    In the Spring of 2000, Ruth Meyerowitz and Christine Zinni began collaborative efforts--inside and outside of academia--to enhance a course on The History of Working Women at SUNY Buffalo. Videotaping the oral histories of women labor leaders, they later teamed up with Michael Frisch and Randforce Associates--a research group at SUNY at Buffalo's…

  18. Orality and the Archive: Teaching the Partition of India through Oral Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaana Jayagopalan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection on how select oral histories and witness accounts about the partition of India and Pakistan, especially those by Urvashi Butalia and Veena Das were used in a graduate seminar in Bengaluru. The article explores the strength of oral archives as repositories of radical enquiry that may be used in classrooms to understand the complex nature of history, historiography, and interrogate the State’s archival processes. The article explores how students began to see the potency in oral archives as a space that embodies the victimhood of partition victims as opposed to an effacement of the sufferers in most state archives of the event. It observes how the memorialisation of Partition is different in the State’s construction of partition: to the victims who recount their stories, it is the ‘everyday’ that becomes predominant as opposed to State archives that seek to represent the differences between the two nations as paramount in its processes of memorialisation. The note concludes by emphasising the need to put such oral histories to use in classroom, especially to understand the nature of suffering. Through a reading of such stories, it is proposed, an affective literacy is enabled in students’ modes of enquiry about trauma, memory and suffering.   Keywords: Partition of India, affective literacy, archives, oral histories, witness narratives.

  19. Using Oral Histories and Interviews To Address the Nuclear Arms Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Sam

    1985-01-01

    Oral histories and interviews provide an objective and bias-free method for teaching about nuclear warfare. An annotated listing of oral histories and interviews that can be used with secondary and colleges level students is provided. (RM)

  20. Developing the profession of radiography: Making use of oral history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, Sola; Iphofen, Ron

    2005-01-01

    This paper is based on ongoing research into the profession of radiography using the oral history method. Knowledge of radiographic practice as a profession has in the past been based on what is written or learnt from other professions both within and beyond the field of health care. The profession has experienced substantial technological and sociological changes both in training and in practice over the past few decades and these look set to continue into the immediate future. Evidence-based practice is invoked as a quality measure on all health professions, and part of the body of knowledge which forms the evidence base of practice development involves an understanding of how the profession has responded to change and what this might mean for the further changes it is likely to meet. This paper explores the potential role of oral history research as a tool for the development of knowledge about the practice of radiography

  1. White Teachers/White Schools: Oral Histories from the Struggle against Apartheid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Presents the oral histories of two white teachers who taught in white South African schools during apartheid. Both combined pedagogy and politics in their lives as teachers and joined other teachers in the struggle against apartheid. Describes the oral history project, apartheid and education, and oral history methodology. Both teachers spent…

  2. 'I Am a Nurse': Oral Histories of African Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Barbra Mann; Dhurmah, Krist; Lamboni, Bassan; Phiri, Benson Edwinson

    2015-08-01

    Much of African history has been written by colonial "masters" and is skewed by cultural bias. The voices of indigenous peoples have largely been ignored. The purpose of this study was to collect the oral histories of African nursing leaders who studied and practiced nursing from the late colonial era (1950s) through decolonization and independence (1960s-70s), in order to better understand their experiences and perspectives. This study relied on historical methodology, grounded specifically within the context of decolonization and independence. The method used was oral history. Oral histories were collected from 13 retired nurses from Mauritius, Malawi, and Togo. Participants' educational and work histories bore the distinct imprint of European educational and medical norms. Nursing education provided a means of earning a living and offered professional advancement and affirmation. Participants were reluctant to discuss the influence of race, but several recalled difficulties in working with both expatriate and indigenous physicians and matrons. Differences in African nurses' experiences were evident at the local level, particularly with regard to language barriers, gender-related divisions, and educational and practice opportunities. The data show that although institutional models and ideas were transported from colonial nursing leaders to African nursing students, the African nurses in this study adapted those models and ideas to meet their own needs. The findings also support the use of storytelling as a culturally appropriate research method. Participants' stories provide a better understanding of how time, place, and social and cultural forces influenced and affected local nursing practices. Their stories also reveal that nursing has held various meanings for participants, including as a means to personal and professional opportunities and as a way to help their countries' citizens.

  3. Oral history en het vreemde sterven van het Nederlandse christendom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. van Rooden

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral history and the strange demise of Dutch ChristianityDuring the last forty years, Dutch society has gone through a sudden and far-reaching dechristianisation process. Sociologists specialising in religion have monitored this development and explained it using the secularist theory. However, an exploratory oral history approach, based on 43 interviews, and using the modern social history of West European religion, propels us in another direction. The vibrant Dutch Christianity of the 1950s was based on collective rituals and discursive practices that were taken for granted. Although it was possible for individuals to become well-versed in this religion, they did not use the religious rites and rituals in order to think about their own situation. This peculiar nature of Dutch Christianity made it very vulnerable to the cultural revolution of the 1960s, interpreted here as the rise within mass-culture of the practices and ideals of the expressive and reflexive self. People did not choose to leave the churches, but instead drifted away, almost without realising it, as the religious practices from their youth gradually became less important within their lives. The churches were unable to create a form of Christianity that could adapt itself to the new ideal and practices of the self and effectively compete in the cultural marketplace.

  4. Belongings: Oral History, Objects and an Online Exhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Wilton

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The New South Wales Migration Heritage Centre was established in 1998. Since 2003 its physical presence has been located within Sydney’s Powerhouse Museum and it has had the strategic brief to record the memories of ageing migrants before their stories are lost. The Centre is, however, a museum without a collection; a heritage authority without heritage sites; a cultural institution whose main presence is in cyberspace. Among its high profile projects is one entitled Objects through time and another Belongings. Both focus on the ways in which objects can convey aspects of the migration experience. Belongings, the focus of this article, presents the remembered experiences of people who migrated to Australia after World War II, and seeks to highlight significant features of their experiences through asking them to share their memories and to nominate and talk about significant objects. As a project it grew out of movable heritage policy work within state government agencies, and its initiators – John Petersen, Kylie Winkworth and Meredith Walker – were central players in this development. It was also inspired by the National Quilt Register of the Pioneer Women’s Hut at Tumbarumba. With its object-centred approach and accompanying edited interview transcripts, Belongings provides a focus for exploring the messages and emphases that emerge when oral history interviews concerned with migration have the specific brief to ask about material culture and its significance. Belongings also enables an exploration of the layering of those messages that emerges when object captions are located back in the context of the oral history interviews from which they were extracted. As a virtual exhibition, Belongings also provides the opportunity to consider the challenges for museums (virtual and real when they need to condense the richness of migrant oral histories and life stories to captioned objects that can be put on display.

  5. School Oral Health Program in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariga, Jitendra; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Nazar, Huda

    2014-01-01

    The School Oral Health Program (SOHP), Kuwait, is a joint venture between the Ministry of Health, Kuwait, and Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, Mass., USA. This program provides oral health education, prevention and treatment to almost 280,000 public school children in Kuwait. Services are delivered through a system of center- and school-based clinics and preventive mobile teams. One of the recent developments is the effective use of portable dental units for the delivery of preventive care to children in schools without the need for children to go to dental clinics. Preventive procedures performed under this program are the biannual application of fluoride varnish and the placement of pit and fissure sealants on newly erupted permanent molars and premolars. During recent years, the SOHP has improved its coverage of children, with prevention up to 80%. This has resulted in a considerable reduction in treatment needs, which is evident from the reduced number of composite restorations performed under this program during the last 6 years. This indicates that the disease level is on a decline, which can be confirmed from the results of the ongoing National Oral Health Survey on Kuwaiti school children. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Oral history of Florence Downs; the early years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairman, J; Mahon, M M

    2001-01-01

    Florence Downs is a well-recognized nursing leader, educator, editor, and scholar who helped shape nursing as an intellectual discipline, and wrote extensively about the importance of links between research and practice. Through the use of oral history data garnered over 15 hours of interviews, we constructed a narrative that describes some of Downs' formative experiences. Oral history is used to place the "stories" of an individual into a social and cultural context, in this case, the development of the profession of nursing. From the interviews, several strands emerged that defined Downs' extended career, including the importance of developing a community of scholars both in and outside of nursing, the dangers of parochialism, and the necessity of a perspective on life that melded a keen sense of humor. Factors that affected Downs' style and choice, especially her mother, and her educational experiences, were revealed. From the interviews we gained a sense of how Downs constructed her conceptual universe of nursing, as well as the language and political effectiveness to overcome barriers confronting the intellectual growth of nursing mounted by other nursing leaders as well as traditional academic disciplines.

  7. Snowchange Oral History - Work Among the Kolyma River Indigenous Societies in Siberia, Russia, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes oral history accounts from Indigenous people participating in the Snowchange project in Siberia, Russia. It provides geographic and...

  8. ASTDD Synopses of State Oral Health Programs - Selected indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011-2017. The ASTDD Synopses of State Oral Health Programs contain information useful in tracking states’ efforts to improve oral health and contributions to...

  9. ASTDD Synopses of State Oral Health Programs - Selected indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011-2017. The ASTDD Synopses of State Oral Health Programs contain information useful in tracking states’ efforts to improve oral health and contributions to...

  10. Back to business: a next step in the field of oral history: the usefulness of oral history for leadership and organizational research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, S.; Kroeze, R.

    2012-01-01

    Business organizations and elites are often neglected in oral history as a result of the dominant assumption that elites have ample opportunity to be heard. We argue, however, that researching corporations and elites is very interesting for oral historians. This contention is supported by the four

  11. Wor(l)ds of Czech Oral History (1990-2015). A Couple of Historiographical Remarks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mücke, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 43 (2017), s. 28-39 ISSN 2109-9537 R&D Projects : GA ČR GA15-08130S Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : oral history * Czech Republic * contemporary history Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings) https://afas.revues.org/3049

  12. Oral History in the Classroom: A Comparison of Traditional and On-Line Gerontology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlman, Katie; Ligon, Mary; Moriello, Gabriele; Welleford, E. Ayn; Schuster, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of an oral history assignment was assessed in a traditional gerontology class versus a distance education (DE) gerontology class. Attitudes toward older adults and the aging process were measured before and after students in the traditional (n = 29) and DE (n = 16) setting completed an oral history assignment.…

  13. Collaborative Complexities: Co-Authorship, Voice, and African American Rhetoric in Oral History Community Literacy Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobman, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This co-authored article describes a community literacy oral history project involving 14 undergraduate students. It is intellectually situated at the intersection of writing studies, oral history, and African American rhetoric and distinguished by two features: 1) we were a combined team of 20 collaborators, and 2) our narrator, Frank Gilyard,…

  14. Stories Matter: Conceptual Challenges in the Development of Oral History Database Building Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Jessee

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Stories Matter is new oral history database building software designed by an interdisciplinary team of oral historians and a software engineer affiliated with the Centre for Oral History and Digital Storytelling at Concordia University in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It encourages a shift away from transcription, enabling oral historians to continue to interact with their interviews in an efficient manner without compromising the greater life history context of their interviewees. This article addresses some of the conceptual challenges that arose when developing this software. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs110119

  15. An Oral History Interview with MICHAEL M. CERNEA (interviewer: Judith Freidenberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHAEL M. CERNEA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The editors and editorial board of Human Organization are pleased to introduce readers to the following oral history interview with Michael M. Cernea, a development social scientist who has militated throughout his academic career and applied work for "putting people first", in the forefront of development projects and policies. Working for a long time for the promotion of anthropological and sociological knowledge, either in the activities of the World Bank or in the policies and programs of governments of both developed and developing countries, Dr. Cernea cleared pathways for applied social science that are sure to benefit people in development settings for many years to come. Undoubtedly many readers already know Dr. Cernea's work well, especially those of us who teach the anthropology of development or work in applied settings and organizations, but this interview embeds his broad body of work into a personal, human, and at times tragic context that opens with brushes with death, Nazi brutality, and exile. It also provides valuable insights for carrying out the work of development anthropologists within large-scale organizations and governments.This interview with Dr. Cernea was conducted by Dr. Judith Freidenberg, of the University of Maryland, on June 30, 2003, for the Society for Applied Anthropology Oral History Project, headquartered at the University of Kentucky Libraries. This Project aims to create, through the vehicle of oral histories, a record of the life, activities and experiences of number of selected scholars-anthropologists who devoted a great part of their scientific work to research, to applied work in different settings, to inducing development, including to hands-on work on crafting public social policies and actual development programs. The present transcript of the interview was reviewed by both participants for editorial purposes. Michael M. Cernea expanded some of his oral responses, for historical accuracy or to add

  16. History and Psychology—Oral History and Psychoanalysis. Development of a Problematic Relationship. Outline and Literature Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander von Plato

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is about the relationship between two scientific fields—history and psychology—with a focus on their connections during the last 150 years and about the meaning of subjectivity in history. It addresses possibilities of cooperation, taking as an example the relationship of oral history and psychoanalysis. The article emphasizes the problems regarding unconscious elements in history as well as the perception and "digestion" of history by the individual and the collective memory. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0401181

  17. Workshop oral history. Interview jako kvalitativna interdisciplinárna metóda

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nosková, Jana

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 3 (2004), s. 298-299 ISSN 0009-0794 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z9058907 Keywords : oral history * qualitative method * interview Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  18. Effects of a Peer Engagement Program on Socially Withdrawn Children with a History of Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Therese L.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Sheldon, Jan B.

    2009-01-01

    Children with a history of child maltreatment often have limited social interactions with other children and adults. This study examined the effects of a Peer Engagement Program, consisting of peer mentoring and social skills training with positive reinforcement, in three children with low levels of oral and social interaction. A multiple…

  19. Digitising the oral history collection at Botswana National Archives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mpho ngoepe

    an oral form. The information collected for this paper was mainly through literature review .... responsibility on the archivists to put appropriate measures to guarantee that information ... Building Xanadui, creating the new library paradise, in.

  20. Offense History and the Effectiveness of Juvenile Diversion Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osgood, D. Wayne; And Others

    Some evaluations have concluded that diversion programs for juvenile offenders (programs intended as community-based alternatives to formal justice dispositions) reduce recidivism only among youths with the least serious offense histories. To investigate the relationship of offense history to program effectiveness, three diversion programs were…

  1. "My Memory's Back!" Inclusive Learning Disability Research Using Ethics, Oral History and Digital Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    The following article outlines the methodological approach used to include people with learning disabilities as active participants in an oral history produced in Australia. The history sought to document life inside Kew Cottages, Australia's oldest and largest specialised institution for people with learning disabilities. This work furthers…

  2. The Pleasures and Sorrows of Czech Oral History (1990-2012)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mücke, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2013), s. 111-130 ISSN 2309-5792 R&D Projects : GA ČR(CZ) GAP410/11/1352 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : oral history * Czech Republic * transformation Subject RIV: AB - History

  3. Oral History as an Innovative Language Teaching Technique for Spanish Heritage Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgo, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Oral history is presented in this article as an interpretative exercise for historical events in a Spanish course for heritage language learners at the university level. Through the interview of a Latino immigrant family, students re-examined the history of their own families and increased their linguistic self-esteem. They were guided to become…

  4. A History of Oral and Written Storytelling in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edosomwan, Simeon; Peterson, Claudette M.

    2016-01-01

    Storytelling is a powerful process in adult education as a useful instructional approach in facilitating adult instruction and learning, especially during preliterate eras. What began as oral tradition has evolved to include written literature. A popular Eurocentric perspective in the early 19th century was that before the arrival of Europeans…

  5. Killed oral cholera vaccines: history, development and implementation challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Anna Lena; Gonzales, Maria Liza Antoinette; Aldaba, Josephine G; Nair, G Balakrish

    2014-09-01

    Cholera is still a major global health problem, affecting mainly people living in unsanitary conditions and who are at risk for outbreaks of cholera. During the past decade, outbreaks are increasingly reported from more countries. From the early killed oral cholera vaccine, rapid improvements in vaccine development occurred as a result of a better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, pathogenesis of cholera infection and immunity. The newer-generation oral killed cholera vaccines have been shown to be safe and effective in field trials conducted in cholera endemic areas. Likewise, they have been shown to be protective when used during outbreak settings. Aside from providing direct protection to vaccinated individuals, recent studies have demonstrated that these killed oral vaccines also confer indirect protection through herd immunity. Although new-generation oral cholera vaccines should not be considered in isolation from other preventive approaches in countries where they are most needed, especially improved water quality and sanitation, these vaccines serve as immediately available public health tools for preventing further morbidity and mortality from cholera. However, despite its availability for more than two decades, use of these vaccines has not been optimized. Although there are limitations of the currently available oral cholera vaccines, recent data show that the vaccines are safe, feasible to use even in difficult circumstances and able to provide protection in various settings. Clear identification of the areas and target population groups who will benefit from the use of the cholera vaccines will be required and strategies to facilitate accessibility and usage of these vaccines in these areas and population groups will need to be developed.

  6. Oral microflora in preschool children attending a fluoride varnish program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Maria; Grindefjord, Margaret; Dahllöf, Göran

    2016-01-01

    hundred seven 3-year-old children were enrolled from a cohort of 3403 preschool children taking part in a community based oral health project. Two hundred sixty-three of them had attended caries-preventive program with semi-annual applications of a fluoride varnish since the age of 1 year (test group......BACKGROUND: To compare the oral microflora in preschool children attending a fluoride varnish program with a reference group receiving a standard oral health program without fluoride varnish applications. A second aim was to relate the microbial composition to the caries prevalence. METHODS: Five......) while 237 had received standard preventive care (reference group). Oral samples were collected with a sterile swab and analysed with checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization using 12 pre-determined bacterial probes. Caries and background data were collected from clinical examinations and questionnaires...

  7. Index of Oral Histories Relating to Naval Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Navy research and development that are available in major U. S. repositories. In a sense, it is a companion to the broader U. S. Naval History Sources...Director, his work with the FAA, and his hobbies, including old cars and a penchant for Shakespeare . Repositories: NWC, DTNSRDC, NHC Individuals

  8. An Interview with DOROTHY E. DENNING, Oral History 424

    OpenAIRE

    Yost, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Computer Security History Project Computer security pioneer Dorothy Denning discusses her career including her Lattice Model for Computer Security, research on database security, intrusion detection, and other areas, such as her influential textbooks. The interview also addresses computer security research infrastructure and collaborators at various institutions where she worked including Purdue University, SRI International, Digital Equipment Corporation, Georgetown University, and Naval ...

  9. Beyond identity politics: the making of an oral history of Hong Kong women who love women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Day

    2006-01-01

    Oral history has long been an important resource for lesbian and other underprivileged groups in advancing identity politics. While there is an increased awareness of social construction of identity and the impact of race and class on the experiences of sexual identities, oral historians have yet to rethink their task in view of poststructuralists' and queer theorists' critique of identity. This paper examines the "Oral History Project of Hong Kong Women Who Love Women" as an attempt to construct histories that respect difference and minimize normalization. It discusses the project's significance in terms of its subversion of the heterosexual/homosexual binary and its queering of the notions of identity, community and coming out. The critique unfolded is one of anti-assimilation and anti-minoritization. doi:10.1300/J155v10n03_03.

  10. Structuring knowledge on Romanian communism: the case of the oral history interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana PAINCA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper offers a comprehensive analysis of the way in which the oral history interview can organize knowledge about communism in Romania. The data are retrieved from the book Memorialul Durerii: Întuneric şi lumină (2013 compiled by author Iulia Hossu Longin from dozens of oral history interviews with survivors of communism. As the examination demonstrates, the first element commanding attention is memory. Hence, oral history shifts the focus from memory as object to memory as subject, or as a source of investigation per se. Secondly, the analysis reveals how the extensive use of lists structures knowledge about Romanian communism in an intelligible and insightful way. These lists not only provide a window on the communist experience but they also bring the individual -fighting against the regime - into the foreground.

  11. Expanding the Oral Hygiene Curriculum in a Nursing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Susan; Griego, Elizabeth

    A program was implemented to expand the curriculum materials within the Licensed Practical Nursing (LPN) Program at Clark County Community College (CCCC) which relate to oral hygiene care for the hospital patient. The instructional materials included a video tape and a written instructional packet which were researched, prepared, and presented by…

  12. Student Interviews Fifty Years Later: An Oral History

    OpenAIRE

    2018-01-01

    The Regional History Project at UC Santa Cruz has rich collections of interviews with generations of narrators, ranging across the administration, faculty, and staff. In the early years of the campus, founding director Elizabeth Spedding Calciano conducted two rounds of interviews focused on the student experience at what was then the newest campus of the University of California. Those interviews, conducted in 1967 and 1969 as the campus was still adding a new college every year, give a wind...

  13. The Natural History of Oral Human Papillomavirus in Young Costa Rican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachler, Daniel C; Lang Kuhs, Krystle A; Struijk, Linda; Schussler, John; Herrero, Rolando; Porras, Carolina; Hildesheim, Allan; Cortes, Bernal; Sampson, Joshua; Quint, Wim; Gonzalez, Paula; Kreimer, Aimée R

    2017-07-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and related oropharyngeal cancer are uncommon in lower-income countries, particularly compared to HPV-associated cervical cancer. However, little is known about the natural history of oral HPV in less-developed settings and how it compares to the natural history of cervical HPV. Three hundred fifty women aged 22 to 33 years from the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial provided exfoliated cells from the cervical and oral regions at 2 visits 2 years apart. Samples from both visits were tested for 25 characterized α HPV types by the SPF10 PCR-DNA enzyme immunoassay-LiPA25 version 1 system. Risk factors for oral HPV persistence were calculated utilizing generalized estimating equations with a logistic link. Among the 82 women with characterized α oral HPV DNA detected at baseline, 14 persisted and were detected 2 years later (17.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10.9-28.5%) and was similar to the persistence of α cervical HPV (40/223; 17.7%; 95% CI, 13.1-23.9%; P = 0.86). Acquisition of new α oral HPV type was low; incident infection (1.7%; 95% CI, 0.6-3.7%). Oral HPV DNA is uncommon in young women in Latin America, and often appears to clear within a few years at similar rates to cervical HPV.

  14. Oral History as Complement to Place-as-Text: Approaches to Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, JoEllen; Znosko, Jessi; Peters, Jesse; Cannata, Susan M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the advantages of combining place-as-text curriculum with an oral history collection to act as catalysts for transformational learning. These experiential and service learning practices complement each other to enrich the encounters students are afforded. First, the nature and procedures of place-as-text and…

  15. The Uses of Oral History in Cyprus: Ethics, Memory and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briel, Holger

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses an Oral History project undertaken from 2009 to 2012 in Cyprus. As Cyprus is a politically volatile and geographically divided country with a Turkish-Cypriot north and a Greek-Cypriot-dominated south, this project attempted to show ways in which the two sides might be able to re-approach each other by claiming a common past. It…

  16. The Australian Paralympic Oral History Project: Remembering, Reflecting, Recording and Promoting Disability in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobling, Ian F.; Naar, Tony; Hanley, Marian

    2012-01-01

    The joint oral history project of the National Library of Australia and the Australian Paralympic Committee focuses on interviews with Australians who have contributed greatly to the Paralympic Movement in Australia since the inaugural Paralympic Games of 1960, while also recognising their place in the larger social and cultural context. This…

  17. Black Teachers and the Struggle against Apartheid: Oral Histories from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Presents the oral histories of three black educators who resisted apartheid and helped raise students' self-esteem despite the demeaning Bantu Education curriculum, experiencing multiple failures and successes in the era between the 1976 Soweto uprising and the end of apartheid in the early 1990s. All three resisted calls for "liberation…

  18. Talking With Scholars: Developing a Research Environment for Oral History Collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemman, Max; Scagliola, Stef; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.

    Scholars are yet to make optimal use of Oral History collections. For the uptake of digital research tools in the daily working practice of researchers, practices and conventions commonly adhered to in the subfields of the humanities should be taken into account during development, in order to

  19. The Oral Histories of Six African American Males in Their Ecology of Advanced Placement Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Katrina Bassam

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the past in order to understand the complex phenomenon of students engaging in science (Newman, Ridenour, Newman, & DeMarco, 2003) specifically through the oral histories of six self-identified African American males enrolled in a high school Advanced Placement Biology class and the…

  20. A History of Probabilistic Inductive Logic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio eRiguzzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The field of Probabilistic Logic Programming (PLP has seen significant advances in the last 20 years, with many proposals for languages that combine probability with logic programming. Since the start, the problem of learning probabilistic logic programs has been the focus of much attention. Learning these programs represents a whole subfield of Inductive Logic Programming (ILP. In Probabilistic ILP (PILP two problems are considered: learning the parameters of a program given the structure (the rules and learning both the structure and the parameters. Usually structure learning systems use parameter learning as a subroutine. In this article we present an overview of PILP and discuss the main results.

  1. Photography and Oral History as a Means of Chronicling the Homeless in Miami: The "StreetWays" Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzo, Eugene F.; Ameen, Edward; Bengochea, Alain; Doorn, Kristen; Pontier, Ryan; Sembiante, Sabrina

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of Photography and Oral History research methods as part of a collaborative research project on homelessness in Miami. Issues involving the use of documentary photography and oral history as a means of creating greater social awareness in the general public are explored, as well as broader issues of Social Justice.…

  2. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Biochemist Waldo E. Cohn, Ph.D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    In September 1994, the Department of Energy began an oral history project as part of the Openess initiative on the documentation of the human radiation experiments. This paper presents the oral history of Waldo E Cohn, Ph.D., a Biochemist who worked for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Manhattan Project

  3. Distributed Access to Oral History collections: Fitting Access Technology to the needs of Collection Owners and Researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    2011-01-01

    In contrast with the large amounts of potential interesting research material in digital multimedia repositories, the opportunities to unveil the gems therein are still very limited. The Oral History project ‘Verteld Verleden’ (Dutch literal translation of Oral History) that is currently running in

  4. Educational program in oral health for caregivers on the oral hygiene of dependent elders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Damares LAGO

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Due increased number of elders living in long-term care institutions, actions designs to improve their oral health are essential. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of an educational program for the caregivers through the assessment of the oral hygiene of institutionalized elders. Material and method The education program consisted in lectures to caregivers about oral health that were performed once a month. The subjects were 40 functionally dependent institutionalized elders and 14 caregivers. Hygiene habits, plaque index, and tongue coating/discoloration of the elders were measured before the educational program (baseline- T0 and after 6 (T1, 12 (T2, 18 (T3 and 24 months (T4. Caregivers answered questions about their knowledge, doubts and implementation of dental care (T0 to T4. Result After analyzing the data (Friedman, Chi-square and Spearman α = 0.05, a gradual improvement in the oral hygiene of the subjects was observed, with an increased frequency of brushing (p=0.0005, a change in the brush type (p=0.0065 and a reduction in the plaque index (p<0.05 and tongue coating (p<0.05. Caregivers showed a marked improvement in their dental care knowledge. Conclusion It was concluded that the educational program for caregivers had a positive impact in the oral health of institutionalized elderly observed by the increased in the effectiveness of oral hygiene parameters such as plaque index and tongue coating, contributing to the knowledge gain in hygiene by caregivers.

  5. A Model for Community-Based Pediatric Oral Heath: Implementation of an Infant Oral Care Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Ramos-Gomez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Affordable Care Act (ACA mandates risk assessments, preventive care, and evaluations based on outcomes. ACA compliance will require easily accessible, cost-effective care models that are flexible and simple to establish. UCLA has developed an Infant Oral Care Program (IOCP in partnership with community-based organizations that is an intervention model providing culturally competent perinatal and infant oral care for underserved, low-income, and/or minority children aged 0–5 and their caregivers. In collaboration with the Venice Family Clinic's Simms/Mann Health and Wellness Center, UCLA Pediatrics, Women, Infants, and Children (WIC, and Early Head Start and Head Start programs, the IOCP increases family-centered care access and promotes early utilization of dental services in nontraditional, primary care settings. Emphasizing disease prevention, management, and care that is sensitive to cultural, language, and oral health literacy challenges, IOCP patients achieve better oral health maintenance “in health” not in “disease modality”. IOCP uses interprofessional education to promote pediatric oral health across multiple disciplines and highlights the necessity for the “age-one visit”. This innovative clinical model facilitates early intervention and disease management. It sets a new standard of minimally invasive dental care that is widely available and prevention focused, with high retention rates due to strong collaborations with the community-based organizations serving these vulnerable, high-risk children.

  6. A model for community-based pediatric oral heath: implementation of an infant oral care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Gomez, Francisco J

    2014-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) mandates risk assessments, preventive care, and evaluations based on outcomes. ACA compliance will require easily accessible, cost-effective care models that are flexible and simple to establish. UCLA has developed an Infant Oral Care Program (IOCP) in partnership with community-based organizations that is an intervention model providing culturally competent perinatal and infant oral care for underserved, low-income, and/or minority children aged 0-5 and their caregivers. In collaboration with the Venice Family Clinic's Simms/Mann Health and Wellness Center, UCLA Pediatrics, Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), and Early Head Start and Head Start programs, the IOCP increases family-centered care access and promotes early utilization of dental services in nontraditional, primary care settings. Emphasizing disease prevention, management, and care that is sensitive to cultural, language, and oral health literacy challenges, IOCP patients achieve better oral health maintenance "in health" not in "disease modality". IOCP uses interprofessional education to promote pediatric oral health across multiple disciplines and highlights the necessity for the "age-one visit". This innovative clinical model facilitates early intervention and disease management. It sets a new standard of minimally invasive dental care that is widely available and prevention focused, with high retention rates due to strong collaborations with the community-based organizations serving these vulnerable, high-risk children.

  7. The lived experience of newly qualified radiographers (1950-1985): An oral history of radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, Sola

    2009-01-01

    The preparedness for practice of newly qualified healthcare professionals (including radiographers) has been the focus of attention in recent years as the practice environment continues to place great demands on its workforce. This paper reports an aspect of the findings from an oral history project on the career history of radiographers conducted as an academic research investigating the changes that have occurred in radiography and the impact these have had on the profession and the practice of radiography. The main focus of this paper is the lived experience of the informants of the oral history project as newly qualified radiographers. The findings are discussed in the context of current practice environment and developments in radiography. Analysis of the textual materials generated from informants' oral historical accounts, suggest radiographers trained in this time frame perceived their training as 'fit for purpose. The findings further suggest there is a general norm of 'get-on-with-it' as a coping strategy which is still prevalent in the profession today. The paper concludes by drawing on lessons that can be learned from the lived experiences of radiographers' oral historical accounts.

  8. Natural History of Streptococcus sanguinis in the Oral Cavity of Infants: Evidence for a Discrete Window of Infectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Caufield, Page W.; Dasanayake, Ananda P.; Li, Yihong; Pan, Yaping; Hsu, Jay; Hardin, J. Michael

    2000-01-01

    The heterogeneous group of oral bacteria within the sanguinis (sanguis) streptococci comprise members of the indigenous biota of the human oral cavity. While the association of Streptococcus sanguinis with bacterial endocarditis is well described in the literature, S. sanguinis is thought to play a benign, if not a beneficial, role in the oral cavity. Little is known, however, about the natural history of S. sanguinis and its specific relationship with other oral bacteria. As part of a longit...

  9. Experience with a pharmacy technician medication history program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Julie B; Lilliston, Michelle; Brooks, DeAnne; Swords, Bruce

    2014-09-15

    The implementation and outcomes of a pharmacy technician medication history program are described. An interprofessional medication reconciliation team, led by a clinical pharmacist and a clinical nurse specialist, was charged with implementing a new electronic medication reconciliation system to improve compliance with medication reconciliation at discharge and capture compliance-linked reimbursement. The team recommended that the pharmacy department be allocated new pharmacy technician full-time-equivalent positions to assume ownership of the medication history process. Concurrent with the implementation of this program, a medication history standard was developed to define rules for documentation of what a patient reports he or she is actually taking. The standard requires a structured interview with the patient or caregiver and validation with outside sources as indicated to determine which medications to document in the medication history. The standard is based on four medication administration category rules: scheduled, as-needed, short-term, and discontinued medications. The medication history standard forms the core of the medication history technician training and accountability program. Pharmacy technicians are supervised by pharmacists, using a defined accountability plan based on a set of medical staff approved rules for what medications comprise a best possible medication history. Medication history accuracy and completeness rates have been consistently over 90% and rates of provider compliance with medication reconciliation rose from under 20% to 100% since program implementation. A defined medication history based on a medication history standard served as an effective foundation for a pharmacy technician medication history program, which helped improve provider compliance with discharge medication reconciliation. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Historia Oral, Experiencias de Aprendizagem e Enraizamento Sociocultural--Um Projeto em Curso (Oral History, Learning Experiences, and Sociocultural Setting--A Project in Process).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidigal, Luis

    1995-01-01

    Examines education and childhood in Portugal. Uses oral history methods in an educational context, exploring oral statements pedagogically. Considers these statements especially suitable to maintaining aspects of collective memory and social identity, reinforcing students' national and regional identities. Suggests this is very important in…

  11. [An oral function improvement program utilizing health behavior theories ameliorates oral functions and oral hygienic conditions of pre-frail elderly persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Hideo

    2014-06-01

    Oral function improvement programs utilizing health behavior theories are considered to be effective in preventing the need for long-term social care. In the present study, an oral function improvement program based upon health behavior theories was designed, and its utility was assessed in 102 pre-frail elderly persons (33 males, 69 females, mean age: 76.9 +/- 5.7) considered to be in potential need of long-term social care and attending a long-term care prevention class in Sayama City, Saitama Prefecture, Japan. The degree of improvement in oral functions (7 items) and oral hygienic conditions (3 items) was assessed by comparing oral health before and after participation in the program. The results showed statistically significant improvements in the following oral functions: (1) lip functions (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllable "Pa"), (2) tongue functions, (3) tongue root motor skills (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllables "Ta" and "Ka"), (4) tongue extension/retraction, (5) side-to-side tongue movement functions, (6) cheek motor skills, and (7) repetitive saliva swallowing test (RSST). The following measures of oral hygiene also showed a statistically significant improvement: (1) debris on dentures or teeth, (2) coated tongue, and (3) frequency of oral cleaning. These findings demonstrated that an improvement program informed by health behavior theories is useful in improving oral functions and oral hygiene conditions.

  12. Māori oral histories and the impact of tsunamis in Aotearoa-New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. King

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Māori oral histories from the northern South Island of Aotearoa-New Zealand provide details of ancestral experience with tsunami(s on, and surrounding, Rangitoto (D'Urville Island. Applying an inductive-based methodology informed by collaborative storytelling, exchanges with key informants from the Māori kin groups of Ngāti Koata and Ngāti Kuia reveal that a folk tale, published in 1907, could be compared to and combined with active oral histories to provide insights into past catastrophic saltwater inundations. Such histories reference multiple layers of experience and meaning, from memorials to ancestral figures and their accomplishments to claims about place, authority and knowledge. Members of Ngāti Koata and Ngāti Kuia, who permitted us to record some of their histories, share the view that there are multiple benefits to be gained by learning from differences in knowledge, practice and belief. This work adds to scientific as well as Maōri understandings about tsunami hazards (and histories. It also demonstrates that to engage with Māori oral histories (and the people who genealogically link to such stories requires close attention to a politics of representation, in both past recordings and current ways of retelling, as well as sensitivities to the production of new and plural knowledges. This paper makes these narratives available to a new audience, including those families who no longer have access to them, and recites these in ways that might encourage plural knowledge development and co-existence.

  13. Māori oral histories and the impact of tsunamis in Aotearoa-New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Darren N.; Shaw, Wendy S.; Meihana, Peter N.; Goff, James R.

    2018-03-01

    Māori oral histories from the northern South Island of Aotearoa-New Zealand provide details of ancestral experience with tsunami(s) on, and surrounding, Rangitoto (D'Urville Island). Applying an inductive-based methodology informed by collaborative storytelling, exchanges with key informants from the Māori kin groups of Ngāti Koata and Ngāti Kuia reveal that a folk tale, published in 1907, could be compared to and combined with active oral histories to provide insights into past catastrophic saltwater inundations. Such histories reference multiple layers of experience and meaning, from memorials to ancestral figures and their accomplishments to claims about place, authority and knowledge. Members of Ngāti Koata and Ngāti Kuia, who permitted us to record some of their histories, share the view that there are multiple benefits to be gained by learning from differences in knowledge, practice and belief. This work adds to scientific as well as Maōri understandings about tsunami hazards (and histories). It also demonstrates that to engage with Māori oral histories (and the people who genealogically link to such stories) requires close attention to a politics of representation, in both past recordings and current ways of retelling, as well as sensitivities to the production of new and plural knowledges. This paper makes these narratives available to a new audience, including those families who no longer have access to them, and recites these in ways that might encourage plural knowledge development and co-existence.

  14. Beyond greener pastures: exploring contexts surrounding Filipino nurse migration in Canada through oral history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquillo, Charlene; Boschma, Geertje; Wong, Sabrina T; Quiney, Linda

    2011-09-01

    The history of immigrant Filipino nurses in Canada has received little attention, yet Canada is a major receiving country of a growing number of Filipino migrants and incorporates Filipino immigrant nurses into its healthcare workforce at a steady rate. This study aims to look beyond the traditional economic and policy analysis perspectives of global migration and beyond the push and pull factors commonly discussed in the migration literature. Through oral history, this study explores biographical histories of nine Filipino immigrant nurses currently working in British Columbia and Alberta, Canada. Narratives reveal the instrumental role of the deeply embedded culture of migration in the Philippines in influencing Filipino nurses to migrate. Additionally, the stories illustrate the weight of cultural pressures and societal constructs these nurses faced that first colored their decision to pursue a career in nursing and ultimately to pursue emigration. Oral history is a powerful tool for examining migration history and sheds light on nuances of experience that might otherwise be neglected. This study explores the complex connections between various factors motivating Filipino nurse migration, the decision-making process, and other pre-migration experiences. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. The history and global market of oral home-care products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jobim Jardim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This literature review reports the history and the current market of oral home-care products. It provides information extending from the products used by our ancestors to those currently available, as well as on the changes in the supply and consumption of these products. Although the scientific knowledge about oral diseases has improved greatly in recent years, our ancestors had already been concerned with cleaning their teeth. A variety of rudimentary products and devices were used since before recorded history, like chewing sticks, tree twigs, bird feathers, animal bones, tooth powder and home-made mouth rinses. Today, due to technological improvements of the cosmetic industry and market competition, home-use oral care products available in the marketplace offer a great variety of options. An increase in the consumption of oral care products has been observed in the last decades. Estimates show that Latin America observed a 12% increase in hygiene and beauty products sales between 2002 and 2003, whereas the observed global rate was approximately 2%. A significant increase in the per capita consumption of toothpaste, toothbrush, mouthrinse and dental floss has been estimated from 1992 to 2002, respectively at rates of 38.3%, 138.3%, 618.8% and 177.2%. Pertaining to this increased supply and consumption of oral care products, some related questions remain unanswered, like the occurrence of changes in disease behavior due to the use of new compounds, their actual efficacy and correct indications, and the extent of the benefits to oral health derived from consuming more products.

  16. ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF PROGRAM BUDGETING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOVICK, DAVID

    THE ORIGIN AND HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PROGRAM BUDGETING, WHICH IS CURRENTLY APPLIED TO ALL THE EXECUTIVE OFFICES AND AGENCIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT, IS TRACED. IT WAS RECOGNIZED AND APPLIED AS EARLY AS 1924 BY INDUSTRY, UTILIZED AS PART OF THE WARTIME CONTROL SYSTEM IN 1942, AND IS USED TODAY BY THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE. THIS IS A…

  17. Project SAIL: A Summer Program Brings History Alive for Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    This project describes Project SAIL (Schools for Active Interdisciplinary Learning), a federally funded project providing in-depth staff development during a 3-week summer program for teachers, parents, and their gifted/talented economically disadvantaged students. The program theme, "Searching for Patterns in History," has been used with students…

  18. A genetic programming approach to oral cancer prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Sze Tan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The potential of genetic programming (GP on various fields has been attained in recent years. In bio-medical field, many researches in GP are focused on the recognition of cancerous cells and also on gene expression profiling data. In this research, the aim is to study the performance of GP on the survival prediction of a small sample size of oral cancer prognosis dataset, which is the first study in the field of oral cancer prognosis. Method GP is applied on an oral cancer dataset that contains 31 cases collected from the Malaysia Oral Cancer Database and Tissue Bank System (MOCDTBS. The feature subsets that is automatically selected through GP were noted and the influences of this subset on the results of GP were recorded. In addition, a comparison between the GP performance and that of the Support Vector Machine (SVM and logistic regression (LR are also done in order to verify the predictive capabilities of the GP. Result The result shows that GP performed the best (average accuracy of 83.87% and average AUROC of 0.8341 when the features selected are smoking, drinking, chewing, histological differentiation of SCC, and oncogene p63. In addition, based on the comparison results, we found that the GP outperformed the SVM and LR in oral cancer prognosis. Discussion Some of the features in the dataset are found to be statistically co-related. This is because the accuracy of the GP prediction drops when one of the feature in the best feature subset is excluded. Thus, GP provides an automatic feature selection function, which chooses features that are highly correlated to the prognosis of oral cancer. This makes GP an ideal prediction model for cancer clinical and genomic data that can be used to aid physicians in their decision making stage of diagnosis or prognosis.

  19. A genetic programming approach to oral cancer prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mei Sze; Tan, Jing Wei; Chang, Siow-Wee; Yap, Hwa Jen; Abdul Kareem, Sameem; Zain, Rosnah Binti

    2016-01-01

    The potential of genetic programming (GP) on various fields has been attained in recent years. In bio-medical field, many researches in GP are focused on the recognition of cancerous cells and also on gene expression profiling data. In this research, the aim is to study the performance of GP on the survival prediction of a small sample size of oral cancer prognosis dataset, which is the first study in the field of oral cancer prognosis. GP is applied on an oral cancer dataset that contains 31 cases collected from the Malaysia Oral Cancer Database and Tissue Bank System (MOCDTBS). The feature subsets that is automatically selected through GP were noted and the influences of this subset on the results of GP were recorded. In addition, a comparison between the GP performance and that of the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and logistic regression (LR) are also done in order to verify the predictive capabilities of the GP. The result shows that GP performed the best (average accuracy of 83.87% and average AUROC of 0.8341) when the features selected are smoking, drinking, chewing, histological differentiation of SCC, and oncogene p63. In addition, based on the comparison results, we found that the GP outperformed the SVM and LR in oral cancer prognosis. Some of the features in the dataset are found to be statistically co-related. This is because the accuracy of the GP prediction drops when one of the feature in the best feature subset is excluded. Thus, GP provides an automatic feature selection function, which chooses features that are highly correlated to the prognosis of oral cancer. This makes GP an ideal prediction model for cancer clinical and genomic data that can be used to aid physicians in their decision making stage of diagnosis or prognosis.

  20. Oral history and memories of Hansen's disease patients in two Colombian leper colonies: life trajectories, conflicts and resistance strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero-Jaramillo, Natalia; Mora-Blanco, Jessica; Quesada-Jiménez, Nelson Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The paper examines the oral history of Hansen's disease in two Colombian communities that were leper colonies until 1961. The oral history around the disease allows us to connect individuals' memories with collective memory. This history remains an oral one, and few academic studies have documented it. We use oral history as a qualitative research method in order to analyze how the patients and those who lived alongside them positioned themselves in terms of the disease and how it permeated their entire existence, re-signifying the concepts of health and disease, normality and abnormality. We examine how, over the course of their lives, they engaged in resistance strategies that allowed them to get closer to normality, in their own sociocultural terms.

  1. Smithville Lake Historical Resources Mitigation Program: Oral History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    NOTES It. KEY WORDS (Co,,tirvuo on reverse sicd. It necesar And ident ify by block numb~f~r) Smithville Dam and Lake, Missouri Schools Poultry Houses...107 The Poultry Houses................................... 112 General Stores .................................. 114 Furniture Manufacturing...periodic large-scale jobs, such as threshing and butchering , were performed with group effort. Enter- tainment was also group oriented. Schools and

  2. Marathon maternity oral history project: Exploring rural birthing through narrative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkin, Aaron; Newbery, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    To explore how birthing and maternity care are understood and valued in a rural community. Oral history research. The rural community of Marathon, Ont, with a population of approximately 3500. A purposive selection of mothers, grandmothers, nurses, physicians, and community leaders in the Marathon medical catchment area. Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample, employing an oral history research methodology. Interviews were conducted non-anonymously in order to preserve the identity and personhood of participants. Interview transcripts were edited into short narratives. Oral histories offer perspectives and information not revealed in other quantitative or qualitative research methodologies. Narratives re-personalize and humanize medical research by offering researchers and practitioners the opportunity to bear witness to the personal stories affected through medical decision making. Eleven stand-alone narratives, published in this issue of Canadian Family Physician, form the project's findings. Similar to a literary text or short story, they are intended for personal reflection and interpretation by the reader. Presenting the results of these interviews as narratives requires the reader to participate in the research exercise and take part in listening to these women's voices. The project's narratives will be accessible to readers from academic and non-academic backgrounds and will interest readers in medicine and allied health professions, medical humanities, community development, gender studies, social anthropology and history, and literature. Sharing personal birthing experiences might inspire others to reevaluate and reconsider birthing practices and services in other communities. Where local maternity services are under threat, Marathon's stories might contribute to understanding the meaning and challenges of local birthing, and the implications of losing maternity services in rural Canada.

  3. Can school-based oral health education and a sugar-free chewing gum program improve oral health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Bin; Petersen, Poul Erik; Bian, Zhuan

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the outcome of school-based oral health education (OHE) and a sugar-free chewing gum program on the oral health status of children in terms of reduced caries increment and gingival bleeding over a period of 2 years. Nine primary schools randomly chosen from......'s oral hygiene; in certain circumstances children may benefit from using polyol-containing chewing gum in terms of reduced dental caries....

  4. Family history of alcoholism and the human brain response to oral sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiler, William J A; Dzemidzic, Mario; Soeurt, Christina M; Carron, Claire R; Oberlin, Brandon G; Considine, Robert V; Harezlak, Jaroslaw; Kareken, David A

    2018-01-01

    A heightened hedonic response to sweet tastes has been associated with increased alcohol preference and alcohol consumption in both humans and animals. The principal goal of this study was to examine blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation to high- and low-concentration sweet solutions in subjects who are either positive (FHP) or negative (FHN) for a family history of alcoholism. Seventy-four non-treatment seeking, community-recruited, healthy volunteers (22.8 ± 1.6 SD years; 43% men) rated a range of sucrose concentrations in a taste test and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during oral delivery of water, 0.83 M, and 0.10 M sucrose. Sucrose compared to water produced robust activation in primary gustatory cortex, ventral insula, amygdala, and ventral striatum. FHP subjects displayed greater bilateral amygdala activation than FHN subjects in the low sucrose concentration (0.10 M). In secondary analyses, the right amygdala response to the 0.10 M sucrose was greatest in FHP women. When accounting for group differences in drinks per week, the family history groups remained significantly different in their right amygdala response to 0.10 M sucrose. Our findings suggest that the brain response to oral sucrose differs with a family history of alcoholism, and that this response to a mildly reinforcing primary reward might be an endophenotypic marker of alcoholism risk.

  5. Family history of alcoholism and the human brain response to oral sucrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J.A. Eiler, II

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A heightened hedonic response to sweet tastes has been associated with increased alcohol preference and alcohol consumption in both humans and animals. The principal goal of this study was to examine blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD activation to high- and low-concentration sweet solutions in subjects who are either positive (FHP or negative (FHN for a family history of alcoholism. Seventy-four non-treatment seeking, community-recruited, healthy volunteers (22.8 ± 1.6 SD years; 43% men rated a range of sucrose concentrations in a taste test and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during oral delivery of water, 0.83 M, and 0.10 M sucrose. Sucrose compared to water produced robust activation in primary gustatory cortex, ventral insula, amygdala, and ventral striatum. FHP subjects displayed greater bilateral amygdala activation than FHN subjects in the low sucrose concentration (0.10 M. In secondary analyses, the right amygdala response to the 0.10 M sucrose was greatest in FHP women. When accounting for group differences in drinks per week, the family history groups remained significantly different in their right amygdala response to 0.10 M sucrose. Our findings suggest that the brain response to oral sucrose differs with a family history of alcoholism, and that this response to a mildly reinforcing primary reward might be an endophenotypic marker of alcoholism risk.

