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Sample records for oral acetaminophen paracetamol

  1. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) oral absorption and clinical influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, Robert B; Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Taylor, Robert; Decker, John F; Patrick, Jeffrey T

    2014-09-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a widely used nonopioid, non-NSAID analgesic that is effective against a variety of pain types, but the consequences of overdose can be severe. Because acetaminophen is so widely available as a single agent and is increasingly being formulated in fixed-ratio combination analgesic products for the potential additive or synergistic analgesic effect and/or reduced adverse effects, accidental cumulative overdose is an emergent concern. This has rekindled interest in the sites, processes, and pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen oral absorption and the clinical factors that can influence these. The absorption of oral acetaminophen occurs primarily along the small intestine by passive diffusion. Therefore, the rate-limiting step is the rate of gastric emptying into the intestines. Several clinical factors can affect absorption per se or the rate of gastric emptying, such as diet, concomitant medication, surgery, pregnancy, and others. Although acetaminophen does not have the abuse potential of opioids or the gastrointestinal bleeding or organ adverse effects of NSAIDs, excess amounts can produce serious hepatic injury. Thus, an understanding of the sites and features of acetaminophen absorption--and how they might be influenced by factors encountered in clinical practice--is important for pain management using this agent. It can also provide insight for design of formulations that would be less susceptible to clinical variables. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  2. Interventions for paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J; Buckley, N; Gluud, C

    2002-01-01

    Self-poisoning with paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a common cause of hepatotoxicity in the Western World. Interventions for paracetamol poisoning encompass inhibition of absorption, removal from the vascular system, antidotes, and liver transplantation.......Self-poisoning with paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a common cause of hepatotoxicity in the Western World. Interventions for paracetamol poisoning encompass inhibition of absorption, removal from the vascular system, antidotes, and liver transplantation....

  3. Randomised controlled trial comparing oral and intravenous paracetamol (acetaminophen) plasma levels when given as preoperative analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Westhuizen, J; Kuo, P Y; Reed, P W; Holder, K

    2011-03-01

    Gastric absorption of oral paracetamol (acetaminophen) may be unreliable perioperatively in the starved and stressed patient. We compared plasma concentrations of parenteral paracetamol given preoperatively and oral paracetamol when given as premedication. Patients scheduled for elective ear; nose and throat surgery or orthopaedic surgery were randomised to receive either oral or intravenous paracetamol as preoperative medication. The oral dose was given 30 minutes before induction of anaesthesia and the intravenous dose given pre-induction. All patients were given a standardised anaesthetic by the same specialist anaesthetist who took blood for paracetamol concentrations 30 minutes after the first dose and then at 30 minute intervals for 240 minutes. Therapeutic concentrations of paracetamol were reached in 96% of patients who had received the drug parenterally, and 67% of patients who had received it orally. Maximum median plasma concentrations were 19 mg.l(-1) (interquartile range 15 to 23 mg.l(-1)) and 13 mg.l(-1) (interquartile range 0 to 18 mg.l(-1)) for the intravenous and oral group respectively. The difference between intravenous and oral groups was less marked after 150 minutes but the intravenous preparation gave higher plasma concentrations throughout the study period. It can be concluded that paracetamol gives more reliable therapeutic plasma concentrations when given intravenously.

  4. Oral paracetamol (acetaminophen) for cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiffen, Philip J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McNicol, Ewan D; Bell, Rae F; Carr, Daniel B; McIntyre, Mairead; Wee, Bee

    2017-07-12

    Pain is a common symptom with cancer, and 30% to 50% of all people with cancer will experience moderate to severe pain that can have a major negative impact on their quality of life. Non-opioid drugs are commonly used to treat mild to moderate cancer pain, and are recommended for this purpose in the WHO cancer pain treatment ladder, either alone or in combination with opioids.A previous Cochrane review that examined the evidence for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or paracetamol, alone or combined with opioids, for cancer pain was withdrawn in 2015 because it was out of date; the date of the last search was 2005. This review, and another on NSAIDs, updates the evidence. To assess the efficacy of oral paracetamol (acetaminophen) for cancer pain in adults and children, and the adverse events reported during its use in clinical trials. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, and Embase from inception to March 2017, together with reference lists of retrieved papers and reviews, and two online study registries. We included randomised, double-blind, studies of five days' duration or longer, comparing paracetamol alone with placebo, or paracetamol in combination with an opioid compared with the same dose of the opioid alone, for cancer pain of any intensity. Single-blind and open studies were also eligible for inclusion. The minimum study size was 25 participants per treatment arm at the initial randomisation. Two review authors independently searched for studies, extracted efficacy and adverse event data, and examined issues of study quality and potential bias. We did not carry out any pooled analyses. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE and created a 'Summary of findings' table. Three studies in adults satisfied the inclusion criteria, lasting up to one week; 122 participants were randomised initially, and 95 completed treatment. We found no studies in children. One study was parallel-group, and

  5. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: acetaminophen (paracetamol).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalantzi, L; Reppas, C; Dressman, J B; Amidon, G L; Junginger, H E; Midha, K K; Shah, V P; Stavchansky, S A; Barends, Dirk M

    2006-01-01

    Literature data are reviewed on the properties of acetaminophen (paracetamol) related to the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS). According to the current BCS criteria, acetaminophen is BCS Class III compound. Differences in composition seldom, if ever, have an effect on the extent of

  6. Pharmacokinetics of Oral and Intravenous Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) When Co-Administered with Intravenous Morphine in Healthy Adult Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, Robert B; Pawasauskas, Jayne; Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Lu, Luke; Chen, Yin; Wu, Sutan; Jarrett, Brant; Fain, Randi; Hill, Lawrence; Devarakonda, Krishna

    2018-03-01

    Several features favor paracetamol (acetaminophen) administration by the intravenous rather than the oral route in the postoperative setting. This study compared the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of oral and intravenous paracetamol when given with or without an opioid, morphine. In this randomized, single-blind, parallel, repeat-dose study in healthy adults, subjects received four repeat doses of oral or intravenous 1000 mg paracetamol at 6-h intervals, and morphine infusions (0.125 mg/kg) at the 2nd and 3rd intervals. Comparisons of plasma pharmacokinetic profiles were conducted before, during, and after opioid co-administrations. Twenty-two subjects were included in the pharmacokinetic analysis. Observed paracetamol peak concentration (C max ) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve over the dosing interval (AUC 0-6 ) were reduced when oral paracetamol was co-administered with morphine (reduced from 11.6 to 7.25 µg/mL and from 31.00 to 25.51 µg·h/mL, respectively), followed by an abruptly increased C max and AUC 0-6 upon discontinuation of morphine (to 13.5 µg/mL and 52.38 µg·h/mL, respectively). There was also a significantly prolonged mean time to peak plasma concentration (T max ) after the 4th dose of oral paracetamol (2.84 h) compared to the 1st dose (1.48 h). However, pharmacokinetic parameters of paracetamol were not impacted when intravenous paracetamol was co-administered with morphine. Morphine co-administration significantly impacted the pharmacokinetics of oral but not intravenous paracetamol. The abrupt release of accumulated paracetamol at the end of morphine-mediated gastrointestinal inhibition following oral but not intravenous administration of paracetamol suggests that intravenous paracetamol provides a better option for the management of postoperative pain. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT02848729.

  7. Treatment with acetaminophen/paracetamol or ibuprofen alleviates post-dose symptoms related to intravenous infusion with zoledronic acid 5 mg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wark, J D; Bensen, W; Recknor, C; Ryabitseva, O; Chiodo, J; Mesenbrink, P; de Villiers, T J

    2012-02-01

    Patients treated with intravenous zoledronic acid 5 mg for osteoporosis may experience post-dose influenza-like symptoms. Oral acetaminophen/paracetamol or ibuprofen administered 4 h post-infusion reduced the proportion of patients with increased oral temperature and worsening post-infusion symptom scores vs. placebo, thus providing an effective strategy for the treatment of such symptoms. Once-yearly intravenous zoledronic acid 5 mg is a safe and effective treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. This study assessed whether transient influenza-like post-dose symptoms associated with intravenous infusion of zoledronic acid can be reduced by post-dose administration of acetaminophen/paracetamol or ibuprofen. In an international, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy parallel-group study, bisphosphonate-naïve postmenopausal women with osteopenia (n = 481) were randomized to receive zoledronic acid 5 mg + acetaminophen/paracetamol (n = 135), ibuprofen (n = 137) or placebo (n = 137), or placebo + placebo (n = 72). Acetaminophen/paracetamol and ibuprofen were administered every 6 h for 3 days beginning 4 h post-infusion. The proportion of patients with increased oral temperature (≥1°C above 37.5°C) and with worsening post-infusion symptom scores over 3 days was significantly lower in patients receiving ibuprofen (36.8% and 48.5%) or acetaminophen/paracetamol (37.3% and 46.3%) vs. those receiving placebo (63.5% and 75.9%, respectively; all p paracetamol or ibuprofen. Oral acetaminophen/paracetamol or ibuprofen effectively managed the transient influenza-like symptoms associated with zoledronic acid 5 mg.

  8. Pre-emptive analgesia with paracetamol (acetaminophen) in postoperative pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afhami, M.R.; Hassanzadeh, J.P.; Panahea, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate efficacy and safety of preoperative paracetamol for postoperative pain relief. The study population consisted of 40 adult female patients scheduled for tubectomy as an elective surgery who were in ASA class I. Patients were allocated randomly to receive 325mg of acetaminophen orally half an hour before surgery. Pain was assessed by verbal rating scale in three situations (resting, moving and coughing). Data was collection done using the questionnaire and data analysis done using descriptive statistical methods. The patients who received oral paracetamol experienced moderate and mild pain in 50% of the cases when they were in resting position. Feeling mild and moderate pain with movement was in 40% and 60% respectively. While coughing, 100% of the cases felt only moderate pain and none experienced severe pain. Administration of a single dose of acetaminophen in preoperative period is effective for acute postoperative pain relief. (author)

  9. Interventions for paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdoses. Protocol for a Cochrane Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J; Buckley, N; Gluud, C

    2001-01-01

    Poisoning with paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a common cause of hepatotoxicity in the Western World. Inhibition of absorption, removal from the vascular system, antidotes, and liver transplantation are interventions for paracetamol poisoning.......Poisoning with paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a common cause of hepatotoxicity in the Western World. Inhibition of absorption, removal from the vascular system, antidotes, and liver transplantation are interventions for paracetamol poisoning....

  10. PULMONARY AND LIVER DAMAGE DURING TREATMENT WITH ACETAMINOPHEN (PARACETAMOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Dvoretski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of pulmonary damage in the form of intestinal pneumonitis with severe respiratory failure during administration of acetaminophen (paracetamol. In addition, significant increase of ALT and AST levels without clinical signs of liver damage was observed in this patient. After glucocorticoids administration regression of radiological abnormal findings in the lungs along with normalization of liver enzymes values were registered. The rarity of interstitial pneumonitis induced by acetaminophen (paracetamol, especially in combination with liver damage, is emphasized. The presented patient history is the first case report of drug-induced hepatopulmonary syndrome during acetaminophen (paracetamol administration.

  11. Interventions for paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiew, Angela L; Gluud, Christian; Brok, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the most widely used non-prescription analgesic in the world. Paracetamol is commonly taken in overdose either deliberately or unintentionally. In high-income countries, paracetamol toxicity is a common cause of acute liver injury. There are various...... of paracetamol. Acetylcysteine should be given to people at risk of toxicity including people presenting with liver failure. Further randomised clinical trials with low risk of bias and adequate number of participants are required to determine which regimen results in the fewest adverse effects with the best...... was abandoned due to low numbers recruited), assessing several different interventions in 700 participants. The variety of interventions studied included decontamination, extracorporeal measures, and antidotes to detoxify paracetamol's toxic metabolite; which included methionine, cysteamine, dimercaprol...

  12. Unexpected paracetamol (acetaminophen) hepatotoxicity at standard dosage in two older patients: time to rethink 1 g four times daily?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ging, Patricia; Mikulich, Olga; O'Reilly, Katherine M A

    2016-07-01

    We present two cases of acute hepatotoxicity associated with elevated paracetamol (acetaminophen) levels in older patients. Both patients were receiving a standard European dose of oral paracetamol (2 × 500 mg QDS) with no risk factors for slowed metabolism (weight paracetamol can be hepatotoxic. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) efficacy and safety in the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzolin, Laura; Antonucci, Roberto; Fanos, Vassilios

    2013-02-01

    Neonates can perceive pain, therefore an adequate analgesic therapy is a major issue not only from an ethical perspective but also to improve short- and long-term outcome. Fever during the neonatal period requires hospitalization and needs a treatment with an antipyretic agent because of the high risk of severe complications. Paracetamol (acetaminophen), the most commonly prescribed drug in paediatric patients for its analgesic and antipyretic effects, is the only agent recommended for use as an antipyretic in the newborn and has been recently proposed as a supplement therapy to opioids for postoperative analgesia. This article aims to give an updated overview on the use of paracetamol in newborns by presenting its pharmacological profile (mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics), recommendations for dosing regimens (oral or rectal administration: 25-30 mg/kg/day in preterm neonates of 30 weeks' gestation, 45 mg/kg/day in preterm neonates of 34 weeks' gestation, 60 mg/kg/day in term neonates; i.v. administration: indicatively 20-40 mg/kg/day depending on gestational age, with some differences among various guidelines) and clinical uses (more commonly as analgesic/antipyretic by oral or rectal route, but also i.v. in anaesthesia for postoperative analgesia and painful procedures in Neonatal Intensive Care Units). Moreover, drug tolerability is discussed in the light of its potential hepatotoxicity and the unique characteristics of the newborn patient. By analyzing the available literature and the dosing guidelines, a mismatch exists between the current clinical use of paracetamol and the recommendations, suggesting a cautious approach particularly in extremely preterm neonates.

  14. Acute acetaminophen (paracetamol) ingestion improves time to exhaustion during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauger, Alexis R; Taylor, Lee; Harding, Christopher; Wright, Benjamin; Foster, Josh; Castle, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a commonly used over-the-counter analgesic and antipyretic and has previously been shown to improve exercise performance through a reduction in perceived pain. This study sought to establish whether its antipyretic action may also improve exercise capacity in the heat by moderating the increase in core temperature. On separate days, 11 recreationally active participants completed two experimental time-to-exhaustion trials on a cycle ergometer in hot conditions (30°C, 50% relative humidity) after ingesting a placebo control or an oral dose of acetaminophen in a randomized, double-blind design. Following acetaminophen ingestion, participants cycled for a significantly longer period of time (acetaminophen, 23 ± 15 min versus placebo, 19 ± 13 min; P = 0.005; 95% confidence interval = 90-379 s), and this was accompanied by significantly lower core (-0.15°C), skin (-0.47°C) and body temperatures (0.19°C; P 0.05). This is the first study to demonstrate that an acute dose of acetaminophen can improve cycling capacity in hot conditions, and that this may be due to the observed reduction in core, skin and body temperature and the subjective perception of thermal comfort. These findings suggest that acetaminophen may reduce the thermoregulatory strain elicited from exercise, thus improving time to exhaustion.

  15. Use of intravenous acetaminophen (paracetamol) in a pediatric patient at the end of life: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Adam D; Keefer, Patricia; Saul, D'Anna

    2013-12-01

    For the better part of 100 years, acetaminophen (or paracetamol as it is known outside of the United States) has been a common first-line analgesic in pediatrics and is typically well tolerated with minimal side effects. Its use as an anti-pyretic is also well-documented and thus it is used broadly for symptom control in the general pediatric population. In pediatric palliative care, acetaminophen is also used as an adjuvant to opioid therapy for pain as well as an anti-pyretic. For many pediatric patients near end-of-life, however, the ability to tolerate oral intake is diminished and rectal suppository administration can be distressing or contraindicated as in the setting of neutropenia, thus limiting use of acetaminophen by its usual routes. In Europe and Australia, an intravenous formulation of acetaminophen has been used for many years and has only recently become available in the United States. Here, we describe a case using intravenous acetaminophen in a pediatric patient at the end of life.

  16. the effect of acetaminophen (paracetamol ) on tear production abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LIVINGSTON

    cox-1 and cox-2 has long been known to be the mechanism of action ... effects typical of NSAIDS . Chronic excessive alcohol consumption can ... The effect of acetaminophen (paracetamol ) on the tear production of 100 young healthy subjects ...

  17. [Effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on blood pressure in patients with coronary heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudano, I; Roas, S; Flammer, A J; Noll, G; Ruschitzka, F

    2012-06-06

    Analgesic drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and paracetamol (acetaminophen) in particular, belong to the most widely prescribed therapeutic agents. Beside their efficacy in pain relief, these drugs were recently linked to increased cardiovascular risk. Indeed, epidemiological and clinical studies showed that non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors both may increase blood pressure and cardiovascular events. However, the effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on blood pressure and cardiovascular health should not be neglected, too. Unfortunately, long-term randomized controlled trials appropriately powered to evaluate cardiovascular outcomes are lacking. This review summarizes the available data about the effect of paracetamol in particular, on blood pressure and other cardiovascular outcomes.

  18. Effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on body temperature in acute stroke: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Junjie; Chen, Chensong; Cheng, Hongsen; Wang, Ren; Ma, Linhao

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on body temperature in acute stroke. Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched electronically. Relevant journals and references of studies included were hand-searched for randomized controlled trials (RCT) and controlled clinical trials (CCT) regarding the efficacy of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on body temperature in acute stroke. Two reviewers independently performed data extraction and quality assessment. Data were analyzed using RevMan 5.3 software by the Cochrane Collaboration. Five studies were included. To compare the efficacy of paracetamol (acetaminophen) in acute stroke, the pooled RR (Risk Ratio) and its 95% CI of body temperature reduction at 24h from the start of treatment were -0.3 (95% CI: -0.52 to -0.08), with statistical significance (P=0.007). Consistently, the pooled RR (Risk Ratio) and its 95% CI of body temperature at 24h from the start of treatment were -0.22 (-0.29, -0.15), with statistical significance (PParacetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most commonly used antipyretic drugs and has some capability to reduce body temperature through acting on central nervous system. Acetaminophen showed some capability to decrease body temperature for acute stroke. Acetaminophen could not improve functional outcome and reduce adverse events of patients with acute stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Single dose oral ibuprofen plus paracetamol (acetaminophen) for acute postoperative pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Christopher J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew

    2013-06-24

    Combining two different analgesics in fixed doses in a single tablet can provide better pain relief than either drug alone in acute pain. This appears to be broadly true across a range of different drug combinations, in postoperative pain and migraine headache. Some combinations of ibuprofen and paracetamol are available for use without prescription in some acute pain situations. To assess the efficacy and adverse effects of single dose oral ibuprofen plus paracetamol for acute postoperative pain using methods that permit comparison with other analgesics evaluated in standardised trials using almost identical methods and outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) on The Cochrane Library (Issue 4 of 12, 2013), MEDLINE (1950 to May 21st 2013), EMBASE (1974 to May 21st 2013), the Oxford Pain Database, ClinicalTrials.gov, and reference lists of articles. Randomised, double-blind clinical trials of single dose, oral ibuprofen plus paracetamol compared with placebo or the same dose of ibuprofen alone for acute postoperative pain in adults. Two review authors independently considered trials for inclusion in the review, assessed quality, and extracted data. We used validated equations to calculate the area under the pain relief versus time curve and derive the proportion of participants with at least 50% of maximum pain relief over six hours. We calculated relative risk (RR) and number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) for ibuprofen plus paracetamol, ibuprofen alone, or placebo. We used information on use of rescue medication to calculate the proportion of participants requiring rescue medication and the weighted mean of the median time to use. We also collected information on adverse events. Searches identified three studies involving 1647 participants. Each of them examined several dose combinations. Included studies provided data from 508 participants for the comparison of ibuprofen 200 mg + paracetamol 500 mg with placebo, 543

  20. Understanding lactic acidosis in paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anoop D; Wood, David M; Dargan, Paul I

    2011-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most commonly taken drugs in overdose in many areas of the world, and the most common cause of acute liver failure in both the UK and USA. Paracetamol poisoning can result in lactic acidosis in two different scenarios. First, early in the course of poisoning and before the onset of hepatotoxicity in patients with massive ingestion; a lactic acidosis is usually associated with coma. Experimental evidence from studies in whole animals, perfused liver slices and cell cultures has shown that the toxic metabolite of paracetamol, N-acetyl-p-benzo-quinone imine, inhibits electron transfer in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and thus inhibits aerobic respiration. This occurs only at very high concentrations of paracetamol, and precedes cellular injury by several hours. The second scenario in which lactic acidosis can occur is later in the course of paracetamol poisoning as a consequence of established liver failure. In these patients lactate is elevated primarily because of reduced hepatic clearance, but in shocked patients there may also be a contribution of peripheral anaerobic respiration because of tissue hypoperfusion. In patients admitted to a liver unit with paracetamol hepatotoxicity, the post-resuscitation arterial lactate concentration has been shown to be a strong predictor of mortality, and is included in the modified King's College criteria for consideration of liver transplantation. We would therefore recommend that post-resuscitation lactate is measured in all patients with a severe paracetamol overdose resulting in either reduced conscious level or hepatic failure. © 2010 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2010 The British Pharmacological Society.

  1. Missed paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose due to confusion regarding drug names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, David G; Shields, Jennifer; Waring, W Stephen

    2013-07-01

    Immediate management of drug overdose relies upon the patient account of what was ingested and how much. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is involved in around 40% of intentional overdose episodes, and remains the leading cause of acute liver failure in many countries including the United Kingdom. In recent years, consumers have had increasing access to medications supplied by international retailers via the internet, which may have different proprietary or generic names than in the country of purchase. We describe a patient that presented to hospital after intentional overdose involving 'acetaminophen' purchased via the internet. The patient had difficulty recalling the drug name, which was inadvertently attributed to 'Advil', a proprietary non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The error was later recognised when the drug packaging became available, but the diagnosis of paracetamol overdose and initiation of acetylcysteine antidote were delayed. This case illustrates the benefit of routinely measuring paracetamol concentrations in all patients with suspected poisoning, although this is not universally accepted in practice. Moreover, it highlights the importance of the internet as a source of medications for intentional overdose, and emphasises the need for harmonisation of international drug names to improve patient safety.

  2. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) for chronic non-cancer pain in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Tess E; Fisher, Emma; Anderson, Brian; Wilkinson, Nick Mr; Williams, David G; Eccleston, Christopher

    2017-08-02

    Pain is a common feature of childhood and adolescence around the world, and for many young people, that pain is chronic. The World Health Organization guidelines for pharmacological treatments for children's persisting pain acknowledge that pain in children is a major public health concern of high significance in most parts of the world. While in the past, pain was largely dismissed and was frequently left untreated, views on children's pain have changed over time, and relief of pain is now seen as important.We designed a suite of seven reviews on chronic non-cancer pain and cancer pain (looking at antidepressants, antiepileptic drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, and paracetamol as priority areas) in order to review the evidence for children's pain utilising pharmacological interventions in children and adolescents.As the leading cause of morbidity in children and adolescents in the world today, chronic disease (and its associated pain) is a major health concern. Chronic pain (lasting three months or longer) can arise in the paediatric population in a variety of pathophysiological classifications: nociceptive, neuropathic, idiopathic, visceral, nerve damage pain, chronic musculoskeletal pain, and chronic abdominal pain, and other unknown reasons.Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most widely used analgesics in both adults and children. The recommended dosage in the UK, Europe, Australia, and the USA for children and adolescents is generally 10 to 15 mg/kg every four to six hours, with specific age ranges from 60 mg (6 to 12 months old) up to 500 to 1000 mg (over 12 years old). Paracetamol is the only recommended analgesic for children under 3 months of age. Paracetamol has been proven to be safe in appropriate and controlled dosages, however potential adverse effects of paracetamol if overdosed or overused in children include liver and kidney failure. To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse events of paracetamol (acetaminophen) used

  3. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) attenuates in vitro mast cell and peripheral blood mononucleocyte cell histamine release induced by N-acetylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, James; Thompson, John Paul

    2010-02-01

    The treatment of acute paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is frequently complicated by an anaphylactoid reaction to the antidote. The mechanism that underlies this reaction is unclear. We used the human mast cell line 1 (HMC-1) and human peripheral blood mononucleocytes (PBMCs) to investigate the effects of NAC and paracetamol on histamine secretion in vitro. HMC-1 and human PBMCs were incubated in the presence of increasing concentrations of NAC +/- paracetamol. Cell viability was determined by the Trypan Blue Assay, and histamine secretion was measured by ELISA. NAC was toxic to HMC-1 cells at 100 mg/mL and to PBMCs at 67 mg/mL. NAC increased HMC-1 and PBMC histamine secretion at concentrations of NAC from 20 to 50 mg/mL and 2.5 to 100 mg/mL, respectively. NAC-induced histamine secretion by both cell types was reduced by co-incubation with 2.5 mg/mL of paracetamol. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is capable of modifying histamine secretion in vitro. This may explain the clinical observation of a lower incidence of adverse reactions to NAC in vivo when higher concentrations of paracetamol are present than when paracetamol concentrations are low. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) attenuates in vitro mast cell and PBMC cell histamine release induced by NAC.

  4. The Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) In Stroke (PAIS) trial : a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase III trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hertog, Heleen M.; van der Worp, H. Bart; van Gemert, H. Maarten A.; Algra, Ate; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Van Gijn, Jan; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Dippel, Diederik W. J.

    Background High body temperature in the first 12-24 h after stroke onset is associated with poor functional outcome. The Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) In Stroke (PAIS) trial aimed to assess whether early treatment with paracetamol improves functional outcome in patients with acute stroke by reducing

  5. Intraocular pressure-lowering effect of oral paracetamol and its in vitro corneal penetration properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nabiel Mohamed, David MeyerDivision of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South AfricaBackground: Several studies have confirmed the ability of cannabinoids to reduce intraocular pressure. Experimental data recently demonstrated unequivocally that the analgesic effect of paracetamol is due to its indirect action on cannabinoid receptors. The question then arises as to whether paracetamol can reduce intraocular pressure via its effect on intraocular cannabinoid receptors.Methods: A 2-week, prospective, randomized, controlled, single-center, parallel-group pilot study was carried out to determine the efficacy and safety of paracetamol 1 g orally administered every 6 hours in adult patients with primary or secondary open angle glaucoma as compared with topical levobunolol 0.5% twice a day. Patient well-being was closely monitored throughout the study and focused on hepatic safety in accordance with Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network criteria. The in vitro diffusion kinetics of acetaminophen in a phosphate-buffered solution in rabbit and human corneas was also investigated, with the view to a topical application.Results: Eighteen adult patients were enrolled in the study, with nine in the topical levobunolol group and nine in the oral paracetamol group. In the levobunolol group, the mean reduction in intraocular pressure at day 7 was 7.5 mmHg (P < 0.008 and at day 14 was 9.1 mmHg (P < 0.005, from a mean baseline intraocular pressure of 29.6 mmHg. The corresponding figures for the paracetamol group were 8.8 mmHg (P < 0.0004 at day 7 and 6.5 mmHg (P < 0.004 at day 14, from a mean baseline intraocular pressure of 29.4 mmHg. Both study regimens were well tolerated. No serious treatment-related adverse events were reported in either of the treatment groups. Liver function tests, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, or heart rate remained unchanged in both groups during the 2 weeks of the study. In

  6. Effects of imatinib mesylate on the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol (acetaminophen) in Korean patients with chronic myelogenous leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Wook; Tan, Eugene Y; Jin, Yu; Park, Sahee; Hayes, Michael; Demirhan, Eren; Schran, Horst; Wang, Yanfeng

    2011-02-01

    The major objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of imatinib on the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol in patients with chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML). Patients (n = 12) received a single oral dose of acetaminophen 1000 mg on day 1 (control). On days 2-8, imatinib 400 mg was administered daily. On day 8 (treatment), another 1000 mg dose of paracetamol was administered 1 h after the morning dose of imatinib 400 mg. Blood and urine samples were collected for bioanalytical analyses. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for paracetamol, paracetamol glucuronide and paracetamol sulphate under control conditions was similar to that after treatment with imatinib; the 90% confidence interval of the log AUC ratio was within 0.8 to 1.25. Urinary excretion of paracetamol, paracetamol glucuronide and paracetamol sulphate was also unaffected by imatinib. The pharmacokinetics of paracetamol and imatinib in Korean patients with CML were similar to previous pharmacokinetic results in white patients with CML. Co-administration of a single dose of paracetamol and multiple doses of imatinib was well tolerated and safety profiles were similar to those of either drug alone. The pharmacokinetics of paracetamol and its major metabolites in the presence of imatinib were similar to those of the control conditions and the combination was well tolerated. These findings suggest that imatinib can be safely administered with paracetamol without dose adjustment of either drug. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. What do we (not) know about how paracetamol (acetaminophen) works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, K; Yang, X C; Zielinski, M A; Reigle, K L; Sacavage, S D; Nagar, S; Raffa, R B

    2010-12-01

    Although paracetamol (acetaminophen), N-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)acetamide, is one of the world's most widely used analgesics, the mechanism by which it produces its analgesic effect is largely unknown. This lack is relevant because: (i) optimal pain treatment matches the analgesic mechanism to the (patho)physiology of the pain and (ii) modern drug discovery relies on an appropriate screening assay. To review the clinical profile and preclinical studies of paracetamol as means of gaining insight into its mechanism of analgesic action. A literature search was conducted of clinical and preclinical literature and the information obtained was organized and reviewed from the perspective of its contribution to an understanding of the mechanism of analgesic action of paracetamol. Paracetamol's broad spectrum of analgesic and other pharmacological actions is presented, along with its multiple postulated mechanism(s) of action. No one mechanism has been definitively shown to account for its analgesic activity. Further research is needed to uncover the mechanism of analgesic action of paracetamol. The lack of this knowledge affects optimal clinical use and impedes drug discovery efforts. © 2010 The Authors. JCPT © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Interventions for paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiew, Angela L; Gluud, Christian; Brok, Jesper; Buckley, Nick A

    2018-02-23

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the most widely used non-prescription analgesic in the world. Paracetamol is commonly taken in overdose either deliberately or unintentionally. In high-income countries, paracetamol toxicity is a common cause of acute liver injury. There are various interventions to treat paracetamol poisoning, depending on the clinical status of the person. These interventions include inhibiting the absorption of paracetamol from the gastrointestinal tract (decontamination), removal of paracetamol from the vascular system, and antidotes to prevent the formation of, or to detoxify, metabolites. To assess the benefits and harms of interventions for paracetamol overdosage irrespective of the cause of the overdose. We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register (January 2017), CENTRAL (2016, Issue 11), MEDLINE (1946 to January 2017), Embase (1974 to January 2017), and Science Citation Index Expanded (1900 to January 2017). We also searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov database (US National Institute of Health) for any ongoing or completed trials (January 2017). We examined the reference lists of relevant papers identified by the search and other published reviews. Randomised clinical trials assessing benefits and harms of interventions in people who have ingested a paracetamol overdose. The interventions could have been gastric lavage, ipecacuanha, or activated charcoal, or various extracorporeal treatments, or antidotes. The interventions could have been compared with placebo, no intervention, or to each other in differing regimens. Two review authors independently extracted data from the included trials. We used fixed-effect and random-effects Peto odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for analysis of the review outcomes. We used the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool to assess the risks of bias (i.e. systematic errors leading to overestimation of

  9. Efficacy and safety of a fixed combination of tramadol and paracetamol (acetaminophen) as pain therapy within palliative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husic, Samir; Izic, Senad; Matic, Srecko; Sukalo, Aziz

    2015-02-01

    The goal of the research was to determine the efficacy of a fixed combination of tramadol and paracetamol (acetaminophen) in the treatment of pain of patients with the advanced stage of cancer. A prospective study was conducted at the Center for Palliative Care, University Clinical Center Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, from January 1(st) to December 31(st) 2013. A total of 353 patients who were treated with a fixed combination of tramadol and acetaminophen (37.5 mg and 325 mg) at the initial dosage 3x1 tablet (112.5 mg tramadol and 975 mg acetaminophen) for pain intensity 4, up to 4x2 tablets (300 mg of tramadol and 2600 mg paracetamol) for pain intensity 7 and 8. If the patient during previous day has two or more pain episodes that required a "rescue dose" of tramadol, increased was the dose of fixed combination tramadol and acetaminophen to a maximum of 8 tablets daily (300 mg of tramadol and 2600 mg paracetamol). Statistical analysis was performed by biomedical software MedCalc for Windows version 9.4.2.0. The difference was considered significant for Pparacetamol). Side effects, in the treatment of pain with a fixed combination tramadol and acetaminophen, were found in 29.18% of patients, with a predominance of nausea and vomiting. Fixed combination of tramadol and acetaminophen can be used as an effective combination in the treatment of chronic cancer pain, with frequent dose evaluation and mild side effects.

  10. Combining paracetamol (acetaminophen) with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs: a qualitative systematic review of analgesic efficacy for acute postoperative pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, Cliff K. S.; Seymour, Robin A.; Lirk, Phillip; Merry, Alan F.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There has been a trend over recent years for combining a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) with paracetamol (acetaminophen) for pain management. However, therapeutic superiority of the combination of paracetamol and an NSAID over either drug alone remains controversial. We

  11. Acetaminophen/paracetamol: A history of errors, failures and false decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, K; Renner, B; Tiegs, G

    2015-08-01

    Acetaminophen/paracetamol is the most widely used drug of the world. At the same time, it is probably one of the most dangerous compounds in medical use, causing hundreds of deaths in all industrialized countries due to acute liver failure (ALF). Publications of the last 130 years found in the usual databases were analyzed. Personal contacts existed to renowned researchers having contributed to the medical use of paracetamol and its precursors as H.U. Zollinger, S. Moeschlin, U. Dubach, J. Axelrod and others. Further information is found in earlier reviews by Eichengrün, Rodnan and Benedek, Sneader, Brune; comp. references. The history of the discovery of paracetamol starts with an error (active against worms), continues with a false assumption (paracetamol is safer than phenacetin), describes the first side-effect 'epidemy' (phenacetin nephropathy, drug-induced interstitial nephritis) and ends with the discovery of second-generation problems due to the unavoidable production of a highly toxic metabolite of paracetamol N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI) that may cause not only ALF and kidney damage but also impaired development of the fetus and the newborn child. It appears timely to reassess the risk/benefit ratio of this compound. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  12. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) with or without an antiemetic for acute migraine headaches in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew

    2013-04-30

    This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 11, 2010 (Derry 2010). Migraine is a common, disabling condition and a burden for the individual, health services and society. Many sufferers choose not to, or are unable to, seek professional help and rely on over-the-counter analgesics. Co-therapy with an antiemetic should help to reduce nausea and vomiting, which are commonly associated with migraine. To determine the efficacy and tolerability of paracetamol (acetaminophen), alone or in combination with an antiemetic, compared with placebo and other active interventions in the treatment of acute migraine in adults. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies through 4 October 2010 for the original review, and to 13 February 2013 for the update. Two clinical trials registers (ClinicalTrials.gov and gsk-clinicalstudyregister.com) were also searched on both occasions. We included randomised, double-blind, placebo- or active-controlled studies using self-administered paracetamol to treat a migraine headache episode, with at least 10 participants per treatment arm. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Numbers of participants achieving each outcome were used to calculate relative risk and numbers needed to treat (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared with placebo or other active treatment. Searches for the update identified one additional study for inclusion. Eleven studies (2942 participants, 5109 attacks) compared paracetamol 1000 mg, alone or in combination with an antiemetic, with placebo or other active comparators, mainly sumatriptan 100 mg. For all efficacy outcomes paracetamol was superior to placebo, with NNTs of 12 (19% response with paracetamol, 10% with placebo), 5.0 (56% response with paracetamol, 36% with placebo) and 5.2 (39% response with paracetamol, 20% with placebo) for 2-hour pain-free and 2- and 1

  13. Association of antioxidant nutraceuticals and acetaminophen (paracetamol): Friend or foe?

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Abdel-Daim; Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk; Raffaella Reggi; Nagendra Sastry Yarla; Maura Palmery; Ilaria Peluso

    2018-01-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol or APAP) is an analgesic and antipyretic drug that can induce oxidative stress-mediated hepatotoxicity at high doses. Several studies reported that antioxidant nutraceuticals, in particular phenolic phytochemicals from dietary food, spices, herbs and algae have hepatoprotective effects. Others, however, suggested that they may negatively impact the metabolism, efficacy and toxicity of APAP. The aim of this review is to discuss the pros and cons of the association of...

  14. Efficacy and Safety of a Fixed Combination of Tramadol and Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) as Pain Therapy Within Palliative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husic, Samir; Izic, Senad; Matic, Srecko; Sukalo, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Goal: The goal of the research was to determine the efficacy of a fixed combination of tramadol and paracetamol (acetaminophen) in the treatment of pain of patients with the advanced stage of cancer. Material and methods: A prospective study was conducted at the Center for Palliative Care, University Clinical Center Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, from January 1st to December 31st 2013. A total of 353 patients who were treated with a fixed combination of tramadol and acetaminophen (37.5 mg and 325 mg) at the initial dosage 3x1 tablet (112.5 mg tramadol and 975 mg acetaminophen) for pain intensity 4, up to 4x2 tablets (300 mg of tramadol and 2600 mg paracetamol) for pain intensity 7 and 8. If the patient during previous day has two or more pain episodes that required a “rescue dose” of tramadol, increased was the dose of fixed combination tramadol and acetaminophen to a maximum of 8 tablets daily (300 mg of tramadol and 2600 mg paracetamol). Statistical analysis was performed by biomedical software MedCalc for Windows version 9.4.2.0. The difference was considered significant for Ppain score was significantly lower (ppain with a fixed combination tramadol and acetaminophen, were found in 29.18% of patients, with a predominance of nausea and vomiting. Conclusion: Fixed combination of tramadol and acetaminophen can be used as an effective combination in the treatment of chronic cancer pain, with frequent dose evaluation and mild side effects. PMID:25870531

  15. An Experiment in Physical Chemistry: Polymorphism and Phase Stability in Acetaminophen (Paracetamol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, Michael L.; Baranowski, Megan; Profeta, Luisa T. M.

    2010-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry analyses of two easily prepared polymorphs of acetaminophen (also known as paracetamol) are recorded. The density of the forms can be found in the literature. Rules for heats of transition, heats of fusion, and density, as well as methods for determining the solid-solid transition temperature between the forms,…

  16. Paracetamol/acetaminophen (single administration) for perineal pain in the early postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Doris; Abalos, Edgardo; Gyte, Gillian M L; Gülmezoglu, A Metin

    2013-01-31

    Perineal pain is a common but poorly studied adverse outcome following childbirth. Pain may result from perineal trauma due to bruising, spontaneous tears, surgical incisions (episiotomies), or in association with operative births (ventouse or forceps assisted births). To determine the efficacy of a single administration of paracetamol (acetaminophen) systemic drugs used in the relief of acute postpartum perineal pain We updated the search of the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register on 6 November 2012. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing paracetamol (acetaminophen) in a single dose compared with placebo for women with early postpartum perineal pain. We excluded quasi-RCTs and cross-over studies. Two review authors assessed each paper for inclusion and extracted data. One review author reviewed the decisions and confirmed calculations for pain relief scores. We did not identify any new trials from the updated search so the results remain unchanged as follows.We have included 10 studies describing two dosages of paracetamol. Of these, five studies (526 women) assessed 500 mg to 650 mg and six studies (841 women) assessed 1000 mg of paracetamol. We chose to use random-effects meta-analyses because of the heterogeneity in dosage used. Studies were from the 1970s to the early 1990s, and there was insufficient information to assess the risk of bias adequately, hence the findings need to be interpreted within this context.More women experienced pain relief with paracetamol compared with placebo (average risk ratio (RR) 2.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.59 to 2.89, 10 studies, 1279 women). In addition, there were significantly fewer women having additional pain relief with paracetamol compared with placebo (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.55, eight studies, 1132 women). Both the 500 mg to 650 mg and 1000 mg doses were effective in providing more pain relief than placebo.Maternal and neonatal potential adverse drug effects were not assessed in

  17. From painkiller to empathy killer: acetaminophen (paracetamol) reduces empathy for pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischkowski, Dominik; Crocker, Jennifer; Way, Baldwin M

    2016-09-01

    Simulation theories of empathy hypothesize that empathizing with others' pain shares some common psychological computations with the processing of one's own pain. Support for this perspective has largely relied on functional neuroimaging evidence of an overlap between activations during the experience of physical pain and empathy for other people's pain. Here, we extend the functional overlap perspective to the neurochemical level and test whether a common physical painkiller, acetaminophen (paracetamol), can reduce empathy for another's pain. In two double-blind placebo-controlled experiments, participants rated perceived pain, personal distress and empathic concern in response to reading scenarios about another's physical or social pain, witnessing ostracism in the lab, or visualizing another study participant receiving painful noise blasts. As hypothesized, acetaminophen reduced empathy in response to others' pain. Acetaminophen also reduced the unpleasantness of noise blasts delivered to the participant, which mediated acetaminophen's effects on empathy. Together, these findings suggest that the physical painkiller acetaminophen reduces empathy for pain and provide a new perspective on the neurochemical bases of empathy. Because empathy regulates prosocial and antisocial behavior, these drug-induced reductions in empathy raise concerns about the broader social side effects of acetaminophen, which is taken by almost a quarter of adults in the United States each week. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Clinical update on benefit versus risks of oral paracetamol alone or with codeine: still a good option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Hans Georg; Untersteiner, Gerald

    2017-02-01

    After decades of worldwide use of paracetamol/acetaminophen as a popular and apparently safe prescription and over-the-counter medicine, the future role of this poorly understood analgesic has been seriously questioned by recent concerns about prenatal, cardiovascular (CV) and hepatic safety, and also about its analgesic efficacy. At the same time the usefulness of codeine in combination products has come under debate. Based on a PubMed database literature search on the terms efficacy, safety, paracetamol, acetaminophen, codeine and their combinations up to and including June 2016, this clinical update reviews the current evidence of the benefit and risks of oral paracetamol alone and with codeine for mild-to-moderate pain in adults, and compares the respective efficacy and safety profiles with those of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Whereas there is a clear strong association of NSAID use and gastrointestinal (GI) and CV morbidity and mortality, evidence for paracetamol with and without codeine supports the recommended use even in most vulnerable individuals, such as the elderly, pregnant women, alcoholics, and compromised GI and CV patients. The controversies and widespread misconceptions about the complex hepatic metabolism and potential hepatotoxicity have been corrected by recent reviews, and paracetamol remains the first-line nonopioid analgesic in patients with liver diseases if notes of caution are applied. Due to its safety and tolerability profile paracetamol remained a first-line treatment in many international guidelines. Alone and with codeine it is a safe and effective option in adults, whilst NSAIDs are obviously less safe as alternatives, given the risk of potentially fatal GI and CV adverse effects.

  19. Comparative pharmacokinetics between a microdose and therapeutic dose for clarithromycin, sumatriptan, propafenone, paracetamol (acetaminophen), and phenobarbital in human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin, Graham; Shishikura, Yoko; Jochemsen, Roeline; Weaver, Richard John; Gesson, Charlotte; Brian Houston, J; Oosterhuis, Berend; Bjerrum, Ole J; Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz; Alder, Jane; Rowland, Malcolm; Garner, Colin

    2011-06-14

    A clinical study was conducted to assess the ability of a microdose (100 μg) to predict the human pharmacokinetics (PK) following a therapeutic dose of clarithromycin, sumatriptan, propafenone, paracetamol (acetaminophen) and phenobarbital, both within the study and by reference to the existing literature on these compounds and to explore the source of any nonlinearity if seen. For each drug, 6 healthy male volunteers were dosed with 100 μg (14)C-labelled compound. For clarithromycin, sumatriptan, and propafenone this labelled dose was administered alone, i.e. as a microdose, orally and intravenously (iv) and as an iv tracer dose concomitantly with an oral non-labelled therapeutic dose, in a 3-way cross over design. The oral therapeutic doses were 250, 50, and 150 mg, respectively. Paracetamol was given as the labelled microdose orally and iv using a 2-way cross over design, whereas phenobarbital was given only as the microdose orally. Plasma concentrations of total (14)C and parent drug were measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) or HPLC followed by AMS. Plasma concentrations following non-(14)C-labelled oral therapeutic doses were measured using either HPLC-electrochemical detection (clarithromycin) or HPLC-UV (sumatriptan, propafenone). For all five drugs an oral microdose predicted reasonably well the PK, including the shape of the plasma profile, following an oral therapeutic dose. For clarithromycin, sumatriptan, and propafenone, one parameter, oral bioavailability, was marginally outside of the normally acceptable 2-fold prediction interval around the mean therapeutic dose value. For clarithromycin, sumatriptan and propafenone, data obtained from an oral and iv microdose were compared within the same cohort of subjects used in the study, as well as those reported in the literature. For paracetamol (oral and iv) and phenobarbital (oral), microdose data were compared with those reported in the literature only. Where 100 μg iv (14)C-doses were

  20. Interrupted time-series analysis of regulations to reduce paracetamol (acetaminophen poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver W Morgan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol (acetaminophen poisoning is the leading cause of acute liver failure in Great Britain and the United States. Successful interventions to reduced harm from paracetamol poisoning are needed. To achieve this, the government of the United Kingdom introduced legislation in 1998 limiting the pack size of paracetamol sold in shops. Several studies have reported recent decreases in fatal poisonings involving paracetamol. We use interrupted time-series analysis to evaluate whether the recent fall in the number of paracetamol deaths is different to trends in fatal poisoning involving aspirin, paracetamol compounds, antidepressants, or nondrug poisoning suicide.We calculated directly age-standardised mortality rates for paracetamol poisoning in England and Wales from 1993 to 2004. We used an ordinary least-squares regression model divided into pre- and postintervention segments at 1999. The model included a term for autocorrelation within the time series. We tested for changes in the level and slope between the pre- and postintervention segments. To assess whether observed changes in the time series were unique to paracetamol, we compared against poisoning deaths involving compound paracetamol (not covered by the regulations, aspirin, antidepressants, and nonpoisoning suicide deaths. We did this comparison by calculating a ratio of each comparison series with paracetamol and applying a segmented regression model to the ratios. No change in the ratio level or slope indicated no difference compared to the control series. There were about 2,200 deaths involving paracetamol. The age-standardised mortality rate rose from 8.1 per million in 1993 to 8.8 per million in 1997, subsequently falling to about 5.3 per million in 2004. After the regulations were introduced, deaths dropped by 2.69 per million (p = 0.003. Trends in the age-standardised mortality rate for paracetamol compounds, aspirin, and antidepressants were broadly similar to paracetamol

  1. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) for acute treatment of episodic tension-type headache in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Guy; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew

    2016-06-16

    Tension-type headache (TTH) affects about 1 person in 5 worldwide. It is divided into infrequent episodic TTH (fewer than one headache per month), frequent episodic TTH (two to 14 headaches per month), and chronic TTH (15 headache days a month or more). Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of a number of analgesics suggested for acute treatment of headaches in frequent episodic TTH. To assess the efficacy and safety of paracetamol for the acute treatment of frequent episodic TTH in adults. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (CRSO), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Oxford Pain Relief Database to October 2015, and also reference lists of relevant published studies and reviews. We sought unpublished studies by asking personal contacts and searching online clinical trial registers and manufacturers' websites. We included randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies (parallel-group or cross-over) using oral paracetamol for symptomatic relief of an acute episode of TTH. Studies had to be prospective, with participants aged 18 years or over, and include at least 10 participants per treatment arm. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. We used the numbers of participants achieving each outcome to calculate the risk ratio (RR) and number needed to treat for one additional beneficial outcome (NNT) or one additional harmful outcome (NNH) for oral paracetamol compared to placebo or an active intervention for a range of outcomes, predominantly those recommended by the International Headache Society (IHS).We assessed the evidence using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) and created 'Summary of findings' tables. We included 23 studies, all of which enrolled adults with frequent episodic TTH. Twelve studies used the IHS diagnostic criteria or similar, six used the older classification of the Ad Hoc Committee, and five did not describe specific diagnostic criteria

  2. Metabolism of acetaminophen (paracetamol) in plants--two independent pathways result in the formation of a glutathione and a glucose conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Christian; Bartha, Bernadett; Harpaintner, Rudolf; Schröder, Peter

    2009-03-01

    Pharmaceuticals and their metabolites are detected in the aquatic environment and our drinking water supplies. The need for high quality drinking water is one of the most challenging problems of our times, but still only little knowledge exists on the impact of these compounds on ecosystems, animals, and man. Biological waste water treatment in constructed wetlands is an effective and low-cost alternative, especially for the treatment of non-industrial, municipal waste water. In this situation, plants get in contact with pharmaceutical compounds and have to tackle their detoxification. The mechanisms for the detoxification of xenobiotics in plants are closely related to the mammalian system. An activation reaction (phase I) is followed by a conjugation (phase II) with hydrophilic molecules like glutathione or glucose. Phase III reactions can be summarized as storage, degradation, and transport of the xenobiotic conjugate. Until now, there is no information available on the fate of pharmaceuticals in plants. In this study, we want to investigate the fate and metabolism of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol) in plant tissues using the cell culture of Armoracia rusticana L. as a model system. A hairy root culture of A. rusticana was treated with acetaminophen in a liquid culture. The formation and identification of metabolites over time were analyzed using HPLC-DAD and LC-MSn techniques. With LC-MS technique, we were able to detect paracetamol and identify three of its metabolites in root cells of A. rusticana. Six hours after incubation with 1 mM of acetaminophen, the distribution of acetaminophen and related metabolites in the cells resulted in 18% paracetamol, 64% paracetamol-glucoside, 17% paracetamol glutathione, and 1% of the corresponding cysteine conjugate. The formation of two independently formed metabolites in plant root cells again revealed strong similarities between plant and mammalian detoxification systems. The detoxification mechanism of

  3. Association of antioxidant nutraceuticals and acetaminophen (paracetamol: Friend or foe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdel-Daim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen (paracetamol or APAP is an analgesic and antipyretic drug that can induce oxidative stress-mediated hepatotoxicity at high doses. Several studies reported that antioxidant nutraceuticals, in particular phenolic phytochemicals from dietary food, spices, herbs and algae have hepatoprotective effects. Others, however, suggested that they may negatively impact the metabolism, efficacy and toxicity of APAP. The aim of this review is to discuss the pros and cons of the association of antioxidant nutraceuticals and APAP by reviewing the in vivo evidence, with particular reference to APAP pharmacokinetics and hepatotoxicity. Results from the murine models of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity showed amelioration of liver damage with nutraceuticals coadministration, as well as reductions in tissue markers of oxidative stress, and serum levels of hepatic enzymes, bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides and inflammatory cytokines. On the other hand, both increased and decreased APAP plasma levels have been reported, depending on the nutraceutical type and route of administration. For example, studies showed that repeated administration of flavonoids causes down-regulation of cytochrome P450 enzymes and up-regulation of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGT. Moreover, nutraceuticals can alter the levels of APAP metabolites, such as mercapturate glucuronide, sulfate and cysteine conjugates. Overall, the reviewed in vivo studies indicate that interactions between APAP and nutraceuticals or plant foods exist. However, the majority of data come from animal models with doses of phytochemicals far from dietary ones. Human studies should investigate gene-diet interactions, as well as ethnic variability in order to clarify the pros and cons of co-administering antioxidant nutraceuticals and APAP. Keywords: Acetaminophen, Antioxidants, Food-drug interaction, Nutraceuticals, Paracetamol

  4. Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) Use, Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination, and Autistic Disorder: The Results of a Parent Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stephen T.; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S.; Wingard, Deborah L.; Akshoomoff, Natacha A.; Macera, Caroline A.; Ji, Ming

    2008-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80…

  5. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) for patent ductus arteriosus in preterm or low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Arne; Shah, Prakeshkumar S

    2015-03-11

    In preterm newborns, the ductus arteriosus frequently fails to close and the infants require medical or surgical closure of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). A PDA can be treated surgically or medically with one of two prostaglandin inhibitors, indomethacin or ibuprofen. Case reports suggest that paracetamol may be an alternative for the closure of a PDA. Concerns have been raised that in neonatal mice paracetamol may cause adverse effects on the developing brain, and an association between prenatal exposure to paracetamol and later development of autism or autism spectrum disorder has been reported. To determine the efficacy and safety of intravenous or oral paracetamol compared with placebo or no intervention, intravenous indomethacin, intravenous or oral ibuprofen, or with other cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors for closure of a PDA in preterm or low-birth-weight infants. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. This included electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL. We searched abstracts from the meetings of the Pediatric Academic Societies and the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand. We searched clinicaltrials.gov; controlled-trials.com; anzctr.org.au; World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform at who.int/ictrp for ongoing trials and the Web of Science for articles quoting identified randomised controlled trials. We searched the first 200 hits on Google Scholar(TM) to identify grey literature. All searches were conducted in December 2013. A repeat search of MEDLINE in August 2014 did not identify any new trials. We identified two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared oral paracetamol to oral ibuprofen for the treatment of an echocardiographically diagnosed PDA in infants born preterm (≤ 34 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA)). We performed data collection and analyses in accordance with the

  6. The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score is an effective triage marker following staggered paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, D G; Zafar, S; Reid, T W D J; Martin, K G; Davidson, J S; Hayes, P C; Simpson, K J

    2012-06-01

    The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score is an effective triage marker following single time point paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose, but has not been evaluated following staggered (multiple supratherapeutic doses over >8 h, resulting in cumulative dose of >4 g/day) overdoses. To evaluate the prognostic accuracy of the SOFA score following staggered paracetamol overdose. Time-course analysis of 50 staggered paracetamol overdoses admitted to a tertiary liver centre. Individual timed laboratory samples were correlated with corresponding clinical parameters and the daily SOFA scores were calculated. A total of 39/50 (78%) patients developed hepatic encephalopathy. The area under the SOFA receiver operator characteristic for death/liver transplantation was 87.4 (95% CI 73.2-95.7), 94.3 (95% CI 82.5-99.1), and 98.4 (95% CI 84.3-100.0) at 0, 24 and 48 h, respectively, postadmission. A SOFA score of paracetamol overdose, is associated with a good prognosis. Both the SOFA and APACHE II scores could improve triage of high-risk staggered paracetamol overdose patients. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Prenatal exposure to paracetamol/acetaminophen and precursor aniline impairs masculinisation of male brain and behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hay-Schmidt , Anders; Finkielman , Olivia T. Ejlstrup; Jensen , Benjamin A. H.; Høgsbro , Christine F.; Bak Holm , Jacob; Johansen , Kristoffer Haurum; Jensen , Tina Kold; Andrade , Anderson Martino; Swan , Shanna H.; Bornehag , Carl-Gustaf; Brunak , Soren; Jégou , Bernard; Kristiansen , Karsten; Kristensen , David Møbjerg

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Paracetamol/acetaminophen (N-Acetyl-p-Aminophenol; APAP) is the preferred analgesic for pain relief and fever during pregnancy. It has therefore caused concern that several studies have reported that prenatal exposure to APAP results in developmental alterations in both the reproductive tract and the brain. Genitals and nervous system of male mammals are actively masculinised during foetal development and early postnatal life by the combined actions of prostaglandins a...

  8. Acetaminophen (Paracetamol induced acute liver failure – A social problem in an era of increasing tendency to self-treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Wróblewski

    2015-12-01

    Paracetamol is the cause of many poisonings resulting from the lack of public awareness about toxic interactions with alcohol, and suicide attempts. Acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure concerns a small percentage of patients but can be successfully treated with albumin dialysis, and in extreme cases by liver transplantation.

  9. Use of acetaminophen (paracetamol) during pregnancy and the risk of autism spectrum disorder in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2016-02-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is available over the counter in most countries and is widely considered to be safe for use during pregnancy; studies report gestational exposures to acetaminophen that lie in the 46%-65% range. Acetaminophen influences inflammatory and immunologic mechanisms and may predispose to oxidative stress; these and other effects are hypothesized to have the potential to compromise neurodevelopment in the fetal and infant brain. Two ecological studies suggested that population-level trends in the use of acetaminophen were associated with trends in the incidence/prevalence of autism; one of these studies specifically examined acetaminophen use during pregnancy. One large prospective observational cohort study found that gestational exposure to acetaminophen (especially when the duration of exposure was 28 days or more) was associated with motor milestone delay, gross and fine motor impairments, communication impairment, impairments in internalizing and externalizing behaviors, and hyperactivity, all at age 3 years; however, social and emotional developmental behaviors were mostly unaffected. A very recent large cohort study with a 12.7-year follow-up found that gestational exposure to acetaminophen was associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder, but only when a hyperkinetic disorder was also present. In the light of existing data associating acetaminophen use during pregnancy and subsequent risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, this new finding suggests that the predisposition, if any, is toward the hyperkinetic syndrome rather than to autism. In summary, the empirical data are very limited, but whatever empirical data exist do not support the suggestion that the use of acetaminophen during pregnancy increases the risk of autism in the offspring. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  10. Effect of a herbal extract containing curcumin and piperine on midazolam, flurbiprofen and paracetamol (acetaminophen) pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volak, Laurie P; Hanley, Michael J; Masse, Gina; Hazarika, Suwagmani; Harmatz, Jerold S; Badmaev, Vladimir; Majeed, Muhammed; Greenblatt, David J; Court, Michael H

    2013-01-01

    Aims Turmeric extract derived curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin) are currently being evaluated for the treatment of cancer and Alzheimer's dementia. Previous in vitro studies indicate that curcuminoids and piperine (a black pepper derivative that enhances curcuminoid bioavailability) could inhibit human CYP3A, CYP2C9, UGT and SULT dependent drug metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine whether a commercially available curcuminoid/piperine extract alters the pharmacokinetic disposition of probe drugs for these enzymes in human volunteers. Methods A randomized placebo-controlled six way crossover study was conducted in eight healthy volunteers. A standardized curcuminoid/piperine preparation (4 g curcuminoids plus 24 mg piperine) or matched placebo was given orally four times over 2 days before oral administration of midazolam (CYP3A probe), flurbiprofen (CYP2C9 probe) or paracetamol (acetaminophen) (dual UGT and SULT probe). Plasma and urine concentrations of drugs, metabolites and herbals were measured by HPLC. Subject sedation and electroencephalograph effects were also measured following midazolam dosing. Results Compared with placebo, the curcuminoid/piperine treatment produced no meaningful changes in plasma Cmax, AUC, clearance, elimination half-life or metabolite levels of midazolam, flurbiprofen or paracetamol (α = 0.05, paired t-tests). There was also no effect of curcuminoid/piperine treatment on the pharmacodynamics of midazolam. Although curcuminoid and piperine concentrations were readily measured in plasma following glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment, unconjugated concentrations were consistently below the assay thresholds (0.05–0.08 μm and 0.6 μm, respectively). Conclusion The results indicate that short term use of this piperine-enhanced curcuminoid preparation is unlikely to result in a clinically significant interaction involving CYP3A, CYP2C9 or the paracetamol conjugation enzymes. PMID:22725836

  11. PAIS 2 (Paracetamol [Acetaminophen] in Stroke 2): Results of a Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ridder, Inger R; den Hertog, Heleen M; van Gemert, H Maarten A; Schreuder, A H C M L Tobien; Ruitenberg, Annemieke; Maasland, E Lisette; Saxena, Ritu; van Tuijl, Jordie H; Jansen, Ben P W; Van den Berg-Vos, Renske M; Vermeij, Frederique; Koudstaal, Peter J; Kappelle, L Jaap; Algra, Ale; van der Worp, H Bart; Dippel, Diederik W J

    2017-04-01

    Subfebrile body temperature and fever in the first days after stroke are strongly associated with unfavorable outcome. A subgroup analysis of a previous trial suggested that early treatment with paracetamol may improve functional outcome in patients with acute stroke and a body temperature of ≥36.5°C. In the present trial, we aimed to confirm this finding. PAIS 2 (Paracetamol [Acetaminophen] in Stroke 2) was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. We aimed to include 1500 patients with acute ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage within 12 hours of symptom onset. Patients were treated with paracetamol in a daily dose of 6 g or matching placebo for 3 consecutive days. The primary outcome was functional outcome at 3 months, assessed with the modified Rankin Scale and analyzed with multivariable ordinal logistic regression. Because of slow recruitment and lack of funding, the study was stopped prematurely. Between December 2011 and October 2015, we included 256 patients, of whom 136 (53%) were allocated to paracetamol. In this small sample, paracetamol had no effect on functional outcome (adjusted common odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-1.79). There was no difference in the number of serious adverse events (paracetamol n=35 [26%] versus placebo n=28 [24%]). Treatment with high-dose paracetamol seemed to be safe. The effect of high-dose paracetamol on functional outcome remains uncertain. Therefore, a large trial of early treatment with high-dose paracetamol is still needed. URL: http://www.trialregister.nl. Unique identifier: NTR2365. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Bioequivalence and Safety of Twice-Daily Sustained-Release Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) Compared With 3- and 4-Times-Daily Paracetamol: A Repeat-Dose, Crossover Pharmacokinetic Study in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongzhou J; Collaku, Agron

    2018-01-01

    Twice-daily sustained-release (SR) paracetamol (acetaminophen) offers convenient administration to chronic users. This study investigated at steady state (during the last 24 hours of a 3-day dosing period) the pharmacokinetics, bioequivalence, and safety of twice-daily SR paracetamol compared with extended-release (ER) and immediate-release (IR) paracetamol. In this open-label, randomized, multidose, 3-way crossover study, 28 healthy subjects received paracetamol SR (2 × 1000 mg twice daily), ER (2 × 665 mg 3 times daily), and IR (2 × 500 mg 4 times daily). At steady state, twice-daily SR paracetamol was bioequivalent to ER and IR paracetamol. The 90% confidence intervals for the ratios of geometric means were within the acceptance interval for SR/ER paracetamol (AUC 0-t , 0.973-1.033; AUC 0-24 , 0.974-1.034; AUC 0-∞ , 0.948-1.011; C max , 1.082-1.212; C av , 1.011-1.106) and SR/IR paracetamol (AUC 0-t , 0.969-1.029; AUC 0-24 , 0.968-1.027; AUC 0-∞ , 0.963-1.026; C max , 0.902-1.010; C av , 1.004-1.098). Given twice daily, the SR formulation demonstrated SR properties as expected. Mean time at or above a 4 μg/mL plasma concentration of paracetamol from 2 daily doses of the SR formulation was significantly longer than that from 4 daily doses of IR paracetamol. SR formulation also had a greater T max , a longer half-life, and lower C min compared with ER and IR paracetamol. All formulations were well tolerated. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  13. Effect of ethanol and pH on the adsorption of acetaminophen (paracetamol) to high surface activated charcoal, in vitro studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Angelo, Helle R; Christophersen, A Bolette

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) intoxication often in combination with ethanol, is seen commonly in overdose cases. Doses of several grams might be close to the maximum adsorption capacity of the standard treatment dose (50g) of activated charcoal. The aim of this study was to determine...... the maximum adsorption capacity for paracetamol for two types of high surface-activated charcoal [Carbomix and Norit Ready-To-Use (not yet registered trademark in Denmark) both from Norit Cosmara, Amersfoort, The Netherlands] in simulated in vivo environments: At pH 1.2 (gastric environment), at pH 7.......2 (intestinal environment), and with and without 10% ethanol. METHODS: Activated charcoal, at both gastric or intestinal pHs, and paracetamol were mixed, resulting in activated charcoal-paracetamol ratios from 10:] to 1:1. In trials with ethanol, some of the gastric or intestinal fluid was replaced...

  14. Correction: PAIS: paracetamol (acetaminophen in stroke; protocol for a randomized, double blind clinical trial. [ISCRTN74418480

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kappelle L Jaap

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Paracetamol (Acetaminophen In Stroke (PAIS study is a phase III multicenter, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of high-dose acetaminophen in patients with acute stroke. The trial compares treatment with a daily dose of 6 g acetaminophen, started within 12 hours after the onset of symptoms, with matched placebo. The purpose of this study is to assess whether treatment with acetaminophen for 3 days will result in improved functional outcome through a modest reduction in body temperature and prevention of fever. The previously planned statistical analysis based on a dichotomization of the scores on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS may not make the most efficient use of the available baseline information. Therefore, the planned primary analysis of the PAIS study has been changed from fixed dichotomization of the mRS to a sliding dichotomy analysis. Methods Instead of taking a single definition of good outcome for all patients, the definition is tailored to each individual patient's baseline prognosis on entry into the trial. Conclusion The protocol change was initiated because of both advances in statistical approaches and to increase the efficiency of the trial by improving statistical power. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials [ISCRTN74418480

  15. Combining paracetamol (acetaminophen) with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs: a qualitative systematic review of analgesic efficacy for acute postoperative pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Cliff K S; Seymour, Robin A; Lirk, Phillip; Merry, Alan F

    2010-04-01

    There has been a trend over recent years for combining a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) with paracetamol (acetaminophen) for pain management. However, therapeutic superiority of the combination of paracetamol and an NSAID over either drug alone remains controversial. We evaluated the efficacy of the combination of paracetamol and an NSAID versus either drug alone in various acute pain models. A systematic literature search of Medline, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PubMed covering the period from January 1988 to June 2009 was performed to identify randomized controlled trials in humans that specifically compared combinations of paracetamol with various NSAIDs versus at least 1 of these constituent drugs. Identified studies were stratified into 2 groups: paracetamol/NSAID combinations versus paracetamol or NSAIDs. We analyzed pain intensity scores and supplemental analgesic requirements as primary outcome measures. In addition, each study was graded for quality using a validated scale. Twenty-one human studies enrolling 1909 patients were analyzed. The NSAIDs used were ibuprofen (n = 6), diclofenac (n = 8), ketoprofen (n = 3), ketorolac (n = 1), aspirin (n = 1), tenoxicam (n = 1), and rofecoxib (n = 1). The combination of paracetamol and NSAID was more effective than paracetamol or NSAID alone in 85% and 64% of relevant studies, respectively. The pain intensity and analgesic supplementation was 35.0% +/- 10.9% and 38.8% +/- 13.1% lesser, respectively, in the positive studies for the combination versus paracetamol group, and 37.7% +/- 26.6% and 31.3% +/- 13.4% lesser, respectively, in the positive studies for the combination versus the NSAID group. No statistical difference in median quality scores was found between experimental groups. Current evidence suggests that a combination of paracetamol and an NSAID may offer superior analgesia compared with either drug alone.

  16. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) administration during neonatal brain development affects cognitive function and alters its analgesic and anxiolytic response in adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viberg, Henrik; Eriksson, Per; Gordh, Torsten; Fredriksson, Anders

    2014-03-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of pain and fever in children, both at home and in the clinic, and is now also found in the environment. Paracetamol is known to act on the endocannabinoid system, involved in normal development of the brain. We examined if neonatal paracetamol exposure could affect the development of the brain, manifested as adult behavior and cognitive deficits, as well as changes in the response to paracetamol. Ten-day-old mice were administered a single dose of paracetamol (30 mg/kg body weight) or repeated doses of paracetamol (30 + 30 mg/kg body weight, 4h apart). Concentrations of paracetamol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were measured in the neonatal brain, and behavioral testing was done when animals reached adulthood. This study shows that acute neonatal exposure to paracetamol (2 × 30 mg) results in altered locomotor activity on exposure to a novel home cage arena and a failure to acquire spatial learning in adulthood, without affecting thermal nociceptive responding or anxiety-related behavior. However, mice neonatally exposed to paracetamol (2 × 30 mg) fail to exhibit paracetamol-induced antinociceptive and anxiogenic-like behavior in adulthood. Behavioral alterations in adulthood may, in part, be due to paracetamol-induced changes in BDNF levels in key brain regions at a critical time during development. This indicates that exposure to and presence of paracetamol during a critical period of brain development can induce long-lasting effects on cognitive function and alter the adult response to paracetamol in mice.

  17. Tramadol with or without paracetamol (acetaminophen) for cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiffen, Philip J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew

    2017-05-16

    Tramadol is an opioid analgesic licensed for use in moderate to severe pain. It is considered as a low risk for abuse, so control regulations are not as stringent as for 'strong' opioids such as morphine. It has a potential role as a step 2 option of the World Health Organization (WHO) analgesic ladder. To assess the benefits and adverse effects of tramadol with or without paracetamol (acetaminophen) for cancer-related pain. We searched the following databases using a wide range of search terms: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS. We also searched three clinical trials registry databases. The date of the last search was 2 November 2016. We selected studies that were randomised, with placebo or active controls, or both, and included a minimum of 10 participants per treatment arm. We were interested particularly in blinded studies, but also included open studies.We excluded non-randomised studies, studies of experimental pain, case reports, and clinical observations. Two review authors independently extracted data using a standard form and checked for agreement before entry into Review Manager 5. We included information about the number of participants treated and demographic details, type of cancer, drug and dosing regimen, study design (placebo or active control) and methods, study duration and follow-up, analgesic outcome measures and results, withdrawals, and adverse events. We collated multiple reports of the same study, so that each study, rather than each report, was the unit of interest in the review. We assessed the evidence using GRADE and created a 'Summary of findings' table.The main outcomes of interest for benefit were pain reduction of 30% or greater and 50% or greater from baseline, participants with pain no worse than mild, and participants feeling much improved or very much improved. We included 10 studies (12 reports) with 958 adult participants. All the studies enrolled participants with

  18. Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) in stroke 2 (PAIS 2): protocol for a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial to assess the effect of high-dose paracetamol on functional outcome in patients with acute stroke and a body temperature of 36.5 °C or above.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ridder, Inger R; de Jong, Frank Jan; den Hertog, Heleen M; Lingsma, Hester F; van Gemert, H Maarten A; Schreuder, A H C M L Tobien; Ruitenberg, Annemieke; Maasland, E Lisette; Saxena, Ritu; Oomes, Peter; van Tuijl, Jordie; Koudstaal, Peter J; Kappelle, L Jaap; Algra, Ale; van der Worp, H Bart; Dippel, Diederik W J

    2015-04-01

    In the first hours after stroke onset, subfebrile temperatures and fever have been associated with poor functional outcome. In the first Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) in Stroke trial, a randomized clinical trial of 1400 patients with acute stroke, patients who were treated with high-dose paracetamol showed more improvement on the modified Rankin Scale at three-months than patients treated with placebo, but this difference was not statistically significant. In the 661 patients with a baseline body temperature of 37.0 °C or above, treatment with paracetamol increased the odds of functional improvement (odds ratio 1.43; 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.97). This relation was also found in the patients with a body temperature of 36.5 °C or higher (odds ratio 1.31; 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.68). These findings need confirmation. The study aims to assess the effect of high-dose paracetamol in patients with acute stroke and a body temperature of 36.5 °C or above on functional outcome. The Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) In Stroke 2 trial is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. We use a power of 85% to detect a significant difference in the scores on the modified Rankin Scale of the paracetamol group compared with the placebo group at a level of significance of 0.05 and assume a treatment effect of 7%. Fifteen-hundred patients with acute ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage and a body temperature of 36.5 °C or above will be included within 12 h of symptom onset. Patients will be treated with paracetamol in a daily dose of six-grams or matching placebo for three consecutive days. The Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) In Stroke 2 trial has been registered as NTR2365 in The Netherlands Trial Register. The primary outcome will be improvement on the modified Rankin Scale at three-months as analyzed by ordinal logistic regression. If high-dose paracetamol will be proven effective, a simple, safe, and extremely cheap therapy will be

  19. Safety of Oral Paracetamol – Analysis of Data from a Spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the safety of oral coated paracetamol tablets 500 mg and oral suspension 120 mg/5 mL produced by Hasco-Lek Poland. Methods: We analyzed sales volume and data obtained from the monitoring of spontaneous reports on the adverse effects of paracetamol collected in the period between ...

