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Sample records for oral cancer cells

  1. Oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... National Cancer Institute. PDQ lip and oral cavity cancer ... September 25, 2015. www.cancer.gov/types/head-and-neck/hp/lip- ...

  2. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...

  3. Dormancy activation mechanism of oral cavity cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Li, Xin; Zhao, Baohong; Shang, Dehao; Zhong, Ming; Deng, Chunfu; Jia, Xinshan

    2015-07-01

    Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are targeted primarily at rapidly proliferating cancer cells and are unable to eliminate cancer stem cells in the G0 phase. Thus, these treatments cannot prevent the recurrence and metastasis of cancer. Understanding the mechanisms by which cancer stem cells are maintained in the dormant G0 phase, and how they become active is key to developing new cancer therapies. The current study found that the anti-cancer drug 5-fluorouracil, acting on the oral squamous cell carcinoma KB cell line, selectively killed proliferating cells while sparing cells in the G0 phase. Bisulfite sequencing PCR showed that demethylation of the Sox2 promoter led to the expression of Sox2. This then resulted in the transformation of cancer stem cells from the G0 phase to the division stage and suggested that the transformation of cancer stem cells from the G0 phase to the division stage is closely related to an epigenetic modification of the cell.

  4. 5-Fluorouracil-induced apoptosis in cultured oral cancer cells.

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    Tong, D; Poot, M; Hu, D; Oda, D

    2000-03-01

    Chemotherapy is commonly used to treat advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and is known to kill cancer cells through apoptosis. Our hypothesis states that 5-fluorouracil (5FU) also kills cultured oral epithelial cells through programmed cell death or apoptosis. Cultured oral cancer cells were exposed to an optimum dose of 20 mg/ml of 5FU. Cells were analyzed for changes in cell cycle distribution and induction of cell death including apoptosis. Normal control, human papilloma virus-immortalized (PP), ATCC SCC cell line (CA1) and two primary oral SCC cell lines (CA3 and -4) were studied. Inhibition of apoptosis by a pan-caspase inhibitor was used. SYTO 11 flow cytometry showed increased apoptosis in all 5FU-treated cell cultures compared to untreated controls. The results show biological variation in apoptotic response. CA1 had the lowest apoptotic rate of the cancer cell lines at 1.5%. Next lowest was CA3, followed by CA4 and PP. In addition, alteration in the G1 and S phase fractions were found. Untreated CA1 showed 28% G1, 53% S compared to 43% G1, and 40% S of treated. We investigated the pathway of apoptosis using the pan-caspase inhibitor IDN-1529 by methylthiazolyl diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric analysis. Results showed mild inhibition of cell death when cells were incubated with 50 microM IDN-1529 for 24 h. This suggests a probable caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. In conclusion, our data suggest that 5FU induces oral cancer cell death through apoptosis and that biological variation exists between normal and cancer cells and between different types of cancer cells themselves. Our data indicate that cultures of a useful in vitro model for chemosensitivity assays are possible. Our results also suggest a caspase-dependent pathway for chemocytotoxicity in oral SCC.

  5. ORAL-THERAPY FOR SMALL-CELL LUNG-CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    POSTMUS, PE; SMIT, EF

    After a remarkable improvement of the very poor prognosis of small cell lung cancer with very simple therapy such as iv and oral cyclophosphamide the role of oral therapy has become minimal. However, since more than a decade results of combination chemotherapy are at a plateau and it is necessary to

  6. Characterization of transformation related genes in oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, D D; Park, N H; Denny, C T; Nelson, S F; Pe, M

    1998-04-16

    A cDNA representational difference analysis (cDNA-RDA) and an arrayed filter technique were used to characterize transformation-related genes in oral cancer. From an initial comparison of normal oral epithelial cells and a human papilloma virus (HPV)-immortalized oral epithelial cell line, we obtained 384 differentially expressed gene fragments and arrayed them on a filter. Two hundred and twelve redundant clones were identified by three rounds of back hybridization. Sequence analysis of the remaining clones revealed 99 unique clones corresponding to 69 genes. The expression of these transformation related gene fragments in three nontumorigenic HPV-immortalized oral epithelial cell lines and three oral cancer cell lines were simultaneously monitored using a cDNA array hybridization. Although there was a considerable cell line-to-cell line variability in the expression of these clones, a reliable prediction of their expression could be made from the cDNA array hybridization. Our study demonstrates the utility of combining cDNA-RDA and arrayed filters in high-throughput gene expression difference analysis. The differentially expressed genes identified in this study should be informative in studying oral epithelial cell carcinogenesis.

  7. Danshen extract circumvents drug resistance and represses cell growth in human oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Yu; Hsieh, Cheng-Chih; Lin, Chih-Kung; Lin, Chun-Shu; Peng, Bo; Lin, Gu-Jiun; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Chang, Wen-Liang; Chen, Yuan-Wu

    2017-12-29

    Danshen is a common traditional Chinese medicine used to treat neoplastic and chronic inflammatory diseases in China. However, the effects of Danshen on human oral cancer cells remain relatively unknown. This study investigated the antiproliferative effects of a Danshen extract on human oral cancer SAS, SCC25, OEC-M1, and KB drug-resistant cell lines and elucidated the possible underlying mechanism. We investigated the anticancer potential of the Danshen extract in human oral cancer cell lines and an in vivo oral cancer xenograft mouse model. The expression of apoptosis-related molecules was evaluated through Western blotting, and the concentration of in vivo apoptotic markers was measured using immunohistochemical staining. The antitumor effects of 5-fluorouracil and the Danshen extract were compared. Cell proliferation assays revealed that the Danshen extract strongly inhibited oral cancer cell proliferation. Cell morphology studies revealed that the Danshen extract inhibited the growth of SAS, SCC25, and OEC-M1 cells by inducing apoptosis. The Flow cytometric analysis indicated that the Danshen extract induced cell cycle G0/G1 arrest. Immunoblotting analysis for the expression of active caspase-3 and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein indicated that Danshen extract-induced apoptosis in human oral cancer SAS cells was mediated through the caspase pathway. Moreover, the Danshen extract significantly inhibited growth in the SAS xenograft mouse model. Furthermore, the Danshen extract circumvented drug resistance in KB drug-resistant oral cancer cells. The study results suggest that the Danshen extract could be a potential anticancer agent in oral cancer treatment.

  8. Oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, S J

    1990-01-01

    In the U.S. oral cancer accounts for 2.1% of all cancers and 1% of cancer deaths. Two to three times as many males as females are affected. Blacks have more intra-oral cancer than whites, and their incidence and mortality rates have increased in recent years. The etiologic process very likely involves several factors. The major etiologic agents are tobacco (all types) and alcoholic beverages. Herpes simplex virus, human papilloma virus, and Candida have been implicated. Host factors include poor state of dentition, nutritional aberrations, cirrhosis of liver, lichen planus, and immunologic impairmant. Cellular changes include amplification of some oncogenes, alterations in antigen expression, production of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and disturbance of keratin and involucrin production. Experimentally, cancer is readily produced on the hamster cheek pouch and rat oral mucosa. Unlike oral cancer in humans, most experimental lesions are exophytic, and they rarely metastasize.

  9. NEDD 4 binding protein 2-like 1 promotes cancer cell invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahira, Tomonori; Kurihara, Miyako; Nishiguchi, Yukiko; Fujiwara, Rina; Kirita, Tadaaki; Kuniyasu, Hiroki

    2016-08-01

    Head and neck cancer, including oral squamous cell carcinoma, is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Although cancer cell invasion and metastasis are crucial for tumor progression, detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the invasion and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma are unclear. Comparison of transcriptional profiles using a cDNA microarray demonstrated that N4BP2L1, a novel oncogene expressed by neural precursor cells, is involved in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Expression of N4BP2L1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma is regulated by activation of miR-448 and is higher than in normal oral mucosa. Knockdown of N4BP2L1 and upregulation of miR-448 significantly reduced the invasive potential of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. We studied N4BP2L1 expression in 187 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma and found its overexpression to be significantly associated with nodal metastasis (P = 0.0155) and poor prognosis (P = 0.0136). Expression of miR-448 was found to be inversely associated with that of N4BP2L1 (P = 0.0019). Cox proportional hazards analysis identified N4BP2L1 expression as an independent predictor of disease-free survival (P = 0.0349). Our results suggest that N4BP2L1 plays an important role in tumor cell invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Further studies on expression of N4BP2L1 may provide new insight into its function and clarify its potential as biomarker in human oral cancer.

  10. Comparative proteomics analysis of oral cancer cell lines: identification of cancer associated proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A limiting factor in performing proteomics analysis on cancerous cells is the difficulty in obtaining sufficient amounts of starting material. Cell lines can be used as a simplified model system for studying changes that accompany tumorigenesis. This study used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to compare the whole cell proteome of oral cancer cell lines vs normal cells in an attempt to identify cancer associated proteins. Results Three primary cell cultures of normal cells with a limited lifespan without hTERT immortalization have been successfully established. 2DE was used to compare the whole cell proteome of these cells with that of three oral cancer cell lines. Twenty four protein spots were found to have changed in abundance. MALDI TOF/TOF was then used to determine the identity of these proteins. Identified proteins were classified into seven functional categories – structural proteins, enzymes, regulatory proteins, chaperones and others. IPA core analysis predicted that 18 proteins were related to cancer with involvements in hyperplasia, metastasis, invasion, growth and tumorigenesis. The mRNA expressions of two proteins – 14-3-3 protein sigma and Stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 – were found to correlate with the corresponding proteins’ abundance. Conclusions The outcome of this analysis demonstrated that a comparative study of whole cell proteome of cancer versus normal cell lines can be used to identify cancer associated proteins. PMID:24422745

  11. Essentials of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators.

  12. Oral Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decrease the risk of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. Oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer are diseases in ... and treatment of oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer: Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention Lip and Oral ...

  13. Oral epithelial stem cells – implications in normal development and cancer metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagerakis, Silvana; Pannone, Giuseppe; Zheng, Li; About, Imad; Taqi, Nawar; Nguyen, Nghia P.T.; Matossian, Margarite; McAlpin, Blake; Santoro, Angela; McHugh, Jonathan; Prince, Mark E.; Papagerakis, Petros

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucosa is continuously exposed to environmental forces and has to be constantly renewed. Accordingly, the oral mucosa epithelium contains a large reservoir of epithelial stem cells necessary for tissue homeostasis. Despite considerable scientific advances in stem cell behavior in a number of tissues, fewer studies have been devoted to the stem cells in the oral epithelium. Most of oral mucosa stem cells studies are focused on identifying cancer stem cells (CSC) in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) among other head and neck cancers. OSCCs are the most prevalent epithelial tumors of the head and neck region, marked by their aggressiveness and invasiveness. Due to their highly tumorigenic properties, it has been suggested that CSC may be the critical population of cancer cells in the development of OSCC metastasis. This review presents a brief overview of epithelium stem cells with implications in oral health, and the clinical implications of the CSC concept in OSCC metastatic dissemination. PMID:24803391

  14. Selaginellatamariscina attenuates metastasis via Akt pathways in oral cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Sin Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crude extracts of Selaginellatamariscina, an oriental medicinal herb, have been evidenced to treat several human diseases. This study investigated the mechanisms by which Selaginellatamariscina inhibits the invasiveness of human oral squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC HSC-3 cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein, we demonstrate that Selaginellatamariscina attenuated HSC-3 cell migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. The anti-metastatic activities of Selaginellatamariscina occurred at least partially because of the down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9 gelatinase activity and the down-regulation of protein expression. The expression and function of both MMP-2 and MMP-9 were regulated by Selaginellatamariscina at a transcriptional level, as shown by quantitative real-time PCR and reporter assays. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP data further indicated that binding of the cAMP response element-binding (CREB protein and activating protein-1 (AP-1 to the MMP-2 promoter diminished at the highest dosage level of Selaginellatamariscina. The DNA-binding activity of specificity protein 1 (SP-1 to the MMP-9 promoter was also suppressed at the same concentration. Selaginellatamariscina did not affect the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, but did inhibit the effects of gelatinase by reducing the activation of serine-threonine kinase Akt. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Selaginellatamariscina may be a potent adjuvant therapeutic agent in the prevention of oral cancer.

  15. Two Unusual Cases of Oral Lichen Planus Arising After Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Can Oral Cancer Trigger Autoimmunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissi, Davide Bartolomeo; Asioli, Sofia; Gabusi, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system fails to recognize self-antigens expressed on the body's own cells and attacks them. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic autoimmune mucocutaneous disease of the oral cavity characterized by white/red lesions. Considered a potentially malignant disorder, OLP evolution into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is still a matter of debate. While chronic autoimmune inflammation is considered a potential risk factor for malignant transformation in many solid tumors, the opposite idea that cancer may trigger autoimmune responses remains controversial. We describe 2 patients who developed lesions clinically suggestive of OLP with histological evidence of lichenoid infiltration some time after OSCC removal, even in areas far from the neoplastic site. Neither patient had OLP before the diagnosis of OSCC, or reported exposure to OLP-associated etiologic factors, and neither. experienced tumor recurrence during follow-up. Our findings suggest that oral cancer remission may be linked to OLP development, but further studies are necessary to unveil the underlying mechanisms and possible prognostic implications.

  16. Cancer stem cell markers in patterning differentiation and in prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Simple; Siddappa, Gangotri; Valiyaveedan, Sindhu Govindan; Dodda Thimmasandra Ramanjanappa, Ravindra; Das, Debashish; Pandian, Ramanan; Khora, Samanta Sekhar; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham; Suresh, Amritha

    2017-06-01

    Differentiation is a major histological parameter determining tumor aggressiveness and prognosis of the patient; cancer stem cells with their slow dividing and undifferentiated nature might be one of the factors determining the same. This study aims to correlate cancer stem cell markers (CD44 and CD147) with tumor differentiation and evaluate their subsequent effect on prognosis. Immunohistochemical analysis in treatment naïve oral cancer patients (n = 53) indicated that the expression of CD147 was associated with poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (p squamous cell carcinoma and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma patients were CD44 high /CD147 high as compared to only 10% of patients with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. A three-way analysis indicated that differentiation correlated with recurrence and survival (p oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines originating from different grades of oral cancer. Flowcytometry-based analysis indicated an increase in CD44 + /CD147 + cells in cell lines of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (94.35 ± 1.14%, p squamous cell carcinoma origin (93.49 ± 0.47%, p squamous cell carcinoma origin (23.12% ± 0.49%). Expression profiling indicated higher expression of cancer stem cell and epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers in SCC029B (poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma originated; p ≤ 0.001), which was further translated into increased spheroid formation, migration, and invasion (p squamous cell carcinoma origin. This study suggests that CD44 and CD147 together improve the prognostic efficacy of tumor differentiation; in vitro results further point out that these markers might be determinant of differentiation characteristics, imparting properties of increased self-renewal, migration, and invasion.

  17. Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Mutational Profile in Taiwanese Population | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a major oral cancer subtype that is the fourth most common cancer affecting Taiwanese men. Despite known risk behaviors such as cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and betel nut chewing often indulged by Taiwanese men, the genetic contribution to the incidence or progression of OSCC has yet been elucidated in the Taiwanese population.

  18. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from normal gingival tissue inhibit the proliferation of oral cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoli; Zhang, Zhihui; Han, Ying; Song, Jiangyuan; Xu, Xiangliang; Jin, Jianqiu; Su, Sha; Mu, Dongdong; Liu, Xiaodan; Xu, Si; Cui, Hongwei; Zhao, Zhongfang; Wang, Yixiang; Liu, Hongwei

    2016-11-01

    The interplay between tumor cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) within tumor microenvironment plays a significant role in tumor development, and thus might be exploited for therapeutic intervention. In this study, we isolated MSCs from normal gingival tissue (GMSCs), and detected the effect of GMSCs on oral cancer cells via direct co-culture and indirect co-culture systems. The cell proliferation assay of direct co-culture showed that GMSCs could inhibit the growth of oral cancer cells. Conditioned medium derived from GMSCs (GMSCs-CM) also exerted an anticancer effect, which indicates that soluble factors in GMSCs-CM played a dominant role in GMSCs-induced cancer cell growth inhibition. To investigate the mechanism, we performed apoptosis assay by flow cytometry, and confirmed that cancer cell apoptosis induced by GMSCs could be a reason for the effect of GMSCs on the growth of oral cancer cells. Western blotting also confirmed that GMSCs could upregulate expression of pro-apoptotic genes including p-JNK, cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase-3, Bax expression and downregulate proliferation- and anti-apoptosis-related gene expression such as p-ERK1/2, Bcl-2, CDK4, cyclin D1, PCNA and survivin. Importantly, the inhibitory effect of GMSCs on cancer cells can partially be restored by blockade of JNK pathway. Moreover, animal studies showed that GMSCs exerted an anticancer effect after oral cancer cells and GMSCs were co-injected with oral cancer cells. Taken together, our data suggest that GMSCs can suppress oral cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo via altering the surrounding microenvironment of oral cancer cells, which indicates that GMSCs have a potential use in the management of oral dysplasia and oral cancer in future.

  19. Syndecan-1 suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition and migration in human oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; He, Jinting; Zhao, Xiaoming; Qi, Tianyang; Zhang, Tianfu; Kong, Chenfei

    2018-04-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the major processes that contribute to the occurrence of cancer metastasis. EMT has been associated with the development of oral cancer. Syndecan‑1 (SDC1) is a key cell‑surface adhesion molecule and its expression level inversely correlates with tumor differentiation and prognosis. In the present study, we aimed to determine the role of SDC1 in oral cancer progression and investigate the molecular mechanisms through which SDC1 regulates the EMT and invasiveness of oral cancer cells. We demonstrated that basal SDC1 expression levels were lower in four oral cancer cell lines (KB, Tca8113, ACC2 and CAL‑27), than in normal human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Ectopic overexpression of SDC1 resulted in morphological transformation, decreased expression of EMT‑associated markers, as well as decreased migration, invasiveness and proliferation of oral cancer cells. In contrast, downregulation of the expression of SDC1 caused the opposite results. Furthermore, the knockdown of endogenous SDC1 activated the extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) cascade, upregulated the expression of Snail and inhibited the expression of E‑cadherin. In conclusion, our findings revealed that SDC1 suppressed EMT via the modulation of the ERK signaling pathway that, in turn, negatively affected the invasiveness of human oral cancer cells. Our results provided useful evidence about the potential use of SDC1 as a molecular target for therapeutic interventions in human oral cancer.

  20. Extracellular Ca(2+)-dependent enhancement of cytocidal potency of zoledronic acid in human oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Sayaka; Arai, Naoya; Tomihara, Kei; Takashina, Michinori; Hattori, Yuichi; Noguchi, Makoto

    2015-08-15

    Direct antitumor effects of bisphosphonates (BPs) have been demonstrated in various cancer cells in vitro. However, the effective concentrations of BPs are typically much higher than their clinically relevant concentrations. Oral cancers frequently invade jawbone and may lead to the release of Ca(2+) in primary lesions. We investigated the effects of the combined application of zoledronic acid (ZA) and Ca(2+) on proliferation and apoptosis of oral cancer cells. Human oral cancer cells, breast cancer cells, and colon cancer cells were treated with ZA at a wide range of concentrations in different Ca(2+) concentration environments. Under a standard Ca(2+) concentration (0.6mM), micromolar concentrations of ZA were required to inhibit oral cancer cell proliferation. Increasing extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations greatly enhanced the potency of the ZA cytocidal effect. The ability of Ca(2+) to enhance the cytocidal effects of ZA was negated by the Ca(2+)-selective chelator EGTA. In contrast, the cytocidal effect of ZA was less pronounced in breast and colon cancer cells regardless of whether extracellular Ca(2+) was elevated. In oral cancer cells incubated with 1.6mM Ca(2+), ZA up-regulated mitochondrial Bax expression and increased mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. This was associated with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and increased release of cytochrome c. We suggest that ZA can specifically produce potent cytocidal activity in oral cancer cells in an extracellular Ca(2+)-dependent manner, implying that BPs may be useful for treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma with jawbone invasion leading to the hypercalcemic state. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. miR-494 represses HOXA10 expression and inhibits cell proliferation in oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libório-Kimura, Tatiana N; Jung, Hyun Min; Chan, Edward K L

    2015-02-01

    miR-494 was identified as a candidate of the most significantly underexpressed microRNAs (miRNAs) in our oral cancer screen. The aim of this study was to validate whether miR-494 has a functional role in oral cancer. Quantitative miRNA analyses were performed on oral tumor RNA and oral cancer cell lines. HOXA10 was selected for further analysis based on bioinformatics analysis of miR-494 targets and a previous report of overexpression of HOXA10 in oral cancer. Transient transfection of miRNA-mimic and inhibitor were performed in SCC-25 (tongue), CAL 27 (tongue), and FaDu (pharynx) cancer cells and regulation of HOXA10 by miR-494 was investigated. Dual luciferase assay was used to verify the interaction between miR-494 and HOXA10 in reporter cells. The effect of miR-494 on cell proliferation was examined. Our data showed that miR-494 was underexpressed whereas HOXA10 was overexpressed in oral cancer compared to normal tissues. An inverse correlation between miR-494 and HOXA10 was observed in the human tissues (pcancer cell lines significantly reduced the expression of HOXA10 mRNA. The luciferase reporter that contains the 3'UTR of HOXA10 showed a significantly reduced luciferase activity by miR-494 indicating a direct interaction between HOXA10 and miR-494. Significant reduction in cell proliferation was demonstrated in tongue cancer cells transfected with miR-494. miR-494 repressed the expression of HOXA10 and also reduced the proliferation of oral cancer cells. These data give more evidence of the role of miR-494 as a tumor suppressor miRNA in oral cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cardiotoxin III Inhibits Proliferation and Migration of Oral Cancer Cells through MAPK and MMP Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yu Yen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiotoxin III (CTXIII, isolated from the snake venom of Formosan cobra Naja naja atra, has previously been found to induce apoptosis in many types of cancer. Early metastasis is typical for the progression of oral cancer. To modulate the cell migration behavior of oral cancer is one of the oral cancer therapies. In this study, the possible modulating effect of CTXIII on oral cancer migration is addressed. In the example of oral squamous carcinoma Ca9-22 cells, the cell viability was decreased by CTXIII treatment in a dose-responsive manner. In wound-healing assay, the cell migration of Ca9-22 cells was attenuated by CTXIII in a dose- and time-responsive manner. After CTXIII treatment, the MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein expressions were downregulated, and the phosphorylation of JNK and p38-MAPK was increased independent of ERK phosphorylation. In conclusion, CTXIII has antiproliferative and -migrating effects on oral cancer cells involving the p38-MAPK and MMP-2/-9 pathways.

  3. Interleukin-6 secreted by oral cancer- associated fibroblast accelerated VEGF expression in tumor and stroma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkeshavarz, M; Ganjibakhsh, M; Aminishakib, P; Farzaneh, P; Mahdavi, N; Vakhshiteh, F; Karimi, A; Gohari, N S; Kamali, F; Kharazifard, M J; Shahzadeh Fazeli, S A; Nasimian, A

    2017-10-31

    Oral cancer represents the sixth most common cancer type worldwide. Patients with oral cancer express high levels of IL-6 which is associated with very poor prognosis. Previous studies illustrated that IL-6 cytokine induces angiogenesis. It has also been reported that the presence of Cancer- Associated Fibroblasts (CAFs) is essential for angiogenesis. In this study, we examined the correlation between IL-6 and CAF and the role of this correlation on VEGF production. In this study, quantitative expression level of IL-6 and VEGF in CAF and Oral Cancer Cells (OCCs) examined through Real Time PCR and ELISA and western blot analysis. In addition, maintenance and retention of IL-6 and VEGF checked out in co-culture experiment of CAF and OCC cells. These experiments demonstrated that in oral cancer, CAF cell line secretes significantly more IL-6 than OCC. Also IL-6 is a factor that causes VEGF secretion in CAF cell line. CAF is the basic and the most essential source for producing IL-6 in patients with oral cancer. Secreted IL-6 is able to induce VEGF production in both CAF and OCCs. Correlation between CAF, IL-6 and VEGF could be considered as an approach for cancer therapy.

  4. CXCL2 synthesized by oral squamous cell carcinoma is involved in cancer-associated bone destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oue, Erika; Lee, Ji-Won; Sakamoto, Kei; Iimura, Tadahiro; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Kayamori, Kou; Michi, Yasuyuki; Yamashiro, Masashi; Harada, Kiyoshi; Amagasa, Teruo; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Oral cancer cells synthesize CXCL2. ► CXCL2 synthesized by oral cancer is involved in osteoclastogenesis. ► CXCL2-neutralizing antibody inhibited osteoclastogenesis induced by oral cancer cells. ► We first report the role of CXCL2 in cancer-associated bone destruction. -- Abstract: To explore the mechanism of bone destruction associated with oral cancer, we identified factors that stimulate osteoclastic bone resorption in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Two clonal cell lines, HSC3-C13 and HSC3-C17, were isolated from the maternal oral cancer cell line, HSC3. The conditioned medium from HSC3-C13 cells showed the highest induction of Rankl expression in the mouse stromal cell lines ST2 and UAMS-32 as compared to that in maternal HSC3 cells and HSC3-C17 cells, which showed similar activity. The conditioned medium from HSC3-C13 cells significantly increased the number of osteoclasts in a co-culture with mouse bone marrow cells and UAMS-32 cells. Xenograft tumors generated from these clonal cell lines into the periosteal region of the parietal bone in athymic mice showed that HSC3-C13 cells caused extensive bone destruction and a significant increase in osteoclast numbers as compared to HSC3-C17 cells. Gene expression was compared between HSC3-C13 and HSC3-C17 cells by using microarray analysis, which showed that CXCL2 gene was highly expressed in HSC3-C13 cells as compared to HSC3-C17 cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the localization of CXCL2 in human oral squamous cell carcinomas. The increase in osteoclast numbers induced by the HSC3-C13-conditioned medium was dose-dependently inhibited by addition of anti-human CXCL2-neutralizing antibody in a co-culture system. Recombinant CXCL2 increased the expression of Rankl in UAMS-32 cells. These results indicate that CXCL2 is involved in bone destruction induced by oral cancer. This is the first report showing the role of CXCL2 in cancer-associated bone destruction.

  5. CXCL2 synthesized by oral squamous cell carcinoma is involved in cancer-associated bone destruction

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    Oue, Erika [Section of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Section of Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Global Center of Excellence (GCOE) Program, International Research Center for Molecular Science in Tooth and Bone Diseases, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Lee, Ji-Won; Sakamoto, Kei [Section of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Iimura, Tadahiro [Section of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Global Center of Excellence (GCOE) Program, International Research Center for Molecular Science in Tooth and Bone Diseases, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Aoki, Kazuhiro [Section of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Kayamori, Kou [Section of Diagnostic Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Department of Pathology, Ome Municipal General Hospital, Ome, Tokyo (Japan); Michi, Yasuyuki; Yamashiro, Masashi; Harada, Kiyoshi; Amagasa, Teruo [Section of Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Yamaguchi, Akira, E-mail: akira.mpa@tmd.ac.jp [Section of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Global Center of Excellence (GCOE) Program, International Research Center for Molecular Science in Tooth and Bone Diseases, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oral cancer cells synthesize CXCL2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCL2 synthesized by oral cancer is involved in osteoclastogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCL2-neutralizing antibody inhibited osteoclastogenesis induced by oral cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We first report the role of CXCL2 in cancer-associated bone destruction. -- Abstract: To explore the mechanism of bone destruction associated with oral cancer, we identified factors that stimulate osteoclastic bone resorption in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Two clonal cell lines, HSC3-C13 and HSC3-C17, were isolated from the maternal oral cancer cell line, HSC3. The conditioned medium from HSC3-C13 cells showed the highest induction of Rankl expression in the mouse stromal cell lines ST2 and UAMS-32 as compared to that in maternal HSC3 cells and HSC3-C17 cells, which showed similar activity. The conditioned medium from HSC3-C13 cells significantly increased the number of osteoclasts in a co-culture with mouse bone marrow cells and UAMS-32 cells. Xenograft tumors generated from these clonal cell lines into the periosteal region of the parietal bone in athymic mice showed that HSC3-C13 cells caused extensive bone destruction and a significant increase in osteoclast numbers as compared to HSC3-C17 cells. Gene expression was compared between HSC3-C13 and HSC3-C17 cells by using microarray analysis, which showed that CXCL2 gene was highly expressed in HSC3-C13 cells as compared to HSC3-C17 cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the localization of CXCL2 in human oral squamous cell carcinomas. The increase in osteoclast numbers induced by the HSC3-C13-conditioned medium was dose-dependently inhibited by addition of anti-human CXCL2-neutralizing antibody in a co-culture system. Recombinant CXCL2 increased the expression of Rankl in UAMS-32 cells. These results indicate that CXCL2 is involved in bone destruction induced by oral cancer. This is the first

  6. Ethnicity and oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, C; Bedi, R

    2000-09-01

    Oral squamous-cell carcinoma, the main type of oral cancer, is among the ten most common cancers in the world. The aims of this paper were first, to consider whether there was evidence of marked ethnic variations in the incidence, management, and survival of oral cancer, and then, to review possible explanations for these variations. Evidence from the literature suggests that there is marked, inter-country variation in both the incidence and mortality from oral cancer. There is also growing evidence of intracountry ethnic differences, mostly reported in the UK and USA. These variations among ethnic groups have been attributed mainly to specific risk factors, such as alcohol and tobacco (smoking and smokeless), but dietary factors and the existence of genetic predispositions may also play a part. Variations in access to care services are also an apparent factor. The extent of ethnic differences in oral cancer is masked by the scarcity of information available. Where such data are accessible, there are clear disparities in both incidence and mortality of oral cancer between ethnic groups.

  7. Antimetastatic effects of Rheum palmatum L. extract on oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang-Yu; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Chang, Yu-Chao; Chen, Pei-Ni; Yang, Shun-Fa; Ho, Hsin-Yu; Chou, Ying-Erh; Lin, Chiao-Wen

    2017-10-01

    Rheum palmatum L., a traditional Chinese medication, has been used for the treatment of various disorders. However, the detailed impacts and underlying mechanisms of R. palmatum L. extracts (RLEs) on human oral cancer cell metastasis are still unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that an RLE has antimetastatic effects on SCC-9 and SAS human oral cancer cells. Gelatin zymography, Western blot, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and luciferase assay were used to explore the underlying mechanisms involved in the antimetastatic effects on oral cancer cells. Our results revealed that the RLE (up to 20 μg/mL, without cytotoxicity) attenuated SCC-9 and SAS cell motility, invasiveness, and migration by reducing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 enzyme activities. Western blot analysis of the MAPK signaling pathway indicated that the RLE significantly decreased phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels but not p38 and JNK levels. In conclusion, RLEs exhibit antimetastatic activity against oral cancer cells through the transcriptional repression of MMP-2 via the Erk1/2 signaling pathways. Thus, RLEs may be potentially useful as antimetastatic agents for oral cancer chemotherapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. 4β-Hydroxywithanolide E selectively induces oxidative DNA damage for selective killing of oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jen-Yang; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Wang, Hui-Ru; Chan, Ya-Ching; Haung, Jo-Wen; Shu, Chih-Wen; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2018-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction had been previously reported in 4β-hydroxywithanolide (4βHWE)-induced selective killing of oral cancer cells, but the mechanism involving ROS and the DNA damage effect remain unclear. This study explores the role of ROS and oxidative DNA damage of 4βHWE in the selective killing of oral cancer cells. Changes in cell viability, morphology, ROS, DNA double strand break (DSB) signaling (γH2AX foci in immunofluorescence and DSB signaling in western blotting), and oxidative DNA damage (8-oxo-2'deoxyguanosine [8-oxodG]) were detected in 4βHWE-treated oral cancer (Ca9-22) and/or normal (HGF-1) cells. 4βHWE decreased cell viability, changed cell morphology and induced ROS generation in oral cancer cells rather than oral normal cells, which were recovered by a free radical scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC). For immunofluorescence, 4βHWE also accumulated more of the DSB marker, γH2AX foci, in oral cancer cells than in oral normal cells. For western blotting, DSB signaling proteins such as γH2AX and MRN complex (MRE11, RAD50, and NBS1) were overexpressed in 4βHWE-treated oral cancer cells in different concentrations and treatment time. In the formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycolyase (Fpg)-based comet assay and 8-oxodG-based flow cytometry, the 8-oxodG expressions were higher in 4βHWE-treated oral cancer cells than in oral normal cells. All the 4βHWE-induced DSB and oxidative DNA damage to oral cancer cells were recovered by NAC pretreatment. Taken together, the 4βHWE selectively induced DSB and oxidative DNA damage for the ROS-mediated selective killing of oral cancer cells. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Casticin impairs cell growth and induces cell apoptosis via cell cycle arrest in human oral cancer SCC-4 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Guan-Ling; Peng, Shu-Fen; Liao, Ching-Lung; Ho, Heng-Chien; Lu, Kung-Wen; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Fan, Ming-Jen; La, Kuang-Chi; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2018-02-01

    Casticin, a polymethoxyflavone, present in natural plants, has been shown to have biological activities including anti-cancer activities. Herein, we investigated the anti-oral cancer activity of casticin on SCC-4 cells in vitro. Viable cells, cell cycle distribution, apoptotic cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and Ca 2+ production, levels of ΔΨ m and caspase activity were measured by flow cytometric assay. Cell apoptosis associated protein expressions were examined by Western blotting and confocal laser microscopy. Results indicated that casticin induced cell morphological changes, DNA condensation and damage, decreased the total viable cells, induced G 2 /M phase arrest in SCC-4 cells. Casticin promoted ROS and Ca 2+ productions, decreases the levels of ΔΨ m , promoted caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities in SCC-4 cells. Western blotting assay demonstrated that casticin affect protein level associated with G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis. Confocal laser microscopy also confirmed that casticin increased the translocation of AIF and cytochrome c in SCC-4 cells. In conclusion, casticin decreased cell number through G 2 /M phase arrest and the induction of cell apoptosis through caspase- and mitochondria-dependent pathways in SCC-4 cells. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. MicroRNA-205 suppresses the oral carcinoma oncogenic activity via down-regulation of Axin-2 in KB human oral cancer cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Sung; Park, Sun-Young; Lee, Seul Ah; Park, Min-Gyeong; Yu, Sun-Kyoung; Lee, Myoung-Hwa; Park, Mi-Ra; Kim, Su-Gwan; Oh, Ji-Su; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Chun Sung; Kim, Heung-Joong; Chun, Hong Sung; Kim, Jin-Soo; Moon, Sung-Min; Kim, Do Kyung

    2014-02-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is a small noncoding RNA molecule, 19-25 nucleotides in length, which regulates several pathways including cell development, cell proliferation, carcinogenesis, apoptosis, etc. In this study, the over-expression of microRNA-205 (miR-205) increased the number of apoptotic cells by at least 4 times compared to the control. In addition, over-expressed miRNA in KB oral cancer cells triggered apoptosis via the caspase cascade, including the cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-7, caspase-3, and PARP. Flow cytometry showed that apoptotic cell death was increased significantly by 35.33% in KB oral cancer cells with over-expressed miR-205 compared to the control. The microarray data showed that axis inhibitor protein 2 (Axin2) was down-regulated in KB oral cancer cells transfected with miR-205. In addition, Axin2 was down-regulated by approximately 50% by over-expressed miR-205 at both the mRNA and protein levels. Interestingly, Axin2 was up-regulated in KB oral cancer compared to human normal oral keratinocytes. Furthermore, the cell cytotoxicity and apoptotic population of KB oral cancer cells were increased significantly after Axin2 siRNA transfection. These results suggest that Axin2 is might be as potential oncogene in KB oral cancer cells. The luciferase assay showed that over-expressed miR-205 in KB oral cancer cells suppressed AXIN2 expression through an interaction with its own binding site at AXIN2 3'UTR (64-92). These results suggest that miR-205 is a novel anti-oncogenic miRNA in KB oral cancer cells, and may have potential applications in oral cancer therapy.

  11. Oral cancer/endothelial cell fusion experiences nuclear fusion and acquisition of enhanced survival potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kai; Song, Yong; Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Hui; Wang, Meng; Yan, Ting-lin; Liu, Ke; Shang, Zheng-jun

    2014-01-01

    Most previous studies have linked cancer–macrophage fusion with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the characteristics of hybrid cells derived from oral cancer and endothelial cells and their involvement in cancer remained unknown. Double-immunofluorescent staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to confirm spontaneous cell fusion between eGFP-labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RFP-labeled SCC9, and to detect the expression of vementin and cytokeratin 18 in the hybrids. The property of chemo-resistance of such hybrids was examined by TUNEL assay. The hybrid cells in xenografted tumor were identified by FISH and GFP/RFP dual-immunofluoresence staining. We showed that SCC9 cells spontaneously fused with cocultured endothelial cells, and the resultant hybrid cells maintained the division and proliferation activity after re-plating and thawing. Such hybrids expressed markers of both parental cells and became more resistant to chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin as compared to the parental SCC9 cells. Our in vivo data indicated that the hybrid cells contributed to tumor composition by using of immunostaining and FISH analysis, even though the hybrid cells and SCC9 cells were mixed with 1:10,000, according to the FACS data. Our study suggested that the fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion and acquire a new property of drug resistance and consequently enhanced survival potential. These experimental findings provide further supportive evidence for the theory that cell fusion is involved in cancer progression. - Highlights: • The fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion. • The resulting hybrid cells acquire a new property of drug resistance. • The resulting hybrid cells express the markers of both parental cells (i.e. vimentin and cytokeratin 18). • The hybrid cells contribute to tumor repopulation in vivo

  12. Oral cancer/endothelial cell fusion experiences nuclear fusion and acquisition of enhanced survival potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kai [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong Province (China); The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Song, Yong [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Department of Stomatology, Liu Zhou People' s Hospital, Guangxi (China); Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Hui; Wang, Meng; Yan, Ting-lin [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Liu, Ke, E-mail: liuke.1999@aliyun.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial-Head and Neck oncology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China); The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Shang, Zheng-jun, E-mail: shangzhengjun@hotmail.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial-Head and Neck oncology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China); The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China)

    2014-10-15

    Most previous studies have linked cancer–macrophage fusion with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the characteristics of hybrid cells derived from oral cancer and endothelial cells and their involvement in cancer remained unknown. Double-immunofluorescent staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to confirm spontaneous cell fusion between eGFP-labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RFP-labeled SCC9, and to detect the expression of vementin and cytokeratin 18 in the hybrids. The property of chemo-resistance of such hybrids was examined by TUNEL assay. The hybrid cells in xenografted tumor were identified by FISH and GFP/RFP dual-immunofluoresence staining. We showed that SCC9 cells spontaneously fused with cocultured endothelial cells, and the resultant hybrid cells maintained the division and proliferation activity after re-plating and thawing. Such hybrids expressed markers of both parental cells and became more resistant to chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin as compared to the parental SCC9 cells. Our in vivo data indicated that the hybrid cells contributed to tumor composition by using of immunostaining and FISH analysis, even though the hybrid cells and SCC9 cells were mixed with 1:10,000, according to the FACS data. Our study suggested that the fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion and acquire a new property of drug resistance and consequently enhanced survival potential. These experimental findings provide further supportive evidence for the theory that cell fusion is involved in cancer progression. - Highlights: • The fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion. • The resulting hybrid cells acquire a new property of drug resistance. • The resulting hybrid cells express the markers of both parental cells (i.e. vimentin and cytokeratin 18). • The hybrid cells contribute to tumor repopulation in vivo.

  13. Chromosomal Damage and Apoptosis in Exfoliated Buccal Cells from Individuals with Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, Lavínia Tércia Magalhães; Meireles, José Roberto Cardoso; Lessa, Júlia Paula Ramos; Oliveira, Márcio Campos; de Bragança Pereira, Carlos Alberto; Polpo de Campos, Adriano; Cerqueira, Eneida de Moraes Macílio

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate cytological abnormalities indicative of chromosome damage (micronuclei) and apoptosis (karyorrhexis, pyknosis, and condensed chromatin) in exfoliated cells from the buccal mucosa of patients with oral cancer and control subjects. The sample included twenty individuals with oral cancer and forty individuals with normal buccal mucosa. Material was collected from the cheek epithelium in areas with lesions and areas without abnormalities. A minimum of one thousand cells was analyzed. Micronuclei were found significantly more frequently in cells collected from lesions than in cells from normal areas, independent of the presence/absence of cancer (P < 0.0001). They were also significantly more frequent in smokers and in mouthwash users (P < 0.0001). Apoptosis occurred significantly less frequently in individuals with oral cancer (P < 0.0001). These results show that oral cancer is associated with higher frequency of chromosomal damage and suggest that apoptosis is compromised in the buccal cells of individuals with this kind of neoplasia. PMID:22315605

  14. CD44 and SSEA-4 positive cells in an oral cancer cell line HSC-4 possess cancer stem-like cell characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noto, Zenko; Yoshida, Toshiko; Okabe, Motonori; Koike, Chika; Fathy, Moustafa; Tsuno, Hiroaki; Tomihara, Kei; Arai, Naoya; Noguchi, Makoto; Nikaido, Toshio

    2013-08-01

    Cancer may be derived from cancer stem-like cells (CSCs), which are tumor-initiating cells that have properties similar to those of stem cells. Identification and isolation of CSCs needs to be improved further. CSCs markers were examined in human oral cancer cell lines by flow cytometry. The stem cell properties of subpopulations expressing different markers were assessed further by in vitro sphere formation assays, expression of stemness genes, drug resistance assays, and the ability to form tumors in nude mice. We demonstrated that CSCs could be isolated by the cell surface markers CD44 and stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4). CD44+SSEA-4+ cells exhibited cancer stem-like properties, including extensive self-renewal into the bulk of cancer cells. In vivo xenograft experiments indicated that CD44+SSEA-4+ cells exhibit the highest tumorigenic capacity compared with the remaining subpopulations and parental cells. Double-positive cells for CD44 and SSEA-4 exhibited preferential expression of some stemness genes and were more resistant to the anticancer drugs, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). In addition, cells expressing CD44 and SSEA-4 were detected in all tumor specimens analyzed, while coexpression of CD44 and SSEA-4 was not detectable in normal oral mucosa. Our findings suggest that CD44+SSEA-4+ cells exhibit the characteristics of CSCs in oral squamous cell carcinoma and provide a target for the development of more effective therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Imaging in oral cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, Supreeta; Chaukar, Devendra; Pai, Prathamesh

    2012-01-01

    Oral cavity squamous cell cancers form a significant percentage of the cancers seen in India. While clinical examination allows direct visualization, it cannot evaluate deep extension of disease. Cross-sectional imaging has become the cornerstone in the pretreatment evaluation of these cancers and provides accurate information about the extent and depth of disease that can help decide the appropriate management strategy and indicate prognosis. Early cancers are treated with a single modality, either surgery or radiotherapy while advanced cancers are offered a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Imaging can decide resectability, help plan the precise extent of resection, and indicate whether organ conservation therapy should be offered. Quality of life issues necessitate preservation of form and function and pretreatment imaging helps plan appropriate reconstruction and counsel patients regarding lifestyle changes. Oral cavity has several subsites and the focus of the review is squamous cancers of the gingivobuccal region, oral tongue and retromolar trigone as these are most frequently encountered in the subcontinent. References for this review were identified by searching Medline and PubMed databases. Only articles published in English language literature were selected. This review aims to familiarize the radiologist with the relevant anatomy of the oral cavity, discuss the specific issues that influence prognosis and management at the above subsites, the optimal imaging methods, the role of imaging in accurately staging these cancers and in influencing management. A checklist for reporting will emphasize the information to be conveyed by the radiologist

  16. HPV prevalence in a Mid-European oral squamous cell cancer population: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Torre, Daniel; Burtscher, Doris; Soelder, Elisabeth; Offermanns, Vincent; Rasse, Michael; Puelacher, Wolfgang

    2018-04-29

    HPV infection has been investigated intensively regarding oropharyngeal carcinoma. However, there is still lack of knowledge about the impact of oral HPV infections concerning oral squamous cell carcinoma. The present study investigates the prevalence of oral HPV infection in such patients, identifying possible differences between HPV+ and HPV- patients. 106 consequent patients were investigated. After completion of a study questionnaire regarding risk factors, a brush smear sample was taken in each subject to identify the individual oral HPV status (overall/low risk/high risk). 35.8% of the patients were tested positive for HPV in the oral cavity (14% low risk, 28.3% high risk). Patients with oral HPV infection and high risk HPV infection were significantly younger (pHPV infection. Finally, patients with high risk oral HPV infection had experienced more tooth extractions during their lifetime. Oral HPV infections may influence the course of disease of oral squamous cell carcinoma as HPV+ patients are about 10 years younger. It seems that high alcohol consumption facilitates high risk HPV infection. It may be presumed that both alcohol consumption and high risk oral HPV infection act synergistically, explaining earlier cancer onset. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Proteomic and transcriptomic profiling of in vitro established radiation resistant oral cancer cells for identification of radioresistance related biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yasser; Pawar, Sagar; Teni, Tanuja

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an integral part of oral cancer treatment, either alone or in combination with surgery. But, during radiotherapy, oral tumours of a subset of patients develop radioresistance that creates major obstruction towards its efficacy. The aim of our study was to establish radioresistant cell lines from different oral subsites using clinically admissible low dose radiation and profile them by proteomic and transcriptomic approaches to identify proteins associated with radioresistance in oral cancer

  18. Oral squamous cell carcinoma proliferative phenotype is modulated by proanthocyanidins: a potential prevention and treatment alternative for oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapp Aaron

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the recently reported drop in the overall death rate from cancer, the estimated survival rate and number of deaths from oral cancer remain virtually unchanged. Early detection efforts, in combination with strategies for prevention and risk-reduction, have the potential to dramatically improve clinical outcomes. The identification of non-toxic, effective treatments, including complementary and alternative therapies, is critical if the survival rate is to be improved. Epidemiologic studies have suggested a protective effect from certain plant-derived foods and extracts; however, it has been difficult to isolate and identify the compounds most responsible for these observations. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the response of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC to proanthocyanidin (PAC, a plant-derived compound that may inhibit the progression of several other cancers. Methods Using a series of in vitro assays, we sought to quantify the effects of PAC on OSCC, cervical carcinoma, and non-cancerous cell lines, specifically the effects of PAC on cell proliferation. Recent data suggest that infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV may also modulate the proliferative potential of OSCC; therefore, we also measured the effects of PAC administration on HPV-transfected OSCC proliferation. Results Our results demonstrated that PAC administration was sufficient to significantly suppress cellular proliferation of OSCC in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the increased proliferation of OSCC after transfection with HPV 16 was reduced by the administration of PAC, as was the proliferation of the cervical cancer and non-cancerous cell lines tested. Our results also provide preliminary evidence that PAC administration may induce apoptosis in cervical and oral cancer cell lines, while acting merely to suppress proliferation of the normal cell line control. Conclusion These results signify that PAC may be

  19. The ultrastructural surface morphology of oral cancer cells and keratinocytes after exposure to chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimah; Sarsito, A. S.; Wimardhani, Y. S.

    2017-08-01

    Low-molecular-weight chitosan (LMWC) has the same selective cytotoxic effects on oral cancer cells as cisplatin. The cell deaths caused by the anticancer characteristics of chitosan show that apoptosis is not the death pathway of the primary cells involved. The interactions between LMWC and the cells need to be explored. The objective of this study was to compare the ultrastructural morphology of oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC Ca)-922 and noncancer keratinocyte HaCaT cell lines after exposure to LMWC and cisplatin. The cells were treated with LMWC and cisplatin, and their ultrastructural morphology was analyzed using scanning electron micrographs. Features of early apoptosis, seen as the loss of microvilli, were detected in the LMWC-exposed Ca9-22 cells, and there was a material surrounding the cells. In contrast, the LMWC-exposed HaCaT cells showed no changes related to apoptosis. The results were the opposite when cisplatin was used. This study confirms that there are differences in the ultrastructural surface morphology of LMWC-exposed and cisplatin-exposed oral cancer cells and keratinocytes that could be correlated with their biological activity.

  20. PTHrP promotes malignancy of human oral cancer cell downstream of the EGFR signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Tamaki; Tsuda, Masumi; Ohba, Yusuke; Kawaguchi, Hideaki; Totsuka, Yasunori; Shindoh, Masanobu

    2008-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is detected in many aggressive tumors and involved in malignant conversion; however, the underlying mechanism remains obscure. Here, we identified PTHrP as a mediator of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling to promote the malignancies of oral cancers. PTHrP mRNA was abundantly expressed in most of the quiescent oral cancer cells, and was significantly upregulated by EGF stimulation via ERK and p38 MAPK. PTHrP silencing by RNA interference, as well as EGFR inhibitor AG1478 treatment, significantly suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasiveness. Furthermore, combined treatment of AG1478 and PTHrP knockdown achieved synergistic inhibition of malignant phenotypes. Recombinant PTHrP substantially promoted cell motility, and rescued the inhibition by PTHrP knockdown, suggesting the paracrine/autocrine function of PTHrP. These data indicate that PTHrP contributes to the malignancy of oral cancers downstream of EGFR signaling, and may thus provide a therapeutic target for oral cancer

  1. Oral cancer/endothelial cell fusion experiences nuclear fusion and acquisition of enhanced survival potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kai; Song, Yong; Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Hui; Wang, Meng; Yan, Ting-Lin; Liu, Ke; Shang, Zheng-Jun

    2014-10-15

    Most previous studies have linked cancer-macrophage fusion with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the characteristics of hybrid cells derived from oral cancer and endothelial cells and their involvement in cancer remained unknown. Double-immunofluorescent staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to confirm spontaneous cell fusion between eGFP-labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RFP-labeled SCC9, and to detect the expression of vementin and cytokeratin 18 in the hybrids. The property of chemo-resistance of such hybrids was examined by TUNEL assay. The hybrid cells in xenografted tumor were identified by FISH and GFP/RFP dual-immunofluoresence staining. We showed that SCC9 cells spontaneously fused with cocultured endothelial cells, and the resultant hybrid cells maintained the division and proliferation activity after re-plating and thawing. Such hybrids expressed markers of both parental cells and became more resistant to chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin as compared to the parental SCC9 cells. Our in vivo data indicated that the hybrid cells contributed to tumor composition by using of immunostaining and FISH analysis, even though the hybrid cells and SCC9 cells were mixed with 1:10,000, according to the FACS data. Our study suggested that the fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion and acquire a new property of drug resistance and consequently enhanced survival potential. These experimental findings provide further supportive evidence for the theory that cell fusion is involved in cancer progression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Oral cancer: A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanuthai, K; Rojanawatsirivej, S; Thosaporn, W; Kintarak, S; Subarnbhesaj, A; Darling, M; Kryshtalskyj, E; Chiang, C-P; Shin, H-I; Choi, S-Y; Lee, S-S; Aminishakib, P

    2018-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and clinicopathologic features of the oral cancer patients. Biopsy records of the participating institutions were reviewed for oral cancer cases diagnosed from 2005 to 2014. Demographic data and site of the lesions were collected. Sites of the lesion were subdivided into lip, tongue, floor of the mouth, gingiva, alveolar mucosa, palate, buccal/labial mucosa, maxilla and mandible. Oral cancer was subdivided into 7 categories: epithelial tumors, salivary gland tumors, hematologic tumors, bone tumors, mesenchymal tumors, odontogenic tumors, and others. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS software version 17.0. Of the 474,851 accessioned cases, 6,151 cases (1.30%) were diagnosed in the category of oral cancer. The mean age of the patients was 58.37±15.77 years. A total of 4,238 cases (68.90%) were diagnosed in males, whereas 1911 cases (31.07%) were diagnosed in females. The male-to-female ratio was 2.22:1. The sites of predilection for oral cancer were tongue, labial/buccal mucosa, gingiva, palate, and alveolar mucosa, respectively. The three most common oral cancer in the descending order of frequency were squamous cell carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Although the prevalence of oral cancer is not high compared to other entities, oral cancer pose significant mortality and morbidity in the patients, especially when discovered late in the course of the disease. This study highlights some anatomical locations where oral cancers are frequently encountered. As a result, clinicians should pay attention to not only teeth, but oral mucosa especially in the high prevalence area as well since early detection of precancerous lesions or cancers in the early stage increase the chance of patient being cured and greatly reduce the mortality and morbidity. This study also shows some differences between pediatric and elderly oral cancer patients as well as between Asian and non-Asian oral cancer patients.

  3. Decreased expression of cell adhesion genes in cancer stem-like cells isolated from primary oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Amrendra; Sriram, Harshini; Chandarana, Pinal; Tanavde, Vivek; Kumar, Rekha V; Gopinath, Ashok; Govindarajan, Raman; Ramaswamy, S; Sadasivam, Subhashini

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this study was to isolate cancer stem-like cells marked by high expression of CD44, a putative cancer stem cell marker, from primary oral squamous cell carcinomas and identify distinctive gene expression patterns in these cells. From 1 October 2013 to 4 September 2015, 76 stage III-IV primary oral squamous cell carcinoma of the gingivobuccal sulcus were resected. In all, 13 tumours were analysed by immunohistochemistry to visualise CD44-expressing cells. Expression of CD44 within The Cancer Genome Atlas-Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma RNA-sequencing data was also assessed. Seventy resected tumours were dissociated into single cells and stained with antibodies to CD44 as well as CD45 and CD31 (together referred as Lineage/Lin). From 45 of these, CD44 + Lin - and CD44 - Lin - subpopulations were successfully isolated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and good-quality RNA was obtained from 14 such sorted pairs. Libraries from five pairs were sequenced and the results analysed using bioinformatics tools. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to experimentally validate the differential expression of selected candidate genes identified from the transcriptome sequencing in the same 5 and an additional 9 tumours. CD44 was expressed on the surface of poorly differentiated tumour cells, and within the The Cancer Genome Atlas-Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma samples, its messenger RNA levels were higher in tumours compared to normal. Transcriptomics revealed that 102 genes were upregulated and 85 genes were downregulated in CD44 + Lin - compared to CD44 - Lin - cells in at least 3 of the 5 tumours sequenced. The upregulated genes included those involved in immune regulation, while the downregulated genes were enriched for genes involved in cell adhesion. Decreased expression of PCDH18, MGP, SPARCL1 and KRTDAP was confirmed by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Lower expression of

  4. Potential role of p21 Activated Kinase 1 (PAK1) in the invasion and motility of oral cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvathy, Muraleedharan; Sreeja, Sreeharshan; Kumar, Rakesh; Pillai, Madhavan Radhakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer malignancy consists of uncontrolled division of cells primarily in and around the floor of the oral cavity, gingiva, oropharynx, lower lip and base of the tongue. According to GLOBOCAN 2012 report, oral cancer is one of the most common cancers among males and females in India. Even though significant advancements have been made in the field of oral cancer treatment modalities, the overall prognosis for the patients has not improved in the past few decades and hence, this demands a new thrust for the identification of novel therapeutic targets in oral cancer. p21 Activated Kinases (PAKs) are potential therapeutic targets that are involved in numerous physiological functions. PAKs are serine-threonine kinases and they serve as important regulators of cytoskeletal dynamics and cell motility, transcription through MAP kinase cascades, death and survival signalling, and cell-cycle progression. Although PAKs are known to play crucial roles in cancer progression, the role and clinical significance of PAKs in oral cancer remains poorly understood. Our results suggest that PAK1 is over-expressed in oral cancer cell lines. Stimulation of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) cells with serum growth factors leads to PAK1 re-localization and might cause a profound cytoskeletal remodelling. PAK1 was also found to be involved in the invasion, migration and cytoskeletal remodelling of OSCC cells. Our study revealed that PAK1 may play a crucial role in the progression of OSCC. Studying the role of PAK1 and its substrates is likely to enhance our understanding of oral carcinogenesis and potential therapeutic value of PAKs in oral cancer. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2263-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  5. Treatment of oral cancer cells with nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkovich, James; Han, Xu; Coffey, Benjamin; Klas, Matej; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2012-10-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas are specialized types of plasma that are proposed as a new agent to induce death in cancer cells. The experimental phase of this study will test the application of such plasma to SCC-25 oral cancer cells to determine if it is possible to induce apoptosis or necrosis. Different sources are used on the cells to find a configuration which kills cancer cells but has no effect on normal cells. The sources have been developed based on the dielectric barrier discharge between two external electrodes surrounding a dielectric tube; such a configuration has been shown to induce breaks in DNA strands. Each configuration is characterized using an optical emission spectrophotometer and iCCD camera to determine the optimal conditions for inducing cell death. The cells are incubated after irradiation with plasma, and cell death is determined using microscopy imaging to identify antibody interaction within the cells. These studies are important for better understanding of plasma species interactions with cancer cells and mechanisms of DNA damage and at latter stage they will be useful for the development of advanced cancer therapy.

  6. Genetic etiology of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Johar; Sabiha, Bibi; Jan, Hanif Ullah; Haider, Syed Adnan; Khan, Abid Ali; Ali, Saima S

    2017-07-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. It accounts for 2.5% of all new cancer cases and 1.9% of all cancer deaths annually. More than 90% of oral cancers (occurring in the mouth, lip, and tongue) are oral squamous cell carcinoma. The incidence rate of oral cancer varies widely throughout the world, with an evident prevalence in South Asian countries. This high incidence occurs in correlation with oral cancer-associated behaviors such as alcohol, tobacco use. Researchers have reported that these behaviors lead to genetic variations in tumor suppressor genes (APC, p53), proto-oncogenes (Myc), oncogene (Ras) and genes controlling normal cellular processes (EIF3E, GSTM1). Processes such as segregation of chromosomes, genomic copy number, loss of heterozygosity, telomere stabilities, regulations of cell-cycle checkpoints, DNA damage repairs and defects in notch signaling pathways are involved in causing oral cancer. In order to develop preventive and therapeutic options, it is necessary to comprehend the basic molecular mechanisms forcing oral tumorigenesis. This review examines, in detail, the mechanisms of genetic alteration which are considered to be responsible for the initiation of oral cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Src Family Kinases Mediate Betel Quid-Induced Oral Cancer Cell Motility and Could Be a Biomarker for Early Invasion in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Yi-Fu Chen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Betel quid (BQ-chewing oral cancer is a prevalent disease in many countries of Southeast Asia. Yet, the precise disease mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we show that BQ extract-induced cell motility in three oral cancer cells (Ca9-22, SAS, and SCC9 presumably involves the Src family kinases (SFKs. Besides, BQ extract can markedly induce cell migration of wild type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs but not MEFs lacking three SFK members, namely, Src, Yes, and Fyn, indicating the requirement of SFKs for BQ-induced cell motility. Betel quid extract can also elevate cellular SFK activities because phosphorylation of tyrosine 416 at the catalytic domain is increased, which in turn promotes phosphorylation of an in vitro substrate, enolase. Furthermore, we identified that areca nut, a major component of BQ, is the key factor accounting for BQ-induced cell migration and invasion through SFKs-mediated signaling pathways. Immunohistochemistry revealed that, particularly in BQ-chewing cases, the activity of SFKs was significantly higher in tumor-adjacent mucosa than that in solid tumor areas (P < .01. These results suggest a possible role of SFKs in tumor-host interface and thus in early tumor invasion in vivo. Consistent with this is the observation that activation of SFKs is colocalized with invasive tumor fronts in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Together, we conclude that SFKs may represent a potential biomarker of invasion and therapeutic target in BQ-induced oral cancer.