  6. The oral histories of six African American males in their ecology of Advanced Placement Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Katrina Bassam

    The major purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the past in order to understand the complex phenomenon of students engaging in science (Newman, Ridenour, Newman, & DeMarco, 2003) specifically through the oral histories of six self-identified African American males enrolled in a high school Advanced Placement Biology class and the oral histories about events that followed during their post high school experiences. To elucidate an understanding of this phenomenon, this research explored the ecology of African American males' descriptions of their school science, their peer school science community, their lived experiences during and after graduation, and their meso-community (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). Many minority and low-income students are less likely to enroll in rigorous courses during high school (Education Trust, 2006). This study is of utmost importance because capturing the informants' oral histories may improve rigorous science education. Many African American male students are attending urban schools with an ever growing achievement gap among their White counterparts (Norman, Ault, Bentz, & Meskimen, 2001); therefore, they are disengaging in science. As a result, African American males are underrepresented in both science careers and achievements in science (Atwater, 2000; National Science Foundation, 1994). The six oral histories highlighted the ecological factors that affected African American males regarding (1) the impact of their relationship with their mothers, (2) the understanding of personal responsibility, (3) the notion of a scientist, (4) the issue of gender being more of an obstacle than race, (5) the understanding that education is valuable, (6) the interactions and influence of relationships with others on their decisions, (7) the development of integrity through the participation in sports, (8) the ecological neighborhood environment influences an image, (9) the enrollment of Advanced Placement Biology course helped the transition

  7. Gathering the forgotten voices: an oral history of the CFHT's early years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laychak, Mary Beth; Bryson, Liz

    2011-06-01

    They came to the Big Island from as far away as Murrumbeena, Australia, and as near by as Hilo, Hawaii. They were progeny of Scottish coal miners, French physicists, Chicago truck drivers, Japanese samurai and Big Island cane workers. Together, these men and women would build and commission one of the most dynamic and productive 3.6 meter telescopes in the world that remains in the forefront of science and technology. The CFHT oral history DVD preserves the stories of the first decade and a half of the observatory.

  8. Oral health knowledge and attitudes of primary school teachers toward school-based oral health programs in Abha-Khamis, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreyas Tikare

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The oral health knowledge among primary school teachers was found to be good with positive attitudes toward school-based oral health programs. The most significant barriers in implementing a school oral health program were administrative barriers. There is a need for concerned school authorities and health policy makers to address these barriers and to promote oral health in the community.

  9. Keeping Wartime Memory Alive: An Oral History Project about the Wartime Memories of People with Learning Difficulties in Cumbria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, John; Eardley, Malcolm; Harkness, Elizabeth; Townson, Louise; Brownlee-Chapman, Chloe; Chapman, Rohhss

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses an oral history project funded by the Heritage Lottery. It recorded the memories of eight people with learning difficulties during the Second World War in Cumbria, UK, before their personal histories were lost forever. This qualitative, inclusive research project was supported by various organisations. The process of…

  10. A history of allergies is associated with reduced risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott-Miller, Marni; Chen, Chu; Doody, David R; Carter, Joseph L; Galloway, Denise A; Madeleine, Margaret M; Schwartz, Stephen M

    2012-12-01

    A history of allergies is associated with a decreased risk of several types of cancers. Potential mechanisms include enhanced immune surveillance against tumor cells early in disease development and/or carcinogenic infectious agents. We tested whether allergies are inversely associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), accounting for factors that may modify the association, such as tumor site, stage, and HPV infection. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the association between allergy history (including different types of allergies) and OSCC, adjusted for potential confounders, among 400 cases and 613 controls. Analyses were also stratified by site, stage, and measures of HPV infection. We observed a weak inverse association between history of any allergy and OSCC (OR = 0.81, 95 % CI 0.61-1.08). This association was present only for allergies to airborne allergens (dust/pollen/mold) (OR = 0.67; 95 % CI 0.48-0.93). The inverse associations with airborne allergies were slightly stronger for oropharyngeal SCC (OR = 0.56; 95 % CI 0.35-0.90) than for oral cavity SCC (OR = 0.71; 95 % CI 0.49-1.05) and present only for later-stage cancers (OR = 0.42; 95 % CI 0.26-0.66) as opposed to earlier-stage cancers (OR = 0.98; 95 % CI 0.66-1.46). Inverse associations were not particularly present or stronger among HPV-16-seropositive individuals or for HPV DNA-positive OSCC. There is an inverse association between history of allergies to dust, pollen, or mold and OSCC. Whether the inverse association involves heightened immune surveillance, increased immune response to HPV or other antigen, or other carcinogenic mechanism remains to be determined in more definitive studies.

  11. What history tells us XXI. Apoptosis and programmed cell death

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-04-30

    Apr 30, 2010 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 35; Issue 2. What history tells us XXI. Apoptosis and programmed cell death: when biological categories are blurred. Michel Morange. Series Volume 35 Issue 2 June 2010 pp 177-181 ...

  12. An Update of Oral Health Curricula in US Family Medicine Residency Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Hugh; Savageau, Judith A; Sullivan, Kate; Sawosik, Gail; Wang, Min

    2018-06-01

    National initiatives have encouraged oral health training for family physicians and other nondental providers for almost 2 decades. Our national survey assesses progress of family medicine residency programs on this important health topic since our last survey in 2011. Family medicine residency program directors (PDs) completed an online survey covering various themes including number of hours of oral health (OH) teaching, topics covered, barriers, evaluation, positive influences, and program demographics. Compared to 2011, more PDs feel OH should be addressed by physicians (86% in 2017 vs 79% in 2011), yet fewer programs are teaching OH (81% vs 96%) with fewer hours overall (31% vs 45% with 4 or more hours). Satisfaction with the competence of graduating residents in OH significantly decreased (17% in 2017 vs 32% in 2011). Program directors who report graduates being well prepared to answer board questions on oral health topics are more likely to have an oral health champion (P<0.001) and report satisfaction with the graduates' level of oral health competency (P<0.001). Programs with an oral health champion, or having a relationship with a state or national oral health coalition, or having routine teaching from a dental professional are significantly more likely to have more hours of oral health curriculum (P<0.001). Family medicine PDs are more aware of the importance of oral health, yet less oral health is being taught in residency programs. Developing more faculty oral health champions and connecting programs to dental faculty and coalitions may help reduce this educational void.

  13. Efficacy of a public promotion program on children's oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ana Paula S; Rank, Rise C I C; Vilela, Joana Estela R; Rank, Marcos S; Ogawa, Wataro N; Molina, Omar F

    2017-09-25

    To assess the efficacy of the Baby's Mouth early dental care prevention and promotion program in preventing oral diseases (caries, gingivitis, or malocclusions) in children attended since 2010. This was a cross-sectional and cohort study that assessed 252 children between 36 and 60 months of age in both sexes. The children were divided into three groups: G1: effective participants of the program from birth; G2: children who have stopped participating for more than 24 months, and G3: children who have never attended a prevention program. The evaluation was carried out in two stages: first, an interview with the mothers and, afterwards, a clinical children examination to assess the presence of caries, gingivitis, and malocclusion. The chi-squared test was used for statistical analysis between groups (p<0.05). The diseases assessed were: caries (G1: 5.9%, G2: 54.7%, G3: 70%), gingivitis (G1: 8.3%, G2: 17.9%, G3: 40.5%), and malocclusion (G1: 22.6%; G2: 28.6%; G3: 50%). For gingivitis, there was no significant difference when comparing G1 and G2 (p=0.107), but it was significant between G1 and G3 (p<0.001). Regarding malocclusion, a statistically significant relationship was observed (p=0.004) among all groups. The prevention and promotion program in public oral health was effective in preventing caries disease, gingivitis, and malocclusion in children under 5 years of age. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. In Defense of Oral History: Evidence from the Mercosur Case En defensa de la Historia Oral: Evidencia del caso de Mercosur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luca Gardini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article makes a case in defense of oral history in the study of political science and international relations. The existing literature has scrutinized the technical aspects and appropriate use of oral material. This article focuses on the circumstances under which oral history may be an indispensable method of scholarly investigation: first, when written primary sources are not readily available; second, when an investigation targets complex and secret high-level negotiations; and third, when the main research concern is the human agent’s perspective and ideational factors. The article first addresses the issue of reliability and rigor of oral history as compared to written sources and then concentrates on the creation of Mercosur as an example of the validity of oral history under the three circumstances identified. The conclusion proposes a revival of a more historical approach to political studies.Este artículo argumenta en favor del uso de la historia oral como método de estudio de las relaciones internacionales y de las ciencias políticas. La literatura académica se ha centrado en las cuestiones más técnicas de las entrevistas y en el uso apropiado de este método. El foco innovador del articulo analiza las circunstancias en que la historia oral puede representar una herramienta indispensable para la investigación académica: primero, cuando las fuentes escritas no están disponibles; segundo, cuando se investigan negociaciones reservadas y complejas de alto nivel; tercero, cuando el interés principal de la investigación es la perspectiva del agente y los factores ideacionales. En primer lugar, el artículo discute la confiabilidad y el rigor de la historia oral en comparación con las fuentes escritas. Luego, el análisis se centra en el caso de estudio de la creación de Mercosur, usado como ejemplo de la validez de la historia oral bajo las tres circunstancias identificadas. La conclusión propone un uso más amplio del

  15. History of ground motion programs at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banister, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Some measurements were made in the atmospheric testing era, but the study of ground motion from nuclear tests became of wider interest after the instigation of underground testing. The ground motion generated by underground nuclear test has been investigated for a number of reasons including understanding basic phenomena, operational and safety concerns, yield determination, stimulation of earthquake concerns, and developing methods to aid in treaty verifications. This history of ground motion programs will include discussing early studies, high yield programs, Peaceful Nuclear Explosions tests, and some more recent developments. 6 references, 10 figures

  16. [From oral history to the research film: the audiovisual as a tool of the historian].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Hebe; Abreu, Martha; Castro, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    An analytical essay of the process of image production, audiovisual archive formation, analysis of sources, and creation of the filmic narrative of the four historiographic films that form the DVD set Passados presentes (Present pasts) from the Oral History and Image Laboratory of Universidade Federal Fluminense (Labhoi/UFF). From excerpts from the audiovisual archive of Labhoi and the films made, the article analyzes: how the problem of research (the memory of slavery, and the legacy of the slave song in the agrofluminense region) led us to the production of images in a research situation; the analytical shift in relation to the cinematographic documentary and the ethnographic film; the specificities of revisiting the audiovisual collection constituted by the formulation of new research problems.

  17. You're not to dance with the girls: oral history, changing perception and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Steve

    2010-03-01

    The learning disability nursing course at the University of Cumbria features people with a learning disability presenting an oral history of their past in a long-stay institution. These are powerful stories which frequently portray very negative life experiences. Student feedback suggests that the resulting learning is profound, possibly transformative and offering a different type of learning to a 'traditional' lesson. Students report that they experience different and more positive perceptions of people with a learning disability. They have a new respect for people who have survived these experiences. This change of perception may, in part, be due to observing people with a learning disability in positive roles such as storyteller, teacher and carer. The students reported that in subsequent placements their professional practice changed as a result of these insights. These changes include being more outspoken against bad practice and being able to listen more effectively.

  18. Uses of oral history and digital storytelling in public health research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, E K; Starecheski, A

    2018-01-01

    Oral history (OH) and digital storytelling (DST) have been used in a range of ways in public health, including educating populations about health-protecting practices, advocating for improved clinical care and reflecting on public health efforts to combat infectious disease. Yet, these methods are rarely recognized for their potential to contribute to public health research and practice. The aim of this article is to assess how OH and DST have been used in the health fields and to provide examples of ways that these methods have contributed to work in several domains of public health. Narrative review. We conducted a narrative review of articles gathered from PubMed using the search terms 'oral history' and 'digital storytelling', which resulted in 102 articles relevant to public health. We then conducted a thematic analysis to create a typology of article topics and to examine cross-cutting themes. OH and DST have been used for both research and interventions in public health. Specifically, they have been used to 1) examine health risks and experiences; 2) engage and educate populations; 3) educate clinical professionals and organizations; and 4) inform public health practice. Despite the time, resources, and training required to do OH and DST well, we argue that these methods have substantial potential for supplementing public health activities, allowing the field to glean additional lessons from its experiences, to educate its practitioners further, and to better learn from the experiences of communities affected by public health problems. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Memoryscape: how audio walks can deepen our sense of place by integrating art, oral history and cultural geography

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Toby

    2007-01-01

    This article is concerned with the history and practice of creating sound walks or ‘memoryscapes’: outdoor trails that use recorded sound and spoken memory played on a personal stereo or mobile media to experience places in new ways. In this relatively new and rapidly evolving field, the author brings together works from music, sound art, oral history and cultural geography as a starting point to understanding how such trails can give us a more sophisticated and nuanced experience of places. ...

  20. Dental patients’ knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to oral cancer: the need of a nation-wide oral cancer prevention program

    OpenAIRE

    Villa, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the oral cancer (OC) knowledge, including risk factors and clinical symptoms, among patients attending Dental Departments within large Italian University hospitals. Methods: 2200 questionnaires were sent to four hospitals in order to assess patients’ knowledge regarding epidemiological and clinical features of oral cancer; oral cancer knowledge was assessed overall and stratified by oral cancer family history. Associations between exposures of...

  1. História oral: a experiência das doulas no cuidado à mulher Historia Oral: la experiencia de las doulas en el cuidado a la mujer Oral History: experience of doulas in the care of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Romana Ferreira de Souza

    2010-01-01

    : This is a qualitative study conducted at a municipal public maternity hospital in the city of Recife, in Pernambuco state, where the program has been institutionalized for four years. The research instrument used was the interview with nine doulas, analyzed according to the oral history. RESULTS: Two main themes emerged that show the experience of the doulas in caring for women: a way to humanize and welcoming and creating links. CONCLUSION: The speeches revealed that doulas provide care that contains an active listening based on attitudes of respect, foster care, technical knowledge and love.

  2. Oral Cancer around Dental Implants Appearing in Patients with\\without a History of Oral or Systemic Malignancy: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchasov, Ginnady; Haimov, Haim; Druseikaite, Monika; Pinchasov, Daniel; Astramskaite, Inesa; Sarikov, Rafael; Juodzbalys, Gintaras

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to systematically review the circumstance of oral cancer around osseointegrated dental implants. An electronic literature search was conducted through the MEDLINE (PubMed) and EMBASE databases. The search was restricted for articles published during the last 21 years from January 1996 to April 2017 and articles were limited to English language. A total of 35 articles were reviewed, and 19 of the most relevant articles that are suitable to the criteria were selected. Case reports were analysed when oral cancer was present in patients with dental implants. Finally, the present data included 28 patients. A direct link between dental implants and oral cancer was not found. It was observed that there were no significant differences in number of incidences of oral cancer between patients with history of malignancy and those without. More research should be made to document such cases. It was noticed that in many cases oral cancer around dental implant present itself as peri-implantitis, correct differential diagnosis is essential in such cases.

  3. Effectiveness of an oral health educational program on community-dwelling older people with xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Yuki; Yoshida, Naomi; Kono, Yoko; Hirano, Hirohiko; Yoshida, Hideyo; Mataki, Shiro; Sugimoto, Kumiko

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the changes in oral health and function through an oral health educational program for the independent older people with xerostomia. Community-dwelling older people with xerostomia aged over 65 years who participated in a preliminary comprehensive health survey in 2011 were recruited for the educational program. A total of 47 participants were randomly assigned into two groups, the intervention group (n = 26) and the control group (n = 21). The intervention group attended a 90-min oral health education program every 2 weeks for 3 months. The program consisted of oral hygiene instruction, facial and tongue muscle exercise, and salivary gland massage. The control group was provided only general information about oral health. The assessments of oral function, such as oral diadochokinesis of articulation, swallowing, taste threshold and salivary flow rate, were carried out before and after 3 months with or without intervention. A total of 38 participants (21 of intervention group and 17 of control group) completed the study protocol. In the intervention group, resting salivation significantly improved after the program. The second and third cumulated Repetitive Saliva Swallowing Test times significantly improved in the intervention group. The threshold for bitterness significantly lowered in the intervention group, whereas the sour threshold significantly heightened in the control group after 3 months (P < 0.05). The present study suggests that the educational program targeting oral function improvement is effective among the independent older population. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Incidence of bifid uvula and its relationship to submucous cleft palate and a family history of oral cleft in the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Sizina Aguiar G; Santos, Maria Luiza; Machado, Renato Assis; Dias, Verônica Oliveira; Nascimento, Jairo Evangelista; Swerts, Mario Sérgio Oliveira; Júnior, Hercílio Martelli; Martelli, Daniella Reis Barbosa

    2017-08-24

    Bifid uvula is a frequently observed anomaly in the general population and can be regarded as a marker for submucous cleft palate. In this study aimed to determine the frequency of bifid uvula and submucous cleft palate and their relationship with oral clefts in a Brazilian population. We conducted a transversal, descriptive and quantitative study of 1206 children between August 2014 and December 2015. A clinical examination of the children was conducted by means of inspection of the oral cavity with the aid of a tongue depressor and directed light. After the clinical examination in children, parents answered a questionnaire with questions about basic demographic information and their family history of oral clefts in their first-degree relatives. After application of the questionnaires, the information collected was archived in a database and analyzed by the statistical program SPSS ® version 19.0, by applying Chi-Square tests. Values with previews, with broader and diverse populations, seeking to associate the occurrence of bifid uvula, submucous cleft palate and oral clefts. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in smoking habit among patients with a history of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda-Roda, Rafael; Bagán, José V; Jiménez-Soriano, Yolanda; Margaix-Muñoz, Maria; Sarrión-Pérez, Gracia

    2010-09-01

    To determine the changes in smoking habit among patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) diagnosed and treated in the Service of Stomatology (Valencia University General Hospital. Valencia, Spain). The study involved 123 patients with a history of OSCC interviewed by telephone on their smoking habits at the time of the diagnosis and modifications in habits subsequently. The mean age at diagnosis was 60 years and 9 months (standard deviation, SD +/- 12 years and 2 months). Males predominated (61.8%) over females (38.2%). The mean time from the diagnosis of OSCC to the survey was 4 years and 6 months (SD +/- 3 years and 6 months). Almost one-half of the patients (45.5%) were active smokers at the time of the diagnosis, with a mean duration of the habit of 34.9 years (SD +/- 12 years and 7 months). In turn, 19.5% of the patients were ex-smokers at diagnosis, with an average of 13 years and 9 months (SD +/- 9 years and 4 months) from smoking cessation to the development of cancer. A total of 57.1% of the smokers abandoned the habit at diagnosis, 8.9% continued to smoke to the same extent as before, and 33.9% reduced smoking. A full 44.4 % of our patients diagnosed with OSCC continued to smoke despite warnings of the risks, and although the majority claimed to have reduced their smoking habit, interventional strategies would be indicated to help ensure complete smoking cessation.

  6. University Students and Local Museums: Developing Effective Partnerships with Oral History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Eva Baxter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a descriptive paper that details the collaboration between a group of twenty-one DePaul University students and the Exhibitions Committee of the Chinese American Museum of Chicago (CAMOC in the spring of 2010.  The students were all junior and senior Anthropology Majors participating in a course on applied-anthropology, or the applications of anthropological methods and perspectives outside of an academic setting.  CAMOC is a significant, volunteer-driven Chicago museum devoted to the collection, study, and exhibition of materials relating to the Chinese-Americans and Chinese-Canadians who settled in the regions between the coasts of these nations.  The museum first opened its doors in 2005, and in 2008 suffered a devastating fire resulting in the loss of most of the collections and exhibits.  DePaul students partnered with the Exhibitions Committee to collect, archive, and display oral histories of community members to assist in their rebuilding efforts.  The presentation of this particular project focusing on three significant ideas: (1 The importance of developing a project that can be brought to fruition in the course of a single collaborative episode, (2 The types of infrastructure that should be provided by the partners in such a collaboration, and (3 The necessity of creating a project that can simultaneously address the needs of a small museum and the educational goals for student participants.

  7. PENERAPAN KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: ORAL HISTORY PENANGANAN ARSIP BENCANA TOPAN HAIYAN DI FILIPINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Riyadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management process using Nonaka’s SECI model in creation of knowledge can provide guidance for learning and developing activities. Nevertheless, understanding the process of socialization, externalization, combination and internalization needs to be deepened with a lot of practice directly. This article provides a framework for real method that synthesizes basic phases as informal knowledge from an expert who has never capture and promotes knowledge before. Purpose of this article is to open earlier tacit knowledge form into process of socialization and internalization. An expert knowledge how to handling damage records by natural disaster will revealed in explicit way through capture process of oral history. Process for document damage recovery is conducted using disaster management procedure or library materials preservation knowledge. Research method for knowledge capture carried through pre-interview, interview and post-interview. Support data such as form of images, diaries, letters, agreements and others are used to reinforce methodology. Applying this method will produce two knowledge directly which are disaster management knowledge and management knowledge processes.

  8. THE NARRATIVE OF A CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE CLIENT: ORAL HISTORY AS RESEARCH STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Schleder Gonçalves Kobus

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to understand the meanings of the failure kidney for a client whofor twelve years is in hemodialisys treatment. The study was developed from November, 2002 through March,2003.The Oral History as a research strategy showed the following categories: The failure kidney sick diagnosticdiscovery and the routine with it; The hemodialisy treatment and its limitation; The concerns about self image; Thehopeness for a kidney transplant; The relationship with health professionals team; The family support; Newprojects of life; Attempts to feel itself useful. The patient’s narrative showed how difficult is the treatment, dealingchallenges daily, discoveries and hopes, a constant effort to fight against the limits, but demonstrating capacity toexceed the suffering. It was evident the positive and trustful relationship established with the health professionalteam, strengthening its social and ethical commitment in co-responsibility relationship, involvement, cooperation,consensus, dialogue and participative feelings. This study presents how important is to perceive each person as asingular one and the way that this person lives and deals with illness situation.

  9. Curriculum Planning for Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Assistant Program. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mary Ann

    This project was conducted to develop a curriculum for dental auxiliary training in the dental specialty field of oral and maxillofacial surgery. Research was conducted to identify the major functions performed by an oral surgery assistant and then to organize these functions into an educational program that would provide adequate didactic and…

  10. Effectiveness of an oral health program in improving the knowledge and competencies of head start staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Courtney Hugh

    2011-01-01

    Head Start and Early Head Start (HS/EHS) programs have partnered with the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry to promote oral health and increase access to dental homes. Preparing HS/EHS staff for issues related to pediatric oral health promises to improve effectiveness of this collaboration. This paper's purpose was to describe the Columbia Head Start Oral Health Program (C-HSOHP) and changes in HS/EHS staff pediatric oral health knowledge and competencies after participating in C-HSOHP. Four HS/EHS grantees in New York City engaged in the 2008-09 C-HSOHP. A convenience sample of 61 staff completed pre- and postself assessments of knowledge and competencies. Significant paired mean improvements were found for staff-reported level of preparation to explain dental issues during pregnancy, the tooth decay process, and preparing parents for their child's first dental visit. Significant improvements were found in staff confidence in teaching parents about children's oral health issues, referring for pediatric dental services, and talking to a dentist about a concern. The Columbia Head Start Oral Health Program was effective in improving Head Start/Early Head Start staff self-confidence and self-perceived preparedness in teaching parents about oral health, applying oral health knowledge to HS/EHS programs, communicating with dental professionals, and improving access to pediatric dental services.

  11. Doing science: Lessons learned from the oral histories of women scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehl, Laura Ann

    The major purpose of this study was to examine, through the use of oral history technique, the lived experiences of seven women scientists and the factors that affected their pursuit of science. Numerous reports indicate that while women are gaining ground in the sciences, they are behind their male counterparts in many areas and continue to face barriers (National Science Foundation Report, 2002; Wilson, 2004). There is still work to be done to understand how gender differences in science participation affect the lives of women scientists (Clewell and Campbell, 2002). The qualitative data from seven women's histories was coded to identify emerging themes in the areas of family life, education and experiences with science. The seven women interviewed represented work in science, technology, engineering and math, had terminal degrees and 10 to 55 years of professional experience. Six themes were identified as major factors in the science careers of these women; experiences with science, support from others, an ethic of care, passions of the mind, self efficacy in science and belonging vs. marginality. Each of these had some impact on each woman's sense of identity as a scientist and their strong sense of agency for accomplishing their career goals. The factors and influences that lead them to their careers speak to the ways in which they were able to overcome any barriers and become successful scientists. The stories of these women present a picture that is both consistent with and offers some challenge to the feminist critique of science. While their stories attest to the predominance of males in science they also refute that image in the way these women were able to create a science career for themselves that is not solely defined by the conditions of a male science. As the feminist critique suggests, gender is an important variable in the factors influencing the pursuit of science. While these women acknowledged the role of gender in their scientific experience

  12. Childbirth care: the oral history of women who gave birth from the 1940s to 1980s

    OpenAIRE

    Leister,Nathalie; Riesco,Maria Luiza Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    This study's objective was to gain a greater understanding of the changes that took place in the childbirth care model from the experience of women who gave birth in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil from the 1940s to the 1980s. This is a descriptive study conducted with 20 women using the Thematic Oral History method. Data were collected through unstructured interviews. The theme extracted from the interviews was "The experience of childbirth". The results indicate a time and generational demar...

  13. Web-based oral health promotion program for older adults: Development and preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Rodrigo J; Marwaha, Parul; Barrow, Su-Yan

    2016-07-01

    This study reports on the impact evaluation of a Web-based oral health promotion programme aimed at improving the oral health knowledge, attitudes, practices and self-efficacy of independent-living older adults from Melbourne, Australia. With ethics approval from the University of Melbourne, a convenience sample of volunteers 55 years or older was invited to participate in a study to test a web-based oral health promotion program. Consenting volunteers were asked to undergo a structured interview as part of the pre-intervention data collection. The intervention was based on the ORHIS (Oral Health Information Seminars/Sheets) Model and involved computer interaction with six oral health presentations, with no direct oral health professional input. A one group pre-test-post-test quasi-experimental design was chosen to evaluate the intervention. A series of paired t-tests were used to compare pre-test with post-test results. Forty-seven active, independent-living older adults participated in this evaluation. After the intervention participants responded with higher levels of achievement than before participating in this Web-based oral health program. Participants showed significant improvements in oral health attitudes (4.10 vs. 4.94; p<0.01), knowledge (18.37 vs. 23.83; p<0.0001), and self-efficacy (84.37 vs.89.23; p<0.01), as well as, self-reported oral hygiene practices (i.e., frequency of use of dental floss) (p<0.05). The e-ORHIS approach was successful in improving oral health knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy. As such, it represents a helpful approach for the design of (oral) health interventions in older adults. Further evaluation with a larger sample is required to test the long-term impact including the economic evaluation of the e-ORHIS approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Oral Health Promotion and Smoking Cessation Program Delivered via Tobacco Quitlines: The Oral Health 4 Life Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Jennifer B; Bush, Terry; Anderson, Melissa L; Blasi, Paula; Thompson, Ella; Nelson, Jennifer; Catz, Sheryl L

    2018-05-01

    To assess the effects of a novel oral health promotion program (Oral Health 4 Life; OH4L) delivered through state-funded tobacco quitlines. Using a semipragmatic design to balance experimental control and generalizability, we randomized US quitline callers (n = 718) to standard care or standard care plus OH4L. We followed participants for 6 months to assess effects on professional dental care and smoking abstinence. We collected data between 2015 and 2017. Participants were racially diverse (42% non-White) and socioeconomically disadvantaged. Most (71%) reported fair or poor oral health, and all were overdue for routine dental care. At 6 months, professional dental care and abstinence did not significantly differ between arms, but abstinence favored the experimental arm and was significantly higher among experimental participants at 2 months in a complete case sensitivity analysis. OH4L was not effective for promoting dental care, but integrating oral health counseling with quitline counseling may offer some advantage for smoking cessation. Public Health Implications. We offer a model for conducting semipragmatic trials and partnering with tobacco quitlines to evaluate population-level public health interventions.

  15. Raymond Andrews as Griot: Privileging Southern Black Communities through Oral Storytelling and Cultural History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennan Collins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Raymond Andrews’ novels celebrate rural Black life by focusing on the customs and traditions of Southern African American communities. Critical to this celebration are the rhetorical strategies Andrews uses that privilege oral over literary storytelling. Using Geneva Smitherman’s discussion of the griot and Henry Louis Gates, Jr.’s concept of the speakerly text in the context of John Miles Foley’s work on comparative oral traditions, this essay explores the possibility and implications of describing Andrews’ written work as a form of oral storytelling.

  16. Natural history of Streptococcus sanguinis in the oral cavity of infants: evidence for a discrete window of infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caufield, P W; Dasanayake, A P; Li, Y; Pan, Y; Hsu, J; Hardin, J M

    2000-07-01

    The heterogeneous group of oral bacteria within the sanguinis (sanguis) streptococci comprise members of the indigenous biota of the human oral cavity. While the association of Streptococcus sanguinis with bacterial endocarditis is well described in the literature, S. sanguinis is thought to play a benign, if not a beneficial, role in the oral cavity. Little is known, however, about the natural history of S. sanguinis and its specific relationship with other oral bacteria. As part of a longitudinal study concerning the transmission and acquisition of oral bacteria within mother-infant pairs, we examined the initial acquisition of S. sanguinis and described its colonization relative to tooth emergence and its proportions in plaque and saliva as a function of other biological events, including subsequent colonization with mutans streptococci. A second cohort of infants was recruited to define the taxonomic affiliation of S. sanguinis. We found that the colonization of the S. sanguinis occurs during a discrete "window of infectivity" at a median age of 9 months in the infants. Its colonization is tooth dependent and correlated to the time of tooth emergence; its proportions in saliva increase as new teeth emerge. In addition, early colonization of S. sanguinis and its elevated levels in the oral cavity were correlated to a significant delay in the colonization of mutans streptococci. Underpinning this apparent antagonism between S. sanguinis and mutans streptococci is the observation that after mutans streptococci colonize the infant, the levels of S. sanguinis decrease. Children who do not harbor detectable levels of mutans streptococci have significantly higher levels of S. sanguinis in their saliva than do children colonized with mutans streptococci. Collectively, these findings suggest that the colonization of S. sanguinis may influence the subsequent colonization of mutans streptococci, and this in turn may suggest several ecological approaches toward controlling

  17. Historians or History Teachers? A Qualitative Study in Pedagogical Formation Program in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünisen, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine how the history teaching career is perceived by prospective history teachers who attended the pedagogical formation program in Adiyaman University in 2014-2015 academic year. The study was conducted through content analysis of 5 sets of essays dealing with various aspects of history teaching. The essays topics were…

  18. Recalling war trauma of the Pacific War and the Japanese occupation in the oral history of Malaysia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The Pacific War and the Japanese Occupation were traumatic periods in the lives of people now over seventy years old in Malaysia and Singapore. This study traces why individuals interviewed for oral history of the Pacific War and the Japanese Occupation have often been able to tell stories of trauma without being overwhelmed by their reminiscences. It emphasizes that memories of traumatic experiences of the Pacific War and the Japanese Occupation in Malaysia and Singapore are mediated and eased by supportive social networks that are part of the interview subject's community. The individual's personal memories of traumatic war experiences are positioned in the context of the collective memory of the group and, thus, are made easier to recall. However, for individuals whose personal memories are at variance with the collective memory of the group they belong to, recalling traumatic experiences is more difficult and alienating as they do not have the support in their community. The act of recalling traumatic memories in the context of the collective memory of a group is particularly relevant in Malaysia and Singapore. These countries have a long history of being plural societies, where although the major ethnic groups -- the Malays, Chinese, and Indians -- have lived side by side peacefully, they have lived in culturally and socially separate worlds, not interacting much with the other groups. The self -- identity of many older people who lived through the Pacific War and the Japanese Occupation is inextricably bound up with their ethnicity. Oral history on war trauma strongly reflects these identities.

  19. Peer tutoring pilot program for the improvement of oral health behavior in underprivileged and immigrant children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Claus H; Löpker, Nadine; Noack, Michael J; Klein, Klaus; Rosen, Evelyne

    2009-01-01

    Caries prevalence in underprivileged children is particularly high and, even though many efforts have been made, adherence to dental preventive programs is low. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a tutoring program can improve oral health behavior in underprivileged and/or immigrant children. Thirty fourth-grade children (mean age = 9.6), over 50 percent of immigrant background, participated in this longitudinal pilot study. The fourth graders were invited to develop on oral health program for their first-grade peers. For this purpose, the fourth graders learned oral health practices and developed the peer tutoring program. Prior to the intervention and after having instructed their first-grade peers, all fourth graders were interviewed about their oral health habits and their tooth-brushing was recorded on video. Toothbrushing time, performance of circular tooth-brushing movements, and systematic cleaning of all dental surfaces were analyzed before and after the intervention. After peer teaching, there was a significant increase concerning tooth-brushing time (P = .004), performance of circular tooth-brushing movements (P tutoring program yielded a significant improvement in relevant oral care behavior. This approach provided an environment which, in contrast to traditional approaches, facilitates empowerment.

  20. A school-based oral health educational program: the experience of Maringa- PR, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrado, Carlos Alberto; Maciel, Sandra Mara; Oliveira, Márcia Regina

    2004-03-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the preliminary results of a school-based oral health educational strategy adopted in public primary schools from the city of Maringa, State of Parana, Brazil. The study sample was composed by 556 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years old, 124 schoolteachers and a group of 55 mothers. The educational approach was implemented for 18 months and consisted of reinforcements of interventions addressed to students and schoolteachers at school level and few activities targeted at the mothers, performed by means of home visits. Baseline and follow-up interviews focused on oral health care were undertaken for the entire study population. As a stimulus for the students to achieve proper oral hygiene habits, the simplified oral hygiene index was assessed at three different moments. A statistically significant improvement in their oral hygiene index (pstudied. They also point out the need of intensifying the preparation of schoolteachers in oral health topics, as well the instructions to the mothers for their oral health care. Moreover, they highlight the importance of the continuous implementation of school-based programs to promote the oral health.

  1. Oral Histories of Nurse-Midwives in Georgia, 1970-1989: Blazing Trails, Building Fences, Raising Towers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrower, Eileen J B

    2018-05-26

    This article provides an account of the establishment and development of the contemporary nurse-midwifery profession in Georgia, which was previously undocumented. Oral history interviews with nurse-midwives who were in clinical and educational practice in Georgia during the 1970s and 1980s were collected and analyzed to identify factors that affected the establishment of nurse-midwifery in this state. This study relied on historical methodology. Oral history interviews provided primary sources for analysis. Secondary sources included archives belonging to the narrators' nurse-midwifery services as well as scholarly and professional publications from 1923 to the present. Data were analyzed using Miller-Rosser and colleagues' method. In-depth interviews were conducted with 14 nurse-midwives who worked in clinical practice or education in Georgia in the 1970s and 1980s. The narrators' testimonies revealed facilitators for the establishment of nurse-midwifery in Georgia, including increasing access to care, providing woman-centered care, interprofessional relationships, and the support of peers. Resistance from the medical profession, financial constraints, and public misconceptions were identified as barriers for the profession. Oral histories in this study provided insight into the experiences of nurse-midwives in Georgia as they practiced and taught in the 1970s and 1980s. Interprofessional connections and cooperation supported the nurse-midwifery profession, and relationships with peers anchored the nurse-midwives. Mentoring relationships and interprofessional collaboration supported the nurse-midwives as they adapted and evolved to meet the needs of women in Georgia. © 2018 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  2. "Look'n M' Face and Hear M' Story": An Oral History with Professor J. Herman Blake

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderscoff, Cameron; Blake, J. Herman

    2014-01-01

    Dr. J. Herman Blake arrived at UC Santa Cruz in 1966 as an acting assistant professor of sociology at Cowell College. He remained at UCSC for eighteen years, gaining renown both as a teacher and for his leading role in the formation of UCSC’s seventh college, Oakes. This oral history explores both the public biography of Blake’s career and the intimate biography of Blake’s own youth and education, addressing how he sought to make more room at the “table” of education for others and how he wor...

  3. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Dr. George Voelz, M.D., November 29, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Dr. George Voelz was interviewed by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE). This oral history covers Dr. Voelz`s research on Manhattan Engineering District plutonium workers, the acute and long term effects of radiation, his inhalation studies, and his activities at the 1961 INL reactor accident (SL-1 Reactor). After a brief biographical sketch, Dr. Voelz his remembrances on tissue studies of plutonium workers, the plutonium injection studies of 1945-1946, the controlled environmental radioiodine tests of 1963-1968, and tracer studies with human volunteers at Los Alamos. Dr. Voelz states his opinions concerning misconceptions about the Los Alamos Human Radiation Experiments.

  4. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Dr. George Voelz, M.D., November 29, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    Dr. George Voelz was interviewed by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE). This oral history covers Dr. Voelz's research on Manhattan Engineering District plutonium workers, the acute and long term effects of radiation, his inhalation studies, and his activities at the 1961 INL reactor accident (SL-1 Reactor). After a brief biographical sketch, Dr. Voelz his remembrances on tissue studies of plutonium workers, the plutonium injection studies of 1945-1946, the controlled environmental radioiodine tests of 1963-1968, and tracer studies with human volunteers at Los Alamos. Dr. Voelz states his opinions concerning misconceptions about the Los Alamos Human Radiation Experiments

  5. Oral History and American Advertising: How the "Pepsi Generation" Came Alive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, Carol; Connors, Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Described is a project in which the Archives Center of the National Museum of American History and the George Meany Memorial Archives analyzed a collection of advertising materials of the Pepsi-Cola USA company and conducted interviews to gather historically valuable information concerning the company. Valuable social history information was…

  6. Patient-generated aspects in oral rehabilitation decision making I. Comparison of traditional history taking and an individual systematic interview method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øzhayat, Esben Boeskov; Gotfredsen, Klaus; Elverdam, Beth

    2009-01-01

    it with a traditional history taking, in generating information to be used in decision making in oral rehabilitation. Fifty-seven participants in need of oral rehabilitation were enrolled in the study. The participants underwent a traditional history taking and were interviewed using the SEIQoL-DW method. The SEIQo......Decision making in oral rehabilitation is often based on diagnoses related to impairment of different oral functions. In making the decision when to treat, the dentist must work in cooperation with the patient. By incorporating patient-generated aspects into the decision making process, the dentist...... percentage of the participants were positive towards the use of the SEIQoL-DW method in their treatment planning. The SEIQoL-DW was considered to be a viable tool for decision making in oral rehabilitation....

  7. Effectiveness of a Caregiver Education Program on Providing Oral Care to Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickert, Nancy A.; Ross, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Caregivers who work in community living arrangements or intermediate care facilities are responsible for the oral hygiene of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Oral hygiene training programs do not exist in many organizations, despite concerns about the oral care of this population. The purpose of this study was to…

  8. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx in patients aged 18-45 years: A case-control study to evaluate the risk factors with emphasis on stress, diet, oral hygiene, and family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholam, K P; Chouksey, G C

    2016-01-01

    Increasing incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity and oropharynx is reported in young adults. However, there is a paucity regarding etiology and risk factors. To evaluate the exposure potential carcinogenic factors among a sample aged 45 years and younger, diagnosed with SCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Eighty-five case samples aged 18-45 years, diagnosed with SCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx were compared with 85 controls who had never had cancer, matched for age and sex. This study was conducted by questionnaire-based interviews. Questionnaire contained items about exposure to the following risk factors: Caries prevalence, oral hygiene status, dental trauma, dental visit, stress, family history of cancer, environmental exposure to potential carcinogens, diet, body mass index (BMI), habits such as smoking, tobacco chewing, betel quid/pan, or supari. Odds ratios (ORs) of oral and pharyngeal cancer and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multiple logistic regression models. Poral hygiene, stress, dental trauma, low BMI, family history of cancer, exposure to environmental carcinogens, and habit of placement of quid for 11-20 years. An increased risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer was seen in cases who had poor oral hygiene, stress, dental trauma, low BMI, family history of cancer, exposure to environmental carcinogens, and habit of placement of quid.

  9. Bringing Black History Home: Oral Sketches of the Black Experience from Africa to Montgomery to Bedford-Stuyvesant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Richard

    This guide describes how to implement an interdisciplinary black history project designed to explore black experiences through a combination of personal anecdotes and text research. The program was designed by a teacher at Satellite East Junior High School in Brooklyn (New York). An introduction gives an overview of the structure and aims of the…

  10. Accreditation of emerging oral health professions: options for dental therapy education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelmon, Sherril B; Tresidder, Anna Foucek

    2011-01-01

    The study explored the options for accreditation of educational programs to prepare a new oral health provider, the dental therapist. A literature review and interviews of 10 content experts were conducted. The content experts represented a wide array of interests, including individuals associated with the various dental stakeholder organizations in education, accreditation, practice, and licensure, as well as representatives of non-dental accrediting organizations whose experience could inform the study. Development of an educational accreditation program for an emerging profession requires collaboration among key stakeholders representing education, practice, licensure, and other interests. Options for accreditation of dental therapy education programs include establishment of a new independent accrediting agency; seeking recognition as a committee within the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs; or working with the Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) to create a new accreditation program within CODA. These options are not mutually exclusive, and more than one accreditation program could potentially exist. An educational accreditation program is built upon a well-defined field, where there is a demonstrated need for the occupation and for accreditation of educational programs that prepare individuals to enter that occupation. The fundamental value of accreditation is as one player in the overall scheme of improving the quality of higher education delivered to students and, ultimately, the delivery of health services. Leaders concerned with the oral health workforce will need to consider future directions and the potential roles of new oral health providers as they determine appropriate directions for educational accreditation for dental therapy.

  11. Brief history of the Los Alamos laser programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, K.

    1983-01-01

    The laser programs at Los Alamos began in 1969 to investigate the feasibility of laser-induced fusion. However, within a year they had been expanded to include a number of other applications including laser isotope separation. These programs now compose a substantial part of the Laboratory's research programs

  12. How a North Carolina program boosted preventive oral health services for low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozier, R Gary; Stearns, Sally C; Pahel, Bhavna T; Quinonez, Rocio B; Park, Jeongyoung

    2010-12-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay), the most common chronic disease affecting young children, is exacerbated by limited access to preventive dental services for low-income children. To address this problem, North Carolina implemented a program to reimburse physicians for up to six preventive oral health visits for Medicaid-enrolled children younger than age three. Analysis of physician and dentist Medicaid claims from the period 2000-2006 shows that the program greatly increased preventive oral health services. By 2006 approximately 30 percent of well-child visits for children ages six months up to three years included these services. However, additional strategies are needed to ensure preventive oral health care for more low-income children.

  13. World History. A Program for Senior High School Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, Patrick

    GRADES OR AGES: Senior high school. SUBJECT MATTER: World history. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide covers ten units: 1) Perspective--Man in Pre-historic and Ancient Times; 2) Feudalism and the Church in the Middle Ages; 3) Renaissance and Reformation; 4) The Emergence of Nationalism--Its Cause and Effects; 5) Revolutions of Rising…

  14. The Bracero Program: A History of Foreign Contract Labor in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Naomi

    1981-01-01

    Briefly describes the history of Mexican migration to the United States; analyzes the impact--its benefits and drawbacks--of the Bracero Program (Mexican National Program) on the agricultural industry (especially in California), the U.S. economy and the braceros themselves; considers the althernatives to the Bracero Program. (Author)

  15. Application of Oral Fluid Assays in Support of Mumps, Rubella and Varicella Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. C. Maple

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Detection of specific viral antibody or nucleic acid produced by infection or immunization, using oral fluid samples, offers increased potential for wider population uptake compared to blood sampling. This methodology is well established for the control of HIV and measles infections, but can also be applied to the control of other vaccine preventable infections, and this review describes the application of oral fluid assays in support of mumps, rubella and varicella national immunization programs. In England and Wales individuals with suspected mumps or rubella, based on clinical presentation, can have an oral fluid swab sample taken for case confirmation. Universal varicella immunization of children has led to a drastic reduction of chickenpox in those countries where it is used; however, in England and Wales such a policy has not been instigated. Consequently, in England and Wales most children have had chickenpox by age 10 years; however, small, but significant, numbers of adults remain susceptible. Targeted varicella zoster virus (VZV immunization of susceptible adolescents offers the potential to reduce the pool of susceptible adults and oral fluid determination of VZV immunity in adolescents is a potential means of identifying susceptible individuals in need of VZV vaccination. The main application of oral fluid testing is in those circumstances where blood sampling is deemed not necessary, or is undesirable, and when the documented sensitivity and specificity of the oral fluid assay methodology to be used is considered sufficient for the purpose intended.

  16. "Our Journey through Time": An Oral History Project Carried out by Young People with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Sarah; Nicholls, Rickie; Price, Maxine; Wilkinson, Aaron; Purcell, Matthew; Woodhall, Martin; Walmsley, Jan

    2011-01-01

    We are five young people with learning disabilities who found out about the history of hospitals for people with learning disabilities in our area, and made a film about the project. The project taught us what life had been like for some people with learning disabilities only 30 years ago. It was very different to our lives; we have more choice,…

  17. Teachers/Political Prisoners: Oral Histories from the Struggle against Apartheid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Tells the stories of two South African teachers who spent years in Robben Island prison because of their anti-apartheid work, offering a contextual history of apartheid in South Africa, describing education on Robben Island and the teachers' efforts at improvement through education, and reflecting on the meaning and value of such stories in…

  18. From Generation to Generation: Oral Histories of Scientific Innovations from the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrossian, Mindy J.

    2010-01-01

    The 20th century saw some of the most important technological and scientific discoveries in the history of humankind. The space shuttle, the internet, and other modern advances changed society forever, and yet many students cannot imagine what life was like before these technologies existed. In the project described here, students take a firsthand…

  19. Including oral health training in a health system strengthening program in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Seymour

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rwanda's Ministry of Health, with the Clinton Health Access Initiative, implemented the Human Resources for Health (HRH Program. The purpose of the program is to train and retain high-quality health care professionals to improve and sustain health in Rwanda. Design: In May 2011, an oral health team from Rwanda and the United States proposed that oral health be included in the HRH Program, due to its important links to health, in a recommendation to the Rwandan Ministry of Health. The proposal outlined a diagonal approach to curriculum design that supports the principles of global health through interconnected training for both treatment and collaborative prevention, rather than discipline-based fragmented training focused on isolated risk factors. It combined ‘vertical’ direct patient care training with ‘horizontal’ interdisciplinary training to address common underlying risk factors and associations for disease through primary care, program retention, and sustainability. Results: The proposal was accepted by the Ministry of Health and was approved for funding by the US Government and The Global Fund. Rwanda's first Bachelor of Dental Surgery program, which is in the planning phase, is being developed. Conclusions: Competencies, the training curriculum, insurance and payment schemes, licensure, and other challenges are currently being addressed. With the Ministry of Health supporting the dental HRH efforts and fully appreciating the importance of oral health, all are hopeful that these developments will ultimately lead to more robust oral health data collection, a well-trained and well-retained dental profession, and vastly improved oral health and overall health for the people of Rwanda in the decades to come.