  20. Quality control and stability study of 100 mg/ml paracetamol oral drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Penna, Caridad M.; Montes de Oca Porto, Yanet; Salomon Izquierdo, Suslebys

    2013-01-01

    Paracetamol is an effective analgesic and antipyretic drug of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug group. Paracetamol oral drops are indicated for use in infant population aged up to 5 years to relieve fever, headache, toothache and symptomatic relief of common cold. To validate two analytical methods for the quality control and the stability study and to study the stability of 100 mg/ml Paracetamol oral drops made in Cuba

  1. Evaluation of a 12-Hour Sustained-Release Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) Formulation: A Randomized, 3-Way Crossover Pharmacokinetic and Safety Study in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yong; Collaku, Agron; Liu, Dongzhou J

    2018-01-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a first-line treatment for mild and moderate pain. A twice-daily sustained-release (SR) formulation may be more convenient for chronic users than standard immediate-release (IR) acetaminophen. This randomized, 3-way crossover study evaluated pharmacokinetics and safety of single-dose 1500- and 2000-mg SR acetaminophen formulations and 2 doses of IR acetaminophen 1000 mg given 6 hours apart in healthy adults (n = 14). Primary outcome was time that plasma acetaminophen concentration was ≥4 μg/mL (T C≥4μg/mL ). Key secondary outcomes were area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to time t, when plasma acetaminophen was detectable (AUC 0-t ), AUC from 0 to infinity (AUC 0-inf ), and maximum plasma acetaminophen concentration (C max ). T C≥4μg/mL from 2000-mg SR acetaminophen was similar to that from 2 doses of IR acetaminophen, whereas T C≥4μg/mL for 1500-mg SR acetaminophen was significantly shorter than that for IR acetaminophen (P = .004). The extent of acetaminophen absorption from 2000-mg SR and 2 doses of the IR formulation was similar and within bioequivalence limits with regard to AUC 0-12 , AUC 0-t , and AUC 0-inf . The extent of acetaminophen absorption from 1500-mg SR was significantly lower than that from IR acetaminophen. The 2000-mg SR represents a potential candidate formulation for 12-hour dosing with acetaminophen. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  2. The use of paracetamol (acetaminophen) among a community sample of people with chronic non-cancer pain prescribed opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoban, B; Larance, B; Gisev, N; Nielsen, S; Cohen, M; Bruno, R; Shand, F; Lintzeris, N; Hall, W; Farrell, M; Degenhardt, L

    2015-11-01

    The regular use of simple analgesics in addition to opioids such as paracetamol (or acetaminophen) is recommended for persistent pain to enhance analgesia. Few studies have examined the frequency and doses of paracetamol among people with chronic non-cancer pain including use above the recommended maximum daily dose. To assess (i) the prevalence of paracetamol use among people with chronic non-cancer pain prescribed opioids, (ii) assess the prevalence of paracetamol use above the recommended maximum daily dose and (iii) assess correlates of people who used paracetamol above the recommended maximum daily dose including: age, gender, income, education, pain severity and interference, use of paracetamol/opioid combination analgesics, total opioid dose, depression, anxiety, pain self-efficacy or comorbid substance use, among people prescribed opioids for chronic non-cancer pain. This study draws on baseline data collected for the Pain and Opioids IN Treatment (POINT) study and utilises data from 962 interviews and medication diaries. The POINT study is national prospective cohort of people with chronic non-cancer pain prescribed opioids. Participants were recruited from randomly selected pharmacies across Australia. Sixty-three per cent of the participants had used paracetamol in the past week (95% CI = 59.7-65.8). Among the paracetamol users 22% (95% CI = 19.3-24.6) had used paracetamol/opioid combination analgesics and 4.8% (95% CI = 3.6-6.3) had used paracetamol above the recommended maximum daily dose (i.e. > 4000 mg/day). Following binomial logistic regression (χ(2) = 25.98, df = 10, p = 0.004), people who had taken above the recommended maximum daily dose were less likely to have low income (AOR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.27-0.99), more likely to use paracetamol/opioid combination analgesics (AOR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.02-3.98) and more likely to take a higher opioid dose (AOR = 1.00, 95% CI = 1.00-1.01). The majority of people with chronic non-cancer pain prescribed

  3. Treatment with paracetamol in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana, A; Morton, N S; Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2001-01-01

    Paracetamol (N-acetyl-p-amino-phenol) or acetaminophen has become the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic in children. However, there is a wide discrepancy between the extent to which paracetamol is used and the limited available pharmacological data in small infants. The purpose...... of this article is to present a review of the current literature regarding the use of paracetamol in neonates and infants with a particular emphasis on pharmacological issues....

  4. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, B Kevin; Dear, James W; Antoine, Daniel J

    2015-10-19

    Paracetamol directly causes around 150 deaths per year in UK. We conducted a systematic overview, aiming to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute paracetamol poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2014 (Clinical Evidence overviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this overview). At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 127 studies. After deduplication and removal of conference abstracts, 64 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 46 studies and the further review of 18 full publications. Of the 18 full articles evaluated, one systematic review was updated and one RCT was added at this update. In addition, two systematic reviews and three RCTs not meeting our inclusion criteria were added to the Comment sections. We performed a GRADE evaluation for three PICO combinations. In this systematic overview we categorised the efficacy for six interventions, based on information about the effectiveness and safety of activated charcoal (single or multiple dose), gastric lavage, haemodialysis, liver transplant, methionine, and acetylcysteine.

  5. Serum neopterin and soluble CD163 as markers of macrophage activation in paracetamol (acetaminophen)-induced human acute liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, D G; Lee, P; Pryde, E A; Hayes, P C; Simpson, K J

    2013-12-01

    Macrophage activation is implicated in the pathogenesis of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) following paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose (POD). Neopterin is synthesised from macrophages and reflects the intensity of monocyte/macrophage activation. Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a marker of alternatively activated M2 macrophages. To examine neopterin and sCD163 levels in a cohort of acute liver injury patients. Consecutive patients (n = 41, (18 (43.9%) male) with acute liver injury were enrolled. Neopterin and sCD163 levels were measured by ELISA. A total of 24/33 (72.7%) POD patients developed hepatic encephalopathy (HE), and therefore acute liver failure. Both neopterin and sCD163 levels were significantly higher in PODs compared with chronic liver disease (neopterin P paracetamol overdose, and reflect the degree of macrophage activation in this condition. Serum neopterin in particular may have value as an early proxy marker of macrophage activation following paracetamol overdose. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. What is the clinical significance of 5-oxoproline (pyroglutamic acid) in high anion gap metabolic acidosis following paracetamol (acetaminophen) exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, D B; Paden, M S; Schwarz, E S; Mullins, M E

    2013-11-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) ingestion is the most frequent pharmaceutical overdose in the developed world. Metabolic acidosis sometimes occurs, but the acidosis is infrequently persistent or severe. A growing number of case reports and case series describe high anion gap metabolic acidosis (HAGMA) following paracetamol exposure with subsequent detection or measurement of 5-oxoproline (also called pyroglutamic acid) in blood, urine, or both. Typically 5-oxoprolinuria or 5-oxoprolinemia occurs in the setting of inborn genetic errors in glutathione metabolism. It is unknown whether 5-oxoprolinemia in the setting of paracetamol exposure reflects an acquired or transient derangement of glutathione metabolism or previously unrecognized genetic defects. We reviewed the published cases of 5-oxoprolinemia or 5-oxoprolinuria among patients with HAGMA in the setting of paracetamol exposure. Our goal was to identify any consistent features that might increase our understanding of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of similar cases. We searched the medical literature using PUBMED and EMBASE from inception to 28 August 2013 applying search terms ("oxoproline" OR "pyroglutamic acid" AND "paracetamol" OR "acetaminophen"). The intersection of these two searches returned 77 articles, of which 64 involved human subjects and were in English. Two articles, one each in Spanish and Dutch, were reviewed. An additional Google Scholar search was done with the same terms. We manually searched the reference lists of retrieved articles to identify additional four relevant articles. We focused on articles including measured 5-oxoproline concentrations in urine or blood. Twenty-two articles included quantified 5-oxoproline concentrations. Several additional articles mentioned only qualitative detection of 5-oxoproline in urine or blood without concentrations being reported. Our manual reference search yielded four additional articles for a total of 24 articles describing 43 patients

  7. Metabolic acidosis caused by concomitant use of paracetamol (acetaminophen) and flucloxacillin? A case report and a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbee, J K; Lammers, L A; Krediet, C T P; Fischer, J C; Kemper, E M

    2017-11-01

    A patient was identified with severe metabolic acidosis, a high anion gap and 5-oxoproline accumulation, probably caused by the simultaneous use of paracetamol (acetaminophen) and flucloxacillin. We wanted to investigate the necessity to control the interaction between both drugs with an automatic alert system. To investigate the relevance of the interaction of paracetamol and flucloxacillin, a retrospective study was conducted. Data on paracetamol and flucloxacillin prescriptions and laboratory data (pH, Na + , HCO 3 - , Cl - , albumin and 5-oxoproline levels) were combined to assess the prevalence of acidosis, calculate the anion gap and analyse 5-oxoproline levels in clinically admitted patients using both drugs simultaneously. In the 2-year study period, approximately 53,000 admissions took place in our hospital. One thousand and fifty-seven patients used paracetamol and flucloxacillin simultaneously, of which 51 patients (4.8%) had a serum pH ≤ 7.35. One patient, the same patient as presented in the case report, had a high anion gap and a toxic level of 5-oxoproline. The prevalence of metabolic acidosis is very low and the only patient identified with the interaction was recognised during normal clinical care. We conclude that automatic alerts based on simultaneous use of paracetamol and flucloxacillin will generate too many signals. To recognise patients earlier and prevent severe outcomes, a warning system (clinical rule) based on paracetamol, flucloxacillin and pH measurement may be helpful. Early calculation of the anion gap can narrow the differential diagnosis of patients with metabolic acidosis and measurement of 5-oxoproline can explain acidosis due the interaction of paracetamol and flucloxacillin.

  8. [Good use and knowledge of paracetamol (acetaminophen) among self-medicated patients: Prospective study in community pharmacies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Anne-Elise; Petitpain, Nadine; Scala-Bertola, Julien; Latarche, Clotilde; Yelehe-Okouma, Melissa; Di Patrizio, Paolo; Gillet, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol), the highest over-the-counter (OTC) selling drug in France, is also the first cause of acute hepatic failure. We aimed to assess the good use and the knowledge of acetaminophen in a setting of urban self-medicated patients. We conducted a prospective observational study in randomly selected community pharmacies of Metz (France) agglomeration. Patients coming to buy OTC acetaminophen for themselves or their family had to answer to an anonymous autoquestionnaire. Responses were individually and concomitantly analyzed through 3 scores: good use, knowledge and overdosage. Twenty-four community pharmacies participated and 302 patients were interviewed by mean of a dedicated questionnaire. Most of patients (84.4%) could be considered as "good users" and independent factors of good use were (i) a good knowledge of acetaminophen (OR=5.3; P<0.0001) and more surprisingly; (ii) the fact of having no children (parentality: OR=0.1; P=0.006). Responses corresponding to involuntary overdosage were mostly due to a too short interval between drug intakes (3hours). Only 30.8% of patients were aware of liver toxicity of acetaminophen and only 40.7% knew the risk of the association with alcohol. Both good use and knowledge were significantly higher in patients looking for information from their pharmacist, physician and package leaflet. Patients should definitely be better informed about acetaminophen to warrant a better safety of its consumption. Pharmacists and physicians have to remind patients the risk factors of unintentional overdose and liver toxicity. Package leaflets have also to be more informative. Copyright © 2016 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen) and ibuprofen on body temperature in acute ischemic stroke PISA, a phase II double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial [ISRCTN98608690].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); E.J. van Breda (Eric); H.B. van der Worp (Bart); H.M.A. van Gemert (Maarten); R.J. Meijer (Ron); L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Body temperature is a strong predictor of outcome in acute stroke. In a previous randomized trial we observed that treatment with high-dose acetaminophen (paracetamol) led to a reduction of body temperature in patients with acute ischemic stroke, even when

  10. Use of aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and acetaminophen (paracetamol), and risk of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaowei; Han, Jiali; Qureshi, Abrar A

    2015-02-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been reported to induce or exacerbate psoriasis. We aimed to evaluate the association between several widely used analgesics, including aspirin, non-aspirin NSAIDs, and acetaminophen (paracetamol), and risk of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in a large cohort of US women, the Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2005). Information on regular use of aspirin, NSAIDs, and acetaminophen was collected for 95,540 participants during the follow-up. During 1,321,280 person-years of follow-up, we documented 646 incident psoriasis cases and 165 concomitant PsA cases. Compared to women who reported no use, regular acetaminophen and NSAIDs users with more than 10 years of use had multivariate hazard ratios of 3.60 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.02-6.41] and 2.10 (95% CI: 1.11-3.96) for PsA, respectively. There was no clear association between aspirin and risk of psoriasis or PsA. In conclusion, long-term acetaminophen and NSAIDs use may be associated with an increased risk of PsA. Special attention on psoriasis and PsA screening may be needed for those who are prescribed for acetaminophen and NSAIDs for long-term periods.

  11. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) for prevention or treatment of pain in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Arne; Shah, Prakeshkumar S

    2016-10-07

    conditions, the use of paracetamol and comparison interventions and the outcome measures differed. Paracetamol compared with water, cherry elixir or EMLA cream (eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine) did not significantly reduce pain following heel lance. The Premature Infant Pain Profile score (PIPP) within three minutes following lancing was higher in the paracetamol group than in the oral glucose group (mean difference (MD) 2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72 to 3.70; one study, 38 infants). Paracetamol did not reduce "modified facies scores" after assisted vaginal birth (one study, 119 infants). In another study (n = 123), the Échelle de Douleur et d'Inconfort du Nouveau-Né score at two hours of age was significantly higher in the group that received paracetamol suppositories than in the placebo suppositories group (MD 1.00, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.40). In that study, when infants were subjected to a heel lance at two to three days of age, Bernese Pain Scale for Neonates scores were higher in the paracetamol group than in the placebo group, and infants spent a longer time crying (MD 19 seconds, 95% CI 14 to 24). For eye examinations, no significant reduction in PIPP scores in the first or last 45 seconds of eye examination was reported, nor at five minutes after the eye examination. In one study (n = 81), the PIPP score was significantly higher in the paracetamol group than in the 24% sucrose group (MD 3.90, 95% CI 2.92 to 4.88). In one study (n = 114) the PIPP score during eye examination was significantly lower in the paracetamol group than in the water group (MD -2.70, 95% CI -3.55 to 1.85). For postoperative care following major surgery, the total amount of morphine (µg/kg) administered over 48 hours was significantly less among infants assigned to the paracetamol group than to the morphine group (MD -157 µg/kg, 95% CI -27 to -288). No adverse events were noted in any study. The quality of evidence according to GRADE was low. The paucity and low quality of

  12. Overview review: Comparative efficacy of oral ibuprofen and paracetamol (acetaminophen) across acute and chronic pain conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R A; Derry, S; Wiffen, P J; Straube, S; Aldington, D J

    2015-10-01

    Ibuprofen and paracetamol have long been used as analgesics in a range of acute, intermittent and chronic pain conditions. Paracetamol is often the first line analgesic recommended, without consensus about which is the better analgesic. An overview review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses directly compares ibuprofen and paracetamol at standard doses in particular painful conditions, or uses indirect comparisons against placebo. Electronic searches for systematic reviews were sought published since 1995 using outcomes approximating to ≥50% pain intensity reduction. Painful conditions were acute post-operative pain, dysmenorrhoea, tension-type headache (TTH), migraine, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, back pain, cancer and paediatric pain. There was no systematic assessment of harm. Sixteen systematic reviews and four individual patient data meta-analyses were included. Ibuprofen was consistently superior to paracetamol at conventional doses in a range of painful conditions. Two direct comparisons favoured ibuprofen (acute pain, osteoarthritis). Three of four indirect comparisons favoured ibuprofen (acute pain, migraine, osteoarthritis); one showed no difference (TTH), although there were methodological problems. In five pain conditions (dysmenorrhoea, paediatric pain, cancer pain, back pain and rheumatoid arthritis), there were limited data on paracetamol and ibuprofen. At standard doses in different painful conditions, ibuprofen was usually superior producing more patients with the degree of pain relief that patients feel worthwhile. Neither of the drugs will be effective for everyone, and both are needed. This overview questions the practice of routinely using paracetamol as a first line analgesic because there is no good evidence for efficacy of paracetamol in many pain conditions. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Pain published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Pain Federation - EFICC®.

  13. Adult neurobehavioral alterations in male and female mice following developmental exposure to paracetamol (acetaminophen): characterization of a critical period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippot, Gaëtan; Gordh, Torsten; Fredriksson, Anders; Viberg, Henrik

    2017-10-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a widely used non-prescription drug with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Among pregnant women and young children, paracetamol is one of the most frequently used drugs and is considered the first-choice treatment for pain and/or fever. Recent findings in both human and animal studies have shown associations between paracetamol intake during brain development and adverse behavioral outcomes later in life. The present study was undertaken to investigate if the induction of these effects depend on when the exposure occurs during a critical period of brain development and if male and female mice are equally affected. Mice of both sexes were exposed to two doses of paracetamol (30 + 30 mg kg -1 , 4 h apart) on postnatal days (PND) 3, 10 or 19. Spontaneous behavior, when introduced to a new home environment, was observed at the age of 2 months. We show that adverse effects on adult behavior and cognitive function occurred in both male and female mice exposed to paracetamol on PND 3 and 10, but not when exposed on PND 19. These neurodevelopmental time points in mice correspond to the beginning of the third trimester of pregnancy and the time around birth in humans, supporting existing human data. Considering that paracetamol is the first choice treatment for pain and/or fever during pregnancy and early life, these results may be of great importance for future research and, ultimately, for clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) for the common cold in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siyuan; Yue, Jirong; Dong, Bi Rong; Yang, Ming; Lin, Xiufang; Wu, Taixiang

    2013-07-01

    Acetaminophen is frequently prescribed for treating patients with the common cold, but there is little evidence as to whether it is effective. To determine the efficacy and safety of acetaminophen in the treatment of the common cold in adults. We searched CENTRAL 2013, Issue 1, Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to January week 5, 2013), EMBASE (1980 to February 2013), CINAHL (1982 to February 2013) and LILACS (1985 to February 2013). We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing acetaminophen to placebo or no treatment in adults with the common cold. Studies were included if the trials used acetaminophen as one ingredient of a combination therapy. We excluded studies in which the participants had complications. Primary outcomes included subjective symptom score and duration of common cold symptoms. Secondary outcomes were overall well being, adverse events and financial costs. Two review authors independently screened studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We performed standard statistical analyses. We included four RCTs involving 758 participants. We did not pool data because of heterogeneity in study designs, outcomes and time points. The studies provided sparse information about effects longer than a few hours, as three of four included studies were short trials of only four to six hours. Participants treated with acetaminophen had significant improvements in nasal obstruction in two of the four studies. One study showed that acetaminophen was superior to placebo in decreasing rhinorrhoea severity, but was not superior for treating sneezing and coughing. Acetaminophen did not improve sore throat or malaise in two of the four studies. Results were inconsistent for some symptoms. Two studies showed that headache and achiness improved more in the acetaminophen group than in the placebo group, while one study showed no difference between the acetaminophen and placebo group. None of the included studies reported the duration of common cold

  15. Efficacy and safety of oral paracetamol versus oral ibuprofen for closure of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Farrash, Rania A; El Shimy, Mohammed S; El-Sakka, Abeer S; Ahmed, Manal G; Abdel-Moez, Dina G

    2018-05-09

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral paracetamol versus oral ibuprofen in the treatment of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) in preterm infants. An interventional randomized case-control study, registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03265782), was conducted on 60 preterm infants with gestational age ≤34 weeks, postnatal age of 2-7 d and color Doppler echocardiographic evidence of hsPDA. Neonates were randomly assigned to two groups: 30 received oral ibuprofen and 30 received oral paracetamol. With failure of ductal closure, a second course of ibuprofen or paracetamol was given. The included newborns were subjected to detailed history, clinical examination, laboratory investigations that included complete blood count, renal, and liver function tests and echocardiographic evaluation. Oral paracetamol was as effective as ibuprofen for the closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with one course of treatment (p > .05). Moreover, oral paracetamol was superior to ibuprofen among neonates who needed second course of treatment with significant decrease in end diastolic flow velocity in the left pulmonary artery (0.35 ± 0.09 versus 0.19 ± 0.06, p = .014), right ventricular systolic pressure (40.50 ± 12.91 versus 20.50 ± 0.58, p = .016) and left atrium to aortic root ratio (1.23 ± 0.14 versus 1.07 ± 0.04, p = .046) when compared to ibuprofen group. Furthermore, the mean difference between pre- and post-treatment PDA size was significantly higher in the paracetamol group compared with ibuprofen group after the second course of treatment (1.07 ± 0.32 versus 0.73 ± 0.38, p = .024). Oral paracetamol was comparable with ibuprofen in terms of the rate of non-surgical ductal closure [28 (93.3%) versus 24 (80%), p = .591]. In addition, oral paracetamol was as safe as oral ibuprofen in terms of gastrointestinal perforation or bleeding, necrotizing

  16. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) protein adduct concentrations during therapeutic dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Kennon; Green, Jody L; Anderson, Victoria; Bucher-Bartelson, Becki; Dart, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    Paracetamol protein adducts (PPA) are a biomarker of paracetamol exposure. PPA are quantified as paracetamol-cysteine (APAP-CYS), and concentrations above 1.1 μmol l(-1) have been suggested as a marker of paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. However, there is little information on the range of concentrations observed during prolonged therapeutic dosing. The aim of the present study was to describe the concentration of PPA in the serum of subjects taking therapeutic doses of paracetamol for at least 16 days. Preplanned secondary aim of a prospective randomized controlled (placebo vs. 4g day(-1) paracetamol) trial. We measured subjects' serum PPA concentrations every 3 days for a minimum of 16 days. We also measured concentrations on study days 1-3 and 16-25 in subsets of patients. PPA were quantified as APAP-CYS after gel filtration and protein digestion using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Ninety per cent of subjects had detectable PPA after five doses. Median APAP-CYS concentrations in paracetamol-treated subjects increased to a plateau of 0.1 μmol l(-1) on day 7, where they remained. The highest concentration measured was 1.1 μmol l(-1) and two subjects never had detectable PPA levels. PPA were detected in the serum of 78% of subjects 9 days after their final dose. PPA are detectable in the vast majority of subjects taking therapeutic doses of paracetamol. While most have concentrations well below the threshold associated with hepatotoxicity, concentrations may approach 1.1 μmol l(-1) in rare cases. Adducts are detectable after a few doses and can persist for over a week after dosing is stopped. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) for patent ductus arteriosus in preterm or low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Arne; Shah, Prakeshkumar S

    2018-04-06

    In preterm newborns, the ductus arteriosus frequently fails to close and the infants require medical or surgical closure of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). A PDA can be treated surgically; or medically with one of two prostaglandin inhibitors, indomethacin or ibuprofen. Case reports suggest that paracetamol may be an alternative for the closure of a PDA. An association between prenatal or postnatal exposure to paracetamol and later development of autism or autism spectrum disorder has been reported. To determine the effectiveness and safety of intravenous or oral paracetamol compared with placebo or no intervention, intravenous indomethacin, intravenous or oral ibuprofen, or with other cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors for treatment of an echocardiographically diagnosed PDA in preterm or low birth weight infants. We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2017, Issue 10), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 6 November 2017), Embase (1980 to 6 November 2017), and CINAHL (1982 to 6 November 2017). We searched clinical trial databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials (RCT) and quasi-randomised trials. We included RCTs in which paracetamol was compared to no intervention, placebo or other agents used for closure of PDA irrespective of dose, duration and mode of administration in preterm (≤ 34 weeks' postmenstrual age) infants. We both reviewed the search results and made a final selection of potentially eligible articles by discussion. We included studies of both prophylactic and therapeutic use of paracetamol. We performed data collection and analyses in accordance with the methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence for the following outcomes when data were available: failure of ductal closure after the first course of treatment; neurodevelopmental impairment

  18. Simultaneous determination of paracetamol, 4-Aminophenol, 4-Chloroacetanilid, Benzyl alcohol,Benzaldehyde and EDTA by HPLC methodin paracetamol injection ampoule

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Merrikhi Khosroshahi; Fereydoon Aflaki; Nader Saemiyan; Assem Abdollahpour; Ramin Asgharian

    2016-01-01

    Paracetamol that is known as acetaminophen have the most consume as an analgesic and antipyretic drug in the world. That is formulated in single compound or mixture at many forms such as tablets, syrups, suspensions and drops. The last form is intravenous injections. Paracetamol derived from 4-minophenol which is synthesized by acylated the P-acetaminophenol and acetic anhydride. 4-aminophenol is the main impurity at manufacturing of paracetamol which could produce by hydrolysis during sto...

  19. Gabapentin Inhibits Protein Kinase C Epsilon Translocation in Cultured Sensory Neurons with Additive Effects When Coapplied with Paracetamol (Acetaminophen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellani, Vittorio; Giacomoni, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Gabapentin is a well-established anticonvulsant drug which is also effective for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Although the exact mechanism leading to relief of allodynia and hyperalgesia caused by neuropathy is not known, the blocking effect of gabapentin on voltage-dependent calcium channels has been proposed to be involved. In order to further evaluate its analgesic mechanisms, we tested the efficacy of gabapentin on protein kinase C epsilon (PKC ε ) translocation in cultured peripheral neurons isolated from rat dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). We found that gabapentin significantly reduced PKC ε translocation induced by the pronociceptive peptides bradykinin and prokineticin 2, involved in both inflammatory and chronic pain. We recently showed that paracetamol (acetaminophen), a very commonly used analgesic drug, also produces inhibition of PKC ε . We tested the effect of the combined use of paracetamol and gabapentin, and we found that the inhibition of translocation adds up. Our study provides a novel mechanism of action for gabapentin in sensory neurons and suggests a mechanism of action for the combined use of paracetamol and gabapentin, which has recently been shown to be effective, with a cumulative behavior, in the control of postoperative pain in human patients.

  20. Gabapentin Inhibits Protein Kinase C Epsilon Translocation in Cultured Sensory Neurons with Additive Effects When Coapplied with Paracetamol (Acetaminophen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Vellani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gabapentin is a well-established anticonvulsant drug which is also effective for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Although the exact mechanism leading to relief of allodynia and hyperalgesia caused by neuropathy is not known, the blocking effect of gabapentin on voltage-dependent calcium channels has been proposed to be involved. In order to further evaluate its analgesic mechanisms, we tested the efficacy of gabapentin on protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε translocation in cultured peripheral neurons isolated from rat dorsal root ganglia (DRGs. We found that gabapentin significantly reduced PKCε translocation induced by the pronociceptive peptides bradykinin and prokineticin 2, involved in both inflammatory and chronic pain. We recently showed that paracetamol (acetaminophen, a very commonly used analgesic drug, also produces inhibition of PKCε. We tested the effect of the combined use of paracetamol and gabapentin, and we found that the inhibition of translocation adds up. Our study provides a novel mechanism of action for gabapentin in sensory neurons and suggests a mechanism of action for the combined use of paracetamol and gabapentin, which has recently been shown to be effective, with a cumulative behavior, in the control of postoperative pain in human patients.

  1. Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) Induces Hypothermia During Acute Cold Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Josh; Mauger, Alexis R; Govus, Andrew; Hewson, David; Taylor, Lee

    2017-11-01

    Acetaminophen is an over-the-counter drug used to treat pain and fever, but it has also been shown to reduce core temperature (T c ) in the absence of fever. However, this side effect is not well examined in humans, and it is unknown if the hypothermic response to acetaminophen is exacerbated with cold exposure. To address this question, we mapped the thermoregulatory responses to acetaminophen and placebo administration during exposure to acute cold (10 °C) and thermal neutrality (25 °C). Nine healthy Caucasian males (aged 20-24 years) participated in the experiment. In a double-blind, randomised, repeated measures design, participants were passively exposed to a thermo-neutral or cold environment for 120 min, with administration of 20 mg/kg lean body mass acetaminophen or a placebo 5 min prior to exposure. T c , skin temperature (T sk ), heart rate, and thermal sensation were measured every 10 min, and mean arterial pressure was recorded every 30 min. Data were analysed using linear mixed effects models. Differences in thermal sensation were analysed using a cumulative link mixed model. Acetaminophen had no effect on T c in a thermo-neutral environment, but significantly reduced T c during cold exposure, compared with a placebo. T c was lower in the acetaminophen compared with the placebo condition at each 10-min interval from 80 to 120 min into the trial (all p  0.05). This preliminary trial suggests that acetaminophen-induced hypothermia is exacerbated during cold stress. Larger scale trials seem warranted to determine if acetaminophen administration is associated with an increased risk of accidental hypothermia, particularly in vulnerable populations such as frail elderly individuals.

  2. Overdosed prescription of paracetamol (acetaminophen) in a teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpiat, B; Henry, A; Leboucher, G; Tod, M; Allenet, B

    2012-07-01

    Paracetamol is the most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic. Reviews of hospital use of paracetamol are scarce. Little is known about the appropriateness of the dose of paracetamol prescribed for hospitalized adults. The aim of this study was to report on the nature and the frequency of the overdosed prescription of paracetamol observed in adult patients over a 4.5-year period in a teaching hospital. Prescription analysis by pharmacists was performed once a week in six medical and three surgical departments and daily in a post-emergency unit. In cases of prescription error, the pharmacist notified the physician through an electronic alert when a computerized prescription order entry system was available or otherwise by face-to-face discussion. For each drug-related problem detected, the pharmacists recorded relevant details in a database. From October 2006 to April 2011, 44,404 prescriptions were reviewed and 480 alerts related to the overdosed prescription of paracetamol were made (1% of analyzed prescriptions). The extent of errors of dosage was within the intervals [90-120 mg/kg/d] and greater than 120 mg/kg/d for 87 and 11 patients respectively, who were prescribed a single non-combination paracetamol containing product. Sixty alerts concerned co-prescription of at least two paracetamol containing products with similar frequency for computerized (1.4/1000) or handwritten (1.2/1000) prescriptions. Prescriptions of paracetamol for hospitalized adults frequently exceed the recommended dosage. These results highlight the need for increased awareness of unintentional paracetamol overdose and support the initiation of an educational program aimed at physicians and nurses. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Oral Paracetamol for Patent Ductus Arteriosus Rescue Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharande, Pramod; Watson, Hadley; Tan, Kenneth; Sehgal, Arvind

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the efficacy of oral paracetamol in closing a symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) when used as 'rescue' option. After obtaining ethics approval, a retrospective appraisal of the data from April 2014 to July 2015 was performed. Infants who were administered oral paracetamol either after unsuccessful therapy with ibuprofen or where it was considered contraindicated were included. A previously published echocardiographic scoring schema to stratify for ductal disease severity was used. Using univariate analysis, characteristics of infants with successful closure were compared with partial (a priori reduction in composite score by ≥ 50% of pretreatment) or no closure. Twenty infants with gestation age and birthweight of 25.7 ± 1.5 weeks and 724.1 ± 143 g, respectively, were studied. Complete closure was noted in 10 (50%) infants with additional four infants showing a significant reduction in haemodynamic shunting. Gestational age at birth and at therapy, chronological age at therapy, birthweight and total fluid intake were comparable between the two groups. The pre-therapy composite score had a significant association with successful closure (the higher the echocardiographic score, the lesser the closure). Concomitant furosemide therapy and late-onset sepsis had a high likelihood ratio of unsuccessful closure (11.01 [2-tailed, p = 0.005] and 5.3 [2-tailed, p = 0.07]), respectively. Oral paracetamol may be a possible therapeutic option in premature infants where therapy with first-line agents is unsuccessful or contraindicated. Concomitant sepsis and furosemide administration may affect successful therapy.

  4. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, alone or combined, for pain relief in acute otitis media in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoukes, Alies; Venekamp, Roderick P; van de Pol, Alma C; Hay, Alastair D; Little, Paul; Schilder, Anne Gm; Damoiseaux, Roger Amj

    2016-12-15

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common childhood infectious diseases and a significant reason for antibiotic prescriptions in children worldwide. Pain from middle ear infection and pressure behind the eardrum is the key symptom of AOM. Ear pain is central to children's and parents' experience of the illness. Because antibiotics provide only marginal benefits, analgesic treatment including paracetamol (acetaminophen) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is regarded as the cornerstone of AOM management in children. Our primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of paracetamol (acetaminophen) or NSAIDs, alone or combined, compared with placebo or no treatment in relieving pain in children with AOM. Our secondary objective was to assess the effectiveness of NSAIDs compared with paracetamol in children with AOM. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Issue 7, July 2016; MEDLINE (Ovid, from 1946 to August 2016), Embase (from 1947 to August 2016), CINAHL (from 1981 to August 2016), LILACS (from 1982 to August 2016) and Web of Science (from 1955 to August 2016) for published trials. We screened reference lists of included studies and relevant systematic reviews for additional trials. We searched WHO ICTRP, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Netherlands Trial Registry (NTR) for completed and ongoing trials (search date 19 August 2016). We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effectiveness of paracetamol or NSAIDs, alone or combined, for pain relief in children with AOM. We also included trials of paracetamol or NSAIDs, alone or combined, for children with fever or upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) if we were able to extract subgroup data on pain relief in children with AOM either directly or after obtaining additional data from study authors. Two review authors independently assessed methodological quality of the included trials and extracted data. We used the GRADE approach to rate

  5. Paracetamol (acetaminophen): a blessing or a hidden curse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, M W; Butters, D E

    2014-02-01

    This Journal has recently published a splendid review of all you need to know about paracetamol (Graham et al. 2013), an analgesic widely used in the long-term management of arthritis. It clearly presents the science and hard facts. This commentary, by contrast, discusses some aspects of the metapharmacology of paracetamol; particularly by asking questions of how we might extract more benefit and suffer less adverse reactions when using this analgesic in the context of non-transient inflammation. As both a drug and a toxin, paracetamol exemplifies how beneficial and/or deleterious responses may be conditioned by circumstances (disease stress, nutritional status, fasting, etc.).

  6. [Acetaminophen (paracetamol) causing renal failure: report on 3 pediatric cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vaillant, J; Pellerin, L; Brouard, J; Eckart, P

    2013-06-01

    Renal failure secondary to acetaminophen poisoning is rare and occurs in approximately 1-2 % of patients with acetaminophen overdose. The pathophysiology is still being debated, and renal acetaminophen toxicity consists of acute tubular necrosis, without complication if treated promptly. Renal involvement can sometimes occur without prior liver disease, and early renal manifestations usually occur between the 2nd and 7th day after the acute acetaminophen poisoning. While therapy is exclusively symptomatic, sometimes serious metabolic complications can be observed. The monitoring of renal function should therefore be considered as an integral part of the management of children with acute, severe acetaminophen intoxication. We report 3 cases of adolescents who presented with acute renal failure as a result of voluntary drug intoxication with acetaminophen. One of these 3 girls developed severe renal injury without elevated hepatic transaminases. None of the 3 girls' renal function required hemodialysis, but one of the 3 patients had metabolic complications after her acetaminophen poisoning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. An elevated neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio is associated with adverse outcomes following single time-point paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose: a time-course analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Darren G; Kitto, Laura; Zafar, Sara; Reid, Thomas W D J; Martin, Kirsty G; Davidson, Janice S; Hayes, Peter C; Simpson, Kenneth J

    2014-09-01

    The innate immune system is profoundly dysregulated in paracetamol (acetaminophen)-induced liver injury. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a simple bedside index with prognostic value in a number of inflammatory conditions. To evaluate the prognostic accuracy of the NLR in patients with significant liver injury following single time-point and staggered paracetamol overdoses. Time-course analysis of 100 single time-point and 50 staggered paracetamol overdoses admitted to a tertiary liver centre. Timed laboratory samples were correlated with time elapsed after overdose or admission, respectively, and the NLR was calculated. A total of 49/100 single time-point patients developed hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Median NLRs were higher at both 72 (P=0.0047) and 96 h after overdose (P=0.0041) in single time-point patients who died or were transplanted. Maximum NLR values by 96 h were associated with increasing HE grade (P=0.0005). An NLR of more than 16.7 during the first 96 h following overdose was independently associated with the development of HE [odds ratio 5.65 (95% confidence interval 1.67-19.13), P=0.005]. Maximum NLR values by 96 h were strongly associated with the requirement for intracranial pressure monitoring (Pparacetamol overdoses. Future studies should assess the value of incorporating the NLR into existing prognostic and triage indices of single time-point paracetamol overdose.

  8. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on the role of preemptive analgesia with acetaminophen [paracetamol] in reducing headache following electroconvulsive therapy [ECT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isuru, Amila; Rodrigo, Asiri; Wijesinghe, Chamara; Ediriweera, Dileepa; Premadasa, Shan; Wijesekara, Carmel; Kuruppuarachchi, Lalith

    2017-07-28

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a safe and efficient treatment for several severe psychiatric disorders, but its use is limited by side effects. Post-ECT headache is one of the commonest side effects. Preemptive analgesia is effective in post-surgical pain management. The most commonly used analgesic is acetaminophen (paracetamol). However, acetaminophen as a preemptive analgesic for post-ECT headache has not been studied adequately. This study was conducted to compare the incidence and severity of post-ECT headache in patients who were administered acetaminophen pre-ECT with a placebo group. This study was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Sixty-three patients received 1 g acetaminophen and 63 patients received a placebo identical to acetaminophen. The incidence and severity of headache 2 h before and after ECT were compared between placebo and acetaminophen groups. The severity was measured using a visual analog scale. Generalised linear models were used to evaluate variables associated with post ECT headache. Demographic and clinical variables of placebo and acetaminophen groups were comparable except for the energy level used to induce a seizure. Higher proportion of the placebo group (71.4%) experienced post-ECT headache when compared to the acetaminophen group (p < 0.001). The median pain score for headache was 0 (Inter quartile range: 0-2) in acetaminophen group whereas the score was 2 (IQR: 0-4) in placebo group (P < 0.001). Model fitting showed that the administration of acetaminophen is associated with less post-ECT headache (odds ratio = 0.23, 95% CI: 0.11-0.48, P < 0.001). A significant reduction was seen in both the incidence and severity of post-ECT headache with preemptive analgesia with acetaminophen. Ethical approval was granted by an Ethic review committee, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka (P/166/10/2015) and the trial was registered in the Sri Lanka Clinical Trials Registry ( SLCTR/2015/27 ).

  9. Transplantation for acute liver failure in patients exposed to NSAIDs or paracetamol (acetaminophen): the multinational case-population SALT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulmez, Sinem Ezgi; Larrey, Dominique; Pageaux, Georges-Philippe; Lignot, Severine; Lassalle, Régis; Jové, Jérémy; Gatta, Angelo; McCormick, P Aiden; Metselaar, Harold J; Monteiro, Estela; Thorburn, Douglas; Bernal, William; Zouboulis-Vafiadis, Irene; de Vries, Corinne; Perez-Gutthann, Susana; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Bénichou, Jacques; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Horsmans, Yves; Salvo, Francesco; Hamoud, Fatima; Micon, Sophie; Droz-Perroteau, Cécile; Blin, Patrick; Moore, Nicholas

    2013-02-01

    Most NSAIDs are thought to be able to cause hepatic injury and acute liver failure (ALF), but the event rates of those leading to transplantation (ALFT) remain uncertain. The aim of the study was to estimate population event rates for NSAID-associated ALFT METHODS: This was a case-population study of ALFT in 57 eligible liver transplant centres in seven countries (France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal and the UK). Cases were all adults registered from 2005 to 2007 for a liver transplant following ALFT without identified clinical aetiology, exposed to an NSAID or paracetamol (acetaminophen) within 30 days before the onset of clinical symptoms. NSAID and paracetamol population exposures were assessed using national sales data from Intercontinental Marketing Services (IMS). Risk was estimated as the rate of ALFT per million treatment-years (MTY). In the 52 participating centres, 9479 patients were registered for transplantation, with 600 for ALFT, 301 of whom, without clinical aetiology, had been exposed to a drug within 30 days. Of these 301 patients, 40 had been exposed to an NSAID and 192 to paracetamol (81 of whom were without overdose). Event rates per MTY were 1.59 (95 % CI 1.1-2.2) for all NSAIDs pooled, 2.3 (95 % CI 1.2-3.9) for ibuprofen, 1.9 (95 % CI 0.8-3.7) for nimesulide, 1.6 (95 % CI 0.6-3.4) for diclofenac and 1.6 (95 % CI 0.3-4.5) for ketoprofen. For paracetamol, the event rate was 3.3 per MTY (95 % CI 2.6-4.1) without overdoses and 7.8 (95 % CI 6.8-9.0) including overdoses. ALF leading to registration for transplantation after exposure to an NSAID was rare, with no major difference between NSAID. Non-overdose paracetamol-exposed liver failure was twice more common than NSAID-exposed liver failure.

  10. Oral versus intravenous paracetamol: which is better in closure of patent ductus arteriosus in very low birth weight infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancak, Selim; Gokmen Yildirim, Tulin; Topcuoglu, Sevilay; Yavuz, Taner; Karatekin, Guner; Ovali, Fahri

    2016-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of oral and intravenous paracetamol for closure of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (HSPDA) in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants. Eighteen VLBW infants with HSPDA treated with either intravenous (n = 10) or oral (n = 8) paracetamol at 60 mg/kg/d for three consecutive days were analysed retrospectively. Ductal closure rate and evaluation of liver function tests were the major outcomes. After two courses of treatment, HSPDA closure rate was higher in oral paracetamol group than that in the intravenous paracetamol group (88% versus 70%), but it was not statistically significant (p = 0.588). Liver function tests were normal after the treatment. Although it was not statistically significant, the cumulative closure rates were higher in oral paracetamol group than those in the intravenous group. Larger trials are needed to confirm these data.

  11. [Intentional paracetamol intoxication in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschops, L.L.; Bisschops, W.A.; Vroegop, M.P.; Rossum, L.K. van; Kramers, C.

    2011-01-01

    As paracetamol is widely used and easily available acetaminophen auto-intoxication is frequently seen. In the majority of patients no complications will occur, but in a small group it may lead to liver damage and death. Children are less susceptible to complications than adults. Cornerstone of

  12. Comparison of oral paracetamol versus ibuprofen in premature infants with patent ductus arteriosus: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Dang

    Full Text Available TRIAL DESIGN: Oral ibuprofen has demonstrated good effects on symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (PDA but with many contraindications and potential side-effects. In the past two years, oral paracetamol administration to several preterm infants with PDA has been reported. Here, a randomized, non-blinded, parallel-controlled and non-inferiority trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety profiles of oral paracetamol to those of standard ibuprofen for PDA closure in premature infants. METHODS: One hundred and sixty infants (gestational age ≤ 34 weeks with echocardiographically confirmed PDA were randomly assigned to receive either oral paracetamol (n = 80 or ibuprofen (n = 80. After the initial treatment course in both groups, the need for a second course was determined by echocardiographic evaluation. The main outcome was rate of ductal closure, and secondary outcomes were adverse effects and complications. RESULT: The ductus was closed in 65 (81.2% infants of the paracetamol group compared with 63 (78.8% of the ibuprofen group. The 95% confidence interval of the difference between these groups was [-0.080,0.128], demonstrating that the effectiveness of paracetamol treatment was not inferior to that of ibuprofen. In fact, the incidence of hyperbilirubinemia or gastrointestinal bleeding in the paracetamol group was significantly lower than that of the ibuprofen group. No significant differences in other clinical side effects or complications were noted. CONCLUSION: This comparison of drug efficacy and safety profiles in premature infants with PDA revealed that oral paracetamol was comparable to ibuprofen in terms of the rate of ductal closure and even showed a decreased risk of hyperbilirubinemia or gastrointestinal bleeding. Therefore, paracetamol may be accepted as a first-line drug treatment for PDA in preterm infants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR.org ChiCTR-TRC-12002177.

  13. Antinociception by systemically-administered acetaminophen (paracetamol) involves spinal serotonin 5-HT7 and adenosine A1 receptors, as well as peripheral adenosine A1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jean; Reid, Allison R; Sawynok, Jana

    2013-03-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a widely used analgesic, but its sites and mechanisms of action remain incompletely understood. Recent studies have separately implicated spinal adenosine A(1) receptors (A(1)Rs) and serotonin 5-HT(7) receptors (5-HT(7)Rs) in the antinociceptive effects of systemically administered acetaminophen. In the present study, we determined whether these two actions are linked by delivering a selective 5-HT(7)R antagonist to the spinal cord of mice and examining nociception using the formalin 2% model. In normal and A(1)R wild type mice, antinociception by systemic (i.p.) acetaminophen 300mg/kg was reduced by intrathecal (i.t.) delivery of the selective 5-HT(7)R antagonist SB269970 3μg. In mice lacking A(1)Rs, i.t. SB269970 did not reverse antinociception by systemic acetaminophen, indicating a link between spinal 5-HT(7)R and A(1)R mechanisms. We also explored potential roles of peripheral A(1)Rs in antinociception by acetaminophen administered both locally and systemically. In normal mice, intraplantar (i.pl.) acetaminophen 200μg produced antinociception in the formalin test, and this was blocked by co-administration of the selective A(1)R antagonist DPCPX 4.5μg. Acetaminophen administered into the contralateral hindpaw had no effect, indicating a local peripheral action. When acetaminophen was administered systemically, its antinociceptive effect was reversed by i.pl. DPCPX in normal mice; this was also observed in A(1)R wild type mice, but not in those lacking A(1)Rs. In summary, we demonstrate a link between spinal 5-HT(7)Rs and A(1)Rs in the spinal cord relevant to antinociception by systemic acetaminophen. Furthermore, we implicate peripheral A(1)Rs in the antinociceptive effects of locally- and systemically-administered acetaminophen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) induced acute liver failure - A social problem in an era of increasing tendency to self-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróblewski, Tadeusz; Kobryń, Konrad; Kozieł, Sławomir; Ołdakowska-Jedynak, Urszula; Pinkas, Jarosław; Danielewicz, Roman; Ziarkiewicz-Wróblewska, Bogna; Krawczyk, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The widespread availability of medication without prescription, so-called over the counter (OTC), and the rapid development of health consciousness of Poles is associated with broad access to medical information in the mass media. This causes patients to recognize their own disease, cancel doctor's appointments, and begin self-treatment. This time and money-saving behavior, often signaled by pain, usually leads to the treatment of symptoms alone, without seeking the cause of the disease.The aim of the study was to present life-threatening paracetamol poisoning, and the treatment of acute liver failure. In 2002-2014, 35 patients were hospitalized due to acute paracetamol poisoning: 17 female and 18 male patients aged between 17-59 (mean 32.3 years). Patients were treated in the surgical intensive care unit, where their parameters of liver and renal function were continuously monitored. If there was no improvement in the liver function, patients underwent albumin dialysis with the Prometheus system and were qualified for liver transplantation (LTx). 26 patients were treated pharmacologically and 7 out of 9 patients who underwent LTx were dialyzed. Overall, 11 patients had 26 albumin dialysis in total; 4 patients died - 1 post-transplant and 3 pre-transplant. Paracetamol is the cause of many poisonings resulting from the lack of public awareness about toxic interactions with alcohol, and suicide attempts. Acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure concerns a small percentage of patients but can be successfully treated with albumin dialysis, and in extreme cases by liver transplantation.

  15. Can paracetamol (acetaminophen) be administered to patients with liver impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Kelly L; Powell, Elizabeth E; Irvine, Katharine M; Martin, Jennifer H

    2016-02-01

    Although 60 years have passed since it became widely available on the therapeutic market, paracetamol dosage in patients with liver disease remains a controversial subject. Fulminant hepatic failure has been a well documented consequence of paracetamol overdose since its introduction, while short and long term use have both been associated with elevation of liver transaminases, a surrogate marker for acute liver injury. From these reports it has been assumed that paracetamol use should be restricted or the dosage reduced in patients with chronic liver disease. We review the factors that have been purported to increase risk of hepatocellular injury from paracetamol and the pharmacokinetic alterations in different pathologies of chronic liver disease which may affect this risk. We postulate that inadvertent under-dosing may result in concentrations too low to enable efficacy. Specific research to improve the evidence base for prescribing paracetamol in patients with different aetiologies of chronic liver disease is needed. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Management of acute paracetamol (acetaminophen) toxicity: a standardised proforma improves risk assessment and overall risk stratification by emergency medicine doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuade, David J; Aknuri, Srikanth; Dargan, Paul I; Wood, David M

    2012-12-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning is the most common toxicological presentation in the UK. Doctors managing patients with paracetamol poisoning need to assess the risk of their patient developing hepatotoxicity before determining appropriate treatment. Patients deemed to be at 'high risk' of hepatotoxicity have lower treatment thresholds than those deemed to be at 'normal risk'. Errors in this process can lead to harmful or potentially fatal under or over treatment. To determine how well treating doctors assess risk factor status and whether a standardised proforma is useful in the risk stratification process. Retrospective 12-month case note review of all patients presenting with paracetamol poisoning to our large inner-city emergency department. Data were collected on the documentation of risk factors, the presence of a local hospital proforma and treatment outcomes. 249 presentations were analysed and only 59 (23.7%) had full documentation of all the risk factors required to make a complete risk assessment. 56 of the 59 (94.9%) had the local hospital proforma included in the notes; the remaining 3 (5.1%) had full documentation of risk factors despite the absence of a proforma. A local hospital proforma was more likely to be included in the emergency department notes in those with 'adequate documentation' (78 out of 120 (65%)) than for those with 'inadequate documentation' (16 out of 129 (12.4%)); X(2), pparacetamol poisoning.

  17. Paracetamol in Patent Ductus Arteriosus Treatment: Efficacious and Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardanzellu, Flaminia; Neroni, Paola; Fanos, Vassilios

    2017-01-01

    In preterm infants, failure or delay in spontaneous closure of Ductus Arteriosus (DA), resulting in the condition of Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA), represents a significant issue. A prolonged situation of PDA can be associated with several short- and long-term complications. Despite years of researches and clinical experience on PDA management, unresolved questions about the treatment and heterogeneity of clinical practices in different centers still remain, in particular regarding timing and modality of intervention. Nowadays, the most reasonable strategy seems to be reserving the treatment only to hemodynamically significant PDA. The first-line therapy is medical, and ibuprofen, related to several side effects especially in terms of nephrotoxicity, is the drug of choice. Administration of oral or intravenous paracetamol (acetaminophen) recently gained attention, appearing effective as traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in PDA closure, with lower toxicity. The results of the studies analyzed in this review mostly support paracetamol efficacy in ductal closure, with inconstant low and transient elevation of liver enzymes as reported side effect. However, more studies are needed to confirm if this therapy shows a real safety profile and to evaluate its long-term outcomes, before considering paracetamol as first-choice drug in PDA treatment. PMID:28828381

  18. Paracetamol in Patent Ductus Arteriosus Treatment: Efficacious and Safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaminia Bardanzellu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In preterm infants, failure or delay in spontaneous closure of Ductus Arteriosus (DA, resulting in the condition of Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA, represents a significant issue. A prolonged situation of PDA can be associated with several short- and long-term complications. Despite years of researches and clinical experience on PDA management, unresolved questions about the treatment and heterogeneity of clinical practices in different centers still remain, in particular regarding timing and modality of intervention. Nowadays, the most reasonable strategy seems to be reserving the treatment only to hemodynamically significant PDA. The first-line therapy is medical, and ibuprofen, related to several side effects especially in terms of nephrotoxicity, is the drug of choice. Administration of oral or intravenous paracetamol (acetaminophen recently gained attention, appearing effective as traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs in PDA closure, with lower toxicity. The results of the studies analyzed in this review mostly support paracetamol efficacy in ductal closure, with inconstant low and transient elevation of liver enzymes as reported side effect. However, more studies are needed to confirm if this therapy shows a real safety profile and to evaluate its long-term outcomes, before considering paracetamol as first-choice drug in PDA treatment.

  19. Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata on paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in rats

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    Rajasekaran Aiyalu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichosanthes lobata (family cucurbitaceae is used to treat malarial fever and liver disorders. This study aims to investigate possible hepatoprotective activities of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods Hepatotoxicity was induced in Wistar male rats by oral administration, 2 g/kg body weight on 7th day after the administration of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata and silymarin (100 mg/kg. Ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata was administered orally at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 7 days. Several serum markers, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, total protein was measured to assess the effect of the extract on paracetamol (acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage. The study included histopathological examination of liver sections. Results Blood samples from rats treated with ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata (200 mg/kg body weight and 400 mg/kg body weight had significant reductions in serum markers in paracetamol administered animals, indicating the effect of the extract in restoring the normal functional ability of hepatocytes. Silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o. was used as a reference drug. Conclusion The ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata exhibits protective effects against paracetamol‒induced hepatotoxicity.

  20. Possible fatal acetaminophen intoxication with atypical clinical presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de-Giorgio, Fabio; Lodise, Maria; Chiarotti, Marcello; d'Aloja, Ernesto; Carbone, Arnaldo; Valerio, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Acetaminophen or paracetamol, a commonly used over-the-counter analgesic, is known to elicit severe adverse reactions when taken in overdose, chronically at therapeutic dosage or, sporadically, following single assumptions of a therapeutic dose. Damage patterns including liver damage and, rarely,

  1. Colorimetric determination of a paracetamole in raw material and in pharmaceutical dosage forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usifoh, C.O; Adelusi, S.A.; Adebambo, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    A rapid, accurate and simple method is proposed for the determination of p-acetaminophen (paracetamole) in raw material, tablets and syrups. The method is based on measuring the intensity of the yellow color that developed when acute acetaminophen is allowed to react with p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde in 2M HCl after heating. The color which absorbs in the visible region of gamma 450 nm is stable for several hours and the intensity is directly proportional to the concentration of the drug, that is, Beer lambert law is obeyed. The method can be used to analyse paracetamole in raw material and in pharmaceutical dosage forms. (author)

  2. Paracetamol in the environment and its degradation by microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shijin; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Jianmeng

    2012-11-01

    Paracetamol (4'-hydroxyacetanilide, N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, acetaminophen, and paracetamol) is a widely used over-the-counter analgesic and antipyretic drug. Paracetamol and structural analogs are ubiquitous in the natural environment and easily accumulate in aquatic environment, which have been detected in surface waters, wastewater, and drinking water throughout the world. Paracetamol wastewater is mainly treated by chemical oxidation processes. Although these chemical methods may be available for treating these pollutants, the harsh reaction conditions, the generation of secondary pollutants, and the high operational cost associated with these methods have often made them not a desirable choice. Biodegradation of paracetamol is being considered as an environmentally friendly and low-cost option. The goal of this review is to provide an outline of the current knowledge of biodegradation of paracetamol in the occurrence, degrading bacteria, and proposed metabolic/biodegrading pathways, enzymes and possible intermediates. The comprehensive understanding of the metabolic pathways and enzyme systems involved in the utilization of paracetamol means will be helpful for optimizing and allowing rational design of biodegradation systems for paracetamol-contaminated wastewater.

  3. Simultaneous determination of paracetamol, 4-Aminophenol, 4-Chloroacetanilid, Benzyl alcohol,Benzaldehyde and EDTA by HPLC methodin paracetamol injection ampoule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Merrikhi Khosroshahi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol that is known as acetaminophen have the most consume as an analgesic and antipyretic drug in the world. That is formulated in single compound or mixture at many forms such as tablets, syrups, suspensions and drops. The last form is intravenous injections. Paracetamol derived from 4-minophenol which is synthesized by acylated the P-acetaminophenol and acetic anhydride. 4-aminophenol is the main impurity at manufacturing of paracetamol which could produce by hydrolysis during storage or synthesis under normal conditions (temperature, pH, etc.. Also, 4-chloroacetanilid may be observed as an impurity in the raw material of paracetamol synthesis. Benzyl alcohol is a preservative that used in Paracetamol for injection. It will be very important if there are analytical techniques to measuring paracetamol and its degradation products accurately and easily. Undoubtedly the most important and widely used, separation technique is chromatography. There are several reports about separation and quantitative determination of paracetamol lonely or simultaneous determination of paracetamol and 4-aminophenol. In this paper investigated simultaneous determination of paracetamol, 4-aminophenol, 4-chloroacetanilid, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, and EDTA in paracetamol for injection ampoules by high performance liquid chromatography. By changing the ratio of mixing methanol and acetonitrile as mobile phase at the wavelength of 215 nm and pH=3 separation of all compounds were completely done.

  4. Overdosed paracetamol (acetaminophen) prescriptions and subsequent pharmacist interventions in French hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpiat, B; Bedouch, P; Rose, F X; Juste, M; Roubille, R; Conort, O; Allenet, B

    2013-11-01

    Little is known about the manner in which hospital pharmacists intervene for overdosed paracetamol prescriptions. The aim of this retrospective study was to describe the number and nature of pharmacists' interventions (PIs) for overdosed paracetamol adult prescriptions in hospitals. We studied PIs that had been documented by pharmacists on the French Society of Clinical Pharmacy website tool between 2007 and 2010. We identified PIs that were related to paracetamol-containing prescriptions of one brand name only (type 1) particularly for patients with body weight ≤ 50 kg who were prescribed 4 g/day, and PIs that concerned the co-prescription of two paracetamol-containing products (type 2). Among 60 hospitals, seven did not report any paracetamol overdose-related PIs. Of the 53 hospitals that had at least one PI, 16 did not report any type 1 PIs. Bodyweight, liver disease, cirrhosis and chronic alcoholism were absent recorded criterion by most of the hospitals included in this study. Previously published studies have highlighted that the most frequent PIs are type 1, especially for patients whose body weight is ≤ 50 kg. We observed a broad variability in the number or type of PI that were related to overdosed paracetamol prescriptions compared with the total of all recorded types of PI. These data suggest that a significant number of hospital pharmacists are unaware of the risks that adult patients with low body weight are exposed to when receiving four grams paracetamol/day over several days. Pharmacist educational programs are needed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Comparison of the Effects of Oral Diclofenac Sodium Versus Acetaminophen Codein on Pain During Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotrypsy

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    Karkhanehei B

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary calculi is the second common chronic renal disease. Todays, the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL is the most common method of treatment of kidney calculi, though this method was invented 30 years ago. This study was conducted to compare the effects of oral diclofenac sodium versus acetaminophen codein on pain during ESWL. Methods: After signing informed consent, 90 patients with urinary calculi were randomly allocated into three equal groups (n = 30. In this study, one hour before the ESWL, 30 patients received the acetaminophen codeine (acetaminophen 650 mg plus codeine 20 mg orally and 30 patients received diclofenac sodium 50 mg orally and 30 patients did not receive any drug. Severity of pain was assessed by the four-point scale during the procedure. Results: The results of our study showed that there was no statistically significant difference among the three groups regarding gender, weight, age, overall satisfaction, and pain severity during ESWL. Although morphine consumption and pain severity in groups of acetaminophen codeine and diclofenac sodium was lower than in the third group, this different was not statistically significant (P = 0.086. Conclusion: Oral prescription of acetaminophen codeine and diclofenac sodium, one hour before ESWL, has a similar effect on pain management.

  6. Effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen and ibuprofen on body temperature in acute ischemic stroke PISA, a phase II double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial [ISRCTN98608690

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijer Ron J

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body temperature is a strong predictor of outcome in acute stroke. In a previous randomized trial we observed that treatment with high-dose acetaminophen (paracetamol led to a reduction of body temperature in patients with acute ischemic stroke, even when they had no fever. The purpose of the present trial was to study whether this effect of acetaminophen could be reproduced, and whether ibuprofen would have a similar, or even stronger effect. Methods Seventy-five patients with acute ischemic stroke confined to the anterior circulation were randomized to treatment with either 1000 mg acetaminophen, 400 mg ibuprofen, or placebo, given 6 times daily during 5 days. Treatment was started within 24 hours from the onset of symptoms. Body temperatures were measured at 2-hour intervals during the first 24 hours, and at 6-hour intervals thereafter. Results No difference in body temperature at 24 hours was observed between the three treatment groups. However, treatment with high-dose acetaminophen resulted in a 0.3°C larger reduction in body temperature from baseline than placebo treatment (95% CI: 0.0 to 0.6 °C. Acetaminophen had no significant effect on body temperature during the subsequent four days compared to placebo, and ibuprofen had no statistically significant effect on body temperature during the entire study period. Conclusions Treatment with a daily dose of 6000 mg acetaminophen results in a small, but potentially worthwhile decrease in body temperature after acute ischemic stroke, even in normothermic and subfebrile patients. Further large randomized clinical trials are needed to study whether early reduction of body temperature leads to improved outcome.

  7. Association of antioxidant nutraceuticals and acetaminophen (paracetamol): Friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed; Abushouk, Abdelrahman Ibrahim; Reggi, Raffaella; Yarla, Nagendra Sastry; Palmery, Maura; Peluso, Ilaria

    2018-04-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol or APAP) is an analgesic and antipyretic drug that can induce oxidative stress-mediated hepatotoxicity at high doses. Several studies reported that antioxidant nutraceuticals, in particular phenolic phytochemicals from dietary food, spices, herbs and algae have hepatoprotective effects. Others, however, suggested that they may negatively impact the metabolism, efficacy and toxicity of APAP. The aim of this review is to discuss the pros and cons of the association of antioxidant nutraceuticals and APAP by reviewing the in vivo evidence, with particular reference to APAP pharmacokinetics and hepatotoxicity. Results from the murine models of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity showed amelioration of liver damage with nutraceuticals coadministration, as well as reductions in tissue markers of oxidative stress, and serum levels of hepatic enzymes, bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides and inflammatory cytokines. On the other hand, both increased and decreased APAP plasma levels have been reported, depending on the nutraceutical type and route of administration. For example, studies showed that repeated administration of flavonoids causes down-regulation of cytochrome P450 enzymes and up-regulation of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGT). Moreover, nutraceuticals can alter the levels of APAP metabolites, such as mercapturate glucuronide, sulfate and cysteine conjugates. Overall, the reviewed in vivo studies indicate that interactions between APAP and nutraceuticals or plant foods exist. However, the majority of data come from animal models with doses of phytochemicals far from dietary ones. Human studies should investigate gene-diet interactions, as well as ethnic variability in order to clarify the pros and cons of co-administering antioxidant nutraceuticals and APAP. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Fatal cerebral blødning på grund af mulig interaktionmellem paracetamol og warfarin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinsand Naver, Signe; Papina, Maria; Jimenez Solem, Espen

    2015-01-01

    This is a case report of an 83-year-old man in warfarin treatment with stable international normalised ratio (INR) after aortic valve replacement and atrial fibrillation. Due to back pain he took paracetamol (acetaminophen) 4 g/day, morphine 30 mg/day and diclofenac as rescue medication for two...... paracetamol and warfarin are discussed....

  9. Urinary paracetamol and time-to-pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarr, Melissa M; Grantz, Katherine L; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Maisog, José M; Honda, Masato; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2016-09-01

    Is preconception urinary paracetamol (acetaminophen) associated with time-to-pregnancy (TTP)? Higher urinary paracetamol concentrations among male partners were associated with a longer TTP. Paracetamol is a commonly used analgesic among women and men of all ages. As metabolites of select chemicals used in the manufacturing of polyurethane foam, dyes and various industrial products, as well as a common medicinal product, paracetamol and its primary metabolite p-aminophenol, are ubiquitous in the environment. Studies investigating the relationship between adult urinary concentrations of paracetamol and TTP are lacking. This prospective cohort included 501 couples discontinuing contraception for the purposes of attempting conception during the years 2005-2009 and residing in Michigan or Texas, USA. Total urinary paracetamol, its metabolite para-aminophenol (p-aminophenol), and a summary measure of both urinary biomarkers were quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Female partners used the Clearblue® digital home test to confirm pregnancy. Cox's proportional odds models for discrete survival time were used to estimate fecundability odds ratios (FORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), urinary creatinine, preconception smoking status, race/ethnicity and household income. Models were further adjusted for hypothyroidism and hypertension as an attempt to account for possible indications of paracetamol medication use. FOR estimates paracetamol as a continuous and variable or categorized into quartiles. In light of TTP being a couple-dependent outcome, models were first performed for females and males, modeled separately, and then modeled for couples with each partner's concentrations being adjusted for the other. Among the 501 enrolled couples, 347 (69%) had an human chorionic gonadotrophin confirmed pregnancy. Urinary concentrations

  10. False positive acetaminophen concentrations in icteric serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. de Jong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Serum concentrations of acetaminophen are measured to predict the risk of hepatotoxicity in cases of acetaminophen overdose and to identify acetaminophen use in patients with acute liver injury without a known cause. The acetaminophen concentration determines if treatment with N-acetyl cysteine, the antidote for acetaminophen poisoning, is warranted. Description: A 49-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a hepatic encephalopathy and a total serum bilirubin concentration of 442 µmol/l. The acetaminophen concentration of 11.5 mg/l was measured with an enzymatic-colorimetric assay, thus treatment with N-acetyl cysteine was started. Interestingly, the acetaminophen concentration remained unchanged (11.5–12.3 mg/l during a period of 4 consecutive days. In contrast, the acetaminophen concentration measured by HPLC, a chromatographic technique, remained undetectable Discussion: In the presented case, elevated bilirubin was the most likely candidate to interfere with acetaminophen assay causing false positive results. Bilirubin has intense absorbance in the ultraviolet and visible regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and for that reason it causes interference in an enzymatic-colorimetric assay. Conclusion: False positive acetaminophen laboratory test results may be found in icteric serum, when enzymatic-colorimetric assays are used for determination of an acetaminophen concentration. Questionable acetaminophen results in icteric serum should be confirmed by a non-enzymatic method, by means of ultrafiltration of the serum, or by dilution studies. Keywords: Acetaminophen, Enzymatic-colorimetric assays, HPLC, Bilirubin, Interference, Paracetamol, Liver failure, Jaundice

  11. Electrochemical study and flow injection analysis of paracetamol in pharmaceutical formulations based on screen-printed electrodes and carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanjul-Bolado, Pablo; Lamas-Ardisana, Pedro Jose; Hernandez-Santos, David; Costa-Garcia, Agustin

    2009-01-01

    Acetaminophenol or paracetamol is one of the most commonly used analgesics in pharmaceutical formulations. Acetaminophen is electroactive and voltammetric mechanistic studies for the electrode processes of the acetaminophenol/N-acetyl-p-quinoneimine redox system are presented. Carbon nanotubes modified screen-printed electrodes with enhanced electron transfer properties are used for the study of the electrochemical-chemical oxidation mechanism of paracetamol at pH 2.0. Quantitative analysis of paracetamol by using its oxidation process (in a Britton-Robinson buffer solution pH 10.0) at +0.20 V (vs. an Ag pseudoreference electrode) on an untreated screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was carried out. Thus, a cyclic voltammetric based reproducible determination of acetaminophen (R.S.D., 2.2%) in the range 2.5 x 10 -6 M to 1 x 10 -3 M, was obtained. However, when SPCEs are used as amperometric detectors coupled to a flow injection analysis (FIA) system, the detection limit achieved for paracetamol was 1 x 10 -7 M, one order of magnitude lower than that obtained by voltammetric analysis. The repeatability of the amperometric detection with the same SPCE is 2% for 15 successive injections of 10 -5 M acetaminophen and do not present any memory effect. Finally, the applicability of using screen-printed carbon electrodes for the electrochemical detection of paracetamol (i.e. for quality control analysis) was demonstrated by using two commercial pharmaceutical products.

  12. Effects of Paracetamol on NOS, COX, and CYP Activity and on Oxidative Stress in Healthy Male Subjects, Rat Hepatocytes, and Recombinant NOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trettin, Arne; Böhmer, Anke; Suchy, Maria-Theresia; Probst, Irmelin; Staerk, Ulrich; Stichtenoth, Dirk O.; Frölich, Jürgen C.