  8. Curcumin and metformin-mediated chemoprevention of oral cancer is associated with inhibition of cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddappa, Gangotri; Kulsum, Safeena; Ravindra, Doddathimmasandra Ramanjanappa; Kumar, Vinay V; Raju, Nalini; Raghavan, Nisheena; Sudheendra, Holalugunda Vittalamurthy; Sharma, Anupam; Sunny, Sumsum P; Jacob, Tina; Kuruvilla, Binu T; Benny, Merina; Antony, Benny; Seshadri, Mukund; Lakshminarayan, Padma; Hicks, Wesley; Suresh, Amritha; Kuriakose, Moni A

    2017-11-01

    Effective chemoprevention is critical for improving outcomes of oral cancer. As single agents, curcumin and metformin are reported to exhibit chemopreventive properties, in vitro as well as in patients with oral cancer. In this study, the chemopreventive efficacy of this drug combination was tested in a 4-nitro quinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) induced mice oral carcinogenesis model. Molecular analysis revealed a cancer stem cell (CSC)-driven oral carcinogenic progression in this model, wherein a progressive increase in the expression of CSC-specific markers (CD44 and CD133) was observed from 8th to 25th week, at transcript (40-100-fold) and protein levels (P ≤ 0.0001). Chemopreventive treatment of the animals at 17th week with curcumin and metformin indicated that the combination regimen decreased tumor volume when compared to the control arm (0.69+0.03 vs 6.66+2.4 mm 3 ; P = 0.04) and improved overall survival of the animals (P = 0.03). Assessment of the molecular status showed an overall downregulation of CSC markers in the treatment arms as compared to the untreated control. Further, in vitro assessment of the treatment on the primary cells generated from progressive stages of 4NQO-induced mice tissue showed a concordant and consistent downregulation of the CSC markers following combination treatment (P oral squamous cell carcinoma through a CSC-associated mechanism. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to detect oral cancer during your routine dental examinations. Don't risk it. Perform an oral cancer ... oral cancer self-exam each month. An oral examination is performed using a bright light and a ...

  10. [Effects of metformin on human oral cancer KB cell proliferation and apoptosis in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Xu, Jincheng; Xia, Fei; Liu, Zhe; Zhao, Surong; Liu, Hao; Jiang, Zhiwen

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the effects of metformin on the proliferation and apoptosis of human oral cancer cell line KB in vitro. Human oral cancer cell line KB was exposed to different doses of metformin (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mmol/L), and the changes in cell viability were detected using MTT assay. Colony formation of the cells was observed following an 8-day metformin exposure. The changes in mitochondrial membrane potential were measured by JC-1 assay, and PI staining was used to observe the cell apoptosis. Western blotting was employed to detect the changes in the protein expressions of GRP78 and activated caspase-3. Metformin exposure caused time- and dose-dependent suppression of KB cell proliferation, and exposure to 5 mmol/L metformin for 24, 48 and 72 h resulted in cell survival rates of 68.0%, 36.9%, and 14.5%, respectively. Metformin significantly inhibited KB cell colony formation. Exposure of the cells to increased concentrations of metformin gradually increased the apoptotic rate and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. Metformin caused an initial up-regulation followed by a down-regulation of GRP78 expression in KB cells and increased the expression of activated caspase-3. Metformin can inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of KB cells, the mechanism of which may involve the activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  11. Phenotypic Plasticity Determines Cancer Stem Cell Therapeutic Resistance in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Biddle

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs drive tumour spread and therapeutic resistance, and can undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET to switch between epithelial and post-EMT sub-populations. Examining oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, we now show that increased phenotypic plasticity, the ability to undergo EMT/MET, underlies increased CSC therapeutic resistance within both the epithelial and post-EMT sub-populations. The post-EMT CSCs that possess plasticity exhibit particularly enhanced therapeutic resistance and are defined by a CD44highEpCAMlow/−CD24+ cell surface marker profile. Treatment with TGFβ and retinoic acid (RA enabled enrichment of this sub-population for therapeutic testing, through which the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stressor and autophagy inhibitor Thapsigargin was shown to selectively target these cells. Demonstration of the link between phenotypic plasticity and therapeutic resistance, and development of an in vitro method for enrichment of a highly resistant CSC sub-population, provides an opportunity for the development of improved chemotherapeutic agents that can eliminate CSCs.

  12. Phenotypic Plasticity Determines Cancer Stem Cell Therapeutic Resistance in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Adrian; Gammon, Luke; Liang, Xiao; Costea, Daniela Elena; Mackenzie, Ian C

    2016-02-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) drive tumour spread and therapeutic resistance, and can undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) to switch between epithelial and post-EMT sub-populations. Examining oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), we now show that increased phenotypic plasticity, the ability to undergo EMT/MET, underlies increased CSC therapeutic resistance within both the epithelial and post-EMT sub-populations. The post-EMT CSCs that possess plasticity exhibit particularly enhanced therapeutic resistance and are defined by a CD44(high)EpCAM(low/-) CD24(+) cell surface marker profile. Treatment with TGFβ and retinoic acid (RA) enabled enrichment of this sub-population for therapeutic testing, through which the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stressor and autophagy inhibitor Thapsigargin was shown to selectively target these cells. Demonstration of the link between phenotypic plasticity and therapeutic resistance, and development of an in vitro method for enrichment of a highly resistant CSC sub-population, provides an opportunity for the development of improved chemotherapeutic agents that can eliminate CSCs.

  13. Screening for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitender, Solanki; Sarika, Gupta; Varada, Hiremath R; Omprakash, Yadav; Mohsin, Khan

    2016-11-01

    Oral cancer is considered as a serious health problem resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Early detection and prevention play a key role in controlling the burden of oral cancer worldwide. The five-year survival rate of oral cancer still remains low and delayed diagnosis is considered as one of the major reasons. This increases the demand for oral screening. Currently, screening of oral cancer is largely based on visual examination. Various evidence strongly suggest the validity of visual inspection in reducing mortality in patients at risk for oral cancer. Simple visual examination is accompanied with adjunctive techniques for subjective interpretation of dysplastic changes. These include toluidine blue staining, brush biopsy, chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence. This review highlights the efficacy of various diagnostic methods in screening of oral cancer. © 2016 Old City Publishing, Inc.

  14. Licochalcone A induces apoptosis in KB human oral cancer cells via a caspase-dependent FasL signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, JAE-SUNG; PARK, MI-RA; LEE, SOOK-YOUNG; KIM, DO KYOUNG; MOON, SUNG-MIN; KIM, CHUN SUNG; CHO, SEUNG SIK; YOON, GOO; IM, HEE-JEONG; YOU, JAE-SEEK; OH, JI-SU; KIM, SU-GWAN

    2014-01-01

    Licochalcone A (Lico-A) is a natural phenol licorice compound with multiple bioactivities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-fungal and osteogenesis-inducing properties. In the present study, we investigated the Lico-A-induced apoptotic effects and examined the associated apoptosis pathway in KB human oral cancer cells. Lico-A decreased the number of viable KB oral cancer cells. However, Lico-A did not have an effect on primary normal human oral keratinocytes. In addition, the IC50 value of Lico-A was determined to be ~50 μM following dose-dependent stimulation. KB oral cancer cells stimulated with Lico-A for 24 h showed chromatin condensation by DAPI staining, genomic DNA fragmentation by agarose gel electrophoresis and a gradually increased apoptotic cell population by FACS analysis. These data suggest that Lico-A induces apoptosis in KB oral cancer cells. Additionally, Lico-A-induced apoptosis in KB oral cancer cells was mediated by the expression of factor associated suicide ligand (FasL) and activated caspase-8 and −3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Furthermore, in the KB oral cancer cells co-stimulation with a caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-fmk) and Lico-A significantly abolished the apoptotic phenomena. Our findings demonstrated that Lico-A-induced apoptosis in KB oral cancer cells involves the extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway, which involves a caspase-dependent FasL-mediated death receptor pathway. Our data suggest that Lico-A be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent for the management of oral cancer. PMID:24337492

  15. Licochalcone A induces apoptosis in KB human oral cancer cells via a caspase-dependent FasL signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Sung; Park, Mi-Ra; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Do Kyoung; Moon, Sung-Min; Kim, Chun Sung; Cho, Seung Sik; Yoon, Goo; Im, Hee-Jeong; You, Jae-Seek; Oh, Ji-Su; Kim, Su-Gwan

    2014-02-01

    Licochalcone A (Lico-A) is a natural phenol licorice compound with multiple bioactivities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-fungal and osteogenesis-inducing properties. In the present study, we investigated the Lico-A-induced apoptotic effects and examined the associated apoptosis pathway in KB human oral cancer cells. Lico-A decreased the number of viable KB oral cancer cells. However, Lico-A did not have an effect on primary normal human oral keratinocytes. In addition, the IC50 value of Lico-A was determined to be ~50 µM following dose-dependent stimulation. KB oral cancer cells stimulated with Lico-A for 24 h showed chromatin condensation by DAPI staining, genomic DNA fragmentation by agarose gel electrophoresis and a gradually increased apoptotic cell population by FACS analysis. These data suggest that Lico-A induces apoptosis in KB oral cancer cells. Additionally, Lico‑A‑induced apoptosis in KB oral cancer cells was mediated by the expression of factor associated suicide ligand (FasL) and activated caspase-8 and -3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Furthermore, in the KB oral cancer cells co-stimulation with a caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-fmk) and Lico-A significantly abolished the apoptotic phenomena. Our findings demonstrated that Lico‑A-induced apoptosis in KB oral cancer cells involves the extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway, which involves a caspase-dependent FasL-mediated death receptor pathway. Our data suggest that Lico-A be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent for the management of oral cancer.

  16. Brachytherapy for oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzen, Yoshio; Ajimu, Akira; Morikawa, Minoru; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Shintarou; Ashizawa, Kazuto; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Ikenaga, Kouji; Sakamoto, Ichirou.

    1988-01-01

    13 cases with oral cancer were treated using brachytherapy at the Department of Radiology, Nagasaki University Hospital from September 1985 to February 1988. Among 11 cases of tongue cancer, T1 and T2 cases were well controlled by radiation therapy using 226 Ra needles. Cancer of oral floor and buccal mucosa were controlled by the use of 192 Au grains. (author)

  17. DNA damage in oral cancer cells induced by nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Xu; Ptasinska, Sylwia [Radiation Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Klas, Matej [Radiation Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Liu, Yueying [Harper Cancer Research Institute, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Sharon Stack, M. [Harper Cancer Research Institute, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    The nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was applied to induce DNA damage of SCC-25 oral cancer cells. Optical emission spectra were taken to characterize the reactive species produced in APPJ. In order to explore the spatial distribution of plasma effects, cells were placed onto photo-etched grid slides and the antibody H2A.X was used to locate double strand breaks of DNA inside nuclei using an immunofluorescence assay. The number of cells with double strand breaks in DNA was observed to be varied due to the distance from the irradiation center and duration of plasma treatment.

  18. DNA damage in oral cancer cells induced by nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Xu; Ptasinska, Sylwia; Klas, Matej; Liu, Yueying; Sharon Stack, M.

    2013-01-01

    The nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was applied to induce DNA damage of SCC-25 oral cancer cells. Optical emission spectra were taken to characterize the reactive species produced in APPJ. In order to explore the spatial distribution of plasma effects, cells were placed onto photo-etched grid slides and the antibody H2A.X was used to locate double strand breaks of DNA inside nuclei using an immunofluorescence assay. The number of cells with double strand breaks in DNA was observed to be varied due to the distance from the irradiation center and duration of plasma treatment.

  19. Effects and mechanism of GA-13315 on the proliferation and apoptosis of KB cells in oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shan; Tang, Jingxia

    2017-08-01

    The present study describes the effects and mechanism of GA-13315 on the proliferation and apoptosis of KB cells in oral cancer. Oral cancer is twice as common in men than women. More than 90% of oral cancers in men and 85% in women are linked to lifestyle and environmental factors. PPP2R2B methylation may be associated with survival and prognosis in patients with gliomas. In tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis, the mechanism of PPP2R2B remains unclear. In the present study, we found that PPP2R2B expression of H1299 cells is significantly decreased after being treated by GA-13315. KB cells were isolated from patients with oral cancer and treated with GA-13315 (5 µM). Cells without GA-13315 treatment served as the control group. An MTT experiment was performed to detect the post-treatment cell growth between the groups. A flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis. Western blot analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods were used for detecting the expression of PPP2R2B. Compared with the control group, the cell proliferation of the treatment group slowed after being treated with GA-13315. The difference was statistically significant (Poral cancer were weakened after being treated by GA-13315. GA-13315 can accelerate the apoptosis of oral cancer cells and presents a dose correlation. The biological effect is exerted through the decrease of PPP2R2B.

  20. [Study of testicular cancer gene expression in samples of oral leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorodumova, L O; Muraev, A A; Zakharova, E S; Shepelev, M V; Korobko, I V; Zaderenko, I A; Ivanov, S Iu; Gnuchev, N V; Georgiev, G P; Larin, S S

    2012-01-01

    Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are normally expressed mostly in human germ cells, there is also an aberrant expression in some tumor cells. This expression profile makes them potential tumor growth biomarkers and a promising target for tumor immunotherapy. Specificity of CT genes expression in oral malignant and potentially malignant diseases, e.g. oral leukoplakia, is not yet studied. Data on CT genes expression profile in leukoplakia would allow developing new diagnostic methods with potential value for immunotherapy and prophylaxis of leukoplakia malignization. In our study we compared CT genes expression in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. We are the first to describe CT genes expression in oral leukoplakia without dysplasia. This findings make impossible differential diagnosis of oral leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma on the basis of CT genes expression. The prognostic value of CT genes expression is still unclear, therefore the longitudinal studies are necessary.

  1. DNA damage in oral cancer cells induced by nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Klas, Matej; Liu, Yueying; Stack, M. Sharon; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2013-09-01

    The nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) has been shown to effectively induce DNA double strand breaks in SCC-25 oral cancer cells. The APPJ source constructed in our laboratory consists of two external electrodes wrapping around a quartz tube and nitrogen as a feed gas and operates based on dielectric barrier gas discharge. Generally, it is more challenging to ignite plasma in N2 atmosphere than in noble gases. However, this design provides additional advantages such as lower costs compared to the noble gases for future clinical operation. Different parameters of the APPJ configuration were tested in order to determine radiation dosage. To explore the effects of delayed damage and cell self-repairing, various incubation times of cells after plasma treatment were also performed. Reactive species generated in plasma jet and in liquid environment are essential to be identified and quantified, with the aim of unfolding the mystery of detailed mechanisms for plasma-induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, from the comparison of plasma treatment effect on normal oral cells OKF6T, an insight to the selectivity for cancer treatment by APPJ can be explored. All of these studies are critical to better understand the damage responses of normal and abnormal cellular systems to plasma radiation, which are useful for the development of advanced plasma therapy for cancer treatment at a later stage.

  2. Biomarker screening of oral cancer cell lines revealed sub-populations of CD133-, CD44-, CD24- and ALDH1- positive cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall K

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC ranks sixth worldwide for cancer-related mortality. For the past several decades the mainstay of treatment for HNSCC has been surgery and external beam radiation, although more recent trials combining chemotherapy and radiation have demonstrated improvements. However, cancer recurrence and treatment failures continue to occur in a significant percentage of patients. Recent advances in tumor biology have led to the discovery that many cancers, including HNSCC, may contain subpopulations of cells with stem cell-like properties that may explain relapse and recurrence. The objective of this study was to screen existing oral cancer cell lines for biomarkers specific for cells with stem cell-like properties. RNA was isolated for RT-PCR screening using primers for specific mRNA of the biomarkers: CD44, CD24, CD133, NANOG, Nestin, ALDH1, and ABCG2 in CAL27, SCC25 and SCC15 cells. This analysis revealed that some oral cancer cell lines (CAL27 and SCC25 may contain small subpopulations of adhesion- and contact-independent cells (AiDC that also express tumor stem cell markers, including CD44, CD133, and CD24. In addition, CAL27 cells also expressed the intracellular tumor stem cell markers, ALDH1 and ABCG2. Isolation and culture of the adhesion- and contact-independent cells from CAL27 and SCC25 populations revealed differential proliferation rates and more robust inhibition by the MEK inhibitor PD98059, as well as the chemotherapeutic agents Cisplatin and Paclitaxel, within the AiDC CAL27 cells. At least one oral cancer cell line (CAL27 contained subpopulations of cells that express specific biomarkers associated with tumor stem cells which were morphologically and phenotypically distinct from other cells within this cell line.

  3. Oral cancer: A multicenter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojanawatsirivej, Somsri; Thosaporn, Watcharaporn; Kintarak, Sompid; Subarnbhesaj, Ajiravudh; Darling, Mark; Kryshtalskyj, Eugene; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Shin, Hong-In; Choi, So-Young; Lee, Sang-shin; Shakib, Pouyan-Amini

    2018-01-01

    Background To determine the prevalence and clinicopathologic features of the oral cancer patients. Material and Methods Biopsy records of the participating institutions were reviewed for oral cancer cases diagnosed from 2005 to 2014. Demographic data and site of the lesions were collected. Sites of the lesion were subdivided into lip, tongue, floor of the mouth, gingiva, alveolar mucosa, palate, buccal/labial mucosa, maxilla and mandible. Oral cancer was subdivided into 7 categories: epithelial tumors, salivary gland tumors, hematologic tumors, bone tumors, mesenchymal tumors, odontogenic tumors, and others. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS software version 17.0. Results Of the 474,851 accessioned cases, 6,151 cases (1.30%) were diagnosed in the category of oral cancer. The mean age of the patients was 58.37±15.77 years. A total of 4,238 cases (68.90%) were diagnosed in males, whereas 1911 cases (31.07%) were diagnosed in females. The male-to-female ratio was 2.22:1. The sites of predilection for oral cancer were tongue, labial/buccal mucosa, gingiva, palate, and alveolar mucosa, respectively. The three most common oral cancer in the descending order of frequency were squamous cell carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Conclusions Although the prevalence of oral cancer is not high compared to other entities, oral cancer pose significant mortality and morbidity in the patients, especially when discovered late in the course of the disease. This study highlights some anatomical locations where oral cancers are frequently encountered. As a result, clinicians should pay attention to not only teeth, but oral mucosa especially in the high prevalence area as well since early detection of precancerous lesions or cancers in the early stage increase the chance of patient being cured and greatly reduce the mortality and morbidity. This study also shows some differences between pediatric and elderly oral cancer patients as well as

  4. CD163+ Tumor-Associated Macrophages Correlated with Poor Prognosis and Cancer Stem Cells in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Fei He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs play an important role in the progression and prognostication of numerous cancers. However, the role and clinical significance of TAM markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC has not been elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the correlation between the expression of TAM markers and pathological features in OSCC by tissue microarray. Tissue microarrays containing 16 normal oral mucosa, 6 oral epithelial dysplasia, and 43 OSCC specimens were studied by immunohistochemistry. We observed that the protein expression of the TAM markers CD68 and CD163 as well as the cancer stem cell (CSC markers ALDH1, CD44, and SOX2 increased successively from the normal oral mucosa to OSCC. The expressions of CD68 and CD163 were significantly associated with lymph node status, and SOX2 was significantly correlated with pathological grade and lymph node status, whereas ALDH1 was correlated with tumor stage. Furthermore, CD68 was significantly correlated with CD163, SOX2, and ALDH1 (P<0.05. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that OSCC patients overexpressing CD163 had significantly worse overall survival (P<0.05. TAM markers are associated with cancer stem cell marker and OSCC overall survival, suggesting their potential prognostic value in OSCC.

  5. Lin28a is a putative factor in regulating cancer stem cell-like properties in side population cells of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, S.; Tanaka, J.; Okada, S.; Isobe, T.; Yamamoto, G.; Yasuhara, R.; Irie, T.; Akiyama, C.; Kohno, Y.; Tachikawa, T.; Mishima, K., E-mail: mishima-k@dent.showa-u.ac.jp

    2013-05-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are among the target cells of cancer therapy because they are uniquely involved in both cancer progression and sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents. We identified side population (SP) cells, which are known to be an enriched population of CSC, in five oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells (SCC9, SCC25, TOSCC7, TOSCC17, and TOSCC23). The percentages of SP cells ranged from 0% to 3.3%, with TOSCC23 cells showing the highest percentages of SP cells (3.3% of the total cell population). The SP cells isolated from TOSCC23 cells also showed greater cell proliferation and invasion compared to non-SP (MP) cells. Therefore, our initial findings suggested that SP cells were enriched for CSC-like cells. Furthermore, DNA microarray analysis revealed that the expression of cell proliferation-related and anti-apoptotic genes was greater in SP cells compared to MP cells. We focused on Lin28a, which showed the highest expression (approximately 22-fold) among the upregulated genes. The overexpression of Lin28a in TOSCC23 cells increased their proliferation, colony formation, and invasion. These findings suggest that Lin28a is an appropriate CSC target molecule for OSCC treatment - Highlights: ► Lin28a is a SP cell-specific factor in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. ► SP cells in OSCC cells show cancer stem cell-like properties. ► Lin28a regulates OSCC proliferative and invasive activities.

  6. Lin28a is a putative factor in regulating cancer stem cell-like properties in side population cells of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, S.; Tanaka, J.; Okada, S.; Isobe, T.; Yamamoto, G.; Yasuhara, R.; Irie, T.; Akiyama, C.; Kohno, Y.; Tachikawa, T.; Mishima, K.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are among the target cells of cancer therapy because they are uniquely involved in both cancer progression and sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents. We identified side population (SP) cells, which are known to be an enriched population of CSC, in five oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells (SCC9, SCC25, TOSCC7, TOSCC17, and TOSCC23). The percentages of SP cells ranged from 0% to 3.3%, with TOSCC23 cells showing the highest percentages of SP cells (3.3% of the total cell population). The SP cells isolated from TOSCC23 cells also showed greater cell proliferation and invasion compared to non-SP (MP) cells. Therefore, our initial findings suggested that SP cells were enriched for CSC-like cells. Furthermore, DNA microarray analysis revealed that the expression of cell proliferation-related and anti-apoptotic genes was greater in SP cells compared to MP cells. We focused on Lin28a, which showed the highest expression (approximately 22-fold) among the upregulated genes. The overexpression of Lin28a in TOSCC23 cells increased their proliferation, colony formation, and invasion. These findings suggest that Lin28a is an appropriate CSC target molecule for OSCC treatment - Highlights: ► Lin28a is a SP cell-specific factor in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. ► SP cells in OSCC cells show cancer stem cell-like properties. ► Lin28a regulates OSCC proliferative and invasive activities

  7. Association of Oral Microbiome With Risk for Incident Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Richard B; Ahn, Jiyoung; Fan, Xiaozhou; Peters, Brandilyn A; Ma, Yingfei; Yang, Liying; Agalliu, Ilir; Burk, Robert D; Ganly, Ian; Purdue, Mark P; Freedman, Neal D; Gapstur, Susan M; Pei, Zhiheng

    2018-03-01

    Case-control studies show a possible relationship between oral bacteria and head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). Prospective studies are needed to examine the temporal relationship between oral microbiome and subsequent risk of HNSCC. To prospectively examine associations between the oral microbiome and incident HNSCC. This nested case-control study was carried out in 2 prospective cohort studies: the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort (CPS-II) and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO). Among 122 004 participants, 129 incident patient cases of HNSCC were identified during an average 3.9 years of follow-up. Two controls per patient case (n = 254) were selected through incidence density sampling, matched on age, sex, race/ethnicity, and time since mouthwash collection. All participants provided mouthwash samples and were cancer-free at baseline. Oral microbiome composition and specific bacterial abundances were determined through bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Overall oral microbiome composition and specific taxa abundances were compared for the case group and the control group, using PERMANOVA and negative binomial generalized linear models, respectively, controlling for age, sex, race, cohort, smoking, alcohol, and oral human papillomavirus-16 status. Taxa with a 2-sided false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted P-value (q-value) <.10 were considered significant. Incident HNSCC. The study included 58 patient cases from CPS-II (mean [SD] age, 71.0 [6.4] years; 16 [27.6%] women) and 71 patient cases from PLCO (mean [SD] age, 62.7 [4.8] years; 13 [18.3%] women). Two controls per patient case (n = 254) were selected through incidence density sampling, matched on age, sex, race/ethnicity, and time since mouthwash collection. Head and neck squamous cell cancer cases and controls were similar with respect to age, sex, and race. Patients in the case group were more often current tobacco

  8. Dual peptide-mediated targeted delivery of bioactive siRNAs to oral cancer cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander-Bryant, Angela A; Zhang, Haiwen; Attaway, Christopher C; Pugh, William; Eggart, Laurence; Sansevere, Robert M; Andino, Lourdes M; Dinh, Lu; Cantini, Liliana P; Jakymiw, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Despite significant advances in cancer treatment, the prognosis for oral cancer remains poor in comparison to other cancer types, including breast, skin, and prostate. As a result, more effective therapeutic modalities are needed for the treatment of oral cancer. Consequently, in the present study, we examined the feasibility of using a dual peptide carrier approach, combining an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting peptide with an endosome-disruptive peptide, to mediate targeted delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) into EGFR-overexpressing oral cancer cells and induce silencing of the targeted oncogene, cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A). Fluorescence microscopy, real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, and in vivo bioimaging of mice containing orthotopic xenograft tumors were used to examine the ability of the dual peptide carrier to mediate specific delivery of bioactive siRNAs into EGFR-overexpressing oral cancer cells/tissues. Co-complexation of the EGFR-targeting peptide, GE11R9, with the endosome-disruptive 599 peptide facilitated the specific uptake of siRNAs into oral cancer cells overexpressing EGFR in vitro with optimal gene silencing observed at a 60:30:1 (GE11R9:599:siRNA) molar ratio. Furthermore, when administered systemically to mice bearing xenograft oral tumors, this dual peptide complex mediated increased targeted delivery of siRNAs into tumor tissues in comparison to the 599 peptide alone and significantly enhanced CIP2A silencing. Herein we provide the first report demonstrating the clinical potential of a dual peptide strategy for siRNA-based therapeutics by synergistically mediating the effective targeting and delivery of bioactive siRNAs into EGFR-overexpressing oral cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Oral microbiota and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka H. Meurman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several oral micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor oral health and the prevalence of oral and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in oral microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control oral microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion.

  10. DNA damage in oral cancer and normal cells induced by nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Kapaldo, James; Liu, Yueying; Stack, M. Sharon; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2015-09-01

    Nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) have been shown to effectively induce DNA double strand breaks in SCC25 oral cancer cells. The APPJ source constructed in our laboratory operates based on dielectric barrier discharge. It consists of two copper electrodes alternatively wrapping around a fused silica tube with nitrogen as a feed gas. It is generally more challenging to ignite plasma in N2 atmosphere than in noble gases. However, N2 provides additional advantages such as lower costs compared to noble gases, thus this design can be beneficial for the future long-term clinical use. To compare the effects of plasma on cancer cells (SCC25) and normal cells (OKF), the cells from both types were treated at the same experimental condition for various treatment times. The effective area with different damage levels after the treatment was visualized as 3D maps. The delayed damage effects were also explored by varying the incubation times after the treatment. All of these studies are critical for a better understanding of the damage responses of cellular systems exposed to the plasma radiation, thus are useful for the development of the advanced plasma cancer therapy. The research described herein was supported by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences, Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, United States Department of Energy through Grant No. DE-FC02-04ER15533.

  11. Apoptosis-Inducing Effect of Three Medicinal Plants on Oral Cancer Cells KB and ORL-48

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Zabidi Majid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucea javanica, Azadirachta indica, and Typhonium flagelliforme are medicinal plants commonly used to treat conditions associated with tumour formation. This study aimed to determine the antiproliferative activity of these plants extracts on KB and ORL-48 oral cancer cell lines and to suggest their mode of cell death. The concentration producing 50% cell inhibition (IC50 was determined and the activity was examined under an inverted microscope. Immunohistochemistry fluorescent staining method (TUNEL was performed to indicate the mechanism of cell death and the fragmented DNA band pattern produced was obtained for verification. Compared to Azadirachta sp. and Typhonium sp., the antiproliferative activity of Brucea sp. extract was the most potent on both KB and ORL-48 cells with IC50 of 24.37 ± 1.75 and 6.67 ± 1.15 µg/mL, respectively. Signs of cell attrition were observed 24 hr after treatment. Green fluorescent spots indicating cell death by apoptosis were observed in images of both cells following treatment with all the three extracts. DNA fragments harvested from Brucea-treated cells produced bands in a ladder pattern suggesting the apoptotic effect of the extract. It is thus concluded that Brucea sp. extract exhibited cytotoxic activity on ORL-48 cells and their action mechanism is via apoptosis.

  12. Association between polymorphisms in pre-miRNA genes and risk of oral squamous cell cancer in a Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjiao Zhang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs play important roles in the development of human cancers. This case-control study is to evaluate the roles of the polymorphisms in pre-miRNAs on risk of oral cancer in a Chinese population.The genotypes of three polymorphisms were determined in 340 patients with oral squamous cell cancer and 340 healthy controls who were frequency matched for age and sex. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs were calculated to assess the association. All analyses were performed using the SPSS software. 3.154( 0.001.For miR-499 rs3746444, individuals carrying homozygous CC genotype had increased risks of oral cancer compared with the homozygous wild TT genotype (adjusted OR was 3.154, 95%CI was 1.555-6.397, P value was 0.001. The C allele of miR-499 rs3746444 was associated with a higher risk of oral cancer with significant odds ratio of 1.453. In the stratified analyses by sex, the associations between miR-499 rs3746444 and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphisms with the susceptibility of oral squamous cell cancer were significant in males. However, with 1/4 as many subjects there were no significant associations between the three polymorphisms and oral cancer risks in females. The joint effects of miRNA polymorphisms and smoking on the risk of OSCC were analyzed and the results suggested that the association between microRNA genetic variants and OSCC risk was modified by smoking.These findings suggest that miR-499 rs3746444 and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphisms may contribute to genetic susceptibility to oral squamous cell cancer.

  13. Oral Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get involved Understanding Dental Research People Resources About Understanding Events Get involved Dental Research Resources Contact Sitemap The Oral Cancer Foundation admin 2017-11-12T16:49:25+ ...

  14. Oral microbiota and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Meurman, Jukka H.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the...

  15. ON ORAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Svetitsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes a rise in the incidence of oral cancer in the Rostov Region since the 1990s. The study has indicated that this rise is associated with regional population growth due to the forced migrants after the collapse of the USSR. Financial problems, unbalanced nutrition, poor oral hygiene, and depression in this group of patients have contributed to the higher incidence of precancers and cancers.

  16. Transforming growth factor-β synthesized by stromal cells and cancer cells participates in bone resorption induced by oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Ryosuke; Kayamori, Kou; Oue, Erika; Sakamoto, Kei; Harada, Kiyoshi; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) plays a significant role in the regulation of the tumor microenvironment. To explore the role of TGF-β in oral cancer-induced bone destruction, we investigated the immunohistochemical localization of TGF-β and phosphorylated Smad2 (p-Smad2) in 12 surgical specimens of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). These studies revealed TGF-β and p-Smad2 expression in cancer cells in all tested cases. Several fibroblasts located between cancer nests and resorbing bone expressed TGF-β in 10 out of 12 cases and p-Smad2 in 11 out of 12 cases. Some osteoclasts also exhibited p ∼ Smad2 expression. The OSCC cell line, HSC3, and the bone marrow-derived fibroblastic cell line, ST2, synthesized substantial levels of TGF-β. Culture media derived from HSC3 cells could stimulate Tgf-β1 mRNA expression in ST2 cells. Recombinant TGF-β1 could stimulate osteoclast formation induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) in RAW264 cells. TGF-β1 could upregulate the expression of p-Smad2 in RAW264 cells, and this action was suppressed by the addition of a neutralizing antibody against TGF-β or by SB431542. Transplantation of HSC3 cells onto the calvarial region of athymic mice caused bone destruction, associated with the expression of TGF-β and p-Smad2 in both cancer cells and stromal cells. The bone destruction was substantially inhibited by the administration of SB431542. The present study demonstrated that TGF-β synthesized by both cancer cells and stromal cells participates in the OSCC-induced bone destruction. - Highlights: • Cancer cell, fibroblastic cells, and osteoclasts at bone resorbing area by oral cancer exhibited TGF-β and p-Smad2. • TGF-β1 stimulated osteoclastogenesis induced by RAKL in RAW264 cell. • Xenograft model of oral cancer-induced bone resorption was substantially inhibited by SB431542. • TGF-β synthesized by both cancer cells and stromal cells participates in the OSCC

  17. Transforming growth factor-β synthesized by stromal cells and cancer cells participates in bone resorption induced by oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Ryosuke [Department of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Kayamori, Kou [Department of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Oue, Erika [Department of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Sakamoto, Kei [Department of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Harada, Kiyoshi [Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Yamaguchi, Akira, E-mail: akira.mpa@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-03-20

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) plays a significant role in the regulation of the tumor microenvironment. To explore the role of TGF-β in oral cancer-induced bone destruction, we investigated the immunohistochemical localization of TGF-β and phosphorylated Smad2 (p-Smad2) in 12 surgical specimens of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). These studies revealed TGF-β and p-Smad2 expression in cancer cells in all tested cases. Several fibroblasts located between cancer nests and resorbing bone expressed TGF-β in 10 out of 12 cases and p-Smad2 in 11 out of 12 cases. Some osteoclasts also exhibited p ∼ Smad2 expression. The OSCC cell line, HSC3, and the bone marrow-derived fibroblastic cell line, ST2, synthesized substantial levels of TGF-β. Culture media derived from HSC3 cells could stimulate Tgf-β1 mRNA expression in ST2 cells. Recombinant TGF-β1 could stimulate osteoclast formation induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) in RAW264 cells. TGF-β1 could upregulate the expression of p-Smad2 in RAW264 cells, and this action was suppressed by the addition of a neutralizing antibody against TGF-β or by SB431542. Transplantation of HSC3 cells onto the calvarial region of athymic mice caused bone destruction, associated with the expression of TGF-β and p-Smad2 in both cancer cells and stromal cells. The bone destruction was substantially inhibited by the administration of SB431542. The present study demonstrated that TGF-β synthesized by both cancer cells and stromal cells participates in the OSCC-induced bone destruction. - Highlights: • Cancer cell, fibroblastic cells, and osteoclasts at bone resorbing area by oral cancer exhibited TGF-β and p-Smad2. • TGF-β1 stimulated osteoclastogenesis induced by RAKL in RAW264 cell. • Xenograft model of oral cancer-induced bone resorption was substantially inhibited by SB431542. • TGF-β synthesized by both cancer cells and stromal cells participates in the OSCC

  18. S4S8-RPA phosphorylation as an indicator of cancer progression in oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Jeff; Kapil, Sasha; Treude, Kelly J; Kumm, Phyllis; Glanzer, Jason G; Byrne, Brendan M; Liu, Shengqin; Smith, Lynette M; DiMaio, Dominick J; Giannini, Peter; Smith, Russell B; Oakley, Greg G

    2017-02-07

    Oral cancers are easily accessible compared to many other cancers. Nevertheless, oral cancer is often diagnosed late, resulting in a poor prognosis. Most oral cancers are squamous cell carcinomas that predominantly develop from cell hyperplasias and dysplasias. DNA damage is induced in these tissues directly or indirectly in response to oncogene-induced deregulation of cellular proliferation. Consequently, a DNA Damage response (DDR) and a cell cycle checkpoint is activated. As dysplasia transitions to cancer, proteins involved in DNA damage and checkpoint signaling are mutated or silenced decreasing cell death while increasing genomic instability and allowing continued tumor progression. Hyperphosphorylation of Replication Protein A (RPA), including phosphorylation of Ser4 and Ser8 of RPA2, is a well-known indicator of DNA damage and checkpoint activation. In this study, we utilize S4S8-RPA phosphorylation as a marker for cancer development and progression in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). S4S8-RPA phosphorylation was observed to be low in normal cells, high in dysplasias, moderate in early grade tumors, and low in late stage tumors, essentially supporting the model of the DDR as an early barrier to tumorigenesis in certain types of cancers. In contrast, overall RPA expression was not correlative to DDR activation or tumor progression. Utilizing S4S8-RPA phosphorylation to indicate competent DDR activation in the future may have clinical significance in OSCC treatment decisions, by predicting the susceptibility of cancer cells to first-line platinum-based therapies for locally advanced, metastatic and recurrent OSCC.

  19. Anti-Cancer Effects of Imperata cylindrica Leaf Extract on Human Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cell Line SCC-9 in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshava, Rohini; Muniyappa, Nagesh; Gope, Rajalakshmi; Ramaswamaiah, Ananthanarayana Saligrama

    2016-01-01

    Imperata cylindrica, a tall tufted grass which has multiple pharmacological applications is one of the key ingredients in various traditional medicinal formula used in India. Previous reports have shown that I. cylindrica plant extract inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. To our knowledge, no studies have been published on the effect of I. cylindrica leaf extract on human oral cancers. The present study was undertaken in order to evaluate the anticancer properties of the leaf extract of I. cylindrica using an oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line SCC-9 as an in vitro model system. A methanol extract from dried leaves of I. cylindrica (ICL) was prepared by standard procedures. Effects of the ICL extract on the morphology of SCC-9 cells was visualized by microscopy. Cytotoxicity was determined by MTT assay. Effects of the ICL extract on colony forming ability of SCC-9 cells was evaluated using clonogenic assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry and induction of apoptosis was determined by DNA fragmentation assay. The ICL extract treatment caused cytotoxicity and induced cell death in vitro in SCC-9 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This treatment also significantly reduced the clonogenic potential and inhibited cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle in the G2/M phase. Furthermore, DNA fragmentation assays showed that the observed cell death was caused by apoptosis. This is the first report showing the anticancer activity of the methanol extracts from the leaves of I. cylindrica in human oral cancer cell line. Our data indicates that ICL extract could be considered as one of the lead compounds for the formulation of anticancer therapeutic agents to treat/manage human oral cancers. The natural abundance of I. cylindrica and its wide geographic distribution could render it one of the primary resource materials for preparation of anticancer therapeutic agents.

  20. Oral cancer cells may rewire alternative metabolic pathways to survive from siRNA silencing of metabolic enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Min; Chai, Yang D; Brumbaugh, Jeffrey; Liu, Xiaojun; Rabii, Ramin; Feng, Sizhe; Misuno, Kaori; Messadi, Diana; Hu, Shen

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells may undergo metabolic adaptations that support their growth as well as drug resistance properties. The purpose of this study is to test if oral cancer cells can overcome the metabolic defects introduced by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to knock down their expression of important metabolic enzymes. UM1 and UM2 oral cancer cells were transfected with siRNA to transketolase (TKT) or siRNA to adenylate kinase (AK2), and Western blotting was used to confirm the knockdown. Cellular uptake of glucose and glutamine and production of lactate were compared between the cancer cells with either TKT or AK2 knockdown and those transfected with control siRNA. Statistical analysis was performed with student T-test. Despite the defect in the pentose phosphate pathway caused by siRNA knockdown of TKT, the survived UM1 or UM2 cells utilized more glucose and glutamine and secreted a significantly higher amount of lactate than the cells transferred with control siRNA. We also demonstrated that siRNA knockdown of AK2 constrained the proliferation of UM1 and UM2 cells but similarly led to an increased uptake of glucose/glutamine and production of lactate by the UM1 or UM2 cells survived from siRNA silencing of AK2. Our results indicate that the metabolic defects introduced by siRNA silencing of metabolic enzymes TKT or AK2 may be compensated by alternative feedback metabolic mechanisms, suggesting that cancer cells may overcome single defective pathways through secondary metabolic network adaptations. The highly robust nature of oral cancer cell metabolism implies that a systematic medical approach targeting multiple metabolic pathways may be needed to accomplish the continued improvement of cancer treatment

  1. High Level of Tobacco Carcinogen-Derived DNA Damage in Oral Cells Is an Independent Predictor of Oral/Head and Neck Cancer Risk in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khariwala, Samir S; Ma, Bin; Ruszczak, Chris; Carmella, Steven G; Lindgren, Bruce; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Hecht, Stephen S; Stepanov, Irina

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is recognized to play an important role in the development of oral/head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). We recently reported higher levels of TSNA-associated DNA adducts in the oral cells of smokers with HNSCC as compared with cancer-free smokers. In this study, we further investigated the tobacco constituent exposures in the same smokers to better understand the potential causes for the elevated oral DNA damage in smokers with HNSCC. Subjects included cigarette smokers with HNSCC (cases, n = 30) and cancer-free smokers (controls, n = 35). At recruitment, tobacco/alcohol use questionnaires were completed, and urine and oral cell samples were obtained. Analysis of urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and N '-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN; TSNA biomarkers), 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP, a PAH), cotinine, 3'-hydroxycotinine, and the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) were performed. Cases and controls differed in mean age, male preponderance, and frequency of alcohol consumption (but not total alcoholic drinks). Univariate analysis revealed similar levels of NNN, 1-HOP, and cotinine between groups but, as reported previously, significantly higher DNA adduct formation in the cases. Multiple regression adjusting for potential confounders showed persistent significant difference in DNA adduct levels between cases and controls [ratio of geometric means, 20.0; 95% CI, 2.7-148.6). Our cohort of smokers with HNSCC demonstrates higher levels of TSNA-derived oral DNA damage in the setting of similar exposure to nicotine and tobacco carcinogens. Among smokers, DNA adduct formation may act as a predictor of eventual development of HNSCC that is independent of carcinogen exposure indicators. Cancer Prev Res; 10(9); 507-13. ©2017 AACR See related editorial by Johnson and Bauman, p. 489 . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Investigating a case of possible field cancerization in oral squamous cell carcinoma by the use of next-generation sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeifar, Siavosh; Larsen, Martin J.; Larsen, Stine R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Local recurrence and the development of second primary tumors (SPT) are important factors that can influence the survival rate of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. We investigate the concept of field cancerization which proposes that normal tissue adjacent to the primary...

  3. Oral cancer cells with different potential of lymphatic metastasis displayed distinct biologic behaviors and gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Zhang; Jian, Pan; Longjiang, Li; Bo, Han; Wenlin, Xiao

    2010-02-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) often spreads from the primary tumor to regional lymph nodes in the early stage. Better understanding of the biology of lymphatic spread of oral cancer cells is important for improving the survival rate of cancer patients. We established the cell line LNMTca8113 by repeated injections in foot pads of nude mice, which had a much higher lymphatic metastasis rate than its parental cell line Tca8113. Then, we compared the biologic behaviors of cancer cells between them. Moreover, microarray-based expression profiles between them were also compared, and a panel of differential genes was validated using real-time-PCR. In contrast to Tca8113 cells, LNMTca8113 cells were more proliferative and resistant to apoptosis in the absence of serum, and had enhanced ability of inducing capillary-like structures. Moreover, microarray-based expression profiles between them identified 1341 genes involved in cell cycle, cell adhesion, lymphangiogenesis, regulation of apoptosis, and so on. Some genes dedicating to the metastatic potential, including JAM2, TNC, CTSC, LAMB1, VEGFC, HAPLN1, ACPP, GDF9 and FGF11, were upregulated in LNMTca8113 cells. These results suggested that LNMTca8113 and Tca8113 cells were proper models for lymphatic metastasis study because there were differences in biologic behaviors and metastasis-related genes between them. Additionally, the differentially expressed gene profiles in cancer progression may be helpful in exploring therapeutic targets and provide the foundation for further functional validation of these specific candidate genes for OSCC.

  4. Oral Cryotherapy for Preventing Oral Mucositis in Patients Receiving Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Philip; McCabe, Martin G; Glenny, Anne-Marie

    2016-10-01

    In patients receiving treatment for cancer, does oral cryotherapy prevent oral mucositis? Oral cryotherapy is effective for the prevention of oral mucositis in adults receiving fluorouracil-based chemotherapy for solid cancers, and for the prevention of severe oral mucositis in adults receiving high-dose melphalan-based chemotherapy before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).

  5. Integrated genomic analyses identify KDM1A's role in cell proliferation via modulating E2F signaling activity and associate with poor clinical outcome in oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sathiya Pandi; Singh, Smriti; Gupta, Amit; Yadav, Sandhya; Singh, Shree Ram; Shukla, Sanjeev

    2015-10-28

    The histone demethylase KDM1A specifically demethylates lysine residues and its deregulation has been implicated in the initiation and progression of various cancers. However, KDM1A's molecular role and its pathological consequences, and prognostic significance in oral cancer remain less understood. In the present study, we sought to investigate the expression of KDM1A and its downstream role in oral cancer pathogenesis. By comparing mRNA expression profiles, we identified an elevated KDM1A expression in oral tumors when compared to normal oral tissues. In silico pathway prediction identified the association between KDM1A and E2F1 signaling in oral cancer. Pathway scanning, functional annotation analysis and In vitro assays showed the KDM1A's involvement in oral cancer cell proliferation and the cell cycle. Moreover, real time PCR and luciferase assays confirmed KDM1A's role in regulation of E2F1 signaling activity in oral cancer. Elevated KDM1A expression is associated with poor clinical outcome in oral cancer. Our data indicate that deregulated KDM1A expression is positively associated with proliferative phenotype of oral cancer and confers poor clinical outcome. These cumulative data suggest that KDM1A might be a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for oral cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this ... and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this ...

  7. Vesnarinone downregulates CXCR4 expression via upregulation of Krüppel-like factor 2 in oral cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchida Daisuke

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have demonstrated that the stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1; CXCL12/CXCR4 system is involved in the establishment of lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Chemotherapy is a powerful tool for the treatment of oral cancer, including oral SCC; however, the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the expression of CXCR4 are unknown. In this study, we examined the expression of CXCR4 associated with the chemotherapeutic agents in oral cancer cells. Results The expression of CXCR4 was examined using 3 different chemotherapeutic agents; 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and vesnarinone (3,4-dihydro-6-[4-(3,4-dimethoxybenzoyl-1-piperazinyl]-2-(1H-quinolinone in B88, a line of oral cancer cells that exhibits high levels of CXCR4 and lymph node metastatic potential. Of the 3 chemotherapeutic agents that we examined, only vesnarinone downregulated the expression of CXCR4 at the mRNA as well as the protein level. Vesnarinone significantly inhibited lymph node metastasis in tumor-bearing nude mice. Moreover, vesnarinone markedly inhibited 2.7-kb human CXCR4 promoter activity, and we identified the transcription factor, Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2, as a novel vesnarinone-responsive molecule, which was bound to the CXCR4 promoter at positions -300 to -167 relative to the transcription start site. The forced-expression of KLF2 led to the downregulation of CXCR4 mRNA and impaired CXCR4 promoter activity. The use of siRNA against KLF2 led to an upregulation of CXCR4 mRNA. Conclusion These Results indicate that vesnarinone downregulates CXCR4 via the upregulation of KLF2 in oral cancer.

  8. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cancer of the head, neck and mouth. The Oral Cancer Foundation estimates that close to 42,000 Americans ... diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Oral cancer’s mortality is particularly high, not because it is ...

  9. Assessing Oral Cancer Awareness Among Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Gaye; Pekiner, Filiz Namdar

    2018-02-14

    The aim of this study was to assess oral cancer awareness among undergraduate dental students in Marmara University Faculty of Dentistry. A validated questionnaire which tested oral cancer awareness was given to third- and fifth-year students of the dental faculty of Marmara University. A total of 198 students participated in this survey. Knowledge of oral cancer risk factors and diagnosis procedures, dentistry student's attitude towards oral cancers, management practice regarding oral cancer, and oral cancer information sources were assessed using 25 questions. The data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics 22.0 program. Among 198 participant dentistry students, there were 99 (50%) third-grade and 99 (50%) fifth-grade students. The largest number of the third- and last-grade students identified tobacco (98%) and alcohol usage (87.4%), prior oral cancer lesions (94.9%), viral infections (91.9%), UV exposure (94.4%), betel quid chewing (84.8%), older age (62.1%), and low consumption of fruit and vegetables (85.4%). Both groups showed higher scores in indicating squamous cell carcinoma as the most common form of oral cancer (p oral cancer detection and prevention.

  10. Tenuifolide B from Cinnamomum tenuifolium Stem Selectively Inhibits Proliferation of Oral Cancer Cells via Apoptosis, ROS Generation, Mitochondrial Depolarization, and DNA Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Ching-Yu; Wang, Hui-Ru; Yang, Hui-Ping; Tang, Jen-Yang; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Hsu, Shih-Hsien; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2016-11-05

    The development of drugs that selectively kill oral cancer cells but are less harmful to normal cells still provide several challenges. In this study, the antioral cancer effects of tenuifolide B (TFB), extracted from the stem of the plant Cinnamomum tenuifolium are evaluated in terms of their effects on cancer cell viability, cell cycle analysis, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and DNA damage. Cell viability of oral cancer cells (Ca9-22 and CAL 27) was found to be significantly inhibited by TFB in a dose-responsive manner in terms of ATP assay, yielding IC 50 = 4.67 and 7.05 μM (24 h), but are less lethal to normal oral cells (HGF-1). Dose-responsive increases in subG1 populations as well as the intensities of flow cytometry-based annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) analysis and pancaspase activity suggested that apoptosis was inducible by TFB in these two types of oral cancer cells. Pretreatment with the apoptosis inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) reduced the annexin V intensity of these two TFB-treated oral cancer cells, suggesting that TFB induced apoptosis-mediated cell death to oral cancer cells. Cleaved-poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and cleaved-caspases 3, 8, and 9 were upregulated in these two TFB-treated oral cancer cells over time but less harmful for normal oral HGF-1 cells. Dose-responsive and time-dependent increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential (MitoMP) in these two TFB-treated oral cancer cells suggest that TFB may generate oxidative stress as measured by flow cytometry. N -acetylcysteine (NAC) pretreatment reduced the TFB-induced ROS generation and further validated that ROS was relevant to TFB-induced cell death. Both flow cytometry and Western blotting demonstrated that the DNA double strand marker γH2AX dose-responsively increased in TFB-treated Ca9-22 cells and time-dependently increased in two TFB-treated oral cancer cells. Taken together, we infer that TFB can selectively inhibit cell proliferation of

  11. Role of oral microbiome on oral cancers, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, Pourya; Eslami, Hosein; Yousefi, Mehdi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Kafil, Hossein Samadi

    2016-12-01

    The oral cavity is inhibited by many of the bacterial species. Some of them have a key role in the development of oral disease. Interrelationships between oral microbiome and systemic conditions such as head-and-neck cancer have become increasingly appreciated in recent years. Emerging evidence also suggests a link between periodontal disease and oral cancer, and the explanation being that chronic inflammation could be a major factor in both diseases. Squamous cell carcinoma is that the most frequently occurring malignancy of the oral cavity and adjacent sites, representing over 90% of all cancers. The incidence of oral cancer is increasing, significantly among young people and women. Worldwide there are 350,000-400,000 new cases diagnosed every year. Bacteria, viruses, and fungi are strongly implicated as etiological factors in certain cancers. In this review we will discuss the association between the development of oral cancer in potentially malignant oral lesions with chronic periodontitis, chronic Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, candida, other microbes and described mechanisms which may be involved in these carcinoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Resveratrol suppresses TPA-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression through the inhibition of MAPK pathways in oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng-Yan; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chen, Chang-Tai; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Chou, Ming-Yung; Chuang, Yi-Ting; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Chen, Mu-Kuan

    2015-10-01

    Naturally occurring agents, such as resveratrol, have been determined to benefit health. Numerous studies have demonstrated that resveratrol has antioxidative, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. However, the effect of resveratrol exerts on the metastasis of oral cancer cells remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect the anti-invasive activity of resveratrol on a human oral cancer cell line (SCC-9) in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. Cell viability was examined by MTT assay, whereas cell motility was measured by migration and wound-healing assays. Zymography, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and promoter assays confirmed the inhibitory effects of resveratrol on matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression in oral cancer cells. We established that various concentrations (0-100 μM) of resveratrol inhibited the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced migration capacities of SCC-9 cells and caused no cytotoxic effects. Zymography and Western blot analyses suggested that resveratrol inhibited TPA-induced MMP-9 gelatinolytic activity and protein expression. In addition, the results indicated that resveratrol inhibited the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2 and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 involved in downregulating protein expression and the transcription of MMP-9. In summary, resveratrol inhibited MMP-9 expression and oral cancer cell metastasis by downregulating JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 signals pathways and, thus, exerts beneficial effects in chemoprevention. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Enhancement of radioresponse by combined treatment with flavopiridol, a cycline dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, in oral cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, Mariko; Mano, Takamitsu; Ueyama, Yoshiya; Shintani, Satoru; Li, Syunnann; Klosek, S.; Hamakawa, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) play a pivotal role in cell cycle regulation. Flavopiridol is known to potently inhibit such CDKs as CDK1, CDK2, CDK4, CDK7. We already reported that flavopiridol inhibited the growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells and induced apoptosis in OSCC cells. In the present study, we investigated whether the treatment with flavopiridol improves the response to radiosensitivity in OSCC cell lines. In an in vitro study, there was a cooperative antiproliferative effect of combined treatment with flavopiridol and radiation in OSCC cell lines. Tumor xenograft studies demonstrated that the combination of flavopiridol and radiation caused growth inhibition and tumor regression of well-established OSCC tumor in athymic mice. Overall, we concluded that flavopiridol enhances tumor radioresponse and it is considered a suitable candidate drug in the treatment of oral cancer. (author)

  14. Assessing Oral Cancer Awareness Among Dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebabcıoğlu, Özge; Pekiner, Filiz Namdar

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess oral cancer awareness among dentists who attended 101st FDI World Dental Congress, İstanbul, Turkey. Among 170 dentists who agreed to participate, there were 13 oral surgeons, 6 restorative dentists, 4 endodontists, 4 orthodontists, 6 periodontists, 5 pedodontists, and 14 prosthodontists. Knowledge of oral cancer risk factors and diagnosis procedures, dentists' attitude towards oral cancers, management practice regarding oral cancer, and oral cancer information sources were assessed using 25 questions. The data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics 22.0 program. Among 170 participant dentists, there were 69 (40.6%) male dentists and 101 (59.4%) female dentists. Largest number of them identified tobacco (98.8%) and alcohol usage (91.2%), prior oral cancer lesions (95.3%), viral infections (90.0%), UV exposure (86.5%), and betel quid chewing (80.6%), and lower numbers reported older age (56.5%) and low consumption of fruit and vegetables (52.4%). Oral medicine specialists scored marginally higher in indicating erythroplakia and leukoplakia most likely to be precancerous and squamous cell carcinoma as the most common form of oral cancer (p ral cancer detection and prevention.

  15. Acquisition cancer stemness, mesenchymal transdifferentiation, and chemoresistance properties by chronic exposure of oral epithelial cells to arecoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tung Yuan; Peng, Chih-Yu; Lee, Shiuan-Shinn; Chou, Ming-Yung; Yu, Cheng-Chia; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2016-12-20

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), one of the most deadliest malignancies in the world, is caused primarily by areca nut chewing in Southeast Asia. The mechanisms by which areca nut participates in OSCC tumorigenesis are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of low dose long-term arecoline (10 μg/mL, 90-days), a major areca nut alkaloid, on enhancement cancer stemness of human oral epithelial (OE) cells. OE cells with chronic arecoline exposure resulted in increased ALDH1 population, CD44 positivity, stemness-related transcription factors (Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2), epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) traits, chemoresistance, migration/invasiveness/anchorage independent growth and in vivo tumor growth as compared to their untreated controls. Mechanistically, ectopic miR-145 over-expression in chronic arecoline-exposed OE (AOE) cells inhibited the cancer stemness and xenografic. In AOE cells, luciferase reporter assays further revealed that miR-145 directly targets the 3' UTR regions of Oct4 and Sox2 and overexpression of Sox2/Oct4 effectively reversed miR-145-regulated cancer stemness-associated phenomenas. Additionally, clinical results further revealed that Sox2 and Oct4 expression was inversely correlated with miR-145 in the tissues of areca quid chewing-associated OSCC patients. This study hence attempts to provide novel insight into areca nut-induced oral carcinogenesis and new intervention for the treatment of OSCC patients, especially in areca nut users.

  16. ORAL MYIASIS CONVERTING TO ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oral Myiasis, a condition of infestation of the body by fly larvae (maggots is a rare pathology in humans. It is associated with poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, suppurating lesions, severe halitosis. It is seen frequently in tropical countries and hot climatic regions. The reported cases in literature of oral Myiasis associated with oral cancer are few. The treatment is a mechanical removal of the maggots but a systemic treatment with Ivermectin, a semi - synthetic macrolide antibiotic, has been used successfully for treatment for oral m yiasis. We present a case of 55 yr old male alcoholic patient with oral myiasis with extensive proliferative growth of oral cavity. Our patient was managed with manual debridement and administration of systemic ivermect in along with antibiotic coverage. Incisional biopsy of the proliferative lesion showed well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Thus our patient showed presence of oral myiasis in association with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  17. Effect of soluble factors derived from oral cancer cells on the production of interferon-γ from peripheral blood mononuclear cells following stimulation with OK-432.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohe, Go; Sasai, Akiko; Uchida, Daisuke; Tamatani, Tetsuya; Nagai, Hirokazu; Miyamoto, Youji

    2013-08-01

    The streptococcal antitumor agent OK-432 is commonly used as an immunopotentiator for immunotherapy in various types of malignant tumors including oral cancer. It has been demonstrated that OK-432 elicits an antitumor effect by stimulating immunocompetent cells, thereby inducing multiple cytokines including interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-12. Serum concentrations of IFN-γ in patients with oral cancer were examined 24 h after administration of OK-432. Serum concentrations of IFN-γ in patients with advanced cancer were significantly lower than those in patients with early cancer. These results suggested that some soluble factors produced by cancer cells may inhibit IFN-γ production with OK-432. Thus, in the present study, an in vitro simulation model was established for the immune status of patients with oral cancer by adding conditioned medium (CM) derived from oral cancer cell lines into a culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from a healthy volunteer. We investigated whether soluble factors derived from oral cancer cells affected IFN-γ production from PBMCs following stimulation with OK-432. PBMCs stimulated with OK-432 produced a large amount of IFN-γ; however, both IFN-γ production and cytotoxic activity from PBMCs induced by OK-432 were inhibited by the addition of CM in a dose-dependent manner. In order to examine these inhibitory effects against IFN-γ production, the contribution of inhibitory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor-β and vascular endothelial growth factor was investigated. However, neutralization of these inhibitory cytokines did not recover IFN-γ production inhibited by CM. These results indicated that unknown molecules may inhibit IFN-γ production from PBMCs following stimulation with OK-432.