  20. Including oral health training in a health system strengthening program in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Brittany; Muhumuza, Ibra; Mumena, Chris; Isyagi, Moses; Barrow, Jane; Meeks, Valli

    2013-01-01

    Objective Rwanda's Ministry of Health, with the Clinton Health Access Initiative, implemented the Human Resources for Health (HRH) Program. The purpose of the program is to train and retain high-quality health care professionals to improve and sustain health in Rwanda. Design In May 2011, an oral health team from Rwanda and the United States proposed that oral health be included in the HRH Program, due to its important links to health, in a recommendation to the Rwandan Ministry of Health. The proposal outlined a diagonal approach to curriculum design that supports the principles of global health through interconnected training for both treatment and collaborative prevention, rather than discipline-based fragmented training focused on isolated risk factors. It combined ‘vertical’ direct patient care training with ‘horizontal’ interdisciplinary training to address common underlying risk factors and associations for disease through primary care, program retention, and sustainability. Results The proposal was accepted by the Ministry of Health and was approved for funding by the US Government and The Global Fund. Rwanda's first Bachelor of Dental Surgery program, which is in the planning phase, is being developed. Conclusions Competencies, the training curriculum, insurance and payment schemes, licensure, and other challenges are currently being addressed. With the Ministry of Health supporting the dental HRH efforts and fully appreciating the importance of oral health, all are hopeful that these developments will ultimately lead to more robust oral health data collection, a well-trained and well-retained dental profession, and vastly improved oral health and overall health for the people of Rwanda in the decades to come. PMID:23473054

  1. Oral Health Knowledge and Practices of WIC Staff at Florida WIC Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Jaana T; Tomar, Scott

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to assess the oral health knowledge, practices and confidence of staff in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infant and Children (WIC) by administering an anonymous self-completed survey to 39 WIC Clinic staff in Northern Florida. The survey instrument was a 28-item questionnaire adapted from previous validated surveys and covered questions on oral health knowledge, confidence and general practices related to oral health. Survey data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. The majority of WIC staff is knowledgeable about the role of the caregiver in cleaning the child's teeth and the role of bottle use in dental caries. Only 7 (25 %) of total 28 WIC staff indicated that fluoridated toothpaste could be used for children younger than 2 years of age. Only 18 (64 %) agreed that the cariogenic bacteria could be transmitted from mother to child. Nutritionists reported greater confidence compared to others in oral health tasks. Only 6 (67 %) of the nutritionists reported to counsel caregivers on the importance of regular tooth brushing. Only 4 (44 %) nutritionists reported to refer WIC clients to dental care. These results indicate that WIC staff has a limited knowledge on the age recommendations for the fluoride toothpaste use and on the transmission of the cariogenic bacteria. Many do not provide oral health counseling to caregivers. WIC staff with more education is more likely to discuss oral health issues. WIC staff is in need for oral health training and education to provide oral health counseling for at risk WIC population.

  2. Teaching the History of Psychology: A Content Analysis of Course Syllabi from Doctor of Psychology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merced, Matthew; Stutman, Zachariah E.; Mann, Sandra T.

    2018-01-01

    Psychology graduate students in the United States are expected to demonstrate competency in the history of psychology. Despite the topic's importance, there are limited guidelines. The present study examined history and systems of psychology (HSP) course syllabi from American Psychological Association accredited Doctor of Psychology programs. Of…

  3. Effectiveness of a caregiver education program on providing oral care to individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickert, Nancy A; Ross, Diana

    2012-06-01

    Caregivers who work in community living arrangements or intermediate care facilities are responsible for the oral hygiene of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Oral hygiene training programs do not exist in many organizations, despite concerns about the oral care of this population. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a caregiver educational program. This study used a quasi-experimental one-group pretest/posttest design with repeated measures to describe the outcomes of an educational program. Program participants demonstrated oral hygiene skills on each other while being scored by a trained observer, after which they completed an oral hygiene compliance survey. After three months, a follow-up included the same posttest, demonstration of oral hygiene skills, and repeat of the compliance survey. Paired-sample t-tests of oral hygiene knowledge showed a statistically significant improvement from pretest to posttest and from pretest to three-month posttest. Oral hygiene skills and compliance improved. Results demonstrate evidence that caregiver education improves knowledge, skill, and compliance in oral hygiene. Further studies are required to demonstrate the value of providing oral hygiene education and training for caregivers of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

  4. THE TRUTH WHICH WILL SET US ALL FREE: NATIONAL RECONCILIATION, ORAL HISTORY AND THE CONSPIRACY OF SILENCE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Government, referring to thousands of Abo-riginal children allegedly stolen from their parents, responded that "the Commonwealth does not seek to defend or justify past policies and practices, but it does assert that the sature and intent of those events have been misrepresented, and that the treatment of separated Aboriginal children was essentially lawful and benign in intent..." In 1998 the Chilean government opposed the proposed trial of Gen-eral Pinochet in Spain, protesting at the grave damage it would cause to the process of democratic transition and national reconciliation. The Government of Chile believes that whatever are the intentions of those promoting the process, this does not help the intended reconcili-ation — on the contrary, they will deepen for many years the differ-ences which exist between Chileans. Are national reconciliation and oral history compatible?

  5. Implementation of a new advanced graduate education program in oral implantology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, German O; Weber, Hans Peter; Kalenderian, Elsbeth

    2012-10-01

    The academic program for the Harvard School of Dental Medicine's Advanced Graduate Program in Oral Implantology is based on scientific evidence applied to educational quality, translational research, patient care, and service. The objective of the program is to enable highly motivated individuals with proven scholarship and excellence in patient care to achieve academic leadership in the clinical and scientific fields of implant dentistry and tissue regeneration. A detailed curriculum describing the academic program, as well as a business plan (which included a management plan describing the organizational structure, financial implications, and market forces) and implementation and communication plans, were developed before moving forward. With careful academic and business planning, the result was a vibrant implant program, in which all placements and restorations of implants are coordinated with regard to practice management. The program is integrated into the existing clinical care model and has been financially self-sustaining from its inception. Six students have participated in the last two years. On average, each student performed seventy-nine procedures on twenty-nine patients, generating over $46,000 in production. The curriculum includes didactics, hands-on clinical learning, and research activities. Research is a critical component as well. The results demonstrate that the time taken to develop a detailed curriculum and business plan for a new academic program, which anticipated and resolved potential barriers to success, was instrumental in the successful implementation of an oral implantology residency program.

  6. A History of the International Agreement on Iran's Nuclear Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabius, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    In May 2012, in the aftermath of the French presidential election, Iranian nuclear program posed a major challenge concerning both regional security questions and global efforts to prevent nuclear proliferation. The situation was characterized by a diplomatic stalemate, sanctions and the concerning development of Iran's nuclear program. Many fear that Iran's current program development will warrant military intervention in an effort to prevent further success. France therefore decided to implement a policy of 'constructive firmness' in the hope of reaching a robust and verifiable agreement that shows real progress in the international effort to prevent Iran from acquiring nuclear weapons. The following text is an accurate account of the process leading up to this major agreement by one of its main actors

  7. Planning and implementation of community oral health programs for caries management in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C H; Chau, Alex M H; Lo, Edward C M; Lam, Anty

    2012-01-01

    Tooth decay or cavities (dental caries) can have a significant impact on children's quality of life, causing pain, infection, and other problems in the oral environment. Good oral health is a fundamental element of good general health for children, yet dental caries is still prevalent among children in many countries. Dental caries is well-understood, and effective prevention is an attainable goal. Dental professionals should actively engage with communities--in particular, the underprivileged--to identify dental caries problems and implement appropriate and effective community oral health programs (COHPs) to improve oral health and reduce oral health inequalities. This paper discusses COHPs as well as the steps involved in caries prevention for children. These steps cannot ensure the success of every COHP, but they are helpful for developing, integrating, expanding, and enhancing them. The effectiveness of COHPs for the prevention of caries in children varies from country to country, according to cultural, social, economic, and health care settings. Careful consideration of the local situation is required when selecting the elements of COHPs.

  8. "Seniors only want respect": designing an oral health program for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Ivette; Kunzel, Carol; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Greenblatt, Ariel P; Metcalf, Sara S; Northridge, Mary E

    2018-01-01

    Persistent socioeconomic disparities in the oral disease burden contribute to pain and suffering among vulnerable and underserved populations who face systemic barriers to access oral health care, including older adults living in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods. The aim of this study is to gain the views of racial/ethnic minority older adults regarding what they believe would support them and their peers in visiting the dentist regularly. Focus groups were conducted and digitally audio-recorded from 2013 to 2015 with 194 racial/ethnic minority women and men aged 50 years and older living in northern Manhattan who participated in one of 24 focus group sessions about improving oral health for older adults. Analysis of the transcripts was conducted using thematic content analysis. The majority of recommendations from racial/ethnic minority older adults to help older adults go to the dentist regularly were centered at the organization and provider level. The preeminence of respectful treatment to racial/ethnic minority older adults may be useful to underscore in oral health programs and settings. There is a need for greater engagement of and attention to patients and other stakeholders in developing, testing, and disseminating interventions to close the gaps in oral health care disparities. © 2018 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [HPV Vaccination Program - The History and Recent Progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2017-09-01

    Four years have passed since HPV vaccination "crisis" occurred in June 2013. In Japan,a publicly funded HPV vaccination program for adolescent females aged 12-16 years began in December 2010. However,the Japanese government withdrew its recommendation for HPV vaccination in June, 2013 because news reports on potential adverse effects of HPV vaccines without any medical evidence appeared repeatedly. The vaccination coverage among adolescent females decreased quickly from around 70%in females born between 1994 and 1999 to only 1%in females born since 2001 over the country. The suspension of recommendation for vaccination has continued to the present,though there is no scientific or epidemiologic evidence to demonstrate the causal linkage between post-vaccination symptoms and the HPV vaccines. Very recently,an ecological investigation reported that similar symptoms also occur in unvaccinated adolescents in Japan. Medical organizations in Japan are also calling for a resumption of the HPV vaccination program. Now,the resumption of the recommendation needs a political judgment.

  10. History and evaluation of the AUTRC Program 1985--1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ransom, J.M.; Seale, S.K.

    1994-11-01

    The Alabama Universities/Tennessee Valley Authority Research Consortium (AUTRC), established in 1985, includes two state agencies and one federal agency working cooperatively with seven Alabama public research institutions to promote research and support economic development in Alabama. In 1985 the Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs (ADECA) was awarded a grant from the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) to establish a consortium of research universities and promote the economic development of the Appalachian counties of north Alabama. The following year, the Alabama Commission on Higher Education (ACHE) requested funding from the state legislature (Special Educational Trust Fund) to provide continuing support for AUTRC. One of the principal goals of this Consortium was to facilitate job creation in the state through the commercialization of TVA research. Since that time, continuing appropriations from ACHE and support from TVA, the universities, and the private sector have continued to support research activities and commercialization efforts. This report provides a ten-year overview of the program`s evolution, describes its research and commercialization activities, identifies the roles and contributions of the parties to the Consortium, and presents conclusions and recommendations for the future.

  11. The oral history of SFRY and virtual memories of youth work actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Gorunović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The object of the paper is the contemporary way in which the phenomenon of youth work actions in SFRY is imagined and represented, and not its history or historical reconstruction in the strict sense. This is about individual and group or generational memory of the people who took part in the actions and who "spoke" publicly for the first time after decades of silence, on the Internet and in other media, about their experiences. Their memories appear in different kinds of texts: as posts on thematic forums on the internet, or as personal narratives gathered through ethnographic interviews. They are framed by the popular discourse of yugoslavism and drenched in sentimental nostalgia. On the other hand, so called new work actions by veterans and volunteers, imagined as ways to renew earlier traditions of youth voluntary labor, necessarily conform to new political and economic goals in current social practice. In some cases this results in certain paradoxes which indicate the existence of contradictory and hybrid markers of the post Yugoslav situation and social transformation i the new states.

  12. Oral histories: a simple method of assigning chronological age to isotopic values from human dentine collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Julia; Montgomery, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) in bone and dentine collagen have been used for over 30 years to estimate palaeodiet, subsistence strategy, breastfeeding duration and migration within burial populations. Recent developments in dentine microsampling allow improved temporal resolution for dietary patterns. A simple method is proposed which could be applied to human teeth to estimate chronological age represented by dentine microsamples in the direction of tooth growth, allowing comparison of dietary patterns between individuals and populations. The method is tested using profiles from permanent and deciduous teeth of two individuals. Using a diagrammatic representation of dentine development by approximate age for each human tooth (based on the Queen Mary University of London Atlas), this study estimated the age represented by each dentine section. Two case studies are shown: comparison of M1 and M2 from a 19th century individual from London, England, and identification of an unknown tooth from an Iron Age female adult from Scotland. The isotopic profiles demonstrate that variations in consecutively-forming teeth can be aligned using this method to extend the dietary history of an individual or identify an unknown tooth by matching the profiles.

  13. Biomaterials for the programming of cell growth in oral tissues: The possible role of APA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Marco; Giacomelli, Luca; Larosa, Claudio

    2011-01-06

    Examples of programmed tissue response after the interaction of cells with biomaterials are a hot topic in current dental research. We propose here the use of anodic porous alumina (APA) for the programming of cell growth in oral tissues. In particular, APA may trigger cell growth by the controlled release of specific growth factors and/or ions. Moreover, APA may be used as a scaffold to promote generation of new tissue, due to the high interconnectivity of pores and the high surface roughness displayed by this material.

  14. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalaimalai Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy.

  15. In The Wake of Pugachev’s Rebellion: Experience in Oral History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita V. Shevtsov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grand uprising led by Pugachev seized a vast area from the middle reaches of the Volga, the Urals and the Kazakh steppes. Thousands of people from different classes and nationalities joined rebellious Ural Cossacks in 1773. From the beginning, the uprising was of antimonarchic, not noble character, although its leader, and posed as a resurrected Emperor Peter III. During two years since 1773 the rebels were holding at bay the entire Russian Empire, becoming a real threat to the power of Catherine II. Pugachev's Rebellion is a subject of numerous works of Russian historians, writers, articles, research journalists and ethnographers. But perhaps the most famous "History of Pugachev" is written by a classic of Russian literature Alexander Pushkin. His work became one of the first (if not the first serious historical studies on Pugachev's Rebellion. The historical science of XIX century, especially its first half, doesn't know many writings on the uprising. The fact that historians did not dare to write about Pugachev and the events that took place in 1773-1775 years, as Catherine II prohibited even mention the uprising. The decree of the senate ordered even rename the place, where the described events took place, for example, the Yaik river and Yaitsk town in order "to bring all that has happened to eternal oblivion." The famous historian S.M. Solovyov did not have advance to write about Pugachev. Death interrupted his work when his 29 volume ws in process, which he planned to complete with the execution of the leader of the uprising. Russian historian V.O. Klyuchevskii did not write many pages devoted to Pugachev as well. The author of this article visited the places, where the events took place, and repeated the journey of A.S. Pushkin, who visited the region in 60years after Pugachev's Rebellion. By talking with the locals, visiting ancient towns and villages, I sought to find out what has now preserved since ancient times, whether it is

  16. Parental support as a determinant in mastering history program in students with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić-Zdravković Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the relation between parental support and mastering History program in students with mild intellectual disability. The research was conducted on a sample of 120 examinees of both genders, by meeting the following selection criteria: IQ between 51 and 69, aged between 12 and 15.11, attending V to VIII grade of elementary school, and absence of neurological, psychiatric, emotional and multiple disabilities. Scale for assessing parental support and Criteria test of knowledge in History were used in the research. The results show that the examinees' mothers are more involved in their children's school life and that they offer more support than the fathers. It was concluded that mother's involvement in the student's school life, as well as mother's support for autonomy significantly improve mastering history program. There was no statistically significant influence of father's involvement and support for autonomy on mastering history program. It was determined that only 7.6% of the total variability of mastering history program can be explained by mother's involvement in her child's school life, and 6.1% by mother's support for autonomy.

  17. American archivists on oral history – review of the subject of texts published in the second half of the 20th century in pages of „The American Archivist”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Wiśniewska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In its first part, the article consists of a detailed discussion on eighteen texts on oral history published in the second half of the 20th century in the leading American archival journal „The American Archivist”. The second part are conclusions concerning the presence of the subject of oral history in archival discourse in the United States in the latter half of the 20th century. In the analyzed texts a lot of space has been given to the character of oral history interviews as historical sources. Especially, the question of reliability of oral history has been raised, as well as ways of guaranteeing it (e.g. through a proper description. Moreover, in many cases these texts attempt to persuade their readers to use oral history in their research. Also, it may be noticed, that at some point the understanding of oral history as historical source changes – an audio or video recording of the interview becomes a source itself, and not notes made while carrying it out or its transcription. Also relations between oral history and traditional (paper records are an important issue in discussions of the American authors. The analysis of the articles also indicates that the authors were interested more in issues of the historical nature, than of the archival one. Those latter are mostly providing access to oral history materials. But also the question of the role of archives and archivists in recording oral history is touched. Discussion on the issue of storing oral history is not present at all.

  18. Screening history in women with cervical cancer in a Danish population-based screening program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Poll, Susanne; Rygaard, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the screening histories of all cervical cancers in a Danish screening population. The intention was to decide suboptimal sides of the screening program and to evaluate the significance of routine screening in the development of cervical cancer.......The aim of this study was to explore the screening histories of all cervical cancers in a Danish screening population. The intention was to decide suboptimal sides of the screening program and to evaluate the significance of routine screening in the development of cervical cancer....

  19. Palenque de San Basilio in Colombia: genetic data support an oral history of a paternal ancestry in Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari-Pour, Naser; Moñino, Yves; Duque, Constanza; Gallego, Natalia; Bedoya, Gabriel; Thomas, Mark G; Bradman, Neil

    2016-03-30

    The Palenque, a black community in rural Colombia, have an oral history of fugitive African slaves founding a free village near Cartagena in the seventeenth century. Recently, linguists have identified some 200 words in regular use that originate in a Kikongo language, with Yombe, mainly spoken in the Congo region, being the most likely source. The non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY) and mitochondrial DNA were analysed to establish whether there was greater similarity between present-day members of the Palenque and Yombe than between the Palenque and 42 other African groups (for all individuals,n= 2799) from which forced slaves might have been taken. NRY data are consistent with the linguistic evidence that Yombe is the most likely group from which the original male settlers of Palenque came. Mitochondrial DNA data suggested substantial maternal sub-Saharan African ancestry and a strong founder effect but did not associate Palenque with any particular African group. In addition, based on cultural data including inhabitants' claims of linguistic differences, it has been hypothesized that the two districts of the village (Abajo and Arriba) have different origins, with Arriba founded by men originating in Congo and Abajo by those born in Colombia. Although significant genetic structuring distinguished the two from each other, no supporting evidence for this hypothesis was found. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. The Use of Oral Histories to Identify Criteria for Future Scenarios of Sustainable Farming in the South Yangtze River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingyang Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural practices in Jiangnan water towns have historically been identified as maintaining a balance between human activity and the local environment, but are now a significant local source of water pollution. Using a multi-methods approach, this study deduces the environmental impact of traditional practices, and the socially desired conditions for successfully reintroducing critical ones. Oral histories from 31 farmers in Tianshanzhuang village, South Yangtze River were in order to chart changes in farming practices over four historic periods, and used to estimate the nitrogen and phosphorus burdens per acre. Findings show that the use of Lan River Mud—dredged mud for fertilizer—was key in producing a positive impact, but abandoned after the 1980s. Four criteria hindering reintroduction of traditional practices were identified, and potentially useful but fragmented emerging local candidate practices are considered against these, as are recent practices in Japan. We propose that the cooperation of several stakeholders with various related government departments in China could lead to a portfolio of effective policy changes and should be studied further: to include new methods and uses of Lan River Mud; the integration of aquaculture, leisure and tourism industries with agriculture; and the production of organic produce with well-planned internet-linked sales, delivery and coordination mechanisms.

  1. Integrated predictive maintenance program vibration and lube oil analysis: Part I - history and the vibration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, H.

    1996-12-01

    This paper is the first of two papers which describe the Predictive Maintenance Program for rotating machines at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The organization has recently been restructured and significant benefits have been realized by the interaction, or {open_quotes}synergy{close_quotes} between the Vibration Program and the Lube Oil Analysis Program. This paper starts with the oldest part of the program - the Vibration Program and discusses the evolution of the program to its current state. The {open_quotes}Vibration{close_quotes} view of the combined program is then presented.

  2. Integrated predictive maintenance program vibration and lube oil analysis: Part I - history and the vibration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is the first of two papers which describe the Predictive Maintenance Program for rotating machines at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The organization has recently been restructured and significant benefits have been realized by the interaction, or open-quotes synergyclose quotes between the Vibration Program and the Lube Oil Analysis Program. This paper starts with the oldest part of the program - the Vibration Program and discusses the evolution of the program to its current state. The open-quotes Vibrationclose quotes view of the combined program is then presented

  3. History and update of the U.S. program for the management of used nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, T. [US Blue Ribbon Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This paper discusses the history and gives an update of the US program for the management of used nuclear fuel. The key issue in the deliberation was the option of long-term monitored storage versus disposal capability. The decision was to give future generations the option of disposal.

  4. Master in oral biology program: A path to addressing the need for future dental educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jergenson, Margaret A; Barritt, Laura C; O'Kane, Barbara J; Norton, Neil S

    2017-11-01

    In dental education, the anatomical sciences, which include gross anatomy, histology, embryology, and neuroanatomy, encompass an important component of the basic science curriculum. At Creighton University School of Dentistry, strength in anatomic science education has been coupled with a solid applicant pool to develop a novel Master of Science in Oral Biology, Anatomic Sciences track degree program. The program provides a heavy emphasis on developing teaching skills in predoctoral students as well as exposure to research processes to encourage the cohort to pursuing a career in academic dentistry. The individuals considered for this program are applicants for admission to the School of Dentistry that have not been accepted into the entering dental class for that year. The students undertake a two year curriculum, studying anatomic sciences with a special emphasis on teaching. The students also must complete a research project that requires a thesis. The students in the program are guaranteed acceptance to dental school upon successful completion of the program. After six years, the first ten students have received their Master of Science degrees and continued in dental school. The program is favorably viewed by the faculty and participating students. It is also considered successful by metrics. Nine of the ten graduates have said they would like to participate in academic dentistry in some capacity during their careers. Anat Sci Educ 10: 607-612. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. Effectiveness evaluation of Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program for improving Spanish-speaking parents' preventive oral health knowledge and behaviors for their young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeft, K S; Barker, J C; Shiboski, S; Pantoja-Guzman, E; Hiatt, R A

    2016-12-01

    To determine the effectiveness of the Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program (CCOHEP) for improving low-income, Spanish-speaking parents' oral health knowledge and behaviors for their young children. Mexican American children in the United States suffer disproportionately high prevalence and severity of early childhood caries, yet few evaluated, theory-based behavioral interventions exist for this population. CCOHEP is a theory-based curriculum consisting of four 2-h interactive classes designed for and by Spanish speakers and led by designated community health educators (promotoras). Topics included children's oral hygiene, caries etiology, dental procedures, nutrition, child behavior management, and parent skill-building activities. Low-income Spanish-speaking parents/caregivers of children aged 0-5 years were recruited through community services in an agricultural city in California. Survey questions from the Oral Health Basic Research Facts Questionnaire measuring oral health-related behaviors and knowledge were verbally administered before, immediately after, and 3 months after attendance at CCOHEP. Five questions measured aspects of parental toothbrushing for their children (frequency, using fluoridated toothpaste, brushing before bed, not drinking or eating after nighttime brushing, adult assistance), three questions measured other oral health behaviors, and 16 questions measured oral health-related knowledge. Analyses of within-person changes between pre- and post-tests and again between post-test and 3-month follow-up consisted of McNemar's test for binary outcomes and sign tests for ordinal outcomes. Overall, 105 caregivers participated in CCOHEP (n = 105 pretest, n = 95 post-test, n = 79 second post-test). At baseline, all parents self-reported doing at least one aspect of toothbrushing correctly, but only 13% reported performing all five aspects according to professional guidelines. At post-test, 44% of parents reported completing all aspects of

  6. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of health physicist Karl Z. Morgan, Ph.D., conducted January 7, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This report provided a transcript of an interview of Dr. Karl. Z. Morgan by representatives of the DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Morgan was selected for this interview because of his research for the Manhattan Project at the Metallurgical Laboratory in Chicago and his work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The oral history covers Dr. Morgan's work as a pioneer in the field of Health Physics, his research at ORNL and his work since he retired from ORNL

  7. Oral History (in Samoan)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Interviews with elder fishermen in American Samoa regarding changes in marine resource use and condition over time, local and traditional fishing and resource...

  8. Oral histories of HIV/AIDS support group members, NGO workers and home-based carers in KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to bring to the attention of the AIDS research community the existence of an oral history project known as the Memories of AIDS Project. The project focused on HIV/AIDS support group members, non-governmental organisation (NGO) workers and home-based carers in the Umgungundlovu (Pietermaritzburg) District Municipality, South Africa. The project was carried out by the Sinomlando Centre for Oral History and Memory Work, a research and community development centre of the University of KwaZulu-Natal, over a period of three years (2011-2013). Sixty-five individual oral history interviews of 1 to 4 hours duration and 11 focus group sessions were recorded, transcribed and translated from isiZulu into English when necessary. The life stories of community workers and support group members documented in the interviews show, on the part of the informants, a remarkable degree of agency and assertiveness in matters of sexuality, gender relations and religious beliefs. They found innovative ways of navigating through the conflicting claims of biomedicine, Christianity and African traditional religion. As much as the epidemic caused grief and suffering, it opened the door to new knowledge and new opportunities.

  9. Improved Adherence Rates and Clinical Outcomes of an Integrated, Closed-Loop, Pharmacist-Led Oral Chemotherapy Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluneh, Benyam; Schneider, Molly; Faso, Aimee; Amerine, Lindsey; Daniels, Rowell; Crisp, Brett; Valgus, John; Savage, Scott

    2018-06-01

    To address the growing use of oral anticancer therapy, an integrated, closed-loop, pharmacist-led oral chemotherapy management program was created within an academic medical center. An integrated, closed-loop, pharmacy-led oral chemotherapy management program was established. From September 2014 until June 2015, demographic information, rates of adherence, patient understanding of treatment, pharmacist interventions, patient and provider satisfaction, and molecular response rates in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) were collected. After full implementation, 107 patients were enrolled in our oral chemotherapy management program from September 2014 until June 2015. All patients were educated before starting oral chemotherapy, and using pre- and postassessment tests, comprehension of oral chemotherapy treatment increased from 43% to 95%. Patient-reported adherence was 86% and 94.7% for the GI/breast and malignant hematology patient populations, respectively, and these were validated with medication possession ratio, revealing adherence rates of 85% and 93.9% for the GI/breast and malignant hematology patient populations, respectively. A total of 350 encounters with a clinical pharmacist and 318 adverse effects were reported, which led to 235 interventions. This program led to a higher major molecular response rate (83%) in our CML population compared with published clinical trials (average major molecular response rates, 40% and 60% with 1- and 2-year follow-up, respectively). An innovative model was developed and resulted in improved patient knowledge regarding oral chemotherapy, improved adherence rates that exceeded nationally established thresholds, and superior major molecular response outcomes for patients with CML compared with published literature. As a result, this model has produced the gold standard in managing patients receiving oral chemotherapy.

  10. Effectiveness of prevention-oriented school oral health program in a private school in Pimpri, Pune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Programs oriented toward prevention have proven to be highly rewarding in reducing the dental disease burden in western populations. Some developing countries have also reported studies of school health programs with varying effectiveness. However, reports regarding improved effectiveness due to mobile dental unit are scarce. Thus, the present study aims at assessment of effectiveness of prevention-oriented school health program in a private school in Pimpri, Pune. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted from May 2015 to June 2016 in Dr. D.Y. Patil school among 449 students aged 5 and 10 years using census sampling. Ethical clearance was obtained from Institutional Ethics Committee of Dr. D. Y. Patil Dental College and Hospital and permission was obtained from the school principal. The study was conducted in 3 phases. SPSS version 18 was used for analyzing the data. Results: There was significant reduction in decayed component and a significant increase in filled component in primary and permanent dentition. There was a significant reduction in treatment needs, i.e., one surface, two surface fillings, and pulp care and restoration. Conclusion: It can be concluded that this prevention-oriented 1-year program was helpful in improving the oral health of the children.

  11. Should the history of epidemiology be taught in epidemiology training programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskaris, Zoey; Morabia, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is no evidence concerning the presence of historical content in the epidemiology curricula of the United States and abroad. Similarly, it is not known how epidemiologists view this topic in the context of master's or doctoral level course work. We attempted to fill these knowledge gaps with data from 2 online surveys-Survey I administered to persons in charge of all epidemiology training programs in North America and Survey II to epidemiologists practicing around the world. A substantial minority (39%) of graduate programs in epidemiology in the United States teach a course on the history of the field. In both surveys, the most common reasons selected for teaching such a course were "To build a sense of identity as an epidemiologist" and "As a tool for achieving a deeper understanding into specific methods and concepts." The majority of respondents, from 63 countries, agreed that the history of epidemiology should be included in curricula for graduate students in epidemiology.

  12. Effectiveness evaluation of Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program for improving Spanish-speaking parents’ preventive oral health knowledge and behaviors for their young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeft, Kristin S.; Barker, Judith C.; Shiboski, Stephen; Guzman, Estela Pantoja; Hiatt, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effectiveness of the Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program (CCOHEP) for improving low-income, Spanish-speaking parents’ oral health knowledge and behaviors for their young children. Mexican American children in the United States suffer disproportionately high prevalence and severity of early childhood caries, yet few evaluated, theory-based behavioral interventions exist for this population. CCOHEP is a theory-based curriculum consisting of four 2-hour interactive classes designed for and by Spanish speakers and led by designated community health educators (promotoras). Topics included children’s oral hygiene, caries etiology, dental procedures, nutrition, child behavior management and parent skill-building activities. Methods Low-income Spanish-speaking parents/caregivers of children aged 0–5 years were recruited through community services in an agricultural city in California. Survey questions from the Oral Health Basic Research Facts Questionnaire measuring oral health related behaviors and knowledge were verbally administered before, immediately after, and 3 months after attendance at CCOHEP. Five questions measured aspects of parental tooth brushing for their children (frequency, using fluoridated toothpaste, brushing before bed, not drinking or eating after nighttime brushing, adult assistance), three questions measured other oral health behaviors, and 16 questions measured oral health-related knowledge. Analyses of within-person changes between pre- and posttests, and again between post-test and three month follow up consisted of McNemar’s test for binary outcomes and sign tests for ordinal outcomes. Results Overall, 105 caregivers participated in CCOHEP (n= 105 pretest, n=95 posttest, n=79 second posttest). At baseline, all parents self-reported doing at least one aspect of toothbrushing correctly, but only 13% reported performing all five aspects according to professional guidelines. At posttest, 44% of parents

  13. A computer program for estimating the power-density spectrum of advanced continuous simulation language generated time histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program for performing frequency analysis of time history data is presented. The program uses circular convolution and the fast Fourier transform to calculate power density spectrum (PDS) of time history data. The program interfaces with the advanced continuous simulation language (ACSL) so that a frequency analysis may be performed on ACSL generated simulation variables. An example of the calculation of the PDS of a Van de Pol oscillator is presented.

  14. Assessing trainees' oral performance in a Chilean teacher training program: A corpus-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Fernanda Ortega

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the implementation of syllabus innovations in EFL teacher education in Chile after diagnosing a lack of language achievement standards common to all EFL teacher training programs offered in public and private universities alike. The aim of this study is to collect linguistic data in natural and artificial social contexts – EFL trainees’ intermediate status between their native language (Spanish and the target language (English – in order to create the first Chilean corpus of spoken English as a foreign language, in the interest of analyzing the errors that are most likely to be made and fossilized by native speakers of Chilean Spanish. Once the results of this exercise are available, EFL trainers, professors, and SLA researchers will be able to design a newly sequenced syllabus based on the Content-based Approach and tailored to students’ needs so as to enhance oral performance in L2 English.

  15. The Linear Programming to evaluate the performance of Oral Health in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colussi, Claudia Flemming; Calvo, Maria Cristina Marino; Freitas, Sergio Fernando Torres de

    2013-01-01

    To show the use of Linear Programming to evaluate the performance of Oral Health in Primary Care. This study used data from 19 municipalities of Santa Catarina city that participated of the state evaluation in 2009 and have more than 50,000 habitants. A total of 40 indicators were evaluated, calculated using the Microsoft Excel 2007, and converted to the interval [0, 1] in ascending order (one indicating the best situation and zero indicating the worst situation). Applying the Linear Programming technique municipalities were assessed and compared among them according to performance curve named "quality estimated frontier". Municipalities included in the frontier were classified as excellent. Indicators were gathered, and became synthetic indicators. The majority of municipalities not included in the quality frontier (values different of 1.0) had lower values than 0.5, indicating poor performance. The model applied to the municipalities of Santa Catarina city assessed municipal management and local priorities rather than the goals imposed by pre-defined parameters. In the final analysis three municipalities were included in the "perceived quality frontier". The Linear Programming technique allowed to identify gaps that must be addressed by city managers to enhance actions taken. It also enabled to observe each municipal performance and compare results among similar municipalities.

  16. The teaching of anesthesia history in US residency programs: results of a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Manisha S; Chennaiahgari, Shirish R; Desai, Sukumar P

    2012-03-01

    To determine the extent to which history of anesthesia-related topics are included in the didactic curriculum of United States residency programs in anesthesiology. Survey instrument. University-affiliated hospital. In addition to information related to the identity of the respondent and institution, we inquired about the presence of faculty members with an interest in the history of anesthesia (HOA), the inclusion of HOA-related lectures in the didactic curriculum, whether the program would consider inviting an outside lecturer for a session devoted to HOA, the inclusion of HOA-related tours, and whether the program would allow residents an elective rotation of one to three months devoted to a research project related to HOA. On the basis of responses from 46 of 132 residency programs (35%), 54% of programs had at least one faculty member with an interest in HOA, and 45% of programs included lectures related to HOA in their didactic curriculum. An encouraging finding was that 83% of programs (without such didactic sessions) were willing to invite visiting professors to deliver lectures on HOA. The vast majority (91%) did not conduct tours related to HOA, while 74% indicated a willingness to allow residents interested in HOA to devote one to three months to undertake such projects. The low rate of interest in HOA among faculty members, and the lower rate of inclusion of lectures related to HOA during residency training, suggests that substantial barriers exist within the academic community towards a wider acceptance of the importance of HOA. Two positive indicators were the willingness to invite outside speakers and the receptivity to allowing residents to devote one to three months to projects related to HOA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Profile and programming needs of federal offenders with histories of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Lynn A; Power, Jenelle

    2014-10-01

    This study presents data on male perpetrators of domestic violence (DV) in the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) using two samples: (a) a snapshot of all male offenders in CSC who had been assessed for DV (n = 15,166) and (b) a cumulative sample of male offenders in CSC from 2002-2010 who had been assessed as moderate or high risk for further DV (n = 4,261) DV offenders were compared to a cohort sample of non-DV offenders (n = 4,261). Analyses were disaggregated for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. Results indicated that 40% of the federal male population had a suspected history of DV and were therefore screened in for in-depth DV risk assessment. Of these, 45% were assessed as moderate or high risk for future DV. DV offenders had higher risk and criminogenic need ratings, more learning disabilities, more mental health problems, and more extensive criminal histories than those without DV histories. Aboriginal DV offenders had high levels of alcohol dependence, suggesting a need for substance abuse treatment as part of DV programming. Most federal offenders with DV histories would be described as belonging to the Antisocial/Generalized Aggressive typology and, therefore, adhering to the Risk-Need-Responsivity principles of the effective correctional literature, cognitive-behavioral treatment that focuses on teaching skills of self-management, and changing attitudes supporting relationship violence would be recommended. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. HANDBOOK FOR CONDUCTING ORAL HISTORY INTERVIEWS RELATED TO TRIBAL AND INDIAN PARTICIPATION IN THE CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION AND CLEANUP OF THE NUCLEAR WEAPONS COMPLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristann Gibson; Mervyn L. Tano; Albert Wing

    1999-08-31

    There were three major projects undertaken at the outset of the DOE/EM 22 Cooperative Agreement back in September 1995. There was a project relating to Tribal oral histories. Another project of the Cooperative Agreement related to technology and Tribal values and needs. This project by analogy could apply to issues of technology, environmental cleanup and other indigenous peoples internationally. How can Indian Tribes participate in defining the need for technology development rather than merely learning to adapt themselves and their situations and values to technology developed by others with differing needs, values and economic resources? And the third project was the placement of a Tribal intern in EM-22.

  19. ESENCIA Y PRÁCTICA DE LA HISTORIA ORAL ESSÊNCIA E PRÁTICA DA HISTÓRIA ORAL ESSENCE AND PRACTICE OF ORAL HISTORY

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Pozzi

    2012-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5965/2175180304012012061 Este artículo/conferencia discute la relación entre historia, historia oral, y la historia del presente. Postula que escisión entre estas no es fija sino que se articulan entre sí hasta el punto que sus fronteras se desdibujan. Asimismo, a partir de plantear a la historia oral como una subrama de la ciencia histórica, se discute si las particularidades latinoamericanas pueden significar que existe una historia oral propiamente “latinoamericana”...

  20. Effectiveness of a Heritage Educational Program for the Acquisition of Oral and Written French and Tahitian in French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocus, Isabelle; Guimard, Philippe; Vernaudon, Jacques; Paia, Mirose; Cosnefroy, Olivier; Florin, Agnes

    2012-01-01

    The research examines the effects of a bilingual pedagogical program (French/Tahitian) on the acquisition of oral and written French as well as the Tahitian language itself in primary schools in French Polynesia. 125 children divided into an experimental group (partially schooled in Tahitian for 300 min per week) and a control group (schooled in…

  1. Historial oral y memoria de los enfermos de Hansen en dos lazaretos de Colombia: trayectorias de vida, conflictos y resistencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Botero-Jaramillo

    Full Text Available Resumen Investiga la historia oral de la enfermedad de Hansen en dos comunidades de Colombia que fueron hasta 1961 lazaretos. La historia oral en torno de la enfermedad ha permitido conjugar la memoria individual con la memoria colectiva. Esta historia ha quedado en la oralidad y pocos trabajos académicos la han recopilado. Utilizamos la historia oral como método de investigación cualitativo, para analizar cómo enfermos y convivientes se posicionan ante la enfermedad y cómo atraviesa toda su existencia, resignificando los conceptos de salud y enfermedad, de normalidad y anormalidad, y cómo en sus trayectorias de vida emprendieron estrategias de resistencia que les permitiera aproximarse a la normalidad, desde sus propias significaciones socioculturales.

  2. Promotional Model: A New Direction for National Program in Immunization (NPI) and Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    P.EKERETE, Paulinus

    2000-01-01

    The National Program on Immunization (NPI), formerly known as the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) and Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT), were relaunched in1984 after the problems of vaccine supply have been corrected. The NPI aimed to protect children against six childhood killer disease and ORT, to remedy dehydration. In order to achieve these objectives, Partner-in-Health strategy was set up to educate, convince and motivate mothers, pregnant women and community to accept the programme....

  3. The effect on cross sections for Quad Cities by introducing control rod history in the assembly program LEWARD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonboel, E.

    1989-08-01

    This paper shows the effect on the 2-group neutron cross sections for the BWR reactor Quad Cities by introducing control rod ''history'' in the assembly program LEWARD. Control rod ''history'' is a concept which accounts for the movement of control rods during operation. (author)

  4. HISTORY AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE US EPA'S SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION (SITE) MONITORING AND MEASUREMENT (MMT) PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript presents the history and evolution of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Monitoring and Measurement Technology (MMT) Program. This includes a discussion of how the fundamental concepts of a performanc...

  5. A History of Sandia’s Water Decision Modeling and Analysis Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Earth Systems Analysis; Pate, Ronald C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Earth Systems Analysis

    2016-10-01

    This document provides a brief narrative, and selected project descriptions, that represent Sandia’s history involving data, modeling, and analysis related to water, energy-water nexus, and energy-water-agriculture nexus within the context of climate change. Sandia National Laboratories has been engaged since the early-1990s with program development involving data, modeling, and analysis projects that address the interdependent issues, risks, and technology-based mitigations associated with increasing demands and stresses being placed on energy, water, and agricultural/food resources, and the related impacts on their security and sustainability in the face of both domestic and global population growth, expanding economic development, and climate change.

  6. Provision of Oral Health Care to Children under Seven Covered by Bolsa Família Program. Is This a Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrola, Krishna Andréia Feitosa; Bezerra, Ítalo Barroso; de Menezes, Érico Alexandro Vasconcelos; Calvasina, Paola; Saintrain, Maria Vieira de Lima; Pimentel G F Vieira-Meyer, Anya

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a great improvement in the oral health of Brazilians. However, such a trend was not observed among five-year-old children. Dental caries are determined by the interplay between biological and behavioral factors that are shaped by broader socioeconomic determinants. It is well established that dental disease is concentrated in socially disadvantaged populations. To reduce social and health inequalities, the Brazilian government created Family Health Program (ESF), and the Bolsa Família Program, the Brazilian conditional cash transfer program (Bolsa Família Program). The aim of this study was to examine the oral health care and promotion provided by the Family Health Teams to children and caregivers covered by the Bolsa Família Program. Data was collected through interviews with three groups of participants: 1) dentists working for the Family Health Program; 2) Family Health Program professionals supervising the Bolsa Família Program health conditionalities (Bolsa Família Program supervisors); and 3) parents/caregivers of children covered by the Bolsa Família Program. A pretested questionnaire included sociodemographic, Bolsa Família Program, oral health promotion, dental prevention and dental treatment questions. The results showed that most dentists performed no systematic efforts to promote oral health care to children covered by the Bolsa Família Program (93.3%; n = 69) or to their parents/caregivers (74.3%; n = 55). Many dentists (33.8%) did not provide oral health care to children covered by the Bolsa Família Program because they felt it was beyond their responsibilities. Nearly all Bolsa Família Program supervisors (97.3%; n = 72) supported the inclusion of oral health care in the health conditionality of the Bolsa Família Program, but 82.4% (n = 61) stated they did not promote oral health activities to children covered by the Bolsa Família Program. Children in the routine care setting were more often referred

  7. Clinical Outcomes and History of Fall in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Treated with Oral Anticoagulation: Insights From the ARISTOTLE Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Meena P; Vinereanu, Dragos; Wojdyla, Daniel M; Alexander, John H; Atar, Dan; Hylek, Elaine M; Hanna, Michael; Wallentin, Lars; Lopes, Renato D; Gersh, Bernard J; Granger, Christopher B

    2018-03-01

    We assessed outcomes among anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation and a history of falling, and whether the benefits of apixaban vs warfarin are consistent in this population. Of the 18,201 patients in the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) study, 16,491 had information about history of falling-753 with history of falling and 15,738 without history of falling. The primary efficacy outcome was stroke or systemic embolism; the primary safety outcome was major bleeding. When compared with patients without a history of falling, patients with a history of falling were older, more likely to be female and to have dementia, cerebrovascular disease, depression, diabetes, heart failure, osteoporosis, fractures, and higher CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age ≥75 years, Diabetes mellitus, prior Stroke or TIA or thromboembolism, Vascular disease, Age 65-74 years, Sex category female) and HAS-BLED (Hypertension, Abnormal renal and liver function, Stroke, Bleeding, Labile international normalized ratio, Elderly, Drugs or alcohol) scores. Patients with a history of falling had higher rates of major bleeding (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.84; P = .020), including intracranial bleeding (adjusted HR 1.87; 95% CI, 1.02-3.43; P = .044) and death (adjusted HR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.36-2.14; P < .0001), but similar rates of stroke or systemic embolism and hemorrhagic stroke. There was no evidence of a differential effect of apixaban compared with warfarin on any outcome, regardless of history of falling. Among those with a history of falling, subdural bleeding occurred in 5 of 367 patients treated with warfarin and 0 of 386 treated with apixaban. Patients with atrial fibrillation and a history of falling receiving anticoagulation have a higher risk of major bleeding, including intracranial, and death. The efficacy and safety of apixaban compared

  8. THE DYNAMIC EVOLUTION OF ORAL HEALTH STATUS OF SCHOOLCHILDREN IN IASI UNDER THE IMPACT OF THE NATIONAL PREVENTION PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia BOBU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In most of the developing countries, dental caries continues to represent a major issue of public health. In Romania, the National Program for Oral and Dental Diseases Prevention was implemented between 1999-2010, addressed to children attending primary school and consisting of weekly mouth rinses with 0.2% NaF solution. In the present study, the dynamic evolution of oral health status of schoolchildren aged 6-12 years in Iasi, under the impact of this Program, was analyzed. The results showed a decreasing trend in the prevalence and incidence of dental caries, a constant decrease of caries experience indices DMFT and DMFS and, within them, the increasing trend of fillings indicator FS and the decrease of deep lesions weight. The conclusion is that tooth decay has declined in schoolchildren in Iasi during the development of the National Prevention Program.

  9. Computer-Assisted versus Oral-and-Written History Taking for the Prevention and Management of Cardiovascular Disease: a Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Yannis; Všetečková, Jitka; Poduval, Shoba; Tseng, Pei Ching; Car, Josip

    CVD is an important global healthcare issue; it is the leading cause of global mortality, with an increasing incidence identified in both developed and developing countries. It is also an extremely costly disease for healthcare systems unless managed effectively. In this review we aimed to: - Assess the effect of computer-assisted versus oral-and-written history taking on the quality of collected information for the prevention and management of CVD. - Assess the effect of computer-assisted versus oral-and-written history taking on the prevention and management of CVD. A systematic review of randomised controlled trials that included participants of 16 years or older at the beginning of the study, who were at risk of CVD (prevention) or were either previously diagnosed with CVD (management). We searched all major databases. We assessed risk of bias using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. Two studies met the inclusion criteria. One comparing the two methods of history-taking for the prevention of cardiovascular disease n = 75. The study shows that generally the patients in the experimental group underwent more laboratory procedures, had more biomarker readings recorded and/or were given (or had reviewed), more dietary changes than the control group. The other study compares the two methods of history-taking for the management of cardiovascular disease (n = 479). The study showed that the computerized decision aid appears to increase the proportion of patients who responded to invitations to discuss CVD prevention with their doctor. The Computer- Assisted History Taking Systems (CAHTS) increased the proportion of patients who discussed CHD risk reduction with their doctor from 24% to 40% and increased the proportion who had a specific plan to reduce their risk from 24% to 37%. With only one study meeting the inclusion criteria, for prevention of CVD and one study for management of CVD we did not gather sufficient evidence to address all of the objectives of the review

  10. Introducing Cytology-Based Theranostics in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Pilot Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikidou, Anna; Valeri, Rosalia Maria; Kitikidou, Kyriaki; Destouni, Charikleia; Vahtsevanos, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and reliability of brush cytology in the biomarker expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinomas within the concept of theranostics, and to correlate this biomarker profile with patient measurable outcomes. Markers representative of prognostic gene expression changes in oral squamous cell carcinoma was selected. These markers were also selected to involve pathways for which commercially available or investigational agents exist for clinical application. A set of 7 markers were analysed by immunocytochemistry on the archival primary tumour material of 99 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. We confirmed the feasibility of the technique for the expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinomas. Furthermore, our results affirm the prognostic significance of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family and the angiogenic pathway in oral squamous cell carcinoma, confirming their interest for targeted therapy. Brush cytology appears feasible and applicable for the expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinoma within the concept of theranostics, according to sample availability.