    2014-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a widely used analgesic drug. It interacts with various enzyme families including cytochrome P450 (CYP), cyclooxygenase (COX), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and this interplay may produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). We investigated the effects of paracetamol on prostacyclin, thromboxane, nitric oxide (NO), and oxidative stress in four male subjects who received a single 3 g oral dose of paracetamol. Thromboxane and prostacyclin synthesis was assessed by measuring their major urinary metabolites 2,3-dinor-thromboxane B2 and 2,3-dinor-6-ketoprostaglandin F1α, respectively. Endothelial NO synthesis was assessed by measuring nitrite in plasma. Urinary 15(S)-8-iso-prostaglanding F2α was measured to assess oxidative stress. Plasma oleic acid oxide (cis-EpOA) was measured as a marker of cytochrome P450 activity. Upon paracetamol administration, prostacyclin synthesis was strongly inhibited, while NO synthesis increased and thromboxane synthesis remained almost unchanged. Paracetamol may shift the COX-dependent vasodilatation/vasoconstriction balance at the cost of vasodilatation. This effect may be antagonized by increasing endothelial NO synthesis. High-dosed paracetamol did not increase oxidative stress. At pharmacologically relevant concentrations, paracetamol did not affect NO synthesis/bioavailability by recombinant human endothelial NOS or inducible NOS in rat hepatocytes. We conclude that paracetamol does not increase oxidative stress in humans. PMID:24799980

  13. PISA. The effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen and ibuprofen on body temperature in acute stroke: Protocol for a phase II double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial [ISRCTN98608690

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kappelle Jaap

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the first days after stroke, one to two fifths of the patients develop fever or subfebrile temperatures. Body temperature is a strong prognostic factor after stroke. Pharmacological reduction of temperature in patients with acute ischaemic stroke may improve their functional outcome. Previously, we studied the effect of high dose (6 g daily and low dose (3 g daily paracetamol (acetaminophen in a randomised placebo-controlled trial of 75 patients with acute ischemic stroke. In the high-dose paracetamol group, mean body temperature at 12 and 24 hours after start of treatment was 0.4°C lower than in the placebo group. The effect of ibuprofen, another potent antipyretic drug, on body-core temperature in normothermic patients has not been studied. Aim The aim of the present trial is to study the effects of high-dose paracetamol and ibuprofen on body temperature in patients with acute ischaemic stroke, and to study the safety of these treatments. Design Seventy-five (3 × 25 patients with acute ischaemic stroke confined to the anterior circulation will be randomised to treatment with either: 400 mg ibuprofen, 1000 mg acetaminophen, or with placebo 6 times daily during 5 days. Body-temperatures will be measured with a rectal electronic thermometer at the start of treatment and after 24 hours. An infrared tympanic thermometer will be used to monitor body temperature at 2-hour intervals during the first 24 hours and at 12-hour intervals thereafter. The primary outcome measure will be rectal temperature at 24 hours after the start of treatment. The study results will be analysed on an intent-to-treat basis, but an on-treatment analysis will also be performed. No formal interim analysis will be carried out.

  14. [Paracetamol (acetaminophen) use in neonatology: a (re)appreciation of an old drug].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhendries, J-P

    2015-10-01

    In neonates, paracetamol is mainly used for its analgesic action. This drug is actually preferred by neonatologists because of its broad therapeutic index. Recently, it has been demonstrated that paracetamol is also an anti-cyclooxygenase (COX) medication through its inhibitory action on the peroxidase arm of central and peripheral COX (Boutaud et al., 2002; Toussaint et al., 2010; Graham et al., 2013; Hinz et al., 2008; Hinz and Brune, 2011). As such, this drug interferes with the synthesis of prostaglandins. This inhibition of peroxidase is, however, limited to a low concentration of arachidonic acid (AA) (around 2μM, in vitro) when the plasmatic concentration of paracetamol is experimentally 10μM, actually within the same range as compared to the therapeutic concentrations in vivo. This may partly explain its low anti-inflammatory effect as compared to ibuprofen and indomethacin, which exert their inhibition on COX whatever the AA concentrations are. This new well-demonstrated action of paracetamol on peripheral COX-2 of intact cells could explain recent observations making this drug a potential alternative in treating patent ductus arteriosus. However, the higher dosages that have been claimed by some authors in this indication still remain to be validated. This inhibition that paracetamol shows on the physiological synthesis of prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) could also explain some long-term immune deviations because the physiological concentration of PGE2 is a well-known actor in the genesis of immune homeostasis in the submucosal area. Indeed, recent epidemiology studies have pointed out immune deviations in children repeatedly exposed to paracetamol earlier in life. Consequently, this is actually the new discovery of an old drug. From these new data on paracetamol, a more focused pharmacovigilance on the long-term effects of paracetamol repeatedly given in the early stage should be urgently initiated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative Hepatoprotective Activity of Ethanolic Extracts of Cuscuta australis against Acetaminophen Intoxication in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folarin, Rachael O; Omirinde, Jamiu O; Bejide, Ronald; Isola, Tajudeen O; Usende, Levi I; Basiru, Afisu

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the comparative hepatoprotective activity of crude ethanol extracts of Cuscuta australis against acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication. Thirty-six rats were randomly divided into six groups of 6 replicates: Group 1 which served as control received water. Group 2 was orally administered 835 mg/kg body wt. of paracetamol on day 8. Groups 3 and 4 were orally administered ethanolic extracts of the seed of Cuscuta australis in doses of 125 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg, respectively, for 7 days and then intoxicated as in Group 2 on the 8th day. Groups 5 and 6 received similar oral doses of Cuscuta australis stem extracts for 7 days and then intoxicated as in Groups 3 and 4. Group 2 rats showed severe periportal hepatic necrosis, significantly elevated serum hepatic injury markers, markedly increased lipid peroxidation, and decreased hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities. Remarkably, Cuscuta australis (seed and stem) extract pretreatments in Groups 3, 4, 5, and 6, most especially, the stem extract pretreatment in Groups 5 and 6, improved better the hepatic histoarchitecture, the hepatocellular, and the oxidative stress injury markers in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusively, ethanol extractions of Cuscuta australis stem appear to protect the liver from acetaminophen intoxication better than the seed counterpart.

  16. Population prevalence of high dose paracetamol in dispensed paracetamol/opioid prescription combinations: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is generally considered a safe medication, but is associated with hepatotoxicity at doses above doses of 4.0 g/day, and even below this daily dose in certain populations. Methods The Nova Scotia Prescription Monitoring Program (NSPMP) in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia is a legislated organization that collects dispensing information on all out-of-hospital prescription controlled drugs dispensed for all Nova Scotia residents. The NSPMP provided data to track all paracetamol/opioids redeemed by adults in Nova Scotia, from July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2010. Trends in the number of adults dispensed these prescriptions and the numbers of prescriptions and tablets dispensed over this period were determined. The numbers and proportions of adults who filled prescriptions exceeding 4.0 g/day and 3.25 g/day were determined for the one-year period July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2010. Data were stratified by sex and age (paracetamol/opioid prescription was lower in each successive one-year period. From July 2009 to June 2010, one in 12 adults (n = 59,197) filled prescriptions for over 13 million paracetamol/opioid tablets. Six percent (n = 3,786) filled prescriptions that exceeded 4.0 g/day and 18.6% (n = 11,008) exceeded 3.25 g/day of paracetamol at least once. These findings exclude non-prescription paracetamol and paracetamol–only prescribed medications. Conclusions A substantial number of individuals who redeem prescriptions for paracetamol/opioid combinations may be at risk of paracetamol-related hepatotoxicity. Healthcare professionals must be vigilant when prescribing and dispensing these medications in order to reduce the associated risks. PMID:22709372

  17. Overdose pattern and outcome in paracetamol-induced acute severe hepatotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Darren G N; Bates, Caroline M; Davidson, Janice S; Martin, Kirsty G; Hayes, Peter C; Simpson, Kenneth J

    2011-01-01

    AIMS Paracetamol (acetaminophen) hepatotoxicity is the commonest cause of acute liver failure (ALF) in the UK. Conflicting data regarding the outcomes of paracetamol-induced ALF resulting from different overdose patterns are reported. METHODS Using prospectively defined criteria, we have analysed the impact of overdose pattern upon outcome in a cohort of 938 acute severe liver injury patients admitted to the Scottish Liver Transplantation Unit. RESULTS Between 1992 and 2008, 663 patients were admitted with paracetamol-induced acute severe liver injury. Of these patients, 500 (75.4%) had taken an intentional paracetamol overdose, whilst 110 (16.6%) had taken an unintentional overdose. No clear overdose pattern could be determined in 53 (8.0%). Unintentional overdose patients were significantly older, more likely to abuse alcohol, and more commonly overdosed on compound narcotic/paracetamol analgesics compared with intentional overdose patients. Unintentional overdoses had significantly lower admission paracetamol and alanine aminotransferase concentrations compared with intentional overdoses. However, unintentional overdoses had greater organ dysfunction at admission, and subsequently higher mortality (unintentional 42/110 (38.2%), intentional 128/500 (25.6%), P paracetamol overdose is associated with increased mortality compared with intentional paracetamol overdose, despite lower admission paracetamol concentrations. Alternative prognostic criteria may be required for unintentional paracetamol overdoses. PMID:21219409

  18. REVIEW ARTICLE – Intravenous paracetamol in pediatrics: A global perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzammil Irshad, MBBS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous (IV Paracetamol is an excellent post operative analgesic and antipyretic in children. Efficacy and tolerability of IV Propacetamol have been established in pediatric practice. It is believed that paracetamol works by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 enzymes. Studies bring to light that therapeutic doses of IV acetaminophen are effective and tolerable in children with least chances of hepatotoxicity. However, overdose toxicity has been reported in children and drug induced hypotension in febrile critically ill patients. Therapeutic doses according to body weight of neonates and children can be administered in hospital settings. Special education of health care staff regarding precise dose and solution is necessary to assess the role of IV paracetamol preparation in pediatric practice.

  19. Electrochemical study and flow injection analysis of paracetamol in pharmaceutical formulations based on screen-printed electrodes and carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanjul-Bolado, Pablo [DropSens, S.L., Edificio Severo Ochoa, Campus El Cristo, 33006 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Lamas-Ardisana, Pedro Jose [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Analitica, Universidad de Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Hernandez-Santos, David [DropSens, S.L., Edificio Severo Ochoa, Campus El Cristo, 33006 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Costa-Garcia, Agustin, E-mail: costa@fq.uniovi.es [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Analitica, Universidad de Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain)

    2009-04-13

    Acetaminophenol or paracetamol is one of the most commonly used analgesics in pharmaceutical formulations. Acetaminophen is electroactive and voltammetric mechanistic studies for the electrode processes of the acetaminophenol/N-acetyl-p-quinoneimine redox system are presented. Carbon nanotubes modified screen-printed electrodes with enhanced electron transfer properties are used for the study of the electrochemical-chemical oxidation mechanism of paracetamol at pH 2.0. Quantitative analysis of paracetamol by using its oxidation process (in a Britton-Robinson buffer solution pH 10.0) at +0.20 V (vs. an Ag pseudoreference electrode) on an untreated screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was carried out. Thus, a cyclic voltammetric based reproducible determination of acetaminophen (R.S.D., 2.2%) in the range 2.5 x 10{sup -6} M to 1 x 10{sup -3} M, was obtained. However, when SPCEs are used as amperometric detectors coupled to a flow injection analysis (FIA) system, the detection limit achieved for paracetamol was 1 x 10{sup -7} M, one order of magnitude lower than that obtained by voltammetric analysis. The repeatability of the amperometric detection with the same SPCE is 2% for 15 successive injections of 10{sup -5} M acetaminophen and do not present any memory effect. Finally, the applicability of using screen-printed carbon electrodes for the electrochemical detection of paracetamol (i.e. for quality control analysis) was demonstrated by using two commercial pharmaceutical products.

  20. Degradation of paracetamol in aqueous solutions by TiO2 photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liming; Yu, Liya E; Ray, Madhumita B

    2008-07-01

    In this study, photo/photocatalytic oxidation of common analgesic and antipyretic drug, paracetamol (acetaminophen), was investigated to determine the optimal operating conditions for degradation in water. UVA (365 nm) radiation alone degraded negligible amount of paracetamol, whereas paracetamol concentration decreased substantially under an irradiation of UVC (254 nm) with marginal changes in total organic carbon (TOC). In the presence of TiO2, much faster photodegradation of paracetamol and effective mineralization occurred; more than 95% of 2.0mM paracetamol was degraded within 80 min. The degradation rate constant decreased with an increase in the initial concentration of paracetamol, while it increased with light intensity and oxygen concentration. The degradation rate also increased with TiO2 loading until a concentration of 0.8 g L(-1). The degradation rate slowly increased between pH 3.5 and 9.5, but significantly decreased with increasing pH between 9.5 and 11.0. Based on the experimental data, a kinetic equation describing paracetamol photocatalytic degradation with various process parameters is obtained.

  1. Target biomarker profile for the clinical management of paracetamol overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vliegenthart, A D Bastiaan; Antoine, Daniel J; Dear, James W

    2015-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose is one of the most common causes of acute liver injury in the Western world. To improve patient care and reduce pressure on already stretched health care providers new biomarkers are needed that identify or exclude liver injury soon after an overdose of paracetamol is ingested. This review highlights the current state of paracetamol poisoning management and how novel biomarkers could improve patient care and save healthcare providers money. Based on the widely used concept of defining a target product profile, a target biomarker profile is proposed that identifies desirable and acceptable key properties for a biomarker in development to enable the improved treatment of this patient population. The current biomarker candidates, with improved hepatic specificity and based on the fundamental mechanistic basis of paracetamol-induced liver injury, are reviewed and their performance compared with our target profile. PMID:26076366

  2. Ibuprofen and/or paracetamol (acetaminophen) for pain relief after surgical removal of lower wisdom teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Edmund; Worthington, Helen V; van Wijk, Arjen; Yates, Julian M; Coulthard, Paul; Afzal, Zahid

    2013-12-12

    Both paracetamol and ibuprofen are commonly used analgesics for the relief of pain following the surgical removal of lower wisdom teeth (third molars). In 2010, a novel analgesic (marketed as Nuromol) containing both paracetamol and ibuprofen in the same tablet was launched in the United Kingdom, this drug has shown promising results to date and we have chosen to also compare the combined drug with the single drugs using this model. In this review we investigated the optimal doses of both paracetamol and ibuprofen via comparison of both and via comparison with the novel combined drug. We have taken into account the side effect profile of the study drugs. This review will help oral surgeons to decide on which analgesic to prescribe following wisdom tooth removal. To compare the beneficial and harmful effects of paracetamol, ibuprofen and the novel combination of both in a single tablet for pain relief following the surgical removal of lower wisdom teeth, at different doses and administered postoperatively. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group'sTrials Register (to 20 May 2013); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 4); MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 20 May 2013); EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 20 May 2013) and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (to 20 May 2013). We checked the bibliographies of relevant clinical trials and review articles for further studies. We wrote to authors of the identified randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and searched personal references in an attempt to identify unpublished or ongoing RCTs. No language restriction was applied to the searches of the electronic databases. Only randomised controlled double-blinded clinical trials were included. Cross-over studies were included provided there was a wash out period of at least 14 days. There had to be a direct comparison in the trial of two or more of the trial drugs at any dosage. All trials used the third molar pain model. All trials

  3. Acute versus chronic alcohol consumption in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L.E.; Dalhoff, K.P.; Poulsen, Henrik E.

    2002-01-01

    . With a time to NAC less than 12 hours, the mortality rate was 0.42% (95% CI, 0.05-2.7). When time to NAC exceeded 12, 24, and 48 hours, the mortality rate increased to 6.1%, 13%, and 19%, respectively. Chronic alcohol abuse was an independent risk factor of mortality (odds ratio [OR], 3.52; 95% CI, 1...... was confirmed as the major risk factor in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and mortality. Chronic alcohol abuse was an independent risk factor that could be counteracted by concomitant acute alcohol ingestion. We suggest that patients with chronic alcoholism and suspected acetaminophen poisoning due......The aim of this study was to determine by multivariate analysis how alcohol and other factors affect the clinical course and outcome in patients with acetaminophen (paracetamol) poisoning. A total of 645 consecutive patients admitted from 1994 to 2000 with single-dose acetaminophen poisoning were...

  4. An evaluation on consumers' usage pattern of acetaminophen (paracetamol: A multicenter study from Penang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Ping Chong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acetaminophen poisoning is becoming an increasingly common social problem in Malaysia. An understanding of consumers' usage pattern of acetaminophen is essential in addressing the issue of accidental acetaminophen poisoning. This study was therefore aimed to evaluate the usage pattern of acetaminophen among the consumers in the state of Penang, Malaysia. Methods: A survey using a questionnaire was carried out in Health Clinic of University Sciences Malaysia (USM, Outpatient Clinic of Advance Medical and Dental Institute, USM, and five selected community pharmacies in the state of Penang from February 2013 to April 2013. A convenient sample of 400 Malaysian consumers was involved in this study. Results: Majority (98.0% of the consumers had ever taken acetaminophen. The consumers mostly used acetaminophen for headache (75.0% and fever (72.8%. The 500 mg acetaminophen tablet was more commonly used among the consumers (94.3% then the 650 mg tablet (44.3%. A total of 1.1% of the consumers had taken more than two tablets of acetaminophen 500 mg tablet per intake. Meanwhile, 24.4% of the consumers had taken two tablets or more of acetaminophen 650 mg tablet per intake. The consumers mostly consumed acetaminophen in a frequency of either 4 hourly (29.5%, 8 hourly (17.3% or 6 hourly (14.8%. However, 6.3% and 7.0% of the consumers would increase the dosage or frequency of acetaminophen consumption, respectively, when their conditions or symptoms persisted after taking the acetaminophen. Conclusions: The use of acetaminophen is prevalent among the surveyed consumers. The risks of acetaminophen overdose were found among the consumers.

  5. Control de la calidad y estudio de estabilidad del paracetamol gotas orales 100 mg/ml Quality control and stability study of 100 mg/ml paracetamol oral drops

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    Caridad M García Peña

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: las gotas orales de Paracetamol, están indicadas a la población infantil hasta los 5 años para el alivio de la fiebre, dolor de cabeza, dolores dentales y proporciona alivio sintomático del resfriado común. Objetivo: validar dos métodos analíticos, para el control de la calidad y el estudio de estabilidad y estudiar la estabilidad de las gotas orales de producción nacional. Métodos: para cuantificar el principio activo para el estudio de estabilidad, la separación se realizó a través de una columna cromatográfica Lichrosorb RP - 18 (5µm (250 x 4 mm, con detección ultravioleta a 243 nm, empleando una fase móvil compuesta por Agua destilada: Metanol (3:1. Mientras que el método para el control de la calidad se utilizó un Espectrofotómetro SPECTRONIC GENESYS 2.Para el estudio de estabilidad, se emplearon los métodos de vida de estante (a temperatura inferior a 30 º C y de estabilidad acelerada (40 ± 2ºC mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia. Resultados: los resultados obtenidos de los parámetros evaluados en las validaciones se encontraron dentro de los límites establecidos. Los resultados del estudio de estabilidad realizado, demuestran que el producto terminado cumplió con las especificaciones de calidad durante el estudio. Conclusiones: los métodos analíticos por espectrofotometría UV y cromatografía líquida de alta resolución, son válidos para el control de la calidad y estudio de estabilidad de las gotas orales de Paracetamol 100 mg/mL, ya que resultaron lineales, precisos, exactos y específicos. Se demostró la estabilidad física, química y microbiológica del producto por espacio de 12 meses a temperatura inferior a 30 ºC, envasados en frascos de vidrio ámbar por 15 mL, boca 18 mm, calidad hidrolítica III. Además se evidenció que el producto es estable durante 30 días después de abierto el frasco.Introduction: paracetamol is an effective analgesic and antipyretic drug of

  6. The relation between paracetamol use and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaheen, S; Potts, J; Gnatiuc, L

    2008-01-01

    Studies from the UK and the USA suggest that frequent use of paracetamol (acetaminophen) may increase the risk of asthma, but data across Europe are lacking.As part of a multi-centre case-control study organised by the GA(2)LEN network we have examined whether frequent paracetamol use is associated...... with adult asthma across Europe. The network compared 521 cases with a diagnosis of asthma and reporting asthma symptoms in the last 12 months with 507 controls with no diagnosis of asthma and no asthmatic symptoms in the last 12 months across 12 European centres. All cases and controls were selected from...... the same population defined by age (20-45 years) and place of residence.In a random effects meta-analysis, after controlling for confounders, the adjusted odds ratio for asthma associated with weekly use of paracetamol, compared with less frequent use, was 2.87 (95% CI: 1.49 to 5.37), P=0...

  7. Risk prediction of hepatotoxicity in paracetamol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anselm; Graudins, Andis

    2017-09-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning is the most common cause of acute liver failure in the developed world. A paracetamol treatment nomogram has been used for over four decades to help determine whether patients will develop hepatotoxicity without acetylcysteine treatment, and thus indicates those needing treatment. Despite this, a small proportion of patients still develop hepatotoxicity. More accurate risk predictors would be useful to increase the early detection of patients with the potential to develop hepatotoxicity despite acetylcysteine treatment. Similarly, there would be benefit in early identification of those with a low likelihood of developing hepatotoxicity, as this group may be safely treated with an abbreviated acetylcysteine regimen. To review the current literature related to risk prediction tools that can be used to identify patients at increased risk of hepatotoxicity. A systematic literature review was conducted using the search terms: "paracetamol" OR "acetaminophen" AND "overdose" OR "toxicity" OR "risk prediction rules" OR "hepatotoxicity" OR "psi parameter" OR "multiplication product" OR "half-life" OR "prothrombin time" OR "AST/ALT (aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase)" OR "dose" OR "biomarkers" OR "nomogram". The search was limited to human studies without language restrictions, of Medline (1946 to May 2016), PubMed and EMBASE. Original articles pertaining to the theme were identified from January 1974 to May 2016. Of the 13,975 articles identified, 60 were relevant to the review. Paracetamol treatment nomograms: Paracetamol treatment nomograms have been used for decades to help decide the need for acetylcysteine, but rarely used to determine the risk of hepatotoxicity with treatment. Reported paracetamol dose and concentration: A dose ingestion >12 g or serum paracetamol concentration above the treatment thresholds on the paracetamol nomogram are associated with a greater risk of hepatotoxicity. Paracetamol elimination half

  8. GUIDELINES FOR PARACETAMOL POISONING TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucija Sarc

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol overdose results in an accumulation of the reactive, hepatotoxic metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimin (NAPKQI which can cause serious liver injury. Recognition of paracetamol overdose, hepatotoxicity risk estimation and early treatment are crutial in paracetamol poisoniong management. In ingestion of potential hepatotoxic dose of paracetamol decontamination and early treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC are indicated. Both, 20-hours intravenous and 72-hurs oral regimes of NAC administration are successful. By antidote regime selection we should consider patient condition and time after paracetamol overdose. In severe hepatotoxicity, criteria for liver transplantation should be regularly evaluated and mechanisms for liver transplantation must be activated in time. 

  9. An Investigation of Safety and Efficacy of Intravenous Paracetamol in Pain Management Following Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Mahdavi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Optimum pain management immediately after surgeries can lower the possibility of pain syndrome and its following consequences. Opioids are amongst the analgesics used for postoperative pain control; however, their application can bring about several adverse effects. In this study, all the published articles regarding efficacy of Paracetamol   in post-cardiac surgery pain management were systematically reviewed. Materials and Methods: Pubmed and Scopus were searched for relevant articles. The employed search strategy was as follows: (Paracetamol   OR Acetaminophen OR Propacetamol AND (pain OR analgesia AND coronary. All the English-language articles (with no time restriction, investigating the effectiveness of Acetaminophen in comparison with other analgesics or placebo, were included in the study. All the articles examining the efficacy of Paracetamol   in combination with other analgesics were excluded from the search results. Results: On the whole, our electronic search retrieved 192 articles from PubMed and 365 articles from Scopus. After screening the titles, abstracts, and full texts of the search results, only 5 English-language articles met our inclusion criteria. Conclusion: Although Paracetamol   demonstrated considerable efficacy in minimizing application of post-operative opioids, its strength in soothing post-operative pain is not significantly different from opioids. Further, conducting randomized-controlled-trials with large sample size are necessary to accurately reveal the efficacy of Paracetamol   in curtailing application of opioids in post cardiac surgeries.

  10. Patients' knowledge about paracetamol (acetaminophen): a study in a French hospital emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjemai, Y; Mbida, P; Potinet-Pagliaroli, V; Géffard, F; Leboucher, G; Brazier, J-L; Allenet, B; Charpiat, B

    2013-07-01

    Paracetamol is the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug. In France, little is known concerning patients' knowledge and beliefs about paracetamol. To determine how much outpatients attending an emergency department know about paracetamol. A semi-structured questionnaire was applied to patients consulting for non-severe medical or traumatic conditions. Thirty-three (45%) of 73 participating patients knew that paracetamol was the active ingredient of the medication they used to reduce pain and/or fever. Three patients thought 2g was the maximum recommended single dose; 25% thought that a delay between two doses ≤ 3 hours was recommended and 15% thought the maximum daily dose was > 4 g. While 8% cited liver toxicity as a side effect, 38% did not believe an excessive dose could be fatal. Two patients correctly answered all questions and five gave no correct answer. Outpatients attending an emergency department (ED) have poor knowledge about paracetamol. This situation is disturbing and our results may serve as an eye opener to healthcare professionals. They emphasize the need for research programs with the following objectives: a) to determine the actual content of the message delivered by healthcare professionals; b) to study conditions under which this message is issued; c) to analyze how patients understand key messages and what their behavioral response is. In ED patients, the level of knowledge about paracetamol is insufficient to ensure its safe use in ambulatory care. Further studies are needed to determine the causes and to permit better patient education. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Worldwide research productivity of paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning: a bibliometric analysis (2003-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, S H; Al-Jabi, S W; Sweileh, W M

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of data concerning the evaluation of scientific research productivity in paracetamol poisoning from the world. The purposes of this study were to analyse the worldwide research output related to paracetamol poisoning and to examine the authorship pattern and the citations retrieved from the Scopus database for over a decade. Data were searched for documents with specific words regarding paracetamol poisoning as 'keywords' in the title or/and abstract. Scientific output was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies. Research productivity was adjusted to the national population and nominal gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. There were 1721 publications that met the criteria during study period from the world. All retrieved documents were published from 72 countries. The largest number of articles related to paracetamol poisoning was from the United States (US; 30.39%), followed by India (10.75%) and the United Kingdom (UK; 9.36%). The total number of citations at the time of data analysis was 21,109, with an average of 12.3 citations per each documents and median (interquartile range) of 4 (1-14). The h-index of the retrieved documents was 57. After adjusting for economy and population power, India (124.2), Nigeria (18.6) and the US (10.5) had the highest research productivity. Countries with large economies, such as the UK, Australia, Japan, China and France, tended to rank relatively low after adjustment for GDP over the entire study period. Our study demonstrates evidence that research productivity related to paracetamol poisoning has increased rapidly during the recent years. The US obviously dominated in research productivity. However, certain smaller country such as Nigeria has high scientific output relative to their population size and GDP. A highly noticeable increase in the contributions of Asia-Pacific and Middle East regions to scientific literature related to paracetamol poisoning was also

  12. The Lipid Lowering and Cardioprotective Effects of Vernonia calvoana Ethanol Extract in Acetaminophen-Treated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin Eneji Egbung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paracetamol overdose/abuse as a result of self-medication is a common occurrence amongst people living in low/middle income countries. The present study was designed to investigate the hypolipidemic and cardioprotective potentials of Vernonia calvoana (VC ethanol extract in acetaminophen (paracetamol-treated rats. Methods: Thirty-five Wistar rats weighing 100–150 g were randomly assigned into five groups of seven rats each. Groups 2–5 received high doses of paracetamol to induce liver damage, while group 1 was used as normal control. Afterwards, they were allowed to receive varying doses of VC (group 3 and 4 or vitamin E (group 5, whilst groups 1 and 2 were left untreated. The treatment period lasted for twenty one days after which sera were harvested and assayed for serum lipid indices using standard methods. Results: Groups 3 to 5 treated animals indicated significant decrease (p < 0.001 in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c, total cholesterol (TC and triacylglycerol (TG levels relative to the normal and acetaminophen-treated controls, the atherogenic index showed a significant decrease (p < 0.001 in all treated groups compared with normal and acetaminophen-treated controls. However, the VC- and vitamin E-treated groups showed significant (p < 0.001 increase in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C relative to the controls. Conclusions: Data from our study suggest that ethanol leaf extract of VC possesses probable hypolipidemic and cardioprotective effects.

  13. Aniline Is Rapidly Converted Into Paracetamol Impairing Male Reproductive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Chalmey, Clementine; Modick, Hendrik; Jensen, Lars Skovgaard; Dierkes, Georg; Weiss, Tobias; Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech; Nørregård, Mette Marie; Borkowski, Kamil; Styrishave, Bjarne; Martin Koch, Holger; Mazaud-Guittot, Severine; Jegou, Bernard; Kristiansen, Karsten; Kristensen, David Møbjerg

    2015-11-01

    Industrial use of aniline is increasing worldwide with production estimated to surpass 5.6 million metric tons in 2016. Exposure to aniline occurs via air, diet, and water augmenting the risk of exposing a large number of individuals. Early observations suggest that aniline is metabolized to paracetamol/acetaminophen, likely explaining the omnipresence of low concentrations of paracetamol in European populations. This is of concern as recent studies implicate paracetamol as a disrupter of reproduction. Here, we show through steroidogenic profiling that exposure to aniline led to increased levels of the Δ4 steroids, suggesting that the activity of CYP21 was decreased. By contrast, paracetamol decreased levels of androgens likely through inhibition of CYP17A1 activity. We confirm that aniline in vivo is rapidly converted to paracetamol by the liver. Intrauterine exposure to aniline and paracetamol in environmental and pharmaceutical relevant doses resulted in shortening of the anogenital distance in mice, a sensitive marker of fetal androgen levels that in humans is associated with reproductive malformations and later life reproductive disorders. In conclusion, our results provide evidence for a scenario where aniline, through its conversion into antiandrogenic paracetamol, impairs male reproductive development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Hepatoprotective effect of fermented ginseng and its major constituent compound K in a rat model of paracetamol (acetaminophen)-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igami, Kentaro; Shimojo, Yosuke; Ito, Hisatomi; Miyazaki, Toshitsugu; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2015-04-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the effect of fermented ginseng (FG) and fermented red ginseng (FRG) against rat liver injury caused by paracetamol (acetaminophen (APAP)). Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the serum and histopathological changes in the liver were analysed to determine the degree of liver injury. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) microarray analysis was performed to compare gene expression levels altered in the rat livers. Phosphorylated Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells were detected using western blot analysis to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of compound K. Pretreatment with FG, containing compound K at high concentration, attenuated AST as well as ALT levels in rats, while no obvious effect was observed in the group that received FRG, whose content of compound K was lower than that of FG. In addition, the results of our histopathological analysis were consistent with changes in the serum biochemical analysis. DNA microarray analysis indicated that JNK- and glutathione S-transferase (GST)-related genes were involved in the hepatotoxicity. Notably, compound K, a major ginsenoside in FG, inhibited the phosphorylation of JNK in HepG2 cells. FG was shown to possess hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol (APAP)-induced liver injury better than FRG. Compound K might play an important role for an anti-inflammatory activity of FG by inhibiting JNK signalling in the liver. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  15. The effect of regular medication on the outcome of paracetamol poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L E; Dalhoff, K

    2002-01-01

    hepatocellular injury was evaluated by multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Regular medication was received by 332 patients (45%). Medication with benzodiazepines (105 cases), antidepressants (100 cases), neuroleptics (75 cases), paracetamol (58 cases), oral contraceptives (51 cases), beta-agonists (40 cases), opioid......, neuroleptics, paracetamol, oral contraceptives, beta-agonists or anticonvulsants in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Regular medication with psychotropic medication, analgesics, oral contraceptives, beta-agonists or anticonvulsants was frequent in patients admitted with paracetamol poisoning. Medication...

  16. Neonatal Maturation of Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) Glucuronidation, Sulfation, and Oxidation Based on a Parent-Metabolite Population Pharmacokinetic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Sarah F; Stockmann, Chris; Samiee-Zafarghandy, Samira; King, Amber D; Deutsch, Nina; Williams, Elaine F; Wilkins, Diana G; Sherwin, Catherine M T; van den Anker, John N

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to model the population pharmacokinetics of intravenous paracetamol and its major metabolites in neonates and to identify influential patient characteristics, especially those affecting the formation clearance (CL formation ) of oxidative pathway metabolites. Neonates with a clinical indication for intravenous analgesia received five 15-mg/kg doses of paracetamol at 12-h intervals (paracetamol, paracetamol-glucuronide, paracetamol-sulfate, and the combined oxidative pathway metabolites (paracetamol-cysteine and paracetamol-N-acetylcysteine) were simultaneously modeled in NONMEM 7.2. The model incorporated 259 plasma and 350 urine samples from 35 neonates with a mean gestational age of 33.6 weeks (standard deviation 6.6). CL formation for all metabolites increased with weight; CL formation for glucuronidation and oxidation also increased with postnatal age. At the mean weight (2.3 kg) and postnatal age (7.5 days), CL formation estimates (bootstrap 95% confidence interval; between-subject variability) were 0.049 L/h (0.038-0.062; 62 %) for glucuronidation, 0.21 L/h (0.17-0.24; 33 %) for sulfation, and 0.058 L/h (0.044-0.078; 72 %) for oxidation. Expression of individual oxidation CL formation as a fraction of total individual paracetamol clearance showed that, on average, fractional oxidation CL formation increased paracetamol and its metabolites in neonates. Maturational changes in the fraction of paracetamol undergoing oxidation were small relative to between-subject variability.

  17. Systemic exposure of Paracetamol (acetaminophen) was enhanced by quercetin and chrysin co-administration in Wistar rats and in vitro model: risk of liver toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingili, Ravindra Babu; Pawar, A Krishnamanjari; Challa, Siva R

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) play an important role in the first-pass-metabolism (FPM) and pharmacokinetics (PK) of majority of drugs. Paracetamol is primarily metabolized by conjugation reactions and a little amount (∼15%) undergoes cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1)-mediated oxidative metabolism produces a hepatotoxic metabolite, N-acetyl-p-benzoquinonimine (NAPQI). Quercetin and chrysin are naturally occurring flavonoids, reported as modulators of P-gp and DMEs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of quercetin and chrysin on the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol using rats and non-everted gut sacs in vitro. Paracetamol was given orally (100 mg/kg) to rats alone and in combination with quercetin (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) and chrysin (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) once daily for 21 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected on the 1st day in single dose pharmacokinetic study (SDS) and on the 21st day in multiple pharmacokinetic studies (MDS). The plasma concentrations of paracetamol were determined by HPLC and PK parameters were calculated by using Kinetica (Version 5.1). The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC0-12) of paracetamol was significantly increased by quercetin and chrysin co-administration in SDS and MDS. In non-everted rat gut sac method, the absorption of paracetamol was increased by presence of P-gp inhibitors (verapamil, quinidine and ketoconazole), quercetin and chrysin (50 μg/mL). Our findings suggested that the quercetin and chrysin might be inhibited the P-gp and metabolism of paracetamol; thereby increased the systemic exposure of paracetamol. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether the quercetin or chrysin are involved in the formation of NAPQI by CYP2E1 or not on isolated rat hepatocytes or using cell lines.

  18. Metabolic interactions between acetaminophen (paracetamol) and two flavonoids, luteolin and quercetin, through in-vitro inhibition studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Kwara, Awewura; Greenblatt, David J

    2017-12-01

    Excessive exposure to acetaminophen (APAP, paracetamol) can cause liver injury through formation of a reactive metabolite that depletes hepatic glutathione and causes hepatocellular oxidative stress and damage. Generation of this metabolite is mediated by Cytochrome-P450 (CYP) isoforms, mainly CYP2E1. A number of naturally occurring flavonoids can mitigate APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental animal models. Our objective was to determine the mechanism of these protective effects and to evaluate possible human applicability. Two flavonoids, luteolin and quercetin, were evaluated as potential inhibitors of eight human CYP isoforms, of six UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms and of APAP glucuronidation and sulfation. The experimental model was based on in-vitro metabolism by human liver microsomes, using isoform-specific substrates. Luteolin and quercetin inhibited human CYP isoforms to varying degrees, with greatest potency towards CYP1A2 and CYP2C8. However, 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 values) were generally in the micromolar range. UGT isoforms were minimally inhibited. Both luteolin and quercetin inhibited APAP sulfation but not glucuronidation. Inhibition of human CYP activity by luteolin and quercetin occurred with IC 50 values exceeding customary in-vivo human exposure with tolerable supplemental doses of these compounds. The findings indicate that luteolin and quercetin are not likely to be of clinical value for preventing or treating APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  19. Opioid use in knee arthroplasty after receiving intravenous acetaminophen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jennifer S; Opsha, Yekaterina; Costello, Jennifer; Schiller, Daryl; Hola, Eric T

    2014-12-01

    Intravenous (IV) acetaminophen may be an effective component of multimodal postoperative pain management. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of IV acetaminophen on total opioid use in postoperative patients. The secondary objective was to evaluate the effect of IV acetaminophen on hospital length of stay. This retrospective, case-control study evaluated the impact of IV acetaminophen on total opioid use in surgical patients. Patients were included if they received at least one perioperative dose of IV acetaminophen and underwent a surgical knee procedure. Controls were matched and randomly selected based on procedure type, age, and severity of illness. Postoperative opioids were converted into oral morphine equivalents, and overall use was compared between groups. One hundred patients were enrolled, with 25 patients receiving IV acetaminophen and 75 matched controls. A total of 135 mg versus 112.5 mg oral morphine equivalents were used in the IV acetaminophen group and control group, respectively (p=0.987). There were 45 mg/day oral morphine equivalents used in the IV acetaminophen group versus 37.5 mg in the control group (p=0.845). The median hospital length of stay in both groups was 3 days (p=0.799). IV acetaminophen did not significantly decrease postoperative opioid use in patients who underwent surgical knee procedures. In addition, there was a nonsignificant trend toward increased opioid use in the IV acetaminophen group. There was no significant difference in hospital length of stay between the IV acetaminophen group and the control group. These findings require further study in larger patient populations and in other orthopedic procedures that typically require longer hospital stays. © 2014 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  20. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) with or without codeine or dihydrocodeine for neuropathic pain in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiffen, Philip J; Knaggs, Roger; Derry, Sheena; Cole, Peter; Phillips, Tudor; Moore, R Andrew

    2016-12-27

    Paracetamol, either alone or in combination with codeine or dihydrocodeine, is commonly used to treat chronic neuropathic pain. This review sought evidence for efficacy and harm from randomised double-blind studies. To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse events of paracetamol with or without codeine or dihydrocodeine for chronic neuropathic pain in adults. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, and Embase from inception to July 2016, together with reference lists of retrieved papers and reviews, and two online study registries. We included randomised, double-blind studies of two weeks' duration or longer, comparing paracetamol, alone or in combination with codeine or dihydrocodeine, with placebo or another active treatment in chronic neuropathic pain. Two review authors independently searched for studies, extracted efficacy and adverse event data, and examined issues of study quality and potential bias. We did not carry out any pooled analyses. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE. No study satisfied the inclusion criteria. Effects of interventions were not assessed as there were no included studies. We have only very low quality evidence and have no reliable indication of the likely effect. There is insufficient evidence to support or refute the suggestion that paracetamol alone, or in combination with codeine or dihydrocodeine, works in any neuropathic pain condition.

  1. Outcomes from massive paracetamol overdose: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Daniel J B; Dargan, Paul I; Archer, John R H; Davies, Charlotte L; Dines, Alison M; Wood, David M; Greene, Shaun L

    2017-06-01

    This article is commented on by Bateman DN and Dear JW. Should we treat very large paracetamol overdose differently? Br J Clin Pharmacol 2017; 83: 1163-5. https://doi.org/10.1111/bcp.13279 AIMS: Treatment of paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose with acetylcysteine is standardized, with dose determined only by patient weight. The validity of this approach for massive overdoses has been questioned. We systematically compared outcomes in massive and non-massive overdoses, to guide whether alternative treatment strategies should be considered, and whether the ratio between measured timed paracetamol concentrations (APAP pl ) and treatment nomogram thresholds at those time points (APAP t ) provides a useful assessment tool. This is a retrospective observational study of all patients (n = 545) between 2005 and 2013 admitted to a tertiary care toxicology service with acute non-staggered paracetamol overdose. Massive overdoses were defined as extrapolated 4-h plasma paracetamol concentrations >250 mg l -1 , or reported ingestions ≥30 g. Outcomes (liver injury, coagulopathy and kidney injury) were assessed in relation to reported dose and APAP pl :APAP t ratio (based on a treatment line through 100 mg l -1 at 4 h), and time to acetylcysteine. Ingestions of ≥30 g paracetamol correlated with higher peak serum aminotransferase (r = 0.212, P paracetamol overdose are at higher risk of organ injury, even when acetylcysteine is administered early. Enhanced therapeutic strategies should be considered in those who have an APAP pl :APAP t  ≥ 3. Novel biomarkers of incipient liver injury and abbreviated acetylcysteine regimens require validation in this patient cohort. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Effect of intravenous paracetamol on postoperative morphine requirements in neonates and infants undergoing major noncardiac surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceelie, Ilse; de Wildt, Saskia N.; van Dijk, Monique; van den Berg, Margreeth M. J.; van den Bosch, Gerbrich E.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; de Leeuw, Tom G.; Mathôt, Ron; Knibbe, Catherijne A. J.; Tibboel, Dick

    2013-01-01

    Continuous morphine infusion as standard postoperative analgesic therapy in young infants is associated with unwanted adverse effects such as respiratory depression. To determine whether intravenous paracetamol (acetaminophen) would significantly (>30%) reduce morphine requirements in neonates and

  3. Metabolism by conjugation appears to confer resistance to paracetamol (acetaminophen) hepatotoxicity in the cynomolgus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Barrass, Nigel; Gales, Sonya; Lenz, Eva; Parry, Tony; Powell, Helen; Thurman, Dale; Hutchison, Michael; Wilson, Ian D; Bi, Luke; Qiao, Junwen; Qin, Qiuping; Ren, Jin

    2015-03-01

    1. Paracetamol overdose remains the leading cause of acute liver failure in humans. This study was undertaken in cynomolgus monkeys to study the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and the potential for hepatotoxic insult from paracetamol administration as a possible model for human toxicity. 2. No adverse effects were observed for doses of up to 900 mg/kg/d for 14 d. Only minor sporadic increases in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase in a number of animals were observed, with no clear dose response. 3. Toxicokinetic analysis showed good plasma exposure, albeit with less than proportional rises in Cmax and AUC, with increasing dose. The Cmax values in monkey were up to 3.5 times those associated with human liver toxicity and the AUC approx. 1000 times those associated with liver enzyme changes in 31-44% of human subjects. 4. Metabolite profiling of urine by (1)H NMR spectroscopy revealed paracetamol and its glucuronide and sulphate metabolites. Glutathione-derived metabolites, e.g. the cysteinyl conjugate, were only present in very low concentrations whilst the mercapturate was not detected. 5. These in vivo observations demonstrated that the cynomolgus monkey is remarkably resistant to paracetamol-induced toxicity and a poor model for investigating paracetamol-related hepatotoxicity in humans.

  4. TRAIL enhances paracetamol-induced liver sinusoidal endothelial cell death in a Bim- and Bid-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badmann, A; Langsch, S; Keogh, A; Brunner, T; Kaufmann, T; Corazza, N

    2012-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) is a universally used analgesic and antipyretic agent. Considered safe at therapeutic doses, overdoses cause acute liver damage characterized by centrilobular hepatic necrosis. One of the major clinical problems of paracetamol-induced liver disease is the development of hemorrhagic alterations. Although hepatocytes represent the main target of the cytotoxic effect of paracetamol overdose, perturbations within the endothelium involving morphological changes of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) have also been described in paracetamol-induced liver disease. Recently, we have shown that paracetamol-induced liver damage is synergistically enhanced by the TRAIL signaling pathway. As LSECs are constantly exposed to activated immune cells expressing death ligands, including TRAIL, we investigated the effect of TRAIL on paracetamol-induced LSEC death. We here demonstrate for the first time that TRAIL strongly enhances paracetamol-mediated LSEC death with typical features of apoptosis. Inhibition of caspases using specific inhibitors resulted in a strong reduction of cell death. TRAIL appears to enhance paracetamol-induced LSEC death via the activation of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins Bid and Bim, which initiate the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Taken together this study shows that the liver endothelial layer, mainly LSECs, represent a direct target of the cytotoxic effect of paracetamol and that activation of TRAIL receptor synergistically enhances paracetamol-induced LSEC death via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. TRAIL-mediated acceleration of paracetamol-induced cell death may thus contribute to the pathogenesis of paracetamol-induced liver damage. PMID:23254290

  5. [Risk of acute hepatic insufficiency in children due to chronic accidental overdose of paracetamol (acetaminophen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hameleers-Snijders, P.; Hogeveen, M.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Kramers, C.; Draaisma, J.M.T.

    2007-01-01

    Two girls aged 4 and 3 years, respectively, experienced acute liver failure due to accidental ingestion of supratherapeutic doses of paracetamol (90 mg/kg/day or more). Recognition of chronic paracetamol intoxication as a cause of acute hepatic failure is often delayed. It is important to consider

  6. Ibuprofen and/or paracetamol (acetaminophen) for pain relief after surgical removal of lower wisdom teeth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, E.; Worthington, H.V.; van Wijk, A.; Yates, J.M.; Coulthard, P.; Afzal, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Background Both paracetamol and ibuprofen are commonly used analgesics for the relief of pain following the surgical removal of lower wisdom teeth (third molars). In 2010, a novel analgesic (marketed as Nuromol) containing both paracetamol and ibuprofen in the same tablet was launched in the United

  7. In-source formation of N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), the putatively toxic acetaminophen (paracetamol) metabolite, after derivatization with pentafluorobenzyl bromide and GC-ECNICI-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikas, Dimitrios; Trettin, Arne; Zörner, Alexander A; Gutzki, Frank-Mathias

    2011-05-15

    Pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) bromide (PFB-Br) is a versatile derivatization reagent for numerous classes of compounds. Under electron-capture negative-ion chemical ionization (ECNICI) conditions PFB derivatives of acidic compounds readily and abundantly ionize to produce intense anions due to [M-PFB](-). In the present article we investigated the PFB-Br derivatization of unlabelled acetaminophen (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, NAPAP-d(0); paracetamol; MW 151) and tetradeuterated acetaminophen (NAPAP-d(4); MW 155) in anhydrous acetonitrile and their GC-ECNICI-MS behavior using methane as the buffer gas. In addition to the expected anions [M-PFB](-) at m/z 150 from NAPAP-d(0) and m/z 154 from NAPAP-d(4), we observed highly reproducibly almost equally intense anions at m/z 149 and m/z 153, respectively. Selected ion monitoring of these ions is suitable for specific and sensitive quantification of acetaminophen in human plasma and urine. Detailed investigations suggest in-source formation of N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI; MW 149), the putatively toxic acetaminophen metabolite, from the PFB ether derivative of NAPAP. GC-ECNICI-MS of non-derivatized NAPAP did not produce NAPQI. The peak area ratio of m/z 149 to m/z 150 and of m/z 153 to m/z 154 decreased with increasing ion-source temperature in the range 100-250°C. Most likely, NAPQI formed in the ion-source captures secondary electrons to become negatively charged (i.e., [NAPQI](-)) and thus detectable. Formation of NAPQI was not observed under electron ionization (EI) conditions, i.e., by GC-EI-MS, from derivatized and non-derivatized NAPAP. NAPQI was not detectable in flow injection analysis LC-MS of native NAPAP in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode, whereas in negative ESI mode low extent NAPQI formation was observed (<5%). Our results suggest that oxidation of drug derivatives in the ion-sources of mass spectrometers may form intermediates that are produced from activated drugs in enzyme-catalyzed reactions

  8. A review of the evidence concerning hepatic glutathione depletion and susceptibility to hepatotoxicity after paracetamol overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalsi SS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sarbjeet S Kalsi1,2, Paul I Dargan2–4, W Stephen Waring5, David M Wood2–41Emergency Department, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; 2Clinical Toxicology, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; 3King’s Health Partners, London, UK; 4King’s College London, London, UK; 5York Teaching Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, York, UKAbstract: Paracetamol (acetaminophen poisoning is common throughout the world. The management of nonstaggered (acute paracetamol overdose is based on the plasma paracetamol concentration plotted on a treatment nomogram. In the UK there are two treatment lines on this nomogram, with the lower treatment line used for individuals felt to be at ‘high risk’ of paracetamol-related hepatotoxicity either as a result of induction of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes or reduction of intrahepatic glutathione. In this article we review the risk factors that, in current guidelines, are felt to increase risk due to a reduction in intrahepatic glutathione concentrations. Based on our review of the published literature, we feel that cystic fibrosis, acute viral illness, malnutrition, and eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa are likely to be associated with reduction in intrahepatic glutathione concentrations, and that this risk is likely to be related to malnutrition secondary to the disease. Chronic hepatitis C infection is also associated with reduced glutathione concentrations, although this appears to be independent of any associated malnutrition. Ageing and acute fasting are not associated with an increased risk of paracetamol-related hepatotoxicity due to reductions in glutathione concentrations. Finally, the evidence for HIV infection is inconclusive, particularly as the majority of studies were conducted in the pre-anti-viral treatment (HAART era; however it is likely that patients with symptomatic HIV/AIDS have reduced glutathione concentrations due to associated malnutrition. Although

  9. Trends in hepatic injury associated with unintentional overdose of paracetamol (Acetaminophen) in products with and without opioid: an analysis using the National Poison Data System of the American Association of Poison Control Centers, 2000-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, G Randall; Ho, Mona; Woodward, Randall W

    2012-02-01

    Unintended hepatic injury associated with the use of paracetamol (acetaminophen)-containing products has been growing. The aim of the study was to seek a better understanding of the causes of this observation in order to evaluate the potential impact of proposed preventive measures. Retrospective analysis of a large database containing prospectively collected patient exposure data, clinical symptomatology and outcome. The National Poison Data System database for 2000-7 involving exposures to paracetamol and an opioid was obtained and analysed. This dataset was limited to non-suicidal cases in patients 13 years of age and older. For comparison, the parallel, mutually exclusive dataset involving exposures to one or more non-opioid containing paracetamol products was analysed. Trends in the numbers of patients exposed, treated, and mildly and severely injured were obtained and compared with each other and with trends calculated from publicly available data on sales and population. The association of injury with the number of paracetamol-containing products and the reason for taking them were also assessed. Comparators: During the study period, the US population of those 15 years of age and over rose 8.5%; all pharmaceutical-related calls to all US poison centres rose 25%. For the 8-year period from 2001 to 2008, sales of over-the-counter paracetamol products rose 5% (single-ingredient products fell 3%; paracetamol-containing combination cough and cold products rose 11%) and prescription paracetamol combination products rose 67%. Opioids with paracetamol: A total of 119 731 cases were identified, increasing 70% over the period. The exposure merited acetylcysteine treatment in 8995 cases (252% increase). In total, 2729 patients (2.3%) experienced some hepatic injury (500% increase). Minor injuries rose faster than severe injuries (833% vs 280%) and most injuries (73.0%) were from overuse of a single combination product only, but the injury rate increased with use of

  10. Comparação da eficácia de doses iguais de acetaminofeno retal e oral em crianças Comparison of antipyretic effectiveness of equal doses of rectal and oral acetaminophen in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigha Akhavan Karbasi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar uma dose de acetaminofeno oral e retal e avaliar a aceitabilidade do acetaminofeno retal, uma vez que o acetaminofeno oral e retal é amplamente usado como agente antipirético em crianças com febre e a eficiência comparativa dessas duas preparações não está bem estabelecida. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo prospectivo de grupos paralelos, foram incluídas 60 crianças admitidas na emergência ou clínica ambulatorial pediátrica em um hospital terciário, com idade entre 6 meses e 6 anos e com temperatura retal acima de 39 °C. Os pacientes foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de mesmo tamanho. O grupo 1 recebeu 15 mg/kg de acetaminofeno retal, e o grupo 2 recebeu a mesma dose oralmente. A temperatura foi registrada no tempo zero e 1 e 3 horas após administração da droga. RESULTADOS: No primeiro grupo, a redução média de temperatura, 1 e 3 horas após administração do acetaminofeno, foi de 1,07±0,16 (p 0,05. CONCLUSÃO: As preparações oral e retal de acetaminofeno têm eficácia antipirética equivalente em crianças. A via retal mostrou ser tão aceitável quanto a oral entre os pais.OBJECTIVE: To compare a dose of oral and rectal acetaminophen and to evaluate acceptability of rectal acetaminophen, since oral and rectal acetaminophen is widely used as an antipyretic agent in febrile children and the comparative effectiveness of these two preparations is not well established. METHODS: In this prospective parallel group designed study, 60 children who presented to the emergency department or outpatient pediatric clinic at a tertiary hospital and aged from 6 months to 6 years with rectal temperature over 39 °C were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to two equal-sized groups. Group 1 received 15 mg/kg acetaminophen rectally and group 2 received the same dose orally. Temperature was recorded at baseline and 1 and 3 hours after drug administration. RESULTS: In the first group, mean decrease in

  11. Pharmacokinetics of paracetamol in chicks treated with metronidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Hussain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of metronidazole on the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol were examined in chicks. Chicks were dosed orally with metronidazole at 350 mg\\kg of body weight daily (10 -13 days of age. On the last day of metronidazole dosing, chicks injected intraperitoneally with paracetamol at of 50 mg\\kg of body weight. Paracetamol appeared in chick plasma at 52.00, 45.00, 40.75, 32.75, 23.25 µg \\ml after 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1, 2, 4 hours of injection respectively. A significantly decreased the concentration paracetamol at times of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1, 4 hours post injection and appeared at concentrations of 36.62, 35.37, 25.62, 20.50, 11.00 µg\\ml. These was reflected by changes in the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol as show by the increase elimination rate constant (48% and decrease in the half-life (32 % and increase in volume distribution (29% and increase in clearance by (96% and decrease in the area under the plasma curve (33% and decrease in the area under moment curve 65% and lack mean residence time (33%. These results indicate that oral dosing of chicks with metronidazole for four consecutive days and this effect increase in the elemination rate of paracetamol and this effect must be considered when therapy with paracetamol when given during metronidazole therapy.

  12. Long-term toxicological effects of paracetamol in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Majeed,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The analgesic and antipyretic properties of paracetamol were first described in 1893, then it has been widely available as a non-prescription drug, with a therapeutic profile that reflects widespread safety and efficacy as well as paracetamol became the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic in children. It is the most frequently used over-the counter medicine in young children and is nearly universally used in infants. The drug is used by millions of children every day. The study was designed to study the toxicological effect of therapeutic dose of paracetamol after oral administration for three months in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicous on the heart, kidney and liver. Results showed oral administration of the paracetamol for three months in laboratory rats showed that this drug has a severe damaging effect on most of the vital organs in the body like kidney, liver and heart.

  13. Prophylactic Use of Oral Acetaminophen or IV Dexamethasone and Combination of them on Prevention Emergence Agitation in Pediatric after Adenotonsillectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Sajedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of acetaminophen plus dexamethasone on post-operative emergence agitation in pediatric adenotonsillectomy. Methods: A total of 128 patients were randomized and assigned among four groups as: Intravenous (IV dexamethasone, oral acetaminophen, IV dexamethasone plus oral acetaminophen, placebo. Group 1 received 0.2 mg/kg dexamethasone plus 0.25 mg/kg strawberry syrup 2 h before surgery. Group 2 received 20 mg/kg oral acetaminophen (0.25 ml/kg with 0.05 ml/kg IV normal saline. Group 3 received 20 mg/kg acetaminophen and 0.2 mg/kg dexamethasone intravenously. Group 4 received 0.25 ml/kg strawberry syrup and 0.05 ml/kg normal saline. Agitation was measured according to Richmond agitation sedation score in the post anesthetic care unit (PACU after admission, 10, 20 and 30 min after extubation. Pain score was measured with FACE scale. Nurse satisfaction was measured with verbal analog scale. If agitation scale was 3 ≥ or pain scale was 4 ≥ meperidine was prescribed. If symptoms did not control wit in 15 min midazolam was prescribed. Patients were discharged from PACU according Modified Alderet Score. Data were analyzed with ANOVA, Chi-square, and Kruskal-Wallis among four groups. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 140 patients were recruited in the study, which 12 of them were excluded. Thus, 128 patients were randomized and assigned among four groups. The four treatment groups were generally matched at baseline data. Median of pain score in 0, 10, 20 and 30 min after extubation were different between each study group with the control group (<0.001, 0.003 respectively. Also median of agitation score in 0, 10, 20 and 30 min after extubation were different between each study group with the control group (<0.001. Incidence of pain and incidence of agitation after extubation were not statistically identical among groups (P < 0.001 and P = 0

  14. Rapid absorption of diclofenac and acetaminophen after their oral administration to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaguchi, Akiyo; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Miyanaga, Keisuke; Nakayama, Mitsuhiro; Nagasue, Masato; Shimoda, Minoru

    2016-10-01

    The oral pharmacokinetics of diclofenac (DF) were evaluated in cattle by analyzing plasma concentration-time data after its intravenous and oral administration in order to propose the oral administration of DF as effective route to avoid long withdraw period. DF was intravenously and orally administered at 1 mg/kg to cattle using a crossover design with a 4-week washout period. Plasma concentrations of DF were determined by a HPLC analysis. The mean absorption time (MAT) and absorption half-life (t 1/2ka ) were 1.61 ± 0.61 and 1.51 ± 0.38 hr, respectively, and bioavailability was nearly 100%. The oral pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen (AAP) were also evaluated in cattle. Plasma concentrations of AAP were determined by a HPLC analysis. MAT and t 1/2ka were 2.85 ± 0.93 and 1.53 ± 0.28 hr, respectively, and bioavailability was approximately 70%. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that DF and AAP are rapidly absorbed from the forestomach of cattle. Therefore, the appropriate efficacies of these drugs may be achieved via their oral administration, even in cattle.

  15. Prenatal exposure to paracetamol/acetaminophen and precursor aniline impairs masculinisation of male brain and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Finkielman, Olivia T Ejlstrup; Jensen, Benjamin A H; Høgsbro, Christine F; Bak Holm, Jacob; Johansen, Kristoffer Haurum; Jensen, Tina Kold; Andrade, Anderson Martino; Swan, Shanna H; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Brunak, Søren; Jegou, Bernard; Kristiansen, Karsten; Kristensen, David Møbjerg

    2017-08-01

    Paracetamol/acetaminophen (N-Acetyl-p-Aminophenol; APAP) is the preferred analgesic for pain relief and fever during pregnancy. It has therefore caused concern that several studies have reported that prenatal exposure to APAP results in developmental alterations in both the reproductive tract and the brain. Genitals and nervous system of male mammals are actively masculinised during foetal development and early postnatal life by the combined actions of prostaglandins and androgens, resulting in the male-typical reproductive behaviour seen in adulthood. Both androgens and prostaglandins are known to be inhibited by APAP. Through intrauterine exposure experiments in C57BL/6 mice, we found that exposure to APAP decreased neuronal number in the sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN) of the preoptic area (POA) in the anterior hypothalamus of male adult offspring. Likewise, exposure to the environmental pollutant and precursor of APAP, aniline, resulted in a similar reduction. Decrease in neuronal number in the SDN-POA is associated with reductions in male sexual behaviour. Consistent with the changes, male mice exposed in uteri to APAP exhibited changes in urinary marking behaviour as adults and had a less aggressive territorial display towards intruders of the same gender. Additionally, exposed males had reduced intromissions and ejaculations during mating with females in oestrus. Together, these data suggest that prenatal exposure to APAP may impair male sexual behaviour in adulthood by disrupting the sexual neurobehavioral programming. These findings add to the growing body of evidence suggesting the need to limit the widespread exposure and use of APAP by pregnant women. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  16. The effect of food and ice cream on the adsorption capacity of paracetamol to high surface activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Angelo, Helle Riis; Christophersen, Anne Bolette

    2003-01-01

    , the reductions compared to control (Hoegberg et al. 2002) varied between 11% and 26%. Even though a reduction in drug adsorption to activated charcoal was observed when food mixture or ice cream was added, the remaining adsorption capacity of both types of activated charcoal theoretically was still able......The effect of added food mixture (as if food was present in the stomach of an intoxicated patient) or 4 different types of ice cream (added as a flavouring and lubricating agent) on the adsorption of paracetamol (acetaminophen) to 2 formulations of activated charcoal was determined in vitro......, and paracetamol were mixed with either food mixture or ice cream followed by one hr incubation. The maximum adsorption capacity of paracetamol to activated charcoal was calculated using Langmuirs adsorption isotherm. Paracetamol concentration was analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography. In the presence...

  17. The haemodynamic effects of intravenous paracetamol (acetaminophen) in healthy volunteers: a double-blind, randomized, triple crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Elizabeth; Weinberg, Laurence; Bailey, Michael; McNicol, Larry; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2016-04-01

    The haemodynamic effects of intravenous paracetamol have not been systematically investigated. We compared the physiological effects of intravenous mannitol-containing paracetamol, and an equivalent dosage of mannitol, and normal saline 0.9% in healthy volunteers. We performed a blinded, triple crossover, randomized trial of 24 adult healthy volunteers. Participants received i.v. paracetamol (1 g paracetamol +3.91 g mannitol 100 ml(-1) ), i.v. mannitol (3.91 g mannitol 100 ml(-1) ) and i.v. normal saline (100 ml). Composite primary end points were changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) measured pre-infusion, during a 15 min infusion period and over a 45 min observation period. Systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) and cardiac index were measured at the same time points. Infusion of paracetamol induced a transient yet significant decrease in blood pressures from pre-infusion values (MAP -1.85 mmHg, 95% CI -2.6, -1.1, SBP -0.54 mmHg, 95% CI -1.7, 0.6 and DBP -1.92 mmHg, 95% CI -2.6, -1.2, P paracetamol caused a transient decrease in blood pressure immediately after infusion. These effects were not seen with mannitol or normal saline. The physiological mechanism was consistent with vasodilatation. This study provides plausible physiological data in a healthy volunteer setting, supporting transient changes in haemodynamic variables with i.v. paracetamol and justifies controlled studies in the peri-operative and critical care setting. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Determinants of hepatotoxicity after repeated supratherapeutic paracetamol ingestion: systematic review of reported cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong, Paul; Thomas, Simon H L

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the role of reported daily dose, age and other risk factors, and to assess the value of quantifying serum transaminase activity and paracetamol (acetaminophen) concentration at initial assessment for identifying patients at risk of hepatotoxicity following repeated supratherapeutic paracetamol ingestion (RSPI). Systematic literature review with collation and analysis of individual-level data from reported cases of RSPI associated with liver damage. In 199 cases meeting the selection criteria, severe liver damage (ALT/AST ≥1000 IU l(-1) , liver failure or death) was reported in 186 (93%) cases including 77/78 (99%) children aged ≤6 years. Liver failure occurred in 127 (64%) cases; of these 49 (39%) died. Maximum ingested daily paracetamol doses were above UK recommendations in 143 (72%) patients. US-Australasian thresholds for repeated supratherapeutic ingestions requiring intervention were not met in 71 (36%) cases; of these 35 (49%) developed liver failure and 10 (14%) died. No cases developing liver damage had paracetamol concentration Paracetamol concentrations <20 mg l(-1) with normal serum ALT/AST activity on initial assessment suggests a low risk of subsequent liver damage. These findings are, however, limited by low patient numbers, publication bias and the accuracy of the histories in reported cases. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  19. Comparison of Intravenous Morphine Versus Paracetamol in Sciatica: A Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serinken, Mustafa; Eken, Cenker; Gungor, Faruk; Emet, Mucahit; Al, Behcet

    2016-06-01

    The objective was to compare intravenous morphine and intravenous acetaminophen (paracetamol) for pain treatment in patients presenting to the emergency department with sciatica. Patients, between the ages of 21 and 65 years, suffering from pain in the sciatic nerve distribution and a positive straight leg-raise test composed the study population. Study patients were assigned to one of three intravenous interventions: morphine (0.1 mg/kg), acetaminophen (1 g), or placebo. Physicians, nurses, and patients were blinded to the study drug. Changes in pain intensity were measured at 15 and 30 minutes using a visual analog scale. Rescue drug (fentanyl) use and adverse effects were also recorded. Three-hundred patients were randomized. The median change in pain intensity between treatment arms at 30 minutes were as follows: morphine versus acetaminophen 25 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] = 20 to 29 mm), morphine versus placebo 41 mm (95% CI = 37 to 45 mm), and acetaminophen versus placebo 16 mm (95% CI = 12 to 20 mm). Eighty percent of the patients in the placebo group (95% CI = 63.0% to 99%), 18% of the patients in the acetaminophen group (95% CI = 10.7% to 28.5%), and 6% of those in the morphine group (95% CI = 2.0% to 13.2%) required a rescue drug. Adverse effects were similar between the morphine and acetaminophen groups. Morphine and acetaminophen are both effective for treating sciatica at 30 minutes. However, morphine is superior to acetaminophen. © 2016 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  20. Photocatalytic degradation of paracetamol on TiO2 nanoparticles and TiO2/cellulosic fiber under UV and sunlight irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Jallouli, Nabil; Elghniji, Kais; Trabelsi, Hassen; Ksibi, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, photocatalytic degradation of acetaminophen ((N-(4-hydroxyphe-nyl)acetamide)), an analgesic drug has been investigated in a batch reactor using TiO2 P25 as a photocatalyst in slurry and under UV light. Using TiO2 P25 nanoparticles, much faster photodegradation of paracetamol and effective mineralization occurred, more than 90% of 2.65 × 10−4 M paracetamol was degraded under UV irradiation. Changes in pH values affected the adsorption and the photodegradation of paracetam...

  1. Simultaneous quantification of acetaminophen and five acetaminophen metabolites in human plasma and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry: Method validation and application to a neonatal pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Sarah F; King, Amber D; van den Anker, John N; Wilkins, Diana G

    2015-12-15

    Drug metabolism plays a key role in acetaminophen (paracetamol)-induced hepatotoxicity, and quantification of acetaminophen metabolites provides critical information about factors influencing susceptibility to acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in clinical and experimental settings. The aims of this study were to develop, validate, and apply high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) methods for simultaneous quantification of acetaminophen, acetaminophen-glucuronide, acetaminophen-sulfate, acetaminophen-glutathione, acetaminophen-cysteine, and acetaminophen-N-acetylcysteine in small volumes of human plasma and urine. In the reported procedures, acetaminophen-d4 and acetaminophen-d3-sulfate were utilized as internal standards (IS). Analytes and IS were recovered from human plasma (10μL) by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Human urine (10μL) was prepared by fortification with IS followed only by sample dilution. Calibration concentration ranges were tailored to literature values for each analyte in each biological matrix. Prepared samples from plasma and urine were analyzed under the same HPLC-ESI-MS/MS conditions, and chromatographic separation was achieved through use of an Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column with a 20-min run time per injected sample. The analytes could be accurately and precisely quantified over 2.0-3.5 orders of magnitude. Across both matrices, mean intra- and inter-assay accuracies ranged from 85% to 112%, and intra- and inter-assay imprecision did not exceed 15%. Validation experiments included tests for specificity, recovery and ionization efficiency, inter-individual variability in matrix effects, stock solution stability, and sample stability under a variety of storage and handling conditions (room temperature, freezer, freeze-thaw, and post-preparative). The utility and suitability of the reported procedures were illustrated by analysis of pharmacokinetic samples

  2. The haemodynamic effects of intravenous paracetamol (acetaminophen) in healthy volunteers: a double‐blind, randomized, triple crossover trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Elizabeth; Bailey, Michael; McNicol, Larry; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2016-01-01

    Aim The haemodynamic effects of intravenous paracetamol have not been systematically investigated. We compared the physiological effects of intravenous mannitol‐containing paracetamol, and an equivalent dosage of mannitol, and normal saline 0.9% in healthy volunteers. Methods We performed a blinded, triple crossover, randomized trial of 24 adult healthy volunteers. Participants received i.v. paracetamol (1 g paracetamol +3.91 g mannitol 100 ml–1), i.v. mannitol (3.91 g mannitol 100 ml–1) and i.v. normal saline (100 ml). Composite primary end points were changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) measured pre‐infusion, during a 15 min infusion period and over a 45 min observation period. Systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) and cardiac index were measured at the same time points. Results Infusion of paracetamol induced a transient yet significant decrease in blood pressures from pre‐infusion values (MAP –1.85 mmHg, 95% CI –2.6, –1.1, SBP –0.54 mmHg, 95% CI –1.7, 0.6 and DBP −1.92 mmHg, 95% CI –2.6, –1.2, P paracetamol caused a transient decrease in blood pressure immediately after infusion. These effects were not seen with mannitol or normal saline. The physiological mechanism was consistent with vasodilatation. This study provides plausible physiological data in a healthy volunteer setting, supporting transient changes in haemodynamic variables with i.v. paracetamol and justifies controlled studies in the peri‐operative and critical care setting. PMID:26606263

  3. A novel approach for estimating ingested dose associated with paracetamol overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurlinden, Todd J; Heard, Kennon; Reisfeld, Brad

    2016-04-01

    In cases of paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) overdose, an accurate estimate of tissue-specific paracetamol pharmacokinetics (PK) and ingested dose can offer health care providers important information for the individualized treatment and follow-up of affected patients. Here a novel methodology is presented to make such estimates using a standard serum paracetamol measurement and a computational framework. The core component of the computational framework was a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model developed and evaluated using an extensive set of human PK data. Bayesian inference was used for parameter and dose estimation, allowing the incorporation of inter-study variability, and facilitating the calculation of uncertainty in model outputs. Simulations of paracetamol time course concentrations in the blood were in close agreement with experimental data under a wide range of dosing conditions. Also, predictions of administered dose showed good agreement with a large collection of clinical and emergency setting PK data over a broad dose range. In addition to dose estimation, the platform was applied for the determination of optimal blood sampling times for dose reconstruction and quantitation of the potential role of paracetamol conjugate measurement on dose estimation. Current therapies for paracetamol overdose rely on a generic methodology involving the use of a clinical nomogram. By using the computational framework developed in this study, serum sample data, and the individual patient's anthropometric and physiological information, personalized serum and liver pharmacokinetic profiles and dose estimate could be generated to help inform an individualized overdose treatment and follow-up plan. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Analgesic efficacy and safety of intravenous paracetamol (acetaminophen) administered as a 2g starting dose following third molar surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Gitte Irene; Nørholt, Sven E.; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The recommended dose for intravenous (IV) paracetamol injection in adults is 1g, however pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic findings suggest that a better analgesia could be obtained with a 2g starting dose. METHODS: A single-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3......-parallel group study was performed to demonstrate the analgesic efficacy and safety of IV paracetamol 2g. Following third molar surgery, patients reporting moderate to severe pain received a single 15-min infusion of either IV paracetamol 2g, IV paracetamol 1g or placebo. Efficacy and safety were evaluated...... over 8h. Laboratory tests were performed before and 48h after drug administration. RESULTS: Two hundred and ninety seven patients (132=IV paracetamol 2g; 132=IV paracetamol 1g; 33=placebo) were randomised and completed the study. The summed pain relief over 6h (TOTPAR6) was significantly superior...