  18. Mouse Models for Studying Oral Cancer: Impact in the Era of Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J J; Young, C D; Zhou, H M; Wang, X J

    2018-04-01

    Model systems for oral cancer research have progressed from tumor epithelial cell cultures to in vivo systems that mimic oral cancer genetics, pathological characteristics, and tumor-stroma interactions of oral cancer patients. In the era of cancer immunotherapy, it is imperative to use model systems to test oral cancer prevention and therapeutic interventions in the presence of an immune system and to discover mechanisms of stromal contributions to oral cancer carcinogenesis. Here, we review in vivo mouse model systems commonly used for studying oral cancer and discuss the impact these models are having in advancing basic mechanisms, chemoprevention, and therapeutic intervention of oral cancer while highlighting recent discoveries concerning the role of immune cells in oral cancer. Improvements to in vivo model systems that highly recapitulate human oral cancer hold the key to identifying features of oral cancer initiation, progression, and invasion as well as molecular and cellular targets for prevention, therapeutic response, and immunotherapy development.

  19. Reactive oxygen species mediate soft corals-derived sinuleptolide-induced antiproliferation and DNA damage in oral cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang YT

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Yung-Ting Chang,1,2,* Chiung-Yao Huang,3,* Jen-Yang Tang,4,5 Chih-Chuang Liaw,1,3 Ruei-Nian Li,6 Jing-Ru Liu,6 Jyh-Horng Sheu,1,3,7,8 Hsueh-Wei Chang6,9–12 1Doctoral Degree Program in Marine Biotechnology, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 2Doctoral Degree Program in Marine Biotechnology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 4Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 5Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 6Department of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 7Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 8Frontier Center for Ocean Science and Technology, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 9Institute of Medical Science and Technology, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 10Cancer Center, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital; Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 11Department of Medical Research, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 12Research Center for Natural Products and Drug Development, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: We previously reported that the soft coral-derived bioactive substance, sinuleptolide, can inhibit the proliferation of oral cancer cells in association with oxidative stress. The functional role of oxidative stress in the cell-killing effect of sinuleptolide on oral cancer cells was not investigated as yet. To address this question, we introduced the reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenger (N-acetylcysteine [NAC] in a pretreatment to evaluate the sinuleptolide-induced changes to cell viability, morphology, intracellular

  20. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

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    Full Text Available ... Americans will be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Oral cancer’s mortality is particularly high, not because it is ... OMS is in the best position to detect oral cancer during your routine dental examinations. Don't risk ...

  1. Association of cancer metabolism-related proteins with oral carcinogenesis – indications for chemoprevention and metabolic sensitizing of oral squamous cell carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Tumor metabolism is a crucial factor for the carcinogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods Expression of IGF-R1, glycolysis-related proteins (GLUT-1, HK 2, PFK-1, LDHA, TKTL1), mitochondrial enzymes (SDHA, SDHB, ATP synthase) were analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n = 5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n = 11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n = 35), and OSCC specimen (n = 42) by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis in OSCC cell lines. Metabolism-related proteins were correlated with proliferation activity (Ki-67) and apoptotic properties (TUNEL assay) in OSCC. Specificity of antibodies was confirmed by western blotting in cancer cell lines. Results Expression of IGF-R1, glycolysis-related proteins (GLUT-1, HK 2, LDHA, TKTL1), and mitochondrial enzymes (SDHA, SDHB, ATP synthase) were significantly increased in the carcinogenesis of OSCC. Metabolic active regions of OSCC were strongly correlated with proliferating cancer (Ki-67+) cells without detection of apoptosis (TUNEL assay). Conclusions This study provides the first evidence of the expression of IGF-R1, glycolysis-related proteins GLUT-1, HK 2, PFK-1, LDHA, and TKTL1, as well as mitochondrial enzymes SDHA, SDHB, and ATP synthase in the multi-step carcinogenesis of OSCC. Both, hypoxia-related glucose metabolism and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation characteristics are associated with the carcinogenesis of OSCC. Acidosis and OXPHOS may drive a metabolic shift towards the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Therefore, inhibition of the PPP, glycolysis, and targeted anti-mitochondrial therapies (ROS generation) by natural compounds or synthetic vitamin derivatives may act as sensitizer for apoptosis in cancer cells mediated by adjuvant therapies in OSCC. PMID:25048361

  2. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

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    Full Text Available ... the cancer is often discovered late in its development. Your family dentist or OMS is in the best position to detect oral cancer during your routine dental examinations. Don't risk it. Perform an oral cancer self-exam each month. Perform a Self-Exam Monthly ...

  3. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

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    Full Text Available ... teeth or become infected. It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out ... and surgically treating cancer of the head, neck and mouth. The Oral Cancer Foundation estimates that close to ...

  4. Oral Carcinogenesis and Oral Cancer Chemoprevention: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Takuji; Tanaka, Mayu; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important adv...

  5. Cancer-associated fibroblasts regulate keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion via TGF-β-dependent pathways in genotype-specific oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, N; Hassona, Y; Celentano, A; Lim, K P; Manchella, S; Parkinson, E K; Prime, S S

    2017-01-01

    The interrelationship between malignant epithelium and the underlying stroma is of fundamental importance in tumour development and progression. In the present study, we used cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) derived from genetically unstable oral squamous cell carcinomas (GU-OSCC), tumours that are characterized by the loss of genes such as TP53 and p16 INK4A and with extensive loss of heterozygosity, together with CAFs from their more genetically stable (GS) counterparts that have wild-type TP53 and p16 INK4A and minimal loss of heterozygosity (GS-OSCC). Using a systems biology approach to interpret the genome-wide transcriptional profile of the CAFs, we show that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family members not only had biological relevance in silico but also distinguished GU-OSCC-derived CAFs from GS-OSCC CAFs and fibroblasts from normal oral mucosa. In view of the close association between TGF-β family members, we examined the expression of TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 in the different fibroblast subtypes and showed increased levels of active TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 in CAFs from GU-OSCC. CAFs from GU-OSCC, but not GS-OSCC or normal fibroblasts, induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and down-regulated a broad spectrum of cell adhesion molecules resulting in epithelial dis-cohesion and invasion of target keratinocytes in vitro in a TGF-β-dependent manner. The results demonstrate that the TGF-β family of cytokines secreted by CAFs derived from genotype-specific oral cancer (GU-OSCC) promote, at least in part, the malignant phenotype by weakening intercellular epithelial adhesion. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

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    Full Text Available ... be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Here’s what you need to know. Click here ... be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Here’s what you need to know. Click here ...

  7. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

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    Full Text Available ... will be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Here’s what you need to know. Click here ... will be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Here’s what you need to know. Click here ...

  8. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Americans will be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Here’s what you need to know. ... Americans will be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Here’s what you need to know. ...

  9. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors induce apoptosis in oral cavity cancer cells by increased expression of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung-Su; Yoon, Joo-Heon; Kim, Jin Kook; Baek, Seung Joon; Eling, Thomas E.; Lee, Won Jae; Ryu, Ji-Hwan; Lee, Jeung Gweon; Lee, Joo-Hwan; Yoo, Jong-Bum

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated whether NAG-1 is induced in oral cavity cancer cells by various NSAIDs and if apoptosis induced by NSAIDs can be linked directly with the induction of NAG-1. NAG-1 expression was increased by diclofenac, aceclofenac, indomethacin, ibuprofen, and sulindac sulfide, in the order of NAG-1 induction, but not by acetaminophen, piroxicam or NS-398. Diclofenac was the most effective NAG-1 inducer. Incubation with diclofenac inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. The expression of NAG-1 was observed in advance of the induction of apoptosis. Conditioned medium from NAG-1-overexpressing Drosophila cells inhibited SCC 1483 cells proliferation and induced apoptosis. In summary, some NSAIDs induce NAG-1 expression in oral cavity cancer cells and the induced NAG-1 protein appears to mediate apoptosis. Therefore, NSAIDs may be considered as a possible chemopreventive agent against oral cavity cancer

  10. Rising population of survivors of oral squamous cell cancer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mira A; Blackford, Amanda L; Rettig, Eleni M; Richmon, Jeremy D; Eisele, David W; Fakhry, Carole

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) and a subset of oral cavity cancer (OCC) is increasing in the United States. To the authors' knowledge, the presumed growing prevalence of survivors of OPC and OCC has not been investigated to date. Retrospective analysis of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data (1975-2012) estimated changes in incidence, 5-year cause-specific survival, and prevalence for OPC and OCC. Changes in incidence, cause-specific survival and prevalence were estimated by linear regression and expressed as the percentage change (B). Differences in incidence trends over time were determined by joinpoint analysis. The incidence of OPC increased by 62.6% from 1975 through 2012. Notable increases in OPC incidence were observed among men, white individuals, and those of younger ages. The 5-year survival for OPC increased significantly for all sexes, races, and individuals aged >30 years, with white individuals and males experiencing the largest increase in survival. By contrast, the incidence of OCC declined by 22.3% during the same time period. OCC incidence decreased across all groups but increased among individuals aged 30 to 39 years. Significant increases in survival were observed for OCC, except for those who were female, black, and aged American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  11. Human papilloma virus in oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soung Min

    2016-12-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women, and it arises from cells that originate in the cervix uteri. Among several causes of cervical malignancies, infection with some types of human papilloma virus (HPV) is well known to be the greatest cervical cancer risk factor. Over 150 subtypes of HPV have been identified; more than 40 types of HPVs are typically transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anogenital region and oral cavity. The recently introduced vaccine for HPV infection is effective against certain subtypes of HPV that are associated with cervical cancer, genital warts, and some less common cancers, including oropharyngeal cancer. Two HPV vaccines, quadrivalent and bivalent types that use virus-like particles (VLPs), are currently used in the medical commercial market. While the value of HPV vaccination for oral cancer prevention is still controversial, some evidence supports the possibility that HPV vaccination may be effective in reducing the incidence of oral cancer. This paper reviews HPV-related pathogenesis in cancer, covering HPV structure and classification, trends in worldwide applications of HPV vaccines, effectiveness and complications of HPV vaccination, and the relationship of HPV with oral cancer prevalence.

  12. Human papilloma virus in oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Soung Min

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women, and it arises from cells that originate in the cervix uteri. Among several causes of cervical malignancies, infection with some types of human papilloma virus (HPV) is well known to be the greatest cervical cancer risk factor. Over 150 subtypes of HPV have been identified; more than 40 types of HPVs are typically transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anogenital region and oral cavity. The recently introduced vaccine ...

  13. Use of next-generation sequencing in oral cavity cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeifar, Siavosh; Kruse, Torben A; Thomassen, Mads

    Background: Oral cavity cancer is a subgroup of head and neck cancer which is the world’s 6th most common cancer form. Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) constitute almost all oral cavity cancers, and OSCC are primarily attributed by excessive alcohol consumption and tobacco exposure...... of tumour cells exists. Conclusions: Use of next generation sequencing in oral cavity cancer can give valuable insight into the biology of the disease. By investigating intra tumour heterogeneity we see that the different tumour specimens in each patient are quite homogenous, but evidence of heterogeneous...

  14. Oral mucosa and lung cancer: Are genetic changes in the oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-03

    Feb 3, 2016 ... to lung cancer, although other risk factors (such as genetic tendency) ... analysis of oral mucosa identifying individuals predisposed to lung cancer. ... of the study is that oral epithelial cells of smokers who have lung cancer are ... Stratec Molecular, Berlin, Germany). p53 codon 72 ..... Validity and reliability of.

  15. Expression of cancer-testis antigens MAGE-A4 and MAGE-C1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, José Raphael de Moura Campos; Mamede, Rui Celso Martins; Neder Serafini, Luciano; Saggioro, Fabiano Pinto; Figueiredo, David Livingstone Alves; Silva, Wilson Araújo da; Jungbluth, Achim A; Spagnoli, Giulio Cesare; Zago, Marco Antônio

    2012-08-01

    Tumor markers are genes or their products expressed exclusively or preferentially in tumor cells and cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) form a group of genes with a typical expression pattern expressed in a variety of malignant neoplasms. CTAs are considered potential targets for cancer vaccines. It is possible that the CTA MAGE-A4 (melanoma antigen) and MAGE-C1 are expressed in carcinoma of the oral cavity and are related with survival. This study involved immunohistochemical analysis of 23 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and was carried out using antibodies for MAGE-A4 and MAGE-C1. Fisher's exact test and log-rank test were used to evaluate the results. The expression of the MAGE-A4 and MAGE-C1 were 56.5% and 47.8% without statistical difference in studied variables and survival. The expression of at least 1 CTA was present in 78.3% of the patients, however, without correlation with clinicopathologic variables and survival. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

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    Full Text Available ... attune the oral and maxillofacial surgeon to the need for harmony between facial appearance and function. As ... or pharyngeal cancer this year. Here’s what you need to know. Click here to find out more. ...

  17. Oral complications in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl, W.

    1983-01-01

    Ionizing radiation used in treating the head and neck area produces oral side effects such as mucositis, salivary changes, trismus and radiation caries. Sequelae of cancer chemotherapy often include oral stomatitis, myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Infections of dental origin in compromised patients are potentially lethal. Specific programs to eliminate dental pathology before radiation and chemotherapy, and to maintain oral hygiene during and after therapy, will minimize these complications

  18. Dehydroandrographolide, an iNOS inhibitor, extracted from from Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees, induces autophagy in human oral cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Chiou, Hui-Ling; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chen, Mu-Kuan

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy, which is constitutively executed at the basal level in all cells, promotes cellular homeostasis by regulating the turnover of organelles and proteins. Andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide (DA) are the two principle components of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees. and are the main contributors to its therapeutic properties. However, the pharmacological activities of dehydroandrographolide (DA) remain unclear. In this study, DA induces oral cancer cell death by activating autophagy. Treatment with autophagy inhibitors inhibited DA-induced human oral cancer cell death. In addition, DA increased LC3-II expression and reduced p53 expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, DA induced autophagy and decreased cell viability through modulation of p53 expression. DA-induced autophagy was triggered by an activation of JNK1/2 and an inhibition of Akt and p38. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that DA induced autophagy in human oral cancer cells by modulating p53 expression, activating JNK1/2, and inhibiting Akt and p38. Finally, an administration of DA effectively suppressed the tumor formation in the oral carcinoma xenograft model in vivo. This is the first study to reveal the novel function of DA in activating autophagy, suggesting that DA could serve as a new and potential chemopreventive agent for treating human oral cancer. PMID:26356821

  19. Dehydroandrographolide, an iNOS inhibitor, extracted from Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees, induces autophagy in human oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Chiou, Hui-Ling; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chen, Mu-Kuan

    2015-10-13

    Autophagy, which is constitutively executed at the basal level in all cells, promotes cellular homeostasis by regulating the turnover of organelles and proteins. Andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide (DA) are the two principle components of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees. and are the main contributors to its therapeutic properties. However, the pharmacological activities of dehydroandrographolide (DA) remain unclear. In this study, DA induces oral cancer cell death by activating autophagy. Treatment with autophagy inhibitors inhibited DA-induced human oral cancer cell death. In addition, DA increased LC3-II expression and reduced p53 expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, DA induced autophagy and decreased cell viability through modulation of p53 expression. DA-induced autophagy was triggered by an activation of JNK1/2 and an inhibition of Akt and p38. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that DA induced autophagy in human oral cancer cells by modulating p53 expression, activating JNK1/2, and inhibiting Akt and p38. Finally, an administration of DA effectively suppressed the tumor formation in the oral carcinoma xenograft model in vivo. This is the first study to reveal the novel function of DA in activating autophagy, suggesting that DA could serve as a new and potential chemopreventive agent for treating human oral cancer.

  20. In vitro apoptotic effects of methanol extracts of Dianthus chinensis and Acalypha australis L. targeting specificity protein 1 in human oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ji-Ae; Kim, Jae-Jin; Choi, Eun-Sun; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Ryu, Mi Heon; Kwon, Ki Han; Park, Hee-Min; Seo, Jin-Young; Lee, Soo-Yeon; Lim, Do-Won; Cho, Nam-Pyo; Cho, Sung-Dae

    2013-07-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the apoptotic activities and molecular mechanisms of methanol extracts of Dianthus chinensis (MEDC) and Acalypha australis L. (MEAL) in human oral cancer cells. The apoptotic effects and related molecular mechanisms of MEDC and MEAL on oral cancer cells were evaluated using MTS assay, DAPI staining, immunostaining, Western blotting, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Sp1 was overexpressed in oral tumor tissues compared with normal oral mucosa. Downregulation of Sp1 inhibited the growth of SCC-15 and YD-15 oral cancer cells. MEDC and MEAL inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in both cell lines by decreasing the expression of Sp1. In addition, treatment of cells with MEDC and MEAL decreased Mcl-1 expression, which is a downstream target of Sp1. Our results indicate that MEDC and MEAL are bioactive natural products that can potentially induce apoptosis of tumor cells that overexpress the Sp1 protein. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Influence of operation and irradiation on cell-mediated immunity in patients with oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Tominaga, Naohiro; Tokuhisa, Michio

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of operation and irradiation on cell-mediated immunity in patients with primary oral squamous cell carcinoma, several parameters, including NK activity, LAK activity, and IL-2 production, were selected. Twenty-two patients who underwent operation and/or irradiation from 1989 to 1993 were evaluated. Perioperatively, no significant change of immunologic parameters was observed except increased number of peripheral leukocytes at two weeks after operation. Immediately and/or one month after irradiation, significantly decreased numbers of leukocytes and lymphocytes as well as significantly depressed levels of blastoid transformation of lymphocytes, LAK activity, and IL-2 production were observed. By three months after irradiation, values of immunologic parameters returned to preirradiation values. The number of monocytes and level of NK activity showed little change after irradiation. (author)

  2. Understanding Carcinogenesis for Fighting Oral Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Takuji; Ishigamori, Rikako

    2011-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. Oral cancer development is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are able to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will give us important advances for...

  3. Oral Field Cancerization: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raviraj Jayam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of oral field cancerization (OFC has been ever changing since its first description by Slaughter et al in 1953. The concept of OFC explains the mechanisms by which second primary tumors (OPTs develop- OPTs are the tumor-, which develop in the oral cavity in succession to the primary malignant tumors, which might vary in duration ranging from few months to years. The "classical" mechanism, which was originally observed by Slaughter describes that in the individuals with adverse habits, large areas of the aerodigestive tissue are affected by long-term exposure to carcinogens. In this preconditioned epithelium, multifocal carcinomas can develop as a result of independent mutations, and thus would not be genetically related. Although this mechanism was accepted for a quite a long time, the controversies began with the advent of new mechanism called the "clonal theory-, which explains that a single cell, on exposure to carcinogens, is transformed and give- rise to one large extended premalignant field by clonal expansion and gradual replacement of normal mucosa. In this field of various subclones, two separate tumors can develop after accumulation of additional genetic alteration-. Both tumors have the same clonal origin, and would thus share at least one early genetic event, which occurred before the initial clonal expansion. Also, the molecular studies regarding OFC have been expanding exponentially since a few years. The need for chemoprevention and the management of OFC with its resultant effect of development of second primary tumors has been challenging till today. Hence, the article tries to explain the conflicting aspects of various mechanisms by which SPTs develop, the molecular techniques, chemoprevention and therapeutic implications for oral field cancerization.

  4. Enhanced oral bioavailability and anticancer activity of novel curcumin loaded mixed micelles in human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sharvil; Choudhary, Bhavana; Rathore, Atul; Roy, Krishtey; Mahadik, Kakasaheb

    2015-11-15

    Curcumin has a wide range of pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antibacterial, wound healing, antiatherosclerotic, hepatoprotective and anti-carcinogenic. However, its clinical applications are limited owing to its poor aqueous solubility, multidrug pump P-gp efflux, extensive in vivo metabolism and rapid elimination due to glucuronidation/sulfation. The objective of the current work was to prepare novel curcumin loaded mixed micelles (CUR-MM) of Pluronic F-127 (PF127) and Gelucire® 44/14 (GL44) in order to enhance its oral bioavailability and cytotoxicity in human lung cancer cell line A549. 3(2) Factorial design was used to assess the effect of formulation variables for optimization of mixed micelle batch. CUR-MM was prepared by a solvent evaporation method. The optimized CUR-MM was evaluated for size, entrapment efficiency (EE), in vitro curcumin release, cytotoxicity and oral bioavailability in rats. The average size of CUR-MM was found to be around 188 ± 3 nm with an EE of about 76.45 ± 1.18% w/w. In vitro dissolution profile of CUR-MM revealed controlled release of curcumin. Additionally, CUR-MM showed significant improvement in cytotoxic activity (3-folds) and oral bioavailability (around 55-folds) of curcumin as compared to curcumin alone. Such significant improvement in cytotoxic activity and oral bioavailability of curcumin when formulated into mixed micelles could be attributed to solubilization of hydrophobic curcumin into micelle core along with P-gp inhibition effect of both, PF127 and GL44. Thus the present work propose the formulation of mixed micelles of PF127 and GL44 which can act as promising carrier systems for hydrophobic drugs such as curcumin with significant improvement in their oral bioavailability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Cryotherapy for oral precancers and cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuan-Hang; Lin, Hung-Pin; Cheng, Shih-Jung; Sun, Andy; Chen, Hsin-Ming

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies have used cryotherapy for the treatment of oral precancers including oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH) as well as oral cancers including oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Cryotherapy is a method that locally destroys lesional tissues by freezing in situ. It can be carried out by either an "open" or a "closed" system. Lesional tissues are destroyed mainly through disruption of cell membrane, cellular dehydration, enzyme and protein damage, cell swelling and rupture, thermal shock injury to cells, damage to vasculature, and immune-mediated cytotoxicity. Cryotherapy is used frequently for the treatment of OL lesions with promising results. It can also be used to treat OVH and OVC lesions. Because OVH and OVC lesions are usually fungating and bulky, a combination therapy of shave excision and cryotherapy is needed to achieve a complete regression of the lesion. OSCCs have also been treated by cryotherapy. However, cryotherapy is not the main-stream treatment modality for OSCCs. Cryotherapy seems suitable for treatment of thin or relatively thick plaque-typed lesions such as OL lesions. By careful selection of patients, cryotherapy is a simple, safe, easy, conservative, and acceptable treatment modality for certain benign oral lesions and oral precancers. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Are we able to reduce the mortality and morbidity of oral cancer; Some considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, I.

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer makes up 1%-2% of all cancers that may arise in the body. The majority of oral cancers consists of squamous cell carcinomas. Oral cancer carries a considerable mortality rate, being mainly dependent on the stage of the disease at admission. Worldwide some 50% of the patients with oral

  7. Molecular concept in human oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Akhilesh; Singh, Shraddha; Kumar, Vijay; Pal, U S

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of oral cancer remains high in both Asian and Western countries. Several risk factors associated with development of oral cancer are now well-known, including tobacco chewing, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Cancerous risk factors may cause many genetic events through chromosomal alteration or mutations in genetic material and lead to progression and development of oral cancer through histological progress, carcinogenesis. Oral squamous carcinogenesis is a multistep process in which multiple genetic events occur that alter the normal functions of proto-oncogenes/oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Furthermore, these gene alterations can deregulate the normal activity such as increase in the production of growth factors (transforming growth factor-α [TGF-α], TGF-β, platelet-derived growth factor, etc.) or numbers of cell surface receptors (epidermal growth factor receptor, G-protein-coupled receptor, etc.), enhanced intracellular messenger signaling and mutated production of transcription factors (ras gene family, c-myc gene) which results disturb to tightly regulated signaling pathways of normal cell. Several oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes have been implicated in oral cancer especially cyclin family, ras, PRAD-1, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p53 and RB1. Viral infections, particularly with oncogenic human papilloma virus subtype (16 and 18) and Epstein-Barr virus have tumorigenic effect on oral epithelia. Worldwide, this is an urgent need to initiate oral cancer research programs at molecular and genetic level which investigates the causes of genetic and molecular defect, responsible for malignancy. This approach may lead to development of target dependent tumor-specific drugs and appropriate gene therapy.

  8. Comparison of oropharyngeal and oral cavity squamous cell cancer incidence and trends in New Zealand and Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, J Mark; Youlden, Danny R; Chelimo, Carol; Ioannides, Sally J; Baade, Peter D

    2014-02-01

    Increases in the incidence of squamous cell oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) have been reported from some countries, but have not been assessed in Australia or New Zealand. This study examines trends for squamous cell OPC and squamous cell oral cavity cancer (OCC) in two similarly sized populations, New Zealand and Queensland, Australia. Incidence data for 1982-2010 were obtained from the respective population-based cancer registries for squamous cell OPC and OCC, by subsite, sex, and age. Time trends and annual percentage changes (APCs) were assessed by joinpoint regression. The incidence rates of squamous cell OPC in males in New Zealand since 2005 and Queensland since 2006 have increased rapidly, with APCs of 11.9% and 10.6% respectively. The trends were greatest at ages 50-69 and followed more gradual increases previously. In females, rates increased by 2.1% per year in New Zealand from 1982, but by only 0.9% (not significant) in Queensland. In contrast, incidence rates for OCC decreased by 1.2% per year in males in Queensland since 1982, but remained stable for females in Queensland and for both sexes in New Zealand. Overall, incidence rates for both OCC and OPC were substantially higher in Queensland than in New Zealand. In males in both areas, OPC incidence is now higher than that of OCC. Incidence rates of squamous cell OPC have increased rapidly in men, while rates of OCC have been stable or reducing, showing distinct etiologies. This has both clinical and public health importance, including implications for the extension of human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination to males. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Oral Complications and Management Strategies for Patients Undergoing Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    With cancer survival rate climbing up over the past three decades, quality of life for cancer patients has become an issue of major concern. Oral health plays an important part in one's overall quality of life. However, oral health status can be severely hampered by side effects of cancer therapies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Moreover, prevention and treatment of these complications are often overlooked in clinical practice. The present paper aims at drawing health care professionals' attention to oral complications associated with cancer therapy by giving a comprehensive review. Brief comments on contemporary cancer therapies will be given first, followed by detailed description of oral complications associated with cancer therapy. Finally, a summary of preventive strategies and treatment options for common oral complications including oral mucositis, oral infections, xerostomia, and dysgeusia will be given. PMID:24511293

  10. Radiotherapy for Oral Cavity Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Jae Won

    1993-01-01

    Eighty five patients of oral cavity cancer, treated with radiation at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, during the period from March 1985 to September 1990 were analyzed retrospectively. Among 85 patients, 37 patients were treated with radiation only and 48 patients were treated with radiation following surgery And 70 patients received external irradiation only by 60 Co with or without electron, the others were 7 patients for external irradiation plus interstitial implantation and 8 patients for external irradiation plus oral cone electron therapy. Primary sites were mobile tongue for 40 patients, mouth floor for 17 patients, palate for 12 patients, gingiva including retromolar trigone for 10 patients, buccal mucosa for 5 patients, and lip for 1 patient. According to pathologic classification, squamous cell carcinoma was the most common (77 patients). According to AJC TNM stage, stage I + II were 28 patients and stage III + IV were 57 patients. Acturial overall survival rate at 3 years was 43.9%, 3 year survival rates were 60.9% for stage I + II, and 23.1% for stage III + IV, respectively. As a prognostic factor, primary T stage was a significant factor (p<0.01). The others, age, location, lymph node metastasis, surgery, radiation dose, and cell differentiation were not statistically significant. Among those factors, radiation plus surgery was more effective than radiation only in T3 + T4 or in any N stage although it was not statistically sufficient(p<0.1). From those results, it was conclusive that definitive radiotherapy was more effective than surgery especially in the view of pertaining of anatomical integrity and function in early stage, and radiation plus surgery was considered to be better therapeutic tool in advanced stage

  11. Salivary mineral composition in patients with oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewulska, Anna; Janiszewska-Olszowska, Joanna; Bachanek, Teresa; Grocholewicz, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    To analyse the mineral content of saliva in patients with oral cancer in order to identify possible markers that might aid the diagnosis of oral cancer. The study group consisted of 34 patients, aged 35-72 years with a diagnosis of oral cancer, including seven women and 27 men, before the start of treatment. Samples of unstimulated saliva were collected in plastic containers. The concentrations of sodium and potassium were assessed using ion selective electrodes, and the concentrations of calcium, magnesium, iron and phosphorus were assessed using colorimetric methods. Statistically significant differences between the study and control groups were found only for the concentration of sodium--higher concentrations were found in the study group. When comparing different cancer localisations, the highest levels of salivary sodium were found in cases of cancer of the floor of the oral cavity, and the lowest levels in tongue or parotid gland cancer. The highest calcium levels were found in cancer of the floor of the oral cavity, and the lowest levels in tongue cancer. The highest levels of magnesium were found in cancer of the floor of the oral cavity, and the lowest in tongue cancer. As regards the different histological types, higher sodium and calcium levels were found in squamous cell carcinomas than in other types. Salivary mineral content in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma is indicative of oral dehydration; however, we found no evidence of any salivary mineral markers that would be useful for the diagnosis of oral cancer.

  12. Oral microbiome and oral and gastrointestinal cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Chen, Calvin Y.; Hayes, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of evidence implicates human oral bacteria in the etiology of oral and gastrointestinal cancers. Epidemiological studies consistently report increased risks of these cancers in men and women with periodontal disease or tooth loss, conditions caused by oral bacteria. More than 700 bacterial species inhabit the oral cavity, including at least 11 bacterial phyla and 70 genera. Oral bacteria may activate alcohol and smoking-related carcinogens locally or act systemically, through c...

  13. MAPK/JNK1 activation protects cells against cadmium-induced autophagic cell death via differential regulation of catalase and heme oxygenase-1 in oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Keum-Young; Kim, Sang-Hun; Jung, Ki-Tae; Lee, Hyun-Young; Oh, Seon-Hee

    2017-10-01

    Antioxidant enzymes are related to oral diseases. We investigated the roles of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and catalase in cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress and the underlying molecular mechanism in oral cancer cells. Exposing YD8 cells to Cd reduced the expression levels of catalase and superoxide dismutase 1/2 and induced the expression of HO-1 as well as autophagy and apoptosis, which were reversed by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). Cd-exposed YD10B cells exhibited milder effects than YD8 cells, indicating that Cd sensitivity is associated with antioxidant enzymes and autophagy. Autophagy inhibition via pharmacologic and genetic modulations enhanced Cd-induced HO-1 expression, caspase-3 cleavage, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ho-1 knockdown increased autophagy and apoptosis. Hemin treatment partially suppressed Cd-induced ROS production and apoptosis, but enhanced autophagy and CHOP expression, indicating that autophagy induction is associated with cellular stress. Catalase inhibition by pharmacological and genetic modulations increased Cd-induced ROS production, autophagy, and apoptosis, but suppressed HO-1, indicating that catalase is required for HO-1 induction. p38 inhibition upregulated Cd-induced phospho-JNK and catalase, but suppressed HO-1, autophagy, apoptosis. JNK suppression exhibited contrary results, enhancing the expression of phospho-p38. Co-suppression of p38 and JNK1 failed to upregulate catalase and procaspase-3, which were upregulated by JNK1 overexpression. Overall, the balance between the responses of p38 and JNK activation to Cd appears to have an important role in maintaining cellular homeostasis via the regulation of antioxidant enzymes and autophagy induction. In addition, the upregulation of catalase by JNK1 activation can play a critical role in cell protection against Cd-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fisetin-induced apoptosis of human oral cancer SCC-4 cells through reactive oxygen species production, endoplasmic reticulum stress, caspase-, and mitochondria-dependent signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chen-Hsuan; Kuo, Chao-Lin; Lu, Kung-Wen; Yu, Fu-Shun; Ma, Yi-Shih; Yang, Jiun-Long; Chu, Yung-Lin; Chueh, Fu-Shin; Liu, Kuo-Ching; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2017-06-01

    Oral cancer is one of the cancer-related diseases in human populations and its incidence rates are rising worldwide. Fisetin, a flavonoid from natural products, has been shown to exhibit anticancer activities in many human cancer cell lines but the molecular mechanism of fisetin-induced apoptosis in human oral cancer cells is still unclear; thus, in this study, we investigated fisetin-induced cell death and associated signal pathways on human oral cancer SCC-4 cells in vitro. We examined cell morphological changes, total viable cells, and cell cycle distribution by phase contrast microscopy and flow cytometry assays. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), Ca 2+ , mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨ m ), and caspase-8, -9, and -3 activities were also measured by flow cytometer. Results indicate that fisetin induced cell death through the cell morphological changes, caused G2/M phase arrest, induction of apoptosis, promoted ROS and Ca 2+ production, and decreased the level of ΔΨ m and increased caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities in SCC-4 cells. DAPI staining and DNA gel electrophoresis were also used to confirm fisetin-induced cell apoptosis in SCC-4 cells. Western blotting also found out that Fisetin increased the proapoptotic proteins such as Bax and Bid and decreased the antiapoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2. Furthermore, results also showed that Fisetin increased the cytochrome c, AIF, and Endo G release from mitochondria in SCC-4 cells. We also used ATF-6α, ATF-6β, GADD153, and GRP78 which indicated that fisetin induced cell death through ER stress. Based on those observations, we suggest that fisetin induced cell apoptosis through ER stress, mitochondria-, and caspase-dependent pathways. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy for advanced oral cancer. Did the cancer cells really disappear in the CR cases?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirita, Tadaaki; Yamanaka, Yasutsugu; Imai, Yuichiro; Aoki, Kumiko; Inoue, Masahide; Yagyuu, Takahiro

    2008-01-01

    We report a series of 136 patients with advanced oral cancer who received preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) followed by surgery and who were studied clinically and histopathologically, and the indication of minimally invasive surgery was evaluated. The results and conclusions were as follows: The CR (complete response) of the primary tumor was 60.3% and the overall response rate was 92.7%. Histological effects were Grade IIb and above, i.e. effective, in 84.6% and Grade III, IV, i.e. pathological CR, in 73 of 82 (89.0%) in CR cases. The CCRT was also very effective histologically, and a correlation was observed between clinical effects and histological effects. The residual tumor grade (R Grade) in the resected specimen is considered to be useful as a prognostic factor. Histological effects were satisfactory in good partial response (PR) and CR cases on CCRT. In such cases, minimally invasive surgery is considered to be applicable even in advanced cases, and improvements in the postoperative quality of life (QOL) can be expected by preservation of the oral organs and functions. (author)

  16. Sentinel Node in Oral Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tartaglione, Girolamo; Stoeckli, Sandro J; de Bree, Remco

    2016-01-01

    /static scan and/or SPECT/CT. RESULTS: Lymphoscintigraphy identified 723 lymphatic basins. 1398 sentinel lymph nodes (SNs) were biopsied (3.2 SN per patient; range, 1-10). Dynamic scan allowed the differentiation of sentinel nodes from second tier lymph nodes. SPECT/CT allowed more accurate anatomical......PURPOSE: Nuclear imaging plays a crucial role in lymphatic mapping of oral cancer. This evaluation represents a subanalysis of the original multicenter SENT trial data set, involving 434 patients with T1-T2, N0, and M0 oral squamous cell carcinoma. The impact of acquisition techniques, tracer...... localization and estimated SN depth more efficiently. After pathological examination, 9.9% of the SN excised (138 of 1398 SNs) showed metastases. The first neck level (NL) containing SN+ was NL I in 28.6%, NL IIa in 44.8%, NL IIb in 2.8%, NL III in 17.1%, and NL IV in 6.7% of positive patients. Approximately...

  17. Tapirira guianensis Aubl. Extracts Inhibit Proliferation and Migration of Oral Cancer Cells Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato José Silva-Oliveira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer of the head and neck is a group of upper aerodigestive tract neoplasms in which aggressive treatments may cause harmful side effects to the patient. In the last decade, investigations on natural compounds have been particularly successful in the field of anticancer drug research. Our aim is to evaluate the antitumor effect of Tapirira guianensis Aubl. extracts on a panel of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC cell lines. Analysis of secondary metabolites classes in fractions of T. guianensis was performed using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR. Mutagenicity effect was evaluated by Ames mutagenicity assay. The cytotoxic effect, and migration and invasion inhibition were measured. Additionally, the expression level of apoptosis-related molecules (PARP, Caspases 3, and Fas and MMP-2 was detected using Western blot. Heterogeneous cytotoxicity response was observed for all fractions, which showed migration inhibition, reduced matrix degradation, and decreased cell invasion ability. Expression levels of MMP-2 decreased in all fractions, and particularly in the hexane fraction. Furthermore, overexpression of FAS and caspase-3, and increase of cleaved PARP indicates possible apoptosis extrinsic pathway activation. Antiproliferative activity of T. guianensis extract in HNSCC cells lines suggests the possibility of developing an anticancer agent or an additive with synergic activities associated with conventional anticancer therapy.

  18. The Flavonoid Jaceosidin from Artemisia princeps Induces Apoptotic Cell Death and Inhibits the Akt Pathway in Oral Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Yeon Han

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jaceosidin is a single compound from the Japanese mugwort Artemisia princeps, which is used as a food and a traditional medicinal herb. A. princeps extracts and flavonoid components have been shown to have antihyperglycaemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Although the anticancer properties of these extracts were recently demonstrated, the related mechanisms have not been characterised. In this study, we investigated the effects of jaceosidin in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC cells and initially showed selective suppression of proliferation (IC50 = 82.1 μM in HSC-3 cells and 97.5 μM in Ca9.22 cells and accumulation of cells at the sub-G1 stage of the cell cycle. In addition, jaceosidin increased cleavage of caspase-9 and caspase-3 in OSCC cells, although caspase-8 was not detected. In further experiments, jaceosidin downregulated Akt phosphorylation and ectopic activation of Akt blocked the antiproliferative effects of jaceosidin. Finally, we showed that jaceosidin has no effects on HaCaT normal epithelial cell viability, indicating selective chemotherapeutic potential of jaceosidin and that tumour-specific downregulation of Akt increases apoptosis and inhibits growth in OSCC cells.

  19. Phase II study of oral platinum drug JM216 as first-line treatment in patients with small-cell long cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, E; Groen, HJM; Uges, DRA; Weil, C; Smith, IE

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: This multicenter phase II trial wets performed to determine tumor efficacy and tolerance of the oral platinum drug JM216 in patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Patients and Methods: patients with SCLC limited disease unfit for intensive chemotherapy or those with extensive disease

  20. Fisetin Induces Apoptosis of HSC3 Human Oral Cancer Cells Through Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Dysfunction of Mitochondria-mediated Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yung-Luen; Hung, Fang-Ming; Lee, Ching-Hsiao; Yeh, Ming-Yang; Lee, Mei-Hui; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Chen, Yung-Liang; Liu, Jia-You; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancer has been reported to be one of the major cancer-related diseases in human populations and the treatment of oral cancer is still unsatisfied. Fisetin, is a flavonoid from plants and has several biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer function, but its cytotoxicity in human oral cancer cells is unknown. In the present study, we investigated fisetin-induced cytotoxic effects on HSC3 human oral cancer cells in vitro. Materials and Methods/Results: We used flow cytometric assay to show fisetin induced apoptotic cell death through increased reactive oxygen species and Ca 2+ , but reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential and increased caspase-8, -9 and -3 activities in HSC3 cells. Furthermore, we also used 4' 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining to show that fisetin induced chromatin condensation (apoptotic cell death), and Comet assay to show that fisetin induced DNA damage in HSC3 cells. Western blotting was used to examine the levels of apoptotic-associated protein and results indicated that fisetin increased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins such as B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) antagonist/killer (BAK) and BCL2-associated X (BAX) but reduced that of anti-apoptotic protein such as BCL2 and BCL-x, and increased the cleaved forms of caspase-3, -8 and -9, and cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease G (ENDO G) in HSC3 cells. Confocal microscopy showed that fisetin increased the release of cytochrome c, AIF and ENDO G from mitochondria into the cytoplasm. Based on these observations, we suggest that fisetin induces apoptotic cell death through endoplasmic reticulum stress- and mitochondria-dependent pathways. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  1. Culture supernatants of oral cancer cells induce impaired IFN-α production of pDCs partly through the down-regulation of TLR-9 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Nannan; Zhang, Zun; Jv, Houyu; Hu, Jingzhou; Ruan, Min; Zhang, Chenping

    2018-06-05

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether tumor-derived supernatants down-regulate the immune function of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) in oral cancer and the potential molecular mechanisms of this effect. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and flow cytometry were used to detect tumor-infiltrating and peripheral blood pDCs. MTS and flow cytometry were employed to evaluate the immune response of CD4 + T cells. Real-time PCR and ELISA assays were used to identify TLR-7 and TLR-9 expression, IFN-α production and tumor-secreted soluble cytokines. The proportion of pDCs (0.121%±0.043%) was significantly higher in Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) samples than in normal tissue (0.023%±0.016%) (P = 0.021). TLR9 mRNA was significantly lower in tumor-infiltrating pDCs and positively correlated to low IFN-α production (r = 0.956; Poral cancer cells negatively regulated TLR9 mRNA expression and the subsequent IFN-α production of pDCs, which inhibited the immune response of CD4 + T cells. The neutralizing antibodies blocking assay showed that the specific inhibitory effect of pDC functionality was associated with the soluble fraction of the oral cancer environment, which is mainly mediated by IL-10 and TGF-β cooperation. Tumor-derived supernatants may impair the function of tumor-infiltrating pDCs, which subsequently decreases the immune response of CD4 + T cells in human oral cancer through TGF-β- and IL-10- dependent mechanisms. Careful manipulation of these impaired pDCs may help develop an important alternative immunotherapy for the treatment of oral cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Elevated S100A9 expression in tumor stroma functions as an early recurrence marker for early-stage oral cancer patients through increased tumor cell invasion, angiogenesis, macrophage recruitment and interleukin-6 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei-Yu; Chen, Yi-Wen; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Liu, Chiang-Shin; Kuo, Yi-Zih; Wang, Yi-Ching; Chang, Kung-Chao; Tsai, Sen-Tien; Chang, Mei-Zhu; Lin, Siao-Han; Wu, Li-Wha

    2015-09-29

    S100A9 is a calcium-binding protein with two EF-hands and frequently deregulated in several cancer types, however, with no clear role in oral cancer. In this report, the expression of S100A9 in cancer and adjacent tissues from 79 early-stage oral cancer patients was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Although S100A9 protein was present in both tumor and stromal cells, only the early-stage oral cancer patients with high stromal expression had reduced recurrence-free survival. High stromal S100A9 expression was also significantly associated with non-well differentiation and recurrence. In addition to increasing cell migration and invasion, ectopic S100A9 expression in tumor cells promoted xenograft tumorigenesis as well as the dominant expression of myeloid cell markers and pro-inflammatory IL-6. The expression of S100A9 in one stromal component, monocytes, stimulated the aggressiveness of co-cultured oral cancer cells. We also detected the elevation of serum S100A9 levels in early-stage oral cancer patients of a separate cohort of 73 oral cancer patients. The release of S100A9 protein into extracellular milieu enhanced tumor cell invasion, transendothelial monocyte migration and angiogenic activity. S100A9-mediated release of IL-6 requires the crosstalk of tumor cells with monocytes through the activation of NF-κB and STAT-3. Early-stage oral cancer patients with both high S100A9 expression and high CD68+ immune infiltrates in stroma had shortest recurrence-free survival, suggesting the use of both S100A9 and CD68 as poor prognostic markers for oral cancer. Together, both intracellular and extracellular S100A9 exerts a tumor-promoting action through the activation of oral cancer cells and their associated stroma in oral carcinogenesis.

  3. Photodynamic Therapy Using Temoporfin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Recurrent Oral Cavity or Oropharyngeal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-02

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  4. Cancer of the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Pablo H; Patel, Snehal G

    2015-07-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Although early diagnosis is relatively easy, presentation with advanced disease is not uncommon. The standard of care is primary surgical resection with or without postoperative adjuvant therapy. Improvements in surgical techniques combined with the routine use of postoperative radiation or chemoradiation therapy have resulted in improved survival. Successful treatment is predicated on multidisciplinary treatment strategies to maximize oncologic control and minimize impact of therapy on form and function. Prevention of oral cancer requires better education about lifestyle-related risk factors, and improved awareness and tools for early diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Staging N0 oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Grupe, Peter

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare sentinel lymph node biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Doppler ultrasonography, and palpation as staging tools in patients with T1/T2 N0 cancer of the oral cavity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty consecutive patients were enrolled (17 F and 23 M, aged 32-90 years), 24 T1......%, but the sensitivity of MRI 36% was low. The specificities were 100%, 85%, and 93%, respectively. By combined sentinel lymph node biopsy and ultrasonography the overall sensitivity could have been 100%. CONCLUSION: Sentinel lymph node biopsy improved staging of patients with small N0 oral cancers. Combined sentinel...

  6. Quercetin suppresses drug-resistant spheres via the p38 MAPK-Hsp27 apoptotic pathway in oral cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Feng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Treatment failure in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC leading to local recurrence(s and metastases is mainly due to drug resistance. Cancer stem cells (CSCs are thought be responsible for the development of drug resistance. However, the correlations between CSCs, drug resistance, and new strategy against drug resistance in OSCC remain elusive. METHODS: A drug-resistant sphere (DRSP model was generated by using a nonadhesive culture system to induce drug-resistant cells from SCC25 oral cancer cells. A comparative analysis was performed between the parent control cells and DRSPs with a related treatment strategy focusing on the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT-associated markers, drug-resistance-related genes, and CSC properties in vitro, as well as tumorigenicity and the regimen for tumor regression in vivo. RESULTS: Our data show the presence of a phenomenon of EMT with gradual cellular transition from an epithelioid to mesenchymal-like spheroid morphology during induction of drug resistance. The characterization of DRSPs revealed the upregulation of the drug-resistance-related genes ABCG2 and MDR-1 and of CSC-representative markers, suggesting that DRSPs have greater resistance to cisplatin (Cis and stronger CSC properties compared with the control. Moreover, overexpression of phosphorylated heat-shock protein 27 (p-Hsp27 via the activation of p38 MAPK signaling was observed in DRSPs. Knockdown of Hsp27 decreased Cis resistance and induced apoptosis in DRSPs. Furthermore, an inhibitor of Hsp27, quercetin (Qu, suppressed p-Hsp27 expression, with alterations of the EMT signature, leading to the promotion of apoptosis in DRSPs. A xenographic study also confirmed the increase of tumorigenicity in DRSPs. The combination of Qu and Cis can reduce tumor growth and decrease drug resistance in OSCC. CONCLUSIONS: The p38 MAPK-Hsp27 axis plays an important role in CSCs-mediated drug resistance in OSCC. Targeting this axis

  7. Oral Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  8. Molecular concept in human oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna, Akhilesh; Singh, Shraddha; Kumar, Vijay; Pal, U. S.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of oral cancer remains high in both Asian and Western countries. Several risk factors associated with development of oral cancer are now well-known, including tobacco chewing, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Cancerous risk factors may cause many genetic events through chromosomal alteration or mutations in genetic material and lead to progression and development of oral cancer through histological progress, carcinogenesis. Oral squamous carcinogenesis is a multistep process in...

  9. Infectious and dietary risk factors of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurman, Jukka H

    2010-06-01

    In addition to the classic risk factors of oral cancer, namely alcohol and tobacco, other factors both infectious and environmental are thought to be associated with the development of oral malignancy. Infections in the oral cavity may be an important preventable cause of cancer. Poor oral hygiene, periodontal disease, chronic candidiasis, human papilloma virus (HPV) and herpesvirus infections link statistically with cancer but the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Infections may trigger cell proliferation, inhibit apoptosis, interfere with cellular signaling mechanisms and up-regulate tumor promoters. In addition, several oral micro-organisms metabolize alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde thus explaining the association between poor oral hygiene, alcohol consumption and carcinogenesis. With regards to dietary factors the Mediterranean-type fruit and vegetable rich diet has been shown to reduce the risk of oral cancer but the evidence is weak, the effect of individual food components and trace elements on carcinogenesis remains unclear at present. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumpei Washio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the ‘Warburg effect’. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases.

  11. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-06-02

    Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the 'Warburg effect'. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases.

  12. A study of the treatment of oral multiple primary cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takayuki; Kamata, Shin-etsu; Kawabata, Kazuyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The subjects were 30 multiple primary cancers (out of 2,169 oral squamous cell carcinoma including lip cancers), which were treated at the Division of Head and Neck, Cancer Institute Hospital. Seven synchronous carcinomas and 23 metachronous cases were seen. The most common site of the primary cancer was the tongue. Surgical treatment was performed for the first treatment in 5 cases of the 7 synchronous cancers. On the other hand, radical treatment was performed in 11 cases of the 23 metachronous cancers. Fourteen of the 18 cases were treated by surgical treatment and controlled. It is suggested that surgical treatment is the most effective for oral multiple primary cancers. (author)

  13. Oral sex and human papilloma virus-related head and neck squamous cell cancer: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ankit; Malik, Akshat; Garg, Apurva; Mair, Manish; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj

    2017-11-01

    Head neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality all around the world. Just like tobacco and alcohol, Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is now recognized to play a role in the pathogenesis of a subset of HNSCCs. Unprotected sexual behaviours with the HPV carrier plays an important role in transmission of this virus. The global incidence of head and neck cancers is declining, but the incidence of HPV related head and neck cancers is rapidly increasing over the last few decades. However, most institutions do not mandate documentation of sexual history or counselling of patients regarding sexual practices like they do for tobacco and alcohol addictions in HNSCC patients. The aim of this review of literature is to analyse if there is a strong evidence to correlate oral sex with HPV related HNSCC and counsel the patient's regarding sexual behaviours. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Oral Cancer Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that allows malignant transformation, or perhaps, immune system competence diminishes with age. Very recent data (late 2008- ... all cancers There are studies which indicate a diet low in fruits and vegetables could be a ...

  15. Oral cancer screening practices of oral health professionals in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Rodrigo; Haresaku, Satoru; McGrath, Roisin; Bailey, Denise; Mccullough, Michael; Musolino, Ross; Kim, Boaz; Chinnassamy, Alagesan; Morgan, Michael

    2017-12-15

    To evaluate oral cancer-related screening practices of Oral Health Professionals (OHPs - dentists, dental hygienists, dental therapists, and oral health therapists) practising in Victoria, Australia. A 36-item survey was distributed to 3343 OHPs. Items included socio-demographic and work-related characteristics; self-assessed knowledge of oral cancer; perceived level of confidence in discussing oral health behaviors with patients; oral cancer screening practices; and self-evaluated need for additional training on screening procedures for oral cancer. A total of 380 OHPs responded this survey, achieving an overall response rate of 9.4%. Forty-five were excluded from further analysis. Of these 335 OHP, 72% were dentists; (n = 241); either GDP or Dental Specialists; 13.7% (n = 46) were dental hygienists; 12.2% (n = 41) were oral health therapists, and the remaining 2.1% (n = 7) were dental therapists. While the majority (95.2%) agreed that oral cancer screening should be routinely performed, in actual practice around half (51.4%) screened all their patients. Another 12.8% "Very rarely" conducted screening examinations. The probability of routinely conducting an oral cancer screening was explored utilising Logistic Regression Analysis. Four variables remained statistically significant (p oral cancer screening rose with increasing levels of OHPs' confidence in oral cancer-related knowledge (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 1.09-1.67) and with higher levels of confidence in discussing oral hygiene practices with patients (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.03-1.52). Results also showed that dental specialists were less likely to perform oral cancer screening examinations compared with other OHPs (OR = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.07-0.52) and the likelihood of performing an oral cancer screening decreased when the "patient complained of a problem" (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.10-0.44). Only half the study sample performed oral cancer screening examinations for all of their patients

  16. Phase I-II study of everolimus and low-dose oral cyclophosphamide in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijts, Charlotte M; Santegoets, Saskia J; Eertwegh, Alfons J van den; Pijpers, Laura S; Haanen, John B; Gruijl, Tanja D de; Verheul, Henk M; Vliet, Hans J van der

    2011-01-01

    For patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) who progressed on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy, the orally administered mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus has been shown to prolong progression free survival. Intriguingly, inhibition of mTOR also promotes expansion of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs) that can inhibit anti-tumor immune responses in a clinically relevant way in various tumor types including RCC. This study intends to investigate whether the antitumor efficacy of everolimus can be increased by preventing the detrimental everolimus induced expansion of Tregs using a metronomic schedule of cyclophosphamide. This phase I-II trial is a national multi-center study of different doses and schedules of low-dose oral cyclophosphamide in combination with a fixed dose of everolimus in patients with mRCC not amenable to or progressive after a VEGF-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor containing treatment regimen. In the phase I part of the study the optimal Treg-depleting dose and schedule of metronomic oral cyclophosphamide when given in combination with everolimus will be determined. In the phase II part of the study we will evaluate whether the percentage of patients progression free at 4 months of everolimus treatment can be increased from 50% to 70% by adding metronomic cyclophosphamide (in the dose and schedule determined in the phase I part). In addition to efficacy, we will perform extensive immune monitoring with a focus on the number, phenotype and function of Tregs, evaluate the safety and feasibility of the combination of everolimus and cyclophosphamide, perform monitoring of selected angiogenesis parameters and analyze everolimus and cyclophosphamide drug levels. This phase I-II study is designed to determine whether metronomic cyclophosphamide can be used to counter the mTOR inhibitor everolimus induced Treg expansion in patients with metastatic renal cell

  17. Phase I-II study of everolimus and low-dose oral cyclophosphamide in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijts Charlotte M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC who progressed on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy, the orally administered mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor everolimus has been shown to prolong progression free survival. Intriguingly, inhibition of mTOR also promotes expansion of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs that can inhibit anti-tumor immune responses in a clinically relevant way in various tumor types including RCC. This study intends to investigate whether the antitumor efficacy of everolimus can be increased by preventing the detrimental everolimus induced expansion of Tregs using a metronomic schedule of cyclophosphamide. Methods/design This phase I-II trial is a national multi-center study of different doses and schedules of low-dose oral cyclophosphamide in combination with a fixed dose of everolimus in patients with mRCC not amenable to or progressive after a VEGF-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor containing treatment regimen. In the phase I part of the study the optimal Treg-depleting dose and schedule of metronomic oral cyclophosphamide when given in combination with everolimus will be determined. In the phase II part of the study we will evaluate whether the percentage of patients progression free at 4 months of everolimus treatment can be increased from 50% to 70% by adding metronomic cyclophosphamide (in the dose and schedule determined in the phase I part. In addition to efficacy, we will perform extensive immune monitoring with a focus on the number, phenotype and function of Tregs, evaluate the safety and feasibility of the combination of everolimus and cyclophosphamide, perform monitoring of selected angiogenesis parameters and analyze everolimus and cyclophosphamide drug levels. Discussion This phase I-II study is designed to determine whether metronomic cyclophosphamide can be used to counter the mTOR inhibitor everolimus

  18. Risk factors & screening modalities for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Dentists are at the forefront for screening oral cancer. In addition to the well known carcinogenic potential of tobacco and alcohol, betel nut chewing and human papilloma virus are important risk factors in the development of oral cancer. To aid in screening and decreasing morbidity and mortality from oral cancer, a variety of techniques have been developed. These techniques show promise but they require additional investigations to determine their usefulness in oral cancer detection. Dentists need to be well educated and vigilant when dealing with all patients they encounter. Early detection, diagnosis and treatment are critical for the effective management of oral cancers.

  19. Telomeres, telomerase and oral cancer (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Sinto; Grammatica, Luciano; Paradiso, Angelo

    2005-12-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (oral cancer) and many squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck arise as a consequence of multiple molecular events induced by the effects of various carcinogens related to tobacco use, environmental factors, and viruses in some instances (e.g., mucosal oncogenic human papillomaviruses), against a background of inheritable resistance or susceptibility. Consequent genetic damage affects many chromosomes and genes, and it is the accumulation of these changes that appears to lead to carcinoma. Telomere maintenance by telomerase or, in its absence, alternative lengthening of telomeres protect this acquired altered genetic information ensuring immortality without losing eukaryotic linear DNA; when this does not occur DNA is lost and end-replication problems arise. Telomerase is reactivated in 80-90% of cancers thus attracting the attention of pathologists and clinicians who have explored its use as a target for anticancer therapy and to develop better diagnostic and prognostic markers. In the last few years, valuable research from various laboratories has provided major insights into telomerase and telomeres leading to their use as diagnostic and prognostic markers in several types of cancer. Moreover, many strategies have emerged which inhibit this complex enzyme for anticancer therapy and are one step ahead of clinical trials. This review explains the basic biology and the clinical implications of telomerase-based diagnosis and prognosis, the prospects for its use in anticancer therapy, and the limitations it presents in the context of oral cancer.

  20. Knock-down of ABCE1 gene induces G1/S arrest in human oral cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Mei; Liu, Dong-Xu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the clinical characteristics of ATP binding cassette E1 (ABCE1) in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) and its roles in the proliferation, invasiveness, migration and apoptosis of the human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells CAL-27. Methods: The expression of ABCE1 and its target protein-RNase L, were first studied in tumor tissues of OSCC and adjacent non-tumor tissues. Moreover, CAL-27cells were transfected by ABCE1-specific shRNA, then MTT assay, the tr...