  11. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of biophysicist Robert Edmund Rowland, Ph.D., January 27, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This report provides a transcript of an oral interview with Dr. Robert Edmund Rowland by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Research on January 27, 1995. Dr. Rowland was involved with the study of radium in the human body since 1950 and relates his knowledge of over 40 years of study of radium in the human body including dial painters, inmates of Elgin State Hospital, and other treated therapeutically with radium

  12. The role of risk assessment in remedial action cleanup programs (RACP): A case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessler, R.G.; Bergmann, W.R.; Greenberg, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    A RACP (Remedial Action Cleanup Program) selects site cleanup criteria that protect human health and the environment and are cost effective. They generally use existing environmental standards and/or guidelines which include safe drinking water, RCRA groundwater protection, threshold limit values and air quality standards, and recommended soil cleanup level guidelines. If these are the only criteria used, the RACP may be more stringent and expensive than necessary. Another step, a risk assessment program, should then be considered in the cleanup decision process. A risk assessment uses chemical concentrations observed in soils, groundwater, and air to project their impact on human health and the environment. Toxicological data on human exposure to these concentrations (LD 50s and carcinogenic action levels) are used to assess risks to human health and the environment. The risk assessment also considers the probability of exposure. E.g., remedial programs at Superfund sites consider three criteria in order to assess risks to human health and the environment: (1) pathways of exposure, (2) population at risk, and (3) chemicals of concern. By eliminating or severely limiting the significance of any criteria, the site may no longer represent a significant risk. This paper presents a RACP case history where a risk assessment was needed to select a cost effective and environmentally acceptable cleanup program

  13. Population-based screening program for reducing oral cancer mortality in 2,334,299 Taiwanese cigarette smokers and/or betel quid chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shu-Lin; Su, William Wang-Yu; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Lee, Yi-Chia; Chiu, Han-Mo; Chang, Dun-Cheng; Jou, Yann-Yuh; Wu, Chien-Yuan; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Chiou, Shu-Ti

    2017-05-01

    To reduce oral cancer mortality, an organized, population-based screening program for the early detection of oral premalignancy and oral cancer was designed for high-risk individuals with habits of betel quid chewing, cigarette smoking, or both. The objective of this report was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of this program in reducing the incidence of advanced disease and deaths from oral cancer. A nationwide, population-based screening program for oral cancer has been conducted in Taiwan since 2004. Residents aged ≥ 18 years with oral habits of cigarette smoking and/or betel quid chewing were invited. The standardized mortality ratio method was used to compare the observed numbers of advanced oral cancers and deaths from oral cancer among screening attendees with the expected numbers derived from mortality among nonattendees. An intention-to-treat analysis of the relative rate of reductions in advanced-stage oral cancers and oral cancer mortality also was conducted. The overall screening rate was 55.1%. The relative risk of death from oral cancer was 0.53 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-0.56) as a result of screening compared with the expected risk of oral cancer deaths in the absence of screening. The corresponding relative risk was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.72-0.77) after adjusting for self-selection bias. The relative risk of advanced oral cancer for the screened group versus the nonscreened group was 0.62 (95% CI, 0.59-0.64), which increased to 0.79 (95% CI, 0.76-0.82) after adjustment for self-selection bias. An organized, population-based oral cancer screening program targeting more than 2 million Taiwanese cigarette smokers and/or betel quid chewers demonstrated the effectiveness of reducing stage III or IV oral cancers and oral cancer mortality. These evidence-based findings corroborate and support the screening strategy of oral visual inspection for the prevention of oral cancer among high-risk individuals in areas with a high incidence of oral

  14. Randomized trial of two e-learning programs for oral health students on secondary prevention of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBate, Rita D; Severson, Herbert H; Cragun, Deborah; Bleck, Jennifer; Gau, Jeff; Merrell, Laura; Cantwell, Carley; Christiansen, Steve; Koerber, Anne; Tomar, Scott L; Brown, Kelli McCormack; Tedesco, Lisa A; Hendricson, William; Taris, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether an interactive, web-based training program is more effective than an existing, flat-text, e-learning program at improving oral health students' knowledge, motivation, and self-efficacy to address signs of disordered eating behaviors with patients. Eighteen oral health classes of dental and dental hygiene students were randomized to either the Intervention (interactive program; n=259) or Alternative (existing program; n=58) conditions. Hierarchical linear modeling assessed for posttest differences between groups while controlling for baseline measures. Improvement among Intervention participants was superior to those who completed the Alternative program for three of the six outcomes: benefits/barriers, self-efficacy, and skills-based knowledge (effect sizes ranging from 0.43 to 0.87). This study thus suggests that interactive training programs may be better than flat-text e-learning programs for improving the skills-based knowledge and self-efficacy necessary for behavior change.

  15. Effectiveness of a Web-Based Health Education Program to Promote Oral Hygiene Care Among Stroke Survivors: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Malik, Normaliza; Mohamad Yatim, Sa'ari; Lam, Otto Lok Tao; Jin, Lijian; McGrath, Colman Patrick Joseph

    2017-03-31

    Oral hygiene care is of key importance among stroke patients to prevent complications that may compromise rehabilitation or potentially give rise to life-threatening infections such as aspiration pneumonia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a Web-based continuing professional development (CPD) program on "general intention" of the health carers to perform daily mouth cleaning for stroke patients using the theory of planned behavior (TPB). A double-blind cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted among 547 stroke care providers across 10 hospitals in Malaysia. The centers were block randomized to receive either (1) test intervention (a Web-based CPD program on providing oral hygiene care to stroke patients using TPB) or (2) control intervention (a Web-based CPD program not specific to oral hygiene). Domains of TPB: "attitude," "subjective norm" (SN), "perceived behavior control" (PBC), "general intention" (GI), and "knowledge" related to providing oral hygiene care were assessed preintervention and at 1 month and 6 months postintervention. The overall response rate was 68.2% (373/547). At 1 month, between the test and control groups, there was a significant difference in changes in scores of attitude (P=.004) and subjective norm (P=.01), but not in other TPB domains (GI, P=.11; PBC, P=.51; or knowledge, P=.08). At 6 months, there were significant differences in changes in scores of GI (P=.003), attitude (P=.009), SN (Poral hygiene care among stroke carers for their patients. Changing subjective norms and perceived behavioral control are key factors associated with changes in general intention to provide oral hygiene care. National Medical Research Register, Malaysia NMRR-13-1540-18833 (IIR); https://www.nmrr.gov.my/ fwbLoginPage.jsp. ©Normaliza Ab Malik, Sa'ari Mohamad Yatim, Otto Lok Tao Lam, Lijian Jin, Colman Patrick Joseph McGrath. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 31.03.2017.

  16. Cost assessment of a new oral care program in the intensive care unit to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ory, Jérôme; Mourgues, Charline; Raybaud, Evelyne; Chabanne, Russell; Jourdy, Jean Christophe; Belard, Fabien; Guérin, Renaud; Cosserant, Bernard; Faure, Jean Sébastien; Calvet, Laure; Pereira, Bruno; Guelon, Dominique; Traore, Ousmane; Gerbaud, Laurent

    2018-06-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most frequent hospital-acquired infections in intensive care units (ICU). In the bundle of care to prevent the VAP, the oral care is very important strategies, to decrease the oropharyngeal bacterial colonization and presence of causative bacteria of VAP. In view of the paucity of medical economics studies, our objective was to determine the cost of implementing this oral care program for preventing VAP. In five ICUs, during period 1, caregivers used a foam stick for oral care and, during period 2, a stick and tooth brushing with aspiration. Budgetary effect of the new program from the hospital's point of view was analyzed for both periods. The costs avoided were calculated from the incidence density of VAP (cases per 1000 days of intubation). The cost study included device cost, benefit lost, and ICU cost (medication, employer and employee contributions, blood sample analysis…). A total of 2030 intubated patients admitted to the ICUs benefited from oral care. The cost of implementing the study protocol was estimated to be €11,500 per year. VAP rates decreased significantly between the two periods (p1 = 12.8% and p2 = 8.5%, p = 0.002). The VAP revenue was ranged from €28,000 to €45,000 and the average cost from €39,906 to €42,332. The total cost assessment calculated was thus around €1.9 million in favor of the new oral care program. Our study showed that the implementation of a simple strategy improved the quality of patient care is economically viable. NCT02400294.

  17. Hannah's Feeding Journey: A Multidisciplinary Treatment Approach to Establishing Oral Acceptance for a Toddler with a Complex Medical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Dena M.; Galbally, Sandra Lynn; Markowitz, Goldie; Pucci, Kristy N.; Brochi, Ligia; Cohen, Sherri Shubin

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the importance of multidisciplinary, family-centered care, and a developmental bio-psycho-social approach to treating feeding difficulties in a child with a complex medical history. Hannah spent the first 9 months of her life in the hospital and was discharged dependent on nasogastric tube feeding. Her journey to recovery…

  18. Geographies of displacement: Latina/os, oral history, and the politics of gentrification in San Francisco's Mission District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabal, Nancy Raquel

    2009-05-01

    During the 1990s and early 2000s, working-class and poor neighborhoods in San Francisco underwent dramatic economic and racial changes. One of the most heavily gentrified neighborhoods was the Mission District. As a result of local politics, housing and rental policies, real estate speculation, and development, thousands of Latina/o families were displaced. Using oral historical and ethnographic methodologies, print media, archival sources, and policy papers, this article traces the gentrification of the Mission District from the perspective of the Latina/o community. It also examines how gentrification was articulated as a positive turn within the larger public discourse on space and access.

  19. Inflammation promotes oral squamous carcinoma immune evasion via induced programmed death ligand-1 surface expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wanlu; Lu, Libing; Feng, Yun; Chen, Jiao; Li, Yan; Kong, Xiangli; Chen, Sixiu; Li, Xiaoyu; Chen, Qianming; Zhang, Ping

    2013-05-01

    The association between inflammation and cancer provides a new target for tumor biotherapy. The inflammatory cells and molecules within the tumor microenvironment have decisive dual roles in antitumor immunity and immune evasion. In the present study, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) was used to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to simulate the tumor inflammatory microenvironment. The effect of immune cells and inflammatory cytokines on the surface expression of programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) and tumor immune evasion was investigated using flow cytometry (FCM) and an in vivo xenotransplantation model. Based on the data, PHA-activated, but not resting, immune cells were able to promote the surface expression of PD-L1 in Tca8113 oral squamous carcinoma cells via the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, but not by cell-cell contact. The majority of the inflammatory cytokines had no significant effect on the proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis of the Tca8113 cells, although they each induced the expression of PD-L1 in a dose-dependent manner. In total, 99% of the Tca8113 cells expressed PD-L1 following treatment with the supernatant of PHA-stimulated PBMCs. The PHA-supernatant pretreated Tca8113 cells unusually induced Tca8113 antigen-specific CD8 + T cell apoptosis in vitro and the evasion of antigen-specific T cell attraction in a nude mouse tumor-bearing model. These results indicate a new mechanism for the promotion of tumor immune evasion by the tumor inflammatory microenvironment.

  20. The People of Bear Hunter Speak: Oral Histories of the Cache Valley Shoshones Regarding the Bear River Massacre

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Aaron L.

    2007-01-01

    The Cache Valley Shoshone are the survivors of the Bear River Massacre, where a battle between a group of US. volunteer troops from California and a Shoshone village degenerated into the worst Indian massacre in US. history, resulting in the deaths of over 200 Shoshones. The massacre occurred due to increasing tensions over land use between the Shoshones and the Mormon settlers. Following the massacre, the Shoshones attempted settling in several different locations in Box Elder County, eventu...

  1. Oral health Status, Medical History, Xerostomia dan Quality of Life of elderly In Luwu Timur, Sulawesi Selatan

    OpenAIRE

    Samad, Rasmidar

    2013-01-01

    Xerostomia is a common condition in elderly people which may result in permanent impairtment that would be one risk factor for decreased quality of life Objective the aim of this study is to determine the relathionship of sociodemographic status, medical history, xerostomia, tooth loss and caries status with quality of life of elderly in luwu timur Xerostomia is a common condition in elderly people which may result in permanent impairtment that would be one risk factor for decreased qua...

  2. Effect of oral and transdermal hormone therapy on hyaluronic acid in women with and without a history of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Mikkola, Tomi S; Ropponen, Anne; Ylikorkala, Olavi

    2008-04-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy predisposes women to liver disorders years after affected pregnancy. We compared the basal levels and responses of hyaluronic acid, a marker of liver fibrosis, and liver transaminases to postmenopausal hormone therapy in women with (n = 20) and without (n = 20) a history of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Basal levels of hyaluronic acid were similar in both groups. Two weeks of oral estradiol 2.0 mg/day led to significant but similar (10.9% to 15.4%) rises in hyaluronic acid in both groups. Increasing the dose of oral estradiol to 4.0 mg/day resulted in normalization of the levels, whereas the addition of medroxyprogesterone acetate led to falls (11.0% to 10.7 %) in hyaluronic acid. Transdermal estradiol 50 microg led to a rise (3.2 %) in hyaluronic acid only in the control group. Other liver markers were normal at baseline and during hormone therapy. Normal basal levels and/or normal responses of hyaluronic acid and other liver markers to hormone therapy in women with previous intrahepatic cholestasis suggest that this therapy does not predispose these women to liver diseases.

  3. 100-year history of the development of bread winter wheat breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. А. Литвиненко

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Review of the main achievements of the Wheat Breeding and Seed ProductionDepartment in the Plant Breeding and Genetic Institute – National Centre of Seed and Cultivar Investigation in the developing theoretical principles of breeding and creation of winter wheat varieties of different types during 100-year (1916–2016 period of breeding programs realization. Results. The main theoretical, methodical developments and breeding achievements of Wheat Breeding and Seed Production Department during 100-year (1916–2016 history have been considered. In the course of the Department activity, the research and metho­dology grounds of bread winter wheat breeding and seed production have been laid, 9 stages of breeding programs development have been accomplished. As a result, more than 130 varieties of different types have been created, 87 of them have been released in some periods or registered in the State registers of plants varieties of Ukraine and other countries and grown in the total sowing area about 220 million hectares.

  4. Integration of vitamin A supplementation with the expanded program on immunization does not affect seroconversion to oral poliovirus vaccine in infants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.D. Semba; M. Muhilal; N.E. Mohgaddam (Nasrin); Z. Munasir; A. Akib; D. Permaesih; M.S. Muherdiyantiningsih; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractChildhood immunization programs may provide infrastructure for delivering vitamin A supplements to infants in developing countries. The effect of giving vitamin A, an immune enhancer, on antibody responses to trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (TOPV) is unknown. A

  5. From margins to centre: an oral history of the wartime experience of Iranian nurses in the Iran-Iraq War, 1980-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrovi, Hamid; Parsa-Yekta, Zohreh; Vosoughi, Mohammad Bagher; Fathyian, Nasrollah; Ghadirian, Fataneh

    2015-01-01

    The extensive nature of the Iraq-Iran war converted to a human tragedy with large casualties; it has affected nursing discipline dramatically. To analyse the history of the wartime experience of Iranian nurses in Iran-Iraq War. The current study was conducted with oral history. The study sample consisted of 13 Iranian nurses who served in the war zones during the wartime. Purposive and snowball sampling were used to recruit the participants. During the face-to-face interviews, participants were asked to describe their experience in the war zones during the war years. Data collection and analysis took place from April to August 2013, when saturation was reached. All interviews were tape recorded and transcribed and then analysed with thematic content analysis. Finally, five themes and 18 subthemes emerged from data analysis of significant statements from 17 interviews. The five emerged themes included (1) 'From margin to centre', (2) 'Development of referral care', (3) 'Personal and professional growth and development', (4) 'The emerging pillar of culture in war nursing' and (5) 'Threats to nursing at the war'. Nursing in Iran at wartime has a difficult path to development. There are powerful implications for clinical practice. It is recommended to continue collection, archiving and analysing the wartime experiences of Iranian nurses.

  6.  A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY OF ORAL HEALTH AND ORAL-HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG FRAIL ELDERLY PERSONS ON ADMISSION TO A SPECIAL ORAL-HEALTHCARE PROGRAM IN COPENHAGEN CITY,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Hede, Borge; Nielsen, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of oral health and oral health-related quality of life among frail elderly persons on admission to a special oral health care programme in Copenhagen City, Denmark Aim: To describe the oral health and the oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of citizens in Copenhagen...... City on admission to a specific oral health-care programme for disabled elderly persons. Further, to analyse how various factors influence the oral health and the OHRQoL among these patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 189 persons (average 85 years) consecutively admitted to a special oral...... health-care programme. Clinical data and data from interviews comprising social factors, life-style, dental visit habits, oral hygiene practices and self-perceived oral health were collected. A modified index on perceived dysfunction, discomfort and disability due to oral disorders was used. Results...

  7. Effectiveness of simple balancing training program in elderly patients with history of frequent falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuptniratsaikul, Vilai; Praditsuwan, Rungnirand; Assantachai, Prasert; Ploypetch, Teerada; Udompunturak, Suthipol; Pooliam, Julaporn

    2011-01-01

    To study the effectiveness of simply-performed balancing exercises in fall prevention. Pre- and post-trial. University hospital from January 2009 to May 2010. Elderly with falls in the previous year. Simple balancing exercise was performed at home every day and was recorded in the booklet. New falling events and a battery of balancing abilities including the Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT), chair stand, functional reach, and Berg balance scale-short form were evaluated at baseline, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month periods. Fear of falling and quality of life scores were assessed at baseline and 12-month periods. 146 subjects were recruited, 116 female (79.5%) with a mean age of 67.1 years. At the end of the study, 49% of participants had not fallen. All of the balancing abilities were compared between frequent and infrequent fallers and were significantly improved (Pfall group. Most subjects (72%-79%) complied well with the exercise program. However, compliance had no effect on balancing abilities. About 36.4% of participants had adverse events from exercise, of which knee pain was the top ranked. The quality of life and the fall efficacy scores increased significantly at the end of the study. Factors affecting falling were compliance with exercise (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.55, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.04, 6.30) and a history of falling ≥3 times in the previous year (adjusted OR: 3.76, 95% CI: 1.18, 11.98). Performing simply-designed balancing exercises, at least 3 days per week, can increase balancing abilities, and decrease fall rates in the elderly with a history of previous falls. However, strategies to encourage elderly compliance may prevent falling.

  8. Upregulated Expression of Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily V Receptors in Mucosae of Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Patients with a History of Alcohol Consumption or Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Sakakibara, Shunsuke; Kusumoto, Junya; Takeda, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Takumi; Akashi, Masaya; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Hashikawa, Kazunobu; Terashi, Hiroto; Komori, Takahide

    2017-01-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel (subfamily V, members 1-4) (TRPV1-4) are expressed in skin and neurons and activated by external stimuli in normal mucosae of all oral cavity sites. The oral cavity is exposed to various stimuli, including temperature, mechanical stimuli, chemical substances, and changes in pH, and, notably, the risk factors for oncogenic transformation in oral squamous epithelium are the same as the external stimuli received by TRPV1-4 receptors. Hence, we examined the relationship between oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and TRPV1-4 expression. Oral SCC patients (n = 37) who underwent surgical resection were included in this study. We investigated the expression of TRPV1-4 by immunohistochemical staining and quantification of TRPV1-4 mRNA in human oral mucosa. In addition, we compared the TRPV1-4 levels in mucosa from patients with SCC to those in normal oral mucosa. The receptors were expressed in oral mucosa at all sites (tongue, buccal mucosa, gingiva, and oral floor) and the expression was stronger in epithelia from patients with SCC than in normal epithelia. Furthermore, alcohol consumption and tobacco use were strongly associated with the occurrence of oral cancer and were found to have a remarkable influence on TRPV1-4 receptor expression in normal oral mucosa. In particular, patients with a history of alcohol consumption demonstrated significantly higher expression levels. Various external stimuli may influence the behavior of cancer cells. Overexpression of TRPV1-4 is likely to be a factor in enhanced sensitivity to external stimuli. These findings could contribute to the establishment of novel strategies for cancer therapy or prevention.

  9. Advances and challenges in oral health after a decade of the “Smiling Brazil” Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Charleni Inês; Scherer, Magda Duarte dos Anjos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze oral health work changes in primary health care after Brazil’s National Oral Health Policy Guidelines were released. METHODS A literature review was conducted on Medline, LILACS, Embase, SciELO, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, and The Cochrane Library databases, from 2000 to 2013, on elements to analyze work changes. The descriptors used included: primary health care, family health care, work, health care policy, oral health care services, dentistry, oral health, and Brazil. Thirty-two studies were selected and analyzed, with a predominance of qualitative studies from the Northeast region with workers, especially dentists, focusing on completeness and quality of care. RESULTS Observed advances focused on educational and permanent education actions; on welcoming, bonding, and accountability. The main challenges were related to completeness; extension and improvement of care; integrated teamwork; working conditions; planning, monitoring, and evaluation of actions; stimulating people’s participation and social control; and intersectorial actions. CONCLUSIONS Despite the new regulatory environment, there are very few changes in oral health work. Professionals tend to reproduce the dominant biomedical model. Continuing efforts will be required in work management, training, and permanent education fields. Among the possibilities are the increased engagement of managers and professionals in a process to understand work dynamics and training in the perspective of building significant changes for local realities. PMID:26815162

  10. Advances and challenges in oral health after a decade of the “Smiling Brazil” Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charleni Inês Scherer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze oral health work changes in primary health care after Brazil’s National Oral Health Policy Guidelines were released. METHODS A literature review was conducted on Medline, LILACS, Embase, SciELO, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, and The Cochrane Library databases, from 2000 to 2013, on elements to analyze work changes. The descriptors used included: primary health care, family health care, work, health care policy, oral health care services, dentistry, oral health, and Brazil. Thirty-two studies were selected and analyzed, with a predominance of qualitative studies from the Northeast region with workers, especially dentists, focusing on completeness and quality of care. RESULTS Observed advances focused on educational and permanent education actions; on welcoming, bonding, and accountability. The main challenges were related to completeness; extension and improvement of care; integrated teamwork; working conditions; planning, monitoring, and evaluation of actions; stimulating people’s participation and social control; and intersectorial actions. CONCLUSIONS Despite the new regulatory environment, there are very few changes in oral health work. Professionals tend to reproduce the dominant biomedical model. Continuing efforts will be required in work management, training, and permanent education fields. Among the possibilities are the increased engagement of managers and professionals in a process to understand work dynamics and training in the perspective of building significant changes for local realities.

  11. Advances and challenges in oral health after a decade of the "Smiling Brazil" Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Charleni Inês; Scherer, Magda Duarte dos Anjos

    2015-01-01

    To analyze oral health work changes in primary health care after Brazil's National Oral Health Policy Guidelines were released. A literature review was conducted on Medline, LILACS, Embase, SciELO, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, and The Cochrane Library databases, from 2000 to 2013, on elements to analyze work changes. The descriptors used included: primary health care, family health care, work, health care policy, oral health care services, dentistry, oral health, and Brazil. Thirty-two studies were selected and analyzed, with a predominance of qualitative studies from the Northeast region with workers, especially dentists, focusing on completeness and quality of care. Observed advances focused on educational and permanent education actions; on welcoming, bonding, and accountability. The main challenges were related to completeness; extension and improvement of care; integrated teamwork; working conditions; planning, monitoring, and evaluation of actions; stimulating people's participation and social control; and intersectorial actions. Despite the new regulatory environment, there are very few changes in oral health work. Professionals tend to reproduce the dominant biomedical model. Continuing efforts will be required in work management, training, and permanent education fields. Among the possibilities are the increased engagement of managers and professionals in a process to understand work dynamics and training in the perspective of building significant changes for local realities.

  12. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of hematologist Karl F. Hubner, M.D., December 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This report is a transcript of an interview of Dr. Karl F. Hubner by representatives of the US DOE Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Hubner was selected for this interview because of his participation in the Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies(ORINS)/Oak Ridge Associated Universities(ORAU) Medical Division cancer therapy research program involving total body irradiation. After a short biographical sketch Dr. Hubner discusses his research in Bone Marrow Transplants, his participation in the development of Nuclear Medicine in Oak Ridge, use of the total body irradiation machine at the University of Tennessee School of Agriculture Animal Research Laboratory (later the Comparative Animal Research Laboratory or CARL) to deliver a high enough dose rate to destroy a patients immune system, the operation of a sterile environment for recovery of patients following bone- marrow transplantation, and the closing of the ORAU Medical Division's Clinical Program following a negative review. Finally, Dr. Hubner describes his later research using PET

  13. An Analysis of the Model and Enacted Curricula for a History of Science Course in a Nationwide Teacher Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Noushin

    2017-01-01

    The UTeach program, a national model for undergraduate teacher preparation, includes "Perspectives on Science and Mathematics," a class designed to share content about the History of Science (HOS) with preservice teachers. UTeach provides a model curriculum as a sample for instructors teaching "Perspectives." The purpose of…

  14. An Alternating Treatment Comparison of Oral and Total Communication Training Programs with Echolalic Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Richardo D.; Sulzer-Azaroff, Beth

    1983-01-01

    Comparison of the relative effectiveness of oral and total communication training models for teaching expressive labeling skills to three echolalic autistic children (six-nine years old) demonstrated that total communication was the most successful approach with each of the Ss. (Author/CL)

  15. Effectiveness of Education Programs About Oral Antibiotic Suspensions in Pediatric Outpatient Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin Hu

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrated that when compared to reading a package insert or education sheet, a pharmacist's verbal education with photographic education materials was significantly more effective and time-saving in providing caregivers with the correct knowledge of oral antibiotic suspensions in pediatrics.

  16. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Dr. Nadine Foreman, M.D., August 19, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    Dr. Nadine Foreman was interviewed by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE). Dr. Foreman was selected for interview because of the position she held at the University of California, San Francisco. Following a brief biographical sketch, Dr. Foreman describes her work with Dr. Mayo Soley using I-131 in treatment of hyperthyroidism, selection criteria for patients in the radioiodine project, work with Dr. Earl Miller, work at Highland Hospital, radioiodine treatment of diffuse toxic goiter (myxedema), the radiophosphorus and radioiodine programs with Dr. Bert Low-Beer, and treatment of polycythemia vera

  17. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Donner Lab Administrator Baird G. Whaley, August 15, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Baird G. Whaley, Donner Lab Administrator, was interviewed by representatives of US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE). The purpose of the interview was to capture the remembrances of Mr. Whaley concerning what he could relate on activities at the Donner Lab that pertain to the OHRE responsibilities. Following a brief biographical sketch, Mr. Whaley relates his experiences in administration at the LAB including funding activities, staffing concerns, intralaboraory politics, and remembrances of John Lawrence, John Gofman, Cornelius Tobias, Jim Born, Alex Margolis, B.V.A. Low- Beer, and Ed Alpen. Further patient care procedures for Donner Clinic Research Programs were discussed

  18. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Donner Lab Administrator Baird G. Whaley, August 15, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Baird G. Whaley, Donner Lab Administrator, was interviewed by representatives of US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE). The purpose of the interview was to capture the remembrances of Mr. Whaley concerning what he could relate on activities at the Donner Lab that pertain to the OHRE responsibilities. Following a brief biographical sketch, Mr. Whaley relates his experiences in administration at the LAB including funding activities, staffing concerns, intralaboraory politics, and remembrances of John Lawrence, John Gofman, Cornelius Tobias, Jim Born, Alex Margolis, B.V.A. Low- Beer, and Ed Alpen. Further patient care procedures for Donner Clinic Research Programs were discussed.

  19. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Dr. Nadine Foreman, M.D., August 19, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    Dr. Nadine Foreman was interviewed by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE). Dr. Foreman was selected for interview because of the position she held at the University of California, San Francisco. Following a brief biographical sketch, Dr. Foreman describes her work with Dr. Mayo Soley using I-131 in treatment of hyperthyroidism, selection criteria for patients in the radioiodine project, work with Dr. Earl Miller, work at Highland Hospital, radioiodine treatment of diffuse toxic goiter (myxedema), the radiophosphorus and radioiodine programs with Dr. Bert Low-Beer, and treatment of polycythemia vera.

  20. The Evolution of Technology in the Deep Space Network: A History of the Advanced Systems Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layland, J. W.; Rauch, L. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) of 1995 might be described as the evolutionary result of 45 years of deep space communication and navigation, together with the synergistic activities of radio science and radar and radio astronomy. But the evolution of the DSN did not just happen - it was carefully planned and created. The evolution of the DSN has been an ongoing engineering activity, and engineering is a process of problem solving under constraints, one of which is technology. In turn, technology is the knowledge base providing the capability and experience for practical application of various areas of science, when needed. The best engineering solutions result from optimization under the fewest constraints, and if technology needs are well anticipated (ready when needed), then the most effective engineering solution is possible. Throughout the history of the DSN it has been the goal and function of DSN advanced technology development (designated the DSN Advanced Systems Program from 1963 through 1994) to supply the technology needs of the DSN when needed, and thus to minimize this constraint on DSN engineering. Technology often takes considerable time to develop, and when that happens, it is important to have anticipated engineering needs; at times, this anticipation has been by as much as 15 years. Also, on a number of occasions, mission malfunctions or emergencies have resulted in unplanned needs for technology that has, in fact, been available from the reservoir of advanced technology provided by the DSN Advanced Systems Program. Sometimes, even DSN engineering personnel fail to realize that the organization of JPL permits an overlap of DSN advanced technology activities with subsequent engineering activities. This can result in the flow of advanced technology into DSN engineering in a natural and sometimes almost unnoticed way. In the following pages, we will explore some of the many contributions of the DSN Advanced Systems Program that were provided to DSN

  1. Effectiveness of simple balancing training program in elderly patients with history of frequent falls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuptniratsaikul V

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Vilai Kuptniratsaikul1, Rungnirand Praditsuwan2, Prasert Assantachai3, Teerada Ploypetch1, Suthipol Udompunturak4, Julaporn Pooliam41Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, 2Department of Medicine, 3Department of Preventive Medicine, 4Office for Research and Development, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, ThailandObjective: To study the effectiveness of simply-performed balancing exercises in fall prevention.Design: Pre- and post-trial.Setting: University hospital from January 2009 to May 2010.Participants: Elderly with falls in the previous year.Intervention: Simple balancing exercise was performed at home every day and was recorded in the booklet.Measurements: New falling events and a battery of balancing abilities including the Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT, chair stand, functional reach, and Berg balance scale-short form were evaluated at baseline, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month periods. Fear of falling and quality of life scores were assessed at baseline and 12-month periods.Results: 146 subjects were recruited, 116 female (79.5% with a mean age of 67.1 years. At the end of the study, 49% of participants had not fallen. All of the balancing abilities were compared between frequent and infrequent fallers and were significantly improved (P < 0.001 except for functional reach in the frequent fall group. Most subjects (72%–79% complied well with the exercise program. However, compliance had no effect on balancing abilities. About 36.4% of participants had adverse events from exercise, of which knee pain was the top ranked. The quality of life and the fall efficacy scores increased significantly at the end of the study. Factors affecting falling were compliance with exercise (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.55, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.04, 6.30 and a history of falling ≥3 times in the previous year (adjusted OR: 3.76, 95% CI: 1.18, 11.98.Conclusion: Performing simply-designed balancing exercises, at least 3 days per week, can increase

  2. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of physiologist Nello Pace, Ph.D., August 16, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    Dr. Nello Pace was interviewed by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE). Dr. Pace was selected fro the interview because of the positions he held with the US Navy, at the University of California, Berkeley, and as Director of the White Mountain Research Station near Bishop, California. Following a brief biographical sketch, Dr. Pace related his remembrances concerning tritium injections experiments in animals and humans during World War II, the development of Medical Physics Degree Programs at UC Berkeley, conducting the first radiation survey at Nagasaki after the bomb, and the establishment of a research laboratory at White Mountain. He also offers reflections on Shields Warren and comments on the public's attitudes towards radiation both then and now

  3. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of biochemist John Randolph Totter, Ph.D., January 23, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This document is a transcript of an interview of Dr. John Randolph Tottler by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Tottler was selected for this interview because of his career with the Atomic Energy Commission Division of Biology and Medicine (DBM), particularly as its director from 1967 to 1972. After a short biographical sketch Dr. Tottler discusses his remembrances on a wide range topics including nucleic acid and leukemia research at Oak Ridge, AEC biochemistry training in South America, DBM's research focus on radiation effects, early leadership of DBM, relations with the US Public Health Service, controversies on low-level radiation, iodine from fallout, on John Gofman, and Project Plowshare, funding for AEC Research Programs and for international research, testicular irradiation of prisoners in Washington State and Oregon, Plutonium injections, ethics of government radiation research, and opinions of public misperceptions about radiation and cancer

  4. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Oncologist Helen Vodopick, M.D., December 28, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This report is a transcript of an interview with Dr. Helen Vodopick by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Vodopick was chosen for this interview because of her involvement with the Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies (ORINS) and Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) experimental cancer-therapy program involving total-body irradiation. After a short biographical sketch Dr. Vodopick relates her remembrances of the Medium-Exposure-Rate Total Body Irradiator (METBI), ORINS radioisotope tracer studies, treatment of cancer patients with the METBI, radiation treatment for leukemia patients, bone marrow treatment of leukemia, the Low-Exposure-Rate Total Body Irradiation (LETBI), treatment of radiation accident victims at ORAU, research with radioactive phosphorus and sulfur, and public opinion issues

  5. Does the Texas First Dental Home Program Improve Parental Oral Care Knowledge and Practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Charmaine L; McCann, Ann L; Schneiderman, Emet D

    2017-03-15

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Texas Medicaid First Dental Home (FDH) by comparing the oral health knowledge, practices, and opinions of participating vs. non-participating parents. A 29-question survey (English & Spanish) was developed and administered to 165 parents of children under three years old (FDH=49, Non-FDH=116) who visited qualifying Medicaid clinics in Texas. Mann Whitney U tests showed that FDH parents scored higher on overall knowledge (P=0.001) and practice scores (Pparents responded correctly more often than non-FDH about the recommended amount of toothpaste for toddlers (Pparents knew tap water was a potential source of fluoride (Pparents scored marginally higher about when a child should have the first dental visit (P=0.051). More Non-FDH parents let their child go to sleep with a bottle, sippy cup or pacifier (Pparents by increasing their oral healthcare knowledge and practices. This is the first step towards improving the oral health of children.

  6. Cost-analysis of an oral health outreach program for preschool children in a low socioeconomic multicultural area in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennhall, Inger; Norlund, Anders; Matsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    to a comprehensive oral health outreach project for preschool children conducted in a low-socioeconomic multi-cultural urban area. The outcome was compared with historical controls from the same area with conventional dental care. The cost per minute for the various dental professions was added to the cost......The aim was to calculate the total and the net costs per child included in a 3-year caries preventive program for preschool children and to make estimates of expected lowest and highest costs in a sensitivity analysis. The direct costs for prevention and dental care were applied retrospectively...... of materials, rental facilities and equipment based on accounting data. The cost for fillings was extracted from a specified per diem list. Overhead costs were assumed to correspond to 50% of salaries and all costs were calculated as net present value per participating child in the program and expressed...

  7. Silent Bias: Challenges, Obstacles, and Strategies for Leadership Development in Academic Medicine-Lessons From Oral Histories of Women Professors at the University of Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingleton, Susan K; Jones, Emily V M; Rosolowski, Tacey A; Zimmerman, Mary K

    2016-08-01

    Despite dramatic increases in female learners and junior faculty, a significant gap remains in female leadership in academic medicine. To assess challenges and obstacles encountered, strategies for academic success, and lessons learned for leadership development, the authors conducted an in-depth study of women full professors. The authors used a qualitative oral history approach, interviewing 87% of the cohort of female full professors at one Midwestern medical school in 2013 using a pretested, open-ended, semistructured interview guide. Interviews were videotaped and the audio recordings transcribed. Content was sorted into categories and key themes identified within each category. Participants described significant challenges: being treated with "silent bias," "being ignored," and being seen as an "other." Coping strategies included downplaying, keeping a distance, employing humor, and using symbols (e.g., white coat) to carefully present themselves. Explanations for success included intelligence, meritocracy, being even-tempered, and carefully constructing femininity. The participants recommended individual skills and actions to prepare for leadership development. Virtually all women could describe an individual mentor (sponsor), usually male, who provided essential assistance for their career success. At the same time, they stressed the importance of institutional support for diversity, especially with child care. Attaining "full professor" status is the pinnacle of academic success. Women who successfully navigated this academic ladder describe significant external and internal challenges that require multiple strategies to overcome. Leadership development entails a combination of individual support through mentors and sponsors, self-education and reflection, and organizational structural support to promote diversity.

  8. Guidelines for Evaluating Auditory-Oral Programs for Children Who Are Hearing Impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc., Washington, DC.

    These guidelines are intended to assist parents in evaluating educational programs for children who are hearing impaired, where a program's stated intention is promoting the child's optimal use of spoken language as a mode of everyday communication and learning. The guidelines are applicable to programs where spoken language is the sole mode or…

  9. Programs and Practices: Students' Historical Understandings in International Baccalaureate, Advanced Placement and Regular World History Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryter, Di

    2015-01-01

    World history has become increasingly important and has often been a required course for high school students in the United States. This multi-case study provides examples and descriptions of students' demonstration of historical understandings. It also includes multiple perspectives and experiences of world history students and teachers, and…

  10. Discrepancies between Patients' Preferences and Educational Programs on Oral Anticoagulant Therapy: A Survey in Community Pharmacies and Hospital Consultations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Macquart de Terline

    Full Text Available Oral anticoagulation therapy is increasingly used for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic complications in various clinical situations. Nowadays, education programs for patients treated with anticoagulants constitute an integrated component of their management. However, such programs are usually based on the healthcare providers' perceptions of what patients should know, rather than on patients' preferences.To investigate patients' viewpoints on educational needs and preferred modalities of information delivery.We conducted an observational study based on a self-administered questionnaire. To explore several profiles of patients, the study was designed for enrolling patients in two settings: during outpatient consultations in a cardiology department (Saint Antoine Hospital, Paris, France and in community pharmacies throughout France.Of the 371 patients who completed the questionnaire, 187 (50.4% were recruited during an outpatient consultation and 184 (49.6% were recruited in community pharmacies. 84.1% of patients were receiving a vitamin K antagonist and 15.6% a direct oral anticoagulant. Patients ranked 16 of 21 (76.2% questionnaire items on information about their treatment as important or essential; information on adverse effects of treatment was the highest ranked domain (mean score 2.38, 95% CI 2.30-2.46. Pharmacists (1.69, 1.58-1.80, nurses (1.05, 0.95-1.16, and patient associations (0.36, 0.29-0.44, along with group sessions (0.85, 0.75-0.95, the internet (0.77, 0.67-0.88, and delivery of material at the patient's home (1.26, 1.14-1.38, were ranked poorly in terms of delivering educational material.This study revealed substantial discrepancies between patient preferences and current educational programs. These findings should be useful for tailoring future educational programs that are better adapted to patients, with a potential associated enhancement of their effectiveness.

  11. The early childhood oral health program: a qualitative study of the perceptions of child and family health nurses in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Maxine; Ajwani, Shilpi; Johnson, Maree; Nash, Linda; Patterson, Tiffany; George, Ajesh

    2016-05-16

    Early childhood caries affects nearly half the population of Australian children aged 5 years and has the potential to negatively impact their growth and development. To address this issue, an Early Childhood Oral Health (ECOH) program, facilitated by Child and Family Health Nurses (CFHNs), commenced in 2007 in New South Wales, Australia. This study builds on the previous evaluation of the program. It aims to explore the perceptions of CFHNs regarding the implementation of the ECOH program in South Western Sydney and the challenges and barriers related to its sustainability. A descriptive qualitative design was used in this study. Two focus groups were conducted with 22 CFHNs who were sampled from two Community Health Centres in South Western Sydney, Australia. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was undertaken. Most CFHNs acknowledged the importance of early childhood oral health promotion and were providing education, oral assessments and referrals during child health checks. Many stressed the need for collaboration with other health professionals to help broaden the scope of the program. Some barriers to implementing the program included confusion regarding the correct referral process, limited feedback from dental services and the lack of oral health awareness among parents. The study findings suggest that the ECOH program is being sustained and effectively implemented into practice by CFHNs. Improvement in the referral and feedback process as well as enhancing parental knowledge of the importance of infant and child oral health could further strengthen the effectiveness of the program. Expanding oral health education opportunities into general practice is advocated, while regular on-line training for CFHNs is preferred. Future research should include strategies to reduce non-attendances, and an assessment of the impact on the prevalence of childhood caries of the ECOH program.

  12. Effect of an oral health education program based on the use of quantitative light-induced fluorescence technology in Uzbekistan adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudanov, Bakhtinur; Jung, Hoi In; Kahharova, Dono; Lee, Jeong-Woo; Hamidov, Ilhom; Lee, Eun-Song; Kim, Baek-Il

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether an oral health education program using a Qscan device based on quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) technology could improve the oral hygiene status and oral health literacy of adolescents. One hundred adolescents aged 14-16 years attending a school in Tashkent city were included in this study. The participants were assigned to the following two groups using permuted block randomization technique: (i) control group (traditional learning) and (ii) experimental group (Qscan device-based learning). The participants included in the experimental group received additional education and training on dental plaque removal using the Qscan device. The accumulated levels of plaque were assessed in all participants, who also completed questionnaires about their oral health status, oral health knowledge, attitude, and behavior during an 8-week period. There were statistically significant improvements in the experimental group compared to the control group in the plaque index (0.46 vs 0.07, p education program based on the use of QLF technology could be useful for improving the oral hygiene status and oral health literacy of adolescents in Uzbekistan. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Une epreuve orale de francais en fin d'etudes de gestion. Construction et implications pedagogiques (An Oral French Exam at the End of a Marketing Program. Construction and Pedagogical Implications).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Robert H.

    1984-01-01

    An oral language test administered at the end of a four-year program combining business administration and French is described. The test consists of the formal presentation of a report including numbers, graphics, and text, a discussion of a theoretical issue, and interview. (MSE)

  14. Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program summary report compilation. Volume 2-A: Resource description, program history, wells tested, university and company based research, site restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, C.J.; Maciasz, G.; Harder, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy established a geopressured-geothermal energy program in the mid 1970`s as one response to America`s need to develop alternate energy resources in view of the increasing dependence on imported fossil fuel energy. This program continued for 17 years and approximately two hundred million dollars were expended for various types of research and well testing to thoroughly investigate this alternative energy source. This volume describes the following studies: Geopressured-geothermal resource description; Resource origin and sediment type; Gulf Coast resource extent; Resource estimates; Project history; Authorizing legislation; Program objectives; Perceived constraints; Program activities and structure; Well testing; Program management; Program cost summary; Funding history; Resource characterization; Wells of opportunity; Edna Delcambre No. 1 well; Edna Delcambre well recompletion; Fairfax Foster Sutter No. 2 well; Beulah Simon No. 2 well; P.E. Girouard No. 1 well; Prairie Canal No. 1 well; Crown Zellerbach No. 2 well; Alice C. Plantation No. 2 well; Tenneco Fee N No. 1 well; Pauline Kraft No. 1 well; Saldana well No. 2; G.M. Koelemay well No. 1; Willis Hulin No. 1 well; Investigations of other wells of opportunity; Clovis A. Kennedy No. 1 well; Watkins-Miller No. 1 well; Lucien J. Richard et al No. 1 well; and the C and K-Frank A. Godchaux, III, well No. 1.

  15. Supervised toothbrushing and oral health education program in Kuwait for children and young adults with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyama, Maddi; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha A; Honkala, Sisko; Honkala, Eino

    2003-01-01

    The authors report on the effectiveness of a school-based, supervised toothbrushing program among a group of 112 children with Down syndrome in Kuwait. The study involved 45 boys and 67 girls, who ranged in age from 11-22 years (mean, 14.8 years). The participants had moderate mental retardation and attended one of two special needs schools. Plaque was scored according to the Silness and Löe plaque index and gingivitis according to the Löe and Silness gingival index. Supervised toothbrushing and dental health education sessions were conducted twice a week. The program was evaluated at the end of three months. The mean plaque score decreased from 1.93 to 0.95 (p < 0.001), and the mean gingival score from 2.00 to 0.83 (p < 0.001). This three-month supervised toothbrushing program was effective in reducing plaque and gingivitis scores, but the key to long-term success of the program is sustaining the children's motivation to make oral hygiene a part of their daily life.

  16. Lasting effect of an oral hygiene care program for patients with stroke during in-hospital rehabilitation: a randomized single-center clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Kyong; Park, Eun Young; Sa Gong, Jung-Whan; Jang, Sung-Ho; Choi, Youn-Hee; Lee, Hee-Kyung

    2017-11-01

    Because the oral hygiene is poorly prioritized in the immediate post-stroke period, we implemented an oral hygiene care program (OHCP) for stroke in-patients and evaluated its persistence after discharge. In all, 62 patients with stroke who were admitted to the rehabilitation ward were randomly assigned to two groups: 33 patients to the intervention group and 29 to the control group. The OHCP, including tooth brushing education and professional tooth cleaning, was administered to the intervention group twice a week six times during in-hospital rehabilitation. Oral health status was examined both at baseline and three months after discharge from the hospital. Oral hygiene status was examined at three- to four-day intervals five times during the hospitalization period. After OHCP, oral hygiene status including the plaque index, calculus index, and O'Leary plaque index improved significantly in the intervention group, compared to the control group (p < 0.05). In the intervention group, after administration of the OHCP for the fourth time, the O'Leary index improved significantly, and remained high when checked three months after discharge (p < 0.001). An OHCP conducted during in-hospital rehabilitation was effective in improving oral health and plaque control performance among patients with stroke, with effects still seen three months after discharge from the hospital. Implications for Rehabilitation Initial oral hygiene status and plaque control performance were poor in stroke patients who were in rehabilitation center. An oral hygiene care program during in-hospital rehabilitation was effective in improving oral hygiene status and plaque control performance among stroke patients at three months after discharge. Repeated tooth brushing education and professional tooth cleaning were necessary to improve plaque control performance of stroke patients.

  17. Evaluation of an interprofessional education program for advanced practice nursing and dental students: The oral-systemic health connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Whitney A; Hall, Lynne A; Lee Ridner, S; Hayden, Dedra; Mayfield, Theresa; Firriolo, John; Hupp, Wendy; Weathers, Chandra; Crawford, Timothy N

    2018-03-27

    In response to the growing body of evidence supporting the need for expanded interprofessional education among health professions, an interprofessional education program, based on the Interprofessional Education Collaborative Core Competencies, was piloted with nurse practitioner and dental students. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate a technology enhanced interprofessional education program focused on the oral-systemic health connection for nurse practitioner and dental students. A two-group comparative study using cross-sectional data and a quasi-experimental one-group pre-test/post-test design were used to evaluate students' knowledge of IPE core competencies, attitudes toward interprofessional education and interdisciplinary teamwork, and self-efficacy in functioning as a member of an interdisciplinary team. This program was implemented with master of science in nursing students pursuing a primary care nurse practitioner (NP) degree and dental students at a large urban academic health sciences center. Cohort 1 (N = 75) consisted of NP (n = 34) and dental students (n = 41) at the end of their degree program who participated in a one-time survey. Cohort 2 (N = 116) was comprised of second-year NP students (n = 22) and first-year dental students (n = 94) who participated in the IPE program. Students participated in a multi-faceted educational program consisting of technology- enhanced delivery as well as interactive exercises in the joint health assessment course. Data were collected prior to the initiation and at the conclusion of the program. Nurse practitioner and dental students who participated in the program had better self-efficacy in functioning as a member of an interdisciplinary team than graduating students who did not participate. Students from both nursing and dentistry who participated in the program had significantly improved self-efficacy in functioning in interprofessional teams from pre- to post-test. An

  18. iBEST: a program for burnup history estimation of spent fuels based on ORIGEN-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do Yeon; Hong, Ser Gi; Ahn, Gil Hoon

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a computer program, iBEST (inverse Burnup ESTimator), that we developed to accurately estimate the burnup histories of spent nuclear fuels based on sample measurement data. The burnup history parameters include initial uranium enrichment, burnup, cooling time after discharge from reactor, and reactor type. The program uses algebraic equations derived using the simplified burnup chains of major actinides for initial estimations of burnup and uranium enrichment, and it uses the ORIGEN-S code to correct its initial estimations for improved accuracy. In addition, we newly developed a stable bisection method coupled with ORIGEN-S to correct burnup and enrichment values and implemented it in iBEST in order to fully take advantage of the new capabilities of ORIGEN-S for improving accuracy. The iBEST program was tested using several problems for verification and well-known realistic problems with measurement data from spent fuel samples from the Mihama-3 reactor for validation. The test results show that iBEST accurately estimates the burnup history parameters for the test problems and gives an acceptable level of accuracy for the realistic Mihama-3 problems

  19. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance (HSSR) program of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) 1973-1984. Technical history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) program of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) generated a database of interest to scientists and other professional personnel in the academic, business, industrial, and governmental communities. NURE was a program of the Department of Energy Grand Junction Office (GJO) to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States. The HSSR program provided for the collection of water and sediment samples located on the 1 0 x 2 0 National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) quadrangle grid across the conterminous United States and Alaska and the analysis of these samples for uranium as well as for a number of additional elements. Although the initial purpose of the program was to provide information regarding uranium resources, the information recorded about other elements and general field or site characteristics has made this database potentially valuable for describing the geochemistry of a location and addressing other issues such as water quality. The purpose of this Technical History is to summarize in one report those aspects of the HSSR program that are likely to be important in helping users assess the database and make informed judgements about its application to specific research questions. The history begins with an overview of the NURE Program and its components. Following a general description of the goals, objectives, and key features of the HSSR program, the implementation of the program at each of the four federal laboratories is presented in four separate chapters. These typically cover such topics as sample collection, sample analysis, and data management. 80 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs

  20. Cost-analysis of an oral health outreach program for preschool children in a low socioeconomic multicultural area in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennhall, Inger; Norlund, Anders; Matsson, Lars; Twetman, Svante

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to calculate the total and the net costs per child included in a 3-year caries preventive program for preschool children and to make estimates of expected lowest and highest costs in a sensitivity analysis. The direct costs for prevention and dental care were applied retrospectively to a comprehensive oral health outreach project for preschool children conducted in a low-socioeconomic multi-cultural urban area. The outcome was compared with historical controls from the same area with conventional dental care. The cost per minute for the various dental professions was added to the cost of materials, rental facilities and equipment based on accounting data. The cost for fillings was extracted from a specified per diem list. Overhead costs were assumed to correspond to 50% of salaries and all costs were calculated as net present value per participating child in the program and expressed in Euro. The results revealed an estimated total cost of 310 Euro per included child (net present value) in the 3-year program. Half of the costs were attributed to the first year of the program and the costs of manpower constituted 45% of the total costs. When the total cost was reduced with the cost of conventional care and the revenue of avoided fillings, the net cost was estimated to 30 Euro. A sensitivity analysis displayed that a net gain could be possible with a maximal outcome of the program. In conclusion, the estimated net costs were displayed and available to those considering implementation of a similar population-based preventive program in areas where preschool children are at high caries risk.