  5. [Severe toxic liver failure after acute poisoning with paracetamol, ferrous sulphate and naproxen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamek, Robert; Wilczek, Lech; Krupiński, Bogusław

    2004-01-01

    We present the case of 20-year-old woman intoxicated with mixed drugs, composed of paracetamol (acetaminophen), ferrous sulphate, naproxen and benzodiazepines. Acute toxic liver damage with clinical symptoms of coma resolved at the patient. Lack of the past history doesn't let to specific therapy and systemic complications. In this data we confirm, that past history, clinical symptoms and laboratory results are needed in designing a treatment strategy.

  6. Effect of Acetaminophen Ingestion on Thermoregulation of Normothermic, Non-Febrile Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh eFoster

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In non-febrile mouse models, high dose acetaminophen administration causes profound hypothermia. However, this potentially hazardous side-effect has not been confirmed in non-febrile humans. Thus, we sought to ascertain whether an acute therapeutic dose (20 mg·kg lean body mass of acetaminophen would reduce non-febrile human core temperature in a sub-neutral environment. Ten apparently healthy (normal core temperature, no musculoskeletal injury, no evidence of acute illness Caucasian males participated in a preliminary study (Study one to determine plasma acetaminophen concentration following oral ingestion of 20 mg·kg lean body mass acetaminophen. Plasma samples (every 20 minutes up to 2-hours post ingestion were analysed via enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Thirteen (eight recruited from Study one apparently healthy Caucasian males participated in Study two, and were passively exposed to 20°C, 40% r.h. for 120 minutes on two occasions in a randomised, repeated measures, crossover design. In a double blind manner, participants ingested acetaminophen (20 mg·kg lean body mass or a placebo (dextrose immediately prior to entering the environmental chamber. Rectal temperature, skin temperature, heart rate, and thermal sensation were monitored continuously and recorded every ten minutes. In Study one, the peak concentration of acetaminophen (14 ± 4 µg/ml in plasma arose between 80 and 100 minutes following oral ingestion. In Study two, acetaminophen ingestion reduced the core temperature of all participants, whereas there was no significant change in core temperature over time in the placebo trial. Mean core temperature was significantly lower in the acetaminophen trial compared with that of a placebo (p 0.05. The results indicate oral acetaminophen reduces core temperature of humans exposed to an environment beneath the thermal neutral zone. These results suggest that acetaminophen may inhibit the thermogenic mechanisms required to regulate

  7. Anaphylaxis following intravenous paracetamol: the problem is the solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S S; Green, S; Rose, M

    2015-11-01

    Paracetamol is a ubiquitous analgesic and antipyretic that is widely administered, including by anaesthetists. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to intravenous paracetamol are particularly rare. We report two cases involving four separate episodes of anaphylaxis to intravenous paracetamol in different perioperative settings without a past history of intolerance to the oral form. The allergological investigations are described, during which it became evident that both patients were allergic to an excipient (mannitol) present in the formulation and that neither was allergic to the principal agent (paracetamol). The importance of referral and investigation of perioperative drug reactions is underscored by these two cases.

  8. TRPV1 in brain is involved in acetaminophen-induced antinociception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Mallet

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen, the major active metabolite of acetanilide in man, has become one of the most popular over-the-counter analgesic and antipyretic agents, consumed by millions of people daily. However, its mechanism of action is still a matter of debate. We have previously shown that acetaminophen is further metabolized to N-(4-hydroxyphenyl-5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z -eicosatetraenamide (AM404 by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH in the rat and mouse brain and that this metabolite is a potent activator of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV(1 in vitro. Pharmacological activation of TRPV(1 in the midbrain periaqueductal gray elicits antinociception in rats. It is therefore possible that activation of TRPV(1 in the brain contributes to the analgesic effect of acetaminophen.Here we show that the antinociceptive effect of acetaminophen at an oral dose lacking hypolocomotor activity is absent in FAAH and TRPV(1 knockout mice in the formalin, tail immersion and von Frey tests. This dose of acetaminophen did not affect the global brain contents of prostaglandin E(2 (PGE(2 and endocannabinoids. Intracerebroventricular injection of AM404 produced a TRPV(1-mediated antinociceptive effect in the mouse formalin test. Pharmacological inhibition of TRPV(1 in the brain by intracerebroventricular capsazepine injection abolished the antinociceptive effect of oral acetaminophen in the same test.This study shows that TRPV(1 in brain is involved in the antinociceptive action of acetaminophen and provides a strategy for developing central nervous system active oral analgesics based on the coexpression of FAAH and TRPV(1 in the brain.

  9. Radiolytic degradation of paracetamol in dilute aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, L.; Toth, T.; Homlok, R.; Takacs, E.; Wojnarovits, L.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Paracetamol or with name acetaminophen is widely used as analgesic and antipyretic drug. Due to its heavy use it is regularly detected in the surface waters. The degradation of the compound formerly was studied in several advanced oxidation processes (UV/H 2 O 2 , UV/TiO 2 , electrochemical oxidation, ozonation). Here we report on the radiolytic degradation. In the experimental work we combined a wide variety of techniques. For the investigation of the intermediates pulse radiolysis, for end-product experiments (decolouration, mineralization) gamma irradiation were used together with UV-Vis spectroscopy, HPLC separation (with diode array and MS-MS detection), chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon content and toxicity measurements. · OH radicals are the main oxidative species during irradiation. They add to the aromatic ring producing hydroxycyclohexadienyl type radicals. These radicals either transform to hydroxy-paracetamol stable products in several reaction steps, or after water elimination transform to semi-iminoquinone radical. The reaction of hydroxycyclohexadienyl radicals with O 2 yields peroxi radicals. The latter radicals may eliminate HO 2 · or undergo ring opening and transformation, first to different carboxylic acids, and finally (mineralization) to CO 2 , H 2 O and NH 3 or NO 2 . Paracetamol has a relatively low toxicity. In 10 -3 mol dm -3 DCF solution after irradiation some products (e.g. hydroquinone, acetamide) are more toxic than paracetamol. By increasing the dose the toxicity suddenly decreases. It seems that the toxic products are highly sensitive to irradiation treatment.

  10. Use of acetaminophen (paracetamol) during pregnancy and the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2016-03-01

    Prenatal exposure to acetaminophen may result in compromised neurodevelopment through inflammatory and immunologic mechanisms, through predisposition to oxidative stress, and through endocrine, endogenous cannabinoid, and other mechanisms. Several small and large prospective studies have found an association between gestational acetaminophen exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like behaviors, use of ADHD medication, and ADHD diagnoses in offspring during childhood; the only negative study was a small investigation that examined only one aspect of attention as an outcome. Creditably, most of the studies adjusted analyses for many (but not all) confounds associated with ADHD risk. Importantly, one pivotal study also adjusted for pain, infection, inflammation, and fever to reduce confounding by indication; this study found a dose-dependent risk. In the light of the finding of a single study that infection and fever during pregnancy by themselves do not raise the ADHD risk, it appears possible that the use of acetaminophen during pregnancy is itself responsible for the increased risk of ADHD. This suggests that acetaminophen may not be as safe in pregnancy as is widely believed. However, since fever during pregnancy may itself be associated with adverse gestational outcomes, given the present level of uncertainty about the ADHD risk with acetaminophen, it is suggested that, until more data are available, the use of acetaminophen in pregnancy should not be denied in situations in which the need for the drug is clear. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  11. Effects of NSAIDs and paracetamol (acetaminophen on protein kinase C epsilon translocation and on substance P synthesis and release in cultured sensory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vellani V

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Vittorio Vellani,1 Silvia Franchi,2 Massimiliano Prandini,1 Sarah Moretti,2 Mara Castelli,2 Chiara Giacomoni,3 Paola Sacerdote21Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy; 2Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; 3Department of Economics and Technology, University of the Republic of San Marino, Republic of San MarinoAbstract: Celecoxib, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and nimesulide are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs very commonly used for the treatment of moderate to mild pain, together with paracetamol (acetaminophen, a very widely used analgesic with a lesser anti-inflammatory effect. In the study reported here, we tested the efficacy of celecoxib, diclofenac, and ibuprofen on preprotachykinin mRNA synthesis, substance P (SP release, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 release, and protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε translocation in rat cultured sensory neurons from dorsal root ganglia (DRGs. The efficacy of these NSAIDs was compared with the efficacy of paracetamol and nimesulide in in vitro models of hyperalgesia (investigated previously. While nimesulide and paracetamol, as in previous experiments, decreased the percentage of cultured DRG neurons showing translocation of PKCε caused by 100 nM thrombin or 1 µM bradykinin in a dose-dependent manner, the other NSAIDs tested did not have a significant effect. The amount of SP released by peptidergic neurons and the expression level of preprotachykinin mRNA were assessed in basal conditions and after 70 minutes or 36 hours of stimulation with an inflammatory soup (IS containing potassium chloride, thrombin, bradykinin, and endothelin-1. The release of SP at 70 minutes was inhibited only by nimesulide, while celecoxib and diclofenac were effective at 36 hours. The mRNA basal level of the SP precursor preprotachykinin expressed in DRG neurons was reduced only by nimesulide, while the

  12. Randomized comparative trial of efficacy of paracetamol, ibuprofen and paracetamol-ibuprofen combination for treatment of febrile children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falgun Indravadan Vyas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Paracetamol and ibuprofen are widely used for fever in children as monotherapy and as combined therapy. None of the treatments is proven clearly superior to others. Hence, the study was planned to compare the efficacy of paracetamol, ibuprofen and paracetamol-ibuprofen combination for treatment of febrile children. Materials and Methods: This was an investigator blind, randomized, comparative, parallel clinical trial conducted in 99 febrile children, 6 months to 12 years of age, allocated to three groups. First group received paracetamol 15 mg/kg, second group received ibuprofen 10 mg/kg and third group received both paracetamol and ibuprofen, all as a single dose by the oral route. Patients were followed-up at intervals of 1, 2, 3 and 4 h post dose by tympanic thermometry. Results: Mean tympanic temperature after 4 h of drug administration was significantly lower in the combination group compared with paracetamol group (P < 0.05; however, the difference was not clinically significant (<1΀C. The rate of fall of temperature was highest in the combination group. Number of afebrile children any time post dose until 4 h was highest in the combination group. Difference between combination and paracetamol was significant for the 1 st h (P = 0.04. Highest fall of temperature was noted in the 1 st h of drug administration in all the groups. No serious adverse events were observed in any of the groups. Conclusion: Paracetamol and ibuprofen combination caused quicker temperature reduction than either paracetamol or ibuprofen alone. If quicker reduction of body temperature is the desired goal of therapy, the use of combination of paracetamol + ibuprofen may be advocated.

  13. Quantification of acetaminophen (paracetamol) in human plasma and urine by stable isotope-dilution GC-MS and GC-MS/MS as pentafluorobenzyl ether derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trettin, Arne; Zoerner, Alexander A; Böhmer, Anke; Gutzki, Frank-Mathias; Stichtenoth, Dirk O; Jordan, Jens; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2011-08-01

    We report on the quantitative determination of acetaminophen (paracetamol; NAPAP-d(0)) in human plasma and urine by GC-MS and GC-MS/MS in the electron-capture negative-ion chemical ionization (ECNICI) mode after derivatization with pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) bromide (PFB-Br). Commercially available tetradeuterated acetaminophen (NAPAP-d(4)) was used as the internal standard. NAPAP-d(0) and NAPAP-d(4) were extracted from 100-μL aliquots of plasma and urine with 300 μL ethyl acetate (EA) by vortexing (60s). After centrifugation the EA phase was collected, the solvent was removed under a stream of nitrogen gas, and the residue was reconstituted in acetonitrile (MeCN, 100 μL). PFB-Br (10 μL, 30 vol% in MeCN) and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (10 μL) were added and the mixture was incubated for 60 min at 30 °C. Then, solvents and reagents were removed under nitrogen and the residue was taken up with 1000 μL of toluene, from which 1-μL aliquots were injected in the splitless mode. GC-MS quantification was performed by selected-ion monitoring ions due to [M-PFB](-) and [M-PFB-H](-), m/z 150 and m/z 149 for NAPAP-d(0) and m/z 154 and m/z 153 for NAPAP-d(4), respectively. GC-MS/MS quantification was performed by selected-reaction monitoring the transition m/z 150 → m/z 107 and m/z 149 → m/z 134 for NAPAP-d(0) and m/z 154 → m/z 111 and m/z 153 → m/z 138 for NAPAP-d(4). The method was validated for human plasma (range, 0-130 μM NAPAP-d(0)) and urine (range, 0-1300 μM NAPAP-d(0)). Accuracy (recovery, %) ranged between 89 and 119%, and imprecision (RSD, %) was below 19% in these matrices and ranges. A close correlation (r>0.999) was found between the concentrations measured by GC-MS and GC-MS/MS. By this method, acetaminophen can be reliably quantified in small plasma and urine sample volumes (e.g., 10 μL). The analytical performance of the method makes it especially useful in pediatrics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen and ibuprofen when coadministered with telmisartan in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangier, J; Su, C A; Fraunhofer, A; Tetzloff, W

    2000-12-01

    Two open-label, two-way, crossover studies were performed to assess any pharmacokinetic interaction of telmisartan with either acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Healthy male adult volunteers (n = 12) received a single oral dose of acetaminophen 1 g alone and with oral telmisartan 120 mg in one study. Oral ibuprofen 400 mg three times daily with and without oral once-daily telmisartan 120 mg was given for 7 days in the other study conducted in 6 males and 6 females. In both studies, there was a washout period of > or = 13 days between single and combination medication administration. The primary end points Cmax and AUC were compared between combination (acetaminophen or ibuprofen + telmisartan) and single-agent medication (acetaminophen or ibuprofen). Pharmacokinetic drug interaction was assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and calculation of 90% confidence intervals (CI) for treatment ratios using log-transformed parameters. Bioequivalence (i.e., lack of interaction) was concluded if the 90% CI of the ratios for both Cmax and AUC were within the acceptance limit of 0.80 to 1.25. Geometric mean Cmax values for acetaminophen and R-(-)- and S-(+)-ibuprofen enantiomers were similar with and without telmisartan coadministration (12.6 micrograms/mL vs. 14.1 micrograms/mL; 17.3 micrograms/mL vs. 16.7 micrograms/mL; 19.4 micrograms/mL vs. 19.5 micrograms/mL, respectively), and values for R-(-)- as well as S-(+)-ibuprofen were bioequivalent. Geometric mean AUC values for acetaminophen and R-(-)- and S-(+)-ibuprofen were also bioequivalent with and without telmisartan. The distribution and elimination parameters of both acetaminophen and ibuprofen were comparable in the presence or absence of telmisartan. The concomitant and single-agent medications were all well tolerated. In conclusion, the long half-life and excellent safety profile of telmisartan were unaffected by concurrent acetaminophen or ibuprofen medication; thus, once-daily dosing of telmisartan can be maintained

  15. Synergistic protective effect of picrorhiza with honey in acetaminophen induced hepatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prashant; Tripathi, Alok; Agrawal, Tripti; Narayan, Chandradeo; Singh, B M; Kumar, Mohan; Kumar, Arvind

    2016-08-01

    Rhizome of picrorhiza along with honey prevents hepatic damage and cure the acetaminophen (paracetamol) induced hepatotoxicity by modulating the activity of hepatic enzymes. Here, we studied the in vivo effects of Picrorhiza kurroa and honey on acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity Balb/c mice model. Hepatic histopathological observations of acetaminophen fed (day-6) group showed more congestion, hemorrhage, necrosis, distorted hepatic architecture and nuclear inclusion. Such damages were recompensed to normal by picrorhiza or honey alone or both in combinations. We observed increased activity of SGPT and SGOT in injured liver tissues, and that too was compensated to normal with picrorhiza or honey alone or both in combinations. We observed 1.27 and 1.23-fold enhanced activity of SGPT in serum and liver lysate, respectively while SGOT showed 1.66 and 1.11 fold enhanced activity. These two enzymes are signature enzymes of liver damage. Thus, our results support that honey may be used with drug picrorhiza due to its synergistic role to enhance hepatoprotective and hepatoregenerative ability along with allopathic drugs to mitigate the hepatotoxic effects.

  16. Effects of co-administration of chloroquine with paracetamol or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of co-administration of oral chloroquine with paracetamol or with ibuprofen on renal function were studied using 6 groups of New Zealand White rabbits. Group 1, the control group received only feed and water. The other groups (Groups 2-6) either received single therapies of paracetamol (10 mg/kg of body ...

  17. Does cytochrome P450 liver isoenzyme induction increase the risk of liver toxicity after paracetamol overdose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalsi SS

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sarbjeet S Kalsi1,2, David M Wood2–4, W Stephen Waring5, Paul I Dargan2–4 1Emergency Department, 2Clinical Toxicology, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London; 3King's Health Partners, 4King's College London, London; 5York Teaching Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, York, UK Abstract: Paracetamol (acetaminophen, N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, 4-hydroxyacetanilide is the most common cause of acute liver failure in developed countries. There are a number of factors which potentially impact on the risk of an individual developing hepatotoxicity following an acute paracetamol overdose. These include the dose of paracetamol ingested, time to presentation, decreased liver glutathione, and induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP isoenzymes responsible for the metabolism of paracetamol to its toxic metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine (NAPQI. In this paper, we review the currently published literature to determine whether induction of relevant CYP isoenzymes is a risk factor for hepatotoxicity in patients with acute paracetamol overdose. Animal and human in vitro studies have shown that the CYP isoenzyme responsible for the majority of human biotransformation of paracetamol to NAPQI is CYP2E1 at both therapeutic and toxic doses of paracetamol. Current UK treatment guidelines suggest that patients who use a number of drugs therapeutically should be treated as “high-risk” after paracetamol overdose. However, based on our review of the available literature, it appears that the only drugs for which there is evidence of the potential for an increased risk of hepatotoxicity associated with paracetamol overdose are phenobarbital, primidone, isoniazid, and perhaps St John's wort. There is no evidence that other drugs often quoted as increasing risk, such as carbamazepine, phenytoin, primidone, rifampicin, rifabutin, efavirenz, or nevirapine, should be considered risk factors for hepatotoxicity in patients presenting with acute paracetamol overdose. Keywords

  18. Hepatoprotective Effect of Metadoxine on Acetaminophen-induced Liver Toxicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Mazraati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metadoxine (pyridoxine pyrrolidone carboxylate is considered to be a beneficial agent for the treatment of experimental hepatotoxicity due to alcohol, CCl4, and bile duct ligation. Hence, the therapeutic effect of metadoxine and N-acetylcysteine (NAC as reference drug was investigated in mice exposed to acute hepatotoxicity induced by a single oral toxic dose of acetaminophen (650 mg/kg. Materials and Methods: Metadoxine (200 and 400 mg/kg and NAC (300 mg/kg were given orally (p. o., 2 h after acetaminophen administration. Serum aminotransferases, aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin, hepatic glutathione (GSH, and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were determined for evaluating the extent of hepatotoxicity due to acetaminophen and its protection by metadoxine. Results: Findings indicated that metadoxine significantly reduced the level of serum ALT, AST, and ALP but not total bilirubin which increased by acetaminophen intoxication. Administration of metadoxine also attenuated oxidative stress by suppressing lipid peroxidation (MDA and prevented the depletion of reduced GSH level which caused by acetaminophen toxicity. Besides, metadoxine ameliorated histopathological hepatic tissue injury induced by acetaminophen. Conclusion: In most parameters examined, the effect of metadoxine was comparable to NAC. Hence, metadoxine could be considered as a beneficial therapeutic candidate to protect against acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity.

  19. Codeine, alone and with paracetamol (acetaminophen), for cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, Carmen; Derry, Sheena; Jackson, Kenneth C; Wiffen, Philip J; Bell, Rae F; Strassels, Scott; Straube, Sebastian

    2014-09-19

    Pain is very common in patients with cancer. Opioid analgesics, including codeine, play a significant role in major guidelines on the management of cancer pain, particularly for mild to moderate pain. Codeine is widely available and inexpensive, which may make it a good choice, especially in low-resource settings. Its use is controversial, in part because codeine is not effective in a minority of patients who cannot convert it to its active metabolite (morphine), and also because of concerns about potential abuse, and safety in children. To determine the efficacy and safety of codeine used alone or in combination with paracetamol for relieving cancer pain. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 2), MEDLINE and EMBASE from inception to 5 March 2014, supplemented by searches of clinical trial registries and screening of the reference lists of the identified studies and reviews in the field. We sought randomised, double-blind, controlled trials using single or multiple doses of codeine, with or without paracetamol, for the treatment of cancer pain. Trials could have either parallel or cross-over design, with at least 10 participants per treatment group. Studies in children or adults reporting on any type, grade, and stage of cancer were eligible. We accepted any formulation, dosage regimen, and route of administration of codeine, and both placebo and active controls. Two review authors independently read the titles and abstracts of all studies identified by the searches and excluded those that clearly did not meet the inclusion criteria. For the remaining studies, two authors read the full manuscripts and assessed them for inclusion. We resolved discrepancies between review authors by discussion. Included studies were described qualitatively, since no meta-analysis was possible because of the small amount of data identified, and clinical and methodological between-study heterogeneity. We included 15

  20. Patients with the worst outcomes after paracetamol (acetaminophen)-induced liver failure have an early monocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J K; MacKinnon, A C; Man, T Y; Manning, J R; Forbes, S J; Simpson, K J

    2017-02-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Studies have implicated the immune response, especially monocyte/macrophages as being important in dictating outcome. To investigate changes in the circulating monocytes and other immune cells serially in patients with ALF, relate these with cytokine concentrations, monocyte gene expression and patient outcome. In a prospective case-control study in the Scottish Liver Transplant Unit, Royal Infirmary Edinburgh, 35 consecutive patients admitted with paracetamol-induced liver failure (POD-ALF), 10 patients with non-paracetamol causes of ALF and 16 controls were recruited. The peripheral blood monocyte phenotype was analysed by flow cytometry, circulating cytokines quantified by protein array and monocyte gene expression array performed and related to outcome. On admission, patients with worst outcomes after POD-ALF had a significant monocytopenia, characterised by reduced classical and expanded intermediate monocyte population. This was associated with reduced circulating lymphocytes and natural killer cells, peripheral cytokine patterns suggestive of a 'cytokine storm' and increased concentrations of cytokines associated with monocyte egress from the bone marrow. Gene expression array did not differentiate patient outcome. At day 4, there was no significant difference in monocyte, lymphocyte or natural killer cells between survivors and the patients with adverse outcomes. Severe paracetamol liver failure is associated with profound changes in the peripheral blood compartment, particularly in monocytes, related with worse outcomes. This is not seen in patients with non-paracetamol-induced liver failure. Significant monocytopenia on admission may allow earlier clarification of prognosis, and it highlights a potential target for therapeutic intervention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Transplacental Passage of Acetaminophen in Term Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Joshua F; Patil, Avinash S; Langman, Loralie J; Penn, Hannah J; Derleth, Douglas; Watson, William J; Brost, Brian C

    2017-05-01

    Objective  The objective of this study was to determine the maternal and fetal pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of acetaminophen after administration of a therapeutic oral dose. Study Design  After obtaining Institutional Review Board approval and their written informed consent, pregnant women were given a single oral dose (1,000 mg) of acetaminophen upon admission for scheduled cesarean delivery. Maternal venous blood and fetal cord blood were obtained at the time of delivery and acetaminophen levels were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. PK parameters were calculated by noncompartmental analysis. Nonparametric correlation of maternal/fetal acetaminophen levels and PK curves were calculated. Results  In this study, 34 subjects were enrolled (median, 32 years; range, 25-39 years). The median maternal weight was 82 kg (range, 62-100 kg). All but two subjects were delivered beyond 39 weeks' gestation. The median newborn birth weight was 3,590 g (interquartile range, 3,403-3,848 g). Noncompartmental analysis described similar PK parameters in the maternal ( T 1/2 , 84 minutes; apparent clearance [Cl/F], 28.8 L/h; apparent volume of distribution [V d /F], 57.5 L) and fetal compartments ( T 1/2 , 82 minutes; Cl/F, 31.2 L/h; V d /F, 61.2 L). Paired maternal/fetal acetaminophen levels were highly correlated ( p  surrogate for fetal exposure. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Radiolytic degradation of paracetamol in dilute aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, L [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Inst. of Isotopes; Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest (Hungary); Toth, T [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest (Hungary); Homlok, R; Takacs, E; Wojnarovits, L [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Inst. of Isotopes

    2011-07-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Paracetamol or with name acetaminophen is widely used as analgesic and antipyretic drug. Due to its heavy use it is regularly detected in the surface waters. The degradation of the compound formerly was studied in several advanced oxidation processes (UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, UV/TiO{sub 2}, electrochemical oxidation, ozonation). Here we report on the radiolytic degradation. In the experimental work we combined a wide variety of techniques. For the investigation of the intermediates pulse radiolysis, for end-product experiments (decolouration, mineralization) gamma irradiation were used together with UV-Vis spectroscopy, HPLC separation (with diode array and MS-MS detection), chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon content and toxicity measurements. {sup {center_dot}O}H radicals are the main oxidative species during irradiation. They add to the aromatic ring producing hydroxycyclohexadienyl type radicals. These radicals either transform to hydroxy-paracetamol stable products in several reaction steps, or after water elimination transform to semi-iminoquinone radical. The reaction of hydroxycyclohexadienyl radicals with O{sub 2} yields peroxi radicals. The latter radicals may eliminate HO{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}} or undergo ring opening and transformation, first to different carboxylic acids, and finally (mineralization) to CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 3} or NO{sub 2}. Paracetamol has a relatively low toxicity. In 10{sup -3} mol dm{sup -3} DCF solution after irradiation some products (e.g. hydroquinone, acetamide) are more toxic than paracetamol. By increasing the dose the toxicity suddenly decreases. It seems that the toxic products are highly sensitive to irradiation treatment.

  3. Paracetamol (acetaminophen), aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and indomethacin are anti-androgenic in the rat foetal testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Lesné, L.; Fol, V. Le

    2012-01-01

    on gestational day 14.5 rat testes, we herein show that testosterone production was inhibited by paracetamol, at doses of 0.1??m to 100??m. Similar results were obtained for aspirin (1?100??m) and indomethacin (10??m). The production of the other Leydig cell hormone, Insl3, was not disrupted by exposure...... inhibit testosterone production in rat foetal testes in vitro and that these compounds had no effect on gonocyte survival. Parallel determinations of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) production indicated that the effects of paracetamol and aspirin on PGD2 and testosterone were not connected, whereas the effects...

  4. Comparison of oral versus rectal administration of acetaminophen with codeine in postoperative pediatric adenotonsillectomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarzak, Vicki; Haddad, Joseph

    2006-08-01

    To examine whether acetaminophen with codeine administered per rectum is an effective alternative for pain control compared with oral administration after an adenotonsillectomy. A prospective, randomized control study. Seventy-five children aged 1 to 5 were recruited for this study. Each child was assigned randomly to receive either rectal or oral postoperative pain medication. A journal with eight questions was kept for 10 days after the operation, and an overall survey of five questions was filled out at the first postoperative visit. Postoperative pain was adequately controlled in those patients receiving suppositories when compared with those patients receiving oral pain medication. Adverse effects and total number of doses given per day were similar. Parents found the suppositories easy to administer, and more parents would switch or consider switching from oral pain medication to suppositories if given the choice. The suppositories achieved equivalent pain control as oral medication with few side effects and good tolerance. Furthermore, many parents preferred the suppositories to oral medication in maintaining postoperative pain control because of ease of administration. If given the choice for future surgeries, many parents would switch or consider switching from oral pain medication to suppositories.

  5. Relative bioavailability and plasma paracetamol profiles of Panadol suppositories in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, K P; Nielson, H W; Schroder, M; Covino, A; Matthews, N T; Murray, R S; Van Der Walt, J H

    1998-10-01

    To determine the relative bioavailability and plasma paracetamol concentration profiles following administration of a proprietary formulation of paracetamol suppositories to postoperative children. Study A-eight children undergoing minor surgery had blood samples collected following the rectal administration of either a 250 mg or 500 mg paracetamol suppository on one day and an equivalent oral dose on the following day. A mean dose of 13 mg/kg gave a mean Cmax (Tmax) of 7.7 mg/L (1.6 h) and 4.9 mg/L (2.0 h) following oral and rectal administration, respectively. The mean relative rectal bioavailability was 78% (95% confidence interval of 55-101%). Study B-20 children undergoing tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy were randomly assigned to receive a postoperative dose of 500 mg of paracetamol either as 2 x 250 mg liquid filled or 1 x 500 mg hard wax Panadol suppository. A mean dose of 25 mg/kg produced mean maximum plasma paracetamol concentrations of 13.2 mg/L and 14.5 mg/L at 2.1 and 1.9 h for the hard and liquid filled suppository, respectively. The absorption rate constants and areas under the curves suggested no difference in the rate or extent of absorption between the two formulations. Absorption of paracetamol following rectal administration of Panadol suppositories to postoperative children is slower and reduced as compared to oral therapy. The hard wax and liquid filled products have similar absorption characteristics. The usually quoted antipyretic therapeutic range for paracetamol is 10-20 mg/L, although 5 mg/L may be effective. A single rectal dose of 25 mg/kg will obtain this lower concentration within 1 h of administration and maintain it for up to 6 h. When given in an appropriate dose for analgesia, maximum plasma paracetamol concentrations would be available in the immediate postoperative period if the rectal dose was given 2 h before the planned end of the procedure.

  6. Paracetamol for pain relief after surgical removal of lower wisdom teeth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weil, K.; Hooper, L.; Afzal, Z.; Esposito, M.; Worthington, H.V.; van Wijk, A.J.; Coulthard, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Paracetamol has been commonly used for the relief of postoperative pain following oral surgery. In this review we investigated the optimal dose of paracetamol and the optimal time for drug administration to provide pain relief, taking into account the side effects of different doses of

  7. Estimation of paracetamol in urine to assess the diurnal variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Chandro Bhowmik

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diurnal variation of the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol by estimating the urinary free paracetamol level after single oral administration of paracetamol (500 mg tablet to 24 healthy male volunteers (students of a Medical College. The volunteers were given paracetamol tablet at 0800, 1400 and 2000 hours in three different days (two weeks apart and the urine samples of the volunteers were collected at just before and four hours after paracetamol administration. The samples were analyzed for free paracetamol using HPLC. The mean age was 21.1 ± 1.3 years and the body weight was 63.9 ± 10.9 kg. Three peaks were detected in the HPLC and one of them was identified for free paracetamol (RT= 4.7 min. The urine volume was nearly similar in all three times. After administration at 0800 hour, total free paracetamol excretion was significantly more than at 1400 and 2000 hours (p<0.001. The present study indicates that the dose reduction of paracetamol is required at morning than the afternoon or evening dose. 

  8. Autoprotection in acetaminophen intoxication in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalhoff, K; Laursen, H; Bangert, K

    2001-01-01

    and liver tissue were collected before and 12, 24, 36, and 48 hr after the toxic dose and were analysed for hepatic glutathione and cysteine contents, hepatic glutathione-S-transferase and blood alanine aminotransferase activity, as well as acetaminophen concentration in plasma. Steady-state mRNA levels......Autoprotection by acetaminophen, i.e. increased resistance to toxic effects caused by pretreatment, is a well-known phenomenon. The purpose of the present work was to identify mechanisms for increased acetaminophen tolerance induced by pretreatment of rats. One group of female Wistar rats...... (pretreated rats) received acetaminophen orally in increasing doses (1 to 4.3 g/kg) twice a week for 3 weeks, one group (naïve rats) received the vehicle. At time zero pretreated rats received a toxic dose of 7.5 g/kg (100% lethal in naïve rats), and naïve rats received a toxic dose of 4.3 g/kg. Blood...

  9. Oral paracetamol versus oral ibuprofen for closure of haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus in preterm neonates (<32 weeks): a blinded, randomised, active-controlled, non-inferiority trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Sundaram, Venkataseshan; Yadav, Rahul; Oleti, Tejo Pratap; Murki, Srinivas; Krishna, Arun; Sundaram, Mangalabharathi; Saini, Shiv Sajan; Dutta, Sourabh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) is a common cause of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. Existing medical therapies with ibuprofen or indomethacin have multiple adverse effects. Hence, an alternative drug like paracetamol given through oral route with less side effects need to be tested in an appropriate study design with least risk of bias to arrive at a conclusion. Methods and analysis Multisite, randomised, active-controlled, non-inferiority design. The primary objective is to study the efficacy of oral paracetamol for closure of hsPDA in comparison to oral ibuprofen in preterm neonates of Closure of PDA by the end of last dose of study drug or earlier would be the study endpoint. A sample size of 196 neonates would be enrolled with a non-inferiority margin of 15%. Both intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis will be done to assess the effect of contamination and protocol violations in the primary outcome. Ethics and dissemination The trial would follow international code of ethics for clinical trial. The trial protocol was approved by the Institute Ethics Committee of all three centres. All serious adverse events would be reported in detail to the Institute Ethics Committee. A written informed consent would be obtained from one of the parents. No plan has been made for dissemination. Trial registration number CTRI/2014/08/004805. PMID:29637155

  10. Formulation and Characterization of Acetaminophen Nanoparticles in Orally Disintegrating Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    AI-Nemrawi, Nusaiba K.

    The purpose of this study is to prepare acetaminophen loaded nanoparticles to be cast directly, while still in the emulsion form, into Orally Disintegrating Films (ODF). By casting the nanoparticles in the films, we expected to keep the particles in a stable form where the nanoparticles would be away from each other to prevent their aggregation. Once the films are applied on the buccal mucosa, they are supposed to dissolve within seconds, releasing the nanoparticles. Then the nanoparticles could be directly absorbed through the mucosa to the blood stream and deliver acetaminophen there. The oral cavity mucosa is one of the most attractive sites for systemic drug delivery due to its high permeability and blood supply. Furthermore, it is robust and shows short recovery times after stress or damage, and the drug bypasses first pass effect and avoids presystemic elimination in the GI tract. Nanoencapsulation increases drug efficacy, specificity, tolerability and therapeutic index. These Nanocapsules have several advantages in the protection of premature degradation and interaction with the biological environment, enhancement of absorption into a selected tissue, bioavailability, retention time and improvement of intracellular penetration. The most important characteristics of nanoparticles are their size, encapsulation efficiency (EE), zeta potential (surface charge), and the drug release profiles. Unfortunately, nanoparticles tend to precipitate or aggregate into larger particles within a short time after preparation or during storage. Some solutions for this problem were mentioned in literature including lyophilization and spray drying. These methods are usually expensive and give partial solutions that might have secondary problems; such as low re-dispersion efficacy of the lyophilized NPs. Furthermore, most of the formulations of NPs are invasive or topical. Few formulas are available to be given orally. Fast disintegrating films (ODFs) are rapidly gaining interest

  11. The effect of regular medication on the outcome of paracetamol poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L E; Dalhoff, K

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients admitted with paracetamol overdose frequently receive one or more types of regular medication that may affect the outcome of the paracetamol intoxication. AIM: To describe the use of regular medication in patients with paracetamol poisoning and to evaluate its effects...... on morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Seven hundred and thirty-seven consecutive patients admitted with paracetamol poisoning were studied and the use of regular medication was recorded. The relative risk of hepatic encephalopathy, death or liver transplantation, severe hepatic dysfunction and severe...... hepatocellular injury was evaluated by multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Regular medication was received by 332 patients (45%). Medication with benzodiazepines (105 cases), antidepressants (100 cases), neuroleptics (75 cases), paracetamol (58 cases), oral contraceptives (51 cases), beta-agonists (40 cases), opioid...

  12. Photocatalytic degradation of paracetamol on TiO2 nanoparticles and TiO2/cellulosic fiber under UV and sunlight irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Jallouli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, photocatalytic degradation of acetaminophen ((N-(4-hydroxyphe-nylacetamide, an analgesic drug has been investigated in a batch reactor using TiO2 P25 as a photocatalyst in slurry and under UV light. Using TiO2 P25 nanoparticles, much faster photodegradation of paracetamol and effective mineralization occurred, more than 90% of 2.65 × 10−4 M paracetamol was degraded under UV irradiation. Changes in pH values affected the adsorption and the photodegradation of paracetamol. pH 9.0 is found to be the optimum for the photodegradation of paracetamol. HPLC detected hydroquinone, benzoquinone, p-nitrophenol, and 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene during the TiO2-assisted photodegradation of paracetamol among which some pathway products are disclosed for the first time. The results showed that TiO2 suspension/UV system is more efficient than the TiO2/cellulosic fiber mode combined to solar light for the photocatalytic degradation of paracetamol. Nerveless the immobilization of TiO2 showed many advantages over slurry system because it can enhance adsorption properties while allowing easy separation of the photocatalyst from the treated solution with improved reusable performance.

  13. Oral paracetamol and/or ibuprofen for treating pain after soft tissue injuries: Single centre double-blind, randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin K C Hung

    Full Text Available Soft tissue injuries commonly present to the emergency department (ED, often with acute pain. They cause significant suffering and morbidity if not adequately treated. Paracetamol and ibuprofen are commonly used analgesics, but it remains unknown if either one or the combination of both is superior for pain control.To investigate the analgesic effect of paracetamol, ibuprofen and the combination of both in the treatment of soft tissue injury in an ED, and the side effect profile of these drugs.Double-blind, double dummy, placebo-controlled randomised controlled trial. 782 adult patients presenting with soft tissue injury without obvious fractures attending the ED of a university hospital in the New Territories of Hong Kong were recruited. Patients were randomised using a random number table into three parallel arms of paracetamol only, ibuprofen only and a combination of paracetamol and ibuprofen in a 1:1:1 ratio. The primary outcome measure was pain score at rest and on activity in the first 2 hours and first 3 days. Data was analysed on an intention to treat basis.There was no statistically significant difference in pain score in the initial two hours between the three groups, and no clinically significant difference in pain score in the first three days.There was no difference in analgesic effects or side effects observed using oral paracetamol, ibuprofen or a combination of both in patients with mild to moderate pain after soft tissue injuries attending the ED.The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (no. NCT00528658.

  14. Oral paracetamol and/or ibuprofen for treating pain after soft tissue injuries: Single centre double-blind, randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Kevin K C; Graham, Colin A; Lo, Ronson S L; Leung, Yuk Ki; Leung, Ling Yan; Man, S Y; Woo, W K; Cattermole, Giles N; Rainer, Timothy H

    2018-01-01

    Soft tissue injuries commonly present to the emergency department (ED), often with acute pain. They cause significant suffering and morbidity if not adequately treated. Paracetamol and ibuprofen are commonly used analgesics, but it remains unknown if either one or the combination of both is superior for pain control. To investigate the analgesic effect of paracetamol, ibuprofen and the combination of both in the treatment of soft tissue injury in an ED, and the side effect profile of these drugs. Double-blind, double dummy, placebo-controlled randomised controlled trial. 782 adult patients presenting with soft tissue injury without obvious fractures attending the ED of a university hospital in the New Territories of Hong Kong were recruited. Patients were randomised using a random number table into three parallel arms of paracetamol only, ibuprofen only and a combination of paracetamol and ibuprofen in a 1:1:1 ratio. The primary outcome measure was pain score at rest and on activity in the first 2 hours and first 3 days. Data was analysed on an intention to treat basis. There was no statistically significant difference in pain score in the initial two hours between the three groups, and no clinically significant difference in pain score in the first three days. There was no difference in analgesic effects or side effects observed using oral paracetamol, ibuprofen or a combination of both in patients with mild to moderate pain after soft tissue injuries attending the ED. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (no. NCT00528658).

  15. Oral fixed drug combination analgesic tramadol/paracetamol: Benefits for patients and budgets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.C. Nuijten (Mark); B.P. Nautrup (Barbara Poulsen); H. Liedgens (Hiltrud)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAlthough pain can present in many different ways, acute, subacute and chronic pain are frequently used and helpful categories that cover a wide range of pain phenomena. This paper reviews five cost-minimization studies of tramadol/paracetamol compared with codeine/paracetamol,

  16. Clinical Pharmacology of Paracetamol in Neonates: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Pacifici, MD, PhD

    2015-12-01

    Paracetamol clearance is lower in neonates than in children and adults. After metabolic conversion, paracetamol is subsequently eliminated by the renal route. The main metabolic conversions are conjugation with glucuronic acid and with sulphate. In the urine of neonates sulphated paracetamol concentration is higher than the glucuronidated paracetamol level, suggesting that sulfation prevails over glucuronidation in neonates. A loading dose of 20 mg/kg followed by 10 mg/kg every 6 hours of intravenous paracetamol is suggested to achieve a compartment concentration of 11 mg/L in late preterm and term neonates. Aiming for the same target concentration, oral doses are similar with rectal administration of 25 to 30 mg/kg/d in preterm neonates of 30 weeks’ gestation, 45 mg/kg/d in preterm infants of 34 weeks’ gestation, and 60 mg/kg/d in term neonates are suggested. The above-mentioned paracetamol doses for these indications (pain, fever are well tolerated in neonates, but do not result in a significant increase in liver enzymes, and do not affect blood pressure and have limited effects on heart rate. In contrast, the higher doses suggested in extreme preterm neonates to induce closure of the patent ductus arteriosus have not yet been sufficiently evaluated regarding efficacy or safety. Moreover, focussed pharmacovigilance to explore the potential causal association between paracetamol exposure during perinatal life and infancy and subsequent atopy is warranted.

  17. Randomized, controlled, multicentre clinical trial of the antipyretic effect of intravenous paracetamol in patients admitted to hospital with infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaganos, Thomas; Tseti, Ioulia K; Tziolos, Nikolaos; Soumelas, Georgios-Stefanos; Koupetori, Marina; Pyrpasopoulou, Athina; Akinosoglou, Karolina; Gogos, Charalambos; Tsokos, Nikolaos; Karagiannis, Asterios; Sympardi, Styliani; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J

    2017-04-01

    No randomized study has been conducted to investigate the use of intravenous paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) for the management of fever due to infection. The present study evaluated a new ready-made infusion of paracetamol. Eighty patients with a body temperature onset ≥38.5°C in the previous 24 h due to infection were randomized to a single administration of placebo (n = 39) or 1 g paracetamol (n = 41), and their temperature was recorded at standard intervals. Rescue medication with 1 g paracetamol was allowed. Serum samples were collected for the measurement of APAP and its metabolites. The primary endpoint was defervescence, defined as a core temperature ≤37.1°C. During the first 6 h, defervescence was achieved in 15 (38.5%) patients treated with placebo compared with 33 (80.5%) patients treated with paracetamol 1 g (P paracetamol 1 g was 3 h. Rescue medication was given to 15 (38.5%) and five (12.2%) patients allocated to placebo and paracetamol, respectively (P = 0.007); nine (60.0%) and two (40.0%) of these patients, respectively, experienced defervescence. No further antipyretic medication was needed for patients becoming afebrile with rescue medication. Serum glucuronide-APAP concentrations were significantly greater in the serum of patients who did not experience defervescence with paracetamol. The efficacy of paracetamol was not affected by serum creatinine. No drug-related adverse events were reported. The 1 g paracetamol formulation has a rapid and sustainable antipyretic effect on fever due to infection. Its efficacy is dependent on hepatic metabolism. © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Efficacy of paracetamol on patent ductus arteriosus closure may be dose dependent: evidence from human and murine studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khuffash, Afif; Jain, Amish; Corcoran, David; Shah, Prakesh S; Hooper, Christopher W; Brown, Naoko; Poole, Stanley D; Shelton, Elaine L; Milne, Ginger L; Reese, Jeff; McNamara, Patrick J

    2014-09-01

    We evaluated the clinical effectiveness of variable courses of paracetamol on patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure and examined its effect on the in vitro term and preterm murine ductus arteriosus (DA). Neonates received one of the following three paracetamol regimens: short course of oral paracetamol (SCOP), long course of oral paracetamol (LCOP), and intravenous paracetamol (IVP) for 2-6 d. Pressure myography was used to examine changes in vasomotor tone of the preterm and term mouse DA in response to paracetamol or indomethacin. Their effect on prostaglandin synthesis by DA explants was measured by mass spectroscopy. Twenty-one preterm infants were included. No changes in PDA hemodynamics were seen in SCOP infants (n = 5). The PDA became less significant and eventually closed in six LCOP infants (n = 7). PDA closure was achieved in eight IVP infants (n = 9). On pressure myograph, paracetamol induced a concentration-dependent constriction of the term mouse DA, up to 30% of baseline (P 1 µmol/l. Indomethacin induced greater DA constriction and suppression of prostaglandin synthesis (P closure may depend on the duration of treatment and the mode of administration. Paracetamol is less potent than indomethacin for constriction of the mouse DA in vitro.

  19. Population Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) in Preterm and Term Neonates: Model Development and External Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Sarah F; Roberts, Jessica K; Samiee-Zafarghandy, Samira; Stockmann, Chris; King, Amber D; Deutsch, Nina; Williams, Elaine F; Allegaert, Karel; Wilkins, Diana G; Sherwin, Catherine M T; van den Anker, John N

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for intravenous paracetamol in preterm and term neonates and to assess the generalizability of the model by testing its predictive performance in an external dataset. Nonlinear mixed-effects models were constructed from paracetamol concentration-time data in NONMEM 7.2. Potential covariates included body weight, gestational age, postnatal age, postmenstrual age, sex, race, total bilirubin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. An external dataset was used to test the predictive performance of the model through calculation of bias, precision, and normalized prediction distribution errors. The model-building dataset included 260 observations from 35 neonates with a mean gestational age of 33.6 weeks [standard deviation (SD) 6.6]. Data were well-described by a one-compartment model with first-order elimination. Weight predicted paracetamol clearance and volume of distribution, which were estimated as 0.348 L/h (5.5 % relative standard error; 30.8 % coefficient of variation) and 2.46 L (3.5 % relative standard error; 14.3 % coefficient of variation), respectively, at the mean subject weight of 2.30 kg. An external evaluation was performed on an independent dataset that included 436 observations from 60 neonates with a mean gestational age of 35.6 weeks (SD 4.3). The median prediction error was 10.1 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 6.1-14.3] and the median absolute prediction error was 25.3 % (95 % CI 23.1-28.1). Weight predicted intravenous paracetamol pharmacokinetics in neonates ranging from extreme preterm to full-term gestational status. External evaluation suggested that these findings should be generalizable to other similar patient populations.

  20. First evidence of the conversion of paracetamol to AM404 in human cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma CV

    2017-11-01

    paracetamol’s mechanism of action, although measured concentrations were far below the previously documented IC50 for this metabolite. Keywords: acetaminophen, paracetamol, paracetamol: mechanism of action, AM404, N-­arachidonoylphenolamine, pharmacology - theories of analgesic action

  1. Acetaminophen and acetone sensing capabilities of nickel ferrite nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Shrabani; Kumari, Manisha; Madhuri, Rashmi; Sharma, Prashant K.

    2017-07-01

    Present work elucidates the gas sensing and electrochemical sensing capabilities of sol-gel-derived nickel ferrite (NF) nanostructures based on the electrical and electrochemical properties. In current work, the choices of target species (acetone and acetaminophen) are strictly governed by their practical utility and concerning the safety measures. Acetone, the target analyte for gas sensing measurement is a common chemical used in varieties of application as well as provides an indirect way to monitor diabetes. The gas sensing experiments were performed within a homemade sensing chamber designed by our group. Acetone gas sensor (NF pellet sensor) response was monitored by tracking the change in resistance both in the presence and absence of acetone. At optimum operating temperature 300 °C, NF pellet sensor exhibits selective response for acetone in the presence of other common interfering gases like ethanol, benzene, and toluene. The electrochemical sensor fabricated to determine acetaminophen is prepared by coating NF onto the surface of pre-treated/cleaned pencil graphite electrode (NF-PGE). The common name of target analyte acetaminophen is paracetamol (PC), which is widespread worldwide as a well-known pain killer. Overdose of PC can cause renal failure even fatal diseases in children and demand accurate monitoring. Under optimal conditions NF-PGE shows a detection limit as low as 0.106 μM with selective detection ability towards acetaminophen in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA), which co-exists in our body. Use of cheap and abundant PGE instead of other electrodes (gold/Pt/glassy carbon electrode) can effectively reduce the cost barrier of such sensors. The obtained results elucidate an ample appeal of NF-sensors in real analytical applications viz. in environmental monitoring, pharmaceutical industry, drug detection, and health monitoring.

  2. Interaction of paracetamol in chronic alcoholic patients. Importance for odontologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Guardia, Javier; Cutando, Antonio

    2008-04-01

    For social, cultural and historical motives alcohol (ethanol or isopenthanol) is considered to be just a beverage rather than a liquor. However, from a pharmatherapeutic point of view alcohol is a depressor of the central nervous system. The effects of alcohol consumption can range from raised loquacity to drunkenness, loss of consciousness and death as a result of insufficient respiration. Probably the most frequent pharmacological interaction is the combination of alcohol with other depressors of the central nervous system which increases the depression even further. Some medicaments which more frequently produce an interaction are antihistamines, analgesics, antidepressants and medicaments for coughs, common cold and influenza. Paracetamol or acetaminophen is an analgesic medicament similar to acetylsalicylic acid lacking anticoagulatory properties and gastric irritation. However, its major drawback is hepatic toxicity as a result of a toxic metabolite produced in the liver by cytochrome P-450, principally cytochrome CYP2E1, which is detoxified under normal conditions by hepatic glutathione. Ethanol is also detoxified by CYP2E1, which is an inducer of ethanol such that chronic ingestion increases the level of this enzyme. When the ingestion of alcohol is stopped, CYP2E1 is greatly increased and only metabolises the paracetamol giving rise to high quantities of hepatotoxic metabolites so that the hepatic glutathione is unable to detoxify resulting in irreversible hepatic damage. Therefore for odontologists it is important that in chronic alcoholic patients the consumption of alcohol should not be suspended on prescribing paracetamol.

  3. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF MORINGA PEREGRINA LEAVES EXTRACT ON ACETAMINOPHEN -INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Samy Abdelfatah Abdel; Abdelrahem, Mohamed Taha; Said, Mostafa Mohamed; Khattab, Alshaimaa

    2017-01-01

    Acetaminophen is a common antipyretic drug but at overdose can cause severe hepatotoxicity that may further develop into liver failure and hepatic centrilobular necrosis in experimental animals and humans. This study was undertaken to assess the ameliorative role of Moringa peregrina leaves extract against acetaminophen toxicity in rats. Induction of hepatotoxicity was done by chronic oral administration of acetaminophen (750 mg/kg bwt) for 4 weeks. To study the possible hepatoprotective effect, Moringa peregrina leaves extract (200 mg/kg bwt) or Silymarin (50 mg/kg bwt) was administered orally, for 4 weeks, along with acetaminophen. acetaminophen significantly increased serum liver enzymes and caused oxidative stress, evidenced by significantly increased tissue malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, hepatic DNA fragmentation, and significant decrease of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes in liver, blood and brain. On the other hand, administration of Moringa peregrina leaves extract reversed acetaminophen-related toxic effects through: powerful malondialdehyde suppression, glutathione peroxidase normalization and stimulation of the cellular antioxidants synthesis represented by significant increase of glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase in liver, blood and brain, besides, DNA fragmentation was significantly decreased in the liver tissue. acetaminophen induced oxidative damage can be improved by Moringa peregrina leaves extract-treatment, due to its antioxidant potential.

  4. Paracetamol use (and/or misuse in children in Enugu, South-East, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obu Herbert A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paracetamol (also known as acetaminophen is the commonest available analgesic and anti-pyretic. It is readily accessed from pharmacy, patent medicine and provision shops as over the counter drug making it a potential drug of abuse, especially in children. We sought to find its use and/or misuse in children seen at the paediatric outpatient clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu. Objective To determine the dosage, formulation, and frequency of paracetamol administration to children by caregivers and factors associated with its use and/or misuse. Method An observational prospective study involving 231 children and their caregivers seen at the paediatric outpatient clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku - Ozalla, Enugu between June and November 2011 was undertaken. Data on paracetamol use before presentation to the clinic, in addition to demographic and other data were obtained from the caregivers using a structured questionnaire. Ethical consent for the study was obtained from the Hospital Ethics and Research Committee and informed consent was further obtained from the caregivers of the children. Results A total of 231 children aged six weeks to 16 years and their caregivers participated in this study. The mean ages of the children and their caregivers were 3.8 and 33.9 years, respectively. One hundred and thirty three of the children studied were males while 98 were females. Most of the children (75.6% received paracetamol at home before presenting. Paracetamol tablet alone or in combination with the syrup was mostly used (60% and this observation was made across all age groups. The commonest reason for using paracetamol tablet instead of the syrup was that it was more effective. Most caregivers relied on past experience (71.2% rather than on enclosed information leaflet to decide the appropriate dosage. Half of the children also received other medications

  5. Intravenous paracetamol versus dexketoprofen in acute migraine attack in the emergency department: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkcuer, Ibrahim; Serinken, Mustafa; Eken, Cenker; Yilmaz, Atakan; Akdag, Ömer; Uyan, Emrah; Kiray, Cihan; Elicabuk, Hayri

    2014-03-01

    Migraine is a common form of headache that is a major burden for patients who often seek emergency care. The goal of this study was to compare the effectiveness of intravenous non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication (dexketoprofen) with paracetamol (acetaminophen) in the treatment of an acute migraine attack. This prospective, randomised, double blind, controlled study was conducted in a tertiary care emergency unit. Study patients were randomised into two groups to receive either 50 mg of dexketoprofen trometamol or 1000 mg of paracetamol intravenously by rapid infusion in 150 mL of normal saline. Pain reduction was measured at baseline, and after 15 and 30 min, using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)) as the primary outcome. VAS is a measurement tool ranging from 0 (no pain) to 100 mm (worst pain). 200 patients were included in the final analysis. Mean (SD) age of the study subjects was 30.1 ± 11 years and 81% (n=162) were women. Median reduction in VAS score at 30 min was 56 (IQR 30-78.5) for the paracetamol group and 55 (IQR 34-75) for the dexketoprofen group, with a difference of 1 mm (95% CI -7 to 10) between the two groups. Intravenous paracetamol and dexketoprofen appear to produce equivalent pain relief for migraine in the emergency department. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV NO: NCT01730326.

  6. Efficacy of Codeine When Added to Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) and Ibuprofen for Relief of Postoperative Pain After Surgical Removal of Impacted Third Molars: A Double-Blinded Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Adrian D; De Silva, R K; Thomson, W M; Tong, Darryl C; Cameron, Claire M; De Silva, Harsha L

    2017-10-01

    The use of opioids in combination with nonopioids is common practice for acute pain management after third molar surgery. One such combination is paracetamol, ibuprofen, and codeine. The authors assessed the efficacy of codeine when added to a regimen of paracetamol and ibuprofen for pain relief after third molar surgery. This study was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial conducted in patients undergoing the surgical removal of at least 1 impacted mandibular third molar requiring bone removal. Participants were randomly allocated to a control group (paracetamol 1,000 mg and ibuprofen 400 mg) or an intervention group (paracetamol 1,000 mg, ibuprofen 400 mg, and codeine 60 mg). All participants were treated under intravenous sedation and using identical surgical conditions and technique. Postoperative pain was assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS) every 3 hours (while awake) for the first 48 hours after surgery. Pain was globally assessed using a questionnaire on day 3 after surgery. There were 131 participants (36% men; control group, n = 67; intervention group, n = 64). Baseline characteristics were similar for the 2 groups. Data were analyzed using a modified intention-to-treat analysis and, for this, a linear mixed model was used. The model showed that the baseline VAS score was associated with subsequent VAS scores and that, with each 3-hour period, the VAS score increased by an average of 0.08. The treatment effect was not statistically meaningful, indicating there was no difference in recorded pain levels between the 2 groups during the first 48 hours after mandibular third molar surgery. Similarly, the 2 groups did not differ in their global ratings of postoperative pain. Codeine 60 mg added to a regimen of paracetamol 1,000 mg and ibuprofen 400 mg does not improve analgesia after third molar surgery. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  7. Evaluation of hepatoprotective effect of methanolic extract of Clitoria ternatea (Linn. flower against acetaminophen-induced liver damage

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    Kuppan Nithianantham

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Clitoria ternatea (C. ternatea flower extract against acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity. Methods: The antioxidant property of C. ternatea flower extract was investigated by employing established in vitro antioxidant assay. The C. ternatea flower extract was studied in this work for its hepatoprotective effect against acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity in mice. Activity was measured by monitoring the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, billirubin and glutathione with histopathological analysis. Results: The amount of total phenolics and flavonoids were estimated to be 105.40依2.47 mg/g gallic acid equivalent and 72.21依0.05 mg/g catechin equivalent respectively. The antioxidant activity of C. ternatea flower extract was 68.9% at a concentration of 1 mg/mL and was also concentration dependant, with an IC 50 value of 327.00 µg/mL. The results of acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity experiment showed that mice treated with the extract (200 mg/kg showed a significant decrease in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and bilirubin levels, which were all elevated in the paracetamol group (P<0.05. Meanwhile, the level of glutathione was found to be restored in extract treated animals compared to the groups treated with acetaminophen alone (P<0.05. Therapy of extract also showed its protective effect on histopathological alterations and supported the biochemical finding. Conclusion: The present work confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of C. ternatea flower against model hepatotoxicant acetaminophen.

  8. Naproxen, paracetamol and pamabrom versus paracetamol, pyrilamine and pamabrom in primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial.

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    Ortiz, Mario I; Murguía-Cánovas, Gabriela; Vargas-López, Laura C; Silva, Rodolfo; González-de la Parra, Mario

    2016-10-24

    Dysmenorrhea is caused by the discharge of prostaglandins into the uterine tissue; therefore, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the established initial therapy for dysmenorrhea. Dysmenorrhea therapy may include the administration of drug monotherapy or combination therapy. However, clinical scientific evidence on the efficacy of medications with two or three drugs combined is scarce or nonexistent. To evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of two oral fixed-dose combinations for the relief of the symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea among Mexican women. One of the combinations is widely used in Mexico (paracetamol, pyrilamine and pamabrom) and the selected comparison was a medication with naproxen sodium, paracetamol and pamabrom based on the pathophysiology of primary dysmenorrhea. This was a single-centre, double blind, experimental, parallel group, randomized trial. Female patients with primary dysmenorrhea, older than 17 years and with pain intensity greater than 45 mm on a visual analogue scale, were included. The patients were then randomized to receive tablets with naproxen sodium, paracetamol and pamabrom or tablets with paracetamol, pyrilamine and pamabrom for one menstrual cycle. Patient evaluations of symptomatology and pain intensity were recorded throughout one menstrual period. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were utilized. An intention-to-treat population of 91 women, with a mean age of 21.3 ± 3.2 years, received paracetamol, pyrilamine and pamabrom tablets, and 98 participants, with a mean age of 21.0 ± 3.2 years, received naproxen sodium, paracetamol and pamabrom tablets. The participants’ assessments of pain on the Visual Analogue Scale during the menstrual cycle demonstrated a significant reduction in both treatment groups (p0.05). The results showed that both drug combinations were not different in reducing dysmenorrheic pain. Likewise, both treatments were well tolerated. Therefore, both treatments may be

  9. Sleep Disruption and Proprioceptive Delirium due to Acetaminophen in a Pediatric Patient

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    Carla Carnovale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 7-year-old boy, who received acetaminophen for the treatment of hyperpyrexia, due to an infection of the superior airways. 13 mg/kg (260 mg of acetaminophen was administered orally before bedtime, and together with the expected antipyretic effect, the boy experienced sleep disruption and proprioceptive delirium. The symptoms disappeared within one hour. In the following six months, acetaminophen was administered again twice, and the reaction reappeared with similar features. Potential alternative explanations were excluded, and analysis with the Naranjo algorithm indicated a “probable” relationship between acetaminophen and this adverse reaction. We discuss the potential mechanisms involved, comprising imbalances in prostaglandin levels, alterations of dopamine, and cannabinoid and serotonin signalings.

  10. [Poisonings with paracetamol, salicylates and dextromethorphan – problem evaluation based on data from Toxicological Laboratory and Poison Information Center in Krakow in 2010-2015].

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    Gomółka, Ewa; Hydzik, Piotr; Szkolnicka, Beata

    The aim of the paper was to study frequency of laboratory determinations and toxicological information related to over-the-counter drugs (OTC): paracetamol (acetaminophen), salicylates and dextromethorphan. The research was based on data from Toxicological Laboratory and Poison Information Center UJ CM in Krakow in years 2010-2015. Paracetamol was determined averagely 102 times a year, more than 50% (57 cases) were positive with confirmation of poisoning. The least number of paracetamol poisoning was noted in 2011 (35 cases), the most were in 2015 (98 cases). In the time span there were averagely 40 salicylates check measurements a year, less than 50% (15 cases) were positive. Dextromethorphane was confirmed averagely in 31 patients a year, decrease of the drug intoxications was noted in 2013-2015. Paracetamol and dextromethorphan were the most often the cause of poisoning in group of patients 13-18 years old, salicylates – more than 30 years. In the group of small children there were only a few poisonings with paracetamol. Toxicological information data related to paracetamol, salicylates and dextromethorphan were similar to data from toxicological laboratory. Mean year numbers of drug poisoning information were: 90 (paracetamol), 14 (salicylates), 30 (dextromethorphan). The differences were in patients age distribution. Acute poisonings with OTC were related mainly to paracetamol, young patients (13- 18 years) and young adults (19-29 years). Salicylates poisoning information were related mainly to the group of adult patients (> 30 years), dextromethorphan was abused mainly by oung patients (13-18 years). There were no observed poisonings with salicylates and dextromethorphan in children, but there were toxicological information about paracetamol and salicylates poisoning and overdose in group of children (1-6 years).

  11. [Efficacy of tramadol/acetaminophen medication for central post-stroke pain].

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    Tanei, Takafumi; Kajita, Yasukazu; Noda, Hiroshi; Takebayashi, Shigenori; Hirano, Masaki; Nakahara, Norimoto; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2013-08-01

    Central post-stroke pain(CPSP)is the most difficult type of central neuropathic pain to control with medical treatment. Opioids are commonly used for chronic neuropathic pain, but their efficacy in treating central neuropathic pain, particularly CPSP, is not clear. Tramadol is an opioid analgesic that, in combination with acetaminophen, has been approved since 2011 for the treatment of non-cancer pain in Japan. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of tramadol/acetaminophen medication for CPSP. We retrospectively reviewed nine cases of CPSP that received oral tramadol/acetaminophen medication. All cases received tramadol/acetaminophen medication after first taking pregabalin then antidepressant medication. Pain levels were assessed before tramadol/acetaminophen medication began and one month after a maintenance dose was reached, using a visual analogue scale(VAS)and the McGill pain questionnaire(MPQ). The mean dose of tramadol was 121±61.6 mg/day. Tramadol/acetaminophen medication was effective in reducing pain in seven of nine cases(77.8%). The VAS improved 32.9±13.8% from pre-to post-medication, and the MPQ improved from 15.4±9.1 pre-medication to 8.1±4.7 post-medication(ppain levels in patients with CPSP, and is a medication option for the treatment of CPSP.

  12. STAT3, a Key Parameter of Cytokine-driven Tissue Protection During Sterile Inflammation – the Case of Experimental Acetaminophen (Paracetamol-induced Liver Damage

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    Heiko eMühl

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen (APAP, N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, or paracetamol overdosing is a prevalent cause of acute liver injury. While clinical disease is initiated by overt parenchymal hepatocyte necrosis in response to the analgetic, course of intoxication is substantially influenced by associated activation of innate immunity. This process is supposed to be set in motion by release of danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs from dying hepatocytes and is accompanied by an inflammatory cytokine response. Murine models of APAP-induced liver injury emphasize the complex role that DAMPs and cytokines play in promoting either hepatic pathogenesis or resolution and recovery from intoxication. Whereas the function of key inflammatory cytokines is controversially discussed, a subclass of specific cytokines capable of efficiently activating the hepatocyte signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT-3 pathway stands out as being consistently protective in murine models of APAP intoxication. Those include foremost interleukin (IL-6, IL-11, IL-13, and IL-22. Above all, activation of STAT3 under the influence of these cytokines has the capability to drive hepatocyte compensatory proliferation, a key principle of the regenerating liver. Herein, the role of these specific cytokines during experimental APAP-induced liver injury is highlighted and discussed in a broader perspective. In hard-to-treat or at-risk patients standard therapy may fail and APAP intoxication can proceed towards a fatal condition. Focused administration of recombinant STAT3-activating cytokines may evolve as novel therapeutic approach under those ill-fated conditions.

  13. Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction between erlotinib and paracetamol: A potential risk for clinical practice.

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    Karbownik, Agnieszka; Szałek, Edyta; Sobańska, Katarzyna; Grabowski, Tomasz; Wolc, Anna; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2017-05-01

    Erlotinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor available for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Paracetamol is an analgesic agent, commonly used in cancer patients. Because these drugs are often co-administered, there is an increasing issue of interaction between them. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of paracetamol on the pharmacokinetic parameters of erlotinib, as well as the influence of erlotinib on the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol. The rabbits were divided into three groups: the rabbits receiving erlotinib (I ER ), the group receiving paracetamol (II PR ), and the rabbits receiving erlotinib+paracetamol (III ER+PR ). A single dose of erlotinib was administered orally (25mg) and was administered intravenously (35mg/kg). Plasma concentrations of erlotinib, its metabolite (OSI420), paracetamol and its metabolites - glucuronide and sulphate were measured with the validated method. During paracetamol co-administration we observed increased erlotinib maximum concentration (C max ) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC 0-∞ ) by 87.7% and 31.1%, respectively. In turn, erlotinib lead to decreased paracetamol AUC 0-∞ by 35.5% and C max by 18.9%. The mean values of paracetamol glucuronide/paracetamol ratios for C max were 32.2% higher, whereas paracetamol sulphate/paracetamol ratios for C max and AUC 0-∞ were 37.1% and 57.1% lower in the II PR group, when compared to the III ER+PR group. Paracetamol had significant effect on the enhanced plasma exposure of erlotinib. Additionally, erlotinib contributed to the lower concentrations of paracetamol. Decreased glucuronidation and increased sulphation of paracetamol after co-administration of erlotinib were also observed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in mice: Effect of age, frailty and exposure type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Alice E.; Mitchell, Sarah J.; Mach, John; Huizer-Pajkos, Aniko; McKenzie, Catriona; Jones, Brett; Cogger, Victoria; Le Couteur, David G.; de Cabo, Rafael; Hilmer, Sarah N.

    2018-01-01

    Acetaminophen is a commonly used analgesic that can cause severe hepatotoxicity in overdose. Despite old age and frailty being associated with extensive and long-term utilization of acetaminophen and a high prevalence of adverse drug reactions, there is limited information on the risks of toxicity from acetaminophen in old age and frailty. This study aimed to assess changes in the risk and mechanisms of hepatotoxicity from acute, chronic and sub-acute acetaminophen exposure with old age and frailty in mice. Young and old male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to either acute (300 mg/kg via oral gavage), chronic (100 mg/kg/day in diet for six weeks) or sub-acute (250 mg/kg, t.i.d., for three days) acetaminophen, or saline control. Pre-dosing mice were scored for the mouse clinical frailty index, and after dosing serum and liver tissue were collected for assessment of toxicity and mechanisms. There were no differences with old age or frailty in the degree of hepatotoxicity induced by acute, chronic or subacute acetaminophen exposure as assessed by serum liver enzymes and histology. Age-related changes in the acetaminophen toxicity pathways included increased liver GSH concentrations, increased NQO1 activity and an increased pro- and anti-inflammatory response to acetaminophen in old age. Frailty-related changes included a negative correlation between frailty index and serum protein, albumin and ALP concentrations for some mouse groups. In conclusion, although there were changes in some pathways that would be expected to influence susceptibility to acetaminophen toxicity, there was no overall increase in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity with old age or frailty in mice. PMID:26615879

  15. Acetaminophen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apra® ... Acetaminophen is used to relieve mild to moderate pain from headaches, muscle aches, menstrual periods, colds and ... reactions to vaccinations (shots), and to reduce fever. Acetaminophen may also be used to relieve the pain ...

  16. Determinação espectrofotométrica por injeção em fluxo de paracetamol (acetaminofeno em formulações farmacêuticas

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    Aniceto Clezio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A flow injection spectrophotometric procedure is proposed for the determination of paracetamol (acetaminophen in pharmaceutical formulations. Powdered and liquid samples were previously dissolved/diluted in 0.05 mol L-1 hydrochloric acid solution and a volume of 250 µL was injected directly into a carrier stream of this same acid solution, flowing at 2.5 mL min-1. Paracetamol reacts with sodium hypochlorite forming N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine which then reacts with sodium salicylate in sodium hydroxide solution yielding a blue indophenol dye which was measured at 640 nm in the pH range of 9.5-10.0. Paracetamol was determined in pharmaceutical products in the 1.0 to 100.0 mg L-1 (3.3x10-6 a 6.6x10-4 mol L-1 concentration range, with a detection limit of 0.5 mg L-1 (1.6x10-6 mol L-1. The recovery of this analyte in five samples ranged from 98.0 to 103.6 %. The analytical frequency was 80 determinations per hour and the RSDs were less than 1% for paracetamol concentrations of 25.0, 50.0 and 75.0 mg L-1 (n=10. A paired t-test showed that all results obtained for paracetamol in commercial formulations using the proposed flow injection procedure and a spectrophotometric batch procedure agree at the 95% confidence level.