  1. Honokiol inhibits sphere formation and xenograft growth of oral cancer side population cells accompanied with JAK/STAT signaling pathway suppression and apoptosis induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jhy-Shrian; Yao, Chih-Jung; Chuang, Shuang-En; Yeh, Chi-Tai; Lee, Liang-Ming; Chen, Ruei-Ming; Chao, Wan-Ju; Whang-Peng, Jacqueline; Lai, Gi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Eliminating cancer stem cells (CSCs) has been suggested for prevention of tumor recurrence and metastasis. Honokiol, an active compound of Magnolia officinalis, had been proposed to be a potential candidate drug for cancer treatment. We explored its effects on the elimination of oral CSCs both in vitro and in vivo. By using the Hoechst side population (SP) technique, CSCs-like SP cells were isolated from human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines, SAS and OECM-1. Effects of honokiol on the apoptosis and signaling pathways of SP-derived spheres were examined by Annexin V/Propidium iodide staining and Western blotting, respectively. The in vivo effectiveness was examined by xenograft mouse model and immunohistochemical tissue staining. The SP cells possessed higher stemness marker expression (ABCG2, Ep-CAM, Oct-4 and Nestin), clonogenicity, sphere formation capacity as well as tumorigenicity when compared to the parental cells. Treatment of these SP-derived spheres with honokiol resulted in apoptosis induction via Bax/Bcl-2 and caspase-3-dependent pathway. This apoptosis induction was associated with marked suppression of JAK2/STAT3, Akt and Erk signaling pathways in honokiol-treated SAS spheres. Consistent with its effect on JAK2/STAT3 suppression, honokiol also markedly inhibited IL-6-mediated migration of SAS cells. Accordingly, honokiol dose-dependently inhibited the growth of SAS SP xenograft and markedly reduced the immunohistochemical staining of PCNA and endothelial marker CD31 in the xenograft tumor. Honokiol suppressed the sphere formation and xenograft growth of oral CSC-like cells in association with apoptosis induction and inhibition of survival/proliferation signaling pathways as well as angiogenesis. These results suggest its potential as an integrative medicine for combating oral cancer through targeting on CSCs. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2265-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to

  2. Pre-cancer risk assessment in habitual smokers from DIC images of oral exfoliative cells using active contour and SVM analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Susmita; Sarkar, Ripon; Chatterjee, Kabita; Datta, Pallab; Barui, Ananya; Maity, Santi P

    2017-04-01

    Habitual smokers are known to be at higher risk for developing oral cancer, which is increasing at an alarming rate globally. Conventionally, oral cancer is associated with high mortality rates, although recent reports show the improved survival outcomes by early diagnosis of disease. An effective prediction system which will enable to identify the probability of cancer development amongst the habitual smokers, is thus expected to benefit sizable number of populations. Present work describes a non-invasive, integrated method for early detection of cellular abnormalities based on analysis of different cyto-morphological features of exfoliative oral epithelial cells. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy provides a potential optical tool as this mode provides a pseudo three dimensional (3-D) image with detailed morphological and textural features obtained from noninvasive, label free epithelial cells. For segmentation of DIC images, gradient vector flow snake model active contour process has been adopted. To evaluate cellular abnormalities amongst habitual smokers, the selected morphological and textural features of epithelial cells are compared with the non-smoker (-ve control group) group and clinically diagnosed pre-cancer patients (+ve control group) using support vector machine (SVM) classifier. Accuracy of the developed SVM based classification has been found to be 86% with 80% sensitivity and 89% specificity in classifying the features from the volunteers having smoking habit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Metronomic treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with daily oral vinorelbine – a Phase I trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guetz S

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sylvia Guetz,1,* Amanda Tufman,2,* Joachim von Pawel,3 Achim Rittmeyer,4 Astrid Borgmeier,2 Pierre Ferré,5 Birgit Edlich,6 Rudolf Maria Huber2 1Ev. Diakonissenkrankenhaus Leipzig, Leipzig, 2University Hospital Munich and Thoracic Oncology Centre Munich, Member of the German Center for Lung Research, Comprehensive Pneumology Center Munich (DZL CPC-M, Munich, 3Asklepios Fachkliniken Muenchen-Gauting, Gauting, 4Lungenfachklinik Immenhausen, Immenhausen, Germany; 5Pierre Fabre Pharmaceuticals, Oncology Research and Development Center, Toulouse, France; 6Pierre Fabre Pharma GmbH, Freiburg, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Micro-abstract: In a Phase I dose-finding study of metronomic daily oral vinorelbine in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, a recommended dose was established for this therapeutic approach. In addition, this trial revealed promising efficacy data and an acceptable tolerability profile. The observed vinorelbine blood concentrations suggest continuous anti-angiogenic coverage. Introduction: We present a Phase I dose-finding study investigating metronomic daily oral vinorelbine (Navelbine® Oral, NVBo in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Patients and methods: Patients with stage III/IV NSCLC received daily NVBo at fixed dose levels of 20–50 mg/d for 21 days of each 4-week cycle. Primary end point was the maximum tolerated dose. Secondary end points included tumor response, time to progression (TTP, overall survival (OS and tolerability. Results: Twenty-seven patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled. Most of them were extensively pretreated. Daily NVBo was well tolerated up to 30 mg/d. At 40 mg/d, two of five patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs. Three of six patients had DLTs at the 50 mg/d level. The recommended dose was established at 30 mg/d in cycle 1, with escalation to 40 mg/d in cycle 2, if tolerated. Pharmacokinetic analyses showed continuous blood exposure over 21

  4. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Oral and maxillofacial surgeons surgically treat the soft ... Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Oral and maxillofacial surgeons surgically treat the soft ...

  5. Tumorigenicity and Validity of Fluorescence Labelled Mesenchymal and Epithelial Human Oral Cancer Cell Lines in Nude Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xin Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumorigenicity and metastatic activity can be visually monitored in cancer cells that were labelled with stable fluorescence. The aim was to establish and validate local and distant spread of subcutaneously previously injected fluorescence transduced human tongue cancer cell lines of epithelial and mesenchymal phenotype in nude mice. A total of 32 four-week-old male athymic Balb/c nude mice were randomly allocated into 4 groups (n=8. A single dose of 0.3 mL PBS containing 1 × 107 of four different cancer cell-lines (UM1, UM1-GFP, UM2, and UM2-RFP was injected subcutaneously into the right side of their posterolateral back. Validity assessment of the labelled cancer cells’ tumorigenicity was assessed by physical examination, imaging, and histology four weeks after the injection. The tumor take rate of cancer cells was similar in animals injected with either parental or transduced cancer cells. Transduced cancer cells in mice were easily detectable in vivo and after cryosection using fluorescent imaging. UM1 cells showed increased tumor take rate and mean tumor volume, presenting with disorganized histopathological patterns. Fluorescence labelled epithelial and mesenchymal human tongue cancer cell lines do not change in tumorigenicity or cell phenotype after injection in vivo.

  6. Role of aquaporins in oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatha G. S. Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQP are the membrane proteins involved in the transport of water and some neutral solutes. Thirteen types of AQP are identified in various human tissues. The expression of AQP's has been studied in various tumors among one is oral cancer. These molecules are involved in cell proliferation, migration, and metastasis. AQP target inhibitors act directly or indirectly through focal adhesion kinase-mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway and shown promising results along with anti-cancer drugs. However, further researches were required to verify the efficiency and safety of these AQPs-target inhibitors in clinical therapy.

  7. Reappraisal of the anticancer efficacy of quercetin in oral cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Feng Chen

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Qu effectively inhibits cell growth and invasion/migration of SCC-25 cells in vitro. The cellular and molecular mechanisms are via cell cycle arrest accompanied by mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Our findings suggest that Qu may have potential as a new chemopreventive agent or serve as a therapeutic adjuvant for OSCC.

  8. [Frequency of oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral epithelial dysplasia in oral and oropharyngeal mucosa in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carolina; Hernández, Marcela; Martínez, Benjamín; Adorno, Daniela

    2016-02-01

    Oral cancer in Chile corresponds approximately to 1.6% of all cancer cases. There are few studies about oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma in the Chilean population. To determine the frequency of hyperkeratosis, mild, moderate and severe oral epithelial dysplasia, in situ carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral and oropharyngeal mucosa in a registry of the Oral Pathology Reference Institute of the Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de Chile, in a ten years period. Review of clinical records and pathological plates of 389 patients, obtained between 1990 and 2009. Cases were selected according to their pathological diagnosis, including hyperkeratosis, oral epithelial dysplasia, in situ carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma. Forty four percent of cases were squamous cell carcinoma, followed by hyperkeratosis in 37% and mild epithelial dysplasia in 11%. Squamous cell carcinoma was more common in men aged over 50 years. Most of the potentially malignant disorders presented clinically as leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma were clinically recognized as cancer. In this study, men aged over 50 years are the highest risk group for oral cancer. Early diagnosis is deficient since most of these lesions were diagnosed when squamous cell carcinoma became invasive. Leukoplakia diagnosis is mostly associated with hyperkeratosis and epithelial dysplasia, therefore biopsy of these lesions is mandatory to improve early diagnosis.

  9. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Inhibits Oral Cancer Cell Metastasis by Regulating Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yu Peng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE, an active component extracted from honeybee hives, exhibits anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. However, the molecular mechanism by which CAPE affects oral cancer cell metastasis has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the potential mechanisms underlying the effects of CAPE on the invasive ability of SCC-9 oral cancer cells. Results showed that CAPE attenuated SCC-9 cell migration and invasion at noncytotoxic concentrations (0 μM to 40 μM. Western blot and gelatin zymography analysis findings further indicated that CAPE downregulated matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 protein expression and inhibited its enzymatic activity. CAPE exerted its inhibitory effects on MMP-2 expression and activity by upregulating tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2 and potently decreased migration by reducing focal adhesion kinase (FAK phosphorylation and the activation of its downstream signaling molecules p38/MAPK and JNK. These data indicate that CAPE could potentially be used as a chemoagent to prevent oral cancer metastasis.

  10. Characteristic cytokine generation patterns in cancer cells and infiltrating lymphocytes in oral squamous cell carcinomas and the influence of chemoradiation combined with immunotherapy on these patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Ueta, Eisaku; Tatemoto, Yukihiro; Osaki, Tokio

    2003-01-01

    Cytokines produced by tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) appear to regulate tumor cell growth and the cytotoxic activity of TIL. The objectives of the present study were to investigate cytokine generation patterns in tumor cells and TIL and to examine the influence of cancer therapy on this cytokine production and the cytotoxic activity of TIL. We determined the levels of cytokines produced by tumor cells and TIL in vitro and measured the cytotoxic activity of TIL against Daudi cells in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSC) before and 1 week after the start of concomitant chemo-radio-immunotherapy. Before the therapy, OSC cells generated higher levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) than did oral keratinocytes isolated from the noninflamed gingivae of healthy individuals, but both kinds of cells generated similar levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6. Compared with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of the patients, TIL produced higher levels of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha and TGF-beta, whereas their production of IL-12 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) was only slightly higher than that in PBMC. After 1 week of therapy, the cytokine production by OSC cells had largely decreased, while the production of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, TGF-beta and IL-12 by TIL had increased greatly, although other cytokine levels were almost constant during the investigations. The cytotoxic activity of TIL was higher than that of PBMC before the therapy, and this activity was strongly increased by 1 week of therapy. These results suggest that the cytokine productivities of TIL and tumor cells differ from those of PBMC and normal keratinocytes, respectively, and that chemo-radio-immunotherapy modulates in situ cytokine generation, which is advantageous for inhibition of tumor cell growth and activation of TIL. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG

  11. Identification of cancer specific ligands from one-bead one compound combinatorial libraries to develop theranostics agents against oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Frances Fan

    Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most prevalent disease worldwide. One-bead one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial technology is a powerful method to identify peptidomimetic ligands against a variety of receptors on cell surfaces. We therefore hypothesized that cancer specific ligands against OSCC might be identified and can be conjugated to optical dyes or nanocarriers to develop theranostic agents against OSCC. Material and methods: Different OSCC cell lines were incubated with OBOC libraries and beads with cell binding were sorted and then screened with normal human cells to identify peptide-beads binding to different OSCC cell lines but not binding to normal human cells. The molecular probes of OSCC were developed by biotinylating the carboxyl end of the ligands. OSCC theranostic agents were developed by decorating LLY13 with NPs and evaluated by using orthotopic bioluminescent oral cancer model. Results: Six OSCC specific ligands were discovered. Initial peptide-histochemistry study indicated that LLY12 and LLY13 were able to specifically detect OSCC cells grown on chamber slides at the concentration of 1 muM. In addition, LLY13 was found to penetrate into the OSCC cells and accumulate in the cytoplasm, and nucleus. After screened with a panel of integrin antibodies, only anti-alpha3 antibody was able to block most of OSCC cells binding to the LLY13 beads. OSCC theranostic agents developed using targeting LLY13 micelles (25+/- 4nm in diameter) were more efficient in binding to HSC-3 cancer cells compared to non-targeting micelles. Ex vivo images demonstrated that xenografts from the mice with targeting micelles appeared to have higher signals than the non-targeting groups. Conclusion: LLY13 has promising in vitro and in vivo targeting activity against OSCC. In addition, LLY13 is also able to penetrate into cancer cells via endocytosis. Initial study indicated that alpha3 integrin might partially be the corresponding receptor involved

  12. Changes in Abundance of Oral Microbiota Associated with Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Brian L.; Kuczynski, Justin; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Huey, Bing; Corby, Patricia M.; Queiroz, Erica L. S.; Nightingale, Kira; Kerr, A. Ross; DeLacure, Mark D.; Veeramachaneni, Ratna; Olshen, Adam B.; Albertson, Donna G.

    2014-01-01

    Individual bacteria and shifts in the composition of the microbiome have been associated with human diseases including cancer. To investigate changes in the microbiome associated with oral cancers, we profiled cancers and anatomically matched contralateral normal tissue from the same patient by sequencing 16S rDNA hypervariable region amplicons. In cancer samples from both a discovery and a subsequent confirmation cohort, abundance of Firmicutes (especially Streptococcus) and Actinobacteria (especially Rothia) was significantly decreased relative to contralateral normal samples from the same patient. Significant decreases in abundance of these phyla were observed for pre-cancers, but not when comparing samples from contralateral sites (tongue and floor of mouth) from healthy individuals. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis based on 12 taxa separated most cancers from other samples with greatest separation of node positive cases. These studies begin to develop a framework for exploiting the oral microbiome for monitoring oral cancer development, progression and recurrence. PMID:24887397

  13. Detection of survivin mRNA in healthy oral mucosa, oral leucoplakia and oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, G; Franchini, R; Bez, C; Sardella, A; Moneghini, L; Pellegrini, C; Bosari, S; Manfredi, M; Vescovi, P; Carrassi, A

    2010-01-01

    Survivin is involved in modulation of cell death and cell division processes. Survivin expression in normal adult tissues has not been fully understood, although it is markedly lower than in cancer, where it is over-expressed. To investigate survivin expression in normal, potentially malignant and cancerous oral mucosa. We measured survivin mRNA levels by real-time RT-PCR in specimens of oral mucosa (15 from normal mucosa, 17 from potentially malignant lesions, 17 from neoplasms). Scores were compared using Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc according to Conover. Chi-squared test was used for dichotomous data. The median relative levels of survivin mRNA resulted six for normal mucosa, eight for potentially malignant lesions, 13 for cancers: differences among these three groups were statistically significant, as between cancer and potentially malignant lesions. Expression in normal mucosa and potentially lesions group showed no significant difference. Low, but not marginal expression of survivin in normal mucosa is a new finding, and it could be explained with the higher sensibility of our methods. Survivin expression in oral potentially malignant lesions might indicate a progressive deregulation of expression paralleling oncogenesis, particularly during the first stages of process, suggesting a putative predictive role for survivin.

  14. Predictors for oral cancer in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Isabella Lima Arrais RIBEIRO; Johnys Berton Medeiros da NÓBREGA; Ana Maria Gondim VALENÇA; Ricardo Dias de CASTRO

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The incidence of lip, oral cavity and oropharynx cancer in Brazil is one of the highest worldwide. Objective This study aimed to identify predictors for oral cancer in Brazil between 2010 and 2013. Method Through a time series study in which 14,959 primary head and neck cancer diagnoses were evaluated. The variables of interest were gender, age, race, education level, family history of cancer, alcohol consumption, smoking, and previous cancer diagnosis. The outcome va...

  15. Aetiology of Oral Cancer in the Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by me...

  16. Enhancement of cancer stem-like and epithelial−mesenchymal transdifferentiation property in oral epithelial cells with long-term nicotine exposure: Reversal by targeting SNAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Cheng-Chia; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the major risk factors in the development and further progression of tumorigenesis, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recent studies suggest that interplay cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and epithelial−mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) properties are responsible for the tumor maintenance and metastasis in OSCC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of long-term exposure with nicotine, a major component in cigarette, on CSCs and EMT characteristics. The possible reversal regulators were further explored in nicotine-induced CSCs and EMT properties in human oral epithelial (OE) cells. Long-term exposure with nicotine was demonstrated to up-regulate ALDH1 population in normal gingival and primary OSCC OE cells dose-dependently. Moreover, long-term nicotine treatment was found to enhance the self-renewal sphere-forming ability and stemness gene signatures expression and EMT regulators in OE cells. The migration/cell invasiveness/anchorage independent growth and in vivo tumor growth by nude mice xenotransplantation assay was enhanced in long-term nicotine-stimulated OE cells. Knockdown of Snail in long-term nicotine-treated OE cells was found to reduce their CSCs properties. Therapeutic delivery of Si-Snail significantly blocked the xenograft tumorigenesis of long-term nicotine-treated OSCC cells and largely significantly improved the recipient survival. The present study demonstrated that the enrichment of CSCs coupled EMT property in oral epithelial cells induced by nicotine is critical for the development of OSCC tumorigenesis. Targeting Snail might offer a new strategy for the treatment of OSCC patients with smoking habit. -- Highlights: ► Sustained nicotine treatment induced CSCs properties of oral epithelial cells. ► Long-term nicotine treatment enhance EMT properties of oral epithelial cells. ► Long-term nicotine exposure increased tumorigenicity of oral epithelial cells. ► Si

  17. Enhancement of cancer stem-like and epithelial−mesenchymal transdifferentiation property in oral epithelial cells with long-term nicotine exposure: Reversal by targeting SNAIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Cheng-Chia [Institute of Oral Science, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yu-Chao, E-mail: cyc@csmu.edu.tw [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the major risk factors in the development and further progression of tumorigenesis, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recent studies suggest that interplay cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and epithelial−mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) properties are responsible for the tumor maintenance and metastasis in OSCC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of long-term exposure with nicotine, a major component in cigarette, on CSCs and EMT characteristics. The possible reversal regulators were further explored in nicotine-induced CSCs and EMT properties in human oral epithelial (OE) cells. Long-term exposure with nicotine was demonstrated to up-regulate ALDH1 population in normal gingival and primary OSCC OE cells dose-dependently. Moreover, long-term nicotine treatment was found to enhance the self-renewal sphere-forming ability and stemness gene signatures expression and EMT regulators in OE cells. The migration/cell invasiveness/anchorage independent growth and in vivo tumor growth by nude mice xenotransplantation assay was enhanced in long-term nicotine-stimulated OE cells. Knockdown of Snail in long-term nicotine-treated OE cells was found to reduce their CSCs properties. Therapeutic delivery of Si-Snail significantly blocked the xenograft tumorigenesis of long-term nicotine-treated OSCC cells and largely significantly improved the recipient survival. The present study demonstrated that the enrichment of CSCs coupled EMT property in oral epithelial cells induced by nicotine is critical for the development of OSCC tumorigenesis. Targeting Snail might offer a new strategy for the treatment of OSCC patients with smoking habit. -- Highlights: ► Sustained nicotine treatment induced CSCs properties of oral epithelial cells. ► Long-term nicotine treatment enhance EMT properties of oral epithelial cells. ► Long-term nicotine exposure increased tumorigenicity of oral epithelial cells. ► Si

  18. Iodinated chlorin p6 copper complex induces anti-proliferative effect in oral cancer cells through elevation of intracellular reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbadhikary, Paromita; Dube, Alok

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the anticancer chemotoxicity of previously reported iodinated chlorin p 6 copper complex (ICp 6 -Cu), a novel chlorophyll derivative in which copper is attached to the side chain carboxylate groups via coordination. Human oral carcinoma cells NT8e, 4451 and the non-cancerous keratinocyte HaCaT cells were treated with ICp 6 -Cu for 48 h in dark and cell viability, proliferation and morphological alterations were examined. ICp 6 -Cu showed pronounced cytotoxicity in cancer cells with IC 50 ∼40 μM, whereas, the viability of HaCaT cells was not affected. Cell proliferation assay revealed that ICp 6 -Cu at IC 50 concentration led to complete inhibition of cell proliferation in both the cell lines. Cell morphology studied by confocal microscopy showed absence of cell death via necrosis or apoptosis. Instead, the treated cells displayed distinct features of non-apoptotic death such as highly vacuolated cytoplasm, lysosomal membrane permeabilization and damage to cytoskeleton F-actin filaments. In addition, ICp 6 -Cu treatment led to time dependent increase in the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the cytotoxicity of ICp 6 -Cu was significantly inhibited by pre-treatment of cells with antioxidants (glutathione and trolox). These findings revealed that ICp 6 -Cu is a potent chemotoxic agent which can induce cytotoxic effect in cancer cells through elevation of intracellular ROS. It is suggested that ICp 6 -Cu may provide tumor selective chemotoxicity by exploiting difference of redox environment in normal and cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Aliphatic acetogenin constituents of avocado fruits inhibit human oral cancer cell proliferation by targeting the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ambrosio, Steven M. [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Han, Chunhua [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Pan, Li; Douglas Kinghorn, A. [Division of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ding, Haiming, E-mail: ding.29@osu.edu [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} The aliphatic acetogenins [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] (1) and [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate] (2) isolated from avocado fruit inhibit phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). {yields} Aliphatic acetogenin 2, but not 1, prevents EGF-induced activation of EGFR (Tyr1173). {yields} Combination of both aliphatic acetogenins synergistically inhibits c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation and human oral cancer cell proliferation. {yields} The potential anticancer activity of avocado fruits is due to a combination of specific aliphatic acetogenins targeting two key components of the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. {yields} Providing a double hit on a critical cancer pathway such as EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 by phytochemicals like those found in avocado fruit could lead to more effective approach toward cancer prevention. -- Abstract: Avocado (Persea americana) fruits are consumed as part of the human diet and extracts have shown growth inhibitory effects in various types of human cancer cells, although the effectiveness of individual components and their underlying mechanism are poorly understood. Using activity-guided fractionation of the flesh of avocado fruits, a chloroform-soluble extract (D003) was identified that exhibited high efficacy towards premalignant and malignant human oral cancer cell lines. From this extract, two aliphatic acetogenins of previously known structure were isolated, compounds 1 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] and 2 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate]. In this study, we show for the first time that the growth inhibitory efficacy of this chloroform extract is due to blocking the phosphorylation of EGFR (Tyr1173), c-RAF (Ser338), and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) in the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. Compounds 1 and 2 both inhibited phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). Compound 2, but not

  20. Aliphatic acetogenin constituents of avocado fruits inhibit human oral cancer cell proliferation by targeting the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ambrosio, Steven M.; Han, Chunhua; Pan, Li; Douglas Kinghorn, A.; Ding, Haiming

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The aliphatic acetogenins [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] (1) and [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate] (2) isolated from avocado fruit inhibit phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). → Aliphatic acetogenin 2, but not 1, prevents EGF-induced activation of EGFR (Tyr1173). → Combination of both aliphatic acetogenins synergistically inhibits c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation and human oral cancer cell proliferation. → The potential anticancer activity of avocado fruits is due to a combination of specific aliphatic acetogenins targeting two key components of the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. → Providing a double hit on a critical cancer pathway such as EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 by phytochemicals like those found in avocado fruit could lead to more effective approach toward cancer prevention. -- Abstract: Avocado (Persea americana) fruits are consumed as part of the human diet and extracts have shown growth inhibitory effects in various types of human cancer cells, although the effectiveness of individual components and their underlying mechanism are poorly understood. Using activity-guided fractionation of the flesh of avocado fruits, a chloroform-soluble extract (D003) was identified that exhibited high efficacy towards premalignant and malignant human oral cancer cell lines. From this extract, two aliphatic acetogenins of previously known structure were isolated, compounds 1 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] and 2 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate]. In this study, we show for the first time that the growth inhibitory efficacy of this chloroform extract is due to blocking the phosphorylation of EGFR (Tyr1173), c-RAF (Ser338), and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) in the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. Compounds 1 and 2 both inhibited phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). Compound 2, but not compound 1, prevented EGF

  1. The NF-kappa B inhibitor, celastrol, could enhance the anti-cancer effect of gambogic acid on oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Di; Chen, Wantao; Xu, Qin; Yan, Ming; Zhang, Ping; Zhou, Xiaojian; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Duan, Wenhu; Zhong, Laiping; Ye, Dongxia

    2009-01-01

    Gambogic acid (GA) is a major active ingredient of gamboge, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine that has been reported to be a potent cytotoxic agent against some malignant tumors. Many studies have shown that the NF-kappa B signaling pathway plays an important role in anti-apoptosis and the drug resistance of tumor cells during chemotherapy. In this study, the effects and mechanisms of GA and the NF-kappa B inhibitor celastrol on oral cancer cells were investigated. Three human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, Tca8113, TSCC and NT, were treated with GA alone, celastrol alone or GA plus celastrol. Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT assay. The rate of apoptosis was examined with annexin V/PI staining as well as transmission electronic microscopy in Tca8113 cells. The level of constitutive NF-kappa B activity in oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines was determined by immunofluorescence assays and nuclear extracts and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) in vitro. To further investigate the role of NF-kappa B activity in GA and celastrol treatment in oral squamous cell carcinoma, we used the dominant negative mutant SR-IκBα to inhibit NF-kappa B activity and to observe its influence on the effect of GA. The results showed that GA could inhibit the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of the oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and that the NF-kappa B pathway was simultaneously activated by GA treatment. The minimal cytotoxic dose of celastrol was able to effectively suppress the GA-induced NF-kappa B pathway activation. Following the combined treatment with GA and the minimal cytotoxic dose of celastrol or the dominant negative mutant SR-IκBα, proliferation was significantly inhibited, and the apoptotic rate of Tca8113 cells was significantly increased. The combination of GA and celastrol has a synergistic antitumor effect. The effect can be primarily attributed to apoptosis induced by a decrease in NF-kappa B pathway activation. The

  2. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Followed by Surgery in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  3. Oral cancer: knowledge, practices and opinions of dentists in yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaizari, Nader Ahmed; Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer presents with high mortality rates, and the likelihood of survival is remarkably superior when detected early. Dental professionals have an important role and responsibility in prevention and early detection of oral cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, practices and opinions regarding oral cancer among dentists in Yemen. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire involving private and public dental practitioners, working in different governorates in Yemen. Of the 800 dentists surveyed, a total of 221 questionnaires were completed and returned (response rate 27.6%). A vast majority of dentists (96.38%) identified tobacco as the major risk factor for oral cancer, and 82.8% knew that squamous cell carcinoma is the most common form. While 47.1% of the dentists agreed that they were adequately trained in oral cancer screening, the majority (86%) believed that they need further training in oral cancer screening. These results suggest that additional training and continuing educational programs on prevention and early detection of oral cancer for dentists are to be highly recommended.

  4. RNAi-mediated downregulation of oral cancer overexpressed 1 (ORAOV1) inhibits vascular endothelial cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Liu, Dongjuan; Wang, Lili; Wu, Ruiqing; Zeng, Xin; Dan, Hongxia; Ji, Ning; Jiang, Lu; Zhou, Yu; Chen, Qianming

    2016-04-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the top ten tumors threatening human health. Oral cancer overexpressed 1 (ORAOV1) identified within chromosomal region 11q13, one of the most frequently amplified regions in OSCC, has been suggested as a novel candidate oncogene in OSCC, regulating cell cycle, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. In this study, we investigated the role of ORAOV1 in OSCC-induced angiogenesis in vitro. EA.hy926 human endothelial cells were co-cultured with OSCC cells (HSC-3 and SCC-25) transfected with ORAOV1-specific shRNA to downregulate ORAOV1 expression, and analyzed for proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation by specific assays. EA.hy926 endothelial cells co-cultured with ORAOV1-deficient OSCC cells exhibited significantly lower proliferation, migration, and invasion, as well as the activity in tube formation compared to that in the control cells. Our results show, for the first time, that ORAOV1 expressed by OSCC cells promotes tube formation by endothelial cells, indicating its involvement in OSCC angiogenesis. Considering the importance of neovascularization in tumor development and metastasis, these findings suggest that targeting ORAOV1 may be a potential therapeutic strategy against OSCC. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Liaison between micro-organisms and oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasprasad, Vijayan; Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Sathiyajeeva, J.; Karthikeyan, M.; Sunitha, J.; Ragunathan, Ramachandran

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer which is a subtype of head and neck, cancer is any neoplastic tissue growth in the oral cavity. It comprises an abnormal mass of cells that foists genetic mutation and impedes the normal cell cycle, resulting in its unrestrained growth. Various studies on the plausible link between oral microbial flora and cancer notwithstanding, our understanding of their link remains obscure and inadequate. The multitude of mechanisms by which the microflora initiate or spur Carcinogenesis are still under study and scrutiny. As is widely known, the oral cavity is an abode to a wide assortment of microbes, each present in contrasting amounts. It is observed that increased growth of the microflora is concomitant with known clinical risk factors for oral cancer. Manifold bacterial species have been found to interfere directly with eukaryotic cellular signaling, adopting a style typical of tumor promoters. Bacteria are also known to impede apoptosis thereby potentially promoting carcinogenesis. The viral role in carcinogenesis (by annulling of p53 tumor suppressor gene and other cellular proteins with subsequent alteration in host genome function) is well documented. Furthermore, the changes occurring in the commensal microflora in accompaniment with cancer development could possibly be used as a diagnostic indicator for early cancer detection. The intention of this review is to obtain a better understanding of the “role” that micro-organisms play in oral cancer etiology. PMID:26538877

  6. Epigenetic alterations of the SERPINE1 gene in oral squamous cell carcinomas and normal oral mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shan; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2010-01-01

    cells in oral carcinomas by immunohistochemistry, we found that PAI-1 was expressed in 18 of the 20 patients, mainly by cancer cells. Two showed PAI-1 positive stromal cells surrounding the tumor areas and five showed PAI-1 positive cells in tumor-adjacent normal epithelium. By real-time RT-PCR analysis......A high level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 or SERPINE1) in tumor extracts is a marker of a poor prognosis in human cancers, including oral carcinomas. However, the mechanisms responsible for the upregulation of PAI-1 in cancers remain unclear. Investigating specific PAI-1 expressing...

  7. Menadione (Vitamin K3) induces apoptosis of human oral cancer cells and reduces their metastatic potential by modulating the expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition markers and inhibiting migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Shruthy; Raghu, Dinesh; Karunagaran, Devarajan

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most commonly occurring cancers worldwide, decreasing the patient's survival rate due to tumor recurrence and metastasis. Menadione (Vitamin K3) is known to exhibit cytotoxicity in various cancer cells but the present study focused on its effects on viability, apoptosis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), anchorage independent growth and migration of oral cancer cells. The results show that menadione is more cytotoxic to SAS (oral squamous carcinoma) cells but not to non-tumorigenic HEK293 and HaCaT cells. Menadione treatment increased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, Bax and p53, with a concurrent decrease in anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 and p65. Menadione induced the expression of E-cadherin but reduced the expression of EMT markers, vimentin and fibronectin. Menadione also inhibited anchorage independent growth and migration in SAS cells. These findings reveal and confirm that menadione is a potential candidate in oral cancer therapy as it exhibits cytotoxic, antineoplastic and antimigratory effects besides effectively blocking EMT in oral cancer cells.

  8. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Is a Potential Therapeutic Agent for Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yu Kuo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck cancers, which affect 650,000 people and cause 350,000 deaths per year, is the sixth leading cancer by cancer incidence and eighth by cancer-related death worldwide. Oral cancer is the most common type of head and neck cancer. More than 90% of oral cancers are oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. The overall five-year survival rate of OSCC patients is approximately 63%, which is due to the low response rate to current therapeutic drugs. In this review we discuss the possibility of using caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE as an alternative treatment for oral cancer. CAPE is a strong antioxidant extracted from honeybee hive propolis. Recent studies indicate that CAPE treatment can effectively suppress the proliferation, survival, and metastasis of oral cancer cells. CAPE treatment inhibits Akt signaling, cell cycle regulatory proteins, NF-κB function, as well as activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, and Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. Therefore, CAPE treatment induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in oral cancer cells. According to the evidence that aberrations in the EGFR/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt signaling, NF-κB function, COX-2 activity, and MMPs activity are frequently found in oral cancers, and that the phosphorylation of Akt, EGFR, and COX-2 correlates to oral cancer patient survival and clinical progression, we believe that CAPE treatment will be useful for treatment of advanced oral cancer patients.

  9. Applications of the oral scraped (exfoliative) cytology in oral cancer and precancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acha, Amelia; Ruesga, María T; Rodríguez, María J; Martínez de Pancorbo, María A; Aguirre, José M

    2005-01-01

    Scraped (exfoliative) cytology is a simple and harmless procedure, which has been a controversial technique according to its real validity in oral pathology. Lately it has re-emerged due to its application in oral precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. New diagnostic techniques have been developed, such as "brush biopsy" and multiple molecular studies using the cells collected. In this review we are going to analyse the more novel aspects related with the applications of the scraped or exfoliative cytology in oral precancerous and cancerous pathology, specially focusing on molecular studies and their diagnostic and prognostic implications.

  10. In Vitro Growth of Human Keratinocytes and Oral Cancer Cells into Microtissues: An Aerosol-Based Microencapsulation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Yean Leong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cells encapsulation is a micro-technology widely applied in cell and tissue research, tissue transplantation, and regenerative medicine. In this paper, we proposed a growth of microtissue model for the human keratinocytes (HaCaT cell line and an oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC cell line (ORL-48 based on a simple aerosol microencapsulation technique. At an extrusion rate of 20 μL/min and air flow rate of 0.3 L/min programmed in the aerosol system, HaCaT and ORL-48 cells in alginate microcapsules were encapsulated in microcapsules with a diameter ranging from 200 to 300 μm. Both cell lines were successfully grown into microtissues in the microcapsules of alginate within 16 days of culture. The microtissues were characterized by using a live/dead cell viability assay, field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, fluorescence staining, and cell re-plating experiments. The microtissues of both cell types were viable after being extracted from the alginate membrane using alginate lyase. However, the microtissues of HaCaT and ORL-48 demonstrated differences in both nucleus size and morphology. The microtissues with re-associated cells in spheroids are potentially useful as a cell model for pharmacological studies.

  11. Paan without tobacco: an independent risk factor for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, A; Husain, S S; Hosain, M; Fikree, F F; Pitiphat, W; Siddiqui, A R; Hayder, S J; Haider, S M; Ikram, M; Chuang, S K; Saeed, S A

    2000-04-01

    Oral cancer is the second most common cancer in women and the third most common in men in Pakistan. Tobacco is smoked and chewed extensively in Pakistan. Paan is a quid of piper betel leaf that contains areca nut, lime, condiment, sweeteners, and sometimes tobacco, which is also used extensively. We did this study to clarify the independent association of paan and oral cancer. Between July 1996 and March 1998, we recruited biopsy-proven, primary cases of oral squamous-cell carcinoma, from 3 tertiary teaching centers in Karachi, Pakistan, and controls pair-matched for age, gender, hospital and time of occurrence, excluding persons with a past or present history of any malignancy. There were 79 cases and 149 controls. Approximately 68% of the cases were men, 49 years old on average, the youngest being 22 years old and the eldest 80. People with oral submucous fibrosis were 19.1 times more likely to develop oral cancer than those without it, after adjusting for other risk factors. People using paan without tobacco were 9.9 times, those using paan with tobacco 8.4 times, more likely to develop oral cancer as compared with non-users, after adjustment for other covariates. This study identifies an independent effect of paan without tobacco in the causation of oral cancer. Its findings may be of significance in South Asian communities where paan is used, and among health-care providers who treat persons from South Asia.

  12. Viruses and oral cancer. Is there a link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Lars; Jalouli, Jamshid

    2014-05-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignant tumour of the oral cavity. The aetiology of epithelial cancer of the head and neck is considered to be a multifactorial, sequential process. DNA viruses are found in many different cancers and are also capable of transforming cells to a malignant phenotype. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) has been proposed as risk factors in OSCC development and HPV type 16 is the most important subtype. Other oncogenic virus species i.e., Epstein-Barr Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 have been proposed to be involved in oral carcinogenesis. However, no convincing evidence exist that they are an established risk factor in OSCC. Therefore more studies are needed in order to clarify the different aspects of virus involvement. Here, we review the existing literature on viral involvement in oral cancer. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantitative prediction of oral cancer risk in patients with oral leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Li, Yicheng; Fu, Yue; Liu, Tong; Liu, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Xinyan; Fu, Jie; Guan, Xiaobing; Chen, Tong; Chen, Xiaoxin; Sun, Zheng

    2017-07-11

    Exfoliative cytology has been widely used for early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. We have developed an oral cancer risk index using DNA index value to quantitatively assess cancer risk in patients with oral leukoplakia, but with limited success. In order to improve the performance of the risk index, we collected exfoliative cytology, histopathology, and clinical follow-up data from two independent cohorts of normal, leukoplakia and cancer subjects (training set and validation set). Peaks were defined on the basis of first derivatives with positives, and modern machine learning techniques were utilized to build statistical prediction models on the reconstructed data. Random forest was found to be the best model with high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (99.2%). Using the Peaks-Random Forest model, we constructed an index (OCRI2) as a quantitative measurement of cancer risk. Among 11 leukoplakia patients with an OCRI2 over 0.5, 4 (36.4%) developed cancer during follow-up (23 ± 20 months), whereas 3 (5.3%) of 57 leukoplakia patients with an OCRI2 less than 0.5 developed cancer (32 ± 31 months). OCRI2 is better than other methods in predicting oral squamous cell carcinoma during follow-up. In conclusion, we have developed an exfoliative cytology-based method for quantitative prediction of cancer risk in patients with oral leukoplakia.

  14. Aliphatic acetogenin constituents of avocado fruits inhibit human oral cancer cell proliferation by targeting the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Ambrosio, Steven M.; Han, Chunhua; Pan, Li; Kinghorn, A. Douglas; Ding, Haiming

    2011-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana) fruits are consumed as part of the human diet and extracts have shown growth inhibitory effects in various types of human cancer cells, although the effectiveness of individual components and their underlying mechanism are poorly understood. Using activity-guided fractionation of the flesh of avocado fruits, a chloroform-soluble extract (D003), was identified that exhibited high efficacy towards premalignant and malignant human oral cancer cell lines. From this extract, two aliphatic acetogenins of previously known structure were isolated, compounds 1 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] and 2 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate]. In this study, we show for the first time that the growth inhibitory efficacy of this chloroform extract is due to blocking the phosphorylation of EGFR (Tyr1173), c-RAF (Ser338), and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) in the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. Compound 1 and 2 both inhibited phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). Compound 2, but not compound 1, prevented EGF-induced activation of EGFR (Tyr1173). When compounds 1 and 2 were combined they synergistically inhibited c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation, and human oral cancer cell proliferation. The present data suggest that the potential anticancer activity of avocado fruits is due to a combination of specific aliphatic acetogenins that target two key components of the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. PMID:21596018

  15. An overview on "cellular cannibalism" with special reference to oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M

    2015-12-01

    Cellular cannibalism has been defined as a large cell engulfing a slightly smaller one within its cytoplasm. It has been described in various cancers like bladder cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cellular cannibalism has been well correlated with anaplasia, tumor aggressiveness, grading and metastatic potential. Present review focuses on significance of cannibalism in relation to cancer with special emphasis on oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  16. The role of mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiseva, Swetha; Chitturi, Raviteja; Anumula, Vamsikrishna; Poosarla, Chandrashekar; Baddam, Venkat Ramana Reddy

    2017-01-01

    The mast cells are initial effective lineage in both humoral and adaptive immunity. They are ubiquitous in skin, mucosa, and in function. They contain biologically essential and dynamic mediators in healthy and harmful conditions of tissue. Mast cell malfunctioning could be attributed to various chronic allergic diseases. Considerately, emerging evidence of mast cell involvement in various cancers shows them to have both positive and negative roles in tumour growth. It mostly indulges in tumour progression and metastasis via angiogenesis, extracellular matrix degradation, and mitogenic activity in the tumour microenvironment. The current paper reviewed research papers on mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma through the PubMed database from 1980 to the present date. The present paper is an attempt to summarise the research reports on the role of mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Further to this note, this paper also outlines the role of mast cells in normal physiological processes and tumour biology. PMID:28435394

  17. The role of mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Gudiseva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The mast cells are initial effective lineage in both humoral and adaptive immunity. They are ubiquitous in skin, mucosa, and in function. They contain biologically essential and dynamic mediators in healthy and harmful conditions of tissue. Mast cell malfunctioning could be attributed to various chronic allergic diseases. Considerately, emerging evidence of mast cell involvement in various cancers shows them to have both positive and negative roles in tumour growth. It mostly indulges in tumour progression and metastasis via angiogenesis, extracellular matrix degradation, and mitogenic activity in the tumour microenvironment. The current paper reviewed research papers on mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma through the PubMed database from 1980 to the present date. The present paper is an attempt to summarise the research reports on the role of mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Further to this note, this paper also outlines the role of mast cells in normal physiological processes and tumour biology.

  18. Podoplanin emerges as a functionally relevant oral cancer biomarker and therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retzbach, Edward P; Sheehan, Stephanie A; Nevel, Evan M; Batra, Amber; Phi, Tran; Nguyen, Angels T P; Kato, Yukinari; Baredes, Soly; Fatahzadeh, Mahnaz; Shienbaum, Alan J; Goldberg, Gary S

    2018-03-01

    Oral cancer has become one of the most aggressive types of cancer, killing 140,000 people worldwide every year. Current treatments for oral cancer include surgery and radiation therapies. These procedures can be very effective; however, they can also drastically decrease the quality of life for survivors. New chemotherapeutic treatments are needed to more effectively combat oral cancer. The transmembrane receptor podoplanin (PDPN) has emerged as a functionally relevant oral cancer biomarker and chemotherapeutic target. PDPN expression promotes tumor cell migration leading to oral cancer invasion and metastasis. Here, we describe the role of PDPN in oral squamous cell carcinoma progression, and how it may be exploited to prevent and treat oral cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

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    Full Text Available ... Oral Surgeries Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Injury / Trauma Surgery Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Oral, Head and Neck Pathology TMJ and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are ...

  20. Neratinib: an oral, irreversible dual EGFR/HER2 inhibitor for breast and non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Prithviraj; Ozer, Howard

    2009-11-01

    The revolutionary success of imatinib, a specific inhibitor of the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase (TK) in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia ushered in the era of targeted therapies in cancer. The erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog family of receptor TKs, to which EGFR (HER1) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)/neu TKs belong, has been implicated in a variety of cancers, and several agents that inhibit these TKs are in clinical use, with many more in various stages of development. To summarize current knowledge about neratinib (HKI-272), an oral, irreversible dual inhibitor of EGFR and HER2 and to define its future clinical role, especially in the context of related agents that are either available or in the pipeline. A Medline search using Pubmed was conducted using the keywords neratinib, HKI-272, EGFR, HER2, lapatinib, trastuzumab, erlotinib, gefitinib, cetuximab and panitumumab. Relevant abstracts presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology and San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium meetings were also reviewed. Both preclinical and human studies have shown that neratinib has promising activity in both advanced breast cancer and NSCLC with an acceptable safety profile. The data support its continued clinical development.

  1. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

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    Full Text Available ... Oral and maxillofacial surgeons surgically treat the soft tissues of the face, mouth ... involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and maxillofacial ...

  2. Expression and Localization of Cathepsins B, D, and G in Two Cancer Stem Cell Subpopulations in Moderately Differentiated Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Featherston

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AimWe have previously demonstrated the putative presence of two cancer stem cell (CSC subpopulations within moderately differentiated oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (MDOTSCC, which express components of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS. In this study, we investigated the expression and localization of cathepsins B, D, and G in relation to these CSC subpopulations within MDOTSCC.Methods3,3-Diaminobenzidine (DAB and immunofluorescent (IF immunohistochemical (IHC staining was performed on MDOTSCC samples to determine the expression and localization of cathepsins B, D, and G in relation to the CSC subpopulations. NanoString mRNA analysis and colorimetric in situ hybridization (CISH were used to study their transcripts expression. Enzyme activity assays were performed to determine the activity of these cathepsins in MDOTSCC.ResultsIHC staining demonstrated expression of cathepsins B, D, and G in MDOTSCC. Cathepsins B and D were localized to CSCs within the tumor nests, while cathepsin B was localized to the CSCs within the peri-tumoral stroma, and cathepsin G was localized to the tryptase+ phenotypic mast cells within the peri-tumoral stroma. NanoString and CISH mRNA analyses confirmed transcription activation of cathepsins B, D, and G. Enzyme activity assays confirmed active cathepsins B and D, but not cathepsin G.ConclusionThe presence of cathepsins B and D on the CSCs and cathspsin G on the phenotypic mast cells suggest the presence of bypass loops for the RAS which may be a potential novel therapeutic target for MDOTSCC.

  3. Anthocyanins from black rice (Oryza sativa L.) demonstrate antimetastatic properties by reducing MMPs and NF-κB expressions in human oral cancer CAL 27 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ming-Jen; Wang, I-Chen; Hsiao, Yung-Ting; Lin, Hui-Yi; Tang, Nou-Ying; Hung, Tzu-Chieh; Quan, Christine; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-01-01

    Aside from the commonly known white rice lines, colored varieties also exist. These varieties have historically been used in Chinese medicine. Anthocyanins, a large group of natural polyphenols existing in a variety of daily fruits and vegetables, have been widely recognized as cancer chemopreventive agents. The primary objective of cancer treatment strategies has traditionally focused on preventing the occurrence of metastasis. In this research the antimetastatic mechanism of anthocyanins on the invasion/migration of human oral CAL 27 cells was performed using a transwell to quantify the migratory potential of CAL 27 cells and the results show that anthocyanins can inhibit the in vitro migration and invasion of CAL 27 cancer cells. In addition, the gelatin zymography assay indicated that anthocyanins inhibited the activity of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2). Western blotting assay also demonstrated that anthocyanins inhibited the associated protein expression of migration/invasion of CAL 27 cell. Immunofluorescence staining proved that anthocyanins inhibited nuclear factor kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65) expressions. These results demonstrated that anthocyanins from a species of black rice (selected purple glutinous indica rice cultivated at Asia University) could suppress CAL 27 cell metastasis by reduction of MMP-2, MMP-9, and NF-κB p65 expression through the suppression of PI3K/Akt pathway and inhibition of NF-κB levels.

  4. Ras oncogenes in oral cancer: the past 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Avaniyapuram Kannan; Munirajan, Arasambattu Kannan; Tsuchida, Nobuo

    2012-05-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) of head and neck is associated with high morbidity and mortality in both Western and Asian countries. Several risk factors for the development of oral cancer are very well established, including tobacco chewing, betel quid, smoking, alcohol drinking and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. Apart from these risk factors, many genetic factors such as oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and regulatory genes are identified to involve in oral carcinogenesis with these risk factors dependent and independent manner. Ras is one of the most frequently genetically deregulated oncogene in oral cancer. In this review, we analyze the past 22years of literature on genetic alterations such as mutations and amplifications of the isoforms of the ras oncogene in oral cancer. Further, we addressed the isoform-specific role of the ras in oral carcinogenesis. We also discussed how targeting the Akt and MEK, downstream effectors of the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways, respectively, would probably pave the possible molecular therapeutic target for the ras driven tumorigenesis in oral cancer. Analysis of these ras isoforms may critically enlighten specific role of a particular ras isoform in oral carcinogenesis, enhance prognosis and pave the way for isoform-specific molecular targeted therapy in OSCC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High Numbers of Stromal Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Are Associated With a Shorter Survival Time in Cats With Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobukowska, H J; Munday, J S

    2016-11-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are fibroblastic cells that express α-smooth muscle actin and have been identified in the stroma of numerous epithelial tumors. The presence of CAFs within the tumor stroma has been associated with a poorer prognosis in some human cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Cats frequently develop oral SCCs, and although these are generally highly aggressive neoplasms, there is currently a lack of prognostic markers for these tumors. The authors investigated the prognostic value of the presence of CAFs within the stroma of oral SCC biopsy specimens from 47 cats. In addition, several epidemiologic, clinical, and histologic variables were also assessed for prognostic significance. A CAF-positive stroma was identified in 35 of 47 SCCs (74.5%), and the median survival time (ST) of cats with CAF-positive SCCs (35 days) was significantly shorter than that of cats with CAF-negative SCCs (48.5 days) (P = .031). ST was also associated with the location of the primary tumor (P = .0018): the median ST for oropharyngeal SCCs (179 days) was significantly longer than for maxillary (43.5 days; P = .047), mandibular (42 days; P = .022), and sublingual SCCs (22.5 days; P = .0005). The median ST of sublingual SCCs was also shorter compared with maxillary SCCs (P = .0017). Furthermore, a significant association was identified between site and the presence of stromal CAFs (P = .025). On the basis of this retrospective study, evaluating the tumor stroma for CAFs in feline oral SCC biopsy specimens may be of potential prognostic value. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Optimizing therapeutic efficacy of chemopreventive agents: A critical review of delivery strategies in oral cancer chemoprevention clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew S Holpuch; Kashappa-Goud H Desai; Steven P Schwendeman; Susan R Mallery

    2011-01-01

    Due to its characterized progression from recognized premalignant oral epithelial changes (i.e., oral epithelial dysplasia) to invasive cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma represents an optimal disease for chemopreventive intervention prior to malignant transformation. The primary goal of oral cancer chemoprevention is to reverse, suppress, or inhibit the progression of premalignant lesions to cancer. Over the last several decades, numerous oral cancer chemoprevention clinical trials have as...

  7. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

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    Full Text Available ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  8. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

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    ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  9. A willingness-to-pay study of oral epidermal growth factor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighl, Natasha B; Tsao, W Stephen; Zawisza, Dianne L; Nematollahi, Mahsan; Shepherd, Frances A

    2006-01-01

    Oral epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKIs) are new agents in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Phase II studies demonstrate objective tumor responses and symptom improvement, combined with minimal toxicity and the convenience of an oral agent. We evaluated patient utility through willingness-to-pay (WTP) for these agents in the treatment of advanced NSCLC in Canada. Advanced NSCLC patients and healthy subjects participated in a structured interview and bidding exercise, reviewing current evidence supporting EGFR TKI therapy in advanced NSCLC and patient willingness-to-pay for treatment. Fifty-seven patients and 54 healthy subjects participated. The median amount both groups were willing to pay for a month of oral EGFR TKI therapy was $100 CAD (range $0-5000 per month). A minority of NSCLC patients received employment income, the majority relying on disability, pension income, and social assistance for financial support. Affordability of these agents was a key concern for both advanced NSCLC patients and healthy subjects. Univariate predictors of WTP included marital status, prior chemotherapy treatment, receiving pension income or financial social assistance. In multivariate analysis, only prior chemotherapy remained a significant predictor of WTP (p=0.049). Both advanced NSCLC patients and healthy subjects feel oral EGFR TKIs are worth paying for in the treatment of advanced NSCLC, but are willing to pay only a fraction of the market price. As many advanced NSCLC patients are financially disadvantaged, the potential for restricted access to newer therapies is of concern.

  10. BubR1 Acts as a Promoter in Cellular Motility of Human Oral Squamous Cancer Cells through Regulating MMP-2 and MMP-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou-Kit Chou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BubR1 is a critical component of spindle assembly checkpoint, ensuring proper chromatin segregation during mitosis. Recent studies showed that BubR1 was overexpressed in many cancer cells, including oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC. However, the effect of BubR1 on metastasis of OSCC remains unclear. This study aimed to unravel the role of BubR1 in the progression of OSCC and confirm the expression of BubR1 in a panel of malignant OSCC cell lines with different invasive abilities. The results of quantitative real-time PCR showed that the mRNA level of BubR1 was markedly increased in four OSCC cell lines, Ca9-22, HSC3, SCC9 and Cal-27 cells, compared to two normal cells, normal human oral keratinocytes (HOK and human gingival fibroblasts (HGF. Moreover, the expression of BubR1 in these four OSCC cell lines was positively correlated with their motility. Immunofluorescence revealed that BubR1 was mostly localized in the cytosol of human gingival carcinoma Ca9-22 cells. BubR1 knockdown significantly decreased cellular invasion but slightly affect cellular proliferation on both Ca9-22 and Cal-27 cells. Consistently, the activities of metastasis-associated metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 were attenuated in BubR1 knockdown Ca9-22 cells, suggesting the role of BubR1 in promotion of OSCC migration. Our present study defines an alternative pathway in promoting metastasis of OSCC cells, and the expression of BubR1 could be a prognostic index in OSCC patients.

  11. Dissortativity and duplications in oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Pramod; Yadav, Alok; Rai, Aparna; Jalan, Sarika

    2015-08-01

    More than 300 000 new cases worldwide are being diagnosed with oral cancer annually. Complexity of oral cancer renders designing drug targets very difficult. We analyse protein-protein interaction network for the normal and oral cancer tissue and detect crucial changes in the structural properties of the networks in terms of the interactions of the hub proteins and the degree-degree correlations. Further analysis of the spectra of both the networks, while exhibiting universal statistical behaviour, manifest distinction in terms of the zero degeneracy, providing insight to the complexity of the underlying system.

  12. Textural pattern classification for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, T Y; Mahanta, L B; Chakraborty, C; DAS, A K; Sarma, J D

    2018-01-01

    Despite being an area of cancer with highest worldwide incidence, oral cancer yet remains to be widely researched. Studies on computer-aided analysis of pathological slides of oral cancer contribute a lot to the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Some researches in this direction have been carried out on oral submucous fibrosis. In this work an approach for analysing abnormality based on textural features present in squamous cell carcinoma histological slides have been considered. Histogram and grey-level co-occurrence matrix approaches for extraction of textural features from biopsy images with normal and malignant cells are used here. Further, we have used linear support vector machine classifier for automated diagnosis of the oral cancer, which gives 100% accuracy. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  13. Portable multispectral imaging system for oral cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yao-Fang; Ou-Yang, Mang; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2013-09-01

    This study presents the portable multispectral imaging system that can acquire the image of specific spectrum in vivo for oral cancer diagnosis. According to the research literature, the autofluorescence of cells and tissue have been widely applied to diagnose oral cancer. The spectral distribution is difference for lesions of epithelial cells and normal cells after excited fluorescence. We have been developed the hyperspectral and multispectral techniques for oral cancer diagnosis in three generations. This research is the third generation. The excited and emission spectrum for the diagnosis are acquired from the research of first generation. The portable system for detection of oral cancer is modified for existing handheld microscope. The UV LED is used to illuminate the surface of oral cavity and excite the cells to produce fluorescent. The image passes through the central channel and filters out unwanted spectrum by the selection of filter, and focused by the focus lens on the image sensor. Therefore, we can achieve the specific wavelength image via fluorescence reaction. The specificity and sensitivity of the system are 85% and 90%, respectively.

  14. Oral administration of an estrogen metabolite-induced potentiation of radiation antitumor effects in presence of wild-type p53 in non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huober, Jens B.; Nakamura, Seiichi; Meyn, Ray; Roth, Jack A.; Mukhopadhyay, Tapas

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of 2-methoxyestradiol as an antitumor and radiosensitizing agent for the treatment of human malignancy. Methods and Materials: Two cancer cell lines with wild-type p53 status were exposed first to irradiation and then to an oral formulation of the nontoxic metabolite 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME) to stabilize p53 levels. Results: Cell growth was inhibited via G1 growth and apoptosis. Subsequent in vitro growth and Tunel assays indicated that this combination was superior to radiation alone at inducing p53 protein accumulation, stabilizing p53 protein levels, and substantially reducing long-term tumor cell growth (∼80%) and colony formation (∼95%) in vitro, and inducing apoptosis. However, harboring mutated p53, H322 cell line, was relatively insensitive to such a treatment regimen. Western blot analysis revealed that growth inhibition was associated with increased levels of p53 and p21 protein accumulation. Experiments with subcutaneous tumor in a nu/nu mouse showed the combination treatment to be superior to radiation alone at reducing tumor growth (∼50% reduction as compared to radiation alone) in vivo. Conclusion: Thus, our studies confirmed a unique strategy whereby oral administration of a nontoxic estrogen metabolite, 2ME, significantly enhanced the radiation effect on a subcutaneous tumor without any toxicity and suggesting that this strategy may be clinically useful as an adjuvant therapy

  15. Involvement of Nrf2-Mediated Upregulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Mollugin-Induced Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis in Human Oral Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Man Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although previous studies have shown that mollugin, a bioactive phytochemical isolated from Rubia cordifolia L. (Rubiaceae, exhibits antitumor effects, its biological activity in oral cancer has not been reported. We thus investigated the effects and putative mechanism of apoptosis induced by mollugin in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells (OSCCs. Results show that mollugin induces cell death in a dose-dependent manner in primary and metastatic OSCCs. Mollugin-induced cell death involved apoptosis, characterized by the appearance of nuclear shrinkage, flow cytometric analysis of sub-G1 phase arrest, and annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining. Western blot analysis and RT-PCR revealed that mollugin suppressed activation of NF-κB and NF-κB-dependent gene products involved in antiapoptosis (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, invasion (MMP-9 and ICAM-1, and angiogenesis (FGF-2 and VEGF. Furthermore, mollugin induced the activation of p38, ERK, and JNK and the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and nuclear factor E2–related factor 2 (Nrf2. Mollugin-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis of HO-1 were reversed by an HO-1 inhibitor and Nrf2 siRNA. Collectively, this is the first report to demonstrate the effectiveness of mollugin as a candidate for a chemotherapeutic agent in OSCCs via the upregulation of the HO-1 and Nrf2 pathways and the downregulation of NF-κB.

  16. Oral cancer screening: knowledge is not enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tax, C L; Haslam, S Kim; Brillant, Mgs; Doucette, H J; Cameron, J E; Wade, S E

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether dental hygienists are transferring their knowledge of oral cancer screening into practice. This study also wanted to gain insight into the barriers that might prevent dental hygienists from performing these screenings. A 27-item survey instrument was constructed to study the oral cancer screening practices of licensed dental hygienists in Nova Scotia. A total of 623 practicing dental hygienists received the survey. The response rate was 34% (n = 212) yielding a maximum margin of error of 5.47 at a 95% confidence level. Descriptive statistics were calculated using IBM SPSS Statistics v21 software (Armonk, NY:IBM Corp). Qualitative thematic analysis was performed on any open-ended responses. This study revealed that while dental hygienists perceived themselves as being knowledgeable about oral cancer screening, they were not transferring this knowledge to actual practice. Only a small percentage (13%) of respondents were performing a comprehensive extra-oral examination, and 7% were performing a comprehensive intra-oral examination. The respondents identified several barriers that prevented them from completing a comprehensive oral cancer screening. Early detection of oral cancer reduces mortality rates so there is a professional responsibility to ensure that comprehensive oral cancer screenings are being performed on patients. Dental hygienists may not have the authority in a dental practice to overcome all of the barriers that are preventing them from performing these screenings. Public awareness about oral cancer screenings could increase the demand for screenings and thereby play a role in changing practice norms. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

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    Full Text Available ... Extensive education and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral ... Extensive education and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral ...

  18. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

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    Full Text Available ... Contact Find a Surgeon What We Do Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are extensively trained to ... and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are extensively trained to ...

  19. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

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    Full Text Available ... mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to find out more. Facial Cosmetic ... mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to find out more. Facial Cosmetic ...

  20. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

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    Full Text Available ... Oral and maxillofacial surgeons. The experts in face, mouth and jaw surgery.™ What We Do Who We ... surgically treat the soft tissues of the face, mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral ...

  1. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

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    Full Text Available ... tissues of the face, mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to ... tissues of the face, mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to ...

  2. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

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    Full Text Available ... and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and maxillofacial ... and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and maxillofacial ...

  3. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

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    Full Text Available ... and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to find out more. Facial Cosmetic ... and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to find out more. Facial Cosmetic ...

  4. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

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    Full Text Available ... in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and maxillofacial surgeon to ... in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and maxillofacial surgeon to ...

  5. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

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    Full Text Available ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  6. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

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    Full Text Available ... for further information Your oral and maxillofacial surgeon (OMS) is the expert for diagnosing and surgically treating ... late in its development. Your family dentist or OMS is in the best position to detect oral ...

  7. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with ... and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with ...

  8. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... education and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and ... education and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and ...