  1. Lifestyle Change Plus Dental Care (LCDC) program improves knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) toward oral health and diabetes mellitus among the elderly with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengtipbovorn, Saruta; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

    2015-03-01

    Currently, there is an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus among the elderly. Chronic inflammation from diabetes mellitus effects glycemic control and increases risk of diabetes complications. To assess the effectiveness of a Lifestyle Change plus Dental Care (LCDC) program by improved knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) toward oral health and diabetes mellitus among the elderly with type 2 diabetes. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in two Health Centers (HC 54 intervention and HC 59 control) between October 2013 and April 2014. Sixty-six diabetic patients per health center were recruited. At baseline, the intervention group attended a 20-minute lifestyle and oral health education program, individual lifestyle counseling using motivational interviewing, application of self-regulation manual, and individual oral hygiene instruction. At 3-month follow-up, the intervention group received individual lifestyle counseling and oral hygiene instruction. The intervention group received booster education every visit by viewing a 15-minute educational video. The control group received the routine program. Participants were assessed at baseline, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up for knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) toward oral health and diabetes mellitus. Data was analyzed by using descriptive statistic, Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and repeated measure ANOVA. After the 6-month follow-up, repeated measure ANOVA analysis showed that participants in the intervention group had significantly higher knowledge and attitude toward oral health and diabetes mellitus. The participants in the intervention group were more likely to exercise, modify diet, have foot examinations, always wear covered shoes, participate in self-feet screening, use dental floss, and use inter-proximal brush than the control group with statistically significant differences. The combination of lifestyle change and dental care in one program improved knowledge, attitude

  2. Essentials of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators.

  3. Buckland, Barry oral history interview

    OpenAIRE

    Interviewee: Buckland, Barry; Interviewer: Gootee, Jackie; Principal Investigator: Hall, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    The Columbia Theatre on 530 Columbia St. in New Westminster was built in 1927 as a 900-seat movie theatre. Until the mid-1980s, the building housed a cinema, and was the first cinema in Canada with air conditioning. After being closed for many years, the city of New Westminster sold the building to Barry Buckland in 2011, and he took on the task of restoring the theatre. Buckland is an Ottawa native, but came to New Westminster in 1985. Since then he has has operated a number of businesses. H...

  4. Haynes, Ray oral history interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Interviewee: Haynes, Ray; Interviewer: Walliser, Andrea; Interviewer: Bauder, Ken; Principal Investigator: Hall, Peter V

    2013-01-01

    Ray Haynes is a former president of the BC Federation of Labour. As a young man Haynes worked at Hudson’s Bay Company Wholesale, a division of the Hudson’s Bay Company, where he reported earning a low wage and working in poor conditions. He then worked at Canadian White Pine sawmill where he learned about labour and other social issues from union members who were communist, Leninist, and Trotskyist. He worked at White Pine for only 18 months even though he was earning a high wage. Haynes told...

  5. An Overview and Funding History of Select Department of Justice (DOJ) Grant Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    ...), and the Office of Violence Against Women, provide grant funds to state, local, and tribal governments for crime prevention and intervention programs as well as funding for criminal justice system improvement programs...

  6. The history and use of cancer registry data by public health cancer control programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mary C; Babcock, Frances; Hayes, Nikki S; Mariotto, Angela B; Wong, Faye L; Kohler, Betsy A; Weir, Hannah K

    2017-12-15

    Because cancer registry data provide a census of cancer cases, registry data can be used to: 1) define and monitor cancer incidence at the local, state, and national levels; 2) investigate patterns of cancer treatment; and 3) evaluate the effectiveness of public health efforts to prevent cancer cases and improve cancer survival. The purpose of this article is to provide a broad overview of the history of cancer surveillance programs in the United States, and illustrate the expanding ways in which cancer surveillance data are being made available and contributing to cancer control programs. The article describes the building of the cancer registry infrastructure and the successful coordination of efforts among the 2 federal agencies that support cancer registry programs, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. The major US cancer control programs also are described, including the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program, the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program, and the Colorectal Cancer Control Program. This overview illustrates how cancer registry data can inform public health actions to reduce disparities in cancer outcomes and may be instructional for a variety of cancer control professionals in the United States and in other countries. Cancer 2017;123:4969-76. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. The History and Use of Cancer Registry Data by Public Health Cancer Control Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mary C.; Babcock, Frances; Hayes, Nikki S.; Mariotto, Angela B.; Wong, Faye L.; Kohler, Betsy A.; Weir, Hannah K.

    2018-01-01

    Because cancer registry data provide a census of cancer cases, registry data can be used to: 1) define and monitor cancer incidence at the local, state, and national levels; 2) investigate patterns of cancer treatment; and 3) evaluate the effectiveness of public health efforts to prevent cancer cases and improve cancer survival. The purpose of this article is to provide a broad overview of the history of cancer surveillance programs in the United States, and illustrate the expanding ways in which cancer surveillance data are being made available and contributing to cancer control programs. The article describes the building of the cancer registry infrastructure and the successful coordination of efforts among the 2 federal agencies that support cancer registry programs, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. The major US cancer control programs also are described, including the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program, the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program, and the Colorectal Cancer Control Program. This overview illustrates how cancer registry data can inform public health actions to reduce disparities in cancer outcomes and may be instructional for a variety of cancer control professionals in the United States and in other countries. PMID:29205307

  8. Symptoms of depression and anxiety predict mortality in patients undergoing oral anticoagulation: Results from the thrombEVAL study program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Matthias; Prochaska, Jürgen H; Keller, Karsten; Göbel, Sebastian; Coldewey, Meike; Ullmann, Alexander; Schulz, Andreas; Lamparter, Heidrun; Münzel, Thomas; Reiner, Iris; Beutel, Manfred E; Wild, Philipp S

    2015-01-01

    Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent in cardiovascular patients. Therefore, we examined whether the 4-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4, measuring symptoms of depression and anxiety) predicts all-cause mortality in outpatients with long-term oral anticoagulation (OAC). The sample comprised n=1384 outpatients from a regular medical care setting receiving long-term OAC with vitamin K antagonists. At baseline, symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed with the PHQ-4 and the past medical history was taken. The outcome was all-cause mortality in the 24 month observation period. The median follow-up time was 13.3 months. N=191 patients from n=1384 died (death rate 13.8%). Each point increase in the PHQ-4 score was associated with a 10% increase in mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.10, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.05-1.16) after adjustment for age, sex, high school graduation, partnership, smoking, obesity, frailty according to the Barthel Index, Charlson Comorbidity Index and CHA2DS2-VASc score. The depression component (PHQ-2) increased mortality by 22% and anxiety (GAD-2) by 11% respectively. Neither medical history of any mental disorder, nor intake of antidepressants, anxiolytics or hypnotics predicted excess mortality. Elevated symptoms of depression and, to a lesser degree, symptoms of anxiety are independently associated with all-cause mortality in OAC outpatients. The PHQ-4 questionnaire provides valuable prognostic information. These findings emphasize the need for implementing regular screening procedures and the development and evaluation of appropriate psychosocial treatment approaches for OAC patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Periodontal Health Status and Associated Factors: Findings of a Prenatal Oral Health Program in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Silveira da Mota Krüger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aims of this study were to evaluate the periodontal health of pregnant women and to investigate the association of periodontal status with demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, as well as medical and dental history. Materials and Methods. A total of 311 pregnant women were interviewed to obtain sociodemographic data along with medical and dental histories. Clinical examinations were performed to record the presence of visible plaque, gingival bleeding, and caries activity. The periodontal condition was evaluated by Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN in one tooth of each sextant (16, 11, 26, 36, 31, and 46. Results. After the adjustment analysis, the presence of visible plaque remained the main determinant of gingival bleeding (OR = 2.91, CI = 1.91–4.48. First-trimester pregnancy status was also a predictor, with a lower prevalence of gingival bleeding observed in the second (OR = 0.87, CI = 0.77–0.99 and third (OR = 0.82, CI = 0.73–0.93 trimesters. Conclusion. In pregnant women, the presence of dental plaque and first-trimester pregnancy status were the main implicated factors predicting gingival bleeding.

  10. Seventh Grade Social Studies. A Program in Sociology and American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Patricia; And Others

    GRADES OR AGES: Seventh grade. SUBJECT MATTER: Sociology and American history. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide covers five units: "Biological Basis of Human Behavior,""How We Become Human,""The Family and Other Socializing Institutions,""Man's Behavior in Groups and Crowds," and "Minority Group Problems." The presentation of the…

  11. Building an Evidence-Based Mental Health Program for Children with History of Early Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroupina, Maria; Vermeulen, Marlous; Moberg, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Adoption is a major intervention in a child's life, however internationally adopted (IA) children remain at risk for long-term neurodevelopmental and mental health issues due to the fact that most of them have a history of early adversity prior to their adoption. In the last 20 years, extensive research with this population has increased the…

  12. Analysis of the Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (SGLI) program: history, current issues and future implications

    OpenAIRE

    Callan, Patrick M.; Voogd, Michael; Schmid, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    MBA Professional Report The SGLI program is the military life insurance program overseen by the Veterans' Affairs (VA) but managed and administered by The Prudential Insurance Company of America. Recently, a series of news stories by Bloomberg News reported that the program might not be following the law, and that Prudential was profiting from the deaths of servicemen and women. The primary purpose of this paper was to analyze the news articles for factual content and determine whethe...

  13. Using community participation to assess acceptability of "Contra Caries", a theory-based, promotora-led oral health education program for rural Latino parents: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeft, Kristin S; Rios, Sarah M; Pantoja Guzman, Estela; Barker, Judith C

    2015-09-03

    Latino children experience more prevalent and severe tooth decay than non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black children. Few theory-based, evaluated and culturally appropriate interventions target parents of this vulnerable population. To fill this gap, the Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program, a theory-based, promotora-led education program for low-income, Spanish-speaking parents of children aged 1-5 years, was developed. This article describes qualitative findings of the acceptability of curriculum content and activities, presents the process of refinement of the curriculum through engaging the target population and promotoras, and presents results from the evaluation assessing the acceptability of the curriculum once implemented. Focus groups were conducted with low-income Spanish-speaking parents of children 1-5 years living in a city in an agricultural area of California. Interviews were digitally recorded, translated and transcribed, checked for accuracy and the resulting data was thematically coded and analyzed using a social constructionist approach. The Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program was then implemented with a separate but similar sample, and after completing the program, participants were administered surveys asking about acceptability and favorite activities of the education program. Data were entered into a database, checked for accuracy, open-ended questions were categorized, and responses to close-ended questions counted. Twelve focus groups were conducted (N = 51), 105 parents attended the Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program, and 83 parents filled out surveys. Complete attendance and retention was high (89% and 90%, respectively). This study found that their children's oral health is a high priority. Parents were not only interested in, but actually attended classes focused on increasing their knowledge and skills with respect to early childhood oral health. The Contra Caries content and format was perceived as

  14. Development and Testing of a Junior High School Oral Hygiene Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffa, Joseph; Kugler, John F., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Described is a program to be woven into the curriculum in such a way that it becomes part of the the total education plan. It should be taught in the classroom by the teacher and would thus necessitate inservice education. (Author)

  15. Validation of Linguistic and Communicative Oral Language Tests for Spanish-English Bilingual Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer, Robert L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The development, administration, and scoring of a communicative test and its validation with tests of linguistic and sociolinguistic competence in English and Spanish are reported. Correlation with measures of home language use and school achievement are also presented, and issues of test validation for bilingual programs are discussed. (MSE)

  16. Canadian Innovation: A Brief History of Canada's First Online School Psychology Graduate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drefs, Michelle A.; Schroeder, Meadow; Hiebert, Bryan; Panayotidis, E. Lisa; Winters, Katherine; Kerr, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a brief historical review and survey of the current landscape of online graduate psychology programs within the Canadian context. Specific focus is given to outlining the establishment and evolution of the first Canadian online professional specialization program in school psychology. The article argues that given the virtual…

  17. The Effectiveness of Three Reading Approaches and an Oral Language Stimulation Program with Disadvantaged Children in the Primary Grades: A Follow-Up Report After the Third Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Lloyd M.; Bruininks, Robert H.

    The Cooperative Reading Project was a 2-year study designed to test the effectiveness of three initial reading approaches and an oral language stimulation program with inner-city Southern disadvantaged children. This followup study looked for differences among the treatment groups after pupils had completed their third school year. The 354…

  18. ALARM, a life saving training program for inpatient mental health care staff. Tallinn, Estland (27-30 augustus 2014) : Oral presentation European Symposium on Suicide and Suicidal Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienke Kool

    2014-01-01

    Oral presentation European Symposium on Suicide and Suicidal Behaviour. Titel: ALARM, a life saving training program for inpatient mental health care staff. Tallinn, Estland (27-30 augustus 2014) Introduction Despite precautions, suicide does happen. Sometimes patients are found while attempting

  19. Assessing trainees' oral performance in a Chilean teacher training program: A corpus-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Maritza Fernanda Ortega

    2014-01-01

    The present paper reports the implementation of syllabus innovations in EFL teacher education in Chile after diagnosing a lack of language achievement standards common to all EFL teacher training programs offered in public and private universities alike. The aim of this study is to collect linguistic data in natural and artificial social contexts – EFL trainees’ intermediate status between their native language (Spanish) and the target language (English) – in order to create the first Chilean...

  20. HISTORY OF SCHOOL SUBJECTS: review of research developed in graduate programs in Geography from UNESP (2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Gromoni Shimizu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the preliminary hypothesis that there are few researches that cover themes related to the teaching of Geography in the Graduate Programs at Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP, the present study was developed with the aim of investigating the Master’s program dissertations and PhD’s program theses that address issues on the History of School Subjects in the Postgraduate Programs in Rio Claro and Presidente Prudente. Following a qualitative approach and based on theories developed by Chervel (1990 and Goodson (1990, the authors analysed the summaries of researches defended from 2000 to 2010 with the aim of observing their theme distribution around the research lines of each program, giving priority to the studies which refer to the teaching of Geography, specially those that address the history of school subjects. Com a hipótese preliminar de que há pequeno número de pesquisas que tratam de temáticas relacionadas ao Ensino de Geografia nos Programas de Pós-Graduação em Geografia da Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP, desenvolveu-se o presente trabalho com o objetivo de investigar as Teses de Doutorado e Dissertações de Mestrado que abordam temáticas referentes à História das Disciplinas Escolares nos Programas de Pós-Graduação dos Câmpus de Rio Claro e de Presidente Prudente. Na perspectiva da pesquisa qualitativa, investigação documental de caráter inventariante, e fundamentada no referencial teórico de Chervel (1990 e Goodson (1990, os autores analisaram os resumos dos trabalhos defendidos no período de 2000 a 2010 com o intuito de observar a distribuição temática dos mesmos nas linhas de pesquisa de cada Programa, destacando os trabalhos referentes ao Ensino de Geografia, sobretudo aqueles que tratam da história das disciplinas escolares.

  1. Transition of the Course Programs in the 40 Years History of Hitachi Institute of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Osamu; Katsura, Koyo; Takahashi, Masahiko

    In 2010, the Hitachi Institute of Technology reached the 40th anniversary. In the beginning, the institute stood at the product-out-oriented view point and carried out extensive technical education from basis to advanced technology. After the 1990s, transition of the business environment with the globalization caused that the needs of the engineer education required by the business sections have been transformed. As the result, the changes of needs have been reflected for course program of the institute. Nowadays, in addition to the conventional course programs, the engineer education programs for the business competency and human skill have also been focused.

  2. History of the AFRL/USC DARPA Program on Polynitrogen Chemistry. Volume 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christe, Karl O; Vij, Ashwani

    2004-01-01

    In the course of the High Energy Density Matter (HEDM) Program, which was initiated in 1986 by the Air Force, the potential of polynitrogen compounds for HEDM was recognized by numerous theoretical studies...

  3. Celebrating a history of excellence : the Federal Aviation Administration and Space Education Outreach Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Building on 75 years of experience, the FAAs : aviation and space education outreach : program is earning an A+ for encouraging elementary, : secondary, and even college students to study math, : science, technology, engineering, and a host of : o...

  4. Promoting the APS Chapter Program by sharing its history, best practices, and how-to guide for establishing new chapters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Mari K

    2017-03-01

    Early establishment of physiological societies in Oklahoma and Ohio demonstrated the benefits of networking physiologists and paved the way for establishing the APS Chapter Program. Designed to promote the general objectives of the APS, the Chapter Program was officially launched in 1995, with Ohio being the first recognized chapter. There are 13 active chapters regularly engaged in numerous activities designed to advance physiology education and research. In the hopes that others will recognize the important offerings of state chapters and consider organizing one, the aims for this paper are to 1) share a brief history, 2) provide rationale for chapter initiation, and 3) describe the process involved in establishing a chapter. In light of current changes in American Medical Association and Liaison Committee on Medical Education guidelines, the present time may be critical in promoting chapters, as they play a vital role in sustaining recognition and support for the discipline. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Draft History of the Air Force Capsule Return Program. Sanitized Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    issigned personnel of the new unit. The rapid formation and initiation of training created many problems for the embryo unit. The early histories of the...problems to the Squadron. With the assumption of the full range of administrative duties the Squadron/Group were then in charqe of their own destinies and...called for a 1 December 1958 movement. Therefore#l-.1 ec9mber.-the movement of the 6493 Test Squadron and the embryo 6594th Test Group from Edwards

  6. Impact of a universal school-based violence prevention program on violent delinquency: distinctive benefits for youth with maltreatment histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Claire V; Scott, Katreena; Ellis, Wendy; Wolfe, David A

    2011-06-01

    Child maltreatment constitutes a strong risk factor for violent delinquency in adolescence, with cumulative experiences of maltreatment creating increasingly greater risk. Our previous work demonstrated that a universal school-based violence prevention program could provide a protective impact for youth at risk for violent delinquency due to child maltreatment history. In this study we conducted a follow-up to determine if participation in a school-based violence prevention program in grade 9 continued to provide a buffering effect on engaging in acts of violent delinquency for maltreated youth, 2 years post-intervention. Secondary analyses were conducted using data from a cluster randomized controlled trial of a comprehensive school-based violence prevention program. Students (N=1,722; 52.8% female) from 20 schools participated in 21 75-min lessons in grade 9 health classes. Individual data (i.e., gender, child maltreatment experiences, and violent delinquency in grade 9) and school-level data (i.e., student perception of safety averaged across students in each school) were entered in a multilevel model to predict violent delinquency at the end of grade 11. Individual- and school-level factors predicting violent delinquency in grade 11 replicated previous findings from grade 9: being male, experiencing child maltreatment, being violent in grade 9, and attending a school with a lower perceived sense of safety among the entire student body increased violent delinquency. The cross-level interaction of individual maltreatment history and school-level intervention was also replicated: in non-intervention schools, youth with more maltreatment in their background were increasingly likely to engage in violent delinquency. The strength of this relationship was significantly attenuated in intervention schools. Follow-up findings are consistent with the buffering effect of the prevention program previously found post-intervention for the subsample of youth with maltreatment

  7. Speech-language therapy program for mouth opening in patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrafon, Caroline Somera; Matos, Leandro Luongo; Simões-Zenari, Marcia; Cernea, Claudio Roberto; Nemr, Katia

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Assess the effectiveness of an orofacial myofunctional therapeutic program in patients with oral or oropharyngeal cancer submitted to adjuvant radiotherapy through pre- and post-program comparison of maximum mandibular opening. Methods Prospective study involving five adult patients and five elderly patients postoperatively to oral cavity/oropharynx surgery who were awaiting the beginning of radiotherapy or had undergone fewer than five treatment sessions. The study participants had their maximum jaw opening measured using a sliding caliper at the beginning and end of the program. Two mobility exercises and three mandibular traction exercises were selected and weekly monitored presentially for 10 weeks. Descriptive data and pre- and post-therapy comparative measures were statistically analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. Results Ten patients (two women and eight men) with mean age of 58.4 years, median of 57.0 years, completed the therapeutic program. They presented mean maximum mandibular opening of 31.6 ± 11.7 and 36.4 ± 8.0 mm pre- and post-therapy, respectively (p =0.021). Conclusion The proposed orofacial myofunctional therapeutic program increased the maximum jaw opening of patients referred to adjuvant radiotherapy for oral cavity or oropharynx cancer treatment.

  8. An overview of the history of the US geologic repository program: policies, polities, and the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongnian Jow

    2010-01-01

    The high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuels (SNF) disposal program in the US started in 1950s soon after the Atomic Energy Act was passed by the US Congress. Early on, in 1955, the nuclear experts had recognized the difficulty of waste disposal as the most difficult problem in the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The development and evolution of the HLW/SNF disposal program from 1950s to the current status will be briefly discussed, including the importance of legislation process of Nuclear Waste Policy Act, its Amendments, and their impacts on the development of disposal program in the US. The recent developments of Yucca Mountain project from License Application in 2008 through the DOE's announcement of withdrawing the License Application in January 2010 will also be discussed. (authors)

  9. The History of the Animal Care Program at NASA Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen; Bassett, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Animal Care Program (ACP). Animals have been used early in space exploration to ascertain if it were possible to launch a manned spacecraft. The program is currently involved in many studies that assist in enhancing the scientific knowledge of the effect of space travel. The responsibilities of the ACP are: (1) Organize and supervise animal care operations & activities (research, testing & demonstration). (2) Maintain full accreditation by the International Association for the Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care (AAALAC) (3) Ensure protocol compliance with IACUC recommendations (4) Training astronauts for in-flight animal experiments (5) Maintain accurate & timely records for all animal research testing approved by JSC IACUC (6) Organize IACUC meetings and assist IACUC members (7) Coordinate IACUC review of the Institutional Program for Humane Care and Use of Animals (every 6 mos)

  10. History and Benefits of Engine Level Testing Throughout the Space Shuttle Main Engine Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanHooser, Katherine; Kan, Kenneth; Maddux, Lewis; Runkle, Everett

    2010-01-01

    Rocket engine testing is important throughout a program s life and is essential to the overall success of the program. Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) testing can be divided into three phases: development, certification, and operational. Development tests are conducted on the basic design and are used to develop safe start and shutdown transients and to demonstrate mainstage operation. This phase helps form the foundation of the program, demands navigation of a very steep learning curve, and yields results that shape the final engine design. Certification testing involves multiple engine samples and more aggressive test profiles that explore the boundaries of the engine to vehicle interface requirements. The hardware being tested may have evolved slightly from that in the development phase. Operational testing is conducted with mature hardware and includes acceptance testing of flight assets, resolving anomalies that occur in flight, continuing to expand the performance envelope, and implementing design upgrades. This paper will examine these phases of testing and their importance to the SSME program. Examples of tests conducted in each phase will also be presented.

  11. Fluid history computation methods for reactor safeguards problems using MNODE computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.S.; Savery, C.W.

    1976-10-01

    A method for predicting the pressure-temperature histories of air, water liquid, and vapor flowing in a zoned containment as a result of high energy pipe rupture is described. The computer code, MNODE, has been developed for 12 connected control volumes and 24 inertia flow paths. Predictions by the code are compared with the results of an analytical gas dynamic problem, semiscale blowdown experiments, full scale MARVIKEN test results, Battelle-Frankfurt model PWR containment test data. The MNODE solutions to NRC/AEC subcompartment benchmark problems are also compared with results predicted by other computer codes such as RELAP-3, FLASH-2, CONTEMPT-PS. The analytical consideration is consistent with Section 6.2.1.2 of the Standard Format (Rev. 2) issued by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in September 1975

  12. Oral vocabulary training program for Spanish third-graders with low socio-economic status: A randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Gomes-Koban

    Full Text Available Although the importance of vocabulary training in English speaking countries is well recognized and has been extensively studied, the same is not true for Spanish-few evidence based vocabulary studies for Spanish-speaking children have been reported. Here, two rich oral vocabulary training programs (definition and context, based on literature about vocabulary instruction for English-speaking children, were developed and applied in a sample of 100 Spanish elementary school third-graders recruited from areas of predominantly low socio-economic status (SES. Compared to an alternative read-aloud method which served as the control, both explicit methods were more effective in teaching word meanings when assessed immediately after the intervention. Nevertheless, five months later, only the definition group continued to demonstrate significant vocabulary knowledge gains. The definition method was more effective in specifically teaching children word meanings and, more broadly, in helping children organize and express knowledge of words. We recommend the explicit and rich vocabulary instruction as a means to fostering vocabulary knowledge in low SES children.

  13. Effect of a dedicated oral care program on periodontal status of medically compromised patients at the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute Dental Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Robert; Hebbes, Trudy

    2016-01-01

    Medically compromised patients attending the dental clinic at the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute have considerable gingival inflammation and breath odor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of toothbrushing on the periodontal status of these patients and to determine if there were any additional benefit in combining brushing with an application of an antibiotic rinse. During the first 7 days of the study, the teeth of 11 participants were brushed twice a day by a dental hygienist using a soft-bristle suction toothbrush without toothpaste. Soft interproximal brushes were used to clean interproximal surfaces from the facial aspect. During the second week, facial and interproximal cleaning were repeated in the same patients, but the toothbrush and interproximal brush were dipped in 10-mL of a solution consisting of water and 40 mg/mL of metronidazole with nystatin. Each patient underwent an oral examination and biofilm sampling at baseline, after brushing without toothpaste (week 1), and after brushing with antibiotic solution (week 2). After week 1, tissues improved substantially, and there was a notable change in the biofilm on the teeth. The addition of an antibiotic solution increased healing and resulted in a further decrease in oral biofilm. Medically compromised patients would benefit considerably from a treatment regimen of antibiotic solution to decrease oral infection followed by a daily oral care program of brushing and interdental cleaning to maintain healthy oral tissues.

  14. Principles from history, community psychology and developmental psychology applied to community based programs for deinstitutionalized youth

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Murray

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This article analyses the issues of the deinstitutionalization of youth, and the development of community based services, using some historical data and some of the principles of community psychology. The basic premise is that there is no such thing as a social vacuum. All programs are implemented and function in an elaborate social context. RESUMO: Este artigo analisa as questões referentes à desinstitunalização dos jovens e ao desenvolvimento de serviços ...

  15. History and Outcomes of 50 Years of Physician-Scientist Training in Medical Scientist Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Clifford V; Akabas, Myles H; Andersen, Olaf S

    2017-10-01

    Physician-scientists are needed to continue the great pace of recent biomedical research and translate scientific findings to clinical applications. MD-PhD programs represent one approach to train physician-scientists. MD-PhD training started in the 1950s and expanded greatly with the Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP), launched in 1964 by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) at the National Institutes of Health. MD-PhD training has been influenced by substantial changes in medical education, science, and clinical fields since its inception. In 2014, NIGMS held a 50th Anniversary MSTP Symposium highlighting the program and assessing its outcomes. In 2016, there were over 90 active MD-PhD programs in the United States, of which 45 were MSTP supported, with a total of 988 trainee slots. Over 10,000 students have received MSTP support since 1964. The authors present data for the demographic characteristics and outcomes for 9,683 MSTP trainees from 1975-2014. The integration of MD and PhD training has allowed trainees to develop a rigorous foundation in research in concert with clinical training. MSTP graduates have had relative success in obtaining research grants and have become prominent leaders in many biomedical research fields. Many challenges remain, however, including the need to maintain rigorous scientific components in evolving medical curricula, to enhance research-oriented residency and fellowship opportunities in a widening scope of fields targeted by MSTP graduates, to achieve greater racial diversity and gender balance in the physician-scientist workforce, and to sustain subsequent research activities of physician-scientists.

  16. Anatomy and history of an external quality assessment program for interpretative comments in clinical biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasikaran, Samuel D

    2015-05-01

    The provision of clinical interpretation of results, either verbally or in the printed report, may be considered an integral part of clinical biochemistry diagnostic service. Proficiency testing or external quality assessment (EQA) of such activity may be useful in education, training, continuing professional development and ensuring the quality of such service. Details of the Patient Report Comments Program (RPCProgram) developed by the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia (RCPA) Chemical Pathology Quality Assurance Programs Pty Ltd (QAP) is described in this review. The program is aimed at pathologists, clinical scientists and trainees. Registered participants are provided a report with case details and a set of clinical biochemistry results at monthly intervals and submit an interpretative comment for the report. Comments received are broken up into components that are translated into common key phrases. An expert panel evaluates the key phrases, classifies them according to appropriateness and drafts a suggested comment, a case summary and a rationale, which are included in a summary report returned to participants. There is considerable diversity in the quality of interpretative comments received from participants of the PRCProgram. The primary purpose of EQA of interpretative commenting is educational self-assessment, and they are recognized as a continuing professional development activity. Whilst there is some evidence for the utility of interpretative comments in improving patient outcomes, evidence for the utility of EQA in improving quality of comments is awaited. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [History of training and certification programs of medical specialists in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein Alva, Zuño

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, historical reference is made about legal provisions for recognition of the training and certification of medical specialists in Peru through university programs provided since 1928 and culminating in 1973 with the legal authorization by the relevant state authority to implement the Second Specialization Program in Human Medicine and to grant the Certification of Specialist in the Name of the Nation upon completion of a university residency program and specialized training by the “regular modality”, and the recognition by the university with the “non-regular modality”. In Peru it has been established to the present that the Professional Certifications of Specialists in Human Medicine “in the Name of the Nation”, both in “regular modality” as well as in “non-regular modality”, can only be granted by public or private universities authorized for this mission and, besides, no other public or private institution can claim this role that corresponds exclusively for the Peruvian University.

  18. Sustainability of ARV provision in developing countries: challenging a framework based on program history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Botelho Azeredo

    Full Text Available Abstract The provision of ARVs is central to HIV/AIDS programs, because of its impact on the course of the disease and on quality of life. Although first-line treatments costs have declined, treatment-associated expenses are steeper each year. Sustainability is therefore an important variable for the success of treatment programs. A conceptual framework on sustainability of ARV provision was developed, followed by data collection instruments. The pilot study was undertaken in Brazil. Bolivia, Peru and Mozambique, were visited. Key informants were identified and interviewed. Investigation of sustainability related to ARV provision involved implementation and routinization events of provision schemes. Evidence of greater sustainability potential was observed in Peru, where provision is implemented and routinized by the National HIV/AIDS program and expenditures met by the government. In Mozambique, provision is dependent on donations and external aid, but the country displays a great effort to incorporate ARV provision and care in routine healthcare activities. Bolivia, in addition to external dependence on financing and management of drug supply, presents problems regarding implementation and routinization. The conceptual framework was useful in recognizing events that influence sustainable ARV provision in these countries.

  19. Programming of left hand exploits task set but that of right hand depends on recent history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rixin; Zhu, Hong

    2017-07-01

    There are many differences between the left hand and the right hand. But it is not clear if there is a difference in programming between left hand and right hand when the hands perform the same movement. In current study, we carried out two experiments to investigate whether the programming of two hands was equivalent or they exploited different strategies. In the first experiment, participants were required to use one hand to grasp an object with visual feedback or to point to the center of one object without visual feedback on alternate trials, or to grasp an object without visual feedback and to point the center of one object with visual feedback on alternating trials. They then performed the tasks with the other hand. The result was that previous pointing task affected current grasping when it was performed by the left hand, but not the right hand. In experiment 2, we studied if the programming of the left (or right) hand would be affected by the pointing task performed on the previous trial not only by the same hand, but also by the right (or left) hand. Participants pointed and grasped the objects alternately with two hands. The result was similar with Experiment 1, i.e., left-hand grasping was affected by right-hand pointing, whereas right-hand grasping was immune from the interference from left hand. Taken together, the results suggest that when open- and closed-loop trials are interleaved, motor programming of grasping with the right hand was affected by the nature of the online feedback on the previous trial only if it was a grasping trial, suggesting that the trial-to-trial transfer depends on sensorimotor memory and not on task set. In contrast, motor programming of grasping with the left hand can use information about the nature of the online feedback on the previous trial to specify the parameters of the movement, even when the type of movement that occurred was quite different (i.e., pointing) and was performed with the right hand. This suggests that

  20. Assessment of Oral Communication Competencies at Johnson & Wales University. A Pilot Program Assessing Culinary Arts and Pastry Arts Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Joanne Marciano

    The Oral Communication Competencies Assessment Project was designed to determine student communication competency across the curriculum, transferring skills taught in the communication skills class to authentic classroom performances. The 505 students who were required to make oral presentations across the curriculum during the first term of the…

  1. Need for Oral Health Policy in India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    implementation of National Oral Health Policy in India in order to expand the oral health care to ... Professional dental organizations can also support government programs to .... who can play effective role in providing oral health care services.

  2. Empowerment and Social Support: Implications for Practice and Programming among Minority Women with Substance Abuse and Criminal Justice Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Alexandra; Hunter, Bronwyn A.; Salina, Doreen; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Programs for women with substance abuse and criminal justice histories often incorporate empowerment and social support into service delivery systems. Women’s empowerment research has focused on the relationship between women’s personal identities and the larger sociopolitical context, with an emphasis on how community based resources are critical for promoting well-being. Social support often protects against negative outcomes for individuals who live with chronic stress. However, few studies have evaluated community resource knowledge and empowerment among marginalized women or how social support might strengthen or weaken this relationship. This study investigated resource knowledge, social support and empowerment among 200 minority women in substance abuse recovery who had recent criminal justice involvement. Results indicated that resource knowledge was related to empowerment and belonging social support marginally moderated this relationship. In addition, education level increased and current involvement in the criminal justice system decreased empowerment. Implications for research, practice and policy are discussed. PMID:27084362

  3. ResonantSonic drilling: History, progress, and advances in environmental restoration programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moak, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    ResonantSonic drilling is being used in the environmental industry to drill faster, cheaper, and safer than conventional drilling methodologies. The ResonantSonic drilling method requires no mud, air, or water for rapid penetration through geologic materials ranging from rock and clay to sand and boulders. A specialized drill head imparts high frequency vibrations into steel drill pipe and creates a drilling action which allows the retrieval of continuous, undisturbed cores. An added benefit is that the method can be used for angle drilling. The ResonantSonic method has been used in the past for projects ranging from pile driving to horizontal drilling. Current programs utilize the technique as a valuable tool for obtaining in situ, pristine environmental samples. In the future, this drilling technology could be used for remote, automated sampling at hazardous waste sites

  4. ResonantSonic drilling: History, progress and advances in environmental restoration programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, B.W.; McLellan, G.W.; Moak, D.J.; Lerch, R.E.; Thompson, K.M.; Barrow, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    ResonantSonic SM drilling is being used in the environmental industry to drill faster, cheaper, and safer than conventional drilling methodologies. ResonantSonic is a registered service mark of the Water Development Corporation, Woodland, California. The ResonantSonic drilling method, requires no mud, air or water for rapid penetration through geologic materials ranging from rock and clay to sand and boulders. The specialized drill head imparts high frequency vibrations into a steel drill pipe creating a drilling action which allows the retrieval of continuous, undisturbed cores. An added benefit is that the method can be used for angle drilling. The ReasonantSonic method has been used in the past for projects ranging from pile driving to horizontal drilling. Current programs are utilizing the technique as a valuable tool for obtaining in situ, pristine environmental samples. In the future, this drilling technology could be used for remote, automated sampling at hazardous waste sites

  5. Liquen plano en el Programa de Detección Precoz del Cáncer Bucal Lichen planus in the Program for the Early Detection of Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Ducasse Olivera

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El liquen plano es una enfermedad dermatológica de origen desconocido que se manifiesta en la mucosa bucal. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo con los pacientes pesquisados mediante el Programa de Detección Precoz del Cáncer Bucal en el municipio especial Isla de la Juventud, con el objetivo de determinar el comportamiento epidemiológico de esta entidad, distribución según sexo, raza y zona bucal mas afectada, así como establecer la relación entre la aparición de las lesiones en piel y mucosas. Según los resultados, se determinó que el liquen plano oral es más común en hombres de la tercera y sexta décadas, principalmente en mestizos y blancos, la zona más afectada fue el carrillo (42.9 % y las lesiones cutáneas aparecieron solo en 2 casos (9.5 %.Lichen planus is a dermatological disease of unknown origin that manifests itself in the oral mucosa, reason for which we decided to conduct a study on it as part of the Program for the Early Detection of Oral Cancer in the Isle of Youth special municipality with the patients screened in this program aimed at determining the epidemiological behavior of this entity, distribution by sex, race, the most affected oral zone, and the relation between the appearance of injuries in the skin and mucosas. According to the results, it was concluded that the oral lichen planus is more comon in men at the third and sixth decades of life, in mestizoes and white individuals, and that the cheek was the most affected area. The cutaneous lesions appeared only in 2 of the 21 affected cases.

  6. Real Time Wave Forecasting Using Wind Time History and Genetic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Kambekar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The significant wave height and average wave period form an essential input for operational activities in ocean and coastal areas. Such information is important in issuing appropriate warnings to people planning any construction or instillation works in the oceanic environment. Many countries over the world routinely collect wave and wind data through a network of wave rider buoys. The data collecting agencies transmit the resulting information online to their registered users through an internet or a web-based system. Operational wave forecasts in addition to the measured data are also made and supplied online to the users. This paper discusses operational wave forecasting in real time mode at locations where wind rather than wave data are continuously recorded. It is based on the time series modeling and incorporates an artificial intelligence technique of genetic programming. The significant wave height and average wave period values are forecasted over a period of 96 hr in future from the observations of wind speed and directions extending to a similar time scale in the past. Wind measurements made by floating buoys at eight different locations around India over a period varying from 1.5 yr to 9.0 yr were considered. The platform of Matlab and C++ was used to develop a graphical user interface that will extend an internet based user-friendly access of the forecasts to any registered user of the data dissemination authority.

  7. The influence of modifications of a fatigue loading history program on fatigue lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branger, J.

    1972-01-01

    Rectangular specimens of 7075 and 2014 aluminum alloys with two holes (stress concentration factor of 3.24) have been tested under axial fatigue loading on a six-rod test bed with modifications of the loading program, the surface particulars, and the frequency. The length of the precrack stage was investigated by use of a new crack detector. In most cases the two alloys behaved similarly, with similar life to crack start under the same loading. Some overloads lengthened the life. Truncation by omission of the lowest peak loads should be limited to about 20 percent of the ultimate load. Simplifying counting methods gave misleading results. Very thin surface layers of anodizing, protection by vinyl, dry nitrogen atmosphere, as well as stepwise reaming or grinding the surface of the holes, lengthened the life; thick anodized layers shortened the life. Compressing the hole surface by rolling had no influence. Frequencies at about 210 to 240 cpm produced shorter lives than those at 40 cpm. At 5.4 cpm the life was considerably longer. A model to better understand the precrack-stage fatigue mechanism is discussed.

  8. The Wilhelm Wundt Center and the first graduate program for the history and philosophy of psychology in Brazil: A brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Saulo de Freitas; Caropreso, Fátima Siqueira; Simanke, Richard Theisen; Castañon, Gustavo Arja

    2013-08-01

    The expansion of Brazilian universities since 2009 has promoted a general growth and incentive of scientific activities throughout the country, not only in the so-called hard sciences, but also in the human sciences. In this brief report, we announce the creation of two new institutional spaces dedicated to the history and philosophy of psychology at the Federal University of Juiz de Fora (UFJF) in Brazil: the Wilhelm Wundt Center for the History and Philosophy of Psychology (NUHFIP) and the Graduate Program in History and Philosophy of Psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. The Mouse House: A brief history of the ORNL mouse-genetics program, 1947–2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Liane B.

    2013-10-01

    The large mouse genetics program at the Oak Ridge National Lab is often re-membered chiefly for the germ-cell mutation-rate data it generated and their uses in estimating the risk of heritable radiation damage. In fact, it soon became a multi-faceted research effort that, over a period of almost 60 years, generated a wealth of information in the areas of mammalian mutagenesis, basic genetics (later enriched by molecular techniques), cytogenetics, reproductive biology, biochemistry of germ cells, and teratology. Research in the area of germ-cell mutagenesis explored the important physical and biological factors that affect the frequency and nature of induced mutations and made several unexpected discoveries, such as the major importance of the perigametic interval (the zygote stage) for the origin of spontaneous mutations and for the sensitivity to induced genetic change. Of practical value was the discovery that ethylnitrosourea was a supermutagen for point mutations, making high-efficiency mutagenesis in the mouse feasible worldwide. Teratogenesis findings resulted in recommendations still generally accepted in radiological practice. Studies supporting the mutagenesis research added whole bodies of information about mammalian germ-cell development and about molecular targets in germ cells. The early decision to not merely count but propagate genetic variants of all sorts made possible further discoveries, such as the Y-Chromosome s importance in mammalian sex determination and the identification of rare X-autosome translocations, which, in turn, led to the formulation of the single-active-X hypothesis and provided tools for studies of functional mosaicism for autosomal genes, male sterility, and chromosome-pairing mechanism. Extensive genetic and then molecular analyses of large numbers of induced specific-locus mutants resulted in fine-structure physical and correlated functional mapping of significant portions of the mouse genome and constituted a valuable

  10. The Mouse House: a brief history of the ORNL mouse-genetics program, 1947-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Liane B

    2013-01-01

    The large mouse genetics program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is often remembered chiefly for the germ-cell mutation-rate data it generated and their uses in estimating the risk of heritable radiation damage. In fact, it soon became a multi-faceted research effort that, over a period of almost 60 years, generated a wealth of information in the areas of mammalian mutagenesis, basic genetics (later enriched by molecular techniques), cytogenetics, reproductive biology, biochemistry of germ cells, and teratology. Research in the area of germ-cell mutagenesis explored the important physical and biological factors that affect the frequency and nature of induced mutations and made several unexpected discoveries, such as the major importance of the perigametic interval (the zygote stage) for the origin of spontaneous mutations and for the sensitivity to induced genetic change. Of practical value was the discovery that ethylnitrosourea was a supermutagen for point mutations, making high-efficiency mutagenesis in the mouse feasible worldwide. Teratogenesis findings resulted in recommendations still generally accepted in radiological practice. Studies supporting the mutagenesis research added whole bodies of information about mammalian germ-cell development and about molecular targets in germ cells. The early decision to not merely count but propagate genetic variants of all sorts made possible further discoveries, such as the Y-chromosome's importance in mammalian sex determination and the identification of rare X-autosome translocations, which, in turn, led to the formulation of the single-active-X hypothesis and provided tools for studies of functional mosaicism for autosomal genes, male sterility, and chromosome-pairing mechanism. Extensive genetic and then molecular analyses of large numbers of induced specific-locus mutants resulted in fine-structure physical and correlated functional mapping of significant portions of the mouse genome and constituted a

  11. On truth-telling and storytelling: Truth-seeking during research involving communities with an oral culture and a history of violent conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G Vethuizen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to propose some principles and practices for truth-seeking during research into violent conflict. To achieve this aim, an argument is deployed by analysing the theoretical concepts “truth”, “myth” and “oral culture” as sources of knowledge. This conceptual analysis precedes a discussion on community-based participatory research (CBPR as a research methodology to access the knowledge of lived experiences embedded in the oral culture of the San community of Platfontein, near Kimberley, South Africa. It was found that CBPR contains good practices to use in research to judge the probable truth about disputes. The CBPR process is ideal for determining the accuracy of data in the context of a specific culture, considering the norms, spiritual influences and personal considerations of knowledge-holders that accompany a unique cosmology. A variety and equity of worldviews and perspectives of what happened during violent conflict successfully challenges hegemonic power relationships, paradigms and narratives, ultimately leading to informed judgements of what is probably true about a conflict. CBPR with the San of Platfontein revealed principles that can be used as guidelines for researching disputes where oral culture is involved.

  12. The impact of a school based oral hygiene instruction program on the gingival health of middle school children in Riyadh: Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hessa Alwayli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the impact of a school-based oral hygiene instructions program on the gingival health of children in randomly selected middle schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Nine hundred and fourteen children were selected from nine schools that were randomly determined from Riyadh City public schools. After obtaining the parents′ consent, the criteria-guided enrolment of study participants yielded 457 children in the control group and 457 students in the experimental group. The intervention design was 90 days experimental period with an intermediate follow-up visit at 45 days. A calibrated examiner (HW measured the plaque index (PI and the gingival index (GI. The indices were measured at day 1, day 45 and day 90 in both the control and the experimental groups. Results were analyzed with Wilcoxon sign rank test for each index, site, and by sessions for each group to determine if the scores had increased, decreased, or remained the same between intervals. Results: Plaque and gingival scores in the control group showed a steady improvement throughout the experimental period when compared with the baseline scores. Scores in the experimental group were significantly improved at each session between baseline and session 2 (45 days and session 3 (90days respectively. Conclusions: The continued reduction of GI and PI scores at the end of the intervention observed in this pilot study suggest that a school-based oral hygiene measures program can significantly improve oral health among school children in Saudi Arabia.

  13. User's guide for FREG-3: a computer program to analyze pellet-cladding gap conductance in accordance with fuel-rod irradiation history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harayama, Yasuo; Izumi, Fumio; Fujita, Misao; Ishibashi, Akihiro; Otsubo, Naoaki.

    1976-10-01

    The present report describes user's manual for program FREG-3, and provides a general description of the program and instructions of input/output. FREG-3 estimates the temperature distribution in a fuel rod and the stored energy based on the distribution. The temperature distribution is calculated in accordance with fuel-rod irradiation history. Mechanical properties and models in handling specific problems, such as densification and relocation, are optional in the program. The options are to be given by key word. If appropriate options are selected, the program is used not only as a safety evaluation code, but also as a best evaluation code. (auth.)

  14. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...