  17. Staggered overdose pattern and delay to hospital presentation are associated with adverse outcomes following paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Darren G N; Bates, Caroline M; Davidson, Janice S; Martin, Kirsty G; Hayes, Peter C; Simpson, Kenneth J

    2012-01-01

    AIMS Paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning remains the major cause of severe acute hepatotoxicity in the UK. In this large single centre cohort study we examined the clinical impact of staggered overdoses and delayed presentation following paracetamol overdose. RESULTS Between 1992 and 2008, 663 patients were admitted with paracetamol-induced severe liver injury, of whom 161 (24.3%) had taken a staggered overdose. Staggered overdose patients were significantly older and more likely to abuse alcohol than single time point overdose patients. Relief of pain (58.2%) was the commonest rationale for repeated supratherapeutic ingestion. Despite lower total ingested paracetamol doses and lower admission serum alanine aminotransferase concentrations, staggered overdose patients were more likely to be encephalopathic on admission, require renal replacement therapy or mechanical ventilation and had higher mortality rates compared with single time point overdoses (37.3% vs. 27.8%, P = 0.025), although this overdose pattern did not independently predict death. The King's College poor prognostic criteria had reduced sensitivity (77.6, 95% CI 70.8, 81.5) for this pattern of overdose. Of the 396/450 (88.0%) single time point overdoses in whom accurate timings could be obtained, 178 (44.9%) presented to medical services >24 h following overdose. Delayed presentation beyond 24 h post overdose was independently associated with death/liver transplantation (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.23, 4.12, P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS Both delayed presentation and staggered overdose pattern are associated with adverse outcomes following paracetamol overdose. These patients are at increased risk of developing multi-organ failure and should be considered for early transfer to specialist liver centres. PMID:22106945

  18. A REVIEW ON THE ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES USED FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PARACETAMOL IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS AND BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Aisha Noreen; Kiran Qadeer; Zubair Anwar; Iqbal Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Paracetamol (PM) is an active metabolite of phenacetin and belongs to p-aminophenol derivatives. It is also termed as acetaminophen. PM is one of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) which is used as an analgesic and antipyretic agent. It is an OTC drug and is used as a common household analgesic. It is not used as a substitute of aspirin or any other NSAIDs. It is a weak cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 inhibitor but may inhibit COX-3 in the central nervous system. Many analytical ...

  19. "Nifedipine in the treatment of liver toxicity induced by Acetaminophen overdose in mice "

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    Kalantari H

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen is an analgesic and antipyretic drug, which is widely used by public and poisoning with this drug, is common. One of the most important adverse effects of acetaminophen poisoning is centrilobullar necrosis in hepatic cells, which depends on activity of microsomal cytochrome P-450 (CYP enzymes. The aim of this investigation was to find out the protective effect of nifedipine against liver toxicity caused by acetaminophen overdose (700 mg/kg as calcium channel blocker. In this study doses of 5, 50, 100, 250, 500 mg/kg of nifedipine were administered to mice orally one hour before acetaminophen administration. The negative control group receive normal saline. The positive control group was administered with acetaminophen at a dose of 700 mg/kg one hour after nifedipine administration. After 24 hours, enzyme activity (ALT, AST, histopathological examination and liver weight were compared with the control groups. The results revealed that nifedipine at dose of 500 mg/kg was the most effective and protected damage from acetaminophen toxicity.

  20. Efficacy and Safety of Transdermal Buprenorphine versus Oral Tramadol/Acetaminophen in Patients with Persistent Postoperative Pain after Spinal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Kim, Jin-Hyok; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Hak-Sun; Min, Woo-Kie; Park, Ye-Soo; Lee, Kyu-Yeol; Lee, Jung-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Control of persistent pain following spinal surgery is an unmet clinical need. This study compared the efficacy and safety of buprenorphine transdermal system (BTDS) to oral tramadol/acetaminophen (TA) in Korean patients with persistent, moderate pain following spinal surgery. Open-label, interventional, randomized multicenter study. Adults with persistent postoperative pain (Numeric Rating Scale [NRS] ≥ 4 at 14-90 days postsurgery) were enrolled. Patients received once-weekly BTDS ( n = 47; 5  μ g/h titrated to 20  μ g/h) or twice-daily TA ( n = 40; tramadol 37.5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg, one tablet titrated to 4 tablets) for 6 weeks. The study compared pain reduction with BTDS versus TA at week 6. Quality of life (QoL), treatment satisfaction, medication compliance, and adverse events (AEs) were assessed. At week 6, both groups reported significant pain reduction (mean NRS change: BTDS -2.02; TA -2.76, both P pain following spinal surgery, BTDS is an alternative to TA for reducing pain and supports medication compliance. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01983111.

  1. Acetaminophen Toxicosis in a Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Anvik, J. O.

    1984-01-01

    A seven month old domestic shorthaired male cat was presented with a known history of acetaminophen ingestion. Clinical findings included icterus, depression, hypothermia, tachypnea and pronounced edema of the head and neck. Treatment was aimed at providing substrate to assist in conjugation of the drug and reversing methemoglobinemia. Administration of oral acetylcysteine, ascorbic acid and IV fluids was insufficient in this case due to a delay in initiation of treatment. The salient postmor...

  2. Ibuprofen and/or paracetamol (acetaminophen) for pain relief after surgical removal of lower wisdom teeth, a Cochrane systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, E; Worthington, H; Coulthard, P

    2014-04-01

    This paper compares the beneficial and harmful effects of paracetamol, ibuprofen and the novel combination of both in a single tablet for pain relief following the surgical removal of lower wisdom teeth. In this systematic review only randomised controlled double-blinded clinical trials were included. We calculated the proportion of patients with at least 50% pain relief at 2 and 6 hours post dosing, along with the proportion of participants using rescue medication at 6 and 8 hours. Adverse events were also analysed. Data was meta-analysed where possible. Seven studies were included with a total of 2,241 participants enrolled. Ibuprofen 400 mg is superior to 1,000 mg paracetamol with a risk ratio for at least 50% pain relief at 6 hours of 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28 to 1.69). For the combined drug, the risk ratio for at least 50% maximum pain relief over 6 hours is 1.77 (95% CI 1.32 to 2.39) based on total pain relief (TOTPAR) data. There is high quality evidence that ibuprofen is superior to paracetamol. The novel combination drug shows encouraging results when compared to the single drugs (based on two trials).

  3. Control de la calidad y estudio de estabilidad del paracetamol gotas orales 100 mg/ml

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    Caridad M García Peña

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: las gotas orales de Paracetamol, están indicadas a la población infantil hasta los 5 años para el alivio de la fiebre, dolor de cabeza, dolores dentales y proporciona alivio sintomático del resfriado común. Objetivo: validar dos métodos analíticos, para el control de la calidad y el estudio de estabilidad y estudiar la estabilidad de las gotas orales de producción nacional. Métodos: para cuantificar el principio activo para el estudio de estabilidad, la separación se realizó a través de una columna cromatográfica Lichrosorb RP - 18 (5µm (250 x 4 mm, con detección ultravioleta a 243 nm, empleando una fase móvil compuesta por Agua destilada: Metanol (3:1. Mientras que el método para el control de la calidad se utilizó un Espectrofotómetro SPECTRONIC GENESYS 2.Para el estudio de estabilidad, se emplearon los métodos de vida de estante (a temperatura inferior a 30 º C y de estabilidad acelerada (40 ± 2ºC mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia. Resultados: los resultados obtenidos de los parámetros evaluados en las validaciones se encontraron dentro de los límites establecidos. Los resultados del estudio de estabilidad realizado, demuestran que el producto terminado cumplió con las especificaciones de calidad durante el estudio. Conclusiones: los métodos analíticos por espectrofotometría UV y cromatografía líquida de alta resolución, son válidos para el control de la calidad y estudio de estabilidad de las gotas orales de Paracetamol 100 mg/mL, ya que resultaron lineales, precisos, exactos y específicos. Se demostró la estabilidad física, química y microbiológica del producto por espacio de 12 meses a temperatura inferior a 30 ºC, envasados en frascos de vidrio ámbar por 15 mL, boca 18 mm, calidad hidrolítica III. Además se evidenció que el producto es estable durante 30 días después de abierto el frasco.

  4. Reversal of acetaminophen-generated oxidative stress and concomitant hepatotoxicity by a phytopharmaceutical product

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    Afolabi C. Akinmoladun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of herbal medicine and the well-established health benefits of phytochemicals have spurred the multiplicity of nutraceutical and phytopharmaceutical products. In this study, Trévo™, a nutraceutical and phytopharmaceutical product, was evaluated for beneficial effects in acetaminophen-induced hepatic toxicity in Wistar rats. Animals received Trévo™ (1.5 mL/kg, 3.0 mL/kg or 4.5 mL/kg orally for 14 days. Hepatotoxicity was induced by the oral administration of acetaminophen (2 g/kg, 24 h prior to sacrifice. Biochemical liver function tests, oxidative stress indicators and histoarchitectural changes were evaluated. Acetaminophen administration occasioned significant increase (P < 0.05 in serum bilirubin level and activities of the aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyltransferase and lactate dehydrogenase accompanied by a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in albumin level as well as histopathological alterations in liver sections. Promotion of hepatic oxidative stress by acetaminophen was revealed by significant (P < 0.05 increase in lipid peroxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione, and decrease in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Administration of Trévo™ remarkably ameliorated acetaminophen-induced histopathological alterations and changes in serum and tissue biochemical markers. The protective effect of Trévo™ (4.5 mL/kg was at par with that of Silymarin (25 mg/kg. The present study indicates that Trévo™ has notable salubrious effects.

  5. Tramadol/paracetamol fixed-dose combination in the treatment of moderate to severe pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Joseph V; van de Laar, Mart; Langford, Richard; Mellinghoff, Hans-Ulrich; Merchante, Ignacio Morón; Nalamachu, Srinivas; O’Brien, Joanne; Perrot, Serge; Raffa, Robert B

    2012-01-01

    Pain is the most common reason patients seek medical attention and pain relief has been put forward as an ethical obligation of clinicians and a fundamental human right. However, pain management is challenging because the pathophysiology of pain is complex and not completely understood. Widely used analgesics such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and paracetamol (acetaminophen) have been associated with adverse events. Adverse event rates are of concern, especially in long-term treatment or at high doses. Paracetamol and NSAIDs are available by prescription, over the counter, and in combination preparations. Patients may be unaware of the risk associated with high dosages or long-term use of paracetamol and NSAIDs. Clinicians should encourage patients to disclose all medications they take in a “do ask, do tell” approach that includes patient education about the risks and benefits of common pain relievers. The ideal pain reliever would have few risks and enhanced analgesic efficacy. Fixed-dose combination analgesics with two or more agents may offer additive or synergistic benefits to treat the multiple mechanisms of pain. Therefore, pain may be effectively treated while toxicity is reduced due to lower doses. One recent fixed-dose combination analgesic product combines tramadol, a centrally acting weak opioid analgesic, with low-dose paracetamol. Evidence-based guidelines recognize the potential value of combination analgesics in specific situations. The current guideline-based paradigm for pain treatment recommends NSAIDs for ongoing use with analgesics such as opioids to manage flares. However, the treatment model should evolve how to use low-dose combination products to manage pain with occasional use of NSAIDs for flares to avoid long-term and high-dose treatment with these analgesics. A next step in pain management guidelines should be targeted therapy when possible, or low-dose combination therapy or both, to achieve maximal efficacy with

  6. Effect of venous dexamethasone, oral caffeine and acetaminophen on relative frequency and intensity of postdural puncture headache after spinal anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudifar, Mehrdad; Aghadavoudi, Omid; Adib, Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is a relatively common complication after regional anesthesia, especially in younger people, bothersome to patients and needs prophylaxis to prevent this complication. This study was conducted aiming to determine the preventive effect of dexamethasone plus caffeine and acetaminophen on relative frequency and intensity of PDPH after spinal anesthesia. In a clinical trial study, 90 candidates for the lower extremities orthopedic elective operation were divided into two groups of 45 individuals each. Intervention group received the compound of 500 mg acetaminophen +65 mg oral caffeine +8 mg venous dexamethasone an hour before spinal blocking, and the control group received placebo tablets + a dexamethasone equivalent volume of venous normal saline. The level of postoperative headache at the time of entrance to recovery and discharge, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h postoperatively were measured based on Visual Analog Scale criterion in the two groups and then compared with each other. During the study, 24 patients in the control group and 17 patients in the intervention group were afflicted with headache; however, with no significant difference (P = 0.14). Total frequency of headache incidence was 35 times in the control group and 27 times in the intervention group (P = 0.32). Though the taking of acetaminophen + caffeine + dexamethasone is associated with a decrease in headache intensity and duration and decrease in PDPH incidence, compared with placebo, however, no essentially and statistically significant effect was produced.

  7. Acute pain management: acetaminophen and ibuprofen are often under-dosed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Gregorio P; Benini, Franca; Dell'Era, Laura; Silvagni, Davide; Podestà, Alberto F; Mancusi, Rossella Letizia; Fossali, Emilio F

    2017-07-01

    Most children with pain are managed by either acetaminophen or ibuprofen. However, no study has so far investigated if children are prescribed adequate doses of acetaminophen or ibuprofen in emergency department. Aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the prevalence of under-dosage of these drugs in children presenting with pain in emergency department. Children initially prescribed with acetaminophen or ibuprofen for pain management were included. The χ 2 automatic interaction detection method was used considering the percentage variation from the minimum of the appropriate dose as dependent variable while prescribed drug, age, gender, body weight, type of hospital (pediatric or general), and availability of internal guidelines on pediatric pain management in the emergency department as independent variables. Data on 1471 children managed for pain were available. Under-dosage was prescribed in 893 subjects (61%), of whom 577 were prescribed acetaminophen and 316 ibuprofen. The use of acetaminophen suppositories, body weight 40 kg, and the use of oral ibuprofen identified clusters of children associated with under-dosage prescription. Prescription of acetaminophen and ibuprofen was frequently under-dosed. The use of suppositories, lower and higher body weight, and the use of ibuprofen were associated with under-dosage. Under-dosing may reflect prescription of anti-pyretic doses. Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco-Observational Study Register (RSO). Registration code: PIERRE/1 What is Known: • Pain is frequent in children presented to emergency department. • International recommendations on pain management are often not implemented. What is New: • Acetaminophen and ibuprofen were frequently underdosed in children prescribed for pain in the Italian emergency departments. • Under-dosage may be related to the habit of using acetaminophen and ibuprofen in the recommended range for fever treatment.

  8. N-Acetyl Cysteine does not prevent liver toxicity from chronic low dose plus sub-acute high dose paracetamol exposure in young or old mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Alice-Elizabeth; Huizer-Pajkos, Aniko; Mach, John; McKenzie, Catriona; Mitchell, Sarah-Jayne; de Cabo, Rafael; Jones, Brett; Cogger, Victoria; Le Couteur, David G; Hilmer, Sarah-Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Paracetamol is an analgesic commonly used by people of all ages, which is well documented to cause severe hepatotoxicity with acute over-exposures. The risk of hepatotoxicity from non-acute paracetamol exposures is less extensively studied, and this is the exposure most common in older adults. Evidence on the effectiveness of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) for non-acute paracetamol exposures, in any age group, is lacking. This study aimed to examine the effect of long-term exposure to therapeutic doses of paracetamol and sub-acute paracetamol over-exposure, in young and old mice, and to investigate whether NAC was effective at preventing paracetamol hepatotoxicity induced by these exposures. Young and old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a paracetamol-containing (1.33g/kg food) or control diet for 6 weeks. Mice were then dosed orally 8 times over 3 days with additional paracetamol (250mg/kg) or saline, followed by either one or two doses of oral NAC (1200mg/kg) or saline. Chronic low-dose paracetamol exposure did not cause hepatotoxicity in young or old mice, measured by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation, and confirmed by histology and a DNA fragmentation assay. Sub-acute paracetamol exposure caused significant hepatotoxicity in young and old mice, measured by biochemistry (ALT) and histology. Neither a single nor double dose of NAC protected against this toxicity from sub-acute paracetamol in young or old mice. This finding has important clinical implications for treating toxicity due to different paracetamol exposure types in patients of all ages, and implies a need to develop new treatments for sub-acute paracetamol toxicity. PMID:26821200

  9. Comparison of Bile Acids and Acetaminophen Protein Adducts in Children and Adolescents with Acetaminophen Toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura James

    Full Text Available Metabolomics approaches have enabled the study of new mechanisms of liver injury in experimental models of drug toxicity. Disruption of bile acid homeostasis is a known mechanism of drug induced liver injury. The relationship of individual bile acids to indicators of oxidative drug metabolism (acetaminophen protein adducts and liver injury was examined in children with acetaminophen overdose, hospitalized children with low dose exposure to acetaminophen, and children with no recent exposure to acetaminophen. Nine bile acids were quantified through targeted metabolomic analysis in the serum samples of the three groups. Bile acids were compared to serum levels of acetaminophen protein adducts and alanine aminotransferase. Glycodeoxycholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, and glycochenodeoxycholic acid were significantly increased in children with acetaminophen overdose compared to healthy controls. Among patients with acetaminophen overdose, bile acids were higher in subjects with acetaminophen protein adduct values > 1.0 nmol/mL and modest correlations were noted for three bile acids and acetaminophen protein adducts as follows: taurodeoxycholic acid (R=0.604; p<0.001, glycodeoxycholic acid (R=0.581; p<0.001, and glycochenodeoxycholic acid (R=0.571; p<0.001. Variability in bile acids was greater among hospitalized children receiving low doses of acetaminophen than in healthy children with no recent acetaminophen exposure. Compared to bile acids, acetaminophen protein adducts more accurately discriminated among children with acetaminophen overdose, children with low dose exposure to acetaminophen, and healthy control subjects. In children with acetaminophen overdose, elevations of conjugated bile acids were associated with specific indicators of acetaminophen metabolism and non-specific indicators of liver injury.

  10. Nanosuspension of Phyllanthus amarus extract for improving oral bioavailability and prevention of paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in Sprague–Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Shanti Bhushan; Pandey, Himanshu; Pandey, Avinash C

    2013-01-01

    Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) is commonly used for traditional Indian medicine and as dietary adjuncts for the treatment of numerous physiological disorders including hepatic disorders. Due to the poor water solubility of its major constituents such as lignans and flavonoids, its absorption upon oral administration could be limited. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare the hepatoprotective effects of the ethanolic extract of P. amarus (PAE) and its nanoparticles (PAN) on paracetamol induced acute liver toxicity in Sprague–Dawley rats. An oral dose of PAE at 125 and 250 mg kg −1 and PAN at 25 and 50 mg kg −1 showed a significant hepatoprotective effect relatively to the same extent (P −1 PAN was effectively better than 125 mg kg −1 PAE (P < 0.001), and an oral dose of PAN that is five times less than PAE could exhibit similar levels of outcomes. In conclusion, we suggest that the nanoparticles system can be applied to overcome other poorly water soluble herbal medicines and furthermore to decrease the treatment dosage. (paper)

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF DOMESTIC INFUSION DRUGS BASED ON PARACETAMOL

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    Almakaeva L.G.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The intravenous form of paracetamol compared with oral more reliably supports effective drug concentration in blood plasma that promotes a higher therapeutic effect. Recent studies have confirmed that the use of the intravenous form of paracetamol to deal with postoperative pain multimodal analgesia modes results in reducing the frequency and quantity of opioids administered , and, as a consequence, its associated side effects. The drug Paracetamol , infusion solution 10 mg / ml to 100 ml glass bottles is a drug - generic . His qualitative and quantitative composition is developed from the study of literature data about the drug - similar to " Perfalhan , 10 mg / ml solution for infusion in 100 mL " company Bristol - Myers Squibb, France and experimental work. The aim of our study is development and support of the national composition of the infusion of the drug on the basis of paracetamol, selection of excipients that provide stability of the active substances. Materials and methods. The object of the study was the substance of paracetamol manufactured by Zhejiang Kangle Pharmaceutical Co. , Ltd, China. During the work conducted qualitative and quantitative monitoring sample preparation for indicators of stability: pH content of the active ingredient , transparency, color, impurities , contamination by the methods described in the SFU [and nor- ral documentation to the drug . One potential factor of instability is the effect of paracetamol oxygen, due to the presence in the molecule of paracetamol and -NH possibility of oxidation. Results and Discussion. Paracetamol is derived atsetamina . Substance acetylation are p - aminophenol with acetic anhydride . Saturated aqueous solution has a pH of paracetamol - ment about 6 . Paracetamol is a crystalline white powder , sparingly soluble in water, soluble in 96% alcohol, very slightly soluble in metilenhloride . . Active substance enters in comparison drug in the concentration of 10 mg/ml. Stable

  12. Voluntary intake of paracetamol-enriched drinking water and its influence on the success of embryo transfer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Thea; Arras, Margarete; Sauer, Mareike; Saleh, Lanja; Rülicke, Thomas; Jirkof, Paulin

    2017-04-01

    Embryo transfer (ET) in mice is a key technique in biomedical research, and is carried out mostly via surgery by transferring founder embryos into pseudo-pregnant recipient females. To cover post-operative analgesic requirements in surrogate mothers, oral self-administration of painkillers has several advantages, but its effectiveness has also been criticized as voluntary ingestion of the drug can be uncertain. Additionally, concerns about potential negative side effects of analgesics on embryo viability and development have been raised. In this regard, we investigated the impact of orally administered analgesia by comparing the outcome of ET with and without paracetamol in the drinking water (3.5mg/ml) of surrogate mothers. Water intake increased significantly when paracetamol, as a sweet-tasting formulation (children's syrup), was added to the drinking water. Measurements of paracetamol concentrations in blood serum confirmed reasonable drug uptake. Success rate of ETs and the body weight of newborn offspring were not different whether paracetamol was administered for two days after surgery or not. In conclusion, paracetamol in drinking water was consumed voluntarily in substantial doses, without detectable side-effects, by freshly operated surrogate mothers, and can therefore be recommended as a feasible method for providing analgesic treatment for surgical ET in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of volumetric expansion in molecular crystals: A quantum mechanical investigation on aspirin and paracetamol most stable polymorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Kapil; Flurchick, Kenneth M.; Valenzano, Loredana

    2015-02-01

    This work reports a study performed at hybrid semi-empirical density functional level (B3LYP-D2*) of the physico-chemical properties of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and paracetamol (acetaminophen) in their most stable crystalline forms. It is shown how effects arising from volumetric expansions influence the properties of the materials. Structural, energetic, and vibrational properties are in good agreement with experimental values reported at temperatures far from 0 K. Results show that the proposed approach is reliable enough to reproduce effects of volumetric expansion on lattice energies and other measurable physico-chemical observables related to inter-molecular forces.

  14. Effect of quercetin on paracetamole-induced liver disjunction in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedayat, I.S.

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, increasing attention has been given to the role of free radicals generated through oxidation stress. Persons subjected to radiation, such as radiotherapy, consuming analgesic drugs such as paracetamole which accumulates at relatively high concentration in liver, are in need to be investigated to explore the synergetic effects of these stresses. Many radical scavengers, interestingly naturally occurring antioxidants, have been found to be effective in inhibiting the oxidative damage Quercetin, the well known phenolic compound widely present in the plant kingdom, has been investigated for its possible protection effect against gamma irradiation and paracetamole-induced hepatic damage. Data revealed serious effects of oral administration of sublethal dose of paracetamole (500 mg/kg) and/or exposure to 6 Gy whole body gamma irradiation on liver. This damage is reflected by increased hepatic levels of MDA, carbonyl content and ALT activity, associated by decrease in hepatic SOD, catalase and GSH when compared with respective control values. The combination of quercetin with paracetamole and/or gamma irradiation have clearly reduced liver damage. It was noticed that the restoration of peroxides and carbonyls rates has occurred. Quercetin seems to act by activation of the turnover of SOD, catalase and GSH and permitting the capitation of reactive metabolites of paracetamole as well as its ability in quenching free radicals induced by exposure of rats to gamma irradiation, thus improving regeneration in the biological tissues

  15. Quantitative Evaluation of Acetaminophen in Oral Solutions by Dispersive Raman Spectroscopy for Quality Control

    OpenAIRE

    Borio, Viviane G.; Vinha, RubensJr.; Nicolau, Renata A.; de Oliveira, Hueder Paulo M.; de Lima, Carlos J.; Silveira, LandulfoJr.

    2012-01-01

    This work used dispersive Raman spectroscopy to evaluate acetaminophen in commercially available formulations as an analytical methodology for quality control in the pharmaceutical industry. Raman spectra were collected using a near-infrared dispersive Raman spectrometer (830 nm, 50 mW, 20 s exposure time) coupled to a fiber optic probe. Solutions of acetaminophen diluted in excipient (70 to 120% of the commercial concentration of 200 mg/mL) were used to develop a calibration model based on p...

  16. LC-MS/MS analysis of uncommon paracetamol metabolites derived through in vitro polymerization and nitration reactions in liquid nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trettin, Arne; Jordan, Jens; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2014-09-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) is a commonly used analgesic drug. Known paracetamol metabolites include the glucuronide, sulfate and mercapturate. N-Acetyl-benzoquinonimine (NAPQI) is considered the toxic intermediate metabolite of paracetamol. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that paracetamol is also metabolized to additional poorly characterized metabolites. For example, metabolomic studies in urine samples of APAP-treated mice revealed metabolites such as APAP-sulfate-APAP and APAP-S-S-APAP in addition to the classical phase II metabolites. Here, we report on the development and application of LC-MS and LC-MS/MS approaches to study reactions of unlabelled and (2)H-labelled APAP with unlabelled and (15)N-labelled nitrite in aqueous phosphate buffers (pH 7.4) upon their immersion into liquid nitrogen (-196°C). In mechanistic studies, these reactions were also studied in aqueous buffer prepared in (18)O-labelled water. LC-MS and LC-MS/MS analyses were performed on a reverse-phase material (C18) using gradient elution (2mM ammonium acetate/acetonitrile), in positive and negative electrospray mode. We identified a series of APAP metabolites including di-, tri- and tetra-APAP, mono- and di-nitro-APAP and nitric ester of di-APAP. Our study indicates that nitrite induces oxidation, i.e., polymerization and nitration of APAP, when buffered APAP/nitrite solutions are immersed into liquid nitrogen. These reactions are specific for nitrite with respect to nitrate and do not proceed via intermediate formation of NAPQI. Potassium ions and physiological saline but not thiols inhibit nitrite- and shock-freeze-induced reactions of paracetamol. The underlying mechanism likely involves in situ formation of NO2 radicals from nitrite secondary to profound pH reduction (down to pH 1) and disproportionation. Polymeric paracetamol species can be analyzed as pentafluorobenzyl derivatives by LC-MS but not by GC-MS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Paracetamol decreases steady-state exposure to lamotrigine by induction of glucuronidation in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gastrup, Sandra; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Fruekilde, Palle Bach Nielsen

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Patients receiving lamotrigine therapy frequently use paracetamol concomitantly. While one study suggests a possible, clinically relevant drug-drug interaction, practical recommendations of the concomitant use are inconsistent. We performed a systematic pharmacokinetic study in healthy...... volunteers to quantify the effect of 4-day treatment of paracetamol on the metabolism of steady-state lamotrigine. METHODS: Twelve healthy, male volunteers participated in an open-label, sequential interaction study. Lamotrigine was titrated to steady state (100 mg daily) over 36 days, and blood and urine...... sampling was performed in a non-randomised order with and without paracetamol (1 g four times daily). The primary endpoint was change in steady-state area under the plasma concentration-time curve of lamotrigine. Secondary endpoints were changes in total apparent oral clearance, renal clearance...

  18. Perinatal paracetamol exposure in mice does not affect the development of allergic airways disease in early life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Debbie C P; Walker, Simone A; Byrne, Adam J; Gregory, Lisa G; Buckley, James; Bush, Andrew; Shaheen, Seif O; Saglani, Sejal; Lloyd, Clare M

    2015-01-01

    Background Current data concerning maternal paracetamol intake during pregnancy, or intake during infancy and risk of wheezing or asthma in childhood is inconclusive based on epidemiological studies. We have investigated whether there is a causal link between maternal paracetamol intake during pregnancy and lactation and the development of house dust mite (HDM) induced allergic airways disease (AAD) in offspring using a neonatal mouse model. Methods Pregnant mice were administered paracetamol or saline by oral gavage from the day of mating throughout pregnancy and/or lactation. Subsequently, their pups were exposed to intranasal HDM or saline from day 3 of life for up to 6 weeks. Assessments of airway hyper-responsiveness, inflammation and remodelling were made at weaning (3 weeks) and 6 weeks of age. Results Maternal paracetamol exposure either during pregnancy and/or lactation did not affect development of AAD in offspring at weaning or at 6 weeks. There were no effects of maternal paracetamol at any time point on airway remodelling or IgE levels. Conclusions Maternal paracetamol did not enhance HDM induced AAD in offspring. Our mechanistic data do not support the hypothesis that prenatal paracetamol exposure increases the risk of childhood asthma. PMID:25841236

  19. Preemptive Analgesia with Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen in Pediatric Lower Abdominal Surgery

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    P Kashefi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative pain is a significant problem in pediatrics. Preemptive administration of analgesics has recently emerged as a method to enhance pain management associated with surgery. The objective of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of a single-dose of preoperative oral ibuprofen versus acetaminophen in preventing pain after lower abdominal surgery in pediatrics. Methods: In this randomized, double-blind study, following lower abdominal surgery, 75 children, aging 3 to 12 years, were assigned to receive either ibuprofen 20 mg /kg (n=25 or acetaminophen 35 mg/kg (n=25 or placebo (n=25 2 hours before surgery. Agitation in recovery was measured and postoperative pain was quantified 3 and 24 hours after surgery by Oucher’s scale. The amount of postoperative analgesic needed in the ward was also assessed. Results: It was found that preoperative administration of ibuprofen and acetaminophen can reduce agitation in recovery but there was no difference in the agitation score between ibuprofen and acetaminophen groups (P=0.145. Agitation score was significantly lower in ibuprofen group compared to placebo (P>0.005. Similarly, patients in the acetaminophen group were considerably less agitated than those in the placebo group (P=0.002. No significant difference was observed in pain intensity 3 and 24 hours after operation between the three groups [(P=0.495 and (P=0.582 respectively]. The amount of postoperative analgesic needed during ward hospitalization was not significantly different among the three groups (P>0.005. Conclusion: These results provide evidence that preemptive acetaminophen and ibuprofen may reduce agitation during recovery but they neither improve the postoperative pain nor reduce analgesics consumption in ward Key words: Postoperative analgesia, Acetaminophen, Ibuprofen, Preemptive analgesia

  20. Alternating ibuprofen and acetaminophen in the treatment of febrile children: a pilot study [ISRCTN30487061

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabra Ramzi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternating ibuprofen and acetaminophen for the treatment of febrile children is a prevalent practice among physicians and parents, despite the lack of evidence on effectiveness or safety. This randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial aims at comparing the antipyretic effectiveness and safety of a single administration of alternating ibuprofen and acetaminophen doses to that of ibuprofen mono-therapy in febrile children. Methods Seventy febrile children were randomly allocated to receive either a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg ibuprofen and 15 mg/kg oral acetaminophen after 4 hours, or a similar dose of ibuprofen and placebo at 4 hours. Rectal temperature was measured at baseline, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 hours later. Endpoints included proportions of afebrile children at 6, 7 and 8 hours, maximum decline in temperature, time to recurrence of fever, and change in temperature from baseline at each time point. Intent-to-treat analysis was planned with statistical significance set at P Results A higher proportion of subjects in the intervention group (83.3% became afebrile at 6 hours than in the control group (57.6%; P = 0.018. This difference was accentuated at 7 and 8 hours (P Conclusion A single dose of alternating ibuprofen and acetaminophen appears to be a superior antipyretic regimen than ibuprofen mono-therapy. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  1. Prophylactic teatment with oral paracetamol for patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants: a randomized clinical trial

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    Parvin Akbari Asbagh

    2015-05-01

    Results: There were 16 newborns in each group (20 boys and 12 girls. In 12 newborns of prophylaxis group the ductus arteriosus was closed although in control group in 8 newborns the duct was closed. No significant difference was observed in sex, gestational age, birth weight, mode of delivery, multifetal gestation and birth order between two groups. The rate of ductal closure was 75% and 50% in prophylaxis group and control group respectively (P=0.27. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that prophylactic paracetamol is ineffective in PDA closure, although the rate of ductal closure between two groups seems remarkable. Paracetamol as a new strategy for PDA closure because of cost effectiveness and harmlessness may be used in future. However, we presume larger sample size studies are needed to show the efficacy of paracetamol, side effects, and complications in PDA prophylaxis treatment.

  2. Comparison of the quantification of acetaminophen in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and dried blood spots using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachel R; Hoffman, Keith L; Schniedewind, Björn; Clavijo, Claudia; Galinkin, Jeffrey L; Christians, Uwe

    2013-09-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol, N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acetamide) is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs for the management of pain in children. Quantification of acetaminophen in pre-term and term neonates and small children requires the availability of highly sensitive assays in small volume blood samples. We developed and validated an LC-MS/MS assay for the quantification of acetaminophen in human plasma, cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) and dried blood spots (DBS). Reconstitution in water (DBS only) and addition of a protein precipitation solution containing the deuterated internal standard were the only manual steps. Extracted samples were analyzed on a Kinetex 2.6 μm PFP column using an acetonitrile/formic acid gradient. The analytes were detected in the positive multiple reaction mode. Alternatively, DBS were automatically processed using direct desorption in a sample card and preparation (SCAP) robotic autosampler in combination with online extraction. The range of reliable response in plasma and CSF was 3.05-20,000 ng/ml (r(2)>0.99) and 27.4-20,000 ng/ml (r(2)>0.99) for DBS (manual extraction and automated direct desorption). Inter-day accuracy was always within 85-115% and inter-day precision for plasma, CSF and manually extracted DBS were less than 15%. Deming regression analysis comparing 167 matching pairs of plasma and DBS samples showed a correlation coefficient of 0.98. Bland Altman analysis indicated a 26.6% positive bias in DBS, most likely reflecting the blood: plasma distribution ratio of acetaminophen. DBS are a valid matrix for acetaminophen pharmacokinetic studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute liver failure in a term neonate after repeated paracetamol administration

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    Fabio Bucaretchi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Severe hepatotoxicity caused by paracetamol is rare in neonates. We report a case of paracetamol-induced acute liver failure in a term neonate. Case description: A 26-day-old boy was admitted with intestinal bleeding, shock signs, slight liver enlargement, coagulopathy, metabolic acidosis (pH=7.21; bicarbonate: 7.1mEq/L, hypoglycemia (18mg/dL, increased serum aminotransferase activity (AST=4,039IU/L; ALT=1,087IU/L and hyperbilirubinemia (total: 9.57mg/dL; direct: 6.18mg/dL after receiving oral paracetamol (10mg/kg/dose every 4 hours for three consecutive days (total dose around 180mg/kg; serum concentration 36-48 hours after the last dose of 77µg/ mL. Apart from supportive measures, the patient was successfully treated with intravenous N-acetylcysteine infusion during 11 consecutive days, and was discharged on day 34. The follow-up revealed full recovery of clinical and of laboratory findings of hepatic function. Comments: The paracetamol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in neonates and infants differ substantially from those in older children and adults. Despite the reduced rates of metabolism by the P-450 CYP2E1 enzyme system and the increased ability to synthesize glutathione - which provides greater resistance after overdoses -, it is possible to produce hepatotoxic metabolites (N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone that cause hepatocellular damage, if glutathione sources are depleted. Paracetamol clearance is reduced and the half-life of elimination is prolonged. Therefore, a particular dosing regimen should be followed due to the toxicity risk of cumulative doses. This report highlights the risk for severe hepatotoxicity in neonates after paracetamol multiple doses for more than two to three days.

  4. Freshly isolated hepatocyte transplantation in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity model in rats Transplante de hepatócitos recém-isolados em um modelo de hepatotoxicidade induzida por acetaminofeno em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Hepatocyte transplantation is an attractive therapeutic modality for liver disease as an alternative for orthotopic liver transplantation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to investigate the feasibility of freshly isolated rat hepatocyte transplantation in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity model. METHODS: Hepatocytes were isolated from male Wistar rats and transplanted 24 hours after acetaminophen administration in female recipients. Female rats received either 1x10(7 hepatocytes or phosphate buffered saline through the portal vein or into the spleen and were sacrificed after 48 hours. RESULTS: Alanine aminotransferase levels measured within the experiment did not differ between groups at any time point. Molecular analysis and histology showed presence of hepatocytes in liver of transplanted animals injected either through portal vein or spleen. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of hepatocyte transplantation in the liver or spleen in a mild acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity model.CONTEXTO: O transplante de hepatócitos é uma modalidade terapêutica atrativa para doenças hepáticas como alternativa ao transplante hepático ortotópico. OBJETIVO: Investigar a factibilidade do uso de hepatócitos frescos isolados de ratos em um modelo de hepatotoxicidade induzida por paracetamol. MÉTODOS: Hepatócitos foram isolados de ratos Wistar machos e transplantados 24 horas após a administração de paracetamol em receptores fêmeas. As ratas receberam 1x10(7 hepatócitos ou tampão salina fosfato pela veia porta ou no baço e foram sacrificadas após 48 horas. RESULTADOS: Os níveis de alanina aminotransferase medidos durante o experimento não diferiram entre os grupos em nenhum momento. Análises moleculares e histológicas demonstraram a presença de hepatócitos no fígado dos animais transplantados pelo baço ou pela veia porta. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados indicam a factibilidade e eficácia do

  5. Hepatoprotective activity of Tribulus terrestris extract against acetaminophen-induced toxicity in a freshwater fish (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, P; Ramesh, R; Bupesh, G; Stalin, A; Subramanian, P

    2011-12-01

    The potential protective role of Tribulus terrestris in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in Oreochromis mossambicus was investigated. The effect of oral exposure of acetaminophen (500 mg/kg) in O. mossambicus at 24-h duration was evaluated. The plant extract (250 mg/kg) showed a remarkable hepatoprotective activity against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. It was judged from the tissue-damaging level and antioxidant levels in liver, gill, muscle and kidney tissues. Further acetaminophen impact induced a significant rise in the tissue-damaging level, and the antioxidant level was discernible from the enzyme activity modulations such as glutamate oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamate pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, lipid peroxidase and reduced glutathione. The levels of all these enzymes have significantly (p terrestris extract (250 kg/mg). Histopathological changes of liver, gill and muscle samples were compared with respective controls. The results of the present study specify the hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of T. terrestris against acetaminophen-induced toxicity in freshwater fish, O. mossambicus.

  6. Treatment strategies for early presenting acetaminophen overdose: a survey of medical directors of poison centers in North America and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozer, E; McGuigan, M

    2002-03-01

    Acetaminophen is frequently used in self-poisoning in Western countries. Although treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reduces liver injury, no consensus exists on the preferred management of acetaminophen toxicity. To describe the approach taken by toxicologists in North America and Europe toward the management of acetaminophen toxicity. Medical directors of poison centers in the US, Canada, and Europe were surveyed by means of a questionnaire presenting two clinical scenarios of acetaminophen overdose: a healthy adolescent with no risk factors who had an acute ingestion of acetaminophen, and an adult with both acute ingestion and possible risk factors. For each case, several questions about the management of these patients were asked. Questionnaires were sent to medical directors of 76 poison centers in North America and 48 in Europe, with response rates of 62% and 44%, respectively. Forty percent of responders suggested using charcoal 4 hours after ingestion of a potential toxic dose of acetaminophen, and 90% recommended treatment with NAC when levels were above 150 microg/mL but below 200 microg/mL 4 hours after ingestion. Duration of treatment with oral NAC ranged from 24 to 96 hours; 38 responders suggested a duration of 72 hours. Of 49 centers recommending oral NAC, 18 (36.7%) said they might consider treatment for less than 72 hours. Eleven of 29 (37.9%) responders suggested treatment with intravenous NAC for more than 20 hours as their usual protocol or a protocol for specific circumstances. Our study showed large variability in the management of acetaminophen overdose. Variations in treatment protocols should be addressed in clinical trials to optimize the treatment for this common problem.

  7. Naproxen, paracetamol and pamabrom versus paracetamol, pyrilamine and pamabrom in primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario I. Ortiz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen INTRODUCCIÓN La dismenorrea primaria es causada por la descarga de las prostaglandinas en el tejido uterino. Por lo tanto, los fármacos antiinflamatorios no esteroideos son la terapia inicial para la dismenorrea. El tratamiento para la dismenorrea puede incluir la administración de monoterapia o la combinación de fármacos. Sin embargo, la evidencia clínica científica sobre la eficacia de los medicamentos con dos o tres fármacos combinados es escasa o ausente. OBJETIVO Evaluar y comparar la eficacia y seguridad de dos combinaciones, en dosis fija y oral para el alivio de los síntomas de la dismenorrea primaria en mujeres mexicanas. Basados en la fisiopatología de la dismenorrea primaria, se utilizó una combinación comercializada en México de paracetamol, pirilamina y pamabrom. El comparador seleccionado fue un medicamento que contiene naproxeno sódico, paracetamol y pamabrom. MÉTODOS Se realizó un estudio en un solo centro, a doble ciego, experimental, paralelo y aleatorizado. Las pacientes con dismenorrea primaria que se incluyeron fueron mayores de 17 años de edad y con una intensidad del dolor mayor a 45 milímetros en una escala visual analógica. Las pacientes fueron aleatorizadas para recibir tabletas con naproxeno sódico, paracetamol y pamabrom o tabletas con paracetamol, pirilamina y pamabrom para un ciclo menstrual. Se evaluó la intensidad de la sintomatología y el dolor de las pacientes a lo largo de un período menstrual. Se utilizó análisis estadístico descriptivo e inferencial. RESULTADOS Se incluyó una población con intención de tratar de 91 mujeres, con una edad media de 21,3 ± 3,2 años la cual recibió tabletas de paracetamol, pirilamina y pamabrom. Otras 98 participantes, con una edad media de 21,0 ± 3,2 años, recibieron tabletas de naproxeno sódico, paracetamol y pamabrom. Las evaluaciones de dolor de las participantes con la escala visual analógica durante el ciclo menstrual demostraron

  8. Postoperative analgesia using diclofenac and acetaminophen in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannam, Jacqueline A; Anderson, Brian J; Mahadevan, Murali; Holford, Nick H G

    2014-09-01

    Diclofenac dosing in children for analgesia is currently extrapolated from adult data. Oral diclofenac 1.0 mg·kg(-1) is recommended for children aged 1-12 years. Analgesic effect from combination diclofenac/acetaminophen is unknown. Children (n = 151) undergoing tonsillectomy (c. 1995) were randomized to receive acetaminophen elixir 40 mg·kg(-1) before surgery and 20 mg·kg(-1) rectally at the end of surgery with diclofenac suspension 0.1 mg·kg(-1) , 0.5 mg·kg(-1) , or 2.0 mg·kg(-1) before surgery or placebo. A further 93 children were randomized to receive diclofenac 0.1 mg·kg(-1) , 0.5 mg·kg(-1) , or 2.0 mg·kg(-1) only. Postoperative pain was assessed (visual analogue score, VAS 0-10) at half-hourly intervals from waking until discharge. Data were pooled with those from a further 222 children and 30 adults. One-compartment models with first-order absorption and elimination described the pharmacokinetics of both medicines. Combined drug effects were described using a modified EMAX model with an interaction term. An interval-censored model described the hazard of study dropout. Analgesia onset had an equilibration half-time of 0.496 h for acetaminophen and 0.23 h for diclofenac. The maximum effect (EMAX ) was 4.9. The concentration resulting in 50% of EMAX (C50 ) was 1.23 mg·l(-1) for diclofenac and 13.3 mg·l(-1) for acetaminophen. A peak placebo effect of 6.8 occurred at 4 h. Drug effects were additive. The hazard of dropping out was related to pain (hazard ratio of 1.35 per unit change in pain). Diclofenac 1.0 mg·kg(-1) with acetaminophen 15 mg·kg(-1) achieves equivalent analgesia to acetaminophen 30 mg·kg(-1) . Combination therapy can be used to achieve similar analgesia with lower doses of both drugs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effect of sodium tripolyphosphate concentration and simulated gastrointestinal fluids on release profile of paracetamol from chitosan microsphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulia, Kamarza; Andrie; Krisanti, Elsa A.

    2018-03-01

    The problem to overcome in oral drug administration is the significant pH changes present in the human digestive system. In this study, ionotropic gelation method employing 2-8% (w/v) tripolyphosphate solutions were used to crosslink chitosan microspheres for a controlled release of paracetamol as a model drug. The release profiles of paracetamol from chitosan microspheres were determined using simulated gastrointestinal fluids having pH values of 1.2, 6.8, and 7.4. The results showed that the paracetamol loading and the encapsulation efficiency values increased with increasing concentration of tripolyphosphate solutions used in the preparation step. Paracetamol released at pH 1.2 and 6.8 buffer solutions was significantly higher than that at pH 7.4; also, more paracetamol was released in the presence of α-amylase and β-glucosidase enzymes. The release profiles showed zero-order release behaviour up to 8 hours where the highest drug release was 39% of the paracetamol loaded in the chitosan microspheres, indicating a strong crosslinking between chitosan and TPP anions. The relatively low accumulated drug release could be compensated by employing suitable enzymes, lower TPP solution concentration, and addition of other biodegradable polymer to reduce the TPP crosslink.

  10. Pharmacokinetics in Morbid Obesity: Influence of Two Bariatric Surgery Techniques on Paracetamol and Caffeine Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goday Arno, Albert; Farré, Magí; Rodríguez-Morató, Jose; Ramon, Jose M; Pérez-Mañá, Clara; Papaseit, Esther; Civit, Ester; Langohr, Klaus; Lí Carbó, Marcel; Boix, David Benaiges; Nino, Olga Castañer; Le Roux, Juana Antonia Flores; Pera, Manuel; Grande, Luis; de la Torre, Rafael

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to study the impact of the two most common bariatric surgery techniques on paracetamol pharmacokinetics (a marker of gastric emptying) and caffeine metabolism (a marker of liver function). In the present prospective study, we studied 24 morbid obese patients before, at 4 weeks, and 6 months after having undergone sleeve gastrectomy (n = 10) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 14). For comparative purposes, 28 healthy controls (14 normal weights and 14 overweights) were also included in the study. Paracetamol pharmacokinetics was altered in the obese participants leading to lower bioavailability. Bariatric surgery resulted in faster absorption and normalized pharmacokinetic parameters, prompting an increase in paracetamol bioavailability. No differences were found between surgical procedures. In the case of caffeine, the ratio paraxanthine/caffeine did not differ between morbid obese and healthy individuals. This ratio remained unmodified after surgery, indicating that the liver function (assessed by cytochrome P450 1A2 activity) was unaffected by obesity or bariatric surgery. Paracetamol pharmacokinetics and caffeine plasma levels are altered in severely obese patients. The two studied bariatric surgical techniques normalize paracetamol oral bioavailability without impairing the liver function (measured by cytochrome P450 1A2 activity).

  11. Accuracy of the paracetamol-aminotransferase multiplication product to predict hepatotoxicity in modified-release paracetamol overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anselm; Sivilotti, Marco L A; Graudins, Andis

    2017-06-01

    The paracetamol-aminotransferase multiplication product (APAP × ALT) is a risk predictor of hepatotoxicity that is somewhat independent of time and type of ingestion. However, its accuracy following ingestion of modified-release formulations is not known, as the product has been derived and validated after immediate-release paracetamol overdoses. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the accuracy of the multiplication product to predict hepatotoxicity in a cohort of patients with modified-release paracetamol overdose. We assessed all patients with modified-release paracetamol overdose presenting to our hospital network from October 2009 to July 2016. Ingestion of a modified-release formulation was identified by patient self-report or retrieval of the original container. Hepatotoxicity was defined as peak alanine aminotransferase ≥1000 IU/L, and acute liver injury (ALI) as a doubling of baseline ALT to more than 50 IU/L. Of 1989 paracetamol overdose presentations, we identified 73 modified-release paracetamol exposures treated with acetylcysteine. Five patients developed hepatotoxicity, including one who received acetylcysteine within eight hours of an acute ingestion. No patient with an initial multiplication product paracetamol overdose treated with acetylcysteine, the paracetamol-aminotransferase multiplication product demonstrated similar accuracy and temporal profile to previous reports involving mostly immediate-release formulations. Above a cut-point of 10,000 mg/L × IU/L, it was very strongly associated with the development of acute liver injury and hepatotoxicity, especially when calculated more than eight hours post-ingestion. When below 1500 mg/L × IU/L the likelihood of developing hepatotoxicity was very low. Persistently high serial multiplication product calculations were associated with the greatest risk of hepatotoxicity.

  12. Protective effect of zinc aspartate against acetaminophen induced hepato-renal toxicity in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, E.T.; Said, A.I.; El-Sayed, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required in humans and animals for many physiological functions, including antioxidant functions. The evidence to date indicates that zinc is an important element that links antioxidant system and tissue damage. Acetaminophen (AP), a widely used analgesic and antipyretic, produces hepatocyte and renal tubular necrosis in human and animals following overdose. In human, AP is one of the most common causes of acute liver failure as a result of accidental or deliberate overdose. Moreover, the initial event in AP toxicity is a toxic metabolic injury with the release of free radicals and subsequent cellular death by necrosis and apoptosis. This study was designed to evaluate the potential protective role of zinc aspartate in case of acetaminophen induced hepato-renal toxicity in rats. A total number of 32 adult male albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups: group I (control group), group II (zinc aspartate treated group), group III (acetaminophen treated group; by a single oral dose of 750 mg/kg body weight) and group IV acetaminophen plus zinc treated group; (zinc aspartate was intraperitoneally given one hour after acetaminophen administration in a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight). Serum levels of: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, direct bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, xanthine oxidase (XO), glutathione (GSH), malonaldehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) were assessed in all groups. The results of this study showed that treatment with acetaminophen alone (group III) produced a significant increase in serum levels of the liver enzymes and direct bilirubin. Moreover, in the same group there was a significant increase in the blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine compared to the control group. In addition, there was a significant increase in XO and MDA and a significant decrease in GSH and NO level. Injection of rats with zinc aspartate after acetaminophen treatment could produce a

  13. Pediatric microdose study of [(14)C]paracetamol to study drug metabolism using accelerated mass spectrometry: proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Miriam G; van Duijn, Esther; Knibbe, Catherijne A J; Windhorst, Albert D; Hendrikse, N Harry; Vaes, Wouter H J; Spaans, Edwin; Fabriek, Babs O; Sandman, Hugo; Grossouw, Dimitri; Hanff, Lidwien M; Janssen, Paul J J M; Koch, Birgit C P; Tibboel, Dick; de Wildt, Saskia N

    2014-11-01

    Pediatric drug development is hampered by practical, ethical, and scientific challenges. Microdosing is a promising new method to obtain pharmacokinetic data in children with minimal burden and minimal risk. The use of a labeled oral microdose offers the added benefit to study intestinal and hepatic drug disposition in children already receiving an intravenous therapeutic drug dose for clinical reasons. The objective of this study was to present pilot data of an oral [(14)C]paracetamol [acetaminophen (AAP)] microdosing study as proof of concept to study developmental pharmacokinetics in children. In an open-label microdose pharmacokinetic pilot study, infants (0-6 years of age) received a single oral [(14)C]AAP microdose (3.3 ng/kg, 60 Bq/kg) in addition to intravenous therapeutic doses of AAP (15 mg/kg intravenous every 6 h). Blood samples were taken from an indwelling catheter. AAP blood concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and [(14)C]AAP and metabolites ([(14)C]AAP-Glu and [(14)C]AAP-4Sul) were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry. Ten infants (aged 0.1-83.1 months) were included; one was excluded as he vomited shortly after administration. In nine patients, [(14)C]AAP and metabolites in blood samples were detectable at expected concentrations: median (range) maximum concentration (C max) [(14)C]AAP 1.68 (0.75-4.76) ng/L, [(14)C]AAP-Glu 0.88 (0.34-1.55) ng/L, and [(14)C]AAP-4Sul 0.81 (0.29-2.10) ng/L. Dose-normalized oral [(14)C]AAP C max approached median intravenous average concentrations (C av): 8.41 mg/L (3.75-23.78 mg/L) and 8.87 mg/L (3.45-12.9 mg/L), respectively. We demonstrate the feasibility of using a [(14)C]labeled microdose to study AAP pharmacokinetics, including metabolite disposition, in young children.

  14. Paracetamol and morphine for infant and neonatal pain; still a long way to go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baarslag, Manuel A; Allegaert, Karel; Van Den Anker, John N; Knibbe, Catherijne A J; Van Dijk, Monique; Simons, Sinno H P; Tibboel, Dick

    2017-01-01

    Pharmacologic pain management in newborns and infants is often based on limited scientific data. To close the knowledge gap, drug-related research in this population is increasingly supported by the authorities, but remains very challenging. This review summarizes the challenges of analgesic studies in newborns and infants on morphine and paracetamol (acetaminophen). Areas covered: Aspects such as the definition and multimodal character of pain are reflected to newborn infants. Specific problems addressed include defining pharmacodynamic endpoints, performing clinical trials in this population and assessing developmental changes in both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Expert commentary: Neonatal and infant pain management research faces two major challenges: lack of clear biomarkers and very heterogeneous pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of analgesics. There is a clear call for integral research addressing the multimodality of pain in this population and further developing population pharmacokinetic models towards physiology-based models.

  15. Photodegradation of Paracetamol in Nitrate Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Cui; Qu, Ruijuan; Liang, Jinyan; Yang, Xi

    2010-11-01

    The photodegradation of paracetamol in nitrate solution under simulated solar irradiation has been investigated. The degradation rates were compared by varying environmental parameters including concentrations of nitrate ion, humic substance and pH values. The quantifications of paracetamol were conducted by HPLC method. The results demonstrate that the photodegradation of paracetamol followed first-order kinetics. The photoproducts and intermediates of paracetamol in the presence of nitrate ions were identified by extensive GC-MS method. The photodegradation pathways involving. OH radicals as reactive species were proposed.

  16. Photodegradation of Paracetamol in Nitrate Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Meng; Ruijuan, Qu; Jinyan, Liang; Xi, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-11-24

    The photodegradation of paracetamol in nitrate solution under simulated solar irradiation has been investigated. The degradation rates were compared by varying environmental parameters including concentrations of nitrate ion, humic substance and pH values. The quantifications of paracetamol were conducted by HPLC method. The results demonstrate that the photodegradation of paracetamol followed first-order kinetics. The photoproducts and intermediates of paracetamol in the presence of nitrate ions were identified by extensive GC-MS method. The photodegradation pathways involving. OH radicals as reactive species were proposed.

  17. Photodegradation of Paracetamol in Nitrate Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Cui; Qu Ruijuan; Liang Jinyan; Yang Xi

    2010-01-01

    The photodegradation of paracetamol in nitrate solution under simulated solar irradiation has been investigated. The degradation rates were compared by varying environmental parameters including concentrations of nitrate ion, humic substance and pH values. The quantifications of paracetamol were conducted by HPLC method. The results demonstrate that the photodegradation of paracetamol followed first-order kinetics. The photoproducts and intermediates of paracetamol in the presence of nitrate ions were identified by extensive GC-MS method. The photodegradation pathways involving. OH radicals as reactive species were proposed.

  18. Bioavailability of suppository acetaminophen in healthy and hospitalized ill dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikina, E R; Bach, J F; Lin, Z; Gehring, R; KuKanich, B

    2018-05-13

    To determine the plasma pharmacokinetics of suppository acetaminophen (APAP) in healthy dogs and clinically ill dogs. This prospective study used six healthy client-owned and 20 clinically ill hospitalized dogs. The healthy dogs were randomized by coin flip to receive APAP orally or as a suppository in crossover study design. Blood samples were collected up to 10 hr after APAP dosing. The hospitalized dogs were administered APAP as a suppository, and blood collected at 2 and 6 hr after dosing. Plasma samples were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. In healthy dogs, oral APAP maximal concentration (C MAX =2.69 μg/ml) was reached quickly (T MAX =1.04 hr) and eliminated rapidly (T1/2 = 1.81 hr). Suppository APAP was rapidly, but variably absorbed (C MAX =0.52 μg/ml T MAX =0.67 hr) and eliminated (T 1/2  = 3.21 hr). The relative (to oral) fraction of the suppository dose absorbed was 30% (range <1%-67%). In hospitalized ill dogs, the suppository APAP mean plasma concentration at 2 hr and 6 hr was 1.317 μg/ml and 0.283 μg/ml. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling did not identify significant covariates affecting variability and was similar to noncompartmental results. Results supported that oral and suppository acetaminophen in healthy and clinical dogs did not reach or sustain concentrations associated with efficacy. Further studies performed on different doses are needed. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effect of Momordica charantia (bitter melon on serum glucose level and various protein parameters in acetaminophen intoxicated rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwal Zahra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Liver function tests, including total plasma proteins, albumin, bilirubin and glucose were analyzed to find out the hepatocurative and hepatoprotective effects of Momordica charantia. Method: The study was divided into two categories. In first category, the livers of rabbits were intoxicated with acetaminophen, and then Momordica fruit extract was given to observe its hepatocurative effects. Results: The results indicated significant changes in concentrations of the parameters in acetaminophen-challenged rabbits. In the second category, treatment was started by giving Momordica fruit extract dose orally for 10 days and 15 days to two groups of rabbits, respectively. Then, livers of rabbits were damaged with acetaminophen and hepatoprotective effects of Momordica were observed. Conclusion: The results showed that the animals treated with Momordica fruit extract experienced less liver damage due to acetaminophen intoxication, indicating that Momordica has hepatoprotective properties. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(1.000: 7-12

  20. Leukosit Ayam Pedaging setelah Diberikan Paracetamol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Suriansyah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui profil hematologi (total leukosit dan diferensial leukosit pada ayam pedaging yang diberikan paracetamol dalam pakan mulai umur 14 – 35 hari, Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan acak lengkap yaitu P0 (kelompok ayam pedaging yang hanya diberi pakan standar SB-11, P? (pakan standar SB-11 dan paracetamol 1 g/kg pakan, P? (pakan standar SB-11 dan paracetamol 2 g/kg pakan, P? (pakan standar SB-11 dan paracetamol 4 g/kg pakan masing-masing kelompok terdiri dari enam ekor ayam pedaging. Pengambilan darah pada vena brachialis dilakukan sebelum diberikan perlakuan dan pada hari ke 21 setelah diberikan perlakuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian paracetamol dosis 1-4 g/kg pakan tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap total leukosit (P>0,05 akan tetapi hanya berpengaruh nyata terhadap monosit (P

  1. Paracetamol for feverish children: parental motives and experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.F.; Tonnesen, L.L.; Söderström, Margareta

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The sale of paracetamol products for children is increasing, and more children are accidentally given overdoses, even though the use of paracetamol against fever is still under discussion. This study explores Danish parents' use of paracetamol for feverish children and their motives fo...... their GP for advice on fever treatment, paracetamol is sometimes given to children on vague indications. Clearer information for parents on when to give paracetamol as fever treatment may help regulate its use...

  2. Acetaminophen use during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebordosa, Cristina; Kogevinas, Manolis; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet

    2008-01-01

    information on acetaminophen use during the first trimester of pregnancy. We used the National Hospital Registry to identify 3784 (4.3%) children from the cohort diagnosed with 5847 congenital abnormalities. RESULTS: Children exposed to acetaminophen during the first trimester of pregnancy (n = 26,424) did...

  3. Paracetamol sharpens reflection and spatial memory: a double-blind randomized controlled study in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickering G

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gisèle Pickering,1–3 Nicolas Macian,1,2 Claude Dubray,1–3 Bruno Pereira4 1University Hospital, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Centre de Pharmacologie Clinique, 2Inserm, CIC 1405, UMR Neurodol 1107, 3Clermont Université, Laboratoire de Pharmacologie, Faculté de médecine, 4CHU de Clermont-Ferrand, Délégation Recherche Clinique Innovation, Clermont-Ferrand, France Background: Acetaminophen (APAP, paracetamol mechanism for analgesic and antipyretic outcomes has been largely addressed, but APAP action on cognitive function has not been studied in humans. Animal studies have suggested an improved cognitive performance but the link with analgesic and antipyretic modes of action is incomplete. This study aims at exploring cognitive tests in healthy volunteers in the context of antinociception and temperature regulation. A double-blind randomized controlled study (NCT01390467 was carried out from May 30, 2011 to July 12, 2011. Methods: Forty healthy volunteers were included and analyzed. Nociceptive thresholds, core temperature (body temperature, and a battery of cognitive tests were recorded before and after oral APAP (2 g or placebo: Information sampling task for predecisional processing, Stockings of Cambridge for spatial memory, reaction time, delayed matching of sample, and pattern recognition memory tests. Analysis of variance for repeated measures adapted to crossover design was performed and a two-tailed type I error was fixed at 5%. Results: APAP improved information sampling task (diminution of the number of errors, latency to open boxes, and increased number of opened boxes; all P<0.05. Spatial planning and working memory initial thinking time were decreased (P=0.04. All other tests were not modified by APAP. APAP had an antinociceptive effect (P<0.01 and body temperature did not change. Conclusion: This study shows for the first time that APAP sharpens decision making and planning strategy in healthy volunteers and that cognitive performance

  4. Degradation of paracetamol by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain HJ1012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Zhang, Li L; Chen, Jian M; Liu, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain HJ1012 was isolated on paracetamol as a sole carbon and energy source. This organism could completely degrade paracetamol as high as 2200 mg/L. Following paracetamol consumption, a CO₂ yield rate up to 71.4% proved that the loss of paracetamol was mainly via mineralization. Haldane's equation adequately described the relationship between the specific growth rate and substrate concentration. The maximum specific growth rate and yield coefficient were 0.201 g-Paracetamol/g-VSS·h and 0.101 mg of biomass yield/mg of paracetamol consumed, respectively. A total of 8 metabolic intermediates was identified and classified into aromatic compounds, carboxylic acids, and inorganic species (nitrite and nitrate ions). P-aminophenol and hydroquinone are the two key metabolites of the initial steps in the paracetamol catabolic pathway. Paracetamol is degraded predominantly via p-aminophenol to hydroquinone with subsequent ring fission, suggesting partially new pathways for paracetamol-degrading bacteria.

  5. Interaction of paracetamol and 125I-paracetamol with surface groups of activated carbon. Theoretical and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel Hernandez-Valdes; Ulises Jauregui-Haza; Carlos Enriquez-Victorero; Melvin Arias

    2015-01-01

    The selection of activated carbon (AC) filters for water decontamination is currently carried out empirically. The low concentrations of drugs in the environment make the radioisotope labeling a valuable tool for physical and chemical studies of the adsorption process. A theoretical study of paracetamol and 125 I-paracetamol adsorption onto AC was performed to evaluate the interactions between pollutants and surface groups (SG) of AC. Paracetamol was labeled with 125 I and adsorption isotherms were obtained using radioanalytical and spectrophotometric techniques. The radioanalytical method overestimates the paracetamol adsorption. The validity of the chosen approach for qualitative assessment of SG influence over the adsorption process was demonstrated. (author)

  6. Probing Vitamine C, Aspirin and Paracetamol in the Gas Phase: High Resolution Rotational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, S.; Cabezas, C.; Varela, M.; Pena, I.; Nino, A.; López, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.; Grabow, J.-U.

    2011-06-01

    A solid sample of Vitamin C (m.p. 190°C) vaporized by laser ablation has been investigated in gas phase and characterized through their rotational spectra. Two spectroscopy techniques has been used to obtain the spectra: a new design of broadband chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy with in-phase/quadrature-phase-modulation passage-acquired-coherence technique (IMPACT) and conventional laser ablation molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (LA-MB-FTMW). Up to now, two low-energy conformer have been observed and their rotational constants determined. Ab initio calculations at the MP2/6-311++G (d,p) level of theory predicted rotational constants which helped us to identify these conformers unequivocally. Among the molecules to benefit from the LA-MB-FTMW technique there are common important drugs never observed in the gas phase through rotational spectroscopy. We present here the results on acetyl salicylic acid and acetaminophen (m.p. 136°C), commonly known as aspirin and paracetamol respectively. We have observed two stable conformers of aspirin and two for paracetamol. The internal rotation barrier of the methyl group in aspirin has been determined for both conformers from the analysis of the A-E splittings due to the coupling of internal and overall rotation. J. L. Alonso, C. Pérez, M. E. Sanz, J. C. López, S. Blanco, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11,617-627 (2009)and references therein

  7. The Social Side Effects of Acetaminophen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischkowski, Dominik

    About 23% of all adults in the US take acetaminophen during an average week (Kaufman, Kelly, Rosenberg, Anderson, & Mitchell, 2002) because acetaminophen is an effective physical painkiller and easily accessible over the counter. The physiological side effects of acetaminophen are well documented and generally mild when acetaminophen is consumed in the appropriate dosage. In contrast, the psychological and social side effects of acetaminophen are largely unknown. Recent functional neuroimaging research suggests that the experience of physical pain is fundamentally related to the experience of empathy for the pain of other people, indicating that pharmacologically reducing responsiveness to physical pain also reduces cognitive, affective, and behavioral responsiveness to the pain of others. I tested this hypothesis across three double-blind between-subjects drug intervention studies. Two experiments showed that acetaminophen had moderate effects on empathic affect, specifically personal distress and empathic concern, and a small effect on empathic cognition, specifically perceived pain, when facing physical and social pain of others. The same two experiments and a third experiment also showed that acetaminophen can increase the willingness to inflict pain on other people, i.e., actual aggressive behavior. This effect was especially pronounced among people low in dispositional empathic concern. Together, these findings suggest that the physical pain system is more involved in the regulation of social cognition, affect, and behavior than previously assumed and that the experience of physical pain and responsiveness to the pain of others share a common neurochemical basis. Furthermore, these findings suggest that acetaminophen has unappreciated but serious social side effects, and that these side effects may depend on psychological characteristics of the drug consumer. This idea is consistent with recent theory and research on the context-dependency of neurochemical

  8. Efficacy and Safety of Transdermal Buprenorphine versus Oral Tramadol/Acetaminophen in Patients with Persistent Postoperative Pain after Spinal Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hyup Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Control of persistent pain following spinal surgery is an unmet clinical need. This study compared the efficacy and safety of buprenorphine transdermal system (BTDS to oral tramadol/acetaminophen (TA in Korean patients with persistent, moderate pain following spinal surgery. Methods. Open-label, interventional, randomized multicenter study. Adults with persistent postoperative pain (Numeric Rating Scale [NRS] ≥ 4 at 14–90 days postsurgery were enrolled. Patients received once-weekly BTDS (n=47; 5 μg/h titrated to 20 μg/h or twice-daily TA (n=40; tramadol 37.5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg, one tablet titrated to 4 tablets for 6 weeks. The study compared pain reduction with BTDS versus TA at week 6. Quality of life (QoL, treatment satisfaction, medication compliance, and adverse events (AEs were assessed. Findings. At week 6, both groups reported significant pain reduction (mean NRS change: BTDS −2.02; TA −2.76, both P<0.0001 and improved QoL (mean EQ-5D index change: BTDS 0.10; TA 0.19, both P<0.05. The BTDS group achieved better medication compliance (97.8% versus 91.0%. Incidence of AEs (26.1% versus 20.0% and adverse drug reactions (20.3% versus 16.9% were comparable between groups. Implications. For patients with persistent pain following spinal surgery, BTDS is an alternative to TA for reducing pain and supports medication compliance. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01983111.

  9. Effect of corn silk extract on acetaminophen induced renal damage in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehboob, F.; Tahir, M.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the protective role of Corn Silk extract on Acetaminophen induced nephrotoxicity in albino mice. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized controlled trials. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in experimental research laboratory University of Health Sciences and Anatomy department, Lahore. The study duration was one year from February 2012 to February 2013. Material and Methods: Twenty seven male albino mice, 6-8 weeks old weighing 30 + 5 gm, were used; these animals were randomly divided into three groups having nine mice in each group. Group A served as control and was given 16.6ml/kg normal saline intraperitoneally on first day of experiment and was sacrificed on 10th day of the experiment. Group B was treated with acetaminophen 600 mg/kg dissolved in 16.6 ml of normal saline intraperitoneally on 1st day of experiment and was sacrificed after 48 hours. Group C was given acetaminophen at a dose of 600 mg/kg intraperitoneally on first day of experiment and then corn silk extract was given by oral route at a dose of 400 mg/kg for next 8 days. The animals were sacrificed on 10th day of the experiment, the kidneys were removed; 3mm three tissue pieces were fixed in 10% formaline; processed and stained with H and E for histological study. Results: It was observed on microscopic examination that Corn silk extract reduced deleterious effects of acetaminophen on tubules of kidney as evidenced by reduction of tubular vacuolation and necrosis, absence of protein casts, vascular congestion and inflammation. Conclusion: It is concluded from current results that corn silk extract protects acetaminophen induced nephrotoxicity. (author)

  10. Increased availability of paracetamol in Sweden and incidence of paracetamol poisoning: using laboratory data to increase validity of a population-based registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedeborg, Rolf; Svennblad, Bodil; Holm, Lennart; Sjögren, Hans; Bardage, Carola; Personne, Mark; Sjöberg, Gunilla; Feltelius, Nils; Zethelius, Björn

    2017-05-01

    To estimate the incidence trend and outcome of paracetamol poisoning, in relation to increased availability of paracetamol from non-pharmacy outlets in 2009. Patients' serum paracetamol results over 14 years (2000-2013) from 20 (out of 21) regions in Sweden were linked to national registers of hospital care, cause of death, and prescriptions. Paracetamol poisonings were defined by serum paracetamol levels, hospital diagnoses, or cause of death. The change in incidence of poisonings following increased availability of paracetamol was analysed by using segmental regression of time series. Of the 12 068 paracetamol poisonings, 85% were classified as intentional self-harm. Following increased availability from non-pharmacy outlets, there was a 40.5% increase in the incidence of paracetamol poisoning, from 11.5/100 000 in 2009 to 16.2/100 000 in 2013. Regression analyses indicated a change in the trend (p paracetamol did not influence the result. All-cause mortality at 30 days (3.2%) did not change over time. The incidence of paracetamol poisoning in Sweden has increased since 2009, contrasting the decreased incidence in the period of 2007-2009. The change in trend was temporally associated with the introduction of availability of paracetamol from non-pharmacy outlets but did not appear to be related to sales volume of paracetamol or general trends in self-harm or suicides. © 2017 Commonwealth of Australia. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 Commonwealth of Australia. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of paracetamol and ketoprofren lysine salt for pain control in children with pharyngotonsillitis cared by family pediatricians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Della Casa Alberighi Ornella

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the analgesic effect and tolerability of paracetamol syrup compared to placebo and ketoprofen lysine salt in children with pharyngotonsillitis cared by family pediatricians. Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of a 12 mg/kg single dose of paracetamol paralleled by open-label ketoprofren lysine salt sachet 40 mg. Six to 12 years old children with diagnosis of pharyngo-tonsillitis and a Children's Sore Throat Pain (CSTP Thermometer score > 120 mm were enrolled. Primary endpoint was the Sum of Pain Intensity Differences (SPID of the CSTP Intensity scale by the child. Results 97 children were equally randomized to paracetamol, placebo or ketoprofen. Paracetamol was significantly more effective than placebo in the SPID of children and parents (P Conclusions A single oral dose of paracetamol or ketoprofen lysine salt are safe and effective analgesic treatments for children with sore throat in daily pediatric ambulatory care.