  9. Oral cancer in the UAE: a multicenter, retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Raeefa; Gaballah, Kamis

    2013-01-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence of various malignant oral lesions in the UAE and correlate cases of squamous cell carcinomas with age, gender, site, grade, clinical presentations at the time of diagnosis, and the prevalence of neck metastasis. Materials and methods A multicenter, retrospective study was conducted at four major hospitals in the UAE. The study was based on histopathology reports of biopsies of oral tissues. Results Of the 992 oral biopsy reports retrieved, 147 cases of malignant tumors were found which accounted for 14.9% of the total biopsies. Fifteen different types of malignant lesions were diagnosed, of which oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was the most prevalent and made up 11.4% of the overall oral biopsies retrieved. The commonest presentation of cancer was ulceration (31.17%), followed by lumps and white lesions. The most common site where the lesions were diagnosed was the tongue (51.9%), followed by the cheeks and lips. OSCC accounted for 77% of all malignancies reported. Neck dissections were conducted in only 20.8% of all OSCC cases diagnosed at Mafraq and Tawam hospitals, of which 43.75% showed evidence of neck metastasis. Conclusion Oral cancer is not an uncommon disease in the UAE. This may mandate more awareness campaigning, including screening procedures for early detection of cancerous lesions and other potentially malignant oral diseases. Elective neck dissections to detect lymph node metastasis should be more routinely performed, in particular for tongue carcinomas because of the early neck involvement potential. PMID:23985381

  10. Kaempferol Reduces Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Expression by Down-Regulating ERK1/2 and the Activator Protein-1 Signaling Pathways in Oral Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiao-Wen; Chen, Pei-Ni; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Yang, Wei-En; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Yang, Shun-Fa; Hsieh, Yih-Shou

    2013-01-01

    Background Kaempferol has been proposed as a potential drug for cancer chemoprevention and treatment because it is a natural polyphenol contained in plant-based foods. Recent studies have demonstrated that kaempferol protects against cardiovascular disease and cancer. Based on this finding, we investigated the mechanisms by which kaempferol produces the anti-metastatic effect in human tongue squamous cell carcinoma SCC4 cells. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we provided molecular evidence associated with the anti-metastatic effect of kaempferol by demonstrating a substantial suppression of SCC4 cell migration and invasion. This effect was associated with reduced expressions of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 mRNA and protein levels. Analysis of the transcriptional regulation indicated that kaempferol inhibited MMP-2 transcription by suppressing c-Jun activity. Kaempferol also produced an inhibitory effect on the phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Conclusions These findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the anti-metastatic effect of kaempferol, and are valuable in the prevention of oral cancer metastasis. PMID:24278338

  11. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.

  12. Overview of surgery for oral cavity cancer in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskander, Antoine; Irish, Jonathan; Gullane, Patrick; Gilbert, Ralph; de Almeida, John R; Freeman, Jeremy; Giuliani, Meredith; Urbach, David R; Goldstein, David P

    2016-07-01

    The pupose of this study was to describe variations in incidence and resection rates of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in Ontario. All oral cavity SCCs in Ontario between 2003 and 2010 were identified from the Ontario Cancer Registry. Incidence and resection rates along with variations in care were compared by sociodemographic factors and Ontario health regions. The 8-year incidence rates for oral cavity SCC was 21.3 per 100,000 with variations by sex, age group, neighborhood income, and community size. Seventy-four percent of patients underwent an oral cavity cancer resection, of which 91% were at a regional head and neck cancer center. Variations in resection rates existed by region of residence and treatment. Oral cavity cancer incidence rates vary by sex, age, neighborhood income, community size, and health region. Resection rates vary by age and health region. Oral cavity cancer care is highly regionalized in Ontario. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: 1113-1118, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim

    2013-07-01

    To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by men and women vary in different populations. This review principally examines 33 publications devoted to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan, in addition to some risk factors that are commonly practiced in the Sudan. Several studies examining risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use (Smoked and Smokeless), alcohol consumption, occupational risk, familial risk, immune deficits, virus infection and genetic factors. Toombak use and infection with high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) were extensively investigated and linked to the aetiology of oral cancer in Sudan.

  14. Aetiology of Oral Cancer in the Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Gadelkarim Ahmed

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by men and women vary in different populations.Material and Methods: This review principally examines 33 publications devoted to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan, in addition to some risk factors that are commonly practiced in the Sudan.Results: Several studies examining risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use (Smoked and Smokeless, alcohol consumption, occupational risk, familial risk, immune deficits, virus infection and genetic factors.Conclusions: Toombak use and infection with high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV were extensively investigated and linked to the aetiology of oral cancer in Sudan.

  15. Freeze-Dried Black Raspberries in Preventing Oral Cancer Recurrence in High-Risk Appalachian Patients Previously Treated With Surgery For Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-04

    Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  16. A phase ii study of concurrent accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy and carboplatin/oral etoposide for elderly patients with stage iii non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeremic, Branislav; Shibamoto, Yuta; Milicic, Biljana; Milisavljevic, Slobodan; Nikolic, Nebojsa; Dagovic, Aleksandar; Aleksandrovic, Jasna; Radosavljevic-Asic, Gordana

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate feasibility, toxicity, and efficacy of accelerated hyperfractionated radiation therapy and concurrent carboplatin/oral etoposide in elderly (> 70 years) patients with stage III non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 1988 and June 1993, a total of 58 patients entered a phase II study. Carboplatin (400 mg/m 2 ) was given intravenously on days 1 and 29, and etoposide (50 mg/m 2 ) was given orally on days 1-21 and 29-42. Accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy was administered starting on day 1, with a total dose of 51 Gy in 34 fractions over 3.5 weeks. Results: In 55 evaluable patients, the complete response rate was 27% and the overall response rate was 65%. For the 55 patients, the median survival time was 10 months, and the 1-, 2-, and 5-year survival rates were 45%, 24%, and 9.1%, respectively. The median time until relapse was 8 months and the 1-, 2-, and 5-year relapse-free survival rates were 45%, 20%, and 9.1%, respectively. The median time to local recurrence was 14 months and the 5-year local control rate was 13%; the median time to distant metastasis was 18 months and the 5-year distant metastasis-free rate was 15%. Hematological, esophageal, and bronchopulmonary acute grade 3 or 4 toxicities were observed in 22%, 7%, and 4% of the patients, respectively. There was no grade 5 toxicity or late grade ≥ 3 toxicity. Conclusion: Concurrent accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy and carboplatin/oral etoposide produced relatively low and acceptable toxicity. The survival results appeared to be comparable to those obtained in nonelderly patients with stage III non-small-cell lung cancer treated by full-dose radiation

  17. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  18. O-GlcNAcylation in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongkaew, Tassaporn; Aung, Win Pa Pa; Supanchart, Chayarop; Makeudom, Anupong; Langsa-Ard, Sarawat; Sastraruji, Thanapat; Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Krisanaprakornkit, Suttichai

    2018-03-01

    Two post-translational mechanisms commonly demonstrated in various cancers are protein phosphorylation and glycosylation by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). However, only phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/Akt pathway has been reported in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Therefore, we aimed to determine both post-translational modifications in OSCC tissues and in oral cancer cells compared to normal tissues and oral keratinocytes and to find correlations of these modifications with histological grading. Thirty-two OSCC and ten normal formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sections were probed with the anti-O-GlcNAc, anti-O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), anti-phosphorylated-EGFR tyr1173 , and anti-phosphorylated-Akt ser473 antibodies following standard immunohistochemistry. The immunohistochemical (IHC) score was determined using the Fromowitz standard. Whole cell lysates of oral cancer cells and normal oral keratinocytes were immunoblotted with the anti-O-GlcNAc antibody. The median IHC scores of O-GlcNAc or OGT between OSCC and normal tissues were not different, whereas those of phosphorylated-EGFR tyr1173 and phosphorylated-Akt ser473 were significantly higher in OSCC than normal tissues (P O-GlcNAcylated proteins in oral cancer cells and normal oral keratinocytes did not differ. In the OSCC group, the median IHC scores of O-GlcNAc and OGT were significantly lower than those of phosphorylated-EGFR tyr1173 and phosphorylated-Akt ser473 (P O-GlcNAc or OGT were not determined to correlate with histological grading. Unlike other types of cancers, our findings demonstrate that the levels of O-GlcNAcylation are not significantly increased in OSCC tissues or in oral cancer cells and are not associated with the histological grading of OSCC. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. DOC1-Dependent Recruitment of NURD Reveals Antagonism with SWI/SNF during Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Oral Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adone Mohd-Sarip

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase (NURD complex is a key regulator of cell differentiation that has also been implicated in tumorigenesis. Loss of the NURD subunit Deleted in Oral Cancer 1 (DOC1 is associated with human oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs. Here, we show that restoration of DOC1 expression in OSCC cells leads to a reversal of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. This is caused by the DOC1-dependent targeting of NURD to repress key transcriptional regulators of EMT. NURD recruitment drives extensive epigenetic reprogramming, including eviction of the SWI/SNF remodeler, formation of inaccessible chromatin, H3K27 deacetylation, and binding of PRC2 and KDM1A, followed by H3K27 methylation and H3K4 demethylation. Strikingly, depletion of SWI/SNF mimics the effects of DOC1 re-expression. Our results suggest that SWI/SNF and NURD function antagonistically to control chromatin state and transcription. We propose that disturbance of this dynamic equilibrium may lead to defects in gene expression that promote oncogenesis.

  20. Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma - Characteristics and Survival in Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Western Australians

    OpenAIRE

    Frydrych, A.M; Slack-Smith, L.M; Parsons, R; Threlfall, T

    2014-01-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common type of malignancy affecting the oral cavity. While exposures to main risk factors for oral SCC such as smoking and alcohol use are higher amongst the Aboriginal people, little is known about oral cancer in this population. This study aimed to describe characteristics and survival of oral SCC in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians. Methods: All primary oral SCC cases reported to the Western Australian Cancer Registry (...

  1. Oral cancer. The importance of early diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciubba, J J

    2001-01-01

    Oral cancer is an important health issue. The WHO predicts a continuing worldwide increase in the number of patients with oral cancer, extending this trend well into the next several decades. In the US the projected number of new cases of oral and oropharyngeal cancer will exceed 31,000 per year. Mortality due to cancers in this region exceeds the annual death rate is the US caused by either cutaneous melanoma or cervical cancer. Significant agents involved in the etiology of oral cancer in Western countries include sunlight exposure, smoking and alcohol consumption. Use of the areca or betel nut in many cultures is a major etiological factor outside of the USA. Other etiologic factors associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma, but far less significant statistically, include syphilis and sideropenic dysphagia. Recently, strong evidence for an etiological relationship between human papilloma virus and a subset of head and neck cancers has been noted. It is generally accepted that most sporadic tumors are the result of a multi-step process of accumulated genetic alterations. These alterations affect epithelial cell behavior by way of loss of chromosomal heterozygosity which in turn leads to a series of events progressing to the ultimate stage of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The corresponding genetic alterations are reflected in clinical and microscopic pathology from hyperplasia through invasiveness. A wide range of mucosal alternations fall within the rubric of leukoplakia. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia represents a relatively new type of leukoplakia that is separate from the more common or less innocuous form of this condition. Erythroplakia is particularly relevant considering its almost certain relationship with dysplasia or invasive carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma will develop from antecedent dysplastic oral mucosal lesions if an early diagnosis has not been made and treatment given. Early diagnosis within stages I and II correspond to a vastly

  2. Effects of oral anorexiant sibutramine on the expression of cytochromes P450s in human hepatocytes and cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrzal, Radim; Knoppová, Barbora; Bachleda, Petr; Dvořák, Zdeněk

    2013-12-01

    Sibutramine is a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor that was used for weight-loss management in obese patients. Even though it was officially withdrawn from the market in 2010, it is still present in some tainted weight-loss pills (as reported by US Food and Drug Administration). Thus, it is still reasonable to study the effects of this compound. The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of sibutramine to induce CYP1A1/CY3A4 in human cancer cell lines and CYP1A1/2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes, a competent model of metabolically active cells. The levels of mRNA and protein of CYP1A1/1A2/3A4/2A6/2B6 were compared with the typical inducers, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and rifampicin (RIF) for CYP1A1/2 and for other CYPs, respectively. The mRNA and protein levels of all genes in either cancer cell lines or human hepatocytes were induced when treated with typical inducers but not with sibutramine. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Baicalein induces G1 arrest in oral cancer cells by enhancing the degradation of cyclin D1 and activating AhR to decrease Rb phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Ya-Hsin, E-mail: yhcheng@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Li, Lih-Ann; Lin, Pinpin; Cheng, Li-Chuan [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hung, Chein-Hui [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine Sciences, Chang Gung University, Puizi City, Chiayi 613, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Nai Wen [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Chingju [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-09-15

    Baicalein is a flavonoid, known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. As an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, baicalein at high concentrations blocks AhR-mediated dioxin toxicity. Because AhR had been reported to play a role in regulating the cell cycle, we suspected that the anti-cancer effect of baicalein is associated with AhR. This study investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the anti-cancer effect of baicalein in oral cancer cells HSC-3, including whether such effect would be AhR-mediated. Results revealed that baicalein inhibited cell proliferation and increased AhR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phase and the expression of CDK4, cyclin D1, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pRb) was decreased. When the AhR was suppressed by siRNA, the reduction of pRb was partially reversed, accompanied by a decrease of cell population at G1 phase and an increase at S phase, while the reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4 did not change. This finding suggests that the baicalein activation of AhR is indeed associated with the reduction of pRb, but is independent of the reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4. When cells were pre-treated with LiCl, the inhibitor of GSK-3β, the decrease of cyclin D1 was blocked and the reduction of pRb was recovered. The data indicates that in HSC-3 the reduction of pRb is both mediated by baicalein through activation of AhR and facilitation of cyclin D1 degradation, which causes cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, and results in the inhibition of cell proliferation. -- Highlights: ► Baicalein causes the G1 phase arrest by decreasing Rb phosphorylation. ► Baicalein modulates AhR-mediated cell proliferation. ► Both AhR activation and cyclin D1 degradation results in hypophosphorylation of Rb. ► Baicalein facilitates cyclin D1 degradation by signalling the GSK-3β pathway.

  4. Early diagnosis in primary oral cancer: is it possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, I.; de Bree, R.; Brakenhoff, R.; Coebergh, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    In this treatise oral carcinogenesis is briefly discussed, particularly with regard to the number of cell divisions that is required before cancer reaches a measurable size. At that stage, metastatic spread may have already taken place. Therefore, the term "early diagnosis" is somewhat misleading.

  5. Cancer of the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity are curable. When early tumor (T1 and T2) is diagnosed and treated, cure rates by surgery or irradiation are high. The choice of therapeutic modalities for these lesions is complex and depends on the site of origin and size of the tumor, the presence or absence of nodal metastases, and the age, physical, medical, and socioeconomic status of the patient. Other factors include the willingness of the patient to return for a protracted course of radiation therapy, the skill of the physician, and the relative morbidity and cosmesis of the two forms of treatment. In general, surgery may be considered for early (T1) lesions if the deformity resulting from surgery is minimal. If resection involves major morbidity, such as a deformity that alters cosmesis or the function of the speech and swallowing mechanisms, then radiation therapy is preferred. For medium-sized (T2) tumors, superficial radiation therapy is the treatment of choice, for it controls the disease and preserves normal function and anatomy. Surgery is reserved for radiation failures. Extensive disease (T3 and T4) often associated with bone and muscle involvement and cervical lymph node metastases is rarely curable by radiation therapy or surgery alone; a combined approach using radiation therapy and surgery is therefore the procedure of choice

  6. A genetic programming approach to oral cancer prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Sze Tan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The potential of genetic programming (GP on various fields has been attained in recent years. In bio-medical field, many researches in GP are focused on the recognition of cancerous cells and also on gene expression profiling data. In this research, the aim is to study the performance of GP on the survival prediction of a small sample size of oral cancer prognosis dataset, which is the first study in the field of oral cancer prognosis. Method GP is applied on an oral cancer dataset that contains 31 cases collected from the Malaysia Oral Cancer Database and Tissue Bank System (MOCDTBS. The feature subsets that is automatically selected through GP were noted and the influences of this subset on the results of GP were recorded. In addition, a comparison between the GP performance and that of the Support Vector Machine (SVM and logistic regression (LR are also done in order to verify the predictive capabilities of the GP. Result The result shows that GP performed the best (average accuracy of 83.87% and average AUROC of 0.8341 when the features selected are smoking, drinking, chewing, histological differentiation of SCC, and oncogene p63. In addition, based on the comparison results, we found that the GP outperformed the SVM and LR in oral cancer prognosis. Discussion Some of the features in the dataset are found to be statistically co-related. This is because the accuracy of the GP prediction drops when one of the feature in the best feature subset is excluded. Thus, GP provides an automatic feature selection function, which chooses features that are highly correlated to the prognosis of oral cancer. This makes GP an ideal prediction model for cancer clinical and genomic data that can be used to aid physicians in their decision making stage of diagnosis or prognosis.

  7. A genetic programming approach to oral cancer prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mei Sze; Tan, Jing Wei; Chang, Siow-Wee; Yap, Hwa Jen; Abdul Kareem, Sameem; Zain, Rosnah Binti

    2016-01-01

    The potential of genetic programming (GP) on various fields has been attained in recent years. In bio-medical field, many researches in GP are focused on the recognition of cancerous cells and also on gene expression profiling data. In this research, the aim is to study the performance of GP on the survival prediction of a small sample size of oral cancer prognosis dataset, which is the first study in the field of oral cancer prognosis. GP is applied on an oral cancer dataset that contains 31 cases collected from the Malaysia Oral Cancer Database and Tissue Bank System (MOCDTBS). The feature subsets that is automatically selected through GP were noted and the influences of this subset on the results of GP were recorded. In addition, a comparison between the GP performance and that of the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and logistic regression (LR) are also done in order to verify the predictive capabilities of the GP. The result shows that GP performed the best (average accuracy of 83.87% and average AUROC of 0.8341) when the features selected are smoking, drinking, chewing, histological differentiation of SCC, and oncogene p63. In addition, based on the comparison results, we found that the GP outperformed the SVM and LR in oral cancer prognosis. Some of the features in the dataset are found to be statistically co-related. This is because the accuracy of the GP prediction drops when one of the feature in the best feature subset is excluded. Thus, GP provides an automatic feature selection function, which chooses features that are highly correlated to the prognosis of oral cancer. This makes GP an ideal prediction model for cancer clinical and genomic data that can be used to aid physicians in their decision making stage of diagnosis or prognosis.

  8. Guideline for the prevention of oral and oropharyngeal mucositis in children receiving treatment for cancer or undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Lillian; Robinson, Paula; Treister, Nathaniel; Baggott, Tina; Gibson, Paul; Tissing, Wim; Wiernikowski, John; Brinklow, Jennifer; Dupuis, L Lee

    2017-03-01

    To develop an evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the prevention of oral mucositis in children (0-18 years) receiving treatment for cancer or undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The Mucositis Prevention Guideline Development Group was interdisciplinary and included internationally recognised experts in paediatric mucositis. For the evidence review, we included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in either children or adults evaluating the following interventions selected according to prespecified criteria: cryotherapy, low level light therapy (LLLT) and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF). We also examined RCTs of any intervention conducted in children. For all systematic reviews, we synthesised the occurrence of severe oral mucositis. The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach was used to describe quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. We suggest cryotherapy or LLLT may be offered to cooperative children receiving chemotherapy or HSCT conditioning with regimens associated with a high rate of mucositis. We also suggest KGF may be offered to children receiving HSCT conditioning with regimens associated with a high rate of severe mucositis. However, KGF use merits caution as there is a lack of efficacy and toxicity data in children, and a lack of long-term follow-up data in paediatric cancers. No other interventions were recommended for oral mucositis prevention in children. All three specific interventions evaluated in this clinical practice guideline were associated with a weak recommendation for use. There may be important organisational and cost barriers to the adoption of LLLT and KGF. Considerations for implementation and key research gaps are highlighted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral, Head and Neck Pathology TMJ and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are ... more. TMJ and Facial Pain TMJ and Facial ... Teeth Management Wisdom Teeth Management An impacted wisdom tooth can ...

  10. Oral cancer in Fanconi anemia: Review of 121 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furquim, Camila Pinheiro; Pivovar, Allana; Amenábar, José Miguel; Bonfim, Carmem; Torres-Pereira, Cassius Carvalho

    2018-05-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by aplastic anemia, progressive pancytopenia, congenital anomalies, and increased risk of cancer development. After hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), patients have an estimated 500-fold increase in the risk of developing head and neck cancer compared to a non-affected, and the oral cavity is affected in one-third of cases. Thus, this study aimed to better understand the natural history of oral cavity cancer in patients affected by FA. After conducting a keyword search on MEDLINE, we found 121 cases of oral cavity cancer in patients who had been affected by FA. In conclusion, HSCT may increase the risks of oral cancer development, especially after 5 years after the transplant. In the normal population, the tongue is the most affected area. FA patients should be informed of the risks of oral malignant transformation and encouraged to be undergo medical surveillance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Interventions for preventing oral mucositis in patients with cancer receiving treatment: oral cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Philip; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Worthington, Helen V; Littlewood, Anne; Clarkson, Jan E; McCabe, Martin G

    2015-12-23

    where feasible. For dichotomous outcomes, we reported risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). For continuous outcomes, we reported mean differences (MD) and 95% CIs. We pooled similar studies in random-effects meta-analyses. We reported adverse effects in a narrative format. We included 14 RCTs analysing 1280 participants. The vast majority of participants did not receive radiotherapy to the head and neck, so this review primarily assesses prevention of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. All studies were at high risk of bias. The following results are for the main comparison: oral cryotherapy versus control (standard care or no treatment). Adults receiving fluorouracil-based (5FU) chemotherapy for solid cancersOral cryotherapy probably reduces oral mucositis of any severity (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.72, 5 studies, 444 analysed, moderate quality evidence). In a population where 728 per 1000 would develop oral mucositis, oral cryotherapy would reduce this to 444 (95% CI 379 to 524). The number needed to treat to benefit one additional person (NNTB), i.e. to prevent them from developing oral mucositis, is 4 people (95% CI 3 to 5).The results were similar for moderate to severe oral mucositis (RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.65, 5 studies, 444 analysed, moderate quality evidence). NNTB 4 (95% CI 4 to 6).Severe oral mucositis is probably reduced (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.61, 5 studies, 444 analysed, moderate quality evidence). Where 300 per 1000 would develop severe oral mucositis, oral cryotherapy would reduce this to 120 (95% CI 81 to 183), NNTB 6 (95% CI 5 to 9). Adults receiving high-dose melphalan-based chemotherapy before haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)Oral cryotherapy may reduce oral mucositis of any severity (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.35 to 1.01, 5 studies, 270 analysed, low quality evidence). Where 824 per 1000 would develop oral mucositis, oral cryotherapy would reduce this to 486 (95% CI reduced to 289 to increased to 833). The NNTB is 3

  12. Overexpression of cell cycle regulator CDCA3 promotes oral cancer progression by enhancing cell proliferation with prevention of G1 phase arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Fumihiko; Uzawa, Katsuhiro; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Takatori, Hiroaki; Sakamoto, Yosuke; Ogawara, Katsunori; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Bukawa, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    Cell division cycle associated 3 (CDCA3), part of the Skp1-cullin-F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase, refers to a trigger of mitotic entry and mediates destruction of the mitosis inhibitory kinase. Little is known about the relevance of CDCA3 to human malignancy including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We aimed to characterize the expression state and function of CDCA3 in OSCC. We evaluated CDCA3 mRNA and protein expression in both OSCC-derived cell lines and primary OSCCs and performed functional analyses of CDCA3 in OSCC-derived cells using the shRNA system. The CDCA3 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels was frequently up-regulated in all cell lines examined and primary tumors (mRNA, 51/69, 74 %; protein, 79/95, 83 %) compared to normal controls (p < 0.001). In contrast, no significant level of CDCA3 protein expression was seen in oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) (n = 20) compared with the expression in OSCCs. Among the clinical variables analyzed, the CDCA3 expression status was closely related to tumor size (p < 0.05). In addition, suppression of CDCA3 expression with shRNA significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited cellular proliferation compared with the control cells by arresting cell-cycle progression at the G1 phase. Further, there was up-regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (p21 Cip1 , p27 Kip1 , p15 INK4B , and p16 INK4A ) in the knockdown cells. The current results showed that overexpression of CDCA3 occurs frequently during oral carcinogenesis and this overexpression might be associated closely with progression of OSCCs by preventing the arrest of cell-cycle progression at the G1 phase via decreased expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors

  13. Phase 1b Food Based Modulation of Biomarkers in Human Tissues at High-Risk for Oral Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-05

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage 0 Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Stage 0 Laryngeal Cancer; Stage 0 Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer; Stage 0 Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Stage 0 Oropharyngeal Cancer; Stage 0 Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer; Stage I Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Stage IVA

  14. Characterization of KIF11 as a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigo, Kayo; Takano, Atsushi; Thang, Phung Manh; Yoshitake, Yoshihiro; Shinohara, Masanori; Tohnai, Iwau; Murakami, Yoshinori; Maegawa, Jiro; Daigo, Yataro

    2018-01-01

    Oral cancer has a high mortality rate, and its incidence is increasing gradually worldwide. As the effectiveness of standard treatments is still limited, the development of new therapeutic strategies is eagerly awaited. Kinesin family member 11 (KIF11) is a motor protein required for establishing a bipolar spindle in cell division. The role of KIF11 in oral cancer is unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the role of KIF11 in oral cancer and evaluate its role as a prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for treating oral cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that KIF11 was expressed in 64 of 99 (64.6%) oral cancer tissues but not in healthy oral epithelia. Strong KIF11 expression was significantly associated with poor prognosis among oral cancer patients (P=0.034), and multivariate analysis confirmed its independent prognostic value. In addition, inhibition of KIF11 expression by transfection of siRNAs into oral cancer cells or treatment of cells with a KIF11 inhibitor significantly suppressed cell proliferation, probably through G2/M arrest and subsequent induction of apoptosis. These results suggest that KIF11 could be a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for oral cancer.

  15. Cancer immunogenomic approach to neoantigen discovery in a checkpoint blockade responsive murine model of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolkind, Paul; Przybylski, Dariusz; Marjanovic, Nemanja; Nguyen, Lan; Lin, Tianxiang; Johanns, Tanner; Alexandrov, Anton; Zhou, Liye; Allen, Clint T.; Miceli, Alexander P.; Schreiber, Robert D.; Artyomov, Maxim; Dunn, Gavin P.; Uppaluri, Ravindra

    2018-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are an ideal immunotherapy target due to their high mutation burden and frequent infiltration with lymphocytes. Preclinical models to investigate targeted and combination therapies as well as defining biomarkers to guide treatment represent an important need in the field. Immunogenomics approaches have illuminated the role of mutation-derived tumor neoantigens as potential biomarkers of response to checkpoint blockade as well as representing therapeutic vaccines. Here, we aimed to define a platform for checkpoint and other immunotherapy studies using syngeneic HNSCC cell line models (MOC2 and MOC22), and evaluated the association between mutation burden, predicted neoantigen landscape, infiltrating T cell populations and responsiveness of tumors to anti-PD1 therapy. We defined dramatic hematopoietic cell transcriptomic alterations in the MOC22 anti-PD1 responsive model in both tumor and draining lymph nodes. Using a cancer immunogenomics pipeline and validation with ELISPOT and tetramer analysis, we identified the H-2Kb-restricted ICAM1P315L (mICAM1) as a neoantigen in MOC22. Finally, we demonstrated that mICAM1 vaccination was able to protect against MOC22 tumor development defining mICAM1 as a bona fide neoantigen. Together these data define a pre-clinical HNSCC model system that provides a foundation for future investigations into combination and novel therapeutics. PMID:29423108

  16. Hypermethylated ZNF582 and PAX1 genes in mouth rinse samples as biomarkers for oral dysplasia and oral cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shih-Jung; Chang, Chi-Feng; Ko, Hui-Hsin; Lee, Jang-Jaer; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Wang, Huei-Jen; Lin, Hsiao-Shan; Chiang, Chun-Pin

    2018-02-01

    Effective biomarkers for oral cancer screening are important for early diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer. Oral epithelial cell samples collected by mouth rinse were obtained from 65 normal control subjects, 108 patients with oral potentially malignant disorders, and 94 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methylation levels of zinc-finger protein 582 (ZNF582) and paired-box 1 (PAX1) genes were quantified by real-time methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction after bisulfite conversion. An abrupt increase in methylated ZNF582 (ZNF582 m ) and PAX1 (PAX1 m ) levels and positive rates from mild dysplasia to moderate/severe dysplasia, indicating that both ZNF582 m and PAX1 m are effective biomarkers for differentiating moderate dysplasia or worse (MODY+) oral lesions. When ZNF582 m /PAX1 m tests were used for identifying MODY+ oral lesions, the sensitivity, specificity, and odds ratio (OR) were 0.65/0.64, 0.75/0.82, and 5.6/8.0, respectively. Hypermethylated ZNF582 and PAX1 genes in oral epithelial cells collected by mouth rinse are effective biomarkers for the detection of oral dysplasia and oral cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Does buccal cancer have worse prognosis than other oral cavity cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilon, P Ryan; Stokes, William A; Fuller, Colin W; Nguyen, Shaun A; Lentsch, Eric J

    2014-06-01

    To determine whether buccal squamous cell carcinoma has worse overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) than cancers in the rest of the oral cavity. Retrospective analysis of a large population database. We began with a Kaplan-Meier analysis of OS and DSS for buccal versus nonbuccal tumors with unmatched data, followed by an analysis of cases matched for race, age at diagnosis, stage at diagnosis, and treatment modality. This was supported by a univariate Cox regression comparing buccal cancer to nonbuccal cancer, followed by a multivariate Cox regression that included all significant variables studied. With unmatched data, buccal cancer had significantly lesser OS and DSS values than cancers in the rest of the oral cavity (P cancer versus nonbuccal oral cancer were no longer significant. Univariate Cox regression models with respect to OS and DSS showed a significant difference between buccal cancer and nonbuccal cancer. However, with multivariate analysis, buccal hazard ratios for OS and DSS were not significant. With the largest series of buccal carcinoma to date, our study concludes that the OS and DSS of buccal cancer are similar to those of cancers in other oral cavity sites once age at diagnosis, tumor stage, treatment, and race are taken into consideration. The previously perceived poor prognosis of buccal carcinoma may be due to variations in tumor presentation, such as later stage and older patient age. 2b. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Candida spp. in oral cancer and oral precancerous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Francesca; Colella, Giuseppe; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Rossiello, Raffaele; Angelillo, Italo Francesco; Liguori, Giorgio

    2013-07-01

    To assess the presence of Candida spp. in lesions of the oral cavity in a sample of patients with precancer or cancer of the mouth and evaluate the limitations and advantages of microbiological and histological methods, 103 subjects with precancerous or cancerous lesions and not treated were observed between 2007 and 2009. The presence of Candida in the lesions was analyzed by microbiological and histological methods. Cohen's k statistic was used to assess the agreement between culture method and staining techniques. Forty-eight (47%) patients had cancer and 55 (53%) patients had precancerous lesions. Candida spp. were isolated from 31 (30%) patients with cancerous lesions and 33 (32%) with precancerous lesions. C. albicans was the most frequent species isolated in the lesions. The k value showed a fair overall agreement for comparisons between culture method and PAS (0.2825) or GMS (0.3112). This study supports the frequent presence of Candida spp. in cancer and precancerous lesions of the oral cavity. Both microbiological investigations and histological techniques were reliable for detection of Candida spp. It would be desirable for the two techniques to be considered complementary in the detection of yeast infections in these types of lesions.

  19. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the face, mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to find ... the need for harmony between facial appearance and function. As a result, OMSs are uniqely qualified to ...

  20. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in face, mouth and jaw surgery.™ What We Do Who We Are News Videos Contact Find a Surgeon What We Do Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are extensively ...

  1. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... one of your body's most important early warning systems. Don't ignore any suspicious lumps or sores. ... and maxillofacial surgeon. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons: The experts in face, mouth and jaw surgery Contact Us ...

  2. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Who We ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Oral, Head ...

  3. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... We Do Who We Are News Videos Contact Find a Surgeon What We Do Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral ... of sedation and general anesthesia. Click here to find out more. Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery ...

  4. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Neck Pathology Download Download the ebook for further information Your oral and maxillofacial surgeon (OMS) is the ... well be the key to complete recovery. The information provided here is not intended as a substitute ...

  5. Interleukin-37 expression and its potential role in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Wang, Jiayi; Liu, Dongjuan; Liu, Sai; Xu, Hao; Ji, Ning; Zhou, Min; Zeng, Xin; Zhang, Dunfang; Li, Jing; Chen, Qianming

    2016-05-26

    Interleukin 37 (IL-37) has been reported to play a significant role in innate immune response and to be involved in several kinds of cancers. However, the investigation of association between IL-37 and oral mucosa carcinogenesis hasn't been clearly established. The aim of the study was to assess IL-37 expression and explore its role in oral mucosa carcinogenesis. The expression of IL-37 increased from normal control (NC) to Oral leukoplakia (OLK) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Moreover, statistically highly significant difference was present between scores of OLK with and without mild/moderate dysplasia (P oral mucosa carcinogenesis. Overall, IL-37 can be used as a biomarker for early oral tumorigenesis and for malignant transformation risk assessment of premalignant lesions.

  6. Clinical significance of Phosphatidyl Inositol Synthase overexpression in oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Jatinder; Sawhney, Meenakshi; DattaGupta, Siddartha; Shukla, Nootan K; Srivastava, Anurag; Ralhan, Ranju

    2010-01-01

    We reported increased levels of Phosphatidyl Inositol synthase (PI synthase), (enzyme that catalyses phosphatidyl inositol (PI) synthesis-implicated in intracellular signaling and regulation of cell growth) in smokeless tobacco (ST) exposed oral cell cultures by differential display. This study determined the clinical significance of PI synthase overexpression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and premalignant lesions (leukoplakia), and identified the downstream signaling proteins in PI synthase pathway that are perturbed by smokeless tobacco (ST) exposure. Tissue microarray (TMA) Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, Confocal laser scan microscopy, RT-PCR were performed to define the expression of PI synthase in clinical samples and in oral cell culture systems. Significant increase in PI synthase immunoreactivity was observed in premalignant lesions and OSCCs as compared to oral normal tissues (p = 0.000). Further, PI synthase expression was significantly associated with de-differentiation of OSCCs, (p = 0.005) and tobacco consumption (p = 0.03, OR = 9.0). Exposure of oral cell systems to smokeless tobacco (ST) in vitro confirmed increase in PI synthase, Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and cyclin D1 levels. Collectively, increased PI synthase expression was found to be an early event in oral cancer and a target for smokeless tobacco

  7. Oral cancer in Libya and development of regional oral cancer registries: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenNasir, E; El Mistiri, M; McGowan, R; Katz, R V

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this paper are three-fold: (1) to summarize the current epidemiological data on oral cancer in Libya as reported in the published literature and as compared to other national oral cancer rates in the region; (2) to present both the history of the early development, and future goals, of population-based oral cancer tumor registries in Libya as they partner with the more established regional and international population-based cancer tumor registries; and, (3) to offer recommendations that will likely be required in the near future if these nascent, population-based Libyan oral cancer registries are to establish themselves as on-going registries for describing the oral cancer disease patterns and risk factors in Libya as well as for prevention and treatment. This comprehensive literature review revealed that the current baseline incidence of oral cancer in Libya is similar to those of other North Africa countries and China, but is relatively low compared to the United Kingdom, the United States, and India. The recently established Libyan National Cancer Registry Program, initiated in 2007, while envisioning five cooperating regional cancer registries, continues to operate at a relatively suboptimal level. Lack of adequate levels of national funding continue to plague its development…and the accompanying quality of service that could be provided to the Libyan people.

  8. Molecular buckets: cyclodextrins for oral cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Calleja, P. (Patricia); Huarte, J. (Judit); Agüeros, M. (Maite); Ruiz-Gaton, L. (Luisa); Espuelas, S. (Socorro); Irache, J.M. (Juan Manuel)

    2012-01-01

    The oral route is preferred by patients for drug administration due to its convenience, resulting in improved compliance. Unfortunately, for a number of drugs (e.g., anticancer drugs), this route of administration remains a challenge. Oral chemotherapy may be an attractive option and especially appropriate for chronic treatment of cancer. However, this route of administration is particularly complicated for the administration of anticancer drugs ascribed to Class IV of the Biopharmaceutical C...

  9. Genotypic distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms in oral cancer: global scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multani, Shaleen; Saranath, Dhananjaya

    2016-11-01

    Globocan 2012 reports the global oral cancer incidence of 300,373 new oral cancer cases annually, contributing to 2.1 % of the world cancer burden. The major well-established risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco, betel/areca nut, alcohol and high-risk oncogenic human papilloma virus (HPV) 16/18. However, only 5-10 % of individuals with high-risk lifestyle develop oral cancer. Thus, genomic variants in individuals represented as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influence susceptibility to oral cancer. With a view to understanding the role of genomic variants in oral cancer, we reviewed SNPs in case-control studies with a minimum of 100 cases and 100 controls. PubMed and HuGE navigator search engines were used to obtain data published from 1990 to 2015, which identified 67 articles investigating the role of SNPs in oral cancer. Single publications reported 93 SNPs in 55 genes, with 34 SNPs associated with a risk of oral cancer. Meta-analysis of data in multiple studies defined nine SNPs associated with a risk of oral cancer. The genes were associated with critical functions deregulated in cancers, including cell proliferation, immune function, inflammation, transcription, DNA repair and xenobiotic metabolism.

  10. Squamous cell cancer (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squamous cell cancer involves cancerous changes to the cells of the middle portion of the epidermal skin layer. It is ... malignant tumor, and is more aggressive than basal cell cancer, but still may be relatively slow-growing. It ...

  11. A phase II study of cisplatin, oral administration of etoposide, OK-432 and radiation therapy for inoperable stage III non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yoshinao; Takahashi, Jutaro; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficiency of giving cisplatin, etoposide, and OK-432 concurrently with conventional radiotherapy (RTx) for patient's with inoperable stage III, based on the TNM classification according to the International Union against Cancer staging system for lung cancer (1987) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). From January 1992 to December 1994, 31 patients with cytologically or histologically confirmed stage III NSCLC were treated with RTx, to a total dose of 56-64 Gy, with concurrent daily oral administration of etoposide (25 mg) and cisplatin (20 mg) for 5 days during the third or fourth week from the start of RTx. The subcutaneous injection of 1 or 2 KE of OK-432, three times a week, for the duration of radiotherapy also started from the beginning of RTx. The number of eligible patients was 29 (26 men and 3 women). Their mean age was 66 years (range, 55-77 years). Six patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS) of 0; 15, 1; 8; 2. Three were stage IIIA, and 26, stage IIIB. Histologically, 2 had adenocarcinoma, 23, squamous cell carcinoma, and 4, large cell carcinoma. In 27 of the 29 patients, the RTx schedule was completed. There were no treatment-related deaths. Grade 4 toxicity (according to World Health Organisation criteria) leukopenia (700/μl) was observed in 1 patient. The response rate was 79% and the median survival was 17 months. Survival rates at 1, 2 and 3 years were 62%, 31%, and 21%, respectively. The local failure rate was 51%. The combination of cisplatin, etoposide, and OK-432, given concurrently with conventional RTx is feasible and effective for inoperable stage III NSCLC. (author)

  12. Oral Microbiome: A New Biomarker Reservoir for Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Yenkai; Totsika, Makrina; Morrison, Mark; Punyadeera, Chamindie

    2017-01-01

    Current biomarkers (DNA, RNA and protein) for oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers demonstrate biological variations between individuals, rendering them impractical for clinical translation. Whilst these biomarkers originate from the host, there is not much information in the literature about the influence of oral microbiota on cancer pathogenesis, especially in oral cancers. Oral microbiotas are known to participate in disease initiation and progression not only limited to the oral cavity, ...

  13. Sigmund Freud: smoking habit, oral cancer and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemo, W L

    2004-01-01

    Sigmund Freud, the father of modern psychoanalysis had a well-known love of the cigar. The natural progression of this vice was the development of oral cancer for which he underwent a lengthy ordeal. An account is given in this article of Sigmund Freud's illness and care following the diagnosis of his oral cancer. The role of euthanasia and physician assisted suicide is also discussed. A review of relevant literature on Sigmund Freud's illness, risk factors for oral cancer and euthanasia was undertaken. Sigmund Freud was a heavy smoker with a 20-cigar/day habit. In 1923, a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the palate was made, for which he underwent a lengthy ordeal which span a total of 16 years. During this period, he bluntly refused to quit smoking. Freud consulted many specialists (otolaryngologists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, prosthodontists and general surgeons), during the course of his ordeal with oral cancer. He underwent 34 surgical procedures before his eventual death in 1939 through euthanasia. Continued indulgence in smoking and procrastination on the part of Freud, as well as mediocrity, negligence and incompetence on the part of the first surgeon that operated on Freud, could partly be responsible for his lengthy ordeal.

  14. In Vitro and In Vivo Enhancement of Chemoradiation Using the Oral PARP Inhibitor ABT-888 in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelton, Joseph W., E-mail: jwshelt@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Waxweiler, Timothy V.; Landry, Jerome; Gao, Huiying; Xu, Yanbo; Wang, Lanfang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); El-Rayes, Bassel [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Shu, Hui-Kuo G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase plays a critical role in the recognition and repair of DNA single-strand breaks and double-strand breaks (DSBs). ABT-888 is an orally available inhibitor of this enzyme. This study seeks to evaluate the use of ABT-888 combined with chemotherapy and radiation therapy (RT) in colorectal carcinoma models. Methods and Materials: RT clonogenic assays were performed on HCT116 and HT29 cells treated with 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan, or oxaliplatin with or without ABT. The surviving fraction at 2 Gy and dose-modifying factor at 10% survival were analyzed. Synergism was assessed by isobologram analysis for combination therapies. γH2AX and neutral comet assays were performed to assess the effect of therapy on DSB formation/repair. In vivo assessments were made by use of HCT116 cells in a xenograft mouse model. Tumor growth delay was measured at a volume of 500 mm{sup 3}. Results: Both lines were radiosensitized by ABT alone, and ABT further increased chemotherapy dose-modifying factors to the 1.6 to 1.8 range. All combinations were synergistic (combination indices <0.9). ABT treatment significantly increased DSB after RT (γH2AX, 69% vs 43%; P=.017) and delayed repair. We found tumor growth delays of 7.22 days for RT; 11.90 days for RT and ABT; 13.5 days for oxaliplatin, RT, and ABT; 14.17 days for 5-fluorouracil, RT, and ABT; and 23.81 days for irinotecan, RT, and ABT. Conclusion: ABT-888 radiosensitizes at similar or higher levels compared with classic chemotherapies and acts synergistically with these chemotherapies to enhance RT effects. In vivo confirmation of these results indicates a potential role for combining its use with existing chemoradiation regimens.

  15. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  16. Epidemiological characterization of oral cancer. Study Protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Fernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is a disease of high impact globally. It ranks as the sixth more frequent one among all types of cancer. In spite of being a widely known pathology and easy access to the diagnosis, the lack of epidemiological data reported in the last 10 years in Chile called attention to. At the global level, the World Health Organization (WHO has developed a project called “GLOBOCAN” in order to collect epidemiological data of the global cancer, between its data, highlights the high incidence and high rate of mortality in the male sex, parameter that shows tendency to replicate in both America and Chile. In consequence to these data, a narrative review of the literature concerning the epidemiological profile of the different forms of oral cancer in the past 15 years was done. The diagnosis of oral cancer crosses transversely the Dental Science, forcing us to establish triads of work between oral and maxillofacial surgeons, pathologists and dentists of the various specialties, so as to allow a timely research, appropriate biopsies and histopathological studies finishes with the purpose of, on the one hand, obtain timely and accurate diagnostics, in addition, maintaining the epidemiological indicators.

  17. Oral cryotherapy reduced oral mucositis in patients having cancer treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivakovsky, Sylvia

    2016-09-01

    Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, CANCERLIT, CINAHL, the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of oral cryotherapy in patients with cancer receiving treatment compared to usual care, no treatment or other interventions to prevent mucositis. The primary outcome was incidence of mucositis and its severity.Data extraction and synthesisTwo reviewers carried out study assessment and data extraction independently. Treatment effect for continuous data was calculated using mean values and standard deviations and expressed as mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval. Risk ratio (RR) was calculated for dichotomous data. Meta-analysis was performed.ResultsFourteen studies with 1280 participants were included. Subgroup analysis was undertaken according to the main cancer treatment type. Cryotherapy reduced the risk of developing mucositis by 39% (RR = 0.61; 95%CI, 0.52 to 0.72) on patients treated with fluorouracil (5FU). For melphalan-based treatment the risk of developing mucositis was reduced by 41% (RR =0.59; 95%CI, 0.35 to 1.01). Oral cryotherapy was shown to be safe, with very low rates of minor adverse effects, such as headaches, chills, numbness/taste disturbance and tooth pain. This appears to contribute to the high rates of compliance seen in the included studies.ConclusionsThere is confidence that oral cryotherapy leads to a large reduction in oral mucositis in adults treated with 5FU. Although there is less certainty on the size of the reduction on patients treated with melphalan, it is certain there is reduction of severe mucositis.

  18. Childhood Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral cavity cancer in children is usually lymphoma or sarcoma, but most tumors of the mouth are benign. Get information about the risk factors, symptoms, tests to diagnose, and treatment of oral cavity cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  19. Systematic review of basic oral care for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Deborah B; Fulton, Janet S; Park, Jumin; Brown, Carlton G; Correa, M Elvira P; Eilers, June; Elad, Sharon; Gibson, Faith; Oberle-Edwards, Loree K; Bowen, Joanne; Lalla, Rajesh V

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate research in basic oral care interventions to update evidence-based practice guidelines for preventing and treating oral mucositis (OM) in cancer patients undergoing radio- or chemotherapy. A systematic review of available literature was conducted by the Basic Oral Care Section of the Mucositis Study Group of MASCC/ISOO. Seven interventions--oral care protocols, dental care, normal saline, sodium bicarbonate, mixed medication mouthwash, chlorhexidine, and calcium phosphate--were evaluated using the Hadorn (J Clin Epidemiol 49:749-754, 1996) criteria to determine level of evidence, followed by a guideline determination of one of the following: recommendation, suggestion, or no guideline possible, using Somerfield's (Classic Pap Cur Comments 4:881-886, 2000) schema. Fifty-two published papers were examined by treatment population (radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplant) and by whether the intervention aimed to prevent or treat OM. The resulting practice suggestions included using oral care protocols for preventing OM across all treatment modalities and age groups and not using chlorhexidine mouthwash for preventing OM in adults with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy. Considering inadequate and/or conflicting evidence, no guidelines for prevention or treatment of OM were possible for the interventions of dental care, normal saline, sodium bicarbonate, mixed medication mouthwash, chlorhexidine in patients receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplant, or calcium phosphate. The evidence for basic oral care interventions supports the use of oral care protocols in patient populations receiving radiation and/or chemotherapy and does not support chlorhexidine for prevention of mucositis in head and neck cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Additional well-designed research is needed for other interventions to improve the amount and quality of evidence guiding future clinical

  20. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lump in the neck Your mouth is one of your body's most important early warning systems. Don't ignore any suspicious lumps or sores. Should you discover something, make an appointment for a prompt examination. Early treatment may well be the key to complete ... Oral and maxillofacial ...

  1. Integrative review on oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Kelle Batista Moura

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analisar estudos nacional e internacional sobre o câncer bucal. Método: Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura. Foram selecionados 28 artigos que atenderam aos critérios de inclusão da pesquisa. Os dados foram processados no software IRAMUTEC e analisados pela classificação hierárquica descendente com base no dendograma. Resultados: Foram apresentados em 05 classes, a saber: 1-A prevenção e o tratamento das morbidades orais. 2- A reabilitação do paciente com câncer de boca. 3-Qualidade de vida dos pacientes em terapia para câncer bucal. 4- A equipe profissional multidisciplinar de saúde nos cuidados de prevenção do câncer oral. 5- O rastreio do câncer oral para diminuição da prevalência. Conclusão: O câncer oral é um grave problema de saúde pública no Brasil e no mundo.  Há necessidade de maiores investimentos nas pesquisas relacionadas com o câncer bucal e implementação das políticas públicas para o rastreio do câncer oral e diminuição da prevalência.

  2. Oral symptoms and functional outcome related to oral and oropharyngeal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamstra, Jolanda I.; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriet; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Huisman, Paulien M.; van Oort, Rob P.; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.

    Purpose This study aimed to assess: (1) oral symptoms of patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer; (2) how patients rank the burden of oral symptoms; (3) the impact of the tumor, the treatment, and oral symptoms on functional outcome. Methods Eighty-nine patients treated for oral or

  3. Effect of the environmental pollutant bisphenol A dimethacylate (BAD) on Ca2+ movement and viability in OC2 human oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jau-Min; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Lu, Yi-Chau; Lu, Ti; Chi, Chao-Chuan; Tseng, Li-Ling; Liu, Shiuh-Inn; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Liang, Wei-Zhe; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2013-03-01

    The environmental pollutant bisphenol A dimethacylate (BAD) has been used as a dental composite. The effect of BAD on cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) and viability in OC2 human oral cancer cells was explored. The Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dye fura-2 was applied to measure [Ca(2+)]i. BAD induced [Ca(2+)]i rises in a concentration-dependent manner. The response was reduced by removing extracellular Ca(2+). BAD-evoked Ca(2+) entry was suppressed by nifedipine, econazole, and SK&F96365. In Ca(2+)-free medium, incubation with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitor thapsigargin abolished BAD-induced [Ca(2+)]i rise. Inhibition of phospholipase C with U73122 did not alter BAD-induced [Ca(2+)]i rise. At 10-30μM, BAD inhibited cell viability, which was not reversed by chelating cytosolic Ca(2+). BAD (20-30μM) also induced apoptosis. Collectively, in OC2 cells, BAD induced a [Ca(2+)]i rise by evoking phospholipase C-independent Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca(2+) entry via store-operated Ca(2+) channels. BAD also caused apoptosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of preventive oral care on treatment outcomes of a cohort of oral cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Marilia Oliveira; Elias, Marcela Ramos Abrahão; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues; Dourado Pinezi, Juliana Castro; Mendonça, Elismauro Francisco

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess patient adherence to an oral preventive measures (OPM) protocol and its impact on cancer treatment outcomes. A retrospective cohort of oral cancer of 133 patients submitted to radiotherapy (RT) was selected, excluding those with metastasis. Patients were grouped according to their local tumor response after finishing RT (favorable or unfavorable) and adherence to an OPM (none, ≤6 months, and >6 months). OPM included education and counseling about adverse effects, elimination of infection foci, restorative procedures, fluoride therapy, oral rehydration, and maintenance and supervision of oral hygiene throughout treatment. Clinical and pathological characteristics were recorded, and patient outcomes (frequency of adverse effects, RT interruption, and overall survival) were analyzed. Patients with higher adherence to the OPM had greater occurrence of RT interruption as a consequence of symptoms (p = 0.01); however, these patients were more likely to complete the established RT protocol (p = 0.02). Overall survival (p = 0.01) was higher in the group with higher adherence. This study suggests that the implementation of oral preventive measures may contribute to improving the prognosis of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) treatment by reducing the negative impact of oral complications.

  5. Pyramidatine (Z88) Sensitizes Vincristine-Resistant Human Oral Cancer (KB/VCR) Cells to Chemotherapeutic Agents by Inhibition of P-glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zulong; Zhu, Hengrui; Qu, Shijin; Tang, Lisha; Cao, Lihuan; Yu, Wenbo; Yang, Xianmei; Jiang, Songmin; Zhu, Dayuan; Tan, Changheng; Yu, Long

    2018-01-01

    Multi-drug resistance (MDR) remains a major impediment in cancer therapy. A major goal for scientists is to discover more effective compounds that are able to circumvent MDR and simultaneously have minimal adverse side effects. In the present study, we aim to determine the anti-MDR effects of pyramidatine (Z88), a cinnamic acid-derived bisamide compound isolated from the leaves of Aglaia perviridis, on KB/VCR (vincristineresistant human oral cancer cells) and MCF-7/ADR (adriamycin-resistant human breast adenocarcinoma) cells. Cell viability and average resistant fold (RF) of Z88 were examined by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Flow cytometry, western blot, RT-PCR, Rhodamine 123 accumulation assay and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) ATPase assay were used to demonstrate the anti-MDR activity and mechanism of Z88. The average RF of Z88 is 0.09 and 0.51 in KB/VCR and MCF-7/ADR cells. A CCK-8 assay showed that Z88 could enhance the cytotoxicity of VCR toward KB/VCR cells. A FACS analysis revealed that Z88 could enhance the VCR-induced apoptosis as well as G2/M arrest in a dose-dependent manner in KB/VCR cells. Western blot results showed that the expression levels of PARP, Bax, and cyclin B1 all increased after treatment with 0.2 µmol/L (µM) of VCR combined with 10 µM of Z88 for 24 h in KB/VCR cells. Z88 also could enhance the accumulation of rhodamine 123. Further studies showed that Z88 could inhibit the verapamil stimulated Pgp ATPase activity. Additionally, qPCR detection and western blot assays revealed that Z88 could decrease the expression of P-gp at both RNA and protein level. Z88 exerted potent anti-MDR activity in vitro and its mechanisms are associated with dualinhibition of the function and expression of P-gp. These findings encourage efforts to develop more effective reversal agents to circumvent MDR based on Z88. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Oral cancer awareness among dentists in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bobby K; Sundaram, Devipriya B; Sharma, Prem

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess oral cancer awareness among dentists in Kuwait. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 200 dentists working at the Ministry of Health Dental Centers and Kuwait University Dental Center using a structured questionnaire. Dentists' knowledge about risk factors of oral cancer and about diagnostic concepts, current practices and opinions, preferred point of referral as well as interest in continuing education were assessed and the responses were analyzed. Of the 200 dentists surveyed, 153 responded (76.5% response rate). The mean knowledge score of the respondents was 20.6 ± 4.0 out of a total score of 30. Thirty-five (22.9%) dentists had consistently high knowledge scores for both risk factors and diagnostic concepts. Of the 153 dentists, 132 (86.3%) were interested in obtaining further information about oral cancer. This study highlighted the need for improved knowledge and education of dental practitioners on oral cancer. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Second primary tumours in oral cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, I.; de Bree, R.

    2010-01-01

    Second primary tumours in patients treated for oral cancer occur at a rate of 3% to 7% per year. The majority of these tumours show up at least six months after the detection of the primary and are often located in the upper aerodigestive tract. Cessation of smoking habits may reduce the risk of the

  8. Combination therapy of potential gene to enhance oral cancer therapeutic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chia-Hsien; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2015-03-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) over-regulation related to uncontrolled cell division and promotes progression in tumor. Over-expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been detected in oral cancer cells. EGFR-targeting agents are potential therapeutic modalities for treating oral cancer based on our in vitro study. Liposome nanotechnology is used to encapsulate siRNA and were modified with target ligand to receptors on the surface of tumor cells. We used EGFR siRNA to treat oral cancer in vitro.

  9. Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reporting & Auditing Grant Transfer Grant Closeout Contracts & Small Business Training Cancer Training at NCI (Intramural) Resources for ... United States contains synthetic versions of the natural female hormones estrogen and progesterone . This type of birth ...

  10. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the cancer is often discovered late in its development. Your family dentist or OMS is in the ... here is not intended as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. It is provided ...

  11. Signature of genetic associations in oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vishwas; Nandan, Amrita; Sharma, Amitesh Kumar; Singh, Harpreet; Bharadwaj, Mausumi; Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Mehrotra, Ravi

    2017-10-01

    Oral cancer etiology is complex and controlled by multi-factorial events including genetic events. Candidate gene studies, genome-wide association studies, and next-generation sequencing identified various chromosomal loci to be associated with oral cancer. There is no available review that could give us the comprehensive picture of genetic loci identified to be associated with oral cancer by candidate gene studies-based, genome-wide association studies-based, and next-generation sequencing-based approaches. A systematic literature search was performed in the PubMed database to identify the loci associated with oral cancer by exclusive candidate gene studies-based, genome-wide association studies-based, and next-generation sequencing-based study approaches. The information of loci associated with oral cancer is made online through the resource "ORNATE." Next, screening of the loci validated by candidate gene studies and next-generation sequencing approach or by two independent studies within candidate gene studies or next-generation sequencing approaches were performed. A total of 264 loci were identified to be associated with oral cancer by candidate gene studies, genome-wide association studies, and next-generation sequencing approaches. In total, 28 loci, that is, 14q32.33 (AKT1), 5q22.2 (APC), 11q22.3 (ATM), 2q33.1 (CASP8), 11q13.3 (CCND1), 16q22.1 (CDH1), 9p21.3 (CDKN2A), 1q31.1 (COX-2), 7p11.2 (EGFR), 22q13.2 (EP300), 4q35.2 (FAT1), 4q31.3 (FBXW7), 4p16.3 (FGFR3), 1p13.3 (GSTM1-GSTT1), 11q13.2 (GSTP1), 11p15.5 (H-RAS), 3p25.3 (hOGG1), 1q32.1 (IL-10), 4q13.3 (IL-8), 12p12.1 (KRAS), 12q15 (MDM2), 12q13.12 (MLL2), 9q34.3 (NOTCH1), 17p13.1 (p53), 3q26.32 (PIK3CA), 10q23.31 (PTEN), 13q14.2 (RB1), and 5q14.2 (XRCC4), were validated to be associated with oral cancer. "ORNATE" gives a snapshot of genetic loci associated with oral cancer. All 28 loci were validated to be linked to oral cancer for which further fine-mapping followed by gene-by-gene and gene

  12. The Janus-faced roles of Krüppel-like factor 4 in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenwen; Liu, Man; Su, Ying; Zhou, Xinying; Liu, Yao; Zhang, Xinyan

    2015-12-29

    Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a zinc-finger transcription factor that regulates many essential processes, including development and cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Along with these roles in normal cells and tissues, KLF4 has important tumor suppressive and oncogenic functions in some malignancies. However, the roles of KLF4 in oral squamous cell carcinoma remain unclear. This study investigated the epigenetic alterations and possible roles of KLF4 in oral cancer carcinogenesis. Notably, KLF4 expression was significantly decreased in human oral cancer tissues compared with healthy controls, and KLF4 promoter hypermethylation contributed to the suppression of KLF4 expression. KLF4 expression was associated with tumor grade. Its expression was much lower in poorly differentiated oral cancers than in well-differentiated cancer cells. KLF4 exerted its antitumor activity in vitro and/or in vivo by inhibiting cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, cell colony formation and by inducing apoptosis. In addition, KLF4 over-expression promoted oral cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro. Knockdown of KLF4 promoted oral cancer cells growth and colony formation, and simultaneously inhibited cell migration and invasion. Mechanistic studies revealed that MMP-9 might contribute to KLF4-mediated cell migration and invasion. These results provide evidence that KLF4 might play Janus-faced roles in oral cancer carcinogenesis, acting both as a tumor suppressor and as an oncogene.