  15. Adolescent maternity in a low income community: experiences revealed by oral history Maternidad en la adolescencia en una comunidad de bajos ingresos: experiencias a través de historia oral Maternidade na adolescência em uma comunidade de baixa renda: experiências reveladas pela história oral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Akiko Komura Hoga

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent maternity involves relevant factors associated with each family, culture and society. This research aimed to describe the experiences in the trajectory of adolescent maternity. The oral history method was used, obtaining the narratives of 21 adolescent mothers living in a low income community located in São Paulo City, Brazil. The following descriptive categories emerged from the narratives: Pregnancy: an event in the initial phase of the relationship; Insufficient knowledge and access to contraceptives, gender inferiority and God's will: the ways to look at pregnancy; To escape from family problems and define the life course: the personal meanings attributed to pregnancy; More gain than pain: the balance of adolescent maternity. Adolescent maternity in low income contexts involves very complex factors and requires an integral, integrated, personal and family centered care.La maternidad en la adolescencia está relacionada a factores asociados con la familia, cultura y sociedad. El objetivo de esta investigación fue describir experiencias durante la maternidad en la adolescencia. El método de historia oral fue realizado, recolectando las narrativas de 21 madres adolescentes que viven en una comunidad de bajos ingresos, ubicada en la Ciudad de São Paulo, Brasil. Las categorías descriptivas fueron: Embarazo: consecuencia de una fase temprana en la relación; Conocimiento y acceso insuficientes sobre anticonceptivos, inferioridad relacionada al género y el sentir necesidad de Dios: significados personales sobre el embarazo; Escapar de los problemas familiares y definir su vida: los significados personales atribuidos al embarazo; Mayores beneficios que pérdidas: evaluando la maternidad en la adolescencia. La maternidad en la adolescencia en un contexto de pobreza involucra varios factores complejos; necesitando de cuidado integral e integrado, centrada en la persona y familia.A maternidade na adolescência envolve relevantes

  16. Oral health determinants among female addicts in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Jalal Pourhashemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Addiction results in a range of health problems especially in the oral cavity. Aims: This study assessed the oral health status among women with a history of drug abuse in Tehran, Iran. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted through structured interviews and clinical examinations of women at three rehabilitation centers in Tehran. Materials and Methods: Data on background characteristics, addiction history, knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, and oral health indices were collected. Statistical Analysis Used: We used MANOVA test and multiple logistic regression models to analyze the data. Results: We assessed 95 participants aged 37.88 ± 10.65 years. The most commonly reported drugs used prior to treatment were opiates (77.2%. The mean knowledge and attitude score among the patients was 80.83 ± 12.89 (37.5-100. Less than half of the dentate women reported tooth brushing as "rarely or never" (44.2%. Most of them (81.8% had never used dental floss and 76.1% were daily smokers. The mean score of dental caries index (decayed, missed and filled teeth of the participants was 20.2 ± 7.18 and 17 subjects were edentulous (17.9%. Factors such as age, drug type, duration of addiction, time of last dental visit, and frequency of brushing were associated with oral health status among these women. Conclusions: Women with a history of drug abuse in our study suffered from poor oral health. Although they had an acceptable level of knowledge and attitude toward oral health, their oral health, and hygiene was poor. These results call for more attention in designing and implementing oral health programs for addicts.

  17. Oral cancer in Libya and development of regional oral cancer registries: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenNasir, E; El Mistiri, M; McGowan, R; Katz, R V

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this paper are three-fold: (1) to summarize the current epidemiological data on oral cancer in Libya as reported in the published literature and as compared to other national oral cancer rates in the region; (2) to present both the history of the early development, and future goals, of population-based oral cancer tumor registries in Libya as they partner with the more established regional and international population-based cancer tumor registries; and, (3) to offer recommendations that will likely be required in the near future if these nascent, population-based Libyan oral cancer registries are to establish themselves as on-going registries for describing the oral cancer disease patterns and risk factors in Libya as well as for prevention and treatment. This comprehensive literature review revealed that the current baseline incidence of oral cancer in Libya is similar to those of other North Africa countries and China, but is relatively low compared to the United Kingdom, the United States, and India. The recently established Libyan National Cancer Registry Program, initiated in 2007, while envisioning five cooperating regional cancer registries, continues to operate at a relatively suboptimal level. Lack of adequate levels of national funding continue to plague its development…and the accompanying quality of service that could be provided to the Libyan people.

  18. Moderating Effect of Residential History on the Effects of a Fatherhood Program on Parenting Skills Satisfaction among Nonresident African American Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yiqing; De Loney, E Hill; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2018-02-09

    Nonresident African American (AA) fathers sometimes face challenges to achieving satisfaction with their parenting skills, which may inhibit their motivations for parenting. Studies have found that residential history of fathers is associated with parental involvement; however, current fatherhood programs rarely consider the influence of different residential history on fathering. In the current study, we examined whether nonresident AA fathers' residential history with their sons moderated their parenting skills satisfaction after participating in the Fathers and Sons Program. Our results indicated that after controlling for fathers' pretest parenting skills satisfaction, age, education, marital status, employment, and ever lived with their son's mother; there was a moderating effect of residential history on the intervention's effects on posttest parenting skills satisfaction. The regression analyses showed that fathers in the intervention group who had lived with their son increased their parenting skills satisfaction more at posttest compared with fathers who had never lived with their sons. However, fathers in the comparison group who had lived with their sons had lower posttest parenting skills satisfaction. Future fatherhood programs for nonresident AA fathers should develop more nuanced group-specific interventions that consider residential history as a critical factor to enhance their parenting skills satisfaction as a strategy for improving father involvement.

  19. Moderating Effect of Residential History on the Effects of a Fatherhood Program on Parenting Skills Satisfaction among Nonresident African American Fathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqing Qian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonresident African American (AA fathers sometimes face challenges to achieving satisfaction with their parenting skills, which may inhibit their motivations for parenting. Studies have found that residential history of fathers is associated with parental involvement; however, current fatherhood programs rarely consider the influence of different residential history on fathering. In the current study, we examined whether nonresident AA fathers’ residential history with their sons moderated their parenting skills satisfaction after participating in the Fathers and Sons Program. Our results indicated that after controlling for fathers’ pretest parenting skills satisfaction, age, education, marital status, employment, and ever lived with their son’s mother; there was a moderating effect of residential history on the intervention’s effects on posttest parenting skills satisfaction. The regression analyses showed that fathers in the intervention group who had lived with their son increased their parenting skills satisfaction more at posttest compared with fathers who had never lived with their sons. However, fathers in the comparison group who had lived with their sons had lower posttest parenting skills satisfaction. Future fatherhood programs for nonresident AA fathers should develop more nuanced group-specific interventions that consider residential history as a critical factor to enhance their parenting skills satisfaction as a strategy for improving father involvement.

  20. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific ...

  1. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific ...

  2. Efficacy of a short multidisciplinary falls prevention program for elderly persons with osteoporosis and a fall history: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, E.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Groen, B.E.; Duysens, J.E.J.; Eijsbouts, A.; Laan, R.F.J.M.; Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the Nijmegen Falls Prevention Program (NFPP) for persons with osteoporosis and a fall history in a randomized controlled trial. Persons with osteoporosis are at risk for fall-related fractures because of decreased bone strength. A decrease in the number of

  3. 'You find yourself.' Perceptions of nursing students from non-English speaking backgrounds of the effect of an intensive language support program on their oral clinical communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Fran; San Miguel, Caroline; Brown, Di; Kilstoff, Kathleen

    2006-10-01

    Nurses of ethnically diverse backgrounds are essential in providing multicultural populations in western societies with culturally and linguistically competent health care. However, many nurses from non-English speaking backgrounds (NESB) are at high risk of failure in university programs particularly during clinical placements. Few studies investigate the clinical experiences of students from NESB and strategies to support their learning. This study describes perceptions of fifteen undergraduate nursing students from NESB about their first clinical placement in an Australian university program and the effect of a language support program on their oral clinical communication skills. Three categories arose: *Wanting to belong but feeling excluded; *Wanting to learn how to...; and *You find yourself. While many students find clinical placement challenging, it appeared difficult for students in this study as language and cultural adjustments required some modification of their usual ways of thinking and communicating, often without coping strategies available to other students.

  4. Communication outcomes for groups of children using cochlear implants enrolled in auditory-verbal, aural-oral, and bilingual-bicultural early intervention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettman, Shani; Wall, Elizabeth; Constantinescu, Gabriella; Dowell, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The relative impact of early intervention approach on speech perception and language skills was examined in these 3 well-matched groups of children using cochlear implants. Eight children from an auditory verbal intervention program were identified. From a pediatric database, researchers blind to the outcome data, identified 23 children from auditory oral programs and 8 children from bilingual-bicultural programs with the same inclusion criteria and equivalent demographic factors. All child participants were male, had congenital profound hearing loss (pure tone average >80 dBHL), no additional disabilities, were within the normal IQ range, were monolingual English speakers, had no unusual findings on computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging, and received hearing aids and cochlear implants at a similar age and before 4 years of age. Open-set speech perception (consonant-nucleus-consonant [CNC] words and Bamford-Kowal-Bench [BKB] sentences) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) were administered. The mean age at cochlear implant was 1.7 years (range, 0.8-3.9; SD, 0.7), mean test age was 5.4 years (range, 2.5-10.1; SD, 1.7), and mean device experience was 3.7 years (range, 0.7-7.9; SD, 1.8). Results indicate mean CNC scores of 60%, 43%, and 24% and BKB scores of 77%, 77%, and 56% for the auditory-verbal (AV), aural-oral (AO), and bilingual-bicultural (BB) groups, respectively. The mean PPVT delay was 13, 19, and 26 months for AV, AO, and BB groups, respectively. Despite equivalent child demographic characteristics at the outset of this study, by 3 years postimplant, there were significant differences in AV, AO, and BB groups. Results support consistent emphasis on oral/aural input to achieve optimum spoken communication outcomes for children using cochlear implants.

  5. Effectiveness and cost effectiveness of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis in a portfolio of prevention programs for injection drug users in mixed HIV epidemics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina S Alistar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis with oral antiretroviral treatment (oral PrEP for HIV-uninfected injection drug users (IDUs is potentially useful in controlling HIV epidemics with a significant injection drug use component. We estimated the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of strategies for using oral PrEP in various combinations with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT and antiretroviral treatment (ART in Ukraine, a representative case for mixed HIV epidemics. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a dynamic compartmental model of the HIV epidemic in a population of non-IDUs, IDUs who inject opiates, and IDUs in MMT, adding an oral PrEP program (tenofovir/emtricitabine, 49% susceptibility reduction for uninfected IDUs. We analyzed intervention portfolios consisting of oral PrEP (25% or 50% of uninfected IDUs, MMT (25% of IDUs, and ART (80% of all eligible patients. We measured health care costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs, HIV prevalence, HIV infections averted, and incremental cost effectiveness. A combination of PrEP for 50% of IDUs and MMT lowered HIV prevalence the most in both IDUs and the general population. ART combined with MMT and PrEP (50% access averted the most infections (14,267. For a PrEP cost of $950, the most cost-effective strategy was MMT, at $520/QALY gained versus no intervention. The next most cost-effective strategy consisted of MMT and ART, costing $1,000/QALY gained compared to MMT alone. Further adding PrEP (25% access was also cost effective by World Health Organization standards, at $1,700/QALY gained. PrEP alone became as cost effective as MMT at a cost of $650, and cost saving at $370 or less. CONCLUSIONS: Oral PrEP for IDUs can be part of an effective and cost-effective strategy to control HIV in regions where injection drug use is a significant driver of the epidemic. Where budgets are limited, focusing on MMT and ART access should be the priority, unless PrEP has low cost.

  6. Effectiveness and Cost Effectiveness of Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis in a Portfolio of Prevention Programs for Injection Drug Users in Mixed HIV Epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alistar, Sabina S.; Owens, Douglas K.; Brandeau, Margaret L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pre-exposure prophylaxis with oral antiretroviral treatment (oral PrEP) for HIV-uninfected injection drug users (IDUs) is potentially useful in controlling HIV epidemics with a significant injection drug use component. We estimated the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of strategies for using oral PrEP in various combinations with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Ukraine, a representative case for mixed HIV epidemics. Methods and Findings We developed a dynamic compartmental model of the HIV epidemic in a population of non-IDUs, IDUs who inject opiates, and IDUs in MMT, adding an oral PrEP program (tenofovir/emtricitabine, 49% susceptibility reduction) for uninfected IDUs. We analyzed intervention portfolios consisting of oral PrEP (25% or 50% of uninfected IDUs), MMT (25% of IDUs), and ART (80% of all eligible patients). We measured health care costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), HIV prevalence, HIV infections averted, and incremental cost effectiveness. A combination of PrEP for 50% of IDUs and MMT lowered HIV prevalence the most in both IDUs and the general population. ART combined with MMT and PrEP (50% access) averted the most infections (14,267). For a PrEP cost of $950, the most cost-effective strategy was MMT, at $520/QALY gained versus no intervention. The next most cost-effective strategy consisted of MMT and ART, costing $1,000/QALY gained compared to MMT alone. Further adding PrEP (25% access) was also cost effective by World Health Organization standards, at $1,700/QALY gained. PrEP alone became as cost effective as MMT at a cost of $650, and cost saving at $370 or less. Conclusions Oral PrEP for IDUs can be part of an effective and cost-effective strategy to control HIV in regions where injection drug use is a significant driver of the epidemic. Where budgets are limited, focusing on MMT and ART access should be the priority, unless PrEP has low cost. PMID:24489747

  7. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of radiation biologist Marvin Goldman, Ph.D., conducted December 22, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This report provides a transcript of an interview of Dr. Marvin Goldman by representatives of DOE's Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Goldman was chosen for this interview because of his work on bone-seeking radionuclides. After a brief biographical sketch Dr. Goldman related his experiences concerning his training and work at Rochester University, his work at Brookhaven National Laboratory, his participation in the Beagle Studies at University of California at Davis, his work with the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant Accident, his consultation work with Russian authorities on the health and ecological effects in their history, and finally his opinions and recommendations on human radiation research and the environmental cleanup of DOE sites

  8. A retrospective cohort study on the association between periapical abscess, advanced periodontal disease, and the national oral health screening program among Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jung-Eun; Jung, Se-Hwan; Jin, Bo-Hyoung; Lee, Byoung-Jin; Bae, Kwang-Hak

    2013-09-01

    The National Oral Health Screening Program (NOHSP) is a general population-based program in Korea. The objective of this study was to assess the association between participation in the NOHSP and dental visit for periapical abscess (PA) and advanced periodontal disease (APD) among Korean adults. Data were obtained for subjects from the National Health Insurance database. The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study of 9358 randomly selected subjects who were between 40 and 64 years old in 2002. The outcomes of dental visit for PA or APD from the years 2003 to 2007 were compared between the screening and nonscreening groups. The nonscreening group had 19% higher risk of PA and 15% higher risk of APD. This study suggests that the NOHSP may decrease the risk of dental visit because of PA and APD by preventing the progress of lesion to the advanced stage among Korean adults.

  9. Inuit Legends, Oral Histories, Art, and Science in the Collaborative Development of Lessons That Foster Two-Way Learning: The Return of the Sun in Nunavut

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a science unit for Nunavut students and my collaboration with Louise Uyarak, an early years teacher and a graduate of Arctic College's teacher education program. The unit addresses light outcomes in the "Canadian Common Framework of Science Learning Outcomes, K-12". More importantly, it…

  10. Relatos orais de famílias de imigrantes japoneses: elementos para a história da educação brasileira Japanese families oral history: topics for the history of Brazilian education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeila de Brito Fabri Demartini

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo dá continuidade a uma reflexão que vimos realizando há muitos anos sobre a estruturação do campo educacional paulista e as diferentes formas pelas quais a procura pela escolarização tem se configurado para diferentes setores da população rural e urbana no estado de São Paulo. Focalizamos aqui o segmento representado pelas famílias de imigrantes japoneses que vieram para São Paulo a partir de 1908. Apresentamos os resultados obtidos em estudo sobre as famílias de imigrantes japoneses na cidade de São Paulo, sendo que os relatos orais foram a fonte privilegiada que permitiu, de um lado, apreender as visões e vivências educacionais desse grupo, e, de outro, obter informações valiosas sobre a ainda desconhecida rede de escolas "japonesas" criadas por esse grupo na sociedade paulistana.This paper continues a long lasting research that analyses the educational field in São Paulo and the different forms assumed by the need of instruction of different sectors of the rural and urban population. We focus on the segment represented by the Japanese immigrants' families which came to São Paulo from 1908. We present the results obtained by means of oral reports, a privileged source for collecting data. It allowed, on the one hand, to seize the educational representations and practices of these Japanese groups and, on the other hand, to obtain valuable information about the still unknown Japanese school-net created by this group within São Paulo society.

  11. Oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... National Cancer Institute. PDQ lip and oral cavity cancer ... September 25, 2015. www.cancer.gov/types/head-and-neck/hp/lip- ...

  12. Oral Ketamine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral Ketamine: A Four-years Experience in ... Key words: Oral Ketamine, Premedication and Oncology. .... form of a letter published in 19835. .... Acta. Anaesthesiol Scandinavica, 1998; 42: 750-758. 4. Murray P. Substitution of another opioid ...

  13. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of health physicist Carl C. Gamertsfelder, Ph.D., conducted January 19, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, T.; Yuffee, M.

    1995-09-01

    This report is a transcript of an interview of Dr. Carl C. Gamertsfelder by representatives of the DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Gamertsfelder was selected for this interview because of experiences with contractors to the Manhattan Project and to the Atomic Energy Commission. Following a brief biographical sketch, Dr. Gamertsfelder related his remembrances of University of Chicago, of Oak Ridge, and of Hanford during world war II. He also describes his postwar experiences at Hanford, with the Nuclear- Powered Aircraft Program, and with the Apollo Project. Some subjects discussed include the Green Run, radiation accidents, radiation monitoring, Health Physics, and the storage tanks at Hanford

  14. Oral sodium bicarbonate on the nutritional status of patients on chronic dialysis program: A randomized placebo controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Enríquez-Zarama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of oral sodium bicarbonate in improving the nutritional status of patients with chronic renal failure on chronic dialysis therapy (hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Design: Randomized double blind placebo clinical trial. Setting: RTS Renal Units of Popayan, Colombia. Patients and Methods: 162 patients on chronic dialysis (hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis were randomized to either placebo or bicarbonate. Patients received oral sodium bicarbonate, 1.0 g three times daily or placebo. Both groups received treatment for a 4-month period. Results: The study groups were comparable at the beginning of the study (study baseline and no significant differences were observed in any baseline parameters. At 4 months, the levels of albumin and Subjective Global Assessment (SGA improved with bicarbonate (p = 0.000, the malnutrition inflammation score and the score of malnutrition in dialysis with bicarbonate decreased significantly (p = 0.000. The PCR remained unchanged in both groups (p = 0,306. An increase of 20% or more from baseline serum albumin was observed in 6 (7.41% patients who received bicarbonate and 1 (1.23% of those receiving placebo (p = 0.02. At baseline albumin levels

  15. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of cell biologist Don Francis Petersen, Ph.D., conducted November 29, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This report is a transcript of an interview of Dr. Don Francis Petersen by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Petersen was selected for this interview because of his long research career at Los Alamos and his knowledge of the Atomic Energy Commission's biomedical program. Dr. Petersen did not personally conduct research on human subjects. After a brief biographical sketch Dr. Petersen discusses his remembrances of the early use of radionuclides as biological tracers, aspects of nuclear weapons testing in the 1940's and 1950's including fallout studies, the means by which research projects were approved, use of humans in the whole-body counter, and the Health Division Biomedical responsibilities

  16. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of cell biologist Don Francis Petersen, Ph.D., conducted November 29, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This report is a transcript of an interview of Dr. Don Francis Petersen by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Petersen was selected for this interview because of his long research career at Los Alamos and his knowledge of the Atomic Energy Commission`s biomedical program. Dr. Petersen did not personally conduct research on human subjects. After a brief biographical sketch Dr. Petersen discusses his remembrances of the early use of radionuclides as biological tracers, aspects of nuclear weapons testing in the 1940`s and 1950`s including fallout studies, the means by which research projects were approved, use of humans in the whole-body counter, and the Health Division Biomedical responsibilities.

  17. PLACE OF PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY IN ORGAN-SPARING TREATMENT PROGRAMS FOR SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF THE ORAL MUCOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Polkin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Medical Radiology Research Center Clinic performed photodynamic therapy (PDT in 57 patients with cancer of the oral mucosa in the independent fashion. Pretreatment recurrent tumors were diagnosed in half (50.9 % of the patients. Spectroscopy showed the therapeutic accumulation of the drug, which was 1.8–3 times greater than that in the skin and intact mucosa in the presence of a malignant neoplasm. Complete and partial tumor regression was achieved in 50 (87.7 % and 4 (7 %  patients, respectively; stabilization was seen in 3 (5.3 % patients. Three-year overall survival was 86.7 ± 5.2 % and three-year relapse-free survival was 70.5 ± 7.1 %. PDT has an organ-saving directionality, without causing functional and cosmetic impairments, thus showing its rather high effectiveness.

  18. First European interlaboratory comparison of tetracycline and age determination with red fox teeth following oral rabies vaccination programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robardet, Emmanuelle; Demerson, Jean-Michel; Andrieu, Sabrina; Cliquet, Florence

    2012-10-01

    The first European interlaboratory comparison of tetracycline and age determination with red fox (Vulpes vulpes) tooth samples was organized by the European Union Reference Laboratory for rabies. Performance and procedures implemented by member states were compared. These techniques are widely used to monitor bait uptake in European oral rabies vaccination campaigns. A panel of five red fox half-mandibles comprising one weak positive juvenile sample, two positive adult samples, one negative juvenile sample, and one negative adult sample were sent, along with a technical questionnaire, to 12 laboratories participating on a voluntary basis. The results of only three laboratories (25%) were 100% correct. False-negative results were more frequently seen in weak positive juvenile samples (58%) but were infrequent in positive adult samples (4%), probably due to differences in the ease of reading the two groups of teeth. Four laboratories (44%) had correct results for age determination on all samples. Ages were incorrectly identified in both adult and juvenile samples, with 11 and 17% of discordant results, respectively. Analysis of the technical questionnaires in parallel with test results suggested that all laboratories cutting mandible sections between the canine and first premolar obtained false results. All the laboratories using longitudinal rather than transverse sections and those not using a mounting medium also produced false results. Section thickness appeared to affect the results; no mistakes were found in laboratories using sections <150 μm thick. Factors having a potential impact on the success of laboratories were discussed, and recommendations proposed. Such interlaboratory trials underline the importance of using standardized procedures for biomarker detection in oral rabies vaccination campaigns. Several changes can be made to improve analysis quality and increase the comparability of bait uptake frequencies among member states.

  19. Prevention of urinary tract infection in six spinal cord-injured pregnant women who gave birth to seven children under a weekly oral cyclic antibiotic program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Jérôme; Schnitzler, Alexis; Ville, Yves; Laffont, Isabelle; Perronne, Christian; Denys, Pierre; Bernard, Louis

    2009-05-01

    Pregnancies in spinal cord-injured (SCI) patients present unique clinical challenges. Because of the neurogenic bladder and the use of intermittent catheterization, chronic bacteriuria and recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) is common. During pregnancy the prevalence of UTI increases dramatically. Recurrent UTI requires multiple courses of antibiotics and increases the risks of abortion, prematurity, and low birth weight. A weekly oral cyclic antibiotic (WOCA) program was recently described for the prevention of UTI in SCI patients. To test the impact of WOCA in six SCI pregnant women (four paraplegic, two tetraplegic). This was a prospective observational study. WOCA consists of the alternate administration of one of two antibiotics once per week. We observed a significant reduction of UTI (6 UTI/patient/year before pregnancy to 0.4 during pregnancy and under WOCA; pUTI prophylaxis in SCI pregnant women.

  20. A comprehensive postpartum follow-up health care program for women with history of preeclampsia: protocol for a mixed methods research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamravamanesh, Mastaneh; Kohan, Shahnaz; Rezavand, Negin; Farajzadegan, Ziba

    2018-05-18

    Long-term postpartum follow-up is of great importance since women with preeclampsia history are at high risk of upcoming health complications. However, postpartum follow-up rates are poor. According to evidences, preeclampsia is not just a transient health problem; rather it causes short term and long term complications, which affect women's life for years after delivery. Although it seems the problem is solved by the end of pregnancy, the follow-up of subjects should not be stopped after delivery. Postpartum is the best possible time to provide necessary care to these women who are at the risk of future complications. Due to importance of well-designed follow-up plan for women suffering preeclampsia, this study will carry out to provide a postpartum follow-up health care program for subjected women. This study is a qualitative-quantitative mixed sequencing exploratory study that consists of three consecutive phases. In this study, following a qualitative approach, the researcher will explain the needs and strategies related to promoting the health of women with preeclampsia history in the postpartum period. By entering the second phase, the researcher will design a comprehensive follow-up health care program in the postpartum period in which, in addition to using the qualitative study results, related papers and texts will be also used. The proposed program is designed by a panel of experts based on prioritization guidelines. Finally, after passing different stages of program finalizing, its effectiveness on the lifestyle of women with preeclampsia history will be investigated in a semi-experimental study in the third phase of the study. It is expected conducting a mixed method study to design and execute an interventional program to follow up women with preeclampsia history improve their health status and well-being, while reducing their health care costs through prevention in various levels within the current structure of health care services. If this program is

  1. Research in Oral History of the Chinese Anti-Japanese War Since the 21st century%21世纪以来中国抗战口述史研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪葛春

    2015-01-01

    21世纪以来,中国抗战口述史研究取得了不少进步,主要体现在综合性研究、南京大屠杀研究、日本掠夺中国劳工研究、日本侵华教育研究、日军细菌战研究、慰安妇问题研究、反映中国军民抗战斗争、生活的研究等方面。同时,相关研究仍要解决史料的凭信问题,增强学术交流,丰富研究内容。%Since the 21st century, research in oral history of the Chinese Anti-Japanese War has made great progress, mainly embedded in the comprehensive research, the Nanjing massacre, Japanese plundering Chinese la-borers, the Japan's enslaving education in China , the Japanese germ warfare , comfort women , China's military and civilian struggle and lives in the war.Meanwhile, research still have to solve the historical authenticity, en-hance academic exchanges, enrich contents of study.

  2. [Neurocognitive Performance in Euthymic Bipolar I Patients With and Without History of Psychosis From a Multimodal Intervention Program: PRISMA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Marcela; Palacio, Juan David; Vargas, Cristian; Díaz-Zuluaga, Ana María; Agudelo Berruecos, Yuli; Ospina, Sigifredo; López-Jaramillo, Carlos

    Patients with bipolar disorder type I (BDI) have an increased prevalence of psychotic symptoms, and these have been associated with higher cognitive impairment; however the issue has not been settled with the available evidence. To determine if the history of psychotic symptoms in a Colombian sample with BDI is associated with greater cognitive impairment. A case-control study was performed that included patients with BDI from the l PRISMA study. Of the 203 eligible subjects, 123 participants were included; 71 had a history of psychosis, and 52 did not. Cognitive function was characterised by neuropsychological tests that assessed intellectual coefficient, attention, executive function, verbal fluency, auditory and visual memory, and spatial location. No differences were found in most of the neuropsychological test results between the groups after adjusting for age, education, sex, duration of the disease, number of episodes, and use of benzodiazepines; however, there was differences in semantic FAS (P=.01), with a better performance in the group with a prior history of psychosis. The results suggest that there are no significant differences in the cognitive performance between patients with BDI in euthymic stage, with and without history of psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Oral complications in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl, W.

    1983-01-01

    Ionizing radiation used in treating the head and neck area produces oral side effects such as mucositis, salivary changes, trismus and radiation caries. Sequelae of cancer chemotherapy often include oral stomatitis, myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Infections of dental origin in compromised patients are potentially lethal. Specific programs to eliminate dental pathology before radiation and chemotherapy, and to maintain oral hygiene during and after therapy, will minimize these complications

  4. Introduction of sequential inactivated polio vaccine-oral polio vaccine schedule for routine infant immunization in Brazil's National Immunization Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Carla Magda Allan S; de Fátima Pereira, Sirlene; Cunha Marreiros, Ana Carolina; Menezes, Nair; Flannery, Brendan

    2014-11-01

    In August 2012, the Brazilian Ministry of Health introduced inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) as part of sequential polio vaccination schedule for all infants beginning their primary vaccination series. The revised childhood immunization schedule included 2 doses of IPV at 2 and 4 months of age followed by 2 doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV) at 6 and 15 months of age. One annual national polio immunization day was maintained to provide OPV to all children aged 6 to 59 months. The decision to introduce IPV was based on preventing rare cases of vaccine-associated paralytic polio, financially sustaining IPV introduction, ensuring equitable access to IPV, and preparing for future OPV cessation following global eradication. Introducing IPV during a national multivaccination campaign led to rapid uptake, despite challenges with local vaccine supply due to high wastage rates. Continuous monitoring is required to achieve high coverage with the sequential polio vaccine schedule. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. The Effect of Using a Program Based on Cooperative Learning Strategy on Developing some Oral Communication Skills of Students, at English Department, Faculty of Education, Sana'a University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuheer, Khaled Mohsen Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of study is to investigate the effective of using a cooperative learning strategy STAD-based program on developing some oral communication skills of second level students, English Department, Faculty of Education, Sana'a University. Based on literature review, related studies and a panel of jury members' point of view, a list of 5 oral…

  6. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THREE READING APPROACHES AND AN ORAL LANGUAGE STIMULATION PROGRAM WITH DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN IN THE PRIMARY GRADES--AN INTERIM REPORT AFTER ONE YEAR OF THE COOPERATIVE READING PROJECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DUNN, LLOYD M.; AND OTHERS

    THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THREE APPROACHES TO TEACHING BEGINNING READING AND THE INFLUENCE OF AN ORAL LANGUAGE STIMULATION PROGRAM ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN IS REPORTED IN THE FIRST-YEAR REPORT OF A 2-YEAR INTERVENTION STUDY. SUBJECTS WERE 608 FIRST-GRADE PUPILS FROM 12 ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS IN AN INNER-CITY AREA. THE THREE EXPERIMENTAL…

  7. Effect on 12-week Intensive Dietary and Exercise Program on Weight Reduction and Maintenance in Obese Women with Weight Cycling History

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Ha Nui; Nam, Sang-Seok; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effect of 12-week intensive dietary and exercise intervention program on body composition and stress-related hormones in obese women and to examine the residual effect after the intervention. The participants of this study were 30 obese women who had a body mass index of over 25 kg/m2 and over 30% in body fat. They were classified into 2 groups depending on the history of weight cycling (WC); the WC group (? ?5% of the original body weight) and the non-weight cycling (...

  8. Reducing the burden of diarrhea among children under five years old: lessons learned from oral rehydration therapy corner program implementation in Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charyeva, Zulfiya; Cannon, Molly; Oguntunde, Olugbenga; Garba, Aminu Magashi; Sambisa, William; Bassi, Amos Paul; Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Danladi, Saba'atu Elizabeth; Lawal, Nurudeen

    2015-05-01

    In Nigeria, diarrhea remains one of the leading causes of death among children under five years old. Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) corners were introduced to health facilities in Bauchi and Sokoto states to serve as points of treatment for sick children and equip caregivers with necessary skills in case management of diarrhea and diarrhea prevention. The operations research study examined the effect of facility-based ORT corners on caregivers' knowledge and skills in management of simple and moderate diarrhea at home, as well as caregivers' and service providers' perceived facilitators and barriers to utilization and delivering of ORT corner services. It also examined whether ORT activities were conducted according to the established protocols. This quantitative study relied on multiple sources of information to provide a complete picture of the current status of ORT corner services, namely surveys with ORT corner providers (N = 21), health facility providers (N = 23) and caregivers (N = 229), as well as a review of service statistics and health facility observations. Frequency distribution and binary analysis were conducted. The study revealed that ORT corner users were more knowledgeable in diarrhea prevention and management and demonstrated better skills for managing diarrhea at home than ORT corner non-users. However, the percentage of knowledgeable ORT users is not optimal, and providers need to continue to work toward improving such knowledge. ORT corner providers identified a lack of supplies as the major barrier for providing services. Furthermore, the study revealed a lack of information, education and communication materials, supportive supervision, and protocols and guidelines for delivering ORT corner services, as well as inadequate documentation of services provided at ORT corners. Recommendations for ORT corners program planners and implementers include ensuring all ORT corners have oral rehydration salt (ORS) packages and salt, sugar

  9. Management in oral health in the line of maternal child care: Analysis of Program ‘Sorria Bombeirinho’ Dental Polyclinic of the Fire Brigade of the Federal District, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Nascimento SILVA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Oral health can not be separated from general health and directly influences the quality of life and self-esteem of the individual. Preventive programs accompanying children from birth are fundamental to the development of a healthy dentition without caries or other sequelae due to para- functional habits. Moreover, it is very important that the manager understands the user’s view in relation to the health service, so that it feels safe and welcomed. This study aimed to examine the program of maternal and child dental care Dental Polyclinic line in the Fire Brigade of the Federal District (PODON - CBMDF. Thus, we evaluated the perception of those responsible for children 0-2 years attending the first phase of the program in the period 2011-2013 and oral health conditions thereof. This research was exploratory, using a quantitative approach, the applied nature, where there was a field study, occurring in 2 steps: a questionnaire to managers and analysis of medical records of patients. Microsoft Excel 2007 software was used for statistical analysis. After tabulation and interpretation thereof, a report was made, and the same was delivered to program management. The questionnaire to parents identified that they are very satisfied with the actions and services of the program and the institution. The analysis of the records showed that of the 75 children studied, 67 (89 % had oral disease during follow-up. Thus, the program appears to be effective in preventing early childhood caries in early childhood.

  10. Oral Hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Marie Toftdahl; Villadsen, Dorte Buxbom

    The aim of the study was to explore how adults with schizo- phrenia describe their lived experiences with oral hygiene. 23 adults with schizophrenia were interviewed within a period of four months in late 2015. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using the Reflective Lifeworld Research...... health care professionals and adults with schizophrenia in order to improve oral health, well-being and recovery....

  11. Oral Hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Dorte Buxbom; Sørensen, Marie Toftdahl

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore how adults with schizophrenia describe their lived experiences with oral hygiene. 23 adults with schizophrenia were interviewed within a period of four months in late 2015. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using the Reflective Lifeworld Research ph...... health care professionals and adults with schizophrenia in order to improve oral health, well-being and recovery....

  12. El Salvador at War: An Oral History

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    No Strong Basis for Democracy General John R. Galvin-The root causes go back 400 years. First of all, there was never any franchise for the indigenous...and industry, such as it was-mining, and so forth-in the countries. So, a combination of lack of franchise for indigenous peoples and extremely weak...city was not on a war footing. The clubs, the sidewalk cafes in the Zona Rosa, were going full blast. The discos were jumping. There was gasoline. The

  13. Testimonio: Oral Histories Woman to Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RoseAnna Maria Mueller

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This text discusses the genre called "testimonio" and how it has become an important component of the study of Latin America in the American schools. The emphasis falls on three books--Me llamo Rigoberta Menchu' y asi' me nacio' la conciencia, Reyita, and Si me permiten hablar...--and the discussion points out the different experiences each of them illustrates.

  14. Why national eHealth programs need dead philosophers: Wittgensteinian reflections on policymakers' reluctance to learn from history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Russell, Jill; Ashcroft, Richard E; Parsons, Wayne

    2011-12-01

    Policymakers seeking to introduce expensive national eHealth programs would be advised to study lessons from elsewhere. But these lessons are unclear, partly because a paradigm war (controlled experiment versus interpretive case study) is raging. England's $20.6 billion National Programme for Information Technology (NPfIT) ran from 2003 to 2010, but its overall success was limited. Although case study evaluations were published, policymakers appeared to overlook many of their recommendations and persisted with some of the NPfIT's most criticized components and implementation methods. In this reflective analysis, illustrated by a case fragment from the NPfIT, we apply ideas from Ludwig Wittgenstein's postanalytic philosophy to justify the place of the "n of 1" case study and consider why those in charge of national eHealth programs appear reluctant to learn from such studies. National eHealth programs unfold as they do partly because no one fully understands what is going on. They fail when this lack of understanding becomes critical to the programs' mission. Detailed analyses of the fortunes of individual programs, articulated in such a way as to illuminate the contextualized talk and action ("language games") of multiple stakeholders, offer unique and important insights. Such accounts, portrayals rather than models, deliver neither statistical generalization (as with experiments) nor theoretical generalization (as with multisite case comparisons or realist evaluations). But they do provide the facility for heuristic generalization (i.e., to achieve a clearer understanding of what is going on), thereby enabling more productive debate about eHealth programs' complex, interdependent social practices. A national eHealth program is best conceptualized not as a blueprint and implementation plan for a state-of-the-art technical system but as a series of overlapping, conflicting, and mutually misunderstood language games that combine to produce a situation of ambiguity

  15. Betel nut chewing, oral premalignant lesions, and the oral microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Brenda Y; Zhu, Xuemei; Goodman, Marc T; Gatewood, Robert; Mendiola, Paul; Quinata, Katrina; Paulino, Yvette C

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancers are attributed to a number of causal agents including tobacco, alcohol, human papillomavirus (HPV), and areca (betel) nut. Although betel nut chewing has been established as an independent cause of oral cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are poorly understood. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the influence of betel nut chewing on the oral microbiome and oral premalignant lesions. Study participants were recruited from a dental clinic in Guam. Structured interviews and oral examinations were performed. Oral swabbing and saliva samples were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3- V5 region of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene and genotyped for HPV. One hundred twenty-two adults were enrolled including 64 current betel nut chewers, 37 former chewers, and 21 with no history of betel nut use. Oral premalignant lesions, including leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, were observed in 10 chewers. Within-sample bacterial diversity was significantly lower in long-term (≥10 years) chewers vs. never chewers and in current chewers with oral lesions vs. individuals without lesions. Between-sample bacterial diversity based on Unifrac distances significantly differed by chewing status and oral lesion status. Current chewers had significantly elevated levels of Streptococcus infantis and higher and lower levels of distinct taxa of the Actinomyces and Streptococcus genera. Long-term chewers had reduced levels of Parascardovia and Streptococcus. Chewers with oral lesions had significantly elevated levels of Oribacterium, Actinomyces, and Streptococcus, including Streptococcus anginosus. In multivariate analyses, controlling for smoking, oral HPV, S.anginosus, and S. infantis levels, current betel nut chewing remained the only predictor of oral premalignant lesions. Our study provides evidence that betel nut chewing alters the oral bacterial microbiome including that of chewers who develop oral premalignant lesions. Nonetheless, whether microbial changes

  16. Octennial History of the Development and Quality of High-Efficiency Filters for the US Atomic Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, H. [United States Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1968-12-15

    Two facilities are operated for the US atomic energy commission in its program to ensure the uniform quality of commercially manufactured high-efficiency particulate filters. the filter-testing program was started in january 1960 after it was realized that the commercial fire-resistant product incorporated deficiencies of manufacture. the record of testing for quality assurance by the two facilities and an analysis of factors governing the quality of filters are presented. the analysis is complemented with a description of efforts, made in the course of the filter testing, to improve the design of the filter for efficiency and reliability. the fire-resistant (hepa) filter of 1959 was inadequate. the inadequacy of the filter, now judged by reflection, was brought about by the intensive accelerated efforts to replace and preclude, wherever possible in the US atomic energy program, use of filters made of combustible materials. this desire for fire resistance of filters has proliferated widely among other members of the international atomic energy family. the intensive AEC effort caused US industry to produce filters of fire-resistant design but without the opportunity for development of manufacturing technology adequate for ensuring reliability of the filter. the state of the fire-resistant filter today is in sharp contrast to the 1959 filter. the testing program, coupled with a program for continuing improvement of the filter, has resulted in the effective removal of radioactive aerosols at atomic energy installations on a consistent and dependable basis. (author)

  17. A short history of HIV prevention programs for female sex workers in Ghana: lessons learned over 3 decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondergem, Peter; Green, Kimberly; Wambugu, Samuel; Asamoah-Adu, Comfort; Clement, Nana Fosua; Amenyah, Richard; Atuahene, Kyeremeh; Szpir, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) in Ghana have a 10-fold greater risk for acquiring HIV than the general adult population, and they contribute a substantial proportion of the new HIV infections in the country. Although researchers have conducted behavioral and biological surveys, there has been no review of the contextual, programmatic, and epidemiological changes over time. The authors conducted a historical review of HIV prevention programs in Ghana. We reviewed the use of different interventions for HIV prevention among FSWs and data from program monitoring and Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance Surveys. In particular, we looked at changes in service access and coverage, the use of HIV testing and counseling services, and the changing prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. HIV prevention interventions among FSWs increased greatly between 1987 and 2013. Only 72 FSWs were reached in a pilot program in 1987, whereas 40,508 FSWs were reached during a national program in 2013. Annual condom sales and the proportion of FSWs who used HIV testing and counseling services increased significantly, whereas the prevalence of gonorrhea and chlamydia decreased. The representation of FSWs in national HIV strategic plans and guidelines also improved. Ghana offers an important historical example of an evolving HIV prevention program that-despite periods of inactivity-grew in breadth and coverage over time. The prevention of HIV infections among sex workers has gained momentum in recent years through the efforts of the national government and its partners-a trend that is critically important to Ghana's future.

  18. Impact of a Universal School-Based Violence Prevention Program on Violent Delinquency: Distinctive Benefits for Youth with Maltreatment Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Claire V.; Scott, Katreena; Ellis, Wendy; Wolfe, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Child maltreatment constitutes a strong risk factor for violent delinquency in adolescence, with cumulative experiences of maltreatment creating increasingly greater risk. Our previous work demonstrated that a universal school-based violence prevention program could provide a protective impact for youth at risk for violent delinquency…

  19. Computer program for modelling the history of the in-service bending of fast power reactor fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dienstbier, J.

    1979-04-01

    The studies into stresses and deformations in the core are mainly focused on the fuel rod and the fuel assembly can. In high neutron doses austenitic steel swells and this is associated with a considerable increase in the volume of material. The SANDRA computer program is used for solving the problems of can deformations and stress during long-term reactor operation. The block for the mechanical interaction of cans is the key part of the program. The program input data include temperature distribution, fast neutron flux distribution and coolant overpressure inside the cans. Reactor operation is modelled using operating modes A, B, C which may arbitrarily be combined. Mode A computes bending deformations and the deformations of the can cross-section due to temperature dilatation in the change in temperature fields in the reactor; mode B computes deformations due to swelling and creep in long-term operation; mode C computes thermal deformations in reactor shut-down. A flowsheet is shown of program SANDRA as are examples of computed deformations. (M.S.)

  20. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch ... Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Centers for Disease Control ...

  1. Oral leukoplakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The idea of identifying oral lesions with a precancerous nature, i.e. in the sense of pertaining to a pathologic process with an increased risk for future malignant development, of course is to prevent frank malignancy to occur in the affected area. The most common oral lesion with a precancerous...... nature is oral leukoplakia, and for decades it has been discussed how to treat these lesions. Various treatment modalities, such as systemic therapies and surgical removal, have been suggested. The systemic therapies tested so far include retinoids, extracts of green tea, inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2...

  2. Oral mucosa grafts for urethral reconstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reports reveal that split and full thickness skin grafts from the scrotum, penis, extragenital sites (ureter, saphenous .... Table 1: Summary of the history of oral mucosa grafts for urethroplasty .... advised that care should be taken when suturing the.

  3. Impact of a social franchising program on uptake of oral rehydration solution plus zinc for childhood diarrhea in myanmar: a community-level randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Tin; Montagu, Dominic; Su Su Khin, Hnin; Win, Zaw; San, Ang Kyaw; McFarland, Willi

    2014-06-01

    Diarrhea's impact on childhood morbidity can be reduced by administering oral rehydration solution (ORS) with zinc; challenges to wider use are changing health-seeking behavior and ensuring access. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to increase ORS plus zinc uptake in rural Myanmar. Village tracts, matched in 52 pairs, were randomized to standard ORS access vs. a social franchising program training community educators and supplying ORS plus zinc. Intervention and control communities were comparable on demographics, prevalence of diarrhea and previous use of ORS. One year after randomization, ORS plus zinc use was 13.7% in the most recent case of diarrhea in intervention households compared with 1.8% in control households (p franchising increased optimal treatment of childhood diarrhea in rural Myanmar. Scale-up stands to reduce morbidity among children in similar settings. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN73606238. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, S J

    1990-01-01

    In the U.S. oral cancer accounts for 2.1% of all cancers and 1% of cancer deaths. Two to three times as many males as females are affected. Blacks have more intra-oral cancer than whites, and their incidence and mortality rates have increased in recent years. The etiologic process very likely involves several factors. The major etiologic agents are tobacco (all types) and alcoholic beverages. Herpes simplex virus, human papilloma virus, and Candida have been implicated. Host factors include poor state of dentition, nutritional aberrations, cirrhosis of liver, lichen planus, and immunologic impairmant. Cellular changes include amplification of some oncogenes, alterations in antigen expression, production of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and disturbance of keratin and involucrin production. Experimentally, cancer is readily produced on the hamster cheek pouch and rat oral mucosa. Unlike oral cancer in humans, most experimental lesions are exophytic, and they rarely metastasize.

  5. The art of history taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieger, N; Goldblatt, L

    1978-02-01

    The art of history taking involves the ability to recognize the interrelationship between the details of the medical history and the patient's personal history. For the oral surgeon, this provides important insights into how the patient has reacted to illness in the past as well as how he is most likely to react to current treatment. Specific problems have been reviewed as well as suggested interview techniques to guide the oral surgeon in his management of his patient's reactions. No one expects the doctor to be an iconoclast. He cannot be all things to all patients. He should recognize a problem, acknowledge it as a problem, and be flexible enough to deal with it or refer the patient to someone who can. This kind of understanding will enable the oral surgeon to fulfill his role with appreciation from his patients and an inner sense of professional and personal achievement.

  6. Using an imaginary scrapbook for neurolinguistic programming in the aftermath of a clinical depression: a case history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, A; Standidge, K

    1993-04-01

    We employed neurolinguistic programming (NLP) principles to develop a positive self-identity in an elderly male patient in England recovering from clinical depression. This novel technique encouraged recall of intrinsically rewarding past experiences. Each experience was conceptualized in an image and compiled chronologically in an imaginary book, providing continuity to what were chaotic and fragmented recollections during the immediate postdepressive stage. The patient's anxiety and depression were alleviated and his own functional goals largely realized.

  7. Utilizing a Modified Care Coordination Measurement Tool to Capture Value for a Pediatric Outpatient Parenteral and Prolonged Oral Antibiotic Therapy Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Louise E; Farnstrom, Cindi L; Felder, Kimberly K; Guzman-Cottrill, Judith; Rosenberg, Hannah; Antonelli, Richard C

    2017-04-17

    Outpatient parenteral or prolonged oral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) programs reduce inpatient healthcare costs by shifting care to outpatient settings. Care coordination (CC) is a necessary component to successfully transition patients. Our objective was to assess outcomes of provider time spent on nonreimbursable CC activities in a pediatric OPAT program. We used a qualitative feasibility pilot design and modified the Care Coordination Measurement Tool. We captured nonreimbursable CC activity and associated outcome(s) among pediatric patients enrolled in OPAT from March 1 to April 30, 2015 (44 work days) at Doernbecher Children's Hospital. We generated summary statistics for this institutional review board-waived QI project. There were 154 nonreimbursable CC encounters conducted by 2 infectious diseases (ID) providers for 29 patients, ages 17 months-15 years, with complex infections. Total estimated time spent on CC was 54 hours, equivalent to at least 6 workdays. Five patients with complex social issues used 37% of total CC time. Of 129 phone events, 38% involved direct contact with families, pharmacies (13%), primary care providers (13%), and home health nursing (11%). Care coordination prevented 10 emergency room (ER) visits and 2 readmissions. Care coordination led to 16 additional, not previously scheduled subspecialist and 13 primary care visits. The OPAT providers billed for 32 clinic visits during the study period. Nonreimbursable CC work by OPAT providers prevented readmissions and ER visits and helped facilitate appropriate healthcare use. The value of pediatric OPAT involvement in patient care would have been underestimated based on reimbursable ID consultations and clinic visits alone. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Oral sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-05

    The Gay and Lesbian Medical Association urges HIV prevention specialists to regard male-to-male oral-genital sex as a low-risk activity and concentrate instead on the danger of unprotected anal intercourse. According to the association, the confusion and mixed messages surrounding oral sex are harming efforts to encourage gay men to make rational choices about truly risky behavior. The recommendations appear in the association's position paper issued March 19, 1996.