  12. Lack of respiratory depression in paracetamol-codeine combination overdoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppell, Simon P E; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2017-06-01

    Codeine containing analgesics are commonly taken in overdose, but the frequency of respiratory depression is unknown. We investigated whether paracetamol-codeine combination overdoses caused respiratory depression more than paracetamol alone. We reviewed deliberate self-poisoning admissions with paracetamol (>2 g) and paracetamol-codeine combinations presenting to a tertiary toxicology unit (1987-2013). Demographic information, clinical effects, treatment (naloxone, length of stay [LOS], mechanical ventilation) were extracted from a prospective database. Primary outcome was naloxone requirement or ventilation for respiratory depression. From 4488 presentations, 1376 admissions were included with paracetamol alone (929), paracetamol-codeine combinations (346) or paracetamol-codeine-doxylamine combinations (101) without co-ingestants. Median age was 23 years (12-89 years); 1002 (73%) were female. Median dose was 12 g (interquartile range [IQR]: 7.5-20 g). Median LOS was 16 h (IQR: 6.5-27 h) and 564 (41%) were given acetylcysteine. Significantly larger paracetamol doses were ingested and more acetylcysteine given in paracetamol alone versus paracetamol combination overdoses. Seven out of 1376 patients were intubated or received naloxone (0.5%; 95% CI: 0.2-1.1%), three intubated, three given naloxone and one both. Three out of 929 patients ingesting paracetamol alone (0.3%; 95% CI: 0.1-1%) required intubation or naloxone, compared to two out of 346 ingesting paracetamol-codeine combinations (0.6%; 95% CI: 0.1-2.3%; absolute difference, 0.26%; 95% CI: -0.7-1.2%; P = 0.62). Two out of 101 patients ingesting paracetamol-codeine-doxylamine combinations (2%; 95% CI: 0.3-8%) required intubation or naloxone. Four patients were intubated for reasons other than respiratory depression: hepatotoxicity (2), retrieval (1), no data (1). Two out of 929 (0.2%) paracetamol alone overdoses had a Glasgow coma score depression, with only two given naloxone and none intubated for

  13. Intercalation of paracetamol into the hydrotalcite-like host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovanda, František; Maryšková, Zuzana; Kovář, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds are often used as host structures for intercalation of various anionic species. The product intercalated with the nonionic, water-soluble pharmaceuticals paracetamol, N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide, was prepared by rehydration of the Mg–Al mixed oxide obtained by calcination of hydrotalcite-like precursor at 500 °C. The successful intercalation of paracetamol molecules into the interlayer space was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy measurements. Molecular simulations showed that the phenolic hydroxyl groups of paracetamol interact with hydroxide sheets of the host via the hydroxyl groups of the positively charged sites of Al-containing octahedra; the interlayer water molecules are located mostly near the hydroxide sheets. The arrangement of paracetamol molecules in the interlayer is rather disordered and interactions between neighboring molecules cause their tilting towards the hydroxide sheets. Dissolution tests in various media showed slower release of paracetamol intercalated in the hydrotalcite-like host in comparison with tablets containing the powdered pharmaceuticals. - Graphical abstract: Molecular simulations showed disordered arrangement of paracetamol molecules in the interlayer; most of the interlayer water molecules are located near the hydroxide sheets.▪ Highlights: ► Paracetamol was intercalated in Mg–Al hydrotalcite-like host by rehydration/reconstruction procedure. ► Paracetamol phenolic groups interact with positively charged sites in hydroxide sheets. ► Molecular simulations showed disordered arrangement of guest molecules in the interlayer. ► Slower release of paracetamol intercalated in the hydrotalcite-like host was observed.

  14. Lipid profile and atherogenic predictor indices of albino rabbits administered coconut water as antidote to paracetamol overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidi Uzoma Igwe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of coconut water intake on lipid profile and atherogenic predictor indices of albino rabbits overdosed with paracetamol using standard methods. Methods: Thirty-five albino rabbits weighing between 800–1200 g and aged between 2 and 3 months, were divided into 7 groups (I–VII of 5 animals each. Groups I, II and III were orally administered distilled water (20 mL/kg body weight, coconut water (20 mL/kg body weight and paracetamol (1000 mg/kg body weight respectively, for 7 days. Groups IV and V were administered coconut water (20 mL/kg body weight and silymarin (35 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for 6 days, then paracetamol (1000 mg/kg body weight on the 7th day. Groups VI and VII were administered distilled water for 6 days, paracetamol on the 7th day, then coconut water and silymarin, respectively, after 3 h. Results: The results showed that paracetamol overdose significantly reduced (P < 0.05 the mean body weight of the animals, increased the concentrations of serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and the atherogenic predictor indices but reduced the serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration of the animals relative to the control. The observed changes in the lipid profile and atherogenic predictor indices were countered more by post- than pre-treatment with coconut water and silymarin. Conclusions: The results indicated that coconut water acted as an effective antidote to paracetamol overdose-induced lipid abnormality in animals.

  15. Acetaminophen overdose associated with double serum concentration peaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Papazoglu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen is the most commonly used analgesic–antipyretic medication in the United States. Acetaminophen overdose, a frequent cause of drug toxicity, has been recognized as the leading cause of fatal and non-fatal hepatic necrosis. N-Acetylcysteine is the recommended antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Despite evidence on the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine for prevention of hepatic injury, controversy persists about the optimal duration of the therapy. Here, we describe the case of a 65-year-old male with acetaminophen overdose and opioid co-ingestion who developed a second peak in acetaminophen serum levels after completing the recommended 21-hour intravenous N-acetylcysteine protocol and when the standard criteria for monitoring drug levels was achieved. Prolongation of N-acetylcysteine infusion beyond the standard protocol, despite a significant gap in treatment, was critical for successful avoidance of hepatotoxicity. Delay in acetaminophen absorption may be associated with a second peak in serum concentration following an initial declining trend, especially in cases of concomitant ingestion of opioids. In patients with acetaminophen toxicity who co-ingest other medications that may potentially delay gastric emptying or in those with risk factors for delayed absorption of acetaminophen, we recommend close monitoring of aminotransferase enzyme levels, as well as trending acetaminophen concentrations until undetectable before discontinuing the antidote therapy.

  16. Paracetamol for feverish children: parental motives and experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.F.; Tonnesen, L.L.; Söderström, Margareta

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The sale of paracetamol products for children is increasing, and more children are accidentally given overdoses, even though the use of paracetamol against fever is still under discussion. This study explores Danish parents' use of paracetamol for feverish children and their motives...

  17. Ability of Saudi mothers to appropriately and accurately use dosing devices to administer oral liquid medications to their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almazrou S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Saja Almazrou, Hind Alsahly, Huda Alwattar, Lamya Alturki, Mona Alamri Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Most liquid medications are packaged with administration devices, which may be used inappropriately or inaccurately, and sometimes are not used at all. Because of the importance of their proper use for children's health, this study was designed to assess Saudi mothers' experiences with measuring cups, syringes, and droppers for oral liquid medications; to compare accuracy of dosing across these devices; and to determine the effects of mothers' education statuses and pharmacist counseling on dosing accuracy. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in which mothers were observed as they used a set of commonly available dosing devices which are a dosing cup, syringe, and dropper. Interviews were conducted in the outpatient pharmacy waiting area in several tertiary hospitals and primary clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between March and April 2013. Saudi women who were mothers of children aged 12 years old or younger and who gave their consent were eligible. Caregivers other than mothers and subjects with vision problems or cognitive/physical disabilities were excluded. We gathered demographic information such as age, number of children, and education status. Subjects were asked if they had had counseling on how to use measuring devices and which device they preferred. Then, the mothers were required to demonstrate how to measure 5 mL of paracetamol (acetaminophen syrup using a cup and a syringe and 1 mL of paracetamol syrup using a dropper. Dosing errors were evaluated visually as overdosing, underdosing, or no error (if the dose was accurate. The data were entered into Microsoft Excel and evaluated using Stata 11.1. Logistic regression was employed to determine relationships. Results: The results revealed that 58% of participants measured an accurate dose of paracetamol

  18. Hepatoprotective effect of Aegle marmelos augmented with piperine co-administration in paracetamol model

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    Deepti Rathee

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The current study explored hepatoprotective effect of Aegle marmelos (L. Corrêa, Rutaceae, leaves extract. Potentiation of A. marmelos hepatoprotective effect with piperine co-administration was also explored. Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups: (i normal control, (ii paracetamol group, (iii silymarin group, (iv extract-25 group (25 mg/kg body, (v extract-50 group: (50 mg/kg, (vi extract-100 group (100 mg/kg and (vii extract-25 + piperine group. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administering paracetamol orally in a dose of 400 mg/kg for seven days. The drugs were administered 30 min prior to paracetamol administration and continued for seven days. Animals were ‘sacrificed’ at the end of treatment and serum was collected for evaluating alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase IL-10 and TNF-α levels. Liver homogenates were used for determination of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, GSH-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Serum biochemical markers were significantly higher in paracetamol group as compared to normal control group. Significant increase in oxidative stress parameters and inflammatory mediators was also observed. Treatment with A. marmelos curtailed the toxic effects of paracetamol in a dose dependent fashion. 100 mg/kg dose of A. marmelos was found to be most hepatoprotective. The results of extract-100 group were comparable to silymarin group. Low dose of A. marmelos i.e., 25 mg/kg was combined with piperine to evaluate potentiation of hepatoprotective effects of A. marmelos. Piperine co-administration potentiated the hepatoprotective effects, because the combination group results were comparable to high dose A. marmelos group. A. marmelos exerts hepatoprotective activity through its antioxidant and anti

  19. Acetaminophen-cysteine adducts during therapeutic dosing and following overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judge Bryan S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetaminophen-cysteine adducts (APAP-CYS are a specific biomarker of acetaminophen exposure. APAP-CYS concentrations have been described in the setting of acute overdose, and a concentration >1.1 nmol/ml has been suggested as a marker of hepatic injury from acetaminophen overdose in patients with an ALT >1000 IU/L. However, the concentrations of APAP-CYS during therapeutic dosing, in cases of acetaminophen toxicity from repeated dosing and in cases of hepatic injury from non-acetaminophen hepatotoxins have not been well characterized. The objective of this study is to describe APAP-CYS concentrations in these clinical settings as well as to further characterize the concentrations observed following acetaminophen overdose. Methods Samples were collected during three clinical trials in which subjects received 4 g/day of acetaminophen and during an observational study of acetaminophen overdose patients. Trial 1 consisted of non-drinkers who received APAP for 10 days, Trial 2 consisted of moderate drinkers dosed for 10 days and Trial 3 included subjects who chronically abuse alcohol dosed for 5 days. Patients in the observational study were categorized by type of acetaminophen exposure (single or repeated. Serum APAP-CYS was measured using high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Results Trial 1 included 144 samples from 24 subjects; Trial 2 included 182 samples from 91 subjects and Trial 3 included 200 samples from 40 subjects. In addition, we collected samples from 19 subjects with acute acetaminophen ingestion, 7 subjects with repeated acetaminophen exposure and 4 subjects who ingested another hepatotoxin. The mean (SD peak APAP-CYS concentrations for the Trials were: Trial 1- 0.4 (0.20 nmol/ml, Trial 2- 0.1 (0.09 nmol/ml and Trial 3- 0.3 (0.12 nmol/ml. APAP-CYS concentrations varied substantially among the patients with acetaminophen toxicity (0.10 to 27.3 nmol/ml. No subject had detectable APAP

  20. Availability of Paracetamol Sold Over-the-Counter in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, Britt Reuter; Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete

    2018-01-01

    Due to the risk of hepatotoxicity when excessive amounts of paracetamol are consumed, Poisons Information Centers (PICs) frequently receive paracetamol-related enquiries. This study examined how widely pack size restrictions of paracetamol sold over-the-counter have been implemented in Europe...... and also availability of paracetamol through non-pharmacy outlets and their possible associations with frequency of poisoning enquiries. A cross-sectional European multicentre questionnaire study was performed using a questionnaire to identify the extent and nature of paracetamol pack size restrictions......, non-pharmacy outlet sales and the frequency of paracetamol-related enquiries to PICs. In total, 21 European countries participated. All PICs provided telephone hotline services. In 14 (67%) countries, pack size restrictions had been implemented in pharmacies (range: 8-30 grams). No significant...

  1. Adverse reactions associated with acetylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandilands, E A; Bateman, D N

    2009-02-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most common agents deliberately ingested in self-poisoning episodes and a leading cause of acute liver failure in the western world. Acetylcysteine is widely acknowledged as the antidote of choice for paracetamol poisoning, but its use is not without risk. Adverse reactions, often leading to treatment delay, are frequently associated with both intravenous and oral acetylcysteine and are a common source of concern among treating physicians. A systematic literature review investigating the incidence, clinical features, and mechanisms of adverse effects associated with acetylcysteine. A variety of adverse reactions to acetylcysteine have been described ranging from nausea to death, most of the latter due to incorrect dosing. The pattern of reactions differs with oral and intravenous dosing, but reported frequency is at least as high with oral as intravenous. The reactions to the intravenous preparation result in similar clinical features to true anaphylaxis, including rash, pruritus, angioedema, bronchospasm, and rarely hypotension, but are caused by nonimmunological mechanisms. The precise nature of this reaction remains unclear. Histamine now seems to be an important mediator of the response, and there is evidence of variability in patient susceptibility, with females, and those with a history of asthma or atopy are particularly susceptible. Quantity of paracetamol ingestion, measured through serum paracetamol concentration, is also important as higher paracetamol concentrations protect patients against anaphylactoid effects. Most anaphylactoid reactions occur at the start of acetylcysteine treatment when concentrations are highest. Acetylcysteine also affects clotting factor activity, and this affects the interpretation of minor disturbances in the International Normalized Ratio in the context of paracetamol overdose. This review discusses the incidence, clinical features, underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, and

  2. Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) enhances detoxification of hepatic and macromolecular oxidants in acetaminophen-intoxicated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheed, Sabiu; Taofik, Sunmonu Olatunde; Oladipo, Ajani Emmanuel; Tom, Ashafa Anofi Omotayo

    2017-11-01

    Oxidative stress is a common pathological condition associated with drug-induced hepatotoxicity. This study investigated Spondias mombin L. aqueous leaf extract on reactive oxygen species and acetaminophen-mediated oxidative onslaught in rats' hepatocytes. Hepatotoxic rats were orally administered with the extract and vitamin C for 4 weeks. The extract dose-dependently scavenged DPPH, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals, with IC 50 values of 0.13, 0.66, and 0.64 mg/mL, and corresponding % inhibitions of 89, 80, and 90%, respectively at 1.0 mg/mL. Ferric ion was also significantly reduced. The marked (p<0.05) increases in the activities of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were reduced following treatment with the extract. The extract also significantly (p<0.05) induced the activities of antioxidant enzymes. These inductions reversed the acetaminophen-enhanced reduction in the specific activities of these enzymes as well as attenuated the observed elevated concentrations of autooxidized products and rived DNA in the acetaminophen-intoxicated animals. The observed effects competed with those of vitamin C and are suggestive of hepatoprotective and antioxidative attributes of the extract. Overall, the data from the present findings suggest that S. Mombin aqueous leaf extract is capable of ameliorating acetaminophen-mediated oxidative hepatic damage via enhancement of antioxidant defense systems.

  3. Effect of paracetamol, dexketoprofen trometamol, lidocaine spray, and paracervical block application for pain relief during suction termination of first-trimester pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açmaz, Gökhan; Aksoy, Hüseyin; Özoğlu, Nil; Aksoy, Ülkü; Albayrak, Evrim

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the analgesic efficacy of preoperative oral dexketoprofen trometamol, intravenous paracetamol, lidocaine spray, and paracervical block with ultracaine on curettage procedure. A total of 111 subjects with the request of pregnancy termination between 5 and 7 weeks of gestation were included in the study. The first group (control group) consisted of 20 participants without medication. The second group consisted of 25 participants receiving 2 puffs of lidocaine sprays on cervical mucosa. The third group consisted of 20 participants receiving oral 25 mg dexketoprofen trometamol. The fourth group consisted of 23 participants receiving 1000 mg intravenous paracetamol and the fifth group consisted of 23 participants receiving paracervical block with ultracaine. Paracervical block reduced pain score significantly in both intraoperative and postoperative periods. All analgesic procedures were significantly effective for reducing pain in postoperative period. Paracervical block may be the best method for reducing pain scores in intraoperative and postoperative periods during curettage procedure. All analgesic procedures such as lidocaine, paracetamol, ultracaine, and paracervical block with ultracaine can be used for reducing pain score in postoperative period. This trial is registered with NCT01947205.

  4. Effect of Paracetamol, Dexketoprofen Trometamol, Lidocaine Spray, and Paracervical Block Application for Pain Relief during Suction Termination of First-Trimester Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Açmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the analgesic efficacy of preoperative oral dexketoprofen trometamol, intravenous paracetamol, lidocaine spray, and paracervical block with ultracaine on curettage procedure. A total of 111 subjects with the request of pregnancy termination between 5 and 7 weeks of gestation were included in the study. The first group (control group consisted of 20 participants without medication. The second group consisted of 25 participants receiving 2 puffs of lidocaine sprays on cervical mucosa. The third group consisted of 20 participants receiving oral 25 mg dexketoprofen trometamol. The fourth group consisted of 23 participants receiving 1000 mg intravenous paracetamol and the fifth group consisted of 23 participants receiving paracervical block with ultracaine. Paracervical block reduced pain score significantly in both intraoperative and postoperative periods. All analgesic procedures were significantly effective for reducing pain in postoperative period. Paracervical block may be the best method for reducing pain scores in intraoperative and postoperative periods during curettage procedure. All analgesic procedures such as lidocaine, paracetamol, ultracaine, and paracervical block with ultracaine can be used for reducing pain score in postoperative period. This trial is registered with NCT01947205.

  5. In vivo evaluation of antipyretic effects of homoeopathic ultrahigh dilutions of Typhoidinum on baker's yeast-induced fever in comparison with Paracetamol

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    Saeed Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Homoeopathy is a widely used, controversial alternative system of medicine. It is assumed that homoeopathic medicines are slower in action and does not work in acute conditions such as ‘fever’. The study aims to estimate the effectiveness of some homoeopathic remedies in fever and to compare their effects with Paracetamol. Materials and Methods: Baker's yeast fever model of rabbits was used in the study. Rabbits were divided into four different groups (n = 6. Rectal temperature was measured before and after fever induction hourly. After fever induction, medicines were administered orally. Paracetamol and Typhoidinum in 200C and 1M potencies were given orally. ANOVA followed by post hoc test was used for statistical analysis of results. The results were considered statistically significant at P ≤ 0.05. Results: Fever was induced in all the rabbits after 4 h of baker's yeast administration. The results of the study revealed the significant effectiveness of Typhoidinum in 200C and 1M potencies in baker's yeast-induced fever (P = 0.05. Typhoidinum in both potencies showed less significant results as compared to Paracetamol. However, all the medicines’ effects were significant compared to the negative control. Conclusion: Typhoidinum 200C and 1M worked against baker's yeast-induced fever. However, the results were slower and less significant than Paracetamol that might be due to lack of similarity of remedy picture and disease picture.

  6. Subacute Oral Toxicity Assessment of Alchornea cordifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2010-10-21

    Oct 21, 2010 ... Histopathological assessment of liver sections of treated-rats showed normal ... Keywords: Alchornea cordifolia, Rats, Subacute oral toxicity, Neutrophils, Hepatocytes, Hydropic ..... albino rats against acetaminophen-induced.

  7. Dipyrone and acetaminophen: correct dosing by parents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Guilherme Bezerra Alves

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Several studies in developed countries have documented that a significant percentage of children are given inappropriate doses of acetaminophen and ibuprofen. The objective of this paper was to investigate parents’ accuracy in giving dipyrone and acetaminophen to their children, in a poor region. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at the pediatric emergency department of Instituto Materno-Infantil Prof. Fernando Figueira, a teaching hospital in Pernambuco. METHODS: The inclusion criteria were age between 3 and 36 months, main complaint of fever and at least one dose of dipyrone or acetaminophen given to the child during the 24 hours preceding their arrival at the emergency department. The mothers were asked for demographic information and about the antipyretic doses given, which were compared with the recommended dosage. RESULTS: Among the 200 patients studied, 117 received dipyrone and 83 received acetaminophen. Overall, 75 % received an incorrect dose of antipyretic. Of the patients who received dipyrone, 105 (89.7% were given an incorrect dose; 16 (15.2% received too little dipyrone, and 89 (84.8% received too much. Of the patients who received acetaminophen, 45 (54.2% were given an incorrect dose; 38 (84.4% received too little acetaminophen, and 7 (15.6% received too much. There were no differences in maternal and child characteristics between the groups receiving correct and incorrect doses of medication, except for the type of medication (dipyrone versus acetaminophen. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the children treated were given inappropriate doses, mainly dipyrone overdosing and acetaminophen underdosing.

  8. Enhancement of acetaminophen overdosage-induced hepatotoxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paracetamol) overdosage-induced hepatotoxicity in three groups of albino Wistar rats. Administration of the minimum toxic dose of paracetamol (150mg/kg body weight) to animals (group II) produced significantly (P≤0.05) higher levels of alanine ...

  9. l-Methionine and silymarin: A comparison of prophylactic protective capabilities in acetaminophen-induced injuries of the liver, kidney and cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaolapo, Olakunle J; Adekola, Moses A; Azeez, Taiwo O; Salami, Karimat; Onaolapo, Adejoke Y

    2017-01-01

    We compared the relative protective abilities of silymarin and l-methionine pre-treatment in acetaminophen overdose injuries of the liver, kidney and cerebral cortex by assessing behaviours, antioxidant status, tissue histological changes and biochemical parameters of hepatic/renal function. Rats were divided into six groups of ten each; animals in five of these groups were pre-treated with oral distilled water, silymarin (25mg/kg) or l-methionine (2.5, 5 and 10mg/kg body weight) for 14days; and then administered intraperitoneal (i.p.) acetaminophen at 800mg/kg/day for 3days. Rats in the sixth group (normal control) received distilled water orally for 14days and then i.p. for 3days. Neurobehavioural tests were conducted 7days after last i.p treatment, and animals sacrificed on the 8th day. Plasma was assayed for biochemical markers of liver/kidney function; while sections of the liver, kidney and cerebral cortex were either homogenised for assay of antioxidant status or processed for histology. Acetaminophen overdose resulted in locomotor retardation, excessive self-grooming, working-memory impairment, anxiety, derangement of liver/kidney biochemistry, antioxidant imbalance, and histological changes in the liver, kidney and cerebral cortex. Administration of silymarin or increasing doses of l-methionine counteracted the behavioural changes, reversed biochemical indices of liver/kidney injury, and improved antioxidant activity. Silymarin and l-methionine also conferred variable degrees of tissue protection, on histology. Either silymarin or l-methionine can protect vulnerable tissues from acetaminophen overdose injury; however, each offers variable protection to different tissues. This study highlights an obstacle to seeking the 'ideal' protective agent against acetaminophen overdose. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Ibuprofen versus Acetaminophen in Controlling Postoperative Impacted Third Molar Tooth Extraction Pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.; Bukhari, S. G. A.; Ahmad, W.; Rubbab,; Junaid, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the efficacy of ibuprofen and acetaminophen in reducing postoperative third molar extraction pain in patients reporting to Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry. Study design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and duration of study: The study was carried out on patients who presented for surgical removal of impacted teeth at Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry Rawalpindi (AFID) from February 2008 to March 2--9 at the Department of Oral Surgery, Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry Rawalpindi. Patients and methods: One hundred and forty patients requiring surgical removal of mandibular impacted teeth were equally divided into two groups. Surgical extraction of third molar tooth was performed under local anesthesia. Patients in group A were given ibuprofen and in group B were given acetaminophen at 6 hourly intervals. First dose was given 3 hours postoperatively. Each patient rated pain on a visual analog scale at baseline and then at 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours postoperatively. Results: There was statistically significant difference (p=0.025) during first 12 hours with ibuprofen group showing better efficacy but afterwards there was no significant difference in the efficacy of both drugs. Conclusions: Ibuprofen is more effective in controlling severe third molar extraction pain as compared to acetaminophen but has similar efficacy in controlling moderate pain. (author)

  11. Degradation of paracetamol by pure bacterial cultures and their microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Hu, Jun; Zhu, Runye; Zhou, Qingwei; Chen, Jianmeng

    2013-04-01

    Three bacterial strains utilizing paracetamol as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source were isolated from a paracetamol-degrading aerobic aggregate, and assigned to species of the genera Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas. The Stenotrophomonas species have not included any known paracetamol degraders until now. In batch cultures, the organisms f1, f2, and fg-2 could perform complete degradation of paracetamol at concentrations of 400, 2,500, and 2,000 mg/L or below, respectively. A combination of three microbial strains resulted in significantly improved degradation and mineralization of paracetamol. The co-culture was able to use paracetamol up to concentrations of 4,000 mg/L, and mineralized 87.1 % of the added paracetamol at the initial of 2,000 mg/L. Two key metabolites of the biodegradation pathway of paracetamol, 4-aminophenol, and hydroquinone were detected. Paracetamol was degraded predominantly via 4-aminophenol to hydroquinone with subsequent ring fission, suggesting new pathways for paracetamol-degrading bacteria. The degradation of paracetamol could thus be performed by the single isolates, but is stimulated by a synergistic interaction of the three-member consortium, suggesting a possible complementary interaction among the various isolates. The exact roles of each of the strains in the consortium need to be further elucidated.

  12. Paracetamol sharpens reflection and spatial memory: a double-blind randomized controlled study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Gisèle; Macian, Nicolas; Dubray, Claude; Pereira, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP, paracetamol) mechanism for analgesic and antipyretic outcomes has been largely addressed, but APAP action on cognitive function has not been studied in humans. Animal studies have suggested an improved cognitive performance but the link with analgesic and antipyretic modes of action is incomplete. This study aims at exploring cognitive tests in healthy volunteers in the context of antinociception and temperature regulation. A double-blind randomized controlled study (NCT01390467) was carried out from May 30, 2011 to July 12, 2011. Forty healthy volunteers were included and analyzed. Nociceptive thresholds, core temperature (body temperature), and a battery of cognitive tests were recorded before and after oral APAP (2 g) or placebo: Information sampling task for predecisional processing, Stockings of Cambridge for spatial memory, reaction time, delayed matching of sample, and pattern recognition memory tests. Analysis of variance for repeated measures adapted to crossover design was performed and a two-tailed type I error was fixed at 5%. APAP improved information sampling task (diminution of the number of errors, latency to open boxes, and increased number of opened boxes; all P memory initial thinking time were decreased ( P =0.04). All other tests were not modified by APAP. APAP had an antinociceptive effect ( P body temperature did not change. This study shows for the first time that APAP sharpens decision making and planning strategy in healthy volunteers and that cognitive performance and antinociception are independent of APAP effect on thermogenesis. We suggest that cognitive performance mirrors the analgesic rather than thermic cascade of events, with possibly a central role for serotonergic and cannabinoid systems that need to be explored further in the context of pain and cognition.

  13. PANSAID - PAracetamol and NSAID in combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Kasper Højgaard; Hägi-Pedersen, Daniel; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2017-01-01

    compared to monotherapy. The objective of this trial is to investigate the analgesic effects and safety of paracetamol and ibuprofen alone and in combination in different dosages after THA. METHODS: PANSAID is a placebo-controlled, parallel four-group, multicentre trial with centralised computer......-generated allocation sequence and allocation concealment and with varying block size and stratification by site. Blinding of assessor, investigator, caregivers, patients and statisticians. Patients are randomised to four groups: (A) paracetamol 1 g × 4 and ibuprofen 400 mg × 4, (B) paracetamol 1 g × 4 and placebo, (C......) placebo and ibuprofen 400 mg × 4 and (D) paracetamol 0.5 g × 4 and ibuprofen 200 mg. The two co-primary outcomes are 24-h consumption of morphine and number of patients with one or more serious adverse events within 90 days after surgery. Secondary outcomes are pain scores during mobilisation and at rest...

  14. Intravenous paracetamol with a lower dose is also effective for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in pre-term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekgündüz, Kadir Şerafettin; Ceviz, Naci; Caner, İbrahim; Olgun, Haşim; Demirelli, Yaşar; Yolcu, Canan; Şahin, İrfan Oğuz; Kara, Mustafa

    2015-08-01

    Haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in pre-term infants. This retrospective study was conducted to investigate the usefulness of lower-dose paracetamol for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in pre-term infants. A total of 13 pre-term infants who received intravenous paracetamol because of contrindications or side effects to oral ibuprofen were retrospectively enrolled. In the first patient, the dose regimen was 15 mg/kg/dose, every 6 hours. As the patient developed significant elevation in transaminase levels, the dose was decreased to 10 mg/kg/dose, every 8 hours in the following 12 patients. Echocardiographic examination was conducted daily. In case of closure, it was repeated after 2 days and when needed thereafter in terms of reopening. A total of 13 patients received intravenous paracetamol. Median gestational age was 29 weeks ranging from 24 to 31 weeks and birth weight was 950 g ranging from 470 to 1390 g. The median postnatal age at the first intravenous paracetamol dose was 3 days ranging from 2 to 9 days. In 10 of the 13 patients (76.9%), patent ductus arteriosus was closed at the median 2nd day of intravenous paracetamol ranging from 1 to 4 days. When the patient who developed hepatotoxicity was eliminated, the closure rate was found to be 83.3% (10/12). Intravenous paracetamol may be a useful treatment option for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in pre-term infants with contrindication to ibuprofen. In our experience, lower-dose paracetamol is effective in closing the patent ductus arteriosus in 83.3% of the cases.

  15. Gold nanoparticles ameliorate acetaminophen induced hepato-renal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshi, Mohd Salim; Shrivastava, Sadhana; Jaswal, Amita; Sinha, Neelu; Uthra, Chhavi; Shukla, Sangeeta

    2017-04-04

    Valuable effects of gold particles have been reported and used in complementary medicine for decades. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) against acetaminophen (APAP) induced toxicity. Albino rats were administered APAP at a dose of 2g/kg p.o. once only. After 24h of APAP intoxication, animals were treated with three different doses of AuNPs (50μg/kg, 100μg/kg, 150μg/kg) orally or silymarin at a dose of 50mg/kg p.o., once only. Animals of all the groups were sacrificed after 24h of last treatment. APAP administered group showed a significant rise in the AST, ALT, SALP, LDH, cholesterol, bilirubin, albumin, urea and creatinine in serum which indicated the hepato-renal damage. A significantly enhanced LPO and a depleted level of GSH were observed in APAP intoxicated rats. Declined activities of SOD and Catalase, after acetaminophen exposure indicated oxidative stress in liver and kidney. The activities of ATPase and glucose-6-Phosphatase were significantly inhibited after APAP administration. AuNPs treatment reversed all variables significantly towards normal level and was found nontoxic. Thus it is concluded that gold nanoparticles played a beneficial role in reducing acetaminophen induced toxicity and can be used in the development of drug against hepatic as well as renal diseases, after further preclinical and clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Hyperamylasaemia and acute pancreatitis in paracetamol poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L E; Dalhoff, K

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyperamylasaemia and even acute pancreatitis have been reported in patients with paracetamol poisoning. AIMS: To describe the incidence, clinical characteristics, and prognostic implications of hyperamylasaemia in paracetamol poisoning. PATIENTS: Six hundred and two patients transferred...... to a specialized unit with severe paracetamol poisoning and 212 unselected patients admitted from the local region. METHODS: Retrospective study based on hospital charts. The optimum threshold of serum amylase to discriminate non-survivors was identified. RESULTS: An elevated serum amylase (>100 U/L) occurred...... in 28 of the unselected patients (13%), in 218 of the transferred patients (36%), and in 118 of 148 patients (80%) with fulminant hepatic failure. Only 33 cases of paracetamol-associated acute pancreatitis were diagnosed. A threshold serum amylase of 150 U/L to discriminate non-survivors had sensitivity...

  17. PANSAID-PAracetamol and NSAID in combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Kasper Højgaard; Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Hägi-Pedersen, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effective postoperative pain management is essential for the rehabilitation of the surgical patient. The PANSAID trial evaluates the analgesic effects and safety of the combination of paracetamol and ibuprofen. This paper describes in detail the statistical analysis plan for the primary...... publication to prevent outcome reporting bias and data-driven analysis results. METHODS/DESIGN: The PANSAID trial is a multicentre, randomised, controlled, parallel, four-group clinical trial comparing the beneficial and harmful effects of different doses and combinations of paracetamol and ibuprofen...... of paracetamol and ibuprofen used in a perioperative setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.org identifier: NCT02571361 . Registered on 7 October 2015....

  18. Use of Arctium lappa Extract Against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kott, Attalla Farag; Bin-Meferij, Mashael Mohammed

    2015-12-01

    Severe destructive hepatic injuries can be induced by acetaminophen overdose and may lead to acute hepatic failure. To investigate the ameliorative effects of Arctium lappa root extract on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Rats were divided into 4 groups: normal control group, Arctium lappa extract group, acetaminophen-injected group, and acetaminophen treated with Arctium lappa extract group. The treatment with Arctium lappa extract reduced serum alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase in the acetaminophen group when compared with the control group. DNA fragments in the acetaminophen-injected group were also significantly increased (P Arctium lappa treatment (12.97±0.89 nmol/mg) when compared with the acetaminophen-treated-only group (12.97±0.89 nmol/mg). Histopathologic examination revealed that acetaminophen administration produced hepatic cell necrosis, infiltrate of lymphocytes, and vacuolation that were associated with the acetaminophen-treated animal group, but the degree of acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity was mediated by treatment with Arctium lappa extract. Arctium lappa can prevent most of the hepatic tissue damage caused by acetaminophen overdose in rats.

  19. Compound list: acetaminophen [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available acetaminophen APAP 00001 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/acetam...inophen.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/acetam...inophen.Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/i...cedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/acetaminophen.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ftp...://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Single/acetaminophen.Rat.in_vivo.Kidn

  20. A graphene-based electrochemical sensor for sensitive detection of paracetamol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Xinhuang; Wang, Jun; Wu, Hong; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-05-15

    An electrochemical sensor based on the electrocatalytic activity of functionalized graphene for sensitive detection of paracetamol is presented. The electrochemical behaviors of paracetamol on graphene-modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and square-wave voltammetry. The results showed that the graphene-modified electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity to paracetamol. A quasi-reversible redox process of paracetamol at the modified electrode was obtained, and the over-potential of paracetamol decreased significantly compared with that at the bare GCE. Such electrocatalytic behavior of graphene is attributed to its unique physical and chemical properties, e.g., subtle electronic characteristics, attractive π–π interaction, and strong adsorptive capability. The sensor shows great promise for simple, sensitive, and quantitative detection of paracetamol.

  1. Exacerbation of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity by the anthelmentic drug fenbendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Carol R; Mishin, Vladimir; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Laskin, Debra L

    2012-02-01

    Fenbendazole is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic drug widely used to prevent or treat nematode infections in laboratory rodent colonies. Potential interactions between fenbendazole and hepatotoxicants such as acetaminophen are unknown, and this was investigated in this study. Mice were fed a control diet or a diet containing fenbendazole (8-12 mg/kg/day) for 7 days prior to treatment with acetaminophen (300 mg/kg) or phosphate buffered saline. In mice fed a control diet, acetaminophen administration resulted in centrilobular hepatic necrosis and increases in serum transaminases, which were evident within 12 h. Acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity was markedly increased in mice fed the fenbendazole-containing diet, as measured histologically and by significant increases in serum transaminase levels. Moreover, in mice fed the fenbendazole-containing diet, but not the control diet, 63% mortality was observed within 24 h of acetaminophen administration. Fenbendazole by itself had no effect on liver histology or serum transaminases. To determine if exaggerated hepatotoxicity was due to alterations in acetaminophen metabolism, we analyzed sera for the presence of free acetaminophen and acetaminophen-glucuronide. We found that there were no differences in acetaminophen turnover. We also measured cytochrome P450 (cyp) 2e1, cyp3a, and cyp1a2 activity. Whereas fenbendazole had no effect on the activity of cyp2e1 or cyp3a, cyp1a2 was suppressed. A prolonged suppression of hepatic glutathione (GSH) was also observed in acetaminophen-treated mice fed the fenbendazole-containing diet when compared with the control diet. These data demonstrate that fenbendazole exacerbates the hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen, an effect that is related to persistent GSH depletion. These findings are novel and suggest a potential drug-drug interaction that should be considered in experimental protocols evaluating mechanisms of hepatotoxicity in rodent colonies treated with fenbendazole.

  2. Factors influencing circadian rhythms in acetaminophen lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, R C; Bozigian, H P; Davies, M H; Merrick, B A; Park, K S; McMillan, D A

    1984-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of changes in lighting schedules and food consumption on circadian rhythms in acetaminophen lethality and hepatic glutathione levels in male mice. Under a normal lighting schedule (light: 06.00-18.00 h), male mice exhibited a circadian rhythm in acetaminophen lethality (peak: 18.00 h; nadir: 06.00, 10.00 h) and an inverse rhythm in hepatic glutathione concentrations (peak: 06.00, 10.00 h; nadir: 18.00 h). Under a reversed lighting schedule (light: 18.00-06.00 h) the glutathione rhythm was reversed and the rhythm in acetaminophen lethality was altered showing greater sensitivity to the drug. Under continuous light, there was a shift in the acetaminophen lethality and the hepatic glutathione rhythms. Under continuous dark, both rhythms were abolished. Under a normal lighting regimen, hepatic glutathione levels were closely correlated with food consumption; i.e., both were increased during the dark phase and decreased during the light phase. Fasting the mice for 12 h abolished the rhythms in acetaminophen lethality and hepatic glutathione levels; moreover, the lethality was increased and the hepatic glutathione levels were decreased. These experiments show that both lighting schedules and feeding can alter the circadian rhythms in acetaminophen lethality and hepatic glutathione levels in male mice.

  3. Intercalation of paracetamol into the hydrotalcite-like host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovanda, František; Maryšková, Zuzana; Kovář, Petr

    2011-12-01

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds are often used as host structures for intercalation of various anionic species. The product intercalated with the nonionic, water-soluble pharmaceuticals paracetamol, N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide, was prepared by rehydration of the Mg-Al mixed oxide obtained by calcination of hydrotalcite-like precursor at 500 °C. The successful intercalation of paracetamol molecules into the interlayer space was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy measurements. Molecular simulations showed that the phenolic hydroxyl groups of paracetamol interact with hydroxide sheets of the host via the hydroxyl groups of the positively charged sites of Al-containing octahedra; the interlayer water molecules are located mostly near the hydroxide sheets. The arrangement of paracetamol molecules in the interlayer is rather disordered and interactions between neighboring molecules cause their tilting towards the hydroxide sheets. Dissolution tests in various media showed slower release of paracetamol intercalated in the hydrotalcite-like host in comparison with tablets containing the powdered pharmaceuticals.

  4. Ibuprofen is superior to paracetamol for pain relief following third molar removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraiolo, Debra M; Veitz-Keenan, Analia

    2014-12-01

    The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials were searched with no language restrictions. Randomised controlled double-blinded clinical trials using the third molar model were included. Two review authors independently and in duplicate extracted data. The proportion of patients with at least 50% pain relief (based on total pain relief (TOTPAR) and summed pain intensity difference (SPID) data) was calculated for all three drugs at both two and six hours post-dosing and meta-analysed for comparison. Seven studies involving 2241 patients were included. Two studies were considered to be at low risk of bias, three at high risk and two unclear risk of bias. Ibuprofen was found to be a superior analgesic to paracetamol at several doses, with high quality evidence suggesting that ibuprofen 400 mg is superior to 1000 mg paracetamol based on pain relief (estimated from TOTPAR data) and the use of rescue medication meta-analyses. Risk ratio (RR) for at least 50% pain relief (based on TOTPAR) at six hours was 1.47 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28 to 1.69; five trials) favouring 400 mg ibuprofen over 1000 mg paracetamol, RR for not using rescue medication (also favouring ibuprofen) was 1.50 (95% CI 1.25 to 1.79; four trials). For combined drug RR for at least 50% of the maximum pain relief over six hours of 1.77 (95% CI 1.32 to 2.39) (paracetamol 1000 mg and ibuprofen 400 mg) (one trial; moderate quality evidence). RR not using rescue medication 1.60 (95% CI 1.36 to 1.88) (two trials; moderate quality evidence). Adverse events were comparable between the treatment groups, but no formal analysis could be undertaken. There is high quality evidence that ibuprofen is superior to paracetamol at doses of 200 mg to 512 mg and 600 mg to 1000 mg respectively based on pain relief and use of rescue medication data collected at six hours postoperatively. The

  5. Solubility and degradation of paracetamol in subcritical water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emire Zuhal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, solubility and degradation of paracetamol were examined using subcritical water. Effect of temperature and static time was investigated during solubility process in subcritical water at constant pressure (50 bar. Experimental results show that temperature and static time have crucial effect on the degradation and solubility rates. Maximum mole fraction for solubility of paracetamol was obtained at 403 K as (14.68 ± 0.74×103. Approximation model for solubility of paracetamol was proposed. O2 and H2O2 were used in degradation process of paracetamol. Maximum degradation rate was found as 68.66 ± 1.05 and 100 ± 0.00 % using O2 and H2O2, respectively.

  6. Powder compression properties of paracetamol, paracetamol hydrochloride, paracetamol cocrystals and coformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Ann-Sofie; Ahmed, Hamzah; Velaga, Sitaram; Alderborn, Göran

    2018-03-31

    The objective was to study the relationship between crystal structure, particle deformation properties and tablet-forming ability for the monoclinic form of paracetamol (PRA), two cocrystals and a salt crystal of PRA in addition to two coformers (oxalic acid and 4,4'-bipyridine). Thus, the structure - property - performance relationship was investigated. Analytical powder compression was used for determination of effective plasticity, as inferred from the Heckel yield pressure and the Frenning parameter, and the elastic deformation was determined from in-die tablet elastic recovery. plasticity could not be linked to the crystal lattice structure as crystals containing zig-zag layers displayed similar plasticity as cThe rystals containing slip planes. In addition, crystals containing slip-planes displayed both high and low plasticity. The mechanical properties could neither be linked to the tablet-forming ability as the tablet tensile strength, unexpectedly, displayed a tendency to reduce with increased plasticity stiffness. Furthermore, the elastic deformation could not explain the tablet forming ability. It was concluded that no relationship between structure - property - performance for paracetamol and its cocrystals and salt could be established. Thus, it was indicated that to establish such a relationship an improved knowledge of crystallographic structure and inter-particle bonding during compaction is needed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Acetaminophen overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Drugs . 16th ed. Waltham, MA: Elsevier; 2016:474-493. Hendrickson RG, McKeown, MJ. Acetaminophen. In: Marx ... RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers ...

  8. Potential protective effect of honey against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Reem M; Zaki, Hala F; Seif El-Nasr, Mona M; Agha, Azza M

    2012-11-01

    Paracetamol overdose causes severe hepatotoxicity that leads to liver failure in both humans and experimental animals. The present study investigates the protective effect of honey against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar albino rats. We have used silymarin as a standard reference hepatoprotective drug. Hepatoprotective activity was assessed by measuring biochemical parameters such as the liver function enzymes, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Equally, comparative effects of honey on oxidative stress biomarkers such as malondialdyhyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were also evaluated in the rat liver homogenates.  We estimated the effect of honey on serum levels and hepatic content of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) because the initial event in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity has been shown to be a toxic-metabolic injury that leads to hepatocyte death, activation of the innate immune response and upregulation of inflammatory cytokines. Paracetamol caused marked liver damage as noted by significant increased activities of serum AST and ALT as well as the level of Il-1β. Paracetamol also resulted in a significant decrease in liver GSH content and GPx activity which paralleled an increase in Il-1β and MDA levels. Pretreatment with honey and silymarin prior to the administration of paracetamol significantly prevented the increase in the serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers, and reduced both oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. Histopathological evaluation of the livers also revealed that honey reduced the incidence of paracetamol-induced liver lesions. Honey can be used as an effective hepatoprotective agent against paracetamol-induced liver damage.

  9. The protective potential and possible mechanism of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn. aqueous extract on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apichat Muso

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The hepatoprotective potential of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn. was studied on paracetamolinduced hepatotoxicity in rats by measuring the levels of serum transaminase (SGOT and SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and bilirubin, as well as by histopathological examination of the liver. Furthermore, the hepatoprotective mechanisms were investigated by determining the amount of paracetamol and its metabolites (glucuronide, sulfate, cysteine and mercapturic acid conjugates in urine and pentobarbital-induced sleeping time to indicate the inhibition on cytochrome P450. The involvement of glutathione was evaluated by determining hepatic reduced glutathione. Its radical scavenging activity, iron chelating activity and total phenolic content were also determined. P. amarus aqueous extracts (0.8, 1.6 or 3.2 g/kg were orally administered twice daily for 7 days prior, for 2 days after, or for 7 days prior and followed by 2 days after a single oral dose of paracetamol (3 g/kg. The results showed that the extract at the doses of 1.6 and 3.2 g/kg decreased the paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity as indicated by the decrease in SGOT, SGPT, bilirubin and histopathological score while the ALP did not change. Moreover, it is suggested that the hepatoprotective mechanism of this plant was related neither to the inhibition on cytochrome P450, nor to the induction on sulfate and/or glucuronide conjugation pathways of paracetamol, but partly due to the protective effect on the depletion of hepatic reduced glutathione and also its antioxidant activity, especially the radical scavenging and iron chelating activity, which might be related to the high polyphenolic contents. These results support the value of P. amarus, which has been used in Thai folk medicine for the treatment of liver diseases.

  10. Intravenous paracetamol overdose in a paediatric patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeks, Ilse J.; Van Roon, Eric N.; Van Pinxteren-Nagler, Evelyn; De Vries, Tjalling W.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paracetamol is a widely used drug in children. In therapeutic doses, paracetamol has an excellent safety profile. Since the introduction of the intravenous form in 2004, only three reports of accidental overdose in children have been published. The low number probably is due to

  11. Intake of paracetamol and risk of asthma in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon Francis; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skadhauge, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Intake of paracetamol has been associated with development of asthma. The aim of this study was to address a possible association between intake of paracetamol and risk of adult-onset asthma. Using a multidisciplinary postal questionnaire survey concerning health and lifestyle we prospectively...... studied 19,349 adult twins enrolled in the nationwide Danish Twin Registry. There was a higher prevalence of new-onset asthma in subjects who reported frequent intake of paracetamol at baseline compared with subjects without this determinant (12.0% vs. 4.3%), OR = 3.03 (1.51-6.11), p = 0.005. The result...... remained significant after adjusting for sex, age, smoking, BMI, hay fever, eczema, and intake of medications other than paracetamol, OR = 2.16 (1.03-4.53), p = 0.041. Frequent intake of paracetamol is an independent risk factor for adult-onset asthma....

  12. Effect of surfactants on the mechanical properties of acetaminophen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of non ionic surfactant on the mechanical properties of acetaminophen-wax matrix tablet and hence its implication on dissolution profile. Acetaminophen-wax matrix granules were prepared by melt granulation technique. This was formed by triturating acetaminophen ...

  13. Paracetamol suppository induced allergic contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangaraj Murugaiyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol, a para-aminophenol derivative given systemically can produce allergic reactions and has been reported so far, but allergic reaction due to suppositories is very rare. A 4 month old male child brought by his mother with complaints of raised dark coloured skin lesions over the perianal region for the past 3 days. The child had history of (H/o of fever for 4 days back for which paracetamol suppository was prescribed following which the child developed the lesion over the perianal region On examination a well defined hyperpigmented plaque of size 5*3 cms extending from anal verge posteriorly and anteriorly upto the beginning of scrotum with lateral extensions from the centre to the gluteals. In our case, the paracetamol suppository used caused an allergic reaction which made the child very irritable and the child developed an allergic contact dermatitis in the site where the suppository was kept and the surrounding area. We report this case because paracetamol suppository as such without preservative causing allergic contact dermatitis has not been reported so far and the treating doctor should keep in mind such type of reactions that might occur when used.

  14. Towards an understanding of the molecular mechanism of solvation of drug molecules: a thermodynamic approach by crystal lattice energy, sublimation, and solubility exemplified by paracetamol, acetanilide, and phenacetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovich, German L; Volkova, Tatyana V; Bauer-Brandl, Annette

    2006-10-01

    Temperature dependencies of saturated vapor pressure for the monoclinic modification of paracetamol (acetaminophen), acetanilide, and phenacetin (acetophenetidin) were measured and thermodynamic functions of sublimation calculated (paracetamol: DeltaGsub298=60.0 kJ/mol; DeltaHsub298=117.9+/-0.7 kJ/mol; DeltaSsub298=190+/-2 J/mol.K; acetanilide: DeltaGsub298=40.5 kJ/mol; DeltaHsub298=99.8+/-0.8 kJ/mol; DeltaSsub298=197+/-2 J/mol.K; phenacetin: DeltaGsub298=52.3 kJ/mol; DeltaHsub298=121.8+/-0.7 kJ/mol; DeltaSsub298=226+/-2 J/mol.K). Analysis of packing energies based on geometry optimization of molecules in the crystal lattices using diffraction data and the program Dmol3 was carried out. Parameters analyzed were: (a) energetic contribution of van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding to the total packing energy; (b) contributions of fragments of the molecules to the packing energy. The fraction of hydrogen bond energy in the packing energy increases as: phenacetin (17.5%)acetanilide (20.4%)acetanilide and phenacetin, entropy driven. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  15. Silymarin nanoparticle prevents paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Suvadra Das, Partha Roy, Runa Ghosh Auddy, Arup MukherjeeDepartment of Chemical Technology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West Bengal, IndiaAbstract: Silymarin (Sm is a polyphenolic component extracted from Silybum marianum. It is an antioxidant, traditionally used as an immunostimulant, hepatoprotectant, and dietary supplement. Relatively recently, Sm has proved to be a valuable chemopreventive and a useful antineoplastic agent. Medical success for Sm is, however, constrained by very low aqueous solubility and associated biopharmaceutical limitations. Sm flavonolignans are also susceptible to ion-catalyzed degradation in the gut. Proven antihepatotoxic activity of Sm cannot therefore be fully exploited in acute chemical poisoning conditions like that in paracetamol overdose. Moreover, a synchronous delivery that is required for hepatic regeneration is difficult to achieve by itself. This work is meant to circumvent the inherent limitations of Sm through the use of nanotechnology. Sm nanoparticles (Smnps were prepared by nanoprecipitation in polyvinyl alcohol stabilized Eudragit RS100® polymer (Rohm Pharma GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany. Process parameter optimization provided 67.39% entrapment efficiency and a Gaussian particle distribution of average size 120.37 nm. Sm release from the nanoparticles was considerably sustained for all formulations. Smnps were strongly protective against hepatic damage when tested in a paracetamol overdose hepatotoxicity model. Nanoparticles recorded no animal death even when administered after an established paracetamol-induced hepatic necrosis. Preventing progress of paracetamol hepatic damage was traced for an efficient glutathione regeneration to a level of 11.3 µmol/g in hepatic tissue due to Smnps.Keywords: silymarin, paracetamol, nanoparticle, glutathione, mouse hepatotoxicity

  16. Acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in HCV transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Takeki; Kosyk, Oksana; Jeannot, Emmanuelle; Bradford, Blair U.; Tech, Katherine; Macdonald, Jeffrey M.; Boorman, Gary A.; Chatterjee, Saurabh; Mason, Ronald P.; Melnyk, Stepan B.; Tryndyak, Volodymyr P.; Pogribny, Igor P.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The exact etiology of clinical cases of acute liver failure is difficult to ascertain and it is likely that various co-morbidity factors play a role. For example, epidemiological evidence suggests that coexistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increased the risk of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury, and was associated with an increased risk of progression to acute liver failure. However, little is known about possible mechanisms of enhanced acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in HCV-infected subjects. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that HCV-Tg mice may be more susceptible to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, and also evaluated the mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced liver damage in wild type and HCV-Tg mice expressing core, E1 and E2 proteins. Male mice were treated with a single dose of acetaminophen (300 or 500 mg/kg in fed animals; or 200 mg/kg in fasted animals; i.g.) and liver and serum endpoints were evaluated at 4 and 24 h after dosing. Our results suggest that in fed mice, liver toxicity in HCV-Tg mice is not markedly exaggerated as compared to the wild-type mice. In fasted mice, greater liver injury was observed in HCV-Tg mice. In fed mice dosed with 300 mg/kg acetaminophen, we observed that liver mitochondria in HCV-Tg mice exhibited signs of dysfunction showing the potential mechanism for increased susceptibility. -- Highlights: ► Acetaminophen-induced liver injury is a significant clinical challenge. ► HCV-infected subjects may be at higher risk for acetaminophen-induced liver injury. ► We used HCV transgenics to test if liver injury due to acetaminophen is exacerbated.

  17. Acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in HCV transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Takeki; Kosyk, Oksana; Jeannot, Emmanuelle; Bradford, Blair U. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Tech, Katherine; Macdonald, Jeffrey M. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Boorman, Gary A. [Covance, Chantilly, VA 20151 (United States); Chatterjee, Saurabh; Mason, Ronald P. [Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, RTP, NC 27713 (United States); Melnyk, Stepan B. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72201 (United States); Tryndyak, Volodymyr P.; Pogribny, Igor P. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Rusyn, Ivan, E-mail: iir@unc.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The exact etiology of clinical cases of acute liver failure is difficult to ascertain and it is likely that various co-morbidity factors play a role. For example, epidemiological evidence suggests that coexistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increased the risk of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury, and was associated with an increased risk of progression to acute liver failure. However, little is known about possible mechanisms of enhanced acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in HCV-infected subjects. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that HCV-Tg mice may be more susceptible to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, and also evaluated the mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced liver damage in wild type and HCV-Tg mice expressing core, E1 and E2 proteins. Male mice were treated with a single dose of acetaminophen (300 or 500 mg/kg in fed animals; or 200 mg/kg in fasted animals; i.g.) and liver and serum endpoints were evaluated at 4 and 24 h after dosing. Our results suggest that in fed mice, liver toxicity in HCV-Tg mice is not markedly exaggerated as compared to the wild-type mice. In fasted mice, greater liver injury was observed in HCV-Tg mice. In fed mice dosed with 300 mg/kg acetaminophen, we observed that liver mitochondria in HCV-Tg mice exhibited signs of dysfunction showing the potential mechanism for increased susceptibility. -- Highlights: ► Acetaminophen-induced liver injury is a significant clinical challenge. ► HCV-infected subjects may be at higher risk for acetaminophen-induced liver injury. ► We used HCV transgenics to test if liver injury due to acetaminophen is exacerbated.

  18. Concomitant overdosing of other drugs in patients with paracetamol poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars E; Dalhoff, Kim

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: Paracetamol is frequently involved in intended self-poisoning, and concomitant overdosing of other drugs is commonly reported. The purpose of the study was to investigate further concomitant drug overdose in patients with paracetamol poisoning and to evaluate its effects on the outcome...... of the paracetamol intoxication. METHODS: Six hundred and seventy-one consecutive patients admitted with paracetamol poisoning were studied and concomitant drug intake was recorded. The relative risk of hepatic encephalopathy, death or liver transplantation, hepatic dysfunction, liver cell damage, and renal...... favourable outcome was observed in patients with concomitant NSAID overdose. CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant overdosing of benzodiazepines or analgesics is frequent in patients admitted with paracetamol poisoning. Concomitant benzodiazepine or acetylsalicylic acid overdose was associated with more severe toxicity...

  19. Effects of Methionine Containing Paracetamol Formulation on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Methionine Containing Paracetamol Formulation on Serum Vitamins and Trace Elements in Male Rats. AA Iyanda, JI Anetor, DP Oparinde, FAA Adeniyi. Abstract. Methionine is an effective antidote in the treatment of paracetamol-induced toxicity but at large doses it has been reported to induce or aggravate a ...

  20. Acetaminophen Toxicosis in a Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan, Burçak

    2017-01-01

    Acetaminophen causes serious problems as toxication in cats in spite of being an effective and reliable analgesic and antipyretic in humans. A six months-old female cat suffering from cough was presented to examination to International Pet Hospital/Tirana/Albania when no result was obtained after one  acetaminophen tablet had been administered in order to heal the disease. Depression, grey and cyanotic mucous membranes and tongue, tachypnea, tachycardia, hypothermia were primary clinical sign...

  1. Developmental changes rather than repeated administration drive paracetamol glucuronidation in neonates and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekels, Elke H J; van Ham, Saskia; Allegaert, Karel; de Hoon, Jan; Tibboel, Dick; Danhof, Meindert; Knibbe, Catherijne A J

    2015-09-01

    Based on recovered metabolite ratios in urine, it has been concluded that paracetamol glucuronidation may be up-regulated upon multiple dosing. This study investigates paracetamol clearance in neonates and infants after single and multiple dosing using a population modelling approach. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed in NONMEM VI, based on paracetamol plasma concentrations from 54 preterm and term neonates and infants, and on paracetamol, paracetamol-glucuronide and paracetamol-sulphate amounts in urine from 22 of these patients. Patients received either a single intravenous propacetamol dose or up to 12 repeated doses. Paracetamol and metabolite disposition was best described with one-compartment models. The formation clearance of paracetamol-sulphate was 1.46 mL/min/kg(1.4), which was about 5.5 times higher than the formation clearance of the glucuronide of 0.266 mL/min/kg. The renal excretion rate constants of both metabolites was estimated to be 11.4 times higher than the excretion rate constant of unchanged paracetamol, yielding values of 0.580 mL/min/kg. Developmental changes were best described by bodyweight in linear relationships on the distribution volumes, the formation of paracetamol-glucuronide and the unchanged excretion of paracetamol, and in an exponential relationship on the formation of paracetamol-sulphate. There was no evidence for up-regulation or other time-varying changes in any of the model parameters. Simulations with this model illustrate how paracetamol-glucuronide recovery in urine increases over time due to the slower formation of this metabolite and in the absence of up-regulation. Developmental changes, described by bodyweight-based functions, rather than up-regulation, explain developmental changes in paracetamol disposition in neonates and infants.

  2. The role played by different TiO2 features on the photocatalytic degradation of paracetamol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Luca; Meroni, Daniela; Falletta, Ermelinda; Ferretti, Anna Maria; Gervasini, Antonella; Cappelletti, Giuseppe; Ardizzone, Silvia

    2017-12-01

    Photocatalytic reactions promoted by TiO2 can be affected by a large number of oxide features (e.g. surface area, morphology and phase composition). In this context, the role played by the surface characteristics (e.g. surface acidity, wettability, etc.) has been often disregarded. In this work, pristine and Ta-doped TiO2 nanomaterials with different phase composition (pure anatase and anatase/brookite mixture) were synthesized by sol-gel and characterized under the structural and morphological point of view. A careful characterization of the acid properties of the materials has been performed by liquid-solid acid-base titration by means of 2-phenylethylamine (PEA) adsorption to determine the acid site density and average acid strength. Photocatalytic tests were performed in the degradation of paracetamol (acetaminophen) under UV irradiation and results were discussed in the light of the detailed scenarios describing the different oxides. The surface acidity of the samples, was recognized as one of the key parameters controlling the photocatalytic activity. A possible molecule degradation route is proposed on the ground of GC-MS and ESI-MS analyses.

  3. Sensitivity of 1H NMR analysis of rat urine in relation to toxicometabonomics. Part I: Dose-dependent toxic fffects of Bromobenzene and paracetamol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, W.G.E.J.; Kloks, C.P.A.M.; Ploemen, J.P.H.T.M.; Horbach, G.J.; Smit, M.J.; Zandberg, P.; Mellema, J.R.; Zuylen, C.T. van; Tas, A.C.; Nesselrooij, J.H.J. van; Vogels, J.T.W.E.

    2007-01-01

    1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of rat urine in combination with pattern recognition analysis was evaluated for early noninvasive detection of toxicity of investigational chemical entities. Bromobenzene (B) and paracetamol (P) were administered at five single oral dosages between 2

  4. Evaluation of Palm Oil-Based Paracetamol Suppositories by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The suppository base was prepared by mixing hydrogenated palm oil and palm kernel ... DSC can be used to predict drug release in paracetamol suppository formulations. Keywords: Palm oil, Liquefaction time, Paracetamol, Suppositories, Thermal analysis. ..... Drug Evaluation & Research (CDER), Food and.

  5. The impact of current tobacco use on the outcome of paracetamol poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L E; Dalhoff, K

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoke contains a number of substances that are capable of inducing cytochrome P450. Consequently, current tobacco use may enhance the hepatotoxicity from a paracetamol overdose by increasing the oxidative metabolism of paracetamol. AIM: To evaluate, by multivariate analysis......: Current tobacco use was very frequent in patients admitted with paracetamol poisoning. It was an independent risk factor of severe hepatotoxicity, acute liver failure and death following paracetamol overdose......., the effect of current tobacco use on the morbidity and mortality from paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out on the basis of the hospital charts of 602 patients admitted with single-dose paracetamol poisoning for whom information on current tobacco use...

  6. Comparison of cold water sponging and acetaminophen in control of fever among children attending a tertiary hospital in South Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony M Aluka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A wide range of childhood illnesses are accompanied by fever, leading to varied attempts at treatment by caregivers at home before coming to a hospital. Common modalities of treatment include use of antipyretics and physical methods such as cold water sponging, fanning and removal of clothing. These treatment modalities have been received with varied attitudes among physicians and the scientific community. This study was to assess the efficacy of both modalities in first-line management of fever in our area. Objectives: The main aim of the study is to compare the effectiveness of cold water sponging with that of oral paracetamol in the treatment of fever in children attending the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar. Subjects and Methods: This is a randomized clinical trial. Eighty-eight children aged 12-120 months who presented to the Children Outpatient Clinic (CHOP and the Children Emergency Room (CHER of University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, with acute febrile illness and axillary temperatures spanning ≥ 38.0-40.0°C. All children within the age limit whose caregivers gave consent were recruited into the study and were randomized to receive either cold water sponging or oral paracetamol. Axillary temperature, pulse rate, respiratory rate and assessment of discomforts (crying, shivering, goose pimples and convulsions were recorded every 30 min for 2 h. The results were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software and have been presented in the tables. Results: Cold water sponging was very effective in temperature reduction within the first 30 min, with 29 (70.73% having their temperature reduced to within normal limits. This declined to 12 (29.26% at 60 min and 4 (10.53% at 120 min, with the mean temperature differences from the baseline value following the same trends (1.63°C by 30 min, 0.91°C by 60 min and 0.39°C by 120 min. When compared with paracetamol, cold water sponging was more effective in

  7. A comparative study on Benzydamine HCL 0.5% and Acetaminophen Codeine in pain reduction following periodontal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshkhoonejad AA.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Systemic analgesics are frequently prescribed for pain reduction following periodontal surgery. This type of treatment, however, brings about some disadvantages due to its late effect and inherent side effects. Benzydamine hydrochloride mouth wash is a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with local anaesthetic properties. Side effects of benzydamine are minor such as tissue numbness, burning and stinging. It brings relief to pain and inflammation rapidly. Purpose: The goal of this study was to compare benzydamine HCL 0.15% and Acetaminophen codeine as analgesics following periodontal surgery. Materials and Methods: This clinical study was performed on 18 patients referred to periodontics Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All patients were affected with chronic mild or moderate periodontitis and required surgery at least at two oral sites with similar lesions. Each patient received benzdamine HCL after first surgery and Acetaminophen codein following second operation. Pain reduction was evaluated by Visual Analog Scale (VAS. Data were analyzed with Wilcoxon-Signed and Mann-Whitney non-parametric tests. Results: Analgesic effect of Acetaminophene codeine was significantly more than that of benzydamine HCL following Reriodontal surgery (P=0.008. No significant difference was found between analgesic effects of Acetaminophene codeine and benzydamine HCL in patients with chronic mild periodontitis (P=0.9, and in cases that osteoplasty (P=0-31 or no osseous surgery (P=0.18 were performed. Conclusion: In cases with mild post-operative pain following periodontal surgery, Benzydamine HCL and be prescribed as an analgesic. However, in other cases this mouth wash should be prescribed along with Acetaminophene codein to reduce systemic drugs consumption.

  8. Intentional and accidental paracetamol poisoning in childhood – a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kominek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol is one of the most commonly used analgesics and antipyretics available without limits as preparations of the OTC group (over the counter drugs. Overdose and poisoning with this drug always brings about the risk of acute hepatic failure. The objective of the study was a retrospective evaluation of patients hospitalized in the Paediatric Clinic during the period 2004–2012 due to poisoning with paracetamol.The analysis covered 44 patients hospitalized in the Paediatric Clinic during 2004–2012 due to poisoning with paracetamol. Patients were divided into three groups: intentional poisonings, accidental poisonings, and drug overdose.During the period of the study, 44 patients aged 2.1–17.1, poisoned with paracetamol, were hospitalized. Among these patients there were 30 (68.2% cases of intentional poisonings, 10 (22.7% of accidental poisonings, and only 4 patients (9.1% were children hospitalized after a paracetamol overdose. The majority of patients in all groups were females (93.3%.Paracetamol intoxication may occur after exceeding a single allowable dose, in the case of intentional poisoning, more rarely after exceeding the daily dose, in the case of intense pain complaints, or in the treatment of persistent fever.Based on the analysis performed, an increase was observed in the frequency of poisoning with paracetamol, especially intentional poisoning. Unlimited access to paracetamol as an OTC drug should be reconsidered.

  9. Silymarin prevents acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Papackova

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen or paracetamol (APAP overdose is a common cause of liver injury. Silymarin (SLM is a hepatoprotective agent widely used for treating liver injury of different origin. In order to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of SLM, Balb/c mice were pretreated with SLM (100 mg/kg b.wt. per os once daily for three days. Two hours after the last SLM dose, the mice were administered APAP (300 mg/kg b.wt. i.p. and killed 6 (T6, 12 (T12 and 24 (T24 hours later. SLM-treated mice exhibited a significant reduction in APAP-induced liver injury, assessed according to AST and ALT release and histological examination. SLM treatment significantly reduced superoxide production, as indicated by lower GSSG content, lower HO-1 induction, alleviated nitrosative stress, decreased p-JNK activation and direct measurement of mitochondrial superoxide production in vitro. SLM did not affect the APAP-induced decrease in CYP2E1 activity and expression during the first 12 hrs. Neutrophil infiltration and enhanced expression of inflammatory markers were first detected at T12 in both groups. Inflammation progressed in the APAP group at T24 but became attenuated in SLM-treated animals. Histological examination suggests that necrosis the dominant cell death pathway in APAP intoxication, which is partially preventable by SLM pretreatment. We demonstrate that SLM significantly protects against APAP-induced liver damage through the scavenger activity of SLM and the reduction of superoxide and peroxynitrite content. Neutrophil-induced damage is probably secondary to necrosis development.

  10. 3D extrusion printing of high drug loading immediate release paracetamol tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Shaban A; Alexander, Morgan R; Wildman, Ricky D; Wallace, Martin J; Sharpe, Sonja; Yoo, Jae; Roberts, Clive J

    2018-03-01

    The manufacture of immediate release high drug loading paracetamol oral tablets was achieved using an extrusion based 3D printer from a premixed water based paste formulation. The 3D printed tablets demonstrate that a very high drug (paracetamol) loading formulation (80% w/w) can be printed as an acceptable tablet using a method suitable for personalisation and distributed manufacture. Paracetamol is an example of a drug whose physical form can present challenges to traditional powder compression tableting. Printing avoids these issues and facilitates the relatively high drug loading. The 3D printed tablets were evaluated for physical and mechanical properties including weight variation, friability, breaking force, disintegration time, and dimensions and were within acceptable range as defined by the international standards stated in the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP). X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) was used to identify the physical form of the active. Additionally, XRPD, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to assess possible drug-excipient interactions. The 3D printed tablets were evaluated for drug release using a USP dissolution testing type I apparatus. The tablets showed a profile characteristic of the immediate release profile as intended based upon the active/excipient ratio used with disintegration in less than 60 s and release of most of the drug within 5 min. The results demonstrate the capability of 3D extrusion based printing to produce acceptable high-drug loading tablets from approved materials that comply with current USP standards. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of Arctium lappa Extract Against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    El-Kott, Attalla Farag; Bin-Meferij, Mashael Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Severe destructive hepatic injuries can be induced by acetaminophen overdose and may lead to acute hepatic failure. Objective: To investigate the ameliorative effects of Arctium lappa root extract on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: Rats were divided into 4 groups: normal control group, Arctium lappa extract group, acetaminophen-injected group, and acetaminophen treated with Arctium lappa extract group. Results: The treatment with Arctium lappa extract reduc...