  13. [Association between oral hygiene, chronic diseases, and oral squamous cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiangfeng; He, Baochang; Chen, Fa; Liu, Fangping; Yan, Lingjun; Hu, Zhijian; Lin, Lisong; He, Fei; Cai, Lin

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the association between oral hygiene, chronic diseases, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. We performed a case-control study with 414 cases and 870 controls in Fujian during September 2010 to January 2015. Patients were newly diagnosed oral squamous cell carcinoma cases according to the pathologic diagnoses, control subjects were enrolled from community population. Epidemiological data were collected by in-person interviews using a standard questionnaire. The contents of the questionnaire included demography character, history of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking, dietary habits, oral hygiene status, family history of cancer, etc. Using unconditional logistic regression analysis to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for oral hygiene and chronic diseases. We also stratified by sex, smoking and drinking to explore possible difference in association between subgroups. The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that number of teeth (20-27 and oral ulceration were the risk factors of oral squamous cell carcinoma, the adjusted OR (95% CI) values were 2.01 (1.49-2.73), 3.51 (2.39-5.15), 2.33 (1.79-3.04), 3.96 (2.11-7.44), respectively; brushing tooth once per bay, brushing tooth more than once per day, regular oral health examination at least 5 years per time were the protective factors of oral squamous cell carcinoma, the adjusted OR (95% CI) values were 0.24 (0.13-0.43), 0.13 (0.07-0.24), 0.37 (0.26-0.53), respectively. The stratification analysis indicated that recurrent oral ulceration could increase the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma for non-smokers and non-drinking, the adjusted OR (95% CI) value was 5.21 (2.42-11.18) and 4.71 (2.37-9.36); and a risky effect of hypertension on risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma was observed for non-smokers and non-drinking, the adjusted OR (95% CI) values were 1.70 (1.10-2.61) and 1.58 (1.07-2.34). Oral hygiene and chronic diseases could affect the

  14. Erlotinib and the Risk of Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, William N.; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki; Lee, J. Jack; Mao, Li; Cohen, Ezra E.W.; Lin, Heather Y.; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Martin, Jack W.; Lingen, Mark W.; Boyle, Jay O.; Shin, Dong M.; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Shinn, Nancy; Heymach, John V.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Tang, Ximing; Kim, Edward S.; Saintigny, Pierre; Blair, Elizabeth A.; Meiller, Timothy; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Myers, Jeffrey; El-Naggar, Adel; Lippman, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Standard molecularly based strategies to predict and/or prevent oral cancer development in patients with oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) are lacking. OBJECTIVE To test if the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib would reduce oral cancer development in patients with high-risk OPLs defined by specific loss of heterozygosity (LOH) profiles. Secondary objectives included prospective determination of LOH as a prognostic marker in OPLs. DESIGN The Erlotinib Prevention of Oral Cancer (EPOC) study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-bind trial. Accrual occurred from November 2006 through July 2012, with a median follow-up time of 35 months in an ambulatory care setting in 5 US academic referral institutions. Patients with OPLs were enrolled in the protocol, and each underwent LOH profiling (N = 379); they were classified as high-risk (LOH-positive) or low-risk (LOH-negative) patients based on their LOH profiles and oral cancer history. The randomized sample consisted of 150 LOH-positive patients. INTERVENTIONS Oral erlotinib treatment (150mg/d) or placebo for 12 months. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Oral cancer–free survival (CFS). RESULTS A total of 395 participants were classified with LOH profiles, and 254 were classified LOH positive. Of these, 150 (59%) were randomized, 75 each to the placebo and erlotinib groups. The 3-year CFS rates in placebo- and erlotinib-treated patients were 74%and 70%, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 1.27; 95%CI, 0.68–2.38; P = .45). The 3-year CFS was significantly lower for LOH-positive compared with LOH-negative groups (74%vs 87%, HR, 2.19; 95%CI, 1.25–3.83; P = .01). Increased EGFR gene copy number correlated with LOH-positive status (P < .001) and lower CFS (P = .01). The EGFR gene copy number was not predictive of erlotinib efficacy. Erlotinib-induced skin rash was associated with improved CFS (P = .01). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this trial, LOH was validated as a marker of oral cancer risk and

  15. Are we able to reduce the mortality and morbidity of oral cancer; Some considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer makes up 1%-2% of all cancers that may arise in the body. The majority of oral cancers consists of squamous cell carcinomas. Oral cancer carries a considerable mortality rate, being mainly dependent on the stage of the disease at admission. Worldwide some 50% of the patients with oral cancer present with advanced disease. There are several ways of trying to diagnose oral cancer in a lower tumor stage, being 1) mass screening or screening in selected patients, 2) reduction of patients’ delay, and 3) reduction of doctors’ delay. Oral cancer population-based screening (“mass screening”) programs do not meet the guidelines for a successful outcome. There may be some benefit when focusing on high-risk groups, such as heavy smokers and heavy drinkers. Reported reasons for patients’ delay range from fear of a diagnosis of cancer, limited accessibility of primary health care, to unawareness of the possibility of malignant oral diseases. Apparently, information campaigns in news programs and TV have little effect on patients’ delay. Mouth self-examination may have some value in reducing patients’ delay. Doctors’ delay includes dentists’ delay and diagnostic delay caused by other medical and dental health care professionals. Doctors’ delay may vary from almost zero days up to more than six months. Usually, morbidity of cancer treatment is measured by quality of life (QoL) questionnaires. In the past decades this topic has drawn a lot of attention worldwide. It is a challenge to decrease the morbidity that is associated with the various treatment modalities that are used in oral cancer without substantially compromising the survival rate. Smoking cessation contributes to reducing the risk of oral cancers, with a 50% reduction in risk within five years. Indeed, risk factor reduction seems to be the most effective tool in an attempt to decrease the morbidity and mortality of oral cancer. Key words:Oral cancer, early diagnosis, quality of life

  16. Oral Cancer Knowledge and Diagnostic Ability Among Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassona, Y; Scully, C; Abu Tarboush, N; Baqain, Z; Ismail, F; Hawamdeh, S; Sawair, F

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine factors that influence the diagnostic ability of dental students with regards to oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders. Dental students at different levels of study were directly interviewed to examine their oral cancer knowledge and diagnostic ability using a validated and pre-tested survey instrument containing validated clinical images of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders. An oral cancer knowledge scale (0 to 31) was generated from correct responses on oral cancer general knowledge, and a diagnostic ability scale (0 to 100) was generated from correct selections of suspicious oral lesions. Knowledge scores ranged from 0 to 27 (mean 10.1 ± 6.0); mean knowledge scores increased with year of study; 5th year students had the highest mean knowledge score (19.1 ± 4.0), while 1st year students had the lowest (5.6 ± 3.5). Diagnostic ability scores increased with year of study and ranged from 0 to 88.5 % (mean 41.8 % ± 15.6). The ability to recognize suspicious oral lesions was significantly correlated with knowledge about oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders (r = 0.28; P oral cancer education curricula; increasing students' contact with patients who have oral lesions including oral cancer will help to improve their future diagnostic ability and early detection practices.

  17. Efficacy of radiotherapy of oral mucosa cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, Yu.I.; Garbuzov, M.I.; Sarantseva, I.P.; Popov, N.V.; Pereslegin, O.I.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of 10-year experience of a radiological department (962 patients) indicated late admission of oral mucosa cancer patients for specialized treatment: 75-85% of the patients were admitted with Stage 2-4 disease. The assessment of the efficacy of radiotherapy according to the 3 ad 5-year survival rates showed that better results were obtained for buccal mucosa cancer and the worst for mouth fundus cancer. Regional metastates are a poor prognostic sign, particularly fixed metastases in patients with tongue and mouth fundus cancer. Combined therapy turned out be the most effective in tongue cancer. In different variants of dose delivery in time the most favorable results were obtained with small fractionation (a conventional course). However it should be noted that a split course was usually applied to weak elderly patients with advanced stages of disease

  18. Agrin and Perlecan Mediate Tumorigenic Processes in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Rebeca; Granato, Daniela C.; Carnielli, Carolina M.; Cervigne, Nilva K.; Oliveria, Carine E.; Martinez, César A. R.; Yokoo, Sami; Fonseca, Felipe P.; Lopes, Marcio; Santos-Silva, Alan R.; Graner, Edgard; Coletta, Ricardo D.; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes

    2014-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of cancer in the oral cavity, representing more than 90% of all oral cancers. The characterization of altered molecules in oral cancer is essential to understand molecular mechanisms underlying tumor progression as well as to contribute to cancer biomarker and therapeutic target discovery. Proteoglycans are key molecular effectors of cell surface and pericellular microenvironments, performing multiple functions in cancer. Two of the major basement membrane proteoglycans, agrin and perlecan, were investigated in this study regarding their role in oral cancer. Using real time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR), we showed that agrin and perlecan are highly expressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Interestingly, cell lines originated from distinct sites showed different expression of agrin and perlecan. Enzymatically targeting chondroitin sulfate modification by chondroitinase, oral squamous carcinoma cell line had a reduced ability to adhere to extracellular matrix proteins and increased sensibility to cisplatin. Additionally, knockdown of agrin and perlecan promoted a decrease on cell migration and adhesion, and on resistance of cells to cisplatin. Our study showed, for the first time, a negative regulation on oral cancer-associated events by either targeting chondroitin sulfate content or agrin and perlecan levels. PMID:25506919

  19. Expression of Podoplanin in Different Grades of Oral Squamous Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The expression of podoplanin is up‑regulated in a number of different human cancers, including squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and its relationship with tumor invasion raises the possibility that podoplanin expression could be used as a biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis. Aim: The aim of the ...

  20. 50 Facts about Oral, Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You 50 Facts about Oral, Head and Neck Cancer 50 Facts about Oral, Head and Neck Cancer Patient Health ... cancer has increased in all races and both sexes. Thyroid cancers account for ... who work in environments with dust, glues, formaldehyde, mustard gas, ...

  1. Membrane Lipid Replacement for chronic illnesses, aging and cancer using oral glycerolphospholipid formulations with fructooligosaccharides to restore phospholipid function in cellular membranes, organelles, cells and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolson, Garth L; Ash, Michael E

    2017-09-01

    Membrane Lipid Replacement is the use of functional, oral supplements containing mixtures of cell membrane glycerolphospholipids, plus fructooligosaccharides (for protection against oxidative, bile acid and enzymatic damage) and antioxidants, in order to safely replace damaged, oxidized, membrane phospholipids and restore membrane, organelle, cellular and organ function. Defects in cellular and intracellular membranes are characteristic of all chronic medical conditions, including cancer, and normal processes, such as aging. Once the replacement glycerolphospholipids have been ingested, dispersed, complexed and transported, while being protected by fructooligosaccharides and several natural mechanisms, they can be inserted into cell membranes, lipoproteins, lipid globules, lipid droplets, liposomes and other carriers. They are conveyed by the lymphatics and blood circulation to cellular sites where they are endocytosed or incorporated into or transported by cell membranes. Inside cells the glycerolphospholipids can be transferred to various intracellular membranes by lipid globules, liposomes, membrane-membrane contact or by lipid carrier transfer. Eventually they arrive at their membrane destinations due to 'bulk flow' principles, and there they can stimulate the natural removal and replacement of damaged membrane lipids while undergoing further enzymatic alterations. Clinical trials have shown the benefits of Membrane Lipid Replacement in restoring mitochondrial function and reducing fatigue in aged subjects and chronically ill patients. Recently Membrane Lipid Replacement has been used to reduce pain and other symptoms as well as removing hydrophobic chemical contaminants, suggesting that there are additional new uses for this safe, natural medicine supplement. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Lipid Therapy: Drugs Targeting Biomembranes edited by Pablo V. Escribá. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  2. Mesenchymal stem cells in oral reconstructive surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, C; Sørensen, J A; Kassem, M

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated clinical outcomes following intraoperative use of adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in various oral reconstructive procedures. PubMed was searched without language restrictions from 2000 to 2011 using the search words stem cell, oral surgery, tissue engineering, sinus lift...

  3. Chemokine Function in Periodontal Disease and Oral Cavity Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahingur, Sinem Esra; Yeudall, W. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The chemotactic cytokines, or chemokines, comprise a superfamily of polypeptides with a wide range of activities that include recruitment of immune cells to sites of infection and inflammation, as well as stimulation of cell proliferation. As such, they function as antimicrobial molecules and play a central role in host defenses against pathogen challenge. However, their ability to recruit leukocytes and potentiate or prolong the inflammatory response may have profound implications for the progression of oral diseases such as chronic periodontitis, where tissue destruction may be widespread. Moreover, it is increasingly recognized that chronic inflammation is a key component of tumor progression. Interaction between cancer cells and their microenvironment is mediated in large part by secreted factors such as chemokines, and serves to enhance the malignant phenotype in oral and other cancers. In this article, we will outline the biological and biochemical mechanisms of chemokine action in host–microbiome interactions in periodontal disease and in oral cancer, and how these may overlap and contribute to pathogenesis. PMID:25999952

  4. CLINICO-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF ORAL CANCER: A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil H Agrawal

    2012-07-01

    common site for oral cancer was tongue. Histopathologically 52 (32.5% cases were well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, 37 (23% cases were moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and 34 (21% cases as poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. 37 (23% cases were diagnosed as Oral Verrucous Carcinoma (a rare variant of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. 72% cases were in either stage II or stage III. Conclusions: The most common site for oral cancer was tongue and histopathologically majority of the cases were well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma presented in advanced stages of disease. We observed higher proportion of oral cancers among young patients (below 40 years. Proportion of Oral Verrucous Carcinoma (OVC which is a rare variant of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma was also high in the study.

  5. High dose rate brachytherapy for oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hideya; Yoshida, Ken; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Koizumi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Furukawa, Souhei

    2013-01-01

    Brachytherapy results in better dose distribution compared with other treatments because of steep dose reduction in the surrounding normal tissues. Excellent local control rates and acceptable side effects have been demonstrated with brachytherapy as a sole treatment modality, a postoperative method, and a method of reirradiation. Low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy has been employed worldwide for its superior outcome. With the advent of technology, high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy has enabled health care providers to avoid radiation exposure. This therapy has been used for treating many types of cancer such as gynecological cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. However, LDR and pulsed-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapies have been mainstays for head and neck cancer. HDR brachytherapy has not become widely used in the radiotherapy community for treating head and neck cancer because of lack of experience and biological concerns. On the other hand, because HDR brachytherapy is less time-consuming, treatment can occasionally be administered on an outpatient basis. For the convenience and safety of patients and medical staff, HDR brachytherapy should be explored. To enhance the role of this therapy in treatment of head and neck lesions, we have reviewed its outcomes with oral cancer, including Phase I/II to Phase III studies, evaluating this technique in terms of safety and efficacy. In particular, our studies have shown that superficial tumors can be treated using a non-invasive mold technique on an outpatient basis without adverse reactions. The next generation of image-guided brachytherapy using HDR has been discussed. In conclusion, although concrete evidence is yet to be produced with a sophisticated study in a reproducible manner, HDR brachytherapy remains an important option for treatment of oral cancer. (author)

  6. High dose rate brachytherapy for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hideya; Yoshida, Ken; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Furukawa, Souhei; Koizumi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Brachytherapy results in better dose distribution compared with other treatments because of steep dose reduction in the surrounding normal tissues. Excellent local control rates and acceptable side effects have been demonstrated with brachytherapy as a sole treatment modality, a postoperative method, and a method of reirradiation. Low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy has been employed worldwide for its superior outcome. With the advent of technology, high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy has enabled health care providers to avoid radiation exposure. This therapy has been used for treating many types of cancer such as gynecological cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. However, LDR and pulsed-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapies have been mainstays for head and neck cancer. HDR brachytherapy has not become widely used in the radiotherapy community for treating head and neck cancer because of lack of experience and biological concerns. On the other hand, because HDR brachytherapy is less time-consuming, treatment can occasionally be administered on an outpatient basis. For the convenience and safety of patients and medical staff, HDR brachytherapy should be explored. To enhance the role of this therapy in treatment of head and neck lesions, we have reviewed its outcomes with oral cancer, including Phase I/II to Phase III studies, evaluating this technique in terms of safety and efficacy. In particular, our studies have shown that superficial tumors can be treated using a non-invasive mold technique on an outpatient basis without adverse reactions. The next generation of image-guided brachytherapy using HDR has been discussed. In conclusion, although concrete evidence is yet to be produced with a sophisticated study in a reproducible manner, HDR brachytherapy remains an important option for treatment of oral cancer.

  7. Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme induces hypomethylation of genome DNA and histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2 in human oral cancer cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Yamamoto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Methylation of CpG islands of genome DNA and lysine residues of histone H3 and H4 tails regulates gene transcription. Inhibition of polyamine synthesis by ornithine decarboxylase antizyme-1 (OAZ in human oral cancer cell line resulted in accumulation of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM, which acts as a competitive inhibitor of methylation reactions. We anticipated that accumulation of dcSAM impaired methylation reactions and resulted in hypomethylation of genome DNA and histone tails.Global methylation state of genome DNA and lysine residues of histone H3 and H4 tails were assayed by Methylation by Isoschizomers (MIAMI method and western blotting, respectively, in the presence or absence of OAZ expression. Ectopic expression of OAZ mediated hypomethylation of CpG islands of genome DNA and histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2. Protein level of DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B and histone H3K9me specific methyltransferase G9a were down-regulated in OAZ transfectant.OAZ induced hypomethylation of CpG islands of global genome DNA and H3K9me2 by down-regulating DNMT3B and G9a protein level. Hypomethylation of CpG islands of genome DNA and histone H3K9me2 is a potent mechanism of induction of the genes related to tumor suppression and DNA double strand break repair.

  8. Challenges of the Oral Cancer Burden in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Ken Russell

    2012-01-01

    Oral cancer ranks in the top three of all cancers in India, which accounts for over thirty per cent of all cancers reported in the country and oral cancer control is quickly becoming a global health priority. This paper provides a synopsis of the incidence of oral cancer in India by focusing on its measurement in cancer registries across the country. Based on the International Classification of Disease case definition adopted by the World Health Organisation, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer, this review systematically examines primary and secondary data where the incidence or prevalence of oral cancer is known to be directly reported. Variability in age-adjusted incidence with crude incidence is projected to increase by 2030. Challenges focus on measurement of disease incidence and disease-specific risk behavior, predominantly, alcohol, and tobacco use. Future research should be aimed at improving quality of data for early detection and prevention of oral cancer. PMID:23093961

  9. Challenges of the Oral Cancer Burden in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, K. R.; Coelho, K. R.

    2012-01-01

    Oral cancer ranks in the top three of all cancers in India, which accounts for over thirty per cent of all cancers reported in the country and oral cancer control is quickly becoming a global health priority. This paper provides a synopsis of the incidence of oral cancer in India by focusing on its measurement in cancer registries across the country. Based on the International Classification of Disease case definition adopted by the World Health Organisation, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer, this review systematically examines primary and secondary data where the incidence or prevalence of oral cancer is known to be directly reported. Variability in age-adjusted incidence with crude incidence is projected to increase by 2030. Challenges focus on measurement of disease incidence and disease-specific risk behavior, predominantly, alcohol, and tobacco use. Future research should be aimed at improving quality of data for early detection and prevention of oral cancer.

  10. Role of human papillomavirus in oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral potentially malignant disorders: A review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shikha; Gupta, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are epitheliotropic viruses with an affinity for keratinocytes and are principally found in the anogenital tract, urethra, skin, larynx, tracheobronchial and oral mucosa. On the basis of high, but variable frequency of HPV in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), malignant potential of HPV infection has been hypothesized but not definitely confirmed. The aim of this review was to highlight the genomic structure and possible mechanism of infection and carcinogenesis by HPV in the oral mucosa and to review the frequency of HPV prevalence in OSCC and oral potentially malignant disorders. A computer database search was performed through the use of PubMed from 1994 to 2014. Search keywords used were: HPV and oral cancer, HPV and oral leukoplakia, HPV and oral lichen planus, HPV and OSCC, HPV and verrucous carcinoma, HPV and proliferative verrucous leukoplakia, HPV and oral papilloma. PMID:26097339

  11. Exhaled breath and oral cavity VOCs as potential biomarkers in oral cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouza, M; Gonzalez-Soto, J; Pereiro, R; de Vicente, J C; Sanz-Medel, A

    2017-03-01

    Corporal mechanisms attributed to cancer, such as oxidative stress or the action of cytochrome P450 enzymes, seem to be responsible for the generation of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that could be used as non-invasive diagnosis biomarkers. The present work presents an attempt to use VOCs from exhaled breath and oral cavity air as biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. A total of 52 breath samples were collected (in 3 L Tedlar bags) from 26 OSCC patients and 26 cancer-free controls. The samples were analyzed using solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. Different statistical strategies (e.g., Icoshift, SIMCA, LDA, etc) were used to classify the analytical data. Results revealed that compounds such as undecane, dodecane, decanal, benzaldehyde, 3,7-dimethyl undecane, 4,5-dimethyl nonane, 1-octene, and hexadecane had relevance as possible biomarkers for OSCC. LDA classification with these compounds showed well-defined clusters for patients and controls (non-smokers and smokers). In addition to breath analysis, preliminary studies were carried out to evaluate the possibility of lesion-surrounded air (analyzed OSCC tumors are in the oral cavity) as a source of biomarkers. The oral cavity location of the squamous cell carcinoma tumors constitutes an opportunity to non-invasively collect the air surrounding the lesion. Small quantities (20 ml) of air collected in the oral cavity were analyzed using the above methodology. Results showed that aldehydes present in the oral cavity might constitute potential OSCC biomarkers.

  12. Characteristics of Oral Problems and Effects of Oral Care in Terminally Ill Patients With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Nobuhisa

    2017-06-01

    Various distresses appear in the terminal stage of cancer. Oral problems including dry mouth, stomatitis and candidiasis are one of the important problems which should be resolved. The purpose of this study was to investigate oral problems in this stage and improvement of dry mouth by oral care. The study subjects were consecutive terminally ill cancer patients admitted over the past 2 years. Patients were divided based on the status of oral food intake into good oral food intake group (≥30%) and poor oral food intake group. The following 3 items were retrospectively investigated: 1) The incidences of these oral problems, 2) Severity of dry mouth and complication with other oral problems, 3) Improvement of dry mouth using standard oral care by nursing staff and specialist oral care including dentists as needed. There were 115 and 158 patients in good and poor oral intake groups, respectively. 1) The incidences of dry mouth, stomatitis, and candidiasis were significantly higher in poor oral intake group ( p oral intake groups, respectively ( p oral intake group ( p = 0.0002). 3) The rate of dry mouth improvement by oral care was 100% in Grade-1, 86% in Grade-2 and 81% in Grade-3. Oral problems occur in many of terminally ill cancer patients. Accurate diagnosis of oral problems and corresponding appropriate interventions are important for improving quality of end-of-life care.

  13. HPV and cancer of the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübbers, Christian U; Akgül, Baki

    2015-01-01

    Increased awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) as an etiological cause of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has increased the interest in analysis of distinct oral sub-sites. It is currently under debate, whether HPV plays a role in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC). The weakness in most published studies is the lack of performing different HPV detection tests combined with analysis for biological activity of the virus. In addition, different sub-sites of the oral cavity had been combined to a single entity, which retrospectively leads to a highly heterogeneous basis of data. In this review we mainly discuss the unclear role of HPV in OSCC development.

  14. PRESSING MORTALITY RATE THROUGH SCREENING oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Widnyani Wulan Laksmi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Based on World Health Organization (WHO data, oral cancer is one of malignancy with the highest mortality. In USA, there are more than 30.000 new cases every year. We can find many risk factors of oral cancer in our daily living. Moreover, it’s easy to find the main risk factors in our society, they are smoking, alcohol consumption, tobacco consumtion, viral infection, and bad oral hygiene. For the early stadium, Five-years survival rate is about 82% and 61% for all stadium. But, more than 50% of oral cancer has been distributed (metastatic regionally and also into the other organ far away from the oral itself when it’s detected. It will decrease 5-years survival rate to be less than 50%. So that, it’s really important to detect the oral cancer at the earlier stadium. Screening is the way to find the earlier stadium. Screening is done by some methods, start from the anamnesis, physical examination, toluidine blue staining, endoscopy, cytology, telomerase examination, and also PET-scan if it’s possible (because of the financial reasons. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  15. How will I be after my operation for oral cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatas, A; Singh, P; Lowe, D; Rogers, S N

    2015-07-01

    Validated health-related quality of life measures for patients with oral cancer have been available for over a decade. We used the Liverpool head and neck cancer database to identify 1060 patients who had curative operations for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck at the regional maxillofacial unit between 1995 and 2010. We then produced one-page summary tables for subsites of oral cancer by stage and common treatments based on patient-reported outcomes from the University of Washington quality of life (UWQoL) head and neck cancer questionnaire. Data had been collected in a series of annual surveys. Sites included were buccal and retromolar (n=189), oral tongue (n=358), floor of the mouth (n=321), and other oral sites (n=192). A total of 633 patients completed at least one questionnaire (total 1931) between 9 and 60 months after treatment (71% of those alive at 9 months). Only questionnaires completed around 2 years from diagnosis or operation were analysed. Data include crude survival at 1, 2, and 5 years, the 12 UWQoL domains, which comprise the number of patients who chose the best 2 responses for each, overall health-related QoL, and the number who chose the worst responses (based on an algorithm). The data are sufficiently detailed to be used in discussions with patients about likely outcomes. They can help patients to make decisions about the type of treatment, provide a reference for realistic expectations, and enable them to be better informed when they give their consent. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Implication for second primary cancer from visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions in betel-nut chewing related oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shyun-Yu; Feng, I-Jung; Wu, Yu-Wei; Chen, Ching-Yuan; Hsiung, Chao-Nan; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Lin, Che-Yi; Chang, Min-Te; Yu, Hsi-Chien; Lee, Sheng-Yang; Yen, Ching-Yu

    2017-07-01

    Visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions may be used to monitor for a second primary oral cancer. To control for bias, we focused on the visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions of patients with oral cancer with a positive betel-nut chewing habit. Visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions that can predict second primary oral cancers were studied. Nine hundred ninety-seven patients with positive betel-nut chewing habits and oral cancer were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. We analyzed the relevance of their visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesion incidence and relative clinicopathological variables to the development of a second primary oral cancer. Second primary oral cancer risk was significantly higher in patients with positive visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions (P oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions make it a potentially valuable marker in follow-ups of patients with a positive betel-nut chewing habit with oral cancer, especially young patients with heterogeneous leukoplakia. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Therapeutic strategies with oral fluoropyrimidine anticancer agent, S-1 against oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Koji; Ferdous, Tarannum; Ueyama, Yoshiya

    2017-08-01

    Oral cancer has been recognized as a tumor with low sensitivity to anticancer agents. However, introduction of S-1, an oral cancer agent is improving treatment outcome for patients with oral cancer. In addition, S-1, as a main drug for oral cancer treatment in Japan can be easily available for outpatients. In fact, S-1 exerts high therapeutic effects with acceptable side effects. Moreover, combined chemotherapy with S-1 shows higher efficacy than S-1 alone, and combined chemo-radiotherapy with S-1 exerts remarkable therapeutic effects. Furthermore, we should consider the combined therapy of S-1 and molecular targeting agents right now as these combinations were reportedly useful for oral cancer treatment. Here, we describe our findings related to S-1 that were obtained experimentally and clinically, and favorable therapeutic strategies with S-1 against oral cancer with bibliographic considerations.

  18. Evaluation of Podoplanin in Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent studies have demonstrated that podoplanin was expressed in some dysplastic lesions adjacent to primary oral cancers suggesting that podoplanin expression may occur in early oral tumorigenesis and lymphangiogenesis and therefore is related to tumor growth. The purpose of this study is to determine the role of podoplanin as a biomarker for cancer risk assessment in oral leukoplakia and correlation of podoplanin expression with grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Materials and Methods. In the present retrospective study, podoplanin expression was investigated immunohistochemically in 40 patients each of oral leukoplakia and OSCC. The scores were analyzed statistically using one-way ANOVA test followed by Tukey HSD. Results. By applying one-way ANOVA test, there was a highly significant increase of the podoplanin expression from mild to severe dysplasia and from well to poorly differentiated OSCC (P<0.01. Statistically highly significant difference was present between scores of mild to moderate dysplasia, moderate to severe dysplasia, well to poorly differentiated OSCC, and moderately to poorly differentiated OSCC (Tukey HSD test, P<0.01. Conclusion. Podoplanin can be used as a biomarker for early oral tumorigenesis and for malignant transformation risk assessment of premalignant lesions and as a tumor progression biomarker for advanced grades of OSCC.

  19. Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangyun; Wu, Jingjing; Chen, Yitian; Ye, Dongxia; Lei, Hu; Xu, Hanzhang; Yang, Li; Wu, Yingli; Gu, Wenli

    2016-10-01

    Ubiquitin-specific protease 14, a deubiquitinating enzyme, has been implicated in the tumorigenesis and progression of several cancers, but its role in oral squamous cell carcinoma remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to explore the expression pattern and roles of Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 in the occurrence and development of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Interestingly, Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 was overexpressed in oral cancer tissues and cell lines at both mRNA and protein levels. b-AP15, a specific inhibitor of Ubiquitin-specific protease 14, significantly inhibited the growth of cancer cells and increased cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, knockdown of Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 by shRNA significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of cancer cells in vitro. Finally, using a xenograft mouse model of oral squamous cell carcinoma, knockdown of Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 markedly inhibited tumor growth and triggered the cancer cell apoptosis in vivo, supporting previous results. In conclusion, for the first time we have demonstrated the expression pattern of Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 in oral squamous cell carcinoma and verified a relationship with tumor growth and metastasis. These results may highlight new therapeutic strategies for tumor treatment, application of Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 selective inhibitor, such as b-AP15, or knockdown by shRNA. Collectively, Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 could be a potential therapeutic target for oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Association of Human Papilloma Virus Infection and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Akhter, Mahmuda; Ali, Liaquat; Hassan, Zahid; Khan, Imran

    2013-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide. In Bangladesh, it comprises 20% of the whole body malignancies. Several studies found that 15% to 25% of oropharyngeal cancer cases are associated with human papilloma virus (HPV). This study is done to find the association of human papilloma virus subtypes, particularly HPV type 16 and HPV type 18, with the oral squamous cell carcinoma in Bangladeshi patients. In total, 34 diagnosed patients of oral squamous cell car...

  1. Quality of life outcome measures using UW-QOL questionnaire v4 in early oral cancer/squamous cell cancer resections of the tongue and floor of mouth with reconstruction solely using local methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyapati, Raghuram P; Shah, Ketan C; Flood, Valerie; Stassen, Leo F A

    2013-09-01

    Cancer treatment either by surgery alone or in a combination of surgery, radiotherapy±chemotherapy has significant consequences on the physical, mental, emotional and psychosocial wellbeing of the patient. Measurement of quality of life (QOL) is necessary to understand the patient's perception of their own treatment, as clinicians' views can be biased. Reconstruction of a cancerous defect with a free vascular flap is ideal in large, often composite defects, provided it is appropriate to the advanced stage and prognosis of the disease, medical condition of the patient, availability of surgical and financial resources and allows the prosthetic rehabilitation of the anatomic area. Using University of Washington Quality of life 4 questionnaire (UW-QOL4), we assessed the QOL of 38 patients, who underwent local surgical reconstructions after resection of T1/T2 tongue/floor of mouth squamous cell carcinoma defects. Objective assessment of speech and swallow function was also carried out using therapy outcome measure (TOM) scores by the speech and language therapy team (SALT) aiming to see the differences in the scores obtained in patients who underwent post-operative radiotherapy. Our study, conducted 6months after completion of all oncologic treatment for the primary disease, showed satisfactory levels of quality of life parameters with good function showing that local reconstructive methods are successful and may have benefits in the management of early oral cancers involving the tongue and floor of mouth. They are beneficial by providing a good quality in terms of function, by reducing the operating time, the surgical morbidity, simplifying post-operative care and thereby becoming an efficient, effective and a cost effective method. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Raman spectroscopic study of keratin 8 knockdown oral squamous cell carcinoma derived cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Alam, Hunain; Dmello, Crismita; Vaidya, Milind M.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2012-03-01

    Keratins are one of most widely used markers for oral cancers. Keratin 8 and 18 are expressed in simple epithelia and perform both mechanical and regulatory functions. Their expression are not seen in normal oral tissues but are often expressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Aberrant expression of keratins 8 and 18 is most common change in human oral cancer. Optical-spectroscopic methods are sensitive to biochemical changes and being projected as novel diagnostic tools for cancer diagnosis. Aim of this study was to evaluate potentials of Raman spectroscopy in detecting minor changes associated with differential level of keratin expression in tongue-cancer-derived AW13516 cells. Knockdown clones for K8 were generated and synchronized by growing under serum-free conditions. Cell pellets of three independent experiments in duplicate were used for recording Raman spectra with fiberoptic-probe coupled HE-785 Raman-instrument. A total of 123 and 96 spectra from knockdown clones and vector controls respectively in 1200-1800 cm-1 region were successfully utilized for classification using LDA. Two separate clusters with classification-efficiency of ~95% were obtained. Leave-one-out cross-validation yielded ~63% efficiency. Findings of the study demonstrate the potentials of Raman spectroscopy in detecting even subtle changes such as variations in keratin expression levels. Future studies towards identifying Raman signals from keratin in oral cells can help in precise cancer diagnosis.

  3. Blood Vessel Normalization in the Hamster Oral Cancer Model for Experimental Cancer Therapy Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana J. Molinari; Romina F. Aromando; Maria E. Itoiz; Marcela A. Garabalino; Andrea Monti Hughes; Elisa M. Heber; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; David W. Nigg; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint

    2012-07-01

    Normalization of tumor blood vessels improves drug and oxygen delivery to cancer cells. The aim of this study was to develop a technique to normalize blood vessels in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Tumor-bearing hamsters were treated with thalidomide and were compared with controls. Results: Twenty eight hours after treatment with thalidomide, the blood vessels of premalignant tissue observable in vivo became narrower and less tortuous than those of controls; Evans Blue Dye extravasation in tumor was significantly reduced (indicating a reduction in aberrant tumor vascular hyperpermeability that compromises blood flow), and tumor blood vessel morphology in histological sections, labeled for Factor VIII, revealed a significant reduction in compressive forces. These findings indicated blood vessel normalization with a window of 48 h. Conclusion: The technique developed herein has rendered the hamster oral cancer model amenable to research, with the potential benefit of vascular normalization in head and neck cancer therapy.

  4. Cell phones and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer and cell phones; Do cell phones cause cancer? ... Several major studies show no link between cell phones and cancer at this time. However, since the information available is based on short-term studies, the impact of many years of ...

  5. Clinical implications of epigenetic regulation in oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Wendy; Saranath, Dhananjaya

    2015-12-01

    Oral cancer is a high incidence cancer which is of major public health concern in India being the most common cancer in males and fifth most common cancer in females in India, contributing to 26% of the global oral cancer burden. The major risk factors of oral cancer are tobacco, alcohol and high risk Human Papilloma Virus type 16/18. However, only 3-12% of the high risk individuals with dysplasia develop oral cancer. Thus, individual genomic variants representing the genomic constitution and epigenetic alterations play a critical role in the development of oral cancer. Extensive epigenetic studies on the molecular lesions including oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, genes associated with apoptosis, DNA damage repair have been reported. The current review highlights epigenetic regulation with a focus on molecular biomarkers and epidrug therapy in oral cancer. Epigenetic regulation by hypermethylation, histone modifications and specific microRNAs are often associated with early events and advanced stages in oral cancer, and thus indicate epidrug therapy for intervention. The presence of epigenetic marks in oral lesions, cancers and tumor associated mucosa emphasizes indications as biomarkers and epidrugs with therapeutic potential for better patient management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Human papilloma virus and its association with oral cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bologna-Molina, Ronell E; Castañeda-Castaneira, Raúl E; Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Pérez-Rodríguez, Eréndira

    2006-01-01

    Oral cancer it a pathology of multifactorial etiology, where some factors such as age, sex, race, genetic predisposition, nutrition, and the use of tobacco and alcohol have a bearing on. In the last years, some authors showed the implication of the human papilloma virus (HPV) in the development of precarcinogenic lesions and of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The infection by HPV has been associated to hyperplastic epithelial lesions, papilloma and warty carcinoma in skin and in different types of mucosa, including the anus-genital, cervical, urethral, tracheobronchial, nasal, laryngeal and oral mucosa tracts. The viral high-risk geno-types (oncogenic) such as 16, 18, 31, 33 and 35 are frequently associated to leukoplakia and squamous carcinoma. An association of HPV with oral squamous carcinoma in patients that consume tobacco and alcohol has been fundamentally established. It is important to study and to frequently review the role that viral infections and cancer have, and maybe in the future, it would be possible to create a vaccine that diminishes the frequency of oncological problems.

  7. The genomics of oral cancer and wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswini, Y B

    2009-01-01

    Oral cancer is the most common malignancy in India, where it is epidemiologically linked to the chewing of betel quid and other carcinogens. But various point mutations were detectable in the p53 and p15 genes. Hence, this review was conducted with the aim to find out genetic risks as well as markers for oral cancers and wound healing. Tobacco-related cancers are associated with polymorphisms of the CYP1A1 and GSTM1 genes in terms of genotype frequencies and cigarette smoking dose. Expression of E6/E7 were also found in tumors, most of which were derived from the oropharynx. Presence of homozygous arginine at codon 72 renders p53 about seven times more susceptible to E6-mediated proteolytic degradation. Erythropoietin, vascular permeability factor (VPF, also known as vascular endothelial growth factor or VEGF), and PDGF has been implicated as one of the principal mitogens involved in cutaneous wound healing. Activation of NF-kB is associated with enhanced cell survival. Human papilloma virus status is a significantly favorable prognostic factor in tonsilar cancer and may be used as a marker in order to optimize the treatment of patients with this type of cancer.

  8. The genomics of oral cancer and wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswini Y

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is the most common malignancy in India, where it is epidemiologically linked to the chewing of betel quid and other carcinogens. But various point mutations were detectable in the p53 and p15 genes. Hence, this review was conducted with the aim to find out genetic risks as well as markers for oral cancers and wound healing. Tobacco-related cancers are associated with polymorphisms of the CYP1A1 and GSTM1 genes in terms of genotype frequencies and cigarette smoking dose. Expression of E6/E7 were also found in tumors, most of which were derived from the oropharynx. Presence of homozygous arginine at codon 72 renders p53 about seven times more susceptible to E6-mediated proteolytic degradation. Erythropoietin, vascular permeability factor (VPF, also known as vascular endothelial growth factor or VEGF, and PDGF has been implicated as one of the principal mitogens involved in cutaneous wound healing. Activation of NF-kB is associated with enhanced cell survival. Human papilloma virus status is a significantly favorable prognostic factor in tonsilar cancer and may be used as a marker in order to optimize the treatment of patients with this type of cancer.

  9. Evaluation of Role of Myofibroblasts in Oral Cancer: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Harjeet K; Sircar, Keya; Kaur, Gurbani; Marwah, Muneet

    2016-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review on the role of myofibroblasts in progression of oral cancer. The myofibroblast is essential for the integrity of the mammalian body by virtue of its role in wound healing, but it also plays a negative role due to their role in promoting tumor development. Systematic review. Bibliographic searches were conducted in several electronic databases using all publications in PubMed, PubMed central, EMBASE, CancerLit, Google scholar, and Cochrane CCTR between 1990 and June 2015. The search of all publications from various electronic databases revealed 1,371 citations. The total number of studies considered for systematic review was 43. The total number of patients included in the studies was 990. Myofibroblasts are a significant component in stroma of oral cancer cases, though not identified in all cases. This systematic review shows that clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemistry tests have correlated the presence of high myofibroblast count in oral cancer cell stroma. Myofibroblasts play a significant role in oral cancer invasion and progression. Various studies have demonstrated their association with oral cancer. This review tends to highlight their role in the pathogenesis of oral cancer over the decade. Sekhon HK, Sircar K, Kaur G, Marwah M. Evaluation of Role of Myofibroblasts in Oral Cancer: A Systematic Review. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):233-239.

  10. Secondary and multiple primary cancers relating radiation therapy for cancer of the oral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Junichi; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Takeda, Masamune; Takagi, Minoru.

    1985-01-01

    Secondary and multiple primary cancers relating radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma (s.c.c.) of the oral region including lip, oral cavity and oropharynx were analyzed. Out of 1,197 patients with s.c.c. treated with radiation during about 30 years from 1955 to 1983 June, 56 patients (4.7 %) were regarded as double or multiple cancer. The multiple cancer (s.c.c.) was observed frequently in the multicentric zone such as hypopharynx, esophagus and bronchus as well as in other sites of the oral cavity; 67.7 % (42 out of 62 sites). Frequency of synchronous double cancers was increased in recent ten years; 47.1 % (16/34). Careful examination to the above mentioned multicentric zone leads to early detection of secondary cancer and could be expected cure of the disease. Although possibility of radiation-induced cancer could not be ruled out as for 17 patients with late recurrence (more than 8 years), different histologic diagnosis from s.c.c. was obtained in only one (malignant fibrous histiocytoma). Therefore, it was difficult to discriminate radiation-induced cancer from late recurrence in the present study. (author)

  11. A multi-centre evaluation of oral cancer in Southern and Western Nigeria: an African oral pathology research consortium initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omitola, Olufemi Gbenga; Soyele, Olujide Oladele; Sigbeku, Opeyemi; Okoh, Dickson; Akinshipo, Abdulwarith Olaitan; Butali, Azeez; Adeola, Henry Ademola

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths among African populations. Lack of standard cancer registries and under-reporting has inaccurately depicted its magnitude in Nigeria. Development of multi-centre collaborative oral pathology networks such as the African Oral Pathology Research Consortium (AOPRC) facilitates skill and expertise exchange and fosters a robust and systematic investigation of oral diseases across Africa. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, we have leveraged the auspices of the AOPRC to examine the burden of oral cancer in Nigeria, using a multi-centre approach. Data from 4 major tertiary health institutions in Western and Southern Nigeria was generated using a standardized data extraction format and analysed using the SPSS data analysis software (version 20.0; SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL). Of the 162 cases examined across the 4 centres, we observed that oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) occurred mostly in the 6 th and 7 th decades of life and maxillary were more frequent than mandibular OSCC lesions. Regional variations were observed both for location, age group and gender distribution. Significant regional differences was found between poorly, moderately and well differentiated OSCC (p value = 0.0071). A multi-centre collaborative oral pathology research approach is an effective way to achieve better insight into the patterns and distribution of various oral diseases in men of African descent. The wider outlook for AOPRC is to employ similar approaches to drive intensive oral pathology research targeted at addressing the current morbidity and mortality of various oral diseases across Africa.

  12. Bacteriome and mycobiome associations in oral tongue cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Pranab K; Wang, Hannah; Retuerto, Mauricio; Zhang, Huan; Burkey, Brian; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A; Eng, Charis

    2017-11-14

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral (mobile) tongue (OMTC), a non-human papilloma virus-associated oral cancer, is rapidly increasing without clear etiology. Poor oral hygiene has been associated with oral cancers, suggesting that oral bacteriome (bacterial community) and mycobiome (fungal community) could play a role. While the bacteriome is increasingly recognized as an active participant in health, the role of the mycobiome has not been studied in OMTC. Tissue DNA was extracted from 39 paired tumor and adjacent normal tissues from patients with OMTC. Microbiome profiling, principal coordinate, and dissimilarity index analyses showed bacterial diversity and richness, and fungal richness, were significantly reduced in tumor tissue (TT) compared to their matched non-tumor tissues (NTT, P <0.006). Firmicutes was the most abundant bacterial phylum, which was significantly increased in TT compared to NTT (48% vs. 40%, respectively; P =0.004). Abundance of Bacteroidetes and Fusobacteria were significantly decreased in TT compared to matched NTT ( P ≤0.003 for both). Abundance of 22 bacterial and 7 fungal genera was significantly different between the TT and NTT, including Streptococcus , which was the most abundant and significantly increased in the tumor group (34% vs. 22%, P <0.001). Abundance of fungal genus Aspergillus in TT correlated negatively with bacteria ( Actinomyces, Prevotella , Streptococcus) , but positively with Aggregatibacter . Patients with high T-stage disease had lower mean differences between TT and NTT compared with patients with low T-stage disease (0.07 vs. 0.21, P =0.04). Our results demonstrate differences in bacteriome and mycobiome between OMTC and their matched normal oral epithelium, and their association with T-stage.

  13. Sentinel lymph node concept in oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Shogo; Omura, Ken; Harada, Hiroyuki; Shimamoto, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Yoshihiko; Uekusa, Masaru; Togawa, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    The cervical lymph node (CLN) status is one of the most important prognostic factors in oral cancer. However, the main method of addressing the CLN depends on diagnostic imaging. Sentinel lymph node (SN) biopsy combined with lymphoscintigraphy may be a minimally invasive technique that samples first-echelon lymph node to predict the need for neck dissection. Focused analysis of the SN is highly accurate in identifying metastases. In this study, we investigate the possibility of identifying the SN in oral cancer and the detection of metastases in SN by HE stain, cytokeratin IHC and cytokeratin 17 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Twenty-four consecutive patients who had clinically negative CLN underwent SN biopsy, followed by elective neck dissection. SNs were detected by means of mapping with isotope labeling 99m Tc-phytate. All lymph nodes were examined by conventional HE staining for evaluating metastasis. In addition, each SN was cut into multiple sections for cytokeratin IHC staining and for RT-PCR for cytokeratin 17. SNs were identified in 24 (100%) of 24 patients by lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe. One to seven SNs were identified in each patient. Both HE and immunohistochemical staining of SN identified metastasis in 7 patients (29.2%), and the expression of cytokeratin 17 by RT-PCR of SN was positive in 8 patients (34.8%). No metastases were identified using HE, cytokeratin IHC staining in non-SNs. Neck failure has not developed in 23 (95.8%) of 24 patients. The results strongly suggest the usefulness of the SN concept in oral cancer and for better assessing the status of the CLN. (author)

  14. Oral cancer in men and women: are there differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Astrid L; Bredell, Marius; Grätz, Klaus W

    2011-03-01

    Because female user habits for tobacco and alcohol are changing and the female incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has increased, the aim of the study was to evaluate the possible differences between male and female patients suffering from oral SCC. The files of 159 male and 119 female patients with oral SCC, who were treated between 1999 and 2008 with a minimum follow-up time of 12 months, were evaluated retrospectively. Special attention was paid to tobacco and alcohol use, TN status, recurrence, and metastases rate, as well as to patients without the mentioned risk factors. A higher female median age (65.36 vs. 61.04 years) and female predominance was found in the group of patients older than 70 years, with a gender distribution of 53:46. Out of 23 female patients with oral maxillary SCC, 15 (65%) were without the risk factors of tobacco and alcohol, and from the 16 male patients suffering from oral maxillary carcinoma, only three (19%) were without the mentioned risk factors. In summary, compared to earlier studies, there was a higher proportion of females in (1) the group without the risk factors of tobacco and alcohol, (2) those with SCC of the hard plate and maxillary alveolus, and (3) in patients older than 70 years. There are fewer differences between metastases and recurrence rates. Further studies should be performed in female patients without risk factors and in maxillary cancer with emphasis on the human papilloma virus and infiltration rates.

  15. Optical imaging for the diagnosis of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, K.

    2016-03-01

    Optical Imaging is being conducted as a therapeutic non-invasive. Many kinds of the light source are selected for this purpose. Recently the oral cancer screening is conducted by using light-induced tissue autofluorescence examination such as several kinds of handheld devices. However, the mechanism of its action is still not clear. Therefore basic experimental research was conducted. One of auto fluorescence Imaging (AFI) device, VELscopeTM and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging using ICG-labeled antibody as a probe were compared using oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) mouse models. The experiments revealed that intracutaneous tumor was successfully visualized as low density image by VELscopeTM and high density image by NIR image. In addition, VELscopeTM showed higher sensitivity and lower specificity than that of NIR fluorescence imaging and the sensitivity of identification of carcinoma areas with the VELscopeTM was good results. However, further more studies were needed to enhance the screening and diagnostic uses, sensitivity and specificity for detecting malignant lesions and differentiation from premalignant or benign lesions. Therefore, additional studies were conducted using a new developed near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging method targeting podoplanine (PDPN) which consists of indocyanine green (ICG)-labeled anti-human podoplanin antibody as a probe and IVIS imaging system or a handy realtime ICG imaging device that is overexpressed in oral malignant neoplasm to improve imaging for detection of early oral malignant neoplasm. Then evaluated for its sensitivity and specificity for detection of oral malignant neoplasm in xenografted mice model and compared with VELscopeTM. The results revealed that ICG fluorescence imaging method and VELscopeTM had the almost the same sensitivity for detection of oral malignant neoplasm. The current topics of optical imaging about oral malignant neoplasm were reviewed.

  16. Lifestyle risk factors for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    The "style of life is the unique way in which individuals try to realize their fictional final goal and meet or avoid the three main tasks of life: work, community, love" (Alfred Adler, founder of the Individual Psychology). Lifestyle refers to the way individuals live their lives and how they handle problems and interpersonal relations. The lifestyle behaviours associated to oral cancer with convincing evidence are tobacco use, betel quid chewing, alcohol drinking, low fruit and vegetable consumption (the detrimental lifestyle is high fat and/or sugar intake, resulting in low fruit and/or vegetable intake). Worldwide, 25% of oral cancers are attributable to tobacco usage (smoking and/or chewing), 7-19% to alcohol drinking, 10-15% to micronutrient deficiency, more than 50% to betel quid chewing in areas of high chewing prevalence. Carcinogenicity is dose-dependent and magnified by multiple exposures. Conversely, low and single exposures do not significantly increase oral cancer risk. These behaviours have common characteristics: (i) they are widespread: one billion men, 250 million women smoke cigarettes, 600-1200 million people chew betel quid, two billion consume alcohol, unbalanced diet is common amongst developed and developing countries; (ii) they were already used by animals and human forerunners millions of years ago because they were essential to overcome conditions such as cold, hunger, famine; their use was seasonal and limited by low availability, in contrast with the pattern of consumption of the modern era, characterized by routine, heavy usage, for recreational activities and with multiple exposures; (iii) their consumption in small doses is not recognized as detrimental by the human body and activates the dopaminergic reward system of the brain, thus giving instant pleasure, "liking" (overconsumption) and "wanting" (craving). For these reasons, effective Public Health measures aimed at preventing oral cancer and other lifestyle-related conditions

  17. Laser Raman detection for oral cancer based on a Gaussian process classification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Zhanwei; Yang, Yongjian; Bai, Yuan; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Chijun; Chen, He; Luo, Yusheng; Su, Le; Chen, Yong; Li, Xianchang; Zhou, Xiaodong; Shen, Aiguo; Hu, Jiming; Jia, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common neoplasm of the oral cavity. The incidence rate accounts for 80% of total oral cancer and shows an upward trend in recent years. It has a high degree of malignancy and is difficult to detect in terms of differential diagnosis, as a consequence of which the timing of treatment is always delayed. In this work, Raman spectroscopy was adopted to differentially diagnose oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral gland carcinoma. In total, 852 entries of raw spectral data which consisted of 631 items from 36 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients, 87 items from four oral gland carcinoma patients and 134 items from five normal people were collected by utilizing an optical method on oral tissues. The probability distribution of the datasets corresponding to the spectral peaks of the oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue was analyzed and the experimental result showed that the data obeyed a normal distribution. Moreover, the distribution characteristic of the noise was also in compliance with a Gaussian distribution. A Gaussian process (GP) classification method was utilized to distinguish the normal people and the oral gland carcinoma patients from the oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. The experimental results showed that all the normal people could be recognized. 83.33% of the oral squamous cell carcinoma patients could be correctly diagnosed and the remaining ones would be diagnosed as having oral gland carcinoma. For the classification process of oral gland carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma, the correct ratio was 66.67% and the erroneously diagnosed percentage was 33.33%. The total sensitivity was 80% and the specificity was 100% with the Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) set to 0.447 213 595. Considering the numerical results above, the application prospects and clinical value of this technique are significantly impressive. (letter)

  18. Laser Raman detection for oral cancer based on a Gaussian process classification method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhanwei; Yang, Yongjian; Bai, Yuan; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Chijun; Chen, He; Luo, Yusheng; Su, Le; Chen, Yong; Li, Xianchang; Zhou, Xiaodong; Jia, Jun; Shen, Aiguo; Hu, Jiming

    2013-06-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common neoplasm of the oral cavity. The incidence rate accounts for 80% of total oral cancer and shows an upward trend in recent years. It has a high degree of malignancy and is difficult to detect in terms of differential diagnosis, as a consequence of which the timing of treatment is always delayed. In this work, Raman spectroscopy was adopted to differentially diagnose oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral gland carcinoma. In total, 852 entries of raw spectral data which consisted of 631 items from 36 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients, 87 items from four oral gland carcinoma patients and 134 items from five normal people were collected by utilizing an optical method on oral tissues. The probability distribution of the datasets corresponding to the spectral peaks of the oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue was analyzed and the experimental result showed that the data obeyed a normal distribution. Moreover, the distribution characteristic of the noise was also in compliance with a Gaussian distribution. A Gaussian process (GP) classification method was utilized to distinguish the normal people and the oral gland carcinoma patients from the oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. The experimental results showed that all the normal people could be recognized. 83.33% of the oral squamous cell carcinoma patients could be correctly diagnosed and the remaining ones would be diagnosed as having oral gland carcinoma. For the classification process of oral gland carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma, the correct ratio was 66.67% and the erroneously diagnosed percentage was 33.33%. The total sensitivity was 80% and the specificity was 100% with the Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) set to 0.447 213 595. Considering the numerical results above, the application prospects and clinical value of this technique are significantly impressive.

  19. Oral Candida colonization in oral cancer patients and its relationship with traditional risk factors of oral cancer: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnuaimi, Ali D; Wiesenfeld, David; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Reynolds, Eric C; McCullough, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Candida, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, has been implicated in oral and oesophageal cancers. This study aimed to examine oral Candida carriage in 52 oral cancer patients and 104 age-, gender- and denture status-matched oral cancer-free subjects. We assessed general health, smoking and alcohol drinking habits, use of alcohol-containing mouthwash and periodontal status (community periodontal index of treatment needs). Yeasts were isolated using oral rinse technique and genetically identified via Real-Time PCR-High resolution melting curve analysis of conserved ribosomal DNA. Conditional and binary logistic regressions were used to identify explanatory variables that are risk factors for oral cancer. The frequencies of oral yeasts' presence and high oral colonization were significantly higher in oral cancer than non-oral cancer patients (p=001; p=0.033, respectively). No significant difference in the isolation profile of Candida species was found between the two groups, except C. parapsilosis was more frequent in non-oral cancer group. Differences were noticed in the incidence of C. albicans strains where significantly more C. albicans genotype-A was isolated from cancer patients and significantly more C. albicans genotype-B isolated from non-cancer patients. Multiple regression analyses showed significant association with cancer observed for alcohol drinking (OR=4.253; 95% CI=1.351, 13.386), Candida presence (OR=3.242; 95% CI=1.505, 6.984) and high oral colonization (OR=3.587; 95% CI=1.153, 11.162). These results indicate that there is a significant association between oral cancer occurrence and Candida oral colonization and that the observed genotypic diversity of C. albicans strains may play a role in oral carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Apoptosis-related molecules and radiation response in human oral cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teni, Tanuja; Mallick, Sanchita; Palve, Vinayak; Yasser, Mohd; Pawar, Sagar; Kannan, Sadhana; Agarwal, Jai Prakash; Kane, Shubhada

    2013-01-01

    The ability of the tumor cells to respond to radiotherapy depends upon their intrinsic radiosensitivity, which may be partly governed by molecules of the intrinsic cell death pathway. To identify the defects in this pathway in oral cancers, transcript expression analysis of the pathway members was done using the Ribonuclease protection assay in oral cell lines and tumors. The intrinsic apoptosis pathway was found to be deregulated in oral cell lines and majority of oral tumors with altered expression of Mcl-l, bclxl, survivin, p53 and p16 mRNA. To identify factors associated with radiosensitivity, differential gene expression profiles of radiation-treated versus untreated oral cell lines of differing radiosensitivities was carried out. To assess the predictive value of above altered molecules in radiotherapy outcome in oral cancer patients, pretreated biopsies from thirty nine oral cancer patients were examined for the expression of the apoptotic markers using immunohistochemistry and their expression was correlated with the clinico pathological parameters. High expression of Mcl-1 (p = 0.05) and PCNA (p = 0.007) was seen to be associated with poor disease free survival. High expression of Bcl-xL was associated with poor response to radiotherapy treatment. PCNA (p=0.04) and Mcl-1 (p=0.05) emerged as independent prognostic markers for predicting disease free survival in oral cancers treated with primary radiotherapy. A predominant overexpression of anti-apoptotic Mcl-1L over pro-apoptotic Mcl-1S isoform was observed in the oral cancer cell lines and oral tumors. An inverse correlation was observed between Mcl-1L expression and apoptosis induction in AW8507 cell line post-radiation treatment supporting its pro-survival role. A rapid and short induction of Mcl-1L versus sustained induction of Mcl-1L was observed in the relatively more radiosensitive FBM versus AW8507 respectively. siRNA treatment in combination with IR demonstrated significant induction of apoptosis

  1. Oral squamous cell carcinoma following treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waal, R.I.F. van der; Waal, I. van der [Univ. Hospital Vrije Univ., Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Veerman, A.J.P. [Univ. Hospital Vrije Univ., Dept. of Paediatric Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Snow, G.B. [Univ. Hospital Vrije Univ., Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1997-02-01

    With substantially increased survival after most paediatric cancers over the past decades have come the late sequelae of treatment. Of all late complications of treatment, second malignancies are generally considered to be the most serious. We report on a 20-year-old man with an oral squamous cell carcinoma 17 years after initial chemotherapy and irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Although occurrence of the oral malignancy in this patient could have been treatment-related, one should keep in mind that the occurrence of second tumours may also be based on a shared genetic aetiology. (au) 9 refs.

  2. Oral squamous cell carcinoma following treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waal, R.I.F. van der; Waal, I. van der; Veerman, A.J.P.; Snow, G.B.