  9. Oral Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decrease the risk of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. Oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer are diseases in ... and treatment of oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer: Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention Lip and Oral ...

  10. Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program summary report compilation. Volume 2-B: Resource description, program history, wells tested, university and company based research, site restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, C.J.; Maciasz, G.; Harder, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy established a geopressured-geothermal energy program in the mid 1970`s as one response to America`s need to develop alternate energy resources in view of the increasing dependence on imported fossil fuel energy. This program continued for 17 years and approximately two hundred million dollars were expended for various types of research and well testing to thoroughly investigate this alternative energy source. This volume describes the following studies: Design well program; LaFourche Crossing; MG-T/DOE Amoco Fee No. 1 (Sweet Lake); Environmental monitoring at Sweet Lake; Air quality; Water quality; Microseismic monitoring; Subsidence; Dow/DOE L.R. Sweezy No. 1 well; Reservoir testing; Environmental monitoring at Parcperdue; Air monitoring; Water runoff; Groundwater; Microseismic events; Subsidence; Environmental consideration at site; Gladys McCall No. 1 well; Test results of Gladys McCall; Hydrocarbons in production gas and brine; Environmental monitoring at the Gladys McCall site; Pleasant Bayou No. 2 well; Pleasant Bayou hybrid power system; Environmental monitoring at Pleasant Bayou; and Plug abandonment and well site restoration of three geopressured-geothermal test sites. 197 figs., 64 tabs.

  11. [Preparation of a "chronological table of main diseases in Japanese history" for pharmacy students of the 6-year program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Jun; Iida, Kotaro

    2005-01-01

    A chronological table of the main diseases that have appeared throughout Japanese history was prepared for pharmacy students, especially for students of clinical pharmacy in the new 6-year system. In ancient times (even in the 8th century), smallpox and measles prevailed in Japan. Japanese people prayed to gods and Buddha to cure the sick. New infectious diseases, like ruebella, pest, typhoid fever, dysentery, cholera, leprosy, etc., prevailed with the increasing exchange of culture from foreign countries. After the vaccines and the toxides were prepared, these infectious diseases were gradually stamped out in Japan early in the Meiji Era. While, public nuisances like the Minamata disease (CH3HgCl), Itaiitai disease (Cd), and atmospheric pollution with sulfurous acid gas, drug-induced suffering (Thalidomide, Sumon, AIDS, etc.) and toxin contaminations in foods have recently increased and produced new diseases. However, these diseases can be prevented if the workers in factories and government officers keep in mind the medical ethics and the ethics for pharmacists to protect the health of people from diseases. Today, cancer, diseases of cerebral vessels, heart diseases, and pneumonia are the four most important causes of death related to aging.

  12. Oral lichen planus to oral lichenoid lesions: Evolution or revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudhia, Bhavin B; Dudhia, Sonal B; Patel, Purv S; Jani, Yesha V

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis between different diseases may be impaired by clinical and histopathologic similarities, as observed in the oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesion (OLL). Inspite of similar clinicopathological features; etiology, diagnosis and prognosis differ which mandates separation of OLL from OLP. Hence, it is essential for the oral physician and oral pathologist to be familiarized with the individual variations among clinicopathological features of OLP and OLL as well as to obtain a thorough history and perform a complete mucocutaneous examination in addition to specific diagnostic testing. The difficulties faced to establish the diagnosis between these two pathologies are widely investigated in the literature with a lack of definite conclusion. This review is an attempt to throw some light on these clinicopathologic entities with the aim to resolve the diagnostic dilemma. PMID:26980966

  13. Investigation of the thermal regime and geologic history of the Cascade volcanic arc: First phase of a program for scientific drilling in the Cascade Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priest, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    A phased, multihole drilling program with associated science is proposed as a means of furthering our understanding of the thermal regime and geologic history of the Cascade Range of Washington, Oregon, and northern California. The information obtained from drilling and ancillary geological and geophysical investigations will contribute to our knowledge in the following general areas: (1) the magnitude of the regional background heat flow of parts of the Quaternary volcanic belt dominated by the most abundant volcanic rock types, basalt and basaltic andesite; (2) the nature of the heat source responsible for the regional heat-flow anomaly; (3) the characteristics of the regional hydrothermal and cold-water circulation; the rates of volcanism for comparison with models for the rate and direction of plate convergence of the Cascades; (5) the history of deformation and volcanism in the volcanic arc that can be related to subduction; (6) the present-day stress regime of the volcanic arc and the relation of these stresses to plate interactions and possible large earthquakes; and the current geometry of the subducted oceanic plate below the Cascade Range and the relationship of the plate to the distribution of heat flow, Quaternary volcanism, and Quaternary deformation. Phase I research will be directed toward a detailed investigation of the Santiam Pass segment. In concert with the Santiam Pass research, a detailed study of the nearby Breitenbush Hot Springs area is also recommended as a component of Phase I. The object of the Breitenbush research is to study one of the hottest known Cascade hydrothermal systems, which coincidentally also has a good geological and geophysical data base. A coordinated program of drilling, sampling, subsurface measurements, and surface surveys will be associated with the drilling of several holes.

  14. Efficacy of a short multidisciplinary falls prevention program for elderly persons with osteoporosis and a fall history: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulders, Ellen; Weerdesteyn, Vivian; Groen, Brenda E; Duysens, Jacques; Eijsbouts, Agnes; Laan, Roland; van Lankveld, Wim

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of the Nijmegen Falls Prevention Program (NFPP) for persons with osteoporosis and a fall history in a randomized controlled trial. Persons with osteoporosis are at risk for fall-related fractures because of decreased bone strength. A decrease in the number of falls therefore is expected to be particularly beneficial for these persons. Randomized controlled trial. Hospital. Persons with osteoporosis and a fall history (N=96; mean ± SD age, 71.0±4.7y; 90 women). After baseline assessment, participants were randomly assigned to the exercise (n=50; participated in the NFPP for persons with osteoporosis [5.5wk]) or control group (n=46; usual care). Primary outcome measure was fall rate, measured by using monthly fall calendars for 1 year. Secondary outcomes were balance confidence (Activity-specific Balance Confidence Scale), quality of life (QOL; Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis), and activity level (LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire, pedometer), assessed posttreatment subsequent to the program and after 1 year of follow-up. The fall rate in the exercise group was 39% lower than for the control group (.72 vs 1.18 falls/person-year; risk ratio, .61; 95% confidence interval, .40-.94). Balance confidence in the exercise group increased by 13.9% (P=.001). No group differences were observed in QOL and activity levels. The NFPP for persons with osteoporosis was effective in decreasing the number of falls and improving balance confidence. Therefore, it is a valuable new tool to improve mobility and independence of persons with osteoporosis. Copyright © 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sandia National Laboratories performance assessment methodology for long-term environmental programs : the history of nuclear waste management.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marietta, Melvin Gary; Anderson, D. Richard; Bonano, Evaristo J.; Meacham, Paul Gregory (Raytheon Ktech, Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is the world leader in the development of the detailed science underpinning the application of a probabilistic risk assessment methodology, referred to in this report as performance assessment (PA), for (1) understanding and forecasting the long-term behavior of a radioactive waste disposal system, (2) estimating the ability of the disposal system and its various components to isolate the waste, (3) developing regulations, (4) implementing programs to estimate the safety that the system can afford to individuals and to the environment, and (5) demonstrating compliance with the attendant regulatory requirements. This report documents the evolution of the SNL PA methodology from inception in the mid-1970s, summarizing major SNL PA applications including: the Subseabed Disposal Project PAs for high-level radioactive waste; the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant PAs for disposal of defense transuranic waste; the Yucca Mountain Project total system PAs for deep geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; PAs for the Greater Confinement Borehole Disposal boreholes at the Nevada National Security Site; and PA evaluations for disposal of high-level wastes and Department of Energy spent nuclear fuels stored at Idaho National Laboratory. In addition, the report summarizes smaller PA programs for long-term cover systems implemented for the Monticello, Utah, mill-tailings repository; a PA for the SNL Mixed Waste Landfill in support of environmental restoration; PA support for radioactive waste management efforts in Egypt, Iraq, and Taiwan; and, most recently, PAs for analysis of alternative high-level radioactive waste disposal strategies including repositories deep borehole disposal and geologic repositories in shale and granite. Finally, this report summarizes the extension of the PA methodology for radioactive waste disposal toward development of an enhanced PA system for carbon sequestration and storage systems

  16. Human rotavirus vaccine is highly efficacious when coadministered with routine expanded program of immunization vaccines including oral poliovirus vaccine in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregnaghi, Miguel W; Abate, Héctor J; Valencia, Alejandra; Lopez, Pio; Da Silveira, Themis Reverbel; Rivera, Luis; Rivera Medina, Doris Maribel; Saez-Llorens, Xavier; Gonzalez Ayala, Silvia Elena; De León, Tirza; Van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Pilar Rubio, Maria Del; Suryakiran, Pemmaraju Venkata; Casellas, Javier M; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; Smolenov, Igor V; Han, Htay-Htay

    2011-06-01

    The efficacy of a rotavirus vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis when coadministered with routine Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) vaccines including oral polio vaccine (OPV) was evaluated in this study. Double-blind, randomized (2:1), placebo-controlled study conducted across 6 Latin American countries. Healthy infants (N = 6568) 6 to 12 weeks of age received 2 doses of RIX4414 vaccine or placebo following a 0, 1- to 2-month schedule. Routine vaccines including OPV were coadministered according to local EPI schedule. Vaccine efficacy (VE) against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by circulating wild-type rotavirus from 2 weeks post-Dose 2 until 1 year of age was calculated with 95% confidence interval [CI]. Safety was assessed during the entire study period. Immunogenicity of RIX4414 and OPV was also assessed. During the efficacy follow-up period (mean duration = 7.4 months), 7 and 19 cases of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis were reported in the vaccine and placebo groups, respectively, with a VE of 81.6% (95% CI: 54.4-93.5). VE against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by G1 type was 100% (95% CI: rotavirus types, respectively. There was no difference (P = 0.514) in the incidence of serious adverse events reported in the 2 groups. Antirotavirus IgA seropositivity rate at 1 to 2 months post-Dose 2 was 61.4% (95% CI: 53.7-68.6) in the RIX4414 group; similar seroprotection rates (≥96.0%) against the 3 antipoliovirus types was observed 1 month post-Dose 3 of OPV in both groups. RIX4414 was highly efficacious against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by the circulating wild-type rotavirus (G1 and non-G1) when coadministered with routine EPI vaccines including OPV.

  17. A program to develop the domestic natural gas industry in Indonesia: Case history of two World Bank projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klass, D.L.; Khwaja, S.

    1991-01-01

    Indonesia depends heavily on revenues from the export of LNG and oil, the availability of which appears to be decreasing. It is therefore making a strong effort to accelerate development of a domestic natural gas industry. A high priority has been given to the conversion of power plants and city gas systems, including local industries and commercial facilities, from liquid fuels to natural gas. This will release more oil for export, help to meet the objectives of Repelita V, and provide substantial environmental benefits. The World Bank recently provided loans to the Indonesian Government for two projects that are aimed at substituting natural gas for oil and manufactured gas in domestic markets. One project involves expansion of the gas distribution systems of Indonesia's natural gas utility (PGN) in three cities: Jakarta and Bogor in Java, and Medan in Sumatra. The project also includes training programs for PGN staff and an energy pricing policy study to be carried out by Indonesia's Ministry of Mines and Energy. The second project involves expansion of the supply of natural gas for Surabaya and twelve other towns in its vicinity in East Java, and further expansion of Medan's supply system. Technical assistance will be provided to enhance the skills ofPGN and the Ministry of Mines and Energy, and a Gas Technology Unit similar to the Institute of Gas Technology will be established at Indonesia's Research and Development Center for Oil and Gas (LEMIGAS) in Jakarta. 14 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs

  18. Oral health awareness, practices and status of patients with diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-five (24.5%) knew that diabetes could worsen oral health condition and only 3 (2.1%) could correctly explain the association between diabetes and oral health conditions. Forty-three (30.1%) had participated in an oral health education program focused on diabetes and oral health. The majority (88.6%) had calculus ...

  19. Oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treville Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency.

  1. Bohmian histories and decoherent histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartle, James B.

    2004-01-01

    The predictions of the Bohmian and the decoherent (or consistent) histories formulations of the quantum mechanics of a closed system are compared for histories--sequences of alternatives at a series of times. For certain kinds of histories, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories may both be formulated in the same mathematical framework within which they can be compared. In that framework, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories represent a given history by different operators. Their predictions for the probabilities of histories of a closed system therefore generally differ. However, in an idealized model of measurement, the predictions of Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories coincide for the probabilities of records of measurement outcomes. The formulations are thus difficult to distinguish experimentally. They may differ in their accounts of the past history of the Universe in quantum cosmology

  2. A program to develop the domestic natural gas industry in Indonesia: Case history of two World Bank projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klass, D.L.; Khwaja, S.

    1992-01-01

    Indonesia depends heavily on revenues from the export of LNG and oil, the availability of which appears to be decreasing. It is therefore making a strong effort to accelerate development of a domestic natural gas industry. A high priority has been given to the conversion of power plants and city gas systems, including local industries and commercial facilities, from liquid fuels to natural gas. This will release more oil for export, help to meet the objectives of Repelita V, and provide substantial environmental benefits. The World Bank recently provided loans to the Indonesian Government for two projects that are aimed at substituting natural gas for oil and manufactured gas in domestic markets. One project involves expansion of the gas distribution systems of Indonesia's natural gas utility (PGN) in three cities: Jakarta and Bogor in Java, and Medan in Sumatra. Approximately 350 new industrial, 800 new commercial, and 12,700 new residential natural gas customers are expected from this project. Incremental gas sales are projected to be about 48.1 million CF/d when the project is completed in 1992. The project also includes training programs for PGN staff and an energy pricing policy study to be carried out by Indonesia's Ministry of Mines and Energy. The second project involves expansion of the supply of natural gas for Surabaya and twelve other towns in its vicinity in East Java, and further expansion of Medan's supply system. The gas for Surabaya will be used for about 400 industrial and 150 commercial customers, and 3,600 households. The additional gas supply for Medan will be used for two power plants operated by the state electric utility, PLN. Incremental natural gas sales from this project are projected to be 68 million CF/d when it is

  3. History Matters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2017-01-01

    In 2002, she began working as alecturer at Minzu University of China.Now, she teaches English, historicalliterature, ancient Chinese history,historical theory and method, ancientsocial history of China, ancient palacepolitical history of China and the historyof the Sui and Tang dynasties and thePeriod of Five Dynasties.

  4. History of the biomedical studies PhD program: a joint graduate program of the Baylor Health Care system and Baylor University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Christine R; Horton, Joshua M; Peng, Han; Xu, Kangling; Batra, Sushil K; Miles, Jonathan P; Kane, Robert R

    2008-10-01

    On a sweltering summer morning, throngs of people filed into Jones Theatre at Baylor University in Waco for the graduate student orientation. One could look around and notice the diversity of not only the student population, but also the disciplines being represented. Many students had stepped off planes only hours prior, but even those who had been traveling for days could not contain their excitement. As for me, I was nowhere near any of this. I was still 40 miles north of Waco in Waxahachie, having been pulled over for speeding. After 4 days of traveling with my life in my Volkswagon Jetta, all the way from San Francisco, on one of the most important days of my life, I was late. When I finally arrived at the Hooper Schafer Fine Arts Auditorium, out of breath from running all the way from the parking structure, all of the graduate students were quietly listening to the first introductory speech. I snuck into the back and sat down. My mind was racing, as I knew very little about Waco and Baylor University except for the growing accomplishments of the biomedical studies program. What little I did know about Baylor seemed so different from my very liberal upbringing in California. What would this experience be like for me? But, as I listened to the talks, met with other students, and finally met the entire biomedical studies entering class of 2007, I knew that I had made the right decision in coming to Baylor. This would be an experience unlike any other, and I was wholeheartedly open to embracing it. -Christine Morel, PhD candidate, Institute of Biomedical Studies.

  5. Oral calcitonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy RC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald C Hamdy,1,2 Dane N Daley11Osteoporosis Center, College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, 2Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Johnson City, TN, USAAbstract: Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through β-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ. Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis failed to

  6. Oral care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Histories electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, Aidan

    2004-01-01

    Working within the HPO (History Projection Operator) Consistent Histories formalism, we follow the work of Savvidou on (scalar) field theory [J. Math. Phys. 43, 3053 (2002)] and that of Savvidou and Anastopoulos on (first-class) constrained systems [Class. Quantum Gravt. 17, 2463 (2000)] to write a histories theory (both classical and quantum) of Electromagnetism. We focus particularly on the foliation-dependence of the histories phase space/Hilbert space and the action thereon of the two Poincare groups that arise in histories field theory. We quantize in the spirit of the Dirac scheme for constrained systems

  8. Oral Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  9. Exploration of the relationship between parent/guardian sociodemographics, intention, and knowledge and the oral health status of their children/wards enrolled in a Central Florida Head Start Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherwax, J A; Bray, K K; Williams, K B; Gadbury-Amyot, C C

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify possible relationships between parent/guardian sociodemographics, intention, knowledge, and the oral health status of their child/ward. Intention includes three factors as defined in the Theory of Planned Behavior: attitudes, subjective norms and perceived control, and oral health status was measured by decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) scores. A convenience sample of parent/guardian with child/ward with age of three to five (n = 181 dyads) enrolled in a Head Start program in the state of Florida participated. A cross-sectional observational study comprised of two components, parent/guardian questionnaire and an oral health status form for recording dmft scores of participating child/ward was employed. Parent/guardian race/ethnicity and years of education were significantly related to dmft of child/ward. The highest rates of severe early childhood caries (ECC) were found in child/ward whose parent/guardian is Hispanic and parent/guardian with less than a high school education. Multivariate regression analysis found that increased education level of parent/guardian was significantly associated with lower dmft in this population. No significant relationship was found between parent/guardian self-reported intention (attitudes, subjective norms and perceived control), knowledge and dmft scores of the child/ward. Researchers have called for greater attention to the impact of parental influences in the aetiology of ECC. Results from this study were consistent with current studies where parent/guardian race/ethnicity and educational level served as predictors of oral health status of children. In this study population, parent/guardian intention and knowledge were not shown to significantly impact the oral health status of their child/ward. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effect on 12-week Intensive Dietary and Exercise Program on Weight Reduction and Maintenance in Obese Women with Weight Cycling History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ha Nui; Nam, Sang-Seok; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the effect of 12-week intensive dietary and exercise intervention program on body composition and stress-related hormones in obese women and to examine the residual effect after the intervention. The participants of this study were 30 obese women who had a body mass index of over 25 kg/m 2 and over 30% in body fat. They were classified into 2 groups depending on the history of weight cycling (WC); the WC group (≥ ±5% of the original body weight) and the non-weight cycling (NWC) group. Both groups were subject to a nutritional intervention program every 2 weeks with a mandatory exercise intervention for 12 weeks. Thereafter, the nutrition/exercise interventions were ceased for 12 weeks, after which the participants' levels of the hormones relating to energy metabolism and stress, meal intakes, dietary habits, level of knowledge on sodium intake, frequency of sodium intake, and quality of life (QOL) were checked. The changes of body weight were 71.3 ± 5.5 kg (week 0) vs. 65.0 ± 6.6 kg (week 12) vs. 65.6 ± 7.1 kg (week 24) in WC group and 71.6 ± 8.6 kg (week 0) vs. 68.8 ± 9.7 kg (week 12) vs. 70.3 ± 9.4 kg (week 24) in the NWC group. The levels of hormones, meal intakes, and QOL scores were better in the WC group, as adherence to the nutritional intervention was higher. We suggest that that adherence to dietary habits heavily influences weight loss and maintenance in individuals who frequently attempt to lose weight and consequently go through a vicious cycle of weight recycling.

  11. Entangled histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotler, Jordan; Wilczek, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We introduce quantum history states and their mathematical framework, thereby reinterpreting and extending the consistent histories approach to quantum theory. Through thought experiments, we demonstrate that our formalism allows us to analyze a quantum version of history in which we reconstruct the past by observations. In particular, we can pass from measurements to inferences about ‘what happened’ in a way that is sensible and free of paradox. Our framework allows for a richer understanding of the temporal structure of quantum theory, and we construct history states that embody peculiar, non-classical correlations in time. (paper)

  12. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  13. Effect of a health education program in the oral health profile of preschool children: an experience in the public network of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Stürmer Badalott

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the effect of health promotion activities developed in a child education school, on the children’s oral health profile, relating oral manifestations to social, sanitary and feeding factors. Methods: Interventional, longitudinal and describing quantitative work, accomplished with 41 preschool children from four to six years old, living in the area assisted by a Family Health Team (Equipe de Saúde da Família-ESF in the city of Porto Alegre-RS. Diagnosis of dental caries and gingivitis was carried out through oral clinical examination at the beginning and at the end of the study. The dietary pattern was obtained by applying a questionnaire and the social-sanitary aspects of the families, from the records of File A in the Basic Health Care Information System (Sistema de Informação da Atenção Básica-SIAB. Results: Caries disease was diagnosed in 58.5% of the children, whose dmft index (total sum of decayed, extracted and filled teeth was 2.43. There was a decrease in the number of decayed teeth and an increase in extracted and filled teeth. The rates of visible plaque and gums bleeding got better. The social-sanitary aspects were standardized in the community, being not representative. The group presenting the highest dmft values followed a diet containing sugars, with viscous consistence and an intake frequency of four or more times a day. Conclusion: The activities of health promotion developed in the school partially changed the children’s oral conditions. There was a positive correlation between consistency, composition and frequency of diet and the presence of caries disease; on the other hand, there was no significant relation between social-sanitary conditions and the presence of oral diseases

  14. Effect of a health education program in the oral health profile of preschool children: an experience in the public network of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Stürmer Badalotti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the effect of health promotion activities developed in a child education school, on the children’s oral health profile, relating oral manifestations to social, sanitary and feeding factors. Methods: Interventional, longitudinal and describing quantitative work, accomplished with 41 preschool children from four to six years old, living in the area assisted by a Family Health Team (Equipe de Saúde da Família-ESF in the city of Porto Alegre-RS. Diagnosis of dental caries and gingivitis was carried out through oral clinical examination at the beginning and at the end of the study. The dietary pattern was obtained by applying a questionnaire and the social-sanitary aspects of the families, from the records of File A in the Basic Health Care Information System (Sistema de Informação da Atenção Básica-SIAB. Results: Caries disease was diagnosed in 58.5% of the children, whose dmft index (total sum of decayed, extracted and filled teeth was 2.43. There was a decrease in the number of decayed teeth and an increase in extracted and filled teeth. The rates of visible plaque and gums bleeding got better. The social-sanitary aspects were standardized in the community, being not representative. The group presenting the highest dmft values followed a diet containing sugars, with viscous consistence and an intake frequency of four or more times a day. Conclusion: The activities of health promotion developed in the school partially changed the children’s oral conditions. There was a positive correlation between consistency, composition and frequency of diet and the presence of caries disease; on the other hand, therewas no significant relation between social sanitary conditions and the presence of oral diseases.

  15. Alaska Dental Health Aide Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoffstall-Cone, Sarah; Williard, Mary

    2013-01-01

    In 1999, An Oral Health Survey of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) Dental Patients found that 79% of 2- to 5-year-olds had a history of tooth decay. The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium in collaboration with Alaska's Tribal Health Organizations (THO) developed a new and diverse dental workforce model to address AI/AN oral health disparities. This paper describes the workforce model and some experience to date of the Dental Health Aide (DHA) Initiative that was introduced under the federally sanctioned Community Health Aide Program in Alaska. These new dental team members work with THO dentists and hygienists to provide education, prevention and basic restorative services in a culturally appropriate manner. The DHA Initiative introduced 4 new dental provider types to Alaska: the Primary Dental Health Aide, the Expanded Function Dental Health Aide, the Dental Health Aide Hygienist and the Dental Health Aide Therapist. The scope of practice between the 4 different DHA providers varies vastly along with the required training and education requirements. DHAs are certified, not licensed, providers. Recertification occurs every 2 years and requires the completion of 24 hours of continuing education and continual competency evaluation. Dental Health Aides provide evidence-based prevention programs and dental care that improve access to oral health care and help address well-documented oral health disparities.

  16. Alaska Dental Health Aide Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Shoffstall-Cone

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 1999, An Oral Health Survey of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN Dental Patients found that 79% of 2- to 5-year-olds had a history of tooth decay. The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium in collaboration with Alaska’s Tribal Health Organizations (THO developed a new and diverse dental workforce model to address AI/AN oral health disparities. Objectives. This paper describes the workforce model and some experience to date of the Dental Health Aide (DHA Initiative that was introduced under the federally sanctioned Community Health Aide Program in Alaska. These new dental team members work with THO dentists and hygienists to provide education, prevention and basic restorative services in a culturally appropriate manner. Results. The DHA Initiative introduced 4 new dental provider types to Alaska: the Primary Dental Health Aide, the Expanded Function Dental Health Aide, the Dental Health Aide Hygienist and the Dental Health Aide Therapist. The scope of practice between the 4 different DHA providers varies vastly along with the required training and education requirements. DHAs are certified, not licensed, providers. Recertification occurs every 2 years and requires the completion of 24 hours of continuing education and continual competency evaluation. Conclusions. Dental Health Aides provide evidence-based prevention programs and dental care that improve access to oral health care and help address well-documented oral health disparities.

  17. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Oral and maxillofacial surgeons surgically treat the soft ... Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Oral and maxillofacial surgeons surgically treat the soft ...

  18. Constructing History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Riber

    2010-01-01

    The Icelandic sagas can be read and interpreted in many ways. This article examines the sagas both as literary expressions of a longstanding oral tradition and as part of a collective and cultural memory. The focus in the first part is on people and places in the sagas as ‘realms of memory’: thin...

  19. Making Invisible Histories Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    This article features Omaha Public Schools' "Making Invisible Histories Visible" program, or MIHV. Omaha's schools have a low failure rate among 8th graders but a high one among high school freshmen. MIHV was created to help at-risk students "adjust to the increased demands of high school." By working alongside teachers and…

  20. What Is World History?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, survey courses in world history have been staples of school programs for almost a century. But no consensus has emerged on the exact goals toward which these courses should be directed. Nor is there agreement on what topics to include or in what order topics should be studied. This article introduces some of the reasons for…

  1. Towards understanding oral health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaura, E.; ten Cate, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term ‘oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain

  2. Predictors for oral cancer in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Isabella Lima Arrais RIBEIRO; Johnys Berton Medeiros da NÓBREGA; Ana Maria Gondim VALENÇA; Ricardo Dias de CASTRO

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The incidence of lip, oral cavity and oropharynx cancer in Brazil is one of the highest worldwide. Objective This study aimed to identify predictors for oral cancer in Brazil between 2010 and 2013. Method Through a time series study in which 14,959 primary head and neck cancer diagnoses were evaluated. The variables of interest were gender, age, race, education level, family history of cancer, alcohol consumption, smoking, and previous cancer diagnosis. The outcome va...

  3. Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  4. Graphite oral tattoo: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Renata Mendonça; Gouvêa Lima, Gabriela de Morais; Guilhermino, Marinaldo; Vieira, Mayana Soares; Carvalho, Yasmin Rodarte; Anbinder, Ana Lia

    2015-10-16

    Pigmented oral lesions compose a large number of pathological entities, including exogenous pigmentat oral tattoos, such as amalgam and graphite tattoos. We report a rare case of a graphite tattoo on the palate of a 62-year-old patient with a history of pencil injury, compare it with amalgam tattoos, and determine the prevalence of oral tattoos in our Oral Pathology Service. We also compare the clinical and histological findings of grafite and amalgam tattoos. Oral tattoos affect women more frequently in the region of the alveolar ridge. Graphite tattoos occur in younger patients when compared with the amalgam type. Histologically, amalgam lesions represent impregnation of the reticular fibers of vessels and nerves with silver, whereas in cases of graphite tattoos, this impregnation is not observed, but it is common to observe a granulomatous inflammatory response, less evident in cases of amalgam tattoos. Both types of lesions require no treatment, but in some cases a biopsy may be done to rule out melanocytic lesions.

  5. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  6. Oral dirofilariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahija Janardhanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis affecting animals can rarely cause infections in human beings through the accidental bite of potential vectors. The resulting infection in man, known as zoonotic filariasis occur worldwide. Human dirofilariasis, the most common zoonotic filariasis, is caused by the filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Dirofilarial worms, which are recognized as pathogenic in man can cause nodular lesions in the lung, subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity or eyes. Oral dirofilariasis is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. We report an interesting case of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens involving buccal mucosa in a patient who presented with a facial swelling. The clinical features, diagnostic issues and treatment aspects are discussed. This paper stresses the importance of considering dirofilariasis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous swelling of the face, especially in areas where it is endemic.

  7. Oral dirofilariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Mahija; Rakesh, S; Savithri, Vindhya

    2014-01-01

    Filariasis affecting animals can rarely cause infections in human beings through the accidental bite of potential vectors. The resulting infection in man, known as zoonotic filariasis occur worldwide. Human dirofilariasis, the most common zoonotic filariasis, is caused by the filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Dirofilarial worms, which are recognized as pathogenic in man can cause nodular lesions in the lung, subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity or eyes. Oral dirofilariasis is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. We report an interesting case of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens involving buccal mucosa in a patient who presented with a facial swelling. The clinical features, diagnostic issues and treatment aspects are discussed. This paper stresses the importance of considering dirofilariasis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous swelling of the face, especially in areas where it is endemic.

  8. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Saini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.

  9. Kilka uwag o narracji biograficznej czeskich strażaków (Społeczeństwo czeskie w okresie tzw. normalizacji i transformacji w świetle oral history)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bortlová, Hana

    -, č. 3 (2013), s. 175-185 ISSN 2084-0578 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP410/11/1352 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : Czechoslovak fire fighters * normalization in Czechoslovakia * occupational storytelling and culture Subject RIV: AB - History

  10. Oral candidiasis in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangtham, M; Magder, L S; Petri, M A

    2014-06-01

    We assessed the frequency of oral candidiasis and the association between demographic variables, disease-related variables, corticosteroid treatment, other treatments and the occurrence of oral candidiasis in the Hopkins Lupus Cohort. In this large prospective cohort study of 2258 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), demographic and clinical associates of oral candidiasis were estimated by univariate, multivariate and within-person regression models. There were 53,548 cohort visits. Oral candidiasis was diagnosed at 675 visits (1.25%) in 325 (14%) of the patients. In the multivariate analyses, oral candidiasis was associated with African-American ethnicity, SELENA-SLEDAI disease activity, high white blood cell count, a history of bacterial infection, prednisone use and immunosuppressive use. The urine protein by urine dip stick was higher in SLE patients with oral candidiasis. Considering only patients who had candidiasis at some visits in a 'within-person' analysis, candidiasis was more frequent in visits with higher SELENA-SLEDAI disease activity, high white blood cell count, proteinuria by urine dip stick, a history of bacterial infection and prednisone use. The use of hydroxychloroquine was associated with a lower risk of oral candidiasis, but was not statistically significant (p = 0.50) in the within-person analysis models. This study identified multiple risk factors for oral candidiasis in SLE. Inspection of the oral cavity for signs of oral candidiasis is recommended especially in SLE patients with active disease, proteinuria, high white blood cell count, taking prednisone, immunosuppressive drugs or antibiotics. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. ORAL MANIFESTATIONS AMONG ROMANIAN HIV PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela ARBUNE

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate the oral health problems on HIV youth patients from Galati. Materials and method. A cross-sectional study assessed 102 patients with mean age 22. The most frequent oral manifestations on HIV infected youth under ART are erythema marginatum, periodontitis, candidosis and hypertrophia gingivalis. Results and discussion. Dental decay-missing-filled index on HIV patients is high. Viral HIV replication, long time pediatric exposure on HIV, male sex, smoking, and oral inflamation are related to dental poor condition. Exodontic therapy is comon among HIV youth. However, persistence of some associated oral infections is related to individual or behavioral risk factors, but also to some newly found mechanisms, such as disfunctional immune reconstruction. Seeing to antiretroviral treatment, the severity and frequency of oral manifestations decreased among HIV patients on antiretroviral treatment. Conclusions. Developing medical, social and educational programs is imperative for improving the oral health of HIV youth of Galati.

  12. Programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies. (orig.)

  13. History of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Awad M

    2002-04-01

    Clinical features similar to diabetes mellitus were described 3000 years ago by the ancient Egyptians. The term "diabetes" was first coined by Araetus of Cappodocia (81-133AD). Later, the word mellitus (honey sweet) was added by Thomas Willis (Britain) in 1675 after rediscovering the sweetness of urine and blood of patients (first noticed by the ancient Indians). It was only in 1776 that Dobson (Britain) firstly confirmed the presence of excess sugar in urine and blood as a cause of their sweetness. In modern time, the history of diabetes coincided with the emergence of experimental medicine. An important milestone in the history of diabetes is the establishment of the role of the liver in glycogenesis, and the concept that diabetes is due to excess glucose production Claude Bernard (France) in 1857. The role of the pancreas in pathogenesis of diabetes was discovered by Mering and Minkowski (Austria) 1889. Later, this discovery constituted the basis of insulin isolation and clinical use by Banting and Best (Canada) in 1921. Trials to prepare an orally administrated hypoglycemic agent ended successfully by first marketing of tolbutamide and carbutamide in 1955. This report will also discuss the history of dietary management and acute and chronic complications of diabetes.

  14. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...... for solutions and policies, is the agenda for an engaged environmental history from now on....

  15. Ildens historier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Henrik Roesgaard

    have been written by Andersen. In several chapters the curiously forgotten history of fire-lighting technology is outlined, and it is demonstrated that "Tællelyset" is written by a person with a modern perspective on how to light a candle - among other things. The central argument in the book springs...... from a point-by-point tracing of 'the origins and history' of Hans Christian Andersen's famous fairy tales. Where did the come from? How did they become the iconic texts that we know today? On this background it becomes quite clear that "Tællelyset" is a modern pastiche and not a genuine Hans Christian...

  16. Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, M A

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, thi...

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the diarrhea alleviation through zinc and oral rehydration therapy (DAZT) program in rural Gujarat India: an application of the net-benefit regression framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillcutt, Samuel D; LeFevre, Amnesty E; Fischer-Walker, Christa L; Taneja, Sunita; Black, Robert E; Mazumder, Sarmila

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of the DAZT program for scaling up treatment of acute child diarrhea in Gujarat India using a net-benefit regression framework. Costs were calculated from societal and caregivers' perspectives and effectiveness was assessed in terms of coverage of zinc and both zinc and Oral Rehydration Salt. Regression models were tested in simple linear regression, with a specified set of covariates, and with a specified set of covariates and interaction terms using linear regression with endogenous treatment effects was used as the reference case. The DAZT program was cost-effective with over 95% certainty above $5.50 and $7.50 per appropriately treated child in the unadjusted and adjusted models respectively, with specifications including interaction terms being cost-effective with 85-97% certainty. Findings from this study should be combined with other evidence when considering decisions to scale up programs such as the DAZT program to promote the use of ORS and zinc to treat child diarrhea.

  18. Optimized oral cholera vaccine distribution strategies to minimize disease incidence: A mixed integer programming model and analysis of a Bangladesh scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Hannah K; Keskinocak, Pinar; Swann, Julie; Hinman, Alan

    2015-11-17

    In addition to improved sanitation, hygiene, and better access to safe water, oral cholera vaccines can help to control the spread of cholera in the short term. However, there is currently no systematic method for determining the best allocation of oral cholera vaccines to minimize disease incidence in a population where the disease is endemic and resources are limited. We present a mathematical model for optimally allocating vaccines in a region under varying levels of demographic and incidence data availability. The model addresses the questions of where, when, and how many doses of vaccines to send. Considering vaccine efficacies (which may vary based on age and the number of years since vaccination), we analyze distribution strategies which allocate vaccines over multiple years. Results indicate that, given appropriate surveillance data, targeting age groups and regions with the highest disease incidence should be the first priority, followed by other groups primarily in order of disease incidence, as this approach is the most life-saving and cost-effective. A lack of detailed incidence data results in distribution strategies which are not cost-effective and can lead to thousands more deaths from the disease. The mathematical model allows for what-if analysis for various vaccine distribution strategies by providing the ability to easily vary parameters such as numbers and sizes of regions and age groups, risk levels, vaccine price, vaccine efficacy, production capacity and budget. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Oral Transmission: A Marriage of Music, Language, Tradition, and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma E. Patterson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of misunderstandings about ancient oral transmission that negatively affect the way musicians view music history but also the process of how music was and currently is conceived, recorded, and shared. A common misconception is that oral transmission of music is an ancient practice that occurred before written notation of music was developed. However, I seek to prove that there is a false dichotomy between oral transmission and written notation and I focus on the changing definition and importance of oral tradition. Firstly, I discuss the misconceptions of ancient oral transmission. Secondly, I examine the continuing development of research and definitions of oral transmission—which is changing our concept of ancient as well contemporary oral traditions. Thirdly, I demonstrate how these traditions are still relevant in present, late modern times. Thoughout this discussion I examine and engage with the pivotal specialists and research that has developed our view of oral tradition through time. To better understand these scholars’ commentary as well as my own, it is important to note the combined concepts of oral and aural tradition. Oral culture refers to what is spoken and sung, and aural culture refers to what is heard and comprehended. Both are necessary for effective transmission to occur, and oral and aural methods are almost always simultaneously present in most societies. When aural culture is discussed here, it refers to the combination of both elements and is closely related to aural tradition. The most notable terms to differentiate are oral transmission and oral tradition. Typically oral transmission refers to the basic action of passing information, in this case music, through oral and aural means. Oral tradition, however, is the more general concept that synthesizes oral transmission, tradition, and culture. Despite misconceptions that music was primitive before composers started documenting it, oral

  20. Business History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that a cultural and narrative perspective can enrich the business history field, encourage new and different questions and answers, and provide new ways of thinking about methods and empirical material. It discusses what culture is and how it relates to narratives. Taking...

  1. LCA History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Molin, Christine

    2018-01-01

    The idea of LCA was conceived in the 1960s when environmental degradation and in particular the limited access to resources started becoming a concern. This chapter gives a brief summary of the history of LCA since then with a focus on the fields of methodological development, application...

  2. Rewriting History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Catherine Clark

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that the telling of vivid stories can help engage elementary students' emotions and increase the chances of fostering an interest in Texas history. Suggests that incorporating elements of the process approach to writing can merge with social studies objectives in creating a curriculum for wisdom. (RS)

  3. Oral Lactobacilli and Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caufield, P.W.; Schön, C.N.; Saraithong, P.; Li, Y.; Argimón, S.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacilli have been associated with dental caries for over a century. Here, we review the pertinent literature along with findings from our own study to formulate a working hypothesis about the natural history and role of lactobacilli. Unlike most indigenous microbes that stably colonize a host, lactobacilli appear to be planktonic, opportunistic settlers that can gather and multiply only in certain restrictive niches of the host, at least within the oral cavity. We postulate that the following essential requirements are necessary for sustained colonization of lactobacilli in humans: 1) a stagnant, retentive niche that is mostly anaerobic; 2) a low pH milieu; and 3) ready access to carbohydrates. Three sites on the human body meet these specifications: caries lesions, the stomach, and the vagina. Only a handful of Lactobacillus species is found in caries lesions, but they are largely absent in caries-free children. Lactobacilli present in caries lesions represent both a major contributor to caries progression and a major reservoir to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We extend the assertion from other investigators that lactobacilli found in the GI tract originate in the oral cavity by proposing that lactobacilli in the oral cavity arise from caries lesions. This, in turn, leads us to reflect on the health implications of the lactobacilli in the mouth and downstream GI and to ponder whether these or any of the Lactobacillus species are truly indigenous to the human GI tract or the oral cavity. PMID:25758458

  4. Introduction of Sequential Inactivated Polio Vaccine–Oral Polio Vaccine Schedule for Routine Infant Immunization in Brazil’s National Immunization Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Carla Magda Allan S.; de Fátima Pereira, Sirlene; Marreiros, Ana Carolina Cunha; Menezes, Nair; Flannery, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    In August 2012, the Brazilian Ministry of Health introduced inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) as part of sequential polio vaccination schedule for all infants beginning their primary vaccination series. The revised childhood immunization schedule included 2 doses of IPV at 2 and 4 months of age followed by 2 doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV) at 6 and 15 months of age. One annual national polio immunization day was maintained to provide OPV to all children aged 6 to 59 months. The decision to introduce IPV was based on preventing rare cases of vaccine-associated paralytic polio, financially sustaining IPV introduction, ensuring equitable access to IPV, and preparing for future OPV cessation following global eradication. Introducing IPV during a national multivaccination campaign led to rapid uptake, despite challenges with local vaccine supply due to high wastage rates. Continuous monitoring is required to achieve high coverage with the sequential polio vaccine schedule. PMID:25316829

  5. Problems associated with basic oral surgical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapatkin, A.S.; Marretta, S.M.; Schloss, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    The veterinarian must be able to diagnose several types of dental problems. History, physical examination, clinical pathology, and radiography are important in making an accurate diagnosis. Basic oral surgery includes various extraction techniques and management of their associated complications. Knowledge of dental anatomy and proper surgical technique can make an extraction curative rather than a frustrating procedure with multiple complications

  6. Business History as Cultural History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    The paper engages with the larger question of how cultural heritage becomes taken for granted and offers a complimentary view to the anthropological ʻCopenhagen School’ of business history, one that draws attention to the way corporate wealth directly and indirectly influences the culture available...

  7. Vehicle Technologies Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-09-05

    Overview of the Vehicle Technologies Program including external assessment and market view; internal assessment, program history and progress; program justification and federal role; program vision, mission, approach, strategic goals, outputs, and outcomes; and performance goals.

  8. River history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2012-05-13

    During the last half century, advances in geomorphology-abetted by conceptual and technical developments in geophysics, geochemistry, remote sensing, geodesy, computing and ecology-have enhanced the potential value of fluvial history for reconstructing erosional and depositional sequences on the Earth and on Mars and for evaluating climatic and tectonic changes, the impact of fluvial processes on human settlement and health, and the problems faced in managing unstable fluvial systems. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society

  9. Environmental History

    OpenAIRE

    Kearns, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    There was a time when almost all Western geography could be termed environmental history. In the late nineteenth century, physical geographers explained landscapes by describing how they had evolved. Likewise, human geographers saw society as shaped by the directing hands of the environment. By the 1960s this had very much changed. Process studies shortened the temporal framework in geographical explanation and cut the cord between nature and society. Now, physical and human...

  10. Assessing Oral Cancer Awareness Among Dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebabcıoğlu, Özge; Pekiner, Filiz Namdar

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess oral cancer awareness among dentists who attended 101st FDI World Dental Congress, İstanbul, Turkey. Among 170 dentists who agreed to participate, there were 13 oral surgeons, 6 restorative dentists, 4 endodontists, 4 orthodontists, 6 periodontists, 5 pedodontists, and 14 prosthodontists. Knowledge of oral cancer risk factors and diagnosis procedures, dentists' attitude towards oral cancers, management practice regarding oral cancer, and oral cancer information sources were assessed using 25 questions. The data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics 22.0 program. Among 170 participant dentists, there were 69 (40.6%) male dentists and 101 (59.4%) female dentists. Largest number of them identified tobacco (98.8%) and alcohol usage (91.2%), prior oral cancer lesions (95.3%), viral infections (90.0%), UV exposure (86.5%), and betel quid chewing (80.6%), and lower numbers reported older age (56.5%) and low consumption of fruit and vegetables (52.4%). Oral medicine specialists scored marginally higher in indicating erythroplakia and leukoplakia most likely to be precancerous and squamous cell carcinoma as the most common form of oral cancer (p ral cancer detection and prevention.

  11. Assessing Oral Cancer Awareness Among Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Gaye; Pekiner, Filiz Namdar

    2018-02-14

    The aim of this study was to assess oral cancer awareness among undergraduate dental students in Marmara University Faculty of Dentistry. A validated questionnaire which tested oral cancer awareness was given to third- and fifth-year students of the dental faculty of Marmara University. A total of 198 students participated in this survey. Knowledge of oral cancer risk factors and diagnosis procedures, dentistry student's attitude towards oral cancers, management practice regarding oral cancer, and oral cancer information sources were assessed using 25 questions. The data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics 22.0 program. Among 198 participant dentistry students, there were 99 (50%) third-grade and 99 (50%) fifth-grade students. The largest number of the third- and last-grade students identified tobacco (98%) and alcohol usage (87.4%), prior oral cancer lesions (94.9%), viral infections (91.9%), UV exposure (94.4%), betel quid chewing (84.8%), older age (62.1%), and low consumption of fruit and vegetables (85.4%). Both groups showed higher scores in indicating squamous cell carcinoma as the most common form of oral cancer (p oral cancer detection and prevention.

  12. Using a Professional Development Program for Enhancing Chilean Biology Teachers' Understanding of Nature of Science (NOS) and Their Perceptions about Using History of Science to Teach NOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavez, José M.; Vergara, Claudia A.; Santibañez, David; Cofré, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    A number of authors have recognized the importance of understanding the nature of science (NOS) for scientific literacy. Different instructional strategies such as decontextualized, hands-on inquiry, and history of science (HOS) activities have been proposed for teaching NOS. This article seeks to understand the contribution of HOS in enhancing…

  13. 7th international conference on case histories in geotechnical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Funding used to enhance objectives of conference and to present successful case histories of varied project, orally, in posters and in : proceedings. This will become a storehouse of knowledge for future reference.

  14. Dental therapists' expanded scope of practice in Australia: a 12-month follow-up of an educational bridging program to facilitate the provision of oral health care to patients 26+ years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopcraft, Matthew; Martin-Kerry, Jacqueline M; Calache, Hanny

    2015-01-01

    Prior to 2009, dental therapists' scope of clinical practice in Victoria was limited to patients 25 years or younger. However, increases in dental demand by adults 26+ years required an alternative approach to service delivery. This paper outlines the self-reported confidence and knowledge level of dental therapists at 3, 6, and 12 months postcompletion of an educational program aimed at providing them with the skills to treat adults aged 26+ years. The study also surveyed dentists in the practice about the dental therapists' knowledge and the impact of their extended scope of practice on the clinics' operation. After completion of their educational program, the dental therapists who participated were surveyed at 3, 6, and 12 months postcompletion to assess their self-reported confidence levels and knowledge. Senior dentists at the clinic were surveyed to understand the impact of the subsequent change in practice of the dental therapists who undertook this training, as well as any concerns of perceived educational gaps. Surveys showed increased self-reported confidence levels by the dental therapists at 3, 6, and 12 months after completion of the program. Dental therapists and mentoring dentists identified that further education was needed in areas such as oral medicine, pathology, medically compromised patients, medications, prosthodontics, and referrals. Dental therapists felt confident and knowledgeable postprogram to treat patients 26+ years, within their scope of practice. Dentists generally felt that dental therapists, after completing the educational program, were confident and knowledgeable. Educational areas to focus on in future programs were identified. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  15. Teaching Oral Hygiene Skills to Elementary Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yeng-Hung; Chang, Chien-Huey Sophie

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a program that taught oral hygiene skills to students with visual impairments using group instruction and individual coaching. The results showed that the program enhanced the oral hygiene skills of the three participants significantly, and its effectiveness lasted for at least two months after the…

  16. "L'Atelier d'expression orale" (The Oral Expression Workshop).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabensky, Alexis; Mesana, Corinne

    1990-01-01

    An extracurricular program in an Australian university French language program that brings together adults of varying ages and nationalities for oral language development activities is described. The program uses improvisation, psychodrama and role playing, and suggestopedia all together to develop a theme or in alternation, for creativity and…

  17. Oral Communication and Technical Writing: A Reconsideration of Writing in a Multicultural Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibangu, Sylvain K.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the status of orality in the history of technical communication. The article calls for orality as an integral part and driving force of technical writing. The article brings to light the misconceptions that have led to a diminished role of oral communication in technical writing. The article shows the implications of oral…

  18. Influence of family environment on children's oral health: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Rogéria Freire de Castilho

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Parents’ dental health habits influence their children's oral health. Oral health education programs aimed at preventive actions are needed to provide children not only with adequate oral health, but better quality of life. Special attention should be given to the entire family, concerning their lifestyle and oral health habits.