  12. Underdosing of acetaminophen by parents and emergency department utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ran D; Scolnik, Dennis

    2004-02-01

    Fever is a common reason for parents to seek medical attention for their children. We conducted this study to document accuracy of parental administration of acetaminophen and to identify if parents who did not give an optimal dose would have decided not to come to the emergency department (ED) if the fever had diminished at home. A cross-sectional study including 248 caregivers of children who had a chief complaint of fever and had been given acetaminophen in the preceding 24 hours were interviewed. Enrollment was 86%. One hundred parents (47%) gave acetaminophen in the recommended dose, 26 parents (12%) gave an overdose, and 87 (41%) gave an underdose of acetaminophen. Half of the parents (54%) would not have come to the ED if the fever had subsided after using the antipyretic treatment at home. Children with significantly higher maximal temperature at home would not have been taken to the ED if fever had subsided. Parents who speak English as the primary language at home gave the recommended dose of acetaminophen more frequently than non-English-speaking parents. A significant portion of our population gives an underdose of acetaminophen, reflecting lack of knowledge or misuse. Based on parental reports, the majority of visits for fever might have been prevented, if parents had been successful in their effort to reduce temperature to below of what they considered as fever, but factors other than underdosing of acetaminophen probably encourage parents of febrile children to visit the ED.

  13. Radiolysis of paracetamol in dilute aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabó, László; Tóth, Tünde; Homlok, Renáta; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2012-01-01

    Using radiolytic experiments hydroxyl radical (main reactant in advanced oxidation processes) was shown to effectively destroy paracetamol molecules. The basic reaction is attachment to the ring. The hydroxy-cyclohexadienyl radical produced in the further reactions may transform to hydroxylated paracetamol derivatives or to quinone type molecules and acetamide. The initial efficiency of aromatic ring destruction in the absence of dissolved O 2 is c.a. 10%. The efficiency is 2–3 times higher in the presence of O 2 due to its reaction with intermediate hydroxy-cyclohexadienyl radical and the subsequent ring destruction reactions through peroxi radical. Upon irradiation the toxicity of solutions at low doses increases with the dose and then at higher doses it decreases. This is due to formation of compounds with higher toxicity than paracetamol (e.g. acetamide, hidroquinone). These products, however, are highly sensitive to irradiation and degrade easily. - Highlights: ► Paracetamol is easily degraded in aqueous solution by low dose irradiation. ► Main degradation products are hydroxylated molecules, acetamide and hydroquinone. ► Toxicity of solutions goes through a maximum as a function of dose.

  14. Radiolysis of paracetamol in dilute aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, Laszlo [Institute of Isotopes, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest (Hungary); Toth, Tuende [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest (Hungary); Homlok, Renata [Institute of Isotopes, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Takacs, Erzsebet [Institute of Isotopes, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Wojnarovits, Laszlo [Institute of Isotopes, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)

    2012-09-15

    Using radiolytic experiments hydroxyl radical (main reactant in advanced oxidation processes) was shown to effectively destroy paracetamol molecules. The basic reaction is attachment to the ring. The hydroxy-cyclohexadienyl radical produced in the further reactions may transform to hydroxylated paracetamol derivatives or to quinone type molecules and acetamide. The initial efficiency of aromatic ring destruction in the absence of dissolved O{sub 2} is c.a. 10%. The efficiency is 2-3 times higher in the presence of O{sub 2} due to its reaction with intermediate hydroxy-cyclohexadienyl radical and the subsequent ring destruction reactions through peroxi radical. Upon irradiation the toxicity of solutions at low doses increases with the dose and then at higher doses it decreases. This is due to formation of compounds with higher toxicity than paracetamol (e.g. acetamide, hidroquinone). These products, however, are highly sensitive to irradiation and degrade easily. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paracetamol is easily degraded in aqueous solution by low dose irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Main degradation products are hydroxylated molecules, acetamide and hydroquinone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Toxicity of solutions goes through a maximum as a function of dose.

  15. The biochemistry of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity and rescue: a mathematical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Shachar Rotem

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetaminophen (N-acetyl-para-aminophenol is the most widely used over-the-counter or prescription painkiller in the world. Acetaminophen is metabolized in the liver where a toxic byproduct is produced that can be removed by conjugation with glutathione. Acetaminophen overdoses, either accidental or intentional, are the leading cause of acute liver failure in the United States, accounting for 56,000 emergency room visits per year. The standard treatment for overdose is N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, which is given to stimulate the production of glutathione. Methods We have created a mathematical model for acetaminophen transport and metabolism including the following compartments: gut, plasma, liver, tissue, urine. In the liver compartment the metabolism of acetaminophen includes sulfation, glucoronidation, conjugation with glutathione, production of the toxic metabolite, and liver damage, taking biochemical parameters from the literature whenever possible. This model is then connected to a previously constructed model of glutathione metabolism. Results We show that our model accurately reproduces published clinical and experimental data on the dose-dependent time course of acetaminophen in the plasma, the accumulation of acetaminophen and its metabolites in the urine, and the depletion of glutathione caused by conjugation with the toxic product. We use the model to study the extent of liver damage caused by overdoses or by chronic use of therapeutic doses, and the effects of polymorphisms in glucoronidation enzymes. We use the model to study the depletion of glutathione and the effect of the size and timing of N-acetyl-cysteine doses given as an antidote. Our model accurately predicts patient death or recovery depending on size of APAP overdose and time of treatment. Conclusions The mathematical model provides a new tool for studying the effects of various doses of acetaminophen on the liver metabolism of acetaminophen and

  16. Recommendations for the paracetamol treatment nomogram and side effects of N-acetylcysteine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, A.; van Riel, A.; de Vries, I.; Meulenbelt, J.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of paracetamol intoxication consists of administration of N-acetylcysteine, preferably shortly after paracetamol ingestion. In most countries, the decision to treat patients with N-acetylcysteine depends on the paracetamol plasma concentration. In the literature, different arguments are

  17. Chronic acetaminophen overdosing in children: risk assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztajnkrycer, M J; Bond, G R

    2001-04-01

    Acetaminophen is currently the pediatric analgesic and antipyretic of choice. Although children appear to tolerate single, high-dose ingestions well, the literature is replete with reports of significant morbidity and mortality after repeated supra-therapeutic dosing. Proposed risk factors for injury with chronic use include age, total dose, duration, presence of intercurrent febrile illness, starvation, co-administration of cytochrome P450-inducing drugs, underlying hepatic disease, and unique genetic makeup. Evaluation of these children should include serum acetaminophen concentration, prothrombin time, and serum bilirubin and transaminase concentrations. The Rumack-Mathew nomogram should not be used to estimate the risk of hepatotoxicity in cases of chronic ingestion. Based on history, clinical examination, and laboratory findings, patients may be placed in three categories: those without hepatic injury and with no residual acetaminophen to be metabolized, those without injury but with some acetaminophen to be metabolized, and those with hepatotoxicity. Those without injury and no residual acetaminophen need not be treated or followed. Patients with hepatotoxicity or potential for hepatotoxicity based on residual acetaminophen should be treated with N-acetylcysteine. Most importantly, because so many parents are unaware of the potential risk of inappropriate dosing, education is the key to preventing future cases.

  18. Evaluation of adsorption capacity of acetaminophen on activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate varying dosage forms of activated charcoal obtained from community pharmacy outlets in Nigeria for their adsorption capacity when challenged with acetaminophen. Methods: Equilibruim kinetics of acetaminophen adsorption onto activated charcoal surface was determined via batch studies at ...

  19. Acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs interact with morphine and tramadol analgesia for the treatment of neuropathic pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, Tomonari; Yamada, Toshihiko; Nonaka, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2015-06-01

    Although non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetaminophen have no proven efficacy against neuropathic pain, they are frequently prescribed for neuropathic pain patients. We examined whether the combination of opioids (tramadol and morphine) with indomethacin or acetaminophen produce favorable effects on neuropathic pain and compared the efficacy for neuropathic pain with that for inflammatory pain. The carrageenan model was used as the inflammatory pain model while the tibial neuroma transposition (TNT) model was used as the neuropathic pain model. The tibial nerve is transected in the TNT model, with the tibial nerve stump then transpositioned to the lateral aspect of the hindlimb. Neuropathic pain (mechanical allodynia and neuroma pain) is observed after TNT injury. Drugs were administered orally. In the carrageenan model, all drugs produced anti-allodynic effects and all drug combinations, but not tramadol + indomethacin combination, produced synergistic anti-allodynic effects. In the TNT model, tramadol and morphine, but not acetaminophen and indomethacin, produced anti-neuropathic pain effects. In the combination, with the exception of morphine + acetaminophen combination, both acetaminophen and indomethacin reduced the 50% effective dose (ED50) of tramadol and morphine as compared with the ED50s for the single drug study in the TNT model. The ED50s of tramadol and morphine in the carrageenan combination test were not statistically significantly different from the ED50s in the TNT model combination study. The combination of opioids with indomethacin or acetaminophen produced a synergistic analgesic effect both in inflammatory and neuropathic pain with some exceptions. The efficacy of these combinations for neuropathic pain was not different from that for inflammatory pain.

  20. Enhanced degradation of paracetamol by UV-C supported photo-Fenton process over Fenton oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manu, B; Mahamood, S

    2011-01-01

    For the treatment of paracetamol in water, the UV-C Fenton oxidation process and classic Fenton oxidation have been found to be the most effective. Paracetamol reduction and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal are measured as the objective functions to be maximized. The experimental conditions of the degradation of paracetamol are optimized by the Fenton process. Influent pH 3, initial H(2)O(2) dosage 60 mg/L, [H(2)O(2)]/[Fe(2+)] ratio 60 : 1 are the optimum conditions observed for 20 mg/L initial paracetamol concentration. At the optimum conditions, for 20 mg/L of initial paracetamol concentration, 82% paracetamol reduction and 68% COD removal by Fenton oxidation, and 91% paracetamol reduction and 82% COD removal by UV-C Fenton process are observed in a 120 min reaction time. By HPLC analysis, 100% removal of paracetamol is observed at the above optimum conditions for the Fenton process in 240 min and for the UV-C photo-Fenton process in 120 min. The methods are effective and they may be used in the paracetamol industry.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of Acetaminophen in Hind Limbs Unloaded Mice: A Model System Simulating the Effects of Low Gravity on Astronauts in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Amanda; Risin, Semyon A.; Ramesh, Govindarajan T.; Dasgupta, Amitava; Risin, Diana

    2008-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of medications administered to astronauts could be altered by the conditions in Space. Low gravity and free floating (and associated hemodynamic changes) could affect the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of the drugs. Knowledge of these alterations is essential for adjusting the dosage and the regimen of drug administration in astronauts. Acquiring of such knowledge has inherent difficulties due to limited opportunities for experimenting in Space. One of the approaches is to use model systems that simulate some of the Space conditions on Earth. In this study we used hind limbs unloaded mice (HLU) to investigate the possible changes in PK of acetaminophen, a widely used analgesic with high probability of use by astronauts. The HLU is recognized as an appropriate model for simulating the effects of low gravity on hemodynamic parameters. Mice were tail suspended (n = 24) for 24-96 hours prior to introduction of acetaminophen (150 - 300 mg/kg). The drug (in aqueous solution containing 10% ethyl alcohol by volume) was given orally by a gavage procedure and after the administration of acetaminophen mice were additionally suspended for 30 min, 1 and 2 hours. Control mice (n = 24) received the same dose of acetaminophen and were kept freely all the time. Blood specimens were obtained either from retroorbital venous sinuses or from heart. Acetaminophen concentration was measured in plasma by the fluorescent polarization immunoassay and the AxSYM analyzer (Abbott Laboratories). In control mice peak acetaminophen concentration was achieved at 30 min. By 1 hour the concentration decreased to less than 50% of the peak level and at 2 hours the drug was almost undetectable in the serum. HLU for 24 hours significantly altered the acetaminophen pharmacokinetic: at 30 min the acetaminophen concentrations were significantly (both statistically and medically significant) lower than in control mice. The concentrations also reduced less

  2. Acetaminophen, antibiotics, ear infection, breastfeeding, vitamin D drops, and autism: an epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittker SS

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Seth Scott Bittker,1 Kathleen Roberta Bell2 1Interdisciplinary Center for Innovative Theory and Empirics (INCITE, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; 2Independent Contractor, Waterloo, ON, Canada Background: While many studies have examined environmental risk factors for autism spectrum disorder (ASD, much of the research focus has been on prenatal or perinatal factors. Yet, the postnatal environment may affect the risk of ASD as well. Objective: To determine whether a set of five postnatal variables are associated with ASD. These variables are: acetaminophen exposure, antibiotic exposure, incidence of ear infection, decreased duration of breastfeeding, and decreased consumption of oral vitamin D drops. Materials and methods: An Internet-based survey was conducted. Participants were parents living in the USA with at least one biological child between 3 and 12 years of age. Potential participants were informed about the survey via postings on social media, websites, and listservs and were offered an opportunity to participate in a raffle as well. Participants were also recruited through the Interactive Autism Network. Results: There were 1,741 completed survey responses. After exclusions, there remained 1,001 responses associated with children with ASD (cases and 514 responses associated with children who do not have ASD (controls. In this data set, doses of postnatal acetaminophen (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.016, CI: 1.003–1.032, p=0.026, courses of postnatal antibiotics (aOR 1.103, CI: 1.046–1.168, p<0.001, incidence of postnatal ear infection (aOR 1.137, CI: 1.046–1.236, p=0.003, and decreased duration of breastfeeding (aOR 0.948, CI: 0.932–0.965, p<0.001 are all associated with ASD when adjusted for eight demographic variables. A weak association between oral vitamin D drop exposure and ASD was also found when adjusted for breastfeeding and demographics (aOR 1.025, CI: 0.995–1.056, p=0.102. Conclusion: This study adds to

  3. Paracetamol potentiates the antidepressant-like and anticompulsive-like effects of fluoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Shyamshree S S; Umathe, Sudhir N

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies suggest the possible involvement of serotonergic and endocannabinoid systems in analgesic, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant-like actions of paracetamol. Considering the fact that these systems play intricate roles in affective disorders, we investigated the effects of paracetamol in depression-like and compulsion-like behavior. Swiss mice (20-22 g) were subjected to forced swim, tail suspension, or marble-burying tests after an injection of paracetamol either alone or in the presence of AM251 (a CB1 antagonist), fenclonine (pCPA: a 5-HT synthesis inhibitor), AM404 (anandamide uptake inhibitor) or fluoxetine. Paracetamol dose dependently (50-400 mg/kg) decreased depressive and compulsive behaviors. These effects were comparable to those of fluoxetine (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) and AM404 (10 or 20 mg/kg). Interestingly, fenclonine pretreatment completely abolished the effects of a 50 mg/kg dose of paracetamol. However, similar effects were not observed in AM251-pretreated mice at the same dose. In contrast, AM251 completely antagonized the effects of the 400 mg/kg dose, which was otherwise partially blocked in fenclonine-treated mice. Similar sets of results were observed with fluoxetine and AM404. Thus, it appears that paracetamol-induced antidepressant-like and anticompulsive effects may, at least partially, involve both the serotonergic and the endocannabinoid system. In addition, coadministration of paracetamol and fluoxetine/AM404 at subeffective doses produced synergistic effects, indicating that subthreshold doses of fluoxetine and paracetamol may enable better management in depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder comorbid patients.

  4. Treatment with paracetamol, ketorolac or etoricoxib did not hinder alveolar bone healing: a histometric study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Nogueira Fracon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostaglandins control osteoblastic and osteoclastic function under physiological or pathological conditions and are important modulators of the bone healing process. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX activity and consequently prostaglandins synthesis. Experimental and clinical evidence has indicated a risk for reparative bone formation related to the use of non-selective (COX-1 and COX-2 and COX-2 selective NSAIDs. Ketorolac is a non-selective NSAID which, at low doses, has a preferential COX-1 inhibitory effect and etoricoxib is a new selective COX-2 inhibitor. Although literature data have suggested that ketorolac can interfere negatively with long bone fracture healing, there seems to be no study associating etoricoxib with reparative bone formation. Paracetamol/acetaminophen, one of the first choices for pain control in clinical dentistry, has been considered a weak anti-inflammatory drug, although supposedly capable of inhibiting COX-2 activity in inflammatory sites. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether paracetamol, ketorolac and etoricoxib can hinder alveolar bone formation, taking the filling of rat extraction socket with newly formed bone as experimental model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The degree of new bone formation inside the alveolar socket was estimated two weeks after tooth extraction by a differential point-counting method, using an optical microscopy with a digital camera for image capture and histometry software. Differences between groups were analyzed by ANOVA after confirming a normal distribution of sample data. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Histometric results confirmed that none of the tested drugs had a detrimental effect in the volume fraction of bone trabeculae formed inside the alveolar socket.

  5. Paracetamol as a Post Prandial Marker for Gastric Emptying, A Food-Drug Interaction on Absorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Bartholomé

    Full Text Available The use of paracetamol as tool to determine gastric emptying was evaluated in a cross over study. Twelve healthy volunteers were included and each of them consumed two low and two high caloric meals. Paracetamol was mixed with a liquid meal and administered by a nasogastric feeding tube. The post prandial paracetamol plasma concentration time curve in all participants and the paracetamol concentration in the stomach content in six participants were determined. It was found that after paracetamol has left the stomach, based on analysis of the stomach content, there was still a substantial rise in the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve. Moreover, the difference in gastric emptying between high and low caloric meals was missed using the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve. The latter curves indicate that (i part of the paracetamol may leave the stomach much quicker than the meal and (ii part of the paracetamol may be relatively slowly absorbed in the duodenum. This can be explained by the partition of the homogenous paracetamol-meal mixture in the stomach in an aqueous phase and a solid bolus. The aqueous phase leaves the stomach quickly and the paracetamol in this phase is quickly absorbed in the duodenum, giving rise to the relatively steep increase of the paracetamol concentration in the plasma. The bolus leaves the stomach relatively slowly, and encapsulation by the bolus results in relatively slow uptake of paracetamol from the bolus in the duodenum. These findings implicate that paracetamol is not an accurate post prandial marker for gastric emptying. The paracetamol concentration time curve rather illustrates the food-drug interaction on absorption, which is not only governed by gastric emptying.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01335503 Nederlands Trial Register NTR2780.

  6. Prescription Use of Paracetamol and Risk for Ovarian Cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Louise; Friis, Søren; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that paracetamol reduces the risk for ovarian cancer. We examined the association between prescription use of paracetamol and ovarian cancer risk in a nationwide case-control study nested within the Danish female population. Case patients (n = 3471) were all women with a first......% confidence intervals (CIs) for ovarian cancer associated with use of paracetamol or nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). All statistical tests were two-sided. Use of paracetamol was associated with a reduced odds ratio for ovarian cancer (OR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.74 to 0.92; P ...) compared with nonuse, and the odds ratio decreased further with long-term (≥10 years), high-intensity paracetamol use (OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.24 to 0.86; P = .02). Use of nonaspirin NSAIDs was not associated with ovarian cancer risk....

  7. Efficacy of Preoperative Administration of Paracetamol-Codeine on Pain following Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Surgery: A Randomized, Split-Mouth, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paola Cristalli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of preoperative administration of single-dose of paracetamol-codeine, in the relieving of acute postoperative pain after the surgical removal of an impacted mandibular third molar. Materials and Methods. The study cohort consisted of 32 Caucasian outpatients, giving a total of 64 bilateral symmetrical impacted mandibles. Patients were randomized in two experimental groups to receive a preoperative oral dose of paracetamol-codeine (analgesic group or a placebo (placebo group at the first and second surgeries. Study participants were asked to record pain intensity scores during the operation and the next 2 days, the time of the first request for rescue analgesic, and the total number of postoperative-supplement paracetamol-codeine tablets. Results. The pain intensity score on the first day was significantly lower in the analgesic group than in the placebo group (p<0.001. The time to using rescue therapy was significantly longer in the analgesic group than in the placebo group (p=0.004. The number of paracetamol-codeine tablets used postoperatively did not differ between the analgesic and placebo groups (p=0.104. Conclusions. Preoperative paracetamol-codeine is effective in providing immediate postoperative pain control after third molar surgery and in delaying the initial onset of pain. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (Registration Number: NCT03049878.

  8. Placebo- and paracetamol-controlled study on the efficacy and tolerability of hyoscine butylbromide in the treatment of patients with recurrent crampy abdominal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller-Lissner, S.; Tytgat, G. N.; Paulo, L. G.; Quigley, E. M. M.; Bubeck, J.; Peil, H.; Schaefer, E.

    2006-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and tolerability of oral hyoscine butylbromide (hereafter hyoscine) 10 mg t.d.s., paracetamol 500 mg t.d.s. and their fixed combination against placebo in patients with recurrent crampy abdominal pain. A total of 1637 patients were entered into a four-arm double-blind study.

  9. Combined paracetamol and amitriptyline adsorption to activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Groenlykke, Thor Buch; Abildtrup, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. High-gram drug doses seen in multiple-drug poisonings might be close to the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal (AC). The aim was to determine the maximum adsorption capacities (Q(m)) of amitriptyline and paracetamol, separately and in combination, to AC. Methods. ACs (Carbomix......® and Norit Ready-To-Use) were tested in vitro. At pH 1.2 and pH 7.2, 0.250 g AC and paracetamol and/or amitriptyline were mixed and incubated. The AC: drug ratios were 10:1, 5:1, 3:1, 2:1, and 1:1. The mixed-drug adsorption vials contained the same AC: paracetamol ratios, but amitriptyline was added as fixed...... dose (0.080 g) to all samples. Drug concentrations in the liquid phase were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/UV-detection. Results. Q(m), amitriptyline, were 0.49 g/g Carbomix® and 0.70 g/g Norit Ready-To-Use, and Q(m), paracetamol, were 0.63 g/g Carbomix® and 0.72 g/g Norit...

  10. Exacerbation of Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity by the Anthelmentic Drug Fenbendazole

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Carol R.; Mishin, Vladimir; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2011-01-01

    Fenbendazole is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic drug widely used to prevent or treat nematode infections in laboratory rodent colonies. Potential interactions between fenbendazole and hepatotoxicants such as acetaminophen are unknown, and this was investigated in this study. Mice were fed a control diet or a diet containing fenbendazole (8–12 mg/kg/day) for 7 days prior to treatment with acetaminophen (300 mg/kg) or phosphate buffered saline. In mice fed a control diet, acetaminophen administra...

  11. Acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Brian J; van Lingen, Richard A; Hansen, Tom G

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates through infancy to suggest age-appropriate dosing regimens.......The aim of this study was to describe acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates through infancy to suggest age-appropriate dosing regimens....

  12. Paracetamol removal in subsurface flow constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Ezio; Verlicchi, Paola; Young, Thomas M.

    2011-07-01

    SummaryIn this study two pilot scale Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands (HSFCWs) near Lecce, Italy, planted with different macrophytes ( Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia) and an unplanted control were assessed for their effectiveness in removing paracetamol. Residence time distributions (RTDs) for the two beds indicated that the Typha bed was characterized by a void volume fraction (porosity) of 0.16 and exhibited more ideal plug flow behavior (Pe = 29.7) than the Phragmites bed (Pe = 26.7), which had similar porosity. The measured hydraulic residence times in the planted beds were 35.8 and 36.7 h when the flow was equal to 1 m 3/d. The Phragmites bed exhibited a range of paracetamol removals from 51.7% for a Hydraulic Loading Rate (HLR) of 240 mm/d to 87% with 120 mm/d HLR and 99.9% with 30 mm/d. The Typha bed showed a similar behavior with percentages of removal slightly lower, ranging from 46.7% (HLR of 240 mm/d) to >99.9% (hydraulic loading rate of 30 mm/d). At the same HLR values the unplanted bed removed between 51.3% and 97.6% of the paracetamol. In all three treatments the paracetamol removal was higher with flow of 1 m 3/d and an area of approx. 7.5 m 2 (half bed) than in the case of flow equal to 0.5 m 3/d with a surface treatment of approx. 3.75 m 2. A first order model for paracetamol removal was evaluated and half lives of 5.16 to 10.2 h were obtained.

  13. 'Omics analysis of low dose acetaminophen intake demonstrates novel response pathways in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jetten, Marlon J.A.; Gaj, Stan; Ruiz-Aracama, Ainhoa; Kok, Theo M. de; Delft, Joost H.M. van; Lommen, Arjen; Someren, Eugene P. van; Jennen, Danyel G.J.; Claessen, Sandra M.; Peijnenburg, Ad A.C.M.; Stierum, Rob H.; Kleinjans, Jos C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Acetaminophen is the primary cause of acute liver toxicity in Europe/USA, which led the FDA to reconsider recommendations concerning safe acetaminophen dosage/use. Unfortunately, the current tests for liver toxicity are no ideal predictive markers for liver injury, i.e. they only measure acetaminophen exposure after profound liver toxicity has already occurred. Furthermore, these tests do not provide mechanistic information. Here, 'omics techniques (global analysis of metabolomic/gene-expression responses) may provide additional insight. To better understand acetaminophen-induced responses at low doses, we evaluated the effects of (sub-)therapeutic acetaminophen doses on metabolite formation and global gene-expression changes (including, for the first time, full-genome human miRNA expression changes) in blood/urine samples from healthy human volunteers. Many known and several new acetaminophen-metabolites were detected, in particular in relation to hepatotoxicity-linked, oxidative metabolism of acetaminophen. Transcriptomic changes indicated immune-modulating effects (2 g dose) and oxidative stress responses (4 g dose). For the first time, effects of acetaminophen on full-genome human miRNA expression have been considered and confirmed the findings on mRNA level. 'Omics techniques outperformed clinical chemistry tests and revealed novel response pathways to acetaminophen in humans. Although no definitive conclusion about potential immunotoxic effects of acetaminophen can be drawn from this study, there are clear indications that the immune system is triggered even after intake of low doses of acetaminophen. Also, oxidative stress-related gene responses, similar to those seen after high dose acetaminophen exposure, suggest the occurrence of possible pre-toxic effects of therapeutic acetaminophen doses. Possibly, these effects are related to dose-dependent increases in levels of hepatotoxicity-related metabolites. -- Highlights: ► 'Omics techniques outperformed

  14. Accuracy of the paracetamol-aminotransferase product to predict hepatotoxicity in paracetamol overdose treated with a 2-bag acetylcysteine regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anselm; Sivilotti, Marco L A; Gunja, Naren; McNulty, Richard; Graudins, Andis

    2018-03-01

    Paracetamol concentration is a highly accurate risk predictor for hepatotoxicity following overdose with known time of ingestion. However, the paracetamol-aminotransferase multiplication product can be used as a risk predictor independent of timing or ingestion type. Validated in patients treated with the traditional, "three-bag" intravenous acetylcysteine regimen, we evaluated the accuracy of the multiplication product in paracetamol overdose treated with a two-bag acetylcysteine regimen. We examined consecutive patients treated with the two-bag regimen from five emergency departments over a two-year period. We assessed the predictive accuracy of initial multiplication product for the primary outcome of hepatotoxicity (peak alanine aminotransferase ≥1000IU/L), as well as for acute liver injury (ALI), defined peak alanine aminotransferase ≥2× baseline and above 50IU/L). Of 447 paracetamol overdoses treated with the two-bag acetylcysteine regimen, 32 (7%) developed hepatotoxicity and 73 (16%) ALI. The pre-specified cut-off points of 1500 mg/L × IU/L (sensitivity 100% [95% CI 82%, 100%], specificity 62% [56%, 67%]) and 10,000 mg/L × IU/L (sensitivity 70% [47%, 87%], specificity of 97% [95%, 99%]) were highly accurate for predicting hepatotoxicity. There were few cases of hepatotoxicity irrespective of the product when acetylcysteine was administered within eight hours of overdose, when the product was largely determined by a high paracetamol concentration but normal aminotransferase. The multiplication product accurately predicts hepatotoxicity when using a two-bag acetylcysteine regimen, especially in patients treated more than eight hours post-overdose. Further studies are needed to assess the product as a method to adjust for exposure severity when testing efficacy of modified acetylcysteine regimens.

  15. Study of Nephrotoxic Potential of Acetaminophen in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, K.; Mohan, K.; Swamy, H. D. Narayana; Shridhar, N. B.; Bayer, M. D.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of acetaminophen on kidneys of birds by comparison with diclofenac that is used as positive control. The birds of Group I served as negative control and received normal saline, whereas Group II birds received diclofenac injection (2.5 mg/kg IM) and Group III birds received acetaminophen injection (10 mg/kg IM) for a period of seven days daily. The birds treated with diclofenac showed severe clinical signs of toxicity accompanied with high mortality and significant increase (P<0.001) in serum creatinine and uric acid concentration. The creatinine and uric acid concentrations were consistent with gross and histopathological findings. The negative control and acetaminophen-treated groups showed no adverse clinical signs, serum creatinine and uric acid concentrations were normal, and no gross or histopathological changes in kidneys were observed. Thus, it was concluded that acetaminophen can be used for treatment in birds without any adverse effect on kidneys. PMID:21170252

  16. Prenatal Paracetamol Exposure and Wheezing in Childhood: Causation or Confounding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Migliore

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported an increased risk of wheezing in the children of mothers who used paracetamol during pregnancy. We evaluated to what extent this association is explained by confounding.We investigated the association between maternal paracetamol use in the first and third trimester of pregnancy and ever wheezing or recurrent wheezing/asthma in infants in the NINFEA cohort study. Risks ratios (RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated after adjustment for confounders, including maternal infections and antibiotic use during pregnancy.The prevalence of maternal paracetamol use was 30.6% during the first and 36.7% during the third trimester of pregnancy. The prevalence of ever wheezing and recurrent wheezing/asthma was 16.9% and 5.6%, respectively. After full adjustment, the RR for ever wheezing decreased from 1.25 [1.07-1.47] to 1.10 [0.94-1.30] in the first, and from 1.26 [1.08-1.47] to 1.10 [0.93-1.29] in the third trimester. A similar pattern was observed for recurrent wheezing/asthma. Duration of maternal paracetamol use was not associated with either outcome. Further analyses on paracetamol use for three non-infectious disorders (sciatica, migraine, and headache revealed no increased risk of wheezing in children.The association between maternal paracetamol use during pregnancy and infant wheezing is mainly, if not completely explained by confounding.

  17. The impact of current tobacco use on the outcome of paracetamol poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L E; Dalhoff, K

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoke contains a number of substances that are capable of inducing cytochrome P450. Consequently, current tobacco use may enhance the hepatotoxicity from a paracetamol overdose by increasing the oxidative metabolism of paracetamol. AIM: To evaluate, by multivariate analysis......, the effect of current tobacco use on the morbidity and mortality from paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out on the basis of the hospital charts of 602 patients admitted with single-dose paracetamol poisoning for whom information on current tobacco use...... was available. RESULTS: In patients admitted with paracetamol poisoning, the rate of current daily tobacco use of 70% (424 of 602 patients) was considerably higher than the rate of 31% in the background population (chi-squared test: P

  18. Eficacia de la asociación paracetamol-metamizol vs. paracetamol-dexketoprofeno en manejo de dolor agudo postoperatorio

    OpenAIRE

    García Ramiro, M.; Alonso Guardo, L.; Matilla Álvarez, A.; Bartol Sevillano, R.; Vaquero Roncero, L. M.; Muriel Villoria, C.

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: El uso de fármacos con mecanismos diferentes combinados entre sí para el tratamiento del dolor, en concreto del dolor agudo postoperatorio, forma parte fundamental de un tipo de analgesia llamada multimodal. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la eficacia de la asociación de paracetamol más metamizol y compararla con la asociación de paracetamol más dexketoprofeno en dolor agudo postoperatorio. Métodos: Diseñamos un estudio prospectivo de intervención en el que se incluyeron 42 p...

  19. The Effect of Preemptive Lornoxicam, Paracetamol and Paracetamol Lornoxicam Combinations on the Quality of Patient-Controlled Analgesia After Abdominal Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysenur Coskun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We investigated total fentanyl dose, its side effects and the quality of Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA using preemptive paracetamol, lornoxicam and their combination after abdominal surgery. Material and Method: After approval of the Hospital Ethic Committee of Atatürk University, Erzurum, Turkey, The study included 120 ASA I or II, patients aged between 18 to 70 years, scheduled to undergo elective abdominal surgery (midline incision surgery. Patients were randomly divided into four groups. In all cases, anesthesia was induced with 2mg/kg propofol and 0.6mg/kg rocuronium. Anesthesia was maintained by using 1-1.5% sevoflurane in 60% 40% nitrous oxide - O2. Group control (Group C, n=30: received intravenous (i.v. fentanyl through Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA Group Lornoxicam (Group L, n=30: a one-time 8mg dose of i.v. lornoxicam was added, which was completed approximately 30 minutes before intubation.; Group paracetamol (Group P, n=30: received 1g i.v. paracetamol before intubation, followed by every 6 hours for a total of four times. Group lornoxicam and paracetamol (Group PL, n=30: received 8mg i.v. lornoxicam before intubation, and 1g i.v. paracetamol before intubation every 6 hours for a total of 4 times. During the postoperative 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours, visual analogue scale (VAS, sedation, and nausea-vomiting scores, patient satisfaction, incidence of side effects and total amount of fentanyl used were recorded. Results: Total postoperative fentanyl consumption was significantly higher in GC than of the other groups. At 2, 8, 12, 24. hours, fentanyl consumption was found to be significantly lower in GL than that in GC. In GPL, fentanyl consumption was significantly lower than in GC at all time points. Discussion: We observed that preemptive 8 mg lornoxicam decreased PCA fentanyl consumption but a combination of lornoxicam and paracetamol was not superior to lornoxicam alone.

  20. N-Acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol), N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide in urine samples from the general population, individuals exposed to aniline and paracetamol users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierkes, Georg; Weiss, Tobias; Modick, Hendrik; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest associations between the use of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol) during pregnancy and increased risks of reproductive disorders in the male offspring. Previously we have reported a ubiquitous urinary excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population. Possible sources are (1) direct intake of paracetamol through medication, (2) paracetamol residues in the food chain and (3) environmental exposure to aniline or related substances that are metabolized into N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. In order to elucidate the origins of the excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in urine and to contribute to the understanding of paracetamol and aniline metabolism in humans we developed a rapid, turbulent-flow HPLC-MS/MS method with isotope dilution for the simultaneous quantification of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol and two other aniline related metabolites, N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide. We applied this method to three sets of urine samples: (1) individuals with no known exposure to aniline and also no recent paracetamol medication; (2) individuals after occupational exposure to aniline but no paracetamol medication and (3) paracetamol users. We confirmed the omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. Additionally we revealed an omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-2-aminophenol. In contrast, acetanilide was only found after occupational exposure to aniline, not in the general population or after paracetamol use. The results lead to four preliminary conclusions: (1) other sources than aniline seem to be responsible for the major part of urinary N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population; (2) acetanilide is a metabolite of aniline in man and a valuable biomarker for aniline in occupational settings; (3) aniline baseline levels in the general population measured after chemical hydrolysis do not seem to originate from acetanilide and hence not from a direct exposure to aniline itself and (4) N-acetyl-2-aminophenol does not seem to be

  1. Consumer concerns about paracetamol: a retrospective analysis of a medicines call centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Stephanie M; McGuire, Treasure M; van Driel, Mieke L

    2016-06-08

    To identify consumer information needs about paracetamol, the most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic worldwide. Retrospective analysis of medicines questions from the public. Australian consumer medicines call centre. Callers to National Prescribing Service Medicines Line between September 2002 and June 2010 (n=123 217). Enquiry profile: demographics, enquiry type and concurrent medicines included in paracetamol calls; question themes derived from subset of call narratives. Paracetamol comprised part of the enquiry in 5.2% of calls (n=6367). The caller age distribution for paracetamol calls was skewed towards a younger cohort, with 45.2% made by those aged 25-44 vs 37.5% in 'rest of calls'. Significantly more paracetamol-related calls were made for a child (23.7%) compared with 'rest of calls' (12.7%, pConsumers have many concerns about the use of paracetamol that may be under-recognised by healthcare providers, with the nature of enquiries differing across life stages. These concerns are not adequately addressed by available consumer information. Improving access to targeted information about paracetamol would promote the safe and effective use of this common medicine. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. The Relevancy of paracetamol and Breastfeeding Post Infant Vaccination: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurain Suleiman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paracetamol may be used as an antipyretic agent for the treatment of fever, as well as an analgesic in the treatment of mild to moderate pain post-vaccination in infants. The use of paracetamol during fever may be or may not be recommended since it may alter the natural human body immune response, although it may reduce fever and fussiness. Objectives: The aims of this study are to describe the effectiveness of breastfeeding in reducing pain and paracetamol in reducing fever and pain post infant vaccination. Methods: Data sources and study selection was conducted by electronic searching of six databases. Manual reference checks of all articles on paracetamol and breastfeeding post infant vaccination published in the English language between 1978 and 2017. Two levels of screening were used on 9614 citations, which include screening of abstracts and titles followed by full text screening. The data synthesis were tabulated into study characteristics, quality, and effects. Results: Systematic review of breastfeeding included three studies from 9614 database searches found significant benefit from breastfeeding in pain scores and the duration of crying, as well as behavioural changes. None of the studies stated the detriment of breastfeeding before, during, and after immunization. Systematic review of paracetamol effectiveness included four studies from 1177 database searches found significant benefit from prophylaxis paracetamol in fever, one study found significant benefit from prophylaxis paracetamol in fussiness, and one study’s results were found to be not significant. Two studies on evaluating the safety of prophylactic paracetamol in 2009 found that antibody responses to several antigens were significantly reduced, and the other study in 1988 found that antibody titres to DTP bacteria of placebo and PCM did not differ significantly. Conclusions: The relevancy of giving paracetamol post all types of vaccination may be questionable

  3. Radiolysis of paracetamol in dilute aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, László; Tóth, Tünde; Homlok, Renáta; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2012-09-01

    Using radiolytic experiments hydroxyl radical (main reactant in advanced oxidation processes) was shown to effectively destroy paracetamol molecules. The basic reaction is attachment to the ring. The hydroxy-cyclohexadienyl radical produced in the further reactions may transform to hydroxylated paracetamol derivatives or to quinone type molecules and acetamide. The initial efficiency of aromatic ring destruction in the absence of dissolved O2 is c.a. 10%. The efficiency is 2-3 times higher in the presence of O2 due to its reaction with intermediate hydroxy-cyclohexadienyl radical and the subsequent ring destruction reactions through peroxi radical. Upon irradiation the toxicity of solutions at low doses increases with the dose and then at higher doses it decreases. This is due to formation of compounds with higher toxicity than paracetamol (e.g. acetamide, hidroquinone). These products, however, are highly sensitive to irradiation and degrade easily.

  4. Association of prenatal exposure to acetaminophen and coffee with childhood asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Liew, Zeyan; Olsen, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    PurposeSome studies have suggested that maternal acetaminophen use during pregnancy is associated with asthma in the offspring, and coffee consumption may modify the toxicity of acetaminophen. We aim to examine whether pregnancy maternal acetaminophen use increases the risk for offspring asthma......, and whether such a potential association could be modified by maternal coffee consumption. MethodsWe included 63 652 live-born singletons enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Maternal acetaminophen use and coffee consumption during pregnancy were assessed prospectively via the enrolment questionnaire...... and three computer-assisted telephone interviews. Asthma cases were identified by using the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Prescription Registry. We estimated the hazard ratios (HRs) for asthma according to prenatal acetaminophen and coffee exposure using Cox proportional hazards...

  5. SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF PARACETAMOL AND IBUPROFENE MIXTURES BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophi Damayanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Analytical method for the determination of paracetamol and ibuprofene mixtures has been developed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography using C-18 column and acetinitrile - phosphate buffer pH = 4.5 (75:25 containing 0.075% sodium hexanesulfunate as a mobile phase. The detector was set at 215 nm. Using such conditions, retention time for paracetamol and ibuprofen was 4.89 and 7.11 min, respectively. The recovery for paracetamol and ibuprofen was found to be 101.07± 0.73% and 102.02 ± 1.58%, respectively. The detector limits of the method was 1.30 and 1.60 μg/mL with the relative standard deviation (RSD 0.74 and 1.52% for paracetamol and ibuprofen, respectively.   Keywords: paracetamol, ibuprofen, multi-component, validation, HPLC.

  6. Plasma paracetamol concentrations and pharmacokinetics following rectal administration in neonates and young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; O'Brien, K; Morton, N S

    1999-01-01

    Despite widespread use in children pharmacokinetic data about paracetamol are relatively scarce, not the least in the youngest age groups. This study aimed to describe plasma paracetamol concentrations and pharmacokinetics of a single rectal paracetamol dose in neonates and young infants....

  7. Conformational analysis and vibrational spectroscopy of a paracetamol analogous: 2-Bromo-N-(2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)-2-methylpropanamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Rommel B.; Quintero, David E.; Viana, Anderson B.; Moreno-Fuquen, Rodolfo

    2017-11-01

    We conducted an experimental and quantum chemical investigation of the electronic properties and vibrational mode couplings of a structure analogous to a paracetamol (acetaminophen): 2-Bromo-N-(2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)-2-methylpropanamide. The spectroscopic and electronic properties were carried out with the PBE1PBE functional, and G3MP2 was used to predict the heat of formation. Among the E/Z stereoisomers, we showed that the energy gap ranged from 3 to 10 kcal mol-1; the relative stability among the regioisomers (involving the different positions of the methyl and hydroxyl groups) exhibited energy differences lower than 5 kcal mol-1. A topological analysis using the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) was performed to determine the intramolecular hydrogen bonds that govern the configuration changes, and the Natural Bond Orbital method was used to estimate the interplay between the steric and electrostatic interactions that stabilized each isomer. It was also estimated the influence of the population methodology in to predict the atomic charge distribution for the title compound.

  8. A REVIEW ON THE ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES USED FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PARACETAMOL IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS AND BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Noreen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol (PM is an active metabolite of phenacetin and belongs to p-aminophenol derivatives. It is also termed as acetaminophen. PM is one of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs which is used as an analgesic and antipyretic agent. It is an OTC drug and is used as a common household analgesic. It is not used as a substitute of aspirin or any other NSAIDs. It is a weak cyclooxygenase (COX 1 and 2 inhibitor but may inhibit COX-3 in the central nervous system. Many analytical techniques have been used for the assay of PM in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids. These techniques include spectrometry, chromatography, spectrofluorimetry, chemiluminescence, electrochemical techniques, flow injection spectrometry and chronoamperometry. In many pharmaceutical preparations PM is also used in combination with other drugs and these techniques have also been used for their simultaneous determination. A detailed review of various analytical techniques used for the assay of PM has been carried out which would be of great help to the chemists and pharmacists involved in the analysis and quality control of drugs.

  9. Interaction of Aldehyde dehydrogenase with acetaminophen as examined by spectroscopies and molecular docking

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    Ayodele O. Kolawole

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of acetaminophen, a non-substrate anionic ligand, with Aldehyde Dehydrogenase was studied by fluorescence, UV–Vis absorption, and circular dichroism spectroscopies under simulated physiological conditions. The fluorescence spectra and data generated showed that acetaminophen binding to ALDH is purely dynamic quenching mechanism. The acetaminophen-ALDH is kinetically rapid reversible interaction with a binding constant, Ka, of 4.91×103 L mol−1. There was an existence of second binding site of ALDH for acetaminophen at saturating acetaminophen concentration. The binding sites were non-cooperative. The thermodynamic parameters obtained suggest that Van der Waal force and hydrogen bonding played a major role in the binding of acetaminophen to ALDH. The interaction caused perturbation of the ALDH structures with an obvious reduction in the α-helix. The binding distance of 4.43 nm was obtained between Acetaminophen and ALDH. Using Ficoll 400 as macro-viscosogen and glycerol as micro-viscosogen, Stoke-Einstein empirical plot demonstrated that acetaminophen-ALDH binding was diffusion controlled. Molecular docking showed the participation of some amino acids in the complex formation with −5.3 kcal binding energy. With these, ALDH might not an excipient detoxifier of acetaminophen but could be involved in its pegylation/encapsulation.

  10. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of acetaminophen for the reduction of oxidative injury in severe sepsis: the Acetaminophen for the Reduction of Oxidative Injury in Severe Sepsis trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janz, David R; Bastarache, Julie A; Rice, Todd W; Bernard, Gordon R; Warren, Melissa A; Wickersham, Nancy; Sills, Gillian; Oates, John A; Roberts, L Jackson; Ware, Lorraine B

    2015-03-01

    This trial evaluated the efficacy of acetaminophen in reducing oxidative injury, as measured by plasma F2-isoprostanes, in adult patients with severe sepsis and detectable plasma cell-free hemoglobin. Single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II trial. Medical ICU in a tertiary, academic medical center. Critically ill patients 18 years old or older with severe sepsis and detectable plasma cell-free hemoglobin. Patients were randomized 1:1 to enteral acetaminophen 1 g every 6 hours for 3 days (n = 18) or placebo (n = 22) with the same dosing schedule and duration. F2-Isoprostanes on study day 3, the primary outcome, did not differ between acetaminophen (30 pg/mL; interquartile range, 24-41) and placebo (36 pg/mL; interquartile range, 25-80; p = 0.35). However, F2-isoprostanes were significantly reduced on study day 2 in the acetaminophen group (24 pg/mL; interquartile range, 19-36) when compared with placebo (36 pg/mL; interquartile range, 23-55; p = 0.047). Creatinine on study day 3, a secondary outcome, was significantly lower in the acetaminophen group (1.0 mg/dL; interquartile range, 0.6-1.4) when compared with that in the placebo (1.3 mg/dL; interquartile range, 0.83-2.0; p = 0.039). There was no statistically significant difference in hospital mortality (acetaminophen 5.6% vs placebo 18.2%; p = 0.355) or adverse events (aspartate aminotransferase or alanine aminotransferase > 400; acetaminophen 9.5% vs placebo 4.3%; p = 0.599). In adults with severe sepsis and detectable plasma cell-free hemoglobin, treatment with acetaminophen within 24 hours of ICU admission may reduce oxidative injury and improve renal function. Additional study is needed to confirm these findings and determine the effect of acetaminophen on patient-centered outcomes.

  11. Improving degradation of paracetamol by integrating gamma radiation and Fenton processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-González, Germán; Rivas-Ortiz, Iram B; González-Labrada, Katia; Rapado-Paneque, Manuel; Chávez-Ardanza, Armando; Nuevas-Paz, Lauro; Jáuregui-Haza, Ulises J

    2016-10-14

    Degradation of paracetamol (N-(4-hydroxiphenyl)acetamide) in aqueous solution by gamma radiation, gamma radiation/H2O2 and gamma radiation/Fenton processes was studied. Parameters affecting the radiolysis of paracetamol such as radiation dose, initial concentration of pollutant, pH and initial oxidant concentration were investigated. Gamma radiation was performed using a (60)Co source irradiator. Paracetamol degradation and mineralization increased with increasing absorbed radiation dose, but decreased with increasing initial concentration of the drug in aqueous solution. The addition of H2O2 resulted in an increased effect on irradiation-driven paracetamol degradation in comparison with the performance of the irradiation-driven process alone: paracetamol removal increased from 48.9% in the absence of H2O2 to 95.2% for H2O2 concentration of 41.7 mmol/L. However, the best results were obtained with gamma radiation/Fenton process with 100% of the drug removal at 5 kGy, for optimal H2O2 and Fe(2+) concentrations at 13.9 and 2.3 mmol/L, respectively, with a high mineralization of 63.7%. These results suggest gamma radiation/H2O2 and gamma radiation/Fenton processes as promising methods for paracetamol degradation in polluted wastewaters.

  12. Acetaminophen and codeine overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and is not helped by other types of painkillers. Acetaminophen and codeine overdose occurs when someone takes ... a vein) A laxative Medicine to reverse the effects of the poison and treat symptoms Tube through ...

  13. BN and BN oxide nanosheets based nanosensor for paracetamol adsorption: a first principles simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Castro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects that the adsorption of the paracetamol molecule produce on the structural and electronic properties of boron nitride (hBNNs; B27N27H18 and boron nitride oxide (hBNONs; B27N27H17 + O + (OH3 + COOH hexagonal symmetry nanosheets were studied by means of Density Functional Theory. The generalized gradient approximation proposed by Heyd—Scuseria—Ernzerhof ((HSEh1PBE―GGA was used in concert with 6-31G(d basis sets. Several candidate structures, 9 and 13 for the hBNNs―Paracetamol and BNONs―Paracetamol interactions, respectively, were used for the geometry optimization procedure. The results show that in the lowest energy absorption site the paracetamol molecule reaches a parallel orientation to the surface of the nanosheets, producing physisorption for hBNNs―Paracetamol and chemisorption for BNONs―Paracetamol. Besides, the adsorption process yields an increase of the polarity opening the possibility for the solubility and dispersion of these compounds. The paracetamol molecule promotes also a decrease of the reactivity parameter, which is crucial for biological applications of these systems. Referred to pristine hBNNs and BNONs, the work functions of hBNNs-Paracetamol and BNONs―Paracetamol are diminished. That is, these functionalized 2D systems yields appropriate conditions for field emission and they may be used as sensors of such pharmaceutical compound.

  14. 'Omics analysis of low dose acetaminophen intake demonstrates novel response pathways in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jetten, Marlon J.A.; Gaj, Stan [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Universitiessingel 50 6229 ER Maastricht (Netherlands); Ruiz-Aracama, Ainhoa [RIKILT, Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, PO Box 230, 6700 AE, Wageningen (Netherlands); Kok, Theo M. de [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Universitiessingel 50 6229 ER Maastricht (Netherlands); Delft, Joost H.M. van, E-mail: j.vandelft@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Universitiessingel 50 6229 ER Maastricht (Netherlands); Lommen, Arjen [RIKILT, Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, PO Box 230, 6700 AE, Wageningen (Netherlands); Someren, Eugene P. van [Research Group Microbiology and Systems Biology, TNO, PO Box 360 3700 AJ Zeist (Netherlands); Jennen, Danyel G.J.; Claessen, Sandra M. [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Universitiessingel 50 6229 ER Maastricht (Netherlands); Peijnenburg, Ad A.C.M. [RIKILT, Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, PO Box 230, 6700 AE, Wageningen (Netherlands); Stierum, Rob H. [Research Group Microbiology and Systems Biology, TNO, PO Box 360 3700 AJ Zeist (Netherlands); Kleinjans, Jos C.S. [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Universitiessingel 50 6229 ER Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    Acetaminophen is the primary cause of acute liver toxicity in Europe/USA, which led the FDA to reconsider recommendations concerning safe acetaminophen dosage/use. Unfortunately, the current tests for liver toxicity are no ideal predictive markers for liver injury, i.e. they only measure acetaminophen exposure after profound liver toxicity has already occurred. Furthermore, these tests do not provide mechanistic information. Here, 'omics techniques (global analysis of metabolomic/gene-expression responses) may provide additional insight. To better understand acetaminophen-induced responses at low doses, we evaluated the effects of (sub-)therapeutic acetaminophen doses on metabolite formation and global gene-expression changes (including, for the first time, full-genome human miRNA expression changes) in blood/urine samples from healthy human volunteers. Many known and several new acetaminophen-metabolites were detected, in particular in relation to hepatotoxicity-linked, oxidative metabolism of acetaminophen. Transcriptomic changes indicated immune-modulating effects (2 g dose) and oxidative stress responses (4 g dose). For the first time, effects of acetaminophen on full-genome human miRNA expression have been considered and confirmed the findings on mRNA level. 'Omics techniques outperformed clinical chemistry tests and revealed novel response pathways to acetaminophen in humans. Although no definitive conclusion about potential immunotoxic effects of acetaminophen can be drawn from this study, there are clear indications that the immune system is triggered even after intake of low doses of acetaminophen. Also, oxidative stress-related gene responses, similar to those seen after high dose acetaminophen exposure, suggest the occurrence of possible pre-toxic effects of therapeutic acetaminophen doses. Possibly, these effects are related to dose-dependent increases in levels of hepatotoxicity-related metabolites. -- Highlights: ► 'Omics techniques

  15. A quantum chemical study of the reactivity of acetaminophen (paracetamol) toxic metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine with deoxyguanosine and glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopčič, Ivana; Poberžnik, Matic; Mavri, Janez; Dolenc, Marija Sollner

    2015-12-05

    Acetaminophen (APAP) forms some reactive metabolites that can react with DNA. APAP is a potentially genotoxic drug and is classified as a Group 3 drug according to International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). One of the possible mechanisms of APAP genotoxicity after long term of use is that its reactive quinone imine (QI) metabolite of acetaminophen (NAPQI), can chemically react with DNA after glutathione (GSH) depletion. A quantum chemical study of the reactions between the NAPQI and deoxyguanosine (dG) or GSH was performed. Activation energies (ΔG(ǂ)) for the reactions associated with the 1, 4-Michael addition were calculated on the M062X/6-311++G (d,p) level of theory. We modeled the reaction with dG as a multi-step process. The first step is rate-limiting (ΔG(ǂ) = 26.7 kcal/mol) and consists of formation of a C-N bond between the C3 atom of the QI moiety and the N7 atom of dG. The second step involves proton transfer from the C3 moiety to the nitrogen atom of the QI with ΔG(ǂ) of 13.8 kcal/mol. The depurination reaction that follows has a ΔG(ǂ) of 25.7 kcal/mol. The calculated ΔG(ǂ) for the nucleophilic attack of the deprotonated S atom of GSH on the C3 atom of the NAPQI is 12.9 kcal/mol. Therefore, the QI will react with GSH much faster than with DNA. Our study gives mechanistic insight into the genotoxicity of the APAP metabolite and will be useful for estimating the genotoxic potential of existing drugs with a QI moiety. Our results show that clinical application of APAP is safe, while in the case of severely depleted GSH levels APAP should be administered with caution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Degradation of Paracetamol by Photolysis Using C-N-codoped TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanny Yulia Safitri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol is generally used as analgesic and antipyretic drugs. Contamination paracetamol in the environment can occur because of waste material disposal from production site and immediate disposal of household that cause water pollution. Paracetamol is degraded by photolysis method under irradiation 10 watt UV-light (λ=365 nm, visible-light (Philips LED 13 watt 1400 lux and solar-light with and without addition C-N-codoped TiO2catalyst. The solution is analyzed by UV-Vis spectrophotometer at λ 200-400 nm. Optimum weight of C-N-codoped TiO2 catalyst obtained is 20 mg under UV-light photolysis. Paracetamol 4 mg/L is degraded 45.48% after 120 minutes under UV-light irradiation without catalyst, and increases to be 69.31% by using 20 mg catalyst. While degradation percentage of paracetamol is 16.96 % without catalyst, the percentage increases to be 34.29% after using 20 mg catalyst for 120 minutes photolysis under visible-light. Degradation of paracetamol by solar light achieves only 12.27% in absance of catalyst for 120 minutes irradiation, but it increases significantly until 70.39% in presence of 20 mg catalyst.

  17. Comparison of efficacy of dexketoprofen versus paracetamol on postoperative pain and morphine consumption in laminectomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesimci, Elvin; Gümüş, Tülin; Izdeş, Seval; Sen, Pelin; Kanbak, Orhan

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this prospective randomized, double-blind study was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and opioid-sparing effects of preemptive single dose of dexketoprofen trometamol in comparison with that of paracetamol or placebo for elective lumbar disc surgery, over a 24-hour (h) investigation period. After institutional approval and informed consent had been obtained, 75 patients scheduled for single level lumbar disc surgery were randomly allocated into three equal groups. Patients received oral dexketoprofen 25 mg (Group D), 500 mg paracetamol (Group P) or placebo tablets (Group C) 30 minutes (min) before induction of standard anesthesia. Patient-controlled analgesia was supplied postoperatively using morphine. Hemodynamics, visual analogue scale (VAS), sedation score, morphine consumption, and side effects were recorded every 15 min in the first hour and at 2, 6 and 24 h after surgery. The mean pain scores were similar among groups (p>0.05). The cumulative (SD) 24-h morphine consumption was 28.1 mg, 40.6 mg, and 43.6 mg for Groups D, P and C, respectively. The amount of morphine use at 2, 6 and 24 h was significantly lower in Group D (p0.05). The study demonstrated that preemptive dexketoprofen trometamol 25 mg is associated with a decrease of up to 35% in morphine consumption compared with placebo over the first 24 h following lumbar disc surgery; however, paracetamol 500 mg did not show the expected opioid-sparing effect comparatively.

  18. Paracetamol in therapeutic dosages and acute liver injury: causality assessment in a prospective case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellote José

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute liver injury (ALI induced by paracetamol overdose is a well known cause of emergency hospital admission and death. However, there is debate regarding the risk of ALI after therapeutic dosages of the drug. The aim is to describe the characteristics of patients admitted to hospital with jaundice who had previous exposure to therapeutic doses of paracetamol. An assessment of the causality role of paracetamol was performed in each case. Methods Based on the evaluation of prospectively gathered cases of ALI with detailed clinical information, thirty-two cases of ALI in non-alcoholic patients exposed to therapeutic doses of paracetamol were identified. Two authors assessed all drug exposures by using the CIOMS/RUCAM scale. Each case was classified into one of five categories based on the causality score for paracetamol. Results In four cases the role of paracetamol was judged to be unrelated, in two unlikely, and these were excluded from evaluation. In seven of the remaining 26 cases, the RUCAM score associated with paracetamol was higher than that associated with other concomitant medications. The estimated incidence of ALI related to the use of paracetamol in therapeutic dosages was 0.4 per million inhabitants older than 15 years of age and per year (99%CI, 0.2-0.8 and of 10 per million paracetamol users-year (95% CI 4.3-19.4. Conclusions Our results indicate that paracetamol in therapeutic dosages may be considered in the causality assessment in non-alcoholic patients with liver injury, even if the estimated incidence of ALI related to paracetamol appears to be low.

  19. An assessment of the quality of various brands of paracetamol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the seriousness of the global counterfeiting problem, we quantified the amount of active ingredient present in paracetamol tablets by various official and non-official methods. Eight brands of Paracetamol 500mg tablets were assessed using the quality control parameters of weight uniformity, active ingredient ...

  20. The majority of sick children receive paracetamol during the winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ertmann, Ruth; Møller, Janne Julie; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2012-01-01

    Even though fever is a common symptom in childhood, it often worries parents and they may try to reduce discomfort by giving the child paracetamol, which is currently the most commonly sold over-the-counter medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate parent-administered paracetamol...

  1. COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF INTERCOSTAL NERVE BLOCK WITH ROPIVACAINE AND INTRAVENOUS PARACETAMOL INFUSION TO INTRAVENOUS PARACETAMOL INFUSION ALONE FOR PAIN CONTROL AFTER OPEN CHOLECYSTECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Dey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Postoperative pain after open cholecystectomy is associated with respiratory dysfunction, increased stress response and prolonged hospital stay. We compare intravenous paracetamol (7.5 mg/kg plus intercostal nerve block with local anaesthetic ropivacaine 0.5% to intravenous paracetamol (15 mg/kg on pain control after open cholecystectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS 140 patients, who underwent for open cholecystectomy, were randomly divided into two groups of 70. The patients were randomly allocated to any of the following two groups depending upon the drug used for analgesia (Group P or Group I Intravenous paracetamol 15 mg/kg was given to patients of group P and paracetamol 7.5 mg/kg with Intercostal nerve block in right side 6-10 intercostal nerves with 2 ml local anaesthetic ropivacaine 0.5% in each space was given to patients of group I just after intubation before incision. When the patients were transferred to postoperative recovery room, intensity of pain was recorded by response from the patients using 100 mm linear visual analogue scale ranging from 0 to 100. The pain scoring was done in the immediate postoperative period (when the patient was able to communicate in the post anaesthesia care unit, at 30 minutes, 1 hr. then hourly up to 24 hrs. till patient complained of pain with VAS score 40 or more. RESULTS The severity of pain in VAS score was lower in immediate postoperative period, at 30 minutes, 1 hour and 2 hours postoperatively in group I than the group P and those were statistically significant (p<0.001. Duration of analgesia also significantly lower in group I. Mean duration of analgesia in group P is 161.9 ± 42.6 min and in group I is 241.3 ± 44.2 min (p<0.001. CONCLUSION Adding Intercostal nerve block to intravenous infusion of Paracetamol infusion (7.5 mg/kg is better than sole intravenous infusion of Paracetamol (15 mg/kg in controlling pain severity even after reducing dose of paracetamol after open

  2. Acetaminophen inhibits neuronal inflammation and protects neurons from oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grammas Paula

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have demonstrated a link between the inflammatory response, increased cytokine formation, and neurodegeneration in the brain. The beneficial effects of anti-inflammatory drugs in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD, have been documented. Increasing evidence suggests that acetaminophen has unappreciated anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The objectives of this study are to determine the effects of acetaminophen on cultured brain neuronal survival and inflammatory factor expression when exposed to oxidative stress. Methods Cerebral cortical cultured neurons are pretreated with acetaminophen and then exposed to the superoxide-generating compound menadione (5 μM. Cell survival is assessed by MTT assay and inflammatory protein (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1, macrophage inflammatory protein alpha, and RANTES release quantitated by ELISA. Expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins is assessed by western blots. Results Acetaminophen has pro-survival effects on neurons in culture. Menadione, a superoxide releasing oxidant stressor, causes a significant (p Conclusion These data show that acetaminophen has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects on neurons and suggest a heretofore unappreciated therapeutic potential for this drug in neurodegenerative diseases such as AD that are characterized by oxidant and inflammatory stress.

  3. Preventive Effect of Intrathecal Paracetamol on Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Murat; Sayar, Ilyas; Peker, Kemal; Gullu, Huriye; Yildiz, Huseyin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ischemic injury of the spinal cord during the surgical repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms might lead to paraplegia. Although a number of different mechanisms have been proposed, the exact cause of paraplegia has remained unknown, hampering the development of effective pharmacologic or other strategies for prevention of this condition. A number of studies suggested that cyclooxygenases (COX) contribute to neural breakdown; thus, COX inhibitors might reduce injury. Objectives: We aimed to assess the preventive effect of intrathecal (IT) pretreatment with paracetamol on spinal cord injury in a rat model. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed in Ataturk University Animal Research Laboratory Center, Erzurum, Turkey. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to three experimental groups (n = 6) to receive IT physiologic saline (controls), 50 µg of paracetamol, or 100 µg paracetamol one hour before induction of spinal cord ischemia. Six other rats were considered as the sham group. For the assessment of ischemic injury, motor functions of the hind limbs and histopathologic changes of the lumbar spinal cord were evaluated. Additional 20 rats were divided into two equal groups for the second part of the study where the survival rates were recorded in controls and in animals receiving 100 µg of paracetamol during the 28-day observation period. Results: Pretreatment with 100 µg of paracetamol resulted in a significant improvement in motor functions and histopathologic findings (P < 0.05). Despite a higher rate of survival in 100 µg of paracetamol group (70%) at day 28, the difference was not statistically significant in comparison with controls. Conclusions: Our results suggest a protective effect of pretreatment with IT paracetamol on ischemic spinal cord injury during thoracolumbar aortic aneurysm surgery. PMID:25763224

  4. Prenatal paracetamol exposure and child neurodevelopment: a sibling-controlled cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandlistuen, Ragnhild Eek; Ystrom, Eivind; Nulman, Irena; Koren, Gideon; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2013-01-01

    Background Paracetamol is used extensively during pregnancy, but studies regarding the potential neurodevelopmental sequelae of foetal paracetamol exposure are lacking. Method Between 1999 and 2008 all pregnant Norwegian women were eligible for recruitment into the prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. The mothers were asked to report on their use of paracetamol at gestational weeks 17 and 30 and at 6 months postpartum. We used data on 48 631 children whose mothers returned the 3-year follow-up questionnaire by May 2011. Within this sample were 2919 same-sex sibling pairs who were used to adjust for familial and genetic factors. We modelled psychomotor development (communication, fine and gross motor development), externalizing and internalizing behaviour problems, and temperament (emotionality, activity, sociability and shyness) based on prenatal paracetamol exposure using generalized linear regression, adjusting for a number of factors, including febrile illness, infections and co-medication use during pregnancy. Results The sibling-control analysis revealed that children exposed to prenatal paracetamol for more than 28 days had poorer gross motor development [β 0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12–0.51], communication (β 0.20, 95% CI 0.01–0.39), externalizing behaviour (β 0.28, 95% CI 0.15–0.42), internalizing behaviour (β 0.14, 95% CI 0.01–0.28), and higher activity levels (β 0.24, 95% CI 0.11–0.38). Children exposed prenatally to short-term use of paracetamol (1–27 days) also had poorer gross motor outcomes (β 0.10, 95% CI 0.02–0.19), but the effects were smaller than with long-term use. Ibuprofen exposure was not associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes. Conclusion Children exposed to long-term use of paracetamol during pregnancy had substantially adverse developmental outcomes at 3 years of age. PMID:24163279

  5. Hepatic disposition of the acyl glucuronide 1-O-gemfibrozil-beta-D-glucuronide: effects of clofibric acid, acetaminophen, and acetaminophen glucuronide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabordo, L; Sallustio, B C; Evans, A M; Nation, R L

    2000-10-01

    Glucuronidation of carboxylic acid compounds results in the formation of electrophilic acyl glucuronides. Because of their polarity, carrier-mediated hepatic transport systems play an important role in determining both intra- and extrahepatic exposure to these reactive conjugates. We have previously shown that the hepatic membrane transport of 1-O-gemfibrozil-beta-D-glucuronide (GG) is carrier-mediated and inhibited by the organic anion dibromosulfophthalein. In this study, we examined the influence of 200 microM acetaminophen, acetaminophen glucuronide, and clofibric acid on the disposition of GG (3 microM) in the recirculating isolated perfused rat liver preparation. GG was taken up by the liver, excreted into bile, and hydrolyzed within the liver to gemfibrozil, which appeared in perfusate but not in bile. Mean +/- S. D. hepatic clearance, apparent intrinsic clearance, hepatic extraction ratio, and biliary excretion half-life of GG were 10.4 +/- 1.4 ml/min, 94.1 +/- 17.9 ml/min, 0.346 +/- 0.046, and 30.9 +/- 4.9 min, respectively, and approximately 73% of GG was excreted into bile. At the termination of the experiment (t = 90 min), the ratio of GG concentrations in perfusate, liver, and bile was 1:35:3136. Acetaminophen and acetaminophen glucuronide had no effect on the hepatic disposition of GG, suggesting relatively low affinities of acetaminophen conjugates for hepatic transport systems or the involvement of multiple transport systems for glucuronide conjugates. In contrast, clofibric acid increased the hepatic clearance, extraction ratio, and apparent intrinsic clearance of GG (P clofibric acid glucuronide at the level of hepatic transport. However, the transporter protein(s) involved remains to be identified.

  6. Paracetamol treatment for patent ductus arteriosus: practice and attitudes in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, L A; Wheeler, B J; Al-Sallami, H S; Broadbent, R S; Edmonds, L K; Medlicott, N J

    2018-04-03

    To describe the current clinical practices and attitudes of neonatologists towards paracetamol treatment of PDA in Australia (AU) and New Zealand (NZ). A web-based survey of all neonatologists registered under the 2017 Australia New Zealand Neonatal Network (ANZNN) was conducted. The response rate for the survey was 67%, (141/210). Of those respondents, 37% stated their unit had a written policy outlining how to treat patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Of the written policies, 53% mentioned paracetamol treatment. The majority of the respondents (70%) have prescribed paracetamol for PDA closure. When comparing between countries, 79% of AU respondents had compared with 44% of NZ respondents. Successful ductal closure in the infants who received paracetamol was anecdotally reported by 61% of respondents. The main reasons for clinicians not prescribing paracetamol were due to preferential NSAID use (61%) and lack of evidence to indicate efficacy (49%). Many neonatologists in AU and NZ have prescribed paracetamol for PDA closure. However, considerable practice variations exist. The results from this study suggest there may be a role for paracetamol in the treatment of PDA, however, further research is required to clarify the optimal use and provide evidence of efficacy.

  7. [A patient who refused treatment after self-poisoning with paracetamol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramers, C.; Jansman, F.G.A.; Droogleever Fortuyn, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Two patients, a 20-year-old man and a 33-year-old woman, were admitted with paracetamol poisoning. Both patients refused treatment initially but eventually complied. The man had a paracetamol concentration of 47.5 mg/l 2.5-5.0 h after ingestion, so antidote treatment was not considered necessary.

  8. [Analgesic effect and clinical tolerability of the combination of paracetamol 500 mg and caffeine 50 mg versus paracetamol 400 mg and dextropropoxyphene 30 mg in back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, D; Brossel, R

    1996-09-07

    A double-blind randomized multicentric study was performed to test the hypothesis that the analgesic effect of paracetamol-cafeine is equivalent to that of paracetamol-dextropropoxyphen in patients suffering from pain due to osteoarthritis of the spine. Rhumatologists included 124 patients who were randomized into two groups of 62 each. Pain was measured daily during the seven-day treatment Huskisson's Analog Visual Scales; 112 were per protocol and evaluable. The two treatment groups were statistically similar for demographics, vital signs, medical and treatment history. A majority of them had pain located at the lumbar spine only; the other patients had either pain at the cervical or dorsal spine or at several sites. At the end of the week there was a major reduction in pain level: 51.2% in patients given paracetamol-cafeine and 47.0% in those given paracetamol-dextropropoxyphen. The main criteria of efficacy--the percentage of success (decrease of pain > 50%)--was similar in the two groups as well in the intention-to-treat population (p = 0.01) as the per protocol population (p = 0.028). Kinetics of pain decrease during the first day of treatment were assessed with an hourly evaluation during the six first hours and at the 12th hour. There was no difference between the two groups. There was no serious adverse event and the frequency and intensity of the adverse events were similar in the two groups. The potentializing action of cafeine on paracetamol-induced pain relief enables a degree of pain relief equivalent to that of a combination using an analgesic with a peripheral action, paracetamol, and another with a central action, dextropoxyphen. The fact that the paracetamol-cafeine combination does not have a central action avoids secondary effects induced by central analgesics (drowsiness, constipation) in patients with osteoarthritis back pain.