    1997-01-01

    With substantially increased survival after most paediatric cancers over the past decades have come the late sequelae of treatment. Of all late complications of treatment, second malignancies are generally considered to be the most serious. We report on a 20-year-old man with an oral squamous cell carcinoma 17 years after initial chemotherapy and irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Although occurrence of the oral malignancy in this patient could have been treatment-related, one should keep in mind that the occurrence of second tumours may also be based on a shared genetic aetiology. (au) 9 refs

  3. Association of -330 interleukin-2 gene polymorphism with oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prithvi Kumar; Kumar, Vijay; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Gupta, Rajni; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Jain, Amita; Bogra, Jaishri; Chandra, Girish

    2017-12-01

    Cytokines play an important role in the development of cancer. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of cytokine genes have been reported to be associated with the development and severity of inflammatory diseases and cancer predisposition. This study was undertaken to evaluate a possible association of interleukin 2 (IL-2) (- 330A>C) gene polymorphisms with the susceptibility to oral cancer. The SNP in IL-2 (-330A>C) gene was genotyped in 300 oral cancer patients and in similar number of healthy volunteers by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism and the association of the gene with the disease was evaluated. IL-2 (-330A>C) gene polymorphism was significantly associated with oral cancer whereas it was neither associated with clinicopathological status nor with cancer pain. The AC heterozygous genotype was significantly associated with oral cancer patients as compared to controls [odds ratio (OR): 3.0; confidence interval (CI): 2.14-4.20; Poral cancer (OR: 1.80; CI: 1.39-2.33; PC) gene polymorphism was also associated with oral cancer in tobacco smokers and chewers. Our results showed that oral cancer patients had significantly higher frequency of AA genotype but significantly lower frequency of AC genotype and C allele compared to controls. The IL-2 AC genotype and C allele of IL-2 (-330A>C) gene polymorphisms could be potential protective factors and might reduce the risk of oral cancer in Indian population.

  4. [Suppression of VEGF protein expression by arctigenin in oral squamous cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Guang-rui; Liu, Fa-yu; Wang, Bo

    2015-08-01

    To observe arctigenin's inhibitory effect on oral squamous cell carcinoma, and explore the possible mechanism. The expression of VEGF in 32 cases of oral squamous cell cancer and 20 adjacent tissue specimen were detected with immunohistochemistry. Human nude mouse transplantation tumor model of oral squamous cell cancer was prepared with HSC-3 cells line. Transplanted tumor growth and VEGF expression in transplanted tumor tissues were assayed after treatment with arctigenin. One-way ANOVA was used for comparison between groups with SPSS 16.0 software package. Compared with the adjacent tissue, immunohistochemical staining score of VEGF was significantly higher (Parctigenin, the growth of oral squamous cell transplanted tumors in nude mouse was inhibited (Parctigenin group (PArctigenin can dose-dependently inhibit the growth of oral squamous cell carcinomas, and this effect may be related to down regulation of VEGF expression.

  5. A study of Association of Mast Cell Count in Different Grades of Oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Belgaumi UI

    2017 Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research. Original Article ... Many studies suggest that mast cells may either promote tumour growth in some types of cancer or may act in an .... Mast cells attracted in the tumour microenvironment by stem cell factor ... mast cells in the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  6. The bidirectional association between oral cancer and esophageal cancer: A population-based study in Taiwan over a 28-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan-Der; Wang, Ting-Yao; Lu, Chang-Hsien; Huang, Cih-En; Chen, Min-Chi

    2017-07-04

    Previous studies have revealed that patients with oral or esophageal cancer are at higher risk for subsequently developing a second primary malignancy. However, it remains to be determined what association exists between oral cancer and esophageal cancer particularly in Asian countries where squamous cell carcinoma is the predominant type of esophageal cancer. A population-based study was carried out in Taiwan, where the incidence rates of both oral and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas are high, to test the hypothesis that oral cancer or esophageal cancer predisposes an individual to developing the other form of cancer. Our results showed that patients with primary oral cancer (n=45,859) had ten times the risk of second esophageal cancer compared to the general population. Within the same cohort, the reciprocal risk of oral cancer as a second primary in primary esophageal cancer patients (n=16,658) was also increased seven-fold. The bidirectional relationship suggests common risk factors between these two cancers. The present study is not only the first population-based study in Asia to validate the reciprocal relationship between oral and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, but also will aid in the appropriate selection of high-risk patients for a future follow-up surveillance program.

  7. Changing Trends in oral cancer - a global scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neha; Acharya, Arun Kumar; Patthi, Basavaraj; Goud, Venkatesh; Reddy, Somanath; Garg, Anshul; Singla, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the highly prevalent cancers worldwide and a leading cause of mortality in certain regions like South-Central Asia. It is a major public health problem. Late diagnosis, high mortality rates and morbidity are characteristics of the disease worldwide. For control of oral cancer an idea of the coverage of the same in the various regions is necessary. The estimated incidence, mortality and 5-year survival due to lip, oral cavity cancer in world is 3, 00, 373(2.1%), 1, 45, 328(1.8%) and 7, 02, 149(2.2%) respectively according to data of GLOBOCAN 2012. A changing trend in incidence and prevalence of oral cancer has been observed with more women and youngsters being affected by oral cancer. PMID:28804673

  8. Candida albicans infection in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čanković Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Systemic candidiasis in intensive care units remains an improtant problem due to antifungal resistance. Patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer are at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis and they more frequent have prior fungi colonization. Due to identification of specific risk factors predisposing to fungal infection in order to threat such patients the aim of this study was to determine the presence of Candida species in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and compare it to the control subjects (patients with benign oral mucosal lesions. Methods. A total number of 30 consecutive oral cancer examined patients were included in this prospective study (24 men and 6 women with a mean age of 61.47 years, range 41-81 years. The control group consisted of 30 consecutive patients with histologically proven benign oral mucosal lesions (16 men and 14 women with a mean age of 54.53 years, range 16- 83 years. The samples for mycological examination were obtained by using sterile cotton swabs from the cancer lesion surface and in the patients of the control group from the benign mucosal lesion surface. Samples were inoculated in Sabouraud' dextrose agar. For identification purposes, Mackenzie germ tube test was performend on all isolates. Results. The prevalence of Candida was significantly higher in oral cancer patients than in control subjects (χ2 = 5.455, p = 0.020. Candida was found on nine of the 30 cancer surfaces; 5 (16.7% were identified as non-albicans Candida and 4 (13.3% as Candida albicans. In the control group, only Candida albicans was isolated from 2 (6.7% patients. In this study, no statistically significant differences in the presence of Candida species was found with respect to gender, age, smoking, alcohol consumption, wearing of dental protheses and the site of cancer lesion. Conclusion. The increased prevalence of yeasts on the surfaces of oral carcinoma indicates a need for their

  9. Gene polymorphisms and oral cancer risk in tobacco habitués.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multani, Shaleen; Pradhan, Sultan; Saranath, Dhananjaya

    2016-05-01

    Oral cancer incidence of 77,003 poses a major health concern in India, with 5-10 % tobacco habitués developing oral cancer. The current study examined the role of specific genomic variants in oral cancer. We examined five genomic variants represented as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes associated with cell proliferation and cellular invasion. The SNPs rs2124437 (RASGRP3), rs1335022 (GRIK2), rs4512367 (PREX2), rs4748011 (CCDC3), and rs1435218 (LNX1) were analyzed in 500 histopathologically confirmed oral cancers and 500 healthy controls with a minimum of 10 years of tobacco usage. Allelic discrimination real-time PCR SYBR Green assay was used. The genotypic and allelic frequencies between cases and controls were analyzed using SPSS software (version 19) and odds ratio (OR) using Hutchon.net, indicating increased risk to oral cancers. A significant association of the SNPs in oral cancer was observed in RASGRP3 AA (rs2124437) (p oral cancer in tobacco habitués.

  10. Establishment and Characterization of Primary Cultures from Iranian Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients by Enzymatic Method and Explant Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Ganjibakhsh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC is the most frequent oral cancer worldwide. It is known as the eighth most common cancer in men and as the fifth most common cancer in women. Cytogenetic and biochemical studies in recent decades have emphasized the necessity of providing an appropriate tool for such researches. Cancer cell culture is a useful tool for investigations on biochemical, genetic, molecular and immunological characteristics of different cancers, including oral cancer. Here, we explain the establishment process of five primary oral cancer cells derived from an Iranian population.Materials and Methods: The specimens were obtained from five oral cancer patients. Enzymatic, explant culture and magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS methods were used for cell isolation. After quality control tests, characterization and authentication of primary oral cancer cells were performed by short tandem repeats (STR profiling, chromosome analysis, species identification, and monitoring the growth, morphology and the expression of CD326 and CD133 markers.Results: Five primary oral cancer cells were established from an Iranian population. The flow cytometry results showed that the isolated cells were positive for CD326 and CD133 markers. Furthermore, the cells were free from mycoplasma, bacterial and fungal contamination. No misidentified or cross-contaminated cells were detected by STR analysis.Conclusions: Human primary oral cancer cells provide an extremely useful platform for studying carcinogenesis pathways of oral cancer in Iranian population. They may be helpful in explaining the ethnic differences in cancer biology and the individuality in anticancer drug response in future studies.

  11. Oral complications of cancer therapies. Oral complications in the pediatric population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggott, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    A number of acute oral complications may be associated with cancer therapy in children, but the extent and duration of these complications, and the most effective management techniques. have not been well described. The few studies differ in design, making comparisons difficult. Well-controlled, prospective clinical studies are needed to define the most effective strategies for the management of acute oral complications in children. However, it is clear that dental intervention prior to cancer therapy is an important factor in the optimal preparation of the patient. During cancer therapy, intensive supervised oral preventive protocols appear to be of benefit to the child's oral health, overall comfort, and well-being. Furthermore, the prevention of oral infection may significantly reduce the morbidity associated with cancer therapy. Long-term preventive oral care may help prevent dental disease and infection in medically compromised children and contribute to improving the quality of life. 41 references

  12. Src-homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 promotes oral cancer invasion and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Tumor invasion and metastasis represent a major unsolved problem in cancer pathogenesis. Recent studies have indicated the involvement of Src-homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) in multiple malignancies; however, the role of SHP2 in oral cancer progression has yet to be elucidated. We propose that SHP2 is involved in the progression of oral cancer toward metastasis. Methods SHP2 expression was evaluated in paired oral cancer tissues by using immunohistochemical staining and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Isogenic highly invasive oral cancer cell lines from their respective low invasive parental lines were established using a Boyden chamber assay, and changes in the hallmarks of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were assessed to evaluate SHP2 function. SHP2 activity in oral cancer cells was reduced using si-RNA knockdown or enforced expression of a catalytically deficient mutant to analyze migratory and invasive ability in vitro and metastasis toward the lung in mice in vivo. Results We observed the significant upregulation of SHP2 in oral cancer tissues and cell lines. Following SHP2 knockdown, the oral cancer cells markedly attenuated migratory and invasion ability. We observed similar results in phosphatase-dead SHP2 C459S mutant expressing cells. Enhanced invasiveness was associated with significant upregulation of E-cadherin, vimentin, Snail/Twist1, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in the highly invasive clones. In addition, we determined that SHP2 activity is required for the downregulation of phosphorylated ERK1/2, which modulates the downstream effectors, Snail and Twist1 at a transcript level. In lung tissue sections of mice, we observed that HSC3 tumors with SHP2 deletion exhibited significantly reduced metastatic capacity, compared with tumors administered control si-RNA. Conclusions Our data suggest that SHP2 promotes the invasion and metastasis of oral cancer cells. These results

  13. Detection of high PD-L1 expression in oral cancers by a novel monoclonal antibody L1Mab-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Yamada

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1, which is a ligand of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1, is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein that is expressed on antigen-presenting cells and several tumor cells, including melanoma and lung cancer cells. There is a strong correlation between human PD-L1 (hPD-L1 expression on tumor cells and negative prognosis in cancer patients. In this study, we produced a novel anti-hPD-L1 monoclonal antibody (mAb, L1Mab-4 (IgG2b, kappa, using cell-based immunization and screening (CBIS method and investigated hPD-L1 expression in oral cancers. L1Mab-4 reacted with oral cancer cell lines (Ca9-22, HO-1-u-1, SAS, HSC-2, HSC-3, and HSC-4 in flow cytometry and stained oral cancers in a membrane-staining pattern. L1Mab-4 stained 106/150 (70.7% of oral squamous cell carcinomas, indicating the very high sensitivity of L1Mab-4. These results indicate that L1Mab-4 could be useful for investigating the function of hPD-L1 in oral cancers. Keywords: Programmed cell death-ligand 1, Monoclonal antibody, Oral cancer

  14. Is oral cancer incidence among patients with oral lichen planus/oral lichenoid lesions underestimated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Moles, M A; Gil-Montoya, J A; Ruiz-Avila, I; Bravo, M

    2017-02-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesions (OLL) are considered potentially malignant disorders with a cancer incidence of around 1% of cases, although this estimation is controversial. The aim of this study was to analyze the cancer incidence in a case series of patients with OLP and OLL and to explore clinicopathological aspects that may cause underestimation of the cancer incidence in these diseases. A retrospective study was conducted of 102 patients diagnosed with OLP (n = 21, 20.58%) or OLL (n = 81) between January 2006 and January 2016. Patients were informed of the risk of malignization and followed up annually. The number of sessions programmed for each patient was compared with the number actually attended. Follow-up was classified as complete (100% attendance), good (75-99%), moderate (25-74%), or poor (<25% attendance) compliance. Cancer was developed by four patients (3.9%), three males and one male. One of these developed three carcinomas, which were diagnosed at the follow-up visit (two in lower gingiva, one in floor of mouth); one had OLL and the other three had OLP. The carcinoma developed in mucosal areas with no OLP or OLL involvement in three of these patients, while OLP and cancer were diagnosed simultaneously in the fourth. Of the six carcinomas diagnosed, five (83.3%) were T1 and one (16.7%) T2. None were N+, and all patients remain alive and disease-free. The cancer incidence in OLP and OLL appears to be underestimated due to the strict exclusion criteria usually imposed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Oral Cancer: Awareness and Knowledge Among Dental Patients in Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali; Al-Soneidar, Walid Ahmed; Dhaifullah, Esam; Halboub, Esam Saleh; Tarakji, Bassel

    2017-06-01

    More than 50 % of oral cancer cases are diagnosed at advanced stages. Public knowledge about oral cancer can help in prevention and early detection of the disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the levels of awareness and knowledge about signs and risk factors of oral cancer among dental patients in Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information from 1410 randomly selected patients attending dental departments within public hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software. The significance level was set at P oral cancer. Some 68.2 and 56.5 %, respectively, were able to correctly identify tobacco and alcohol as risk factors. More than two thirds of subjects had no knowledge about any signs of oral cancer. Participants with lower than university education were significantly less aware, and had much less knowledge, of the signs and risk factors of oral cancer. The knowledge regarding oral cancer among Saudi dental patients is alarmingly low. Interventions to improve public knowledge about oral cancer and attitudes towards early diagnosis and treatment are urgently indicated.

  16. Contemporary management of cancer of the oral cavity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genden, E.M.; Ferlito, A.; Silver, C.E.; Takes, R.P.; Suarez, C.; Owen, R.P.; Haigentz Jr, M.; Stoeckli, S.J.; Shaha, A.R.; Rapidis, A.D.; Rodrigo, J.P.; Rinaldo, A.

    2010-01-01

    Oral cancer represents a common entity comprising a third of all head and neck malignant tumors. The options for curative treatment of oral cavity cancer have not changed significantly in the last three decades; however, the work up, the approach to surveillance, and the options for reconstruction

  17. Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} enhanced fusions between oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and endothelial cells via VCAM-1/VLA-4 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kai; Zhu, Fei; Zhang, Han-zhong [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST), Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Shang, Zheng-jun, E-mail: shangzhengjun@hotmail.com [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST), Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); First Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China)

    2012-08-15

    Fusion between cancer cells and host cells, including endothelial cells, may strongly modulate the biological behavior of tumors. However, no one is sure about the driving factors and underlying mechanism involved in such fusion. We hypothesized in this study that inflammation, one of the main characteristics in tumor microenvironment, serves as a prominent catalyst for fusion events. Our results showed that oral cancer cells can fuse spontaneously with endothelial cells in co-culture and inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) increased fusion of human umbilical vein endothelium cells and oral cancer cells by up to 3-fold in vitro. Additionally, human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and 35 out of 50 (70%) oral squamous carcinoma specimens express VLA-4, an integrin, previously implicated in fusions between human peripheral blood CD34-positive cells and murine cardiomyocytes. Expression of VCAM-1, a ligand for VLA-4, was evident on vascular endothelium of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Moreover, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry analysis revealed that expression of VCAM-1 increased obviously in TNF-{alpha}-stimulated endothelial cells. Anti-VLA-4 or anti-VCAM-1 treatment can decrease significantly cancer-endothelial adhesion and block such fusion. Collectively, our results suggested that TNF-{alpha} could enhance cancer-endothelial cell adhesion and fusion through VCAM-1/VLA-4 pathway. This study provides insights into regulatory mechanism of cancer-endothelial cell fusion, and has important implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for prevention of metastasis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spontaneous oral cancer-endothelial cell fusion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} enhanced cell fusions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VCAM-1/VLA-4 expressed in oral cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} increased expression of VCAM-1 on endothelial cells. Black

  18. Combination therapies in oral squamous cell carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthi, S.; Shanta, V.

    1982-01-01

    The clinical trials are reported involving combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy in oral squamous cell carcinomas. Bleomycin was the only drug that potentiated radiation response in buccal squamous cell carcinomas. The response of the primary tumors was consistent, predictable and reproducible. The following drugs or chemicals were used: synkavit, methotrexate, metronidazole, bleomycin, pepleomycin, and hyperbaric oxygen. The results and their comparison is given in tables

  19. Oral complications of cancer therapies. Mucosal alterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squier, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    The initial effect of anticancer therapy, such as radiation and chemotherapy, is on the rapidly proliferating cells of the oral epithelium. As a consequence, the epithelium may show atrophy and ulceration. The sites of these alterations are related to the rate of epithelial proliferation. Regions of rapid proliferation, such as the oral lining mucosa, show a greater frequency of ulceration than masticatory mucosa or skin. Subsequent changes in the mucosa reflect damage to connective tissue, including fibroblasts and blood vessels. This results in hyalinization of collagen, hypovascularity, and ischemia. Indirect effects of anticancer therapy may include granulocytopenia and reduced salivary secretion, so that the protective mucin coating of the epithelium is compromised. These changes result in tissue with reduced barrier function and impaired ability to heal and to resist entry of pathogens, thus increasing the risk of systemic infections

  20. Cranberry and Grape Seed Extracts Inhibit the Proliferative Phenotype of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourt Chatelain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins, compounds highly concentrated in dietary fruits, such as cranberries and grapes, demonstrate significant cancer prevention potential against many types of cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate cranberry and grape seed extracts to quantitate and compare their anti-proliferative effects on the most common type of oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Using two well-characterized oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, CAL27 and SCC25, assays were performed to evaluate the effects of cranberry and grape seed extract on phenotypic behaviors of these oral cancers. The proliferation of both oral cancer cell lines was significantly inhibited by the administration of cranberry and grape seed extracts, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, key regulators of apoptosis, caspase-2 and caspase-8, were concomitantly up-regulated by these treatments. However, cranberry and grape seed extracts elicited differential effects on cell adhesion, cell morphology, and cell cycle regulatory pathways. This study represents one of the first comparative investigations of cranberry and grape seed extracts and their anti-proliferative effects on oral cancers. Previous findings using purified proanthocyanidin from grape seed extract demonstrated more prominent growth inhibition, as well as apoptosis-inducing, properties on CAL27 cells. These observations provide evidence that cranberry and grape seed extracts not only inhibit oral cancer proliferation but also that the mechanism of this inhibition may function by triggering key apoptotic regulators in these cell lines. This information will be of benefit to researchers interested in elucidating which dietary components are central to mechanisms involved in the mediation of oral carcinogenesis and progression.

  1. Oral symptoms and functional outcome related to oral and oropharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, Jolanda I; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriet; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Huisman, Paulien M; van Oort, Rob P; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Roodenburg, Jan L N

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to assess: (1) oral symptoms of patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer; (2) how patients rank the burden of oral symptoms; (3) the impact of the tumor, the treatment, and oral symptoms on functional outcome. Eighty-nine patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer were asked about their oral symptoms related to mouth opening, dental status, oral sensory function, tongue mobility, salivary function, and pain. They were asked to rank these oral symptoms according to the degree of burden experienced. The Mandibular Function Impairment Questionnaire (MFIQ) was used to assess functional outcome. In a multivariate linear regression analyses, variables related to MFIQ scores (p≤0.10) were entered as predictors with MFIQ score as the outcome. Lack of saliva (52%), restricted mouth opening (48%), and restricted tongue mobility (46%) were the most frequently reported oral symptoms. Lack of saliva was most frequently (32%) ranked as the most burdensome oral symptom. For radiated patients, an inability to wear a dental prosthesis, a T3 or T4 stage, and a higher age were predictive of MFIQ scores. For non-radiated patients, a restricted mouth opening, an inability to wear a dental prosthesis, restricted tongue mobility, and surgery of the mandible were predictive of MFIQ scores. Lack of saliva was not only the most frequently reported oral symptom after treatment for oral or oropharyngeal cancer, but also the most burdensome. Functional outcome is strongly influenced by an inability to wear a dental prosthesis in both radiated and non-radiated patients.

  2. Simplified Prosthetic Rehabilitation of a Patient after Oral Cancer Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Džakula; Josip Kranjčić; Denis Vojvodić

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of patients with oral cancer is complex: a multidisciplinary approach needs to be taken and maxillofacial and oral surgeons, an oncologist, a prosthodontist should be included, and a psychologist is often needed. This case report describes the prosthetic rehabilitation of a patient after surgical removal of oral cancer with obturator prosthesis. Resection cavity was located in central part of the hard palate and the condition belonged to Aramany class 3 maxillary defects. The tw...

  3. Development of oral cancer vaccine using recombinant Bifidobacterium displaying Wilms' tumor 1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Koichi; Oda, Tsugumi; Saito, Hiroki; Araki, Ayame; Gonoi, Reina; Shigemura, Katsumi; Hashii, Yoshiko; Katayama, Takane; Fujisawa, Masato; Shirakawa, Toshiro

    2017-06-01

    Several types of vaccine-delivering tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) have been developed in basic and clinical research. Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1), identified as a gene responsible for pediatric renal neoplasm, is one of the most promising TAA for cancer immunotherapy. Peptide and dendritic cell-based WT1 cancer vaccines showed some therapeutic efficacy in clinical and pre-clinical studies but as yet no oral WT1 vaccine can be administrated in a simple and easy way. In the present study, we constructed a novel oral cancer vaccine using a recombinant Bifidobacterium longum displaying WT1 protein. B. longum 420 was orally administered into mice inoculated with WT1-expressing tumor cells for 4 weeks to examine anti-tumor effects. To analyze the WT1-specific cellular immune responses to oral B. longum 420, mice splenocytes were isolated and cytokine production and cytotoxic activities were determined. Oral administrations of B. longum 420 significantly inhibited WT1-expressing tumor growth and prolonged survival in mice. Immunohistochemical study and immunological assays revealed that B. longum 420 substantially induced tumor infiltration of CD4 + T and CD8 + T cells, systemic WT1-specific cytokine production, and cytotoxic activity mediated by WT1-epitope specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, with no apparent adverse effects. Our novel oral cancer vaccine safely induced WT1-specific cellular immunity via activation of the gut mucosal immune system and achieved therapeutic efficacy with several practical advantages over existing non-oral vaccines.

  4. Awareness of Undergraduate Dental and Medical Students Towards Oral Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Ashish; Marla, Vinay; Shrestha, Sushmita; Agrawal, Diksha

    2017-12-01

    Oral cancer is a common malignancy in Nepal and many other South East Asian countries, which is predisposed by a variety of potentially malignant oral diseases. Considering the importance of knowledge of health professionals and their role in early diagnosis and reduction of cancer statistics, this study aims to evaluate the awareness of undergraduate dental and medical students towards oral cancer. The study involved undergraduate dental and medical students of BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Nepal. A self-administered questionnaire adapted from Carter to Ogden was distributed. One hundred forty-three dental and 311 medical students responded to the questionnaire. Significantly more dental (80.4 %) than medical students (36.0 %) were found to routinely examine the oral mucosa. Tobacco smoking and chewing were the most commonly recognized risk factors by both medical and dental students. Most of the students found ulcer as the common change associated with oral cancer. Only 30 out of the total students felt very well informed about oral cancer. This study has demonstrated a lack of awareness in some aspects of oral cancer among medical and dental students which highlights the need to frame new teaching methodologies. Similar studies from other health institutions would provide an insight regarding the same and could be a base for formulating a uniform curriculum in the implementation of knowledge regarding oral cancer.

  5. Association of Matrix Metalloproteinase-7 Genotypes to the Risk of Oral Cancer in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Liang-Chun; Li, Ching-Hao; Sun, Kuo-Ting; Chen, Liang-Yu; Hsu, Che-Lun; Hung, Yi-Wen; Wu, Cheng-Nan; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shen, Te-Chun; Chang, Wen-Shin; Shih, Tzu-Ching; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Bau, DA-Tian

    2018-04-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a critical role in inflammation and carcinogenesis, and the expression of mRNA MMP7 in oral squamous cell carcinoma tissues was higher than in the oral lichen planus or normal oral mucosa. However, the genotypic role of MMP7 has never been examined in oral cancer. Therefore, in the current study we aimed to examine the contribution of genotypic variants in the promoter region of MMP7 (A-181G and C-153T) to oral cancer risk in Taiwan. In this hospital-based case-control study, 788 patients with oral cancer and 956 gender-and age-matched healthy controls were genotyped for MMP7 A-181G and C-153T via polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methodology. The distribution pattern of AA, AG and GG for MMP7 promoter A-181G genotype was 88.2, 10.4 and 1.4% in the oral cancer patient group and 89.0, 9.3 and 1.7% in the healthy control group, respectively (p for trend=0.6779), non-significantly differentially distributed between the two groups. There is no polymorphic genotype for MMP7 C-153T among Taiwanese. The comparisons in allelic frequency distribution also support the findings that G allele may not be the risk determinant allele for oral cancer. There is no interaction between the genotypes of MMP7 with age, gender, smoking, alcohol or betel quid consumption on oral cancer risk. Our results indicate that the MMP7 promoter genotypes only play an indirect role in determining the personal susceptibility to oral cancer in Taiwan. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  6. Podoplanin expression in oral potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A G, Deepa; Janardanan-Nair, Bindu; B R, Varun

    2017-12-01

    Podoplanin is a type I transmembrane sialomucin-like glycoprotein that is specifically expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells. Studies have shown that assessment of podoplanin expression in the epithelial cells can be used to predict the malignant transformation of potentially malignant disorders and the metastatic tendency of primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of our study was to compare the expression of podoplanin in oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma with that in normal buccal mucosa by immunohistochemical methods. Immunohistochemical expression of podoplanin was analyzed in 20 cases each of oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, oral squamous cell carcinoma and normal buccal mucosa, with monoclonal antibody D2-40. The expression of podoplanin was graded from grade 0-4. There was a statistically significant upregulation of the grades of podoplanin expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma(100%), oral submucous fibrosis (90%) and oral leukoplakia (65%) when compared to that in normal mucosa(35%). Podoplanin expression increased with decrease in grades of differentiation in oral squamous cell carcinoma . Podoplanin expression in the samples of oral submucous fibrosis was higher than that in oral leukoplakia. Evaluation of podoplanin expression in the epithelial cells of oral dysplastic lesions may provide valuable information to predict their risk of malignant transformation. Key words: Immunohistochemistry, Oral leukoplakia, Oral submucous fibrosis, Podoplanin, Squamous cell carcinoma.

  7. The Spindle Cell Neoplasms of the Oral Cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2015-01-01

    Spindle cell neoplasms are defined as neoplasms that consist of spindle-shaped cells in the histopathology. Spindle cell neoplasms can affect the oral cavity. In the oral cavity, the origin of the spindle cell neoplasms may be traced to epithelial, mesenchymal and odontogenic components. This article aims to review the spindle cell neoplasms of the oral cavity with emphasis on histopathology.

  8. A dielectrophoretic method of discrimination between normal oral epithelium, and oral and oropharyngeal cancer in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, K A; Mulhall, H J; Labeed, F H; Lewis, M P; Hoettges, K F; Kalavrezos, N; McCaul, J; Liew, C; Porter, S; Fedele, S; Hughes, M P

    2015-08-07

    Despite the accessibility of the oral cavity to clinical examination, delays in diagnosis of oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma (OOPC) are observed in a large majority of patients, with negative impact on prognosis. Diagnostic aids might help detection and improve early diagnosis, but there remains little robust evidence supporting the use of any particular diagnostic technology at the moment. The aim of the present feasibility first-in-human study was to evaluate the preliminary diagnostic validity of a novel technology platform based on dielectrophoresis (DEP). DEP does not require labeling with antibodies or stains and it is an ideal tool for rapid analysis of cell properties. Cells from OOPC/dysplasia tissue and healthy oral mucosa were collected from 57 study participants via minimally-invasive brush biopsies and tested with a prototype DEP platform using median membrane midpoint frequency as main analysis parameter. Results indicate that the current DEP platform can discriminate between brush biopsy samples from cancerous and healthy oral tissue with a diagnostic sensitivity of 81.6% and a specificity of 81.0%. The present ex vivo results support the potential application of DEP testing for identification of OOPC. This result indicates that DEP has the potential to be developed into a low-cost, rapid platform as an assistive tool for the early identification of oral cancer in primary care; given the rapid, minimally-invasive and non-expensive nature of the test, dielectric characterization represents a promising platform for cost-effective early cancer detection.

  9. Cytological assay of micronucleus induction by radiation in oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattathiri, V.N.; Bindu, L.; Remani, P.; Chandralekha, B.; Davis, C.A.; Krishnan Nair, M.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to analyze the dose-response relationship of micronucleus (MN) induction by radiation in eighty-three patients with oral cancers. Serial scrape smears were taken before treatment and after delivery of various fractions of a course of radical radiotherapy. The smears were stained with Giemsa's stain and frequency of micronucleated cells (MNC) evaluated. Before treatment 70.5% of tumours showed MNC, the mean value being 4.18 MNC/1000 cells. The frequency of MNC, increased with increasing dose of radiation. As regards relation to treatment duration, there was initially a slight increase, followed by rapid increase and then a plateauing. Radiosensitive and resistant tumours showed differing pattern of change. The MN test by serial cytological assay has potential as a tool to understand the dynamics of radiation induced cell death and predict radiosensitivity. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs

  10. Oral paracetamol (acetaminophen) for cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiffen, Philip J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McNicol, Ewan D; Bell, Rae F; Carr, Daniel B; McIntyre, Mairead; Wee, Bee

    2017-07-12

    Pain is a common symptom with cancer, and 30% to 50% of all people with cancer will experience moderate to severe pain that can have a major negative impact on their quality of life. Non-opioid drugs are commonly used to treat mild to moderate cancer pain, and are recommended for this purpose in the WHO cancer pain treatment ladder, either alone or in combination with opioids.A previous Cochrane review that examined the evidence for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or paracetamol, alone or combined with opioids, for cancer pain was withdrawn in 2015 because it was out of date; the date of the last search was 2005. This review, and another on NSAIDs, updates the evidence. To assess the efficacy of oral paracetamol (acetaminophen) for cancer pain in adults and children, and the adverse events reported during its use in clinical trials. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, and Embase from inception to March 2017, together with reference lists of retrieved papers and reviews, and two online study registries. We included randomised, double-blind, studies of five days' duration or longer, comparing paracetamol alone with placebo, or paracetamol in combination with an opioid compared with the same dose of the opioid alone, for cancer pain of any intensity. Single-blind and open studies were also eligible for inclusion. The minimum study size was 25 participants per treatment arm at the initial randomisation. Two review authors independently searched for studies, extracted efficacy and adverse event data, and examined issues of study quality and potential bias. We did not carry out any pooled analyses. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE and created a 'Summary of findings' table. Three studies in adults satisfied the inclusion criteria, lasting up to one week; 122 participants were randomised initially, and 95 completed treatment. We found no studies in children. One study was parallel-group, and

  11. Increasing incidence and survival in oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnov, Kirstine Kim Schmidt; Grønhøj, Christian; Jensen, David Hebbelstrup

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oral carcinomas (OCs) make up a significant proportion of head and neck carcinomas (HNCs) and are an important cause of morbidity and mortality globally. The purpose of this population-based study was to determine trends in incidence and survival in OC in the Danish population from 1980...... to 2014. Material and methods: This study covered all patients registered in the nationwide Danish cancer registry (DCR) in the period 1980–2014. Age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) per 100,000 and annual percentage change (APC) were evaluated. Also, 5-year overall survival (OS) was calculated with Cox......-standardized incidence of OC during the last 30 years in Denmark, and also an improvement in survival. The 5-year OS was significantly better in recent years even when we adjusted the analysis for relevant covariates....

  12. Fluorescence detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma using Hyperflav

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Ivan S.; Dets, Sergiy M.; Rawicz, Andrew H.; Zhang, Lewei

    2000-05-01

    A novel hypericin-based drug HyperflavTM has been evaluated for light-induced fluorescence detection of oral cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma was induced with carcinogenic agent in right pouches of forty hamsters (20/20 males/females). Solution of HyperflavTM was sprinkled into stomach with a single dose 0.2 - 4 mg of pure hypericin per kg b.w. and 4 - 8 hours before fluorescence analysis. In two animal groups with cancer symptoms the autofluorescence and hypericin-induced fluorescence were taken under 442 nm excitation. The buccal mucosa and adjacent areas were measured fiberoptically in-vivo and in-vitro using orange/green ratio (610/540). The in-vivo fluorescence imaging of malignant areas was conducted to assist the biopsy guidance and to compare with white-light images. Histological and morphological analyses were performed from biopsies. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in its early stage demonstrated specific higher 610/540 ratio for 37 tested hamsters. Advanced state involved another higher fluorescence maximum around 640 nm that in our opinion caused by strong porphyrin-induced native fluorescence. Such deformation of fluorescence spectra may lead to inadequate perception of diseased tissue area. To avoid this problem the autofluorescence spectra & images were added. HyperflavTM application is promising for demarcation of early oral cancer when combined with autofluorescence measurements.

  13. GILT - A randomised phase III study of oral vinorelbine and cisplatin with concomitant radiotherapy followed by either consolidation therapy with oral vinorelbine and cisplatin or best supportive care alone in stage III non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flentje, Michael [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Dept. of Radiotherapy, Wuerzburg (Germany); Huber, Rudolf M. [University Hospital Munich, Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL CPC-M), Munich (Germany); Engel-Riedel, Walburga [University Hospital Merheim, Dept. of Pneumonology, Cologne (Germany); Andreas, Stefan [Dept. of Pneumonology, Immenhausen (Germany); Kollmeier, Jens [Helios Emil-von-Behring Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Staar, Susanne [Municipal Hospital Bremen-Mitte, Bremen (Germany); Dickgreber, Nicolas [University Hospital Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Vaissiere, Nathalie; Almeida, Cecilia de [Institut de Recherche Pierre Fabre, Boulogne (France); Edlich, Birgit [Pierre Fabre Pharma GmbH, Freiburg (Germany); Fietkau, Rainer [University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is considered standard for inoperable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Consolidation chemotherapy (CC) following CRT is intended to further improve outcomes, yet studies have shown discordant results. This phase III study assessed CRT followed by best supportive care (BSC) or consolidation with oral vinorelbine and cisplatin. Patients received two cycles of oral vinorelbine (50 mg/m{sup 2} days 1, 8 and 15) + cisplatin (20 mg/m{sup 2} days 1-4) q4w + radiotherapy (RT; 66 Gy). Patients with at least stable disease (SD) were randomised to either two cycles oral vinorelbine (60-80 mg/m{sup 2} days 1 and 8) + cisplatin (80 mg/m{sup 2} day 1) q3w + BSC or BSC alone. Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). A total of 279 patients were enrolled for CRT and 201 patients were randomised to CC or BSC. Both CRT and CC were well tolerated, with limited radiation-mediated grade 3/4 toxicities (CRT/CC/BSC: oesophagitis-related events 12.9 %/3.1 %/0 %; grade 3 pneumonitis 0 %/0 %/2 %) and chemotherapy-mediated grade 3/4 toxicities (CRT/CC: neutropenia 11.2 %/22.1 %; leukopenia 18.3 %/26.7 %; grade 3 nausea 5.0 %/2.3 %, grade 3 vomiting 3.2 %/3.5 %). Median PFS from randomisation was 6.4 (5.0-8.7) and 5.5 (3.8-7.4) months in the CC and BSC arms (hazard ratio, HR = 0.93 [0.69-1.26]; p = 0.63), respectively; median overall survival (OS) 20.8 (13.5-25.3) and 18.5 (13.6-24.7) months, respectively. Consolidation chemotherapy after concurrent CRT did not prolong PFS or OS. Concurrent RT with oral vinorelbine and cisplatin demonstrated a favourable safety profile and represents a suitable treatment regimen for inoperable stage III NSCLC. (orig.) [German] Simultane Radiochemotherapie (CRT) wird als Standardtherapie beim inoperablen Stadium III des nicht-kleinzelligen Lungenkarzinoms (NSCLC) angesehen. Konsolidierende Chemotherapie (CC) nach der CRT zielt darauf ab, das Therapieergebnis zu verbessern, allerdings zeigen Studien

  14. Oral complications of cancer therapies. Description and incidence of oral complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreizen, S.

    1990-01-01

    No part of the body reflects the complications of cancer chemotherapy as visibly and as vividly as the mouth. The infectious, hemorrhagic, cytotoxic, nutritional, and neurologic signs of drug toxicity are reflected in the mouth by changes in the color, character, comfort, and continuity of the mucosa. The stomatologic complications of radiotherapy for oral cancer are physical and physiological in nature, transient or lasting in duration, and reversible or irreversible in type. Some linger as permanent mementos long after the cancer has been destroyed. They stem from radiation injury to the salivary glands, oral mucosa, oral musculature, alveolar bone, and developing teeth. They are expressed clinically by xerostomia, trismus, radiation dermatitis, nutritional stomatitis, and dentofacial malformation. In both cancer chemotherapy and cancer radiotherapy, the oral complications vary in pattern, duration, intensity, and number, with not every patient developing every complication. 21 references

  15. Predicting Scheduling and Attending for an Oral Cancer Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepperd, James A.; Emanuel, Amber S.; Howell, Jennifer L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral and pharyngeal cancer is highly treatable if diagnosed early, yet late diagnosis is commonplace apparently because of delays in undergoing an oral cancer examination. Purpose We explored predictors of scheduling and attending an oral cancer examination among a sample of Black and White men who were at high risk for oral cancer because they smoked. Methods During an in-person interview, participants (N = 315) from rural Florida learned about oral and pharyngeal cancer, completed survey measures, and were offered a free examination in the next week. Later, participants received a follow-up phone call to explore why they did or did not attend their examination. Results Consistent with the notion that scheduling and attending an oral cancer exam represent distinct decisions, we found that the two outcomes had different predictors. Defensive avoidance and exam efficacy predicted scheduling an examination; exam efficacy and having coping resources, time, and transportation predicted attending the examination. Open-ended responses revealed that the dominant reasons participants offered for missing a scheduled examination was conflicting obligations, forgetting, and confusion or misunderstanding about the examination. Conclusions The results suggest interventions to increase scheduling and attending an oral cancer examination. PMID:26152644

  16. Living in limbo: Being diagnosed with oral tongue cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Philiponis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oral tongue cancer presents clinical challenges to effective diagnosis that affect patient experience. Patient experience of the diagnostic process is poorly described, making opportunities for nursing intervention unclear. Methods: We qualitatively describe, using constant comparative analysis, oral tongue cancer diagnosis using data from a larger grounded theory study of oral tongue cancer survivorship. Using constant comparative analysis - in keeping with the methodology of the main study - we analyzed 16 survivor interviews for themes explaining the patient experience of oral tongue cancer diagnosis. Results: We termed the broader diagnostic process "living in limbo." This process includes the themes describing the peri-diagnostic process itself - "self-detected lesion," "lack of concern," "seeking help," "not a straightforward diagnosis," and "hearing the diagnosis." Entry into treatment concludes "Living in Limbo" and is described by the theme "worry and trust." Conclusions: Our findings are limited by retrospective interviews and participant homogeneity among other features. Future research with prospective designs and diverse groups of people at risk for and diagnosed with oral tongue cancer, as well as targeting those who have had negative biopsies with no eventual diagnosis of oral tongue cancer, will build on our findings. Further, study of patient experience in other sociocultural context and healthcare systems is needed to inform nursing science and practice. Finally, "living in limbo" suggests that clinician and public education about oral tongue cancer diagnosis is needed.

  17. Xerostomia after Radiotherapy for Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Killerup Kaae, Julie; Stenfeldt, Lone; Eriksen, Jesper Grau

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Radiation-induced xerostomia is a frequent late side effect after treatment for oral and oropharyngeal cancers. This may induce swallowing difficulties, compromised oral well-being, reduced nutrition intake, or speech deficiencies. Consequently, quality of life is often impaired...... oral well-being when used on a regular basis. METHODS: From October to December 2014, 31 consecutive patients treated with primary radiotherapy (RT) and concomitant cisplatin (in locally advanced cases) for oral or oropharyngeal cancer consented to participate. All patients had finalized RT 2-8 months...

  18. Raman spectroscopic studies on exfoliated cells of oral and cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hole, Arti; Sahu, Aditi; Shaikh, Rubina; Tyagi, Gunjan; Murali Krishna, C.

    2018-01-01

    Visual inspection followed by biopsy is the standard procedure for cancer diagnosis. Due to invasive nature of the current diagnostic methods, patients are often non-compliant. Hence, it is necessary to explore less invasive and rapid methods for early detection. Exfoliative cytology is a simple, rapid, and less invasive technique. It is thus well accepted by patients and is suitable for routine applications in population screening programs. Raman spectroscopy (RS) has been increasingly explored for disease diagnosis in the recent past. In vivo RS has previously shown promise in management of both oral and cervix cancers. In vivo applications require on-site instrumentation and stringent experimental conditions. Hence, RS of less invasive samples like exfoliated cells has been explored, as this facilitates collection at multiple screening centers followed by analysis at a centralized facility. In the present study, efficacy of Raman spectroscopy in classification of 15 normal and 29 abnormal oral exfoliated cells specimens and 28 normal and 38 abnormal cervix specimens were explored. Spectra were acquired by Raman microprobe (HE 785, Horiba-Jobin-Yvon, France) from several areas to span the pellet. Spectral acquisition parameters were: microscopic objective: 40X, power: 40 mW, acquisition time: 15 s and average: 3. PCA and PC-LDA of pre-processed spectra was carried out on a 4-model system of normal and tumor of both cervix and oral specimens. Leave-one-out-cross-validation findings indicate 73 % correct classification. Findings suggest RS of exfoliated cells may serve as a patient-friendly, non-invasive, rapid and objective method for management of cervix and oral cancers.

  19. Oral cancer: the association between nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Stefano; Scully, Crispian

    2005-09-01

    The unclear association between different nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality was investigated using, as observational units, 20 countries from Europe, Northern America, Far Eastern Asia, with cross-nationally comparable data. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were run with male age-standardised, mortality rate (ASMR) as explanatory variable and annual adult alcohol consumption, adult smoking prevalence, life expectancy, as explanatory. Large between-country differences in ASMR (range, 0.88-6.87 per 100,000) were found, but the mean value was similar to the global estimate (3.31 vs. 3.09 per 100,000). Differences in alcohol consumption (2.06-21.03 annual litres per capita) and in distribution between beverages were reported. Wine was the most prevalent alcoholic beverage in 45% of cases. Significant increases in ASMR for every litre of pure ethanol (0.15 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.01-0.29) and spirits (0.26 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.03-0.49), non-significant effects for beer and wine were estimated. The impact of alcohol on oral cancer deaths would be higher than expected and the drinking profile could affect cancer mortality, probably because of the different drinking pattern of spirit drinkers, usually consuming huge alcohol quantities on single occasions, and the different concentrations of ethanol and cancer-preventing compounds such as polyphenols, in the various beverages.

  20. Depression of p53-independent Akt survival signals in human oral cancer cells bearing mutated p53 gene after exposure to high-LET radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Yosuke [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Takahashi, Akihisa [Advanced Scientific Research Leader Development Unit, Gunma University, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Kajihara, Atsuhisa; Yamakawa, Nobuhiro; Imai, Yuichiro [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Ota, Ichiro; Okamoto, Noritomo [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Mori, Eiichiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Noda, Taichi [Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Furusawa, Yoshiya [Heavy-ion Radiobiology Research Group, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kirita, Tadaaki [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Ohnishi, Takeo, E-mail: tohnishi@naramed-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation induces efficiently apoptosis regardless of p53 gene status. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined whether high-LET radiation depresses the Akt-survival signals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation depresses of survival signals even in the mp53 cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation activates Caspase-9 through depression of survival signals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation suppresses cell growth through depression of survival signals. -- Abstract: Although mutations and deletions in the p53 tumor suppressor gene lead to resistance to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, high-LET radiation efficiently induces cell lethality and apoptosis regardless of the p53 gene status in cancer cells. Recently, it has been suggested that the induction of p53-independent apoptosis takes place through the activation of Caspase-9 which results in the cleavage of Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). This study was designed to examine if high-LET radiation depresses serine/threonine protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt) and Akt-related proteins. Human gingival cancer cells (Ca9-22 cells) harboring a mutated p53 (mp53) gene were irradiated with 2 Gy of X-rays or Fe-ion beams. The cellular contents of Akt-related proteins participating in cell survival signaling were analyzed with Western Blotting 1, 2, 3 and 6 h after irradiation. Cell cycle distributions after irradiation were assayed with flow cytometric analysis. Akt-related protein levels decreased when cells were irradiated with high-LET radiation. High-LET radiation increased G{sub 2}/M phase arrests and suppressed the progression of the cell cycle much more efficiently when compared to low-LET radiation. These results suggest that high-LET radiation enhances apoptosis through the activation of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9, and suppresses cell growth by suppressing Akt-related signaling, even in mp

  1. Oral and neck examination for early detection of oral cancer--a practical guide.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacCarthy, Denise

    2011-08-01

    Cancer of the head and neck region presents a challenge since, unlike other areas of the body, the boundaries are not always easy to delineate. The functional morbidity associated with head and neck cancer and its treatment are considerable. Head and neck cancer is described as cancer of the lip, mouth, tongue, tonsil, pharynx (unspecified), salivary gland, hypopharynx, larynx and other. Oral cancer refers to cancers of the lip, tongue, gingivae, floor of the mouth, palate (hard and soft), maxilla, vestibule and retromolar area up to the anterior pillar of the fauces (tonsil). When patients present with oral cancer, over 60% of them have regional (lymph node) and sometimes distant (metastatic) spread. The overall five-year survival rates for oral cancer average at between 50 and 80%, depending on the stage of the disease, varying from 86% for stage I to 12-16% for stage IV. The incidence of \\'field cancerisation\\'\\/unstable oral epithelium is high (17%), and even after successful treatment our patients need to be monitored for dental care and further disease. Unlike other areas in the body, the oral epithelium is readily accessible for examination and even self-examination. Dentists and dental hygienists are effective clinicians in the examination of the oral cavity for mouth cancer. An oral and neck examination must be part of every dental examination. An examination protocol is suggested here, which is similar to, but more detailed than, the standardised oral examination method recommended by the World Health Organisation, and consistent with those protocols followed by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.

  2. Evaluation of mast cells, eosinophils, blood capillaries in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, D Santhosh; Sivapathasundharam, B; Saraswathi, T R; SriRam, G

    2012-01-01

    Mast cells are granule containing secretory cells present in oral mucosal and connective tissue environment. Oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions are commonly occurring oral diseases and have some similarity clinically and histologically. Both are characterized by an extensive sub epithelial infiltrate of T cells, together with mast cells, eosinophils and blood capillaries. In this study mast cell and eosinophil densities along with number of blood capillaries were studied to find out if they could aid in histopathological distinction between oral lichen planus and lichenoid mucositis. To enumerate mast cells and compare the status of Mast Cells (Intact or Degranulated) in Lichen planus, Lichenoid mucositis and normal buccal mucosa in tissue sections stained with Toluidine Blue, and also to enumerate Eosinophils and blood capillaries in tissue sections stained with H and E. The study group included 30 cases each of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid mucositis. 10 cases of clinically normal oral buccal mucosa formed the control group. All the sections were stained with Toluidine blue and H and E separately. Histopathological analysis was done using binocular light microscope equipped with square ocular grid to standardize the field of evaluation. The result of the study showed. · Significant increase in number of mast cells in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid mucositis compared to normal buccal mucosa. · Significant increase of intact mast cells suepithelially within the inflammatory cell infiltrate in oral lichen planus compared to oral lichenoid mucositis. · Significant increase of degranulated mast cells in oral lichenoid mucositis to oral lichen planus, and increase in number of eosinophil densities in oral lichenoid mucositis compared to oral lichen planus. · Significant increase in number of capillaries in oral lichenoid mucositis compared to oral lichen planus. The findings of increased number of intact mast cells sub epithelially in oral

  3. Depression and anxiety in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of depression and anxiety in the patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). METHODS: 76 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma participated in this program. All patients were rated with the self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and the self-rating depression scale (SDS). The mean scores of SAS and SDS were compared to those scores of the Norm of Chinese people. In addition, the different treatment results of the patients with different levels of anxiety and depression were studied. Further, the number of patients of SAS, SDS with more than 50 score were compared between primary cancer patients and recurrent cancer patients. RESULTS: The scores of SAS, SDS and the number of patients with more than 50 score in the patients group were obviously higher than those in Chinese Norm (P<0.01).The levels of anxiety and depression in 32 patients with recurrent cancer were more severe than those of 44 patients with primary cancer. The patients with anxiety and/or depression showed poor prognosis. CONCLUSION: Anxiety and depression are common symptoms in patients with OSCC and have negative effects on the prognosis, thus the psychological intervention for the patients must be carried out.

  4. Transcription factor HBP1 is a direct anti-cancer target of transcription factor FOXO1 in invasive oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chien-Yi; Huang, Shih-Yi; Sheu, Jim Jinn-Chyuan; Roth, Mendel M; Chou, I-Tai; Lien, Chia-Hsien; Lee, Ming-Fen; Huang, Chun-Yin

    2017-02-28

    Either FOXO1 or HBP1 transcription factor is a downstream effector of the PI3K/Akt pathway and associated with tumorigenesis. However, the relationship between FOXO1 and HBP1 in oral cancer remains unclear. Analysis of 30 oral tumor specimens revealed that mean mRNA levels of both FOXO1 and HBP1 in non-invasive and invasive oral tumors were found to be significantly lower than that of the control tissues, and the status of low FOXO1 and HBP1 (oral tumors. To investigate if HBP1 is a direct transcription target of FOXO1, we searched potential FOXO1 binding sites in the HBP1 promoter using the MAPPER Search Engine, and two putative FOXO1 binding sites located in the HBP1 promoter -132 to -125 bp and -343 to -336 bp were predicted. These binding sites were then confirmed by both reporter gene assays and the in cellulo ChIP assay. In addition, Akt activity manipulated by PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or Akt mutants was shown to negatively affect FOXO1-mediated HBP1 promoter activation and gene expression. Last, the biological significance of the FOXO1-HBP1 axis in oral cancer malignancy was evaluated in cell growth, colony formation, and invasiveness. The results indicated that HBP1 knockdown potently promoted malignant phenotypes of oral cancer and the suppressive effect of FOXO1 on cell growth, colony formation, and invasion was alleviated upon HBP1 knockdown in invasive oral cancer cells. Taken together, our data provide evidence for HBP1 as a direct downstream target of FOXO1 in oral cancer malignancy.

  5. Novel liposomal combination treatments using dual genes knockdown in oral cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jyun-Sian; Yeh, Chia-Hsien; Huang, Leaf; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2018-02-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) can be used to treat tumor because it can effectively knockdown target oncoprotein expression and it leads to cancer cell death and apoptosis. Hypoxia-inducible factors-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor gene. Its high expression of tumor hypoxia cells, activation of transcription factor HIF-1α and angiogenesis found in most cancerous tissues. HIF-1α protein in cancer cells are critical to cell survival, tumor growth and proliferation. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene is another common head and neck oncogene. The dual self-designed siRNA sequences were encapsulated in the lipid-calcium-phosphate (LCP) and targeted to sigma receptors on the surface of cancer cells via binding to amino ethyl anisamide (AEAA). We used human oral cancer cells to establish the xenograft animal model to study the combination therapy for therapeutic results.

  6. Melatonin Inhibits Reactive Oxygen Species-Driven Proliferation, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, and Vasculogenic Mimicry in Oral Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Hui-Li; Deng, Man-Jing; Wen, Xiu-Jie; Mo, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Fa-Ming; Zou, Chun-Li; Duan, Wei-Feng; Li, Lei; Nie, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Globally, oral cancer is the most common type of head and neck cancers. Melatonin elicits inhibitory effects on oral cancer; however, the biological function of melatonin and underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we found that melatonin impaired the proliferation and apoptosis resistance of oral cancer cells by inactivating ROS-dependent Akt signaling, involving in downregulation of cyclin D1, PCNA, and Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax. Melatonin inhibited the migration and invasion of oral cancer cells by repressing ROS-activated Akt signaling, implicating with the reduction of Snail and Vimentin and the enhancement of E-cadherin. Moreover, melatonin hampered vasculogenic mimicry of oral cancer cells through blockage of ROS-activated extracellular-regulated protein kinases (ERKs) and Akt pathways involving the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α . Consistently, melatonin retarded tumorigenesis of oral cancer in vivo . Overall, these findings indicated that melatonin exerts antisurvival, antimotility, and antiangiogenesis effects on oral cancer partly by suppressing ROS-reliant Akt or ERK signaling.

  7. Human Papilloma Virus in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma - The Enigma Unravelled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khot, Komal P; Deshmane, Swati; Choudhari, Sheetal

    2016-03-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) has long been regarded as a disease entity having a remarkable incidence worldwide and a fairly onerous prognosis; thus encouraging further research on factors that might modify disease outcome. Squamous cell carcinomas encompass at least 90% of all oral malignancies. Several factors like tobacco and tobacco-related products, alcohol, genetic predisposition and hormonal factors are suspected as possible causative factors. Human papilloma virus (HPV), the causal agent of cervical cancer also appears to be involved in the aetiology of oral and oropharyngeal cancer. HPVpositive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) seems to differ from HPV-negative SCC. Many questions about the natural history of oral HPV infection remain under investigation. The aim of this review is to highlight the current understanding of HPV-associated oral cancer with an emphasis on its prognosis, detection and management.

  8. Factors associated with lip and oral cavity cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Isabella Lima Arrais; de Medeiros, Júlia Julliêta; Rodrigues, Larycia Vicente; Valença, Ana Maria Gondim; Lima Neto, Eufrásio de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify factors associated with the occurrence of primary cancer of the lip and oral cavity regions compared to other types of head and neck cancers according to demographic, socioeconomic data and lifestyle, in Brazil, from 2000 to 2011. A study was conducted using Hospital Cancer Records (Instituto Nacional do Câncer), from 2000 to 2011, totaling 23,153 cases. Data were analyzed by binary logistic regression (response category: primary cancers located in the lip and oral cavity; comparison category; other types of primary cancer in the head and neck, which does not affect the lip and oral cavity) at a significance level α = 5%. The study showed factors associated with higher incidence of cancer in the lip and oral cavity: being of advanced age (OR = 1.16), not having a family history of cancer (OR = 2.38), alcohol consumption (OR = 1.17); former tobacco use (OR = 1.51) or current tobacco use (OR = 1.65); having a previous diagnosis of cancer without treatment (OR =1.66). Being female (OR = 0.92), having completed basic (OR = 0.71) and higher (OR = 0.46) education and having previous diagnosis of cancer with treatment (OR = 0.74) constituted factors associated with lower prevalence of cancer of the lip and oral cavity. Age, absence of family history of cancer, smoking habits and alcohol consumption, and previous diagnosis of cancer without treatment were associated with a higher incidence of cancer of the lip and oral cavity.

  9. Towards virtual surgery in oral cancer to predict postoperative oral functions preoperatively

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alphen, M.J.A.; Kreeft, A.M.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Smeele, L.E.; Balm, A.J.M.; Balm, Alfonsus Jacobus Maria

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to develop a dynamic virtual model of the oral cavity and oropharynx so that we could incorporate patient-specific factors into the prediction of functional loss after advanced resections for oral cancer. After a virtual resection, functional consequences can be assessed, and a more

  10. Candida virulence and ethanol-derived acetaldehyde production in oral cancer and non-cancer subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnuaimi, A D; Ramdzan, A N; Wiesenfeld, D; O'Brien-Simpson, N M; Kolev, S D; Reynolds, E C; McCullough, M J

    2016-11-01

    To compare biofilm-forming ability, hydrolytic enzymes and ethanol-derived acetaldehyde production of oral Candida isolated from the patients with oral cancer and matched non-oral cancer. Fungal biofilms were grown in RPMI-1640 medium, and biofilm mass and biofilm activity were assessed using crystal violet staining and XTT salt reduction assays, respectively. Phospholipase, proteinase, and esterase production were measured using agar plate method, while fungal acetaldehyde production was assessed via gas chromatography. Candida isolated from patients with oral cancer demonstrated significantly higher biofilm mass (P = 0.031), biofilm metabolic activity (P oral cancer. High ethanol-derived acetaldehyde-producing Candida were more prevalent in patients with oral cancer than non-oral cancer (P = 0.01). In univariate regression analysis, high biofilm mass (P = 0.03) and biofilm metabolic activity (P production ability (0.01) were significant risk factors for oral cancer; while in the multivariate regression analysis, high biofilm activity (0.01) and phospholipase (P = 0.01) were significantly positive influencing factors on oral cancer. These data suggest a significant positive association between the ability of Candida isolates to form biofilms, to produce hydrolytic enzymes, and to metabolize alcohol to acetaldehyde with their ability to promote oral cancer development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Pinus densiflora leaf essential oil induces apoptosis via ROS generation and activation of caspases in YD-8 human oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jeong-Rang; Park, Ju Sung; Park, Yu-Kyoung; Chae, Young Zoo; Lee, Gyu-Hee; Park, Gy-Young; Jang, Byeong-Churl

    2012-04-01

    The leaf of Pinus (P.) densiflora, a pine tree widely distributed in Asian countries, has been used as a traditional medicine. In the present study, we investigated the anticancer activity of essential oil, extracted by steam distillation, from the leaf of P. densiflora in YD-8 human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. Treatment of YD-8 cells with P. densiflora leaf essential oil (PLEO) at 60 µg/ml for 8 h strongly inhibited proliferation and survival and induced apoptosis. Notably, treatment with PLEO led to generation of ROS, activation of caspase-9, PARP cleavage, down-regulation of Bcl-2, and phosphorylation of ERK-1/2 and JNK-1/2 in YD-8 cells. Treatment with PLEO, however, did not affect the expression of Bax, XIAP and GRP78. Importantly, pharmaco-logical inhibition studies demonstrated that treatment with vitamin E (an anti-oxidant) or z-VAD-fmk (a pan-caspase inhibitor), but not with PD98059 (an ERK-1/2 inhibitor) or SP600125 (a JNK-1/2 inhibitor), strongly suppressed PLEO-induced apoptosis in YD-8 cells and reduction of their survival. Vitamin E treatment further blocked activation of caspase-9 and Bcl-2 down-regulation induced by PLEO. Thus, these results demonstrate firstly that PLEO has anti-proliferative, anti-survival and pro-apoptotic effects on YD-8 cells and the effects are largely due to the ROS-dependent activation of caspases.