  19. Comparing a telephone- and a group-delivered diabetes prevention program: Characteristics of engaged and non-engaged postpartum mothers with a history of gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Siew; Dunbar, James A; Versace, Vincent L; Janus, Edward; Wildey, Carol; Skinner, Timothy; O'Reilly, Sharleen

    2017-04-01

    To explore the acceptability of a telephone- or a group-delivered diabetes prevention program for women with previous gestational diabetes and to compare the characteristics associated with program engagement. Postpartum women participated in a lifestyle modification program delivered by telephone (n=33) or group format (n=284). Semi-structured interviews on barriers and enablers to program engagement (defined as completing≥80% sessions) were conducted before (Group) and after (Group and Telephone) interventions. The Health Action Process Approach theory was used as the framework for inquiry. Psychological measures were compared between engagement subgroups before and after group-delivered intervention. In the telephone-delivered program 82% participants met the engagement criteria compared with 38% for the group-delivered program. Engaged participants (Group) had significantly higher risk perception, outcome expectancy, and activity self-efficacy at baseline (P<0.05). There was a greater decrease in body weight (-1.45±3.9 vs -0.26±3.5, P=0.024) and waist circumference (-3.56±5.1 vs -1.24±5.3, P=0.002) for engaged vs non-engaged participants following group program completion. Telephone delivery was associated with greater engagement in postpartum women. Engagement was associated with greater reduction in weight and waist circumference. Further studies are required to confirm the effectiveness of telephone-delivered program for diabetes prevention in postpartum women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Uncovering History for Future History Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    The art of history teaching is at a crossroads. Recent scholarship focuses on the need to change the teaching of history so students can better learn history, and insists that history teachers must move beyond traditional structures and methods of teaching in order to improve their students' abilities to think with history. This article presents…

  1. Assessing the Effectiveness of a School-Based Dental Clinic on the Oral Health of Children Who Lack Access to Dental Care: A Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpino, Rachel; Walker, Mary P.; Liu, Ying; Simmer-Beck, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    This program evaluation examines the effectiveness of a school-based dental clinic. A repeated-measures design was used to longitudinally examine secondary data from participants (N = 293). Encounter intensity was developed to normalize data. Multivariate analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to investigate the effect of encounter…

  2. 101 Wonderful Ways To Celebrate Women's History. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Bonnie; Ruthsdotter, Mary

    This guide offers activities for teachers as well as community program planners that enhance the awareness of women's history and women's contributions to history. Although National Women's History Month is celebrated in March, programs need not be limited to that time period. The programs have been organized into three sections. The first section…

  3. Effects of a Community-Based Program for Oral Health and Nutrition on Cost-Effectiveness by Preventing Disability in Japanese Frail Elderly: A Quasi-Experimental Study Using Propensity Score Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomata, Yasutake; Watanabe, Takashi; Sugiyama, Kemmyo; Zhang, Shu; Sugawara, Yumi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2017-08-01

    In the Japanese Long-Term Care Insurance (LTCI) system, a community-based program for oral health and nutrition (OHN program) has been implemented with the aim of reducing incident disability and care costs. However, the effectiveness of this program has not been confirmed epidemiologically. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the OHN program does reduce incident disability and care costs. A prospective study with a 28-month follow-up period was conducted using data from administrative databases at Tagajo City, Japan. Among frail elderly persons (aged 65 years or more) who were enrolled in the LTCI program in Tagajo, 64 participants in the OHN program and 128 controls (nonparticipants) were selected by propensity score matching. We used 2 types of outcome measure: composite outcome (incident disability and death) and care cost. Data on incident disability were retrieved from the public LTCI database. Care cost was defined as the total amount of LTCI service cost added to medical care cost. The hazard ratio of composite outcome was significantly lower for the intervention group than for the control group (hazard ratio = 0.32, 95% confidence interval 0.12-0.82). Even when we set incident disability as an outcome, the hazard ratio for the intervention group did not change (hazard ratio = 0.33, 95% confidence interval 0.11-0.97). The mean cumulative care cost during the 28 months tended to be lower for the intervention group ($4893) than that for the control group ($5770), but this was not statistically significant by the gamma regression model (cost ratio = 0.85, P = .513). The mean care cost per unit follow-up period (1 month) for the intervention group was significantly lower (cost ratio = 0.54, P = .027). The results of this study suggest that the OHN program is effective for preventing incident disability and, consequently, for saving care costs per unit survival period. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post

  4. [Association between oral hygiene, chronic diseases, and oral squamous cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiangfeng; He, Baochang; Chen, Fa; Liu, Fangping; Yan, Lingjun; Hu, Zhijian; Lin, Lisong; He, Fei; Cai, Lin

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the association between oral hygiene, chronic diseases, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. We performed a case-control study with 414 cases and 870 controls in Fujian during September 2010 to January 2015. Patients were newly diagnosed oral squamous cell carcinoma cases according to the pathologic diagnoses, control subjects were enrolled from community population. Epidemiological data were collected by in-person interviews using a standard questionnaire. The contents of the questionnaire included demography character, history of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking, dietary habits, oral hygiene status, family history of cancer, etc. Using unconditional logistic regression analysis to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for oral hygiene and chronic diseases. We also stratified by sex, smoking and drinking to explore possible difference in association between subgroups. The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that number of teeth (20-27 and oral ulceration were the risk factors of oral squamous cell carcinoma, the adjusted OR (95% CI) values were 2.01 (1.49-2.73), 3.51 (2.39-5.15), 2.33 (1.79-3.04), 3.96 (2.11-7.44), respectively; brushing tooth once per bay, brushing tooth more than once per day, regular oral health examination at least 5 years per time were the protective factors of oral squamous cell carcinoma, the adjusted OR (95% CI) values were 0.24 (0.13-0.43), 0.13 (0.07-0.24), 0.37 (0.26-0.53), respectively. The stratification analysis indicated that recurrent oral ulceration could increase the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma for non-smokers and non-drinking, the adjusted OR (95% CI) value was 5.21 (2.42-11.18) and 4.71 (2.37-9.36); and a risky effect of hypertension on risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma was observed for non-smokers and non-drinking, the adjusted OR (95% CI) values were 1.70 (1.10-2.61) and 1.58 (1.07-2.34). Oral hygiene and chronic diseases could affect the

  5. Atomic power in space: A history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    ''Atomic Power in Space,'' a history of the Space Isotope Power Program of the United States, covers the period from the program's inception in the mid-1950s through 1982. Written in non-technical language, the history is addressed to both the general public and those more specialized in nuclear and space technologies. 19 figs., 3 tabs

  6. A mobile phone text message program to measure oral antibiotic use and provide feedback on adherence to patients discharged from the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffoletto, Brian; Calabria, Jaclyn; Ross, Anthony; Callaway, Clifton; Yealy, Donald M

    2012-08-01

    Nonadherence to prescribed medications impairs therapeutic benefits. The authors measured the ability of an automated text messaging (short message service [SMS]) system to improve adherence to postdischarge antibiotic prescriptions. This was a randomized controlled trial in an urban emergency department (ED) with an annual census of 65,000. A convenience sample of adult patients being discharged with a prescription for oral antibiotics was enrolled. Participants received either a daily SMS query about prescription pickup, and then dosage taken, with educational feedback based on their responses (intervention), or the usual printed discharge instructions (control). A standardized phone follow-up interview was used on the day after the intended completion date to determine antibiotic adherence: 1) the participant filled prescription within 24 hours of discharge and 2) no antibiotic pills were left on the day after intended completion of prescription. Of the 200 patients who agreed to participate, follow-up was completed in 144 (72%). From the 144, 26% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 19% to 34%) failed to fill their discharge prescriptions during the first 24 hours, and 37% (95% CI = 29% to 45%) had pills left over, resulting in 49% (95% CI = 40% to 57%) nonadherent patients. There were no differences in adherence between intervention participants and controls (57% vs. 45%; p = 0.1). African American race, greater than twice-daily dosing, and self-identifying as expecting to have difficulty filling or taking antibiotics at baseline were associated with nonadherence. Almost one-half (49%) of our patients do not adhere to antibiotic prescriptions after ED discharge. Future work should improve the design and deployment of SMS interventions to optimize their effect on improving adherence to medication after ED discharge. © 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  7. Recurrent oral angioleiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V G Mahima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Angioleiomyomas are vascular variant of leiomyomas which are benign tumors of smooth muscle. They are exceedingly rare in the oral cavity. Malignant transformation of these tumors has also been reported occasionally which warrants knowledge of this soft tissue tumor. A 57 year old male patient reported with a 15 day history of an asymptomatic growth that had started insidiously in his lower left back tooth region. Clinical examination revealed a solitary, oval, sessile growth in the mandibular left retro molar region. Excisional biopsy was suggestive of Angioleiomyoma. A recurrence of the same was noted two months later which was also histopathologically reported as Angioleiomyoma. The same was confirmed using special stains. This case reports an unusual presentation of Angioleiomyoma with regards to both recurrence as well as rapid growth. It is important to be well aware of this uncommon entity as these tumors often can mimic or transform into malignancy. Precise clinicopathological examinations are therefore invaluable in establishing an accurate diagnosis and delivering suitable treatment.

  8. History, Pending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Donald; Tesconi, Charles

    2018-01-01

    Tesconi-Warren collaborations began 50 years ago at the University of Illinois-Chicago, then abbreviated fondly as "Chicago Circle," perhaps the only American institution of higher learning named for a traffic-control installation. We offered Foundations courses in teacher preparation programs of the College of Education, occasionally as…

  9. Oral contraceptives induced hepatotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    B. Akshaya Srikanth; V. Manisree

    2013-01-01

    Oral Contraceptives are the pharmacological agents used to prevent pregnancy. These are divided as the combined and progestogen methods and are administered orally, transdermally, systemically and via vaginal route. All these methods contain both oestrogen and progestogen. Vigorous usage of oral contraceptives and anabolic steroids as associated with cholestasis, vascular lesions and hepatic neoplasm. Benign hepatic neoplasms are clearly associated with oral contraceptives. In this article we...

  10. Oral vaccination of fish

    OpenAIRE

    Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen breakdown in the harsh gastric environment, but also to the high tolerogenic gut environment and to inadequate vaccine design. In this review we discuss current approaches used to develop oral vaccines fo...

  11. Periodontal and oral manifestations of marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Swati Y; Tatakis, Dimitris N; Tipton, David A

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana, prepared from the plant Cannabis sativa, is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States. Marijuana use has been associated with adverse psychosocial and health effects, including effects on oral tissues. Periodontal literature has limited references to the periodontal effects of cannabis use. In this report, we present two cases of marijuana-associated gingival enlargement and review the literature on oral complications of marijuana use. Two asymptomatic males, aged 23 and 42 years, presented independently for oral prophylaxis. Both had an unremarkable medical history and related a history of significant marijuana use of 2-16 years duration. Common findings following oral and periodontal examination were nicotinic stomatitis-like lesions, uvulitis and gingival enlargement. Marginal and papillary gingiva of the anterior dentition were the areas primarily affected by gingival enlargement, while some of these areas exhibited a nodular or "pebbly" appearance. Marijuana-associated gingival enlargement was diagnosed in the reported cases. A review of the literature revealed two other reports of marijuana-associated gingival enlargement, all in young adult males with chronic (2 or more years) cannabis use. These authors reported a resemblance to phenytoin-induced enlargement. Biochemical similarities between phenytoin and cannabis active compounds suggest possible common pathogenetic mechanisms. Uvulitis and nicotinic stomatitis appear to be the two most common of the several oral manifestations of marijuana use. Chronic marijuana use may result in gingival enlargement with clinical characteristics similar to phenytoin-induced enlargement.

  12. Cygnus History

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, David J.; Gignac, Raymond E.; Good, Douglas E.; Hansen, Mark D.; Mitton, Charles V.; Nelson, Daniel S.; Ormond, Eugene C.; Cordova, Steve R.; Molina, Isidro; Smith, John R.; Rose, Evan A.

    2009-01-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources: Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site. The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images for dynamic plutonium experiments. This work will recount and discuss salient maintenance and operational issues encountered during the history of Cygnus. A brief description of Cygnus systems and rational for design selections will set the stage for this historical narrative. It is intended to highlight the team-derived solutions for technical problems encountered during extended periods of maintenance and operation. While many of the issues are typical to pulsed power systems, some of the solutions are unique. It is hoped that other source teams will benefit from this presentation, as well as other necessary disciplines (e.g., source users, system architects, facility designers and managers, funding managers, and team leaders)

  13. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... Perkins Marsh, Carl Sauer, and Clarence Glacken, to more recent global-scale assessments of the impact of the “great acceleration” since 1950. Today’s “runaway world” paradoxically embraces risk management in an attempt to determine its own future whilst generating a whole new category of “manufactured...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...

  14. Oral vaccination of fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen

  15. Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atessa Pakfetrat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral lesions are among the earliest clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency (HIV infection and are important in early diagnosis and for monitoring the progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral lesions and their relationship with a number of factors in HIV/AIDS patients attending an HIV center.     Methods: A total of 110 HIV-positive patients were examined to investigate the prevalence of oral lesions according to the criteria established by the European Community Clearing House on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection. An independent T-test was used for correlation of oral lesions with CD4+ count and a χ2 test was used for analysis of the relationship of co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV, sexual contact, route of transmission, history of drug abuse, and history of incarceration.   Results: Most of the cases were male patients (82.7%. The mean age across all participants was 36.2±8.1 years. Rampant carries, severe periodontitis and oral candidiasis were the most notable oral lesions. Oral lesions were more prevalent in patients between 26–35 years of age. There was a significant difference between patients with and without pseudomembranous candidiasis and angular cheilitis according to mean level of CD4+.   Conclusion: The most common oral presentations were severe periodontitis, pseudomembranous candidiasis and xerostomia.

  16. Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atessa Pakfetrat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral lesions are among the earliest clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency (HIV infection and are important in early diagnosis and for monitoring the progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral lesions and their relationship with a number of factors in HIV/AIDS patients attending an HIV center.     Methods: A total of 110 HIV-positive patients were examined to investigate the prevalence of oral lesions according to the criteria established by the European Community Clearing House on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection. An independent T-test was used for correlation of oral lesions with CD4+ count and a χ2 test was used for analysis of the relationship of co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV, sexual contact, route of transmission, history of drug abuse, and history of incarceration.   Results: Most of the cases were male patients (82.7%. The mean age across all participants was 36.2±8.1 years. Rampant carries, severe periodontitis and oral candidiasis were the most notable oral lesions. Oral lesions were more prevalent in patients between 26–35 years of age. There was a significant difference between patients with and without pseudomembranous candidiasis and angular cheilitis according to mean level of CD4+.   Conclusion: The most common oral presentations were severe periodontitis, pseudomembranous candidiasis and xerostomia. 

  17. The history of commonly used dental elevators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussell, M A; Graham, R M

    2008-11-08

    Despite the extensive and regular use of dental elevators on a daily basis in both general dental and specialist oral and maxillofacial surgical practice, little is known about the history and origins of such instruments and this remains an intriguing question. This question has been the basis for the following article, which gives a brief history of the instruments, discusses their eponymous origins and the history, life and works of the individuals they are named after. In-depth research has also raised other questions about such instruments that could be the focus for further study.

  18. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to detect oral cancer during your routine dental examinations. Don't risk it. Perform an oral cancer ... oral cancer self-exam each month. An oral examination is performed using a bright light and a ...

  19. A digital Jewish history?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiatacz Carmen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available How can we teach Jewish history in a modern and effective way? In Hamburg, Germany, a school project called Geschichtomat tries to find an answer to that question. With the help of digital media, students explore their Jewish neighbourhood. This one-of-a-kind German program permits students to experience the Jewish past and present life in their hometown. During the project, students explore their neighbourhood to understand its historical figures, places, and events. This way they engage with Jewish life. Under the supervision of experts in the disciplines of history and media education, the students will: research, perform interviews with cultural authorities and contemporary witnesses, visit museums and archives, shoot and cut films, edit photos and write accompanying texts. Finally, their contributions are uploaded to the geschichtomat.de website. Little by little a digital map of Jewish life from the perspective of teenagers will take shape.

  20. Oral food challenges in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Yung Yum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many patients assume that allergic reactions against foods are responsible for triggering or worsening their allergic symptoms. Therefore, it is important to identify patients who would benefit from an elimination diet, while avoiding unnecessary dietary restrictions. The diagnosis of food allergy depends on the thorough review of the patients's medical history, results of supplemented trials of dietary elimination, and in vivo and in vitro tests for measuring specific IgE levels. However, in some cases the reliability of such procedures is suboptimal. Oral food challenges are procedures employed for making an accurate diagnosis of immediate and occasionally delayed adverse reactions to foods. The timing and type of the challenge, preparation of patients, foods to be tested, and dosing schedule should be determined on the basis of the patient's history, age, and experience. Although double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges(DBPCFC are used to establish definitively if a food is the cause of adverse reactions, they are time-consuming, expensive and troublesome for physician and patients. In practice, An open challenge controlled by trained personnel is sufficient especially in infants and young children. The interpretation of the results and follow-up after a challenge are also important. Since theses challenges are relatively safe and informative, controlled oral food challenges could become the measure of choice in children.

  1. More symptoms but similar blood glucose curve after oral carbohydrate provocation in patients with a history of hypoglycemia-like symptoms compared to asymptomatic patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenius, Anna; Werling, Malin; Le Roux, Carel W; Fändriks, Lars; Olbers, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is an effective treatment for obesity through altering several physiologic mechanisms. Some patients experience symptoms suggestive of hypglycemia after LRYGB, but whether these symptoms always are associated with low blood glucose are unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between symptoms suggestive of hypglycemia, plasma glucose levels and gut hormones involved in glycemic control. Eight LRYGB patients with hypglycemia-like symptoms (SY) and 8 patients with no hypglycemia-like symptoms (ASY) ingested a liquid carbohydrate meal. Insulin, plasma-glucose, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucagon were measured intermittently 180 minutes postprandially. In addition, pulse rate, blood pressure and symptoms were assessed. Plasma glucose at 120 min was lower in the ASY mean (95% CI) 2.4 (1.6,3.3) mmol/L (43.2 mg/dL) compared to the SY group 3.0 (3.1,4.6) mmol/L (54.6 mg/dL), (P = .050). The ASY group had larger reduction in plasma glucose than the SY group from pre- to 120 min postmeal -2.2 (-2.8,-1.7) mmol/L (-39.6 mg/dL) versus -1.1 (-1.7,-0.4) mmol/L (-19.8 mg/dL), (P = .011). The concentrations of insulin, GLP-1 and glucagon did not differ significantly between groups. Blood pressure was similar between groups, but the AUC for pulse rate was higher in the SY than ASY group 13009 (11148,14870) versus 11569 (10837,12300) beats/180 minutes, (P = .038). The SY group reported more symptoms than the ASY group, AUC for Sigstad scale 60 to 180 minutes was 970 (-274,1667) for SY versus 170 for ASY (-39,379), (P = .028). Patients with a history of symptoms suggestive of hypglycemia after LRYGB neither demonstrated lower plasma glucose nor greater insulin response compared to asymptomatic patients in response to a liquid carbohydrate meal, but perceived more symptoms. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Oral and periodontal manifestations associated with systemic sclerosis: A case series and review

    OpenAIRE

    Rekha Jagadish; Dhoom Singh Mehta; P Jagadish

    2012-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a rare connective tissue disorder with a wide range of oral manifestations. This case series reports significant oral and periodontal changes and also makes an attempt to correlate oral and systemic findings in these patients which enable the clinician for a better diagnosis and evolve a comprehensive treatment plan. Six patients with a known diagnosis of systemic sclerosis were included. After obtaining the patient's informed consent, relevant medical history, oral mani...

  3. Public History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gouveia de Oliveira Rovai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como proposta apresentar o conceito e as práticas de História Pública como um novo posicionamento da ciência histórica em diálogo com profissionais da comunicação, no sentido de produzir e divulgar as experiências humanas. Para isso, discute-se a origem do conceito de História Pública e as diferentes formas de educação histórica que a utilização das novas tecnologias podem proporcionar (dentre elas a internet. Nesse sentido, convida-se o leitor para a reflexão sobre as possibilidades de publicização e de democratização do conhecimento histórico e da cultura, ampliando-se a oportunidade de produção, de divulgação e de acesso do público a diferentes formas experiências no tempo. O artigo também intenciona chamar atenção dos profissionais que lidam com a História e com a Comunicação para os perigos de produções exclusivamente submetidas ao mercado que transformam a popularização da História no reforço de estigmas culturais.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: História Pública; Educação histórica e Comunicação; democratização e estigmatização.     ABSTRACT This article aims to present the concept and practices of Public History as a new positioning of historical science in dialogue with communication professionals, in the sense of producing and disseminating human experiences. For this, the origin of the concept of Public History and the different forms of historical education that the use of the new technologies can provide (among them the Internet is discussed. In this sense, the reader is invited to reflect on the possibilities of publicizing and democratizing historical knowledge and culture, expanding the opportunity for production, dissemination and public access to different forms of experience in time. The article also intends to draw attention from professionals dealing with History and Communication to the dangers of exclusively commercialized productions that transform the popularization

  4. Visionaries or dreamers? The story of infant oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Arthur J; Quiñonez, Rocio B

    2011-01-01

    To review the early history of the promotion of oral health for infants and toddlers, the impact of the AAPD guideline on infant oral health care and ways to maximize health outcomes. Review of the literature. Concepts on primary prevention and early intervention were reported as early as the 19th century. Progress to positively impact the oral health of children has been made. Nevertheless, the advice of early scholars and clinicians that oral care and prevention must begin early with the caregivers and the emergence of the infant's first tooth have not been fully embraced by the profession. A historical perspective on oral health care for infants and toddlers has been presented. There is a need to move away from the surgical approach of managing oral disease and embrace the concepts of primary care beginning perinatally while more broadly addressing social determinants of health.

  5. Icing oral mucositis: Oral cryotherapy in multiple myeloma patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joey; Seabrook, Jamie; Fulford, Adrienne; Rajakumar, Irina

    2017-03-01

    Background Up to 70% of patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplant develop oral mucositis as a side effect of high-dose melphalan conditioning chemotherapy. Oral cryotherapy has been documented to be potentially effective in reducing oral mucositis. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the cryotherapy protocol implemented within the hematopoietic stem cell transplant program. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted of adult multiple myeloma patients who received high-dose melphalan conditioning therapy for autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Primary endpoints were incidence and severity of oral mucositis. Secondary endpoints included duration of oral mucositis, duration of hospital stay, parenteral narcotics use and total parenteral nutrition use. Results One hundred and forty patients were included in the study, 70 patients in both no cryotherapy and cryotherapy groups. Both oral mucositis incidence and severity were found to be significantly lower in the cryotherapy group. Fifty (71.4%) experienced mucositis post cryotherapy compared to 67 (95.7%) in the no cryotherapy group (p cryotherapy group (p = 0.03). Oral mucositis duration and use of parenteral narcotics were also significantly reduced. Duration of hospital stay and use of parenteral nutrition were similar between the two groups. Conclusion The cryotherapy protocol resulted in a significantly lower incidence and severity of oral mucositis. These results provide evidence for the continued use of oral cryotherapy, an inexpensive and generally well-tolerated practice.

  6. Screening for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitender, Solanki; Sarika, Gupta; Varada, Hiremath R; Omprakash, Yadav; Mohsin, Khan

    2016-11-01

    Oral cancer is considered as a serious health problem resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Early detection and prevention play a key role in controlling the burden of oral cancer worldwide. The five-year survival rate of oral cancer still remains low and delayed diagnosis is considered as one of the major reasons. This increases the demand for oral screening. Currently, screening of oral cancer is largely based on visual examination. Various evidence strongly suggest the validity of visual inspection in reducing mortality in patients at risk for oral cancer. Simple visual examination is accompanied with adjunctive techniques for subjective interpretation of dysplastic changes. These include toluidine blue staining, brush biopsy, chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence. This review highlights the efficacy of various diagnostic methods in screening of oral cancer. © 2016 Old City Publishing, Inc.

  7. Oral piercings: immediate and late complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Elma P; Ribeiro, Andre Luis Ribeiro; Pinheiro, João de Jesus V; Alves, Sérgio de M

    2011-12-01

    Oral piercings have a long history as part of religious, cultural, or sexual symbolism in many traditional tribes; currently, these ornaments have wide acceptance among young people. Several oral and systemic complications may be associated with this practice; however, limited data related to these complications can be obtained in the literature. This study includes 42 cases of oral piercings in 39 young adults, who were using or had used oral piercings, and the complications associated with their use. Immediate complications occurred in 29 cases, including excessive bleeding (69%) and pain (52.3%) as the most representative. Two cases of syncope were found. Late complications related to the piercing insertion site were observed in 97.6% of cases, with pain and swelling being present in 92.9% and 61.9% of cases, respectively. Dental pain and lacerations on the tongue represented the most prevalent complications associated with the surrounding tissues, accounting for 33.3% and 31% of cases. The use of oral piercings is related to a series of mainly local complications, and individuals who decide to use piercings should be aware of such complications. Individuals wishing to get a part of their body pierced should do so with qualified professionals and should regularly visit the dentist so that a regular control is achieved, thus ensuring the early detection of the adverse effects associated with this practice. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. History of the College of the Holy Cross American Sign Language Program and Its Collaborative Partnerships with the Worcester Deaf Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jami N.

    2014-01-01

    Most postsecondary American Sign Language programs have an inherent connection to their local Deaf communities and rely on the community's events to provide authentic linguistic and cultural experiences for their students. While this type of activity benefits students, there is often little effort toward meaningful engagement or attention to…

  9. Community Self-Determination in Uptown Chicago: A Social and Cultural History of American Indian Educational Programs and Experiences, 1952-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukaitis, John J.

    2009-01-01

    This work examines the under-studied urban dimension of the American Indian self-determination in education by showing how American Indians in Chicago established, developed, influenced, and utilized programs to meet the particular objectives and needs of their local community. By showing how American Indians worked outside of and within systems,…

  10. Oral biopsy: Oral pathologist′s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K L Kumaraswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many oral lesions may need to be diagnosed by removing a sample of tissue from the oral cavity. Biopsy is widely used in the medical field, but the practice is not quite widespread in dental practice. As oral pathologists, we have found many artifacts in the tissue specimen because of poor biopsy technique or handling, which has led to diagnostic pitfalls and misery to both the patient and the clinician. This article aims at alerting the clinicians about the clinical faults arising preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively while dealing with oral biopsy that may affect the histological assessment of the tissue and, therefore, the diagnosis. It also reviews the different techniques, precautions and special considerations necessary for specific lesions.

  11. Short-term effect of two education methods on oral health among hearing impairment children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Pouradeli

    2016-12-01

    CONCLUSION: Both video and dental model effectively improve the oral health of children with HI in short term. Continuous school-based oral health education programs, particularly for HI children, need to be considered.

  12. Saúde bucal no Programa Saúde da Família: uma avaliação do modelo assistencial Oral health in the Brazilian Family Health Program: a health care model evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Maria Silva de Souza

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a incorporação da saúde bucal no Programa Saúde da Família no Rio Grande do Norte, com base na análise de fatores capazes de interferir no processo de mudança dos modelos assistenciais em saúde bucal. Esta avaliação tomou como referência três dimensões: o acesso, a organização do trabalho e as estratégias de programação. Foram sorteados 19 municípios no estado. Os instrumentos de coleta foram a entrevista estruturada aplicada a gestores e dentistas, a observação estruturada e a pesquisa documental. Foi possível identificar precariedade nas relações de trabalho e dificuldades no referenciamento para média e alta complexidade, na intersetorialidade, no diagnóstico epidemiológico e na avaliação das ações. A maioria dos municípios apresentou pouco ou nenhum avanço no modelo assistencial em saúde bucal. Os municípios que demonstraram avanços apresentaram alta expectativa de vida ao nascer, baixas taxas de mortalidade infantil, valores per capita entre os mais altos do Estado e altos valores de IDH-M. Concluiu-se que políticas públicas que contemplam aspectos além dos pertinentes ao setor saúde são decisivas para uma real mudança nos modelos assistenciais.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the addition of oral health teams to the Family Health Program in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, by analyzing factors that can affect the process of changing oral health care models. The evaluation involved three dimensions: access, work organization, and planning strategies. 19 counties (municipalities were randomly selected. The data collection instruments were: structured interviews with health managers and dentists, structured observation, and documental research. The study identified a lack of formal employment contracts for dentists, difficulty in referring patients for high-complexity procedures, and problems with the development of inter-sector activities

  13. Life after oral English certification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimova, Slobodanka

    2017-01-01

    , this study discusses the consequences resulting from score and feedback interpretations and uses as part of the validation process of TOEPAS (Test of Oral English Proficiency for Academic Staff), which is a performance-based test used for oral English certification of lecturers at the University......Internationalization of higher education has resulted in rapid developments of English-medium instruction (EMI) courses in non-Anglophone countries in Europe and Asia. Due to the growing concerns about lecturers' ability to teach in English, several European universities have implemented policies...... for internal assessment of lecturers' English proficiency to ensure the quality of teaching in EMI programs. However, research on the measured construct and the reliability and the validity of these assessments remains scarce. Based on interviews with tested university lecturers and formative feedback analysis...

  14. Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetics of Oral Cocaine in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Marion A; Jufer Phipps, Rebecca A; Cone, Edward J; Walsh, Sharon L

    2018-06-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of oral cocaine has not been fully characterized and prospective data on oral bioavailability are limited. A within-subject study was performed to characterize the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of oral cocaine. Fourteen healthy inpatient participants (six males) with current histories of cocaine use were administered two oral doses (100 and 200 mg) and one intravenous (IV) dose (40 mg) of cocaine during three separate dosing sessions. Plasma samples were collected for up to 24 h after dosing and analyzed for cocaine and metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartmental analysis, and a two-factor model was used to assess for dose and sex differences. The mean ± SEM oral cocaine bioavailability was 0.32 ± 0.04 after 100 and 0.45 ± 0.06 after 200 mg oral cocaine. Volume of distribution (Vd) and clearance (CL) were both greatest after 100 mg oral (Vd = 4.2 L/kg; CL = 116.2 mL/[min kg]) compared to 200 mg oral (Vd = 2.9 L/kg; CL = 87.5 mL/[min kg]) and 40 mg IV (Vd = 1.3 L/kg; CL = 32.7 mL/[min kg]). Oral cocaine area-under-thecurve (AUC) and peak concentration increased in a dose-related manner. AUC metabolite-to-parent ratios of benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester were significantly higher after oral compared to IV administration and highest after the lower oral dose. In addition, minor metabolites were detected in higher concentrations after oral compared to IV cocaine. Oral cocaine produced a pharmacokinetic profile different from IV cocaine, which appears as a rightward and downward shift in the concentration-time profile. Cocaine bioavailability values were similar to previous estimates. Oral cocaine also produced a unique metabolic profile, with greater concentrations of major and minor metabolites.

  15. Oral manifestations of lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, S; O'Shea, F; Galvin, S; Wynne, B

    2018-02-01

    Mucosal involvement is commonly seen in patients with lupus; however, oral examination is often forgotten. Squamous cell carcinoma arising within oral lupoid plaques has been described, emphasizing the importance of identifying and treating oral lupus. We undertook a retrospective single-centre study looking at oral findings in patients attending our multidisciplinary lupus clinic between January 2015 and April 2016. A total of 42 patients were included. The majority of patients were female (88%) and had a diagnosis of discoid lupus erythematosus (62%). Half of the patients had positive oral findings, 26% had no oral examination documented, and 24% had documented normal oral examinations. Our findings suggest that oral pathology is common in this cohort of patients. Regular oral examination is warranted to identify oral lupus and provide treatment. Associated diseases such as Sjogren's syndrome may also be identified. Patients should be encouraged to see their general dental practitioners on a regular basis for mucosal review. Any persistent ulcer that fails to respond to treatment or hard lump needs urgent histopathological evaluation to exclude malignant transformation to squamous cell carcinoma.

  16. Oral Streptococcal Endocarditis, Oral Hygiene Habits, and Recent Dental Procedures: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Xavier; Millot, Sarah; Chirouze, Catherine; Selton-Suty, Christine; Moby, Vanessa; Tattevin, Pierre; Strady, Christophe; Euvrard, Edouard; Agrinier, Nelly; Thomas, Daniel; Hoen, Bruno; Alla, François

    2017-06-15

    We aimed to compare oral hygiene habits, orodental status, and dental procedures in patients with infective endocarditis (IE) according to whether the IE-causing microorganism originated in the oral cavity. We conducted an assessor-blinded case-control study in 6 French tertiary-care hospitals. Oral hygiene habits were recorded using a self-administered questionnaire. Orodental status was analyzed by trained dental practitioners blinded to the microorganism, using standardized clinical examination and dental panoramic tomography. History of dental procedures was obtained through patient and dentist interviews. Microorganisms were categorized as oral streptococci or nonoral pathogens using an expert-validated list kept confidential during the course of the study. Cases and controls had definite IE caused either by oral streptococci or nonoral pathogens, respectively. Participants were enrolled between May 2008 and January 2013. Cases (n = 73) were more likely than controls (n = 192) to be aged calculus, and infectious dental diseases did not significantly differ between groups. Patients with IE caused by oral streptococci differ from patients with IE caused by nonoral pathogens regarding background characteristics, oral hygiene habits, and recent dental procedures, but not current orodental status. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Infantile acne treated with oral isotretinoin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben Marie; Echeverría, Begoña; Torrelo, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to adolescent acne, infantile acne (IA) is a rare condition with only a limited body of available literature. In this descriptive, retrospective study, we reviewed six cases from 2002 to 2010 treated with oral isotretinoin. The average age of onset was 6.16 months (range 0-21 mos......). Consistent with the previous, limited literature, we found predominantly boys are affected, a predilection for the cheeks, and a polymorphic inflammatory morphology. Two patients had a family history of acne. All cases were successfully and safely treated with oral isotretinoin. The suggested treatment...... of childhood acne is similar to that of adolescents (graded according to the severity of the skin disease and risk of scarring). Oral isotretinoin appears to be an effective and safe treatment for severe IA....

  18. Implementing Evidenced Based Oral Care for Critically Ill Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-28

    practice . In G. LoBiondo-Wood & J Haber (Eds.), Nursing Research (5th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book , Inc. 5. Titler, M., & Everett, L. (2001...determined if an evidence-based oral care program resulted in increased nurses’ knowledge and improved oral care practices compliance. Design: The project...process, and project specific oral care evidence-based practice instruction. Knowledge evaluations were conducted at three time points: before, immediately

  19. Radiation induced oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Satheesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene

  20. Oral microbiota and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Meurman, Jukka H.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the...

  1. História, memória e narrativa: a revelação do "quem" nas histórias orais dos habitantes do Córrego dos Januários History, memory and narrative: the disclosure of "who are you?" in the oral story-telling of the inhabitants of Córrego dos Januários

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Sampaio Gusmão

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é relatar uma pesquisa sobre as histórias de vida e as memórias dos habitantes de um pequeno povoado, situado na região leste de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Utilizando a "história oral" como estratégia metodológica e tendo como referência teórica o pensamento de Hannah Arendt, Walter Benjamin e Mikhail Bakhtin, os conceitos história, memória e narrativa são aqui analisados a partir das práticas discursivas entre a pesquisadora e os habitantes do Córrego dos Januários. Os resultados deste trabalho contribuem para a compreensão da ação e do discurso dos homens como condição do exercício da ética e da política na vida prática e, consequentemente, colocam em destaque a importância da experiência singular e a presença única de cada pessoa no mundo. A revelação da pergunta "quem és?", apresentada por Hanna Arendt em sua obra A condição humana, é aqui analisada a partir dos relatos das histórias de vida dos sujeitos envolvidos.The purpose of this article is reporting a research on stories of the life and memories of the inhabitants of a small village in the east region of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Using as methodological strategy the "oral story-telling", and as theoretical references the works and studies by Hannah Arendt, Walter Benjamin and Mikhail Bakhtin, the concepts history, memory and narrative are here analyzed based on the discursive practices between the researcher and the inhabitants of Córrego dos Januários. The results of this work contribute to the comprehension of action and discourse of men as a condition to the exercise of ethics and politics in practical life and, consequently, bring out the importance of singular experience and the unique presence of each and every person in the world. The disclosure of the question "Who are you", introduced by Hannah Arendt in her work The Human Condition, is here analyzed from the point of view of the life stories of the individuals involved.

  2. 30 CFR 773.11 - Review of compliance history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review of compliance history. 773.11 Section... REGULATORY PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMITS AND PERMIT PROCESSING § 773.11 Review of compliance history. (a... histories of compliance with the Act or the applicable State regulatory program, and any other applicable...

  3. Towards understanding oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Global Oral Health Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, I.; Tabak, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be “at the table” with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions. PMID:21490232

  5. Oral microbiota and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka H. Meurman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several oral micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor oral health and the prevalence of oral and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in oral microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control oral microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion.

  6. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OR EHR Incentive Program Global Codes and Data Collection Patient Opioid Use New Medicare Card Project Medicare ... History History of the American College of Surgeons Collections Highlights Research 25- and 50-Year Fellows Recognition ...

  7. African Journal of Oral Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Oral Health Sciences is devoted to research into oral diseases and encourages a multidisciplinary approach. Emphasis is on oral pathology, oral microbiology, oral medicine, oral physiology and biochemistry and related clinical sciences.

  8. Oral candidosis in relation to oral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Chandran, R; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2014-09-01

    Symptomatic oral infection with Candida albicans is characterized by invasion of the oral epithelium by virulent hyphae that cause tissue damage releasing the inflammatory mediators that initiate and sustain local inflammation. Candida albicans triggers pattern-recognition receptors of keratinocytes, macrophages, monocytes and dendritic cells, stimulating the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23. These cytokines induce the differentiation of Th17 cells and the generation of IL-17- and/or IL-22-mediated antifungal protective immuno-inflammatory responses in infected mucosa. Some immune cells including NKT cells, γδ T cells and lymphoid cells that are innate to the oral mucosa have the capacity to produce large quantities of IL-17 in response to C. albicans, sufficient to mediate effective protective immunity against C. albicans. On the other hand, molecular structures of commensal C. albicans blastoconidia, although detected by pattern-recognition receptors, are avirulent, do not invade the oral epithelium, do not elicit inflammatory responses in a healthy host, but induce regulatory immune responses that maintain tissue tolerance to the commensal fungi. The type, specificity and sensitivity of the protective immune response towards C. albicans is determined by the outcome of the integrated interactions between the intracellular signalling pathways of specific combinations of activated pattern-recognition receptors (TLR2, TLR4, Dectin-1 and Dectin-2). IL-17-mediated protective immune response is essential for oral mucosal immunity to C. albicans infection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Living History: Elsworth R. Buskirk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History of Physiology Archival Program to recognize senior members who have made significant contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and the profession of physiology. Subsequently, the leadership of the APS Section of Environmental and Exercise…

  10. a History of Funding for WOMEN’S Programs at the National Science Foundation: from Individual Powre Approaches to the Advance of Institutional Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Sue V.; Lane, Eliesh O'neil

    The biennial reports on women, minorities, and persons with disabilities produced by the National Science Foundation (NSF) because of congressional mandate laid the statistical foundation for NSF initiatives to redress the underrepresentation of these groups. Programs established in the 1980s such as Research Opportunities for Women, Visiting Professorships for Women, Graduate Fellowships for Women, and Career Advancement Awards provided support to individual women for their research. In the 1990s, the NSF also began to focus on systemic initiatives, creating the Program for Women and Girls, although it continued to address the problem through support of individual researchers in the newly created Professional Opportunities for Women in Research and Education (POWRE) initiative. The responses from more than 400 awardees during the 4 years of POWRE provide insights into the current issues these women perceive surrounding their grants, funding, and interactions with NSF bureaucracy and staff members. The results of the POWRE survey support the institutional, systemic thrust of the NSF’s new ADVANCE initiative to attempt to solve problems such as balancing career and family that cannot be addressed solely by supporting research projects of individual female scientists and engineers.

  11. Geologic mapping of Kentucky; a history and evaluation of the Kentucky Geological Survey--U.S. Geological Survey Mapping Program, 1960-1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressman, Earle Rupert; Noger, Martin C.

    1981-01-01

    In 1960, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Kentucky Geological Survey began a program to map the State geologically at a scale of 1:24,000 and to publish the maps as 707 U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Quadrangle Maps. Fieldwork was completed by the spring of 1977, and all maps were published by December 1978. Geologic mapping of the State was proposed by the Kentucky Society of Professional Engineers in 1959. Wallace W. Hagan, Director and State Geologist of the Kentucky Geological Survey, and Preston McGrain, Assistant State Geologist, promoted support for the proposal among organizations such as Chambers of Commerce, industrial associations, professional societies, and among members of the State government. It was also arranged for the U.S. Geological Survey to supply mapping personnel and to publish the maps; the cost would be shared equally by the two organizations. Members of the U.S. Geological Survey assigned to the program were organized as the Branch of Kentucky Geology. Branch headquarters, including an editorial staff, was at Lexington, Ky., but actual mapping was conducted from 18 field offices distributed throughout the State. The Publications Division of the U.S. Geological Survey established a cartographic office at Lexington to prepare the maps for publication. About 260 people, including more than 200 professionals, were assigned to the Branch of Kentucky Geology by the U.S. Geological Survey at one time or another. The most geologists assigned any one year was 61. To complete the mapping and ancillary studies, 661 professional man-years were required, compared with an original estimate of 600 man-years. A wide variety of field methods were used, but most geologists relied on the surveying altimeter to obtain elevations. Surface data were supplemented by drill-hole records, and several dozen shallow diamond-drill holes were drilled to aid the mapping. Geologists generally scribed their own maps, with a consequent saving of publication costs

  12. Work Group report: oral food challenge testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna; Assa'ad, Amal H; Bahna, Sami L; Bock, S Allan; Sicherer, Scott H; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2009-06-01

    Oral food challenges are procedures conducted by allergists/immunologists to make an accurate diagnosis of immediate, and occasionally delayed, adverse reactions to foods. The timing of the challenge is carefully chosen based on the individual patient history and the results of skin prick tests and food specific serum IgE values. The type of the challenge is determined by the history, the age of the patient, and the likelihood of encountering subjective reactions. The food challenge requires preparation of the patient for the procedure and preparation of the office for the organized conduct of the challenge, for a careful assessment of the symptoms and signs and the treatment of reactions. The starting dose, the escalation of the dosing, and the intervals between doses are determined based on experience and the patient's history. The interpretation of the results of the challenge and arrangements for follow-up after a challenge are important. A negative oral food challenge result allows introduction of the food into the diet, whereas a positive oral food challenge result provides a sound basis for continued avoidance of the food.

  13. Las fuentes orales en la Enseñanza Superior. // Oral sources in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Trigueros Gordillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available (ES El interés por la historia presente ha llevado a considerar la historia oral como una herramienta que trasciende la investigación histórica para convertirse en una práctica de creación de patrimonio histórico. Planteamos la necesidad de utilizarlo como recurso docente y de su conservación. Parte de un marco teórico que enmarca el concepto y caracteres de las fuentes orales, sus posibilidades didácticas en las materias relacionadas con la Historia de la educación, como medio para la recuperación de la memoria escolar. Para ello se presenta el instrumento de recogida de datos, el análisis y una muestra de los resultados. // (EN People interest in the present history has led to consider the oral history as a tool that transcends the historical research to become a practice of historical heritage creation. We raise the need to use it as a teaching resource and to provide its preservation. It is based on a theoretical framework that frames the concept and characters from oral sources and its educational possibilities in matters related to the History of Education, as a way for the recovery of memory concerning schools. For that reason, the author introduces the instrument of data collection, the analysis of the subject and a sample of the results.

  14. «Monetary Program» of Ancient Greek Olympic Games (History and British Historiography of the XIX – Early ХХ Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Gzhibovskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Commemorative coins are one of the attributes of the modern Olympic movement, relating to the category of «Games Product». Monetary program “Sochi 2014”, realized since 2011 is one of the most extensive and design diversified. The tradition to stamp out coins in the host city of the Olympic Games was established in Ancient Greece. They served not only as a means of exchange or as a store of value, ancient Greeks managed to make them works of art. Ancient authors’ data, concerning coinage site, time and type don’t give an accurate account of the coins we can reasonably call the “Olympic” ones. This problem has been solved by numismatologists from late XVIII century through the present. Their views of ancient “monetary program” differ. This article is focused on the special character of these discrepancies both in historical records and historiography

  15. Integrating Preclinical and Clinical Oral Diagnosis and Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodus, Nelson L.; Brand, John W.

    1988-01-01

    A program providing second-year dental students with early experience in direct patient contact in an oral diagnosis/oral radiology clinic was well received by both students and faculty and was found to develop desirable skills and qualities in the students participating. (MSE)

  16. Oral Health Promotion in Schools: Rationale and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizito, Alex; Caitlin, Meredith; Wang, Yili; Kasangaki, Arabat; Macnab, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explain the rationale and potential for the WHO health promoting schools (HPS) to improve children's oral health, and describe validated quantitative methodologies and qualitative approaches to measure program impact. Design/Methodology/Approach: Critical discussion of the impact of poor oral health and…

  17. Building Oral Language and Vocabulary through the Use of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorquodale, Gwenyth J.; Kirkland, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Children are coming to classrooms across the United States with a need to develop their oral language. With the increased promotion of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, commercialized programs are being provided for teachers to use to build oral language in their students. The authors believe that schools and teachers can best enhance…

  18. A Validation Study of the Student Oral Proficiency Assessment (SOPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lynn E.; Kenyon, Dorry M.; Rhodes, Nancy C.

    This study validated the Student Oral Proficiency Assessment (SOPA), an oral proficiency instrument designed for students in elementary foreign language programs. Elementary students who were tested with the SOPA were also administered other instruments designed to measure proficiency. These instruments included the Stanford Foreign Language Oral…

  19. Celebrate Women's History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Carolyn M.; Baradar, Mariam

    This teachers' guide to activities celebrating Women's History Month focuses on women whose important contributions have been omitted from history textbooks. Women's History Month grew from a 1977 celebration of Women's History Week and is intended to bring women's history into the school curriculum. International Women's Day, celebrated on March…

  20. Preditores para o câncer oral no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    RIBEIRO, Isabella Lima Arrais; NÓBREGA, Johnys Berton Medeiros da; VALENÇA, Ana Maria Gondim; CASTRO, Ricardo Dias de

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The incidence of lip, oral cavity and oropharynx cancer in Brazil is one of the highest worldwide. Objective This study aimed to identify predictors for oral cancer in Brazil between 2010 and 2013. Method Through a time series study in which 14,959 primary head and neck cancer diagnoses were evaluated. The variables of interest were gender, age, race, education level, family history of cancer, alcohol consumption, smoking, and previous cancer diagnosis. The outcome va...