  9. Avaliação clínica da eficácia da combinação paracetamol e cafeína no tratamento da cefaléia tipo tensão Clinical evaluation of the efficacy of the acetaminophen and caffeine combination in the treatment of tension headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GETÚLIO DARÉ RABELLO

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A cefaléia tipo tensão em suas duas modalidades, episódica e crônica, é a forma mais comum de dor de cabeça na população. O tratamento é feito com medidas não farmacológicas e farmacológicas, tanto para o ataque como profilaxia das crises. Este estudo foi realizado com 5490 pacientes, que procuraram ambulatórios e consultórios médicos em várias regiões do Brasil. Cerca de 95% apresentavam cefaléia tipo tensão episódica e 5% cefaléia tipo tensão crônica. A maioria dos pacientes apresentou crises de intensidade moderada (62,19%. Em 5419 pacientes uma crise de cefaléia tipo tensão foi tratada com 1000 mg de paracetamol e 130 mg de cafeína. Em 93,98% início de melhora foi observado em até 2 horas após a ingestão da medicação. Em 77,61% houve reversão completa da crise em até 2 horas. Avaliação da eficácia boa/excelente foi observada em 51,93%/37,80% dos casos quando feita pelos médicos e em 48,51%/40,29 quando pelos pacientes. Efeitos adversos, em geral manifestações gastrointestinais, foram observados em 5,57%. Este estudo representa uma experiência brasileira no tratamento de ataque da cefaléia tipo tensão, demonstrando eficácia e segurança no uso da combinação paracetamol-cafeína.Tension type headache in both its forms, episodic and chronic, is the most common type of headache experienced by the population. The headache attack or the prevention of new crises may be treated with pharmacological as well as non-pharmacological measures. This study included 5,490 patients from out-patient clinics and medical offices covering various regions of Brazil. Approximately 95% of the subjects had episodic tension type headache, while 5% had chronic tension type headache. The majority of the patients presented with crisis of moderate intensity (62.19%. In 5,419 patients a tension type headache crisis was treated with acetaminophen 1000 mg and caffeine 130 mg. In 93.98%, onset of relief occurred within 2 hours of

  10. Acetaminophen versus Ibuprofen in Young Children with Mild Persistent Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, William J; Mauger, David T; Paul, Ian M; Moy, James N; Boehmer, Susan J; Szefler, Stanley J; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Jackson, Daniel J; Bacharier, Leonard B; Cabana, Michael D; Covar, Ronina; Holguin, Fernando; Lemanske, Robert F; Martinez, Fernando D; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Beigelman, Avraham; Baxi, Sachin N; Benson, Mindy; Blake, Kathryn; Chmiel, James F; Daines, Cori L; Daines, Michael O; Gaffin, Jonathan M; Gentile, Deborah A; Gower, W Adam; Israel, Elliot; Kumar, Harsha V; Lang, Jason E; Lazarus, Stephen C; Lima, John J; Ly, Ngoc; Marbin, Jyothi; Morgan, Wayne J; Myers, Ross E; Olin, J Tod; Peters, Stephen P; Raissy, Hengameh H; Robison, Rachel G; Ross, Kristie; Sorkness, Christine A; Thyne, Shannon M; Wechsler, Michael E; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2016-08-18

    Studies have suggested an association between frequent acetaminophen use and asthma-related complications among children, leading some physicians to recommend that acetaminophen be avoided in children with asthma; however, appropriately designed trials evaluating this association in children are lacking. In a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial, we enrolled 300 children (age range, 12 to 59 months) with mild persistent asthma and assigned them to receive either acetaminophen or ibuprofen when needed for the alleviation of fever or pain over the course of 48 weeks. The primary outcome was the number of asthma exacerbations that led to treatment with systemic glucocorticoids. Children in both groups received standardized asthma-controller therapies that were used in a simultaneous, factorially linked trial. Participants received a median of 5.5 doses (interquartile range, 1.0 to 15.0) of trial medication; there was no significant between-group difference in the median number of doses received (P=0.47). The number of asthma exacerbations did not differ significantly between the two groups, with a mean of 0.81 per participant with acetaminophen and 0.87 per participant with ibuprofen over 46 weeks of follow-up (relative rate of asthma exacerbations in the acetaminophen group vs. the ibuprofen group, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.69 to 1.28; P=0.67). In the acetaminophen group, 49% of participants had at least one asthma exacerbation and 21% had at least two, as compared with 47% and 24%, respectively, in the ibuprofen group. Similarly, no significant differences were detected between acetaminophen and ibuprofen with respect to the percentage of asthma-control days (85.8% and 86.8%, respectively; P=0.50), use of an albuterol rescue inhaler (2.8 and 3.0 inhalations per week, respectively; P=0.69), unscheduled health care utilization for asthma (0.75 and 0.76 episodes per participant, respectively; P=0.94), or adverse events. Among

  11. Tramadol and acetaminophen tablets for dental pain.

    OpenAIRE

    Medve, R. A.; Wang, J.; Karim, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare the efficacy and time to analgesia of a new tramadol/acetaminophen combination tablet to those of tramadol or acetaminophen (APAP) alone. A meta-analysis was performed of 3 separate single-dose, double-blind, parallel-group trials in patients with moderate or severe pain following extraction of 2 or more third molars. Patients in each study were evenly randomized to a single dose of tramadol/APAP (75 mg/650 mg), tramadol 75 mg, APAP 650 mg, ibuprofen 40...

  12. Comparison of paracetamol, ibuprofen, and diclofenac potassium for pain relief following dental extractions and deep cavity preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giath Gazal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of different oral analgesics for relieving pain and distress in adults following the extraction of teeth and deep cavity preparations under local anesthesia. Methods: This randomized controlled study was conducted between November 2015 and May 2016. One hundred and twenty patients were randomly allocated to 3 groups. Forty patients were in the paracetamol (1 gram group, 40 in the ibuprofen (400 mg group and 40 in the diclofenac potassium (50 mg group. Evaluation of the post extraction and deep cavity preparations pain was made by patients immediately postoperatively, 2, 4 and 6 hours postoperatively on standard 100 mm visual analogue scales (VAS. Furthermore, each patient was observed preoperatively and immediately postoperatively for signs of distress by using a 5 point face scale. Results: There were significant decreases in mean pain VAS scores for diclofenac potassium group compared to paracetamol and ibuprofen groups at 4 hours postoperatively (one-way Analysis of Variance: p=0.0001, p=0.001 and 6 hours postoperatively (p=0.04, p=0.005. Changes in distress scores from the preoperative score to the postoperative score were made using the paired sample t-test. There were significant decreases in distress scores between the preoperative and postoperative scores (p=0.0001. Conclusions: Diclofenac potassium was more effective than paracetamol or ibuprofen for reducing postoperative pain associated with tooth extraction and deep cavity preparation. Patients’ distress levels can be alleviated by using preemptive analgesics.

  13. Degradation of Paracetamol by Photolysis Using C-N-codoped TiO2

    OpenAIRE

    Vanny Yulia Safitri; Adlis Santoni; Diana Vanda Wellia; Khoiriah Khoiriah; Safni Safni

    2017-01-01

    Paracetamol is generally used as analgesic and antipyretic drugs. Contamination paracetamol in the environment can occur because of waste material disposal from production site and immediate disposal of household that cause water pollution. Paracetamol is degraded by photolysis method under irradiation 10 watt UV-light (λ=365 nm), visible-light (Philips LED 13 watt 1400 lux) and solar-light with and without addition C-N-codoped TiO2catalyst. The solution is analyzed by UV-Vis spectrophotomete...

  14. Infant Sleep After Immunization: Randomized Controlled Trial of Prophylactic Acetaminophen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Caryl L.; Lynch, Mary; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of acetaminophen and axillary temperature responses on infant sleep duration after immunization. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized controlled trial to compare the sleep of 70 infants monitored by using ankle actigraphy for 24 hours before and after their first immunization series at ∼2 months of age. Mothers of infants in the control group received standard care instructions from their infants' health care provider, and mothers of infants in the intervention group were provided with predosed acetaminophen and instructed to administer a dose 30 minutes before the scheduled immunization and every 4 hours thereafter, for a total of 5 doses. Infant age and birth weight and immunization factors, such as acetaminophen use and timing of administration, were evaluated for changes in infant sleep times after immunization. RESULTS: Sleep duration in the first 24 hours after immunization was increased, particularly for infants who received their immunizations after 1:30 pm and for those who experienced elevated temperatures in response to the vaccines. Infants who received acetaminophen at or after immunization had smaller increases in sleep duration than did infants who did not. However, acetaminophen use was not a significant predictor of sleep duration when other factors were controlled. CONCLUSIONS: If further research confirms the relationship between time of day of vaccine administration, increased sleep duration after immunization, and antibody responses, then our findings suggest that afternoon immunizations should be recommended to facilitate increased sleep in the 24 hours after immunization, regardless of acetaminophen administration. PMID:22123869

  15. Simultaneous determination of eperisone hydrochloride and paracetamol in mouse plasma by high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Marcello; Cifelli, Roberta; Di Legge, Cristina; Barbacane, Renato Carmine; Costa, Nicola; Fresta, Massimo; Celia, Christian; Capolupo, Carlo; Di Marzio, Luisa

    2015-04-03

    This paper reports the validation of a quantitative high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (HPLC-PDA) method for the simultaneous analysis, in mouse plasma, of eperisone hydrochloride and paracetamol by protein precipitation using zinc sulphate-methanol-acetonitrile. The analytes were resolved on a Gemini C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm; 5 μm particle size) using a gradient elution mode with a run time of 15 min, comprising re-equilibration, at 60°C (± 1°C). The method was validated over the concentration range from 0.5 to 25 μg/mL for eperisone hydrochloride and paracetamol, in mouse plasma. Ciprofloxacin was used as Internal Standard. Results from assay validations show that the method is selective, sensitive and robust. The limit of quantification of the method was 0.5 μg/mL for eperisone hydrochloride and paracetamol, and matrix-matched standard curves showed a good linearity, up to 25 μg/mL with correlation coefficients (r(2))≥ 0.9891. In the entire analytical range the intra and inter-day precision (RSD%) values were ≤ 1.15% and ≤ 1.46% for eperisone hydrochloride, and ≤ 0.35% and ≤ 1.65% for paracetamol. For both analytes the intra and inter-day trueness (bias%) values ranged, respectively, from -5.33% to 4.00% and from -11.4% to -4.00%. The method was successfully tested in pharmacokinetic studies after oral administration in mouse. Furthermore, the application of this method results in a significant reduction in terms of animal number, dosage, and improvement in speed, rate of analysis, and quality of pharmacokinetic parameters related to serial blood sampling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Combined paracetamol and amitriptyline adsorption to activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Groenlykke, Thor Buch; Abildtrup, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. High-gram drug doses seen in multiple-drug poisonings might be close to the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal (AC). The aim was to determine the maximum adsorption capacities (Q(m)) of amitriptyline and paracetamol, separately and in combination, to AC. Methods. ACs (Carbomix......® and Norit Ready-To-Use) were tested in vitro. At pH 1.2 and pH 7.2, 0.250 g AC and paracetamol and/or amitriptyline were mixed and incubated. The AC: drug ratios were 10:1, 5:1, 3:1, 2:1, and 1:1. The mixed-drug adsorption vials contained the same AC: paracetamol ratios, but amitriptyline was added as fixed...... Ready-To-Use. The tested pH differences had minor effect on the adsorption. The mixed-drug adsorption showed about 40% Q(m) reduction of each drug with increasing amounts of drug/g AC, but the total gram of drug adsorbed to AC was increased compared to one-drug conditions. Conclusion. The adsorption...

  17. Dental pain as a risk factor for accidental acetaminophen overdose: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Jody; Heard, Kennon J; Carlson, Catherine; Lange, Chad; Mitchell, Garrett

    2011-11-01

    Patients frequent take acetaminophen to treat dental pain. One previous study found a high rate of overuse of nonprescription analgesics in an emergency dental clinic. The purpose of this study is to determine if patients with dental pain are more likely to be treated for accidental acetaminophen poisoning than patients with other types of pain. We conducted a case-control study at 2 urban hospitals. Cases were identified by chart review of patients who required treatment for accidental acetaminophen poisoning. Controls were self-reported acetaminophen users taking therapeutic doses identified during a survey of emergency department patients. For our primary analysis, the reason for taking acetaminophen was categorized as dental pain or not dental pain. Our primary outcome was the odds ratio of accidental overdose to therapeutic users after adjustment for age, sex, alcoholism, and use of combination products using logistic regression. We identified 73 cases of accidental acetaminophen poisoning and 201 therapeutic users. Fourteen accidental overdose patients and 4 therapeutic users reported using acetaminophen for dental pain. The adjusted odds ratio for accidental overdose due to dental pain compared with other reasons for use was 12.8 (95% confidence interval, 4.2-47.6). We found that patients with dental pain are at increased risk to accidentally overdose on acetaminophen compared with patients taking acetaminophen for other reasons. Emergency physicians should carefully question patients with dental pain about overuse of analgesics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 312 ... ... B and C co-infection in chronic liver disease patients in Calabar, ... paracetamol (acetaminophen) in pregnant sprague dawley rats. ... ameliorates ethanol-induced reproductive toxicity in male wistar rats, Abstract PDF.

  19. Effect of paracetamol, dexketoprofen trometamol, lidocaine spray, pethidine & diclofenac sodium application for pain relief during fractional curettage: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acmaz, Gökhan; Bayraktar, Evrim; Aksoy, Hüseyin; Başer, Mürvet; Yilmaz, Mustafa Oğuz; Müderris, İptisam İpek

    2015-10-01

    Patients frequently experience pain of moderate to severe degree during gynaecologic procedures. This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was aimed to investigate the analgesic efficacy of preoperative oral dexketoprofen trometamol, intravenous paracetamol, lidocaine spray, pethidine and diclofenac sodium on fractional curettage procedure. A total of 144 multiparous women were randomly allocated to one of the six groups. The first group (control group) consisted of 22 participants and they did not receive any treatment. The second group had 26 participants receiving oral 25 mg dexketoprofen trometamol. The 23 participants of the third group received two puff lidocaine sprays on cervical mucosa. t0 he forth group consisted of 25 participants receiving 100 mg pethidine. In the fifth group, the 23 participants received 1000 mg intravenous paracetamol and the sixth group consisted of 25 participants receiving diclofenac sodium. Pethidine was the best choice for reducing pain score during curettage procedure (t2:intra-operative). All analgesic procedures were significantly effective in reducing pain during postoperative period (t3). Significant pain reduction was achieved for both intra- and postoperative period by using analgesics. The results of our study showed that lidocaine puffs provided the best pain relief than the other analgesics used. Therefore, lidocaine may be considered as the first choice analgesic in fractional curettage (NCT ID: 01993589).

  20. Conjugation of nitrated acetaminophen to Der p1 amplifies peripheral blood monocyte response to Der p1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan G Thomas

    Full Text Available An association of acetaminophen use and asthma was observed in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood study. However there are no clear mechanisms to explain an association between acetaminophen use and immunologic pathology. In acidic conditions like those in the stomach and inflamed airway, tyrosine residues are nitrated by nitrous and peroxynitrous acids. The resulting nitrotyrosine is structurally similar to 2,4-dinitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene, known haptens that enhance immune responses by covalently binding proteins. Nitrated acetaminophen shares similar molecular structure.We hypothesized the acetaminophen phenol ring undergoes nitration under acidic conditions, producing 3-nitro-acetaminophen which augments allergic responses by acting as a hapten for environmental allergens.3-nitro-acetaminophen was formed from acetaminophen in the presence of acidified nitrite, purified by high performance liquid chromatography, and assayed by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry. Purified 3-nitro-acetaminophen was reacted with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p1 and analyzed by mass spectrometry to identify the modification site. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells proliferation response was measured in response to 3-nitro-acetaminophen and to 3-nitro-acetaminophen-modified Der p1.Acetaminophen was modified by nitrous acid forming 3-nitro-acetaminophen over a range of different acidic conditions consistent with airway inflammation and stomach acidity. The Der p1 protein-hapten adduct creation was confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry proteomics modifying cysteine 132. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to 3-nitro-acetaminophen-modified Der p1 had increased proliferation and cytokine production compared to acetaminophen and Der p1 alone (n = 7; p < 0.05.These data suggests 3-nitro-acetaminophen formation and reaction with Der p1 provides a mechanism by which stomach acid or infection

  1. Protective Effect of Cymbopogon citratus Essential Oil in Experimental Model of Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Nancy Sayuri; Silva-Filho, Saulo Euclides; Aguiar, Rafael Pazinatto; Wiirzler, Luiz Alexandre Marques; Cardia, Gabriel Fernando Esteves; Cavalcante, Heitor Augusto Otaviano; Silva-Comar, Francielli Maria de Souza; Becker, Tânia Cristina Alexandrino; Silva, Expedito Leite; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of Cymbopogon citratus or lemongrass essential oil (LGO), it was used in an animal model of acute liver injury induced by acetaminophen (APAP). Swiss mice were pretreated with LGO (125, 250 and 500[Formula: see text]mg/kg) and SLM (standard drug, 200[Formula: see text]mg/kg) for a duration of seven days, followed by the induction of hepatotoxicity of APAP (single dose, 250[Formula: see text]mg/kg). The liver function markers alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transferase were determined to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of the LGO. The livers were used to determine myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, nitric oxide (NO) production and histological analysis. The effect of LGO on leukocyte migration was evaluated in vitro. Anti-oxidant activity was performed by assessing the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in vitro. LGO pretreatment decreased significantly the levels of ALT, AST and ALP compared with APAP group. MPO activity and NO production were decreased. The histopathological analysis showed an improved of hepatic lesions in mice after LGO pretreatment. LGO inhibited neutrophil migration and exhibited anti-oxidant activity. Our results suggest that LGO has protective activity against liver toxicity induced by paracetamol.

  2. Ultrasonic degradation of acetaminophen in water: effect of sonochemical parameters and water matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaroel, Erica; Silva-Agredo, Javier; Petrier, Christian; Taborda, Gonzalo; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A

    2014-09-01

    This paper deals about the sonochemical water treatment of acetaminophen (ACP, N-acetyl-p-aminophenol or paracetamol), one of the most popular pharmaceutical compounds found in natural and drinking waters. Effect of ultrasonic power (20-60 W), initial ACP concentration (33-1323 μmol L(-1)) and pH (3-12) were evaluated. High ultrasonic powers and, low and natural acidic pH values favored the efficiency of the treatment. Effect of initial substrate concentration showed that the Langmuir-type kinetic model fit well the ACP sonochemical degradation. The influence of organic compounds in the water matrix, at concentrations 10-fold higher than ACP, was also evaluated. The results indicated that only organic compounds having a higher value of the Henry's law constant than the substrate decrease the efficiency of the treatment. On the other hand, ACP degradation in mineral natural water showed to be strongly dependent of the initial substrate concentration. A positive matrix effect was observed at low ACP concentrations (1.65 μmol L(-1)), which was attributed to the presence of bicarbonate ion in solution. However, at relative high ACP concentrations a detrimental effect of matrix components was noticed. Finally, the results indicated that ultrasonic action is able to transform ACP in aliphatic organic compounds that could be subsequently eliminated in a biological system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Analgesic activity of fixed dose combinations of paracetamol with diclofenac sodium and paracetamol with tramadol on different pain models in healthy volunteers - A randomized double blind crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachidanand Tripathi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Paracetamol with tramadol combination was more effective than paracetamol with diclofenac sodium combination on the radiant heat model. In human pain models, there is an incomplete understanding of mechanisms and activated pathways are not precisely determined that needs further evaluation.

  4. "Always paracetamol, they give them paracetamol for everything": a qualitative study examining Eastern European migrants' experiences of the UK health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Hannah; Harris, Jane; Blickem, Christian; Harrison, Rebecca; Timpson, Hannah

    2017-08-29

    The enlargement of the European Union since 2004 has led to an increase in the number of Eastern European migrants living in the UK. The health of this group is under-researched though some mixed evidence shows they are at higher risk of certain physical health conditions such as heart attacks, strokes, HIV and alcohol use and have poorer mental health. This is compounded by poor or insecure housing, low pay, isolation and prejudice. We aimed to understand the health needs and health service experiences of the Eastern European population in a town in Northern England. Five semi structured one-to-one and small group interviews and five focus groups were conducted with 42 Eastern European participants between June and September 2014. The majority of participants were Polish and other participants were from Belarus, Hungary, Latvia, Russia, Slovakia and Ukraine. The data were analysed using thematic framework analysis. Key findings included a good understanding the UK health service structure and high registration and use of general practice/primary care services. However, overall, there were high levels of dissatisfaction, frustration and distrust in General Practitioners (GP). The majority of participants viewed the GP as unhelpful and dismissive; a barrier to secondary/acute care; reluctant to prescribe antibiotics; and that GPs too often advised them to take paracetamol (acetaminophen) and rest. Overwhelmingly participants had strong opinions about access to primary care and the role of the general practitioners. Although the design of the UK health service was well understood, participants were unhappy with the system of GP as gatekeeper and felt it inferior to the consumer-focused health systems in their country of origin. More work is needed to promote the importance of self-care, reduce antibiotic and medication use, and to increase trust in the GP.

  5. Long-term prognosis for transplant-free survivors of paracetamol-induced acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, P; Schmidt, L E; Larsen, F S

    2010-01-01

    The prognosis for transplant-free survivors of paracetamol-induced acute liver failure remains unknown.......The prognosis for transplant-free survivors of paracetamol-induced acute liver failure remains unknown....

  6. Gastric emptying in rats with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Hessel

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the gastric emptying (GE of liquids in fasted and sucrose-fed rats with toxic hepatitis induced by acetaminophen. The GE of three test meals (saline, glucose and mayonnaise was evaluated in Wistar rats. For each meal, the animals were divided into two groups (N = 24 each. Group I was fed a sucrose diet throughout the experiment (66 h while group II was fasted. Forty-two hours after the start of the experiment, each group was divided into two subgroups (N = 12 each. Subgroup A received a placebo and subgroup B was given acetaminophen (1 g/kg. Twenty-four hours later, the GE of the three test meals was assessed and blood samples were collected to measure the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and acetaminophen. In group IB, the mean AST and ALT values were 515 and 263 IU/l, respectively, while for group IIB they were 4014 and 2472 IU/l, respectively. The mean serum acetaminophen levels were higher in group IIB (120 µg/ml than in group IB (87 µg/ml. The gastric retention values were significantly higher in group IIB than in group IIA for all three test meals: saline, 51 vs 35%; glucose, 52 vs 38% and mayonnaise, 51 vs 29% (median values. The correlation between gastric retention and AST levels was significant (P<0.05 for group IIB for the three test meals: r = 0.73, 0.67 and 0.68 for saline, glucose and mayonnaise, respectively. We conclude that GE is altered in rats with hepatic lesions induced by acetaminophen, and that these alterations may be related to the liver cell necrosis caused by the drug.

  7. The effect of acetaminophen nanoparticles on liver toxicity in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Biazar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Esmaeil Biazar1, S Mahdi Rezayat2, Naser Montazeri1, Khalil Pourshamsian1, Reza Zeinali3, Azadeh Asefnejad3, Mehdi Rahimi3, Mohammadmajid Zadehzare3, Mehran Mahmoudi3, Rohollah Mazinani3, Mehdi Ziaei31Department of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon Branch, Mazandaran, Iran; 2Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran; 3Biomedical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Research and Science Branch, Tehran, IranAbstract: Acetaminophen, a pain-reliever, is one of the most widely used medications in the world. Acetaminophen with normal dosage is considered a nontoxic drug for therapeutic applications, but when taken at overdose levels it produces liver damage in human and various animal species. By a high energy mechanically activated method, we produced acetaminophen in a nanometer crystalline size (24 nm. Forty-eight hours after injection of crystalline particles with normal and reduced size of our drug, the effect of liver toxicity was compared by determination of liver transferase enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT. These enzymes were examined by routine colorimetric methods using commercial kits and pathologic investigations. Statistical analysis and pathological figures indicated that ALT delivery and toxicity in reduced size acetaminophen was significantly reduced when compared with normal size acetaminophen. Pathology figures exhibited reduced necrosis effects, especially the confluent necrosis, in the central part of the lobule in the reduced size acetaminophen samples when compared with the normal samples.Keywords: acetaminophen, size reduction, pathological and enzymatic investigations, toxicity

  8. A New Sensor Based on Graphite Screen Printed Electrode Modified With Cu-Nanocomplex for Determination of Paracetamol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Beitollai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used as an antipyretic agent for the alternative to aspirin. Conversely, the overdoses of paracetamol can cause hepatic toxicity and kidney damage. Hence, the determination of paracetamol receives much more attention in biological samples and also in pharmaceutical formulations. Here, we report a rapid and sensitive detection of the paracetamol based on screen-printed modified electrode (SPE with Cu nanocomplex (Cu in pH=7.0. The paracetamol is not stable in strong acidic and strong alkaline media, and is hydrolyzed and hydroxylated. However, it is stable in intermediate pHs due to the dimerization of paracetamol. The kinetics of the paracetamol oxidation was briefly studied and documented in the schemes. In addition, the characterization of Cu nanocomplex was probed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. Moreover, the voltammetry determined the paracetamol with the linear concentration ranging from 10.0 to 1000.0 μM and the lower detection limit of 1.0 μM. This method was also successfully used to detect the concentration of paracetamol in pharmaceutical formulations and urine samples.

  9. Intravenøs eller oral N-acetylcysteinbehandling til paracetamolforgiftede patienter. Er det tid til at revurdere behandlingsinstruksen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolff, Hans Christian; Christensen, Hanne Rolighed; Dalhoff, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Danish paracetamol (PCM) poisoned patients are treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) intravenously for 36 hours. This probably leads to overtreatment. Today, patients with poor prognoses can be identified and, in addition, NAC may have serious side effects. We reviewed the literature (route...... of administration, duration and timing of treatment) and found that intravenous NAC often leads to side effects (some serious), primarily when serum paracetamol is low. These patients are often only mildly poisoned and they may therefore benefit from a shorter, orally administered regimen (equally efficient...

  10. Intravenøs eller oral N-acetylcysteinbehandling til paracetamolforgiftede patienter. Er det tid til at revurdere behandlingsinstruksen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolff, Hans Christian; Christensen, Hanne Rolighed; Dalhoff, Kim

    2010-01-01

    of administration, duration and timing of treatment) and found that intravenous NAC often leads to side effects (some serious), primarily when serum paracetamol is low. These patients are often only mildly poisoned and they may therefore benefit from a shorter, orally administered regimen (equally efficient......Danish paracetamol (PCM) poisoned patients are treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) intravenously for 36 hours. This probably leads to overtreatment. Today, patients with poor prognoses can be identified and, in addition, NAC may have serious side effects. We reviewed the literature (route...

  11. Electrocatalytic Study of Paracetamol at a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Nickel Nanocomposite Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Sing Ngai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, simple, and sensitive method for the electrochemical determination of paracetamol was developed. A single-walled carbon nanotube/nickel (SWCNT/Ni nanocomposite was prepared and immobilized on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE surface via mechanical attachment. This paper reports the voltammetry study on the effect of paracetamol concentration, scan rate, pH, and temperature at a SWCNT/Ni-modified electrode in the determination of paracetamol. The characterization of the SWCNT/Ni/GCE was performed by cyclic voltammetry. Variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectrometer were used to examine the surface morphology and elemental profile of the modified electrode, respectively. Cyclic voltammetry showed significant enhancement in peak current for the determination of paracetamol at the SWCNT/Ni-modified electrode. A linear calibration curve was obtained for the paracetamol concentration between 0.05 and 0.50 mM. The SWCNT/Ni/GCE displayed a sensitivity of 64 mA M−1 and a detection limit of 1.17 × 10−7 M in paracetamol detection. The proposed electrode can be applied for the determination of paracetamol in real pharmaceutical samples with satisfactory performance. Results indicate that electrodes modified with SWCNT and nickel nanoparticles exhibit better electrocatalytic activity towards paracetamol.

  12. Effect of paracetamol injection on the analgesic effect of tramadol in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five dogs each were randomly treated with 30mg/kg paracetamol (treatment KXDTA) intravenously or equal volume of normal saline (treatment KXDTS) to evaluate if paracetamol potentiate the analgesic effects of tramadol during the intra-operative period. Thirty minutes later, both groups were treated with 3mg/kg tramadol ...

  13. Cerebellar level of neurotransmitters in rats exposed to paracetamol during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Joniec-Maciejak, Ilona; Jawna-Zboińska, Katarzyna; Pyrzanowska, Justyna; Piechal, Agnieszka; Wawer, Adriana; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa

    2016-12-01

    The present study was designed to clarify the effect of prenatal and postnatal paracetamol administration on the neurotransmitter level and balance of amino acids in the cerebellum. Biochemical analysis to determine the concentration of neurotransmitters in this brain structure was performed on two-month-old Wistar male rats previously exposed to paracetamol in doses of 5 (P5, n=10) or 15mg/kg (P15, n=10) throughout the entire prenatal period, lactation and until the completion of the second month of life, when the experiment was terminated. Control animals were given tapped water (Con, n=10). The cerebellar concentration of monoamines, their metabolites and amino acids were assayed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The present experiment demonstrates that prenatal and postnatal paracetamol exposure results in modulation of cerebellar neurotransmission with changes concerning mainly 5-HIAA and MHPG levels. The effect of paracetamol on monoaminergic neurotransmission in the cerebellum is reflected by changes in the level of catabolic end-products of serotonin (5-HIAA) and noradrenaline (MHPG) degradation. Further work is required to define the mechanism of action and impact of prenatal and postnatal exposure to paracetamol in the cerebellum and other structures of the central nervous system (CNS). Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of Response Surface Methodology for Optimization of Paracetamol Particles Formation by RESS Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabet, J.K.; Ghotbi, C.; Dorkoosh, F.

    2012-01-01

    Ultrafine particles of paracetamol were produced by Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solution (RESS). The experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of extraction temperature (313-353 K), extraction pressure (10-18 MPa), pre expansion temperature (363-403 K), and post expansion temperature (273-323 K) on particles size and morphology of paracetamol particles. The characterization of the particles was determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The average particle size of the original paracetamol was 20.8 μm, while the average particle size of paracetamol after nan onization via the RESS process was 0.46 μm depending on the experimental conditions used. Moreover, the morphology of the processed particles changed to spherical and regular while the virgin particles of paracetamol were needle-shape and irregular. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the process parameters. The extraction temperature, 347 K; extraction pressure, 12 MPa; pre expansion temperature, 403?K; and post expansion temperature, 322 K was found to be the optimum conditions to achieve the minimum average particle size of paracetamol.

  15. Metabolite kinetics: formation of acetaminophen from deuterated and nondeuterated phenacetin and acetanilide on acetaminophen sulfation kinetics in the perfused rat liver preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, K.S.; Waller, L.; Horning, M.G.; Chan, K.K.

    1982-01-01

    The role of hepatic intrinsic clearance for metabolite formation from various precursors on subsequent metabolite elimination was was investigated in the once-through perfused rat liver preparation. Two pairs of acetaminophen precursors: [ 14 C] phenacetin-d5 and [ 3 H] phenacetin-do, [ 14 C] acetanilide and [ 3 H] phenacetin were delivered by constant flow (10 ml/min/liver) either by normal or retrograde perfusion to the rat liver preparations. The extents of acetaminophen sulfation were compared within the same preparation. The data showed that the higher the hepatocellular activity (intrinsic clearance) for acetaminophen formation, the greater the extent of subsequent acetaminophen sulfation. The findings were explained on the basis of blood transit time and metabolite duration time. Because of blood having only a finite transit time in liver, the longer the drug requires for metabolite formation, the less time will remain for metabolite sulfation and the less will be the degree of subsequent sulfation. Conversely, when the drug forms the primary metabolite rapidly, a longer time will remain for the metabolite to be sulfated in liver to result in a greater degree of metabolite sulfation. Finally, the effects of hepatic intrinsic clearances for metabolite formation and zonal distribution of enzyme systems for metabolite formation and elimination in liver are discussed

  16. Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa on carbon tetrachloride- and acetaminophen-induced liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S C; Chung, T C; Lin, C C; Ueng, T H; Lin, Y H; Lin, S Y; Wang, L Y

    2000-01-01

    The root of Arctium lappa Linne (A. lappa) (Compositae), a perennial herb, has been cultivated for a long time as a popular vegetable. In order to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of A. lappa, male ICR mice were injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 32 microl/kg, i.p.) or acetaminophen (600 mg/kg, i.p.). A. lappa suppressed the SGOT and SGPT elevations induced by CCl4 or acetaminophen in a dose-dependent manner and alleviated the severity of liver damage based on histopathological observations. In an attempt to elucidate the possible mechanism(s) of this hepatoprotective effect, glutathione (GSH), cytochrome P-450 (P-450) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were studied. A. lappa reversed the decrease in GSH and P-450 induced by CCl4 and acetaminophen. It was also found that A. lappa decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in CCl4 or acetaminophen-intoxicated mice. From these results, it was suggested that A. lappa could protect the liver cells from CCl4 or acetaminophen-induced liver damages, perhaps by its antioxidative effect on hepatocytes, hence eliminating the deleterious effects of toxic metabolites from CCl4 or acetaminophen.

  17. Effect of Solution pH on the Adsorption of Paracetamol on Chemically Modified Activated Carbons

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    Valentina Bernal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol adsorption in acidic, neutral and basic media on three activated carbons with different chemistry surfaces was studied. A granular activated carbon (GAC was prepared from coconut shell; starting from this sample, an oxidized activated carbon (GACo was obtained by treating the GAC with a boiling solution of 6 M nitric acid, so to generate a greater number of oxygenated surface groups. In addition, a reduced activated carbon (GACr was obtained by heating the GAC at 1173 K, to remove the oxygenated surface groups. Paracetamol adsorption was higher for GACr due to the lower presence of oxygenated surface functional groups. Moreover, adsorption was highest at neutral pH. The magnitude of the interactions between paracetamol molecules and activated carbons was studied by measuring the immersion enthalpies of activated carbons in solution of paracetamol at different concentrations and pH values and by calculating the interaction enthalpy. The highest value was obtained for GACr in a paracetamol solution of 1000 mg L−1 at pH 7, confirming that paracetamol adsorption is favoured on basic activated carbons at pH values near to neutrality. Finally, the Gibbs energy changes confirmed the latter result, allowing explaining the different magnitudes of the interactions between paracetamol and activated carbons, as a function of solution pH.

  18. Paracetamol. Ny viden om virkningsmekanismer samt smertelindrende og antiinflammatorisk effekt sammenlignet med ikke-steroide antiinflammatorika

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, G

    2000-01-01

    Paracetamol is usually termed a peripheral analgesic from the common belief that its site of action is near the injury. In this review a possible central action is summarised. Furthermore the analgesic effect of paracetamol is compared to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the possible anti......-inflammatory effect of paracetamol is discussed....

  19. Effect of amlodipine, lisinopril and allopurinol on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesreen E.M. Mohammed

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Amlodipine, lisinopril or allopurinol can protect against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity, showing mechanistic roles of calcium channels, angiotensin converting enzyme and xanthine oxidase enzyme in the pathogenesis of hepatotoxicity induced by acetaminophen.

  20. A study of the changes during heating of paracetamol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wet, F N; Gerber, J J; Lötter, A P; van der Watt, J G; Dekker, T G

    1998-05-01

    The orthorhombic form of paracetamol has been shown to exhibit greater compressibility and faster dissolution than the monoclinic form. The orthorhombic form is produced by melting of monoclinic crystals of paracetamol followed by cooling at specific rates. Cooling rate, although a very important factor, is not the only factor influencing the formation of either of the two morphs. To study the cooling rate required for production of form II, paracetamol samples were melted in a differential scanning calorimeter, cooled at three specific rates, and melted again. In all of the samples, cooling resulted in the glassy form followed by recrystallization and the melting of form II. On the hot-stage microscope both forms were produced in one sample. Standardizing conditions for prediction of the resulting form remains a problem. There seems to be a great deal of overlap of the two forms' transition phases, which would make it difficult to force the crystallization of one form by keeping the solution or melt at a specific temperature. The thermal behavior of paracetamol during the heating and cooling phases must be understood in order to manipulate the process. A video camera mounted on a hot-stage microscope was used to follow the changes during heating and cooling of both forms. Nucleation, crystal growth, habit transformation, sublimation, and the final melt are shown on snap shots taken from the video.

  1. High-pressure high-temperature phase diagram of organic crystal paracetamol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Spencer J.; Montgomery, Jeffrey M.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2016-01-01

    High-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) Raman spectroscopy studies have been performed on the organic crystal paracetamol in a diamond anvil cell utilizing boron-doped heating diamond anvil. Isobaric measurements were conducted at pressures up to 8.5 GPa and temperature up to 520 K in five different experiments. Solid state phase transitions from monoclinic Form I  →  orthorhombic Form II were observed at various pressures and temperatures as well as transitions from Form II  →  unknown Form IV. The melting temperature for paracetamol was observed to increase with increasing pressures to 8.5 GPa. This new data is combined with previous ambient temperature high-pressure Raman and x-ray diffraction data to create the first HPHT phase diagram of paracetamol.

  2. High-pressure high-temperature phase diagram of organic crystal paracetamol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Spencer J; Montgomery, Jeffrey M; Vohra, Yogesh K

    2016-01-01

    High-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) Raman spectroscopy studies have been performed on the organic crystal paracetamol in a diamond anvil cell utilizing boron-doped heating diamond anvil. Isobaric measurements were conducted at pressures up to 8.5 GPa and temperature up to 520 K in five different experiments. Solid state phase transitions from monoclinic Form I  →  orthorhombic Form II were observed at various pressures and temperatures as well as transitions from Form II  →  unknown Form IV. The melting temperature for paracetamol was observed to increase with increasing pressures to 8.5 GPa. This new data is combined with previous ambient temperature high-pressure Raman and x-ray diffraction data to create the first HPHT phase diagram of paracetamol. (paper)

  3. Paracetamol suppositories: a comparative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, S; Kenny, D; Ward, O C; Sabra, K

    1989-01-01

    Paracetamol suppositories in two different bases were given to children who had fever after operations. Plasma concentrations and the effect on temperature were compared. There was a significant correlation between peak plasma concentrations and maximum drop in temperature. A lipophilic base produced better results than a hydrophilic base.

  4. Conformational and vibrational reassessment of solid paracetamol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Ana M.; Azevedo, Celeste; Ribeiro-Claro, Paulo J. A.

    2017-08-01

    This work provides an answer to the urge for a more detailed and accurate knowledge of the vibrational spectrum of the widely used analgesic/antipyretic drug commonly known as paracetamol. A comprehensive spectroscopic analysis - including infrared, Raman, and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) - is combined with a computational approach which takes account for the effects of intermolecular interactions in the solid state. This allows a full reassessment of the vibrational assignments for Paracetamol, thus preventing the propagation of incorrect data analysis and misassignments already found in the literature. In particular, the vibrational modes involving the hydrogen-bonded Nsbnd H and Osbnd H groups are correctly reallocated to bands shifted by up to 300 cm- 1 relatively to previous assignments.

  5. A simple assay of paracetamol based on dried blood spot suitable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dried blood spots in Guthrie cards are a reliable means of blood sampling suitable for pharmacoki-netic analysis in children. The aim of this study was to develop a simple and reliable bioanalytical method to measure the concentration of paracetamol in dried blood spots. Paracetamol was ex-tracted from dry blood spots by ...

  6. Eucalyptus globulus extract protects upon acetaminophen-induced kidney damages in male rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhibi, Sabah; Mbarki, Sakhria; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2014-01-01

    Plants have historically been used in treating many diseases. Eucalyptus globules, a rich source of bioactive compounds, and have been shown to possess antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study, carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the beneficial effects of Eucalyptus globulus extract upon acetaminophen-induced damages in kidney. Our study is realized in the Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax (Tunisia). 32 Wistar male rats; were divided into 4 batches: a control group (n=8), a group of rats treated with acetaminophen (goomg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection during 4 days (n=8), a group receiving Eucalyptus globulus extract (130 mg of dry leaves/kg/day) in drinking water during 42 days after 2 hours of acetaminophen administration (during 4 days) (n=8) and group received only Eucalyptus (n=8) during 42 days. After 6 weeks, animals from each group were rapidly sacrificed by decapitation. Blood serum was obtained by centrifugation. Under our experimental conditions, acetaminophen poisoning resulted in an oxidative stress evidenced by statistically significant losses in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide-dismutase (SOD), glutathione-peroxidase (GPX) activities and an increase in lipids peroxidation level in renal tissue of acetaminophen-treated group compared with the control group. Acetaminophen also caused kidney damage as evident by statistically significant (p<0.05) increase in levels of creatinine and urea and decreased levels of uric acid and proteins in blood. Histological analysis demonstrated alteration of proximal tubules, atrophy of the glomerule and dilatation of urinary space. Previous administration of plant extract is found to alleviate this acetaminophen-induced damage. PMID:24856382

  7. SEGURIDAD DEL PARACETAMOL EN CUBA. 2003 - 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Chao Cardeso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available n observational, descriptive and retrospective study was realized to characterize the behavior of the adverse reactions related to paracetamol, including in the data base of the National Coordinating Unit of Pharmacovigilance, in the period included from January of the 2003 to December of the 2008.Once identified the main's adverse reactions associated to the use of paracetamol and organs' systems more affected it was determined his distribution by sex and groups of ages. In addition, severity and causality were classified accordantly to the avoidable reactions and their causes.Of the 612 notified reactions, the cutaneous eruptions were those of greater quantity (52.2%, corresponding this result with the system of organs more affected, then it was the skin (54.4%. Feminine sex and the group of age between the 16 and 39 years, presented/displayed the majors percents of undesirable effects, with 62.9% and 30.2%, respectively. The behavior, as far as severity and causality, was not different from what it was reported in other studies because the slight reactions predominated (56.7% and probable (80.2%. As far as the avoidable, the 69.1% of the reactions were catalogued like no avoidable, in as much, the errors in the indication of paracetamol constituted the main evitable cause.

  8. Human plasma concentrations of tolbutamide and acetaminophen extrapolated from in vivo animal pharmacokinetics using in vitro human hepatic clearances and simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling for radio-labeled microdose clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kunikane, Eriko; Nishiyama, Sayako; Murayama, Norie; Shimizu, Makiko; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Chiba, Koji; Ikeda, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to extrapolate the pharmacokinetics of drug substances orally administered in humans from rat pharmacokinetic data using tolbutamide and acetaminophen as model compounds. Adjusted animal biomonitoring equivalents from rat studies based on reported plasma concentrations were scaled to human biomonitoring equivalents using known species allometric scaling factors. In this extrapolation, in vitro metabolic clearance data were obtained using liver preparations. Rates of tolbutamide elimination were roughly similar in rat and human liver microsome experiments, but acetaminophen elimination by rat liver microsomes and cytosolic preparations showed a tendency to be faster than those in humans. Using a simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, estimated human plasma concentrations of tolbutamide and acetaminophen were consistent with reported concentrations. Tolbutamide cleared in a roughly similar manner in humans and rats, but medical-dose levels of acetaminophen cleared (dependent on liver metabolism) more slowly from plasma in humans than it did in rats. The data presented here illustrate how pharmacokinetic data in combination with a simple PBPK model can be used to assist evaluations of the pharmacological/toxicological potential of new drug substances and for estimating human radiation exposures from radio-labeled drugs when planning human studies. (author)

  9. Perioperative intravenous acetaminophen attenuates lipid peroxidation in adults undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass: a randomized clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic T Billings

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB lyses erythrocytes and induces lipid peroxidation, indicated by increasing plasma concentrations of free hemoglobin, F2-isoprostanes, and isofurans. Acetaminophen attenuates hemeprotein-mediated lipid peroxidation, reduces plasma and urine concentrations of F2-isoprostanes, and preserves kidney function in an animal model of rhabdomyolysis. Acetaminophen also attenuates plasma concentrations of isofurans in children undergoing CPB. The effect of acetaminophen on lipid peroxidation in adults has not been studied. This was a pilot study designed to test the hypothesis that acetaminophen attenuates lipid peroxidation in adults undergoing CPB and to generate data for a clinical trial aimed to reduce acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery.In a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, sixty adult patients were randomized to receive intravenous acetaminophen or placebo starting prior to initiation of CPB and for every 6 hours for 4 doses. Acetaminophen concentrations measured 30 min into CPB and post-CPB were 11.9 ± 0.6 μg/mL (78.9 ± 3.9 μM and 8.7 ± 0.3 μg/mL (57.6 ± 2.0 μM, respectively. Plasma free hemoglobin increased more than 15-fold during CPB, and haptoglobin decreased 73%, indicating hemolysis. Plasma and urinary markers of lipid peroxidation also increased during CPB but returned to baseline by the first postoperative day. Acetaminophen reduced plasma isofuran concentrations over the duration of the study (P = 0.05, and the intraoperative plasma isofuran concentrations that corresponded to peak hemolysis were attenuated in those subjects randomized to acetaminophen (P = 0.03. Perioperative acetaminophen did not affect plasma concentrations of F2-isoprostanes or urinary markers of lipid peroxidation.Intravenous acetaminophen attenuates the increase in intraoperative plasma isofuran concentrations that occurs during CPB, while urinary markers were unaffected.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  10. Photocatalytic degradation of paracetamol: intermediates and total reaction mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moctezuma, Edgar; Leyva, Elisa; Aguilar, Claudia A; Luna, Raúl A; Montalvo, Carlos

    2012-12-01

    The advanced oxidation of paracetamol (PAM) promoted by TiO(2)/UV system in aqueous medium was investigated. Monitoring this reaction by HPLC and TOC, it was demonstrated that while oxidation of paracetamol is quite efficient under these conditions, its mineralization is not complete. HPLC indicated the formation of hydroquinone, benzoquinone, p-aminophenol and p-nitrophenol in the reaction mixtures. Further evidence of p-nitrophenol formation was obtained following the reaction by UV-vis spectroscopy. Continuous monitoring by IR spectroscopy demonstrated the breaking of the aromatic amide present in PAM and subsequent formation of several aromatic intermediate compounds such as p-aminophenol and p-nitrophenol. These aromatic compounds were eventually converted into trans-unsaturated carboxylic acids. Based on these experimental results, an alternative deacylation mechanism for the photocatalytic oxidation of paracetamol is proposed. Our studies also demonstrated IR spectroscopy to be a useful technique to investigate oxidative mechanisms of pharmaceutical compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Paracetamol suppositories: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, S; Kenny, D; Ward, O C; Sabra, K

    1989-01-01

    Paracetamol suppositories in two different bases were given to children who had fever after operations. Plasma concentrations and the effect on temperature were compared. There was a significant correlation between peak plasma concentrations and maximum drop in temperature. A lipophilic base produced better results than a hydrophilic base. PMID:2817936

  12. Comparative effect of paracetamol, NSAIDs or their combination in postoperative pain management: a qualitative review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyllested, M; Jones, S; Pedersen, J L

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quantitative reviews of postoperative pain management have demonstrated that the number of patients needed to treat for one patient to achieve at least 50% pain relief (NNT) is 2.7 for ibuprofen (400 mg) and 4.6 for paracetamol (1000 mg), both compared with placebo. However, direct...... comparisons between paracetamol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have not been extensively reviewed. The aims of this review are (i) to compare the analgesic and adverse effects of paracetamol with those of other NSAIDs in postoperative pain, (ii) to compare the effects of combined...... paracetamol and NSAID with those of either drug alone, and (iii) to discuss whether the adverse effects of NSAIDs in short-term use are justified by their analgesic effects, compared with paracetamol. METHODS: Medline (1966 to January 2001) and the Cochrane Library (January 2001) were used to perform...

  13. Intoxicación suicida por paracetamol Suicidal poisoning with paracetamol

    OpenAIRE

    J. Blanco Pampín; N. Morte Tamayo

    2002-01-01

    La intoxicación por paracetamol es un hecho verdaderamente infrecuente, debido sobre todo al elevado rango terapéutico que posee. Los efectos letales de su ingestión a menudo son el resultado de las complicaciones que originan, aunque por efecto directo del fármaco (intoxicación aguda) se producen tanto en suicidios como a causa de sobredosis en búsqueda de analgesia (intoxicación medicamentosa accidental). El presente artículo expone el caso de una mujer joven con antecedentes psiquiátricos,...

  14. Effect of acetylcysteine on prothrombin index in paracetamol poisoning without hepatocellular injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars E; Knudsen, Tore Tveit; Dalhoff, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Acetylcysteine treatment reduces liver damage after paracetamol overdose, but can affect the prothrombin index, which is used to assess the progress of overdose patients. We aimed to assess retrospectively the effect of intravenous acetylcysteine on the prothrombin index in patients with paraceta......Acetylcysteine treatment reduces liver damage after paracetamol overdose, but can affect the prothrombin index, which is used to assess the progress of overdose patients. We aimed to assess retrospectively the effect of intravenous acetylcysteine on the prothrombin index in patients...... with paracetamol poisoning without signs of hepatocellular injury. Prothrombin index had been recorded before, and serially during, acetylcysteine treatment in 87 patients. After initiation of treatment, prothrombin index decreased (mean 0.33, 95% CI 0.29-0.38) in all patients, and was strongly associated...... with the start of acetylcysteine infusion. In patients with uncomplicated paracetamol poisoning, a fall in this index might be misinterpreted as a sign of liver failure, leading to prolonged treatment time....

  15. Prenatal paracetamol exposure is associated with shorter anogenital distance in male infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, B.G.; Thankamony, A.; Hughes, I.A.; Ong, K.K.; Dunger, D.B.; Acerini, C.L.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What is the relationship between maternal paracetamol intake during the masculinisation programming window (MPW, 8–14 weeks of gestation) and male infant anogenital distance (AGD), a biomarker for androgen action during the MPW? SUMMARY ANSWER Intrauterine paracetamol exposure during 8–14 weeks of gestation is associated with shorter AGD from birth to 24 months of age. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN The increasing prevalence of male reproductive disorders may reflect environmental influences on foetal testicular development during the MPW. Animal and human xenograft studies have demonstrated that paracetamol reduces foetal testicular testosterone production, consistent with reported epidemiological associations between prenatal paracetamol exposure and cryptorchidism. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Prospective cohort study (Cambridge Baby Growth Study), with recruitment of pregnant women at ~12 post-menstrual weeks of gestation from a single UK maternity unit between 2001 and 2009, and 24 months of infant follow-up. Of 2229 recruited women, 1640 continued with the infancy study after delivery, of whom 676 delivered male infants and completed a medicine consumption questionnaire. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHOD Mothers self-reported medicine consumption during pregnancy by a questionnaire administered during the perinatal period. Infant AGD (measured from 2006 onwards), penile length and testicular descent were assessed at 0, 3, 12, 18 and 24 months of age, and age-specific Z scores were calculated. Associations between paracetamol intake during three gestational periods (14 weeks) and these outcomes were tested by linear mixed models. Two hundred and twenty-five (33%) of six hundred and eighty-one male infants were exposed to paracetamol during pregnancy, of whom sixty-eight were reported to be exposed during 8–14 weeks. AGD measurements were available for 434 male infants. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Paracetamol exposure during 8–14

  16. Aloe vera attenuated liver injury in mice with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werawatganon, Duangporn; Linlawan, Sittikorn; Thanapirom, Kessarin; Somanawat, Kanjana; Klaikeaw, Naruemon; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Siriviriyakul, Prasong

    2014-07-08

    An overdose of the acetaminophen causes liver injury. This study aims to examine the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera in mice with acetaminophen induced hepatitis. Male mice were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8 each). Control group were given orally distilled water (DW). APAP group were given orally N-acetyl-P-aminophenol (APAP) 400 mg/kg suspended in DW. Aloe vera-treated group were given orally APAP and Aloe vera (150 mg/kg) suspended in DW. Twenty-four hours later, the liver was removed to determine hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), hepatic glutathione (GSH), the number of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells (%) by immunohistochemistry method, and histopathological examination. Then, the serum was collected to determine transaminase (ALT). In APAP group, ALT, hepatic MDA and the number of IL-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells were significantly increased when compared to control group (1210.50 ± 533.86 vs 85.28 ± 28.27 U/L, 3.60 ± 1.50 vs 1.38 ± 0.15 nmol/mg protein, 12.18 ± 1.10 vs 1.84 ± 1.29%, and 13.26 ± 0.90 vs 2.54 ± 1.29%, P = 0.000, respectively), whereas hepatic GSH was significantly decreased when compared to control group (5.98 ± 0.30 vs 11.65 ± 0.43 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000). The mean level of ALT, hepatic MDA, the number of IL-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells, and hepatic GSH in Aloe vera-treated group were improved as compared with APAP group (606.38 ± 495.45 vs 1210.50 ± 533.86 U/L, P = 0.024; 1.49 ± 0.64 vs 3.60 ± 1.50 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.001; 5.56 ± 1.25 vs 12.18 ± 1.10%, P = 0.000; 6.23 ± 0.94 vs 13.26 ± 0.90%, P = 0.000; and 10.02 ± 0.20 vs 5.98 ± 0.30 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000, respectively). Moreover, in the APAP group, the liver showed extensive hemorrhagic hepatic necrosis at all zones while in Aloe vera-treated group, the liver architecture was improved histopathology. APAP overdose can cause liver injury. Our result indicate that Aloe vera attenuate APAP

  17. Prenatal and infant paracetamol exposure and development of asthma: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Maria C; Karlstad, Øystein; Håberg, Siri E; Nafstad, Per; Davey Smith, George; Nystad, Wenche

    2016-04-01

    Paracetamol exposure has been positively associated with asthma development. The relative importance of prenatal vs infant exposure and confounding by indication remains elusive. We examined the association of prenatal and infant (first 6 months) paracetamol exposure with asthma development while addressing confounding by indication. We used information from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, including 53169 children for evaluation of current asthma at 3 years, 25394 for current asthma at 7 years and 45607 for dispensed asthma medications at 7 years in the Norwegian Prescription Database. We calculated adjusted relative risks (adj. RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using log-binomial regression. There were independent modest associations between asthma at 3 years with prenatal paracetamol exposure (adj. RR 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02-1.25) and use of paracetamol during infancy (adj. RR 1.29; 95% CI: 1.16-1.45). The results were consistent for asthma at 7 years. The associations with prenatal paracetamol exposure were seen for different indications (pain, respiratory tract infections/influenza and fever). Maternal pain during pregnancy was the only indication that showed an association both with and without paracetamol use. Maternal paracetamol use outside pregnancy and paternal paracetamol use were not associated with asthma development. In a secondary analysis, prenatal ibuprofen exposure was positively associated with asthma at 3 years but not asthma at 7 years. This study provides evidence that prenatal and infant paracetamol exposure have independent associations with asthma development. Our findings suggest that the associations could not be fully explained by confounding by indication. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  18. Concomitant overdosing of other drugs in patients with paracetamol poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars E; Dalhoff, Kim

    2002-01-01

    of the paracetamol intoxication. METHODS: Six hundred and seventy-one consecutive patients admitted with paracetamol poisoning were studied and concomitant drug intake was recorded. The relative risk of hepatic encephalopathy, death or liver transplantation, hepatic dysfunction, liver cell damage, and renal...... was a protective factor in the development of hepatic encephalopathy (OR 0.26; CI 0.07, 0.96). Concomitant acetylsalicylic acid overdose was a risk factor in the development of hepatic encephalopathy (OR 4.87; CI 1.52, 15.7) and death or liver transplantation (OR 6.04; CI 1.69, 21.6). A tendency towards a more...... favourable outcome was observed in patients with concomitant NSAID overdose. CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant overdosing of benzodiazepines or analgesics is frequent in patients admitted with paracetamol poisoning. Concomitant benzodiazepine or acetylsalicylic acid overdose was associated with more severe toxicity...

  19. Nanoparticles formulation of Cuscuta chinensis prevents acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Feng-Lin; Wu, Tzu-Hui; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Cham, Thau-Ming; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2008-05-01

    Cuscuta chinensis is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine to nourish the liver and kidney. Due to the poor water solubility of its major constituents such as flavonoids and lignans, its absorption upon oral administration could be limited. The purpose of the present study was to use the nanosuspension method to prepare C. chinensis nanoparticles (CN), and to compare the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of C. chinensis ethanolic extract (CE) and CN on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. An oral dose of CE at 125 and 250 mg/kg and CN at 25 and 50mg/kg showed a significant hepatoprotective effect relatively to the same extent (P<0.05) by reducing levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. These biochemical assessments were supported by rat hepatic biopsy examinations. In addition, the antioxidant activities of CE and CN both significantly increased superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and reduced malondialdehyde (P<0.05). Moreover, the results also indicated that the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of 50 mg/kg CN was effectively better than 125 mg/kg CE (P<0.05), and an oral dose of CN that is five times as less as CE could exhibit similar levels of outcomes. In conclusion, we suggest that the nanoparticles system can be applied to overcome other water poorly soluble herbal medicines and furthermore to decrease the treatment dosage.

  20. Paracetamoldosering til børn--anderledes end til voksne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaspar Buus; Dalhoff, Kim P

    2005-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) has become the most widely used antipyretic and analgesic drug for children in Denmark. However, there is a wide discrepancy between the consumption of the drug and our knowledge of children's pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Dosage, therapeutic intervals and toxic...

  1. Pregabalin and dexamethasone in combination with paracetamol for postoperative pain control after abdominal hysterectomy. A randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M L; Dierking, G; Lech, K

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multimodal analgesia may be important for optimal postoperative pain treatment and facilitation of early mobilization and recovery. We investigated the analgesic effect of pregabalin and dexamethasone in combination with paracetamol after abdominal hysterectomy. METHODS: One hundred...... and sixteen patients were randomly assigned to either group A (paracetamol+placebo x 2), group B (paracetamol+pregabalin+placebo) or group C (paracetamol+pregabalin+dexamethasone). According to randomization and preoperatively, patients received paracetamol 1000 mg, pregabalin 300 mg, dexamethasone 8 mg...... or placebo. General anaesthesia was performed. Postoperative pain treatment was paracetamol 1000 mg x 4 and patient-controlled intravenous morphine, 2.5 mg bolus. Nausea was treated with ondansetron. Morphine consumption, pain score (visual analogue scale) at rest and during mobilization, nausea, sedation...

  2. Spinal cholinergic involvement after treatment with aspirin and paracetamol in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Kommalage, Mahinda; Höglund, A Urban

    2004-01-01

    Aspirin and paracetamol have been shown to suppress non-inflammatory pain conditions like thermal, visceral and mechanical pain in mice and rats. The non-inflammatory antinociception appears to be mediated by central receptor mechanisms, such as the cholinergic system. In this study, we tested...... the hypothesis that the non-inflammatory antinociception of aspirin and paracetamol could be mediated by an increase of intraspinal acetylcholine release. Microdialysis probes were placed intraspinally in anesthetized rats for acetylcholine sampling. Subcutaneously administered aspirin 100 and 300 mg....../kg increased, while paracetamol 300 mg/kg decreased intraspinal acetylcholine release. Intraspinal drug administration did not affect acetylcholine release. Our results suggest that an increased intraspinal acetylcholine release could be involved in part of the non-inflammatory pain suppression by aspirin...

  3. Developmental changes rather than repeated administration drive paracetamol glucuronidation in neonates and infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H.J. Krekels (Elke); S. Van Ham (Saskia); K.M. Allegaert (Karel); J.N. de Hoon; D. Tibboel (Dick); M. Danhof (Meindert); C.A.J. Knibbe (Catherijne)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Based on recovered metabolite ratios in urine, it has been concluded that paracetamol glucuronidation may be up-regulated upon multiple dosing. This study investigates paracetamol clearance in neonates and infants after single and multiple dosing using a population modelling

  4. Intrauterine Exposure to Paracetamol and Aniline Impairs Female Reproductive Development by Reducing Follicle Reserves and Fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Mazaud-Guittot, Severine; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Niels Banhos

    2016-01-01

    in shortening of the anogenital distance in adult offspring, suggesting that fetal hormone signaling had been disturbed. Female offspring of paracetamol-exposed mothers had ovaries with diminished follicle reserve and reduced fertility. Fetal gonads of exposed animals had also reduced gonocyte numbers......, suggesting that the reduced follicle count in adults could be due to early disruption of germ cell development. However, ex vivo cultures of ovaries from 12.5 days post coitum fetuses showed no decrease in proliferation or expression following exposure to paracetamol. This suggests that the effect...... of paracetamol occurs prior to this developmental stage. Accordingly, using embryonic stem cells as a proxy for primordial germ cells we show that paracetamol is an inhibitor of cellular proliferation, but without cytotoxic effects. Collectively, our data show that intrauterine exposure to paracetamol at levels...

  5. Acute interstitial nephritis with acetaminophen and alcohol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexopoulou Iakovina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (AIN represents a growing cause of renal failure in current medical practice. While antimicrobials and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are typically associated with drug-induced AIN, few reports have been made on the involvement of other analgesics. We report our experience in managing a 17-year-old female with AIN and subsequent renal injury following an acetaminophen overdose in conjunction with acute alcohol intoxication. It is well established that acetaminophen metabolism, particularly at high doses, produces reactive metabolites that may induce renal and hepatic toxicity. It is also plausible however, that such reactive species could instead alter renal peptide immunogenicity, thereby inducing AIN. In the following report, we review a possible mechanism for the acetaminophen-induced AIN observed in our patient and also discuss the potential involvement of acute alcohol ingestion in disease onset. The objective of our report is to increase awareness of healthcare professionals to the potential involvement of these commonly used agents in AIN pathogenesis.

  6. Influence of fruit drinks with or without lactobacillus Lp299v on the gastrointestinal uptake of paracetamol in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akerman, Ulrika; Edvinsson, Lars

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical observations have revealed that patients throw up undigested paracetamol tablets several hours following intake of rosehip drink with Lp299v (Proviva). The purpose of this study was to demonstrate if this translates into altered plasma levels of paracetamol in nineteen healthy...... subjects consuming 200 ml of water, Rose hip drink or Proviva together with 1.5 gram of paracetamol. FINDINGS: The concentration of paracetamol in plasma increased rapidly when the paracetamol-containing tablets were consumed together with water and after 30 minutes a median level of 90 mumol/l was reached...... (a 95% confidence interval of 57,161). The corresponding 30 minutes values of paracetamol levels in the presence of rosehip with or without Lp299v were 0 mumol/l (95% confidence intervals contain only zero for both rosehip treatments). There were significant differences in AUC, maximal paracetamol...

  7. Protective Role of Carnitine against the Harmful Biological Effects of Paracetamol and Radiation Exposure in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Rahman, N.A.

    2012-01-01

    L-carnitine, a natural component of mammalian tissue, is a necessary factor in the utilization of long-chain fatty acids to produce energy. Furthermore it has been shown to protect cells from per oxidative stress. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of L-carnitine on hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by paracetamol, γ-radiation, and paracetamol + γ-radiation. Male albino rats were divided into 8 groups. 1-Control group: rats not subject to any treatment, 2-Carnitine group: rats received L-carnitine (0.5 ml/Kg body weight) via intraperitoneal injection during 21 days, 3-Paracetamol group: rats received paracetamol (50 mg/kg body) via intraperi-toneal injection during 21 days, 4- Carnitine + Paracetamol group: rats received L-carnitine in parallel to paracetamol treatment, 5- Radiation groups: rats were whole body gamma irradiated with 7 Gy, 6- Carnitine + Radiation group: rats received L-carnitine for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation with 7Gy, 7- Paracetamol + Radiation group: rats received paracetamol during 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation, 8- Carnitine + Paracetamol + Radiation group: rats received L-carnitine parallel to paracetamol during 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation.The results demonstrated that rats receiving paracetamol, as well as whole body gamma irradiated rats and rats receiving paracetamol and irradiated showed a significant increase of alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and a significant decrease of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity indicating liver injury. A significant increase of urea, creatinine and uric acid levels was recorded also indicating kidney damage. Alteration in liver and kidney functions was accompanied by a significant increase in the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) associated with a significant decrease in glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide

  8. Paracetamol as a prophylactic analgesic for hysterosalpingography: A double blind randomized controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elson, E.M.; Ridley, N.T.F.

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of paracetamol as a prophylactic analgesic for hysterosalpingography (HSG). DESIGN: A prospective double blind randomized controlled trial comparing one 1 g of paracetamol (SmithKline Beecham, Brentford, U.K.) to placebo taken 30 min before HSG. One hundred consecutive out-patients were studied prospectively. The analgesic effectiveness during the procedure and at 24 h and 1 week post procedure was analysed by a postal pain score questionnaire. Additional data on the ethnicity of the patient, sex and level of experience of the radiologist performing the hysterosalpingogram, the parity of the patient, the ease of the procedure, and whether pathology was identified were also recorded. RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients (88%) replied, 39 (44%) received paracetamol and 49 placebo (56%). During the procedure 3/39 (7%) of women in the paracetamol group were pain-free compared to 9/49 (18%) in the placebo group, which was not significant (P = 0.11). At 24 h, 15/39 (38%) of women in the paracetamol group were pain-free compared to 20/49 (41%) in the placebo group, which was not significant (P = 0.82). At 1 week, 27/39 (69%) of women in the paracetamol group were pain-free compared to 29/49 (59%) in the placebo group, which was not significant (P = 0.33). No significant difference in mean pain scores was determined during the procedure (P 0.91), or at 24 h post procedure (P = 0.94). Similarly, no difference in mean pain scores was identified with regard to the ethnicity of the patient, the sex of the radiologist performing the procedure, the level of experience of the radiologist performing the procedure, or whether pathology was present or not. Difficult cannulations were associated with higher mean pain scores, however, there was no difference in mean pain scores between the paracetamol or placebo groups for both easy and difficult cannulations. CONCLUSION: Paracetamol is not effective as a prophylactic analgesic for HSG. If a prophylactic

  9. Paracetamol as a prophylactic analgesic for hysterosalpingography: A double blind randomized controlled trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elson, E.M.; Ridley, N.T.F

    2000-09-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of paracetamol as a prophylactic analgesic for hysterosalpingography (HSG). DESIGN: A prospective double blind randomized controlled trial comparing one 1 g of paracetamol (SmithKline Beecham, Brentford, U.K.) to placebo taken 30 min before HSG. One hundred consecutive out-patients were studied prospectively. The analgesic effectiveness during the procedure and at 24 h and 1 week post procedure was analysed by a postal pain score questionnaire. Additional data on the ethnicity of the patient, sex and level of experience of the radiologist performing the hysterosalpingogram, the parity of the patient, the ease of the procedure, and whether pathology was identified were also recorded. RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients (88%) replied, 39 (44%) received paracetamol and 49 placebo (56%). During the procedure 3/39 (7%) of women in the paracetamol group were pain-free compared to 9/49 (18%) in the placebo group, which was not significant (P = 0.11). At 24 h, 15/39 (38%) of women in the paracetamol group were pain-free compared to 20/49 (41%) in the placebo group, which was not significant (P = 0.82). At 1 week, 27/39 (69%) of women in the paracetamol group were pain-free compared to 29/49 (59%) in the placebo group, which was not significant (P = 0.33). No significant difference in mean pain scores was determined during the procedure (P 0.91), or at 24 h post procedure (P = 0.94). Similarly, no difference in mean pain scores was identified with regard to the ethnicity of the patient, the sex of the radiologist performing the procedure, the level of experience of the radiologist performing the procedure, or whether pathology was present or not. Difficult cannulations were associated with higher mean pain scores, however, there was no difference in mean pain scores between the paracetamol or placebo groups for both easy and difficult cannulations. CONCLUSION: Paracetamol is not effective as a prophylactic analgesic for HSG. If a prophylactic

  10. [Determination of serum acetaminophen based on the diazo reaction and its application in the evaluation of gastric emptying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cai-na; Sun, Su-juan; Shen, Zhu-fang

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to establish a method to determine the serum acetaminophen concentration based on diazo reaction, and apply it in the gastric emptying evaluation. Theoretically, acetaminophen could take hydrolysis reaction in hydrochloric acid solution to produce p-aminophenol, which could then take diazo reaction resulting in a product with special absorption peak at 312 nm. Then the serum acetaminophen concentration and recovery rate were calculated according to the standard curve drawn with absorbance at 312 nm. ICR mice were given a dose of acetaminophen (500 mg x kg(-1)) by gavage and the serum acetaminophen was dynamically measured through the diazo reaction. Besides, ICR mice were subcutaneously injected with the long-acting GLP-1 analog GW002 before the gavage of acetaminophen, and serum acetaminophen concentration was measured as above to study how GW002 could influence the gastric emptying. The data showed acetaminophen ranging from 0 to 160 μg x mL(-1) could take diazo reaction with excellent linear relationship, and the regression equation was y = 0.0181 x +0.0104, R2 = 0.9997. The serum acetaminophen was also measured with good linear relationship (y = 0.0045 x + 0.0462, R = 0.9982) and the recovery rate was 97.4%-116.7%. The serum concentration of acetaminophen reached peak at about 0.5 h after gavage, and then gradually decreased. GW002 could significantly lower the serum acetaminophen concentration and make the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) decrease by 28.4%. In conclusion, a method for the determination of serum acetaminophen based on the diazo reaction was established with good accuracy and could be used in the evaluation of gastric emptying.

  11. Experimental type 2 diabetes mellitus and acetaminophen toxic lesions: glutathione system indices changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Furka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. The goal of the research was to study the effect of acetaminophen on major glutathione part of antioxidant system indices in liver homogenate of rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus in time dynamics. Materials and methods. We conducted two series of experiments. In the first series toxic lesion was caused by a single intragastric administration of acetaminophen suspension in 2 % starch solution to animals in a dose of 1250 mg/kg (1/2 LD50. In the second series  the suspension of acetaminophen in 2 % starch solution in a dose of 55 mg/kg was given, which corresponds to the highest therapeutic dose during 7 days. Non-genetic form of experimental type 2 diabetes mellitus was modeled by Islam S., Choi H. method (2007. Activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione reductase (GR, and contents of reduced glutathione (GSH were determined in liver homogenate. Results. The obtained results have shown that GR and GPx activity actively decreased after acetaminophen administration in higher therapeutic doses to rats with type 2 DM. However, the changes were less pronounced than in rats with type 2 DM and acute acetaminophen toxic lesions. Conclusion. Results of the research have shown that acetaminophen administration to rats with type 2 DM causes a significant violation of compensatory mechanisms, especially of the enzyme and nonenzyme parts of antioxidant system.