  12. Oral cavity infection: an adverse effect after the treatment of oral cancer in aged individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jie; Zhao, Jun; Jiang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    The immune compromised patients after treatment of oral cancer may have a chance of infection by drug-resistant opportunistic microbes. We investigated the occurrence of opportunistic microorganisms in aged individuals receiving follow-up examinations after treatment of oral cancer in China. These patients were used as test group and the respective age grouped healthy individuals as control group. In this study, the oral cavity microorganisms such as bacteria and yeast were taken for the analysis. After the screening of representative microorganisms, their aptitude of pervasiveness against drugs was studied. Here, we used antimicrobial agents which are common in clinical practice. We also performed studies to investigate the presence of toxin genes in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The results indicate that the prevalence of drug-resistant microbes was more pronounced in oral cancer patients after initial treatment above 70 years old. The oxacillin resistance of S. aureus isolate confirms that the prevalence of MRSA is increasing in accordance to age-factor and immune compromise in elderly patients. This study reveals the occurrence of drug-resistant opportunistic microorganisms in oral cavity after treatment for oral cancer in aged individuals. Special attention should be directed to MRSA during the treatment of oral cancer, and to realize the fact of immune compromise in elderly patients.

  13. Cell phone radiation effects on cytogenetic abnormalities of oral mucosal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daroit, Natália Batista; Visioli, Fernanda; Magnusson, Alessandra Selinger; Vieira, Geila Radunz; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exposure to cell phone electromagnetic radiation on the frequency of micronuclei, broken eggs cells, binucleated cells, and karyorrhexis in epithelial cells of the oral mucosa. The sample was composed of 60 cell phone users, who were non-smokers and non-drinkers, and had no clinically visible oral lesions. Cells were obtained from anatomical sites with the highest incidence of oral cancer: lower lip, border of the tongue, and floor of the mouth. The Feulgen reaction was used for quantification of nuclear anomalies in 1,000 cells/slide. A slightly increase in the number of micronucleated cells in the lower lip and in binucleated cells on the floor of the mouth was observed in individuals who used their phones > 60 minutes/week. The analysis also revealed an increased number of broken eggs in the tongue of individuals owning a cell phone for over eight years. Results suggest that exposure to electromagnetic waves emitted by cell phones can increase nuclear abnormalities in individuals who use a cell phone for more than 60 minutes per week and for over eight years. Based on the present findings, we suggest that exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell phones may interfere with the development of metanuclear anomalies. Therefore, it is demonstrated that, despite a significant increase in these anomalies, the radiation emitted by cell phones among frequent users is within acceptable physiological limits.

  14. Cell phone radiation effects on cytogenetic abnormalities of oral mucosal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Batista DAROIT

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exposure to cell phone electromagnetic radiation on the frequency of micronuclei, broken eggs cells, binucleated cells, and karyorrhexis in epithelial cells of the oral mucosa. The sample was composed of 60 cell phone users, who were non-smokers and non-drinkers, and had no clinically visible oral lesions. Cells were obtained from anatomical sites with the highest incidence of oral cancer: lower lip, border of the tongue, and floor of the mouth. The Feulgen reaction was used for quantification of nuclear anomalies in 1,000 cells/slide. A slightly increase in the number of micronucleated cells in the lower lip and in binucleated cells on the floor of the mouth was observed in individuals who used their phones > 60 minutes/week. The analysis also revealed an increased number of broken eggs in the tongue of individuals owning a cell phone for over eight years. Results suggest that exposure to electromagnetic waves emitted by cell phones can increase nuclear abnormalities in individuals who use a cell phone for more than 60 minutes per week and for over eight years. Based on the present findings, we suggest that exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell phones may interfere with the development of metanuclear anomalies. Therefore, it is demonstrated that, despite a significant increase in these anomalies, the radiation emitted by cell phones among frequent users is within acceptable physiological limits.

  15. Oral cancer awareness in Spain: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Centelles, P; Estany-Gestal, A; Bugarín-González, R; Seoane-Romero, J M

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the level of oral cancer knowledge and awareness in a Spanish general population. A cross-sectional study using an anonymous questionnaire applied in the community to randomly selected laypersons. Sample size for the general population was determined by quota sampling, resulting in 1,041 individuals. A total of 1,707 pedestrians were approached (response: 61%). When the participants were asked about what cancers had they heard about (up to ten), oral cancer was mentioned in first place by 2% of the sample and by 22% in any order. When specifically asked about oral cancer, the percentage of interviewees who were familiar with it raised to 72%. Participants were also asked about the main signs or symptoms of oral cancer, and the most frequently (22%) mentioned as the first warning sign was a non-healing ulcer. Tobacco smoking generally was recognised as the most important (57%) risk factor for oral cancer. This pilot study revealed a low awareness of oral cancer, and a poor knowledge of its signs and symptoms and risk factors. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The orally active and bioavailable ATR kinase inhibitor AZD6738 potentiates the anti-tumor effects of cisplatin to resolve ATM-deficient non-small cell lung cancer in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendetti, Frank P; Lau, Alan; Schamus, Sandra; Conrads, Thomas P; O'Connor, Mark J; Bakkenist, Christopher J

    2015-12-29

    ATR and ATM are DNA damage signaling kinases that phosphorylate several thousand substrates. ATR kinase activity is increased at damaged replication forks and resected DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). ATM kinase activity is increased at DSBs. ATM has been widely studied since ataxia telangiectasia individuals who express no ATM protein are the most radiosensitive patients identified. Since ATM is not an essential protein, it is widely believed that ATM kinase inhibitors will be well-tolerated in the clinic. ATR has been widely studied, but advances have been complicated by the finding that ATR is an essential protein and it is widely believed that ATR kinase inhibitors will be toxic in the clinic. We describe AZD6738, an orally active and bioavailable ATR kinase inhibitor. AZD6738 induces cell death and senescence in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. AZD6738 potentiates the cytotoxicity of cisplatin and gemcitabine in NSCLC cell lines with intact ATM kinase signaling, and potently synergizes with cisplatin in ATM-deficient NSCLC cells. In contrast to expectations, daily administration of AZD6738 and ATR kinase inhibition for 14 consecutive days is tolerated in mice and enhances the therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin in xenograft models. Remarkably, the combination of cisplatin and AZD6738 resolves ATM-deficient lung cancer xenografts.

  17. Investigation of extracellular microRNAs in oral squamous cell carcinoma, rheumatoid arthritis and mesenchymal stem cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Yan

    serve as biomarkers for human diseases and can also act as mediators in cell-cell communication. In cancer, the abnormal expression of miRNAs in plasma has been observed. However, there is no report on the association of plasma miRNA expression with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) recurrence after...

  18. Glutaminolysis and carcinogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetindis, Marcel; Biegner, Thorsten; Munz, Adelheid; Teriete, Peter; Reinert, Siegmar; Grimm, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Glutaminolysis is a crucial factor for tumor metabolism in the carcinogenesis of several tumors but has not been clarified for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) yet. Expression of glutaminolysis-related solute carrier family 1, member 5 (SLC1A5)/neutral amino acid transporter (ASCT2), glutaminase (GLS), and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) was analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n = 5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n = 11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n = 35), and OSCC specimen (n = 42) by immunohistochemistry. SLC1A5/ASCT2 and GLS were significantly overexpressed in the carcinogenesis of OSCC compared with normal tissue, while GLDH was weakly detected. Compared with SIN I-III SLC1A5/ASCT2 and GLS expression were significantly increased in OSCC. GLDH expression did not significantly differ from SIN I-III compared with OSCC. This study shows the first evidence of glutaminolysis-related SLC1A5/ASCT2, GLS, and GLDH expression in OSCC. The very weak GLDH expression indicates that glutamine metabolism is rather related to nucleotide or protein/hexosamine biosynthesis or to the function as an antioxidant (glutathione) than to energy production or generation of lactate through entering the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Overcoming glutaminolysis by targeting c-Myc oncogene (e.g. by natural compounds) and thereby cross-activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 or SLC1A5/ASCT2, GLS inhibitors may be a useful strategy to sensitize cancer cells to common OSCC cancer therapies.

  19. Non - Tobacco Induced Oral Cancer - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayannush K Dadachanji

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the overwhelming evidence for the role of tobacco & alcohol, there is a great interest in the minority of patients who develop oral cancer in the apparent absence of one or both of these risk factors. Lifelong abstainers from both these prevalent social customs are unusual people & little is known about their wider lifestyle. Oral cancer in non - tobacco users is a distinct clinical entity. The individuals tend to be elderly female patients, who may be passive smokers. Potential factors that may contribute to oral cancer development in non - tobacco users include nutritional deficiency, Human Papilloma Viruses Infection, gastro - intestinal reflux disease & lichen planus. Evaluation of these factors, along with the molecular mechanisms that underlie the onset & progress of tumor in this minority of oral cancer patients is a must

  20. Opium usage as an etiologic factor of oral cavity cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmpa, Ebrahim; Saedi, Babak; Motiee-langroudi, Maziar; Garajei, Ata; Hoseinpor, Sareh; Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein Kalantar

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of opium in causing oral cancer. Eighty patients and 80 selected matched controls who were referred to the ear-nose-throat department of an academic hospital were included in this study between October 2008 and September 2010. In addition to demographic data, information regarding alcohol, tobacco, and opium use was documented in the subjects. Finally, the effect of each risk factor was assessed. There was no significant difference in patient demographics between the 2 groups. Smoking (P = 0.042) and poor oral hygiene (P = 0.016) significantly correlated with cancer. Finally, opium addiction showed a significant relationship with oral cavity cancer with an odds ratio of 4 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-13.6). Opium use is among the possible risk factors for oral cancer.

  1. Natural ways to prevent and treat oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Danaraddi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is one of the usual causes of mortality all over the world, with a five-year survival rate of only 50%. Oral cancers are treated primarily by surgery with / without adjuvant radiotherapy and / or chemotherapy. However, there is significant post-treatment morbidity and mortality secondary to recurrences. Dietary supplements like fruits and vegetables are rich in phytochemicals and provide a variety of antioxidants like vitamin A, C, E. Spirulina, Selenium, Green tea (EGCG, Neem, Tomatoes (lycopene, Turmeric (curcumin, and some medicinal mushrooms are also used as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents. This overview emphasizes on natural therapies to fight against oral cancer. Thus, there are several natural compounds that can enhance the prevention of oral cancer.

  2. Screening for Oral Cavity Cancer: A 1-year Experience of a Regional Hospital in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, T H; Yuan, C H; Chen, R F

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the risk factors affecting precancerous lesions, and cancer of oral cavity, and to assess efficacy of visual screening for oral mucosal lesions. The medical records of patients older than 30 years of age with history of habitual cigarette smoking or betel quid chewing that received screening for oral mucosal lesions between January 2012 and December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients' age, gender, risk factors, screening findings, and histopathology results of biopsy were included for further analysis. A total of 1341 patients were enrolled in this study. There were 1080 males and 261 females ranging from 30 to 96 years of age, with a mean age of 53.9±13.6 years. After screening, 226 (16.9%) were found to be positive of oral lesions. Among these 226 patients, 69 (30.5%) underwent biopsy under local anesthesia, and the histopathology showed malignancy in 13 (5.8%). All of the confirmed malignant cases were squamous cell carcinoma. Among them, 12 received further staging examination and one was lost to follow-up resulting in unknown stage. The early stage oral cavity cancer (stage I and II) accounted for 84.6% (11/13). The detection rate of early stage oral cavity cancer in our study was reasonable. Therefore, visual screening for oral cavity cancer is recommended for patients with habitual cigarette smoking or betel quid chewing.

  3. High percentage of oral lichen planus and lichenoid lesion in oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruokonen, Hellevi M A; Juurikivi, Aino; Kauppila, Timo; Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Seppänen-Kaijansinkko, Riitta

    2017-08-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) and lichenoid lesions (OLL) are regarded as precursor lesions of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with potential for malignant transformation. This potential is not clear due to difficulties in diagnosis of OLP and OLL. Our aim was therefore to evaluate previously identified OLP and OLL as precursor lesions in OSCC and to identify cancer related etiological factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption. We retrospectively reviewed all cases (total 323, comprising 164 females and 159 males) with OSCC treated at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases and Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital during 2015. Confirmed by histopathological biopsy, 58 (17.9%) had OLP and 13 had OLL (4.0%) as precursor lesion. Patients with OLP were slightly older than those without it. OLP was more common in females than in males (p < .0001). TN class 1 tumors were more prevalent among patients with OLP or OLL (p = .006) and cancer relapses less common (p = .005). Smoking was less frequent in patients with OLP and OLL (p < .0001). Also alcohol abuse was less frequent among these patients (p < .001). Our findings confirm the importance of active follow-up of all patients with OLP and OLL even in patients who do not fit a traditional high-risk category for OSCC.

  4. Melatonin exerts anti-oral cancer effect via suppressing LSD1 in patient-derived tumor xenograft models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Yu; Lin, Chih-Kung; Tsao, Chang-Huei; Hsieh, Cheng-Chih; Lin, Gu-Jiun; Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Shieh, Yi-Shing; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Chen, Yuan-Wu

    2017-01-01

    Aberrant activation of histone lysine-specific demethylase (LSD1) increases tumorigenicity; hence, LSD1 is considered a therapeutic target for various human cancers. Although melatonin, an endogenously produced molecule, may defend against various cancers, the precise mechanism involved in its anti-oral cancer effect remains unclear. Patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) models are preclinical models that can more accurately reflect human tumor biology compared with cell line xenograft models. Here, we evaluated the anticancer activity of melatonin by using LSD1-overexpressing oral cancer PDTX models. By assessing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissue arrays through immunohistochemistry, we examined whether aberrant LSD1 overexpression in OSCC is associated with poor prognosis. We also evaluated the action mechanism of melatonin against OSCC with lymphatic metastases by using the PDTX models. Our results indicated that melatonin, at pharmacological concentrations, significantly suppresses cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The observed suppression of proliferation was accompanied by the melatonin-mediated inhibition of LSD1 in oral cancer PDTXs and oral cancer cell lines. In conclusion, we determined that the beneficial effects of melatonin in reducing oral cancer cell proliferation are associated with reduced LSD1 expression in vivo and in vitro. PMID:28422711

  5. A Chemopreventive Nanodiamond Platform for Oral Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Albert; Zhang, Kangyi; Daneshgaran, Giulia; Kim, Ho-Joong; Ho, Dean

    2016-02-01

    Standard oral cancer therapy generally includes a combination of surgery with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. This treatment paradigm has not changed in some time. In this paper, we propose a chemopreventive nanodiamond platform for the delivery of celecoxib (Celebrex) to oral cancer lesions. This innovative platform allows for sustained drug release under physiological conditions, potentially enhancing chemopreventive efficacy of celecoxib without the physical and toxicological damage associated with conventional means of drug delivery.

  6. Application of fuzzy consensus for oral pre-cancer and cancer susceptibility assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satarupa Banerjee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Health questionnaire data assessment conventionally relies upon statistical analysis in understanding disease susceptibility using discrete numbers and fails to reflect physician’s perspectives and missing narratives in data, which play subtle roles in disease prediction. In addressing such limitations, the present study applies fuzzy consensus in oral health and habit questionnaire data for a selected Indian population in the context of assessing susceptibility to oral pre-cancer and cancer. Methodically collected data were initially divided into age based small subgroups and fuzzy membership function was assigned to each. The methodology further proposed the susceptibility to oral precancers (viz. leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and squamous cell carcinoma in patients considering a fuzzy rulebase through If-Then rules with certain conditions. Incorporation of similarity measures using the Jaccard index was used during conversion into the linguistic output of fuzzy set to predict the disease outcome in a more accurate manner and associated condition of the relevant features. It is also expected that this analytical approach will be effective in devising strategies for policy making through real-life questionnaire data handling.

  7. Serum lipid profile in patients with oral cancer and oral precancerous conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajul Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was undertaken to estimate and compare the levels of plasma total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein (LDL, high density lipoprotein (HDL, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL and triglycerides in patients with oral precancerous lesions/conditions, oral cancer and normal subjects. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of 60 patients with oral precancerous lesions/conditions, 60 patients with oral cancer and a control group of 60 healthy individuals. The diagnosis of oral precancerous lesions/conditions and oral cancer was confirmed histopathologically. Under aseptic condition 5 ml venous blood of overnight fasting patient was withdrawn from each individual. Serum was separated by centrifugation and plasma levels of TC, LDL, HDL, VLDL and triglycerides were estimated. Descriptive statistical analysis has been carried out in the present study. Analysis of variance has been used to find the significance of study parameters between three or more groups of patients, Post-hoc test as Tukey has been used to find the pair wise significance. Significance is assessed at 5% level of significance. Results: Statistically significant decrease in levels of plasma TC, LDL, HDL, VLDL and triglycerides was observed in the precancerous and cancerous groups as compared to the control group. On comparison between precancerous and cancerous groups, significant decrease was observed in cancerous group. Conclusion: The change in lipid levels may have an early diagnostic or prognostic role in the oral premalignant lesions/conditions and oral cancer. The presence of decreased plasma lipid profile should increase the suspicion of these lesions to be investigated further.

  8. Detection of high PD-L1 expression in oral cancers by a novel monoclonal antibody L1Mab-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shinji; Itai, Shunsuke; Kaneko, Mika K; Kato, Yukinari

    2018-03-01

    Programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), which is a ligand of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein that is expressed on antigen-presenting cells and several tumor cells, including melanoma and lung cancer cells. There is a strong correlation between human PD-L1 (hPD-L1) expression on tumor cells and negative prognosis in cancer patients. In this study, we produced a novel anti-hPD-L1 monoclonal antibody (mAb), L 1 Mab-4 (IgG 2b , kappa), using cell-based immunization and screening (CBIS) method and investigated hPD-L1 expression in oral cancers. L 1 Mab-4 reacted with oral cancer cell lines (Ca9-22, HO-1-u-1, SAS, HSC-2, HSC-3, and HSC-4) in flow cytometry and stained oral cancers in a membrane-staining pattern. L 1 Mab-4 stained 106/150 (70.7%) of oral squamous cell carcinomas, indicating the very high sensitivity of L 1 Mab-4. These results indicate that L 1 Mab-4 could be useful for investigating the function of hPD-L1 in oral cancers.

  9. Colorectal cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Paul; Platell, Cameron

    2009-10-01

    Somatic stem cells reside at the base of the crypts throughout the colonic mucosa. These cells are essential for the normal regeneration of the colonic epithelium. The stem cells reside within a special 'niche' comprised of intestinal sub-epithelial myofibroblasts that tightly control their function. It has been postulated that mutations within these adult colonic stem cells may induce neoplastic changes. Such cells can then dissociate from the epithelium and travel into the mesenchyme and thus form invasive cancers. This theory is based on the observation that within a colon cancer, less than 1% of the neoplastic cells have the ability to regenerate the tumour. It is this group of cells that exhibits characteristics of colonic stem cells. Although anti-neoplastic agents can induce remissions by inhibiting cell division, the stem cells appear to be remarkably resistant to both standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These stem cells may therefore persist after treatment and form the nucleus for cancer recurrence. Hence, future treatment modalities should focus specifically on controlling the cancer stem cells. In this review, we discuss the biology of normal and malignant colonic stem cells.

  10. Early intensive rehabilitation after oral cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bschorer, Maximilian; Schneider, Daniel; Hennig, Matthias; Frank, Bernd; Schön, Gerhard; Heiland, Max; Bschorer, Reinhard

    2018-06-01

    The treatment of oral cancer requires an effective rehabilitation strategy such as an early intensive rehabilitation (EIR) program. The medical records and data of 41 patients who participated in an EIR program and 20 control group patients were analyzed. These patients all underwent surgical resection of the primary tumor followed by microsurgical reconstruction using free flaps. The length of stay (LOS) at the acute care hospital was compared between the two groups. Four indexes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the EIR program. EIR patients stayed an average of 11.6 fewer days at the acute care hospital. All indexes showed significant improvements (p < 0.001). The Barthel Index (BI) and the Early Intensive Rehabilitation Barthel Index (EIR-BI) improved by 36.0 and 103.6 points, respectively. At discharge, the Bogenhausener Dysphagia Score (BODS) had improved to a score of 11.0 compared to the 13.9 at admission. EIR patients had a Work Ability Index (WAI) score of 25.7. Length of stay at the acute care hospital can be reduced using early intensive rehabilitation if patients are transferred to an intensive rehabilitation clinic early. Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Management of cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikram, Bhadrasain

    1995-01-01

    Objective: To review the general principles and the specific techniques employed in the management of cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx, for the judicious utilization of external radiotherapy, brachytherapy, surgery and chemotherapy, in order to maximize both the cure rates and the quality of life. The oral cavity consists of lips, buccal mucosae, lower and upper alveolar ridges, floor of the mouth, hard palate and anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The oropharynx consists of the base of tongue, tonsillar regions, soft palate and posterior pharyngeal wall. This anatomical complexity means that the choice of treatment can be significantly influenced by just a few millimeters difference in the site of the origin or spread of the cancer. The choice can be critical not only for the cure but also the patients' subsequent quality of life. It can have a tremendous impact on the appearance, the ability to eat and the ability to talk. The great majority of cancers in the oral cavity and oropharynx are squamous cell carcinomas, but cancers arising from minor salivary glands are not infrequently seen. The staging system, though useful in treatment planning, has shortcomings which will be discussed. For purposes of discussion it is useful to divide the cancers broadly into Early (T1, T2, N0 N1), Advanced Resectable, and Advanced Unresectable. Early cancers can be cured, in a large proportion of the patients, by either surgery or irradiation; the latter is particularly successful when brachytherapy can be employed to administer a significant part of the dose. Brachytherapy is usually not feasible when the cancer involves bone or is in close proximity to it, due to a high risk of osteoradionecrosis. Poor oral hygiene, in general, and poor dentition, in particular, also increases the risk of osteoradionecrosis. It is, therefore, important to be proactive with regard to dental prophylaxis for any patient contemplating irradiation for oral or pharyngeal cancer. Another

  12. Management of cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikram, Bhadrasain

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To review the general principles and the specific techniques employed in the management of cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx, for the judicious utilization of external radiotherapy, brachytherapy, surgery and chemotherapy, in order to maximize both the cure rates and the quality of life. The oral cavity consists of lips, buccal mucosae, lower and upper alveolar ridges, floor of the mouth, hard palate and anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The oropharynx consists of the base of tongue, tonsillar regions, soft palate and posterior pharyngeal wall. This anatomical complexity means that the choice of treatment can be significantly influenced by just a few millimeters difference in the site of the origin or spread of the cancer. The choice can be critical not only for the cure but also the patients' subsequent quality of life. It can have a tremendous impact on the appearance, the ability to eat and the ability to talk. The great majority of cancers in the oral cavity and oropharynx are squamous cell carcinomas, but cancers arising from minor salivary glands are not infrequently seen. The staging system, though useful in treatment planning, has shortcomings which will be discussed. For purposes of discussion it is useful to divide the cancers broadly into Early (T1, T2, N0 N1), Advanced Resectable, and Advanced Unresectable. Early cancers can be cured, in a large proportion of the patients, by either surgery or irradiation; the latter is particularly successful when brachytherapy can be employed to administer a significant part of the dose. Brachytherapy is usually not feasible when the cancer involves bone or is in close proximity to it, due to a high risk of osteoradionecrosis. Poor oral hygiene, in general, and poor dentition, in particular, also increases the risk of osteoradionecrosis. It is, therefore, important to be proactive with regard to dental prophylaxis for any patient contemplating irradiation for oral or pharyngeal cancer. Another

  13. Management of cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikram, Bhadrasain

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To review the general principles and the specific techniques employed in the management of cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx, for the judicious utilization of external radiotherapy, brachytherapy, surgery and chemotherapy, in order to maximize both the cure rates and the quality of life. The oral cavity consists of lips, buccal mucosae, lower and upper alveolar ridges, floor of the mouth, hard palate and anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The oropharynx consists of the base of tongue, tonsillar regions, soft palate and posterior pharyngeal wall. This anatomical complexity means that the choice of treatment can be significantly influenced by just a few millimeters difference in the site of the origin or spread of the cancer. The choice can be critical not only for the cure but also the patients' subsequent quality of life. It can have a tremendous impact on the appearance, the ability to eat and the ability to talk. The great majority of cancers in the oral cavity and oropharynx are squamous cell carcinomas, but cancers arising from minor salivary glands are not infrequently seen. The staging system, though useful in treatment planning, has shortcomings which will be discussed. For purposes of discussion it is useful to divide the cancers broadly into Early (T1, T2, N0 N1), Advanced Resectable, and Advanced Unresectable. Early cancers can be cured, in a large proportion of the patients, by either surgery or irradiation; the latter is particularly successful when brachytherapy can be employed to administer a significant part of the dose. Brachytherapy is usually not feasible when the cancer involves bone or is in close proximity to it, due to a high risk of osteoradionecrosis. Poor oral hygiene, in general, and poor dentition, in particular, also increases the risk of osteoradionecrosis. It is, therefore, important to be proactive with regard to dental prophylaxis for any patient contemplating irradiation for oral or pharyngeal cancer. Another

  14. Epidemiology of oral and pharyngeal cancers: A retrospective study in ‎Kermanshah, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Zarei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and relative frequency of oral and pharyngeal cancers in Kermanshah, Iran, from March 1993 until March 2006. METHODS: The data used in this epidemiologic study were extracted directly from pathology records registered in 12 (all public and private pathology centers of Kermanshah province during the 13-year study period. The medical data of 13,323 cases of cancer were studied. RESULTS: During the 13-year period of this study, 350 new malignant cases occurred in the oral cavity and pharynx. 247 (70% were men and 103 (30% were women. The mean age for oral and pharyngeal cancers was 57 [standard deviation (SD = 17.09] with male to female ratio 2.39:1. The most common oral and pharyngeal cancers were squamous cell carcinoma (SCC with 283 patients. 211 (74.6% of the patients were men and 72 (25.4% of them were women; the mean age of SCC was 60 (SD = 16 with male to female ratio 2.93:1. The two most common sites of involvement were lips [166 (47.5%] and tongue [25 (7.14%]. The overall incidence rate of oral and pharyngeal cancers was 1.47 per 100000 populations. CONCLUSION: In summary, the incidence risk of oral and pharyngeal cancers in people living in Kermanshah province is similar to the most other provinces of Iran. However, this study showed that the rank of oral and pharyngeal cancers among males (9th most common cancer is low when compared to other regions of Iran and other countries such as India, Australia, and France.

  15. Public awareness and knowledge of oral cancer in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali; Addas, Abdallah; Tarakji, Bassel; Abbas, Alkasem; Al-Shamiri, Hashem M; Alaizari, Nader Ahmed; Shugaa-Addin, Bassam

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer is in increasing in incidence in Yemen and indeed worldwide. Knowledge regarding risk factors and early signs in the general population can help in prevention and early detection of the disease. The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness and knowledge of oral cancer in the general population in Yemen. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted on Yemeni adults aged ≥15 years old. A total of 543 persons participated, the collected data being analyzed using SPSS software. The significance level was set at p<0.05. Two thirds (71.5%) of the participants had heard about oral cancer. Smoking and smokeless tobacco usage were identified as the major risk factors by 71.5% and 73.7% of the participants, respectively. Only 24.1% and 21.4%, respectively, were able to correctly identify red and white lesions as early signs of oral cancer. Knowledge of oral cancer was significantly associated with age (p<0.01), gender (p<0.05) and education level (p<0.001). The findings suggest that the knowledge regarding oral cancer in this population is low. Therefore, educational programs are highly needed to improve such knowledge.

  16. Association of human papilloma virus infection and oral squamous cell carcinoma in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Mahmuda; Ali, Liaquat; Hassan, Zahid; Khan, Imran

    2013-03-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide. In Bangladesh, it comprises 20% of the whole body malignancies. Several studies found that 15% to 25% of oropharyngeal cancer cases are associated with human papilloma virus (HPV). This study is done to find the association of human papilloma virus subtypes, particularly HPV type 16 and HPV type 18, with the oral squamous cell carcinoma in Bangladeshi patients. In total, 34 diagnosed patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma were included in the study. Extracted DNA from the cancerous tissues was checked for PCR reaction to detect the subtypes of human papilloma virus. Data of the present study suggest that oral squamous cell carcinoma are almost absent in Bangladeshi patients with human papilloma virus, particularly HPV 16 and 18.

  17. Association of Human Papilloma Virus Infection and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Liaquat; Hassan, Zahid; Khan, Imran

    2013-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide. In Bangladesh, it comprises 20% of the whole body malignancies. Several studies found that 15% to 25% of oropharyngeal cancer cases are associated with human papilloma virus (HPV). This study is done to find the association of human papilloma virus subtypes, particularly HPV type 16 and HPV type 18, with the oral squamous cell carcinoma in Bangladeshi patients. In total, 34 diagnosed patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma were included in the study. Extracted DNA from the cancerous tissues was checked for PCR reaction to detect the subtypes of human papilloma virus. Data of the present study suggest that oral squamous cell carcinoma are almost absent in Bangladeshi patients with human papilloma virus, particularly HPV 16 and 18. PMID:23617206

  18. An in vivo cytogenetic analysis of human oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhimanyu Mohanta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral cancer ranks in the top three of all cancers in India, which accounts for over 30% of all cancers reported in the country. The micronucleus test (MNT is one of the most widely applied short term tests used in genetic toxicology to evaluate the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Aims: The present study aims at an in vivo cytogenetic analysis of human oral squamous cell carcinoma and to assess the applicability of MNT in diagnosing early detection of oral carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Exfoliated scrape smears were collected from the clinically diagnosed 136 patients suffering from oral precancerous and cancerous lesions. The wet fixed smears were stained by adopting Papanicolaou's staining protocol and counter-stained with Giemsa's solution. Results: The frequency of micronucleated cells has been observed to be in increasing order with the increase of the age-groups and from control to precancerous to cancerous cases significantly in both sexes. Conclusion: Micronucleus formation in the oral mucosa could be a biomarker of genetic damage and also a potential onco-indicator in the long run of oral carcinogenesis. Therefore, MNT can be applied for the early detection of oral carcinoma in the human being.

  19. Staging N0 Oral Cancer: Lymphoscintigraphy and Conventional Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, J.B.; Soerensen, J.A.; Grupe, P.; Karstoft, J.; Krogdahl, A. [Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Depts. of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Nuclear Medicine, Radiology, and Pathology

    2005-08-01

    PURPOSE: To compare sentinel lymph node biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Doppler ultrasonography, and palpation as staging tools in patients with T1/T2 N0 cancer of the oral cavity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty consecutive patients were enrolled (17 F and 23 M, aged 32-90 years), 24 T1 and 16 T2 cN0 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Palpation was carried out by two observers prior to inclusion. MRI, gray-scale and Doppler ultrasonography were performed. Lymphoscintigraphies were done after peritumoral injections of 99mTc labelled rheniumsulphide nanocolloid, followed by sentinel lymph node biopsy guided by a gamma probe and Patent Blue. Palpation, Doppler ultrasonography, MRI, and sentinel lymph node biopsy were compared to a combination of histopathology and follow-up. Diagnostic testing was performed using the x2 test. RESULTS: Histopathological examination revealed metastatic spread to the neck in 14 of 40 patients. One patient had bilateral neck disease. Sentinel lymph node biopsy and ultrasonography were performed in 80 neck sides of 40 patients and MRI in 70 neck sides (5 patients were claustrophobic). SN revealed suspicious lymph nodes in 12 necks, ultrasonography in 23 necks, and MRI in 9 necks. The positive predictive value of sentinel lymph node biopsy was 100%, ultrasonography 57%, and MRI 56%. The respective negative predictive values were 96%, 96%, and 85%. The sensitivity of sentinel lymph node biopsy 80% was comparable to ultrasonography 87%, but the sensitivity of MRI 36% was low. The specificities were 100%, 85%, and 93%, respectively. By combined sentinel lymph node biopsy and ultrasonography the overall sensitivity could have been 100%. CONCLUSION: Sentinel lymph node biopsy improved staging of patients with small N0 oral cancers. Combined sentinel lymph node biopsy and Doppler ultrasonography may further improve staging. MRI and simple palpation results were poor.

  20. [Comparative analysis of methylation profiles in tissues of oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J; Su, Y; Liu, Y; Zhang, X Y

    2018-04-09

    Objective: To compare the methylation profiles in tissues of oral leukoplakia (OLK) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with healthy tissues of oral mucosa, in order to identify the role of DNA methylation played in tumorigenesis. Methods: DNA samples extracted from tissues of 4 healthy oral mucosa, 4 OSCC and 4 OLK collected from patients of the Department of Oral Medicine, Capital Medical University School of Stomatology were examined and compared using Methylation 450 Bead Chip. The genes associated with differentially methylated CpG sites were selected for gene ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment. Results: Multiple differentially methylated CpG sites were identified by using the above mentioned assay. Hypermethylation constitutes 86.18% (23 290/27 025) of methylation changes in OLK and hypomethylation accounts for 13.82% (3 734/27 025) of methylation changes. Both hypermethylated and hypomethylated CpG sites were markedly increased in OSCC tissue compared with OLK tissue. The majority of differentially methylated CpG sites were located outside CpG islands, with approximately one-fourth in CpG shores flanking the islands, which were considered highly important for gene regulation and tumorigenesis. Pathway analysis revealed that differentially methylated CpG sites in both OLK and OSCC patients shared the same pathway enrichments, most of which were correlated with carcinogenesis and cancer progression (e.g., DNA repair, cell cycle, and apoptosis). Conclusions: In the present study, methylation-associated alterations affect almost all pathways in the cellular network in both OLK and OSCC. OLK and OSCC shared similar methylation changes whether in pathways or genes, indicating that epigenetically they might have the same molecular basis for disease progression.

  1. Occupational risk for oral cancer in nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarvainen, Laura; Suojanen, Juho; Kyyronen, Pentti

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate occupational risk for cancer of the tongue, oral cavity or pharynx after adjustment for alcohol and tobacco use. Materials and Methods: The data covered 14.9 million people and 28,623 cases of cancer of the tongue, oral cavity and pharynx in the Nordic countries 1961-2005. Alcohol...... consumption by occupation was estimated based on mortality from liver cirrhosis and incidence of liver cancer. Smoking by occupation was estimated based on the incidence of lung cancer. Results: Only few occupations had relative risks of over 1.5 for cancer of the tongue, oral cavity and pharynx...... chemical exposures, increased consumption of alcohol and tobacco products, or infection with human papilloma virus....

  2. Morphological and molecular features of oral fluid-derived exosomes: oral cancer patients versus healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotogorski-Hurvitz, Ayelet; Dayan, Dan; Chaushu, Gavriel; Salo, Tuula; Vered, Marilena

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer (OC) patients are at high risk to develop recurrent disease or secondary primary cancers with no available biomarkers to detect these events until a visible lesion is readily present and diagnosed by biopsy. Exosomes secreted by cancer cells are involved in tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. We aimed to determine morphological and molecular differences between oral fluid (OF)-derived exosomes of OC patients and those isolated from healthy individuals (HI). OF from OC patients (n = 36) and HI (n = 25) was initially assessed by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). Following ultracentrifugation, exosomal pellets of OC patients and HI were morphologically examined by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blotting (WB) were used to analyze the expression of exosomal markers--CD9, CD81 and CD63. NTA showed that OC samples of OF had a significantly higher concentration of nanoparticles/ml (p = 0.01) and modal nanoparticle size (p = 0.002) compared to HI. The difference in size was structurally highlighted by AFM three-dimensional images applied on exosomal pellets. ELISA and WB showed differential expression of exosomal markers in OC exosomes compared to HI: lower expression of CD81 and CD9 in contrast to a higher expression of CD63 (~53 kDa). OF-derived exosomes from OC patients differ both morphologically and molecularly from exosomes present in HI. This study is a baseline that provides a starting point for finding exosomal biomarkers for early detection of malignant changes in high-risk patients without overt clinical signs/lesions.

  3. Decorin in human oral cancer: A promising predictive biomarker of S-1 neoadjuvant chemosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Uzawa, Katsuhiro; Minakawa, Yasuyuki; Ishige, Shunsaku; Kasama, Hiroki; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Ogawara, Katsunori; Shiiba, Masashi; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Tanzawa, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • DCN is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. • DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. • DCN predicts the clinical responses to S-1 NAC for patients with oral cancer. - Abstract: We reported previously that decorin (DCN) is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. DCN is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan that exists and functions in stromal and epithelial cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that DCN affects the biology of several types of cancer by directly/indirectly targeting the signaling molecules involved in cell growth, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis, however, the molecular mechanisms of DCN in chemoresistance and its clinical relevance are still unknown. Here we assumed that DCN silencing cells increase chemosusceptibility to S-1, consisted of tegafur, prodrug of 5-fluorouracil. We first established DCN knockdown transfectants derived from oral cancer cells for following experiments including chemosusceptibility assay to S-1. In addition to the in vitro data, DCN knockdown zenografting tumors in nude mice demonstrate decreasing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis with dephosphorylation of AKT after S-1 chemotherapy. We also investigated whether DCN expression predicts the clinical responses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) using S-1 (S-1 NAC) for oral cancer patients. Immunohistochemistry data in the preoperative biopsy samples was analyzed to determine the cut-off point for status of DCN expression by receiver operating curve analysis. Interestingly, low DCN expression was observed in five (83%) of six cases with complete responses to S-1 NAC, and in one (10%) case of 10 cases with stable/progressive disease, indicating that S-1 chemosensitivity is dramatically effective in oral cancer patients with low DCN expression compared with high DCN expression. Our findings suggest that DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms, and

  4. Decorin in human oral cancer: A promising predictive biomarker of S-1 neoadjuvant chemosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasamatsu, Atsushi, E-mail: kasamatsua@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Department of Dentistry and Oral–Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Uzawa, Katsuhiro, E-mail: uzawak@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Department of Dentistry and Oral–Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Minakawa, Yasuyuki; Ishige, Shunsaku; Kasama, Hiroki [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Ogawara, Katsunori [Department of Dentistry and Oral–Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Shiiba, Masashi; Takiguchi, Yuichi [Medical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Tanzawa, Hideki [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Department of Dentistry and Oral–Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan)

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • DCN is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. • DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. • DCN predicts the clinical responses to S-1 NAC for patients with oral cancer. - Abstract: We reported previously that decorin (DCN) is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. DCN is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan that exists and functions in stromal and epithelial cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that DCN affects the biology of several types of cancer by directly/indirectly targeting the signaling molecules involved in cell growth, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis, however, the molecular mechanisms of DCN in chemoresistance and its clinical relevance are still unknown. Here we assumed that DCN silencing cells increase chemosusceptibility to S-1, consisted of tegafur, prodrug of 5-fluorouracil. We first established DCN knockdown transfectants derived from oral cancer cells for following experiments including chemosusceptibility assay to S-1. In addition to the in vitro data, DCN knockdown zenografting tumors in nude mice demonstrate decreasing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis with dephosphorylation of AKT after S-1 chemotherapy. We also investigated whether DCN expression predicts the clinical responses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) using S-1 (S-1 NAC) for oral cancer patients. Immunohistochemistry data in the preoperative biopsy samples was analyzed to determine the cut-off point for status of DCN expression by receiver operating curve analysis. Interestingly, low DCN expression was observed in five (83%) of six cases with complete responses to S-1 NAC, and in one (10%) case of 10 cases with stable/progressive disease, indicating that S-1 chemosensitivity is dramatically effective in oral cancer patients with low DCN expression compared with high DCN expression. Our findings suggest that DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms, and

  5. Stages of Renal Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumors Treatment Genetics of Kidney Cancer Research Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Renal Cell Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Renal ...

  6. Presage of oncolytic virotherapy for oral cancer with herpes simplex virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Yura

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A virus is a pathogenic organism that causes a number of infectious diseases in humans. The oral cavity is the site at which viruses enter and are excreted from the human body. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 produces the primary infectious disease, gingivostomatitis, and recurrent disease, labial herpes. HSV-1 is one of the most extensively investigated viruses used for cancer therapy. In principle, HSV-1 infects epithelial cells and neuronal cells and exhibits cytotoxicity due to its cytopathic effects on these cells. If the replication of the virus occurs in tumor cells, but not normal cells, the virus may be used as an antitumor agent. Therefore, HSV-1 genes have been modified by genetic engineering, and in vitro and in vivo studies with the oncolytic virus have demonstrated its efficiency against head and neck cancer including oral cancer. The oncolytic abilities of other viruses such as adenovirus and reovirus have also been demonstrated. In clinical trials, HSV-1 is the top runner and is now available for the treatment of patients with advanced melanoma. Thus, melanoma in the oral cavity is the target of oncolytic HSV-1. Oncolytic virotherapy is a hopeful and realistic modality for the treatment of oral cancer.

  7. Total, direct, and indirect effects of paan on oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Anwar T; Pitiphat, Waranuch

    2015-03-01

    Paan (betel leaf and betel nut quid) used with or without tobacco has been positively associated with oral cancer. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), a precancerous condition caused by paan, lies on the causal pathway between paan use and oral cancer. The purpose of this analysis was to estimate the effect of paan consumption on oral cancer risk when it is mediated by OSMF. We used mediation methods proposed by VanderWeele, which are based on causal inference principles, to characterize the total, direct, and indirect effects of paan, consumed with and without tobacco, on oral cancer mediated by OSMF. We reanalyzed case-control data collected from three hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan, between July 1996 and March 1998. For paan without tobacco, the total effect on oral cancer was OR 7.39, 95 % CI 1.01, 38.11, the natural indirect effect (due to OSMF among paan users) was OR 2.48, 95 % CI 0.99, 10.44, and the natural direct effect (due to paan with OSMF absent) was OR 3.32, 95 % CI 0.68, 10.07. For paan with tobacco, the total direct effect was OR 15.68, 95 % CI 3.00, 54.90, the natural indirect effect was OR 2.18, 95 % CI 0.82, 5.52, and the natural direct effect was OR 7.27, 95 % CI 2.15, 20.43. Paan, whether or not it contained tobacco, raised oral cancer risk irrespective of OSMF. Oral cancer risk was higher among those who used paan with tobacco.

  8. Understanding personal risk of oropharyngeal cancer: risk-groups for oncogenic oral HPV infection and oropharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, G; McNeel, T S; Fakhry, C

    2017-12-01

    Incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal cancer is increasing. There is interest in identifying healthy individuals most at risk for development of oropharyngeal cancer to inform screening strategies. All data are from 2009 to 2014, including 13 089 people ages 20-69 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), oropharyngeal cancer cases from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER 18) registries (representing ∼28% of the US population), and oropharyngeal cancer mortality from National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Primary study outcomes are (i) prevalence of oncogenic HPV DNA in an oral rinse and gargle sample, and (ii) incident oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer. Oncogenic oral HPV DNA is detected in 3.5% of all adults age 20-69 years; however, the lifetime risk of oropharyngeal cancer is low (37 per 10 000). Among men 50-59 years old, 8.1% have an oncogenic oral HPV infection, 2.1% have an oral HPV16 infection, yet only 0.7% will 'ever' develop oropharyngeal cancer in their lifetime. Oncogenic oral HPV prevalence was higher in men than women, and increased with number of lifetime oral sexual partners and tobacco use. Men who currently smoked and had ≥5 lifetime oral sexual partners had 'elevated risk' (prevalence = 14.9%). Men with only one of these risk factors (i.e. either smoked and had 2-4 partners or did not smoke and had ≥5 partners) had 'medium risk' (7.3%). Regardless of what other risk factors participants had, oncogenic oral HPV prevalence was 'low' among those with only ≤1 lifetime oral sexual partner (women = 0.7% and men = 1.7%). Screening based upon oncogenic oral HPV detection would be challenging. Most groups have low oncogenic oral HPV prevalence. In addition to the large numbers of individuals who would need to be screened to identify prevalent oncogenic oral HPV, the lifetime risk of developing oropharyngeal caner among those with infection remains

  9. Survival of Patients with Oral Cavity Cancer in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listl, Stefan; Jansen, Lina; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Freier, Kolja; Emrich, Katharina; Holleczek, Bernd; Katalinic, Alexander; Gondos, Adam; Brenner, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the survival of patients diagnosed with oral cavity cancer in Germany. The analyses relied on data from eleven population-based cancer registries in Germany covering a population of 33 million inhabitants. Patients with a diagnosis of oral cavity cancer (ICD-10: C00-06) between 1997 and 2006 are included. Period analysis for 2002–2006 was applied to estimate five-year age-standardized relative survival, taking into account patients' sex as well as grade and tumor stage. Overall five-year relative survival for oral cavity cancer patients was 54.6%. According to tumor localization, five-year survival was 86.5% for lip cancer, 48.1% for tongue cancer and 51.7% for other regions of the oral cavity. Differences in survival were identified with respect to age, sex, tumor grade and stage. The present study is the first to provide a comprehensive overview on survival of oral cavity cancer patients in Germany. PMID:23349710

  10. 5-Aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy for oral cancers and precancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ming Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have used both systemic and topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT to treat oral precancers including oral leukoplakia (OL, oral erythroleukoplakia (OEL, and oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH as well as oral cancers including oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Systemic ALA-PDT has been used to treat oral dysplastic lesions and oral cancers with promising clinical outcomes. The efficacy of a regular topical ALA-PDT (fluence rate, 100 mW/cm2; light dose, 100 J/cm2 was tested on an extensive buccal OVC and an enhanced topical ALA-PDT (fluence rate, 200 mW/cm2; light dose, 200 J/cm2 on an early-invasive OSCC; complete regression of the carcinomas was demonstrated after 28 and 18 PDT treatments, respectively. Several previous studies showed relatively good outcomes for OL lesions treated with topical ALA-PDT. However, it was found that the regular topical ALA-PDT is very effective for OVH and OEL lesions but less so for OL lesions. Better PDT outcomes are significantly associated with OVH and OEL lesions with smaller size, pink to red color, epithelial dysplasia, or thinner surface keratin layer. Moreover, the thicker surface keratin layer on the OL lesions is responsible for the relatively poorer PDT outcomes for OL lesions. In addition, both light emitting diode light- and laser light-mediated topical ALA-PDTs are comparative treatment modalities for OVH and OEL lesions. Methotrexate- or vitamin D3-preconditioned prostate or skin carcinoma cells can accumulate more intracellular protoporphyrin IX, resulting in an increased killing of these preconditioned cells by subsequent ALA-PDT. Because chemotherapy can help destroy carcinoma cells and tumor-associated vasculatures and cryotherapy pretreatment may help the diffusion of ALA into lesional epithelial cells, the chemotherapy or cryotherapy-combined topical ALA-PDT may be a new effective PDT alternative for

  11. Nrf2 regulates cellular behaviors and Notch signaling in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hong; Paiboonrungruan, Chorlada; Zhang, Xinyan; Prigge, Justin R; Schmidt, Edward E; Sun, Zheng; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2017-11-04

    Oxidative stress is known to play a pivotal role in the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We have demonstrated that activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway has chemopreventive effects against oxidative stress-associated OSCC. However, Nrf2 have dual roles in cancer development; while it prevents carcinogenesis of normal cells, hyperactive Nrf2 also promotes the survival of cancer cells. This study is aimed to understand the function of Nrf2 in regulating cellular behaviors of OSCC cells, and the potential mechanisms through which Nrf2 facilitates OSCC. We established the Nrf2-overexpressing and Nrf2-knockdown OSCC cell lines, and examined the function of Nrf2 in regulating cell proliferation, migration, invasion, cell cycle and colony formation. Our data showed that Nrf2 overexpression promoted cancer phenotypes in OSCC cells, whereas Nrf2 silencing inhibited these phenotypes. In addition, Nrf2 positively regulated Notch signaling pathway in OSCC cells in vitro. Consistent with this observation, Nrf2 activation in Keap1 -/- mice resulted in not only hyperproliferation of squamous epithelial cells in mouse tongue as evidenced by increased expression of PCNA, but also activation of Notch signaling in these cells as evidenced by increased expression of NICD1 and Hes1. In conclusion, Nrf2 regulates cancer behaviors and Notch signaling in OSCC cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lactobacillus salivarius REN inhibits rat oral cancer induced by 4-nitroquioline 1-oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Fang; Jiang, Lu; Liu, Ruihai; Zhang, Lian; Lei, Xingen; Li, Jiyou; Jiang, Jingli; Guo, Huiyuan; Fang, Bing; Zhao, Liang; Ren, Fazheng

    2013-07-01

    Despite significant advances in cancer therapy, cancer-related mobility and mortality are still rising. Alternative strategies such as cancer prevention thus become essential. Probiotics represent an emerging option for cancer prevention, but studies are limited to colon cancers. The efficiency of probiotics in the prevention of other cancers and the correlative mechanism remains to be explored. A novel probiotics Lactobacillus salivarius REN (L. salivarius REN) was isolated from centenarians at Bama of China, which showed highly potent antigenotoxicity in an initial assay. 4-nitroquioline 1-oxide (4NQO)-induced oral cancer model was introduced to study the anticancer activity of L. salivarius REN in vivo. The results indicated that oral administration of probiotic L. salivarius REN or its secretions could effectively suppress 4NQO-induced oral carcinogenesis in the initial and postinitial stage, and the inhibition was in a dose-dependent manner. A significant decrease of neoplasm incidence (65%-0%) was detected in rats fed with the high dose of L. salivarius REN [5 × 10(10) CFU/kg body weight (bw)/d]. In vivo evidences indicated that the probiotics inhibited 4NQO-induced oral cancer by protecting DNA against oxidative damage and downregulating COX-2 expression. L. salivarius REN treatment significantly decreased the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that probiotics may act as potential agents for oral cancer prevention. This is the first report showing the inhibitory effect of the probiotics on oral carcinogenesis. ©2013 AACR.

  13. Dental patients’ knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to oral cancer: the need of a nation-wide oral cancer prevention program

    OpenAIRE

    Villa, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the oral cancer (OC) knowledge, including risk factors and clinical symptoms, among patients attending Dental Departments within large Italian University hospitals. Methods: 2200 questionnaires were sent to four hospitals in order to assess patients’ knowledge regarding epidemiological and clinical features of oral cancer; oral cancer knowledge was assessed overall and stratified by oral cancer family history. Associations between exposures of...

  14. Influence of oral glutamine supplementation on survival outcomes of patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topkan, Erkan; Parlak, Cem; Topuk, Savas; Pehlivan, Berrin

    2012-01-01

    Glutamine (Gln) supplementation during concurrent chemoradiotherapy (C-CRT) effectively reduces the incidence and severity of acute radiation-induced esophagitis (RIE). However, there are concerns that Gln might stimulate tumor growth, and therefore negatively impact the outcomes of anticancer treatment. We retrospectively investigated the effect of co-administration of oral Gln during C-CRT on survival outcomes of patients with stage IIIB non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). We additionally evaluated role of oral Gln in preventing C-CRT-induced weight change, acute and late toxicities. The study included 104 patients: 56 (53.8%) received prophylactic powdered Gln (Gln+) orally at a dose of 10 g/8 h and 48 (46.2%) did not receive Gln (Gln-) and served as controls. The prescribed radiation dose to the planning target volume was 66 Gy in 2-Gy fractions. Primary endpoints of progression-free survival (PFS), local/regional progression-free survival (LRPFS), and overall survival (OS) were correlated with status of Gln supplementation. Oral Gln was well tolerated except for mild nausea/vomiting in 14 (25.0%) patients. There was no C-CRT-related acute or late grade 4–5 toxicity. Administration of Gln was associated with a decrease in the incidence of grade 3 acute radiation-induced esophagitis (RIE) (7.2% vs. 16.7% for Gln+ vs. Gln-; p=0.02) and late-RIE (0% vs. 6.3%; p=0.06), a reduced need for unplanned treatment breaks (7.1% vs. 20.8%; p=0.04), and reduced incidence of weight loss (44.6% vs. 72.9%; p=0.002). At a median follow-up of 24.2 months (range 9.2-34.4) the median OS, LRPFS, and PFS for Gln+ vs. Gln- cohorts were 21.4 vs. 20.4 (p=0.35), 14.2 vs.11.3 (p=0.16), and 10.2 vs. 9.0 months (p=0.11), respectively. In our study, supplementation with Gln during C-CRT had no detectable negative impact on tumor control and survival outcomes in patients with Stage IIIB NSCLC. Furthermore, Gln appeared to have a beneficial effect with respect to prevention of weight loss

  15. Synthesis of Colloidal Quantum Dots Coated with Mercaptosuccinic Acid for Early Detection and Therapeutics of Oral Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jocelin, G.; Arivarasan, A.; Ganesan, M.; Prasad, N. Rajendra; Sasikala, G.

    2016-04-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are gaining widespread recognition for its luminescence behavior and unique photo physical properties as a bio-marker and inorganic fluorophore. In spite of such rampant advantages, its application is clinically hampered depending on the surface coating decreasing its luminescence efficiency. The present study reports preparation of CdTe QDs capped with biologically active thiol based material, mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) for diagnosis of oral cancer (KB) cells by acting as a fluorophore marking targeted tumor cells and at the same time exhibiting certain cytotoxic effects. Synthesized MSA coated CdTe QDs is spherical in shape with an average particle size of 3-5nm. In vitro, the rapid uptake of MSA CdTe QDs in oral cancer cell lines were assessed through fluorescence microscopy. Further, this study evaluates the therapeutic efficiency of MSA CdTe QDs in human oral cancer cell lines using MTT analysis. MSA CdTe QDs exhibit significant cytotoxicity in oral cancer cells in a dose dependent manner with low IC50 when compared with other raw CdTe QDs. MSA CdTe QDs were also treated with human lymphocytes (normal cells) to assess and compare the toxicity profile of QDs in normal and oral tumors. The results of our present study strengthen our hypothesis of using MSA CdTe QDs as detector for tracking and fluorescence imaging of oral cancer cells and exhibiting sufficient cytotoxicity in them.

  16. Tumor necrosis factor-α enhanced fusions between oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and endothelial cells via VCAM-1/VLA-4 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kai; Zhu, Fei; Zhang, Han-zhong; Shang, Zheng-jun

    2012-01-01

    Fusion between cancer cells and host cells, including endothelial cells, may strongly modulate the biological behavior of tumors. However, no one is sure about the driving factors and underlying mechanism involved in such fusion. We hypothesized in this study that inflammation, one of the main characteristics in tumor microenvironment, serves as a prominent catalyst for fusion events. Our results showed that oral cancer cells can fuse spontaneously with endothelial cells in co-culture and inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased fusion of human umbilical vein endothelium cells and oral cancer cells by up to 3-fold in vitro. Additionally, human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and 35 out of 50 (70%) oral squamous carcinoma specimens express VLA-4, an integrin, previously implicated in fusions between human peripheral blood CD34-positive cells and murine cardiomyocytes. Expression of VCAM-1, a ligand for VLA-4, was evident on vascular endothelium of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Moreover, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry analysis revealed that expression of VCAM-1 increased obviously in TNF-α-stimulated endothelial cells. Anti-VLA-4 or anti-VCAM-1 treatment can decrease significantly cancer–endothelial adhesion and block such fusion. Collectively, our results suggested that TNF-α could enhance cancer–endothelial cell adhesion and fusion through VCAM-1/VLA-4 pathway. This study provides insights into regulatory mechanism of cancer–endothelial cell fusion, and has important implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for prevention of metastasis. -- Highlights: ► Spontaneous oral cancer–endothelial cell fusion. ► TNF-α enhanced cell fusions. ► VCAM-1/VLA-4 expressed in oral cancer. ► TNF-α increased expression of VCAM-1 on endothelial cells. ► VCAM-1/VLA-4 mediated TNF-α-enhanced cell fusions.

  17. Superselective intra-arterial chemoradiotherapy for advanced oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Wataru; Sakaki, Hirotaka; Kakehata, Shinya; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Takai, Yoshihiro; Kimura, Hiroto; Teh, Beng Gwan

    2012-01-01

    Functional preservation is important in the treatment of advanced oral cancer in terms of patient's quality of life (QOL), therefore surgery is not ideal for advanced oral cancer. In order to ensure both curability and functional preservation, superselective intra-arterial chemoradiotherapy (SSIACRT), which is considered to be superior to conventional surgical treatment, has been conducted. Thirty-four patients with advanced oral cancer have been treated with SSIACRT with a combination of nedaplatin (CDGP) and docetaxel (DOC) since 2003. Complete response was achieved in 30 (89%) out of the 34 patients. Amongst the 25 patients with positive neck diseases, 23 (92%) were assessed as disease-free. The 5-year overall survival rate was 71.4%. Wide resection of both primary and neck lesions was avoidable and oral cavity function (swallowing, speech, mastication) after SSIACRT was satisfactory. A problem for SSIACRT is the development of late adverse events of xerostomia and osteoradionecrosis. (author)

  18. Postoperative Conversion Disorder in Elderly Oral Cancer Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushiji, Takashi; Hayashi, Kamichika; Morikawa, Takamichi; Migita, Masashi; Ogane, Satoru; Muramatsu, Kyotaro; Kamio, Takashi; Shibahara, Takahiko; Takano, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Conversion disorder is a condition in which psychological stress in response to difficult situations manifests as physical symptoms. Here, we report a case of postoperative coma due to conversion disorder in an elderly oral cancer patient. An 82-year-old woman was referred to Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital with a mass lesion on the tongue. A biopsy revealed a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Surgical treatment was performed for the tongue carcinoma and tracheotomy for management of the airway. On postoperative day 5, the patient exhibited loss of consciousness (Glasgow Coma Scale: E1, VT, M1; Japan Coma Scale: III-300). The patient's vital signs were all normal, as were the results of a full blood count, brain-CT, MRI, and MRA. Only the arm dropping test was positive. Therefore, the cause of the coma was diagnosed as conversion disorder. Seven hours later, the patient showed a complete recovery.

  19. Evidences Suggesting Involvement of Viruses in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kanupriya; Metgud, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers and it constitutes a major health problem particularly in developing countries. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) represents the most frequent of all oral neoplasms. Several risk factors have been well characterized to be associated with OSCC with substantial evidences. The etiology of OSCC is complex and involves many factors. The most clearly defined potential factors are smoking and alcohol, which substantially increase the risk of OSCC. However, despite this clear association, a substantial proportion of patients develop OSCC without exposure to them, emphasizing the role of other risk factors such as genetic susceptibility and oncogenic viruses. Some viruses are strongly associated with OSCC while the association of others is less frequent and may depend on cofactors for their carcinogenic effects. Therefore, the exact role of viruses must be evaluated with care in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of OSCC. Although a viral association within a subset of OSCC has been shown, the molecular and histopathological characteristics of these tumors have yet to be clearly defined. PMID:24455418

  20. Evidences Suggesting Involvement of Viruses in Oral Squamous